... benefit your health. Polyunsaturated fat is different than saturated fat and trans fat. These unhealthy fats can increase ... of those fats are monounsaturated or polyunsaturated. Limit saturated fat (found in red meat, butter, cheese, and whole- ...
Christopher J Kelsall
Full Text Available Nutrition during development affects risk of future cardiovascular disease. Relatively little is known about whether the amount and type of fat in the maternal diet affect vascular function in the offspring. To investigate this, pregnant and lactating rats were fed either 7%(w/w or 21%(w/w fat enriched in either 18:2n-6, trans fatty acids, saturated fatty acids, or fish oil. Their offspring were fed 4%(w/w soybean oil from weaning until day 77. Type and amount of maternal dietary fat altered acetylcholine (ACh-mediated vaso-relaxation in offspring aortae and mesenteric arteries, contingent on sex. Amount, but not type, of maternal dietary fat altered phenylephrine (Pe-induced vasoconstriction in these arteries. Maternal 21% fat diet decreased 20:4n-6 concentration in offspring aortae. We investigated the role of Δ6 and Δ5 desaturases, showing that their inhibition in aortae and mesenteric arteries reduced vasoconstriction, but not vaso-relaxation, and the synthesis of specific pro-constriction eicosanoids. Removal of the aortic endothelium did not alter the effect of inhibition of Δ6 and Δ5 desaturases on Pe-mediated vasoconstriction. Thus arterial smooth muscle 20:4n-6 biosynthesis de novo appears to be important for Pe-mediated vasoconstriction. Next we studied genes encoding these desaturases, finding that maternal 21% fat reduced Fads2 mRNA expression and increased Fads1 in offspring aortae, indicating dysregulation of 20:4n-6 biosynthesis. Methylation at CpG -394 bp 5' to the Fads2 transcription start site predicted its expression. This locus was hypermethylated in offspring of dams fed 21% fat. Pe treatment of aortae for 10 minutes increased Fads2, but not Fads1, mRNA expression (76%; P<0.05. This suggests that Fads2 may be an immediate early gene in the response of aortae to Pe. Thus both amount and type of maternal dietary fat induce altered regulation of vascular tone in offspring though differential effects on vaso-relaxation, and
Yang, Xuefeng; Zhang, Yi; Lin, Jieyi; Pen, Anfang; Ying, Chenjiang; Cao, Wenhong; Mao, Limei
The role for the amount of different dietary fatty acids in regulating expression of adiponectin and metabolism of glucose and lipids has been implicated, but the optimal amount has not been established yet. To address this issue, we fed male Wistar rats with either chow diet or various high-fat diets (HFDs) for 12 weeks. The HFDs contained the same percentage of fat (35% energy from fat) but had different proportions of saturated/monounsaturated/polyunsaturated (S/M/P) (1:1.7:1.2, 1:1:1, 2:1.5:1, 1:2:1, or 1:1:2) fat. Glucose and lipid metabolism and adiponectin expression were subsequently examined. In comparison with chow diet, HFD with any proportion of S/M/P increased energy intake but had no obvious effect on body weight gain. The HFD with the S/M/P proportion at 1:1:1 or 1:1:2 significantly decreased the serum triglyceride level and increased the serum level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in comparison with the HFD with the S/M/P proportion at 1:1.7:1.2, 2:1.5:1, or 1:2:1. The HFD containing the highest level of saturated fatty acids (S/M/P proportion at 2:1.5:1) increased levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and blood glucose. Levels of serum insulin and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index were significantly increased by HFD with S/M/P proportions at 1:1.7:1.2, 1:1:1, 2:1.5:1, or 1:2:1 but not by the HFD with the S/M/P proportions at 1:1:2 (containing the highest level of polyunsaturated fatty acids). Levels of adiponectin messenger RNA in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues were reduced by the HFD with the S/M/P proportion at 1:1.7:1.2 or 1:1:1 but increased by the HFD with the S/M/P proportion at 1:1:2. These changes in expression of adiponectin were inversely associated with those in levels of triglyceride, insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. Together, the proportion of different fatty acids in diets plays an important role in expression of adiponectin and
... Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Dietary Fat and Cholesterol Posted under Health Guides . Updated 7 March 2017. + ... saturated fat found in red meat. What is cholesterol? Cholesterol is a fatlike substance that’s found in ...
Woutersen, R.A.; Appel, M.J.; Garderen-Hoetmer, A. van; Wijnands, M.V.W.
Epidemiologic investigations have suggested a relationship between dietary fat intake and various types of cancer incidences. Furthermore, epidemiologic studies as well as studies with animal models have demonstrated that not only the amount but also the type of fat consumed is important. At present
Lie T. Merijanti
Full Text Available Dietary saturated fat (SF intake has been shown to increase low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol and therefore has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD. This evidence coupled with inferences from epidemiologic studies and clinical trials, had led to longstanding public health recommendations for limiting SF intake as a means of preventing CVD. However the relationship between SF and CVD risk remains controversial, due at least in part to the intrinsic limitations of clinical studies that have evaluated this relationship. A recent meta analysis showed that current evidence does not clearly support cardiovascular guidelines that encourage high consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and low consumption of total SF. They found weak positive associations between circulating palmitic and stearic acids (found largely in palm oil and animal fats, respectively and CVD, whereas circulating margaric acid (a dairy fat significantly reduced the risk of CVD.(2,3 Saturated fat are not associated with all cause mortality, CVD, CHD, ischemic stroke or type 2 diabetes, but the evidence is heterogenous with methodological limitations.
Full Text Available Obesity and overweight occurrence is growing around the word. This is often considered as a consequence of high fat diets, and some recommendations encourage ‘‘light’’ diets, including low fat intake. However, most trials with low fat intake do not demonstrate any benefit and could be worse than low carbohydrate diets. The key role of insulin could explain that eating fat do not make body fat. On the other hand, several unbalanced fatty acid intake are reported, i.e. saturated/mononunsaturated fatty acids and w6/w3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Thus, fat intake could be improved in this respect. Moreover, the molecular and supramolecular structures of fat in food are new challenges to address in order to ameliorate the recommendations for healthy diets.
... of fatty acid they contain. Types of Fat Saturated fats raise your LDL (bad) cholesterol level. High LDL ... avoid or limit foods that are high in saturated fats. Keep saturated fats to less than 6% of ...
Lund, Anne-Sofie Quist; Hasselbalch, Ann Louise; Gamborg, Michael
BACKGROUND: Based on animal studies, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been suggested to lower the risk of obesity and inflammation. We aimed to investigate if, among humans, intake of n-3 PUFAs was associated with i) total body fat, ii) body fat distribution and iii) obesity......-related inflammatory markers. METHODS: The study population consisted of 1,212 healthy individuals with information on habitual food intake from food frequency questionnaires, six different measures of body fat, and levels of six circulating inflammatory markers. Multiple linear regression analysis of intakes of PUFAs...... in relation to outcomes were performed and adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: Absolute n-3 PUFA intake, but not n-3/n-6, was inversely associated with the different measures of body fat. Among n-3 PUFA derivatives, only α-linolenic acid (ALA) was inversely associated with body fat measures...
Nieuwenhuys, C.M.A.; Béguin, S.; Offermans, R.F.G.; Emeis, J.J.; Hornstra, G.; Heemskerk, J.W.M.
We investigated the effects of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on blood lipids and processes that determine hemostatic potential: platelet activation, coagulation, and fibrinolysis. For 8 to 10 weeks, Wistar rats were fed a high-fat diet containing various amounts (2% to 16%) of n-3 PUFA
El-Sayed, Eman; Ibrahim, Khadiga
Nutrients beyond calcium and vitamin D have a role on bone health, and in treatment and prevention of osteoporosis. Quality and quantity of dietary fat may have consequences on skeletal health. Diets with highly saturated fat content produce deleterious effects on bone mineralization in growing animals. Conversely, dietary n-3-long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids play an important role in bone metabolism and may help in prevention and treatment of bone disease. Some reports suggest a correlation between the dietary ratio of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and bone formation. Specific dietary fatty acids were found to modulate prostanoid synthesis in bone tissue and improve bone formation in both animal and clinical trials. The skeletal benefits of dietary isoprenoids are extremely documented. Higher isoprenoids intake may relate to higher bone mineral density. Dietary supplements containing fish oil, individual polyunsaturated fatty acids, and isoprenoids could be used as adjuvant with bone medications in osteoportic conditions but their doses must be considered to avoid detrimental effect of over dosages.
German, J Bruce; Dillard, Cora J
Public health recommendations for the US population in 1977 were to reduce fat intake to as low as 30% of calories to lower the incidence of coronary artery disease. These recommendations resulted in a compositional shift in food materials throughout the agricultural industry, and the fractional content of fats was replaced principally with carbohydrates. Subsequently, high-carbohydrate diets were recognized as contributing to the lipoprotein pattern that characterizes atherogenic dyslipidemia and hypertriacylglycerolemia. The rising incidences of metabolic syndrome and obesity are becoming common themes in the literature. Current recommendations are to keep saturated fatty acid, trans fatty acid, and cholesterol intakes as low as possible while consuming a nutritionally adequate diet. In the face of such recommendations, the agricultural industry is shifting food composition toward lower proportions of all saturated fatty acids. To date, no lower safe limit of specific saturated fatty acid intakes has been identified. This review summarizes research findings and observations on the disparate functions of saturated fatty acids and seeks to bring a more quantitative balance to the debate on dietary saturated fat. Whether a finite quantity of specific dietary saturated fatty acids actually benefits health is not yet known. Because agricultural practices to reduce saturated fat will require a prolonged and concerted effort, and because the world is moving toward more individualized dietary recommendations, should the steps to decrease saturated fatty acids to as low as agriculturally possible not wait until evidence clearly indicates which amounts and types of saturated fatty acids are optimal?
DANIELE eLETTIERI BARBATO
Full Text Available Chronic nutrient overload accelerates the onset of several aging-related diseases reducing life expectancy. Although the mechanisms by which overnutrition affects metabolic processes in many tissues are known, its role on BAT physiology is still unclear. Herein, we investigated the mitochondrial responses in BAT of female mice exposed to high fat diet (HFD at different steps of life. Although adult mice showed an unchanged mitochondrial amount, both respiration and OxPHOS subunits were strongly affected. Differently, offspring pups exposed to HFD during pregnancy and lactation displayed reduced mitochondrial mass but high oxidative efficiency that, however, resulted in increased bioenergetics state of BAT rather than augmented uncoupling respiration. Interestingly, the metabolic responses triggered by HFD were accompanied by changes in mitochondrial dynamics characterized by decreased content of the fragmentation marker Drp1 both in mothers and offspring pups. HFD-induced inactivation of the FoxO1 transcription factor seemed to be the up-stream modulator of Drp1 levels in brown fat cells. Furthermore, HFD offspring pups weaned with normal diet only partially reverted the mitochondrial dysfunctions caused by HFD. Finally these mice failed in activating the thermogenic program upon cold exposure. Collectively our findings suggest that maternal dietary fat overload irreversibly commits BAT unresponsiveness to physiological stimuli such as cool temperature and this dysfunction in the early stage of life might negatively modulates health and lifespan.
Nelson, G J; Kelley, D S; Schmidt, P C; Serrato, C M
The liver and plasma lipids and fatty acid composition of rats fed synthetic diets of differing fat type and content were studied. All animals were starved for 48 hr and then refed a high carbohydrate, fat-free diet for 48 hr. They were then divided into three groups and fed for an additional 48 hrs the following: group 1, the fat-free diet; group 2, a diet containing 44% of calories from corn oil; and group 3, a diet containing 44% calories from completely hydrogenated soybean oil. The total lipid concentration of the liver in the animals on the fat-free diet was elevated at 72 and 96 hr. The addition of either saturated or unsaturated fat in the diet at 48 hr prevented this accumulation. The total phospholipid and cholesterol concentrations of the liver were relatively uninfluenced by any diet in this study. Plasma total fatty acid concentration was elevated at 72 hr in the animals on a fat-free diet compared to those fed the stock diet, starved for 48 hr or fed the fat-containing diets. By 96 hr, however, plasma fatty acid concentrations in all groups were similar to those in animals fed only the stock diet. The release of de novo synthesized fatty acids into plasma from the liver was strongly inhibited by dietary fat, either saturated or polyunsaturated. With the fat-free diet there was a significant increase in the saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids in both liver and plasma.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for fats, including saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and cholesterol
This Opinion of the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA) deals with the setting of Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for fats. A lower bound of the reference intake range for total fat of 20 energy % (E%) and an upper bound of 35 E% are proposed. Fat intake in infants can...... gradually be reduced from 40 E% in the 6-12 month period to 35-40 E% in the 2nd and 3rd year of life. For specific fatty acids the following is proposed: saturated fatty acid (SFA) and trans fatty acid intake should be as low as possible; not to set any DRV for cis-monounsaturated fatty acids...
Patterson, E.; Wall, R.; Fitzgerald, G. F.; R. P. Ross; Stanton, C.
Omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (e.g., arachidonic acid (AA)) and omega-3 (n-3) PUFA (e.g., eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)) are precursors to potent lipid mediator signalling molecules, termed “eicosanoids,” which have important roles in the regulation of inflammation. In general, eicosanoids derived from n-6 PUFA are proinflammatory while eicosanoids derived from n-3 PUFA are anti-inflammatory. Dietary changes over the past few decades in the intake of n-6 and n-3 PUFA show str...
Nielsen, G L; Faarvang, K L; Thomsen, B S
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) on disease variables in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. DESIGN: Multicenter, randomized, placebo controlled, double blind. SETTING: Three Danish hospital Departments...... of Rheumatology. PATIENTS: Fifty-one patients with active rheumatoid arthritis. INTERVENTION: Random allocation to 12 weeks of treatment with either six n-3 PUFA capsules (3.6 g) or six capsules with fat composition as the average Danish diet. MAIN RESULTS: Significant improvement of morning stiffness and joint...... tenderness. No significant effect on the four other assessed clinical parameters. No serious side effects. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary supplementation with n-3 PUFA in patients with rheumatoid arthritis improved two out of six patient reported disease parameters. Further studies are needed to clarify the more...
Lonnie M. Lowery
Full Text Available The general public's view of macronutrients has undergone sweeping changes in recent years. Dietary fats are a key example. Since the anti-fat health education initiatives of the 1980s and early 1990s, certain dietary fats have been increasingly recognized as actually beneficial to health. Athletes, like the mainstream populace, are now getting the message that wise dietary fat (triacylglycerol choices offer essential fatty acids, blood lipid management, maintained endocrine and immune function, inflammation control, metabolic effects and even potential body composition and performance benefits. Toward this end, many companies now sell specialty dietary fat supplements and recognized health authorities have begun recommending them to certain populations. This review will cover data regarding the physiology, dietary needs, food sources, and potential benefits and risks most relevant to athletes. Practical suggestions for incorporating healthy fats will be made. Both food-source and supplemental intakes will be addressed with interrelationships to health throughout.
Tous, Nuria; Theil, Peter Kappel; Lauridsen, Charlotte
in these tissues, except for SM intermuscular fat. Dietary CLA increased PPARγ in LT muscle (P tissues studied (P fat. Transcription of genes related to FA synthesis was reduced by CLA in SM muscle and liver (SREBP1......, both P fat. Saturated FA were increased in all studied tissues (P ....01), while monosaturated and polyunsaturated FA were reduced in a tissue-specific way by CLA. It was concluded that dietary CLA affected transcription of genes and fat metabolism in a tissue-specific manner....
Sara L Svahn
Full Text Available Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA are suggested to modulate immune function, but the effects of dietary fatty acids composition on gene expression patterns in immune organs have not been fully characterized. In the current study we investigated how dietary fatty acids composition affects the total transcriptome profile, and especially, immune related genes in two immune organs, spleen (SPL and bone marrow cells (BMC. Four tissues with metabolic function, skeletal muscle (SKM, white adipose tissue (WAT, brown adipose tissue (BAT, and liver (LIV, were investigated as a comparison. Following 8 weeks on low fat diet (LFD, high fat diet (HFD rich in saturated fatty acids (HFD-S, or HFD rich in PUFA (HFD-P, tissue transcriptomics were analyzed by microarray and metabolic health assessed by fasting blood glucose level, HOMA-IR index, oral glucose tolerance test as well as quantification of crown-like structures in WAT. HFD-P corrected the metabolic phenotype induced by HFD-S. Interestingly, SKM and BMC were relatively inert to the diets, whereas the two adipose tissues (WAT and BAT were mainly affected by HFD per se (both HFD-S and HFD-P. In particular, WAT gene expression was driven closer to that of the immune organs SPL and BMC by HFDs. The LIV exhibited different responses to both of the HFDs. Surprisingly, the spleen showed a major response to HFD-P (82 genes differed from LFD, mostly immune genes, while it was not affected at all by HFD-S (0 genes differed from LFD. In conclusion, the quantity and composition of dietary fatty acids affected the transcriptome in distinct manners in different organs. Remarkably, dietary PUFA, but not saturated fat, prompted a specific regulation of immune related genes in the spleen, opening the possibility that PUFA can regulate immune function by influencing gene expression in this organ.
Obesity and overweight occurrence is growing around the word. This is often considered as a consequence of high fat diets, and some recommendations encourage ‘‘light’’ diets, including low fat intake. However, most trials with low fat intake do not demonstrate any benefit and could be worse than low carbohydrate diets. The key role of insulin could explain that eating fat do not make body fat. On the other hand, several unbalanced fatty acid intake are reported, i.e. saturated/mononunsaturate...
Lawrence, Glen D
Although early studies showed that saturated fat diets with very low levels of PUFAs increase serum cholesterol, whereas other studies showed high serum cholesterol increased the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD), the evidence of dietary saturated fats increasing CAD or causing premature death was weak. Over the years, data revealed that dietary saturated fatty acids (SFAs) are not associated with CAD and other adverse health effects or at worst are weakly associated in some analyses when other contributing factors may be overlooked. Several recent analyses indicate that SFAs, particularly in dairy products and coconut oil, can improve health. The evidence of ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) promoting inflammation and augmenting many diseases continues to grow, whereas ω3 PUFAs seem to counter these adverse effects. The replacement of saturated fats in the diet with carbohydrates, especially sugars, has resulted in increased obesity and its associated health complications. Well-established mechanisms have been proposed for the adverse health effects of some alternative or replacement nutrients, such as simple carbohydrates and PUFAs. The focus on dietary manipulation of serum cholesterol may be moot in view of numerous other factors that increase the risk of heart disease. The adverse health effects that have been associated with saturated fats in the past are most likely due to factors other than SFAs, which are discussed here. This review calls for a rational reevaluation of existing dietary recommendations that focus on minimizing dietary SFAs, for which mechanisms for adverse health effects are lacking.
Siri-Tarino, Patty W; Chiu, Sally; Bergeron, Nathalie; Krauss, Ronald M
The effects of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk are modulated by the nutrients that replace them and their food matrices. Replacement of SFAs with polyunsaturated fatty acids has been associated with reduced CVD risk, although there is heterogeneity in both fatty acid categories. In contrast, replacement of SFAs with carbohydrates, particularly sugar, has been associated with no improvement or even a worsening of CVD risk, at least in part through effects on atherogenic dyslipidemia, a cluster of traits including small, dense low-density lipoprotein particles. The effects of dietary SFAs on insulin sensitivity, inflammation, vascular function, and thrombosis are less clear. There is growing evidence that SFAs in the context of dairy foods, particularly fermented dairy products, have neutral or inverse associations with CVD. Overall dietary patterns emphasizing vegetables, fish, nuts, and whole versus processed grains form the basis of heart-healthy eating and should supersede a focus on macronutrient composition.
Gorusupudi, Aruna; Liu, Aihua; Hageman, Gregory S; Bernstein, Paul S
The human retina is well-known to have unique lipid profiles enriched in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) and very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLC-PUFAs) that appear to promote normal retinal structure and function, but the influence of diet on retinal lipid profiles in health and disease remains controversial. In this study, we examined two independent cohorts of donor eyes and related their retinal lipid profiles with systemic biomarkers of lipid intake. We found that serum and red blood cell lipids, and to a lesser extent orbital fat, are indeed excellent biomarkers of retinal lipid content and n-3/n-6 ratios in both the LC-PUFA and VLC-PUFA series. Eyes from age-related macular degeneration (AMD) donors have significantly decreased levels of VLC-PUFAs and low n-3/n-6 ratios. These results are consistent with the protective role of dietary n-3 LC-PUFAs against AMD and emphasize the importance of monitoring systemic biomarkers of lipid intake when undertaking clinical trials of lipid supplements for prevention and treatment of retinal disease.
Wit, de N.J.W.; Derrien, M.; Bosch-Vermeulen, H.; Oosterink, E.; Keshtkar, S.; Duval, C.N.C.; Vogel-van den Bosch, de H.M.; Kleerebezem, M.; Muller, M.R.; Meer, van der R.
We studied the effect of dietary fat type, varying in polyunsaturated-to-saturated fatty acid ratios (P/S), on development of metabolic syndrome. C57Bl/6J mice were fed purified high-fat diets (45E% fat) containing palm oil (HF-PO; P/S 0.4), olive oil (HF-OO; P/S 1.1), or safflower oil (HF-SO; P/S 7
Foley, M; Ball, M; Chisholm, A; Duncan, A; Spears, G; Mann, J
The effects of diets differing in saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acid composition (SAFA, MUFA and PUFA, respectively) on plasma lipoproteins and factor VIIc were investigated in 28 middle-aged men and women with mild to moderate hyperlipidaemia. The subjects were stabilized on a diet with a total fat content fairly typical of New Zealand, containing approximately 40% energy as fat, before entering a randomized cross-over trial of diets high in PUFA (20% energy; SAFA and MUFA 10% each) or a high MUFA diet (20% energy; SAFA and PUFA 10% each). After 6-week periods on each diet the subjects returned to a high SAFA diet. Body weight and blood pressure remained unchanged during the study. Total and LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and the HDL2 subfraction were significantly lower on both the MUFA and the PUFA diet than on SAFA. However, there were no statistically significant differences in lipoprotein concentrations on the MUFA and PUFA diet. Factor VIIc concentrations were similar on the three diets. The proportion of PUFA in a MUFA diet appears to be a major determinant of the relative lipoprotein response to such a diet. In order to avoid a reduction in HDL-C when replacing SAFA with MUFA it may be necessary to ensure that PUFA does not provide more than about 8% total energy. Thus careful planning is needed to identify the most appropriate foods to replace those rich in SAFA in diets designed to reduce the lipoprotein-mediated risk of coronary heart disease.
de Lorgeril, Michel; Salen, Patricia
Cardiovascular diseases and cancers are leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Reducing dietary saturated fat and replacing it with polyunsaturated fat is still the main dietary strategy to prevent cardiovascular diseases, although major flaws have been reported in the analyses supporting this approach. Recent studies introducing the concept of myocardial preconditioning have opened new avenues to understand the complex interplay between the various lipids and the risk of cardiovascular diseases. The optimal dietary fat profile includes a low intake of both saturated and omega-6 fatty acids and a moderate intake of omega-3 fatty acids. This profile is quite similar to the Mediterranean diet. On the other hand, recent studies have found a positive association between omega-6 and breast cancer risk. In contrast, omega-3 fatty acids do have anticancer properties. It has been shown that certain (Mediterranean) polyphenols significantly increase the endogenous synthesis of omega-3 whereas high intake of omega-6 decreases it. Finally, epidemiological studies suggest that a high omega-3 to omega-6 ratio may be the optimal strategy to decrease breast cancer risk. Thus, the present high intake of omega-6 in many countries is definitely not the optimal strategy to prevent cardiovascular disease and cancers. A moderate intake of plant and marine omega-3 in the context of the traditional Mediterranean diet (low in saturated and omega-6 fatty acids but high in plant monounsaturated fat) appears to be the best approach to reduce the risk of both cardiovascular diseases and cancers, in particular breast cancer.
European Food Safety Authority; Outcome of the Public consultation on the Draft Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Dietetic products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA) on Dietary Reference Values for fats, including saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, trans
On 2 July 2009, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) endorsed a draft Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for fats to be released for public consultation. This Scientific Report summarises the comments received through the public consultation and outlines how...... in the labelling of foods, the translation of advice into food-based dietary guidelines, nutrient goals and recommendations, certain risk management issues, and to Dietary Reference Values of fats, individual fatty acids, and cholesterol. All the public comments received that related to the remit of EFSA were...... assessed and the Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for fats has been revised taking relevant comments into consideration....
Knoch, Bianca; Matthew P.G. Barnett; McNabb, Warren C.; Roy, Nicole C.
The use of «omic» techniques in combination with model systems and molecular tools allows to understand how foods and food components act on metabolic pathways to regulate transcriptional processes. Polyunsaturated fatty acids have distinctive nutritional and metabolic effects because they give rise to lipid mediated products and affect the expression of various genes involved in intestinal inflammation. The present review focuses on the molecular effects of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid...
Kim, Jeffrey; Li, Yong; Watkins, Bruce A
Obesity incidence continues to escalate as a global nutrition and health problem. Scientists and clinicians are engaged in numerous research approaches that include behavior, education, applied nutrition studies and clinical therapies to prevent, control and reverse obesity. The common goal is to identify areas of basic and clinical research to understand aspects of human biology that contribute to obesity. In these approaches recent discoveries in biology and advancing technologies are tools employed to prevent and reverse obesity. The purpose of this review article is to present the current knowledge of key components of the endocannabinoid system that contribute to eating, influence systemic energy metabolism, and dietary factors that alter the responses of ligand binding and activation of cannabinoid receptors. Herein the objectives are to (1) describe the relationship between dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and obesity, (2) explain the role of this signaling system in obesity, and (3) present areas of consequential future research with dietary long chain PUFA. There are several gaps in the knowledge of the role dietary PUFA play in the tone of the endocannabinoid signaling system involving ligands and receptors. Elucidating the PUFA relationship to signaling tone may explain the presumed overstimulation of signaling believed to contribute to over eating, fat accretion and inflammation. Future research in this endeavor must be hypothesis driven utilizing appropriate models for investigations on dietary PUFA, endocannabinoids and obesity.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is one of the major public health problems among women worldwide. A number of epidemiological studies have been carried out to find the role of dietary fat and the risk of breast cancer. The main objective of the present communication is to summarize the evidence from various case-control and cohort studies on the consumption of fat and its subtypes and their effect on the development of breast cancer. Methods A Pubmed search for literature on the consumption of dietary fat and risk of breast cancer published from January 1990 through December 2003 was carried out. Results Increased consumption of total fat and saturated fat were found to be positively associated with the development of breast cancer. Even though an equivocal association was observed for the consumption of total monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and the risk of breast cancer, there exists an inverse association in the case of oleic acid, the most abundant MUFA. A moderate inverse association between consumption of n-3 fatty acids and breast cancer risk and a moderate positive association between n-6 fatty acids and breast cancer risk were observed. Conclusion Even though all epidemiological studies do not provide a strong positive association between the consumption of certain types of dietary fat and breast cancer risk, at least a moderate association does seem to exist and this has a number of implications in view of the fact that breast cancer is an increasing public health concern.
Full Text Available In sporting horses the use of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs could enhance performance because these fatty acids are very important in membrane permeability, and in particular they seem to increase the possibility of long chain fatty acids entering mythochondria to be burnt. The composition of cellular membranes and lipoprotein fatty acids com- position is strictly related to dietary fat quality; percentages of polyunsaturated fatty acids and amount of antioxidants also affect tissue susceptibility to lipid peroxidation. Six horses were used in a latin square design in which three homogeneous groups were subsequently assigned three dif- ferent dietary treatments for one month each: Control group (C: basic diet; Oil group (O: Basic diet + 200g/day oil rich in PUFAs (Crossential GLA TG20, Croda ®; Vitamin E group (O+E: basic diet + 200 g/day oil rich in PUFAs (Crossential GLA TG20, Croda ® + 5 g/day α-toco- pheryl-acetate (Egon-E, Acme ®. At the end of each experimental period blood samples were taken by jugular vein puncture. Serum oxidative status was evaluated by TBARs and d-ROMs assessment. Oxidative markers showed the high- est mean values for the oil group, even if no statistically significant differences were found.
Sundaram, Sneha; Bukowski, Michael R; Lie, Wen-Rong; Picklo, Matthew J; Yan, Lin
Dysregulation of adipokines is a hallmark of obesity. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish oil may exert anti-inflammatory effects on adipose tissue mitigating the dysregulation of adipokines thereby preventing obesity. This study investigated the effects of high-fat diets containing different amounts of n3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on adiposity and adipokine production in mice. Mice were fed a low-fat or a high-fat diet with 16 or 45 % of energy from corn oil (low n3 PUFA) in comparison with a high-fat diet containing soybean or high-oleic sunflower oil (adequate n3 PUFA) or flaxseed or fish oil (high n3 PUFA) for 11 weeks. High-fat diets, regardless of types of oils, significantly increased body fat mass and body weights compared to the low-fat diet. Adipose fatty acid composition and contents reflected dietary fatty acid profiles. The high-fat fish oil diet significantly increased adiponectin and reduced leptin concentrations in both plasma and adipose tissue; it did not elevate plasma insulin concentration compared to the high-fat corn oil diet. All high-fat diets elevated concentrations of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) but lowered resistin concentrations in both plasma and adipose tissue. In conclusion, fish oil may be beneficial in improving insulin sensitivity by upregulation of adiponectin and downregulation of leptin production; n3 and n6 PUFA do not play a role at the dietary levels tested in reducing adiposity and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (leptin, PAI-1, MCP-1 and resistin) and anti-inflammatory cytokine adiponectin.
Dyck, D. J.
Although there remains controversy regarding the role of macronutrient balance in the etiology of obesity, the consumption of high-fat diets appears to be strongly implicated in its development. Evidence that fat oxidation does not adjust rapidly to acute increases in dietary fat, as well as a decreased capacity to oxidize fat in the postprandial state in the obese, suggest that diets high in fat may lead to the accumulation of fat stores. Novel data is also presented suggesting that in rodents, high-fat diets may lead to the development of leptin resistance in skeletal muscle and subsequent accumulations of muscle triacylglycerol. Nevertheless, several current fad diets recommend drastically reduced carbohydrate intake, with a concurrent increase in fat content. Such recommendations are based on the underlying assumption that by reducing circulating insulin levels, lipolysis and lipid oxidation will be enhanced and fat storage reduced. Numerous supplements are purported to increase fat oxidation (carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid), increase metabolic rate (ephedrine, pyruvate), or inhibit hepatic lipogenesis (hydroxycitrate). All of these compounds are currently marketed in supplemental form to increase weight loss, but few have actually been shown to be effective in scientific studies. To date, there is little or no evidence supporting that carnitine or hydroxycitrate supplementation are of any value for weight loss in humans. Supplements such as pyruvate have been shown to be effective at high dosages, but there is little mechanistic information to explain its purported effect or data to indicate its effectiveness at lower dosages. Conjugated linoleic acid has been shown to stimulate fat utilization and decrease body fat content in mice but has not been tested in humans. The effects of ephedrine, in conjunction with methylxanthines and aspirin, in humans appears unequivocal but includes various cardiovascular side effects. None of these compounds have been
Scholtz, Susan A; Colombo, John; Carlson, Susan E
The current report provides a brief background introducing 30 years of research on long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) and infant development, but focuses mainly on challenges for future studies. Infants fed formulas containing only vegetable fats were found to have lower docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) status than infants fed human milk. Studies soon focused on efforts to improve LC-PUFA status and evaluate functions suggested by early primate studies of DHA deficiency. Despite evidence for the importance of these fatty acids for development, particularly DHA, several recent meta-analyses conclude dietary supplementation does not enhance development. Future studies should employ (1) more finely grained measures of brain development as opposed to global measures, and (2) tests that evaluate development later in childhood when children are able to be tested on more complex behaviors (if found effective these would also be evidence of early brain programming). (3) Studies are needed to understand the cause of high variability in transfer of DHA to the fetus. (4) Finally, the role of single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the fatty acid desaturase genes 1 and 2 of mother and infant needs study to determine how they affect requirements for these fatty acids by the fetus/infant.
Sordillo, Lorraine M.; William Raphael
The composition of fatty acids in the diets of both human and domestic animal species can regulate inflammation through the biosynthesis of potent lipid mediators. The substrates for lipid mediator biosynthesis are derived primarily from membrane phospholipids and reflect dietary fatty acid intake. Inflammation can be exacerbated with intake of certain dietary fatty acids, such as some ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and subsequent incorporation into membrane phospholipids. Inflammati...
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) possess a wide range of biological properties, including immunomodulation. The amount, type, and ratio of dietary PUFA determine the types of fatty acids that are incorporated into immune cell membranes. Consequently, the physiological properties of immune cells an
Full Text Available Effects of major dietary macronutrients on glucose-insulin homeostasis remain controversial and may vary by the clinical measures examined. We aimed to assess how saturated fat (SFA, monounsaturated fat (MUFA, polyunsaturated fat (PUFA, and carbohydrate affect key metrics of glucose-insulin homeostasis.We systematically searched multiple databases (PubMed, EMBASE, OVID, BIOSIS, Web-of-Knowledge, CAB, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, SIGLE, Faculty1000 for randomised controlled feeding trials published by 26 Nov 2015 that tested effects of macronutrient intake on blood glucose, insulin, HbA1c, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion in adults aged ≥18 years. We excluded trials with non-isocaloric comparisons and trials providing dietary advice or supplements rather than meals. Studies were reviewed and data extracted independently in duplicate. Among 6,124 abstracts, 102 trials, including 239 diet arms and 4,220 adults, met eligibility requirements. Using multiple-treatment meta-regression, we estimated dose-response effects of isocaloric replacements between SFA, MUFA, PUFA, and carbohydrate, adjusted for protein, trans fat, and dietary fibre. Replacing 5% energy from carbohydrate with SFA had no significant effect on fasting glucose (+0.02 mmol/L, 95% CI = -0.01, +0.04; n trials = 99, but lowered fasting insulin (-1.1 pmol/L; -1.7, -0.5; n = 90. Replacing carbohydrate with MUFA lowered HbA1c (-0.09%; -0.12, -0.05; n = 23, 2 h post-challenge insulin (-20.3 pmol/L; -32.2, -8.4; n = 11, and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR (-2.4%; -4.6, -0.3; n = 30. Replacing carbohydrate with PUFA significantly lowered HbA1c (-0.11%; -0.17, -0.05 and fasting insulin (-1.6 pmol/L; -2.8, -0.4. Replacing SFA with PUFA significantly lowered glucose, HbA1c, C-peptide, and HOMA. Based on gold-standard acute insulin response in ten trials, PUFA significantly improved insulin secretion capacity (+0.5 pmol/L/min; 0.2, 0.8 whether replacing
Pang, Shao-Chen; Wang, Hou-Peng; Li, Kuo-Yu; Zhu, Zuo-Yan; Kang, Jing X; Sun, Yong-Hua
Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA), especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are essential nutrients for human health. However, vertebrates, including humans, have lost the abilities to synthesize EPA and DHA de novo, majorly due to the genetic absence of delta-12 desaturase and omega-3 desaturase genes. Fishes, especially those naturally growing marine fish, are major dietary source of EPA and DHA. Because of the severe decline of marine fishery and the decrease in n-3 LC-PUFA content of farmed fishes, it is highly necessary to develop alternative sources of n-3 LC-PUFA. In the present study, we utilized transgenic technology to generate n-3 LC-PUFA-rich fish by using zebrafish as an animal model. Firstly, fat1 was proved to function efficiently in fish culture cells, which showed an effective conversion of n-6 PUFA to n-3 PUFA with the n-6/n-3 ratio that decreased from 7.7 to 1.1. Secondly, expression of fat1 in transgenic zebrafish increased the 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 contents to 1.8- and 2.4-fold, respectively. Third, co-expression of fat2, a fish codon-optimized delta-12 desaturase gene, and fat1 in fish culture cell significantly promoted n-3 PUFA synthesis with the decreased n-6/n-3 ratio from 7.7 to 0.7. Finally, co-expression of fat1 and fat2 in double transgenic zebrafish increased the 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 contents to 1.7- and 2.8-fold, respectively. Overall, we generated two types of transgenic zebrafish rich in endogenous n-3 LC-PUFA, fat1 transgenic zebrafish and fat1/fat2 double transgenic zebrafish. Our results demonstrate that application of transgenic technology of humanized fat1 and fat2 in farmed fishes can largely improve the n-3 LC-PUFA production.
de Lorgeril Michel
Full Text Available Abstract Cardiovascular diseases and cancers are leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Reducing dietary saturated fat and replacing it with polyunsaturated fat is still the main dietary strategy to prevent cardiovascular diseases, although major flaws have been reported in the analyses supporting this approach. Recent studies introducing the concept of myocardial preconditioning have opened new avenues to understand the complex interplay between the various lipids and the risk of cardiovascular diseases. The optimal dietary fat profile includes a low intake of both saturated and omega-6 fatty acids and a moderate intake of omega-3 fatty acids. This profile is quite similar to the Mediterranean diet. On the other hand, recent studies have found a positive association between omega-6 and breast cancer risk. In contrast, omega-3 fatty acids do have anticancer properties. It has been shown that certain (Mediterranean polyphenols significantly increase the endogenous synthesis of omega-3 whereas high intake of omega-6 decreases it. Finally, epidemiological studies suggest that a high omega-3 to omega-6 ratio may be the optimal strategy to decrease breast cancer risk. Thus, the present high intake of omega-6 in many countries is definitely not the optimal strategy to prevent cardiovascular disease and cancers. A moderate intake of plant and marine omega-3 in the context of the traditional Mediterranean diet (low in saturated and omega-6 fatty acids but high in plant monounsaturated fat appears to be the best approach to reduce the risk of both cardiovascular diseases and cancers, in particular breast cancer.
Hall, Wendy L
The amount and type of dietary fat have long been associated with the risk of CVD. Arterial stiffness and endothelial dysfunction are important risk factors in the aetiology of CHD. A range of methods exists to assess vascular function that may be used in nutritional science, including clinic and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, pulse wave analysis, pulse wave velocity, flow-mediated dilatation and venous occlusion plethysmography. The present review focuses on the quantity and type of dietary fat and effects on blood pressure, arterial compliance and endothelial function. Concerning fat quantity, the amount of dietary fat consumed habitually appears to have little influence on vascular function independent of fatty acid composition, although single high-fat meals postprandially impair endothelial function compared with low-fat meals. The mechanism is related to increased circulating lipoproteins and NEFA which may induce pro-inflammatory pathways and increase oxidative stress. Regarding the type of fat, cross-sectional data suggest that saturated fat adversely affects vascular function whereas polyunsaturated fat (mainly linoleic acid (18 : 2n-6) and n-3 PUFA) are beneficial. EPA (20 : 5n-3) and DHA (22 : 6n-3) can reduce blood pressure, improve arterial compliance in type 2 diabetics and dyslipidaemics, and augment endothelium-dependent vasodilation. The mechanisms for this vascular protection, and the nature of the separate physiological effects induced by EPA and DHA, are priorities for future research. Since good-quality observational or interventional data on dietary fatty acid composition and vascular function are scarce, no further recommendations can be suggested in addition to current guidelines at the present time.
Frangioudakis, G; Garrard, J; Raddatz, K; Nadler, J L; Mitchell, T W; Schmitz-Peiffer, C
Lipid-induced insulin resistance is associated with intracellular accumulation of inhibitory intermediates depending on the prevalent fatty acid (FA) species. In cultured myotubes, ceramide and phosphatidic acid (PA) mediate the effects of the saturated FA palmitate and the unsaturated FA linoleate, respectively. We hypothesized that myriocin (MYR), an inhibitor of de novo ceramide synthesis, would protect against glucose intolerance in saturated fat-fed mice, while lisofylline (LSF), a functional inhibitor of PA synthesis, would protect unsaturated fat-fed mice. Mice were fed diets enriched in saturated fat, n-6 polyunsaturated fat, or chow for 6 wk. Saline, LSF (25 mg/kg x d), or MYR (0.3 mg/kg x d) were administered by mini-pumps in the final 4 wk. Glucose homeostasis was examined by glucose tolerance test. Muscle ceramide and PA were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Expression of LASS isoforms (ceramide synthases) was evaluated by immunoblotting. Both saturated and polyunsaturated fat diets increased muscle ceramide and induced glucose intolerance. MYR and LSF reduced ceramide levels in saturated and unsaturated fat-fed mice. Both inhibitors also improved glucose tolerance in unsaturated fat-fed mice, but only LSF was effective in saturated fat-fed mice. The discrepancy between ceramide and glucose tolerance suggests these improvements may not be related directly to changes in muscle ceramide and may involve other insulin-responsive tissues. Changes in the expression of LASS1 were, however, inversely correlated with alterations in glucose tolerance. The demonstration that LSF can ameliorate glucose intolerance in vivo independent of the dietary FA type indicates it may be a novel intervention for the treatment of insulin resistance.
Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal; Lissner, Lauren
that systematic underreporting of dietary fat by high-risk groups such as the obese may produce an overestimated association. These results imply that previous epidemiological studies showing a positive association between percentage of energy from fat and other health outcomes, e.g. cancer and heart disease, may......OBJECTIVE: To describe the consequences of systematic reporting bias by the obese for diet-disease relationships. DESIGN: The present report used 24-hour urinary nitrogen and estimates of 24-hour energy expenditure to assess error in diet reporting, and examined the consequence of accounting...... for this error for associations between dietary fat intake and serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol. SETTING: Sub-study to the Danish MONICA (Monitoring Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease) project, carried out in 1987-1988. SUBJECTS: A random sub-sample of the adult Danish male...
Newman, Lisa P.; Bolhuis, Dieuwerke P.; Susan J. Torres; Keast, Russell S. J.
Objective Individuals with obesity may be less sensitive to the taste of fat, and it is hypothesized that this is due to excess dietary fat intake. This study assessed the effect of a 6‐week low‐fat (LF) or portion control (PC) diet matched for weight loss on fat taste thresholds, fat perception, and preference in people with overweight/obesity. Methods Participants (n = 53) completed a randomized dietary intervention and consumed either a LF diet (25% fat) or PC diet (33% fat) for 6 weeks. F...
Wang, Hong; Taussig, Matthew D; DiPatrizio, Nicholas V; Bruce, Kimberley; Piomelli, Daniele; Eckel, Robert H
We have previously reported that mice with neuron-specific LPL deficiency (NEXLPL-/-) become obese by 16weeks of age on chow. Moreover, these mice had reduced uptake of triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoprotein-derived fatty acids and lower levels of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) in the hypothalamus. Here, we asked whether increased dietary fat content or altered dietary composition could modulate obesity development in NEXLPL-/- mice. Male NEXLPL-/- mice and littermate controls (WT) were randomly assigned one of three synthetic diets; a high carbohydrate diet (HC, 10% fat), a high-fat diet (HF, 45% fat), or a HC diet supplemented with n-3 PUFAs (HCn-3, 10% fat, Lovaza, GSK®). After 42weeks of HC feeding, body weight and fat mass were increased in the NEXLPL-/- mice compared to WT. WT mice fed a HF diet displayed typical diet-induced obesity, but weight gain was only marginal in HF-fed NEXLPL-/- mice, with no significant difference in body composition. Dietary n-3 PUFA supplementation did not prevent obesity in NEXLPL-/- mice, but was associated with differential modifications in hypothalamic gene expression and PUFA concentration compared to WT mice. Our findings suggest that neuronal LPL is involved in the regulation of body weight and composition in response to either the change in quantity (HF feeding) or quality (n-3 PUFA-enriched) of dietary fat. The precise role of LPL in lipid sensing in the brain requires further investigation.
Duarte-Salles, Talita; Fedirko, Veronika; Stepien, Magdalena; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Bamia, Christina; Lagiou, Pagona; Laursen, Anne Sofie Dam; Hansen, Louise; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; His, Mathilde; Boeing, Heiner; Katzke, Verena; Kühn, Tilman; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Valanou, Elissavet; Kritikou, Maria; Masala, Giovanna; Panico, Salvatore; Sieri, Sabina; Ricceri, Fulvio; Tumino, Rosario; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H. B.; Peeters, Petra H.; Skeie, Guri; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Ardanaz, Eva; Bonet, Catalina; Chirlaque, Maria Dolores; Dorronsoro, Miren; Quirõs, J. Ramõn; Johansson, Ingegerd; Ohlsson, Bodil; Sjöberg, Klas; Wennberg, Maria; Khaw, Kay Tee; Travis, Ruth C.; Wareham, Nick; Ferrari, Pietro; Freisling, Heinz; Romieu, Isabelle; Cross, Amanda J.; Gunter, Marc; Lu, Yunxia; Jenab, Mazda
The role of amount and type of dietary fat consumption in the etiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is poorly understood, despite suggestive biological plausibility. The associations of total fat, fat subtypes and fat sources with HCC incidence were investigated in the European Prospective Inve
Deline, Marshall L; Vrablik, Tracy L; Watts, Jennifer L
Fatty acids are essential for numerous cellular functions. They serve as efficient energy storage molecules, make up the hydrophobic core of membranes, and participate in various signaling pathways. Caenorhabditis elegans synthesizes all of the enzymes necessary to produce a range of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. This, combined with the simple anatomy and range of available genetic tools, make it an attractive model to study fatty acid function. In order to investigate the genetic pathways that mediate the physiological effects of dietary fatty acids, we have developed a method to supplement the C. elegans diet with unsaturated fatty acids. Supplementation is an effective means to alter the fatty acid composition of worms and can also be used to rescue defects in fatty acid-deficient mutants. Our method uses nematode growth medium agar (NGM) supplemented with fatty acid sodium salts. The fatty acids in the supplemented plates become incorporated into the membranes of the bacterial food source, which is then taken up by the C. elegans that feed on the supplemented bacteria. We also describe a gas chromatography protocol to monitor the changes in fatty acid composition that occur in supplemented worms. This is an efficient way to supplement the diets of both large and small populations of C. elegans, allowing for a range of applications for this method.
Full Text Available Large amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids undergo transformation processes in the rumen through microbial biohydrogenation to form fatty acids with higher saturation degree. The respective process explains the high content of saturated fatty acids in products of ruminants and the potential risk of consumers’ health by consuming such products. Various nutritional approaches have been attempted to modulate biohydrogenation process in order to obtain healthier fatty acid profile from consumers’ perspective. The present paper is aimed to review the influence of dietary tannin, a naturally produced plant secondary compound, on the pattern of polyunsaturated fatty acids biohydrogenation occurring in the rumen. The effect of tannin on some key fatty acids involved in biohydrogenation process is presented together with the underlying mechanisms, particularly from up-to-date research results. Accordingly, different form of tannin as well as different level of the application are also discussed.
Risérus, Ulf; Willett, Walter C; Frank B. Hu
Although type 2 diabetes is determined primarily by lifestyle and genes, dietary composition may affect both its development and complications. Dietary fat is of particular interest because fatty acids influence glucose metabolism by altering cell membrane function, enzyme activity, insulin signaling, and gene expression. This paper focuses on the prevention of type 2 diabetes and summarizes the epidemiologic literature on associations between types of dietary fat and diabetes risk. It also s...
Sioen, Isabelle; Vyncke, Krishna; De Maeyer, Mieke; Gerichhausen, Monique; De Henauw, Stefaan
Advances in our knowledge of the physiological functions of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have led to an increased interest in food sources and the level of dietary intake of these nutrients. Up to now, no representative data was available for the Belgian adult population. This study aimed to describe data on the intake and food sources of total and individual omega-6 and omega-3 PUFA for the Belgian population over 15 years old. PUFA intakes were assessed for 3,043 Belgian adults, based on two non-consecutive 24 h recalls. Usual intakes were calculated using the multiple source method. The results showed that the intake of linoleic acid (LA) is in accordance with the recommendation for almost all Belgian adults. However, the intake of omega-3 PUFA is suboptimal for a large part of the studied population and also the intake of total PUFA should be increased for a part of the population. The main food source of LA and α-linolenic acid (ALA) was the group of fats and oils (60.6 % for LA and 53.1 % for ALA). Fish and fish products were the most important sources of long chain omega-3 PUFA. Age influenced fatty acids intake, with higher intake of omega-3 PUFA in the older age groups. To fill the gap between the intake and recommendation of total PUFA, and in particular omega-3 PUFA, sustainable strategies and efficient consumer communication strategies will be needed.
Zeghichi-Hamri, Sabrina; de Lorgeril, Michel; Salen, Patricia; Chibane, Mohamed; de Leiris, Joël; Boucher, François; Laporte, François
Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) reduce coronary heart disease (CHD) complications, such as chronic arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death. Improved myocardial resistance to ischemia-reperfusion injury results in smaller myocardial infarction, which is a major factor in the occurrence of CHD complications. We hypothesized that a specific dietary fatty acid profile (low in saturated and n-6 PUFA but high in plant and marine n-3 PUFA) may improve myocardial resistance to ischemia-reperfusion injury and reduce infarct size. To test this assumption, we used a well-defined rat model of myocardial infarction. Based on our results, in comparison to a diet that is high in either saturated or n-6 PUFA but poor in plant and marine n-3 PUFA, a diet that is low in saturated fats and n-6 PUFA but rich in plant and marine n-3 PUFA results in smaller myocardial infarct size (P fatty acid composition of plasma, erythrocyte cell membranes, and the phospholipids of myocardial mitochondria. The results show a great accumulation of n-3 PUFA and a parallel decrease in arachidonic acid, the main n-6 PUFA, in plasma, cell membranes, and cardiac mitochondria (P < .0001). We conclude that improved myocardial resistance to ischemia-reperfusion may be one of the critical factors explaining the protective effects of dietary n-3 PUFA against CHD complications in humans. In addition to increasing n-3 PUFA intake, an optimal dietary pattern aimed at reducing cardiovascular mortality should include a reduction of the intake of both saturated and n-6 PUFA.
Full Text Available Oxidative stress is one of the main factors studied to explain the pathophysiological mechanisms of inflammatory conditions, such as periodontitis. In this respect, nutrition may be of great importance. Actually, research on nutrients’ effects on periodontal diseases has expanded to include those influencing the redox status, which correlates to the inflammatory process. Dietary fat or lipids are often blamed as the major source of excess energy. Consequently, when caloric intake exceeds energy expenditure, the resultant substrate-induced increase in citric acid cycle activity generates an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS. In addition, dietary fatty acid intake influences in relative fatty acid composition of biological membranes determining its susceptibility to oxidative alterations. From this standpoint, here, we reviewed studies analyzing the dietary fat role in periodontal disease. Research data suggest that periodontal health could be achieved by main dietary strategies which include substitution of saturated fats with monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, particularly n-3 PUFA. Maybe in the future, we should analyze the diet and provide some advice to periodontitis patients to improve treatment outcomes.
Varela-López, Alfonso; Quiles, José L; Cordero, Mario; Giampieri, Francesca; Bullón, Pedro
Oxidative stress is one of the main factors studied to explain the pathophysiological mechanisms of inflammatory conditions, such as periodontitis. In this respect, nutrition may be of great importance. Actually, research on nutrients' effects on periodontal diseases has expanded to include those influencing the redox status, which correlates to the inflammatory process. Dietary fat or lipids are often blamed as the major source of excess energy. Consequently, when caloric intake exceeds energy expenditure, the resultant substrate-induced increase in citric acid cycle activity generates an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, dietary fatty acid intake influences in relative fatty acid composition of biological membranes determining its susceptibility to oxidative alterations. From this standpoint, here, we reviewed studies analyzing the dietary fat role in periodontal disease. Research data suggest that periodontal health could be achieved by main dietary strategies which include substitution of saturated fats with monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), particularly n-3 PUFA. Maybe in the future, we should analyze the diet and provide some advice to periodontitis patients to improve treatment outcomes.
Kratz, Mario; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Fobker, Manfred; Buyken, Anette; Posny, Nicole; Schulte, Helmut; Assmann, Gerd; Wahrburg, Ursel
The recently discovered hormone leptin is primarily secreted by adipose tissue and serves as an internal signal indicating the size of body fat stores. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of the dietary fatty acid composition on serum leptin concentrations. Therefore, serum leptin levels were measured by RIA in healthy nonobese men (n = 30) and women (n = 25). First, all participants received a baseline high-fat diet, rich in saturated fat, for 2 wk and were then randomly assigned to one of three high-fat dietary treatments, which contained refined olive oil (rich in monounsaturated fatty acids, n = 19), rapeseed oil [rich in monounsaturated fatty acids and alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3), n = 17], or sunflower oil (rich in n-6-polyunsaturated fatty acids, n = 19) as the principal source of fat for 4 wk. On the rapeseed oil diet, serum leptin concentrations increased slightly in men [+0.25 ng/ml, T(9) = -2.778, P = 0.021], but decreased distinctly in women [-4.70 ng/ml, T(6) = 5.083, P = 0.002]. Both the olive oil and the sunflower oil diet did not affect serum leptin concentrations. Thus, it is proposed that serum leptin levels were affected by the high amount of alpha-linolenic acid in rapeseed oil. However, questions remain as to why this diet differently affected serum leptin in men and women.
Raphael, William; Sordillo, Lorraine M.
The composition of fatty acids in the diets of both human and domestic animal species can regulate inflammation through the biosynthesis of potent lipid mediators. The substrates for lipid mediator biosynthesis are derived primarily from membrane phospholipids and reflect dietary fatty acid intake. Inflammation can be exacerbated with intake of certain dietary fatty acids, such as some ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and subsequent incorporation into membrane phospholipids. Inflammation, however, can be resolved with ingestion of other fatty acids, such as ω-3 PUFA. The influence of dietary PUFA on phospholipid composition is influenced by factors that control phospholipid biosynthesis within cellular membranes, such as preferential incorporation of some fatty acids, competition between newly ingested PUFA and fatty acids released from stores such as adipose, and the impacts of carbohydrate metabolism and physiological state. The objective of this review is to explain these factors as potential obstacles to manipulating PUFA composition of tissue phospholipids by specific dietary fatty acids. A better understanding of the factors that influence how dietary fatty acids can be incorporated into phospholipids may lead to nutritional intervention strategies that optimize health. PMID:24152446
Lorraine M. Sordillo
Full Text Available The composition of fatty acids in the diets of both human and domestic animal species can regulate inflammation through the biosynthesis of potent lipid mediators. The substrates for lipid mediator biosynthesis are derived primarily from membrane phospholipids and reflect dietary fatty acid intake. Inflammation can be exacerbated with intake of certain dietary fatty acids, such as some ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, and subsequent incorporation into membrane phospholipids. Inflammation, however, can be resolved with ingestion of other fatty acids, such as ω-3 PUFA. The influence of dietary PUFA on phospholipid composition is influenced by factors that control phospholipid biosynthesis within cellular membranes, such as preferential incorporation of some fatty acids, competition between newly ingested PUFA and fatty acids released from stores such as adipose, and the impacts of carbohydrate metabolism and physiological state. The objective of this review is to explain these factors as potential obstacles to manipulating PUFA composition of tissue phospholipids by specific dietary fatty acids. A better understanding of the factors that influence how dietary fatty acids can be incorporated into phospholipids may lead to nutritional intervention strategies that optimize health.
Danielsen, Erik Michael; Hansen, Gert H; Rasmussen, Karina;
Absorption of dietary fat in the small intestine involves epithelial exposure to potentially harmful molecules such as bile salts and free fatty acids. We used organ culture of porcine jejunal explants incubated with a pre-digested mixture of fat (plant oil), bile and pancreatin to mimick...... the physiological process of dietary fat absorption, and short exposures to the fat mixture caused fat droplet accumulation within villus enterocytes. Lucifer yellow (LY), a fluorescent membrane-impermeable polar tracer was included to monitor epithelial integrity. Both in controls and during fat absorption LY...... penetrated the epithelium and accumulated in the basal lamina and the lamina propria. LY was also seen in the paracellular space, whereas villus enterocytes were generally only weakly labeled except for small amounts taken up by apical endocytosis. In the crypts, however, fat absorption induced cell...
Schwab, Ursula; Lauritzen, Lotte; Tholstrup, Tine
were also included when limited or no data were available from other study types. Altogether 607 articles were quality graded and the observed effects in these papers were summarized. Convincing evidence was found that partial replacement of saturated fat (SFA) with polyunsaturated fat (PUFA......The effects of both the amount and quality of dietary fat have been studied intensively during the past decades. Previously, low-fat diets were recommended without much attention to the quality of fat, whereas there is general emphasis on the quality of fat in current guidelines. The objective...... of this systematic review (SR) was to assess the evidence of an effect of the amount and type of dietary fat on body weight (BW), risk factors, and risk of non-communicable diseases, that is, type 2 diabetes (T2DM), cardiovascular diseases (CVD), and cancer in healthy subjects or subjects at risk for these diseases...
Wang, Hongqin; Storlien, Len H; Huang, Xu-Feng
Some, but not all, fats are obesogenic. The aim of the present studies was to investigate the effects of changing type and amount of dietary fats on energy balance, fat deposition, leptin, and leptin-related neural peptides: leptin receptor, neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti-related peptide (AgRP), and proopiomelanocortin (POMC), in C57Bl/6J mice. One week of feeding with a highly saturated fat diet resulted in ~50 and 20% reduction in hypothalamic arcuate NPY and AgRP mRNA levels, respectively, compared with a low-fat or an n-3 or n-6 polyunsaturated high-fat (PUFA) diet without change in energy intake, fat mass, plasma leptin levels, and leptin receptor or POMC mRNA. Similar neuropeptide results were seen at 7 wk, but by then epididymal fat mass and plasma leptin levels were significantly elevated in the saturated fat group compared with low-fat controls. In contrast, fat and leptin levels were reduced in the n-3 PUFA group compared with all other groups. At 7 wk, changing the saturated fat group to n-3 PUFA for 4 wk completely reversed the hyperleptinemia and increased adiposity and neuropeptide changes induced by saturated fat. Changing to a low-fat diet was much less effective. In summary, a highly saturated fat diet induces obesity without hyperphagia. A regulatory reduction in NPY and AgRP mRNA levels is unable to effectively counteract this obesogenic drive. Equally high fat diets emphasizing PUFAs may even protect against obesity.
Leroy, J L M R; Sturmey, R G; Van Hoeck, V; De Bie, J; McKeegan, P J; Bols, P E J
In many countries, fat supplementation in the diet has become common in the dairy industry. There are several ideas as to how dietary fat could influence reproductive performance. Saturated fatty acids, such as palm oil, can increase milk yield but may aggravate negative energy balance and thus may impair fertility when fed during the first week post-partum. However, priming the lipid oxidation in the liver by feeding saturated fats during the dry period has recently been shown to be a potentially promising strategy to mitigate fat mobilization and liver accumulation post-partum. Furthermore, polyunsaturated fats (omega-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids) are fed to reduce the 'de novo' fat synthesis in the udder and thus the milk fat content, which may be of modest benefit for overall energy balance. Furthermore, omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are reported to alter follicular growth, steroid synthesis and prostaglandin metabolism in the ovary and endometrium, respectively. Omega-6 fatty acids are believed to have pro-inflammatory and thus PGF2α-stimulating properties rendering them extra value as 'nutraceutical' early post-partum, while omega-3 fatty acids can weaken this inflammatory potency, leading to a higher chance of survival of the embryo when supplemented during the periconceptual period. Unfortunately, research results rarely provide a consensus in this perspective. The consequences of these fat-feeding strategies on oocyte and embryo quality remain an intriguing issue for debate. Fat feeding may alter the microenvironment of the growing and maturing oocyte of the early and older embryo and thus may affect reproductive outcome. We recently reported that dietary-induced hyperlipidaemic conditions can be harmful for embryo development and metabolism. However, to date, research results remain somewhat conflicting most probably due to differences in fat sources used, in diet and duration of supplementation and in experimental set
Viveros, A; Ortiz, L T; Rodríguez, M L; Rebolé, A; Alzueta, C; Arija, I; Centeno, C; Brenes, A
The effect of dietary fat sources (high-oleic-acid sunflower seeds, HOASS; palm oil, PO; and high-oleic-acid sunflower oil, HOASO) and high-oleic-acid sunflower hulls (HOAS hulls; 40 g/kg of diet) on performance, digestive organ size, fat digestibility, and fatty acid profile in abdominal fat and blood serum parameters was evaluated in chickens (from 1 to 21 d of age). Bird performance and digestive organ size were not affected by either dietary fat source or sunflower hull supplementation. Fat digestibility in birds fed diets enriched (HOASS and HOASO) in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) was increased compared with those fed the PO diet. The addition of sunflower hulls did not modify fat digestibility. The fatty acids pattern of abdominal fat reflected the dietary fat profile. The greatest concentrations of C16:0 and C18:0 were found in birds fed PO diets. The C18:1n-9 content was increased in birds that received HOASS and HOASO diets compared with those fed PO diets. The greatest content of C18:2n-6 was observed in birds fed HOASS diets. The ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) to MUFA was significantly increased in birds fed PO diets compared with those fed HOASS or HOASO diets. The addition of sunflower hulls to the diets resulted in a decrease of C18:2n-6 and PUFA concentrations and PUFA:MUFA ratio in abdominal fat. Dietary fat sources and sunflower hulls modify blood triglycerides and serum lipoproteins. A decrease in triglyceride concentrations was observed in birds fed HOASS diets compared with those fed PO and HOASO diets. The greatest concentrations of serum high density, very low density (VLDL), and low density lipoproteins were found in birds receiving HOASO, PO, and HOASS diets, respectively. The addition of sunflower hulls to the diets caused an increase of serum triglycerides and VLDL concentrations. The MUFA-enriched diets had lower triglyceride and VLDL concentrations than did diets rich in saturated fatty acids. However, the sunflower hull
Diane, Abdoulaye; Borthwick, Faye; Mapiye, Cletos; Vahmani, Payam; David, Rolland C; Vine, Donna F; Dugan, Michael E R; Proctor, Spencer D
The main dietary sources of trans fatty acids are partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVO), and products derived from polyunsaturated fatty acid biohydrogenation (PUFA-BHP) in ruminants. Trans fatty acid intake has historically been associated with negative effects on health, generating an anti-trans fat campaign to reduce their consumption. The profiles and effects on health of PHVO and PUFA-BHP can, however, be quite different. Dairy products naturally enriched with vaccenic and rumenic acids have many purported health benefits, but the putative benefits of beef fat naturally enriched with PUFA-BHP have not been investigated. The objective of the present experiment was to determine the effects of beef peri-renal fat (PRF) with differing enrichments of PUFA-BHP on lipid and insulin metabolism in a rodent model of dyslipidemia and insulin resistance (JCR:LA-cp rat). The results showed that 6 weeks of diet supplementation with beef PRF naturally enriched due to flaxseed (FS-PRF) or sunflower-seed (SS-PRF) feeding to cattle significantly improved plasma fasting insulin levels and insulin sensitivity, postprandial insulin levels (only in the FS-PRF) without altering dyslipidemia. Moreover, FS-PRF but not SS-PRF attenuated adipose tissue accumulation. Therefore, enhancing levels of PUFA-BHP in beef PRF with FS feeding may be a useful approach to maximize the health-conferring value of beef-derived fats.
Anna Marina; Anize Delfino von Frankenberg; Seda Suvag; Callahan, Holly S.; Mario Kratz; Richards, Todd L.; Utzschneider, Kristina M
Dietary fat and oxidative stress are hypothesized to contribute to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and progression to steatohepatitis. To determine the effects of dietary fat content on hepatic triglyceride, body fat distribution and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, overweight/obese subjects with normal glucose tolerance consumed a control diet (CONT: 35% fat/12% saturated fat/47% carbohydrate) for ten days, followed by four weeks on a low fat (LFD (n = 10): 20% fat/8% saturate...
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Reduction and modification of dietary fats have differing effects on cardiovascular risk factors (such as serum cholesterol, but their effects on important health outcomes are less clear. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of reduction and/or modification of dietary fats on mortality, cardiovascular mortality, cardiovascular morbidity and individual outcomes including myocardial infarction, stroke and cancer diagnoses in randomised clinical trials of at least 6 months duration. METHODS: Search methods: For this review update, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Medline and Embase, were searched through to June 2010. References of Included studies and reviews were also checked. Selection criteria: Trials fulfilled the following criteria: 1 randomized with appropriate control group, 2 intention to reduce or modify fat or cholesterol intake (excluding exclusively omega-3 fat interventions, 3 not multi factorial, 4 adult humans with or without cardiovascular disease, 5 intervention at least six months, 6 mortality or cardiovascular morbidity data available. Data collection and analysis: Participant numbers experiencing health outcomes in each arm were extracted independently in duplicate and random effects meta-analyses, meta-regression, sub-grouping, sensitivity analyses and funnel plots were performed. MAIN RESULTS: This updated review suggested that reducing saturated fat by reducing and/or modifying dietary fat reduced the risk of cardiovascular events by 14% (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.77 to 0.96, 24 comparisons, 65,508 participants of whom 7% had a cardiovascular event, I2 50%. Subgrouping suggested that this reduction in cardiovascular events was seen in studies of fat modification (not reduction - which related directly to the degree of effect on serum total and LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, of at least two years duration and in studies of men (not of women. There were no clear effects of dietary fat
Rafaat Mohamed Elsanhoty; Mohamed Fawzy Ramadan
Objective:To investigate the effects of different dietary fat and oils (differing in their degree of saturation and unsaturation) on lipid peroxidation in liver and blood of rats. Methods:The study was conducted on 50 albino rats that were randomly divided into 5 groups of 10 animals. The groups were fed on dietary butter (Group I), margarine (Group II), olive oil (Group III), sunflower oil (Group IV) and corn oil (Group V) for 7 weeks. After 12 h of diet removal, livers were excised and blood was collected to measure malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the supernatant of liver homogenate and in blood. Blood superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), glutathione peroxidase activity (GPx), serum vitamin E and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels were also measured to determine the effects of fats and oils on lipid peroxidation. Results: The results indicated that no significant differences were observed in SOD activity, vitamin E and TAC levels between the five groups. However, there was significant decrease of GPx activity in groups IV and V when compared with other groups. The results indicated that feeding corn oil caused significant increases in liver and blood MDA levels as compared with other oils and fats. There were positive correlations between SOD and GPx, vitamin E and TAC as well as between GPx and TAC (r:0.743;P Conclusions:The results demonstrated that feeding oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) increases lipid peroxidation significantly and may raise the susceptibility of tissues to free radical oxidative damage.
Ross, Brian M; Babay, Slim; Malik, Imran
Reactive oxygen species react with unsaturated fatty acids to form a variety of metabolites including aldehydes. Many aldehydes are volatile enough to be detected in headspace gases of blood or cultured cells and in exhaled breath, in particular propanal and hexanal which are derived from omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, respectively. Aldehydes are therefore potential non-invasive biomarkers of oxidative stress and of various diseases in which oxidative stress is thought to play a role including cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. It is unclear, however, how changes in the abundance of the fatty acid precursors, for example by altered dietary intake, affect aldehyde concentrations. We therefore fed male Wistar rats diets supplemented with either palm oil or a combination of palm oil plus an n-3 fatty acid (alpha-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic, or docosahexaenoic acids) for 4 weeks. Fatty acid analysis revealed large changes in the abundance of both n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in the liver with smaller changes observed in the brain. Despite the altered fatty acid abundance, headspace concentrations of C1-C8 aldehydes, and tissue concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, did not differ between the 4 dietary groups. Our data suggest that tissue aldehyde concentrations are independent of fatty acid abundance, and further support their use as volatile biomarkers of oxidative stress.
Kokoli, A N; Lavrentiadou, S N; Zervos, I A; Tsantarliotou, M P; Georgiadis, M P; Nikolaidis, E A; Botsoglou, N; Boscos, C M; Taitzoglou, I A
The aim of this study was to determine the effect(s) of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) on rabbit semen. Adult rabbit bucks were assigned to two groups that were given two diets, a standard diet (control) and a diet supplemented with ω-3 PUFA. Sperm samples were collected from all bucks with the use of an artificial vagina in 20-day intervals, for a total period of 120 days. The enrichment of membranes in ω-3 PUFA was manifested by the elevation of the 22:5 ω-3 (docosapentaenoic acid [DPA]) levels within 40 days. This increase in DPA content did not affect semen characteristics (i.e., concentration, motility and viability). However, it was associated with the induction of lipid peroxidation in spermatozoa, as determined on the basis of the malondialdehyde content. Lipid peroxidation was associated with DNA fragmentation in ω-3 PUFA-enriched spermatozoa and a concomitant increase in plasminogen activator (PA) activity. The effects of ω-3 PUFA on sperm cells were evident within 40 days of ω-3 PUFA dietary intake and exhibited peack values on day 120. Our findings suggest that an ω-3 PUFA-rich diet may not affect semen characteristics; however, it may have a negative impact on the oxidative status and DNA integrity of the spermatozoa, which was associated with an induction of PAs activity.
Fernández-Quintela, Alfredo; Churruca, Itziar; Portillo, Maria Puy
Energy intake and expenditure tend on average to remain adjusted to each other in order to maintain a stable body weight, which is only likely to be sustained if the fuel mix oxidised is equivalent to the nutrient content of the diet. Whereas protein and carbohydrate degradation and oxidation are closely adjusted to their intakes, fat balance regulation is less precise and that fat is more likely to be stored than oxidised. It has been demonstrated that dietary fatty acids have an influence not only on the fatty acid composition of membrane phospholipids, thus modulating several metabolic processes that take place in the adipocyte, but also on the composition and the quantity of different fatty acids in adipose tissue. Moreover, dietary fatty acids also modulate eicosanoid presence, which have hormone-like activities in lipid metabolism regulation in adipose tissue. Until recently, the adipocyte has been considered to be no more than a passive tissue for storage of excess energy. However, there is now compelling evidence that adipocytes have a role as endocrine secretory cells. Some of the adipokines produced by adipose tissue, such as leptin and adiponectin, act on adipose tissue in an autocrine/paracrine manner to regulate adipocyte metabolism. Furthermore, dietary fatty acids may influence the expression of adipokines. The nutrients are among the most influential of the environmental factors that determine the way adipose tissue genes are expressed by functioning as regulators of gene transcription. Therefore, not only dietary fat amount but also dietary fat composition influence adipose tissue metabolism.
Locniskar, M; Belury, M A; Cumberland, A G; Patrick, K E; Fischer, S M
The type of dietary fat has been shown to modulate the initiation stage of mammary tumorigenesis, with saturated fat fed before and/or during carcinogen treatment resulting in increased tumor incidence. This study was designed to determine whether different types of dietary fat alter the initiation stage of skin carcinogenesis by use of the initiation-promotion mouse skin carcinogenesis model. Sencar mice were divided into three groups and maintained on one of the experimental diets. The AIN-76-based diets consisted of 10% total fat with various types of fat: 8.5% menhaden oil plus 1.5% corn oil, 8.5% coconut oil plus 1.5% corn oil, and 10% corn oil. After three weeks mice were initiated with 10 nmol dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA). Two weeks later, all mice were switched to a diet containing 5% corn oil. Promotion began four weeks after initiation with twice-weekly application of 1 microgram 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate and continued for 12 weeks. No statistically significant differences in kilocalories of food consumed or body weights were observed between diet groups during the study. The final papilloma incidence, yield, and size were not significantly different among the diet groups. In a parallel study, [3H]DMBA binding to epidermal DNA showed no dietary differences. Unlike the mammary carcinogenesis model, these data suggest that the type of fat fed during DMBA initiation had minimal effects on this stage of skin carcinogenesis.
Abbott, Sarah K; Else, Paul L; Atkins, Taleitha A; Hulbert, A J
In one of the most extensive analyses to date we show that the balance of diet n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is the most important determinant of membrane composition in the rat under 'normal' conditions. Young adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed one of twelve moderate-fat diets (25% of total energy) for 8weeks. Diets differed only in fatty acid (FA) profiles, with saturate (SFA) content ranging 8-88% of total FAs, monounsaturate (MUFA) 6-65%, total PUFA 4-81%, n-6 PUFA 3-70% and n-3 PUFA 1-70%. Diet PUFA included only essential FAs 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3. Balance between n-3 and n-6 PUFA is defined as the PUFA balance (n-3 PUFA as % of total PUFA) and ranged 1-86% in the diets. FA composition was measured for brain, heart, liver, skeletal muscle, erythrocytes and plasma phospholipids, as well as adipose tissue and plasma triglycerides. The conformer-regulator model was used (slope=1 indicates membrane composition completely conforming to diet). Extensive changes in diet SFA, MUFA and PUFA had minimal effect on membranes (average slopes 0.01, 0.07, 0.07 respectively), but considerable influence on adipose tissue and plasma triglycerides (average slopes 0.27, 0.53, 0.47 respectively). Diet balance between n-3 and n-6 PUFA had a biphasic influence on membrane composition. When n-3 PUFAdiet (average slope 0.95), while diet PUFA balance>10% had little influence (average slope 0.19). The modern human diet has an average PUFA balance ~10% and this will likely have significant health implications.
Full Text Available Dietary fat plays a major role in obesity, lipid metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases. To determine whether the intake of different types of dietary fats affect the muscle fiber types that govern the metabolic and contractile properties of the skeletal muscle, we fed male Wistar rats with a 15% fat diet derived from different fat sources. Diets composed of soybean oil (n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA-rich, fish oil (n-3 PUFA-rich, or lard (low in PUFAs were administered to the rats for 4 weeks. Myosin heavy chain (MyHC isoforms were used as biomarkers to delineate the skeletal muscle fiber types. Compared with soybean oil intake, fish oil intake showed significantly lower levels of the fast-type MyHC2B and higher levels of the intermediate-type MyHC2X composition in the extensor digitorum longus (EDL muscle, which is a fast-type dominant muscle. Concomitantly, MyHC2X mRNA levels in fish oil-fed rats were significantly higher than those observed in the soybean oil-fed rats. The MyHC isoform composition in the lard-fed rats was an intermediate between that of the fish oil and soybean oil-fed rats. Mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4, and porin mRNA showed significantly upregulated levels in the EDL of fish oil-fed rats compared to those observed in soybean oil-fed and lard-fed rats, implying an activation of oxidative metabolism. In contrast, no changes in the composition of MyHC isoforms was observed in the soleus muscle, which is a slow-type dominant muscle. Fatty acid composition in the serum and the muscle was significantly influenced by the type of dietary fat consumed. In conclusion, dietary fat affects the expression of genes related to the contractile and metabolic properties in the fast-type dominant skeletal muscle, where the activation of oxidative metabolism is more pronounced after fish oil intake than that after soybean oil intake.
Jakobsen, Marianne U; Overvad, Kim; Dyerberg, Jørn
, total energy and protein intake were fixed. Differences in intake of energy from fat thus reflected complementary differences in intake of energy from carbohydrates. A 5% higher level of energy from saturated fat intake was associated with a 36% greater risk of coronary heart disease among women (hazard...... ratio (HR) = 1.36, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.98, 1.88). No overall association between saturated fat and coronary heart disease was found among men. However, age-dependent analyses showed that saturated fat was positively associated with coronary heart disease among the younger men (HR = 1.29, 95......In a 16-year follow-up study (ending in 1998) of 3,686 Danish men and women aged 30-71 years at recruitment, the association between energy intake from dietary fat and the risk of coronary heart disease was evaluated while assessing the possible modifying role of gender and age. In the models used...
Eisenberg, Christina M.; Ayala, Guadalupe X.; Crespo, Noe C.; Lopez, Nanette V.; Zive, Michelle Murphy; Corder, Kirsten; Wood, Christine; Elder, John P.
Objective: To understand the association between parenting and children's dietary fat consumption, this study tested a comprehensive model of parenting that included parent household rules, parent modeling of rules, parent mediated behaviors, and parent support. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Baseline data from the "MOVE/me Muevo" project, a…
Guéraud, Françoise; Taché, Sylviane; Steghens, Jean-Paul; Milkovic, Lidija; Borovic-Sunjic, Suzana; Zarkovic, Neven; Gaultier, Eric; Naud, Nathalie; Héliès-Toussaint, Cécile; Pierre, Fabrice; Priymenko, Nathalie
The end products of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) peroxidation, such as malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), and isoprostanes (8-iso-PGF2α), are widely used as systemic lipid oxidation/oxidative stress biomarkers. However, some of these compounds have also a dietary origin. Thus, replacing dietary saturated fat by PUFAs would improve health but could also increase the formation of such compounds, especially in the case of a pro-oxidant/antioxidant imbalanced diet. Hence, the possible impact of dietary fatty acids and pro-oxidant compounds was studied in rats given diets allowing comparison of the effects of heme iron vs. ferric citrate and of ω-6- vs. ω-3-rich oil on the level of lipid peroxidation/oxidative stress biomarkers. Rats given a heme iron-rich diet without PUFA were used as controls. The results obtained have shown that MDA and the major urinary metabolite of HNE (the mercapturic acid of dihydroxynonane, DHN-MA) were highly dependent on the dietary factors tested, while 8-iso-PGF2α was modestly but significantly affected. Intestinal inflammation and tissue fatty acid composition were checked in parallel and could only explain the differences we observed to a limited extent. Thus, the differences in biomarkers were attributed to the formation of lipid oxidation compounds in food or during digestion, their intestinal absorption, and their excretion into urine. Moreover, fecal extracts from the rats fed the heme iron or fish oil diets were highly toxic for immortalized mouse colon cells. Such toxicity can eventually lead to promotion of colorectal carcinogenesis, supporting the epidemiological findings between red meat intake and colorectal cancer risk. Therefore, the analysis of these biomarkers of lipid peroxidation/oxidative stress in urine should be used with caution when dietary factors are not well controlled, while control of their possible dietary intake is needed also because of their pro-inflammatory, toxic, and even
Velasco, S; Ortiz, L T; Alzueta, C; Rebolé, A; Treviño, J; Rodríguez, M L
A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of adding inulin to diets containing 2 different types of fat as energy sources on performance, blood serum metabolites, liver lipids, and fatty acids of abdominal adipose tissue and breast and thigh meat. A total of 240 one-day-old female broiler chicks were randomly allocated into 1 of 6 treatments with 8 replicates per treatment and 5 chicks per pen. The experiment consisted of a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments including 3 concentrations of inulin (0, 5, and 10 g/kg of diet) and 2 types of fat [palm oil (PO) and sunflower oil (SO)] at an inclusion rate of 90 g/kg of diet. The experimental period lasted from 1 to 34 d. Dietary fat type did not affect BW gain but impaired feed conversion (P fat deposition and serum lipid and glucose concentrations. Triacylglycerol contents in liver were higher in the birds fed PO diets. Dietary fat type also modified fatty acids of abdominal and i.m. fat, resulting in a higher concentration of C16:0 and C18:1n-9 and a lower concentration of C18:2n-6 in the birds fed PO diets. The addition of inulin to diets modified (P = 0.017) BW gain quadratically without affecting feed conversion. Dietary inulin decreased the total lipid concentration in liver (P = 0.003) and that of triacylglycerols and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (up to 31%) in blood serum compared with the control groups. The polyunsaturated fatty acid:saturated fatty acid ratio increased in abdominal and i.m. fat when inulin was included in the SO-containing diets. The results from the current study suggest that the addition of inulin to broiler diets has a beneficial effect on blood serum lipids by decreasing triacylglyceride concentrations The results also support the use of inulin to increase the capacity of SO for enhancing polyunsaturated fatty acid:saturated fatty acid ratio of i.m. fat in broilers.
Wang, Jun; John, Esther M; Horn-Ross, Pamela L; Ingles, Sue Ann
Our objective was to examine the association between dietary fat intake, cooking fat usage, and breast cancer risk in a population-based, multiethnic, case-control study conducted in the San Francisco Bay area. Intake of total fat and types of fat were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire among 1,703 breast cancer cases diagnosed between 1995 and 1999 and 2,045 controls. In addition, preferred use of fat for cooking was assessed. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). High fat intake was associated with increased risk of breast cancer (highest vs. lowest quartile, adjusted OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.10-1.65, P(trend) < 0.01). A positive association was found for oleic acid (OR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.14-2.10, P(trend) < 0.01) but not for linoleic acid or saturated fat. Risk was increased for women cooking with hydrogenated fats (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.20-2.10) or vegetable/corn oil (rich in linoleic acid; OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.06-1.58) compared to women using olive/canola oil (rich in oleic acid). Our results suggest that a low-fat diet may play a role in breast cancer prevention. We speculate that monounsaturated trans fats may have driven the discrepant associations between types of fat and breast cancer.
Full Text Available The innate immune system of the brain is principally composed of microglial cells and astrocytes, which, once activated, protect neurons against noxious agents or lesions. Activated glial cells produce inflammatory cytokines that act specifically through receptors expressed in the brain, leading to the development of altered emotional and cognitive behavior. These behavioral alterations cease along with the synthesis of brain cytokines. When the level of expression of these cytokines remains high, they become toxic to neurons possibly leading to neuronal death, as observed in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease. Omega-3 (n-3 type polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs are essential nutrients and fundamental components of neuronal and glial cell membranes. Additionally, they have immunomodulatory properties. They accumulate in the brain during the perinatal period in a dietary supply-dependant fashion. Their brain levels diminish with age, but can be corrected by a diet enriched in n-3 PUFAs. The increasing exposure of the population to diets unbalanced in n-3 PUFAs could contribute to the deleterious effect of inflammatory cytokines in the brain.
Bou, R; Guardiola, F; Barroeta, A C; Codony, R
A factorial design was used to study the effect of changes in broiler feed on the composition and consumer acceptability of chicken meat. One week before slaughter, 1.25% dietary fish oil was removed from the feed and replaced by other fat sources (animal fat or linseed oil) or we continued with fish oil, and diets were supplemented with Zn (0, 300, or 600 mg/kg), and Se (0 or 1.2 mg/kg as sodium selenite or 0.2 mg/kg as Se-enriched yeast). The changes in dietary fat led to distinct fatty acid compositions of mixed raw dark and white chicken meat with skin. The fish oil diet produced meat with the highest eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) content, whereas the linseed oil diet led to meat with the highest content in total n-3 polyunsaturated acids (PUFA), especially linolenic acid. However, meat from animals on the animal fat diet was still rich in very long-chain n-3 PUFA. Se content was affected by Se and Zn supplements. Se content increased with Zn supplementation. However, only Se from the organic source led to a significant increase in this mineral in meat compared with the control. Consumer acceptability scores and TBA values of cooked dark chicken meat after 74 d or after 18 mo of frozen storage were not affected by any of the dietary factors studied.
Bochenek, W; Rodgers, J B
Hepatic cholesterol synthesis was studied in rats after consuming diets of varying neutral lipid and cholesterol content. Cholesterol synthesis was evaluated by measuring 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase and by determining the rate of 3H-labeled sterol production from [3H]mevalonate. Results were correlated with sterol balance data and hepatic lipid content. Hepatic cholesterol synthesis was relatively great when cholesterol was excluded from the diet. The source of neutral dietary lipids, saturated vs. unsaturated, produced no change in hepatic sterol synthesis. Values for fecal sterol outputs and hepatic cholesterol levels were also similar in rats consuming either saturated or unsaturated fats. When 1% cholesterol was added to the diet, hepatic cholesterol synthesis was suppressed but the degree of suppression was greater in rats consuming unsaturated vs. saturated fats. This was associated with greater accumulation of cholesterol in livers from rats consuming unsaturates and a reduction in fecal neutral sterol output in this group as opposed to results from rats on saturated fats. Cholesterol consumption also altered the fatty acid composition of hepatic phospholipids producing decreases in the percentages of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids. It is concluded that dietary cholesterol alters cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism in the liver and that this effect is enhanced by dietary unsaturated fats.
Hasselbalch, Ann Louise; Heitmann, B L; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm;
To determine whether habitual dietary intake was associated with body fat mass and body fat distribution, independently of possible confounding by the genetic and shared environmental background.......To determine whether habitual dietary intake was associated with body fat mass and body fat distribution, independently of possible confounding by the genetic and shared environmental background....
O'Doherty, Mark G; Freedman, Neal D; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Schatzkin, Arthur; Murray, Liam J; Cantwell, Marie M; Abnet, Christian C
The aim of our study was to investigate whether intakes of total fat and fat subtypes were associated with esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), gastric cardia or gastric noncardia adenocarcinoma. From 1995-1996, dietary intake data was reported by 494,978 participants of the NIH-AARP cohort. The 630 EAC, 215 ESCC, 454 gastric cardia and 501 gastric noncardia adenocarcinomas accrued to the cohort. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine the association between the dietary fat intakes, whilst adjusting for potential confounders. Although apparent associations were observed in energy-adjusted models, multivariate adjustment attenuated results to null [e.g., EAC energy adjusted hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.66 (1.27-2.18) p for trend gastric cancer risk; although a protective effect of polyunsaturated fat intake was seen for EAC in subjects with a normal BMI.
Roos, de N.M.; Schouten, E.G.; Scheek, L.M.; Tol, van A.; Katan, M.B.
A high intake of saturated fat and of trans isomers of unsaturated fat is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Recently, we found that replacement of saturated fat by trans fat in a dietary controlled study with 32 men and women decreased serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cho
Renata Andrade de Medeiros Moreira
Full Text Available Objective: To analyze whether the stages of change of the Transtheoretical Model are in accordance with the fat consumption of members of the Academia da Cidade of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais. Methods: This cross-sectional study included a simple random sample of users aged ≥20 years frequenting an Academia da Cidade. Eating behavior toward oil and fat consumption was evaluated by the transtheoretical model and compared with fat intake adequacy, obtained through mean fat intake was investigated by three 24-hour recalls. Anthropometric and sociodemographic data were also collected. Additionally, the stages of change were verified, after reclassification the stages of change agreed with the consumption of fatty foods, fats, and fractions. Results: A total of 131 women with a mean age of 53.9±12.1 had an average fatty acid consumption of 556.0 mL. Some participants consumed high-fat foods, lipids (20.6%, saturated (31.3% and polyunsaturated (38.2% fatty acids, and cholesterol (16.0% in excess. The stages of eating behavior were significantly different after reclassification. The number of women in action and maintenance decreased in a way that in the end, 4.6% were in precontemplation, 19.8% were in contemplation, 26.0% were in preparation, 28.2% were in action, and 21.4% were in maintenance. The consumption of chicken skin; fatty salad dressing; bread, doughnuts or cake with butter/margarine; and fats, saturated fatty acids, and monounsaturated fatty acids was lower in the final stages of the transtheoretical model. Conclusion: After reclassification the algorithm is in agreement with the ingestion of high-fat foods, which denotes its applicability for the evaluation of eating behavior and for providing data to food and nutrition education actions.
de Wit, Nicole; Derrien, Muriel; Bosch-Vermeulen, Hanneke; Oosterink, Els; Keshtkar, Shohreh; Duval, Caroline; de Vogel-van den Bosch, Johan; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Müller, Michael; van der Meer, Roelof
We studied the effect of dietary fat type, varying in polyunsaturated-to-saturated fatty acid ratios (P/S), on development of metabolic syndrome. C57Bl/6J mice were fed purified high-fat diets (45E% fat) containing palm oil (HF-PO; P/S 0.4), olive oil (HF-OO; P/S 1.1), or safflower oil (HF-SO; P/S 7.8) for 8 wk. A low-fat palm oil diet (LF-PO; 10E% fat) was used as a reference. Additionally, we analyzed diet-induced changes in gut microbiota composition and mucosal gene expression. The HF-PO diet induced a higher body weight gain and liver triglyceride content compared with the HF-OO, HF-SO, or LF-PO diet. In the intestine, the HF-PO diet reduced microbial diversity and increased the Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes ratio. Although this fits a typical obesity profile, our data clearly indicate that an overflow of the HF-PO diet to the distal intestine, rather than obesity itself, is the main trigger for these gut microbiota changes. A HF-PO diet-induced elevation of lipid metabolism-related genes in the distal small intestine confirmed the overflow of palm oil to the distal intestine. Some of these lipid metabolism-related genes were previously already associated with the metabolic syndrome. In conclusion, our data indicate that saturated fat (HF-PO) has a more stimulatory effect on weight gain and hepatic lipid accumulation than unsaturated fat (HF-OO and HF-SO). The overflow of fat to the distal intestine on the HF-PO diet induced changes in gut microbiota composition and mucosal gene expression. We speculate that both are directly or indirectly contributive to the saturated fat-induced development of obesity and hepatic steatosis.
Emery, Charles F; Olson, KayLoni L; Bodine, Andrew; Lee, Victoria; Habash, Diane L
Prior studies have documented an association of obesity with chronic pain, but the mechanism explaining the association remains unknown. This study evaluated the degree to which dietary intake of foods with anti-inflammatory effects mediates the relationship of body fat to body pain. Ninety-eight community-residing healthy adults (60% women; mean age = 43.2 ± 15.3 years; range: 20-78 years) participated in a home-based study of home environment, food-related behaviors, health, and adiposity. During a 3-hour home visit evaluation, 3 measures of body fat were collected, including height and weight for calculation of body mass index (BMI). Participants also completed a 24-hour food recall interview and self-report measures of bodily pain (BP; BP subscale from the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36) and psychological distress (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). Quality of dietary intake was rated using the Healthy Eating Index-2010. Mediation models were conducted with the PROCESS macro in SAS 9.3. Mean BMI was consistent with obesity (30.4 ± 7.8; range: 18.2-53.3), and BP values (73.2 ± 22.1; range: 0-100) and dietary intake quality (59.4 ± 15.5; range: 26.8-88.1) were consistent with population norms. Modeling in PROCESS revealed that Healthy Eating Index-2010 scores mediated the relationship between BMI and BP (bindirect = -0.34, 95% confidence interval = -0.68 to -0.13). The mediation model remained significant when controlling for biomechanical factors (arthritis/joint pain), medication use, psychological distress, age, and education, and models remained significant using the other 2 body fat measures. Thus, the data indicate that dietary intake of foods with anti-inflammatory effects mediates the relationship of body fat to body pain in healthy men and women.
Al-Arrayedu, F. H.; Al Maskati, H. A.; Abdullah, F. J.
This study was performed to determine the content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids in 10 fish species that are commonly consumed in Bahrain in addition to the main commercial shrimp species. White sardinella, which is a plankton feeder, had the highest content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids. It had the highest value of eicosapentaenoic acid (146.5 ± 20 mg 100 g-1) and linolenic acid (98.9±f 100 g-1) and the second highest value of docosahexaenoic acid at (133.7 ± 22 mg 100 g-1). Spanish mackerel which feeds mainly on sardinella was second with eicosapentaenoc acid at 55 ± 5.4 mg 100 g-1, docosahexaenoic acid at 161 ± 19.8 mg 100 g-1, linolenic acid at 16.4 mg 100 g-1 and docosapentaenoic acid at 25 ± 1.9 mg 100 g-1. Rabbitfish, the most popular edible fish in Bahrain which feeds mainly on benthic algae had the third highest content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids with eicosapentaenoic acid at 37.5 ± 3.9 mg 100 g-1, docosahexaenoic acid at 76 ± 6.7 mg 100 g-1, and docosapentaenoic acid at 85.8 ± 10 mg 100 g-1. The other fish and crustacean species studied were Arabian carpet shark, doublebar bream, grouper, gray grunt, golden travally, keeled mullet, spangled emperor and shrimp. The study explores the transfer of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids through the food webs of the examined fish. It is apparent, generally, that plankton feeders displayed the highest content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids followed by seaweed and algae grazers, with benthic carnivores feeding on invertebrates displaying the poorest content. The values reported here, however, are much lower than those reported for fish available in American markets and in Mediterranean fish. Warm water temperature and high salinity which lead to lowering of the density of phytoplankton and phytoplankton content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids are suggested as the reason for the observed low values of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids in Bahrain fish.
This thesis focuses on the replacement of animal fat by vegetable oil in the diet for growing-finishing pigs. Generally, but not exclusively, fats of animal origin contain higher proportions of saturated fatty acids (SFA) than vegetable oils that are commonly rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUF
Joffe, Yael T; van der Merwe, Lize; Evans, Juliet; Collins, Malcolm; Lambert, Estelle V; September, Alison V; Goedecke, Julia H
This study investigated interactions between dietary fat intake and IL-6 polymorphisms on obesity and serum lipids in black and white South African (SA) women. Normal-weight and obese, black and white women underwent measurements of body composition, serum lipids and dietary fat intake, and were genotyped for the IL-6 -174 G>C, IVS3 +281 G>T and IVS4 +869 A>G polymorphisms. In black women the IVS4 +869 G allele was associated with greater adiposity, and with increasing dietary fat intake adiposity increased in the IVS3 +281 GT+GG and IVS4 +869 AA or AG genotypes. In white women, with increasing omega-3 (n-3) intake and decreasing n-6:n-3 ratio, body mass index (BMI) decreased in those with the -174 C allele, IVS3 +281 T allele and IVS4 +869 AG genotype. In the white women, those with the IVS3 +281 T allele had lower triglycerides. Further, with increasing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA); triglyceride and total cholesterol:high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (T-C:HDL-C) ratio decreased in those with the -174 C allele. In black women, with increasing total fat intake, triglycerides and T-C:HDL-C ratio increased in those with the IVS4 +869 G allele. This study is the first to show that dietary fat intake modulates the relationship between the IL-6 -174 G>C, IVS3 +281 G>T and IVS4 +869 A>G polymorphisms on obesity and serum lipids in black and white SA women.
Gonzalez-Munoz, M. J.; Bastida, S.; Jimenez, O.; Lorenzo, C. de; Vergara, G.; Sanchez-Muniz, F. J.
The present study analyzed the effect of dietary fat and strain on the fatty acid and cholesterol contents of eggs over a 20 month-period. Hy-line and Warren hens received three consecutive 7% lipid diets in which the basal constituents of the diet supplied 3% of the fats while the remaining 4% was composed of fats, oils or oleins added to progressively increase polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels, while decreasing dietary levels of both saturated fatty acids (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). In general, the percentages of most fatty acids in egg lipids were affected by changes in dietary lipids but not by the strain. Data suggest the existence of a dietary threshold for elaidic acid to appear in eggs. Mufa decreased and total PUFA increased throughout the study. The cholesterol egg content was higher at the animal fat plus soybean oil than at the animal fat or the olein plus soybean oil blend. Overall, results showed that changes in dietary lipids influenced fatty acid composition and hence atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes much more than the strain. (Author) 37 refs.
Angulo, J; Mahecha, L; Nuernberg, K; Nuernberg, G; Dannenberger, D; Olivera, M; Boutinaud, M; Leroux, C; Albrecht, E; Bernard, L
The main aim of the present study was to examine the effects of long-term supplementing diets with saturated or unprotected polyunsaturated fatty acids from two different plant oils rich in either n-3 or n-6 fatty acids (FAs) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich algae on mammary gene expression and milk fat composition in lactating dairy cows. Gene expression was determined from mammary tissue and milk epithelial cells. Eighteen primiparous German Holstein dairy cows in mid-lactation were randomly assigned into three dietary treatments that consist of silage-based diets supplemented with rumen-stable fractionated palm fat (SAT; 3.1% of the basal diet dry matter, DM), or a mixture of linseed oil (2.7% of the basal diet DM) plus DHA-rich algae (LINA; 0.4% of the basal diet DM) or a mixture of sunflower oil (2.7% of the basal diet DM) plus DHA-rich algae (SUNA; 0.4% of the basal diet DM), for a period of 10 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, the cows were slaughtered and mammary tissues were collected to study the gene expression of lipogenic enzymes. During the last week, the milk yield and composition were determined, and milk was collected for FA measurements and the isolation of milk purified mammary epithelial cells (MECs). Supplementation with plant oils and DHA-rich algae resulted in milk fat depression (MFD; yield and percentage). The secretion of de novo FAs in the milk was reduced, whereas the secretion of trans-10,cis-12-CLA and DHA were increased. These changes in FA secretions were associated in mammary tissue with a joint down-regulation of mammary lipogenic enzyme gene expression (stearoyl-CoA desaturase, SCD1; FA synthase, FASN) and expression of the regulatory element binding transcription factor (SREBF1), whereas no effect was observed on lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 1, mitochondrial (GPAM). A positive relationship between mammary SCD1 and SREBF1 mRNA abundances was observed, suggesting a similar
Iacono, J M; Dougherty, R M
Evidence linking dietary fats to blood pressure and thrombogenic indices is reviewed. Results of dietary studies performed at Beltsville, Maryland, have demonstrated that under controlled dietary conditions, i.e., when total fat intake is maintained at 25% fat calories with a P/S ratio of 1, at either a fixed or free-choice salt intake and where the body weight is maintained relatively constant, blood pressure can be lowered and platelet aggregation indices can be improved in men and women in the 40-60 age group. Results of a pilot epidemiologic study of farmers aged 40-45 in Finland and Italy generally confirm the experimental nutrition studies reported above. A possible explanation of these results based on the conversion of linoleic acid to prostaglandins as well as the physiological actions of prostaglandins is discussed.
Gilsing, A.M.J.; Weijenberg, M.P.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Schouten, L.J.
Background: Evidence that links dietary factors to ovarian cancer is conflicting, but several epidemiologic studies suggested that consumption of dietary fat and meat may increase risk of ovarian cancer. Objective: We studied associations of intakes of total fat and sources and subtypes of fat, fres
Tholstrup, T.; Hellgren, Lars; Petersen, M.;
There is a demand and need for healthy solid dietary fats. However, synthetic fats can be tailored to contain specific physiologic properties. Our goal was to design dietary solid test fats that would be both beneficial to the atherogenic lipid profile and stable against lipid peroxidation. Sixte...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA of marine origin exert multiple beneficial effects on health. Our previous study in mice showed that reduction of adiposity by LC n-3 PUFA was associated with both, a shift in adipose tissue metabolism and a decrease in tissue cellularity. The aim of this study was to further characterize the effects of LC n-3 PUFA on fat cell proliferation and differentiation in obese mice. Methods A model of inducible and reversible lipoatrophy (aP2-Cre-ERT2 PPARγL2/L2 mice was used, in which the death of mature adipocytes could be achieved by a selective ablation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ in response to i.p. injection of tamoxifen. Before the injection, obesity was induced in male mice by 8-week-feeding a corn oil-based high-fat diet (cHF and, subsequently, mice were randomly assigned (day 0 to one of the following groups: (i mice injected by corn-oil-vehicle only, i.e."control" mice, and fed cHF; (ii mice injected by tamoxifen in corn oil, i.e. "mutant" mice, fed cHF; (iii control mice fed cHF diet with15% of dietary lipids replaced by LC n-3 PUFA concentrate (cHF+F; and (iv mutant mice fed cHF+F. Blood and tissue samples were collected at days 14 and 42. Results Mutant mice achieved a maximum weight loss within 10 days post-injection, followed by a compensatory body weight gain, which was significantly faster in the cHF as compared with the cHF+F mutant mice. Also in control mice, body weight gain was depressed in response to dietary LC n-3 PUFA. At day 42, body weights in all groups stabilized, with no significant differences in adipocyte size between the groups, although body weight and adiposity was lower in the cHF+F as compared with the cHF mice, with a stronger effect in the mutant than in control mice. Gene expression analysis documented depression of adipocyte maturation during the reconstitution of adipose tissue in the cHF+F mutant mice. Conclusion
Schothorst, van E.M.; Flachs, P.; Franssen-Hal, van N.L.W.; Kuda, O.; Bunschoten, A.; Molthoff, J.W.; Vink, C.; Hooiveld, G.J.E.J.; Kopecky, J.; Keijer, J.
Background. Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), in particular the long chain marine fatty acids docosahexaenoic (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA), are linked to many health benefits in humans and in animal models. Little is known of the molecular response to DHA and EPA of the small intestine
We have used total enteral nutrition (TEN) to moderately overfeed rats high polyunsaturated fat diets to develop a model for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed by TEN a 187 kcal/kg 3/4 /d diet containing 5% (total calories) corn oil or a 220 kcal/kg 3/4 /d diet i...
Schlotz, Nina; Roulin, Anne; Ebert, Dieter; Martin-Creuzburg, Dominik
Eicosanoids derive from essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and play crucial roles in immunity, development, and reproduction. However, potential links between dietary PUFA supply and eicosanoid biosynthesis are poorly understood, especially in invertebrates. Using Daphnia magna and its bacterial parasite Pasteuria ramosa as model system, we studied the expression of genes coding for key enzymes in eicosanoid biosynthesis and of genes related to oogenesis in response to dietary arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid in parasite-exposed and non-exposed animals. Gene expression related to cyclooxygenase activity was especially responsive to the dietary PUFA supply and parasite challenge, indicating a role for prostanoid eicosanoids in immunity and reproduction. Vitellogenin gene expression was induced upon parasite exposure in all food treatments, suggesting infection-related interference with the host's reproductive system. Our findings highlight the potential of dietary PUFA to modulate the expression of key enzymes involved in eicosanoid biosynthesis and reproduction and thus underpin the idea that the dietary PUFA supply can influence invertebrate immune functions and host-parasite interactions.
Rats were supplied with 25 kinds of food, which were divided into 5 classes of protein and 5 classes of fat content, to examine the effect of dietary protein and fat on the metabolism and retention of DDT in the liver. The results suggested that dietary protein and fat changed DDT and its metabolites concentration in liver. The concentration of DDT decreases according to the increase of dietary protein content. The concentration of DDT and its metabolites in liver increases when the dietary fat content increases. Polynomial and multiple regression analyses were carried out to confirm the effect of dietary protein and fat on DDT metabolism. The results suggest that the residual concentration of DDT and its metabolites (DDD and DDE) is a function of dietary protein and fat content, and can be represented in equation form. The estimation of the concentration of DDT and its metabolites from the equation agrees well with the measured concentration in liver.
Go, Ryeo-Eun; Hwang, Kyung-A; Park, Geon-Tae; Lee, Hae-Miru; Lee, Geum-A; Kim, Cho-Won; Jeon, So-Ye; Seo, Jeong-Woo; Hong, Won-Kyung; Choi, Kyung-Chul
Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which are abundant in marine fish oils, have recently received global attention for their prominent anti-obesogenic effects. Among PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3), which are n-3 long-chain PUFAs widely referred to as omega-3 oils, were reported to prevent the development of obesity in rodents and humans. In the present study, we evaluated the anti-obesity effects of microalgal oil on high-fat induced obese C57BL/6 mice, compared with commercial omega-3 fish oil and vegetable corn oil. Microalgal oil is an inherent mixture of several PUFAs, including EPA, DHA and other fatty acids produced from a marine microalgal strain of Thraustochytriidae sp. derived mutant. It was found to contain more PUFAs (>80%) and more omega-3 oils than commercial omega-3 fish oil (PUFAs >31%) and corn oil (PUFAs 59%). All three types of oils induced weight loss in high-fat-induced obese mice, with the loss induced by microalgal oil being most significant at 9 weeks (10% reduction). However, the oils tested did not improve blood lipid levels, although microalgal oil showed an apparent inhibitory effect on lipid accumulation in the liver. These findings may be attributed to the higher PUFA content, including omega-3 oils of microalgal oil than other oils. Collectively, these findings suggest that microalgal oil, derived from Thraustochytriidae sp. derived mutant, is a prominent candidate for replacement of omega-3 fish oils based on its apparent anti-obesity effect in vivo.
Serlie Mireille J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes is thought to accelerate cardiovascular disease depending on the type of diet. This study in diabetic subjects was performed to investigate the metabolic, inflammatory and cardiovascular effects of nutritional components typically present in a Western, Mediterranean or high glycaemic diet. Methods Streptozotocin-diabetic pigs (~45 kg were fed for 10 weeks supplemental (40% of dietary energy saturated fat/cholesterol (SFC, unsaturated fat (UF or starch (S in an eucaloric dietary intervention study. Results Fasting plasma total, LDL and HDL cholesterol concentrations were 3-5 fold higher (p 2 = 0.95. Retroperitoneal fat depot weight (g was intermediate in SFC (260 ± 72, lowest in S (135 ± 51 and highest (p Conclusion Dietary saturated fat/cholesterol induces inflammation, atherosclerosis and ectopic fat deposition whereas an equally high dietary unsaturated fat load does not induce these abnormalities and shows beneficial effects on postprandial glycaemia in diabetic pigs.
Peiretti, Pier Giorgio
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of various raw materials (spirulina, curcuma, tomato pomace, false flax, linseed, chia, perilla seeds) as suitable polyunsaturated fatty acid n-3 (n-3 PUFA) sources, on the lipid traits in the longissimus dorsi muscle and perirenal fat of growing rabbits. The fatty acid (FA) analyses of the diets, carried out by gas chromatography, differed over a wide range on the basis of the highly varied ingredients in 27 experimental formulations. Among the 29 identified FAs, three from feeds were catabolized in the rabbits, five were de novo synthesized and stored chiefly in the muscle. It was possible to linearly characterize the incorporation from the feed to the muscle of 16 FAs. This study has confirmed that the dietary inclusion of various raw materials could be considered as a way of enriching the n-3 PUFA of rabbit meat. A proposal for the prediction of n-3 PUFA from dietary α-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3) and a panel of another 10 FAs has been made for intramuscular fat (R² = 0.94) and perirenal fat (R² = 0.96).
Pier Giorgio Peiretti
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of various raw materials (spirulina, curcuma, tomato pomace, false flax, linseed, chia, perilla seeds as suitable polyunsaturated fatty acid n-3 (n-3 PUFA sources, on the lipid traits in the longissimus dorsi muscle and perirenal fat of growing rabbits. The fatty acid (FA analyses of the diets, carried out by gas chromatography, differed over a wide range on the basis of the highly varied ingredients in 27 experimental formulations. Among the 29 identified FAs, three from feeds were catabolized in the rabbits, five were de novo synthesized and stored chiefly in the muscle. It was possible to linearly characterize the incorporation from the feed to the muscle of 16 FAs. This study has confirmed that the dietary inclusion of various raw materials could be considered as a way of enriching the n-3 PUFA of rabbit meat. A proposal for the prediction of n-3 PUFA from dietary α-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3 and a panel of another 10 FAs has been made for intramuscular fat (R2 = 0.94 and perirenal fat (R2 = 0.96.
Wiking, L; Larsen, T; Sehested, J
The present study demonstrated that the zinc concentration in bovine milk and blood plasma is significantly affected by the intake of saturated fat supplements. Sixteen Holstein cows were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design with 4 periods of 12 d, and 4 dietary treatments were conducted. A total mixed ration based on corn silage, grass-clover silages, and pelleted sugar beet pulp was used on all treatments. A high de novo milk fat diet was formulated by adding rapeseed meal and molasses in the total mixed ration [39 mg of Zn/kg of dry matter (DM)], and a low de novo diet by adding saturated fat, fat-rich rapeseed cake, and corn (34 mg of Zn/kg of DM). Dietary Zn levels were increased by addition of ZnO to 83 and 80 mg of Zn/kg of DM. Treatments did not affect daily DM intake, or yield of energy-corrected milk, milk fat, or milk protein. The high de novo diet significantly increased milk fat percentage and milk content of fatty acids with chain length from C6 to C16, and decreased content of C18 and C18:1. Treatments did not influence milk free fatty acids at 4 degrees C at 0 or 28 h after milking. The average diameter of milk fat globules was significantly greater in milk from cows offered low de novo diets. Furthermore, the low de novo diet significantly increased the concentration of nonesterified fatty acids and d-beta-hydroxybutyrate in blood plasma, the latter was also increased in milk. Treatments did not affect the enzyme activity of lactate dehydrogenase and N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase in milk or the activity of isocitrate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase in blood plasma. The low de novo diet significantly increased plasma Zn and milk Zn content, whereas dietary Zn level did not in itself influence these parameters. This indicates that the transfer of fat from diet to milk might facilitate transfer of Zn from diet to milk.
Hendriks, I.E.; Van Duren, L.A.; Herman, P.M.J.
The pre-spawning condition of adult bivalves is influenced by quantity and quality of available food. For bivalves, the essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) 20:5(n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) 22:6(n-3) are presumed to determine the nutritional value of alga
Zhang, Haibo; Dong, Xianwen; Wang, Zhisheng; Zhou, Aiming; Peng, Quanhui; Zou, Huawei; Xue, Bai; Wang, Lizhi
This study was conducted to estimate the effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) on intramuscular and subcutaneous fat deposition in Yellow Breed × Simmental cattle. The experiment was conducted for 60 days. The results showed that the average backfat thickness, (testicles + kidney + pelvic) fat percentage and subcutaneous fat percentage in dietary CLA were significantly lower than in the control group, while intramuscular the fat percentage was significantly higher. Compared to the control group, the Longissimus muscle enzyme activities of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) in dietary CLA and the subcutaneous fat enzyme activities of LPL, hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1) were significantly increased. Similarly, compared to the control group, the Longissimus muscle sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1), FAS, stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase (SCD), ACC, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), heart fatty-acid binding protein (H-FABP) and LPL gene expression in dietary CLA were significant increased, as were the subcutaneous fat of PPARγ, H-FABP, LPL, CPT-1 and HSL in dietary CLA. These results indicated that dietary CLA increases IMF deposition mainly by the up-regulation of lipogenic gene expression, while decreasing subcutaneous fat deposition mainly by the up-regulation of lipolytic gene expression.
Sijben, J.W.C.; Schrama, J.W.; Parmentier, H.K.; Poel, van der J.J.; Klasing, K.C.
Effects of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on immune responses in poultry have been reported. However, effects on the underlying mechanisms, such as the role of cytokines, have not been documented because the necessary tools were lacking. Recently, primer sets for chicken interleukin (IL)
Martins, Susana V; Lopes, Paula A; Alves, Susana P; Alfaia, Cristina M; Castro, Matilde F; Bessa, Rui J B; Prates, José A M
The effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation in combination with fat from vegetable versus animal origin on the fatty acid deposition, including that of individual 18:1 and 18:2 (conjugated and non-conjugated) isomers, in the liver and muscle of obese rats was investigated. For this purpose, 32 male Zucker rats were randomly assigned to one of four diets containing palm oil or ovine fat, supplemented or not with 1% of 1:1 cis(c)9,trans(t)11 and t10,c12 CLA isomers mixture. Total fatty acid content decreased in the liver and muscle of CLA-fed rats. In the liver, CLA increased saturated fatty acids (SFA) in 11.9% and decreased monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in 6.5%. n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) relative proportions were increased in 30.6% by CLA when supplemented to the ovine fat diet. In the muscle, CLA did not affect SFA but decreased MUFA and PUFA percentages. The estimation of Δ9-indices 16 and 18 suggested that CLA inhibited the stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity in the liver (a decrease of 13-38%), in particular when supplemented to the ovine fat diet. Concerning CLA supplementation, the t10,c12 isomer percentage was 60-80% higher in the muscle than in the liver. It is of relevance that rats fed ovine fat, containing bio-formed CLA, had more c9,t11 CLA isomer deposited in both tissues than rats fed palm oil plus synthetic CLA. These results highlight the importance to further clarify the biological effects of consuming foods naturally enriched in CLA, alternatively to CLA dietary supplementation.
Bisschop, PH; de Metz, J; Ackermans, MT; Endert, E; Pijl, H; Kuipers, F; Meijer, AJ; Sauerwein, HP; Romijn, JA
Background: A high dietary fat intake is involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Objective: The aim was to compare the effect of different amounts of dietary fat on hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity. Design: Six healthy men were studied on 3 occasions after consuming for 11 d di
Matthys Colleen C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary n-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3-PUFA have been shown to reduce body weight and fat mass in rodents as well as in humans in one small short-term study. We conducted this controlled randomized dietary trial to test the hypothesis that n-3-PUFA lower body weight and fat mass by reducing appetite and ad libitum food intake and/or by increasing energy expenditure. Methods Twenty-six overweight or moderately obese (body mass index 28–33 kg/m2 men and women were included, and received either a diet rich in n-3-PUFA from both plant and marine sources or a control diet. Diets were administered in an isocaloric fashion for 2 weeks followed by 12 weeks of ad libitum intake. The n-3-PUFA and control diets were identical in all regards except for the fatty acid composition. All foods were provided to subjects, and leftovers were weighed back to assess actual food intake accurately for each day of the study. This design gave us 80% power to detect a difference in weight change between the n-3-PUFA and control diet groups of 2.25 kg at an α-error level of 5%. Results Both groups lost similar amounts of weight when these diets were consumed ad libitum for 12 weeks [mean (SD: -3.5 (3.7 kg in the control group vs. -2.8 (3.7 kg in the n-3-PUFA group, F(1,24 = 13.425, p = 0.001 for time effect; F(1,24 = 0.385, p = 0.541 for time × group interaction]. Consistent with this finding, we also found no differences between the n-3-PUFA and control groups with regard to appetite as measured by visual analogue scale, ad libitum food intake, resting energy expenditure as measured by indirect calorimetry, diurnal plasma leptin concentrations, or fasting ghrelin concentrations. Conclusion Our results suggest that dietary n-3-PUFA do not play an important role in the regulation of food intake, energy expenditure, or body weight in humans.
Realini, C E; Duran-Montgé, P; Lizardo, R; Gispert, M; Oliver, M A; Esteve-Garcia, E
Seventy gilts were used to compare the effect of including 10% tallow (T), high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSF), sunflower oil (SFO), linseed oil (LO), a fat blend (FB), or an oil blend (OB) in finishing diets vs. feeding a semi-synthetic diet with no added fat (NF) on pig performance, carcass traits and carcass fatty acid (FA) composition. Carcasses from SFO-fed gilts had greater fat and lower lean compositions than carcasses from T-fed gilts. Gilts fed NF had greater loin fat than FB-fed gilts, and greater flare fat, loin intermuscular fat and fat:lean than T-fed gilts. Bellies from NF-fed gilts had lower lean and higher intermuscular fat and fat:lean than other diets except HOSF. Fat source had minor effects on animal performance, carcass characteristics and carcass fat content and distribution, whereas feeding NF resulted in carcasses and major cuts with higher fat content. Diets rich in polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) did not reduce fat deposition in separable fat depots with respect to monounsaturated FA (MUFA) and saturated FA (SFA). Carcasses from gilts fed NF had a high degree of saturation (40.6% SFA) followed by carcasses of T- and FB-fed gilts. Feeding HOSF, SFO and LO enriched diets elevated the percentages of MUFA (56.7%), n-6 (30.0%) and n-3 (16.6%) PUFA, respectively, whereas carcasses from gilts fed OB had greater percentages of n-3 FA (14.8% n-3, 0.9% EPA, 1.0% DPA, 3.1% DHA) than gilts fed FB (6.72% n-3, 0.1% EPA, 0.4% DPA, 0.1% DHA).
Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing evidence suggests that diets high in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA confer health benefits by improving insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism in liver, muscle and adipose tissue. Methods The present study investigates metabolic responses in two different lines of mice either selected for high body weight (DU6 leading to rapid obesity development, or selected for high treadmill performance (DUhTP leading to a lean phenotype. At 29 days of age the mice were fed standard chow (7.2% fat, 25.7% protein, or a high-fat diet rich in n-3 PUFA (n-3 HFD, 27.7% fat, 19% protein or a high-fat diet rich in n-6 PUFA (n-6 HFD, 27.7% fat, 18.6% protein for 8 weeks. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of these PUFA-rich high-fat diets on the fatty acid profile and on the protein expression of key components of insulin signalling pathways. Results Plasma concentrations of leptin and insulin were higher in DU6 in comparison with DUhTP mice. The high-fat diets stimulated a strong increase in leptin levels and body fat only in DU6 mice. Muscle and liver fatty acid composition were clearly changed by dietary lipid composition. In both lines of mice n-3 HFD feeding significantly reduced the hepatic insulin receptor β protein concentration which may explain decreased insulin action in liver. In contrast, protein kinase C ζ expression increased strongly in abdominal fat of n-3 HFD fed DUhTP mice, indicating enhanced insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue. Conclusions A diet high in n-3 PUFA may facilitate a shift from fuel deposition in liver to fuel storage as fat in adipose tissue in mice. Tissue specific changes in insulin sensitivity may describe, at least in part, the health improving properties of dietary n-3 PUFA. However, important genotype-diet interactions may explain why such diets have little effect in some population groups.
Yao, Wei; Li, Jie; Wang, Jun Jun; Zhou, Weiliang; Wang, Qingbo; Zhu, Rongchang; Wang, Fenglai; Thacker, Phil
This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary ratios of n-6:n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on the performance of lactating sows and their piglets. Thirty pregnant Landrace sows were assigned to one of three treatments from d 108 of gestation until weaning (26-29 d) and were fed diets containing different ratios of n-6:n-3 PUFA including 3:1, 9:1 and 13:1. The effects on sow and litter production traits were examined together with an assessment of sow body condition. No differences were detected among the treatments for the daily feed intake of sows or changes in sow weight and back-fat levels during lactation (P > 0.05). Litter size at d 14 and d 21 were tended to increase in 3:1 treatment compared with 9:1 and 13:1 treatments (P plasma (P plasma immunoglobulin concentrations are studied. No difference was observed among treatments in the concentrations of IgM, and IgA in colostrum (P > 0.05). A great significant difference for IgG concentration was observed among 3 group in colostrum. A great significant difference for IgA, and IgM (P plasma at d14 and a significant difference for IgG(P plasma IgG and IgA concentration were greater in 3:1 compared with 13:1 group (P < 0.01).In summary, the current study demonstrated that altering the ratio of n-6:n-3 PUFA in lactating sow diet had an effect on the immune component including immunoglobulin and cytokines, and it tended to increase the litter average daily gain and improve the immune status of piglets when dietary ratio of n-6:n-3 PUFA was 9:1.
Schlotz, Nina; Sørensen, Jesper Givskov; Martin-Creuzburg, Dominik
Nutritional ecology of the aquatic model genus Daphnia has received much attention in past years in particular with regard to dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) which are crucial for growth and reproduction. Besides their significant role as membrane components, C20 PUFAs serve as precursors for eicosanoids, hormone-like mediators of reproduction, immunity and ion transport physiology. In the present study we investigate transcriptomic changes in Daphnia magna in response to different algal food organisms substantially differing in their PUFA composition using quantitative real-time PCR and relate them to concomitantly documented life history data. The selection of target genes includes representatives that have previously been shown to be responsive to the eicosanoid biosynthesis inhibitor ibuprofen. The beneficial effect of C20 PUFA-rich food on reproduction and population growth rates was accompanied by an increased vitellogenin (DmagVtg1) gene expression in D. magna. Additionally, genes involved in eicosanoid signaling were particularly influenced by dietary C20 PUFA availability. For example, the cyclooxygenase gene (Cox), coding for a central enzyme in the eicosanoid pathway, was highly responsive to the food treatments. Our results suggest that dietary PUFAs are fundamental in D. magna physiology as substrate for eicosanoid synthesis and that these eicosanoids are important for D. magna reproduction.
Kellner, T A; Prusa, K J; Patience, J F
The inclusion of unsaturated fats in pig diets has raised issues related to pork carcass fat quality. The objective of this experiment was to understand how withdrawal from the diet of unsaturated dietary fat before slaughter impacts the composition of jowl fat during the growth cycle and at market. Fifty individually housed pigs (PIC 337 × C22/29; initial BW = 59.3 ± 0.55 kg) were allotted based on sex and initial BW to 10 treatments for an 82-d experiment as follows: 3 dietary fat withdrawal times before slaughter (21, 42, or 63 d) by 3 dietary fat unsaturation loads (DFUL), which includea high intake of unsaturated fatty acids supplied through an inclusion of 5% corn oil (HIGH), a high intake of a mixture of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids supplied through an inclusion of 5% animal-vegetable blend (MED), and a moderate intake of unsaturated fatty acids supplied through an inclusion of 2.5% corn oil (LOW). Pigs were weighed and jowl adipose samples were collected on d 0, 21, 42, and 63 and at harvest on d 82. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED with treatment and sex as fixed effects. At market (d 82), increasing the withdrawal of dietary fat further away from market increased 18:1 (P = 0.045) and tended to increase 14:0 concentrations (P = 0.054). It also significantly decreased 18:2 (P < 0.001) and tended to decrease 18:3 concentrations (P = 0.081). A HIGH DFUL resulted in the greatest 18:2 concentrations in jowl fat followed by LOW; MED resulted in the lowest 18:2 levels (P < 0.001). Dietary fat withdrawal before market significantly reduced carcass iodine value (IV) measured at d 82 (P = 0.006). In conclusion, elevated 18:2 intake makes lowering carcass IV in the depot fat very difficult and may take as long as 61 d. The withdrawal of unsaturated dietary fat apparently altered the fat depot to be more reflective of fat synthesized de novo, resulting in a more saturated depot fat. Importantly, this alteration of deposited fat composition did not
Micha, Renata; Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Shi, Peilin
OBJECTIVES: To quantify global consumption of key dietary fats and oils by country, age, and sex in 1990 and 2010. DESIGN: Data were identified, obtained, and assessed among adults in 16 age- and sex-specific groups from dietary surveys worldwide on saturated, omega 6, seafood omega 3, plant omega...... and regional levels of missing data, measurement incomparability, study representativeness, and sampling and modelling uncertainty. SETTING AND POPULATION: Global adult population, by age, sex, country, and time. RESULTS: In 2010, global saturated fat consumption was 9.4%E (95%UI=9.2 to 9.5); country...... at older ages. Intakes were similar by sex. Between 1990 and 2010, global saturated fat, dietary cholesterol, and trans fat intakes remained stable, while omega 6, seafood omega 3, and plant omega 3 fat intakes each increased. CONCLUSIONS: These novel global data on dietary fats and oils identify dramatic...
de Roos, Nicole M; Schouten, Evert G; Scheek, Leo M; van Tol, Arie; Katan, Martijn B
A high intake of saturated fat and of trans isomers of unsaturated fat is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Recently, we found that replacement of saturated fat by trans fat in a dietary controlled study with 32 men and women decreased serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and impaired endothelial function, suggesting that trans fats have stronger adverse effects than saturated fats. To investigate this further, we measured the activity of serum paraoxonase (PON1) in serum samples of the same volunteers after consumption of both diets. PON1 protects lipoproteins from oxidative damage, and higher PON1 activity appears to be related to lower cardiovascular disease risk. PON1 activity (mean +/- SD) was 195.9 +/- 108.9 U/L after 4 weeks of consuming a diet with 22.9% of energy (en%) from saturated fat and 184.5 +/- 99.3 U/L when 9.3 en% from saturated fat was replaced by trans fat (P =.006). Thus, replacement of dietary saturated fat by trans fat not only decreased serum HDL-cholesterol and impaired endothelial function, but also decreased the activity of serum paraoxonase. Whether the changes in serum paraoxonase activity caused the changes in endothelial function needs to be further investigated.
Marina, Anna; von Frankenberg, Anize Delfino; Suvag, Seda; Callahan, Holly S; Kratz, Mario; Richards, Todd L; Utzschneider, Kristina M
Dietary fat and oxidative stress are hypothesized to contribute to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and progression to steatohepatitis. To determine the effects of dietary fat content on hepatic triglyceride, body fat distribution and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, overweight/obese subjects with normal glucose tolerance consumed a control diet (CONT: 35% fat/12% saturated fat/47% carbohydrate) for ten days, followed by four weeks on a low fat (LFD (n = 10): 20% fat/8% saturated fat/62% carbohydrate) or high fat diet (HFD (n = 10): 55% fat/25% saturated fat/27% carbohydrate). Hepatic triglyceride content was quantified by MRS and abdominal fat distribution by MRI. Fasting biomarkers of inflammation (plasma hsCRP, IL-6, IL-12, TNFα, IFN-γ) and oxidative stress (urinary F2-α isoprostanes) were measured. Body weight remained stable. Compared to the CONT, hepatic triglyceride decreased on the LFD (mean (95% CI): change -2.13% (-3.74%, -0.52%)), but did not change on the HFD and there was no significant difference between the LFD and HFD. Intra-abdominal fat did not change significantly on either diet, but subcutaneous abdominal fat increased on the HFD. There were no significant changes in fasting metabolic markers, inflammatory markers and urinary F2-α isoprostanes. We conclude that in otherwise healthy overweight/obese adults under weight-neutral conditions, a diet low in fat and saturated fat has modest effects to decrease liver fat and may be beneficial. On the other hand, a diet very high in fat and saturated fat had no effect on hepatic triglyceride or markers of metabolism, inflammation and oxidative stress.
Vadiveloo, Maya; Scott, Marc; Quatromoni, Paula; Jacques, Paul; Parekh, Niyati
Few longitudinal studies carried out in US adults have evaluated long-term dietary fat intakes and compared them with the national recommendations during the two-decade period when the prevalence of obesity and insulin resistance increased substantively. In the present study, we examined trends in the intakes of dietary fats and rich dietary sources of fats in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort over a 17-year period. The cohort was established in 1971-75 with follow-up examinations being conducted approximately every 4 years. Dietary data were collected using a semi-quantitative FFQ beginning in 1991 (exam 5). We included 2732 adults aged ≥ 25 years with complete dietary data in at least three examinations from 1991 to 2008. Descriptive statistics were generated using SAS version 9.3, and a repeated-measures model was used to examine trends in macronutrient and food intakes using R. Over the 17 years of follow-up, the percentage of energy derived from total fat and protein increased (27·3-29·8% of energy and 16·8-18·0% of energy, respectively) and that derived from carbohydrate decreased (51·0-46·8% of energy; P-trend fat subtypes were observed, except for that derived from trans-fats, which decreased over time (P-trend fat and less reduction in the percentage of energy derived from trans-fats (P interaction fat intake were similar across the BMI categories. The number of weekly servings of cheese, eggs, ice cream desserts, nuts, butter and sausages/processed meats increased, whereas the intake of milk, margarine, poultry, confectioneries, chips and breads decreased (P-trend fats increased over time, but it remained within the national recommendations of less than 35 % of total energy, on average.
Several dietary compounds are associated with colorectal cancer risk. These include the amount of dietary fat, which is positively associated with colorectal cancer, and a variety of vegetables and fruit, which are suggested to possess anticarcinogenic potential. Because diet is complex and dietary
Dijk, van S.J.
The incidence of metabolic syndrome, which is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing rapidly. Changes in dietary fat composition from saturated fat (SFA) to monounsaturated fat (MUFA) from olive oil, which is highly consumed in a Mediterranea
Basch, Charles E.; And Others
Studies dietary patterns that distinguish children with higher and lower mean daily percentages of calories from saturated fat using data from mothers of 205 Latino children aged 4-7 years in New York City. Substituting low-fat for whole milk appears a key strategy for lowering saturated fat intake. (SLD)
Siri-Tarino, Patty W; Sun, Qi; Hu, Frank B; Krauss, Ronald M
A focus of dietary recommendations for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention and treatment has been a reduction in saturated fat intake, primarily as a means of lowering LDL-cholesterol concentrations. However, the evidence that supports a reduction in saturated fat intake must be evaluated in the context of replacement by other macronutrients. Clinical trials that replaced saturated fat with polyunsaturated fat have generally shown a reduction in CVD events, although several studies showed no effects. An independent association of saturated fat intake with CVD risk has not been consistently shown in prospective epidemiologic studies, although some have provided evidence of an increased risk in young individuals and in women. Replacement of saturated fat by polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fat lowers both LDL and HDL cholesterol. However, replacement with a higher carbohydrate intake, particularly refined carbohydrate, can exacerbate the atherogenic dyslipidemia associated with insulin resistance and obesity that includes increased triglycerides, small LDL particles, and reduced HDL cholesterol. In summary, although substitution of dietary polyunsaturated fat for saturated fat has been shown to lower CVD risk, there are few epidemiologic or clinical trial data to support a benefit of replacing saturated fat with carbohydrate. Furthermore, particularly given the differential effects of dietary saturated fats and carbohydrates on concentrations of larger and smaller LDL particles, respectively, dietary efforts to improve the increasing burden of CVD risk associated with atherogenic dyslipidemia should primarily emphasize the limitation of refined carbohydrate intakes and a reduction in excess adiposity.
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health claims: dietary saturated fat and... Specific Requirements for Health Claims § 101.75 Health claims: dietary saturated fat and cholesterol and risk of coronary heart disease. (a) Relationship between dietary saturated fat and cholesterol and...
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the influence of long-term fat supplementation on the fatty acid profile of heavy pig adipose tissue. Fifty-four Large White barrows, averaging 25 kg LW, were randomized (matched weights to one of three isoenergetic diets supplemented with either tallow (TA, maize oil (MO, or rapeseed oil (RO. The fats were supplement- ed at 3% as fed from 25 to 110 kg LW, and at 2.5 % from 110 kg to slaughtering. Following slaughter at about 160 kg LW, backfat samples were collected from ten animals per treatment and analyzed. Fatty acid composition of backfat close- ly reflected the fatty acid composition of the supplemented fats. The backfat of pigs fed TA had the highest saturated fatty acid content (SFA (P<0.01; those fed MO had the highest content in polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA and the lowest in monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA content; those fed RO had the highest content of linolenic acid (C18:3 and cis 11- ecosenoic acid (C20:1. Only MO treatment had an effect on linoleic acid levels and the iodine value (IV of backfat, result- ing in levels higher than those (IV = 70; C18:2 = 15% accepted by the Parma Consortium for dry-cured ham. The IV and unsaturation index in both layers of subcutaneous backfat tissue differed significantly between treatments. These results show that long-term dietary supplementation with different fats changes the fatty acid profile of heavy pig adipose tissue. Supplementation with rapeseed oil increases the proportion of “healthy” fatty acids in pig fat, thereby improving the nutritional quality, however the effects on the technological quality of the fat must be carefully assessed.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary assessment tools are often too long, difficult to quantify, expensive to process, and largely used for research purposes. A rapid and accurate assessment of dietary fat intake is critically important in clinical decision-making regarding dietary advice for coronary risk reduction. We assessed the validity of the MEDFICTS (MF questionnaire, a brief instrument developed to assess fat intake according to the American Heart Association (AHA dietary "steps". Methods We surveyed 164 active-duty US Army personnel without known coronary artery disease at their intake interview for a primary prevention cardiac intervention trial using the Block food frequency (FFQ and MF questionnaires. Both surveys were completed on the same intake visit and independently scored. Correlations between each tools' assessment of fat intake, the agreement in AHA step categorization of dietary quality with each tool, and the test characteristics of the MF using the FFQ as the gold standard were assessed. Results Subjects consumed a mean of 36.0 ± 13.0% of their total calories as fat, which included saturated fat consumption of 13.0 ± 0.4%. The majority of subjects (125/164; 76.2% had a high fat (worse than AHA Step 1 diet. There were significant correlations between the MF and the FFQ for the intake of total fat (r = 0.52, P 70 [high fat diet] was negligible (kappa statistic = 0.036. The MF was accurate at the extremes of fat intake, but could not reliably identify the 3 AHA dietary classifications. Alternative MF cutpoints of 50 (high fat diet were highly sensitive (96%, but had low specificity (46% for a high fat diet. ROC curve analysis identified that a MF score cutoff of 38 provided optimal sensitivity 75% and specificity 72%, and had modest agreement (kappa = 0.39, P Conclusions The MEDFICTS questionnaire is most suitable as a tool to identify high fat diets, rather than discriminate AHA Step 1 and Step 2 diets. Currently recommended
Sculley, D V
Periodontal disease, including gingivitis and periodontitis, is caused by the interaction between pathogenic bacteria and the host immune system. The ensuing oxidative stress and inflammatory cascade result in the destruction of gingival tissue, alveolar bone and periodontal ligament. This article reviews the underlying mechanisms and host-bacteria interactions responsible for periodontal disease and evidence that nutritional supplementation with fish oil may provide a protective effect. Historical investigations of diet and disease have highlighted an inverse relationship between ingestion of fish oil, which is high in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and the incidence of typical inflammatory diseases such as arthritis and coronary heart disease. Ingestion of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, results in their incorporation into membrane phospholipids, which can alter eicosanoid production after stimulation during the immune response. These eicosanoids promote a reduction in chronic inflammation, which has led to the proposal that fish oil is a possible modulator of inflammation and may reduce the severity of periodontal diseases. Tentative animal and human studies have provided an indication of this effect. Further human investigation is needed to establish the protective effects of fish oil in relation to periodontal disease.
Yu, Y H; Wang, P H; Cheng, W T K; Mersmann, H J; Wu, S C; Ding, S T
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta promotes fatty acid catabolism and energy expenditure in skeletal muscle and adipose tissues. A ligand for PPARdelta is required to activate PPARdelta function. Polyunsaturated fatty acids are potential ligands for PPARdelta activation. The current experiment was designed to determine the potential for PUFA, particularly from dietary fish oil, to activate porcine PPARdelta in vivo. Transgenic mice were generated to overexpress porcine PPARdelta in the adipose tissue. Mice were fed a high-saturated fat (13% beef tallow), or high-unsaturated fat (13% fish oil) diet, or a diet containing 4 mg/kg of a PPARdelta ligand (L165041) for 4 mo. Compared with beef tallow feeding, fish oil feeding reduced fat mass and decreased (P lipase and adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein) was decreased in transgenic mice fed fish oil or the PPARdelta ligand. In the same mice, expression of the lipolytic gene, hormone-sensitive lipase was increased (P Fish oil feeding also stimulated expression of genes participating in fatty acid oxidation in the liver of transgenic mice compared with wild-type mice. Overall, these results indicate that PUFA may serve as natural and effective regulators of lipid catabolism in vivo and many of these effects may be generated from activation of PPARdelta.
Sanders, K; Johnson, L; O'Dea, K; Sinclair, A J
This study examined the effect on the plasma lipids and plasma phospholipid and cholesteryl ester fatty acids of changing froma typical western diet to a very low fat (VLF) vegetarian diet containing one egg/day. The effect of the addition of saturated, monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) to the VLF diet was also examined. Three groups of 10 subjects (6 women, 4 men) were fed the VLF diet (10% energy as fat) for two weeks, and then in the next two weeks the dietary fat in each group was increased by 10% energy/week using butter, olive oil or safflower oil. The fat replaced dietary carbohydrate. The VLF diet reduced both the low density lipoprotein (LDL)- and high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels; addition of the monounsaturated fats and PUFA increased the HDL-cholesterol levels, whereas butter increased the cholesterol levels in both the LDL- and HDL-fractions. The VLF diet led to significant reductions in the proportion of linoleic acid (18:2 omega 6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 omega 3) and to increases in palmitoleic (16:1), eicosatrienoic (20:3 omega 6) and arachidonic acids (20:4 omega 6) in both phospholipids and cholesteryl esters. Addition of butter reversed the changes seen on the VLF diet, with the exception of 16:1, which remained elevated. Addition of olive oil resulted in a significant rise in the proportion of 18:1 and significant decreases in all omega 3 PUFA except 22:6 compared with the usual diet. The addition of safflower oil resulted in significant increases in 18:2 and 20:4 omega 6 and significant decreases in 18:1, 20:5 omega 3 and 22:5 omega 3. These results indicate that the reduction of saturated fat content of the diet (unsaturated fat, reduced the total plasma cholesterol levels by approximately 12% in normocholesterolemic subjects. Although the VLF vegetarian diet reduced both LDL- and HDL-cholesterol levels, the long-term effects of VLF diets are unlikely to be deleterious since populations which habitually
Bryhni, E A; Kjos, N P; Ofstad, R; Hunt, M
Forty-eight crossbred growing-finishing pigs were used to study the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA 31%= low and 50%= high) and fish oil (0, 0.2, and 0.4% capelin) diets on fatty acid composition, chemical traits, and sensory properties of the longissimus muscle, fat, and sausages. High levels of PUFA, independent of the level of fish oil, increased oxidation and rancidity for whole muscle (stored at 1 and 8 months at -23 °C) and sausages (TBARS 0.6-1.3). Fish oil at 0.4% in the diet increased TBA values of loin, but did not affect sensory evaluation scores. An interaction between PUFA and fish oil occurred for TBARS values and rancid odour in sausage, where the 0.4% fish oil and high PUFA level showed highest oxidation (TBARS 1.9). Although fish oil and high PUFA levels might contribute to a more healthy meat, their undesirable affects on palatability would limit their use.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary fat exerts numerous complex effects on proinflammatory and immunologic pathways. Several epidemiological studies have examined the relationships between intake of fatty acids and/or foods high in fat and allergic rhinitis, but have provided conflicting findings. The current cross-sectional study investigated such relationships in Japan. Methods Study subjects were 1745 pregnant women. The definition of rhinoconjunctivitis was based on criteria from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. Information on dietary factors was collected using a validated self-administered diet history questionnaire. Adjustment was made for age; gestation; region of residence; number of older siblings; number of children; smoking; secondhand smoke exposure at home and at work; family history of asthma, atopic eczema, and allergic rhinitis; household income; education; and body mass index. Results The prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis in the past 12 months was 25.9%. Higher meat intake was significantly associated with an increased prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis: the adjusted odds ratio between extreme quartiles was 1.71 (95% confidence interval: 1.25-2.35, P for trend = 0.002. No measurable association was found between fish intake and rhinoconjunctivitis. Intake of total fat, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, and cholesterol and the ratio of n-3 to n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake were not evidently related to the prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis. Conclusions The current results suggest that meat intake may be positively associated with the prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis in young adult Japanese women.
Cao, Yi; Hou, Lin; Wang, Weijing
Results from prospective cohort studies on the association between dietary total fat and fatty acids intake and risk of breast cancer remain controversial. Pertinent prospective cohort studies were identified by a search of Embase and PubMed from inception to September 2015. Study-specific relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals were pooled using a random-effect model. Between-study heterogeneity and publication bias were assessed, and sensitivity analysis was conducted. Twenty-four independent studies on dietary total fat and fatty acids intake and seven studies on serum fatty acids were included. The pooled RR of breast cancer for the highest vs. lowest category of dietary total fat intake was 1.10 (1.02-1.19); however, no association was observed in studies adjusting for traditional risk factors of breast cancer. No association was observed between animal fat, vegetable fat, saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), n-3 PUFA, n-6 PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and arachidonic acid and risk of breast cancer. The pooled RRs of breast cancer for the highest vs. lowest category of serum SFA, MUFA, PUFA, n-3 PUFA and n-6 PUFA were 1.00 (0.78-1.28), 1.41 (0.99-2.03), 0.59 (0.27-1.30), 0.81 (0.60-1.10) and 0.84 (0.60-1.18), respectively. Results from this meta-analysis suggested that dietary total fat and fatty acids might be not associated with risk of breast cancer.
Dietary saturated fat and docosahexaenoic acid differentially effect cardiac mitochondrial phospholipid fatty acyl composition and Ca(2+) uptake, without altering permeability transition or left ventricular function.
O'Connell, Kelly A; Dabkowski, Erinne R; de Fatima Galvao, Tatiana; Xu, Wenhong; Daneault, Caroline; de Rosiers, Christine; Stanley, William C
High saturated fat diets improve cardiac function and survival in rodent models of heart failure, which may be mediated by changes in mitochondrial function. Dietary supplementation with the n3-polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n3) is also beneficial in heart failure and can affect mitochondrial function. Saturated fatty acids and DHA likely have opposing effects on mitochondrial phospholipid fatty acyl side chain composition and mitochondrial membrane function, though a direct comparison has not been previously reported. We fed healthy adult rats a standard low-fat diet (11% of energy intake from fat), a low-fat diet supplemented with DHA (2.3% of energy intake) or a high-fat diet comprised of long chain saturated fatty acids (45% fat) for 6 weeks. There were no differences among the three diets in cardiac mass or function, mitochondrial respiration, or Ca(2+)-induced mitochondrial permeability transition. On the other hand, there were dramatic differences in mitochondrial phospholipid fatty acyl side chains. Dietary supplementation with DHA increased DHA from 7% to ∼25% of total phospholipid fatty acids in mitochondrial membranes, and caused a proportional depletion of arachidonic acid (20:4n6). The saturated fat diet increased saturated fat and DHA in mitochondria and decreased linoleate (18:2n6), which corresponded to a decrease in Ca(2+) uptake by isolated mitochondria compared to the other diet groups. In conclusion, despite dramatic changes in mitochondrial phospholipid fatty acyl side chain composition by both the DHA and high saturated fat diets, there were no effects on mitochondrial respiration, permeability transition, or cardiac function.
Kiage-Mokua Beatrice N
Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing land restrictions and a reduced livestock-to-human ratio during the 20th century led the Maasai to lead a more sedentary, market-orientated lifestyle. Although plant-derived food nowadays contributes substantially to their diet, dairy products being high in saturated fatty acids (SFA and low in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA still are an important energy source. Since reliable data regarding the Maasai diet date back to the 1980s, the study objective was to document current diet practices in a Kenyan Maasai community and to investigate the fatty acid distribution in diet and red blood cells. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 26 Maasai (20 women, 6 men from Loodokilani, Kajiado District, Kenya. Food intake was described by the subjects via 24-h recall, and both food and blood samples were analysed. Results Two main foods - milk and ugali - constituted the Maasai diet in this region. A total of 0.9 L of milk and 0.6 kg of ugali were consumed per person and day to yield an energy intake of 7.6 MJ/d per person. A major proportion of ingested food contributing 58.3% to the total dietary energy (en% was plant-derived, followed by dairy products representing 41.1 en%. Fat consumed (30.5 en% was high in SFA (63.8% and low in PUFA (9.2%. Long-chain n-3 PUFA (EPA, DPA and DHA made up only 0.15% of the ingested fatty acids, but 5.9% of red blood cell fatty acids. Conclusion The study indicates the Maasai diet is rich in SFA and low in PUFA. Nevertheless, red blood cells are composed of comparable proportions of long-chain n-3 PUFA to populations consuming higher amounts of this fatty acid group.
Lin, Yi-Ling; Chang, Yuan-Yen; Yang, Deng-Jye; Tzang, Bor-Show; Chen, Yi-Chen
Polyphenols in noni juice (NJ) are mainly composed of phenolic acids, mainly gentisic, p-hydroxybenoic, and chlorogenic acids. To investigate the beneficial effects of NJ on the liver, hamsters were fed with two diets, normal-fat and high-fat diets. Furthermore, high-fat dietary hamsters were received distilled water, and 3, 6, and 9 mL NJ/kg BW, respectively. After a 6-week feeding period, the increased (p<0.05) sizes of liver and visceral fat in high-fat dietary hamsters compared to the control hamsters were ameliorated (p<0.05) by NJ supplementation. NJ also decreased (p<0.05) serum/liver lipids but enhanced (p<0.05) daily faecal lipid/bile acid outputs in the high-fat dietary hamsters. High-fat dietary hamsters supplemented with NJ had higher (p<0.05) liver antioxidant capacities but lowered (p<0.05) liver iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-1β expressions, gelatinolytic levels of MMP9, and serum ALT values compared to those without NJ. Hence, NJ protects liver against a high-fat dietary habit via regulations of antioxidative and anti-inflammatory responses.
Baéza, E; Gondret, F; Chartrin, P; Le Bihan-Duval, E; Berri, C; Gabriel, I; Narcy, A; Lessire, M; Métayer-Coustard, S; Collin, A; Jégou, M; Lagarrigue, S; Duclos, M J
The increasing use of unconventional feedstuffs in chicken's diets results in the substitution of starch by lipids as the main dietary energy source. To evaluate the responses of genetically fat or lean chickens to these diets, males of two experimental lines divergently selected for abdominal fat content were fed isocaloric, isonitrogenous diets with either high lipid (80 g/kg), high fiber (64 g/kg) contents (HL), or low lipid (20 g/kg), low fiber (21 g/kg) contents (LL) from 22 to 63 days of age. The diet had no effect on growth performance and did not affect body composition evaluated at 63 days of age. Glycolytic and oxidative energy metabolisms in the liver and glycogen storage in liver and Sartorius muscle at 63 days of age were greater in chicken fed LL diet compared with chicken fed HL diet. In Pectoralis major (PM) muscle, energy metabolisms and glycogen content were not different between diets. There were no dietary-associated differences in lipid contents of the liver, muscles and abdominal fat. However, the percentages of saturated (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in tissue lipids were generally higher, whereas percentages of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were lower for diet LL than for diet HL. The fat line had a greater feed intake and average daily gain, but gain to feed ratio was lower in that line compared with the lean line. Fat chickens were heavier than lean chickens at 63 days of age. Their carcass fatness was higher and their muscle yield was lower than those of lean chickens. The oxidative enzyme activities in the liver were lower in the fat line than in the lean line, but line did not affect energy metabolism in muscles. The hepatic glycogen content was not different between lines, whereas glycogen content and glycolytic potential were higher in the PM muscle of fat chickens compared with lean chickens. Lipid contents in the liver, muscles and abdominal fat did not differ between lines, but fat chickens stored less MUFA and
Full Text Available Background and aims: We investigated the association of dietary intake, particularly fat and its constituent fatty acids, with atherogenic indices in adult patients with overweight, obesity and/or type 2 diabetes (T2D. Material and Methods: Two hundred eighty-five outpatients were selected in two cities located in the Northwestern region of Algeria. Anthropometric measurements for body weight, height, body mass index (BMI and waist circumference were performed. Relationships between dietary intakes, estimated by a 3- days food record, and fasting blood atherogenic indices - total cholesterol-to-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (TC/HDL-c and apolipoprotein (apo B-to-apo A1 ratio, were analysed. Results: Study group included 58.59% overweight/obese T2D patients, 24.91% normal weight T2D patients and 16.49 % overweight/obese patients without diabetes. Higher dietary consumption (p= 0.003 of total fat, saturated fatty acids (SFAs and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, was recorded in the group of overweight/obese T2D patients. Significant positive correlations were observed between apo B/apo A1 and total fat (p= 0.035, total SFAs (p= 0.042 and palmitic acid (p= 0.042 in the group of overweight/obese T2D patients and with ω6 fatty acid (p= 0.030 in the group of overweight/obese patients without diabetes. In the two groups of T2D patients, whether normal weight, overweight/obese, numerous positive correlations with TC/HDL-c were disclosed for PUFAs, ω6 and fatty acids ratios, namely, ω6/ω3, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA/SFAs and (MUFAs+PUFAs/SFAs. Conclusion: Most adults, whom are either affected by an excess weight or T2D or both together, are prone to cardiovascular risk. Dietary intakes, particularly in fat and its constituent fatty acids, have an important effect on blood lipid atherogenic indices (TC/HDL-c and apo B/apo A1 ratios.
Dewell, Antonella; Weidner, Gerdi; Sumner, Michael D; Chi, Christine S; Ornish, Dean
There is increasing evidence that dietary factors in plant-based diets are important in the prevention of chronic disease. This study examined protective (eg, antioxidant vitamins, carotenoids, and fiber) and pathogenic (eg, saturated fatty acids and cholesterol) dietary factors in a very-low-fat vegan diet. Ninety-three early-stage prostate cancer patients participated in a randomized controlled trial and were assigned to a very-low-fat (10% fat) vegan diet supplemented with soy protein and lifestyle changes or to usual care. Three-day food records were collected at baseline (n=42 intervention, n=43 control) and after 1 year (n=37 in each group). Analyses of changes in dietary intake of macronutrients, vitamins, minerals, carotenoids, and isoflavones from baseline to 1 year showed significantly increased intake of most protective dietary factors (eg, fiber increased from a mean of 31 to 59 g/day, lycopene increased from 8,693 to 34,464 mug/day) and significantly decreased intake of most pathogenic dietary factors (eg, saturated fatty acids decreased from 20 to 5 g/day, cholesterol decreased from 200 to 10 mg/day) in the intervention group compared to controls. These results suggest that a very-low-fat vegan diet can be useful in increasing intake of protective nutrients and phytochemicals and minimizing intake of dietary factors implicated in several chronic diseases.
Hallebeek, Johanna Maria
The study of this thesis concerns the dietary influence on lipid metabolism in horses. The main issue is the effect of dietary medium chain triacylglycerols (MCT) on triacylglycerol metabolism. In certain conditions high-fat diets can be beneficial for horses. Diets rich in long-chain polyunsaturate
Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Overvad, Kim; Dyerberg, Jørn
In a 16-year follow-up study (ending in 1998) of 3,686 Danish men and women aged 30–71 years at recruitment, the association between energy intake from dietary fat and the risk of coronary heart disease was evaluated while assessing the possible modifying role of gender and age. In the models used...... not significantly. In conclusion, the present study suggests that coronary heart disease risk relates to both the quantity and the quality of dietary fats....
Full Text Available n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs might be useful nutritional strategy for treating patients with sarcopenia. We evaluated the effect of the intake of dietary n-3 PUFAs on the skeletal muscle mass (SMM, appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM, and its determinants in patients receiving standard hemodialysis (HD treatment for the management of end stage renal disease.In this cross-sectional study, data of 111 HD patients were analyzed. Anthropometric and bioelectrical impedance measurements used to estimate the muscle mass were performed the day of dialysis immediately after the dialysis session. Routine laboratory and 3-day dietary data were also collected. The cutoff value of adequate intake (AI for both n-3 PUFAs and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA was 1.6 g/day and 1.1 g/day for men and women, respectively.The mean age, mean dietary n-3 PUFAs intake, ALA intake, ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs intake, SMM, and ASM of patients were 61.4 ± 10.4 years, 2.0 ± 1.3 g/day, 1.5 ± 1.0 g/day, 9.5 ± 6.7 g/day, 23.9 ± 5.5 kg, and 17.5 ± 4.5 kg, respectively. A higher SMM and ASM significantly observed in patients who achieved an AI of n-3 PUFAs. Similar trends appeared to be observed among those patients who achieved the AI of ALA, but the difference was not significantly, except for ASM (P = 0.047. No relevant differences in demographics, laboratory and nutritional parameters were observed, regardless of whether the patients achieved an AI of n-3 PUFAs. Multivariate analysis showed that the BMI and equilibrated Kt/V were independent determinants of the muscle mass. Moreover, the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs was an independent risk determinant of reduced ASM in HD patients.Patients with an AI of n-3 PUFAs had better total-body SMM and ASM. A higher dietary ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs seemed to be associated with a reduced muscle mass in HD patients.
Full Text Available In lean humans, increasing dietary fat intake causes an increase in whole-body fat oxidation and changes in genes that regulate fat oxidation in skeletal muscle, but whether this occurs in obese humans is not known. We compared changes in whole-body fat oxidation and markers of muscle oxidative capacity differ in lean (LN and obese (OB adults exposed to a 2-day high-fat (HF diet. Ten LN (BMI = 22.5±2.5 kg/m², age = 30±8 yrs and nine OB (BMI = 35.9±4.93 kg/m², 38±5 yrs, Mean±SD were studied in a room calorimeter for 24hr while consuming isocaloric low-fat (LF, 20% of energy and HF (50% of energy diets. A muscle biopsy was obtained the next morning following an overnight fast. 24h respiratory quotient (RQ did not significantly differ between groups (LN: 0.91±0.01; OB: 0.92±0.01 during LF, and similarly decreased during HF in LN (0.86±0.01 and OB (0.85±0.01. The expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4 and the fatty acid transporter CD36 increased in both LN and OB during HF. No other changes in mRNA or protein were observed. However, in both LN and OB, the amounts of acetylated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1-α (PGC1-α significantly decreased and phosphorylated 5-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK significantly increased. In response to an isoenergetic increase in dietary fat, whole-body fat oxidation similarly increases in LN and OB, in association with a shift towards oxidative metabolism in skeletal muscle, suggesting that the ability to adapt to an acute increase in dietary fat is not impaired in obesity.
Sharma, Sonica; Chhibber, Sanjay; Mohan, Harsh; Sharma, Saroj
The immune benefits associated with the optimal intake of dietary fatty acids are widely known. The objective of the present investigation was to elucidate the role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) food source on acute pneumonia induced by Klebsiella pneumoniae. Three different n-3 PUFA preparations (cod liver oil, Maxigard, and flaxseed oil) were orally supplemented and infection was induced in different groups of experimental mice. Mice fed olive oil and normal saline served as oil and saline controls, respectively. After 2 weeks of fatty acid feeding, no effect on the establishment of infection was observed when acute pneumonia was induced in animals. On the other hand, 6 weeks of n-3 PUFA administration was found to improve resistance in mice, as reduced lung bacterial load coupled with significant improvement in pathology was seen in infected mice. Alveolar macrophages collected from all 3 groups of mice fed n-3 PUFA exhibited a significant decrease in the level of apoptosis following infection with K. pneumoniae and an enhanced in vitro phagocytic potential for the pathogen. Lower lung levels of nitric oxide, malondialdehyde, and lactate dehydrogenase were associated with a decrease in the severity of tissue damage. There was a significant increase in the lung levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β)). No significant change was observed in the levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10). This study highlights that dietary n-3 PUFA supplementation exerts an overall beneficial effect against acute experimental pneumonia. This mechanism is operative through upregulation of nonspecific and specific immune defenses of the host.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Reduced saturated fat (SFA consumption is recommended to reduce coronary heart disease (CHD, but there is an absence of strong supporting evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs of clinical CHD events and few guidelines focus on any specific replacement nutrient. Additionally, some public health groups recommend lowering or limiting polyunsaturated fat (PUFA consumption, a major potential replacement for SFA. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We systematically investigated and quantified the effects of increased PUFA consumption, as a replacement for SFA, on CHD endpoints in RCTs. RCTs were identified by systematic searches of multiple online databases through June 2009, grey literature sources, hand-searching related articles and citations, and direct contacts with experts to identify potentially unpublished trials. Studies were included if they randomized participants to increased PUFA for at least 1 year without major concomitant interventions, had an appropriate control group, and reported incidence of CHD (myocardial infarction and/or cardiac death. Inclusions/exclusions were adjudicated and data were extracted independently and in duplicate by two investigators and included population characteristics, control and intervention diets, follow-up duration, types of events, risk ratios, and SEs. Pooled effects were calculated using inverse-variance-weighted random effects meta-analysis. From 346 identified abstracts, eight trials met inclusion criteria, totaling 13,614 participants with 1,042 CHD events. Average weighted PUFA consumption was 14.9% energy (range 8.0%-20.7% in intervention groups versus 5.0% energy (range 4.0%-6.4% in controls. The overall pooled risk reduction was 19% (RR = 0.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.70-0.95, p = 0.008, corresponding to 10% reduced CHD risk (RR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.83-0.97 for each 5% energy of increased PUFA, without evidence for statistical heterogeneity (Q-statistic p = 0.13; I(2 = 37%. Meta
Ziegler, Anna B; Ménagé, Cindy; Grégoire, Stéphane; Garcia, Thibault; Ferveur, Jean-François; Bretillon, Lionel; Grosjean, Yael
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are essential nutrients for animals and necessary for the normal functioning of the nervous system. A lack of PUFAs can result from the consumption of a deficient diet or genetic factors, which impact PUFA uptake and metabolism. Both can cause synaptic dysfunction, which is associated with numerous disorders. However, there is a knowledge gap linking these neuronal dysfunctions and their underlying molecular mechanisms. Because of its genetic manipulability and its easy, fast, and cheap breeding, Drosophila melanogaster has emerged as an excellent model organism for genetic screens, helping to identify the genetic bases of such events. As a first step towards the understanding of PUFA implications in Drosophila synaptic physiology we designed a breeding medium containing only very low amounts of PUFAs. We then used the fly's visual system, a well-established model for studying signal transmission and neurological disorders, to measure the effects of a PUFA deficiency on synaptic function. Using both visual performance and eye electrophysiology, we found that PUFA deficiency strongly affected synaptic transmission in the fly's visual system. These defects were rescued by diets containing omega-3 or omega-6 PUFAs alone or in combination. In summary, manipulating PUFA contents in the fly's diet was powerful to investigate the role of these nutrients on the fly´s visual synaptic function. This study aims at showing how the first visual synapse of Drosophila can serve as a simple model to study the effects of PUFAs on synapse function. A similar approach could be further used to screen for genetic factors underlying the molecular mechanisms of synaptic dysfunctions associated with altered PUFA levels.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary polyunsaturated fats increase liver injury in response to ethanol feeding. We evaluated the effect of dietary corn oil (CO, olive oil (OO, and beef tallow (BT on fatty acid composition of liver microsomal membrane and acute acetaminophen hepatotoxicity. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed 15% (wt/wt CO, OO or BT for 6 weeks. After treatment with acetaminophen (600 mg/kg, samples of plasma and liver were taken for analyses of the fatty acid composition and toxicity. Results Treatment with acetaminophen significantly elevated levels of plasma GOT and GPT as well as hepatic TBARS but reduced hepatic GSH levels in CO compared to OO and BT groups. Acetaminophen significantly induced protein expression of cytochrome P450 2E1 in the CO group. In comparison with the CO diet, lower levels of linoleic acid, higher levels of oleic acids and therefore much lower ratios of linoleic to oleic acid were detected in rats fed OO and BT diets. Conclusions Dietary OO and BT produces similar liver microsomal fatty acid composition and may account for less severe liver injury after acetaminophen treatment compared to animals fed diets with CO rich in linoleic acid. These findings imply that types of dietary fat may be important in the nutritional management of drug-induced hepatotoxicity.
Neale, Anne Victoria; And Others
A methodology is presented for estimating daily intake of dietary fat and fiber based on limited food frequency data. The procedure, which relies on National Food Consumption Survey data and daily consumption rates, can provide baseline estimates of dietary patterns for health promotion policymakers. (SLD)
The present study assessed the effects of dietary fat on spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice. Three-week old male C57BL/6 mice were fed the AIN-93G standard diet or a 45% fat diet (kcal %) for seven weeks before they were subcutaneously injected with 2.5 x 105 viable cells into th...
SMIT, MJ; WOLTERS, H; TEMMERMAN, AM; KUIPERS, F; BEYNEN, AC; VONK, RJ
We have studied the effects of dietary corn and olive oil versus coconut fat on bile formation and fluidity of hepatic plasma membranes in rats. After 4 weeks of feeding the purified diets containing 9% (w/w) of the test fats, there was no difference in plasma cholesterol concentration between the d
Smink, W.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Hovenier, R.; Geelen, M.J.H.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Beynen, A.C.
The hypothesis tested was that dietary vegetable fats rich in saturated fatty acids, when compared with a vegetable oil rich in linoleic acid, increase fat deposition in broiler chickens and affect synthesis or oxidation, or both, of individual fatty acids. Diets with native sunflower oil (SO), a 50
Aro, A.; Amelsvoort, J. van; Becker, W.; Erp-Baart, M.A. van; Kafatos, A.; Leth, T.; Poppel, G. van
The fatty acid composition of dietary fats and oils from 14 European countries was analyzed with particular emphasis on isomerictransfatty acids. The proportion oftransfatty acids in typical soft margarines and low-fat spreads ranged between 0.1 and 17% of total fatty acids and that ofcis-unsaturate
An increased intake of PUFA in the form of soybean oil at the expense of SFA in the form of tallow reduced abdominal deposition by broiler chickens in a does-dependent fashion, the relationship being essentially independent of the fat level of the diet. Dietary fats rich in MCT would diminish abdomi
The impact of the social environment on food and fat intake was investigated in several samples including family members, close friends, and meal time companions in the Netherlands. Firstly, a food frequency questionnaire to assess the intake of fat, fatty acids and cholesterol was developed. Biomarker-based validity (n = 99), relative validity against a dietary history (n = 191), and reproducibility (n = 93) were satisfactory for adults.Up to 40% of the variance in fat intake, expressed as %...
Go, Ryeo-Eun; Hwang, Kyung-A; Park, Geon-Tae; Lee, Hae-Miru; Lee, Geum-A.; Kim, Cho-Won; Jeon, So-Ye; Seo, Jeong-Woo; Hong, Won-Kyung; Choi, Kyung-Chul
Abstract Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which are abundant in marine fish oils, have recently received global attention for their prominent anti-obesogenic effects. Among PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3), which are n-3 long-chain PUFAs widely referred to as omega-3 oils, were reported to prevent the development of obesity in rodents and humans. In the present study, we evaluated the anti-obesity effects of microalgal oil on high...
Fan, Yixuan; Ren, Caifang; Wang, Zhibo; Jia, Ruoxin; Wang, Dan; Zhang, Yanli; Zhang, Guomin; Wan, Yongjie; Huang, Mingrui; Wang, Feng
The n-3 fatty acid desaturase gene fat1 codes for the n-3 desaturase enzyme, which can convert n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to n-3 PUFAs. The n-3 PUFAs are essential components required for normal cellular function and have preventive and therapeutic effects on many diseases. Goat is an important domestic animal for human consumption of meat and milk. To elevate the concentrations of n-3 PUFAs and examine the regulatory mechanism of fat1 in PUFA metabolism in goat cells, we successfully constructed a humanized fat1 expression vector and confirmed the efficient expression of fat1 in goat ear skin-derived fibroblast cells (GEFCs) by qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Fatty acid analysis showed that fat1 overexpression significantly increased the levels of total n-3 PUFAs and decreased the levels of total n-6 PUFAs in GEFCs. In addition, qRT-PCR results indicate that the FADS1 and FADS2 desaturase genes, ELOV2 and ELOV5 elongase genes, ACO and CPT1 oxidation genes, and PPARa and PPARγ transcription factors are up-regulated, and transcription factors of SREBP-1c gene are down-regulated in the fat1 transgenic goat cells. Overall, fat1-overexpression resulted in an increase in the n-3 fatty acids and altered expression of PUFA synthesis related genes in GEFCs. This work lays a foundation for both the production of fat1 transgenic goats and further study of the mechanism of fat1 function in the PUFAs metabolism.
Lau, Beatrice Y; Fajardo, Val Andrew; McMeekin, Lauren; Sacco, Sandra M; Ward, Wendy E; Roy, Brian D; Peters, Sandra J; Leblanc, Paul J
Previous studies have suggested that high-fat diets adversely affect bone development. However, these studies included other dietary manipulations, including low calcium, folic acid, and fibre, and (or) high sucrose or cholesterol, and did not directly compare several common sources of dietary fat. Thus, the overall objective of this study was to investigate the effect of high-fat diets that differ in fat quality, representing diets high in saturated fatty acids (SFA), n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), or n-6 PUFA, on femur bone mineral density (BMD), strength, and fatty acid composition. Forty-day-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained for 65 days on high-fat diets (20% by weight), containing coconut oil (SFA; n = 10), flaxseed oil (n-3 PUFA; n = 10), or safflower oil (n-6 PUFA; n = 11). Chow-fed rats (n = 10), at 105 days of age, were included to represent animals on a control diet. Rats fed high-fat diets had higher body weights than the chow-fed rats (p 0.05) or biomechanical strength properties (p > 0.05). Femurs of groups fed either the high n-3 or high n-6 PUFA diets were stronger (as measured by peak load) than those of the chow-fed group, after adjustment for significant differences in body weight (p = 0.001). As expected, the femur fatty acid profile reflected the fatty acid composition of the diet consumed. These results suggest that high-fat diets, containing high levels of PUFA in the form of flaxseed or safflower oil, have a positive effect on bone strength when fed to male rats 6 to 15 weeks of age.
Quiles, José L.
Full Text Available Ageing represents a great concern in developed countries because the high number of people included in this group (indeed, a further increase in the rate of old people it is expected in the near future. Another important aspect concerning ageing is the number of pathologies related with this phenomenon like Alzheimer, Parkinson, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. According to the free radical theory of ageing and its further mitochondrial extension, ageing is the result of the oxidative insult to the organism throughout the life. Some of the damages are not entirely repaired and are accumulated, leading to organism malfunction. Such oxidative-stress related events are particularly important in mitochondria and specially at the mitochondrial DNA level (less protected and more prone to oxidation than nuclear DNA and with a not well established repairing system. Such mitochondrial damage directly affects to the cell energy delivery system, being that, at least in part, the explanation for the structural and functional impairments related to age. Oxidative stress is related with the fatty acid composition of membranes. The intake of a type of fat affects in a direct way the fatty acids and antioxidants composition of subcellular membranes (including mitochondrial membranes and in an indirect way the susceptibility of the membrane to oxidation. Thus, if we build specific biological membranes according to particular types of fats, we would be able to positively affect the way and intensity in which different organs would age. This work hypothesis represents a new point of view in the investigation of ageing and might have important consequences. According to the above-mentioned premises, this work reviews the convenience to use virgin olive oil as dietary fat from the point of view of mitochondrial ageing.El envejecimiento preocupa enormemente en los países desarrollados por el alto número de personas incluidas en este grupo de poblaci
Full Text Available Current dietary guidelines for fat intake have not taken into consideration the possible genetic differences underlying the individual variability in responsiveness to dietary components. Genetic variability has been identified in humans for all the known lipid metabolim-related genes resulting in a plethora of candidate genes and genetic variants to examine in diet-gene interaction studies focused on fat consumption. Some examples of fat-gene interaction are reviewed. These include: the interaction between total intake and the 514C/T in the hepatic lipase gene promoter in determining high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C metabolism; the interaction between polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and the 75G/A polymorphism in the APOA1 gene plasma HDL-C concentrations; the interaction between PUFA and the L162V polymorphism in the PPARA gene in determining triglycerides and APOC3 concentrations; and the interaction between PUFA intake and the 1131TC in the APOA5 gene in determining triglyceride metabolism. Although hundreds of diet-gene interaction studies in lipid metabolism have been published, the level of evidence to make specific nutritional recommendations to the population is still low and more research in nutrigenetics has to be undertaken.Las recomendaciones dietéticas actuales referentes al consumo de grasas en la dieta han sido realizadas sin tener en cuenta las posibles diferencias genéticas de las personas que podrían ser las responsables de las diferentes respuestas interindividuales que frecuentemente se observan ante la misma dieta. La presencia de variabilidad genética ha sido puesta de manifiesto para todos los genes relacionados con el metabolismo lipídico, por lo que existe un ingente número de genes y de variantes genéticas para ser incluidas en los estudios sobre interacciones dieta-genotipo en el ámbito específico del consumo de grasas y aceites. Se revisarán algunos ejemplos sobre interacciones grasa
Haimeur, Adil; Mimouni, Virginie; Ulmann, Lionel; Martineau, Anne-Sophie; Messaouri, Hafida; Pineau-Vincent, Fabienne; Tremblin, Gérard; Meskini, Nadia
Dietary supplementation with marine omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) can have beneficial effects on a number of risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). We compared the effects of two n-3 PUFA rich food supplements (freeze-dried Odontella aurita and fish oil) on risk factors for CVD. Male rats were randomly divided into four groups of six animals each and fed with the following diets: control group (C) received a standard diet containing 7 % lipids; second group (HF high fat) was fed with a high-fat diet containing 40 % lipids; third group (HFFO high fat+fish oil) was fed with the high-fat diet supplemented with 0.5 % fish oil; and fourth group (HFOA high fat+O. aurita) received the high-fat diet supplemented with 12 % of freeze-dried O. aurita. After 8 weeks rats fed with the high-fat diet supplemented with O. aurita displayed a significantly lower bodyweight than those in the other groups. Both the microalga and the fish oil significantly reduced insulinemia and serum lipid levels. O. aurita was more effective than the fish oil in reducing hepatic triacyglycerol levels and in preventing high-fat diet-induced steatosis. O. aurita and fish oil also reduced platelet aggregation and oxidative status induced by high fat intake. After an OA supplementation, the adipocytes in the HFOA group were smaller than those in the HF group. Freeze-dried O. aurita showed similar or even greater biological effects than the fish oil. This could be explained by a potential effect of the n-3 PUFA but also other bioactive compounds of the microalgae.
Tyagi, Anupama; Kumar, Uday; Santosh, Vadakattu Sai; Reddy, Suryam; Mohammed, Saazida Bhanu; Ibrahim, Ahamed
Imbalances in the dietary n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been implicated in the increased prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease. This study investigated the effects of substitution of linoleic acid with long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and hence decreasing n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio on inflammatory response in dextran sulfate sodium induced colitis. Male weanling Sprague Dawley rats were fed diets with n-6:n-3 fatty acid in the ratios of 215,50,10 or 5 for 3 months and colitis was induced by administration of dextran sulfate sodium in drinking water during last 11 days. Decreasing the dietary n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio to 10 and 5 significantly attenuated the severity of colitis as evidenced by improvements in clinical symptoms, reversal of shortening of colon length, reduced severity of anemia, preservation of colonic architecture as well as reduced colonic mucosal myeloperoxidase activity. This protection was associated with suppression of colonic mucosal proinflammatory mediators such as TNFα, IL-1β and nitric oxide. These findings suggest that long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids at a level of 3.0 g/kg diet (n-6:n-3 ratio of 10) prevents dextran sulfate sodium induced colitis by suppressing the proinflammatory mediators.
Dragoş Sorin Fota
Full Text Available Energy sources, especialy vegetable oils, added to the combined fodder can segnificantly modefy the fatty acids profile of the chicken feed, thus through its control the fatty acids profile of the carcases can be modefied, through enrichment in some fatty acids. In this respect an experiment was coduced on broilers, made up of three experimental groups, fed with a combined base fodder (corn and soybean meal in which 2% of different energy sources were added (sunflower oil, soybean oil, linseed oil. At the end of the 42 days growing period, using gaz cromatography, the fatty acids profile, % of fatty acids in 100 g product (EPA,DPA, DHA, Σ SFA, Σ MUFA, Σ PUFA from the studied cut pieces, were determined. The results obtained after statistc processing and interpretation of the data, showed the fact that regarding the fatty acids profile in chicken thigh and abdominal fat we can observe variations, what denotes that the fatty acids profile can be influenced by dietary factors, the quantity being yet determined by the participation % of the energy sources (vegetable oils, but also by the fatty acids content of the participating raw materials.
Yeste, Marc; Barrera, Xavier; Coll, David; Bonet, Sergi
The present study was undertaken to shed light on the relationship between boar sperm quality and dietary supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, which has been reported inconsistently in the literature. With this aim, such effects were evaluated and compared among three different porcine breeds: Duroc, Large-White, and Pietrain. Animals were randomly separated into two groups and fed either with a control diet or with a diet supplemented with omega-3. Sperm quality of these boar (ejaculate volume, sperm concentration, sperm viability, acrosome and mitochondrial sheath integrity, sperm motility, sperm morphology, and osmotic resistance of spermatozoa) was assessed every week for a 26-week period. Supplementing boar's diet with omega-3 did not affect ejaculate volume, sperm concentration, sperm motility, sperm viability, and acrosome and mitochondrial sheath integrity. In contrast, supplemented diet positively affected both sperm morphology in Large-White and Pietrain breeds and the osmotic resistance of Pietrain spermatozoa. No effects were seen for the same sperm parameters in Duroc breed. These breed-differences in boar fed with the supplemented diet could explain the contradictions in literature and might be related with differences in the composition of plasma membrane among breeds reported by other authors. Because no harmful effects were observed in the three evaluated breeds, but positive effects in Large-White and Pietrain boar, we can conclude that omega-3 fatty acids may be added to boar's diet at the levels used in this study to improve their sperm quality. More research is, however, needed to determine how these fatty acids differently affect the morphology and the osmotic resistance of the spermatozoa in these breeds.
Full Text Available Dietary fat absorption by the small intestine is a multistep process that regulates the uptake and delivery of essential nutrients and energy. One step of this process is the temporary storage of dietary fat in cytoplasmic lipid droplets (CLDs. The storage and mobilization of dietary fat is thought to be regulated by proteins that associate with the CLD; however, mechanistic details of this process are currently unknown. In this study we analyzed the proteome of CLDs isolated from enterocytes harvested from the small intestine of mice following a dietary fat challenge. In this analysis we identified 181 proteins associated with the CLD fraction, of which 37 are associated with known lipid related metabolic pathways. We confirmed the localization of several of these proteins on or around the CLD through confocal and electron microscopy, including perilipin 3, apolipoprotein A-IV, and acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 5. The identification of the enterocyte CLD proteome provides new insight into potential regulators of CLD metabolism and the process of dietary fat absorption.
Christensen, R.; Lorenzen, Janne Kunchel; Svith, Carina Roholm
Observational studies have found that dietary calcium intake is inversely related to body weight and body fat mass. One explanatory mechanism is that dietary calcium increases faecal fat excretion. To examine the effect of calcium from dietary supplements or dairy products on quantitative faecal...... fat excretion, we performed a systematic review with meta-analysis. We included randomized, controlled trials of calcium (supplements or dairy) in healthy subjects, where faecal fat excretion was measured. Meta-analyses used random-effects models with changes in faecal fat excreted expressed...
Volk, Marion G
The lipid hypothesis is the basis for much of the contemporary diet advice and drug therapy aimed at preventing coronary heart disease (CHD), and was developed from a sequential association of dietary lipids, cholesterol, and CHD nearly 100 years ago. The lipid hypothesis considers pathological changes that relate to the end stage of the complex chronic condition summarized as CHD, not to its genesis. Ongoing research provides only inconclusive evidence of the effects of modification of total, saturated, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated fats on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. 3-Hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors or statins, the highest selling drugs in medical history, may provide evidence that the lipid hypothesis is based on erroneous assumptions, since some of the mechanisms of action of statins seem to be independent of cholesterol reduction. This article assesses the methodology and assumptions underlying the early studies that gave rise to the current assumption of a causal relationship between dietary fat consumption and CHD. It argues that flaws in methodology have led to inaccurate and highly debatable conclusions. It assesses research supporting criticism of these early studies and considers other factors that may influence CHD. It offers alternative interpretations of the use of statins in controlling CHD. Finally, it provides an historical context suggesting different causes of CHD that have no relation to fat intake.
Dow, Caitlin A; Stauffer, Brian L; Greiner, Jared J; DeSouza, Christopher A
Approximately 50% of middle-aged and older adults in the United States regularly consume a diet high in saturated fat. High dietary saturated fat intake has been linked to promote atherothrombotic vascular disease. We tested the hypothesis that endothelial fibrinolytic function is diminished in middle-aged and older adults who habitually consume a diet high in saturated fat. Twenty-four healthy, sedentary middle-aged, and older adults (54 to 71 years) were studied: 10 (8 men and 2 women) with a dietary saturated fat intake saturated fat) of total calories and 14 (9 men and 5 women) with a dietary saturated fat intake ≥10% of total calories (high saturated fat). Net endothelial release of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), the primary activator of fibrinolysis, was determined, in vivo, in response to intrabrachial infusions of bradykinin (12.5 to 50.0 ng/100 ml tissue/min) and sodium nitroprusside (1.0 to 4.0 μg/100 ml tissue/min). Capacity of the endothelium to release t-PA in response to bradykinin was ∼30% less (p saturated fat group. Moreover, total amount of t-PA released was significantly less (∼30%) (201 ± 22 vs 274 ± 29 ng/100 ml tissue) in the adults who reported consuming a diet high in saturated fat. These results indicate that the capacity of the endothelium to release t-PA is lower in middle-aged and older adults who habitually consume a diet high in saturated fat. In conclusion, endothelial fibrinolytic dysfunction may underlie the increased atherothrombotic disease risk with a diet high in saturated fat.
Flachs, P.; Horakova, O.; Brauner, P.; Rossmeisl, M.; Pecina, P.; Franssen-Hal, van N.L.W.; Ruzickova, J.; Sponarova, J.; Drahota, Z.; Vlcek, C.; Keijer, J.; Houstek, J.; Kopecky, J.
Aims/hypothesis Intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids reduces adipose tissue mass, preferentially in the abdomen. The more pronounced effect of marine-derived eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids on adiposity, compared with their precursor -linolenic acid, may be mediated by ch
Dow, Caitlin A; Stauffer, Brian L; Greiner, Jared J; DeSouza, Christopher A
High-fat diets are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. A potential underlying mechanism for the increased cardiovascular risk is endothelial dysfunction. Nitric oxide (NO)-mediated endothelium-dependent vasodilation is critical in the regulation of vascular tone and overall vascular health. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of dietary fat intake on endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Forty-four middle-aged and older sedentary, healthy adults were studied: 24 consumed a lower fat diet (LFD; 29% ± 1% calories from fat) and 20 consumed a high-fat diet (HFD; 41% ± 1% calories from fat). Four-day diet records were used to assess fat intake, and classifications were based on American Heart Association guidelines (vasodilator response to sodium nitroprusside. These data indicate that a high-fat diet is associated with endothelium-dependent vasodilator dysfunction due, in part, to diminished NO bioavailability. Impaired NO-mediated endothelium-dependent vasodilation may contribute to the increased cardiovascular risk with high dietary fat intake.
Jandacek, R.J.; Ramirez, M.M.; Crouse, J.R. III (Procter Gamble Company, Cincinnati, OH (USA))
Olestra, a nonabsorbable fat substitute comprising long-chain fatty acid esters of sucrose, had been previously shown to reduce cholesterol absorption in humans when ingested at a level of 50 g/d. To determine whether or not a lower level of dietary olestra would also reduce cholesterol absorption, we studied the effect of 7 g of olestra twice a day in 20 normocholesterolemic male inpatients in a double-blind, crossover trial. Two 6-day diet treatment and stool collection periods were separated by a 14-day washout period. Half of the subjects received butter, and half, a butter-olestra blend during each treatment period according to a crossover design. All subjects ingested trace amounts of 3H-cholesterol and 14C-beta-sitosterol with the butter or the butter-olestra blend. Cholesterol absorption was determined from the 3H/14C ratios in the diet and in saponified and extracted stools according to previously validated methodology. Cholesterol absorption during the butter regimen was significantly greater than that during the olestra regimen (56.1% +/- 1.6% v 46.7% +/- 1.1%, P less than .01).
Awad, T B; Chattopadhyay, J P
The effect of dietary lipids on the lipid composition and the activities of some enzymes of cardiac sarcolemma were studied. Feeding rats coconut oil--rich diet for 4 weeks resulted in a significant decrease in 5'-nucleotidase, phosphodiesterase I and p-nitrophenylphosphatase activity of cardiac sarcolemma as compared with feeding rats safflower oil. Sarcolemma from animals fed coconut oil diet contained a significantly lower concentration of total polyunsaturated fatty acids and a higher concentration of total monounsaturated fatty acids than that from rats fed safflower oil. Most of the alterations in polyunsaturated fatty acids were found in 20:4, whereas those of the monounsaturates were found in 18:1. Among all the phosphoglycerides, the fatty acid composition of the phosphatidylcholine exhibited the largest alterations as a result of coconut oil feeding. No dietary effect was observed in the sarcolemma content of cholesterol and phospholipid. These studies clearly indicate that manipulation of dietary lipids influences both the fatty acid composition and some functional properties of the sarcolemma membranes.
Schrijvers, Jenna K; McNaughton, Sarah A; Beck, Kathryn L; Kruger, Rozanne
Examining dietary patterns provides an alternative approach to investigating dietary behaviors related to excess adiposity. The study aim was to investigate dietary patterns and body composition profiles of New Zealand European (NZE) women, participating in the women's EXPLORE (Examining the Predictors Linking Obesity Related Elements) study. Post-menarche, pre-menopausal NZE women (16-45 years) (n = 231) completed a validated 220-item, self-administrated, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated using measured height (cm) and weight (kg); body fat percentage (BF%) was measured using air displacement plethysmography (BodPod). Dietary patterns were identified using principal component factor analysis. Associations between dietary patterns, age, BMI and BF% were investigated. Four dietary patterns were identified: snacking; energy-dense meat; fruit and vegetable; healthy, which explained 6.9%, 6.8%, 5.6% and 4.8% of food intake variation, respectively. Age (p = 0.012) and BMI (p = 0.016) were positively associated with the "energy-dense meat" pattern. BF% (p = 0.016) was positively associated with the "energy-dense meat" pattern after adjusting for energy intake. The women following the identified dietary patterns had carbohydrate intakes below and saturated fat intakes above recommended guidelines. Dietary patterns in NZE women explain only some variations in body composition. Further research should examine other potential factors including physical activity and socioeconomic status.
Jenna K. Schrijvers
Full Text Available Examining dietary patterns provides an alternative approach to investigating dietary behaviors related to excess adiposity. The study aim was to investigate dietary patterns and body composition profiles of New Zealand European (NZE women, participating in the women’s EXPLORE (Examining the Predictors Linking Obesity Related Elements study. Post-menarche, pre-menopausal NZE women (16–45 years (n = 231 completed a validated 220-item, self-administrated, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Body mass index (BMI was calculated using measured height (cm and weight (kg; body fat percentage (BF% was measured using air displacement plethysmography (BodPod. Dietary patterns were identified using principal component factor analysis. Associations between dietary patterns, age, BMI and BF% were investigated. Four dietary patterns were identified: snacking; energy-dense meat; fruit and vegetable; healthy, which explained 6.9%, 6.8%, 5.6% and 4.8% of food intake variation, respectively. Age (p = 0.012 and BMI (p = 0.016 were positively associated with the “energy-dense meat” pattern. BF% (p = 0.016 was positively associated with the “energy-dense meat” pattern after adjusting for energy intake. The women following the identified dietary patterns had carbohydrate intakes below and saturated fat intakes above recommended guidelines. Dietary patterns in NZE women explain only some variations in body composition. Further research should examine other potential factors including physical activity and socioeconomic status.
Ana Amélia Freitas Vilela
Full Text Available This study aimed to identify dietary patterns and assess their association with abdominal fat. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Central West Region of Brazil with a probabilistic sample of 208 adults of both sexes. Data on food intake was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire and factor analysis (principal components was conducted to identify dietary patterns. Waist circumference (WC and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR were used to assess abdominal fat. The association between dietary patterns and body fat distribution was examined using multiple linear regression analysis adjusted for confounders. Three dietary patterns were identified: Western, regional traditional, and prudent. A positive association was found between the Western pattern and WC (p = 0.04 and WHR (p = 0.001 and between the regional traditional pattern and WHR (p = 0.05 among women. A slight association was also found between the latter pattern and WC (p = 0.07 also among women. An association was found between the Western and regional traditional dietary patterns and a larger concentration of abdominal fat among women.
Full Text Available Two groups of finishing gilts were fed, for 4 weeks, a commercial feed enriched (2% with either rapeseed oil or sunflower oil. Pig growth was monitored bi-weekly and the fatty acid composition of backfat and Longissimus muscle was determined after slaughtering. Type of dietary oil affected significantly the fatty acid profile of pork fat, especially the C18:3n-3 concentration which was higher in pigs fed rapeseed oil than in those fed sunflower oil. The content of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA of Longissimus muscle was significantly higher than that of backfat, due to the its higher concentration of C18:1cis9 and C16:1. Differently, the long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA content was higher in backfat than in Longissimus muscle. These results confirm that it is possible to manipulate the fatty acid composition of the diet, in order to improve the health properties of the adipose tissues of pork meat.
Rideout, Candice A; McLean, Judy A; Barr, Susan I
Women with high dietary restraint typically report restricting energy intake and using reduced-kilocalorie foods in an effort to achieve or maintain a certain body weight. However, previous studies of food choices associated with dietary restraint have been limited by the self-report of participants' food selections. We provided all foods consumed during a free-living 24-hour period to 62 normal-weight women with high (n=33) or low (n=29) dietary restraint, and observed choices from among similar foods varying in fat, fiber, and energy content. Women with high dietary restraint consumed less energy and chose reduced-kilocalorie and reduced-fat foods more frequently than unrestrained eaters. Group differences in choices of milk, cream cheese, mayonnaise, salad dressing, and soda were noted. Dietitians may consider frequent use of reduced-kilocalorie and reduced-fat foods a potential indicator of high dietary restraint, which may have health consequences. Accordingly, further exploration of clients' tendency to restrict dietary intake may be warranted.
Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary oxidized poultry offal fat on the performance of broilers and on the oxidative stability of dark chicken meat. One hundred and sixty male chicks were fed a corn-soybean meal diet containing 4% fresh or oxidized poultry fat from 10 to 47 days of age. Fresh fat was stored frozen until diets were produced, and oxidized fat was obtained by electrical heating (110 to 120 ºC. Birds were slaughtered at 47 days of age, and carcass characteristics were measured. Skinless and deboned thigh meat was stored chilled during 12 days, and samples were periodically collected to assess their quality and oxidative stability. Dietary oxidized fat did not affect bird performance or carcass characteristics. During chilled storage, meat color (L*, a* and b* was not affected by dietary treatments; however, TBARS (Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances values were higher (P<0.05 in thigh meat from chickens fed the oxidized fat, indicating that oxidative stability was adversely affected.
Yakala, Gopala K.; van der Heijden, Roel; Molema, Grietje; Schipper, Martin; Wielinga, Peter Y.; Kleemann, Robert; Kooistra, Teake; Heeringa, Peter
Background: An Alternating high-cholesterol dietary regimen has proven to be beneficial when compared to daily high-cholesterol feeding. In the current study we explored whether the same strategy is applicable to a high-fat dietary regimen. Objective: To investigate whether an alternating high-fat d
Mossab, Amal; Lessire, Michel; Guillaumin, Solange; Kouba, Maryline; Mourot, Jacques; Peiniau, Philippe; Hermier, Dominique
The influence of dietary fatty acids on hepatic capacity of lipid synthesis and secretion was investigated in 7-week-old male turkeys. They were fed 10% of either lard (rich in saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids) or linseed oil (rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially 18:3n-3). Fattening was identical with both diets (0.15-0.20% of abdominal adipose tissue), but the proportion of muscle Pectoralis major was lower with linseed oil (6.6 vs. 7.4%). Specific activities of lipogenic enzymes (ME, G6PDH, ACX, and Delta9-desaturase) were not influenced by the diet, however, FAS activity was lower with linseed oil (14.3 vs. 25.4 nM NADPH fixed/min). Fasting concentrations of lipoproteins synthesized and secreted by the liver, VLDL and HDL, were also lower with linseed oil, as well as plasma concentrations of phospholipids and cholesteryl esters. However, when VLDL catabolism was inhibited by injection of an antiserum against LPL, VLDL concentration was identical in both groups (100-120 mg/l), whereas that of phospholipids and cholesteryl esters, that are transported by HDL mainly, remained lower with linseed oil. Thus, in the growing turkeys, and contrary to mammals and the chicken, feeding n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids did not decrease hepatic triglyceride synthesis and secretion, nor fattening. By contrast, in this species, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids appear to influence mostly HDL metabolism, with a negative impact on muscular growth.
Full Text Available KL Catherine Jen,1,2 George Grunberger,3 Joseph D Artiss2,4 1Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA; 2ArtJen Complexus Inc, Windsor, ON, Canada; 3The Grunberger Diabetes Institute, Bloomfield Hills, MI, USA; 4Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA Abstract: α-Cyclodextrin (α-CD, a soluble dietary fiber, has been shown to bind and eliminate nine times of its own weight in dietary fat. Studies with different animal models have reported that α-CD preferentially binds saturated fatty acids, reducing saturated and trans fatty acid levels in blood. A clinical trial demonstrated that α-CD prevented weight gain in obese diabetic patients. The present study was designed to examine whether α-CD also shows a preference in binding saturated fatty acids in humans and to confirm the 1:9 binding ratio in humans. Sixty-six obese diabetic patients were recruited at the beginning of this 3-month, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study. Patients were randomly assigned to the Active or Placebo group. Blood samples and 3-day dietary records were collected at baseline and at the end of months 1, 2, and 3. A bottle of 180 tablets of active or placebo tablets was dispensed to each participant at the beginning of each month. Dietary records were analyzed using The Food Processor software. It was observed that α-CD has a higher affinity towards saturated fats than to unsaturated fats. Participants with higher intakes of total and saturated fat lost more weight than those with lower intakes (P < 0.05 and < 0.01, respectively. These data support the earlier observation in both in vitro and animal studies that α-CD binds with dietary fat in a 1:9 ratio and further demonstrate the efficacy of α-CD in binding to and eliminating dietary fat, especially saturated fats. α-CD may play a significant role in reducing blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels as well as stopping
Li, Kaifeng; McNulty, Breige A; Tiernery, Ann M; Devlin, Niamh F C; Joyce, Triona; Leite, Joao C; Flynn, Albert; Walton, Janette; Brennan, Lorraine; Gibney, Michael J; Nugent, Anne P
Imbalances in dietary fat intakes are linked to several chronic diseases. This study describes dietary intakes and food sources of fat and fatty acids in 1051 Irish adults (aged 18-90 years), using data from the 2011 national food consumption survey, the National Adult Nutrition Survey. It also compares current intakes for 18-64-year-olds with those reported in the last such survey in 2001, the North/South Ireland Food Consumption Survey. Dietary fat intakes were estimated using data from 4-d semi-weighed (2011) and 7-d estimated (2001) food diaries. In 2011, intakes for 18-64-year-olds were as follows: total fat, 34·1 (sd 6·1) % total energy (%TE); SFA, 13·3 (sd 3·3) %TE; MUFA, 12·5 (sd 2·6) %TE; PUFA, 6·1 (sd 2·2) %TE; and trans-fat, 0·511 (sd 0·282) %TE. Apart from MUFA, intakes decreased (P65 years had the highest intakes of SFA; however, intakes were typically higher than UK-recommended values for all groups. In contrast, intakes of long-chain n-3 fatty acids were lowest in younger age groups. Intakes of trans-fat were well within UK-recommended levels. Although there have been some improvements in the profile of intakes since 2001, imbalances persist in the quantity and quality of dietary fat consumed by Irish adults, most notably for total and SFA and for younger age groups for long-chain n-3 fatty acids.
Zhou, June; Keenan, Michael J; Losso, Jack N; Raggio, Anne M; Shen, Li; McCutcheon, Kathleen L; Tulley, Richard T; Blackman, Marc R; Martin, Roy J
We investigated the effects of dietary whey protein on food intake, body fat, and body weight gain in rats. Adult (11-12 week) male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three dietary treatment groups for a 10-week study: control. Whey protein (HP-W), or high-protein content control (HP-S). Albumin was used as the basic protein source for all three diets. HP-W and HP-S diets contained an additional 24% (wt/wt) whey or isoflavone-free soy protein, respectively. Food intake, body weight, body fat, respiratory quotient (RQ), plasma cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), and leptin were measured during and/or at the end of the study. The results showed that body fat and body weight gain were lower (P food intake measured over the 10-week study period was lower in the HP-W vs. control and HP-S groups (P fat accumulation and body weight gain, the mechanism(s) involved appear to be different. HP-S fed rats exhibit increased fat oxidation, whereas HP-W fed rats show decreased food intake and increased fat oxidation, which may contribute to the effects of whey protein on body fat.
Nielsen, B. M.; Bjørnsbo, K. B.; Tetens, Inge;
daily dietary GI value was 85 (SD 6 center dot 9) with a range of 62-111. No significant differences were found between age groups and gender. The daily dietary GL was higher among boys aged 16, with a GL of 330 (sd 95) (P ... among 10-year-old boys than girls (250 (sd 81) v. 230 (sd 66) P Sigma SF) among girls or among 10-year-old boys. Among 16-year-old boys, significant...... associations were observed between dietary GI and Sigma SF (beta=0 center dot 60, SE=0 center dot 21, P=0 center dot 006), and between dietary GL and Sigma SF (beta=0 center dot 15, SE=0.06, P=0 center dot 009). In conclusion, dietary GI and GL were positively associated with body fatness among Danish boys...
Schothorst, van E.M.; Keijer, J.
Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) act as potent natural hypolipidemics and are linked to many health benefits in humans and in animal models. Mice fed long-term a high fat diet, in which medium-chain alpha linoleic acid (ALA) was partially replaced by long-chain docosahexaenoic (DHA) and ei
Haugaard, S.B.; Madsbad, S.; Høy, Carl-Erik;
Objective Cross-sectional studies suggest that the fatty acid (FA) composition of phospholipids in skeletal muscle cell membrane may modulate insulin sensitivity in humans. We examined the impact of a hypocaloric low-fat dietary intervention on membrane FA composition and insulin sensitivity...... analysis that included changes in weight, fat mass, waist circumference, plasma lipids, PUFA, SFA and long-chain PUFAn-3 indicated that SFA and long-chain PUFAn-3 were independent predictors of HOMA-IR (R-2 = 0.33, P dietary intervention programme increased....... Design Muscle membrane FA profiles were determined in muscle (vastus lateralis) biopsies from 21 obese subjects before and after 6 months of dietary restriction. Diet instructions emphasized low intake of FA of marine origin by recommending lean fish and prohibiting fatty fish and fish oil supplements...
Temmerman, A M; Vonk, R J; Niezen-Koning, K; Berger, R.; Fernandes, J
The effects of dietary cholesterol and fats on cholesterol metabolism later in life were studied in Mongolian gerbils. Three groups were given a basic diet with soybean oil, palm kernel oil amounting to 8.75% (w/w), or the basic diet only. In three other groups, cholesterol (0.05%) was added to the
VanderMeer, R; Lapre, JA; Govers, MJAP; Kleibeuker, JH
Dietary fat may promote colon cancer by increasing fatty acids (FA) and secondary bile acids (BA) in the colonic lumen. These cytotoxic surfactants can damage colonic epithelial cells and thus induce a compensatory hyperproliferation of crypt Cells. Our studies show that the hyperproliferative effec
Forman, L P; Schneeman, B O
The effects of dietary pectin and fat level on digestive enzyme activities in the pancreas and small intestine and on intestinal bile acid levels were investigated. In unfed rats, dietary pectin did not influence the pancreatic enzymes studied, but a higher level of corn oil in the diet lowered the amylase activity in the pancreas, increased pancreatic lipase activity and slightly lowered the chymotrypsin and trypsin activities. Diet did not change the dry weight of the pancreas. In the fed rats, dietary pectin increased the dry weight of the small gut wash plus the mucosal scraping. Dietary pectin increased the small intestinal lipase and chymotrypsin levels and at the low level of fat only, increased amylase and trypsin activities in the small intestine of fed rats. Intestinal lipase levels were higher and amylase levels lower in rats consuming the high level of corn oil. These results indicate that changes in dietary fat level led to changes in the amylase and lipase content of secreted pancreatic juice and that differences in absorption associated with diets containing pectin could be the result of increased material in the small intestine.
Tous, N; Theil, P K; Lauridsen, C; Lizardo, R; Vilà, B; Esteve-Garcia, E
The aim of this study was to investigate underlying mechanisms of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on lipid metabolism in various tissues of pigs. Sixteen gilts (73 ± 3 kg) were fed a control (containing sunflower oil) or an experimental diet in which 4% of sunflower oil was replaced by CLA, and slaughtered at an average BW of 117 ± 4.9 kg. Transcription of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), fatty acid synthase (FAS), sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP1), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), delta-6-desaturase (D6D), and stearoyl CoA desaturase (SCD) were determined by real-time PCR in longissimus thoracis (LT) and semimembranosus (SM) muscles, LT subcutaneous and SM intermuscular fat, and in the liver. Fatty acid (FA) composition was analyzed using gas chromatography in these tissues, except for SM intermuscular fat. Dietary CLA increased PPARγ in LT muscle (P tissues studied (P fat. Transcription of genes related to FA synthesis was reduced by CLA in SM muscle and liver (SREBP1, both P fat. Saturated FA were increased in all studied tissues (P tissue-specific way by CLA. It was concluded that dietary CLA affected transcription of genes and fat metabolism in a tissue-specific manner.
Navidshad, Bahman; Royan, M
Traditionally, poultry farmers aimed to produce birds with high body weight and feed conversion ratio. However, in line with current developments, there are other traits that must be taken into account as well. These include producing poultry meat with lower body fat content and improving the nutritional quality of the poultry meat to appeal to consumer requirements. The interrelated importance of human diet and health status is an ancient subject. Human foods as a lifestyle factor is involved in the incidence of many types of diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Recent reports suggest that not only the quantity but also the composition of dietary fat is an important factor to prevent these metabolic diseases in human populations. It has been reported that some dietary fats are able to reduce lipid synthesis and increase fatty acid oxidation and diet-mediated thermogenesis. The outcome of this change is a superior animal product with lower fat content. There is evidence of dissimilar mechanisms of action of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids. Dietary fatty acids have various effects on cellular metabolism, and many of these effects are carried out through the alteration of gene expression. This review will focus on the control of body fat by gene expression in avians.
王雷; 付勇; 严善春; 赵玉田
以小鼠为材料，以尿素包合法制得的黄粉虫油脂多不饱和脂肪酸为受试剂，研究了黄粉虫幼虫多不饱和脂肪酸对小鼠体质量、血清总胆固醇（ TC）、甘油三脂（ TG）、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇（ HDL-C）及低密度脂蛋白胆固醇（ LDL-C）含量的影响；同时，研究了黄粉虫多不饱和脂肪酸对小鼠肝脏总脂酶（ LA）活性、肝脂酶（ HL）活性、脂蛋白脂肪酶（LPL）活性、肝脏组织中丙二醛（MDA）及脂褐质（LF）含量的影响。结果表明：与高脂对照组相比，黄粉虫多不饱和脂肪酸能显著降低小鼠体质量、血清中TC、TG、LDL-C水平及肝脏中MDA质量摩尔浓度（P＜0．01）；而血清HDL-C（P＜0．01）水平及肝脏中HL（P＜0．01）、LPL（P＜0．05）、LA（P＜0．01）水平有显著性提高；LF质量分数无显著变化。说明黄粉虫多不饱和脂肪酸对小鼠脂代谢具有积极的调节作用。%To improve the available use of resource insects, with Tenebrio molitor as material, we studied in functional test of Tenebrio molitor larva polyunsaturated fatty acid.Polyunsaturated fatty acid was concentrated from Tenebrio molitor oil by urea inclusion method.Fifty mice were divided into five groups randomly.Except blank control group, the other four groups were fed with high fat diet.Blank control and obesity control groups were fed with physiological salt water, and the doses groups were fed with different doses polyunsaturated fatty acid.Body weights were weighed every week.After four weeks, the mice were killed, the blood andhepar were collected.With mice, the experiment was conducted to study the effect of Tenebrio molitor polyunsaturated fatty acid on the mouse body mass, the serum total triglycerides ( TC) , total cho-lesterol (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), as well as hepatic total lipase ( LA) , hepatic lipase ( HL
Hageman, J.H.J.; Hooyenga, P.; Diersen-Schade, D.A.; Scalabrin, D.M.F.; Wichers, H.J.; Birch, E.E.
Increasing evidence suggests that intake of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), especially omega-3 LCPUFA, improves respiratory health early in life. This review summarizes publications from 2009 through July 2012 that evaluated effects of fish, fish oil or LCPUFA intake during pregnanc
Lindeboom, Lucas; de Graaf, Robin A; Nabuurs, Christine I; van Ewijk, Petronella A; Hesselink, Matthijs K C; Wildberger, Joachim E; Schrauwen, Patrick; Schrauwen-Hinderling, Vera B
The prevalence of fatty liver reaches alarming proportions. Fatty liver increases the risk for insulin resistance, cardiovascular disease, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Although extensively studied in a preclinical setting, the lack of noninvasive methodologies hampers our understanding of which pathways promote hepatic fat accumulation in humans. Dietary fat retention is one of the pathways that may lead to fatty liver. The low (1.1%) natural abundance (NA) of carbon-13 ((13)C) allows use of (13)C-enriched lipids for in vivo MR studies. Successful implementation of such methodology, however, is challenging due to low sensitivity of (13)C-magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((13)C-MRS). Here, we investigated the use of 1-dimensional gradient enhanced heteronuclear single quantum coherence (ge-HSQC) spectroscopy for the in vivo detection of hepatic (1)H-[(13)C]-lipid signals after a single high-fat meal with (13)C-labeled fatty acids in 5 lean and 6 obese subjects. Postprandial retention of orally administered (13)C-labeled fatty acids was significant (P < 0.01). Approximately 1.5% of the tracer was retained in the liver after 6 hours, and retention was similar in both groups (P = 0.92). Thus, a substantial part of the liver fat can originate directly from storage of meal-derived fat. The ge-HSQC can be used to noninvasively reveal the contribution of dietary fat to the development of hepatic steatosis over time.
... room temperature, but start to harden when chilled. Saturated fats and trans fats are solid at room temperature. ... fats are monounsaturated or polyunsaturated. You should limit saturated fat to less than 10% of your daily calories. ...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Numerous gene loci are related to single measures of body weight and shape. We investigated if 55 SNPs previously associated with BMI or waist measures, modify the effects of fat intake on weight loss and waist reduction under energy restriction. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Randomized controlled trial of 771 obese adults. ( REGISTRATION: ISRCTN25867281. One SNP was selected for replication in another weight loss intervention study of 934 obese adults. The original trial was a 10-week 600 kcal/d energy-deficient diet with energy percentage from fat (fat% in range of 20-25 or 40-45. The replication study used an 8-weeks diet of 880 kcal/d and 20 fat%; change in fat% intake was used for estimation of interaction effects. The main outcomes were intervention weight loss and waist reduction. In the trial, mean change in fat% intake was -12/+4 in the low/high-fat groups. In the replication study, it was -23/-12 among those reducing fat% more/less than the median. TFAP2B-rs987237 genotype AA was associated with 1.0 kg (95% CI, 0.4; 1.6 greater weight loss on the low-fat, and GG genotype with 2.6 kg (1.1; 4.1 greater weight loss on the high-fat (interaction p-value; p = 0.00007. The replication study showed a similar (non-significant interaction pattern. Waist reduction results generally were similar. Study-strengths include (i the discovery study randomised trial design combined with the replication opportunity (ii the strict dietary intake control in both studies (iii the large sample sizes of both studies. Limitations are (i the low minor allele frequency of the TFAP2B polymorphism, making it hard to investigate non-additive genetic effects (ii the different interventions preventing identical replication-discovery study designs (iii some missing data for non-completers and dietary intake. No adverse effects/outcomes or side-effects were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Under energy restriction, TFAP2B may modify the effect of dietary fat intake on
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dietary habits influence the risk of cancer of the oesophagus and oesophago-gastric junction, but the role of proportions of the main dietary macronutrients carbohydrates, fats and proteins is uncertain. METHODS: Data was derived from a nationwide Swedish population-based case-control study conducted in 1995-1997, in which case ascertainment was rapid, and all cases were uniformly classified. Information on the subjects' history of dietary intake was collected in personal interviews. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated using logistic regression, with adjustment for potentially confounding factors. RESULTS: Included were 189 oesophageal adenocarcinomas, 262 oesophago-gastric adenocarcinomas, 167 oesophageal squamous cell carcinomas, and 820 control subjects. Regarding oesophageal or oesophago-gastric junctional adenocarcinoma, a high dietary proportion of carbohydrates decreased the risk (OR 0.50, CI 0.34-0.73, and a high portion of fat increased the risk (OR 1.96, CI 1.34-2.87, while a high proportion of protein did not influence the risk (OR 1. 08, 95% CI 0.75-1.56. Regarding oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma, the single macronutrients did not influence the risk statistically significantly. CONCLUSIONS: A diet with a low proportion of carbohydrates and a high proportion of fat might increase the risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Obesity is linked to type 2 diabetes and risk factors associated to the metabolic syndrome. Consumption of dietary fibres has been shown to have positive metabolic health effects, such as by increasing satiety, lowering blood glucose and cholesterol levels. These effects may be associated with short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs, particularly propionic and butyric acids, formed by microbial degradation of dietary fibres in colon, and by their capacity to reduce low-grade inflammation. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether dietary fibres, giving rise to different SCFAs, would affect metabolic risk markers in low-fat and high-fat diets using a model with conventional rats for 2, 4 and 6 weeks. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Conventional rats were administered low-fat or high-fat diets, for 2, 4 or 6 weeks, supplemented with fermentable dietary fibres, giving rise to different SCFA patterns (pectin - acetic acid; guar gum - propionic acid; or a mixture - butyric acid. At the end of each experimental period, liver fat, cholesterol and triglycerides, serum and caecal SCFAs, plasma cholesterol, and inflammatory cytokines were analysed. The caecal microbiota was analysed after 6 weeks. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Fermentable dietary fibre decreased weight gain, liver fat, cholesterol and triglyceride content, and changed the formation of SCFAs. The high-fat diet primarily reduced formation of SCFAs but, after a longer experimental period, the formation of propionic and acetic acids recovered. The concentration of succinic acid in the rats increased in high-fat diets with time, indicating harmful effect of high-fat consumption. The dietary fibre partly counteracted these harmful effects and reduced inflammation. Furthermore, the number of Bacteroides was higher with guar gum, while noticeably that of Akkermansia was highest with the fibre-free diet.
Full Text Available Long chain n-3 PUFA have been shown to have chemopreventive properties against breast cancer through various mechanisms. One pathway, studied in human breast cancer cell lines, involves upregulation of the proteoglycan, syndecan-1 (SDC-1 by n-3 PUFA-enriched LDL. Using Fat-1 mice that are able to convert n-6 to n-3 PUFA, we tested whether SDC-1 level in vivo is elevated in mammary glands due to endogenously synthesized rather than LDL-derived n-3 PUFA. Female Fat-1 and wild type (wt mice were fed an n-6 PUFA- enriched diet for 7 weeks. Fatty acid analysis of plasma lipoproteins showed that total n-6 PUFA reflected dietary intake similarly in both genotypes (VLDL, 36.2±2.2 and 40.9±3.9; LDL, 49.0±3.3 and 48.1±2.0; HDL, 54.6±1.2 and 58.2±1.3, mean ± SEM percent of total fatty acids for Fat-1 and wt animals respectively. Lipoprotein percent n-3 PUFA was also similar between groups. However, phospholipids and triglycerides extracted from mammary and liver tissues demonstrated significantly higher n-3 PUFA and a corresponding decrease in the ratio n-6/n-3 PUFA in Fat-1 compared to wt mice. This was accompanied by higher SDC-1 in mammary glands and livers of Fat-1 mice, thus demonstrating that endogenously synthesized n-3 PUFA may upregulate SDC-1 in the presence of high dietary n-6 PUFA.
Yael T. Joffe; Lize van der Merwe; Juliet Evans; Malcolm Collins; Lambert, Estelle V.; September, Alison V; Goedecke, Julia H.
This study investigated interactions between dietary fat intake and IL-6 polymorphisms on obesity and serum lipids in black and white South African (SA) women. Normal-weight and obese, black and white women underwent measurements of body composition, serum lipids and dietary fat intake, and were genotyped for the IL-6 −174 G>C, IVS3 +281 G>T and IVS4 +869 A>G polymorphisms. In black women the IVS4 +869 G allele was associated with greater adiposity, and with increasing dietary fat i...
The increased vulnerability to non-communicable diseases (NCD) of developing populations experiencing a demographic and epidemiological transitions to increased risk of NCD at a time when the battle against infectious diseases, is ongoing. Apart from population growth, the major attributes of developmental transition are confined to changes in occupational pattern in family structure, lifestyle, dietary practices and progressive ageing of population. The emergence of the NCD is significantly associated with changes in dietary pattern, in most of the countries. Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death in developed countries and the incidence is increasing in developing countries, including India. The disease needs awareness of the risk factors responsible for prevention. The purpose of this review is to present an overview of the role of dietary fats in growth and development and in health and disease. Although the causation of CHD is multifaceted and the risk factors associated in general are several, there are specific and important elements, such as dietary fats and lifestyle. Dietary fats are an important component as they serve a number of functions in the body. The minimum desirable and upper limits of fat intake have been given, based on recommendations of expert groups. Sources of different fats are made available worldwide and the production, consumption, storage, oxidation and nomenclature are being discussed in the light of health and disease. The relative essentiality of the omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids is recognized in terms of pharmacologically active eicosanoid metabolism. Nevertheless, epidemiological, physiological and clinical studies have demonstrated that long-chain omega-3 fatty acids present in fish oils have quite diverse health benefits. Appropriate guidelines need to be recommended at a national level consistent with dietary habits. The ratios of balanced fatty acids, namely omega-11, omega-9, omega-6 and omega-3, should
Doty, J E; Meyer, J H
Mild steatorrhea is common after all ulcer operations except parietal cell vagotomy. As these operations impair the grinding and sieving of solid food, we sought to determine the effect of vagotomy and antrectomy on fat absorption from solid (e.g., liver) as compared with liquid (e.g., margarine) dietary sources in the proximal small intestine. Midgut fistulas were placed in 13 dogs; 7 were controls and 6 underwent concurrent vagotomy and antrectomy. To label solid fat, the livers of live chickens were labeled with intravenous [14C]triolein and [3H]glycerol triether, an absorbable and nonabsorbable fat label, respectively. For the liquid fat label, these markers were mixed with margarine. A standard meal of steak, liver, bread, margarine, and water, with either the liver or margarine fat labeled, was fed and the midgut effluent was sieved and centrifuged to obtain four phases: large particles (greater than 0.5 mm), small particles (less than 0.5 mm), aqueous, and oil, which were extracted and counted for 14C and 3H. The ratio of 14C to 3H in each fraction was used to determine how much fat was absorbed from each phase of chyme. With liver fat labeled, 48.3% +/- 8.1% of the [3H]glycerol triether remained in large particles after vagotomy and antrectomy compared with 3.1% +/- 1.0% in controls at midintestine (p less than 0.001). After vagotomy and antrectomy, more than half of the liver fat (solid fat) was malabsorbed (57.1% +/- 6.5% vs. 23.1% +/- 6.6% malabsorbed, p less than 0.01, vagotomy and antrectomy vs. controls), whereas fat absorption from margarine (liquid fat) was not reduced compared with controls (8.8% +/- 2.5% vs. 13.6% +/- 5.5% malabsorbed, p greater than 0.05, vagotomy and antrectomy vs. controls). These observations indicate that by reducing gastric trituration and releasing large particles of poorly digested food into the intestine, vagotomy and antrectomy impairs the absorption of fat selectively from solid, but not from liquid, dietary sources.
van Stratum, P; Lussenburg, R N; van Wezel, L A; Vergroesen, A J; Cremer, H D
The effect of the dietary carbohydrate:fat (C:F) ratio on the spontaneous energy intake by healthy adults was investigated by comparing a high-carbohydrate diet (fat 24%, carbohydrate 58%, protein 18% of energy) and a high-fat diet (fat 47%, carbohydrate 35%, protein 18% of energy) in a 2 X 2 week cross-over design. Subjects were 22 healthy nuns in a Trappist convent with very regular activities. The diets consisted of combinations of liquid formula (75%) and standardized snacks (25%). The difference in C:F ratio was concealed: energy density, taste and appearance were similar. Energy consumption was recorded continuously. The mean daily energy intakes remained constant: 8276 kJ (1978 kcal). The difference in mean daily energy intake between diets was 73 kJ +/- 180 (SEM). Small changes in body weight were observed, but these are argued not to indicate definitive effects. It is concluded that changing the C:F ratio within commonly occurring ranges does not influence the spontaneous energy intake of healthy adults. The composition of the dietary fat was kept constant. Under practical conditions a change in the C:F ratio will also induce a change in the fatty acid composition of the diet, which might affect the energy intake regulation. Other experiments are required to see whether the C:F ratio can affect body composition or other physiological parameters in the long run.
I. A. Qureshi, S.A. Khan, Z. I. Chaudhry, N. A. Mian1, M. Y. Tipu and M. F. Rai
Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of high dietary fat on serum cholesterol and fatty liver syndrome in broilers. For this purpose, 90 day-old chicks were divided into three equal groups A, B and C. Group A acted as control. The birds of group B were fed on diet containing vegetable fat while birds of group C were fed on diet containing animal fat. It was observed that the serum cholestrol values in chicks of groups B and C were higher than those of the control group. Furthermore, the serum cholesterol value was higher in birds of group C than group B. Grossly, the livers of birds of groups B and C were enlarged, pale in colour, soft in consistency and were having petechial haemorrhages with fat and fibrin deposits. Histopathologically, livers of groups B and C showed fatty infiltration, haemorrhages and mass of eosinophilic materials. The vacuoles coalesced to create clear space that displaced the nucleus to the periphery of the cell. It was concluded that addition of dietary fat from animal and vegetable sources in the diet of broiler chicks not only resulted in increase in serum cholesterol but also in marked macroscopic and microscopic changes in liver.
Rees, C A; Bauer, J E; Burkholder, W J; Kennis, R A; Dunbar, B L; Bigley, K E
This prospective study involved supplementing 18 normal dogs with flax seed (FLX) and sunflower seed (SUN) and evaluating their effects on skin and hair coat condition scores and serum polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) concentrations. Skin and hair coat were evaluated in a double-blinded fashion using a numeric scoring system and serum PUFA concentrations were determined. Our hypothesis was that changes in serum PUFA concentrations are associated with improvements in skin and hair coat and that serum PUFA would provide an objective method for making dietary fatty acid supplement recommendations. Although a numerical improvement was found in hair coat quality in both groups, this improvement was not sustained beyond 28 days. The relative per cent of 18:3n-3 concentrations in serum phospholipids increased in the FLX treated dogs but these concentrations remained unchanged in the SUN treated dogs. Also, elevations in relative per cent of 18:2n-6 concentrations in serum phospholipids were seen in the FLX group. The ratio of serum polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids also showed a transient increase. These increases preceded the peak skin condition score peak value by approximately 14 days. It was concluded that a 1-month supplementation with either flax seed or sunflower seed in dogs provides temporary improvement in skin and hair coat. These changes appeared to be associated with increased serum 18 carbon PUFA.
Haugaard, Steen B; Madsbad, Sten; Høy, C-E;
OBJECTIVE: Cross-sectional studies suggest that the fatty acid (FA) composition of phospholipids in skeletal muscle cell membrane may modulate insulin sensitivity in humans. We examined the impact of a hypocaloric low-fat dietary intervention on membrane FA composition and insulin sensitivity...... that included changes in weight, fat mass, waist circumference, plasma lipids, PUFA, SFA and long-chain PUFAn-3 indicated that SFA and long-chain PUFAn-3 were independent predictors of HOMA-IR (R(2)=0.33, Pdietary intervention programme increased incorporation of long....... DESIGN Muscle membrane FA profiles were determined in muscle (vastus lateralis) biopsies from 21 obese subjects before and after 6 months of dietary restriction. Diet instructions emphasized low intake of FA of marine origin by recommending lean fish and prohibiting fatty fish and fish oil supplements...
Full Text Available Obesity leads to changes in the gut microbial community which contribute to the metabolic dysregulation in obesity. Dietary fat and fiber affect the caloric density of foods. The impact of dietary fat content and fiber type on the microbial community in the hind gut is unknown. Effect of dietary fat level and fiber type on hindgut microbiota and volatile fatty acid (VFA profiles was investigated. Expression of metabolic marker genes in the gut, adipose tissue and liver was determined. A 2 × 2 experiment was conducted in pigs fed at two dietary fat levels (5% or 17.5% swine grease and two fiber types (4% inulin, fermentable fructo-oligosaccharide or 4% solka floc, non-fermentable cellulose. High fat diets (HFD resulted in a higher (P<0.05 total body weight gain, feed efficiency and back fat accumulation than the low fat diet. Feeding of inulin, but not solka floc, attenuated (P<0.05 the HFD-induced higher body weight gain and fat mass accumulation. Inulin feeding tended to lead to higher total VFA production in the cecum and resulted in a higher (P<0.05 expression of acyl coA oxidase (ACO, a marker of peroxisomal β-oxidation. Inulin feeding also resulted in lower expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c, a marker of lipid anabolism. Bacteria community structure characterized by DGGE analysis of PCR amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments showed that inulin feeding resulted in greater bacterial population richness than solka floc feeding. Cluster analysis of pairwise Dice similarity comparisons of the DGGE profiles showed grouping by fiber type but not the level of dietary fat. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA of PCR- DGGE profiles showed that inulin feeding negatively correlated with back fat thickness. This study suggests a strong interplay between dietary fat level and fiber type in determining susceptibility to obesity.
Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Calcium is a micronutrient and now receiving much attention for its doubtful effects on weight and body fatness. A few mechanisms has been suggested for calcium effects on body fatness and the most emphasized one is the reducing of lipolysis and increasing lipogenesis via reducing parathyroid hormone levels. The present study is designed to evaluate the effects of nondairy dietary calcium on adipogenesis and adipocyte size in male Sprague dawley rats. Materials & Methods: This experimental study was done from November to September of 2005 at Tehran school of health, nutrition department. 48 male Spragu-Dawley rats from Damgostar Company were used in three randomly selected groups. The rats were fed low (0.2% W/W, usual (0.5% W/W and high (1.2% W/W dietary calcium based on AIN-93M purified diet. Rats were housed in 12 hours light-dark cycle, 22-25°C room temperature with free access to their respective diets. At the end of the experiment, rats were decapitated and carcass fat content, carcass ash content and mean adipocyte size in testis, peritoneal and subcutaneous fat pads were compared in three groups. The SPSS 11.5 was used as statistical software, running analysis of variance for comparing the effects. Results: weight gain, carcass fat content and adipocyte size, in groups were not significantly different, while serum parathyroid hormone concentrations in high calcium group was significantly lower than low calcium group (p<0.05 and insignificantly lower than usual calcium group [12.36, 23.57 and 42.2 pg/dl respectively]. Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxy cholecalciferol were also insignificantly lower in high calcium group. Conclusion: Our findings suggested that physiological concentration of dietary calcium is not effective on weight gain, body fatness and adipocyte size. Relatively equal fat content beside significant difference in serum parathyroid hormone levels is against the parathyroid theory of calcium
... types of fats are: • Monounsaturated fats • Polyunsaturated fats • Saturated fats • Trans fats Monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats are known ... your own salads instead of using commercial dressings. Saturated fats and trans fats are known as the “harmful ...
Williams, Paul T.; Blanche, Patricia J.; Rawlings, Robin; Krauss, Ronald M.
Background/Objective: The purpose of this study is to testthe extent that individual lipoprotein responses to diet can beattributed to genes in the presence of divergent exercise levels.Design:Twenty-eight pairs of male monozygotic twins (one mostly sedentary, theother running an average of 50 km/week more than the sedentary twin) wentfrom a 6-week 40 percent fat diet to a 6-week 20 percent fat diet in acrossover design. The diets reduced fat primarily by reducing saturatedand polyunsaturated fat (both from 14 percent to 4 percent), whileincreasing carbohydrate intake from 45 percent to 65 percent. Results:Despite the twins' differences in physical activity, the dietarymanipulation produced significantly correlated changes (P<0.05) in thetwin's total cholesterol (r=0.56), low-density lipoprotein(LDL)-cholesterol (r=0.70), large, buoyant LDL (Sf7-12, r=0.52), apo A-I(r=0.49), Lp(a) (r=0.49), electrophoresis measurements of LDL-I (LDLsbetween 26 and 28.5 nm diameter, r=0.48), LDL-IIB (25.2-24.6 nm, r=0.54),LDL-IV (22-24.1 nm, r=0.50), and body weights (r=0.41). Replacing fatswith carbohydrates significantly decreased the size and ultracentrifugeflotation rate of the major LDL, the LDL mass concentrations of Sf7-12,LDL-I, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and apo A-I, andsignificantly increased LDL-IIIA (24.7-25.5 nm diameter) and Lp(a).Conclusions: Even in the presence of extreme exercise difference, genessignificantly affect changes in LDL, apo A-I, Lp(a) and body weight whendietary fats are replaced with carbohydrates.
Sanz, M; Lopez-Bote, C J; Flores, A; Carmona, J M
The aim of this experiment was to assess the effects of four different feeding programs designed to include tallow, a saturated fat at 0, 8, 12, and 28 d prior to slaughter on female broiler performance and the deposition, fatty acid profile, and melting point of abdominal fat. The following treatment groups were established according to dietary inclusion--from 21 to 49 d of age--of: sunflower oil (SUN), sunflower oil followed by tallow during the last 8 d (SUN + 8TALL), sunflower oil followed by tallow during the last 12 d (SUN + 12TALL), and tallow (TALL). The diets were designed to be isoenergetic and isonitrogenous. Abdominal fat deposition increased linearly with increasing number of days in which birds were fed the tallow-enriched diet. However, linear and quadratic response patterns were found between days before slaughter in which the birds were fed the tallow-enriched diet and abdominal fat melting points. This result suggested an exponential response in which 85% of the maximum level was already attained when the dietary fat type changed from an unsaturated to a saturated condition during the last 8 d of the feeding period. The use of an unsaturated fat source during the first stages of growth, and the substitution of a saturated fat for a few days before slaughter, may offer the advantage of lower abdominal fat deposition and an acceptable fat fluidity compared with the use of a saturated fat source during the whole growing and finishing period.
Full Text Available Obesity is associated with metabolic perturbations including liver and adipose tissue inflammation, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. Omega-6 fatty acids (ω6 promote and omega-3 fatty acids (ω3 reduce inflammation as they can be metabolized to pro- and anti-inflammatory eicosanoids, respectively. 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LO enzymatically produces some of these metabolites and is induced by high fat (HF diet. We investigated the effects of altering dietary ω6/ω3 ratio and 12/15-LO deficiency on HF diet-induced tissue inflammation and insulin resistance. We examined how these conditions affect circulating concentrations of oxidized metabolites of ω6 arachidonic and linoleic acids and innate and adaptive immune system activity in the liver. For 15 weeks, wild-type (WT mice were fed either a soybean oil-enriched HF diet with high dietary ω6/ω3 ratio (11∶1, HFH, similar to Western-style diet, or a fat Kcal-matched, fish oil-enriched HF diet with a low dietary ω6/ω3 ratio of 2.7∶1 (HFL. Importantly, the total saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat content was matched in the two HF diets, which is unlike most published fish oil studies in mice. Despite modestly increased food intake, WT mice fed HFL were protected from HFH-diet induced steatohepatitis, evidenced by decreased hepatic mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory genes and genes involved in lymphocyte homing, and reduced deposition of hepatic triglyceride. Furthermore, oxidized metabolites of ω6 arachidonic acid were decreased in the plasma of WT HFL compared to WT HFH-fed mice. 12/15-LO knockout (KO mice were also protected from HFH-induced fatty liver and elevated mRNA markers of inflammation and lymphocyte homing. 12/15-LOKO mice were protected from HFH-induced insulin resistance but reducing dietary ω6/ω3 ratio in WT mice did not ameliorate insulin resistance or adipose tissue inflammation. In conclusion, lowering dietary ω6/ω3 ratio in HF diet
Cohn Jeffrey S
Full Text Available Abstract Background Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3-PUFA are known to ameliorate several metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and an association between elevated peripheral levels of endogenous ligands of cannabinoid receptors (endocannabinoids and the metabolic syndrome has been reported. We investigated the dose-dependent effects of dietary ω-3-PUFA supplementation, given as krill oil (KO, on metabolic parameters in high fat diet (HFD-fed mice and, in parallel, on the levels, in inguinal and epididymal adipose tissue (AT, liver, gastrocnemius muscle, kidneys and heart, of: 1 the endocannabinoids, anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG, 2 two anandamide congeners which activate PPARα but not cannabinoid receptors, N-oleoylethanolamine and N-palmitoylethanolamine, and 3 the direct biosynthetic precursors of these compounds. Methods Lipids were identified and quantified using liquid chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure chemical ionization single quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-APCI-MS or high resolution ion trap-time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-IT-ToF-MS. Results Eight-week HFD increased endocannabinoid levels in all tissues except the liver and epididymal AT, and KO reduced anandamide and/or 2-AG levels in all tissues but not in the liver, usually in a dose-dependent manner. Levels of endocannabinoid precursors were also generally down-regulated, indicating that KO affects levels of endocannabinoids in part by reducing the availability of their biosynthetic precursors. Usually smaller effects were found of KO on OEA and PEA levels. Conclusions Our data suggest that KO may promote therapeutic benefit by reducing endocannabinoid precursor availability and hence endocannabinoid biosynthesis.
Sabour, Hadis; Norouzi-Javidan, Abbas; Soltani, Zahra; Mousavifar, Seyede Azemat; Latifi, Sahar; Emami-Razavi, Seyed Hassan; Ghodsi, Seyed Mohammad
Background: Studies have demonstrated the effect of different dietary fats on blood pressure (BP) in general population. However, these associations have not yet been described in people with spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods: Referred patients to Brain and SCI Research Center between 2011 and 2014 have been invited to participate. Only paraplegic individuals were recruited and patients with injury at cervical or higher thoracic sections were excluded to omit the bias effect of autonomic dysreflexia. Dietary intakes were assessed by recording consumed foods by 24-hour dietary recall interviews using Nutritionist IV 3.5.3 modified for Iranian foods. Systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) were measured 3 times and the mean values entered analysis. Results: Higher intakes of cholesterol were related to higher BP (P = 0.010 and 0.011 for SBP and DBP, respectively). Similarly, intake of saturated fat was positively correlated to both SBP (P = 0.016, r = 0.21) and DBP (P = 0.011, r = 0.22). The effect of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on BP was insignificant (P = 0.760 and 0.720 for SBP and DBP, respectively). However, intake of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was related to lower BP among people with SCI. Conclusion: This study has demonstrated that higher intakes of cholesterol and saturated fat are associated with increased BP, whereas DHA is an antihypertensive agent. Dietary modifications with reduction of cholesterol and saturated fat along with intake of additional DHA supplements may help to reduce BP in spinal cord injured-individuals with hypertension. PMID:27648172
Oxidative stress is one of the main factors studied to explain the pathophysiological mechanisms of inflammatory conditions, such as periodontitis. In this respect, nutrition may be of great importance. Actually, research on nutrients’ effects on periodontal diseases has expanded to include those influencing the redox status, which correlates to the inflammatory process. Dietary fat or lipids are often blamed as the major source of excess energy. Consequently, when caloric intake exceeds ene...
Rajesh Pandey et al
Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the impacts of high dietary fat on serum Total cholesterol and fatty liver syndrome in rats. Rats are fed on diets containing cholesterol; they develop fatty livers which are characterized by the presence in the liver of excessive amounts of cholesteryl esters, and glyceride. Increasement of glyceride content depend on a number of factors, such as the dietary contents of choline, While the nature of the "cholesterol" fatty liver and the effects on its composition of a number of dietary and other factors. In the present paper, we investigated the quantitative changes which occur in the "cholesterol" fatty liver, as a result of variations in the fat content of the diet, with particular reference to the deposition of cholesterol and of glyceride on diets of constant cholesterol content. Investigation was conducted on 90 day old Wister rats. It was observed that the serum TC values in rats of groups B and C were higher than control group. Furthermore, the serum TC and TG value was higher in rats of group C than group B. Grossly, the livers of rats of groups B and C were enlarged, pale in colour, soft in consistency and were having petechial haemorrhages with fat and fibrin deposits. Histopathologically, livers of groups B and C showed fatty infiltration, haemorrhages and mass of eosinophilic materials. The vacuoles coalesced to create clear space that displaced the nucleus to the periphery of the cell. The results suggested that addition of dietary fat from animal and vegetable sources in the diet of rats not only resulted in increase in serum TC and TG but also in marked macroscopic and microscopic changes in vital organ liver.
Lo, H H; Locniskar, M F; Bechtel, D; Fischer, S M
In a previous study (Cancer Res 51, 907, 1991) in which we found an inverse relationship between quantity of dietary corn oil and saturated fat, in a constant 15% fat diet, on the tumor promotion stage of skin carcinogenesis, it was not clear whether one or both types of fat played a modulatory role. The purpose of the present study therefore was to compare the effect of 1) increasing corn oil in corn oil-only diets and 2) increasing saturated fat, with a constant level of 5% corn oil, on tumor promotion. In the first study, the effects of five levels of dietary corn oil (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25%) on the incidence and rat of papilloma and carcinoma development were determined in female Sencar mice fed these diets one week after initiation with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene and three weeks before the start of promotion with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. A papilloma incidence of 100% was reached first in the 5% corn oil group, at 10 weeks, followed by the 10% group at 13 weeks and the 15% and 20% group at 16 weeks. The highest corn oil group achieved a 90% incidence. There were marked differences in latency of carcinoma development among the diet groups. At Week 29, the cumulative carcinoma incidence was 56% and 32%, respectively, in the 5% and 10% corn oil groups, whereas the incidence in the two highest corn oil (20% and 25%) groups was only 8% and 4%, respectively. In the second study, the effects of diets containing 5% corn oil and increasing levels of coconut oil (5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%) on the incidence and rat of papilloma and carcinoma development were determined, as described above. No significant difference in latency or incidence of papillomas or carcinomas was noted among these saturated fat diet groups. It thus appears that higher levels of dietary corn oil are associated with a reduced cancer incidence in this model system.
Yan, Hui; Potu, Ramesh; Lu, Hang; Vezzoni de Almeida, Vivian; Stewart, Terry; Ragland, Darryl; Armstrong, Arthur; Adeola, Olayiwola; Nakatsu, Cindy H; Ajuwon, Kolapo M
Obesity leads to changes in the gut microbial community which contribute to the metabolic dysregulation in obesity. Dietary fat and fiber affect the caloric density of foods. The impact of dietary fat content and fiber type on the microbial community in the hind gut is unknown. Effect of dietary fat level and fiber type on hindgut microbiota and volatile fatty acid (VFA) profiles was investigated. Expression of metabolic marker genes in the gut, adipose tissue and liver was determined. A 2 × 2 experiment was conducted in pigs fed at two dietary fat levels (5% or 17.5% swine grease) and two fiber types (4% inulin, fermentable fructo-oligosaccharide or 4% solka floc, non-fermentable cellulose). High fat diets (HFD) resulted in a higher (Pfeed efficiency and back fat accumulation than the low fat diet. Feeding of inulin, but not solka floc, attenuated (Pfeeding tended to lead to higher total VFA production in the cecum and resulted in a higher (Pfeeding also resulted in lower expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c), a marker of lipid anabolism. Bacteria community structure characterized by DGGE analysis of PCR amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments showed that inulin feeding resulted in greater bacterial population richness than solka floc feeding. Cluster analysis of pairwise Dice similarity comparisons of the DGGE profiles showed grouping by fiber type but not the level of dietary fat. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) of PCR- DGGE profiles showed that inulin feeding negatively correlated with back fat thickness. This study suggests a strong interplay between dietary fat level and fiber type in determining susceptibility to obesity.
Hallebeek, Johanna Maria
The study of this thesis concerns the dietary influence on lipid metabolism in horses. The main issue is the effect of dietary medium chain triacylglycerols (MCT) on triacylglycerol metabolism. In certain conditions high-fat diets can be beneficial for horses. Diets rich in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in the form of soybean oil decrease plasma triacylglycerol concentrations and increase the activity of heparin-released lipoprotein lipase activity in horses. The metabolic adaptation...
Jones, D F; Weiss, W P; Palmquist, D L
Four midlactation Holstein cows in a 4 x 4 Latin square design were fed one of four diets that contained 3% added fat (dry matter basis) as 100:0, 67:33, 50:50, or 33:67 tallow:fish oil. Feed intake and yield and composition of milk were not affected by treatment. The proportion of fatty acids 18:0 and cis-18:1 decreased and trans-18:1, conjugated linoleic acid, 18:3, 20:4, and 20:5 increased in milk fat with increasing fish oil. The efficiency of transferring dietary 20:5 and 22:6 to milk fat was < 7%.
Kim, Jeehyun; Oh, Seung-Won; Kim, Young-Sun; Kwon, Hyuktae; Joh, Hee-Kyung; Lee, Ji-Eun; Park, Danbee; Park, Jae-Hong; Ko, Ah-Ryoung; Kim, Ye-Ji
Abstract The incidence of colorectal cancer is rapidly increasing in South Korea. It is important to clarify the association between colorectal cancer and diet, being one of the main modifiable risk factors, as such studies in the Korean population are lacking. A cross-sectional study was performed using data from participants who had undergone a screening colonoscopy and a nutritional assessment during a routine health check-up from January 2008 to December 2011. Dietary intake data were derived from 1-day food records; colorectal adenoma was histopathologically confirmed by biopsy during colonoscopy. Eventually, 2604 participants were included in the analysis. The risk of colorectal adenoma by quintile of dietary fat intake was analyzed using logistic regression. Subgroup analyses by degree of risk and by location of colorectal adenoma were additionally performed. In men, total fat intake was not associated with risk of colorectal adenoma. However, risk of colorectal adenoma increased with higher saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake. The adjusted odds ratio in the highest quintile was 1.71 (95% confidence interval, 1.01–2.91) compared with that in the lowest quintile. There was no significant association between fat intake and risk of colorectal adenoma characterized by subsite. In female participants, total fat and specific fatty acid intake were not associated with risk of colorectal adenoma. These data support that high SFA intake is associated with risk of colorectal adenoma in Korean men. PMID:28072719
Forsythe, Cassandra E; Phinney, Stephen D; Feinman, Richard D; Volk, Brittanie M; Freidenreich, Daniel; Quann, Erin; Ballard, Kevin; Puglisi, Michael J; Maresh, Carl M; Kraemer, William J; Bibus, Douglas M; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Volek, Jeff S
We recently showed that a hypocaloric carbohydrate restricted diet (CRD) had two striking effects: (1) a reduction in plasma saturated fatty acids (SFA) despite higher intake than a low fat diet, and (2) a decrease in inflammation despite a significant increase in arachidonic acid (ARA). Here we extend these findings in 8 weight stable men who were fed two 6-week CRD (12%en carbohydrate) varying in quality of fat. One CRD emphasized SFA (CRD-SFA, 86 g/d SFA) and the other, unsaturated fat (CRD-UFA, 47 g SFA/d). All foods were provided to subjects. Both CRD decreased serum triacylglycerol (TAG) and insulin, and increased LDL-C particle size. The CRD-UFA significantly decreased plasma TAG SFA (27.48 ± 2.89 mol%) compared to baseline (31.06 ± 4.26 mol%). Plasma TAG SFA, however, remained unchanged in the CRD-SFA (33.14 ± 3.49 mol%) despite a doubling in SFA intake. Both CRD significantly reduced plasma palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7) indicating decreased de novo lipogenesis. CRD-SFA significantly increased plasma phospholipid ARA content, while CRD-UFA significantly increased EPA and DHA. Urine 8-iso PGF(2α), a free radical-catalyzed product of ARA, was significantly lower than baseline following CRD-UFA (-32%). There was a significant inverse correlation between changes in urine 8-iso PGF(2α) and PL ARA on both CRD (r = -0.82 CRD-SFA; r = -0.62 CRD-UFA). These findings are consistent with the concept that dietary saturated fat is efficiently metabolized in the presence of low carbohydrate, and that a CRD results in better preservation of plasma ARA.
Garcia Caraballo Sonia C
Full Text Available Abstract Background The central feature of NAFLD is a disturbed fatty-acid metabolism with hepatic lipid accumulation. However, the factors that determine the severity of NAFLD, including the role of nutrition, gender, and plasma lipid levels, remain to be determined. Methods High-fat diets (42 en% fat, containing 0.2% cholesterol, were fed to male and female wild-type and hyperlipidemic APOE2ki C57BL/6J mice for three weeks. The fats were, in order of decreasing saturation, fractionated palm fat (fPF; ~95%, cocoa butter (CB; ~60%, olive oil (OO; ~15%, sunflower oil (SO; ~12%, and high-oleic-acid sunflower oil (hoSO; ~7%. Plasma and liver triglycerides (concentration and composition, liver inflammation (Ccl2, Cd68, Tnf-α mRNA, and infiltration of macrophages (Cd68, Cd11b immunohistochemistry and neutrophils (Mpo were quantified. Results Addition of cholesterol to a low-fat diet decreased plasma HDL and increased (VLDL levels in APOE2ki mice. Plasma cholesterol levels in female, but not male APOE2ki mice correlated significantly with inflammation. Kupffer cells of inflamed livers were swollen. Wild-type mice refused the highly saturated fPF diet. The high-fat CB, OO, and SO diets induced hyperglycemia and a 2-fold increase in hepatic fat content in male, but not female wild-type mice (in females, hepatic fat content was similar to that in males fed a high-fat diet. All high-fat diets induced macrovesicular setatosis. APOE2ki mice were protected against high-fat diet-induced steatosis and hyperglycemia, except when fed a hoSO diet. This diet caused a 5-fold increase in liver triglyceride and mead-acid content, and an increased expression of lipogenic genes, suggesting a deficiency in poly-unsaturated fatty acids. Irrespective of the composition of the high-fat diet, oleic acid was the main triglyceride component of liver fat in wild-type and APOE2ki mouse livers. Liver inflammation was dependent on genotype (APOE2ki > wild type, gender (female
Full Text Available The omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs are a class of lipids that has been shown to have beneficial effects on some chronic degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory disorders, diabetes, and cancer. Among ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA has received particular attention for its antiproliferative, proapoptotic, antiangiogenetic, anti-invasion, and antimetastatic properties, even though the involved molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Recently, some in vitro studies showed that DHA promotes the inhibition of glycolytic enzymes and the Warburg phenotype. For example, it was shown that in breast cancer cell lines the modulation of bioenergetic functions is due to the capacity of DHA to activate the AMPK signalling and negatively regulate the HIF-1α functions. Taking into account these considerations, this review is focused on current knowledge concerning the role of DHA in interfering with cancer cell metabolism; this could be considered a further mechanism by which DHA inhibits cancer cell survival and progression.
Enette D. Larson-Meyer
Full Text Available Ghrelin and peptide YY (PYY are newly recognized gut peptides involved in appetite regulation. Plasma ghrelin concentrations are elevated in fasting and suppressed following a meal, while PYY concentrations are suppressed in fasting and elevated postprandially. We determine whether ghrelin and PYY are altered by a low-fat, high-carbohydrate (10% fat, 75% carbohydrate or moderate-fat, moderate-carbohydrate (35% fat, 50% carbohydrate diet and; whether these peptides are affected by intense endurance running (which is likely to temporarily suppress appetite. Twenty-one endurance-trained runners followed a controlled diet (25% fat and training regimen for 3 days before consuming the low-fat or isoenergetic moderate-fat diet for another 3 days in random cross-over fashion. On day 7 runners underwent glycogen restoration and then completed a 90-minute pre-loaded 10-km time trial on day 8, following a control breakfast. Blood samples were obtained on days 4 and 7 (fasting, and day 8 (non-fasting before and after exercise for analysis of ghrelin, PYY, insulin and growth hormone (GH. Insulin, GH, Ghrelin and PYY changed significantly over time (p < 0.0001 but were not influenced by diet. Ghrelin was elevated during fasting (days 4 and 7, while insulin and PYY were suppressed. Following the pre-exercise meal, ghrelin was suppressed ~17% and insulin and PYY were elevated ~157 and ~40%, respectively, relative to fasting (day 7. Following exercise, PYY, ghrelin, and GH were significantly (p < 0.0001 increased by ~11, ~16 and ~813%, respectively. The noted disruption in the typical inverse relationship between ghrelin and PYY following exercise suggests that interaction of these peptides may be at least partially responsible for post-exercise appetite suppression. These peptides do not appear to be influenced by dietary fat intake
Hooiveld Guido JEJ
Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, in particular the long chain marine fatty acids docosahexaenoic (DHA and eicosapentaenoic (EPA, are linked to many health benefits in humans and in animal models. Little is known of the molecular response to DHA and EPA of the small intestine, and the potential contribution of this organ to the beneficial effects of these fatty acids. Here, we assessed gene expression changes induced by DHA and EPA in the wildtype C57BL/6J murine small intestine using whole genome microarrays and functionally characterized the most prominent biological process. Results The main biological process affected based on gene expression analysis was lipid metabolism. Fatty acid uptake, peroxisomal and mitochondrial beta-oxidation, and omega-oxidation of fatty acids were all increased. Quantitative real time PCR, and -in a second animal experiment- intestinal fatty acid oxidation measurements confirmed significant gene expression differences and showed in a dose-dependent manner significant changes at biological functional level. Furthermore, no major changes in the expression of lipid metabolism genes were observed in the colon. Conclusion We show that marine n-3 fatty acids regulate small intestinal gene expression and increase fatty acid oxidation. Since this organ contributes significantly to whole organism energy use, this effect on the small intestine may well contribute to the beneficial physiological effects of marine PUFAs under conditions that will normally lead to development of obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes.
Yakala, G.K.; Heijden, R. van der; Molema, G.; Schipper, M.; Wielinga, P.Y.; Kleemann, R.; Kooistra, T.; Heeringa, P.
Background: An Alternating high- cholesterol dietary regimen has proven to be beneficial when compared to daily high- cholesterol feeding. In the current study we explored whether the same strategy is applicable to a high- fat dietary regimen. Objective: To investigate whether an alternating high- f
Dalley, Simon E.; Toffanin, Paolo; Pollet, Thomas V.
We predicted that the perceived likelihood of acquiring a hoped-for thin self would mediate perfectionistic strivings on dietary restraint, and that the perceived likelihood of acquiring a feared fat self would mediate perfectionistic concerns on dietary restraint. We also predicted that the mediati
Han, Young-Min; Park, Jong-Min; Kang, Jing X.; Cha, Ji-Young; Lee, Ho-Jae; Jeong, Migeyong; Go, Eun-Jin; Hahm, Ki Baik
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) damage the gastrointestinal (GI) epithelial cell membranes by inducing several signals through lipid raft organization after membrane incorporation, whereas ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) relieve inflammation, reduce oxidative stress, and provide cytoprotection, consequent to lipid raft disorganization. Therefore, we hypothesized that ω-3 PUFAs can protect the GI from NSAID-induced damages by initiating the gatekeeper action of cell membranes, subsequent to anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative actions. Administration of indomethacin (IND) leads to the formation of lipid rafts and activation of caveolin-1; however, no such observations were made upon co-administration of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and IND. In addition, the EPA-induced lipid raft disorganization, caveolin-1 inactivation, and cellular cytotoxicity were inhibited when target cells were knocked-out using G-protein coupled receptor 120 (GPR 120). EPA significantly attenuated IND-induced oxidative damage and apoptosis. IND administration induced significant ulceration, bleeding, and oedema in the stomach or small intestine of wild-type (WT) mice; however, such severe damages to the GI significantly decreased in fat-1 transgenic (TG) mice (P < 0.001), which exhibited decreased cyclooxygenase-2 expression and apoptosis, decreased interleukin-1β and FAS concentrations, and increased heme oxygenase-1 concentration. Our study indicates that the gatekeeper function of ω-3 PUFAs improves GI safety when administered with NSAID. PMID:27658533
The present study assessed the effects of dietary fat on spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice. Three-week old male C57BL/6 mice were fed the AIN-93G standard diet or a 45% fat diet (kcal %) for seven weeks before they were subcutaneously injected with 2.5 x 105 viable cells into th...
Obesity is a risk factor for cancer. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary energy restriction on high-fat diet-enhanced spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed an AIN93G diet or a high-fat diet (16% or 45% of energy fro...
Genkinger, J.M.; Hunter, D.J.; Spiegelman, D.; Anderson, K.E.; Beeson, W.L.; Buring, J.E.; Colditz, G.A.; Fraser, G.E.; Freudenheim, J.L.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Hankinson, S.E.; Koenig, K.L.; Larsson, S.C.; Leitzmann, M.; McCullough, M.L.; Miller, A.B.; Rodriguez, C.; Rohan, T.E.; Ross, J.A.; Schatzkin, A.; Schouten, L.J.; Smit, E.; Willett, W.C.; Wolk, A.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, A.; Zhang, S.M.; Smith-Warner, S.A.
Fat and cholesterol are theorized to promote ovarian carcinogenesis by increasing circulating estrogen levels. Although case-control studies have reported positive associations between total and saturated fat intake and ovarian cancer risk, two cohort studies have observed null associations. Dietary
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dietary energy density (DED does not have a simple linear relationship to fat mass in children, which suggests that some children are more susceptible than others to the effects of DED. Children with the FTO (rs9939609 variant that increases the risk of obesity may have a higher susceptibility to the effects of DED because their internal appetite control system is compromised. We tested the relationship between DED and fat mass in early adolescence and its interaction with FTO variants. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We carried out a prospective analysis on 2,275 children enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC. Diet was assessed at age 10 y using 3-day diet diaries. DED (kJ/g was calculated excluding drinks. Children were genotyped for the FTO (rs9939609 variant. Fat mass was estimated at age 13 y using the Lunar Prodigy Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry scanner. There was no evidence of interaction between DED at age 10 y and the high risk A allele of the FTO gene in relation to fat mass at age 13 y (beta = 0.005, p = 0.51, suggesting that the FTO gene has no effect on the relation between DED at 10 y and fat mass at 13 y. When DED at 10 y and the A allele of FTO were in the same model they were independently related to fat mass at 13 y. Each A allele of FTO was associated with 0.35+/-0.13 kg more fat mass at 13 y and each 1 kJ/g DED at 10 y was associated with 0.16+/-0.06 kg more fat mass at age 13 y, after controlling for misreporting of energy intake, gender, puberty, overweight status at 10 y, maternal education, TV watching, and physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals the multi-factorial origin of obesity and indicates that although FTO may put some children at greater risk of obesity, encouraging a low dietary energy density may be an effective strategy to help all children avoid excessive fat gain.
Ralf Uebelhack, MD, PhD
Conclusions: Cactus fiber has been shown to significantly promote fecal fat excretion in healthy adults. The results of our study support the hypothesis that cactus fiber helps in reducing body weight by binding to dietary fat and increasing its excretion, thus reducing dietary fat available for absorption. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01590667.
Reddy, A C; Lokesh, B R
The antioxidant spice principles curcumin and eugenol when given by gavage lowered the carrageenan-induced edema in the foot pads of rats. This lowering effect was dependent on the concentration, the time gap between the administration of spice principles and the induction of inflammation by carrageenan. Dietary lipids also influenced the extent of inflammation. Animals fed 10% cod liver oil [containing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)] for 10 weeks showed a significantly lower inflammation compared to that observed in animals fed diets supplemented with 10% groundnut oil (rich in n-6 PUFA) or 10% coconut oil (rich in medium-chain saturated fatty acids). Supplementation of diets with 1 weight% of curcumin did not affect the inflammatory responses of animals to carrageenan injection. However, supplementation of diets with 0.17 weight% eugenol further lowered inflammation by 16, 32 and 30% in animals fed coconut oil, groundnut oil and cod liver oil, respectively. Therefore, combinations of dietary lipids with spice principles like eugenol can help in lowering inflammation.
Choi, Min-Sung; Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; N Lee, Soo-Yeo; Kim, Cheon-Jei
The effects of replacing pork back fat with brewer's spent grain (BSG) pre-emulsion for physicochemical, textural properties, and sensory evaluations of reduced-fat chicken sausages are evaluated. Control was prepared with 15% pork back fat, and three reduced-fat chicken sausages were formulated with the replacement of 20, 25, and 30% pork back fat with BSG pre-emulsion. The pH level of reduced-fat sausages formulated with BSG pre-emulsion is lower than that of the control (pfat chicken sausages increase proportionally with increasing BSG pre-emulsion (pfat contents and energy values are decreased in reduced-fat chicken sausages (pfat chicken sausages (pfat and the addition of BSG pre-emulsion had no influence on the cohesiveness of the chicken sausage. And there is no significant difference in the overall acceptability among control, T1 (chicken sausage with 20% of BSG pre-emulsion, 10% of fat addition), and T2 (chicken sausage with 25% of BSG pre-emulsion, 5% of fat addition) (p>0.05). Therefore, our results indicate that BSG is effective dietary fiber source for manufacturing of reduced-fat meat product and suggest that 20-25% of BSG pre-emulsion is suitable for pork back fat in chicken sausages.
Kellogg, T F
Steroid balance studies were conducted on 24 conventional and 12 germfree male rats, 90-120 days old, fed diets containing either 20% safflower or 20% coconut oil. Both germfree and conventional rats fed the safflower oil diets had significantly lower serum cholesterol levels and significantly higher liver cholesterol levels than did the rats fed coconut oil. No significant differences in total fecal neutral sterols, coprostanol, Delta(7)-cholestenol, or total fecal bile acid excretion were seen between dietary groups of rats of either status. There was no evidence of qualitative differences in fecal bile acid excretion as a function of diet. The increased liver cholesterol was in the ester form, with cholesteryl linoleate the largest single component. There was no significant difference in the cholesterol content of the skin, muscle, adipose tissue, or gastrointestinal tract. The significance of a large increase in liver cholesteryl ester, lowered serum cholesterol, and no change in steroid excretion is discussed.
Seah, Jowy Yi Hoong; Gay, Gibson Ming Wei; Su, Jin; Tai, E-Shyong; Yuan, Jian-Min; Koh, Woon-Puay; Ong, Choon Nam; van Dam, Rob M.
High arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4n-6) status may have adverse effects on inflammation and risk of cardiovascular diseases. Concerns about high intake of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are based on the premise that endogenous conversion from linoleic acid (LA; 18:2n-6) is an important source of AA, but few population-based studies have investigated dietary determinants of AA status. In this study, we examined habitual food consumption in relation to plasma concentrations of AA and other PUFAs in population-based studies. We used cross-sectional data from 269 healthy, ethnic Chinese participants (25–80 years old) with contrasting intakes of fish and red meat from the Singapore Prospective Study Program and 769 healthy participants (44–74 years old) from the Singapore Chinese Health Study as a validation set. Multivariable linear regression was used to examine PUFA intake (% energy) and food sources of PUFA (fish, red meat, poultry, soy and cooking oils) in relation to plasma PUFAs (AA, LA, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA; 20:3n-6), alpha-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3)) concentrations. Higher intake of red meat was associated with higher plasma AA concentrations. High intake of PUFA or PUFA-rich oils was associated with higher plasma ALA but not with plasma AA. Higher intakes of soy were associated with higher ALA and fish with higher DHA and EPA concentrations. These associations were statistically significant (p < 0.05) in both studies. Red meat consumption, but not PUFA or PUFA-rich cooking oil, was associated with circulating AA suggesting that intake of pre-formed AA rather than LA is an important determinant of AA status. A diet high in fish, soy products and polyunsaturated cooking oil, and low in red meat may be associated with an optimal plasma profile of PUFA in this Chinese population. PMID:28146136
Jowy Yi Hoong Seah
Full Text Available High arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4 n − 6 status may have adverse effects on inflammation and risk of cardiovascular diseases. Concerns about high intake of n − 6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs are based on the premise that endogenous conversion from linoleic acid (LA; 18:2 n − 6 is an important source of AA, but few population-based studies have investigated dietary determinants of AA status. In this study, we examined habitual food consumption in relation to plasma concentrations of AA and other PUFAs in population-based studies. We used cross-sectional data from 269 healthy, ethnic Chinese participants (25–80 years old with contrasting intakes of fish and red meat from the Singapore Prospective Study Program and 769 healthy participants (44–74 years old from the Singapore Chinese Health Study as a validation set. Multivariable linear regression was used to examine PUFA intake (% energy and food sources of PUFA (fish, red meat, poultry, soy and cooking oils in relation to plasma PUFAs (AA, LA, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA; 20:3 n − 6, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3 n − 3, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 n − 3, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 n − 3 concentrations. Higher intake of red meat was associated with higher plasma AA concentrations. High intake of PUFA or PUFA-rich oils was associated with higher plasma ALA but not with plasma AA. Higher intakes of soy were associated with higher ALA and fish with higher DHA and EPA concentrations. These associations were statistically significant (p < 0.05 in both studies. Red meat consumption, but not PUFA or PUFA-rich cooking oil, was associated with circulating AA suggesting that intake of pre-formed AA rather than LA is an important determinant of AA status. A diet high in fish, soy products and polyunsaturated cooking oil, and low in red meat may be associated with an optimal plasma profile of PUFA in this Chinese population.
Wang, Yi; Goodrich, Jaclyn M.; Werner, Robert; Gillespie, Brenda; Basu, Niladri; Franzblau, Alfred
Background Some clinical studies have suggested that ingestion of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) has neuroprotective effects on peripheral nerve function. However, few epidemiological studies have examined the effect of dietary n-3 PUFA intake from fish consumption on peripheral nerve function, and none have controlled for co-occurrence of methylmercury exposure from fish consumption. Objectives We evaluated the effect of estimated dietary n-3 PUFA intake on peripheral nerve function after adjusting for biomarkers of methylmercury and elemental mercury in a convenience sample of 515 dental professionals. Methods We measured sensory nerve conduction (peak latency and amplitude) of the median, ulnar and sural nerves and total mercury concentrations in hair and urine samples. We estimated daily intake (mg/day) of the total n-3 PUFA, n-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and n-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) based on a self-administrated fish consumption frequency questionnaire. We also collected information on mercury exposure, demographics and other covariates. Results The estimated median intakes of total n-3 PUFA, n-3 EPA, and n-3 DHA were 447, 105, and 179 mg/day, respectively. The mean mercury concentrations in urine (1.05μg/L) and hair (0.49μg/g) were not significantly different from the US general population. We found no consistent association between n-3 PUFA intake and sensory nerve conduction after adjusting for mercury concentrations in hair and urine although some positive associations were observed with the sural nerve. Conclusions In a convenience sample of dental professionals, we found little evidence suggesting that dietary intake of n-3 PUFAs from fish has any impact on peripheral nerve function after adjustment for methylmercury exposure from fish and elemental mercury exposure from dental amalgam. PMID:23538138
Brasky, Theodore M; Sponholtz, Todd R; Palmer, Julie R; Rosenberg, Lynn; Ruiz-Narváez, Edward A; Wise, Lauren A
Dietary long-chain (LC) ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which derive primarily from intakes of fatty fish, are thought to inhibit inflammation and de novo estrogen synthesis. This study prospectively examined the associations of dietary LC ω-3 PUFAs and fish with endometrial cancer risk in 47,602 African-American women living in the United States, aged 21-69 years at baseline in 1995, and followed them until 2013 (n = 282 cases). Multivariable-adjusted Cox regression models estimated hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for associations of LC ω-3 PUFA (quintiled) and fish (quartiled) intake with endometrial cancer risk, overall and by body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)(2)). The hazard ratio for quintile 5 of total dietary LC ω-3 PUFAs versus quintile 1 was 0.79 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.51, 1.24); there was no linear trend. Hazard ratios for the association were smaller among normal-weight women (BMI <25: hazard ratio (HR) = 0.53, 95% CI: 0.18, 1.58) than among overweight/obese women (BMI ≥ 25: HR = 0.88, 95% CI: 0.54, 1.43), but these differences were not statistically significant. Fish intake was also not associated with risk (quartile 4 vs. quartile 1: HR = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.56, 1.31). Again hazard ratios were smaller among normal-weight women (HR = 0.65) than among overweight/obese women (HR = 0.94). While compatible with no association, the hazard ratios observed among leaner African-American women are similar to those from recent prospective studies conducted in predominantly white populations.
Reynolds, Christian John; Buckley, Jonathan David; Weinstein, Philip; Boland, John
This paper reviews the current literature around the environmental impacts of dietary recommendations. The focus of the review is on collating evidence relating to environmental impacts of the dietary advice found in the World Health Organisation guidelines, and environmental impact literature: reducing the consumption of fat, reducing the consumption of meat-based protein and animal-based foods, and increasing the consumption of fruit and vegetables. The environmental impact of reducing dietary fat intake is unclear, although reducing consumption of the food category of edible fats and oils appears to have little impact. However most, but not all, studies support environmental benefits of a reduced consumption of animal-based foods and increased consumption of fruit and vegetables. In general, it appears that adhering to dietary guidelines reduces impact on the environment, but further study is required to examine the environmental impacts of animal-based foods, and fruit and vegetable intake in depth.
Straarup, Ellen Marie; Danielsen, V.; Høy, Carl-Erik
In four groups of post-weaning piglets the effects of triacylglycerol structure and fatty acid profiles of four dietary fats on apparent faecal nutrient digestibility, nitrogen retention and fatty acid profiles of platelet and erythrocyte membranes, liver, adipose tissue and skeletal muscle were...... to the third week in the groups R1 and R2. Fatty acid profiles in platelet and erythrocyte membranes and in tissues reflected the fatty acid profile of the dietary fat, except for medium-chain fatty acids, which were only found in low proportions, indicating that 10:0 was mainly used as an energy source....... examined. Dietary fats included as 10% (w/w) of the diets were two structured fats of rapeseed oil interesterified with tridecanoin (R1) or coconut oil (R2), respectively, one mixture of rapeseed oil and coconut oil (R3) and rapeseed oil as control (R4). Faeces and urine from piglets weaned at 28 days...
Ewers, Bettina; Riserus, Ulf; Marckmann, Peter
MEASURES: Dietary intakes, blood lipids, dry body weight, serum albumin, and serum C-reactive protein comprised our main outcome measures. RESULTS: According to a per-protocol analysis of 14 study completers, fat supplementation resulted in significantly increased total energy intake (+1.6 MJ/day, or 380......kcal/day) and an increased dietary fat energy percentage (+9%). We observed no significant changes in blood lipids. Dry body weight (+0.49kg, P=.04) increased, and serum C-reactive protein concentration fell (-1.69mg/L, P=.01), with fat supplementation. Intention-to-treat analysis of 39 participants...... confirmed the absence of adverse blood-lipid changes. CONCLUSIONS: Unsaturated fat supplementation increased total dietary energy intake to recommended levels, had no adverse impact on blood lipids, improved nutritional status as assessed according to dry body weight, and reduced systemic inflammation...
Gilbertson, Timothy A; Khan, Naim A
CD36 and two G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR), i.e., GPR120 and GPR40, have been implicated in the gustatory perception of dietary fats in rodents. These glycoproteins are coupled to increases in free intracellular Ca²⁺ concentrations, [Ca²⁺](i), during their activation by dietary long-chain fatty acids (LCFA). The transient receptor potential type M5 (TRPM5) channel, activated by [Ca²⁺](i), participates in downstream signaling in taste bud cells (TBC). The mice, knocked-out for expression of CD36, GPR120, GPR40 or TRPM5 have a reduced spontaneous preference for fat. The delayed rectifying K⁺ (DRK) channels believed to lie downstream of these receptors are also important players in fat taste transduction. The trigeminal neurons by triggering increases in [Ca²⁺](i) may influence the taste signal to afferent nerve fibers. Why are there so many taste receptor candidates for one taste modality? We discuss the recent advances on the role of CD36, GPR120, GPR40, TRPM5 and DRK channels, in signal transduction in TBC. We shed light on their cross-talk and delineate their roles in obesity as a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind their regulation could eventually lead to new strategies to fight against this condition.
Renaud, S; Dumont, E; Godsey, F; Suplisson, A; Thevenon, C
To determine whether the long-term feeding of dietary fats affect platelet functions in man, platelet aggregation (to thrombin ADP, collagen, epinephrine) and clotting activity of platelet-rich plasma (PRP), platelet-poor plasma and of washed platelets were studied in a mobile-laboratory in 44 healthy male farmers (40--45 years) from two French regions Var and Moselle, in relation to lipemia, glycemia, dietary nutriments, and platelet phospholipid composition. In the Moselle subjects, the platelet clotting activity of PRP and of washed platelets, the platelet aggregation to thrombin and ADP, were highly significantly (p less than 0.001) increased as compared to those of Var, but not the plasma cholesterol, which was identical in the two regions. In Moselle, the intake of total calories, total lipids and saturated fats was higher than in the Var. However, it was only with the saturated fat intake (mostly stearic acid) that the platelet clotting activity (p less than 0.01) and the platelet aggregation (p less than 0.001) were highly significantly correlated. The platelet clotting activity was also significantly (p less than 0.001) correlated with the fatty acid composition of the platelet phospholipid fractions phosphatidyl serine + phosphatidyl inositol.
Munakata, A; Iwane, S; Todate, M; Nakaji, S; Sugawara, K
The gastrointestinal transit time of food was determined by x-ray fluoroscopy using barium sulfate in rats fed with diets of various dietary fiber contents, and the effects of dietary fiber on the transit time, properties of feces, and fat absorption were examined. In 4- and 16-month-old rats fed with the diet for 3 and 15 month, respectively, the transit time of the cecum and colon in those receiving 20 and 40% wheat bran diets was shortened compared with that in the 0% group. The fecal pellet number and volume increased as the wheat bran content of the diet increased. In another experiments, the daily total fat excretion was found to be the greatest in rats receiving 15% pectin diet, followed by rats receiving 15% cellulose and non-fiber diets, respectively. These results suggest that shortening of the transit time through the cecum and colon with increase of fecal volume and suppression of fat absorption all participate in the mechanism of the inhibitory action of wheat bran on carcinogenesis and on the development of diverticulum of the large intestine.
Full Text Available Obesity results in abnormally high levels of triglyceride (TG storage in tissues such as liver, heart and muscle, which disrupts their normal functions. Recently, we found that lean mice challenged with high levels of dietary fat store TGs in cytoplasmic lipid droplets in the absorptive cells of the intestine, enterocytes, and that this storage increases and then decreases over time after an acute dietary fat challenge. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of obesity on intestinal TG metabolism. More specifically we asked whether TG storage in and secretion from the intestine are altered in obesity. We investigated these questions in diet-induced obese (DIO and leptin-deficient (ob/ob mice. We found greater levels of TG storage in the intestine of DIO mice compared to lean mice in the fed state, but similar levels of TG storage after fasting. In addition, we found similar TG storage in the intestine of lean and DIO mice at multiple time points after an acute dietary fat challenge. Surprisingly, we found remarkably lower TG secretion from both DIO and ob/ob mice compared to lean controls in response to an acute dietary fat challenge. Furthermore, we found altered mRNA levels for genes involved in regulation of intestinal TG metabolism in lean and DIO mice at fasting and in response to an acute dietary fat challenge. More specifically, we found that many of the genes related to TG synthesis, chylomicron synthesis, TG storage and lipolysis were induced in response to an acute dietary fat challenge in lean mice, but this induction was not observed in DIO mice. In fact, we found a significant decrease in intestinal mRNA levels of genes related to lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation in DIO mice in response to an acute dietary fat challenge. Our findings demonstrate altered TG handling by the small intestine of obese compared to lean mice.
Levental, Kandice R; Lorent, Joseph H; Lin, Xubo; Skinkle, Allison D; Surma, Michal A; Stockenbojer, Emily A; Gorfe, Alemayehu A; Levental, Ilya
The plasma membrane (PM) serves as the functional interface between a cell and its environment, hosting extracellular signal transduction and nutrient transport among a variety of other processes. To support this extensive functionality, PMs are organized into lateral domains, including ordered, lipid-driven assemblies termed lipid rafts. Although the general requirements for ordered domain formation are well established, how these domains are regulated by cell-endogenous mechanisms or exogenous perturbations has not been widely addressed. In this context, an intriguing possibility is that dietary fats can incorporate into membrane lipids to regulate the properties and physiology of raft domains. Here, we investigate the effects of polyunsaturated fats on the organization of membrane domains across a spectrum of membrane models, including computer simulations, synthetic lipid membranes, and intact PMs isolated from mammalian cells. We observe that the ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid is robustly incorporated into membrane lipids, and this incorporation leads to significant remodeling of the PM lipidome. Across model systems, docosahexaenoic acid-containing lipids enhance the stability of ordered raft domains by increasing the order difference between them and coexisting nonraft domains. The relationship between interdomain order disparity and the stability of phase separation holds for a spectrum of different perturbations, including manipulation of cholesterol levels and high concentrations of exogenous amphiphiles, suggesting it as a general feature of the organization of biological membranes. These results demonstrate that polyunsaturated fats affect the composition and organization of biological membranes, suggesting a potential mechanism for the extensive effects of dietary fat on health and disease.
Zhang, Wenting; Wang, Hailian; Zhang, Hui; Leak, Rehana K; Shi, Yejie; Hu, Xiaoming; Gao, Yanqin; Chen, Jun
Stroke is a devastating neurological disease with no satisfactory therapies to preserve long-term neurological function, perhaps due to the sole emphasis on neuronal survival in most preclinical studies. Recent studies have revealed the importance of protecting multiple cell types in the injured brain, such as oligodendrocytes and components of the neurovascular unit, before long-lasting recovery of function can be achieved. For example, revascularization in the ischemic penumbra is critical to provide various neurotrophic factors that enhance the survival and activity of neurons and other progenitor cells, such as oligodendrocyte precursor cells. In the present study, we hypothesized that chronic dietary supplementation with fish oil promotes post-stroke angiogenesis, neurogenesis, and oligodendrogenesis, thereby leading to long-term functional improvements. Mice received dietary supplementation with n-3 PUFA-enriched fish oil for three months before and up to one month after stroke. As expected, dietary n-3 PUFAs significantly increased levels of n-3 PUFAs in the brain and improved long-term behavioral outcomes after cerebral ischemia. n-3 PUFAs also robustly improved revascularization and angiogenesis and boosted the survival of NeuN/BrdU labeled newborn neurons up to 35days after stroke injury. Furthermore, these pro-neurogenic effects were accompanied by robust oligodendrogenesis. Thus, this is the first study to demonstrate that chronic dietary intake of n-3 PUFAs is an effective prophylactic measure not only to protect against ischemic injury for the long term but also to actively promote neurovascular restorative dynamics and brain repair.
Dramane, Gado; Akpona, Simon; Besnard, Philippe; Khan, Naim A
Dietary lipids are usually responsible of several metabolic disorders. Recent compelling evidences suggest that there is a sixth taste modality, destined for the detection of oro-gustatory fats. The lipid-binding glycoprotein CD36, expressed by circumvallate papillae (CVP) of the mouse tongue, has been shown to be implicated in oro-gustatory perception of dietary lipids. We demonstrate that linoleic acid (LA) by activating sPLA2, cPLA2 and iPLA2 via CD36, produced arachidonic acid (AA) and lyso-phosphatidylcholine (Lyso-PC) which triggered Ca(2+) influx in CD36-positive taste bud cells (TBC), purified from mouse CVP. LA induced the production of Ca(2+) influx factor (CIF). CIF, AA and Lyso-PC exerted different actions on the opening of store-operated Ca2+ (SOC) channels, constituted of Orai proteins and regulated by STIM1, a sensor of Ca(2+) depletion in the endoplasmic reticulum. We observed that CIF and Lyso-PC opened Orai1 channels whereas AA-opened Ca(2+) channels were composed of Orai1/Orai3. STIM1 was found to regulate LA-induced CIF production and opening of both kinds of Ca(2+) channels. Furthermore, Stim1(-/-) mice lost the spontaneous preference for fat, observed in wild-type animals. Our results suggest that fatty acid-induced Ca(2+) signaling, regulated by STIM1 via CD36, might be implicated in oro-gustatory perception of dietary lipids and the spontaneous preference for fat. Other cell types are involved in, and external factors can influence this preference.
Full Text Available The effects of both the amount and quality of dietary fat have been studied intensively during the past decades. Previously, low-fat diets were recommended without much attention to the quality of fat, whereas there is general emphasis on the quality of fat in current guidelines. The objective of this systematic review (SR was to assess the evidence of an effect of the amount and type of dietary fat on body weight (BW, risk factors, and risk of non-communicable diseases, that is, type 2 diabetes (T2DM, cardiovascular diseases (CVD, and cancer in healthy subjects or subjects at risk for these diseases. This work was performed in the process of updating the fourth edition of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations from 2004. The literature search was performed in October 2010 covering articles published since January 2000. A complementary search was done in February 2012 covering literature until December 2011. Two authors independently selected articles for inclusion from a total of about 16,000 abstracts according to predefined criteria. Randomized controlled trials (RCT and prospective cohort studies (PCS were included as well as nested case–control studies. A few retrospective case–control studies were also included when limited or no data were available from other study types. Altogether 607 articles were quality graded and the observed effects in these papers were summarized. Convincing evidence was found that partial replacement of saturated fat (SFA with polyunsaturated fat (PUFA or monounsaturated fat (MUFA lowers fasting serum/plasma total and LDL cholesterol concentrations. The evidence was probable for a decreasing effect of fish oil on concentration of serum/plasma total triglycerides as compared with MUFA. Beneficial effect of MUFA both on insulin sensitivity and fasting plasma/serum insulin concentration was considered as probable in comparisons of MUFA and carbohydrates versus SFA, whereas no effect was found on fasting glucose
Brick, Leslie Ann D; Yang, Si; Harlow, Lisa L; Redding, Colleen A; Prochaska, James O
The Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend a 20-35 percent daily intake of fat. Resisting the temptation to eat high-fat foods, in conjunction with stage of readiness to avoid these foods, has been shown to influence healthy behavior change. Data (N = 6516) from three randomized controlled trials were pooled to examine the relationships among direct intervention effects on temptations and stage of change for limiting high-fat foods. Findings demonstrate separate simultaneous growth processes in which baseline level of temptations, but not the rate of change in temptations, was significantly related to the change in readiness to avoid high-fat foods.
Yang, Sun Young; Kim, Young Sun; Lee, Jung Eun; Seol, Jueun; Song, Ji Hyun; Chung, Goh Eun; Yim, Jeong Yoon; Lim, Sun Hee; Kim, Joo Sung
Abstract Consumption of red meat and alcohol are known risk factors for colorectal cancer, but associations for dietary fat remain unclear. We investigated the associations of dietary fat, protein, and energy intake with prevalence of colorectal adenoma. We performed a prospective cross-sectional study on asymptomatic persons who underwent a screening colonoscopy at a single center during a routine health check-up from May to December 2011. Dietary data were obtained via a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), assisted by a registered dietician. We also obtained information on alcohol consumption and smoking status, and measured metabolic syndrome markers including abdominal circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose, serum triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. We calculated odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) to evaluate the associations using the polytomous logistic regression models. As a secondary analysis, we also conducted a matched analysis, matched by age and sex (557 cases and 557 non-cases). The study sample included 557 cases (406 males and 151 females) with histopathologically confirmed colorectal adenoma, and 1157 controls (650 males and 507 females). The proportion of advanced adenoma was 28.1% of men and 18.5% of female, respectively. Although vegetable protein intake was inversely associated with the prevalence of colorectal adenoma, further adjustment for potential confounding factors attenuated the association, resulting in no significant associations. There were no significant associations between dietary fat intake and colorectal adenoma in energy-adjusted models. For vegetable protein in women, the OR for the comparison of those in the highest tertile with those in the lowest tertile was 0.47 (95% CI 0.25–0.91, P for trend = 0.07) after adjustment for total energy intake. However, after controlling for metabolic syndrome markers, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and family history
Yang, Sun Young; Kim, Young Sun; Lee, Jung Eun; Seol, Jueun; Song, Ji Hyun; Chung, Goh Eun; Yim, Jeong Yoon; Lim, Sun Hee; Kim, Joo Sung
Consumption of red meat and alcohol are known risk factors for colorectal cancer, but associations for dietary fat remain unclear. We investigated the associations of dietary fat, protein, and energy intake with prevalence of colorectal adenoma.We performed a prospective cross-sectional study on asymptomatic persons who underwent a screening colonoscopy at a single center during a routine health check-up from May to December 2011. Dietary data were obtained via a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), assisted by a registered dietician. We also obtained information on alcohol consumption and smoking status, and measured metabolic syndrome markers including abdominal circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose, serum triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. We calculated odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) to evaluate the associations using the polytomous logistic regression models. As a secondary analysis, we also conducted a matched analysis, matched by age and sex (557 cases and 557 non-cases).The study sample included 557 cases (406 males and 151 females) with histopathologically confirmed colorectal adenoma, and 1157 controls (650 males and 507 females). The proportion of advanced adenoma was 28.1% of men and 18.5% of female, respectively. Although vegetable protein intake was inversely associated with the prevalence of colorectal adenoma, further adjustment for potential confounding factors attenuated the association, resulting in no significant associations. There were no significant associations between dietary fat intake and colorectal adenoma in energy-adjusted models. For vegetable protein in women, the OR for the comparison of those in the highest tertile with those in the lowest tertile was 0.47 (95% CI 0.25-0.91, P for trend = 0.07) after adjustment for total energy intake. However, after controlling for metabolic syndrome markers, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and family history of
Khan, Naiman A; Raine, Lauren B; Drollette, Eric S; Scudder, Mark R; Hillman, Charles H
Identification of health behaviors and markers of physiological health associated with childhood cognitive function has important implications for public health policy targeted toward cognitive health throughout the life span. Although previous studies have shown that aerobic fitness and obesity exert contrasting effects on cognitive flexibility among prepubertal children, the extent to which diet plays a role in cognitive flexibility has received little attention. Accordingly, this study examined associations between saturated fats and cholesterol intake and cognitive flexibility, assessed using a task switching paradigm, among prepubertal children between 7 and 10 years (N = 150). Following adjustment of confounding variables (age, sex, socioeconomic status, IQ, VO2max, and BMI), children consuming diets higher in saturated fats exhibited longer reaction time during the task condition requiring greater amounts of cognitive flexibility. Further, increasing saturated fat intake and dietary cholesterol were correlated with greater switch costs, reflecting impaired ability to maintain multiple task sets in working memory and poorer efficiency of cognitive control processes involved in task switching. These data are among the first to indicate that children consuming diets higher in saturated fats and cholesterol exhibit compromised ability to flexibly modulate their cognitive operations, particularly when faced with greater cognitive challenge. Future longitudinal and intervention studies are necessary to comprehensively characterize the interrelationships between diet, aerobic fitness, obesity, and children's cognitive abilities.
Full Text Available Tian-yu Chen,1,2,* Zhong-min Zhang,1,2,* Xiao-chen Zheng,1,2 Liang Wang,1,2 Min-jun Huang,1,2 Si Qin,3 Jian Chen,1,2 Ping-lin Lai,4 Cheng-liang Yang,1,2 Jia Liu,1,2 Yi-fan Dai,5 Da-di Jin,1,2 Xiao-chun Bai1,2,4 1Department of Orthopaedic, the Third Affiliated Hospital of Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, People's Republic of China; 2Academy of Orthopaedics, Guangdong Province, Guangzhou, Guangdong, People's Republic of China; 3Department of Dermatology and STD, Guangdong No.2 Provincial People's Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangdong, People's Republic of China; 4Department of Cell Biology, School of Basic Medical Science, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, People's Republic of China; 5Center of Metabolic Disease Research, Nanjing Medical University, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Aim: To investigate the effect of endogenous n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs on bone marrow adipogenesis under osteoporosis conditions. Methods: A mouse osteoporosis model overexpressing the FAT1 gene from Caenorhabditis elegans and converting n-6 PUFAs to n-3 PUFAs endogenously was used. Results: The mice presented significantly lower bone marrow adiposity (adipocyte volume/tissue volume, mean adipocyte number but increased the bone parameters (bone mineral density, bone mineral content, bone volume/total volume in the distal femoral metaphysis. Conclusion: Endogenous n-3 PUFAs protect bone marrow adipogenesis, which provides a novel drug target. Keywords: antiosteoporosis, n-3 PUFAs, bone marrow, adipogenesis
Katsumura, Masanori; Takagi, Shoko; Oya, Hana; Tamura, Shohei; Saneyasu, Takaoki; Honda, Kazuhisa; Kamisoyama, Hiroshi
Animal by-products can be recycled and used as sources of essential nutrients. Water-soluble heme iron (WSHI), a functional food additive for supplementing iron, is produced by processing animal blood. In this study, we investigated the effects of dietary supplementation of 3% WSHI and exercise training for 4 weeks on the accumulation of abdominal fat and lipid metabolism in mice fed high-fat diet. Exercise-trained mice had significantly less perirenal adipose tissue, whereas WSHI-fed mice tended to have less epididymal adipose tissue. In addition, total weight of abdominal adipose tissues was significantly decreased in the Exercise + WSHI group. Dietary WSHI significantly increased the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of lipoprotein lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase. WSHI-fed mice also tended to show increased mRNA levels of adipose triglyceride lipase in their epididymal adipose tissue. Dietary WSHI also significantly decreased the mRNA levels of fatty acid oxidation-related enzymes in the liver, but did not influence levels in the Gastrocnemius muscle. Exercise training did not influence the mRNA levels of lipid metabolism-related enzymes in the epididymal adipose tissue, liver or the Gastrocnemius muscle. These findings suggest that the accumulation of abdominal fat can be efficiently decreased by the combination of dietary WSHI and exercise training in mice fed high-fat diet.
de Theije, Caroline G M; van den Elsen, Lieke W J; Willemsen, Linette E M; Milosevic, Vanja; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien A H; Lopes da Silva, Sofia; Broersen, Laus M; Korte, S Mechiel; Olivier, Berend; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D
Allergy is suggested to exacerbate impaired behaviour in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. We have previously shown that food allergy impaired social behaviour in mice. Dietary fatty acid composition may affect both the immune and nervous system. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) on food allergy-induced impaired social behaviour and associated deficits in prefrontal dopamine (DA) in mice. Mice were fed either control or n-3 LCPUFA-enriched diet before and during sensitization with whey. Social behaviour, acute allergic skin response and serum immunoglobulins were assessed. Monoamine levels were measured in brain and intestine and fatty acid content in brain. N-3 LCPUFA prevented impaired social behaviour of allergic mice. Moreover, n-3 LCPUFA supplementation increased docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) incorporation into the brain and restored reduced levels of prefrontal DA and its metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3-methoxytyramine and homovanillic acid in allergic mice. In addition to these brain effects, n-3 LCPUFA supplementation reduced the allergic skin response and restored decreased intestinal levels of serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in allergic mice. N-3 LCPUFA may have beneficial effects on food allergy-induced deficits in social behaviour, either indirectly by reducing the allergic response and restoring intestinal 5-HT signalling, or directly by DHA incorporation into neuronal membranes, affecting the DA system. Therefore, it is of interest to further investigate the relevance of food allergy-enhanced impairments in social behaviour in humans and the potential benefits of dietary n-3 LCPUFA supplementation.
Notarnicola, Maria; Tutino, Valeria; De Nunzio, Valentina; Dituri, Francesco; Caruso, Maria Gabriella; Giannelli, Gianluigi
Mediterranean diet components, such as olive oil and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs), can arrest cell growth and promote cell apoptosis. Recently, olive oil has been demonstrated to modulate type-1 cannabinoid (CB1) receptor gene expression in both human colon cancer cells and rat colon. The aim of this study was to investigate a possible link between olive oil and ω-3 PUFAs effects and CB1 receptor expression in both intestinal and adipose tissue of Apc(Min/+) mice. To confirm the role for the CB1 receptor as a negative modulator of cell proliferation in human colon cancer, CB1 receptor gene expression was also detected in tumor tissue and in surrounding normal mucosa of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Dietary ω-3 PUFAs significantly inhibited intestinal polyp growth in mice, correlating with CB1 receptor gene and protein expression induction. CB1 receptor gene up-regulation was also detected in adipose tissue, suggesting a close communication between cancer cells and the surrounding environment. Tissue CB1 receptor induction was associated with a concurrent inactivation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Moreover, there was a significant reduction in CB1 receptor gene expression levels in cancer tissue compared to normal surrounding mucosa of patients with CRC, confirming that in cancer the "protective" action of the CB1 receptor is lost.
Rader Daniel J
Full Text Available Abstract Background The plasma lipoprotein response of F1B Golden-Syrian hamsters fed diets high in very long chain (VLC n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA is paradoxical to that observed in humans. This anomaly is attributed, in part, to low lipoprotein lipase activity and is dependent on cholesterol status. To further elucidate the mechanism(s for these responses, hamsters were fed diets containing supplemental fish oil (VLC n-3 PUFA or safflower oil (n-6 PUFA (both 10% [w/w] and either cholesterol-supplemented (0.1% cholesterol [w/w] or cholesterol-depleted (0.01% cholesterol [w/w] and 10 days prior to killing fed 0.15% lovastatin+2% cholestyramine [w/w]. Results Cholesterol-supplemented hamsters fed fish oil, relative to safflower oil, had higher non-high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations (P Conclusion These data suggest disturbing cholesterol homeostasis in F1B hamsters alters their response to dietary fatty acids, which is reflected in altered plasma lipoprotein patterns and regulation of genes associated with their metabolism.
Feng, Zemeng; Li, Tiejun; Wu, Chunli; Tao, Lihua; Blachier, Francois; Yin, Yulong
The Chinese population has undergone rapid transition to a high-fat diet. Furthermore, monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) is widely used as a flavour enhancer in China. Previous studies have reported that high-fat diet modifies intestinal metabolism and physiology. However, little information is available on the effects of oral MSG on intestine, and no study focus on the interaction of dietary fat and MSG for intestinal health. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of MSG and dietary fat on intestinal health in growing pigs, and to try to identify possible interactions between these 2 nutrients for such effects. A total of 32 growing pigs were used and fed with 4 isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets (basal diet, high-fat diet, basal diet with 3% MSG and high fat diet with 3% MSG). Parameters related to reactive oxygen species metabolism, epithelial morphology, pro-inflammation factors and tight junction protein expression and several species of intestinal microbe were measured. Overall, dietary fat and MSG had detrimental effects on several of the physiological and inflammatory parameters measured in the proximal intestine, while exerting beneficial effects on the distal intestine in growing pigs, with generally antagonistic effects. These results may be of particular relevance for nutritional concerns in patients with intestinal diseases.
Finley, D A; Lönnerdal, B; Dewey, K G; Grivetti, L E
Milk from vegetarians contained a lower proportion of fatty acids derived from animal fat and a higher proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from dietary vegetable fat. No significant differences were observed between dietary groups in percent fat in the milk or in proportions of fatty acids synthesized de novo in the mammary gland. Among women consuming less than 35 g animal fat per day, percent milk fat was significantly correlated with animal fat intake. Among women consuming greater than 35 g animal fat, percent fat in milk was positively correlated with percent of C10:0, C12:0, and C18:3 and negatively correlated with percent of C16:0 and C18:0 in the milk fat. These findings suggest that there is a maximum amount of C16:0 and C18:0 that can be taken up from the blood and subsequently secreted into the milk.
Yokoyama, Wallace; Anderson, William H K; Albers, David R; Hong, Yun-Jeong; Langhorst, Marsha L; Hung, Shao-Ching; Lin, Jiann-Tsyh; Young, Scott A
In animal studies, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) intake results in increased fecal fat excretion; however, the effects on dietary saturated fatty acids (SATs) and trans-fatty acids (TRANS) remain unknown. This study investigated the effect of HPMC on digestion and absorption of lipids in male Golden Syrian hamsters fed either freeze-dried ground pizza (PZ), pound cake (PC), or hamburger and fries (BF) supplemented with dietary fiber from either HPMC or microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) for 3 weeks. We observed greater excretion of SATs and TRANS by both diets supplemented with HPMC or MCC as compared to the feed. SAT, TRANS, and unsaturated fatty acids (UNSAT) contents of feces of the PZ diet supplemented with HPMC were 5-8 times higher than diets supplemented with MCC and tended to be higher in the PC- and BF-HPMC supplemented diets as well. We also observed significant increases in fecal excretion of bile acids (2.6-3-fold; P fat excretion in a biased manner with preferential fecal excretion of both TRANS and SAT in hamsters fed fast food diets.
Full Text Available The reliability and stability of plasma lipid biomarkers and their association with dietary fat intake were evaluated among 48 subjects who were randomly chosen from the participants of a validation study of the population-based cohort, the Shanghai Men's Health Study (SMHS. Four spot blood samples, one taken each season, were measured for total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol levels. The reliability and stability of these measurements were assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC and by the correlations between a randomly chosen measurement with the mean of measurements across seasons using a bootstrap approach. The median levels for total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol were 177.5, 164.5, 41.0, and 102.5 (mg/dl, respectively. The ICCs of the biomarkers ranged from 0.58 (LDL-cholesterol to 0.83 (HDL-cholesterol. The correlation between randomly chosen spot measurements and the mean measurement were 0.91, 0.86, 0.93, and 0.83 for total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol, respectively. The correlations of lipid biomarkers with dietary fat intake and other lifestyle factors were comparable to other previous reports. In conclusion, this study suggests that measurements of lipid biomarkers from a single spot blood sample are a good representation of the average blood levels of these biomarkers in the study population and could be a useful tool for epidemiological studies.
Kelley, D S; Nelson, G J; Serrato, C M; Schmidt, P C; Branch, L B
We have compared the effects of dietary saturated and unsaturated fats of the n-6 and n-3 types on the immune status of male New Zealand white rabbits. Four groups of rabbits (n = 8) were fed purified diets containing one of the following fats (7.6% w/w, 23 kcal%) for 5 mo, hydrogenated soybean oil (HSO); safflower oil (SFO); linseed oil (LSO); or menhaden oil (MHO). In vitro proliferation of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) cultured with T-cell mitogens was significantly higher in the LSO group than in the other three groups, and that in the HSO group was higher than in the MHO and SFO groups which were not different from each other. Proliferation of PBL in response to B-cell mitogens was significantly higher in the LSO group than in the SFO and MHO groups. In vitro proliferation of splenocytes (SPC) from the LSO group was higher than that from the other three groups only when SPC were cultured with T-cell mitogens. Serum antibody levels against bovine serum albumin were significantly higher in the LSO group than in the SFO group after second and third immunizations. Spleen weights, number of SPC or PBL, and delayed-type hypersensitivity were not different among the four dietary groups. Our data show that linseed oil diet enhanced several indices of immune status in rabbits.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Chinese population has undergone rapid transition to a high-fat diet. Furthermore, monosodium L-glutamate (MSG is widely used as a daily food additive in China. Little information is available on the effects of oral MSG and dietary fat supplementation on the amino acid balance in tissues. The present study aimed to determine the effects of both dietary fat and MSG on amino acid metabolism in growing pigs, and to assess any possible interactions between these two nutrients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Four iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric diets (basal diet, high fat diet, basal diet with 3% MSG and high fat diet with 3% MSG were provided to growing pigs. The dietary supplementation with fat and MSG used alone and in combination were found to modify circulating and tissue amino acid pools in growing pigs. Both dietary fat and MSG modified the expression of gene related to amino acid transport in jejunum. CONCLUSIONS: Both dietary fat and MSG clearly influenced amino acid content in tissues but in different ways. Both dietary fat and MSG enhance the absorption of amino acids in jejunum. However, there was little interaction between the effects of dietary fat and MSG.
Full Text Available Cristina Cuda1, Bibiana Garcia-Bailo1,2, Mohamed Karmali1,2, Ahmed El-Sohemy1, Alaa Badawi21Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, 2Office of Biotechnology, Genomics and Population Health, Public Health Agency of Canada, Toronto, Ontario, CanadaBackground: Increasing evidence suggests a role for inflammation in the development of type 2 diabetes. Elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-6, have been associated with insulin resistance, and dietary lipids can increase cytokine production. The objective of this study was to determine whether a single nucleotide polymorphism near the IL6 gene (rs7801406 modifies the relationship between dietary fat and markers of insulin sensitivity.Methods: Subjects were healthy men and women aged 20–29 years from the Toronto Nutrigenomics and Health Study. Dietary intake was estimated using a one-month semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Fasting blood samples were taken for genotyping and biomarker measurement.Results: The single nucleotide polymorphism was not associated with any of the measures of insulin sensitivity. However, it modified the relationship between total dietary fat and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (P = 0.053 for interaction. Total fat intake was positively related to HOMA-IR in individuals homozygous for the G allele (ß = 0.005 ± 0.002, P = 0.03, but not among heterozygotes. There was an inverse relationship between total fat intake and HOMA-IR in individuals who were homozygous for the A allele (β= –0.012 ± 0.006, P = 0.047.Conclusion: These findings suggest that dietary fat influences insulin sensitivity differently depending on genotype.Keywords: interleukin-6, insulin sensitivity, nutrigenomics, dietary fat
Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of healthy diets that contribute with adequate amounts of fat and fatty acids is needed for children. Among Guatemalan children, there is little information about fat intakes. Therefore, the present study sought to assess intakes of dietary fats and examine food sources of those fats in Guatemalan children. Methods The study subjects consisted of a convenience sample of 449 third- and fourth-grade schoolchildren (8-10 y, attending public or private schools in Quetzaltenango City, Guatemala. Dietary data was obtained by means of a single pictorial 24-h record. Results The percentages of total energy (%E from total fat, saturated fat (SFA and monounsaturated fat (MUFA reached 29%E for total fat and 10%E for each SFA and MUFA, without gender differences. %E from fats in high vs. low-socio economic status (SES children were significantly higher for boys, but not for girls, for total fat (p = 0.002 and SFA (p 97% of all groups consuming less than 1%E from this fats. Fried eggs, sweet rolls, whole milk and cheese were main sources of total fat and, SFA. Whole milk and sweet bread were important sources of n-3 FA for high- and low-SES boys and girls, respectively. Fried plantain was the main source of n-3 FA for girls in the high-SES group. Fried fish, seafood soup, and shrimp, consumed only by boys in low amounts, were sources of eicosapentaenoic (EPA and docosahexaenoic (DHA acids, which may explain the low intakes of these nutrients. Conclusions α-linolenic acid, EPA and DHA were the most limiting fatty acids in diets of Guatemalan schoolchildren, which could be partially explained by the low consumption of sources of these nutrients, particularly fish and seafood (for EPA and DHA. This population will benefit from a higher consumption of culturally acceptable foods that are rich in these limiting nutrients.
Gordon, Ryan A; Merrill, Michele La; Hunter, Kent W
Breast cancer is a complex disease resulting from a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Among environmental factors, body composition and intake of specific dietary components like total fat are associated with increased incidence of breast cancer and metastasis. We previously showed...... detected metastasis modifiers were identified. Additional analyses, such as eQTL by dietary fat interaction analysis, causality and database evaluations, helped to further refine the candidate loci to produce an enriched list of genes potentially involved in the pathogenesis of metastatic mammary cancer...
Full Text Available Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA which are synthesized mainly in the liver have relevant functions in the organism. A diet high in fat (HFD generates an increase in the levels of fat and induces oxidative stress (lipo-peroxidation in the liver, along with a reduction in tissue n-3 and n-6 LCPUFA. Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO is rich in anti-oxidants (polyphenols and tocopherols which help to prevent the development of oxidative stress. This study evaluated the role of EVOO in preventing the induction of fat deposition and oxidative stress in the liver and in the depletion of LCPUFA in the liver, erythrocytes and brain generated by a HFD in C57BL/6J mice. Four experimental groups (n = 10/group were fed a control diet (CD or a HFD for 12 weeks and were respectively supplemented with EVOO (100 mg/day. The group fed HFD showed a significant increase (p Los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados de cadena larga (AGPICL sintetizados principalmente por el hígado, cumplen funciones relevantes en el organismo. Una dieta alta en grasa (DAG genera un incremento en los niveles de grasa y estrés oxidativo (lipoperoxidación en hígado y una reducción en los niveles de AGPICL n-3 y n-6 en diferentes tejidos. El aceite de oliva extra virgen (AOEV es rico en antioxidantes (polifenoles y tocoferoles que ayudan a prevenir el desarrollo del estrés oxidativo. Este trabajo evaluó el rol del AOEV en la prevención del depósito de grasa, estrés oxidativo hepático y reducción de los AGPICL n-3 y n-6 en diferentes tejidos generado por una DAG en ratones C57BL/6J. Cuatro grupos experimentales (n=10/grupo fueron alimentados (12 semanas con dieta control (DC o DAG y suplementados con AOEV (100 mg/día. El grupo alimentado con DAG presentó un incremento (p < 0,05 en la acumulación de grasa y estrés oxidativo hepático, acompañado de una reducción en los niveles de AGPICL n-3 y n-6 en hígado, eritrocitos y cerebro. La suplementación con AOEV logr
Austin, Gregory L; Krueger, Patrick M
The optimal diet composition to prevent obesity and its complications is unknown. Study aims were to determine the association of diet composition with energy intake, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and C-reactive protein (CRP). Data were from the NHANES for eligible adults aged 20-74 y from 2005 to 2006 (n = 3073). Energy intake and diet composition were obtained by dietary recall. HOMA-IR was calculated from fasting insulin and glucose concentrations, and CRP was measured directly. Changes for a 1-point increase in percentage of sugar, saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and alcohol were determined across their means in exchange for a 1-point decrease in percentage of nonsugar carbohydrates. Regression analyses were performed, and means ± SEs were estimated. Increasing the percentage of sugar was associated with increased energy intake in men (23 ± 5 kcal; P intake. In women, increasing percentages of SFAs (27 ± 10 kcal; P = 0.02), PUFAs (43 ± 6 kcal; P intake. Increasing the percentage of alcohol was associated with increased energy intake in men (38 ± 7 kcal; P sugar, fats, and alcohol was associated with substantially increased energy intake but had minimal association with HOMA-IR and CRP.
Full Text Available Background: Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is one of the commonest psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents. The main symptoms of ADHD are hyperactivity, inattention and impulsivity. Both etiology and neurobiological basis of ADHD are unknown. In this context, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs, especially omega-3 (n-3 PUFAs, have become a focus of interest. The symptoms of ADHD have been suggested to be associated with a deficiency of n-3 PUFAs. In addition, the impact of a supply of dietary n-3 PUFAs in the treatment of ADHD has frequently been discussed. Objective: The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of n-3 PUFA supplementation on attention and impulsivity in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR which has been proposed to be a valid genetic animal model of ADHD. Methods: Seven-week-old male SHRs were randomly divided into two groups of 15 rats and fed one of two experimental diets (n-3 PUFA-enriched or n-3 PUFA-deficient prior to and during behavioral testing. Attention and impulsivity were assessed using a three-choiceserial-reaction-time-task (3CSRTT which is based on the five-choice-serial-reaction-timetask. The experiment was performed with three-month-old rats. Results: Our findings demonstrate a marked difference between groups regarding impulsivity but not attention. The n-3 PUFA-enriched diet significantly reduced impulsivity in SHRs compared with rats fed with the n-3 PUFA-deficient diet. Conclusion: The present data show a decrease in impulsivity following a dietary n-3 PUFA supplementation, but no changes in attention. A possible explanation for these results is that the attention displayed by SHR may not be linked to n-3 PUFA supply. It is important to note that inattention and impulsiveness are two of the main symptoms of ADHD. Our results regarding dietary n-3 PUFA supply may support the positive findings in human studies demonstrating that n-3 PUFA administration
Kairenius, P; Ärölä, A; Leskinen, H; Toivonen, V; Ahvenjärvi, S; Vanhatalo, A; Huhtanen, P; Hurme, T; Griinari, J M; Shingfield, K J
The potential of dietary fish oil (FO) supplements to increase milk 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 concentrations and the associated effects on milk fatty acid (FA) composition, intake, and milk production were examined. Four multiparous lactating cows offered a grass silage-based diet (forage:concentrate ratio 58:42, on a dry matter basis) supplemented with 0, 75, 150, or 300g of FO/d (FO0, FO75, FO150, and FO300, respectively) were used in a 4×4 Latin square with 28-d experimental periods. Milk FA composition was analyzed by complementary silver-ion thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and silver-ion HPLC. Supplements of FO decreased linearly dry matter intake, yields of energy-corrected milk, milk fat and protein, and milk fat content. Compared with FO0, milk fat content and yield were decreased by 30.1 and 40.6%, respectively, on the FO300 treatment. Supplements of FO linearly increased milk 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 concentrations from 0.07 to 0.18 and 0.03 to 0.10g/100g of FA, respectively. Enrichment of 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 was accompanied by decreases in 4- to 18-carbon saturated FA and increases in total conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), trans FA, and polyunsaturated FA concentrations. Fish oil elevated milk fat cis-9,trans-11 CLA content in a quadratic manner, reaching a maximum on FO150 (from 0.61 to 2.15g/100g of FA), whereas further amounts of FO increased trans-10 18:1 with no change in trans-11 18:1 concentration. Supplements of FO also resulted in a dose-dependent appearance of 37 unique 20- and 22-carbon intermediates in milk fat. Concentrations of 16-, 18-, 20-, and 22-carbon trans FA were all increased by FO, with enrichment of trans 18:1 and trans 18:2 being quantitatively the most important. Decreases in milk fat yield to FO were not related to changes in milk trans-10,cis-12 CLA concentration or estimated milk fat melting point. Partial least square regression analysis indicated that FO-induced milk fat depression was associated with
Stenblom, Eva-Lena; Egecioglu, Emil; Montelius, Caroline; Ramachandran, Deepti; Bonn, Britta; Weström, Björn; Mansouri, Abdelhak; Langhans, Wolfgang; Erlanson-Albertsson, Charlotte
Thylakoids reduce body weight gain and body fat accumulation in rodents. This study investigated whether an enhanced oxidation of dietary fat-derived fatty acids in the intestine contributes to the thylakoid effects. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat diet with (n = 8) or without thylakoids (n = 8) for 2 wk. Body weight, food intake, and body fat were measured, and intestinal mucosa was collected and analyzed. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to measure gene expression levels of key enzymes involved in fatty acid transport, fatty acid oxidation, and ketogenesis. Another set of thylakoid-treated (n = 10) and control rats (n = 10) went through indirect calorimetry. In the first experiment, thylakoid-treated rats (n = 8) accumulated 25% less visceral fat than controls. Furthermore, fatty acid translocase (Fat/Cd36), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a (Cpt1a), and mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase 2 (Hmgcs2) genes were upregulated in the jejunum of the thylakoid-treated group. In the second experiment, thylakoid-treated rats (n = 10) gained 17.5% less weight compared with controls and their respiratory quotient was lower, 0.86 compared with 0.91. Thylakoid-intake resulted in decreased food intake and did not cause steatorrhea. These results suggest that thylakoids stimulated intestinal fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis, resulting in an increased ability of the intestine to handle dietary fat. The increased fatty acid oxidation and the resulting reduction in food intake may contribute to the reduced fat accumulation in thylakoid-treated animals.
Komal Prasad Rai
Full Text Available Aim: The present experiment was conducted to study the effect of post hatch dietary fat supplementation on performance of broiler chicken. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 day-old Ven Cobb broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups of 30 chicks in each (three replicates of 10 birds/treatment. The trial lasted for 35 days. The experimental design was a completely randomized design. Four types of diet were formulated for 1st week: T1, T2, T3 and T4 contained control diet with no added fat, 2.5, 5 and 7.5% fat, respectively. After 1st week post-hatch period chicks were fed ad libitum with the normal basal diet as per Bureau of Indian Standard recommendations till completion of the experiment (8-35 days. Results: Significantly higher (p<0.05 body weight and improved feed conversion ratio (FCR was recorded in birds fed 5% dietary fat at the end of the experiment whereas, feed intake was not significantly affected. Significantly (p<0.05 higher dressed weight was observed due to 5% fat supplementation than other groups whereas, it was not significant for other carcass cuts. No significant differences were observed in moisture, protein and lipid content of breast and thigh muscle of broiler due to supplemented fat whereas, 2.5% dietary fat significantly (p<0.05 increase the serum HI titer on day 28th. In biochemical profile, higher serum albumin (g/dl was recorded due to 5% fat supplementation whereas other biochemical components did not show any significance difference among treatments. Conclusion: It may be concluded that supplementation of fat in broilers diet improves the overall FCR, dressing percentage and gain more body weight.
Dysregulation of adipokines is a hallmark of obesity. Polyunsaturated (n3) fatty acids in fish oil are shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects on adipose tissue mitigating the dysregulation of adipokines. In this study, we compared high-fat diets composed of different dietary oils with various le...
Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the effect of dietary n-3 PUFA on oxidant/antioxidant status, in vitro very low and low density lipoprotein (VLDL-LDL, and VLDL-LDL-fatty acid composition in macrosomic pups of diabetic mothers. We hypothesized that n-3 PUFA would improve oxidative stress in macrosomia. Diabetes was induced in female Wistar rats fed with the ISIO diet (control or with the EPAX diet (enriched in n-3 PUFAs, by streptozotocin. The macrosomic pups were killed at birth (day 0 and at adulthood (day 90. Lipid parameters and VLDL-LDL-fatty acid composition were investigated. The oxidant/antioxidant status was determined by measuring plasma oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC, hydroperoxides, carbonyl proteins, and VLDL-LDL oxidation. Macrosomic rats of ISIO fed diabetic mothers showed an increase in plasma and VLDL-LDL-triglycerides and VLDL-LDL-cholesterol levels and altered VLDL-LDL-fatty acid composition. Plasma ORAC was low with high hydroperoxide and carbonyl protein levels. The in vitro oxidizability of VLDL-LDL was enhanced in these macrosomic rats. The EPAX diet corrected lipid parameters and improved oxidant/antioxidant status but increased VLDL-LDL susceptibility to oxidation. Macrosomia is associated with lipid abnormalities and oxidative stress. n-3 PUFA exerts favorable effects on lipid metabolism and on the oxidant/antioxidant status of macrosomic rats. However, there are no evident effects on VLDL-LDL oxidation.
Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Mazzoli, Arianna; Giacco, Antonia; Cancelliere, Rosa; di Fabio, Giovanni; Zarrelli, Armando; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna
High fat and/or carbohydrate intake are associated with an elevated risk for obesity and chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The harmful effects of a high fat diet could be different, depending on dietary fat quality. In fact, high fat diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids are considered less deleterious for human health than those rich in saturated fat. In our previous studies, we have shown that rats fed a high fat diet developed obesity and exhibited a decrease in oxidative capacity and an increase in oxidative stress in liver mitochondria. To investigate whether polyunsaturated fats could attenuate the above deleterious effects of high fat diets, energy balance and body composition were assessed after two weeks in rats fed isocaloric amounts of a high-fat diet (58.2% by energy) rich either in lard or safflower/linseed oil. Hepatic functionality, plasma parameters, and oxidative status were also measured. The results show that feeding on safflower/linseed oil diet attenuates the obesogenic effect of high fat diets and ameliorates the blood lipid profile. Conversely, hepatic steatosis and mitochondrial oxidative stress appear to be negatively affected by a diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids.
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and vitamin D are important for fat and bone metabolism but the intake is declining in Western societies with a potential deleterious effect on growth and bone health. Dietary PUFA composition favors the intake of omega-6 (n-6 PUFA) compared to omega-3 (n-3 PUFA......). Hormones (eicosanoids) from n-6 PUFA induce fat cell differentiation and an intake high in n-3 PUFA relative to n-6 PUFA is hypothesized to inhibit differentiation and hypertrophy of adipose cells and subsequently the risk for obesity. Identification of dietary components with effects on fat tissue growth...... is increasing in many Western societies. Bone mineral accrual in childhood influences later bone health and optimization may be preventive against the development of demineralizing skeletal disorders. The purpose of this PhD thesis is to investigate the association between n-3 PUFA in breastmilk and BMI...
Kayode A Balogun
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Omega (n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA are converted to bioactive lipid components that are important mediators in metabolic and physiological pathways; however, which bioactive compounds are metabolically active, and their mechanisms of action are still not clear. We investigated using lipidomic techniques, the effects of diets high in n-3 PUFA on the fatty acid composition of various bioactive lipids in plasma and liver. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Female C57BL/6 mice were fed semi-purified diets (20% w/w fat containing varying amounts of n-3 PUFA before mating, during gestation and lactation, and until weaning. Male offspring were continued on their mothers' diets for 16 weeks. Hepatic and plasma lipids were extracted in the presence of non-naturally occurring internal standards, and tandem electrospray ionization mass spectrometry methods were used to measure the fatty acyl compositions. There was no significant difference in total concentrations of phospholipids in both groups. However, there was a significantly higher concentration of eicosapentaenoic acid containing phosphatidylcholine (PC, lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC, and cholesteryl esters (CE (p < 0.01 in the high n-3 PUFA group compared to the low n-3 PUFA group in both liver and plasma. Plasma and liver from the high n-3 PUFA group also had a higher concentration of free n-3 PUFA (p < 0.05. There were no significant differences in plasma concentrations of different fatty acyl species of phosphatidylethanolamine, triglycerides, sphingomyelin and ceramides. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings reveal for the first time that a diet high in n-3 PUFA caused enrichment of n-3 PUFA in PC, LPC, CE and free fatty acids in the plasma and liver of C57BL/6 mice. PC, LPC, and unesterified free n-3 PUFA are important bioactive lipids, thus altering their fatty acyl composition will have important metabolic and physiological roles.
Tinahones, F J; Gómez-Zumaquero, J M; Monzón, A; Rojo-Martínez, G; Pareja, A; Morcillo, S; Cardona, F; Olveira, G; Soriguer, F
Recent studies suggest that the biological effects of saturated fatty acids depend on the length of their chain. We compared the effect of diets containing different fatty acids on plasma lipids and lymphocyte proliferation in the presence of lovastatin and with increasing amounts of LDL. Lymphocytes from rats fed with a diet rich in palmitic acid had a greater lymphocyte proliferation capacity than those from rats fed with diets rich in oleic acid, linoleic acid, or fish oil. This effect was maintained when small amounts of polyunsaturatwed fatty acids (PUFA; sunflower oil) were added to the palmitic acid diet. LDL receptor activity, measured by the capacity of lovastatin to revert the inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation with increasing amounts of LDL in the medium, was greater in the rats fed with palmitic acid, and was similar to the other groups when small amounts of PUFA were added. All the groups had similar levels of plasma cholesterol, but the LDL levels were significantly lower in the group fed with palmitic acid plus PUFA. The highest HDL-cholesterol (HDLc) levels were found in the palmitic acid group and the lowest LDL-cholesterol (LDLc)/HDLc ratio in the palmitic acid plus PUFA group. These results suggest that diets rich in palmitic acid do not raise total cholesterol, but reduce LDLc or keep it normal, and raise HDLc levels. This effect may be partly due to an increase in LDL receptor activity. The inclusion of small amounts of PUFA in the diet rich in palmitic acid substantially modified the LDL receptor response in the lymphocytes, suggesting that the proportion of different families of dietary fatty acids may be more important than the individual amount of each in absolute terms to explain their effects on plasma lipids and lipoproteins.
Clare L Adam
Full Text Available Consumption of a high fat diet promotes obesity and poor metabolic health, both of which may be improved by decreasing caloric intake. Satiety-inducing ingredients such as dietary fibre may be beneficial and this study investigates in diet-induced obese (DIO rats the effects of high or low fat diet with or without soluble fermentable fibre (pectin. In two independently replicated experiments, young adult male DIO rats that had been reared on high fat diet (HF; 45% energy from fat were given HF, low fat diet (LF; 10% energy from fat, HF with 10% w/w pectin (HF+P, or LF with 10% w/w pectin (LF+P ad libitum for 4 weeks (n = 8/group/experiment. Food intake, body weight, body composition (by magnetic resonance imaging, plasma hormones, and plasma and liver lipid concentrations were measured. Caloric intake and body weight gain were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Body fat mass increased in HF, was maintained in LF, but decreased significantly in LF+P and HF+P groups. Final plasma leptin, insulin, total cholesterol and triglycerides were lower, and plasma satiety hormone PYY concentrations were higher, in LF+P and HF+P than in LF and HF groups, respectively. Total fat and triglyceride concentrations in liver were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Therefore, the inclusion of soluble fibre in a high fat (or low fat diet promoted increased satiety and decreased caloric intake, weight gain, adiposity, lipidaemia, leptinaemia and insulinaemia. These data support the potential of fermentable dietary fibre for weight loss and improving metabolic health in obesity.
The diets of most U.S. children and adults are poor, as reflected by low diet quality scores, when compared with the recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGAs). Contributing to these low scores is that most Americans overconsume solid fats, which may contain saturated fatty acids...
Oliveira Otto, de M.C.; Mozaffarian, D.; Kromhout, D.; Bertoni, A.G.; Sibley, C.T.; Jacobs, D.R.; Nettleton, J.A.
Background: Although dietary recommendations have focused on restricting saturated fat (SF) consumption to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, evidence from prospective studies has not supported a strong link between total SF intake and CVD events. An understanding of whether food sources of S
Berg, Carla J.; An, Lawrence C.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.
Given the demographic differences among two-year colleges and four-year universities and the relatively limited access to health education and campus-based health resources, this study compares the frequency of limiting dietary fat intake and exercising among two- and four-year college students. A total of 2,265 undergraduate students aged 18-25…
Morita, T; Ebihara, K; Kiriyama, S
The inclusion of 8% mineral oil in a fat-free diet causes severe growth retardation in rats. In the present study, this growth retardation was found to be primarily due to the reduction in nutrient intake, but not to the exacerbation of essential fatty acid deficiency. In addition, the growth retardation caused by mineral oil ingestion was prevented by the concurrent inclusion of 10% water-insoluble dietary fiber [gobo fiber prepared from Arctium lappa L. (gobo in Japanese) or cotton cellulose powder] or 5% fatty acids (C12-C18) as well as glycerol monostearate. The prevention of growth retardation by these substances was due to their ability to inhibit mineral oil absorption from the intestinal lumen.
Yamada, Daisuke; Wada, Keiji; Sekiguchi, Masayuki
Converging evidence suggests that an imbalance of ω3 to ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in the brain is involved in mental illnesses such as anxiety disorders. However, the underlying mechanism is unknown. We previously reported that the dietary ratio of ω3 to ω6 PUFA alters this ratio in the brain, and influences contextual fear memory. In addition to behavioral change, enhancement of cannabinoid CB1 receptor-mediated short-term synaptic plasticity and facilitation of the agonist sensitivity of CB1 receptors have been observed in excitatory synaptic responses in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA). However, it is not known whether long-term synaptic plasticity in the amygdala is influenced by the dietary ratio of ω3 to ω6 PUFA. In the present study, we examined long-term potentiation (LTP) of optogenetically-evoked excitatory synaptic responses in synapses between the terminal of the projection from the auditory cortex (ACx) and the pyramidal cells in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala. We found that LTP in this pathway was attenuated in mice fed with a high ω3 to ω6 PUFA ratio diet (0.97), compared with mice fed with a low ω3 to ω6 PUFA ratio diet (0.14). Furthermore, mice in the former condition showed reduced fear responses in an auditory fear conditioning test, compared with mice in the latter condition. In both electrophysiological and behavioral experiments, the effect of a diet with a high ω3 to ω6 PUFA diet ratio was completely blocked by treatment with a CB1 receptor antagonist. Furthermore, a significant reduction was observed in cholesterol content, but not in the level of an endogenous CB1 receptor agonist, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), in brain samples containing the amygdala. These results suggest that the balance of ω3 to ω6 PUFA has an impact on fear memory and cortico-amygdala synaptic plasticity, both in a CB1 receptor–dependent manner. PMID:27601985
Duran-Montge, P; Theil, Peter Kappel; Lauridsen, Charlotte
Little is known about pig gene expressions related to dietary fatty acids (FAs) and most work have been conducted in rodents. The aim of this study was to investigate how dietary fats regulate fat metabolism of pigs in different tissues. Fifty-six crossbred gilts (62 ± 5.2 kg BW) were fed one...... differently in liver, fat and muscles tissues....... of seven dietary treatments (eight animals per treatment): a semi-synthetic diet containing a very low level of fat (no fat (NF)) and six fat-supplemented diets (ca. 10%) based on barley and soybean meal. The supplemental fat sources were tallow (T), high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSF), sunflower oil (SFO...
Elmsjö, Albert; Rosqvist, Fredrik; Engskog, Mikael K.R.; Haglöf, Jakob; Kullberg, Joel; Iggman, David; Johansson, Lars; Ahlström, Håkan; Arvidsson, Torbjörn; Risérus, Ulf; Pettersson, Curt
BACKGROUND: Overeating different dietary fatty acids influence the amount of liver fat stored during weight gain, however, the mechanisms responsible are unclear. We aimed to identify non-lipid metabolites that may differentiate between saturated (SFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) overfeeding using a non-targeted metabolomic approach. We also investigated the possible relationships between plasma metabolites and body fat accumulation. METHODS: In a randomized study (LIPOGAIN study), ...
Morio, Béatrice; Fardet, Anthony; Legrand, Philippe; Lecerf, Jean-Michel
Reducing the consumption of saturated fatty acids to a level as low as possible is a European public health recommendation to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. The association between dietary intake of saturated fatty acids and development and management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), however, is a matter of debate. A literature search was performed to identify prospective studies and clinical trials in humans that explored the association between dietary intake of saturated fatty acids and risk of insulin resistance and T2DM. Furthermore, to assess whether specific foods, and not just the saturated fatty acid content of the food matrix, can have differential effects on human health, the relationship between consumption of full-fat dairy products, a main source of dietary saturated fatty acids, and risk of insulin resistance and T2DM was studied. There is no evidence that dietary saturated fatty acids from varied food sources affect the risk of insulin resistance or T2DM, nor is intake of full-fat dairy products associated with this risk. These findings strongly suggest that future studies on the effects of dietary saturated fatty acids should take into account the complexity of the food matrix. Furthermore, communication on saturated fats and their health effects should be prudent and well informed.
International audience; BACKGROUND: Prolonged postprandial hypertriglyceridemia is a potential risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. In the context of obesity, this is associated with a chronic imbalance of lipid partitioning oriented toward storage and not toward β-oxidation. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that the physical structure of fat in a meal can modify the absorption, chylomicron transport, and further metabolic handling of dietary fatty acids. DESIGN: Nine normal-weight and...
Vazirigohar, M; Dehghan-Banadaky, M; Rezayazdi, K; Krizsan, S J; Nejati-Javaremi, A; Shingfield, K J
trans FA and polyunsaturated FA concentrations. Increases in the proportion of forage in diets containing SFO increased milk fat synthesis, elevated short-chain SFA and lowered trans FA concentrations, without altering milk polyunsaturated FA content. Changes in fat yield on high-concentrate diets containing SFO varied between experiments and individual animals, with decreases in milk fat secretion being associated with increases in milk fat trans-10 18:1, trans-10, cis-12 CLA and trans-9, cis-11 CLA concentrations.
Segura, J; Cambero, M I; Cámara, L; Loriente, C; Mateos, G G; López-Bote, C J
The effect of sex, source of saturated fat (lard v. palm oil) and glycerol inclusion in the fattening diet on composition and fatty acid positional distribution in the triglyceride molecule was studied in pigs from 78 to 110 kg BW. Average daily gain and carcass characteristics, including ham and loin weight, were not affected by dietary treatment but sex affected backfat depth (P dietary glycerol increased lean content in gilts but not in barrows (P Dietary fat did not affect total SFA or PUFA concentrations of the IMF but the subcutaneous total MUFA concentration tended to be higher (P = 0.079) in pigs fed lard than in pigs fed palm oil. Dietary glycerol increased total MUFA and C18:1n-9 concentration in the IMF and increased total MUFA and decreased C18:2n-6, C18:3n-3 and total PUFA concentrations in the SF. The data indicate that altering the fatty acid composition of the triglyceride molecule at the 2-position, by dietary intervention during the fattening phase, is very limited.
Pierce, Barbara J; McWilliams, Scott R
Fatty-acid composition of fat stores affects exercise performance in a variety of vertebrates although few such studies focus on flying vertebrates such as migratory birds, which are exceptional exercisers. We first discuss the natural variation in quality of fat available in natural foods eaten by migratory birds and their behavioral preferences for specific fatty acids in these foods. We then outline three proposed hypotheses for how dietary fatty acids can affect exercise performance, and some of the evidence to date that pertains to these hypotheses with special emphasis on the exercise performance of migratory birds. In theory, selectively feeding on certain long-chain unsaturated fatty acids may be advantageous because (1) such fatty acids may be metabolized more quickly and may stimulate key facets of aerobic metabolism (fuel hypothesis); (2) such fatty acids may affect composition and key functions of lipid-rich cell membranes (membrane hypothesis); and (3) such fatty acids may directly act as signaling molecules (signal hypothesis). Testing these hypotheses requires cleverly designed experiments that can distinguish between them by demonstrating that certain fatty acids stimulate oxidative capacity, including gene expression and activity of key oxidative enzymes, and that this stimulation changes during exercise.
Hennig, B.; Reiterer, G.; Toborek, M.; Matveev, S.V.; Daugherty, A.; Smart, E. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington (United States); Robertson, L.W. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City (United States)
From epidemiological studies, there is substantial evidence that cardiovascular diseases are linked to environmental pollution and that exposure to polycyclic and/or polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons can lead to human cardiovascular toxicity. A major route of exposure to PCBs in humans is via oral ingestion of contaminated food products. Therefore, circulating environmental contaminants derived from diets, such as PCBs, are in intimate contact with the vascular endothelium. Endothelial activation and dysfunction is an important factor in the overall regulation of vascular lesion pathology. In addition to endothelial barrier dysfunction, another functional change in atherosclerosis is the activation of the endothelium that is manifested as an increase in the expression of specific cytokines and adhesion molecules. These cytokines and adhesion molecules are proposed to mediate the inflammatory aspects of the disease by regulating the vascular entry of leukocytes. Alterations in lipid profile and lipid metabolism as a result of exposure to PCBs may be important components of endothelial cell dysfunction. Little is known about the interaction of dietary fats and PCBs in the pathology of atherosclerosis. We have reported a significant disruption in endothelial barrier function when cells were exposed to linoleic acid. In the current study we aimed to demonstrate the PCB-fatty acid interaction in vivo and hypothesized that PCB toxicity can be modulated by the type of fat consumed.
Khan, Naim Akhtar; Besnard, Philippe
The sense of taste informs the organism about the quality of ingested food. Five basic taste modalities, e.g., sweet, sour, bitter, salty and umami have so far been identified. Recent compelling evidence from rodent and human studies raise the possibility for an additional sixth taste modality devoted to the perception of lipids. Recent studies strongly suggest that lingual CD36, being implicated in the perception of dietary fat, may act as a gustatory lipid sensor. Knocking down of CD36 gene decreases the spontaneous preference for long chain fatty acids (LCFA) in mice subjected to a free choice situation. Lingual CD36, after activation by LCFA, is able to trigger specific signalling mechanisms, e.g., increase in free intracellular calcium concentrations, ([Ca(2)(+)]i), phosphorylation of protein-tyrosine kinase (PTK) and release of the neurotransmitters like serotonin and nor-adrenaline into synaptic clefts. This signalling cascade is likely responsible for physiologic responses, induced by the detection of lipids in the oral cavity (i.e., lingual fat preference and cephalic phase of digestion). This review provides recent insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in the oro-sensory perception of lipids.
Full Text Available The present study aimed to examine the effects of dietary L-carnitine supplementation on performance parameters and egg quality measurements of white Leghorn hens at two dietary fat levels. Two hundred 22-weeks old white Leghorn hens were randomly distributed into 40 cages of five birds each. Two basal diets different in added fat level (0 or 3% were formulated and supplemented with incremental levels of L-carnitine (0, 50, 100, 150 mg/kg diet. The experiment lasted 98 d (two weeks for adaptation and 12 weeks as the main experimental period. At the final day of trial, ten randomly selected hens per treatment were euthanized to measure abdominal fat content. Dietary inclusion of 3% soybean oil caused a significant (P<0.05 increase in egg weight and egg mass, and decrease in feed consumption by the birds. Daily energy intake, however, was not affected by dietary fat supplementation. Except of feed conversion ratio, none of performance parameters were found to be influenced by dietary fat by carnitine interaction. Feed conversion ratio improved (P<0.05 when L-carnitine was supplemented to diets contained in 3% added fat. The albumen height and subsequently Haugh unit were improved (P<0.05 by dietary supplementation of L-carnitine, particularly the level of 150 mg/kg; however, eggshell quality indexes (thickness and breaking strength were not affected by dietary L-carnitine inclusion, but influenced (P<0.05 by fat supplementation of diets. Moreover, dietary addition of fat increased abdominal fat percentage and supplementary dietary L-carnitine significantly (P<0.05 decreased abdominal fat and yolk cholesterol contents. From the present results, it can be seen that although the supplemental L-carnitine had no considerable effect on most performance parameters, it had a beneficial impacts on lipid metabolism and internal egg quality indexes of 24 to 36 wk-aged laying hens.
Wachtman, Lynn M; Kramer, Joshua A; Miller, Andrew D; Hachey, Audra M; Curran, Elizabeth H; Mansfield, Keith G
There is a critical need for animal models to study aspects type 2 diabetes (T2D) pathogenesis and prevention. While the rhesus macaque is such an established model, the common marmoset has added benefits including reduced zoonotic risks, shorter life span, and a predisposition to birth twins demonstrating chimerism. The marmoset as a model organism for the study of metabolic syndrome has not been fully evaluated. Marmosets fed high-fat or glucose-enriched diets were followed longitudinally to observe effects on morphometric and metabolic measures. Effects on pancreatic histomorphometry and vascular pathology were examined terminally. The glucose-enriched diet group developed an obese phenotype and a prolonged hyperglycemic state evidenced by a rapid and persistent increase in mean glycosylated hemoglobin (HgbA1c) observed as early as week 16. In contrast, marmosets fed a high-fat diet did not maintain an obese phenotype and demonstrated a delayed increase in HgbA1) that did not reach statistical significance until week 40. Consumption of either diet resulted in profound pancreatic islet hyperplasia suggesting a compensation for increased insulin requirements. Although the high-fat diet group developed atherosclerosis of increased severity, the presence of lesions correlated with glucose intolerance only in the glucose-enriched diet group. The altered timing of glucose dysregulation, differential contribution to obesity, and variation in vascular pathology suggests mechanisms of effect specific to dietary nutrient content. Feeding nutritionally modified diets to common marmosets recapitulates aspects of metabolic disease and represents a model that may prove instrumental to elucidating the contribution of nutrient excess to disease development.
Józefiak, D; Kierończyk, B; Rawski, M; Hejdysz, M; Rutkowski, A; Engberg, R M; Højberg, O
The aim of the present work was to examine how different fats commonly used in the feed industry affect broiler performance, nutrient digestibility and microbial fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract of broiler chickens challenged with virulent Clostridium perfringens strains. Two experiments were carried out, each including 480-day-old male broilers (Ross 308), which were randomly distributed to eight experimental groups using six replicate pens per treatment and 10 birds per pen. In Experiment 1, birds were fed diets containing soybean oil, palm kernel fatty acid distillers, rendered pork fat and lard. In Experiment 2, birds were fed diets containing rapeseed oil, coconut oil, beef tallow and palm oil. In both experiments, the birds were either not challenged or challenged with a mixture of three C. perfringens type A strains. Irrespective of the fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens did not affect broiler chicken body weight gain (BWG) and mortality in either of the two experiments. The BWG was affected by dietary fat type in both experiments, indicating that the fatty acid composition of the fat source affects broiler growth performance. In particular, the inclusion of animal fats tended to improve final BW to a greater extent compared with the inclusion of unsaturated vegetable oils. In Experiment 2, irrespective of the dietary fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens challenge significantly impaired feed conversion ratio in the period from 14 to 28 days (1.63 v. 1.69) and at 42 days (1.65 v. 1.68). In both experiments apparent metabolizable energy values were affected by dietary fat type. Irrespective of the fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens challenge decreased the digesta pH in the crop and ileum, but had no effect in cecal contents. Moreover, in Experiment 1, total organic acid concentration in the ileum was two to three times lower on soybean oil diets as compared with other treatments, indicating that C. perfringens as well as
Cláudia M. Oller do Nascimento
Full Text Available Approximately 40% of the total energy consumed by western populations is represented by lipids, most of them being ingested as triacylglycerols and phospholipids. The focus of this review is to analyze the effect of the type of dietary fat on white adipose tissue metabolism and secretory function, particularly on haptoglobin, TNF-α, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and adiponectin secretion. Previous studies have demonstrated that the duration of the exposure to the high-fat feeding, amount of fatty acid present in the diet and the type of fatty acid may or may not have a significant effect on adipose tissue metabolism. However, the long-term or short-term high fat diets, especially rich in saturated fatty acids, probably by activation of toll-like receptors, stimulated the expression of proinflammatory adipokines and inhibited adiponectin expression. Further studies are needed to investigate the cellular mechanisms by which dietary fatty acids affect white adipose tissue metabolism and secretory functions.Aproximadamente 40% do total de energia consumida pela população ocidental é representada pelos lipídios, a maioria dela sendo ingerida na forma de triglicerídeos e fosfolipídios. O foco desta revisão foi analisar o efeito dos tipos de gordura da dieta sobre o metabolismo e função secretora do tecido adiposo branco, principalmente, sobre a secreção de haptoglobina, TNF-α, inibidor do ativador de plasminogênio-1 e adiponectina. Estudos prévios demonstraram que durante a exposição de dietas hiperlipídicas, a quantidade e o tipo de ácidos graxos presentes na dieta podem ou não ter um efeito significante sobre o metabolismo do tecido adiposo. Entretanto, o tratamento a curto ou longo prazo com dieta hiperlipídica, especialmente rica em ácidos graxos saturados, provavelmente por ativar receptores toll-like, estimula a expressão de adipocinas pró-inflamatórias e inibe a expressão de adiponectina. Estudos adicionais s
In order to examine the effect of dietary protein and fat on DDT metabolism and liver lipid concentration, rats were supplied with calory adjusted diets consisting of various amounts of protein and fat. The results suggested that dietary protein and fat changed the liver lipid concentration. They also showed that dietary protein and fat affected the residual concentration of DDT and its metabolites in the liver and adipose tissue. The change of the concentration of lipids in liver accompanied a change of the residual concentration of DDT in liver. This fact indicates that one effect of dietary protein and fat on the metabolism of DDT is attributable to the metabolic change of lipids in liver. Dietary protein accelerated the metabolism of DDT and reduced its residual concentration in liver. The results suggest that regression equations exist between the residual concentration of DDT in liver and (1) dietary factors and (2) lipid concentration in liver; In (DDT) = a x 1n (x1) + b x 1n(x2) + c x 1n(TL) + d (1) In(DDD or DDE) = a' x 1n(TL) + b' x 1n(PL) + c' (2) where x1, x2, TL, and PL are the dietary protein, dietary fat content, total lipid, and phospholipid concentration in liver, respectively. a, a', b, b', c, c', and d are constants. The concentrations of DDT and its metabolites estimated from equations (1) and (2) agrees well with the measured concentrations in liver.
Jozefiak, D; Kieronczyk, B; Rawski, M
were carried out, each including 480-day-old male broilers (Ross 308), which were randomly distributed to eight experimental groups using six replicate pens per treatment and 10 birds per pen. In Experiment 1, birds were fed diets containing soybean oil, palm kernel fatty acid distillers, rendered pork...... fat and lard. In Experiment 2, birds were fed diets containing rapeseed oil, coconut oil, beef tallow and palm oil. In both experiments, the birds were either not challenged or challenged with a mixture of three C. perfringens type A strains. Irrespective of the fat type present in the diet, C...... of animal fats tended to improve final BW to a greater extent compared with the inclusion of unsaturated vegetable oils. In Experiment 2, irrespective of the dietary fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens challenge significantly impaired feed conversion ratio in the period from 14 to 28 days (1.63 v...
Wyckoff, Emily P; Evans, Brittney C; Manasse, Stephanie M; Butryn, Meghan L; Forman, Evan M
Obesity is a significant public health issue, and is associated with poor diet. Evidence suggests that eating behavior is related to individual differences in executive functioning. Poor executive functioning is associated with poorer diet (few fruits and vegetables and high saturated fat) in normal weight samples; however, the relationship between these specific dietary behaviors and executive functioning have not been investigated in adults with obesity. The current study examined the association between executive functioning and intake of saturated fat, fruits, and vegetables in an overweight/obese sample using behavioral measures of executive function and dietary recall. One-hundred-ninety overweight and obese adults completed neuropsychological assessments measuring intelligence, planning ability, and inhibitory control followed by three dietary recall assessments within a month prior to beginning a behavioral weight loss treatment program. Inhibitory control and two of the three indices of planning each independently significantly predicted fruit and vegetable consumption such that those with better inhibition and planning ability consumed more fruits and vegetables. No relationship was found between executive functioning and saturated fat intake. Results increase understanding of how executive functioning influences eating behavior in overweight and obese adults, and suggest the importance of including executive functioning training components in dietary interventions for those with obesity. Further research is needed to determine causality as diet and executive functioning may bidirectionally influence each other.
Batorek-Lukač, N; Dubois, S; Noblet, J; Čandek-Potokar, M; Labussière, E
In immunocastrated (IC) pigs, revaccination (V2) increases lipid deposition (LD) because of increased voluntary feed intake; but little is known on associated effect of diet composition on partitioning of nutrients in IC pigs. Digestibility measurements, N and energy balances in respiration chambers were performed in two subsequent stages in four replicates of two male littermates to determine the changes between 85 (stage 1) and 135 (stage 2) kg live weight due to combined effect of IC, growth and increased feed intake (IC/growth). During stage 1, pigs received a standard low-fat diet (LF diet; 2.5% dry matter (DM) of fat fed at 2.27 MJ metabolizable energy (ME)/kg BW0.60 per day), whereas during stage 2, feed intake was increased to 2.47 MJ ME/kg BW0.60 per day and one littermate was fed LF diet whereas the second received a fat-enriched diet (HF diet; 8.9% DM of fat) to determine the effect of increased dietary fat content on energy utilization in IC pigs. Results from N balance and measurements of gas exchanges were used to calculate respiratory quotient (RQ), heat production (HP), nutrient contribution to fat retention, components of HP, protein deposition (PD) and LD. Nutrients and energy apparent digestibility coefficients, methane losses and N retention (Pdietary fat (Ppigs is a result of increased daily LD caused by higher energy intake and lower basal metabolic rate. In addition, LD is further enhanced by dietary energy enrichment with fat after V2.
Chaumontet, C.; Schwarz, J.; Even, P.C.; Simonin-Foucault, A.; Piedcoq, J.; Fromentin, G.; Azzout-Marniche, D.; Tome, D.
High-protein diets are known to reduce adiposity in the context of high carbohydrate and Western diets. However, few studies have investigated the specific high-protein effect on lipogenesis induced by a high-sucrose (HS) diet or fat deposition induced by high-fat feeding. We aimed to determine the
Han, Young-Min; Park, Jong-Min; Cha, Ji-Young; Jeong, Migyeong; Go, Eun-Jin; Hahm, Ki Baik
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3PUFAs) have inhibitory effects in various preclinical cancer models, but their effects in intestinal polyposis have never been examined. As attempts have been made to use nutritional intervention to counteract colon cancer development, in this study we evaluated the effects of ω-3 PUFAs on intestinal polyposis in the Apc(Min/+) mouse model. The experimental groups included wild-type C56BL/6 mice, Apc(Min/+) mice, fat-1 transgenic mice expressing an n-3 desaturase to enable ω-3 PUFA synthesis, and Apc(Min/+) × fat-1 double-transgenic mice; all mice were 20 weeks of age. Small intestines were collected for gross and pathologic evaluation, including assessment of polyp number and size, followed by immunohistochemical staining and Western blotting. After administration of various concentrations of ω-3 PUFAs, PUFA levels were measured in small intestine tissue by GC/MS/MS analysis to compare with PUFA synthesis of between C57BL6 and fat-1mice. As a result, ω-3 PUFAs significantly attenuated Apc mutation-induced intestinal polyposis accompanied with significant inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, COX-2 and PGE2, but induced significant levels of 15-PGDH. In addition, significant induction of the inflammasome-related substrates as IL-1β and IL-18 and activation of caspase-1 was observed in Apc(Min/+) × fat-1 mice. Administration of at least 3 g/60 kg ω-3 PUFAs was equivalent to ω-3 PUFAs produced in fat-1 mice and resulted in significant increase in the expression of IL-1β, caspase-3 and IL-18, as seen in Apc(Min/+) × fat-1 mice. We conclude that ω-3PUFAs can prevent intestinal polyp formation by inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, but increased levels of 15-PGDH and IL-18.
Benítez, R; Núñez, Y; Fernández, A; Isabel, B; Fernández, A I; Rodríguez, C; Barragán, C; Martín-Palomino, P; López-Bote, C; Silió, L; Óvilo, C
The effect of two diets, respectively enriched with SFA (S) and PUFA (P), on FA tissue composition and gene expression was studied in fattened Iberian pigs. The FA composition of adipose, muscular and liver tissues was affected by dietary treatment. S group showed higher MUFA and MUFA/SFA ratio and lower PUFA and n-6/n-3 ratio than P group in all analyzed tissues. In muscle and liver the extracted lipids were separated into neutral lipids and polar lipid fractions which showed significantly different responses to the dietary treatment, especially in liver where no significant effect of diet was observed in NL fraction. The expression of six candidate genes related to lipogenesis and FA oxidation was analyzed by qPCR. In liver, stearoyl CoA desaturase (SCD), acetyl CoA carboxylase alpha (ACACA) and malic enzyme 1 (ME1) genes showed higher expression in S group. SCD, ACACA, ME1, and fatty acid synthase (FASN) gene expression levels showed a wide variation across the tested tissues, with much higher expression levels observed in adipose tissue than other tissues. Tissue FA profile and gene expression results support the deposition of dietary FA, the lipogenic effect of dietary saturated fat in liver and the employment of saturated dietary fat for endogenous synthesis of MUFA in all the analyzed tissues.
Full Text Available The aim of this model study was to investigate how selected gut functions and serum lipid profile in rats on high-fat diets differed according to the type of fat (saturated vs. unsaturated and carbohydrate (simple vs. complex. The experiment was conducted using 32 male Wistar rats distributed into 4 groups of 8 animals each. For 4 weeks, the animals were fed group-specific diets that were either rich in lard or soybean oil (16% of the diet as the source of saturated or unsaturated fatty acids, respectively; further, each lard- and soybean oil-rich diet contained either fructose or corn starch (45.3% of the diet as the source of simple or complex carbohydrates, respectively. Both dietary factors contributed to changes in the caecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations, especially to the butyrate concentration, which was higher in rats fed lard- and corn starch-rich diets compared to soybean oil- and fructose-rich diets, respectively. The lowest butyrate concentration was observed in rats fed the soybean oil- and fructose-rich diet. On the other hand, the lard- and fructose-rich diet vs. the other dietary combinations significantly increased serum total cholesterol concentration, to more than two times serum triglyceride concentration and to more than five times the atherogenic index. In conclusion, a high-fat diet rich in fructose can unfavorably affect gut metabolism when unsaturated fats are predominant in the diet or the blood lipids when a diet is rich in saturated fats.
LIU Shi-jun; WANG Jia-qi; BU Deng-pan; WEI Hong-yang; ZHOU Ling-yun; LUO Qiu-jiang
To determine the effect of dietary supplementation with vegetable oilseeds on the composition of bovine milk fatty acids(FAs), 40 Holstein dairy cows were used with a complete randomized design. At the beginning of the experiment, the cows were 150±25 day in milk (DIM). Total duration of the experiment was six weeks. Measurements were made during the last three weeks. Cows in four treatments were fed with a basal diet (CT) or basal diet supplemented with either whole full fat soybean (WFS), full fat expanded soybean (FPS) or whole full fat soybean with whole cottonseed and full fat expanded soybean (MIX). The composition of the milk fat was analyzed by gas chromatography. Relative to control, the conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) concentration in milk fat from cows on FPS was significantly increased by 83.88% (P＜0.05). The proportions of C12:0 were decreased by 35.7, 35.51, and 38.65% in milk fat from cows on WFS, MIX, and FPS compared with cows on CT. Similar decreases in C14:0 were 23.83, 24.85, and 31.48% in WFS, MIX, and FPS treatments, respectively.Feeding vegetable oilseeds increased the proportion of healthy FAs (mainly CLA), whereas decreased the concentration of C12:0 and C14:0. Therefore, milk and dairy products would have higher nutritive and therapeutic value.
Rosero, D S; van Heugten, E; Odle, J; Cabrera, R; Arellano, C; Boyd, R D
The objective of this experiment was to determine the impact of supplemental dietary fat on total lactation energy intake and sow and litter performance during high ambient temperatures (27 ± 3°C). Data were collected from 337 mixed-parity sows from July to September in a 2,600-sow commercial unit in Oklahoma. Diets were corn-soybean meal-based with 7.5% corn distillers dried grains with solubles and 6.0% wheat middlings and contained 3.24 g of standardized ileal digestible Lys/Mcal of ME. Animal-vegetable fat blend (A-V) was supplemented at 0, 2, 4, or 6%. Sows were balanced by parity, with 113, 109, and 115 sows representing parity 1, 2, and 3 to 7 (P3+), respectively. Feed disappearance (subset of 190 sows; 4.08, 4.18, 4.44, and 4.34 kg/d, for 0, 2, 4, and 6%, respectively; P feed (sow and litter BW gain relative to feed intake) was not affected (P = 0.56), but gain:Mcal ME declined linearly with the addition of A-V (0.16, 0.15, 0.15, and 0.14 for 0, 2, 4, and 6%, respectively; P sows (3.95 kg/d) had less (P feed disappearance than P2 (4.48 kg/d) and P3+ (4.34 kg/d) sows. Body weight change in P1 sows was greater (P sows (-0.32 vs. -0.07 and 0.12 kg/d), whereas backfat loss was less (P sows compared with P1 and P2 sows. Dietary A-V improved litter ADG (P sows. Sows bred within 8 d after weaning (58.3, 72.0, 70.2, and 74.7% for 0, 2, 4, and 6%, respectively); conception rate (78.5, 89.5, 89.2, and 85.7%) and farrowing rate (71.4, 81.4, 85.5, and 78.6%) were improved (P sows were greater (P sows had lower (P sows, and respiration rate was reduced (P sows compared with P2 and P3+ sows. In conclusion, A-V improved feed disappearance and caloric intake, resulting in improved litter weight gain and subsequent reproductive performance of sows; however, feed and caloric efficiency were negatively affected.
Huang, Y; Andueza, D; de Oliveira, L; Zawadzki, F; Prache, S
Since consumers are showing increased interest in the origin and method of production of their food, it is important to be able to authenticate dietary history of animals by rapid and robust methods used in the ruminant products. Promising breakthroughs have been made in the use of spectroscopic methods on fat to discriminate pasture-fed and concentrate-fed lambs. However, questions remained on their discriminatory ability in more complex feeding conditions, such as concentrate-finishing after pasture-feeding. We compared the ability of visible reflectance spectroscopy (Vis RS, wavelength range: 400 to 700 nm) with that of visible-near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (Vis-NIR RS, wavelength range: 400 to 2500 nm) to differentiate between carcasses of lambs reared with three feeding regimes, using partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) as a classification method. The sample set comprised perirenal fat of Romane male lambs fattened at pasture (P, n = 69), stall-fattened indoors on commercial concentrate and straw (S, n = 55) and finished indoors with concentrate and straw for 28 days after pasture-feeding (PS, n = 65). The overall correct classification rate was better for Vis-NIR RS than for Vis RS (99.0% v. 95.1%, P < 0.05). Vis-NIR RS allowed a correct classification rate of 98.6%, 100.0% and 98.5% for P, S and PS lambs, respectively, whereas Vis RS allowed a correct classification rate of 98.6%, 94.5% and 92.3% for P, S and PS lambs, respectively. This study suggests the likely implication of molecules absorbing light in the non-visible part of the Vis-NIR spectra (possibly fatty acids), together with carotenoid and haem pigments, in the discrimination of the three feeding regimes.
Hansen, Anne Katrine Kleberg
In 1727, the English physician Thomas Short wrote: “I believe no Age did ever afford more instances of Corpulency than our own.” Even in the 18th century, fatness was addressed as an issue of special contemporary concern. This thesis probes concepts and perceptions of fatness in Western European...... Medicine c. 1700–1900. It has been written with particular attention to whether and how fatness has been regarded as a disease during that period in history. One purpose of the thesis is to investigate the immediate period before fatness allegedly became problematized. Another purpose has been to grasp...
Aguilera, C M; Ramírez-Tortosa, M C; Mesa, M D; Gil, A
Cardiovascular disease has a multifactorial aetiology, as is illustrated by the existence of numerous risk indicators, many of which can be influenced by dietary means. In this article, the effects of unsaturated fatty acids on cardiovascular disease are reviewed, with special emphasis on the modifications of the lipoprotein profile and the mechanism by which fatty acids may affect the immune response on the development of the atherosclerotic lesion. Atherosclerosis occurs fundamentally in three stages: dysfunction of the vascular endothelium, fatty streak and fibrous cap formation. Each of the three stages is regulated by the action of vasoactive molecules, growth factors and cytokines, mediators of the immune response. Dietary lipid quality can affect the lipoprotein metabolism, altering their concentrations in the blood, permitting a greater or lesser recruitment of them in the artery wall. The replacement of dietary saturated fat by mono- or polyunsaturated fats significantly lowers the plasma-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels. Likewise, an enriched monounsaturated fatty acid diet prevents LDL oxidative modifications more than an enriched polyunsaturated diet, and the oxidation of LDL in patients with peripheral vascular disease mediated by n-3 fatty acids can be reduced by the simultaneous consumption of olive oil. However, strong controversy surrounds the effect of the different unsaturated fatty acids. The type of dietary fat can directly or indirectly influence some of the mediating factors of the immune response; n-3 fatty acids have powerful antiinflammatory properties. Dietary fatty acids strongly determine the susceptibility of lipoproteins to oxidation, which also has an impact on the activation of molecules of adhesion and other inflammatory factors. Moreover, several works have demonstrated a direct effect of fatty acids on the genetic expression of many of those factors. Finally, certain aspects of blood platelet function, blood coagulability
Oliver, M F
The evidence from formal, controlled, long-term clinical trials that changes in dietary fats reduce the incidence of ischemic (coronary) heart disease (IHD) is unimpressive. Mostly these trials were underpowered and in several the rigor of dietary control in the intervention and control groups was inadequate. Six controlled clinical trials in healthy people of diets low in saturated fat and cholesterol, also accompanied by changes in other risk factors, were unsuccessful in reducing the incidence of IHD. An exception was the Oslo trial in which concurrent cigarette smoking was almost halved. Similarly, in the only two clinical trials of the secondary prevention of IHD through use of diets low in saturated fats and cholesterol there was no significant effect on IHD recurrence rate. This may relate to poor compliance outside strict clinic conditions. In contrast, five of six secondary prevention trials in which diets low in saturated fats were supplemented with polyunsaturated fats reduced IHD deaths and, to a lesser extent, all-cause mortality. No formal trial has been reported of the effects on IHD of diets high in monounsaturated fats. The greatest benefit for patients with IHD has come from diets supplemented with n-3 fatty acids (two trials), and this benefit was independent of changes in plasma lipoproteins. The evidence from these clinical trials indicates that more emphasis should be given in national and international dietary recommendations to supplementation with polyunsaturated fats, particularly foods rich in n-3 fatty acids, than to diets low in total and saturated fats.
Bouziane, M; Prost, J; Belleville, J
Fatty livers and the similarity between the skin lesions in kwashiorkor and those described in experimental essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency have led to the hypothesis that protein and EFA deficiencies may both occur in chronic malnutrition. The relationship between serum very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and hepatic lipid composition was studied after 28 d of protein depletion to determine the interactions between dietary protein levels and EFA availability. Rats were fed purified diets containing 20 or 2% casein and 5% fat as either soybean oil rich in EFA, or salmon oil rich in eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids, or hydrogenated coconut oil poor in EFA. Animals were divided into six groups, SOC (20% casein + 5% soybean oil), SOd (2% casein + 5% soybean oil), COC (20% casein + 5% hydrogenated coconut oil), COd (2% casein + 5% hydrogenated coconut oil), SAC (20% casein + 5% salmon oil) and SAd (2% casein + 5% salmon oil). After 28 d, liver steatosis and reduced VLDL-phospholipid contents (P oil diets and lower with the hydrogenated coconut oil diets. Furthermore, independent of the oil in the diet, protein deficiency decreased linoleic and arachidonic acids in VLDL phospholipids. Conversely, despite decreased proportions of EPA at low protein levels, DHA levels remained higher in rats fed salmon oil diets.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Knuth, Nicolas D.; Shrivastava, Cara R.; Horowitz, Jeffrey F.
The primary goal of this study was to determine the acute glycemic and endocrine responses to the reduction of fat content from a meal. On three separate occasions, nine overweight subjects (body mass index = 30 ± 1 kg/m2; 5 men, 4 women) consumed 1) a control meal (∼800 kcal; 100 g of carbohydrate, 31 g of fat, and 30 g of protein), 2) a low-fat meal (∼530 kcal; 100 g of carbohydrate, 1 g of fat, and 30 g of protein), or 3) a low-fat meal plus lipid infusion [same meal as low-fat meal, but the total energy provided was the same as control (800 kcal), with the “missing” fat (∼30 g) provided via an intravenous lipid infusion]. All three meals contained [13C]glucose (3 mg/kg body wt) to assess the bioavailability of ingested glucose. During the 5-h period after each meal, we measured the recovery of [13C]glucose in plasma, plasma glucose, and insulin concentrations. We also measured plasma concentration of the gastrointestinal peptides: glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and peptide YY3-36 (PYY3-36). The recovery of the ingested [13C]glucose in the hour after ingestion was greater (P < 0.05) after the low-fat than after the control meal [area under the curve (AUC): 1,206 ± 252 and 687 ± 161 μM·h, respectively]. However, removing dietary fat from the meal did not affect the plasma concentration of glucose or insulin. Importantly, [13C]glucose recovery was not different during the low-fat and lipid infusion trials (AUC: 1,206 ± 252 and 1,134 ± 247 μM·h, respectively), indicating that the accelerated delivery of exogenous glucose found after removing fat from the meal is due exclusively to the reduction of fat in the gastrointestinal tract. In parallel with these findings, the reduction in fat calories from the meal reduced plasma concentration of GIP, GLP-1, and PYY3-36. In summary, these data suggest that removing fat from the diet expedited exogenous glucose delivery into the systemic circulation
Ochoa, Melissa; Val-Laillet, David; Lallès, Jean-Paul; Meurice, Paul; Malbert, Charles-Henri
The effects of digestible carbohydrates, fructose in particular, on the development of metabolic disturbances remain controversial. We explored the effects of prolonged consumption of high-fat diets differing in their carbohydrate source on fat deposits in the adult Yucatan minipig. Eighteen minipigs underwent computed tomographic imaging and blood sampling before and after 8 weeks of three isocaloric high-fat diets with different carbohydrate sources (20% by weight for starch in the control diet, glucose or fructose, n=6 per diet). Body adiposity, liver volume, and fat content were estimated from computed tomographic images (n=18). Liver volume and lipid content were also measured post mortem (n=12). We hypothesized that the quantity and the spatial distribution of fat deposits in the adipose tissue or in the liver would be altered by the nature of the carbohydrate present in the obesogenic diet. After 8 weeks of dietary exposure, body weight (from 26±4 to 58±3 kg), total body adiposity (from 38±1 to 47±1%; P<.0001), liver volume (from 1156±31 to 1486±66 mL; P<.0001), plasma insulin (from 10±1 to 14±2 mIU/L; P=.001), triacylglycerol (from 318±37 to 466±33 mg/L; P=.005), and free-fatty acids (from 196±60 to 396±59 μmol/L; P=.0001) increased irrespective of the carbohydrate type. Similarly, the carbohydrate type did not induce changes in the spatial repartition of the adipose tissue. Divergent results were obtained for fat deposits in the liver depending on the investigation method. In conclusion, obesogenic diets alter adipose tissue fat deposits and the metabolic profile independently of the nature of dietary carbohydrates.
Nelson, G J; Kelley, D S; Schmidt, P C; Serrato, C M
The in vivo fatty acid synthesis rate, selected enzyme activities and fatty acid composition of rat white adipose tissue from animals fed semisynthetic diets of differing fat type and content were studied. All animals were starved for 48 hr and then refed a fat-free (FF) diet for 48 hr. They were then divided into three groups. One group was continued on the FF diet for 48 hr. Another group was fed a diet containing 44% of calories from corn oil (CO). The final group was fed a diet containing 44% of calories from completely hydrogenated soybean oil (HSO). The animals on the FF diet had a marked increase in adipose tissue fatty acid synthesis during the 96-hr feeding period (as measured by 3H incorporation into adipose fatty acids). Addition of either CO or HSO to the diets did not significantly inhibit fatty acid synthesis in dorsal or epididymal adipose tissue. The activities of the enzymes' fatty acid synthetase, ATP-citrate lyase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase increased on the FF diet and generally were not inhibited significantly by the addition of either fat to the diets. Linoleic acid was the major polyunsaturated fatty acid (ca. 22%) in adipose tissue. Monounsaturated fatty acids (palmitoleic, oleic, cis-vaccenic) made up ca. 38% of the total adipose fatty acids, while saturated fatty acids accounted for about 32% (myristic, palmitic and stearic). White adipose tissue in mature male rats was a major depot for n-3 fatty acids.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Full Text Available Background: Studies have demonstrated the effect of different dietary fats on blood pressure (BP in general population. However, these associations have not yet been described in people with spinal cord injury (SCI.Methods: Referred patients to Brain and SCI Research Center between 2011 and 2014 have been invited to participate. Only paraplegic individuals were recruited and patients with injury at cervical or higher thoracic sections were excluded to omit the bias effect of autonomic dysreflexia. Dietary intakes were assessed by recording consumed foods by 24-hour dietary recall interviews using Nutritionist IV 3.5.3 modified for Iranian foods. Systolic BP (SBP and diastolic BP (DBP were measured 3 times and the mean values entered analysis.Results: Higher intakes of cholesterol were related to higher BP (P = 0.010 and 0.011 for SBP and DBP, respectively. Similarly, intake of saturated fat was positively correlated to both SBP (P = 0.016, r = 0.21 and DBP (P = 0.011, r = 0.22. The effect of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA on BP was insignificant (P = 0.760 and 0.720 for SBP and DBP, respectively. However, intake of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA was related to lower BP among people with SCI.Conclusion: This study has demonstrated that higher intakes of cholesterol and saturated fat are associated with increased BP, whereas DHA is an antihypertensive agent. Dietary modifications with reduction of cholesterol and saturated fat along with intake of additional DHA supplements may help to reduce BP in spinal cord injured-individuals with hypertension.
Prévéraud, D P; Desmarchelier, C; Rouffineau, F; Devillard, E; Borel, P
A meta-analysis based on the results from 13 selected publications was performed to assess the effect of dietary fat supplementation (quantity and fatty acid composition) on α-tocopherol (TOL) concentration in 4 pig tissues (blood, liver, muscle, and adipose tissue). Dietary fat supplementation was defined by the quantity of fat added to the basal diet and its fatty acid profile. After standardization of tissue TOL concentration (as the dependent variable), statistical analyses were performed using multiple nonlinear regression, data partitioning, and partial least squares regression with 7 predictor variables including added vitamin E (VE), added fat, PUFA (% fat), MUFA (% fat), SFA (% fat), omega-3 fatty acids (-3; % fat), and omega-6 fatty acids (-6; % fat). The statistical analyses first showed that the VE level in the diet was the main factor that modulates tissue TOL concentration. The dose-response relationship followed a logarithmic curve, with a saturation of tissue TOL concentration in all the studied tissues. Moreover, the amount of dietary fat, at least up to 20%, was not linearly correlated with tissue TOL concentration, considering that the main fatty acid classes, MUFA and, to a lesser extent, SFA, were positively associated with tissue TOL concentrations. Finally, this study suggests that the inclusion of -3 fatty acids in the diet may decrease tissue and, more precisely, blood TOL concentration.
Janssen, Carola I. F.; Zerbi, Valerio; Mutsaers, Martina P. C.; de Jong, Bas S. W.; Wiesmann, Maximilian; Arnoldussen, Ilse A. C.; Geenen, Bram; Heerschap, Arend; Muskiet, Frits A. J.; Jouni, Zeina E.; van Tol, Eric A. F.; Gross, Gabriele; Homberg, Judith R.; Berg, Brian M.; Kiliaan, Amanda J.
Maternal intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) is critical during perinatal development of the brain. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the most abundant n-3 PUFA in the brain and influences neuronal membrane function and neuroprotection. The present study aims to assess the effect of
Process monitoring and quality control for dietary fats and bio fuels. Necessary for the consumer protection; Prozessueberwachung und Qualitaetskontrolle fuer Nahrungsfette und Biokraftstoffe. Unerlaesslich fuer den Verbraucherschutz
Heise, Michael; Fritzsche, Joerg; Tkatsch, Helena [Fachhochschule Suedwestfalen, Iserlohn (Germany); Kuepper, Lukas [Infrared Fiber Sensors, Aachen (Germany)
The quality control of food-grade oils, fats and fatty acid containing products is expensive, but essential for the manufacturers of such products and for the consumer protection. The analysis has the task not only to analyze the purity of fats and oils, but also to analyze the content and composition of fats. Dietary fats contain long chain, often multi-unsaturated fatty acids. An insufficient supply of so-called essential fatty acids may result in deficiency symptoms by the human species. A similar composition of fatty acids also is observed in biodiesel which is produced by transesterification of vegetable oils and fats.
Löwik, M.R.H.; Hulshof, K.F.A.M.; Brussaard, J.H.
Dietary intake characteristics were studied among 3833 adults of the second Dutch National Food Consumption Survey held in 1992. The subjects were classified into three groups based on their intake of total fat (% energy), saturated fatty acids (% energy), dietary fibre (g/MJ), and fruit and vegetab
Aeberli, I.; Beljean, N.; Lehmann, R.; I'Allemand, D.; Spinas, G.A.; Zimmermann, M.B.
In adults, circulating aP2 may link obesity, inflammation and the metabolic syndrome, but there are few data in children. Experimental models support that dietary factors, particularly dietary fat, may be major determinants of phenotype. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate, in normal
Afonso, Milessa Silva; Lavrador, Maria Silvia Ferrari; Koike, Marcia Kiyomi; Cintra, Dennys Esper; Ferreira, Fabiana Dias; Nunes, Valeria Sutti; Castilho, Gabriela; Gioielli, Luiz Antonio; Paula Bombo, Renata; Catanozi, Sergio; Caldini, Elia Garcia; Damaceno-Rodrigues, Nilsa Regina; Passarelli, Marisa; Nakandakare, Edna Regina; Lottenberg, Ana Maria
Interesterified fats are currently being used to replace trans fatty acids. However, their impact on biological pathways involved in the atherosclerosis development was not investigated. Weaning male LDLr-KO mice were fed for 16weeks on a high-fat diet (40% energy as fat) containing polyunsaturated (PUFA), TRANS, palmitic (PALM), palmitic interesterified (PALM INTER), stearic (STEAR) or stearic interesterified (STEAR INTER). Plasma lipids, lipoprotein profile, arterial lesion area, macrophage infiltration, collagen content and inflammatory response modulation were determined. Macrophage cholesterol efflux and the arterial expression of cholesterol uptake and efflux receptors were also performed. The interesterification process did not alter plasma lipid concentrations. Although PALM INTER did not increase plasma cholesterol concentration as much as TRANS, the cholesterol enrichment in the LDL particle was similar in both groups. Moreover, PALM INTER induced the highest IL-1β, MCP-1 and IL-6 secretion from peritoneal macrophages as compared to others. This inflammatory response elicited by PALM INTER was confirmed in arterial wall, as compared to PALM. These deleterious effects of PALM INTER culminate in higher atherosclerotic lesion, macrophage infiltration and collagen content than PALM, STEAR, STEAR INTER and PUFA. These events can partially be attributed to a macrophage cholesterol accumulation, promoted by apoAI and HDL2-mediated cholesterol efflux impairment and increased Olr-1 and decreased Abca1 and Nr1h3 expressions in the arterial wall. Interesterified fats containing palmitic acid induce atherosclerosis development by promoting cholesterol accumulation in LDL particles and macrophagic cells, activating the inflammatory process in LDLr-KO mice.
Jansen, W.L.; Cone, J.W.; Geelen, S.N.J.; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M.; Gelder, van A.H.; Oude Elferink, S.J.W.H.; Beynen, A.C.
Inclusion of extra fat in the diet of horses, at the expense of an iso-energetic amount of nonstructural carbohydrates, has been shown to decrease the apparent digestibility of the various dietary fiber fractions, but the mechanism was unknown. It was hypothesized that inclusion of extra fat in the
Alam, D.S.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.; Yunus, M.; Wahed, M.A.; Fuchs, G.J.
Dietary fat intake is extremely low in most communities with vitamin A deficiency. However, its role in vitamin A status of pregnant and lactating women is poorly understood. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of supplementing women with fat from mid-/late pregnancy until six months post
Kellner, T A; Prusa, K J; Patience, J F
The increased inclusion of unsaturated fats in pig diets has raised issues related to pork carcass fat quality. The objective of this experiment was to more precisely measure how differing levels of daily fatty acid intake alters the fatty acid composition in 3 different fat depots. A total of 42 gilts and 21 barrows (PIC 337×C22/29) with an average initial weight of 77.80±0.38 kg were allotted randomly based on sex and BW to 7 treatments: 3 and 6% of each of tallow (TAL; iodine value [IV]=41.9), choice white grease (CWG; IV=66.5), or corn oil (CO; IV=123.1) and a control (CNTR) corn-soybean meal-based diet with no added fat. Pigs were individually housed to allow accurate measurement of individual feed intake, in particular, daily dietary fatty acid and energy intake. Fat samples were collected from the jowl, belly, and loin at slaughter. Diet and carcass fat samples were analyzed for IV. Belly weights were recorded at slaughter along with a subjective belly firmness score (1=firmest to 3=least firm). Carcass lipid IV was increased (P0.05) by inclusion levels; however, carcass lipid IV was greater (P<0.001) in pigs fed 6 than 3% CO (80.0 vs. 72.6), and carcasses of gilts had greater IV (P<0.001) than carcasses of barrows (71.5 vs. 69.1). Increasing the level of TAL and CO but not CWG from 3 to 6% decreased the apparent total tract digestibility of GE, resulting in a source×level interaction (P<0.05). Dietary fat source had no effect (P≥0.66) on apparent total tract digestibility of either DM or GE, but feeding 6% dietary fat increased G:F (P=0.006) over pigs fed 3% fat (0.358 vs. 0.337). Of all the fatty acids measured, only linoleic acid intake presented a reasonable coefficient of determination (R2=0.61). Overall, IV product (IVP) was approximately equal to linoleic acid intake as a predictor of carcass IV (R2=0.93 vs. R2=0.94). When inclusion of dietary fat and PUFA intake increased, IVP placed more emphasis on the dietary fat inclusion level rather than
Lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids yields several electrophilic, reactive carbonyl metabolites. We hypothesized that an increased intake of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3) would lead to increased lipid peroxidation metabolites compared to a diet low in n-3. As part of a randomized crossov...
Maternal supplementation with n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids during perinatal period alleviates the metabolic syndrome disturbances in adult hamster pups fed a high-fat diet after weaning.
Kasbi-Chadli, Fatima; Boquien, Clair-Yves; Simard, Gilles; Ulmann, Lionel; Mimouni, Virginie; Leray, Véronique; Meynier, Anne; Ferchaud-Roucher, Véronique; Champ, Martine; Nguyen, Patrick; Ouguerram, Khadija
Perinatal nutrition is thought to affect the long-term risk of the adult to develop metabolic syndrome. We hypothesized that maternal supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid during pregnancy and lactation would protect offspring fed a high-fat diet from developing metabolic disturbances. Thus, two groups of female hamsters were fed a low-fat control diet, either alone (LC) or enriched with n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) (LO), through the gestational and lactation periods. After weaning, male pups were randomized to separate groups that received either a control low-fat diet (LC) or a high-fat diet (HC) for 16 weeks. Four groups of pups were defined (LC-LC, LC-HC, LO-LC and LO-HC), based on the combinations of maternal and weaned diets. Maternal n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation was associated with reduced levels of basal plasma glucose, hepatic triglycerides secretion and postprandial lipemia in the LO-HC group compared to the LC-HC group. Respiratory parameters were not affected by maternal supplementation. In contrast, n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation significantly enhanced the activities of citrate synthase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase compared to the offspring of unsupplemented mothers. Sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2, fatty acid synthase, stearoyl CoA desaturase 1 and tumor necrosis factor α expression levels were not affected by n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation. These results provide evidence for a beneficial effect of n-3 LC-PUFA maternal supplementation in hamsters on the subsequent risk of metabolic syndrome. Underlying mechanisms may include improved lipid metabolism and activation of the mitochondrial oxidative pathway.
Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Zøllner; Gottliebsen, K; Ängquist, L
protein intake and subsequent changes in fat mass (FM) and FFM in longitudinal, observational data.Design:A health examination, including measures of FM and FFM by bioelectrical impedance at baseline and follow-up six years later, was conducted. Diet history interviews (DHI) were performed, and 24-hour...
Boerman, J P; Preseault, C L; Lock, A L
The objective of this study was to examine the effect of a dietary synthetic antioxidant on feed intake, yields of milk and milk components and milk fatty acids (FA), in combination with increasing concentrations of dietary corn oil to provide increasing rumen unsaturated fatty acid load (RUFAL) challenges. Twenty-six Holstein cows (177 ± 57 d in milk; mean ± standard deviation) were assigned to treatment in a randomized complete block design. Treatments were a control diet (CON; n=13 cows) or the same diet supplemented with a synthetic antioxidant (AOX; 6.1g/d; dry blend of ethoxyquin and propyl gallate, Novus International Inc., St. Charles, MO; n=13 cows). In period 1 (21 d), no supplemental corn oil was fed; in periods 2, 3, and 4 (14 d each), corn oil was supplemented at 0.7, 1.4, and 2.8% of the diet [dry matter (DM) basis] to incrementally increase RUFAL. For all variables measured, no significant interactions were detected between treatment and period, indicating no differences between the CON and AOX treatments at all levels of oil inclusion. Intake of DM was lower for AOX compared with CON but AOX had no effect on milk yield or milk fat concentration and yield. Milk protein yield and feed efficiency (energy-corrected milk/DM intake) tended to be greater for AOX compared with CON. Increasing dietary corn oil concentration (RUFAL) decreased DM intake, milk yield, milk fat concentration and yield, and feed efficiency. The AOX treatment increased the concentration and yield of 16-carbon milk FA, with no effect on de novo (16 carbon) milk FA. Milk FA concentration of trans-10 C18:1, trans-10,cis-12 C18:2, and trans-9,cis-11 C18:2 were unaffected by AOX but increased with increasing RUFAL. In conclusion, supplementation with AOX did not overcome the dietary-induced milk fat depression caused by increased RUFAL.
Leeson, S; Namkung, H; Caston, L; Durosoy, S; Schlegel, P
Two experiments were carried out with broiler breeders (experiment 1) and laying hens (experiment 2) to study the effects of Se sources, in interaction with dietary level of Se or dietary fats on performance, Se incorporation into tissues (blood, liver, breast muscle, and egg) and eggs, hatchability, and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities in tissues and blood. Both experiments involved a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement of 3 Se sources (selenite, Se yeast, or B-Traxim Se) and either 2 levels of each source (0.1 or 0.3 mg/kg) or 2 fats (fresh or oxidized). Egg production was not affected by Se source or dietary fat in both experiments. Egg production was greater (P Hatchability of eggs from hens fed 0.1 mg/kg of Se was lower (P Selenium in egg, liver, and breast muscle was greater (P Selenium contents in liver and breast muscle were greater (P < 0.01) in hens fed Se yeast compared with hens fed other sources of Se. In experiment 1, liver GPX was greater (P < 0.01) in hens fed selenite or Se yeast, whereas plasma GPX was greater (P < 0.01) in hens fed selenite compared with B-Traxim Se or Se yeast. Supplementation with oxidized fat increased (P < 0.05) GPX in blood and liver. B-Traxim Se decreased (P < 0.05) malondialdehyde content in breast muscle of layers. It is concluded that broiler breeders require supplementation of 0.3 mg/kg of Se, and that there are numerous measurable advantages in using organic rather than inorganic sources for both breeders and layers.
The hypocholesterolemic and hypoglycemic effects of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), a semisynthetic nonfermentable soluble dietary fiber, are well established. However, effects of HPMC on dietary saturated fatty acids and trans fatty acids are largely unknown. This study investigated the eff...
Functional foods are similar to conventional foods in appearance, but they have benefits that extend beyond their basic nutritional properties. For example, functional foods have been studied for the prevention of osteoporosis, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. They have yet to be related to the prevention of obesity, although obesity is one of the major health problems today. The inclusion of foods or the replacement of habitual foods with others that may enhance energy expenditure (EE) or improve satiety may be a practical way to maintain a stable body weight or assist in achieving weight loss; such foods may act as functional foods in body weight control. Some foods that might be classified as functional foods for weight control because of their effects on EE and appetite-including medium-chain triacylglycerols, diacylglycerols, tea, milk, and nuts-are reviewed here. Only human studies reporting EE, appetite, or body weight are discussed. When studies of whole food items are unavailable, studies of nutraceuticals, the capsular equivalents of functional foods, are reviewed. To date, dietary fats seem to be most promising and have been the most extensively studied for their effects on body weight control. However, the weight loss observed is small and should be considered mostly as a measure to prevent weight gain. Carefully conducted clinical studies are needed to firmly ascertain the effect of tea, milk, and nuts on body weight maintenance, to assess their potential to assist in weight-loss efforts, and to ascertain dose-response relations and mechanisms of action for the 4 food types examined.
Söderström, Lisa; Rosenblad, Andreas; Adolfsson, Eva T; Wolk, Alicja; Håkansson, Niclas; Bergkvist, Leif
A higher fat content in the diet could be an advantage for preventing malnutrition among older adults. However, there is sparse scientific evidence to determine the optimal fat intake among older adults. This prospective cohort study examined whether a high energy intake of dietary fat among middle-aged and older adults is associated with the risk of malnutrition 10 years later. The study population comprised 725 Swedish men and women aged 53-80 years who had completed a questionnaire about dietary intake and lifestyle factors in 1997 (baseline) and whose nutritional status was assessed when admitted to the hospital in 2008-2009 (follow-up). At the follow-up, 383 (52.8%) participants were identified as being at risk of malnutrition and fifty-two (7.2%) were identified as malnourished. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to analyse the association between previous dietary fat intake and nutritional status later in life. Contrary to what was expected, a high energy intake from total fat, saturated fat and monounsaturated fat among middle-aged and older adults increased the risk of exhibiting malnutrition 10 years later. However, this applied only to individuals with a BMIolder adults should focus on limiting the intake of total fat in the diet by reducing consumption of food with a high content of saturated and monounsaturated fat.
Vannice, Gretchen; Rasmussen, Heather
It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (the Academy) that dietary fat for the healthy adult population should provide 20% to 35% of energy, with an increased consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and limited intake of saturated and trans fats. The Academy recommends a food-based approach through a diet that includes regular consumption of fatty fish, nuts and seeds, lean meats and poultry, low-fat dairy products, vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and legumes. These recommendations are made within the context of rapidly evolving science delineating the influence of dietary fat and specific fatty acids on human health. In addition to fat as a valuable and calorically dense macronutrient with a central role in supplying essential nutrition and supporting healthy body weight, evidence on individual fatty acids and fatty acid groups is emerging as a key factor in nutrition and health. Small variations in the structure of fatty acids within broader categories of fatty acids, such as polyunsaturated and saturated, appear to elicit different physiological functions. The Academy recognizes that scientific knowledge about the effects of dietary fats on human health is young and takes a prudent approach in recommending an increase in fatty acids that benefit health and a reduction in fatty acids shown to increase risk of disease. Registered dietitian nutritionists are uniquely positioned to translate fat and fatty acid research into practical and effective dietary recommendations.
Karimian, M; Khorvash, M; Forouzmand, M A; Alikhani, M; Rahmani, H R; Ghaffari, M H; Petit, H V
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of 2 levels of dietary fat (low and high) offered during the prepartal and postpartal periods on dry matter intake (DMI), plasma concentration of metabolites, and milk yield and composition. Twenty-four Holstein dry cows were assigned on d 21 relative to expected parturition date to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2×2 factorial arrangement of 2 levels of fat fed during the prepartal period and 2 levels of fat fed during the postpartal period: prepartal low fat and postpartal low fat (LF-LF), prepartal low fat and postpartal high fat (LF-HF), prepartal high fat and postpartal low fat (HF-LF), or prepartal high fat and postpartal high fat (HF-HF). Prepartal and postpartal LF diets contained no fat supplement. Prepartal HF diets contained 1.60% calcium salts of soybean oil. The proportion of calcium salts of soybean oil was increased to 1.70% of DM for the first 21 d of lactation and to 2.27% of DM from d 21 to 56 of lactation in the HF diet. Diets were fed for ad libitum intake from d 21 before calving until d 56 of gestation. Prepartal DMI was lower for cows fed the HF diet compared with those fed the LF diet (12.6 vs. 16.2kg/d). Postpartum, cows fed the HF-HF and HF-LF diets had, respectively, the lowest and highest DMI, although no significant differences existed between HF-LF and LF-LF. Net energy intake was higher for cows fed the postpartal HF diets compared with those fed the LF diets. Prepartal fat level had no effect on net energy intake. Cows offered the prepartal HF diet had higher milk yield when offered the postpartal LF diet compared with those offered the postpartal HF diet and no effect of the postpartal fat level was detected when cows were fed the prepartal LF diet. Milk composition was similar among treatments. Plasma cholesterol concentration postpartum was higher for cows fed the prepartal LF diet than for those fed the prepartal HF diet (5.16 vs. 3.74mmol/L) and postpartal fat level had no effect
Morris, Amanda C.; Williams, Lynda M.; Wahle, Klaus W.; Jung-Heun Ha; Shabina Bashir; Mitchell, Sharon E.; Alan A. Sneddon; D. Vernon Rayner
The effect of supplementation with 1% conjugated linoleic acid and 1% n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (CLA/n-3) was assessed in rats. Food intake increased with no difference in body weights. White adipose tissue weights were reduced whereas brown adipose tissue and uncoupling protein-1 expression were increased. Plasma adiponectin, triglyceride and cholesterol levels were reduced while leptin, ghrelin and liver weight and lipid content were unchanged. Hypothalamic gene expression ...
Pouwer, F; Nijpels, G; Beekman, Aartjan T F
to remission of depression. The aim of the present paper was to review whether polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of the omega-3 family could be used for the prevention and treatment of depression in Type 2 diabetes. METHODS: MEDLINE database and published reference lists were used to identify studies...... that examined the associations between omega-3 PUFA and depression. To examine potential side-effects, such as on glycaemic control, studies regarding the use of omega-3 supplements in Type 2 diabetes were also reviewed. RESULTS: Epidemiological and clinical studies suggest that a high intake of omega-3 PUFA......AIMS: Evidence strongly suggests that depression is a common complication of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, there is considerable room to improve the effectiveness of pharmacological antidepressant agents, as in only 50-60% of the depressed subjects with diabetes does pharmacotherapy lead...
Nagata, Chisato; Nakamura, Kozue; Oba, Shino; Hayashi, Makoto; Takeda, Noriyuki; Yasuda, Keigo
Certain dietary components which could affect oestrogen may have implications in the aetiology of uterine fibroids. We previously found that soya intake was inversely associated with a subsequent risk of hysterectomy, suggesting a potentially protective effect of soya against uterine fibroids, the major clinical indication for hysterectomy. We cross-sectionally assessed the associations of intakes of fat, soya foods, dietary fibre and alcohol with uterine fibroids. Study subjects were 285 premenopausal Japanese women participating in a health-check up programme, including gynaecological examinations, provided by a general hospital between October 2003 and March 2006. The presence of fibroids was confirmed by transvaginal sonogram. If women had undergone hysterectomy, self-report of fibroids was accepted. Each subject's usual diet, including alcohol, was determined with the use of a validated FFQ. Fifty-four women were identified as prevalent cases of fibroids or having had hysterectomy due to fibroids. The mean alcohol intake was statistically significantly higher among women with fibroids than among those without fibroids after controlling for known or suspected risk factors. For the highest compared with the lowest tertile of alcohol intake, the OR of uterine fibroids was 2.78 (95% CI 1.25, 6.20). There was no significant association of intake of fats, soya isoflavones or dietary fibre with uterine fibroids. The data suggest that higher alcohol intake is associated with a higher prevalence of uterine fibroids. Further studies on diet, especially phyto-oestrogens, and uterine fibroids are needed given the limited data currently available.
Maric, Tia; Woodside, Barbara; Luheshi, Giamal N
Recent evidence has demonstrated that consumption of high fat diets can trigger brain inflammation and subsequent injury in the absence of any peripheral inflammatory signaling. Here we sought to investigate whether a link exists between the concentration of highly saturated fats in the diet and the development of inflammation in the brain of rats and, whether the source of the saturated fat was an important factor in this process. Adult male rats had access to diets with a moderate level of total fat (32% of calories as fat) varying in level of saturated fat [low (20%) vs high (>60%)] and its source (butter or coconut oil). After 8 weeks of diet exposure peripheral and central tissues were collected for analysis of inflammatory signals. Neither blood nor white adipose tissue exhibited any changes in inflammatory mediators regardless of the saturated fat content or the source. In the brain however, we observed significant hypothalamic upregulation of the expression of markers of glial activation as well as of interleukin (IL)-1,6 and nuclear factor (NF)-IL-6, which were highest in the group fed the butter-based diets. The increase in these inflammatory mediators had no effect on basal body temperature or the temperature response to systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The present results indicate that hypothalamic inflammation associated with consumption of diets high in fat is directly linked to the saturated fat content as well as the source of that fat. These effects are likely linked to other pathophysiological changes in the regulation of metabolism.
Kirpich, Irina A; Petrosino, Joseph; Ajami, Nadim; Feng, Wenke; Wang, Yuhua; Liu, Yanlong; Beier, Juliane I; Barve, Shirish S; Yin, Xinmin; Wei, Xiaoli; Zhang, Xiang; McClain, Craig J
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) ranks among major causes of morbidity and mortality. Diet and crosstalk between the gut and liver are important determinants of ALD. We evaluated the effects of different types of dietary fat and ethanol on the gut microbiota composition and metabolic activity and the effect of these changes on liver injury in ALD. Compared with ethanol and a saturated fat diet (medium chain triglycerides enriched), an unsaturated fat diet (corn oil enriched) exacerbated ethanol-induced endotoxemia, liver steatosis, and injury. Major alterations in gut microbiota, including a reduction in Bacteroidetes and an increase in Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, were seen in animals fed an unsaturated fat diet and ethanol but not a saturated fat diet and ethanol. Compared with a saturated fat diet and ethanol, an unsaturated fat diet and ethanol caused major fecal metabolomic changes. Moreover, a decrease in certain fecal amino acids was noted in both alcohol-fed groups. These data support an important role of dietary lipids in ALD pathogenesis and provide insight into mechanisms of ALD development. A diet enriched in unsaturated fats enhanced alcohol-induced liver injury and caused major fecal metagenomic and metabolomic changes that may play an etiologic role in observed liver injury. Dietary lipids can potentially serve as inexpensive interventions for the prevention and treatment of ALD.
Bruna Celestino Schneider
Full Text Available Few studies have addressed the influence of dietary patterns (DP during adolescence on the amount of body fat in early adulthood.To analyze the associations between DP tracking and changes in the period between 15 and 18 years of age and the percentage of body fat (%BF at age 18 years.We used data from 3,823 members of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil birth cohort. Body density was measured at age 18 years by air displacement plethysmograph (BOD POD and the %BF was calculated applying the Siri equation. Based on the estimates from the FFQ, we identified DP at ages 15 ("Varied", "Traditional", "Dieting" and "Processed meats" and 18 years ("Varied", "Traditional", "Dieting" and "Fish, fast food and alcohol". The DP tracking was defined as the individual's adherence to the same DP at both ages. Associations were tested using multiple linear regression models stratified by sex.The mean %BF was 25.0% (95% CI: 24.7 to 25.4, significantly greater for girls than boys (p<0.001. The adherence to any DP at age 15 years was not associated with the %BF at age 18 years. However, individuals who adhered to a "Dieting" DP at age 18 years showed greater %BF (1.30 and 1.91 percentage points in boys and girls, respectively in comparison with those who adhered to a "Varied" DP. Boys who presented tracking of a "Dieting" DP presented greater average %BF in comparison with others DP, as well as girls who changed from the "Traditional" or "Processed meats" DP to a "Dieting" DP.These results may support public health policies and strategies focused on improving dietary habits of adolescents and young adults and preventing accumulation of body fat, especially among the adolescents with restrictive dietary habits.
Schmid, Alexandra; Collomb, Marius; Bee, Giuseppe; Bütikofer, Ulrich; Wechsler, Daniel; Eberhard, Pius; Sieber, Robert
Multiparous sows (n 17) were included in a controlled cross-over-study in order to investigate the influence of a natural source of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (alpine butter) on the milk fatty acid composition of lactating sows (as an animal model for lactating women) and on the growth performance of their progeny. The usual fat source of a standard lactation diet was replaced by either CLA-rich alpine butter or margarine (control diet). Compared with the margarine diet, feeding the alpine butter-supplemented diet increased (P 0.05) affected. Growth performance of the progeny was similar for both dietary treatments. In summary, the findings show that adding alpine butter to the diet does not provoke a milk fat depression and does not alter the composition of total SFA, MUFA and PUFA in sow milk but increases its CLA concentration.
Jamieson, Jennifer A; Ryz, Natasha R; Taylor, Carla G; Weiler, Hope A
New strategies to improve Ca absorption and bone health are needed to address the current state of osteoporosis prevention and management. Inulin-type fructans have shown great promise as a dietary intervention strategy, but have not yet been tested in a young female model. Our objective was to investigate the effect of long chain (LC) inulin on bone mineralization and density in growing, female rats, as well as the quality of growth. Weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to inulin or cellulose treatments for either 4 or 8 weeks. Growth was measured weekly and quality of growth assessed using fat pad weights and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Whole body (WB) and selected regions were analysed for bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition by DXA. Serum markers of bone turnover were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Ca and P concentrations were determined in excised femurs by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry. Feeding inulin resulted in 4 % higher femoral weight (adjusted for body weight) and 6 % less feed intake. Inulin did not affect WB or regional BMD, but was associated with a 28 % lower parametrial fat pad mass, 21 % less WB fat mass and 5 % less WB mass. In summary, LC-inulin lowered body fat mass, without consequence to bone density in growing female rats.
Pandareesh, M D; Anand, T
L-carnitine (LC) plays a central role in fatty acid metabolism and in skeletal muscle bioenergetics. LC supplementation is known to improve physical performance and has become widespread in recent years without any unequivocal support to this practice. A scientific-based knowledge is needed, to understand the implications of LC supplementation on physical fatigue. In current study, we have explored synergistic effects of dietary LC and fat content against physical fatigue in rats. Ninety male Wistar rats were supplemented with different concentrations of LC (0.15, 0.3, and 0.5 %) and fat content (5, 10, and 15 %) through diet in different combinations. Our results elucidated that LC (0.5 %) along with 10 and 15 % fat diet supplemented rats showed significant ergogenic effect. The swimming time until exhaustion was increased by ~2- and ~1.5-fold in rats fed with 10 and 15 % fat diet containing LC (0.5 %). LC supplementation improved the energy charge by increasing the levels of ATP, tissue glycogen, reduced GSH, plasma triglyceride, plasma glucose levels, and enzymatic antioxidant status, i.e., superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. LC supplementation also significantly reduced lipid peroxidation, lactic acid, plasma urea nitrogen, creatinine, creatinekinase, and lactate dehydrogenase levels in various tissues compared to its respective control group. Thus the present study indicates that LC ameliorates the various impairments associated with physical endurance in rats.
Martin, Lisa J; Greenberg, Carolyn V; Kriukov, Valentina; Minkin, Salomon; Jenkins, David J A; Yaffe, Martin; Hislop, Gregory; Boyd, Norman F
We have previously shown that a low-fat dietary intervention for 2 years in women with extensive mammographic density decreased mammographic density to a greater extent than in the control group. Post-hoc analysis indicated that this effect was strongest in women who became postmenopausal during the follow-up period. The purpose of the present study was to determine if this potentially important finding could be confirmed in a new and larger group of subjects with a longer follow-up time. Participants in a low-fat dietary intervention trial who were premenopausal at entry and became postmenopausal during follow-up were examined. Total breast, dense, and non-dense area and percent density were measured in baseline and postmenopause mammograms using a computer-assisted method. Total breast and non dense area increased more in the control group compared to the intervention group (for breast area 2.6 and 0.2 cm(2), respectively; P=0.05, and for non-dense area 10.9 and 8.1 cm(2), respectively; P=0.06). Dense area decreased to a similar degree in both groups (-8.2 and -8.0 cm(2), respectively; P=0.84). Percent density decreased to a slightly greater degree in the control compared to intervention group (-9.4 and -7.8%, respectively, P=0.11). There were no significant differences between study groups after adjustment for weight change. Menopause reduced density to a similar extent in the low-fat diet and control groups. If a low-fat diet reduces breast cancer risk, the effect is unlikely to be through changes in mammographic density at menopause.
Granados, S; Quiles, J L; Gil, A; Ramírez-Tortosa, M C
Cancer is one of the main causes of death in Western countries. Among the factors that contribute to the appearance of this disease, diet has a fundamental role, and specifically fats are the main component related to the increase in the incidence of cancerous diseases, particularly breast, colon-rectal, and prostate cancer. From dietary lipids, much attention has been given to the beneficial effects of fish oil, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids n-3 serie, as well as of olive oil, rich in monounsaturated fatty acids--primarily oleic acid. On the contrary, a negative effect has been reported for polyunsaturated fatty acids n-6 serie and for saturated fatty acids. Nutrition constitutes an important aspect of the life of cancer patients. Currently, nutritional formulas are being designed with supplements of polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids and other components such as arginine, RNA, lysine, etc., with the aim of ameliorating the effects of this pathology. The results demonstrate the lower morbility and therefore improved quality of life, a decline in mortality, and a reduction in related costs.
Sneddon, Alan A; Rayner, D Vernon; Mitchell, Sharon E; Bashir, Shabina; Ha, Jung-Heun; Wahle, Klaus W; Morris, Amanda C; Williams, Lynda M
The effect of supplementation with 1% conjugated linoleic acid and 1% n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (CLA/n-3) was assessed in rats. Food intake increased with no difference in body weights. White adipose tissue weights were reduced whereas brown adipose tissue and uncoupling protein-1 expression were increased. Plasma adiponectin, triglyceride and cholesterol levels were reduced while leptin, ghrelin and liver weight and lipid content were unchanged. Hypothalamic gene expression measurements revealed increased expression of orexigenic and decreased expression of anorexigenic signals. Thus, CLA/n-3 increases food intake without affecting body weight potentially through increasing BAT size and up-regulating UCP-1 in rats.
There is a general consensus that the physiological activity of fish oil can be ascribable to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3). However, the form in which they are introduced in diet might affect the rate of incorporation in tissue. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of different marine origin and the incorporation of EPA and DHA in rat brain, liver and red blood cells (RBC). ...
Ober, John; Gillette, Robert L; Angle, Thomas Craig; Haney, Pamela; Fletcher, Daniel J; Wakshlag, Joseph J
Optimal dietary protocols for the athletic canine are often defined by requirements for endurance athletes that do not always translate into optimal dietary interventions for all canine athletes. Prior research studying detection dogs suggests that dietary fat sources can influence olfaction; however, as fat is added to the diet the protein calories can be diminished potentially resulting in decreased red blood cell counts or albumin status. Optimal macronutrient profile for detection dogs may be different considering the unique work they engage in. To study a calorically low protein: high fat (18:57% ME), high protein: high fat (27:57% ME), and high protein: low fat (27:32% ME) approach to feeding, 17 dogs were provided various diets in a 3 × 3 cross over design. Dogs were exercised on a treadmill and blood was taken pre-exercise, immediately post-exercise, 10- and 20-min post-exercise to assess complete blood count, serum chemistry, blood gases, and cortisol; as well as rectal and core body temperature. Exercise induced a decrease in serum phosphorus, potassium, and increases in non-esterified fatty acids and cortisol typical of moderate exercise bouts. A complete and balanced high protein: high-fat diet (27:57% ME) induced decreases in serum cortisol and alkaline phosphatase. Corn oil top dressed low protein: high-fat diet (18:57% ME) induced a slightly better thermal recovery than a complete and balanced high protein: high fat diet and a high protein: low fat (27%:32% ME) diet suggesting some mild advantages when using the low protein: high fat diet that warrant further investigation regarding optimal protein and fat calories and thermal recovery.
Smith-Warner, S.A.; Spiegelman, D.; Adami, H.O.; Beeson, W.L.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Folsom, A.R.; Fraser, G.E.; Freudenheim, J.L.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Graham, S.; Kushi, L.H.; Miller, A.B.; Rohan, T.E.; Speizer, F.E.; Toniolo, P.; Willett, W.C.; Wolk, A.; Zelenuch-Jacquotte, A.; Hunter, D.J.
Recently, there has been interest in whether intakes of specific types of fat are associated with breast cancer risk independently of other types of fat, but results have been inconsistent. We identified 8 prospective studies that met predefined criteria and analyzed their primary data using a stand
The impact of the social environment on food and fat intake was investigated in several samples including family members, close friends, and meal time companions in the Netherlands. Firstly, a food frequency questionnaire to assess the intake of fat, fatty acids and cholesterol was developed. Biomar
Teixeira, A M; Pase, C S; Boufleur, N; Roversi, K; Barcelos, R C S; Benvegnú, D M; Segat, H J; Dias, V T; Reckziegel, P; Trevizol, F; Dolci, G S; Carvalho, N R; Soares, F A A; Rocha, J B T; Emanuelli, T; Bürger, M E
Here we evaluated the influence of physical exercise on behavior parameters and enzymatic status of rats supplemented with different dietary fatty acids (FA). Male Wistar rats fed diets enriched with soybean oil (SO), lard (L), or hydrogenated vegetable fat (HVF) for 48 weeks were submitted to swimming (30 min/d, five times per week) for 90 days. Dietary FA per se did not cause anxiety-like symptoms in the animals, but after physical exercise, SO group showed a better behavioral performance than L and the HVF groups in elevated plus maze (EPM). In Barnes maze, HVF group showed impaired memory acquisition as compared to L group, and exercise reversed this effect. SO-fed rats showed an improvement in memory acquisition after 1 day of training, whereas lard caused an improvement of memory only from day 4. HVF-fed rats showed no improvement of memory acquisition, but this effect was reversed by exercise in all training days. A lower activity of the Na(+)K(+)-ATPase in brain cortex of rats fed lard and HVF was observed, and this effect was maintained after exercise. Similarly, the HVF diet was related to lower activity of hippocampal Na(+)K(+)-ATPase, and exercise reduced activity of this enzyme in the SO and L groups. Our findings show influences of dietary FA on memory acquisition, whereas regular exercise improved this function and was beneficial on anxiety-like symptoms. As FA are present in neuronal membrane phospholipids and play a critical role in brain function, our results suggest that low incorporation of trans FA in neuronal membranes may act on cortical and hippocampal Na(+)K(+)-ATPase activity, but this change appears to be unrelated to the behavioral parameters primarily harmed by consumption of trans and less so by saturated FA, which were reversed by exercise.
Lopez-Jimena, Benjamin; Lyons, Philip; Herath, Tharangani; Richards, Randolph H; Leaver, Michael; Bell, J Gordon; Adams, Alexandra; Thompson, Kim D
Salmon pancreas disease (SPD) is one of the most commercially significant viral diseases of farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Europe. In this study, the potential for dietary mitigation of the disease using different polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) profiles was assessed in rainbow trout. We experimentally infected fish with salmonid alphavirus subtype 1 (SAV-1), the causative agent of SPD. These fish were fed two diets with different n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio (high omega 3, 3.08, and high omega 6, 0.87). We assessed the influence of the diets on the fatty acid composition of the heart at 0 days post infection (d.p.i.) (after 4 weeks of feeding the experimental diets prior to SAV-1 infection), and sampled infected and control fish at 5, 15 and 30d.p.i. Viral E1 and E2 glycoprotein genes were quantified by two absolute real-time PCRs in all the organs sampled, and significantly lower levels of the virus were evident in the organs of fish fed with high omega 6. Characteristic pathological lesions were identified in infected fish as early as 5d.p.i., with no significant differences in the pathology lesion scores between the two dietary regimes. This study shows that decreasing the n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio in experimental diets of rainbow trout changes the fatty acid content of the fish, and is associated with reduced SAV-1 replication in rainbow trout.
多不饱和脂肪酸(Polyunsaturated fatty acids,PUFAS)作为脂肪的重要组成部分,影响动物的繁殖性能.ω-3PUFAS和ω-6PUFAS之间保持适宜比例的日粮可提高畜禽成活率,降低早产率,提高精液品质.综述了PUFAS的结构与分类、在动物体内的代谢转化、影响动物繁殖性能的作用机理及PUFAS与动物繁殖性能的相关性.%As a part of fatty, PUFAS can influence animal reproductive performance. The appropriate ratio of dietary w-6 and w-3 PUFAS can increase animal survival rates, reduce the risk of preterm labor, and improve spermatozoa activity. Herein> the type, classification and metabolic transformation in vivo as well as correlations between dietary PUFAS and reproductive performance of animals were reviewed.
Helge, Jørn Wulff; Watt, Peter W; Richter, Erik A
We tested the hypothesis that a shift to carbohydrate diet after prolonged adaptation to fat diet would lead to decreased glucose uptake and impaired muscle glycogen breakdown during exercise compared with ingestion of a carbohydrate diet all along. We studied 13 untrained men; 7 consumed a high...... +/- 59 vs. 688 +/- 43 mmol/kg dry wt) in Fat-CHO than in CHO. In conclusion, shift to carbohydrate diet after prolonged adaptation to fat diet and training causes increased resting muscle glycogen levels but impaired leg glucose uptake and similar muscle glycogen breakdown, despite higher resting levels...
周飞; 张晓宏; 邹祖全; 张才乔
利用fat-1转基因小鼠模型，研究内源性n-3多不饱和脂肪酸(n-3 PUFAs)的血糖血脂调节作用.采用fat-1转基因小鼠和C57BL/6野生型小鼠喂食高n-6、低n-3 PUFAs的标准配方饲料4周，然后2组小鼠给予高糖饮液自由饮用4周，每周测体重.第8周末，取血离心测血糖、胰岛素、甘油三脂(TG)、胆固醇(TC)、高密度脂蛋白(HDL-C)、低密度脂蛋白(LDL-C)水平.结果表明：fat-1转基因小鼠体重增加幅度、空腹血糖值、血清胰岛素、胰岛素抵抗指数、血清TC、TG、HDL-C、LDL-C水平明显低于野生型小鼠(P<0.05).认为n-3 PUFAs能抑制体重增长，降低小鼠血糖、血脂和胰岛素抵抗，起到调节血糖、血脂的作用.%In this study, we investigate the effects of endogenous n-3 PUFAs on blood glucose and serum lipid in fat-1 transgenic mouse model. The transgenic and wild type mice are maintained on a 10%corn oil diet which has high ratio of n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for 4 weeks. Then make them drink high sugar pinocytosis freely for another four weeks. On the eighth weekend, serum glucose, insulin, serum triglyceride (TG), serum total cholesterol (TC), serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels of blood serum are tested after blood collection and centrifugation. The weight gain rate, fasting blood sugar and serum insulin levels, insulin resistance index, serum TC, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C of fat-1 transgenic mice are found to be significantly lower than those of wild type mice (P<0.05). The tests indicate that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids can reduce the blood glucose and serum lipid, which may play a vital role in regulating blood lipid and decreasing insulin resistance.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Fatty acids have an important role in structure and function of the nervous system. Recently, epidemiologic studies on neurodegenerative disorders have evaluated the usefulness of polyunsaturated fatty acids on multiple sclerosis. OBJECTIVE To examine recent studies, clinical trials, and reviews on the therapeutic effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids in multiple sclerosis. METHODS We conducted a search in MEDLINE/PubMed and Cochrane Library with the terms "fatty acids", "omega-3" and "omega-6" in combination with "multiple sclerosis". Articles were selected according to their relevance on the topic. RESULTS Epidemiologic studies have shown benefits of dietary supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids -especially omega-3- in relation to inflammatory, autoimmune and neurodegenerative disorders. In contrast, the studies do not show a beneficial effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids in multiple sclerosis. However, there are limitations related to design and sample issues in these studies CONCLUSIONS There is some evidence of a protective effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids on the risk of multiple sclerosis. Despite this, to date controlled trials have not produced definite results on the benefits of supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids in patients with multiple sclerosis. Any potential benefit will have to be confirmed in the long term.
Stocks, Tanja; Angquist, Lars; Banasik, Karina;
Numerous gene loci are related to single measures of body weight and shape. We investigated if 55 SNPs previously associated with BMI or waist measures, modify the effects of fat intake on weight loss and waist reduction under energy restriction....
Livingstone, Katherine M; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; San-Cristobal, Rodrigo; Forster, Hannah; O'Donovan, Clare B; Woolhead, Clara; Marsaux, Cyril F M; Macready, Anna L; Fallaize, Rosalind; Kolossa, Silvia; Tsirigoti, Lydia; Lambrinou, Christina P; Moschonis, George; Godlewska, Magdalena; Surwiłło, Agnieszka; Drevon, Christian A; Manios, Yannis; Traczyk, Iwona; Gibney, Eileen R; Brennan, Lorraine; Walsh, Marianne C; Lovegrove, Julie A; Martinez, J Alfredo; Saris, Wim H M; Daniel, Hannelore; Gibney, Mike; Mathers, John C
The interplay between the fat mass- and obesity-associated (FTO) gene variants and diet has been implicated in the development of obesity. The aim of the present analysis was to investigate associations between FTO genotype, dietary intakes and anthropometrics among European adults. Participants in the Food4Me randomised controlled trial were genotyped for FTO genotype (rs9939609) and their dietary intakes, and diet quality scores (Healthy Eating Index and PREDIMED-based Mediterranean diet score) were estimated from FFQ. Relationships between FTO genotype, diet and anthropometrics (weight, waist circumference (WC) and BMI) were evaluated at baseline. European adults with the FTO risk genotype had greater WC (AA v. TT: +1·4 cm; P=0·003) and BMI (+0·9 kg/m2; P=0·001) than individuals with no risk alleles. Subjects with the lowest fried food consumption and two copies of the FTO risk variant had on average 1·4 kg/m2 greater BMI (Ptrend=0·028) and 3·1 cm greater WC (Ptrend=0·045) compared with individuals with no copies of the risk allele and with the lowest fried food consumption. However, there was no evidence of interactions between FTO genotype and dietary intakes on BMI and WC, and thus further research is required to confirm or refute these findings.
Key, F B; Mathers, J C
To obtain quantitative information on the digestibility of the non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) fraction of white and wholemeal breads, rats were fed on diets in which freeze-dried bread (white, wholemeal or mixtures of the two) provided all the complex carbohydrates. In a second experiment the possibility that dietary fat concentration might influence NSP digestibility was tested by feeding diets containing 30 or 170 g maize oil/kg and either white or wholemeal bread. Multiple linear regression analysis provided little evidence of associative effects of dietary components on NSP digestibility and in the two experiments digestibilities of NSP for white and wholemeal breads were 0.77-0.82 and 0.47-0.52 respectively. Xylose- and arabinose-containing polymers were better digested than was cellulose for both breads. Replacing white by wholemeal bread markedly increased the molar proportion of butyrate in caecal volatile fatty acids at the expense of acetate. This was associated with greater flows of organic matter to the large bowel (LB) and a reduction in caecal transit time (Expt 2). There was little detectable effect of dietary maize oil concentration on NSP digestibility or on LB fermentation. All breads contained some starch resistant to pancreatic alpha-amylase (EC 18.104.22.168) without previous treatment with dimethyl sulphoxide. The digestibility of this starch fraction was not significantly different from 1.0 for all diets except that containing wholemeal bread and the higher maize oil concentration where the apparent digestibility was 0.89.
Benítez-Páez, Alfonso; Gómez Del Pulgar, Eva M.; Kjølbæk, Louise
Background Scientific evidence suggests that diet plays a role in obesity and its comorbidities, partly via its interactions with the individual's gut microbiota. Likewise, the individual's microbiota influences the efficacy of dietary interventions to reduce body weight. However, we require a be....... This will ultimately help us to progress towards establishing informed microbiome-based dietary recommendations and interventions, which can contribute to tackling the obesity epidemic and its comorbidities....
Cooper, J A; Watras, A C; Paton, C M; Wegner, F H; Adams, A K; Schoeller, D A
To compare the effects of both dietary fatty acid composition and exercise vs. sedentary conditions on circulating levels of hunger and satiety hormones. Eight healthy males were randomized in a 2 × 2 crossover design. The four treatments were 3 days of HF diets (50% of energy) containing high saturated fat (22% of energy) with exercise (SE) or sedentary (SS) conditions, and high monounsaturated fat (30% of energy) with exercise (UE) or sedentary (US) conditions. Cycling exercise was completed at 45% of VO(2)max for 2h daily. On the third HF day, 20 blood samples were drawn over a 24h period for each hormone (leptin, insulin, ghrelin, and peptide YY (PYY)). A visual analog scale (VAS) was completed hourly between 0800 and 2200. Average 24h leptin and insulin levels were lower while 24h PYY was higher during exercise vs. sedentary conditions. FA composition did not differentially affect 24h hormone values. VAS scores for hunger and fullness did not differ between any treatment but did correlate with ghrelin, leptin, and insulin. High saturated or unsaturated fat diets did not differ with respect to markers of hunger or satiety. Exercise decreased 24h leptin and insulin while increasing PYY regardless of FA composition.
METHODS Eight male military volunteers with normal fsting blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels and no history of diabetes gave their informed consent...Sustainment Module) on the intestinal microbiota and the bacterial P-glucuronidase activity was studied in young healthy male military subjects. The...in the microbiota of the feces of young active military subjects maintained on model NSM rations that were either high fat/3300 kcal or lower fat
Amanda C. Morris
Full Text Available The effect of supplementation with 1% conjugated linoleic acid and 1% n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (CLA/n-3 was assessed in rats. Food intake increased with no difference in body weights. White adipose tissue weights were reduced whereas brown adipose tissue and uncoupling protein-1 expression were increased. Plasma adiponectin, triglyceride and cholesterol levels were reduced while leptin, ghrelin and liver weight and lipid content were unchanged. Hypothalamic gene expression measurements revealed increased expression of orexigenic and decreased expression of anorexigenic signals. Thus, CLA/n-3 increases food intake without affecting body weight potentially through increasing BAT size and up-regulating UCP-1 in rats.
Wang, Q; Yang, X; Leonard, S; Archbold, T; Sullivan, J A; Duncan, A M; Ma, W D L; Bizimungu, B; Murphy, A; Htoo, J K; Fan, M Z
Whereas dietary fibers are well recognized for nutritional management of human health issues, fiber is also known to be one of the dietary factors potentially affecting digestive use of dietary proteins. As a staple food, potato (Solanum tuberosum) may be a significant dietary fiber source. The objective of this study was to examine effects of dietary supplementation of six potato cultivar-genotype samples that differ in soluble fiber content and two conventional fiber components (i.e., cellulose and guar gum) on the apparent ileal AA digestibility in pigs fed a high-fat basal diet. The basal diet was formulated as a zero-fiber negative control (NC) to contain 41.5% poultry meal, 4% casein, 15% animal fat-oil blend, 2.8% sucrose, 31% corn (Zea mays) starch, 0.50% salt, and 0.40% trace mineral-vitamin supplement with fat contributing to 47% of the dietary GE. The two fiber diets were formulated by respectively diluting the basal diet with 10% guar gum and 10% cellulose at the expense of corn starch. Six other test diets were formulated by including 8.5% guar gum and further diluting the basal diet with 25.1% one of the six cultivar-genotype samples of dehydrated potato tuber powder to contain about 10% total dietary fiber at the expense of corn starch. Eighty-one 25-kg barrows were fitted with a simple T-cannula at the distal ileum and fed the diets according to a completely randomized block design with each block lasting 28 d. Compared with the NC, the ileal digestibility of Ala, Gly, and Pro were decreased (P dietary inclusion of fiber at 10% from guar gum and cellulose and contributed by potatoes may adversely affect digestive use of dietary protein.
Rosero, D S; van Heugten, E; Odle, J; Arellano, C; Boyd, R D
The objective of this study was to determine the response to increments of 2 sources of dietary fat on lactating sow and progeny performance during high ambient temperatures. Data were collected from 391 sows (PIC Camborough) from June to September in a 2,600-sow commercial unit in Oklahoma. Sows were randomly assigned to a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments and a control diet. Factors included 1) fat sources, animal-vegetable blend (A-V) and choice white grease (CWG), and 2) fat levels (2%, 4%, and 6%). The A-V blend contained 14.5% FFA with an iodine value of 89, peroxide value of 4.2 mEq/kg, and anisidine value of 23, whereas CWG contained 3.7% FFA with an iodine value of 62, peroxide value of 9.8 mEq/kg, and anisidine value of 5. Diets were corn-soybean meal based, with 8.0% distillers dried grains with solubles and 6.0% wheat middlings, and contained 3.56-g standardized ileal digestible Lys/Mcal ME. Sows were balanced by parity, with 192 and 199 sows representing parity 1 and parity 3 to 5, respectively. Feed refusal increased linearly (P feed and energy intake increased linearly (P Sows fed CWG diets had reduced (linear, P sow and litter gain relative to feed intake) compared with the G:F of sows fed the control diet or the diets containing the A-V blend (0.50, 0.43, and 0.44, respectively; P feed efficiency than CWG. Subsequent litter size and reproductive performance was improved by inclusion of both sources of fat in diets fed to lactating sows.
Full Text Available To disentangle taste from reward responses in the human gustatory cortex, we combined high density electro-encephalography with a gustometer delivering tastant puffs to the tip of the tongue. Stimuli were pure tastants (salt solutions at two concentrations, caloric emulsions of identical taste (two milk preparations differing in fat content and a mixture of high fat milk with the lowest salt concentration. Early event-related potentials showed a dose-response effect for increased taste intensity, with higher amplitude and shorter latency for high compared to low salt concentration, but not for increased fat content. However, the amplitude and distribution of late potentials were modulated by fat content independently of reported intensity and discrimination. Neural source estimation revealed a sustained activation of reward areas to the two high-fat stimuli. The results suggest calorie detection through specific sensors on the tongue independent of perceived taste. Finally, amplitude variation of the first peak in the event-related potential to the different stimuli correlated with papilla density, suggesting a higher discrimination power for subjects with more fungiform papillae.
Guasch-Ferré, Marta; Becerra-Tomás, Nerea; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Corella, Dolores; Schröder, Helmut; Estruch, Ramon; Ros, Emilio; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Lapetra, José; Basora, Josep; Martín-Calvo, Nerea; Portoles, Olga; Fitó, Montserrat; Hu, Frank B; Forga, Lluís; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi
Background: The associations between dietary fat and cardiovascular disease have been evaluated in several studies, but less is known about their influence on the risk of diabetes.Objective: We examined the associations between total fat, subtypes of dietary fat, and food sources rich in saturated fatty acids and the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D).Design: A prospective cohort analysis of 3349 individuals who were free of diabetes at baseline but were at high cardiovascular risk from the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) study was conducted. Detailed dietary information was assessed at baseline and yearly during the follow-up using a food frequency questionnaire. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate T2D HRs and 95% CIs according to baseline and yearly updated fat intake.Results: We documented 266 incident cases during 4.3 y of follow-up. Baseline saturated and animal fat intake was not associated with the risk of T2D. After multivariable adjustment, participants in the highest quartile of updated intake of saturated and animal fat had a higher risk of diabetes than the lowest quartile (HR: 2.19; 95% CI: 1.28, 3.73; and P-trend = 0.01 compared with HR: 2.00; 95% CI: 1.29, 3.09; and P-trend < 0.01, respectively). In both the Mediterranean diet and control groups, participants in the highest quartile of updated animal fat intake had an ∼2-fold higher risk of T2D than their counterparts in the lowest quartile. The consumption of 1 serving of butter and cheese was associated with a higher risk of diabetes, whereas whole-fat yogurt intake was associated with a lower risk.Conclusions: In a Mediterranean trial focused on dietary fat interventions, baseline intake of saturated and animal fat was not associated with T2D incidence, but the yearly updated intake of saturated and animal fat was associated with a higher risk of T2D. Cheese and butter intake was associated with a higher risk of T2D, whereas whole-fat yogurt intake
Iwasaki, Masanori; Taylor, George W; Moynihan, Paula; Yoshihara, Akihiro; Muramatsu, Kanako; Watanabe, Reiko; Miyazaki, Hideo
The longitudinal relationship between dietary n-6 to n-3 PUFAs ratio and periodontal disease in 235 Japanese subjects for whom data were available for the years 2003-2006 was investigated. PUFAs intake was assessed at baseline with a brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire. Full-mouth periodontal status, measured as the clinical attachment level (CAL), was recorded at baseline and once a year for 3 years. The number of teeth with a change in the loss of CAL ≥3 mm at any site over a year was calculated as 'periodontal disease events'. Poisson regression analysis was conducted, with dietary n-6 to n-3 PUFAs ratio as the main predictor, to estimate its influence on periodontal disease events. A high dietary n-6 to n-3 PUFAs ratio was significantly associated with greater number of periodontal disease events. The findings suggest the dietary n-6 to n-3 PUFAs ratio is associated with periodontal disease among older Japanese.
de Theije, Caroline G M; van den Elsen, Lieke W J; Willemsen, Linette E M; Milosevic, Vanja; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien A H; Lopes da Silva, Sofia; Broersen, Laus M; Korte, S Mechiel; Olivier, Berend; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D
Allergy is suggested to exacerbate impaired behaviour in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. We have previously shown that food allergy impaired social behaviour in mice. Dietary fatty acid composition may affect both the immune and nervous system. The aim of this study was to assess the eff
Teye, G A; Wood, J D; Whittington, F M; Stewart, A; Sheard, P R
Palm kernel oil (PKO) and palm oil (PO) are used in tropical countries as cheaper substitutes for conventional feed sources such as soya bean oil (SBO) but little is known about their effects on meat quality. This study, therefore, evaluated the effects of these three dietary oils on the fatty acid composition (FA) of pork fat and the qualities of belly bacon and frankfurter sausage. The 3×2 factorial design also included high and low dietary protein. Total cooking loss, water loss and fat losses were determined in frankfurter sausages at chopping temperatures from 2 to 24°C. PKO resulted in a poor P:S ratio (0.34) and a relatively hard fat (slip point 32.8°C), but resulted in bacon with a higher tensile cohesive force and more high quality slices, judged subjectively. PO had a fatty acid composition closer to the SBO control, a better P:S ratio than PKO (0.48) and softer fat. There was a trend for total cooking losses and fat losses to be higher in PKO compared with PO and SBO at all chopping temperatures, suggesting that the firmest, most saturated fat (PKO) was least suitable for frankfurter production. The low protein diet increased the concentration of saturated fatty acids and increased fat firmness but its effect on fatty acid composition and other properties were less marked than those of oil type.
Andersen, Anders Daniel; Ludvig, Stine E; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab;
Long-chain n-3 PUFA (LCPUFA) and palmitate (16:0) positioning in the triacylglycerol (TAG) of infant formula may affect calcium-uptake which could affect bone health. We investigated if a human milk fat substitute (HMFS) with a modified TAG structure holding 16:0 predominantly in the sn-2-position...
Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Fagt, Sisse; Groth, Margit Velsing
The aim of the present study was to assess if a simple dietary quality index (SDQI) is a useful indicator for nutritional quality in the Danish diet. Data from the Danish National Dietary Survey 2000-2 for adults (n 3151; age 18-75 years) were used to construct an SDQI based on the intake of diet......-dense foods, for example, salty snacks, confectionery, and beverages, for example, soft drinks and alcohol. The SDQI is a simple and useful tool to characterise the diet quality of Danish adults....
Zhuang, Xinbo; Han, Minyi; Kang, Zhuang-li; Wang, Kai; Bai, Yun; Xu, Xing-lian; Zhou, Guang-hong
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of sugarcane dietary fiber (SDF) and pre-emulsified sesame oil for pork fat replacement on batter characteristics. Replacing pork fat with SDF and pre-emulsified sesame oil significantly affected color, water- and fat-binding properties, texture, dynamic rheology, microstructure and sensory analysis. With SDF and pre-emulsified sesame oil, the batters had improved textures and gave good sensory scores. These batters containing SDF had reduced the cholesterol and fat contents. With increasing levels of SDF, the batters had higher water- and fat-binding properties, improved texture (hardness, gumminess and chewiness), dynamic rheology and a more balanced nutritional composition. However, when the level of SDF reached 3%, the pores formed by SDF in batter were too large to hinder aggregation and the hardness of batter was unacceptable, which result the allover acceptability to be unsatisfactory. The sample 2% SDF had comparable overall acceptability to the control batter.
Onetti, S G; Shaver, R D; McGuire, M A; Grummer, R R
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of tallow and choice white grease (CWG) fed at 0, 2, and 4% of the diet dry matter (DM) on rumen fermentation and performance of dairy cows when corn silage is the sole forage source. Fifteen midlactation Holstein cows were used in a replicated 5 x 5 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Treatments were 0% fat (control), 2% tallow, 2% CWG, 4% tallow, and 4% CWG (DM basis). The forage:concentrate ratio was 50:50, and diets were formulated to contain 18% crude protein and 32% neutral detergent fiber (DM basis). Cows were allowed ad libitum consumption of diets fed twice daily as total mixed rations. Cows fed supplemental fat had lower DM intake and produced less milk and milk fat than cows fed the control diet. Feeding 4% fat reduced milk production and milk fat yield relative to feeding 2% fat. Treatments had little effect on the concentration of trans-octadecenoic acids in milk fat. Total trans fatty acids were poorly related to changes in milk fat percentage. Ruminal pH and total volatile fatty acids concentration were not affected by supplemental fat. The acetate:propionate ratio, NH3-N, and numbers of protozoa in the rumen were significantly decreased when fat was added to the diets. Source of dietary fat did not affect rumen parameters. There was no treatment effect on in situ corn silage DM and neutral detergent fiber disappearance. Including fat in corn silage-based diets had negative effects on milk production and rumen fermentation regardless of the source or level of supplemental fat.
Substantial evidence relates increased sex hormone concentrations with increased breast cancer risk. Varying omega-3 fatty acid (n-3) intake may lead to alterations in eicosanoid balance and subsequent changes in circulating sex hormones that reduce risk. To clarify effects of dietary fat and n-3 i...
Andersen, A.D.; Mølbak, Lars; Thymann, T.;
Dietary n-3PUFA and gut bacteria, particularly Bacteroidetes, have been suggested to be related to adiposity. We investigated if n-3PUFA affected fat storage and cecal bacteria in piglets. Twenty-four 4-day-old piglets were allocated to formula rich in n-3PUFA (∼3E%) from fish oil (FO) or n-6PUFA...
Yang, Xiao Rong; Wat, Elaine; Wang, Yan Ping; Ko, Chun Hay; Koon, Chi Man; Siu, Wing Sum; Gao, Si; Cheung, David Wing Shing; Lau, Clara Bik San; Ye, Chuang Xing; Leung, Ping Chung
Recent studies suggested that green tea has the potential to protect against diet-induced obesity. The presence of caffeine within green tea has caused limitations. Cocoa tea (Camellia ptilophylla) is a naturally decaffeinated tea plant. To determine whether cocoa tea supplementation results in an improvement in high-fat diet-induced obesity, hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis, and whether such effects would be comparable to those of green tea extract, we studied six groups (n = 10) of C57BL/6 mice that were fed with (1) normal chow (N); (2) high-fat diet (21% butterfat + 0.15% cholesterol, wt/wt) (HF); (3) a high-fat diet supplemented with 2% green tea extract (HFLG); (4) a high-fat diet supplemented with 4% green tea extract (HFHG); (5) a high-fat diet supplemented with 2% cocoa tea extract (HFLC); and (6) a high-fat diet supplemented with 4% cocoa tea extract (HFHC). From the results, 2% and 4% dietary cocoa tea supplementation caused a dose-dependent decrease in (a) body weight, (b) fat pad mass, (c) liver weight, (d) total liver lipid, (e) liver triglyceride and cholesterol, and (f) plasma lipids (triglyceride and cholesterol). These data indicate that dietary cocoa tea, being naturally decaffeinated, has a beneficial effect on high-fat diet-induced obesity, hepatomegaly, hepatic steatosis, and elevated plasma lipid levels in mice, which are comparable to green tea. The present findings have provided the proof of concept that dietary cocoa tea might be of therapeutic value and could therefore provide a safer and cost effective option for patients with diet-induced metabolic syndrome. PMID:23935682
Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity and insulin resistance are two major risk factors underlying the metabolic syndrome. The development of these metabolic disorders is frequently studied, but mainly in liver, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue. To gain more insight in the role of the small intestine in development of obesity and insulin resistance, dietary fat-induced differential gene expression was determined along the longitudinal axis of small intestines of C57BL/6J mice. Methods Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a low-fat or a high-fat diet that mimicked the fatty acid composition of a Western-style human diet. After 2, 4 and 8 weeks of diet intervention small intestines were isolated and divided in three equal parts. Differential gene expression was determined in mucosal scrapings using Mouse genome 430 2.0 arrays. Results The high-fat diet significantly increased body weight and decreased oral glucose tolerance, indicating insulin resistance. Microarray analysis showed that dietary fat had the most pronounced effect on differential gene expression in the middle part of the small intestine. By overrepresentation analysis we found that the most modulated biological processes on a high-fat diet were related to lipid metabolism, cell cycle and inflammation. Our results further indicated that the nuclear receptors Ppars, Lxrs and Fxr play an important regulatory role in the response of the small intestine to the high-fat diet. Next to these more local dietary fat effects, a secretome analysis revealed differential gene expression of secreted proteins, such as Il18, Fgf15, Mif, Igfbp3 and Angptl4. Finally, we linked the fat-induced molecular changes in the small intestine to development of obesity and insulin resistance. Conclusion During dietary fat-induced development of obesity and insulin resistance, we found substantial changes in gene expression in the small intestine, indicating modulations of biological processes, especially related to lipid
Kristensen, Torsten N; Overgaard, Johannes; Loeschcke, Volker;
The ability to use different food sources is likely to be under strong selection if organisms are faced with natural variation in macro-nutrient (protein, carbohydrate and lipid) availabilities. Here, we use experimental evolution to study how variable dietary protein content affects adult body c...
Weggemans, R.M.; Zock, P.L.; Ordovas, J.M.; Pedro-Botet, J.; Katan, M.B.
Previous studies on the effect of apoprotein E (APOE) polymorphism on the response of serum lipids to diet showed inconsistent results. We therefore studied the effect of apoprotein E polymorphism on responses of serum cholesterol and lipoproteins to various dietary treatments. We combined data on r
Kristensen, M.; Knudsen, K. E. B.; Jørgensen, H.;
Dietary fibers (DF) may affect energy balance, an effect often ascribed to the viscous nature of some water soluble DF, which affect luminal viscosity and thus multiple physiological processes. We have tested the hypothesis that viscous linseed DF reduce apparent nutrient digestibility, and limit...
Sanchez-Villegas, A.; Verberne, L.D.M.; Irala, De J.; Ruiz-Canela, M.; Toledo, E.; Serra-Majem, L.; Martinez-Gonzalez, M.A.
Emerging evidence relates some nutritional factors to depression risk. However, there is a scarcity of longitudinal assessments on this relationship. Objective: To evaluate the association between fatty acid intake or the use of culinary fats and depression incidence in a Mediterranean population. M
Dias, Cintia B; Phang, Melinda; Wood, Lisa G; Garg, Manohar L
Dietary saturated fat (SFA) intake has been associated with elevated blood lipid levels and increased risk for the development of chronic diseases. However, some animal studies have demonstrated that dietary SFA may not raise blood lipid levels when the diet is sufficient in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFA). Therefore, in a randomised cross-over design, we investigated the postprandial effects of feeding meals rich in either SFA (butter) or vegetable oil rich in omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6PUFA), in conjunction with n-3PUFA, on blood lipid profiles [total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triacylglycerol (TAG)] and n-3PUFA incorporation into plasma lipids over a 6-h period. The incremental area under the curve for plasma cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, TAG and n-3PUFA levels over 6 h was similar in the n-6PUFA compared to SFA group. The postprandial lipemic response to saturated fat is comparable to that of n-6PUFA when consumed with n-3PUFA; however, sex-differences in response to dietary fat type are worthy of further attention.
Björck, Lena; Rosengren, Annika; Winkvist, Anna; Capewell, Simon; Adiels, Martin; Bandosz, Piotr; Critchley, Julia; Boman, Kurt; Guzman-Castillo, Maria; O’Flaherty, Martin; Johansson, Ingegerd
Objective In Sweden, previous favourable trends in blood cholesterol levels have recently levelled off or even increased in some age groups since 2003, potentially reflecting changing fashions and attitudes towards dietary saturated fatty acids (SFA). We aimed to examine the potential effect of different SFA intake on future coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality in 2025. Methods We compared the effect on future CHD mortality of two different scenarios for fat intake a) daily SFA intake decreasing to 10 energy percent (E%), and b) daily SFA intake rising to 20 E%. We assumed that there would be moderate improvements in smoking (5%), salt intake (1g/day) and physical inactivity (5% decrease) to continue recent, positive trends. Results In the baseline scenario which assumed that recent mortality declines continue, approximately 5,975 CHD deaths might occur in year 2025. Anticipated improvements in smoking, dietary salt intake and physical activity, would result in some 380 (-6.4%) fewer deaths (235 in men and 145 in women). In combination with a mean SFA daily intake of 10 E%, a total of 810 (-14%) fewer deaths would occur in 2025 (535 in men and 275 in women). If the overall consumption of SFA rose to 20 E%, the expected mortality decline would be wiped out and approximately 20 (0.3%) additional deaths might occur. Conclusion CHD mortality may increase as a result of unfavourable trends in diets rich in saturated fats resulting in increases in blood cholesterol levels. These could cancel out the favourable trends in salt intake, smoking and physical activity. PMID:27490257
Maksymchuk, Oksana; Shysh, Angela; Chashchyn, Mykola; Moibenko, Olexyi
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are used for the treatment and prevention of numerous pathologies in humans. As recently found, PUFAs play significantly protective roles in liver, cardiovascular system and kidney. They also are widely used in total parenteral nutrition. We evaluated the effect of omega-3 PUFA consumption on liver fatty acid composition and the expression of CYP2E1, one of the key enzymes in detoxification and prooxidant systems of liver cells. To estimate the oxidative stress in liver tissue, the antioxidant status and the level of lipid peroxidation were determined in a rodent model. Animals were divided into two groups: control (n = 10) and experimental (n = 10). Epadol-containing omega-3 PUFA fish oil capsules were administered to Wistar rats within 4 weeks (0.1 mL/100 g b.w./day). The consumption of omega-3 PUFAs resulted in changes of fatty acid composition of liver tissue. A significant increase was detected in the α-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid content (5.1-, 16-, and 1.3-fold, respectively, p omega-3:omega-6 ratio. Consumption of omega-3 PUFAs led to a 3-fold (p < 0.05) increase in CYP2E1 content, which could entail enhanced Nrf2 expression levels and increases in the HO-1 content in rat liver. The alteration in CYP2E1 expression did not have an impact on the level of lipid peroxidation and on the prooxidant/antioxidant balance.
Audrey C A Cleuren
Full Text Available Obesity is associated with a hypercoagulable state and increased risk for thrombotic cardiovascular events.Establish the onset and reversibility of the hypercoagulable state during the development and regression of nutritionally-induced obesity in mice, and its relation to transcriptional changes and clearance rates of coagulation factors as well as its relation to changes in metabolic and inflammatory parameters.Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a low fat (10% kcal as fat; LFD or high fat diet (45% kcal as fat; HFD for 2, 4, 8 or 16 weeks. To study the effects of weight loss, mice were fed the HFD for 16 weeks and switched to the LFD for 1, 2 or 4 weeks. For each time point analyses of plasma and hepatic mRNA levels of coagulation factors were performed after overnight fasting, as well as measurements of circulating metabolic and inflammatory parameters. Furthermore, in vivo clearance rates of human factor (F VII, FVIII and FIX proteins were determined after 2 weeks of HFD-feeding.HFD feeding gradually increased the body and liver weight, which was accompanied by a significant increase in plasma glucose levels from 8 weeks onwards, while insulin levels were affected after 16 weeks. Besides a transient rise in cytokine levels at 2 weeks after starting the HFD, no significant effect on inflammation markers was present. Increased plasma levels of fibrinogen, FII, FVII, FVIII, FIX, FXI and FXII were observed in mice on a HFD for 2 weeks, which in general persisted throughout the 16 weeks of HFD-feeding. Interestingly, with the exception of FXI the effects on plasma coagulation levels were not paralleled by changes in relative transcript levels in the liver, nor by decreased clearance rates. Switching from HFD to LFD reversed the HFD-induced procoagulant shift in plasma, again not coinciding with transcriptional modulation.Changes in dietary fat content rapidly alter the mouse plasma coagulation profile, thereby preceding plasma metabolic changes, which
Navarro-Meza, Mónica; Gabriel-Ortiz, Genaro; Pacheco-Moisés, Fermín P.; Cruz-Ramos, José A.; López-Espinoza, Antonio
Objective To evaluate and compare the intake of lipids and (A, E, and C) vitamins in patients with and without possible neurodegenerative diseases. Methods Twenty adults with possible Alzheimer's disease or Parkinson's disease and 41 control subjects (50–89 years old) from a rural region were studied. Dietary intake was evaluated with the analysis of macronutrients and micronutrients conducted by a food frequency questionnaire and 24 hours dietary record. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, and energy intake. Through interrogation and use of medical record form of health secretary we obtained information about the sociodemographic characteristics. Multivariate analysis of variance to allow for covariated adjustment was used. Results Patients had a lower energy intake, vitamin C (P = 0.016), fruits (P animal fat diet (P = 0.024), and whole milk (P < 0.001); 2.4% of the controls smoke and 5% are alcohol consumers. Eighty-five percent of patients and 78% of the controls do not have physical activity. Family history of subjects in this study indicated chronic diseases. Conclusion The subjects included in this study had a high intake of C vitamin, this is due to the consumption of fruits and vegetables. However, patients with possible Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease had a lower intake of fruits and vegetables, which could be due to type of food to which they have access. PMID:24257159
Roopchand, Diana E; Carmody, Rachel N; Kuhn, Peter; Moskal, Kristin; Rojas-Silva, Patricio; Turnbaugh, Peter J; Raskin, Ilya
Dietary polyphenols protect against metabolic syndrome, despite limited absorption and digestion, raising questions about their mechanism of action. We hypothesized that one mechanism may involve the gut microbiota. To test this hypothesis, C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) containing 1% Concord grape polyphenols (GP). Relative to vehicle controls, GP attenuated several effects of HFD feeding, including weight gain, adiposity, serum inflammatory markers (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]α, interleukin [IL]-6, and lipopolysaccharide), and glucose intolerance. GP lowered intestinal expression of inflammatory markers (TNFα, IL-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase) and a gene for glucose absorption (Glut2). GP increased intestinal expression of genes involved in barrier function (occludin) and limiting triglyceride storage (fasting-induced adipocyte factor). GP also increased intestinal gene expression of proglucagon, a precursor of proteins that promote insulin production and gut barrier integrity. 16S rRNA gene sequencing and quantitative PCR of cecal and fecal samples demonstrated that GP dramatically increased the growth of Akkermansia muciniphila and decreased the proportion of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes, consistent with prior reports that similar changes in microbial community structure can protect from diet-induced obesity and metabolic disease. These data suggest that GP act in the intestine to modify gut microbial community structure, resulting in lower intestinal and systemic inflammation and improved metabolic outcomes. The gut microbiota may thus provide the missing link in the mechanism of action of poorly absorbed dietary polyphenols.
THE EGG – FUNCTIONAL FOOD.COMPARATIVE STUDY ON VARIOUS NUTRITIONAL SOLUTIONS TO ENRICH THE EGG POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS. II YOLK FATTY ACIDS PROFILE RESULTING FROM THE DIETARY USE OF SAFFLOWER OIL AND FLAX SEEDS
CRISTE RODICA. D.
Full Text Available The paper presents the results obtained in a study on the comparative evaluation of the effect of a diet with safflower oil and flax seeds compared to a control soybean oil diet given to layers on the bioproductive effects, egg characteristics and yolk fatty acids profile. The trial involved 32 Lowman Brown layers during the age period 23- 28 weeks (1 week of accommodation and 4 experimental weeks. The layers, assigned to 2 groups (16 layers/group, 4 layers/cage received diets based on corn, wheat and soybean meal. The diets differed by the source of fatty acids: soybean oil for the control group (SO; safflower oil and flax seeds for SSO+FS. The diets were supplemented with 250 ppm vitamin E. Twelve eggs per group were collected randomly 10 and 30 days, respectively, after the beginning of the experiment. The paper presents comparative data on the: average egg weight, egg component (egg shell, yolk, egg white weight, intensity of yolk colour (Hoffman – La Roche colour range, yolk protein, fat yolk pH (measured one week after collection, the eggs being kept at 50C and yolk fatty acids. All data show that the profile of yolk unsaturated fatty acids can be handled quite easily by the nature of the dietary fats, their level of inclusion and their dietary ratio.
Rosanna W S Chung
Full Text Available Controlling intestinal lipid absorption is an important strategy for maintaining lipid homeostasis. Accumulation of lipids in the liver is a major risk factor for metabolic syndrome and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. It is well-known that sphingomyelin (SM can inhibit intestinal cholesterol absorption. It is, however, unclear if dietary SM also lowers liver lipid levels. In the present study (i the effect of pure dietary egg SM on hepatic lipid metabolism and intestinal cholesterol absorption was measured with [(14C]cholesterol and [(3H]sitostanol in male C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat (HF diet with or without 0.6% wt/wt SM for 18 days; and (ii hepatic lipid levels and gene expression were determined in mice given a HF diet with or without egg SM (0.3, 0.6 or 1.2% wt/wt for 4 weeks. Mice supplemented with SM (0.6% wt/wt had significantly increased fecal lipid and cholesterol output and reduced hepatic [(14C]cholesterol levels after 18 days. Relative to HF-fed mice, SM-supplemented HF-fed mice had significantly lower intestinal cholesterol absorption (-30%. Liver weight was significantly lower in the 1.2% wt/wt SM-supplemented mice (-18%. Total liver lipid (mg/organ was significantly reduced in the SM-supplemented mice (-33% and -40% in 0.6% wt/wt and 1.2% wt/wt SM, respectively, as were triglyceride and cholesterol levels. The reduction in liver triglycerides was due to inactivation of the LXR-SREBP-1c pathway. In conclusion, dietary egg SM has pronounced hepatic lipid-lowering properties in mice maintained on an obesogenic diet.
There is a critical need for animal models to study aspects type 2 diabetes mellitus pathogenesis and prevention. While the rhesus macaque is such an established model, the common marmoset has added benefits including reduced zoonotic risks, shorter life span, and a predisposition to birth twins demonstrating chimerism. The marmoset as a model organism for the study of metabolic syndrome has not been fully evaluated. Marmosets fed high-fat or glucose-enriched diets were followed longitudinall...
Murakami, Hiroshi; Sakai, Yasuo; Ohta, Kazutoshi; Hatakeyama, Katsuyoshi
Two fatty acid binding proteins, liver and intestinal, have been identified in the rat intestine. Both are thought to be closely related to the absorption and metabolism of fatty acids in the intestinal epithelium. However, the underlying mechanism is not clearly understood. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate the roles of these two fatty acid binding proteins in the intestinal absorption of fatty acids. Rats were fed diets varying in fat content for two or four weeks. Live...
Full Text Available So far several animal and case-control studies have confirmed this hypothesis that dietary fat increases the risk of breast cancer. However, cohort studies have not shown this relationship. The aim of this study was to review the studies on the relationship between dietary fat intake and breast cancer risk among women. Electronic database PubMed and Google Scholar were searched using the key words: Breast cancer, dietary fat, serum estrogen, saturated fatty acids (SFAs, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs. The evidence of the studies regarding to the association of total and subtypes of fat intake with breast cancer risk are inconsistent. Several studies have shown that, among several types of fat, SFAs and w-3 PUFA intake are associated with an increased and reduced risk of breast cancer, respectively. The relationship between MUFAs intake and breast cancer risk is conflicting. Narrow ranges of fat intake among populations, measurement errors, high correlation between specific types of dietary fat, the confounding variables like body fatness and high-energy intake and other dietary components such as fiber and antioxidants might be probable explanations for these inconsistent results. Although we are not at a stage where we can justifiably advise women to reduce their fat intake to decrease the risk of developing breast cancer, it seems the current guidelines to lower total fat consumption and recommendation to consumption of unsaturated fats such as MUFAs and w-3 fatty acids and also reduction of SFAs (meat and dairy products intake to avoid heart disease is also useful for breast cancer risk.
Taba Vakili, Sahar Taba; Nezami, Behtash Ghazi; Shetty, Akshay; Chetty, Veerappa. K.; Srinivasan, Shanthi
Background Constipation is highly prevalent in the United States. The association of dietary fat intake with constipation has not been well studied. We recently reported that mice fed a high-fat diet had higher incidence of constipation than regular diet fed mice. The aim of this study was to assess if increased intake of dietary saturated fat in humans is also associated with higher risk of constipation and reduced stool frequency. Methods Analyses were based on data from 6,207 adults (≥20 years) from the 2005–2006 and 2007–2008 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) who had completed the bowel health questionnaire. Constipation was defined as a stool frequency of less than three times per week. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to calculate adjusted prevalence odds ratio estimates. Statistical analyses were performed using R and RStudio softwares. Key Results The prevalence of constipation in this sample was 3.1%. After multivariable adjustment high saturated fat remained associated with constipation. The odds ratio for high saturated fat intake associated with constipation was much higher in diabetics above 65 years, especially in non-Hispanic blacks, females, and those with poor glycemic control, compared to the control group. Conclusions & Inferences To our knowledge, this is the first report to investigate the association of high saturated fat diet, bowel frequency and diabetes. This study demonstrates that a high dietary saturated fat intake is associated with significant increase in the prevalence of constipation, especially in the uncontrolled diabetic, non-Hispanic black, female patients. PMID:26176421
The effect of chromium as chromium propionate on growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality, and the fatty acid profile of fat from pigs fed no supplemented dietary fat, choice white grease, or tallow.
Jackson, A R; Powell, S; Johnston, S L; Matthews, J O; Bidner, T D; Valdez, F R; Southern, L L
The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of Cr as chromium propionate (CrProp) on growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality, and the fatty acid profile of fat from pigs fed no supplemented dietary fat, choice white grease (CWG), or tallow. An experiment was conducted with 108 crossbred Yorkshire gilts assigned in a randomized complete block design based on BW (average initial and final BW were 29 +/- 3 and 109 +/- 7 kg, respectively) and allotted within block to a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. The treatment arrangement consisted of 2 levels of Cr supplementation (0 and 200 microg/kg in the form of CrProp) and 3 dietary fat sources (no added fat, CWG, or tallow). Each treatment was replicated 6 times with 3 pigs per replicate pen. The experiment was conducted over time with 3 replicates in each of 2 trials. A 4-phase grower-finisher feeding program was used. Dietary treatments were 1) a corn-soybean meal (C-SBM) diet with no added fat; 2) a C-SBM diet with 4% added tallow; 3) a C-SBM diet with 4% added CWG; 4) diet 1 + 200 microg/kg of Cr as CrProp; and 5) diet 2 + 200 microg/kg of Cr; 6) diet 3 + 200 microg/kg of Cr. Addition of Cr did not affect (P > 0.10) growth performance, but did decrease (P = 0.05) 10th-rib backfat and increase (P = 0.03) percentage of muscle. Gain:feed was increased (P = 0.003) and ADFI was decreased (P = 0.03) by fat addition. Fat addition increased HCW (P = 0.05) and dressing percent (P = 0.03). Average backfat, 9th-rib LM cook loss, and 10th-rib LM drip loss and total loss were decreased (P = 0.02 to 0.04) by tallow. Belly bending on both the teatline and scribe side were increased (P = 0.01 to 0.03) by CWG. Iodine values on belly fat samples were decreased (P = 0.02) by Cr supplementation. In addition, iodine values on belly and loin fat samples were increased (P = 0.001) by CWG. Overall, Cr supplementation decreased backfat and the iodine value of belly fat and increased the percentage of muscle.
Choi, Min-Sung; Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; n Lee, Soo-Yeo; Kim, Cheon-Jei
The effects of replacing pork back fat with brewer's spent grain (BSG) pre-emulsion for physicochemical, textural properties, and sensory evaluations of reduced-fat chicken sausages are evaluated. Control was prepared with 15% pork back fat, and three reduced-fat chicken sausages were formulated with the replacement of 20, 25, and 30% pork back fat with BSG pre-emulsion. The pH level of reduced-fat sausages formulated with BSG pre-emulsion is lower than that of the control (p
Austin T Mudd
Full Text Available Introduction: Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM and lactoferrin have been identified as two components that have potential to affect neurodevelopment. While concentrations of some MFGM constituents in infant formulas are within human milk range, they may not be present at optimal or clinically effective levels. However, lactoferrin levels of infant formulas are consistently reported to be lower than human milk. This study sought to provide a novel combination of prebiotics, bovine-derived milk fat globule membrane and lactoferrin and assess their influence on neurodevelopment. Methods: Twenty-four male piglets were provided either TEST (n=12 or CONT (n=12 diet from 2 to 31 d of age. Piglets underwent spatial T-maze assessment starting at 17 d of age, were subjected to magnetic resonance imaging at 30 d of age, and were euthanized for tissue collection at 31 d of age. Results: Diffusion tensor imaging revealed differences in radial (P = 0.032 and mean (P = 0.028 diffusivities in the internal capsule, where CONT piglets had higher rates of diffusion compared with TEST piglets. Voxel-based morphometry indicated larger (P < 0.05 differences in cortical grey and white matter concentrations, with CONT piglets having larger tissue clusters in these regions compared with TEST piglets. In the spatial T-maze assessment, CONT piglets exhibited shorter latency to choice compared with TEST piglets on d 2 of acquisition and d 3 and 4 of reversal. Conclusion: Observed differences in microstructure maturation of the internal capsule and cortical tissue concentrations suggest that piglets provided TEST diet were more advanced developmentally than piglets provided CONT diet. Therefore, supplementation of infant formula with prebiotics, milk fat globule membrane and lactoferrin may support neurodevelopment in human infants.
Hoffman, R M; Lawrence, L A; Kronfeld, D S; Cooper, W L; Sklan, D J; Dascanio, J J; Harris, P A
Hydrolyzable carbohydrate intake in horse diets may become excessive when rapidly growing pastures are supplemented with grain-based concentrates. The substitution of fat and fiber for hydrolyzable carbohydrate in concentrates has been explored in exercising horses but not in young, growing horses. Our objective was to compare bone development in foals that were fed pasture and concentrates rich in sugar and starch (corn, molasses) or fat and fiber (corn oil, beet pulp, soybean hulls, oat straw). Forty foals were examined, 20 each in 1994 and 1995. In each year, 10 mares and their foals were fed a corn and molasses supplement (SS) and 10 others were fed a corn oil and fiber supplement (FF). The concentrates were formulated to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous, and mineral content was balanced to complement the pastures and meet or exceed NRC requirements. Dorsopalmar radiographs were taken of the left third metacarpal monthly from birth to weaning and then every other month until 1 yr of age. Bone density was estimated using imaging software and an aluminum stepwedge. Radiographic examination indicated differences in medial, lateral, and central bone mineral content of the metacarpal III. Bone mineral content increased with age, and a plateau was observed during winter. Bone mineral content was lower in weanlings and yearlings fed the FF supplement than in those fed SS. Subjective clinical leg evaluations indicated differences in physitis, joint effusion, and angular and flexural limb deformities in response to age, and possibly to season. Regression analysis indicated positive relationships between bone mineral content and body weight, age, and body measurements. Nutrient and chemical interactions, such as the binding of calcium by fat and fiber, may alter the availability of elements necessary for bone development.
Gu, Yeyi; Yu, Shan; Park, Jong Yung; Harvatine, Kevin; Lambert, Joshua D
In diet-induced obesity, adipose tissue (AT) is in a chronic state of inflammation predisposing the development of metabolic syndrome. Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) is a polyphenol-rich food with putative anti-inflammatory activities. Here, we examined the impact and underlying mechanisms of action of cocoa on AT inflammation in high fat-fed mice. In the present study, male C57BL/6 J mice were fed a high fat diet (HF), a HF diet with 8% (w/w) unsweetened cocoa powder (HFC), or a low-fat diet (LF) for 18 weeks. Cocoa supplementation decreased AT mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and EGF-like module-containing mucin-like hormone receptor-like 1 by 40-60% compared to HF group, and this was accompanied by decreased nuclear protein levels of nuclear factor-κB. Cocoa treatment reduced the levels of arachidonic acid in the AT by 33% compared to HF controls. Moreover, cocoa treatment also reduced protein levels of the eicosanoid-generating enzymes, adipose-specific phospholipase A2 and cyclooxygenase-2 by 53% and 55%, respectively, compared to HF-fed mice. Finally, cocoa treatment ameliorated metabolic endotoxemia (40% reduction in plasma endotoxin) and improved gut barrier function (as measured by increased plasma levels of glucagon-like peptide-2). In conclusion, the present study has shown for the first time that long-term cocoa supplementation can reduce AT inflammation in part by modulating eicosanoid metabolism and metabolic endotoxemia.
Kobayakawa, Akira; Suzuki, Tomoo; Ikami, Takao; Saito, Morio; Yabe, Daisuke; Seino, Yutaka
A double-blind, randomized, controlled study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a moderate amount of dietary fiber intake on fasting plasma glucose level and physical characteristics in Japanese men with mild hyperglycemia and visceral fat obesity. Thirty men with mild hyperglycemia (>5.6 mmol/L) and visceral fat accumulation (>100 cm²) ingested 7.5 g/day of dietary fiber for 12 weeks. An abdominal computed tomography scan was performed at baseline and at week 12. Blood was drawn every 4 weeks. In the test food group, fasting plasma glucose level was reduced with time, and the difference between the test food group and placebo group was statistically significant at week 12. Body weight and body mass index were also reduced with time, but visceral and subcutaneous fat areas did not change significantly during the study period. The results suggest that even a moderate amount of dietary fiber intake may be beneficial for managing the fasting plasma glucose level concomitant with insulin resistance, body weight, and body mass index in Japanese men with mild hyperglycemia and visceral fat obesity.
Alvheim, Anita Røyneberg; Torstensen, Bente E; Lin, Yu Hong; Lillefosse, Haldis Haukås; Lock, Erik-Jan; Madsen, Lise; Frøyland, Livar; Hibbeln, Joseph R; Malde, Marian Kjellevold
Dietary intake of linoleic acid (LNA, 18:2n-6) has increased dramatically during the 20th century and is associated with greater prevalence of obesity. The endocannabinoid system is involved in regulation of energy balance and a sustained hyperactivity of the endocannabinoid system may contribute to obesity. Arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4n-6) is the precursor for 2-AG and anandamide (AEA), and we sought to determine if low fat diets (LFD) could be made obesogenic by increasing the endocannabinoid precursor pool of ARA, causing excessive endocannabinoid signaling leading to weight gain and a metabolic profile associated with obesity. Mice (C57BL/6j, 6 weeks of age) were fed 1 en% LNA and 8 en% LNA in low fat (12.5 en%) and medium fat diets (MFD, 35 en%) for 16 weeks. We found that increasing dietary LNA from 1 to 8 en% in LFD and MFD significantly increased ARA in phospholipids (ARA-PL), elevated 2-AG and AEA in liver, elevated plasma leptin, and resulted in larger adipocytes and more macrophage infiltration in adipose tissue. In LFD, dietary LNA of 8 en% increased feed efficiency and caused greater weight gain than in an isocaloric reduction to 1 en% LNA. Increasing dietary LNA from 1 to 8 en% elevates liver endocannabinoid levels and increases the risk of developing obesity. Thus a high dietary content of LNA (8 en%) increases the adipogenic properties of a low fat diet.
Koutsos, Athanasios; Jackson, Kim G; Lockyer, Stacey; Carvalho-Wells, Andrew; Minihane, Anne M; Lovegrove, Julie A
Apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype is believed to play an important role in cardiovascular risk. APOE4 carriers have been associated with higher blood lipid levels and a more pro-inflammatory state compared with APOE3/E3 individuals. Although dietary fat composition has been considered to modulate the inflammatory state in humans, very little is known about how APOE genotype can impact on this response. In a follow-up to the main SATgenε study, we aimed to explore the effects of APOE genotype, as well as, dietary fat manipulation on ex vivo cytokine production. Blood samples were collected from a subset of SATgenε participants (n=52/88), prospectively recruited according to APOE genotype (n=26 E3/E3 and n=26 E3/E4) after low-fat (LF), high saturated fat (HSF) and HSF with 3.45g docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) dietary periods (each diet eight weeks in duration assigned in the same order) for the measurement of ex vivo cytokine production using whole blood culture (WBC). Concentrations of IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-alpha were measured in WBC supernatant samples after stimulation for 24h with either 0.05 or 1μg/ml of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Cytokine levels were not influenced by genotype, whereas, dietary fat manipulation had a significant impact on TNF-α and IL-10 production; TNF-α concentration was higher after consumption of the HSF diet compared with baseline and the LF diet (PTNF-α and IL-10 by ex vivo LPS-stimulated WBC samples obtained from normolipidaemic subjects.
This papered reviewed the source,the species,and the physiological function of dietary fat,and discussed the effect of the dietary fat on human health.Results showed that we must balance dietary fat in the daily diet.%综述了膳食中脂肪的来源、种类、生理功能,论述了膳食脂肪摄入的质与量对人的健康的影响,得出在日常膳食中必须科学合理地均衡摄入脂肪。
Camuesco, Desirée; Gálvez, Julio; Nieto, Ana; Comalada, Mònica; Rodríguez-Cabezas, M Elena; Concha, Angel; Xaus, Jordi; Zarzuelo, Antonio
Previous studies proposed a protective role of the dietary intake of (n-3) PUFA in human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but almost no studies have been performed using olive oil. The aims of the present study were to test the beneficial effects of an olive oil-based diet with or without fish oil, rich in (n-3) PUFA, in the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) model of rat colitis and to elucidate the mechanisms involved in their potential beneficial effects, with special attention to the production of some of the mediators involved in the intestinal inflammatory response, such as leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) and nitric oxide (NO). Rats were fed the different diets for 2 wk before colitis induction and thereafter until colonic evaluation 15 d later. Colitic rats fed the olive oil-based diet had a lower colonic inflammatory response than those fed the soybean oil diet, and this beneficial effect was increased by the dietary incorporation of (n-3) PUFA. A restoration of colonic glutathione levels and lower colonic NO synthase expression occurred in all colitic rats fed an olive oil diet compared with the control colitic group that consumed the soybean oil diet. However, (n-3) PUFA incorporation into an olive oil diet significantly decreased colonic TNFalpha and LTB(4) levels compared with colitic rats that were not supplemented with fish oil. These results affirm the benefits of an olive oil diet in the management of IBD, which are further enhanced by the addition of (n-3) PUFA.
Karla A. Bascuñán
Full Text Available Chilean diets are characterized by a low supply of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA, which are critical nutrients during pregnancy and lactation, because of their role in brain and visual development. DHA is the most relevant n-3 PUFA in this period. We evaluated the dietary n-3 PUFA intake and erythrocyte phospholipids n-3 PUFA in Chilean pregnant women. Eighty healthy pregnant women (20–36 years old in the 3rd–6th month of pregnancy were included in the study. Dietary assessment was done applying a food frequency questionnaire, and data were analyzed through the Food Processor SQL® software. Fatty acids of erythrocyte phospholipids were assessed by gas-liquid chromatography. Diet composition was high in saturated fat, low in mono- and PUFA, high in n-6 PUFA (linoleic acid and low in n-3 PUFA (alpha-linolenic acid and DHA, with imbalance in the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio. Similar results were observed for fatty acids from erythrocyte phospholipids. The sample of Chilean pregnant women showed high consumption of saturated fat and low consumption of n-3 PUFA, which is reflected in the low DHA content of erythrocyte phospholipids. Imbalance between n-6/n-3 PUFA could negatively affect fetal development. New strategies are necessary to improve n-3 PUFA intake throughout pregnancy and breast feeding periods. Furthermore, it is necessary to develop dietary interventions to improve the quality of consumed foods with particular emphasis on n-3 PUFA.
Full Text Available Adequate brain iron levels are essential for enzyme activities, myelination, and neurotransmitter synthesis in the brain. Although systemic iron deficiency has been found in genetically or dietary-induced obese subjects, the effects of obesity-associated iron dysregulation in brain regions have not been examined. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of dietary fat and iron interaction on brain regional iron contents and regional-associated behavior patterns in a mouse model. Thirty C57BL/6J male weanling mice were randomly assigned to six dietary treatment groups (n=5 with varying fat (control/high and iron (control/high/low contents. The stereotypical behaviors were measured during the 24th week. Blood, liver, and brain tissues were collected at the end of the 24th week. Brains were dissected into the hippocampus, midbrain, striatum, and thalamus regions. Iron contents and ferritin-H (FtH protein and mRNA expressions in these regions were measured. Correlations between stereotypical behaviors and brain regional iron contents were analyzed at the 5% significance level. Results showed that high-fat diet altered the stereotypical behaviors such as inactivity and total distance traveled (P<0.05. The high-fat diet altered brain iron contents and ferritin-H (FtH protein and mRNA expressions in a regional-specific manner: 1 high-fat diet significantly decreased the brain iron content in the striatum (P<0.05, but not other regions; and 2 thalamus has a more distinct change in FtH mRNA expression compared to other regions. Furthermore, high-fat diet resulted in a significant decreased total distance traveled and a significant correlation between iron content and sleeping in midbrain (P<0.05. Dietary iron also decreased brain iron content and FtH protein expression in a regionally specific manner. The effect of interaction between dietary fat and iron was observed in brain iron content and behaviors. All these findings will lay
Intake of Total and Subgroups of Fat Minimally Affect the Associations between Selected Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the PPARγ Pathway and Changes in Anthropometry among European Adults from Cohorts of the DiOGenes Study
Larsen, Sofus C; Ängquist, Lars; Østergaard, Jane N
nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 4 genes in the PPARγ pathway are associated with the OR of being a BW gainer or with annual changes in anthropometry and whether intake of total fat, monounsaturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, or saturated fat has a modifying effect on these associations. METHODS: A case......BACKGROUND: Although the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) pathway is central in adipogenesis, it remains unknown whether it influences change in body weight (BW) and whether dietary fat has a modifying effect on the association. OBJECTIVES: We examined whether 27 single......), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 2, PPARγ gene (PPARG), and sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1] according to evidence about biologic plausibility for interactions with dietary fat in weight regulation. Diet was assessed at baseline, and anthropometry was followed for 7 y. RESULTS: The ORs...
Bødker, Malene; Pisinger, Charlotta; Toft, Ulla
2010 to July 2013. IHD risk was assessed by modelling first the effect of changes in intake of monounsaturated, polyunsaturated and saturated fat and dietary cholesterol on serum cholesterol and subsequently modelling the resulting changes in risk of IHD using two different methods. Results: The total......Objective: To examine the effects on consumption and risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) of the Danish fat tax, effective from October 2011 to January 2013. Methods: We used comprehensive retail outlet data on the sale of twelve foodstuff categories targeted by the fat tax. Data covered January...... sale of the included foodstuffs decreased by 0.9%. The fat tax was associated with marginal changes in population risk of IHD. One estimate suggests an increased population risk of IHD by 0.2% and the other estimate suggests that the risk of IHD decreased by 0.3%. Conclusions: The Danish fat tax had...
Full Text Available Wild rice (WR is a very nutritious grain that has been used to treat diabetes in Chinese medicinal practice. City diet (CD is based on the diet consumed by Asian area residents in modern society, which is rich in saturated fats, cholesterol and carbohydrates. The present study was aimed at evaluating the effects of replacing white rice and processed wheat starch of CD with WR as the chief source of dietary carbohydrates on insulin resistance in rats fed with a high-fat/cholesterol diet. Except the rats of the low-fat (LF diet group, the rats of the other three groups, including to high-fat/cholesterol (HFC diet, CD and WR diet, were fed with high-fat/cholesterol diets for eight weeks. The rats fed with CD exhibited higher weight gain and lower insulin sensitivity compared to the rats consuming a HFC diet. However, WR suppressed high-fat/cholesterol diet-induced insulin resistance. WR decreased liver homogenate triglyceride and free fatty acids levels, raised serum adiponectin concentration and reduced serum lipocalin-2 and visfatin concentrations. In addition, the WR diet potently augmented the relative expressions of adiponectin receptor 2, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, alpha and gamma, and abated relative expressions of leptin and lipocalin-2 in the tissues of interest. These findings indicate that WR is effective in ameliorating abnormal glucose metabolism and insulin resistance in rats, even when the diet consumed is high in fat and cholesterol.
Stoffel, C M; Crump, P M; Armentano, L E
Dietary fatty acids can affect both milk fat yield and fatty acid (FA) composition. This relationship is well established when the dietary level of FA exceeds 3% of diet dry matter (DM). We could find no reports directly examining the effects of dietary FA profile on milk fat at levels below 3%. Twenty-four primiparous and 36 multiparous lactating cows were paired by production (1 high with 1 low, within parity) to form 30 experimental units. Pairs were fed 6 diets in five 6×6 balanced Latin squares with 21-d periods, and data were collected during the last 5d of each period. Two control diets were fed: a corn control diet (CC; 29% corn silage, 16% alfalfa silage, 19% corn grain, and 8% distillers grain on a DM basis) containing 1.8% FA; and a low-oil control diet (LOC; 9% corn silage, 35% alfalfa silage, 20% food-grade corn starch, and 8% corn gluten feed on a DM basis) containing 1.2% FA. A portion of the food-grade corn starch in LOC was replaced with 4 different FA supplements to create the 4 treatment diets. Treatments were 1.7% (DM basis) of a 50:50 blend of corn oil and high-linoleic safflower oil (LO), 1.7% high-oleic sunflower oil (OO), 1.7% palm oil (PO), or 1.8% calcium salts of palm fatty acids (PFA). The resultant diets were thus enriched in linoleic (LO), oleic (OO), or palmitic acid (PO and PFA). Dietary treatments did not affect dry matter intake. Addition of any of the fat sources to LOC resulted in increased milk yield, but milk fat yields and milk FA composition were variable for the different treatments. The LO treatment resulted in lower milk fat yield, fat concentration, and C16:0 yield but increased both trans-10 C18:1 and trans-10,cis-12 C18:2 yields compared with the other added FA treatments. Diets PO and PFA resulted in increased milk C16:0 yield and decreased total milk C18 yield compared with OO. Regression analysis revealed a negative coefficient for dietary linoleic acid content over basal (LOC) for both milk short-chain FA yield and
Hasselbalch, Ann L; Angquist, Lars; Christiansen, Lene;
We investigated the role of the fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO) and variants near the melanocortin-4 receptor gene (MC4R) in modulating habitual intake of total energy and macronutrients, glycemic index, glycemic load, dietary energy density, and energy from 20 food groups in adults...... and variables transformed by natural logarithm were analyzed by linear regression and dichotomized variables were analyzed by logistic regression. FTO SNP rs9939609 was not associated with habitual dietary intake. For the near-MC4R SNP rs12970134 and rs17700633, we found significant positive associations...
Bergouignan, Audrey; Kealey, Elizabeth H.; Schmidt, Stacy L.; Jackman, Matthew R.; Bessesen, Daniel H.
Background It has been hypothesized that obese and reduced-obese individuals have decreased oxidative capacity, which contributes to weight gain and regain. Recent data have challenged this concept. Objective To determine (1) whether total and dietary fat oxidation are decreased in obese and reduced-obese adults compared to lean but increase in response to an acute exercise bout and (2) whether regular physical activity attenuates these metabolic alterations. Design We measured 24-hr total (whole-room calorimetry) and dietary fat (14C-oleate) oxidation in Sedentary Lean (BMI = 21.5±1.6; n = 10), Sedentary Obese (BMI = 33.6±2.5; n = 9), Sedentary Reduced-Obese (RED-SED; BMI = 26.9±3.7; n = 7) and in Physically Active Reduced-Obese (RED-EX; BMI = 27.3±2.8; n = 12) men and women with or without an acute exercise bout where energy expended during exercise was not replaced. Results Although Red-SED and Red-EX had a similar level of fatness, aerobic capacity and metabolic profiles were better in Red-EX only compared to Obese subjects. No significant between-group differences were seen in 24-hr respiratory quotient (RQ, Lean: 0.831±0.044, Obese: 0.852±0.023, Red-SED: 0.864±0.037, Red-EX: 0.842±0.039), total and dietary fat oxidation. A single bout of exercise increased total (+27.8%, p<0.0001) and dietary (+6.6%, p = 0.048) fat oxidation across groups. Although exercise did not impact RQ during the day, it decreased RQ during sleep (p = 0.01) in all groups. Red-EX oxidized more fat overnight than Red-SED subjects under both resting (p = 0.036) and negative energy balance (p = 0.003) conditions, even after adjustment for fat-free mass. Conclusion Obese and reduced-obese individuals oxidize as much fat as lean both under eucaloric and negative energy balance conditions, which does not support the hypothesis of reduced oxidative capacity in these groups. Reduced-obese individuals who exercise regularly have markers of
Full Text Available It has been hypothesized that obese and reduced-obese individuals have decreased oxidative capacity, which contributes to weight gain and regain. Recent data have challenged this concept.To determine (1 whether total and dietary fat oxidation are decreased in obese and reduced-obese adults compared to lean but increase in response to an acute exercise bout and (2 whether regular physical activity attenuates these metabolic alterations.We measured 24-hr total (whole-room calorimetry and dietary fat (14C-oleate oxidation in Sedentary Lean (BMI = 21.5±1.6; n = 10, Sedentary Obese (BMI = 33.6±2.5; n = 9, Sedentary Reduced-Obese (RED-SED; BMI = 26.9±3.7; n = 7 and in Physically Active Reduced-Obese (RED-EX; BMI = 27.3±2.8; n = 12 men and women with or without an acute exercise bout where energy expended during exercise was not replaced.Although Red-SED and Red-EX had a similar level of fatness, aerobic capacity and metabolic profiles were better in Red-EX only compared to Obese subjects. No significant between-group differences were seen in 24-hr respiratory quotient (RQ, Lean: 0.831±0.044, Obese: 0.852±0.023, Red-SED: 0.864±0.037, Red-EX: 0.842±0.039, total and dietary fat oxidation. A single bout of exercise increased total (+27.8%, p<0.0001 and dietary (+6.6%, p = 0.048 fat oxidation across groups. Although exercise did not impact RQ during the day, it decreased RQ during sleep (p = 0.01 in all groups. Red-EX oxidized more fat overnight than Red-SED subjects under both resting (p = 0.036 and negative energy balance (p = 0.003 conditions, even after adjustment for fat-free mass.Obese and reduced-obese individuals oxidize as much fat as lean both under eucaloric and negative energy balance conditions, which does not support the hypothesis of reduced oxidative capacity in these groups. Reduced-obese individuals who exercise regularly have markers of metabolic health similar to those seen in lean
Taha, Ameer Y; Burnham, W McIntyre; Auvin, Stéphane
Omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are dietary fatty acids that are involved in a myriad of physiologic processes in the brain. There is some evidence suggesting that PUFAs-and particularly omega-3 PUFAs-may have anticonvulsant effects, both in humans and in animals. In the present review, we assess the evidence related to the antiseizure properties of the n-3 PUFAs, discuss their possible mechanism(s) of action, and make recommendations for future clinical trials. In general, the available data from cell cultures and whole animal studies support the idea that the n-3 PUFAs have antiseizure properties. Future clinical trials involving the n-3 PUFAs should involve higher doses and longer periods of administration in order to definitively assess their possible antiseizure effects.
Asmus, M D; Derouchey, J M; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; Houser, T A; Nelssen, J L; Goodband, R D
A total of 264 pigs (initially 41.0 kg BW) were used in a 90-d study to determine the effects of lowering dietary fiber before market on pigs fed high dietary fiber [provided by wheat middlings (midds) and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS)] on growth performance, carcass characteristics, carcass fat quality, and intestinal weights of growing-finishing pigs. Pens of pigs were randomly allotted by initial BW and sex to 1 of 6 treatments with 6 replications per treatment and 7 or 8 pigs per pen. A positive control (corn-soybean meal-based) diet containing no DDGS or midds (9.3% NDF) and a negative control diet with 30% DDGS and 19% midds (19% NDF) were fed throughout the entire trial (d 0 to 90). The other 4 treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial with the main effects of length of fiber reduction (23 or 47 d before marketing) and fiber level fed during the reduction period (low or medium). Pigs on these treatments were fed the negative control before the reduction treatment. The medium-fiber diet contained 15% DDGS and 9.5% midds (14.2% NDF) with the low-fiber diet was the positive control diet. Increasing the feeding duration of the low-fiber diets lowered overall ADFI (linear, P = 0.03) and improved G:F (linear, P fiber level for the last 23 d did not influence growth performance; however, lowering the fiber level improved carcass yield (P = 0.002), with a greater response (P fiber diet was fed for 23 d. Jowl fat iodine value (IV) decreased when the longer lower fiber diets were fed (linear, P fiber diet during the fiber reduction period than pigs fed the medium-fiber diet during the same time period; however, increasing the time lower fiber diets were fed from 23 to 47 d further reduced (P fiber level decreased full large intestine weight (linear, P = 0.005) with a greater response (P = 0.04) when the low-fiber diet was fed during the reduction period instead of the medium-fiber diet. In summary, lowering the fiber level before marketing can
McManus, Bettina L; Korpela, Riitta; Speakman, John R; Cryan, John F; Cotter, Paul D; Nilaweera, Kanishka N
Increasing evidence suggests that the source of dietary protein can have an impact on weight gain and fat mass during high-fat feeding in both humans and rodents. The present study examined whether dietary bovine serum albumin (BSA) as the dominant source of protein alters energy balance and adiposity associated with high-fat feeding. C57/BL6J mice were given a diet with 10 % of energy from fat and 20 % of energy from casein or a diet with 45 % of energy from fat and either 20 % of energy from casein (HFD) or BSA (HFD+BSA) for 13 weeks. The HFD+BSA diet did not significantly alter daily energy expenditure, locomotor activity and RER, but did increase cumulative energy intake and percentage of lean mass while reducing feed efficiency and percentage of fat mass when compared with the HFD (Psubcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), the HFD+BSA diet increased the mRNA levels of PPARα (PPARA), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1b (CPT1b) and uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3), but reduced the mRNA level of leptin when compared with the HFD (P< 0·05). The SAT mRNA levels of PPARA, CPT1b and UCP3 were negatively correlated (P< 0·05) with SAT mass, which was reduced in HFD+BSA mice compared with HFD controls (P< 0·01). No differences in epididymal fat mass existed between the groups. The HFD+BSA diet normalised plasma leptin and corticosterone levels compared with the HFD (P< 0·05). While differences in leptin levels were associated with the percentage of fat mass (P< 0·01), changes in corticosterone concentrations were independent of the percentage of fat mass (P< 0·05). The data suggest that the HFD+BSA diet influences plasma leptin levels via SAT mass reduction where mRNA levels of genes linked to β-oxidation were increased, whereas differences in plasma corticosterone levels were not related to fat mass reduction.
Nolan-Clark, Deborah; Mathers, Elizabeth; Probst, Yasmine; Charlton, Karen; Batterham, Marijka; Tapsell, Linda C
Replacing full-fat dairy products with reduced-fat varieties is a dietetic strategy for reducing energy intake while maintaining nutritional adequacy. This study aimed to explore the dietary outcomes of this recommendation in the context of weight loss. This study involved a secondary analysis of diet-history data for 86 adults (23 males and 63 females; body mass index=31.1±3.4) who had completed 3 months of a weight-loss trial in 2009, including advice to consume reduced-fat dairy products. Dairy food intake was categorized using the Australian 1995 National Nutrition Survey food hierarchy. Paired t tests and Wilcoxon signed rank tests determined dairy product consumption change after dietetic intervention. Total fat and energy per day from dairy products decreased significantly, from 14.1±1.2 g to 5.8±0.6 g and 283±20 kcal to 223±14 kcal, respectively, and total carbohydrate from dairy products increased significantly (P=0.04). Only 19.7% of participants met their dietary target of two to three servings of dairy foods per day at 3 months. When analyzed by sex, males decreased their intake of dairy products significantly, from 377.63±62.3 g/day to 357.3±46.7 g/day. Despite consuming less fat from dairy products, females did not significantly reduce energy intake from these foods (P=0.05). This study indicated that men and women responded differently to advice to change from regular to reduced-fat dairy products. Of more concern, however, is that in a weight-loss context, both men and women might choose to consume fewer servings of this food category with significant nutritional implications. Overall, this research highlights the need to consider the impact of sex and the background diet when recommending reduced-fat dairy products in the weight-loss context.
Daeninck Elizabeth A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Weight loss in overweight or obese breast cancer patients is associated with an improved prognosis for long term survival. However, it is not clear whether the macronutrient composition of the chosen weight loss dietary plan imparts further prognostic benefit. A study protocol is presented for a dietary intervention to investigate the effects of weight loss dietary patterns that vary markedly in fat and carbohydrate contents on biomarkers of exposure to metabolic processes that may promote tumorigenesis and that are predictive of long term survival. The study will also determine how much weight must be lost for biomarkers to change in a favorable direction. Methods/Design Approximately 370 overweight or obese postmenopausal breast cancer survivors (body mass index: 25.0 to 34.9 kg/m2 will be accrued and assigned to one of two weight loss intervention programs or a non-intervention control group. The dietary intervention is implemented in a free living population to test the two extremes of popular weight loss dietary patterns: a high carbohydrate, low fat diet versus a low carbohydrate, high fat diet. The effects of these dietary patterns on biomarkers for glucose homeostasis, chronic inflammation, cellular oxidation, and steroid sex hormone metabolism will be measured. Participants will attend 3 screening and dietary education visits, and 7 monthly one-on-one dietary counseling and clinical data measurement visits in addition to 5 group visits in the intervention arms. Participants in the control arm will attend two clinical data measurement visits at baseline and 6 months. The primary outcome is high sensitivity C-reactive protein. Secondary outcomes include interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF, IGF binding protein-3, 8-isoprostane-F2-alpha, estrone, estradiol, progesterone, sex hormone binding globulin, adiponectin, and leptin. Discussion While clinical data indicate that excess weight
involved a total of 180 pigs of 20 litters. Nine pigs of each litter were allotted to 9 dietary treatments in a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments in a randomized complete block design, which was conducted in 20 replicates. The 9 experimental groups were fed 50 g/kg diet of tallow, sunflower oil......This study investigated the influence of different fat sources and vitamin E supplementation on performance, humoral immune responses, plasma biochemical responses, mucosal fatty acid profile, and α-tocopherol status in serum and intestine of pigs after weaning (days 28-56 of age). The experiment...... responses, concentration of triglyceride and cholesterol in plasma, and fatty acid composition of mucosal samples. Vitamin E supplementation increased the α-tocopherol status of pigs 14 days after weaning, and a dietary concentration of 150 mg vitamin E/kg diet (at the present fat level of 50 g/kg diet...
Laika, M; Jahanian, R
The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of organic selenium (Se) on performance, egg quality indices, and yolk oxidative stability in laying hens fed diets with different fat sources. A total of 270 Hy-line W-36 Leghorn hens of 47 weeks of age were randomly distributed into the 5 replicate cages of 9 dietary treatments. Experimental diets consisted of a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments with three different fat sources (soybean oil, SO; yellow grease, YG; and palm fat powder, PFP) and three different levels of supplemental Se (0, 0.2, and 0.4 mg/kg of diet) as supplied by zinc-L-selenomethionine (ZnSeMet) complex, which fed during a 77-day feeding trial including 7 days for adaptation and 70 days as the main recording period. Results showed that the highest (P < 0.05) egg weights assigned to the hens fed on SO-supplemented diets. Hen-day egg production was affected by both dietary fat source (P < 0.01) and Se level (P < 0.05) throughout the trial period. Regardless of dietary fat source, dietary supplementation of ZnSeMet improved (P < 0.05) egg mass during all trial periods. Moreover, the significant (P < 0.05) fat source× Se interactions were observed for egg mass, so that dietary supplementation with 0.4 mg/kg Se was more effective in diets supplemented with YG. Although feed intake was not affected by experimental diets during the first 35-day period, dietary inclusion of PFP reduced feed intake during both second 35-day (P < 0.01) and entire trial period (P < 0.05). The best (P < 0.01) feed conversion ratio during the first 35-day period was assigned to the birds fed on SO-diets, followed by those fed YG-diets. Dietary supplementation of ZnSeMet improved (P < 0.05) feed efficiency during the first 35-day period. Supplementation of ZnSeMet into the diets increased yolk index, with more impact in hens fed on YG-diets. The highest concentration of yolk
Karen S. Bishop
Full Text Available Prostate cancer is a growing problem in New Zealand and worldwide, as populations adopt a Western style dietary pattern. In particular, dietary fat is believed to be associated with oxidative stress, which in turn may be associated with cancer risk and development. In addition, DNA damage is associated with the risk of various cancers, and is regarded as an ideal biomarker for the assessment of the influence of foods on cancer. In the study presented here, 20 men with prostate cancer adhered to a modified Mediterranean style diet for three months. Dietary records, blood fatty acid levels, prostate specific antigen, C-reactive protein and DNA damage were assessed pre- and post-intervention. DNA damage was inversely correlated with dietary adherence (p = 0.013 and whole blood monounsaturated fatty acids (p = 0.009 and oleic acid (p = 0.020. DNA damage was positively correlated with the intake of dairy products (p = 0.043, red meat (p = 0.007 and whole blood omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (p = 0.015. Both the source and type of dietary fat changed significantly over the course of the dietary intervention. Levels of DNA damage were correlated with various dietary fat sources and types of dietary fat.
Effectiveness and tolerability of dietary supplementation with a combination of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants in the treatment of dry eye symptoms: results of a prospective study
Full Text Available Andrea OleñikOn behalf of the Dry Eye Clinical Study Group (DECSGOphthalmology Department, Fundación Jiménez Díaz, Madrid, SpainBackground: We assessed the effectiveness and tolerability of a dietary supplement based on the combination of omega-3 essential fatty acids and antioxidants on dry eye-related symptoms.Methods: A total of 905 patients (72% women, median age 60 years with dry eye syndrome and using artificial tears to relieve symptoms participated in an open-label prospective intervention study. They were recruited during a routine ophthalmological appointment. Patients were instructed to take three capsules/day of the nutraceutical formulation (Brudysec® 1.5 g for 12 weeks. Dry eye symptoms (categorized as 0, none; 1, mild; 2, moderate; and 3, severe included scratchy and stinging sensation in the eyes, eye redness, grittiness, painful eyes, tired eyes, grating sensation, and blurry vision.Results: The mean intensity of dry eye symptoms varied from 1.1 (± standard deviation [SD] 0.9 for painful eyes to 2.0 (0.9 for grittiness, with a mean value of 11.9 (4.8 for all symptoms together. At week 12, all individual symptoms improved significantly (P<0.001. The mean value for all symptoms together decreased from a mean value of 11.9 (± SD 4.8 at baseline to 6.8 (± SD 4.5 after 12 weeks of treatment (P<0.001. There was a decrease in the percentage of patients in which dry eye symptoms predominated nearly all the time (53.5% versus 34.1%. A total of 68.1% of patients reported better tolerance to contact lenses after treatment. The mean number of daily instillations of artificial tears also decreased significantly (3.8 [± SD 1.6] versus 3.3 [± SD 1.6], P<0.001. A total of 634 patients (70.1% did not report any adverse events. In the remaining patients with adverse events, the most frequent was fish-tasting regurgitation in 13.5% of cases, followed by nausea in 4.9%, diarrhea in 1.3%, and vomiting in 0.3%.Conclusion: Dietary
Choi, Yun-Sang; Park, Kwaon-Sik; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Choi, Min-Sung; Lee, Soo-Yeon; Paik, Hyun-Dong; Kim, Cheon-Jei
The effects of reducing pork fat levels from 30% to 20% by partially substituting pork fat with a mix of sunflower seed oil (0, 5, 10, 15, and 20%) and makgeolli lees fiber (2%) were investigated based on physicochemical properties, textural properties, and sensory characteristics of reduced-fat frankfurters. The moisture and ash content, and lightness were higher in reduced-fat frankfurter samples containing sunflower seed oil and makgeolli lees fiber than in the control. The results showed that reduced-fat frankfurter samples with higher sunflower seed oil levels had lower redness and yellowness values, as well as less cooking loss, emulsion stability, hardness, springiness, and apparent viscosity. The results of this study show that incorporating sunflower seed oil and makgeolli lees fiber into the formulation successfully reduced animal fat in frankfurters, while improving quality characteristics.
Zhang, Yuru; Wang, Haizhen; Zhang, Jingjing; Hu, Ying; Zhang, Linqiang; Wu, Xiaoyun; Su, Xiong; Li, Tingting; Zou, Xiaoju; Liang, Bin
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are fatty acids with backbones containing more than one double bond, which are introduced by a series of desaturases that insert double bonds at specific carbon atoms in the fatty acid chain. It has been established that desaturases need flavoprotein-NADH-dependent cytochrome b5 reductase (simplified as cytochrome b5 reductase) and cytochrome b5 to pass through electrons for activation. However, it has remained unclear how this multi-enzyme system works for distinct desaturases. The model organism Caenorhabditis elegans contains seven desaturases (FAT-1, -2, -3, -4, -5, -6, -7) for the biosynthesis of PUFAS, providing an excellent model in which to characterize different desaturation reactions. Here, we show that RNAi inactivation of predicted cytochrome b5 reductases hpo-19 and T05H4.4 led to increased levels of C18:1n-9 but decreased levels of PUFAs, small lipid droplets, decreased fat accumulation, reduced brood size and impaired development. Dietary supplementation with different fatty acids showed that HPO-19 and T05H4.4 likely affect the activity of FAT-1, FAT-2, FAT-3, and FAT-4 desaturases, suggesting that these four desaturases use the same cytochrome b5 reductase to function. Collectively, these findings indicate that cytochrome b5 reductase HPO-19/T05H4.4 is required for desaturation to biosynthesize PUFAs in C. elegans.
Pu, Shuaihua; Khazanehei, Hamidreza; Jones, Peter J.; Khafipour, Ehsan
Long-term dietary fatty acid intake is believed to induce changes in the human gut microbiome which might be associated with human health or obesity status; however, considerable debate remains regarding the most favorable ratios of fatty acids to optimize these processes. The objective of this sub-study of a double-blinded randomized crossover clinical study, the canola oil multi-center intervention trial, was to investigate effects of five different novel oil blends fed for 30 days each on the intestinal microbiota in 25 volunteers with risk of metabolic syndrome. The 60 g treatments included three MUFA-rich diets: (1) conventional canola oil (Canola); (2) DHA-enriched high oleic canola oil (CanolaDHA); (3) high oleic canola oil (CanolaOleic); and two PUFA-rich diets: (4) a blend of corn/saﬄower oil (25:75) (CornSaff); and (5) a blend of flax/saﬄower oil (60:40) (FlaxSaff). Stool samples were collected at the end of each period. DNA was extracted and amplified for 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. A total of 17 phyla and 187 genera were identified. While five novel oil treatments failed to alter bacterial phyla composition, obese participants resulted in a higher proportion of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes than overweight or normal weight groups (P = 0.01). Similarly at the genus level, overall bacterial distribution was highly associated with subjects’ body mass index (BMI). Treatment effects were observed between MUFA- and PUFA-rich diets, with the three MUFA diets elevating Parabacteroides, Prevotella, Turicibacter, and Enterobacteriaceae’s populations, while the two PUFA-rich diets favored the higher abundance of Isobaculum. High MUFA content feedings also resulted in an increase of Parabacteroides and a decrease of Isobaculum in obese, but not overweight subjects. Data suggest that BMI is a predominant factor in characterization of human gut microbiota profile, and that MUFA-rich and PUFA-rich diets impact the composition of gut microbiota at lower
Full Text Available Long-term dietary fatty acid intake is believed to induce changes in the human gut microbiome which might be associated with human health or obesity status; however, considerable debate remains regarding the most favorable ratios of fatty acids to optimize these processes. The objective of this sub-study of a double-blinded randomized crossover clinical study, the canola oil multi-center intervention trial (COMIT, was to investigate effects of five different novel oil blends fed for 30 days each on the intestinal microbiota in 25 volunteers with risk of metabolic syndrome. The 60 g treatments included three MUFA-rich diets: 1 conventional canola oil (Canola; 2 DHA-enriched high oleic canola oil (CanolaDHA; 3 high oleic canola oil (CanolaOleic; and two PUFA-rich diets: 4 a blend of corn/safflower oil (25:75 (CornSaff; and 5 a blend of flax/safflower oil (60:40 (FlaxSaff. Stool samples were collected at the end of each period. DNA was extracted and amplified for pyrosequencing. A total of 17 phyla and 187 genera were identified. While five novel oil treatments failed to alter bacterial phyla composition, obese participants produced a higher proportion of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes than overweight or normal weight groups (P = 0.01. Similarly at the genus level, overall bacterial distribution was highly associated with subjects’ body mass index (BMI. Treatment effects were observed between MUFA- and PUFA-rich diets, with the three MUFA diets elevating Parabacteroides, Prevotella, Turicibacter, and Enterobacteriaceae (F’s populations, while the two PUFA-rich diets favored the abundance of Isobaculum. High MUFA content feedings also resulted in an increase of Parabacteroides and a decrease of Isobaculum in obese, but not overweight subjects. Data suggest that BMI is a predominant factor in characterization of human gut microbiota profiles, and that MUFA-rich and PUFA-rich diets impact the composition of gut microbiota at lower taxonomical levels
Full Text Available Coronary Heart Disease (CHD remains a leading cause of UK mortality, generating a large and unequal burden of disease. Dietary trans fatty acids (TFA represent a powerful CHD risk factor, yet to be addressed in the UK (approximately 1% daily energy as successfully as in other nations. Potential outcomes of such measures, including effects upon health inequalities, have not been well quantified. We modelled the potential effects of specific reductions in TFA intake on CHD mortality, CHD related admissions, and effects upon socioeconomic inequalities.We extended the previously validated IMPACTsec model, to estimate the potential effects of reductions (0.5% & 1% reductions in daily energy in TFA intake in England and Wales, stratified by age, sex and socioeconomic circumstances. We estimated reductions in expected CHD deaths in 2030 attributable to these two specific reductions. Output measures were deaths prevented or postponed, life years gained and hospital admissions. A 1% reduction in TFA intake energy intake would generate approximately 3,900 (95% confidence interval (CI 3,300-4,500 fewer deaths, 10,000 (8,800-10,300 (7% total fewer hospital admissions and 37,000 (30,100-44,700 life years gained. This would also reduce health inequalities, preventing five times as many deaths and gaining six times as many life years in the most deprived quintile compared with the most affluent. A more modest reduction (0.5% would still yield substantial health gains.Reducing intake of industrial TFA could substantially decrease CHD mortality and hospital admissions, and gain tens of thousands of life years. Crucially, this policy could also reduce health inequalities. UK strategies should therefore aim to minimise industrial TFA intake.
Lauridsen, Charlotte; Theil, Peter Kappel; Jensen, Søren Krogh
The present study evaluated the effect of increasing supplementation of all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate and dietary fatty acid composition during a four week period after weaning on porcine tissue composition of α-tocopherol stereoisomers and fatty acids, and on hepatic expression of genes involved...... in transfer of α-tocopherol, and oxidation and metabolism of fatty acids. From day 28 to 56 of age, pigs were provided 5% of tallow, fish oil or sunflower oil and 85, 150, or 300 mg/kg of all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate. Samples of liver, heart, and adipose tissue were obtained from littermates at day 56. Tissue...... fatty acid composition was highly influenced by dietary fat sources. Dietary fatty acid composition (P
Jiménez-Moreno, E; González-Alvarado, J M; González-Serrano, A; Lázaro, R; Mateos, G G
The influence of fiber source and dietary fat level on digestive traits and productive performance was studied in broilers from 1 to 21 d of age. There were 6 treatments arranged factorially with 3 sources of fiber (none; 3% oat hulls, OH; and 3% sugar beet pulp, SBP) and 2 fat sources (5% soybean oil, SO; and 5% yellow grease, YG). Each treatment was replicated 6 times and the experimental unit was a cage with 18 broilers. Fiber inclusion improved BW gain (P fiber was included in the diet. The TTAR of nutrients was higher for the SO than for the YG diets (P fiber inclusion were more pronounced with the YG than with the SO. Therefore, the inclusion of moderate amounts of fiber in the diet might improve performance and nutrient digestibility in young chicks, especially when saturated fats are used.
te Velde, Anje A; Brüll, Florence; Heinsbroek, Sigrid E M; Meijer, Sybren L; Lütjohann, Dieter; Vreugdenhil, Anita; Plat, Jogchum
In this study, we evaluated the effects of dietary plant sterols and stanols as their fatty acid esters on the development of experimental colitis. The effects were studied both in high- and low-fat diet conditions in two models, one acute and another chronic model of experimental colitis that resembles gene expression in human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In the first experiments in the high fat diet (HFD), we did not observe a beneficial effect of the addition of plant sterols and stanols on the development of acute dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) colitis. In the chronic CD4CD45RB T cell transfer colitis model, we mainly observed an effect of the presence of high fat on the development of colitis. In this HFD condition, the presence of plant sterol or stanol did not result in any additional effect. In the second experiments with low fat, we could clearly observe a beneficial effect of the addition of plant sterols on colitis parameters in the T cell transfer model, but not in the DSS model. This positive effect was related to the gender of the mice and on Treg presence in the colon. This suggests that especially dietary plant sterol esters may improve intestinal inflammation in a T cell dependent manner.
Jamison, J R
To ascertain whether the diet of young students in health-related courses conformed to Australian dietary targets for 1995 and to identify nutritional needs in view of dietary targets for 2000, 246 undergraduate students analysed their weighed diet for three or five days. Eight of ten male participants were meeting the dietary goals for 1995 for fibre and fat intake and six of ten were meeting the goals for 2000. More female participants were meeting the goals for fat, but less than half of the female were meeting the 1995 goals for fibre. Some 84 per cent of females, but only 29 percent of males, were meeting the 1995 dietary goals for sodium. Few participants derived 10 per cent or less of their energy from saturated fat or 10 per cent of their energy from polyunsaturated fatty acids. Substantial numbers of participants failed to meet the recommended daily intakes of zinc. calcium, magnesium and iron (females). Education of specific subgroups and modifications to food production and processing are proposed.
Breneman, Charity B; Tucker, Larry
The present study was conducted to determine the association between fibre intake and insulin resistance in 264 women using a cross-sectional design. Insulin resistance was indexed using homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (US formula: fasting insulin (μU/ml) × fasting glucose (mg/dl)/405 international formula: fasting glucose (mmol/l) × fasting insulin (μU/l)/22.5). Fibre and energy consumption were assessed using 7 d weighed food records. Fibre was expressed as g/4184 kJ (1000 kcal). Body fat percentage (BF%) was measured using the BOD POD, and physical activity (PA) was ascertained using Actigraph accelerometers (Health One Technology) worn for seven consecutive days. Women with high total fibre intakes (F= 4·58, P= 0·0332) or high soluble fibre intakes (F= 7·97, P= 0·0051) had significantly less insulin resistance than their counterparts. Participants with high insoluble fibre intakes did not differ from their counterparts (F= 0·7, P= 0·6875). Adjusting for either PA or BF% weakened the relationships significantly. Controlling for BF% nullified the total fibre–HOMA-IR link (F= 1·96, P= 0·1631) and attenuated the association between soluble fibre and HOMA-IR by 32 % (F= 6·86, P= 0·0094). To create dichotomous variables, fibre intake and HOMA-IR were each divided into two categories using the median (low and high). In women who had high soluble fibre intake (upper 50 %), the OR of having an elevated HOMA-IR level was 0·58 (95 % CI 0·36, 0·94) times that of women with low soluble fibre intake (lower 50 %). After controlling for all of the potential confounding factors simultaneously, the OR was 0·52 (95 % CI 0·29, 0·93). High fibre intake, particularly soluble fibre, is significantly related to lower levels of insulin resistance in women. Part of this association is a function of differences in PA and BF%.
Full Text Available To assess factors associated with bone mineral density (BMD in postmenopausal women in a longitudinal study, and to examine the relative contribution of lean mass, fat mass, dietary patterns, and years since menopause to BMD.Two hundred and eighty-two postmenopausal women were randomly selected from Hongqi Community Health Center, in Harbin City, China. All participants were followed up from 2009 to 2011. Dietary data were collected using a Food Frequency Questionnaire. BMD of the left hip, the lumbar spine, and the total body, and the body composition were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and follow-up.Lean mass and fat mass were positively associated with BMD of the spine, hip, and the total body at both baseline and follow-up. The association between fat mass and BMD at the spine at baseline (P = 0.210 and at the spine (P = 0.116 and hip (P = 0.073 in the second year was not statistically significant when height was adjusted. Six dietary patterns were identified but only cereal grains-fruits pattern (P = 0.001 in the spine, P = 0.037 in hip and milk-root vegetables pattern (P = 0.010 in hip were associated with BMD of the spine and hip. The linear mixed model of follow-up data showed that lean mass, years since menopause, and age of menophania were the significant determinants of BMD of all sites. Moreover, lean mass was the best determinant of BMD (VIP = 1.936.Lean mass, years since menopause, age of menophania and dietary patterns are the important determinants of BMD of the spine, hip, and the total body. Lean mass is the best determinant of BMD.
Zgair, Atheer; Wong, Jonathan Cm; Lee, Jong Bong; Mistry, Jatin; Sivak, Olena; Wasan, Kishor M; Hennig, Ivo M; Barrett, David A; Constantinescu, Cris S; Fischer, Peter M; Gershkovich, Pavel
There has been an escalating interest in the medicinal use of Cannabis sativa in recent years. Cannabis is often administered orally with fat-containing foods, or in lipid-based pharmaceutical preparations. However, the impact of lipids on the exposure of patients to cannabis components has not been explored. Therefore, the aim of this study is to elucidate the effect of oral co-administration of lipids on the exposure to two main active cannabinoids, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). In this study, oral co-administration of lipids enhanced the systemic exposure of rats to THC and CBD by 2.5-fold and 3-fold, respectively, compared to lipid-free formulations. In vitro lipolysis was conducted to explore the effect of lipids on the intestinal solubilisation of cannabinoids. More than 30% of THC and CBD were distributed into micellar fraction following lipolysis, suggesting that at least one-third of the administered dose will be available for absorption following co-administration with lipids. Both cannabinoids showed very high affinity for artificial CM-like particles, as well as for rat and human CM, suggesting high potential for intestinal lymphatic transport. Moreover, comparable affinity of cannabinoids for rat and human CM suggests that similar increased exposure effects may be expected in humans. In conclusion, co-administration of dietary lipids or pharmaceutical lipid excipients has the potential to substantially increase the exposure to orally administered cannabis and cannabis-based medicines. The increase in patient exposure to cannabinoids is of high clinical importance as it could affect the therapeutic effect, but also toxicity, of orally administered cannabis or cannabis-based medicines.
Full Text Available Dietary fat composition can interfere in the development of obesity due to the specific roles of some fatty acids that have different metabolic activities, which can alter both fat oxidation and deposition rates, resulting in changes in body weight and/or composition. High-fat diets in general are associated with hyperphagia, but the type of dietary fat seems to be more important since saturated fats are linked to a positive fat balance and omental adipose tissue accumulation when compared to other types of fat, while polyunsaturated fats, omega-3 and omega-6, seem to increase energy expenditure and decrease energy intake by specific mechanisms involving hormone-sensitive lipase, activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα and others. Saturated fat intake can also impair insulin sensitivity compared to omega-3 fat, which has the opposite effect due to alterations in cell membranes. Obesity is also associated with impaired mitochondrial function. Fat excess favors the production of malonyl-CoA, which reduces GLUT4 efficiency. The tricarboxylic acid cycle and beta-oxidation are temporarily uncoupled, forming metabolite byproducts that augment reactive oxygen species production. Exercise can restore mitochondrial function and insulin sensitivity, which may be crucial for a better prognosis in treating or preventing obesity.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Growing interest is turned to fat storage levels and allocation within body compartments, due to their impact on human health and quality properties of farm animals. Energy intake and genetic background are major determinants of fattening in most animals, including humans. Previous studies have evidenced that fat deposition depends upon balance between various metabolic pathways. Using divergent selection, we obtained rainbow trout with differences in fat allocation between visceral adipose tissue and muscle, and no change in overall body fat content. Transcriptome and proteome analysis were applied to characterize the molecular changes occurring between these two lines when fed a low or a high energy diet. We focused on the liver, center of intermediary metabolism and the main site for lipogenesis in fish, as in humans and most avian species. Results The proteome and transcriptome analyses provided concordant results. The main changes induced by the dietary treatment were observed in lipid metabolism. The level of transcripts and proteins involved in intracellular lipid transport, fatty acid biosynthesis and anti-oxidant metabolism were lower with the lipid rich diet. In addition, genes and proteins involved in amino-acid catabolism and proteolysis were also under expressed with this diet. The major changes related to the selection effect were observed in levels of transcripts and proteins involved in amino-acid catabolism and proteolysis that were higher in the fat muscle line than in the lean muscle line. Conclusion The present study led to the identification of novel genes and proteins that responded to long term feeding with a high energy/high fat diet. Although muscle was the direct target, the selection procedure applied significantly affected hepatic metabolism, particularly protein and amino acid derivative metabolism. Interestingly, the selection procedure and the dietary treatment used to increase muscle fat
Au, Lauren E.; Economos, Christina D.; Goodman, Elizabeth; Houser, Robert F.; Must, Aviva; Chomitz, Virginia R.; Morgan, Emily H.; Sacheck, Jennifer M.
Dietary factors vary widely among ethnic groups. However, the effect of specific nutrients on cardiometabolic risk is not well understood, especially in children. Four dietary factors known to influence cardiometabolic risk (ie, carbohydrate, saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fat intake) were assessed by the Block Kids 2004 Food Frequency Questionnaire in a cross-sectional sample of racially diverse fourth- through eighth-grade students (n=148) in a Boston-area school district studied between January and April 2010. Fasting total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglyceride, C-reactive protein (CRP), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels, and body mass index z scores were measured. Differences in dietary factors and cardiometabolic risk factors were examined among the following racial/ethnic groups: white (39%), Hispanic (32%), black (8%), Asian (10%), and multiracial/other (11%). In bivariate analyses, total, saturated, and polyunsaturated fat intakes differed by race/ethnicity (Psaturated fat intakes above the recommended level. Forty-seven percent of children had at least one suboptimal cardiometabolic risk factor. HDL cholesterol, triglyceride, and IL-6 concentrations differed by race/ethnicity (P<0.05, P<0.01, and P<0.01, respectively), with Hispanics having low HDL cholesterol levels and high triglyceride levels, whereas Asians had high IL-6 levels. In multivariate analyses controlling for demographic characteristics, none of the dietary factors examined explained racial/ethnic differences in lipid profiles or inflammatory markers. Body mass index z score was associated with lower HDL cholesterol, higher triglyceride, higher CRP, and higher IL-6 levels (P<0.0001). Further research is warranted to determine the influence of dietary recommendations at a young age among different racial/ethnic groups on cardiometabolic health. PMID:23102181
Zhao, Zhanwei; Pu, Zhongshu; Yin, Zifang; Yu, Pengfei; Hao, Yiming; Wang, Qian; Guo, Min; Zhao, Qingchuan
The relationships between dietary fruit, vegetable, fat, and red and processed meat intakes and Barrett's esophagus (BE) risk remain inconclusive. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize the available evidence on these issues. PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library were searched for studies published from inception through October 2015. A total of eight studies were included in this analysis. Fruit intake was not associated with BE risk (OR = 0.65, 95% CI = 0.37-1.13), but vegetable intake was strongly associated with BE risk (OR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.29-0.71). Saturated fat, red meat and processed meat intakes were not associated with BE risk with OR = 1.25 (95% CI = 0.82-1.91), OR = 0.85 (95% CI = 0.61-1.17) and OR = 1.03 (95% CI = 0.73-1.46), respectively. Dietary vegetable not fruits intake may be associated with decreased BE risk. Fat and red and processed meat intakes may not contribute to an increased BE risk. Well-designed, large prospective studies with better established dose-response relationships are needed to further validate these issues.
van Meeteren, ME; Baron, W; Beermann, C; van Tol, EAF
Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been postulated as alternative supportive treatment for multiple sclerosis, since they may promote myelin repair. We set out to study the effect of supplementation with n-3 and n-6 PUFAs on OLN-93 oligodendroglia and rat primary oligodendrocyte differ
Fokkema, M R; Brouwer, D A; Hasperhoven, M B; Hettema, Y; Bemelmans, W J; Muskiet, F A
We compared the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) status of Dutch vegans and omnivores to investigate whether disparities can be explained by different diets and long chain PUFA (LCP) synthesis rates. Dietary intakes and fatty acid compositions of erythrocytes (RBC), platelets (PLT), plasma choleste
Matsuo, Tatsuhiro; Takeuchi, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Hiroo; Suzuki, Masashige
The effects of dietary fats , consisting of different fatty acids, on body fat accumulation and uncoupling protein (UCP) in interscapular brown adipose tissue were studied in rats. Metabolisable energy in experimental diets based on safflower oil, soybean oil or beef tallow was measured strictly (experiment 1). Male Wistar rats were then meal-fed an isoenergetic diet for 8 weeks (experiment 2). Each group of rats showed the same weight gain during the 8-week experimental period. Carcass fat content was greater in rats fed the beef tallow diet than in those fed the with the safflower or soybean oil diets, whereas the weight of abdominal adipose tissue was the same for all three dietary groups. Gene expression of UCP1 and the UCP content of the interscapular brown adipose tissue was lower in the beef tallow diet group than in the other dietary groups. A negative correlation was observed between carcass fat content and n-6 unsaturated fatty acid content in dietary fats. These results suggest that the greater body fat accumulation in rats fed the beef tallow diet results from lower expression of UCP1 mRNA and lower UCP content in brown adipose tissue. n-6 Polyunsaturated fatty acids may be the most effective fatty acids in limiting body fat.
Zeitz, J O; Fennhoff, J; Kluge, H; Stangl, G I; Eder, K
This study investigated the hypothesis that dietary fats rich in lauric (C12) and myristic acid (C14) increase broiler performance and that the underlying mechanism involves antimicrobial effects on gut bacteria and changes in gut morphology. One hundred eighty 1-day-old Cobb-500 broilers were allotted to 3 groups. All groups received a basal diet consisting of maize, wheat, soybean meal, and a fat source (4.5, 7.0, 7.6, and 8.0% of fat product in the diet during d 1 to 9, 10 to 17, 18 to 27, and 28 to 35, respectively) until 35 d of age. The diet of the control group contained a fat with 67% of oleic and linoleic acid and 1.4% of C12 and C14 of total fatty acids, that of the esterified lauric and myristic acid (ELA) group a fat with 33% of esterified C12 and C14 and that of the free lauric and myristic acid (FLA) group a fat with 31% of both esterified and free (1:1) C12 and C14 (6 replicates/treatment, 10 birds/replicate). Gain and feed consumption did not differ between groups, but feed:gain was lower in FLA group as compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Carcass weight, liver weight, triglyceride content of liver and muscle, and muscle cholesterol were similar between groups; however, breast muscle weight was higher in the FLA than in the control group (P < 0.05). The villus height:crypt depth ratio of the duodenal wall did not differ between groups, but in the jejunum, it was lower in the FLA group as compared to the control group (P < 0.05). DNA copy numbers of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacteria, Enterobacteria, Escherichia coli, and Campylobacter jejuni in jejunal digesta were similar among groups. The study shows that dietary fats rich in free C12 and C14 improved feed:gain and breast muscle yield, but the observed effects could not be conclusively explained based on the parameters measured. The decreased jejunal villi:crypt ratio may point to changes in gut protein or cell turnover.
Choi, Youngshim; Abdelmegeed, Mohamed A; Akbar, Mohammed; Song, Byoung-Joon
In this study, we evaluated the protective effects of dietary walnuts on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced fatty liver and studied the underlying mechanisms. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed either a regular rodent chow or HFD (45% energy-derived) with or without walnuts (21.5% energy-derived) for 20weeks. Walnut supplementation did not change HFD-induced increase in body weight or visceral fat mass. However, dietary walnuts significantly decreased the amounts of hepatic triglyceride (TG) observed in HFD-fed mice. The addition of walnuts significantly altered the levels of proteins, involved in the hepatic lipid homeostasis, including AMP-activated protein kinase, fatty acid synthase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α. Since adipocyte inflammation and apoptosis are reportedly important in regulating hepatic fat accumulation, we also evaluated the protective effects of walnuts on adipose tissue injury. Real-time polymerase chain reaction results revealed that adipose tissues isolated from mice fed the HFD+walnut diets showed significantly decreased levels of macrophage infiltration with suppressed expression of proinflammatory genes compared to those significantly elevated in mice fed HFD alone. These improvements also coincided with reduction of HFD-induced apoptosis of adipocytes by dietary walnuts. However, the supplemented walnuts did not significantly alter HFD-induced peripheral glucose intolerance or insulin resistance despite a trend of improvement. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the protective effects of walnuts against HFD-induced hepatic TG accumulation in mice are mediated, at least partially, by modulating the key proteins in hepatic lipid homeostasis and suppression of the genes related to adipose tissue inflammation and macrophage infiltration as well as prevention of adipocyte apoptosis.
Alami-Durante, Hélène; Cluzeaud, Marianne; Duval, Carine; Maunas, Patrick; Girod-David, Virginia; Médale, Françoise
As the understanding of the nutritional regulation of muscle growth mechanisms in fish is fragmentary, the present study aimed to (1) characterise ontogenetic changes in muscle growth-related genes in parallel to changes in muscle cellularity; (2) determine whether an early decrease in dietary protein:energy ratio by fat addition affects the muscle growth mechanisms of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) alevins; and (3) determine whether this early feeding of a high-fat (HF) diet to alevins had a long-term effect on muscle growth processes in juveniles fed a commercial diet. Developmental regulation of hyperplasia and hypertrophy was evidenced at the molecular (expression of myogenic regulatory factors, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and myosin heavy chains (MHC)) and cellular (number and diameter of white muscle fibres) levels. An early decrease in dietary protein:energy ratio by fat addition stimulated the body growth of alevins but led to a fatty phenotype, with accumulation of lipids in the anterior part, and less caudal muscle when compared at similar body weights, due to a decrease in both the white muscle hyperplasia and maximum hypertrophy of white muscle fibres. These HF diet-induced cellular changes were preceded by a very rapid down-regulation of the expression of fast-MHC. The present study also demonstrated that early dietary composition had a long-term effect on the subsequent muscle growth processes of juveniles fed a commercial diet for 3 months. When compared at similar body weights, initially HF diet-fed juveniles indeed had a lower mean diameter of white muscle fibres, a smaller number of large white muscle fibres, and lower expression levels of MyoD1 and myogenin. These findings demonstrated the strong effect of early feed composition on the muscle growth mechanisms of trout alevins and juveniles.
Nadadur, Malini; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Kim, Lila; Wu, Anna H
The reduced risk of breast cancer observed in Asia has been linked with diets rich in soy foods, and observational studies suggest that regular soy food intake is related to lower circulating levels of some inflammatory markers which have been implicated in breast cancer risk. However, short-term intervention studies with soy-based diets in small numbers of women have shown few significant changes in adipocytokine levels. This 8-wk dietary intervention study in 57 healthy postmenopausal women investigated whether soy food supplementation (50 mg isoflavones or 15 g soy protein in the form of tofu) or a very low-fat diet (11.3% of total energy), similar to the traditional Asian diet, is associated with beneficial effects on serum levels of the following adipocytokines: TNF-α, IL-6, adiponectin, and resistin. We found no statistically significant changes in the levels of these adipocytokines in association with the very low-fat diet or soy supplementation. Only the change in TNF-α levels between the very low-fat and control diet groups had borderline statistical significance. We conclude that ingestion of a very low-fat diet or a soy food supplemented diet for 8 wk does not significantly alter important circulating adipocytokines.
... Stanton BF, St Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 46. ... Stanton BF, St Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 44.
Rgia A Othman
Full Text Available For many years, epidemiological studies continued to suggest that high fat diets are linked to an increased incidence of certain cancers. However, whether the oncogenic properties of fat are associated with their quantity rather than the quality has become debatable. Epidemiological studies have been suggesting that n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 PUFA and saturated fats are more likely to increase the incidence of cancer, whereas monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA are more likely to prevent or decrease the chance of carcinogenesis. A firm conclusion cannot be drawn yet because of insufficient research. This paper reviews the current knowledge of the effects of saturated fats, different types of unsaturated fats, and fat-soluble vitamins on the etiology of cancer.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Since Fuchs' report in 1999, the reported protective effect of dietary fiber from colorectal carcinogenesis has led many researchers to question its real benefit. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between diet, especially dietary fiber and fat and colorectal cancer in Japan. Methods A multiple regression analysis (using the stepwise variable selection method was performed using the standardized mortality ratios (SMRs of colon and rectal cancer in 23 Japanese prefectures as objective variables and dietary fiber, nutrients and food groups as explanatory variables. Results As for colon cancer, the standardized partial correlation coefficients were positively significant for fat (1,13, P = 0.000, seaweeds (0.41, P = 0.026 and beans (0.45, P = 0.017 and were negatively significant for vitamin A (-0.63, P = 0.003, vitamin C (-0.42, P = 0.019 and yellow-green vegetables (-0.37, P = 0.046. For rectal cancer, the standardized partial correlation coefficient in fat (0.60, P = 0.002 was positively significant. Dietary fiber was not found to have a significant relationship with either colon or rectal cancers. Conclusions This study failed to show any protective effect of dietary fiber in subjects with a low fat intake (Japanese in this analysis, which supports Fuchs' findings in subjects with a high fat intake (US Americans.
Kuipers, R S; de Graaf, D J; Luxwolda, M F; Muskiet, M H A; Dijck-Brouwer, D A J; Muskiet, F A J
The dietary intake of saturated fatty acids (SAFA) is associated with a modest increase in serum total cholesterol, but not with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Replacing dietary SAFA with carbohydrates (CHO), notably those with a high glycaemic index, is associated with an increase in CVD risk in observational cohorts, while replacing SAFA with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is associated with reduced CVD risk. However, replacing a combination of SAFA and trans-fatty acids with n-6 PUFA (notably linoleic acid) in controlled trials showed no indication of benefit and a signal toward increased coronary heart disease risk, suggesting that n-3 PUFA may be responsible for the protective association between total PUFA and CVD. High CHO intakes stimulate hepatic SAFA synthesis and conservation of dietary SAFA . Hepatic de novo lipogenesis from CHO is also stimulated during eucaloric dietary substitution of SAFA by CHO with high glycaemic index in normo-insulinaemic subjects and during hypocaloric high-CHO/low-fat diets in subjects with the metabolic syndrome. The accumulation of SAFA stimulates chronic systemic low-grade inflammation through its mimicking of bacterial lipopolysaccharides and÷or the induction of other pro-inflammatory stimuli. The resulting systemic low-grade inflammation promotes insulin resistance, reallocation of energy-rich substrates and atherogenic dyslipidaemia that concertedly give rise to increased CVD risk. We conclude that avoidance of SAFA accumulation by reducing the intake of CHO with high glycaemic index is more effective in the prevention of CVD than reducing SAFA intake per se.
Mandøe, Mette J.; Hansen, Katrine B.; Hartmann, Bolette
acid), olive oil [contg. long-chain fatty acids; e.g., oleic acid plus 2-oleoyl glycerol (2-OG)], and 1,3-dioctanoyl-2-oleoyl glycerol (C8-dietary oil), which is digested to form medium-chain fatty acids (i.e., octanoic acid) and 2-OG. Design: In a randomized, single-blinded crossover study, 12 healthy...... white men [mean age: 24 y; BMI (in kg/m2): 22] were given the following 4 meals on 4 different days: 200 g carrots + 6.53 g tributyrin, 200 g carrots + 13.15 g C8-dietary oil, 200 g carrots + 19 g olive oil, or 200 g carrots. All of the lipids totaled 0.0216 mol. Main outcome measures were incremental...... areas under the curve for total GLP-1, GIP, and cholecystokinin (CCK) in plasma. Results: C8-dietary oil and olive oil showed the same GLP-1 response [583 ± 101 and 538 ± 71 (pmol/L) × 120 min; P = 0.733], whereas the GIP response was higher for olive oil than for C8-dietary oil [3293 ± 404 and 1674...
The mechanisms for the hypocholesterolemic and anti-obesity effects of grape seed flours derived from white and red winemaking processing were investigated. Male Golden Syrian hamsters were fed high-fat (HF) diets supplemented with 10% partially defatted grape seed flours from Chardonnay (ChrSd), Ca...
Clare L Adam
Full Text Available Dietary constituents that suppress appetite, such as dietary fibre and protein, may aid weight loss in obesity. The soluble fermentable dietary fibre pectin promotes satiety and decreases adiposity in diet-induced obese rats but effects of increased protein are unknown. Adult diet-induced obese rats reared on high fat diet (45% energy from fat were given experimental diets ad libitum for 4 weeks (n = 8/group: high fat control, high fat with high protein (40% energy as casein or pea protein, or these diets with added 10% w/w pectin. Dietary pectin, but not high protein, decreased food intake by 23% and induced 23% body fat loss, leading to 12% lower final body weight and 44% lower total body fat mass than controls. Plasma concentrations of satiety hormones PYY and total GLP-1 were increased by dietary pectin (168% and 151%, respectively but not by high protein. Plasma leptin was decreased by 62% on pectin diets and 38% on high pea (but not casein protein, while plasma insulin was decreased by 44% on pectin, 38% on high pea and 18% on high casein protein diets. Caecal weight and short-chain fatty acid concentrations in the caecum were increased in pectin-fed and high pea protein groups: caecal succinate was increased by pectin (900%, acetate and propionate by pectin (123% and 118%, respectively and pea protein (147% and 144%, respectively, and butyrate only by pea protein (309%. Caecal branched-chain fatty acid concentrations were decreased by pectin (down 78% but increased by pea protein (164%. Therefore, the soluble fermentable fibre pectin appeared more effective than high protein for increasing satiety and decreasing caloric intake and adiposity while on high fat diet, and produced a fermentation environment more likely to promote hindgut health. Altogether these data indicate that high fibre may be better than high protein for weight (fat loss in obesity.
Sapre, Shilpa; Thakur, Ratna
A literature search was done using PubMed. The age at natural menopause (ANM) depends on various factors like genetic, environmental, socioeconomic, reproductive, dietary, and lifestyle of which some like nulliparity, vegetarian diet, smoking, high fat intake, cholesterol, and caffeine accelerates; while others like parity, prior use of oral contraceptive pills, and Japanese ethnicity delays the ANM. ANM is an important risk factor for long-term morbidity and mortality; and hence, the need to identify the modifiable risk factors like diet and lifestyle changes. Delayed menopause is associated with increased risk of endometrial and breast cancer, while early ANM enhances the risk for cardiovascular diseases and osteoporosis. The correlation between diet and ANM has not been extensively studied; however, whatever studies have been done till now point towards role of high intake of total calories, fruits, and proteins in delaying the ANM, while high polyunsaturated fat intake accelerates it. The role of dietary soy, total fat, saturated fat, red meat, and dietary fiber in determining the ANM has been controversial and needs further studies to substantiate it. The lifestyle factors like current smoking and vigorous exercise have been significantly associated with early menopause, while moderate alcohol consumption delays the ANM. Large prospective studies are needed to study the association of ANM and other modifiable factors like passive smoking fish consumption, soy, and various types of tea. The knowledge of modifiable determinants of ANM can help in setting up menopausal clinics and initiating health programs specially in developing countries.
Total fat and omega-3 fatty acids in the diet may affect breast cancer risk by altering estrogen metabolism. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effects of differing total fat and omega-3 fatty acid content of diets on a panel of urinary estrogens and metabolites. A controlled, cross-ove...
Chen, Xi; Du, Xue; Shen, Jianliang; Lu, Lizhi; Wang, Weiqun
Omega-3 fatty acids, especially long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, have been associated with potential health benefits for chronic disease prevention. Our previous studies found that dietary omega-3 fatty acids could accumulate in the meat and eggs in a duck model. This study was to reveal the effects of various dietary fats on fatty acid profile and conversion of omega-3 fatty acids in duck liver. Female Shan Partridge Ducks were randomly assigned to five dietary treatments, each consisting of 6 replicates of 30 birds. The experimental diets substituted the basal diet by 2% of flaxseed oil, rapeseed oil, beef tallow, or fish oil, respectively. In addition, a dose response study was further conducted for flaxseed and fish oil diets at 0.5%, 1%, and 2%, respectively. At the end of the five-week treatment, fatty acids were extracted from the liver samples and analyzed by GC-FID. As expected, the total omega-3 fatty acids and the ratio of total omega-3/omega-6 significantly increased in both flaxseed and fish oil groups when compared with the control diet. No significant change of total saturated fatty acids or omega-3 fatty acids was found in both rapeseed and beef tallow groups. The dose response study further indicated that 59-81% of the short-chain omega-3 ALA in flaxseed oil-fed group was efficiently converted to long-chain DHA in the duck liver, whereas 1% of dietary flaxseed oil could produce an equivalent level of DHA as 0.5% of dietary fish oil. The more omega-3 fatty acids, the less omega-6 fatty acids in the duck liver. Taken together, this study showed the fatty acid profiling in the duck liver after various dietary fat consumption, provided insight into a dose response change of omega-3 fatty acids, indicated an efficient conversion of short- to long-chain omega-3 fatty acid, and suggested alternative long-chain omega-3 fatty acid-enriched duck products for human health benefits.
Bellenger, J.; Bellenger, S.; Clement, L.; Mandard, S.J.; Diot, C.; Poisson, J.P.; Narce, M.
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are known to repress SCD-1 gene expression, key enzyme of monounsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis. Alterations of the monounsaturated/saturated fatty acids ratio have been implicated in various diseases related to the metabolic syndrome, including hypertension. We
Full Text Available Reduced calorie, low fat diet is currently recommended diet for overweight and obese adults. Prior data suggest that low carbohydrate diets may also be a viable option for those who are overweight and obese.Compare the effects of low carbohydrate versus low fats diet on weight and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk in overweight and obese patients.Systematic literature review via PubMed (1966-2014.Randomized controlled trials with ≥8 weeks follow up, comparing low carbohydrate (≤120gm carbohydrates/day and low fat diet (≤30% energy from fat/day.Data were extracted and prepared for analysis using double data entry. Prior to identification of candidate publications, the outcomes of change in weight and metabolic factors were selected as defined by Cochrane Collaboration. Assessment of the effects of diets on predicted risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk was added during the data collection phase.1797 patients were included from 17 trials with 99% while the reduction in predicted risk favoring low carbohydrate was >98%.Lack of patient-level data and heterogeneity in dropout rates and outcomes reported.This trial-level meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing LoCHO diets with LoFAT diets in strictly adherent populations demonstrates that each diet was associated with significant weight loss and reduction in predicted risk of ASCVD events. However, LoCHO diet was associated with modest but significantly greater improvements in weight loss and predicted ASCVD risk in studies from 8 weeks to 24 months in duration. These results suggest that future evaluations of dietary guidelines should consider low carbohydrate diets as effective and safe intervention for weight management in the overweight and obese, although long-term effects require further investigation.
Vogel, Ulla; Daneshvar, Bahram; Autrup, Herman;
was observed. Intake of lard fat resulted in increased ascorbate synthesis and affected markers of oxidative damage to proteins in liver cytosol, but not in plasma. The effect was observed at all lard doses and was not dose-dependent. However, no evidence of increased oxidative DNA damage was found in liver...... supplemented with 0, 3, 10 or 30% w/w lard. After 3 weeks, the mutation frequency, DNA repair gene expression, DNA damage and oxidative markers were determined in liver, colon and plasma. The mutation frequency of the lambda gene cII did not increase with increased fat or energy intake in colon or liver....... The DNA-adduct level measured by 32P-postlabelling decreased in both liver and colon with increased fat intake. In liver, this was accompanied by a 2-fold increase of the mRNA level of nucleotide excision repair (NER) gene ERCC1. In colon, a non-statistically significant increase in the ERCC1 mRNA levels...
Vogel, Ulla Birgitte; Danesvar, B.; Autrup, H.;
was observed. Intake of lard fat resulted in increased ascorbate synthesis and affected markers of oxidative damage to proteins in liver cytosol, but not in plasma. The effect was observed at all lard doses and was not dose-dependent. However, no evidence of increased oxidative DNA damage was found in liver...... supplemented with 0, 3, 10 or 30% w/w lard. After 3 weeks, the mutation frequency, DNA repair gene expression, DNA damage and oxidative markers were determined in liver, colon and plasma. The mutation frequency of the lambda gene cII did not increase with increased fat or energy intake in colon or liver....... The DNA-adduct level measured by P-32-postlabelling decreased in both liver and colon with increased fat intake. In liver, this was accompanied by a 2-fold increase of the mRNA level of nucleotide excision repair (NER) gene ERCC1. In colon, a non-statistically significant increase in the ERCC1 mRNA levels...
Gibson, R A; Neumann, M A; Lien, E L; Boyd, K A; Tu, W C
The conversion of the plant-derived omega-3 (n-3) α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3) to the long-chain eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) can be increased by ALA sufficient diets compared to ALA deficient diets. Diets containing ALA above an optimal level result in no further increase in DHA levels in animals and humans. The present study evaluates means of maximizing plasma DHA accumulation by systematically varying both linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6) and ALA dietary level. Weanling rats were fed one of 54 diets for three weeks. The diets varied in the percentage of energy (en%) of LA (0.07-17.1 en%) and ALA (0.02-12.1 en%) by manipulating both the fat content and the balance of vegetable oils. The peak of plasma phospholipid DHA (>8% total fatty acids) was attained as a result of feeding a narrow dietary range of 1-3 en% ALA and 1-2 en% LA but was suppressed to basal levels (∼2% total fatty acids) at dietary intakes of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) above 3 en%. We conclude it is possible to enhance the DHA status of rats fed diets containing ALA as the only source of n-3 fatty acids but only when the level of dietary PUFA is low (<3 en%).
Hollmann, M; Beede, D K
Dietary medium-chain fatty acids (C(8:0) through C(12:0)) are researched for their potential to reduce enteric methane emissions and to increase N utilization efficiency in ruminants. We aimed to 1) compare coconut oil (CNO; ~60% medium-chain fatty acids) with a source of long-chain fatty acids (animal fat blend; AFB) on lactational responses in a high-starch diet and 2) determine the effect of different dietary concentrations of CNO on dry matter intake (DMI). In experiment 1, the control diet (CTRL) contained (dry basis) 40% forage (71% corn silage, and alfalfa hay and haylage), 26% NDF, and 35% starch. Isonitrogenous treatment diets contained 5.0% of AFB (5%-AFB), CNO (5%-CNO), or a 1-to-1 mixture of AFB and CNO (5%-AFB-CNO) and 0.8% corn gluten meal in place of corn grain. Thirty-two multiparous dairy cows (201 ± 46 d postpartum; 42.0 ± 5.5 kg/d 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield) were adapted to CTRL, blocked by milk yield, and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment diets for 21 d with samples and data collected from d 15 through 21. Treatment 5%-CNO decreased DMI markedly and precipitously and was discontinued after d 5. In wk 3, 5%-AFB and especially 5%-AFB-CNO lowered total-tract NDF digested vs. CTRL (2.6 vs. 1.8 vs. 3.1 kg/d, respectively), likely because fat treatments reduced DMI and 5%-AFB-CNO impaired total-tract NDF digestibility. Milk fat concentrations were 3.10% (CTRL), 2.51% (5%-AFB), and 1.97% (5%-AFB-CNO) and correlated negatively to concentrations of C(18:2 trans-10,cis-12) in milk fat. Additionally, 5%-AFB and 5%-AFB-CNO tended to lower milk yield and decreased yields of solids-corrected milk and milk protein compared with CTRL. Fat treatments decreased milk lactose concentration, but increased milk citrate concentration. Moreover, cows fed 5%-AFB-CNO produced less solids-corrected milk than did cows fed 5%-AFB. In experiment 2, diets similar to CTRL contained 2.0, 3.0, or 4.0% CNO. Fifteen multiparous cows (219 ± 42 d postpartum; 42.1 ± 7.0 kg
Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a state of chronic low-grade inflammation. Chronic low-grade inflammation is associated with the pathophysiology of both type-2 diabetes and atherosclerosis. Prevention or reduction of chronic low-grade inflammation may be advantageous in relation to obesity related co-morbidity. In this study we investigated the acute effect of dietary protein sources on postprandial low-grade inflammatory markers after a high-fat meal in obese non-diabetic subjects. Methods We conducted a randomized, acute clinical intervention study in a crossover design. We supplemented a fat rich mixed meal with one of four dietary proteins - cod protein, whey isolate, gluten or casein. 11 obese non-diabetic subjects (age: 40-68, BMI: 30.3-42.0 kg/m2 participated and blood samples were drawn in the 4 h postprandial period. Adiponectin was estimated by ELISA methods and cytokines were analyzed by multiplex assay. Results MCP-1 and CCL5/RANTES displayed significant postprandial dynamics. CCL5/RANTES initially increased after all meals, but overall CCL5/RANTES incremental area under the curve (iAUC was significantly lower after the whey meal compared with the cod and casein meals (P = 0.0053. MCP-1 was initially suppressed after all protein meals. However, the iAUC was significantly higher after whey meal compared to the cod and gluten meals (P = 0.04. Conclusion We have demonstrated acute differential effects on postprandial low grade inflammation of four dietary proteins in obese non-diabetic subjects. CCL5/RANTES initially increased after all meals but the smallest overall postprandial increase was observed after the whey meal. MCP-1 was initially suppressed after all 4 protein meals and the whey meal caused the smallest overall postprandial suppression. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT00863564
Zemel Michael B
Full Text Available Abstract Insufficient calcium intake has been proposed to cause unbalanced energy partitioning leading to obesity. However, weight loss interventions including dietary calcium or dairy product consumption have not reported changes in lipi