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Sample records for dietary pcbs aroclor

  1. Fatty acid alterations caused by PCBs (Aroclor 1242) and copper in adipose tissue around lymph nodes of mink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaekelae, R.; Hyvaerinen, H.

    1999-01-01

    Fatty acid composition was determined in adipose tissue surrounding the mesenteric lymph nodes of mink (Mustela vison) exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs: 1 mg Aroclor 1242 in food day -1 for 28 days) and/or copper (62 mg kg -1 food). These specific adipose tissues are known to have functional relationships with lymphocytes, and proliferation of cultured lymphocytes is influenced by the quality of fatty acids available in media. In six experimental groups the diet was based on freshwater fish, and in two groups it was based on marine fish. These basal diets differed in terms of fatty acid composition and content of fat-soluble vitamins A 1 and E. The fatty acid composition of membrane phospholipids (PL) responded to PCBs more than that of triacylglycerols (TG). The effects of copper were small. In female minks fed a diet of freshwater fish, the proportion of highly unsaturated fatty acids in PL decreased by 5 wt.% due to PCBs, and the acids seemed to be replaced by monounsaturated fatty acids (9 wt.% increase of total). This decrease of highly unsaturated fatty acids in PL was milder in minks on the marine fish diet rich in fat-soluble vitamins. In TG of minks on the marine diet, however, PCBs decreased the proportion of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3). The possibility that these alterations in the fatty acid metabolism of adipose tissue supporting the lymph nodes affect immune function during PCB exposure should be studied further. Interestingly, the quality of the fish diet affected the magnitude of the alterations. The fatty acid responses may also differ between males and females. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  2. Dietary exposure to the PCB mixture aroclor 1254 may compromise osmoregulation by altering central vasopressin release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coburn, C G [Environmental Toxicology, Univ. of California at Riverside, CA (United States); Gillard, E; Curras-Collazo, M [Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Univ. of California at Riverside, CA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Despite the importance of systemic osmoregulation, the potential deleterious effects of persistent organochlorines, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), on body fluid regulation has not been thoroughly investigated. In an effort to ameliorate this deficit, the current study explores the toxic effects of PCBs on osmoregulation, and in particular, on the activity of the magnocellular neuroendocrine cell (MNC) system of the hypothalamus. MNCs of the supraoptic nucleus (SON) release oxytocin (OXY) and vasopressin (VP) from terminals in the neurohypophysis in response to dehydration. The latter is released to effect water conservation in response to dehydration via its action upon the kidney and through extra-renal actions. MNCs also secrete VP from their cell bodies and dendrites locally i.e., into the extracellular space of the SON. Although it has been shown that both intranuclear and systemic release rise in response to dehydration the physiological significance of intranuclear release has not been fully elucidated. We chose to use voluntary ingestion as the route of PCB exposure since it is more reflective of natural exposure compared to ip injection. One unexpected observation that resulted from pilot studies using ip injection of PCBs was the deleterious effects of the vehicle (corn oil) resulting in pooling of lipid within the abdominal cavity, mottling of the liver, fatty liver and general discoloration of all abdominal viscera at time of sacrifice. Therefore, all work described in this series of experiments have employed voluntary ingestion of the toxin. Work described in this paper suggests that PCBs in concentrations reflecting realistic lifetime exposure levels may negatively impact homeostatic mechanisms responsible for body water balance by altering somatodendritic (intranuclear) VP secretion in response to dehydration in vivo. The downstream consequences of such influence is currently under investigation, and preliminary evidence suggests that the

  3. Dietary intake of dioxins, furans and dioxin-like PCBs in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher-Gabernig, Elke; Mischek, Daniela; Moche, Wolfgang; Prean, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Human exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs) should be assessed regularly. In order to evaluate the contamination levels in various food products on the Austrian market and to assess the dietary exposure of the Austrian population for the first time, a national monitoring programme was conducted from 2005 to 2011. The 235 food products comprised meat, poultry, game and offal, fish and fish products, milk and dairy products, eggs, animal fats and vegetable oils. To estimate the dietary intakes of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs, mean concentrations in food were combined with the respective food consumption data from the Austrian food consumption survey. Estimated dietary intakes were expressed as toxic equivalents (WHO-TEQs 1998). The mean intakes for PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs were estimated as 0.77, 0.75 and 0.61 pg WHO-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1) for children, women and men, respectively. The main contributors to total intake were milk and dairy products followed by fish and fish products for children and women, and meat, poultry, game and offal for men (65% and 15% for children, 67% and 14% for women, and 63% and 19% for men, respectively). Comparison of the estimated dietary intakes with the toxicological reference values shows that both children and adults are well below those values.

  4. Dietary exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in The Netherlands anno 2004

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mul, de A.; Bakker, M.I.; Zeilmaker, M.J.; Traag, W.A.; Leeuwen, van S.P.J.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Boon, P.E.; Klaveren, van J.D.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, representative occurrence data for PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in food were obtained and used to estimate dietary exposure of the Dutch population. Food composite samples were analyzed as well as single fish and vegetables samples. Total dioxin concentrations in animal products

  5. Effect of dietary antioxidants on the promotion of hepatocarcinogenesis by PCBs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glauert, H.; Tharappel, J.; Stemm, D.; Spear, B. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Lehmler, H.J.; Robertson, L. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Mixtures of halogenated biphenyls as well as many individual congeners have been reported to be promoters of carcinogenesis in various liver tumor models. However, their mechanism of action is not known. A number of mechanisms have been investigated, including direct effects on signal transduction pathways, induction of oxidative stress, effects on vitamin A metabolism, and effects on intercellular communication. One mechanism by which PCBs may promote hepatic tumors is by inducing oxidative damage in the liver. Forms of oxidative damage that may be important are the induction of lipid peroxidation, the induction of oxidative DNA damage, and the alteration of gene expression. One possible mechanism for inhibiting the promoting activity of PCBs may be to increase the concentration of antioxidants in the diet. In this study, we examined if dietary selenium or antioxidant phytochemicals could inhibit the hepatic promoting activity of PCBs in rats.

  6. Dioxins, dioxin-like PCBs and non-dioxin-like PCBs in foodstuffs : occurrence and dietary intake in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baars, A.J.; Bakker, M.I.; Baumann, R.A.; Boon, P.E.; Freijer, J.I.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Klaveren, van J.D.; Liem, A.K.D.; Traag, W.A.; Vries, de J.

    2004-01-01

    Data on occurrence of dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins [PCDDs] and dibenzofurans [PCDFs]), dioxin-like PCBs (polychlorinated non-ortho and mono-ortho biphenyls) and non-dioxin-like PCBs (as represented by the so-called indicator-PCBs: congeners 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180) in food

  7. Dietary exposure to non-dioxin-like PCBs of different population groups in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihats, Daniela; Moche, Wolfgang; Prean, Michael; Rauscher-Gabernig, Elke

    2015-05-01

    The dietary exposure to the sum of the six indicator PCBs (Σ6 PCBs; PCB 28, 52, 101, 138, 153, and 180) across different Austrian population groups was assessed in this study by combining data on occurrence from food of the Austrian market (n=157) analysed during 2006-2011 with national food consumption data. The most contaminated food group was meat, poultry, game and offal with average levels of ndl-PCBs of 5.20 ng g(-1) fat. In fish and fish products and eggs, mean concentrations of 3.89 ng g(-1) fresh weight (fw) and 4.00 ng g(-1) fat, respectively, were found. In milk and dairy products average concentrations ranged from 3.07 to 4.44 ng g(-1) fat. The mean dietary intake of Σ6 PCBs was estimated to be 3.37 ng kg(-1) bw d(-1) for children (6-15 years old), 3.19 ng kg(-1) bw d(-1) for women (19-65 years) and 2.64 ng kg(-1) bw d(-1) for men (19-65 years). In all three population groups, milk and dairy products was the major contributing food group to the total dietary intake (50-55%) followed by fish and fish products (23-27%). The exposure of all Austrian population groups is well below the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 10 ng kg(-1) bw d(-1) proposed by WHO, accounting for 34% in children, 32% in women and 26% in men. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Dietary fat interacts with PCBs to induce changes in lipid metabolism in LDL receptor deficient mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennig, B.; Reiterer, G.; Toborek, M.; Matveev, S.V.; Daugherty, A.; Smart, E. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington (United States); Robertson, L.W. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City (United States)

    2004-09-15

    From epidemiological studies, there is substantial evidence that cardiovascular diseases are linked to environmental pollution and that exposure to polycyclic and/or polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons can lead to human cardiovascular toxicity. A major route of exposure to PCBs in humans is via oral ingestion of contaminated food products. Therefore, circulating environmental contaminants derived from diets, such as PCBs, are in intimate contact with the vascular endothelium. Endothelial activation and dysfunction is an important factor in the overall regulation of vascular lesion pathology. In addition to endothelial barrier dysfunction, another functional change in atherosclerosis is the activation of the endothelium that is manifested as an increase in the expression of specific cytokines and adhesion molecules. These cytokines and adhesion molecules are proposed to mediate the inflammatory aspects of the disease by regulating the vascular entry of leukocytes. Alterations in lipid profile and lipid metabolism as a result of exposure to PCBs may be important components of endothelial cell dysfunction. Little is known about the interaction of dietary fats and PCBs in the pathology of atherosclerosis. We have reported a significant disruption in endothelial barrier function when cells were exposed to linoleic acid. In the current study we aimed to demonstrate the PCB-fatty acid interaction in vivo and hypothesized that PCB toxicity can be modulated by the type of fat consumed.

  9. Bioaccumulation of PCBs in Arctic seabirds: influence of dietary exposure and congener biotransformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borga, Katrine; Wolkers, Hans; Skaare, Janneche U.; Hop, Haakon; Muir, Derek C.G.; Gabrielsen, Geir W.

    2005-01-01

    Four seabird species and their prey (zooplankton or fish) were collected in the Barents Sea to determine how dietary exposure, cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme activities and sex influenced their hepatic PCB concentrations and accumulation patterns. Five males and five females from each seabird species (little auk (Alle alle), Bruennich's guillemot (Uria lomvia), black guillemot (Cepphus grylle) and black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla)) were analysed. PCB concentrations could not be explained directly by carbon source (δ 13 C) or trophic position (δ 15 N), but by a combination of dietary parameters (δ 13 C, δ 15 N, migratory pattern, age) and contaminant metabolism. Contrary to previous studies, the PCB pattern differed among seabirds, with a higher proportion of persistent congeners (% of PCB-153, R PCB-153 ) in black-legged kittiwake than in auks. The PCB pattern also differed among auks, with little auk as the most efficient biotransformer (highest R PCB-153 values of persistent congeners). Based on high R PCB-153 values, Bruennich's guillemot poorly metabolised ortho-meta-unsubstituted congeners, whereas black guillemot poorly metabolised meta-para unsubstituted congeners. Species-specific differences in PCB biotransformation were confirmed by metabolic indices, where PCB patterns in seabirds were adjusted for PCB pattern in prey. The relative contribution of ortho-meta-unsubstituted congeners to ΣPCBsdecreased with increasing EROD activity. There were no differences in PCB concentrations, PCB patterns or cytochrome P450 enzyme activities between males and females. CYP P450 activities (CYP1A- and CYP2B/3A-like: EROD and testosterone 6β-hydroxylation, respectively) were low and did not correlate with concentrations of non- or mono-ortho Cl-substituted PCBs (NO- and MO-PCBs), or with total toxic equivalent concentrations (TEQs) for dioxin-like effects of NO- and MO-PCBs. - Contaminant patterns is linked to phylogeny and species-specific differences in

  10. Effects of Aroclor 1254 on in vivo oocyte maturation in the mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ShuZhen Liu

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are stable, lipophilic compounds that accumulate in the environment and in the food chain. Though some studies provided evidence that PCBs had adverse effects on reproductive function, most of these results were from in vitro models. Therefore we investigated the effect of Aroclor 1254 (a commercial PCBs mixture treatments on in vivo maturation and developmental potential of mouse oocytes. In the present study, female ICR mice were treated with different doses (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg of Aroclor 1254 (a commercial PCB mixture once every 72 hours by intraperitoneal injection for 9 days. After three treatments of Aroclor 1254, the mice were superovulated to collect oocytes one day after the last exposure. The effects of Aroclor 1254 on oocyte maturation, fertilization, and preimplantation embryonic development were investigated. Immunofluorescence-stained oocytes were observed under a confocal microscope to assess the effects of Aroclor 1254 on spindle morphology. Parthenogenic activation and the incidence of cumulus apoptosis in cumulus-oocyte complexes were observed as well. Oocytes exposed to different doses of Aroclor 1254 in vivo were associated with a significant decrease in outgrowth potential, abnormal spindle configurations, and the inhibition of parthenogenetic activation of ovulated oocytes. Furthermore, the incidence of apoptosis in cumulus cells was increased after exposed to Aroclor 1254. These results may provide reference for the treatment of reproductive diseases such as infertility or miscarriage caused by environmental contaminants.

  11. Dietary exposure to dioxins and PCBs in a large cohort of pregnant women: results from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspersen, Ida H; Knutsen, Helle K; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Haugen, Margaretha; Alexander, Jan; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Kvalem, Helen E

    2013-09-01

    Exposure to dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) during pregnancy and breastfeeding may result in adverse health effects in children. Prenatal exposure is determined by the concentrations of dioxins and PCBs in maternal blood, which reflect the body burden obtained by long term dietary exposure. The aims of this study were (1) to describe dietary exposure and important dietary sources to dioxins and PCBs in a large group of pregnant women and (2) to identify maternal characteristics associated with high dietary exposure to dioxins and PCBs. Dietary exposure to dioxins (sum of toxic equivalents (TEQs) from dioxin-like (dl) compounds) and PCB-153 in 83,524 pregnant women (gestational weeks 17-22) who participated in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) during the years 2002-2009 was calculated based on a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and a database of dioxin and PCB concentrations in Norwegian food. The median (interquartile range, IQR) intake of PCB-153 (marker of ndl-PCBs) was 0.81 (0.77) ng/kg bw/day. For dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs, the median (IQR) intake was 0.56 (0.37) pg TEQ/kg bw/day. Moreover, 2.3% of the participants had intakes exceeding the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) of 14pg TEQ/kg bw/week. Multiple regression analysis showed that dietary exposure was positively associated with maternal age, maternal education, weight gain during pregnancy, being a student, and alcohol consumption during pregnancy and negatively associated with pre-pregnancy BMI and smoking. A high dietary exposure to PCB-153 or dl-compounds (TEQ) was mainly explained by the consumption of seagull eggs and/or pate with fish liver and roe. Women who according to Norwegian recommendations avoid these food items generally do not have dietary exposure above the tolerable intake of dioxins and dl-PCBs. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Modelling the time-variant dietary exposure of PCBs in China over the period 1930 to 2100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shizhen; Breivik, Knut; Jones, Kevin C; Sweetman, Andrew J

    2018-06-06

    This study aimed for the first time to reconstruct historical exposure profiles for PCBs to the Chinese population, by examining the combined effect of changing temporal emissions and dietary transition. A long-term (1930-2100) dynamic simulation of human exposure using realistic emission scenarios, including primary emissions, unintentional emissions and emissions from e-waste, combined with dietary transition trends was conducted by a multimedia fate model (BETR-Global) linked to a bioaccumulation model (ACC-HUMAN). The model predicted an approximate 30-year delay of peak body burden for PCB-153 in a 30-year-old Chinese female, compared to their European counterpart. This was mainly attributed to a combination of change in diet and divergent emission patterns in China. A fish-based diet was predicted to result in up to 8 times higher body burden than a vegetable-based diet (2010-2100). During the production period, a worst-case scenario assuming only consumption of imported food from a region with more extensive production and usage of PCBs would result in up to 4 times higher body burden compared to consumption of only locally produced food. However, such differences gradually diminished after cessation of production. Therefore, emission reductions in China alone may not be sufficient to protect human health for PCB-like chemicals, particularly during the period of mass production. The results from this study illustrate that human exposure is also likely to be dictated by inflows of PCBs via the environment, waste and food.

  13. Dietary exposure to PCBs based on food consumption survey and food basket analysis at Taizhou, China--the world's major site for recycling transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Guan Hua; Wu, Sheng Chun; Wong, Ming Hung

    2010-11-01

    The levels of PCBs in different types of food (fish, shellfish, meat, rice, vegetables, and fruits) were analyzed to determine the dietary intake of 37 PCBs for local residents and e-waste workers (all lactating mothers) at Taizhou (China), a major electronic waste scrapping center, in particular for recycling transformers. The exposure to PCBs through dietary intake in Taizhou was estimated at 92.79 ngkg(-1)d(-1), contributed by consumption of freshwater fish (28%), rice (28%), meat (17%), shellfish (9%), vegetables (8%), egg (4%) and marine fish (2%). With regards to WHO-PCB-TEQ values, freshwater fish (40%), shellfish (24%), duck liver (18%) and rice (12%) were the main dietary sources with total daily intake (9.78 pg WHO-PCB-TEQ kg(-1)d(-1)), exceeding the FAO/WHO Tolerable Daily Intake (70 pg TEQkg(-1)body(-1)wt(-1)month(-1)). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. CATALYTIC STEAM REFORMING OF CHLOROCARBONS: POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS). (R826694C633)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments with commercial askarals (Aroclors 1221, 1248 and 1254) have confirmed the feasibility of catalytic steam reforming as a method for destroying polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Rhodium, platinum and nickel supported on Non-Dioxin-Like PCBs: Effects and Consideration In Ecological Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    An estimated one million metric tons of commercial mixtures of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), such as Aroclors (USA), Kanechlors (Japan) and Clophens (Germany), were manufactured (WHO, 1993) and used worldwide as dielectric fluids

  15. Maternal dietary exposure to dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is associated with language delay in 3year old Norwegian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspersen, I H; Haugen, M; Schjølberg, S; Vejrup, K; Knutsen, H K; Brantsæter, A L; Meltzer, H M; Alexander, J; Magnus, P; Kvalem, H E

    2016-05-01

    Prenatal exposure to dioxins and PCBs is potentially harmful to the developing fetus and may increase the risk of delayed or impaired neurodevelopment. Several studies have reported negative associations between prenatal exposure to these compounds and aspects of cognition related to language in early childhood. The aim was to examine the association between maternal low level dietary exposure to dioxins and PCB during pregnancy and language development in 3year old children in a large group of mother-child pairs participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). This study includes 44,092 children of women who were recruited to the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) during the years 2002-2009. Maternal dietary exposure to dioxins and PCBs was estimated based on a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) answered mid-pregnancy and a database of dioxin and PCB concentrations in Norwegian foods. Exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-compounds) was expressed in total toxic equivalents (TEQ), and PCB-153 was used as marker for non-dioxin-like PCBs (ndlPCBs). Children's language skills at age 3 were assessed by parental report including a Dale and Bishop grammar rating and questions about communication skills from the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ). Logistic regression models adjusted for confounders were used to examine the association between maternal dietary exposure to dl-compounds or PCB-153 and language development in children. The maternal dietary exposure to dl-compounds and PCB-153 was generally low, and 98% of women had intakes of dl-compounds ≤14pg TEQ/kg bw/week, which is the tolerable weekly intake set by EU's Scientific Committee for Food (SCF). High maternal exposure (>14pg TEQ/kg bw/week of dl-compounds (median 2.6pg/kg bw/day, range 2-16) or >97.5-percentile intake of PCB-153 (median 11ng/kg bw/day, range 5-28) was associated with higher odds of incomplete grammar (in boys and girls, adjusted ORs 1.1 to 1

  16. Gender-dependent behavioral and sensory effects of a commercial mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (Aroclor 1254) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, A M; Oshiro, W M; Haykal-Coates, N; Kodavanti, P R; Bushnell, P J

    2001-02-01

    Developmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been associated with behavioral and cognitive deficits in humans and animal models. Perinatal exposure to PCBs has also been associated with sensory deficits in animal models. These effects were hypothesized to be mediated in part by ortho-substituted PCBs, which do not or weakly bind to the aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor. The present studies were designed to determine whether perinatal exposure to Aroclor 1254, a commercial mixture of > 99% ortho-substituted PCBs, would affect cognitive and sensory function in Long-Evans rats. Adult male and female offspring of female rats fed Aroclor 1254 (Lot #124-191; doses of 0, 1, or 6 mg/kg/day; gestational day 6 through postnatal day 21; n = eight/group) were trained to perform a signal detection task capable of assessing sensory thresholds. Training included autoshaping and operant conditioning. Thresholds for detecting a 1-s light stimulus were determined under background illuminations ranging from 2 lux to complete darkness. Female rats exposed to Aroclor 1254 autoshaped more rapidly than control females, at a rate akin to control males. Control females had lower thresholds than control males at all levels of background illumination. These differences were abolished by Aroclor 1254, which reduced thresholds in males and increased thresholds in females. These data extend previous findings of gender-specific effects of PCBs on neurobehavioral development to measures of acquisition and sensory function.

  17. The effect of dietary glycine on the hepatic tumor promoting activity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunaciu, Rodica Petruta; Tharappel, Job C.; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Kania-Korwel, Izabela; Robertson, Larry W.; Srinivasan, Cidambi; Spear, Brett T.; Glauert, Howard P.

    2007-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitious lipophilic environmental pollutants. Some of the PCB congeners and mixtures of congeners have tumor promoting activity in rat liver. The mechanism of their activity is not fully understood and is likely to be multifactorial. The aim of this study was to investigate if the resident liver macrophages, Kupffer cells, are important in the promoting activity of PCBs. The hypothesis of this study was that the inhibition of Kupffer cell activity would inhibit hepatic tumor promotion by PCBs in rats. To test our hypothesis, we studied the effects of Kupffer cell inhibition by dietary glycine (an inhibitor of Kupffer cell secretory activity) in a rat two-stage hepatocarcinogenesis model using 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB-153, a non-dioxin-like PCB) or 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB-77, a dioxin-like PCB) as promoters. Diethylnitrosamine (DEN, 150 mg/kg) was administered to female Sprague-Dawley rats, which were then placed on an unrefined diet containing 5% glycine (or casein as nitrogen control) starting two weeks after DEN administration. On the third day after starting the diets, rats received PCB-77 (300 μmol/kg), PCB-153 (300 μmol/kg), or corn oil by i.p. injection. The rats received a total of 4 PCB injections, administered every 14 days. The rats were euthanized on the 10th day after the last PCB injection, and the formation of altered hepatic foci expressing placental glutathione S-transferase (PGST) and the rate of DNA synthesis in these foci and in the normal liver tissue were determined. Glycine did not significantly affect foci number or volume. PCB-153 did not significantly increase the focal volume, but increased the number of foci per liver, but only in the rats not fed glycine; PCB-77 increased both the foci number and their volume in both glycine-fed and control rats. Glycine did not alter the PCB content of the liver, but did increase the activity of 7-benzyloxyresorufin O-dealkylase (BROD

  18. Dietary exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs of Hong Kong adults: results of the first Hong Kong Total Diet Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Waiky W K; Yip, Yiu-chung; Choi, Koon-kay; Ho, Y Y; Xiao, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants (POPs) covered by the Stockholm Convention on POPs. To assess the associated health risk of the Hong Kong population, the dietary exposure of the Hong Kong population and various age-gender subgroups to dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs was estimated in the first Hong Kong Total Diet Study (TDS), where food samples were collected and prepared "as consumed". A total of 142 composite food samples, mainly foods of animal origin and their products and oily food, were analysed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like PCBs by the high-resolution gas chromatograph/high-resolution mass spectrometer (HRGC/HRMS) system. Dietary exposures were estimated by combining the analytical results with the food consumption data of Hong Kong adults. The mean and 95th percentile exposures to dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs of the Hong Kong population were 21.9 and 59.7 pg toxic equivalent (TEQ) kg⁻¹ body weight (bw) month⁻¹ respectively, which amounted to 31.3% and 85.2% of the provisional tolerable monthly intake (PTMI). The main dietary source of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs was "Fish and seafood and their products" (61.9% of the total exposure), followed by "Meat, poultry and game and their products" (20.0%) and "Mixed dishes" (6.95%). The study findings suggest that the Hong Kong population is unlikely to experience the major undesirable health effects of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs.

  19. Biological data on PCBs in animals other than man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.

    1972-01-01

    SUMMARY: Polychlorinated biphenyls have become ubiquitous in the world ecosystem in quantities similar to those of DDE. Experimental studies have shown that PCBs have a toxicity to mallards, pheasants, bobwhite quail, coturnix quail, red-winged blackbirds, starlings, cowbirds, and grackles that is of the same order as the toxicity of DDE to these species. Overt signs of poisoning also are similar to those caused by compounds of the DDT group. Toxic effects of DDE and Aroclor 1254 to coturnix chicks were additive, but not synergistic. PCBs containing higher percentages of chlorine are more toxic to birds than those containing lower percentages. PCBs of foreign manufacture contained contaminants to an extent that greatly increased their toxicity. Residues of PCBs in the brains of birds killed by these compounds measure in the hundreds of parts per million. PCBs may have contributed to mortality of some birds in the field. Toxicity to insects of PCBs of different degrees of chlorination is the reverse of the pattern in birds: the lower chlorinations are more toxic to insects. PCBs enhanced the toxicity of dieldrin and DDT to insects. Shrimp are very sensitive to PCBs and most will die as a result of 20-day exposure to a concentration of 5 ppb. PCBs also inhibit shell growth of oysters. Crabs are less sensitive; all accumulate residues to many times the concentrations in the water, and a test with crabs showed that they lost the residues very slowly. Growth of certain species of marine diatoms was experimentally inhibited by PCBs, but algae were not affected. The small marine crustacean, Gammarus, is sensitive to PCBs in concentrations of thousandths to tenths of a part per billion. Exposure to 5 ppb of Aroclor 1254 caused mortality of two species of fish in 14-45 days. Onset of death was delayed and was accompanied by fungus-like lesions. Rainbow trout were quickly killed by terphenyls at 10 ppb under normal oxygen conditions and at 2 ppb with reduced oxygen

  1. Decomposition of PCBs in oils using gamma radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mincher, B.J.; Arbon, R.E.; Schwendiman, G.L.

    1996-01-01

    This paper investigates the radiolysis of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in several oil matrices. The results of mechanism and kinetic studies in isooctane are presented. The decomposition of PCBs in isooctane is shown to occur by reductive dechlorination due to electron capture and to proceed with pseudo-first-order kinetics. The rate is dependent on the initial PCB concentration. Electron capture detection gas chromatograms confirm that dechlorination also occurs with commercial Aroclor PCBs in irradiated transformer and hydraulic oils. The results of a demonstration experiment involving PCB contaminated waste hydraulic oils are presented

  2. The influence of maternal dietary exposure to dioxins and PCBs during pregnancy on ADHD symptoms and cognitive functions in Norwegian preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspersen, Ida Henriette; Aase, Heidi; Biele, Guido; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Haugen, Margaretha; Kvalem, Helen Engelstad; Skogan, Annette Holth; Zeiner, Pål; Alexander, Jan; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Knutsen, Helle K

    2016-09-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (dioxins) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with potentially adverse impact on child neurodevelopment. Whether the potential detrimental effects of dioxins and PCBs on neurodevelopment are of specific or unspecific character is not clear. The purpose of the current study was to examine the influence of maternal dietary exposure to dioxins and PCBs on ADHD symptoms and cognitive functioning in preschoolers. We aimed to investigate a range of functions, in particular IQ, expressive language, and executive functions. This study includes n=1024 children enrolled in a longitudinal prospective study of ADHD (the ADHD Study), with participants recruited from The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Boys and girls aged 3.5years participated in extensive clinical assessments using well-validated tools; The Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment interview (PAPA), Stanford-Binet 5th revision (SB-5), Child Development Inventory (CDI), and Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, Preschool version (BRIEF-P). Maternal dietary exposure to dioxins and PCBs was estimated based on a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) answered mid-pregnancy and a database of dioxin and PCB concentrations in Norwegian foods. Exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-compounds) was expressed in total toxic equivalents (TEQ), and PCB-153 was used as marker for non-dioxin-like PCBs (ndl-PCBs). Generalized linear and additive models adjusted for confounders were used to examine exposure-outcome associations. Exposure to PCB-153 or dl-compound was not significantly associated with any of the outcome measures when analyses were performed for boys and girls together. After stratifying by sex, adjusted analyses indicated a small inverse association with language in girls. An increase in the exposure variables of 1 SD was associated with a reduction in language score of -0.2 [CI -0.4, -0

  3. Aroclor 1254, a developmental neurotoxicant, alters energy metabolism- and intracellular signaling-associated protein networks in rat cerebellum and hippocampus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodavanti, Prasada Rao S.; Osorio, Cristina; Royland, Joyce E.; Ramabhadran, Ram; Alzate, Oscar

    2011-01-01

    The vast literature on the mode of action of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) indicates that PCBs are a unique model for understanding the mechanisms of toxicity of environmental mixtures of persistent chemicals. PCBs have been shown to adversely affect psychomotor function and learning and memory in humans. Although the molecular mechanisms for PCB effects are unclear, several studies indicate that the disruption of Ca 2+ -mediated signal transduction plays significant roles in PCB-induced developmental neurotoxicity. Culminating events in signal transduction pathways include the regulation of gene and protein expression, which affects the growth and function of the nervous system. Our previous studies showed changes in gene expression related to signal transduction and neuronal growth. In this study, protein expression following developmental exposure to PCB is examined. Pregnant rats (Long Evans) were dosed with 0.0 or 6.0 mg/kg/day of Aroclor-1254 from gestation day 6 through postnatal day (PND) 21, and the cerebellum and hippocampus from PND14 animals were analyzed to determine Aroclor 1254-induced differential protein expression. Two proteins were found to be differentially expressed in the cerebellum following PCB exposure while 18 proteins were differentially expressed in the hippocampus. These proteins are related to energy metabolism in mitochondria (ATP synthase, sub unit β (ATP5B), creatine kinase, and malate dehydrogenase), calcium signaling (voltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein 1 (VDAC1) and ryanodine receptor type II (RyR2)), and growth of the nervous system (dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 4 (DPYSL4), valosin-containing protein (VCP)). Results suggest that Aroclor 1254-like persistent chemicals may alter energy metabolism and intracellular signaling, which might result in developmental neurotoxicity. -- Highlights: ► We performed brain proteomic analysis of rats exposed to the neurotoxicant, Aroclor 1254. ► Cerebellum and

  4. Disruption of the thyroid system by the thyroid-disrupting compound Aroclor 1254 in juvenile Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifei Dong

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are a group of persistent organochlorine compounds that have the potential to disrupt the homeostasis of thyroid hormones (THs in fish, particularly juveniles. In this study, thyroid histology, plasma TH levels, and iodothyronine deiodinase (IDs, including ID1, ID2, and ID3 gene expression patterns were examined in juvenile Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus following 25- and 50-day waterborne exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of a commercial PCB mixture, Aroclor 1254 (10, 100, and 1000 ng/L with two-thirds of the test solutions renewed daily. The results showed that exposure to Aroclor 1254 for 50 d increased follicular cell height, colloid depletion, and hyperplasia. In particular, hypothyroidism, which was induced by the administration of 1000 ng/L Aroclor 1254, significantly decreased plasma TT4, TT3, and FT3 levels. Profiles of the changes in mRNA expression levels of IDs were observed in the liver and kidney after 25 and 50 d PCB exposure, which might be associated with a reduction in plasma THs levels. The expression level of ID2 mRNA in the liver exhibited a dose-dependent increase, indicating that this ID isotype might serve as sensitive and stable indicator for thyroid-disrupting chemical (TDC exposure. Overall, our study confirmed that environmentally relevant concentrations of Aroclor 1254 cause significant thyroid disruption, with juvenile Japanese flounder being suitable candidates for use in TDC studies.

  5. Analytical method of polychlorinated biphenyls(PCBs) in transformer oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, S.K. [National Institute of Environmental Research, Incheon (Korea); Kim, H.J.; Chung, D.; Kim, K.S.; Kim, J.K.; Chung, Y.H.; Chung, I.R.

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is a chlorinated biphenyl compound with the general formula C{sub 12}H{sub 10-n}/Cl{sub n}. PCBs generally occur as mixtures, where n can vary from 1 to 10. The 10 sites available for possible chlorine substitution result in 209 possible PCB congeners. There is now considerable concern regarding; the presence of PCB congeners in insulating oils used within large-scale electrical supply systems. Due to its outstanding chemical and thermal stabilities and electrical insulation properties, the commercial and industrial products of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), such as Aroclors, Kaneclors, Clophens, Phenaclors etc., had been widely used as thermal oil and transformer oil from 1930s until the 1970s. PCBs from a group of persistent organic pollutants of the environment, especially dangerous to living organisms due to high toxicity, persistency, and bio-concentration in adipose tissue. Despite of this fact, PCB-contaminated oils are still commonly encountered partly because PCBs used as dielectric liquids in transformer and condenser. The source of PCBs in environments can range from used transformer oils or dielectric liquids to liquid wastes, and some PCBs contamination is occurred due to the re-use of incompletely reconditioned oil. The current action plan of Republic of Korea dictates that organizations with electrical equipment contaminated with more than 2 mg/L PCBs will need to treat as PCBs-containing wastes, and 50mg/L of PCBs or PCBs equivalent to be treated as a pure PCB preparation. In this study, transformer oils analyzed based on guideline for PCBs analytical method of transformer oil in Korea.

  6. Evaluation of Aroclor 1260 exposure in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlang, Banrida; Song, Ming; Beier, Juliane I.; Cameron Falkner, K.; Al-Eryani, Laila; Clair, Heather B.; Prough, Russell A.; Osborne, Tanasa S.; Malarkey, David E.; Christopher States, J.; Cave, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in epidemiologic studies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hepatic effects of a PCB mixture, Aroclor 1260, whose composition mimics human bioaccumulation patterns, in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity (DIO). Male C57Bl/6J mice were fed control diet or 42% high fat diet (HFD) and exposed to Aroclor 1260 (20 mg/kg or 200 mg/kg in corn oil) for 12 weeks. A glucose tolerance test was performed; plasma/tissues were obtained at necropsy for measurements of adipocytokine levels, histology, and gene expression. Aroclor 1260 exposure was associated with decreased body fat in HFD-fed mice but had no effect on blood glucose/lipid levels. Paradoxically, Aroclor 1260 + HFD co-exposed mice demonstrated increased hepatic inflammatory foci at both doses while the degree of steatosis did not change. Serum cytokines, ALT levels and hepatic expression of IL-6 and TNFα were increased only at 20 mg/kg, suggesting an inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine production at the 200 mg/kg exposure. Aroclor 1260 induced hepatic expression of cytochrome P450s including Cyp3a11 (Pregnane-Xenobiotic Receptor target) and Cyp2b10 (constitutive androstane receptor target) but Cyp2b10 inducibility was diminished with HFD-feeding. Cyp1a2 (aryl hydrocarbon Receptor target) was induced only at 200 mg/kg. In summary, Aroclor 1260 worsened hepatic and systemic inflammation in DIO. The results indicated a bimodal response of PCB-diet interactions in the context of inflammation which could potentially be explained by xenobiotic receptor activation. Thus, PCB exposure may be a relevant “second hit” in the transformation of steatosis to steatohepatitis. - Highlights: • Aroclor 1260 exposure decreased adiposity in mice fed with high fat diet • Aroclor 1260 exposure induced steatohepatitis in diet-induced obese mice • Aroclor 1260 (20 and 200 mg/kg) induced

  7. Evaluation of Aroclor 1260 exposure in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlang, Banrida [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Song, Ming [Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Beier, Juliane I. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Cameron Falkner, K. [Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Al-Eryani, Laila [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Clair, Heather B.; Prough, Russell A. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Osborne, Tanasa S.; Malarkey, David E. [Cellular and Molecular Pathology Branch, National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Christopher States, J. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Cave, Matthew C., E-mail: matt.cave@louisville.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); The Robley Rex Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Louisville, KY 40206 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in epidemiologic studies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hepatic effects of a PCB mixture, Aroclor 1260, whose composition mimics human bioaccumulation patterns, in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity (DIO). Male C57Bl/6J mice were fed control diet or 42% high fat diet (HFD) and exposed to Aroclor 1260 (20 mg/kg or 200 mg/kg in corn oil) for 12 weeks. A glucose tolerance test was performed; plasma/tissues were obtained at necropsy for measurements of adipocytokine levels, histology, and gene expression. Aroclor 1260 exposure was associated with decreased body fat in HFD-fed mice but had no effect on blood glucose/lipid levels. Paradoxically, Aroclor 1260 + HFD co-exposed mice demonstrated increased hepatic inflammatory foci at both doses while the degree of steatosis did not change. Serum cytokines, ALT levels and hepatic expression of IL-6 and TNFα were increased only at 20 mg/kg, suggesting an inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine production at the 200 mg/kg exposure. Aroclor 1260 induced hepatic expression of cytochrome P450s including Cyp3a11 (Pregnane-Xenobiotic Receptor target) and Cyp2b10 (constitutive androstane receptor target) but Cyp2b10 inducibility was diminished with HFD-feeding. Cyp1a2 (aryl hydrocarbon Receptor target) was induced only at 200 mg/kg. In summary, Aroclor 1260 worsened hepatic and systemic inflammation in DIO. The results indicated a bimodal response of PCB-diet interactions in the context of inflammation which could potentially be explained by xenobiotic receptor activation. Thus, PCB exposure may be a relevant “second hit” in the transformation of steatosis to steatohepatitis. - Highlights: • Aroclor 1260 exposure decreased adiposity in mice fed with high fat diet • Aroclor 1260 exposure induced steatohepatitis in diet-induced obese mice • Aroclor 1260 (20 and 200 mg/kg) induced

  8. Gene expression profiles in the cerebellum and hippocampus following exposure to a neurotoxicant, Aroclor 1254: Developmental effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royland, Joyce E.; Wu, Jinfang; Zawia, Nasser H.; Kodavanti, Prasada Rao S.

    2008-01-01

    The developmental consequences of exposure to the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been widely studied, making PCBs a unique model to understand issues related to environmental mixture of persistent chemicals. PCB exposure in humans adversely affects neurocognitive development, causes psychomotor difficulties, and contributes to attention deficits in children, all of which seem to be associated with altered patterns of neuronal connectivity. In the present study, we examined gene expression profiles in the rat nervous system following PCB developmental exposure. Pregnant rats (Long-Evans) were dosed perinatally with 0 or 6 mg/kg/day of Aroclor 1254 from gestation day 6 through postnatal day (PND) 21. Gene expression in cerebellum and hippocampus from PND7 and PND14 animals was analyzed with an emphasis on developmental aspects. Changes in gene expression (≥ 1.5 fold) in control animals identified normal developmental changes. These basal levels of expression were compared to data from Aroclor 1254-treated animals to determine the impact of gestational PCB exposure on developmental parameters. The results indicate that the expression of a number of developmental genes related to cell cycle, synaptic function, cell maintenance, and neurogenesis is significantly altered from PND7 to PND14. Aroclor 1254 treatment appears to dampen the overall growth-related gene expression levels in both regions with the effect being more pronounced in the cerebellum. Functional analysis suggests that Aroclor 1254 delays maturation of the developing nervous system, with the consequences dependent on the ontological state of the brain area and the functional role of the individual gene. Such changes may underlie learning and memory deficits observed in PCB exposed animals and humans

  9. Biotransformation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and bioformation of hydroxylated PCBs in fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckman, Andrea H. [Department of Environmental Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ont., N1G 2W1 (Canada); National Waters Research Institute, Environment Canada, Burlington, Ont., Canada L7R 4A6 (Canada); Wong, Charles S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alta. (Canada); Chow, Elaine A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alta. (Canada); Brown, Scott B. [National Waters Research Institute, Environment Canada, Burlington, Ont., L7R 4A6 (Canada); Solomon, Keith R. [Department of Environmental Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ont., N1G 2W1 (Canada); Fisk, Aaron T. [Warnell School of Forest Resources, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-2152 (United States)]. E-mail: afisk@smokey.forestry.uga.edu

    2006-06-15

    Hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs) are a class of organic contaminants that have been found recently in the plasma of Great Lakes fish, the source of which is either bioformation from PCBs or accumulation from the environment. To address the potential for fish to biotransform PCBs and bioform OH-PCBs juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss; {approx}80 g) were exposed to dietary concentrations of an environmentally relevant mixture of PCBs. Eight OH-PCBs were found in the plasma of rainbow trout after 30 days of exposure to the PCBs, the relative pattern of which was similar to those observed in wild lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Lake Ontario. Hydroxylated-PCBs were not found (detection limit 0.02 pg/g) in the food or control (not PCB-exposed) fish. A curvilinear log t {sub 1/2}-log K {sub ow} relationship for recalcitrant PCBs was found, similar to previously reported relationships, although t {sub 1/2} values were longer and shorter than studies using smaller fish or cooler temperatures, respectively. A number of PCB congeners fell below the log t {sub 1/2}-log K {sub ow} relationship providing the first estimates of non-chiral PCB biotransformation rates in fish. Enantioselective degradation of the chiral congeners PCBs 91 and 136, also indicated biotransformation. Biotransformation of PCBs was structure-dependent with greater biotransformation of PCBs with vicinal hydrogen atoms in the meta/para positions, suggesting CYP 2B-like biotransformation. Other chiral congeners with a meta/para substitution pattern showed no enantioselective degradation but were biotransformed based on the log t {sub 1/2}-log K {sub ow} relationship. The results of this study demonstrate that laboratory held rainbow trout can biotransform a number of PCB congeners and that bioformation is likely an important source of OH-PCBs in wild salmonids of the Great Lakes.

  10. Biotransformation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and bioformation of hydroxylated PCBs in fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckman, Andrea H.; Wong, Charles S.; Chow, Elaine A.; Brown, Scott B.; Solomon, Keith R.; Fisk, Aaron T.

    2006-01-01

    Hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs) are a class of organic contaminants that have been found recently in the plasma of Great Lakes fish, the source of which is either bioformation from PCBs or accumulation from the environment. To address the potential for fish to biotransform PCBs and bioform OH-PCBs juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss; ∼80 g) were exposed to dietary concentrations of an environmentally relevant mixture of PCBs. Eight OH-PCBs were found in the plasma of rainbow trout after 30 days of exposure to the PCBs, the relative pattern of which was similar to those observed in wild lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Lake Ontario. Hydroxylated-PCBs were not found (detection limit 0.02 pg/g) in the food or control (not PCB-exposed) fish. A curvilinear log t 1/2 -log K ow relationship for recalcitrant PCBs was found, similar to previously reported relationships, although t 1/2 values were longer and shorter than studies using smaller fish or cooler temperatures, respectively. A number of PCB congeners fell below the log t 1/2 -log K ow relationship providing the first estimates of non-chiral PCB biotransformation rates in fish. Enantioselective degradation of the chiral congeners PCBs 91 and 136, also indicated biotransformation. Biotransformation of PCBs was structure-dependent with greater biotransformation of PCBs with vicinal hydrogen atoms in the meta/para positions, suggesting CYP 2B-like biotransformation. Other chiral congeners with a meta/para substitution pattern showed no enantioselective degradation but were biotransformed based on the log t 1/2 -log K ow relationship. The results of this study demonstrate that laboratory held rainbow trout can biotransform a number of PCB congeners and that bioformation is likely an important source of OH-PCBs in wild salmonids of the Great Lakes

  11. Percutaneous absorption and skin decontamination of PCBs: In vitro studies with human skin and in vivo studies in the rhesus monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wester, R.C.; Maibach, H.I.; Bucks, D.A.; McMaster, J.; Mobayen, M.; Sarason, R.; Moore, A.

    1990-01-01

    Knowledge of the entry of polychlorinated biphenyls through the skin into the body and subsequent disposition aids estimation of potential for human health hazard. [14C]Aroclor 1242 and [14C]Aroclor 1254 were separately administered intravenously and topically to rhesus monkeys. Following iv administration, 30-d excretion was 39.4 +/- 5.9% urine and 16.1 +/- 0.8% feces (total 55.5 +/- 5.1%) for Aroclor 1242, and 7.0 +/- 2.2% urine and 19.7 +/- 5.8% feces (total 26.7 +/- 7.5%) for Aroclor 1254. Mineral oil and trichlorobenzene are common PCB cosolvents in transformers. Skin absorption of Aroclor 1242 was 20.4 +/- 8.5% formulated in mineral oil and 18.0 +/- 3.8% in trichlorobenzene (p greater than .05). Absorption of Aroclor 1254 was 20.8 +/- 8.3% in mineral oil and 14.6 +/- 3.6% in trichlorobenzene (p greater than .05). PCBs are thus absorbed through skin, and excretion from the body is slow. Vehicle (trichlorobenzene or mineral oil) did not affect percutaneous absorption. In vitro skin absorption in human cadaver skin did not correlate with in vivo findings. This was due to lack of PCB partition from skin into the water receptor fluid, even with addition of 6% Oleth 20 (Volpo 20) solubilizer. Skin decontamination of PCBs showed soap and water to be as effective as or better than the solvent ethanol, mineral oil, and trichlorobenzene in removing PCBs from skin. There is a dynamic time lapse for PCBs between initial skin contact and skin absorption (irreversible removal). Thus initially most PCBs could be removed from skin, but this ability decreased with time to the point where at 24 h only about 25% of the initial PCB skin dose could be recovered with skin washing

  12. Aroclor 1254, a developmental neurotoxicant, alters energy metabolism- and intracellular signaling-associated protein networks in rat cerebellum and hippocampus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodavanti, Prasada Rao S., E-mail: kodavanti.prasada@epa.gov [Neurotoxicology Branch, NHEERL, ORD, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina (United States); Osorio, Cristina [Systems Proteomics Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Program on Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Royland, Joyce E.; Ramabhadran, Ram [Genetic and Cellular Toxicology Branch, NHEERL, ORD, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina (United States); Alzate, Oscar [Department of Cellular and Developmental Biology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Systems Proteomics Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Program on Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States)

    2011-11-15

    The vast literature on the mode of action of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) indicates that PCBs are a unique model for understanding the mechanisms of toxicity of environmental mixtures of persistent chemicals. PCBs have been shown to adversely affect psychomotor function and learning and memory in humans. Although the molecular mechanisms for PCB effects are unclear, several studies indicate that the disruption of Ca{sup 2+}-mediated signal transduction plays significant roles in PCB-induced developmental neurotoxicity. Culminating events in signal transduction pathways include the regulation of gene and protein expression, which affects the growth and function of the nervous system. Our previous studies showed changes in gene expression related to signal transduction and neuronal growth. In this study, protein expression following developmental exposure to PCB is examined. Pregnant rats (Long Evans) were dosed with 0.0 or 6.0 mg/kg/day of Aroclor-1254 from gestation day 6 through postnatal day (PND) 21, and the cerebellum and hippocampus from PND14 animals were analyzed to determine Aroclor 1254-induced differential protein expression. Two proteins were found to be differentially expressed in the cerebellum following PCB exposure while 18 proteins were differentially expressed in the hippocampus. These proteins are related to energy metabolism in mitochondria (ATP synthase, sub unit {beta} (ATP5B), creatine kinase, and malate dehydrogenase), calcium signaling (voltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein 1 (VDAC1) and ryanodine receptor type II (RyR2)), and growth of the nervous system (dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 4 (DPYSL4), valosin-containing protein (VCP)). Results suggest that Aroclor 1254-like persistent chemicals may alter energy metabolism and intracellular signaling, which might result in developmental neurotoxicity. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We performed brain proteomic analysis of rats exposed to the neurotoxicant

  13. Effects of Quercetin on CYP450 and Cytokines in Aroclor 1254 Injured Endometrial Cells of the Pregnant Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are widespread persistent residual environmental pollutants, which affect seriously the growth and reproductive alterations in humans and animals. Aroclor 1254 is a commercial mixture of PCBs. Quercetin is a flavonoid, which acts on estrogen receptors and causes the development of estrogen-related diseases. In this paper, the primary cultured endometrial cells in the pregnant rats were isolated and Aroclor 1254 was used to induce the injured endometrial cells model. The cells were treated with gradient quercetin, the viability of the endometrial cells, the expressions of CYP450, the contents of TNF-α, IL-6, estradiol (E2, and progesterone (P4 were measured. It showed that the viability of the cultured endometrial cells, the expression of CYP1A1 and CYP2B1, and the contents of TNF-α, E2, and IL-6 in the injured endometrial cells increased with the treatment of quercetin. It shows that quercetin has protective effect on the injured endometrial cells in the pregnant rats, this provide a basis on herbal medicine protection for animal reproductive diseases caused by environmental endocrine disruptors.

  14. PCBs in various Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Characterize primary and secondary sources of PCBs in school buildings Characterize levels of PCBs in air, dust, soil and on surfaces; investigate relationships between sources and environmental levels Apply an exposure model for estimating children’s exposures to PCBs in schools...

  15. Radiolytic removal of PCBs from isooctane and hydraulic oil solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mincher, B.J.; Arbon, R.E.; Schwendimann, G.L.

    1995-01-01

    Research at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has shown the ability to degrade PCBs by exposure to gamma radiation in a number of solvents, including hydraulic oils. Radiolysis with gamma-rays may be achieved in the absence of activation or contamination and does not result in a radiologically contaminated product. While much of the original work was done in isopropanol, recent studies have been performed in isooctane as an oil surrogate. Use of isooctane permits radiolysis studies in a surrogate reasonably similar to oils yet one in which analytical work is considerably simplified. Results in both isopropanol and isooctane show the mechanism to be one of reductive dechlorination, probably associated with electron capture of solvated electrons by the PCBs. The electrons are generated by radiolysis of the solvent. Data is presented showing rate constants for the radiolysis of individual PCB congeners, in isooctane and the decomposition of Aroclor 1260 in hydraulic oil

  16. Reproductive dysfunction in rhesus monkeys exposed to low levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (Aroclor 1248)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barsotti, D.A.; Marlar, R.J.; Allen, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    Eighteen female and four male adult Rhesus monkeys were fed the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) Aroclor 1248 at levels of either 2.5 or 5.0 ppM in the diet. These levels are equal to, and 50% of, the concentration allowed in certain foods destined for human consumption. After consuming these diets for 2 months, some of the females developed acne, alopecia, erythema and swelling of the eyelids, and by 6 months all females exhibited these changes to some degree. Modifications in serum lipids developed gradually, with a trend towards hypocholesterolaemia, hypolipidaemia and decreased serum triglycerides. In addition there was a shift in the plasma albumin/globulin ratio and an increase in serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase activity. Analysis of subcutaneous fat showed an accumulation of the PCB isomers in the adipose tissue. The concentrations in this tissue reached a plateau, after which only slight variations were observed. Within 4 months, menstrual cycles were altered: menostaxis and menorrhagia occurred frequently and at times amenorrhoea was apparent. The ability of the animals to maintain pregnancy was impaired, as indicated by frequent resorptions and abortions. When infants were born they were small, and the transplacental movement of PCBs was evident from analyses of skin biopsies of neonates and of autopsy tissue from one stillborn. Moreover, additional accumulation of PCBs occurred in infants during breast feeding. All males fed 5.0 ppM PCB exhibited only slight periorbital oedema and erythema after 14 months on the diet and showed no alterations in their breeding capacities. The data presented indicate that long-term, low-level exposure of female non-human primates to PCBs can affect many important biological parameters.

  17. Gas-particle distributions, sources and health effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in Venice aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoris, Elena; Argiriadis, Elena; Vecchiato, Marco; Zambon, Stefano; De Pieri, Silvia; Donateo, Antonio; Contini, Daniele; Piazza, Rossano; Barbante, Carlo; Gambaro, Andrea

    2014-04-01

    Air samples were collected in Venice during summer 2009 and 2012 to measure gas and particulate concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs). PCB-11, considered a marker for non-Aroclor contamination of the environment, was found for the first time in the Venetian lagoon and in Europe. An investigation on sources has been conducted, evidencing traffic as the major source of PAHs, whereas PCBs have a similar composition to Aroclor 1248 and 1254; in 2009 a release of PCN-42 has been hypothesized. Toxicological evaluation by TCA and TEQ methods, conducted for the first time in Venice air samples, identified BaP, PCB-126 and PCB-169 as the most important contributors to the total carcinogenic activity of PAHs and the total dioxin-like activity of PCBs and PCNs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The determination of PCBs in Rocky Flats Type IV waste sludge by gas chromatography/electron capture detection. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parish, K.J.; Applegate, D.V.; Postlethwait, P.D.; Boparai, A.S.; Reedy, G.T.

    1994-12-01

    Before disposal, radioactive sludge (Type IV) from Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) must be evaluated for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) content. The Type IV sludge consists of organic solvents, degreasers, cutting oils, and transuranic (TRU) waste mixed with calcium silicate (MicroCel E reg-sign and Oil Dri reg-sign to form a grease or paste-like material. For laboratory testing, a nonradioactive simulated Type 17V RFP sludge was prepared at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E). This sludge has a composition similar to that expected from field samples. In an earlier effort, a simplified method was developed for extraction, cleanup of extract, and determination of PCBs in samples of simulated sludge spiked with Aroclors 1254 and 1260. The simplified method has now been used to determine the presence and quantities of other Aroclors in the simulated sludge, namely, Aroclors 10 1 6, 1221, 1232, 1242, and 1248. The accuracy and precision of the data for these Aroclors were found to be similar to the data for sludges spiked with Aroclors 1254 and 1260. Since actual sludges may vary in composition, the method was also verified by analyzing another source of Type IV simulated sludge, prepared by Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W)

  19. Determination of PCBs in fish using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasrado, J.A.; Santerre, C.R.; Zajicek, J.L.; Stahl, J.R.; Tillitt, D.E.; Deardorff, D.

    2003-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in fish tissue using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Standard curves for Aroclor 1248, 1254, and 1260 in catfish tissue were developed with ranges from 0.05 to 0.5 ppm and 0.5 to 5.0 ppm. Wild fish were initially analyzed using gas chromatography/electron-capture detection (GC/ECD) and those having residues within the standard curve ranges were analyzed with ELISA. Results obtained using ELISA and GC/ECD were not significantly different (p < 0.05) from 0.05 to 0.5 ppm. From 0.5 to 5.0 ppm, the standard curve for Aroclor 1254 was the best predictor of total PCB in wild fish samples.

  20. Influence of Aroclor 1242 Concentration on Polychlorinated Biphenyl Biotransformations in Hudson River Test Tube Microcosms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, K. M.

    1996-01-01

    When 93.3 to 933 (mu)mol of Aroclor 1242 per kg was added to Hudson River sediment test tube microcosms, the rates of polychlorinated biphenyl biotransformations increased with increasing Aroclor 1242 concentration after a 4- to 8-week acclimation period. In contrast, when 37.3 (mu)mol of Aroclor 1242 per kg was added, polychlorinated biphenyl biotransformations occurred at slow constant rates. PMID:16535387

  1. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brecher, R.; Smith, C.; Montemayor, B. [GlobalTox International Consultants Inc., Guelph, ON (Canada)

    2001-03-01

    A brief characterization of PCBs is provided, summarizing their toxicity, acute and chronic effects, genotoxicity, carcinogenicity and reproductive and developmental toxicity. A quick reference chart which includes a description of the class of compounds, synonyms, uses, environmental fate, sources, exposure and selected regulatory information, is also included.

  2. Phylogenetically distinct bacteria involve extensive dechlorination of aroclor 1260 in sediment-free cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanquan Wang

    Full Text Available Microbial reductive dechlorination of the persistent polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs is attracting much attention in cleanup of the contaminated environment. Nevertheless, most PCB dechlorinating cultures require presence of sediment or sediment substitutes to maintain their dechlorination activities which hinders subsequent bacterial enrichment and isolation processes. The information on enriching sediment-free PCB dechlorinating cultures is still limited. In this study, 18 microcosms established with soils and sediments were screened for their dechlorination activities on a PCB mixture - Aroclor 1260. After one year of incubation, 10 out of 18 microcosms showed significant PCB dechlorination with distinct dechlorination patterns (e.g., Process H, N and T classified based on profiles of PCB congeners loss and new congeners formation. Through serial transfers in defined medium, six sediment-free PCB dechlorinating cultures (i.e., CW-4, CG-1, CG-3, CG-4, CG-5 and SG-1 were obtained without amending any sediment or sediment-substitutes. PCB dechlorination Process H was the most frequently observed dechlorination pattern, which was found in four sediment-free cultures (CW-4, CG-3, CG-4 and SG-1. Sediment-free culture CG-5 showed the most extensive PCB dechlorination among the six cultures, which was mediated by Process N, resulting in the accumulation of penta- (e.g., 236-24-CB and tetra-chlorobiphenyls (tetra-CBs (e.g., 24-24-CB, 24-25-CB, 24-26-CB and 25-26-CB via dechlorinating 30.44% hepta-CBs and 59.12% hexa-CBs after three months of incubation. For culture CG-1, dechlorinators mainly attacked double flanked meta-chlorines and partially ortho-chlorines, which might represent a novel dechlorination pattern. Phylogenetic analysis showed distinct affiliation of PCB dechlorinators in the microcosms, including Dehalogenimonas and Dehalococcoides species. This study broadens our knowledge in microbial reductive dechlorination of PCBs, and provides

  3. Human dietary exposure and levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) and non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCBs) in free-range eggs close to a secondary aluminum smelter, Northern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squadrone, S.; Brizio, P.; Nespoli, R.; Stella, C.; Abete, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    PCDD/Fs and PCBs are environmentally persistent substances that have been associated with adverse effects on human health. Contamination of soils, animal feed and pastures leads to their bioaccumulation of in food products of animal origin, which are considered the major source of intake of these contaminants in humans. We analyzed eggs from free-range hens, sampled from small farms, located within a distance of 4.5 km from a secondary aluminum smelter in Northern Italy. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs, DL-PCBs and NDL-PCBs were higher in eggs from locations close to the plant, and strongly exceeded the limits set by EU Regulation 1259/2011 (2.5 pg WHO TEQ fat g"−"1 for PCDD/Fs, 5.0 pg WHO TEQ g"−"1 for PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs L, 40 ng g"−"1 for NDL-PCBs). Consuming contaminated eggs may pose a risk for human health, especially for children (≤9 years) and infants (≤3 years), due to the 2-fold excess of the current exposure limits. - Highlights: • We analyzed free-range eggs from farms close to a secondary aluminum smelter (ALS). • Concentrations of dioxins and PCBs strongly exceeded the limit set by EU Regulation. • Concentrations decrease at increasing distances from the plant. • Consuming contaminated eggs may pose a health risk for humans. - Concentrations of PCDD/Fs, DL-PCBs and NDL-PCBs are of concern in free-range eggs close to a secondary aluminum smelter.

  4. Accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and evaluation of hematological and immunological effects of PCB exposure on turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shuangying; Halbrook, Richard S; Sparling, Donald W

    2012-06-01

    Concentrations of total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), Aroclor 1260, and 26 congeners were measured in liver, fat, and eggs of red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans) collected from ponds near or on the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), Kentucky, USA. Concentrations of total PCBs (wet mass) ranged from 0.002 to 0.480 mg/kg, 0.028 to 0.839 mg/kg, and 0.001 to 0.011 mg/kg in liver, fat, and eggs, respectively. Concentrations of Arochlor 1260 did not exceed 0.430, 0.419, and 0.007 mg/kg in liver, fat, and eggs, respectively. Exposure to PCBs in red-eared sliders collected from the PGDP is characterized by low concentrations of moderately chlorinated mono-ortho and di-ortho congeners (PCB 153, 180, and 118). Although PCB concentrations measured in the current study were low, chronic exposure to PCBs may have altered hematology and immunity of the turtles examined. Total white blood cell count and number of heterophils were negatively correlated with concentrations of total PCBs and Arochlor 1260, respectively. However, disease and other contaminants in the study area may influence the results. Because little is known regarding the influence of PCBs on hematology and immune function in turtles, additional study is needed to better evaluate results observed in the current study.

  5. Aroclor 1248 exposure leads to immunomodulation, decreased disease resistance and endocrine disruption in the brown bullhead, Ameiurus nebulosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowicz, L.R.; Blazer, V.S.; McCormick, S.D.; Van Veld, P.A.; Ottinger, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    The brown bullhead Ameiurus nebulosus is a species of the family Ictaluridae commonly used as a sentinel of environmental contamination. While these fish have been utilized for this purpose in areas contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), few controlled, laboratory-based studies have been designed to document the effects of PCB mixtures in this species. Here, brown bullhead were exposed to the PCB mixture, Aroclor 1248, via intraperitoneal injection and the effects on immune function, plasma hormones and disease resistance were evaluated. Exposure to this mixture led to a decrease in bactericidal activity and circulating antibodies to Edwardsiella ictaluri present from a previous exposure to this pathogen. A subsequent E. ictaluri disease challenge led to significantly higher mortality in A1248 treated fish compared to vehicle-control fish. The mitogenic response to the T-cell mitogen, phytohemaglutinin-P, was increased compared to vehicle-control fish. The steroid hormone, cortisol, and the thyroid hormone, T3, were also significantly lower in A1248 exposed fish. In summary, we have validated a number of functional immune assays for application in brown bullhead immunotoxicity studies. Additionally, we have demonstrated that the PCB mixture (A1248) modulates both immune function and endocrine physiology in brown bullhead. Such data may compliment the interpretation of data yielded from applied field studies conducted in PCB contaminated aquatic ecosystems.

  6. Aroclor 1248 exposure leads to immunomodulation, decreased disease resistance and endocrine disruption in the brown bullhead, Ameiurus nebulosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowicz, Luke R; Blazer, Vicki S; McCormick, Stephen D; Vanveld, Peter A; Ottinger, Christopher A

    2009-06-04

    The brown bullhead Ameiurus nebulosus is a species of the family Ictaluridae commonly used as a sentinel of environmental contamination. While these fish have been utilized for this purpose in areas contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), few controlled, laboratory-based studies have been designed to document the effects of PCB mixtures in this species. Here, brown bullhead were exposed to the PCB mixture, Aroclor 1248, via intraperitoneal injection and the effects on immune function, plasma hormones and disease resistance were evaluated. Exposure to this mixture led to a decrease in bactericidal activity and circulating antibodies to Edwardsiella ictaluri present from a previous exposure to this pathogen. A subsequent E. ictaluri disease challenge led to significantly higher mortality in A1248 treated fish compared to vehicle-control fish. The mitogenic response to the T-cell mitogen, phytohemaglutinin-P, was increased compared to vehicle-control fish. The steroid hormone, cortisol, and the thyroid hormone, T3, were also significantly lower in A1248 exposed fish. In summary, we have validated a number of functional immune assays for application in brown bullhead immunotoxicity studies. Additionally, we have demonstrated that the PCB mixture (A1248) modulates both immune function and endocrine physiology in brown bullhead. Such data may compliment the interpretation of data yielded from applied field studies conducted in PCB contaminated aquatic ecosystems.

  7. Polychlorinated dioxins, furans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) and indicator PCBs (ind-PCBs) in egg and egg products in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olanca, Burcu; Cakirogullari, Gul Celik; Ucar, Yunus; Kirisik, Dursun; Kilic, Devrim

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) and indicator PCBs (ind-PCBs) in eggs from cage hens without soil contact, pasteurized egg samples and imported egg yolk powder samples in Turkey. Concentrations of PCDD/Fs, PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs, and ind-PCBs in eggs and pasteurized egg samples are in the range of 0.247-1.527 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)g(-1) fat, 0.282-1.762 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)g(-1) fat and 202-1,235 pg g(-1) fat, respectively. For egg yolk powder samples, concentrations of PCDD/Fs, PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs, and ind-PCBs are in the range of 0.122-0.494 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)g(-1) fat, 0.214-0.640 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)g(-1) fat and 217-1,498 pg g(-1) fat, respectively. All results for PCDD/Fs, PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs, and ind-PCBs are below the values of 2.5 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)g(-1) fat, 5.0 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)g(-1) fat and 40 ng g(-1) fat imposed in Turkish Regulation for eggs and egg products, respectively. In all samples 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD and PCB126 are the most prominent congeners. Mean estimated daily exposure to PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs for Turkish population from egg is 0.011 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)d(-1)kg body weight (bw)(-1). Although the exposure levels are below the TDI of 2 pg WHO-TEQ(1998)kg bw(-1), the results were based only on consumption of egg. In order to estimate total dietary intake for Turkish population, various food items should be investigated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Atmospheric concentration characteristics and gas-particle partitioning of PCBs in a rural area of eastern Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandalakis, Manolis; Stephanou, Euripides G.

    2007-01-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in 14 successive daytime and nighttime air samples collected from Melpitz, a rural site in eastern Germany. The average total concentration of PCBs was 110+/-80pgm -3 and they were predominately present in the gas phase (∼95%). Composition of individual congeners closely resembled those of Clophen A30 and Aroclor 1232. Partial vapor pressures of PCBs were well correlated with temperature and the steep slopes obtained from Clausius-Clapeyron plots (-4500 to -8000) indicated that evaporation from adjacent land surfaces still controls the atmospheric levels of these pollutants. Particle-gas partitioning coefficients (K P ) of PCBs were well correlated with the respective sub-cooled vapor pressures (P L o ), but the slopes obtained from logK P versus logP L o plots (-0.16 to -0.59) deviated significantly from the expected value of -1. Overall, gas-particle partitioning of PCBs was better simulated by Junge-Pankow than octanol/air partition coefficient-based model

  9. Effects of standard humic materials on relative bioavailability of NDL-PCBs in juvenile swine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Delannoy

    Full Text Available Young children with their hand-to-mouth activity may be exposed to contaminated soils. However few studies assessing exposure of organic compounds sequestrated in soil were realized. The present study explores the impact of different organic matters on retention of NDL-PCBs during digestive processes using commercial humic substances in a close digestive model of children: the piglet. Six artificial soils were used. One standard soil, devoid of organic matter, and five amended versions of this standard soil with either fulvic acid, humic acid, Sphagnum peat, activated carbon or a mix of Sphagnum peat and activated carbon (95∶5 (SPAC were prepared. In order to compare the different treatments, we use spiked oil and negative control animals. Forty male piglets were randomly distributed in 7 contaminated and one control groups (n = 5 for each group. During 10 days, the piglets were fed artificial soil or a corn oil spiked with 19,200 ng of Aroclor 1254 per g of dry matter (6,000 ng.g⁻¹ of NDL-PCBs to achieve an exposure dose of 1,200 ng NDL-PCBs.Kg⁻¹ of body weight per day. NDL-PCBs in adipose tissue were analyzed by GC-MS. Fulvic acid reduced slightly the bioavailability of NDL-PCBs compared to oil. Humic acid and Sphagnum peat reduced it significantly higher whereas activated carbon reduced the most. Piglets exposed to soil containing both activated carbon and Shagnum peat exhibited a lower reduction than soil with only activated carbon. Therefore, treatment groups are ordered by decreasing value of relative bioavailability as following: oil ≥ fulvic acid>Sphagnum peat ≥ Sphagnum peat and activated carbon ≥ Humic acid>>activated carbon. This suggests competition between Sphagnum peat and activated carbon. The present study highlights that quality of organic matter does have a significant effect on bioavailability of sequestrated organic compounds.

  10. Proteomic strategy for the analysis of the polychlorobiphenyl-degrading cyanobacterium Anabaena PD-1 exposed to Aroclor 1254.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hangjun Zhang

    Full Text Available The cyanobacterium Anabaena PD-1, which was originally isolated from polychlorobiphenyl (PCB-contaminated paddy soils, has capabilities for dechlorinatin and for degrading the commercial PCB mixture Aroclor 1254. In this study, 25 upregulated proteins were identified using 2D electrophoresis (2-DE coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS. These proteins were involved in (i PCB degradation (i.e., 3-chlorobenzoate-3,4-dioxygenase; (ii transport processes [e.g., ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporter substrate-binding protein, amino acid ABC transporter substrate-binding protein, peptide ABC transporter substrate-binding protein, putrescine-binding protein, periplasmic solute-binding protein, branched-chain amino acid uptake periplasmic solute-binding protein, periplasmic phosphate-binding protein, phosphonate ABC transporter substrate-binding protein, and xylose ABC transporter substrate-binding protein]; (iii energetic metabolism (e.g., methanol/ethanol family pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ-dependent dehydrogenase, malate-CoA ligase subunit beta, enolase, ATP synthase β subunit, FOF1 ATP synthase subunit beta, ATP synthase α subunit, and IMP cyclohydrolase; (iv electron transport (cytochrome b6f complex Fe-S protein; (v general stress response (e.g., molecular chaperone DnaK, elongation factor G, and translation elongation factor thermostable; (vi carbon metabolism (methanol dehydrogenase and malate-CoA ligase subunit beta; and (vii nitrogen reductase (nitrous oxide reductase. The results of real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that the genes encoding for dioxygenase, ABC transporters, transmembrane proteins, electron transporter, and energetic metabolism proteins were significantly upregulated during PCB degradation. These genes upregulated by 1.26- to 8.98-fold. These findings reveal the resistance and adaptation of cyanobacterium to the presence of PCBs, shedding light on the

  11. Occurrence, bioaccumulation and risk assessment of dioxin-like PCBs along the Chenab river, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah; Cincinelli, Alessandra; Mehmood, Adeel; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Zhang, Gan

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the occurrence, distribution and dietary risks of seven dl-PCBs (dioxin-like PCBs) in eleven collected fish species from Chenab river, Pakistan. ∑_7dl-PCBs (ng g"−"1, wet weight) burden was species-specific and the maximum average concentrations were found in Mastacembelus armatus (5.43), and Rita rita (5.1). Correlation of each dl-PCBs with δ"1"5N%, indicated a food chain accumulation process of these chemicals into Chenab river, Pakistan. Species-specific toxicity of each dl-PCBs (WHO–PCBs TEQ) was calculated and higher values were found in three carnivore fish species i.e., M. armatus (2.5 pg TEQ g"−"1), R. rita (2.47 pg TEQ g"−"1), Securicola gora (2.98 pg TEQ g"−"1) and herbivore fish species i.e., Cirrhinus mrigala (2.44 pg TEQ g"−"1). The EDI (Estimated Daily Intake) values in most cases exceeded the WHO benchmark (4 pg WHO–TEQ kg"−"1 bw d"−"1) evidencing a potential health risk for consumers via fish consumption from Chenab river. - Highlights: • Dioxin-like PCBs in eleven collected fish species from Chenab river. • ∑_7dl-PCBs (ng/g, ww) burdens were specie-specific. • dl-PCBs (WHO-pg TEQ g"−"1ww) ranged between 0.96 and 2.9 in fish samples. • PCB-126 contribution was predominant towards total WHO dl-PCB TEQs. • Potential human health risk of dl-PCBs via fish consumption from Chenab river. - ∑_7dl-PCBs (ng g"−"1, ww) burdens in collected fish species from Chenab river, Pakistan reflected the potential human health risk via fish consumption.

  12. Los PCBs salen de paseo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Castillo Rodríguez

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available La exposición humana a compuestos organoclorados bioacumulables es un problema de interés sanitario no sólo por el conocimiento de la presencia en tejidos del residuo de contaminantes históricos como DDT y otros pesticidas, sino por el riesgo de exposición actual a compuestos aún en uso como el lindano, el endosulfán y los bifenilos policlorados (PCBs, entre otros. Destaca el caso particular de los PCBs, sustancias cuya producción fue prohibida debido a su peligrosidad, persistencia y toxicidad ambiental. A pesar de esta prohibición siguen funcionando una gran cantidad de aparatos que contienen volúmenes considerables de PCBs. Estos aparatos llegarán en los próximos años, si no lo han hecho ya, a la fase de residuos, por lo que es necesario asegurar su correcta eliminación para evitar su liberación al medio ambiente. El Plan Nacional para la descontaminación y eliminación de policlorobifenilos (PCBs, policloroterfenilos (PCTs y aparatos que los contengan, puesto en marcha en España en el año 2001, debe llevarse a cabo teniendo en cuenta los posibles efectos que los PCBs pueden provocar en el medio ambiente y en la salud humana y con el conocimiento de los responsables en salud pública.

  13. Investigation of PCBs biodegradation by soil bacteria using tritium-labeled PCBs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, A.A.; Djuraeva, G.T.; Takhtobin, K.S.; Kadirova, M.; Yadgarov, H.T.; Zinovev, P.V.; Abdukarimov, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    The method of tritium labeling of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been developed. It allows producing of uniformly labeled tritium PCBs. High specific activity permits the tracing all of the tritium labeled PCBs biodegradation products. Radiochemical approach of the investigation of PCBs microbial degradation has been developed and PCB-destructive activity of soil bacteria strains has been studied. It was found that 4 investigated bacteria strains of Bacillus sp. has the ability accumulate and destroy PCBs. Use of developed radiochemical methods in complex with other analytical methods in investigation of PCBs biodegradation provide useful additional information. The radiochemical methods developed can be successfully used for wide screening of microorganisms, destructors of PCBs. (author)

  14. Aqueous exposure to Aroclor 1254 modulates the mitogenic response of Atlantic salmon anterior kidney T-cells: Indications of short- and long-term immunomodulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Lerner, Darren T.; Blazer, Vicki S.; McCormick, Stephen D.

    2005-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) exist as persistent organic pollutants in numerous river systems in the United States. Unfortunately, some of these rivers are sites of active Atlantic salmon restoration programs, and polychlorinated biphenyls have been implicated as ancillary factors contributing to failed salmon restoration. Here, we investigate the immediate and chronic effects of intermediate duration aqueous PCB exposure (1 or 10 μg L -1 Aroclor 1254) on the mitogen-stimulated lymphoproliferative response of Atlantic salmon anterior kidney leukocytes (AKLs). A short-term study was designed to examine immunomodulation in Atlantic salmon smolts immediately following 21 days of aqueous exposure, while a long-term study evaluated chronic impacts in the mitogen response in parr 15 months post-exposure as larvae. The proliferative response of AKLs to the mitogens concanavalin A (CON A), phytohemaglutinnin-P (PHA-P), pokeweed mitogen (PWM), and lipopolysaccharide were used as an indice of immunomodulation. The proliferative response to the T-cell mitogens CON A and PHA-P was significantly increased in the 10 μg L -1 group (n = 10; P = 0.043 and 0.002, respectively) immediately following exposure of smolts. Additionally, The PHA-P response was significantly increased in the 1 μg L -1 exposure group (n = 10, P = 0.036). In fish treated as larvae and tested 15 months later, the PHA-P sensitive populations exhibited elevated proliferation in the 1 and 10 μg L -1 groups (n = 12, P -1 treated groups. These results demonstrate an immunomodulatory effect of PCBs on T-cell mitogen sensitive populations of lymphocytes in Atlantic salmon as well as long-term immunomodulation in PHA-P and PWM sensitive populations

  15. Aqueous exposure to Aroclor 1254 modulates the mitogenic response of Atlantic salmon anterior kidney T-cells: indications of short- and long-term immunomodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowicz, Luke R; Lerner, Darren T; Blazer, Vicki S; McCormick, Stephen D

    2005-05-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) exist as persistent organic pollutants in numerous river systems in the United States. Unfortunately, some of these rivers are sites of active Atlantic salmon restoration programs, and polychlorinated biphenyls have been implicated as ancillary factors contributing to failed salmon restoration. Here, we investigate the immediate and chronic effects of intermediate duration aqueous PCB exposure (1 or 10 microgL-1 Aroclor 1254) on the mitogen-stimulated lymphoproliferative response of Atlantic salmon anterior kidney leukocytes (AKLs). A short-term study was designed to examine immunomodulation in Atlantic salmon smolts immediately following 21 days of aqueous exposure, while a long-term study evaluated chronic impacts in the mitogen response in parr 15 months post-exposure as larvae. The proliferative response of AKLs to the mitogens concanavalin A (CON A), phytohemaglutinnin-P (PHA-P), pokeweed mitogen (PWM), and lipopolysaccharide were used as an indice of immunomodulation. The proliferative response to the T-cell mitogens CON A and PHA-P was significantly increased in the 10 microgL-1 group (n=10; P=0.043 and 0.002, respectively) immediately following exposure of smolts. Additionally, The PHA-P response was significantly increased in the 1 microgL-1 exposure group (n=10, P=0.036). In fish treated as larvae and tested 15 months later, the PHA-P sensitive populations exhibited elevated proliferation in the 1 and 10 microgL-1 groups (n=12, P<0.04) relative to the vehicle control while the PWM response was significantly increased (n=12, P=0.036) only in the 10 microgL-1 treated groups. These results demonstrate an immunomodulatory effect of PCBs on T-cell mitogen sensitive populations of lymphocytes in Atlantic salmon as well as long-term immunomodulation in PHA-P and PWM sensitive populations.

  16. Effects of Aroclor 1254 on dopamine and norepinephrine concentrations in pheochromocytoma (PC-12) cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seegal, R.F.; Brosch, K.; Bush, B.; Ritz, M.; Shain, W.

    1990-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma (PC-12) cells synthesize, store, release and metabolize dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) in a manner analogous to that observed in the mammalian central nervous system. These cells were used to develop and validate an alternate method to animal testing to assess the effects of a complex environmental mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (Aroclor 1254) on cellular catecholamine function. Aroclor 1254, at concentrations of 1 to 100 ppm, significantly decreased cellular catecholamine concentrations after 6 hrs. Exposure at 100 ppm for periods of less than an hr increased cellular catecholamine concentrations while longer exposure times (i.e., 1 to 24 hr) decreased cellular catecholamine concentrations. This in vitro depletion of catecholamines is similar to that seen in vivo. Thus, PC-12 cells may be useful for neurochemical evaluation of neurotoxicants with particular reference to effects on catecholaminergic systems

  17. Decomposition of PCBs in Oils Using Gamma Radiolysis A Treatability Study - Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mincher, B. J.; Arbon, R. E.

    1996-01-01

    Several legacy hydraulic oil waste streams contaminated with Aroclor 1260 and small amounts of Cesium-137 have been in storage at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) due to the lack of appropriate treatment facilities. The goal of this study was to demonstrate that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) could be selectively decomposed in the oils. Removal of the PCB component to less than the 2 mg/L treatment standard should result in a waste oil that is not regulated by the Toxic Substances Control Act. Irradiation of the oils with high gamma-ray doses produces free electrons in the solution that react with PCBs. The reaction results in dechlorination of the PCBs to produce biphenyl. The gamma-ray source was spent reactor fuel stored in the Advanced Test Reactor canal at the INEL. A dry tube extends into the canal which allowed for positioning of samples in the proximity of the fuel. The gamma-ray dose rates at the samples varied from 10 to 30 kGy/h. This was measured using commercially available FWT-60 dosimeters. Irradiation of samples in a series of progressively increasing absorbed doses allowed the generation of rate constants used to predict absorbed doses necessary to meet the 2 mg/kg treatment standard. Three separate irradiation experiments were performed. The first irradiation used a maximum absorbed dose of 183 kGy. This experiment demonstrated that the PCB concentration decreased and allowed calculation of preliminary rate constants. The second irradiation used a maximum absorbed dose of 760 kGy. From this experiment, accurate rate constants were calculated, and the necessary absorbed dose to achieve the treatment standard was calculated. In the third irradiation of 2,242 kGy, all three waste streams were adequately decontaminated

  18. Decomposition of PCBs in Oils Using Gamma Radiolysis A Treatability Study - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. J. Mincher; R. E. Arbon

    1996-08-01

    Several legacy hydraulic oil waste streams contaminated with Aroclor 1260 and small amounts of Cesium-137 have been in storage at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) due to the lack of appropriate treatment facilities. The goal of this study was to demonstrate that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) could be selectively decomposed in the oils. Removal of the PCB component to less than the 2 mg/L treatment standard should result in a waste oil that is not regulated by the Toxic Substances Control Act. Irradiation of the oils with high gamma-ray doses produces free electrons in the solution that react with PCBs. The reaction results in dechlorination of the PCBs to produce biphenyl. The gamma-ray source was spent reactor fuel stored in the Advanced Test Reactor canal at the INEL. A dry tube extends into the canal which allowed for positioning of samples in the proximity of the fuel. The gamma-ray dose rates at the samples varied from 10 to 30 kGy/h. This was measured using commercially available FWT-60 dosimeters. Irradiation of samples in a series of progressively increasing absorbed doses allowed the generation of rate constants used to predict absorbed doses necessary to meet the 2 mg/kg treatment standard. Three separate irradiation experiments were performed. The first irradiation used a maximum absorbed dose of 183 kGy. This experiment demonstrated that the PCB concentration decreased and allowed calculation of preliminary rate constants. The second irradiation used a maximum absorbed dose of 760 kGy. From this experiment, accurate rate constants were calculated, and the necessary absorbed dose to achieve the treatment standard was calculated. In the third irradiation of 2,242 kGy, all three waste streams were adequately decontaminated.

  19. CHANGES IN PROTEOMIC PROFILES OF CEREBELLUM FOLLOWING DEVELOPMENTAL EXPOSURE TO AROCLOR 1254 OR DE-71.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic low level exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been shown to adversely affect human health, including learning and memory. Polybromiated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are structurally similar to PCBs and have been shown to have neurotoxic effects in vitro and in viv...

  20. Time trend investigation of PCBs, PBDEs, and organochlorine pesticides in selected n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid rich dietary fish oil and vegetable oil supplements; nutritional relevance for human essential n-3 fatty acid requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Miriam N; Covaci, Adrian; Gheorghe, Adriana; Schepens, Paul

    2004-03-24

    In addition to being used in the food and animal feed industry, fish oils have also been used traditionally as dietary supplements. Due to the presence of long-chain n-3 fatty acids, fish oils have therapeutic benefits in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular, immunological, and arthritic diseases, as well as childhood deficiency diseases such as rickets, because of a high content of vitamin D. However, fish oils are also susceptible to contamination with lipophilic organic chemicals that are now ubiquitous contaminants of marine ecosystems. Many vegetable oils are sources of the shorter chain precursor forms of n-3 fatty acids, and in recent years the specialist dietary supplement market has expanded to include these oils in a variety of different formulations. This paper reports analytical results of selected contaminants, including polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers, for a range of commercially available n-3 fatty acid rich fish and vegetable oil dietary supplements. Using principal component analysis, the values are compared with historic samples to elucidate time trends in contamination profiles. Levels of contaminants are discussed in relation to the nutritional benefits to the consumer of long- and short-chain forms of n-3 fatty acids.

  1. Development of a Multianalyte Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Permethrin and Aroclors and Its Implementation for Analysis of Soil/Sediment and House Dust ExtractsExtracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development of a multianalyte enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of permethrin and aroclors 1248 or 1254, and implementation of the assay for analysis of soil/sediment samples are described. The feasibility of using the multianalyte ELISA to monitor aroclors ...

  2. Use of tritium-labeled PCBs for investigation of PCBs biodegradation by soil bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, A.A.; Djuraeva, G.T.; Takhtobiri, K.S.; Yadgarov, H.T.; Zinovev, P. V.; Abdukarimov, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    The method for tritium labelling of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was developed. The strains of soil bacteria - destructors of chloro organic compounds was studied with the help of test-system based on the using of tritium-labeled PCBs. The strains of bacteria were grown on the agar synthetic medium and then were introduced into the synthetic medium containing tritium-labeled mixture of PCBs (commercial mark - SOVOL) as alone source of carbon. The samples were analysed after one and two months period of incubation. PCBs were extracted by hexane from fraction of bacteria and fraction of cultural medium and radioactivity was measured. The samples were analyzed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) with following radioautography. Additionally samples were analyzed by gas chromatography. It was found that all selected strains survived in the medium with PCBs as alone source of carbon and bacteria accumulated PCBs from cultural medium. Accumulation of PCBs by strains of bacteria was different. The TLC analysis detected additional compounds labeled by tritium, that prove the degradation of PCBs in presence of bacteria. The gas chromatography analysis of cultural medium and bacteria detected redistribution in the system and qualitative changes of PCBs in bacteria. The strains of bacteria also were grown in model condition on the soil with tritium labeled PCBs. We found that some strains effectively destroy PCBs with decreasing level of tritium label in the soil. The using of tritium labeled PCBs' allows to introduce precise quantitative characteristics for study of accumulation and biodegradation PCBs by soil bacteria strains. Developed test-system is very useful tool for selection of new strains of soil bacteria - destructors of PCBs

  3. Gene expression profiles in the cerebellum and hippocampus following exposure to a neurotoxicant, Aroclor 1254: Developmental effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The developmental consequences of exposure to the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been widely studied, making PCBs a unique model to understand issues related to environmental mixture of persistent chemicals. PCB exposure in humans adversely affects neurocognitive developm...

  4. Prenatal PCBs disrupt early neuroendocrine development of the rat hypothalamus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickerson, Sarah M.; Cunningham, Stephanie L.; Gore, Andrea C.

    2011-01-01

    Neonatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) can interfere with hormone-sensitive developmental processes, including brain sexual differentiation. We hypothesized that disruption of these processes by gestational PCB exposure would be detectable as early as the day after birth (postnatal day (P) 1) through alterations in hypothalamic gene and protein expression. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were injected twice, once each on gestational days 16 and 18, with one of the following: DMSO vehicle; the industrial PCB mixture Aroclor 1221 (A1221); a reconstituted mixture of the three most prevalent congeners found in humans, PCB138, PCB153, and PCB180; or estradiol benzoate (EB). On P1, litter composition, anogenital distance (AGD), and body weight were assessed. Pups were euthanized for immunohistochemistry of estrogen receptor α (ERα) or TUNEL labeling of apoptotic cells or quantitative PCR of 48 selected genes in the preoptic area (POA). We found that treatment with EB or A1221 had a sex-specific effect on developmental apoptosis in the neonatal anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV), a sexually dimorphic hypothalamic region involved in the regulation of reproductive neuroendocrine function. In this region, exposed females had increased numbers of apoptotic nuclei, whereas there was no effect of treatment in males. For ERα, EB treatment increased immunoreactive cell numbers and density in the medial preoptic nucleus (MPN) of both males and females, while A1221 and the PCB mixture had no effect. PCR analysis of gene expression in the POA identified nine genes that were significantly altered by prenatal EDC exposure, in a manner that varied by sex and treatment. These genes included brain-derived neurotrophic factor, GABA B receptors-1 and -2, IGF-1, kisspeptin receptor, NMDA receptor subunits NR2b and NR2c, prodynorphin, and TGFα. Collectively, these results suggest that the disrupted sexual differentiation

  5. Effects of activated carbon on reductive dechlorination of PCBs by organohalide respiring bacteria indigenous to sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellerup, B V; Naff, C; Edwards, S J; Ghosh, U; Baker, J E; Sowers, K R

    2014-04-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have accumulated in aquatic sediments due to their inherent chemical stability and their presence poses a risk due to their potential toxicity in humans and animals. Granular activated carbon (GAC) has been applied to PCB contaminated sediment sites to reduce the aqueous concentration by sequestration thus reducing the PCB exposure and toxicity to both benthic and aquatic organisms. However, it is not known how the reduction of PCB bioavailability by adsorption to GAC affects bacterial transformation of PCBs by indigenous organohalide respiring bacteria. In this study, the impact of GAC on anaerobic dechlorination by putative organohalide respiring bacteria indigenous to sediment from Baltimore Harbor was examined. It was shown that the average Cl/biphenyl after dehalogenation of Aroclor 1260 was similar between treatments with and without GAC amendment. However, GAC caused a substantial shift in the congener distribution whereby a smaller fraction of highly chlorinated congeners was more extensively dechlorinated to mono- through tri-chlorinated congeners compared to the formation of tri- through penta-chlorinated congeners in unamended sediment. The results combined with comparative sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences suggest that GAC caused a community shift to putative organohalide respiring phylotypes that coincided with more extensive dechlorination of ortho and unflanked chlorines. This shift in activity by GAC shown here for the first time has the potential to promote greater degradation in situ by promoting accumulation of less chlorinated congeners that are generally more susceptible to complete mineralization by aerobic PCB degrading bacteria. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Concentration and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in surface soil near a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, A; Dettlaff, A; Kuklińska, K; Namieśnik, J; Wolska, L

    2015-10-15

    Due to a continuous demand of land for infrastructural and residential development there is a public concern about the condition of surface soil near municipal solid waste landfills. A total of 12 surface (0-20 cm) soil samples from a territory near a landfill were collected and the concentration of 16 PAHs and 7 PCB congeners were investigated in these samples. Limits of detection were in the range of 0.038-1.2 μg/kg for PAHs and 0.025-0.041 μg/kg for PCBs. The total concentration of ∑ PAHs ranged from 892 to 3514 μg/kg with a mean of 1974 μg/kg. The total concentration of ∑ PCBs ranged from 2.5 to 12 μg/kg with a mean of 4.5 μg/kg. Data analyses allowed to state that the PAHs in surface soils near a landfill were principally from pyrogenic sources. Due to air transport, PAHs forming at the landfill are transported outside the landfill. PCB origin is not connected with the landfill. Aroclor 1242 can be the source of PCBs in several samples. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Assessment of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    Attribution License (CCL), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original ... expectancy of electrical transformers that contain PCBs ... Convention for Protection of the Marine Environment of.

  8. Potential new bioremediation technique of PCBs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowlds, L.S.

    1992-01-01

    University of Michigan environmental engineers may have found a way to destroy toxic PCBs in contaminated riverbed sediments using sequential treatments with anaerobic and aerobic bacteria. According to the researchers, the process is the first to breakdown successfully PCBs in contaminated sediments. First anaerobic organisms remove chlorine atoms from PCBs, making them less toxic. Then aerobic bacteria chemically convert PCBs to carbon dioxide and water. The trick is putting oxygen into the system to create the switch from anaerobic to aerobic degradation. To date concentrations have been reduced from 300 mg/L to about 50 mg/L and work continues to attempt to perfect the process. EPA has been requested to test the sequential anaerobic-aerobic process on PBC-contaminated Superfund sites near Sheboygan, WI

  9. New evidences of neurotoxicity of aroclor 1254 in mice brain: potential of coenzyme q10 in abating the detrimental outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha Majumdar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The present subacute study was designed to evaluate the effect of coenzyme Q 10 (CoQ10 in the 28 days aroclor 1254 exposure induced oxidative stress in mice brain. Methods Biochemical estimations of brain lipid peroxidation (LPO, reduced glutathione (GSH, and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and acetyl cholinesterase (AChE, and histopathological investigations of brain tissue were carried out. Results Oral exposure of aroclor 1254 (5 mg/kg led to significant decrease in levels of GSH, and activities of SOD, CAT, GPx, and AChE, and increase in LPO. These aberrations were restored by CoQ10 (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection [IP]. This protection offered was comparable to that of L-deprenyl (1 mg/kg, IP which served as a reference standard. Conclusions Aroclor 1254 exposure hampers the activities of various antioxidant enzymes and induces oxidative stress in the brains of Swiss albino mice. Supplementation of CoQ10 abrogates these deleterious effects of aroclor 1254. CoQ10 also apparently enhanced acetyl cholinesterase activity which reflects its influence on the cholinergic system.

  10. Biochemical effects of an environmental chlorofen mixture in comparison with aroclor 1254 in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kania-Korwel, I.; Ludewig, G.; Robertson, L.W.; Lehmler, H.J. [Dept. of Occupational and Environmental Health, Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City (United States); Hornbuckle, K.C.; Peck, A. [Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City (United States); Espandiari, P.; C. Gary Gairola [Graduate Center for Toxicology, Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington (United States); Sulkowski, W.W. [Dept. of Environmental Chemistry and Technology, Univ. of Silesia, Katowice (Poland)

    2004-09-15

    To our knowledge no in vivo mammalian toxicity studies with Chlorofen or environmental mixtures from Chlorofen contaminated sites have been performed. The present study investigates the biological effects in male rats of a soil-extract from a highly contaminated soil from the Chlorofen manufacturing site. The congener profile of this soil extract is very similar to Chlorofen although some lower chlorinated congeners are present, probably because of biodegradation or atmospheric deposition. The biological effect was compared with Aroclor 1254. The total PCB levels as well as the PCB congener profile in the liver were also determined to allow a better understanding of the effects of the two different mixtures on relevant liver enzymes.

  11. Bacterial degradation of Aroclor 1242 in the mycorrhizosphere soils of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hua; Brookes, Philip C; Xu, Jianming; Feng, Youzhi

    2014-11-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.), inoculated with the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) species Acaulospora laevis, Glomus caledonium, and Glomus mosseae, on the soil bacterial community responsible for Aroclor 1242 dissipation. The dissipation rates of Aroclor 1242 and soil bacteria abundance were much higher with the A. laevis and G. mosseae treatments compared to the non-mycorrhizal control. The biphenyl dioxygenase (bphA) and Rhodococcus-like 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl dioxygenase (bphC) genes were more abundant in AM inoculated soils, suggesting that the bphA and Rhodococcus-like bphC pathways play an important role in Aroclor 1242 dissipation in the mycorrhizosphere. The soil bacterial communities were dominated by classes Betaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria, while the relative proportion of Actinobacteria was significantly (F=2.288, P<0.05) correlated with the PCB congener profile in bulk soil. Our results showed that AM fungi could enhance PCB dissipation by stimulating bph gene abundance and the growth of specific bacterial groups.

  12. Effects of DDE and PCB (Aroclor 1260) on experimentally poisoned little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus): Lethal brain concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.R.; Stafford, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    Adult female little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) were collected in a church attic in North East, Cecil County, Md. Mealworms (Tenebrio molitor) containing organochlorine pollutants were fed to the bats as follows: 5 bats were dosed at 480 ppm DDE, 12 at 150 ppm DDE, 5 at 1000 ppm polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB; Aroclor 1260), and 12 at 15 ppm PCB. Seven other bats were fed untreated mealworms. The objective was to elevate brain levels of DDE and PCB to lethality and measure these concentrations. During 40 d of dosage, one DDE-dosed bat and two PCB-dosed bats died after exhibiting the prolonged tremor that characterizes organochlorine poisoning. After dosage, surviving bats were starved to elevate brain levels of toxicants, and three additional DDE-dosed bats had tremors before dying. The mean brain concentration of DDE diagnostic of death was estimated as 603 ppm, range 540-670 ppm. This mean is 16-18% higher than means for Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) and common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), and may indicate less sensitivity. Lethal brain concentrations of Aroclor 1260 were 1300 and 1500 ppm. Such values appear to be higher than values (Aroclor 1254) for brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater). During starvation, DDE-dosed bats lost weight about 24% faster than controls. If smaller amounts of stored DDE cause increases in metabolic rates of nonfeeding bats, as during hibernation or migration, the result could be premature energy depletion and increased mortality.

  13. PCBs levels and indicator congeners in children's and adolescents' hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Baocui; Liu, Xinhui; Hou, Jing; Liang, Gang; Gong, Wenwen; Xu, Diandou; Zhang, Li

    2014-01-01

    Thirty polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were determined in the hair samples collected from children (4–12) and adolescents (13–18) of Changchun city, Northeastern China. The mean concentrations of total PCBs and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs) in the adolescents' hair samples were 161.0 ng g −1 and 61.7 ng g −1 , which were relatively higher than 43.7 ng g −1 and 14.6 ng g −1 in the children's ones. Considering gender difference, the mean concentrations in the girls' hair samples were approximately two times higher than those in the boys' ones for most PCB congeners. The pentachlorinated biphenyl was the dominant homologue. It was found that the levels of total PCBs and dl-PCBs were highly correlated with PCB 118 level in the children's hair samples, and with PCB 114 level in the adolescents' ones. The result demonstrated that the two PCB congeners could be applied as the indicators to evaluate the concentrations of total PCBs and dl-PCBs in children's and adolescents' hair, respectively. -- Highlights: • PCBs levels for most congeners were higher in the adolescents' hair samples. • The mean PCBs were approximately 2 times higher for girls except few congeners. • Pentachlorinated biphenyl was the dominant homologue in the both hair samples. • PCB 118 and PCB 114 were the indicators for total PCBs and total dl-PCBs. -- The PCBs levels can be predicted conveniently by the congener-specific analysis

  14. Effects of Aroclor 1242 and different fish-based diets on vitamins A(retinol) and A2 (3,4-didehydroretinol), and their fatty acyl esters in mink plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaekelae, Anne; Kaekelae, Reijo; Hyvaerinen Heikki; Nieminen, Petteri

    2003-01-01

    The effects of a 21-week exposure to Aroclor 1242 (1 mg per day in feed on plasma concentrations of vitamins A 1 (retinol) and A(3,4-didehydroretinol) and their principal fatty acyl esters (A 1 -16:0 A 2 -16:0 (palmitates), A 1 -18:1n-9; A 2 -18:1n-9 (oleates), and A 1 -18:0 A 2 -18:0 (stearates)) were studied in young female mink (Mustela vison) fed a diet based on freshwater smelt. These vitamin levels were also examined in mink fed diets containing Baltic herring or fatty marine fish. In the Aroclor-exposed smelt-fed mink, the plasma concentrations of A 1 and Aesters were significantly lower than the levels in controls fed the uncontaminated smelt diet. In addition, the A 2 esters reacted mor sensitively to the polychlorinated biphenyls than did A 1 esters. I contrast, in the plasma of the exposed mink the level of alcoholic A 1 was normal, and transport of thyroxine (T 4 ) and nonspecific lipoprotei transport of major lipids were not impaired. Despite the large dietary supply of vitamin A 2 and high levels of plasma A 2 esters, the mink fed freshwate smelt had only trace amounts of alcoholic vitamin A 2 in their plasma. The concentrations of A 1 and A 2 esters in the plasma of all the mink studied correlated with the hepatic total concentrations of the vitamins. Thus, in carnivores that have nonspecific lipoprotein transport of vitamin A esters determination of plasma levels of the esterified vitamins may be a useful nondestructive way to estimate stores of the vitamin A analogs in the body and to assess the organochlorine-induced decrease in the vitamin stores

  15. Maternal dietary intake of dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls and birth size in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Eleni; Caspersen, Ida H; Kvalem, Helen E; Knutsen, Helle K; Duarte-Salles, Talita; Alexander, Jan; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Kogevinas, Manolis; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Haugen, Margaretha

    2013-10-01

    Maternal diet not only provides essential nutrients to the developing fetus but is also a source of prenatal exposure to environmental contaminants. We investigated the association between dietary intake of dioxins and PCBs during pregnancy and birth size. The study included 50,651 women from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Dietary information was collected by FFQs and intake estimates were calculated by combining food consumption and food concentration of dioxins, dioxin-like PCBs and non-dioxin-like PCBs. We used multivariable regression models to estimate the association between dietary intake of dioxins and PCBs and fetal growth. The contribution of fish and seafood intake during pregnancy was 41% for dietary dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs and 49% for dietary non-dioxin-like PCBs. Further stratified analysis by quartiles of seafood intake during pregnancy was conducted. We found an inverse dose-response association between dietary intake of dioxins and PCBs and fetal growth after adjustment for confounders. Newborns of mothers in the upper quartile of dioxin and dioxin-like PCBs intake had 62g lower birth weight (95% CI: -73, -50), 0.26cm shorter birth length (95% CI: -0.31, -0.20) and 0.10cm shorter head circumference (95% CI: -0.14, -0.06) than newborns of mothers in the lowest quartile of intake. Similar negative associations for intake of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs were found after excluding women with intakes above the tolerable weekly intake (TWI=14pg TEQ/kg bw/week). The negative association of dietary dioxins and PCBs with fetal growth was weaker as seafood intake was increasing. No association was found between dietary dioxin and PCB intake and the risk for small-for-gestational age neonate. In conclusion, dietary intakes of dioxins and PCBs during pregnancy were negatively associated with fetal growth, even at intakes below the TWI. © 2013.

  16. Source characterisation and distribution of selected PCBs, PAHs and alkyl PAHs in sediments from the Klip and Jukskei Rivers, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimayi, Cornelius; Chimuka, Luke; Odusanya, David; de Boer, Jacob; Weiss, Jana M

    2017-07-01

    A study of the distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) utilising 16 priority PAHs, benzo(e)pyrene, perylene, 19 alkylated PAHs and 31 ortho substituted PCBs in South Africa is presented. It was aimed to (a) deduce characteristic contamination patterns for both PCBs and PAHs and (b) provide the first comprehensive dataset for establishment of source characterisation of PCBs and PAHs. This is in line with new South African legislation on mandatory monitoring of PCB and PAH emissions. Bar charts, principal component analysis (PCA) and biplots were utilised to identify signature contamination patterns and distribution of PCBs and PAHs within the Jukskei and Klip Rivers. Sediments from the Jukskei and Klip River catchments both showed distinct contamination signatures for hexa to nonachlorinated PCBs, characteristic of contamination by Aroclor 1254 and 1260 technical mixtures. PCB signature patterns in order of abundance were 138 > 180 > 206 > 153 > 187 > 149 and 138 > 153 > 180 > 149 > 187 > 110 > 170 for the Jukskei and Klip River sediments, respectively. The upstream Alberton point had the highest Σ31 PCB and Σ (parent+alkyl) PAH concentrations in the Klip River of 61 and 6000 μg kg -1 dry weight (dw), respectively. In the Jukskei River, the upstream Marlboro point had the highest Σ31 PCB concentration of 19 μg kg -1 dw and the N14 site recorded the highest Σ (parent+alkyl) PAH concentration of 2750 μg kg -1 dw. PAH concentrations in both the Jukskei and Klip Rivers were significantly higher than the PCB concentrations. Fluoranthene, phenanthrene and pyrene were found in the highest concentrations in both the Jukskei and Klip River sediments. Both the Jukskei and Klip River sediments showed trends of a mixed pyrogenic-petrogenic PAH source contamination.

  17. Role of inhalation in exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monarca, S.; Dominici, L.; Fatigoni, C.

    2007-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of aromatic compounds consisting of a biphenyl variously chlorinated. Industrial production of PCBs started in 1929 and stopped in the second half of the '70s in USA and in the late 80's and 90's in Europe. PCBs are ubiquitous pollutants. The way of human exposure to PCBs is a matter of discussion. Scientific data show that the greater exposure occurs through diet. However, other available data suggest a not marginal role of the inhalation exposure. The sources of PCBs to which population are exposed depend on the amount of redistribution of these compounds released in the environment. The aim of this work is to highlight numerous studies proving that the intake of PCBs by inhalation cannot be neglected, in particular in heavily industrialized areas and where the concentration of PCBs in the environmental matrices is particularly high

  18. Bioremediation of PCBs. CRADA final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klasson, K.T.; Abramowicz, D.A.

    1996-06-01

    The Cooperative Research and Development Agreement was signed between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and General Electric Company (GE) on August 12, 1991. The objective was a collaborative venture between researchers at GE and ORNL to develop bioremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The work was conducted over three years, and this report summarizes ORNL's effort. It was found that the total concentration of PCBs decreased by 70% for sequential anaerobic-aerobic treatment compared with a 67% decrease for aerobic treatment alone. The sequential treatment resulted in PCB products with fewer chlorines and shorter halflives in humans compared with either anaerobic or aerobic treatment alone. The study was expected to lead to a technology applicable to a field experiment that would be performed on a DOE contaminated site

  19. Bioremediation of PCBs. CRADA final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasson, K.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical Technology Div., TN (United States); Abramowicz, D.A. [General Electric Co. Corporate Research and Development, Niskayuna, NY (United States)

    1996-06-01

    The Cooperative Research and Development Agreement was signed between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and General Electric Company (GE) on August 12, 1991. The objective was a collaborative venture between researchers at GE and ORNL to develop bioremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The work was conducted over three years, and this report summarizes ORNL`s effort. It was found that the total concentration of PCBs decreased by 70% for sequential anaerobic-aerobic treatment compared with a 67% decrease for aerobic treatment alone. The sequential treatment resulted in PCB products with fewer chlorines and shorter halflives in humans compared with either anaerobic or aerobic treatment alone. The study was expected to lead to a technology applicable to a field experiment that would be performed on a DOE contaminated site.

  20. Deeper insights into PCBs in orcas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietz, Rune; Eulaers, Igor; Desforges, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Having read the recent article by Jepson and Law (DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf9075) we want to emphasise the worrying nature of the fact that at present many marine apex predators, including killer whales, remain highly polluted with PCBs despite world-wide initiatives over past decades to restrict...... PCB-containing equipment by 2025 and perform environmentally sound waste management by 2028. This means nonetheless that PCBs will continue to leach into the environment over the next decade. Given present-day observed reproductive failure in several killer whale populations we must urgently reduce...... are excellent marine sentinel species, indicating that not one nation can address the persistent threat that is environmental PCB pollution. We believe the choice for international PCB mitigation is timely in order to not lose this canary in the coalmine....

  1. Nanoscale zerovalent iron alters soil bacterial community structure and inhibits chloroaromatic biodegradation potential in Aroclor 1242-contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilston, Emma L.; Collins, Chris D.; Mitchell, Geoffrey R.; Princivalle, Jessica; Shaw, Liz J.

    2013-01-01

    Nanoscale zerovalent iron (nZVI) has potential for the remediation of organochlorine-contaminated environments. Environmental safety concerns associated with in situ deployment of nZVI include potential negative impacts on indigenous microbes whose biodegradative functions could contribute to contaminant remediation. With respect to a two-step polychlorinated biphenyl remediation scenario comprising nZVI dechlorination followed by aerobic biodegradation, we examined the effect of polyacrylic acid (PAA)-coated nZVI (mean diameter = 12.5 nm) applied at 10 g nZVI kg −1 to Aroclor-1242 contaminated and uncontaminated soil over 28 days. nZVI had a limited effect on Aroclor congener profiles, but, either directly or indirectly via changes to soil physico-chemical conditions (pH, Eh), nZVI addition caused perturbation to soil bacterial community composition, and reduced the activity of chloroaromatic mineralizing microorganisms. We conclude that nZVI addition has the potential to inhibit microbial functions that could be important for PCB remediation strategies combining nZVI treatment and biodegradation. Highlights: ► Impact of nano-sized zerovalent iron on microbes was investigated in soil microcosms. ► Zerovalent iron had short-lived effects on redox potential and Aroclor dechlorination. ► Microbial populations also showed short-lived perturbations in their size. ► The activity of chloroaromatic degrading microbes did not recover within 28 days. ► Zerovalent iron application inhibits ensuing PCB bioremediative microbial functions. - nZVI inhibits microbial functions of potential importance for remediation strategies combining nZVI treatment and biodegradation.

  2. Mucinous gastric hyperplasia in a colony of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) induced by polychlorinated biphenyl (Aroclor 1254)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geistfeld, J.G.; Bond, M.G.; Bullock, B.C.; Varian, M.C.

    1982-02-01

    Since 1971, 45 of 259 male rhesus monkeys housed in a primate building have died of a chronic and progressive disease characterized by diarrhea, dehydration, weakness, gingivitis, emaciation, and alopecia. The principal necropsy finding in these monkeys, and in eight others killed for experimental purposes, was hypertrophic and hyperplastic mucinous gastropathy involving both the mucosa and submucosa. The toxic agent involved was identified as the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), Aroclor 1254. The suspected source of the toxic agent was a concrete sealer used during building construction.

  3. PCBs contamination in seafood species at the Eastern Coast of Thailand.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaikanlaya, C.; Settachan, D.; Denison, M.; Ruchirawat, M.; van den Berg, M.

    2009-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a large group of persistent organic substances spread throughout the world. The most toxic PCBs are those that are dioxin-like (dl-PCBs). Environmental studies on PCBs in Thailand are limited, especially with regards to dl-PCBs. This study is one of the first in

  4. Physical behavior of PCBs in the Great Lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKay, D.; Eisenreich, S.J.; Patterson, S.; Simmons, M.S.

    1983-01-01

    This book presents a review of all aspects of the physical behavior of one contaminant (PCBs) in one aquatic environment (Great Lakes). This book not only treats this topic extensively, but also serves as a model for treatment of other contaminants in other aquatic environments. This book focuses on the physical rather than biological aspects of PCBs. This focus does not imply a lack of concern for the biosphere or for the effects or toxicology of PCBs; instead, it represents an attempt to tackle a smaller problem of manageable proportions. The environmental fate of PCBs is largely controlled by physical processes, with biodegradation of lower chlorine congeners as the outstanding exception

  5. A retrospective time trend study of PBDEs and PCBs in human milk from the Faroe Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faengstroem, B.; Strid, A.; Athanassiadis, I.; Bergman, Aa. [Dept. of Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm Univ. (Sweden); Grandjean, P. [Inst. of Public Health, Univ. of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark); Weihe, P. [Faroese Hospital System, Torshavn (Denmark)

    2004-09-15

    The Faroe Islands are located quite far from the European continent and from industrial sources of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). However, the Faroese population may be exposed to these substances through contaminated food, via goods and products in their homes, and in their work environment. High trophic level marine species, including pilot whale and seabirds, such as fulmars, have been shown to accumulate high concentrations of organohalogen substances (OHS) like PCBs and PBDEs. Possibly due to dietary differences, wide differences exist in regard to PCB exposures among the Faroese. In a birth cohort from 1987, milk pools contained relatively high PCB concentrations between 1.9-2.5 {mu}g/g lipid weight (l.w.). In another cohort from 1994, serum from pregnant Faroese women was analyzed for PCB and OH-PCBs, with results ranging from 0.15 to 22 {mu}g/g l.w. and 0.02 to 1.8 {mu}g/g l.w., respectively. In a time trend study for PBDEs and PCBs in human milk from Sweden from the early 1970s to 1997, the PBDE concentrations showed a significant increase while the PCB levels showed a decrease. Human milk samples from 1997 to 2000 indicate a decrease for the PBDEs, mainly due to reduced concentrations of BDE-47. A similar trend has been seen in human milk from Japan. In Norway, PBDE in human milk increased from 1986 to 2001, with similar concentration levels as reported in Sweden and Japan. In the United States the PBDE levels reported in human milk are about 4 times higher than those seen in Europe and Japan. The aim of the present study was to determine PBDE and PCB concentrations in a temporal trend study with samples from 1987-1999 in human milk samples from the Faroe Islands.

  6. Fetal exposure markers of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampa, Erik; Eguchi, Akifumi; Todaka, Emiko; Mori, Chisato

    2018-04-01

    Fetal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated-p-dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) have been associated with a number of adverse health outcomes. Although the placenta acts as a barrier between the mother and the fetus, these contaminants transfer through the placenta exposing the fetus. Several studies have investigated placental transfer, but few have assessed the co-variation among these contaminants. Maternal blood, cord blood, and cord tissue were collected from 41 Japanese mother-infant pairs and analyzed for dioxin-like PCBs and PCDD/Fs. Hierarchical cluster analysis followed by principal component analysis were used to assess the co-variation. Two stable clusters of dioxin-like PCBs were found in maternal and cord blood. One cluster of low/medium chlorinated dioxin-like PCBs was present in all three matrices with 2,3',4,4',5-PeCB(#118) and 3,3',4,4',5-PeCB(#126) explaining the majority of the clusters' variances. Medium/high chlorinated dioxin-like PCBs clustered in maternal blood and cord blood but not in cord tissue. 2,3,4,4',5-PeCB(#114) and 2,3,3',4,4',5,5'-HpCB(#189) explained the majority of the clusters' variances. There was a substantial correlation between the sum of dioxin-like PCBs and total PCDD/F in all three matrices. The sum of the four suggested PCBs plus 3,3',4,4'-TeCB(#77) correlated well with total PCDD/F in all three matrices. Apart from the dioxin-like PCBs, little co-variation existed among the studied contaminants. The five PCBs can be used as fetal exposure markers for dioxin and dioxin-like PCBs in maternal and cord blood respectively. In cord tissue, more higher chlorinated dioxin-like PCBs need to be measured as well.

  7. Aroclor-1254, a developmental neurotoxicant, alters energy metabolism-and intracellular signaling-associated protein networks in rat cerebellum and hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The vast literature on the mode of action of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) indicates that PCBs are a unique model for understanding the mechanisms of toxicity of environmental mixtures of persistent chemicals. PCBs have been shown to adversely affect psychomotor function and l...

  8. PCBs and OCPs in human milk in Eastern Siberia, Russia: Levels, temporal trends and infant exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamontova, Elena A; Tarasova, Eugenia N; Mamontov, Alexander A

    2017-07-01

    The aim of our study is to investigate the spatial distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT) and its metabolites, α- and γ-isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) in 155 samples of human milk (HM) from Eastern Siberia (six towns and seven villages in Irkutsk Region, one village of the Republic of Buryatia and one town in Zabaikal'sk Region, Russia), and to examine the dietary and social factors influencing the human exposure to the organochlorines. The median and range of the concentration of six indicator PCBs in HM in 14 localities in Eastern Siberia (114 (19-655) ng g -1 lipids respectively) are similar to levels in the majority of European countries. However, in one village, Onguren, the median and range of levels of six indicator PCBs (1390 (300-3725) ng g -1 lipids) were comparable to levels measured in highly contaminated populations. The Lake Baikal seals are highly exposed to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and could be a potential source of PCB and DDT exposure in the Onguren cohort via the consumption of the Lake Baikal seal tissue. The location of food production in areas exposed to the emissions of local POP sources can also significantly influence POP levels in HM samples from industrialized areas. Estimated daily intakes (EDI) of HCH and HCB for infants are considerably lower or close to acceptable daily intake (ADI). The EDI of total DDTs and total PCBs are higher than ADI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Hydroxylated PCBs in abiotic environmental matrices. Precipitation and surface waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darling, C.; Alaee, M.; Campbell, L.; Pacepavicius, G.; Ueno, D.; Muir, D. [National Water Research Institute, Burlington, ON (Canada)

    2004-09-15

    Hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs) are of great interest environmentally because of their potential thyroidogenic effects. OH-PCBs can compete with thyroxine for binding sites on transthyretin, one of the three main thyroid hormone transport proteins in mammals1. The chemical structures of some OH-PCBs with a para OH group and adjacent chlorine atoms, particularly 4-OH-CB109, 4- OH-CB146, and 4-OH-CB187, share a similar structure to the thyroid hormones (T3 and T4), which have a para OH with adjacent iodine atoms. A number of OH-PCBs have been identified in the blood of humans and biota during the last 5 to 10 years, however, reports on the identity, presence and levels of OH-PCBs are limited. This presentation describes preliminary studies on the presence of OH-PCBs in abiotic samples and comparisons of congener patterns with biological samples. We have previously shown that OHPCBs were present in lake trout from the Great Lakes and nearby large lakes as well as in nearshore environments. We hypothesized that some of the OH-PCB present in fish might be from abiotic formation in water or the atmosphere, or from microbial oxidation of PCBs and/or deconjugation of PCB metabolites in waste treatment plants.

  10. Photochemical degradation of PCBs in snow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matykiewiczová, Nina; Klánová, Jana; Klán, Petr

    2007-12-15

    This work represents the first laboratory study known to the authors describing photochemical behavior of persistent organic pollutants in snow at environmentally relevant concentrations. The snow samples were prepared by shock freezing of the corresponding aqueous solutions in liquid nitrogen and were UV-irradiated in a photochemical cold chamber reactor at -25 degrees C, in which simultaneous monitoring of snow-air exchange processeswas also possible. The main photodegradation pathway of two model snow contaminants, PCB-7 and PCB-153 (c approximately 100 ng kg(-1)), was found to be reductive dehalogenation. Possible involvement of the water molecules of snow in this reaction has been excluded by performing the photolyses in D2O snow. Instead, trace amounts of volatile organic compounds have been proposed to be the major source of hydrogen atom in the reduction, and this hypothesis was confirmed by the experiments with deuterated organic cocontaminants, such as d6-ethanol or d8-tetrahydrofuran. It is argued that bimolecular photoreduction of PCBs was more efficient or feasible than any other phototransformations under the experimental conditions used, including the coupling reactions. The photodegradation of PCBs, however, competed with a desorption process responsible for the pollutant loss from the snow samples, especially in case of lower molecular-mass congeners. Organic compounds, apparently largely located or photoproduced on the surface of snow crystals, had a predisposition to be released to the air but, at the same time, to react with other species in the gas phase. It is concluded that physicochemical properties of the contaminants and trace co-contaminants, their location and local concentrations in the matrix, and the wavelength and intensity of radiation are the most important factors in the evaluation of organic contaminants' lifetime in snow. Based on the results, it has been estimated that the average lifetime of PCBs in surface snow, connected

  11. Dioxins and PCBs in feed and food--review from European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisch, Rainer; Kotz, Alexander

    2014-09-01

    During the 1990s, a number of adverse contamination incidents focussed the attention of the media and the general public on food safety. This led to the evaluation of safety measures with regard to dioxin intake from food. Important aspects regarding dioxins and PCBs in the food chain are reviewed here, allowing a contextual understanding of the present situation through its chronological developments. About 90-98% of the average exposure of humans to dioxins and PCBs results from dietary intake, with food of animal origin being the predominant source. Therefore, animal feed contributes considerably to the presence of these compounds in food. The detection of the "real" source of a contamination event in the food chain is a complex scientific problem and requires specific knowledge on production processes and changes of patterns during bioaccumulation. This is demonstrated by complex investigations performed in three studies on two continents to identify the source (e.g. from contamination of cow's milk in Germany, to citrus pulp pellets from Brazil as an ingredient in feed, then to contaminated lime for neutralization and finally to a landfill with residues of vinyl chloride monomer production). This example shows also the substantial economic losses resulting from incidents in the food chain and the consequences to global trade. In 2001, the EU Scientific Committee on Food established a group tolerable weekly intake (TWI) of 14 pg WHO-TEQ/kg body weight and concluded that a considerable proportion of the European population would exceed this TWI. On the global level, the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) provides scientific advice to the Codex Alimentarius Commission and therefore contributes to harmonized international food standards. In its evaluation of 2001, JECFA derived a provisional tolerable monthly intake (PTMI) of 70 pg TEQ/kg body weight. The sum of the median intake of PCDD/F-TEQ and PCB-TEQ exceeded the PTMI in Western European

  12. Dioxins and PCBs in feed and food — Review from European perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malisch, Rainer; Kotz, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    During the 1990s, a number of adverse contamination incidents focussed the attention of the media and the general public on food safety. This led to the evaluation of safety measures with regard to dioxin intake from food. Important aspects regarding dioxins and PCBs in the food chain are reviewed here, allowing a contextual understanding of the present situation through its chronological developments. About 90–98% of the average exposure of humans to dioxins and PCBs results from dietary intake, with food of animal origin being the predominant source. Therefore, animal feed contributes considerably to the presence of these compounds in food. The detection of the “real” source of a contamination event in the food chain is a complex scientific problem and requires specific knowledge on production processes and changes of patterns during bioaccumulation. This is demonstrated by complex investigations performed in three studies on two continents to identify the source (e.g. from contamination of cow's milk in Germany, to citrus pulp pellets from Brazil as an ingredient in feed, then to contaminated lime for neutralization and finally to a landfill with residues of vinyl chloride monomer production). This example shows also the substantial economic losses resulting from incidents in the food chain and the consequences to global trade. In 2001, the EU Scientific Committee on Food established a group tolerable weekly intake (TWI) of 14 pg WHO-TEQ/kg body weight and concluded that a considerable proportion of the European population would exceed this TWI. On the global level, the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) provides scientific advice to the Codex Alimentarius Commission and therefore contributes to harmonized international food standards. In its evaluation of 2001, JECFA derived a provisional tolerable monthly intake (PTMI) of 70 pg TEQ/kg body weight. The sum of the median intake of PCDD/F-TEQ and PCB-TEQ exceeded the PTMI in

  13. Dioxins and PCBs in feed and food — Review from European perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malisch, Rainer, E-mail: rainer.malisch@cvuafr.bwl.de; Kotz, Alexander

    2014-09-01

    During the 1990s, a number of adverse contamination incidents focussed the attention of the media and the general public on food safety. This led to the evaluation of safety measures with regard to dioxin intake from food. Important aspects regarding dioxins and PCBs in the food chain are reviewed here, allowing a contextual understanding of the present situation through its chronological developments. About 90–98% of the average exposure of humans to dioxins and PCBs results from dietary intake, with food of animal origin being the predominant source. Therefore, animal feed contributes considerably to the presence of these compounds in food. The detection of the “real” source of a contamination event in the food chain is a complex scientific problem and requires specific knowledge on production processes and changes of patterns during bioaccumulation. This is demonstrated by complex investigations performed in three studies on two continents to identify the source (e.g. from contamination of cow's milk in Germany, to citrus pulp pellets from Brazil as an ingredient in feed, then to contaminated lime for neutralization and finally to a landfill with residues of vinyl chloride monomer production). This example shows also the substantial economic losses resulting from incidents in the food chain and the consequences to global trade. In 2001, the EU Scientific Committee on Food established a group tolerable weekly intake (TWI) of 14 pg WHO-TEQ/kg body weight and concluded that a considerable proportion of the European population would exceed this TWI. On the global level, the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) provides scientific advice to the Codex Alimentarius Commission and therefore contributes to harmonized international food standards. In its evaluation of 2001, JECFA derived a provisional tolerable monthly intake (PTMI) of 70 pg TEQ/kg body weight. The sum of the median intake of PCDD/F-TEQ and PCB-TEQ exceeded the PTMI in

  14. Guidance on the management of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of synthetic organic chemicals including 209 known isomers, each with from 1 to 10 chlorine atoms on a biphenyl ring. PCBs have a number of desirable properties for industrial applications including thermal stability, flame retardance, and low vapor pressure. Because of these properties, PCBs were widely used as dielectric fluid in electrical equipment such as utility transformers and capacitors. PCBs were also extensively used in hydraulic fluid and heat transfer fluid, in gaskets, as additives in cutting oils and lubricant, and in a variety of other uses. The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) banned the manufacture of PCBs after 1978 in response to emerging information about the adverse health effects of PCBs and their persistence in the environment. In addition, TSCA directed the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to prescribe methods for disposal of PCBS, require marking of PCBs with warning labels, and control their use. The TSCA regulations allow continued use of PCBs provided that the use is totally enclosed and does not pose a risk to human health or the environment. However, at the end of their useful life, all PCB materials must be disposed of according to the TSCA regulations. This guidance document uses graphics and flow charts where possible to present the TSCA regulations according to management activities such as use, storage, disposal, and spill cleanup. The document is designed to be read on an as-needed basis; that is, each chapter can stand alone or may be read in combination with others to help the reader determine the regulations relevant to his or her individual situation and needs. Every attempt has been made to include the requirements of other statutes and regulations that apply to PCB materials and provide references for the reader to consult for additional information.

  15. Spatial gradients of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spatial gradients of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides were examined in the young-of-the-year (YOY) blueÂżsh collected in the vicinity...

  16. Bioaccumulation dynamics of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bioaccumulation dynamics of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides was examined in young-of-the-year bluefish from seven sub-estuaries of New...

  17. Health Effects of PCBs in Residences and Schools (HESPERUS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Frederiksen, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Polychlorinated-biphenyls (PCBs) were introduced in the late 1920s and used until the 1970s when they were banned in most countries due to evidence of environmental build-up and possible adverse health effects. However they still persist in the environment, indoors and in humans. Indoor air...... in contaminated buildings may confer airborne exposure markedly above background regional PCB levels. To date, no epidemiological studies have assessed the health effects from exposure to semi-volatile PCBs in the indoor environment. Indoor air PCBs are generally less chlorinated than PCBs that are absorbed via...... the diet, or via past occupational exposure; therefore their health effects require separate risk assessment. Two separate cohorts of individuals who have either attended schools (n = 66,769; 26% exposed) or lived in apartment buildings (n = 37,185; 19% exposed), where indoor air PCB concentrations have...

  18. 40 CFR 129.105 - Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... dielectric. (3) Electrical transformer manufacturer means a manufacturer who produces or assembles electrical... manufacturer. (d) Electrical transformer manufacturer—(1) Applicability. (i) These standards or prohibitions... are prohibited in any discharge from any electrical transformer manufacturer; (ii) New sources. PCBs...

  19. PCBs Alter Dopamine Mediated Function in Aging Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    PCBs Alter Dopamine Mediated Function in Aging Workers 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER DAMD17-02-1-0173 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...hypothesized that occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) reduces dopamine (DA) terminal densities in the basal ganglia. We found...motor function in women compared to similarly aged men with similar bone lead levels. These latter findings are the first to demonstrate a sexual

  20. PCB's take a stroll Los PCBs salen de paseo

    OpenAIRE

    N. Olea Serrano; M. J. Begoña Olmos Ruiz; M. López Espinosa; M. Castillo Rodríguez

    2002-01-01

    Human exposure to bioaccumulable organochlorine compounds is a reality, not only because of the known presence in tissues of the residue of historic contaminants such as DDT and other pesticides, but also because of the risk of current exposure to compounds still in use, such as lindane, endosulphan and polychlorinated biphenyls or PCBs, among others. The case of the PCBs is of particular importance. Although their production was prohibited due to their hazardous nature, persistence and envir...

  1. Accumulation features and temporal trends of PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs in Baikal seals (Pusa sibirica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaeda, Daisuke; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Ochi, Yoko; Iwata, Hisato; Tsydenova, Oyuna; Takahashi, Shin; Amano, Masao; Petrov, Evgeny A.; Batoev, Valeriy B.; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the accumulation features and temporal trends of PCDD/Fs, dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) and non-dioxin-like PCBs (NDL-PCBs) in the blubber of Baikal seals collected in 1992 and 2005. DL-PCBs (480-3600 ng/g) and NDL-PCBs (980-35,000 ng/g) were dominant contaminants. Concentrations of PCDDs and PCBs in males were significantly higher than in females. In males, age-dependent accumulation was observed for PCDDs, mono-ortho PCBs and NDL-PCBs. PCDFs and non-ortho PCBs showed no such trends, implying that exposure of seals to these contaminants has been decreasing in recent years. No decreasing temporal trend was observed for PCDDs, mono-ortho PCBs and NDL-PCBs, suggesting that Baikal seals are still exposed to PCDDs and PCBs. TEQs of PCDDs and mono-ortho PCBs in seals collected in 2005 accounted for 62-77% of total TEQs. The TEQ levels in 40% of the specimens exceeded the threshold level for immunosuppression observed in harbor seals (209 pg/g). - Concentrations of PCDDs and PCBs remain high in Baikal seals

  2. Association of PCBs and allergies in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Mayumi; Kawamoto, Toshihiro; Koriyama, Chihaya; Yamamoto, Megumi; Tsuchiya, Takuto; Matsumura, Fumio

    2015-05-01

    Recently, the incidence rates of childhood allergies have been rising around the world. The presence of persistent chemical pollutants in the environment and exposure to air pollutants are often cited as potential causes of childhood allergies. Accordingly, epidemiological studies of the associations between exposure to low levels of pollutants and adverse health effects are essential. However, at present no useful biomarkers for evaluating such associations have been developed. Thus, using a molecular epidemiological approach we planned to identify candidate biomarkers of pollutant-induced adverse health effects that can be used in children. In asthmatic children, we found that the serum levels of several polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener sub-types were significantly positively correlated with interleukin (IL)-8 mRNA expression, whereas in a sub-group of children who displayed positive immunoglobulin E (IgE) responses to milk or egg proteins IL-22 mRNA expression was demonstrated to be useful for detecting the adverse health effects of environmental pollutants, particularly PCB congeners. In conclusion, the mRNA expression levels of IL-8 and IL-22 can be used to detect children who are at particular risk of adverse health events caused by environmental pollutants, especially PCBs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Consolidated PCBs [polychlorinated biphenyls] improves waste control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.

    1991-01-01

    Consolidation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) wastes is recommended for improving ownership control of wastes, eliminating PCB storage sites, and increasing cost-effectiveness of waste management. In Ontario, sites receiving the waste must be owned by the waste generator and registered as a PCB site. All PCBs must be removed from a site with no contaminated materials or wastes left behind, which requires a thorough site assessment to identify wastes prior to removal, a sampling and analytical scheme if necessary, and an approved plan for site cleanup. If large volumes of PCB-contaminated oil are involved, it may be cost-effective to put oil from several sites into bulk tanks and thus avoid the need to handle and decontaminate a large number of drums. With low volumes of oil, it may be possible to move the waste to another site where mobile PCB destruction is taking place. It also may be possible to get approval to blend high-level PCB liquids with mineral oil to reduce the PCB concentration to a level where chemical decontamination is allowed. For large volumes of high-level PCB wastes, consolidation will be necessary simply because of the high costs of mobilizing an incinerator and the requirement for public hearings for each incineration project. To make such a project cost-effective, PCB wastes will have to be concentrated from a large geographic area. 1 fig

  4. PCB's take a stroll Los PCBs salen de paseo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Olea Serrano

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Human exposure to bioaccumulable organochlorine compounds is a reality, not only because of the known presence in tissues of the residue of historic contaminants such as DDT and other pesticides, but also because of the risk of current exposure to compounds still in use, such as lindane, endosulphan and polychlorinated biphenyls or PCBs, among others. The case of the PCBs is of particular importance. Although their production was prohibited due to their hazardous nature, persistence and environmental toxicity, a large number of equipments that contain considerable volumes of PCBs continue functioning. These equipments will reach the residual stage in the next few years, if not already, so that their correct disposal is necessary to avoid their release into the environment. A National Plan for the decontamination and elimination of polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs, polychloroterphenyls (PCTs and the equipments that contain them was launched in Spain in 2001. This plan must be implemented taking full account of the possible effects of PBCs on the environment and human health and with the knowledge of those responsible for public health.La exposición humana a compuestos organoclorados bioacumulables es un problema de interés sanitario no sólo por el conocimiento de la presencia en tejidos del residuo de contaminantes históricos como DDT y otros pesticidas, sino por el riesgo de exposición actual a compuestos aún en uso como el lindano, el endosulfán y los bifenilos policlorados (PCBs, entre otros. Destaca el caso particular de los PCBs, sustancias cuya producción fue prohibida debido a su peligrosidad, persistencia y toxicidad ambiental. A pesar de esta prohibición siguen funcionando una gran cantidad de aparatos que contienen volúmenes considerables de PCBs. Estos aparatos llegarán en los próximos años, si no lo han hecho ya, a la fase de residuos, por lo que es necesario asegurar su correcta eliminación para evitar su liberación al medio

  5. Geographic specificity of Aroclor 1268 in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) frequenting the Turtle/Brunswick River Estuary, Georgia (USA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulster, Erin L.; Maruya, Keith A.

    2008-01-01

    Coastal marine resources are at risk from anthropogenic contaminants, including legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with half-lives of decades or more. To determine if polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) signatures can be used to distinguish among local populations of inshore bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) along the southeastern U.S. coast, blubber from free-ranging and stranded animals were collected along the Georgia coast in 2004 and analyzed for PCB congeners using gas chromatography with electron capture and negative chemical ionization mass spectrometric detection (GC-ECD and GC-NCI-MS). Mean total PCB concentrations (77 ± 34 μg/g lipid) were more than 10 fold higher and congener distributions were highly enriched in Cl 7 -Cl 10 homologs in free-ranging animals from the Turtle/Brunswick River estuary (TBRE) compared with strandings samples from Savannah area estuaries 90 km to the north. Using principal components analysis (PCA), the Aroclor 1268 signature associated with TBRE animals was distinct from that observed in Savannah area animals, and also from those in animals biopsied in other southeastern U.S estuaries. Moreover, PCB signatures in dolphin blubber closely resembled those in local preferred prey fish species, strengthening the hypothesis that inshore T. truncatus populations exhibit long-term fidelity to specific estuaries and making them excellent sentinels for assessing the impact of stressors on coastal ecosystem health

  6. Geographic specificity of Aroclor 1268 in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) frequenting the Turtle/Brunswick River Estuary, Georgia (USA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pulster, Erin L. [Marine Sciences Department, Savannah State University, Savannah, Georgia, 31404 (United States); Skidaway Institute of Oceanography, 10 Ocean Science Circle, Savannah, Georgia, 31411 (United States)], E-mail: epulster@mote.org; Maruya, Keith A. [Skidaway Institute of Oceanography, 10 Ocean Science Circle, Savannah, Georgia, 31411 (United States)

    2008-04-15

    Coastal marine resources are at risk from anthropogenic contaminants, including legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with half-lives of decades or more. To determine if polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) signatures can be used to distinguish among local populations of inshore bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) along the southeastern U.S. coast, blubber from free-ranging and stranded animals were collected along the Georgia coast in 2004 and analyzed for PCB congeners using gas chromatography with electron capture and negative chemical ionization mass spectrometric detection (GC-ECD and GC-NCI-MS). Mean total PCB concentrations (77 {+-} 34 {mu}g/g lipid) were more than 10 fold higher and congener distributions were highly enriched in Cl{sub 7}-Cl{sub 10} homologs in free-ranging animals from the Turtle/Brunswick River estuary (TBRE) compared with strandings samples from Savannah area estuaries 90 km to the north. Using principal components analysis (PCA), the Aroclor 1268 signature associated with TBRE animals was distinct from that observed in Savannah area animals, and also from those in animals biopsied in other southeastern U.S estuaries. Moreover, PCB signatures in dolphin blubber closely resembled those in local preferred prey fish species, strengthening the hypothesis that inshore T. truncatus populations exhibit long-term fidelity to specific estuaries and making them excellent sentinels for assessing the impact of stressors on coastal ecosystem health.

  7. Developmental dental defects in children exposed to PCBs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jan, J. [Ljubljana Univ. (Slovenia). Fac. of Medicine; Sovcikova, E.; Kovrizhnykh, I.; Wimmerova, S.; Trnovec, T. [Slovak Medical Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia). Inst. of Preventive and Clinical Medicine; Kocan, A. [Institute of Preventive and Clinical Medicine, Bratislava (Slovakia). Dept. of Toxic Organic Pollutants

    2004-09-15

    Developing enamel is sensitive to a wide range of local and systemic disturbances. Because of the absolute metabolic stability of its structure, changes in enamel during its development are permanent in nature. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) have been shown to disturb tooth development in experimental animals, but only limited amounts of data exist on their adverse effects in humans. Dental changes such as mottled, chipped, carious, and neonatal teeth have been reported in accidentally exposed humans. Nevertheless, co-contamination with polychlorinated dibenzo-furans (PCDFs) was largely responsible for the overall toxicity4. Alaluusua et al. found that developmental dental defects were correlated with the total exposure to polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons via mother's milk. The correlation was strong with exposure to prevailing levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and furans (PCDF) but weak with exposure to PCBs alone. In our previous study we have shown developmental dental defects in children exposed to PCBs alone6, suggesting that the developing human teeth are vulnerable to PCBs. In the Michalovce region of eastern Slovakia, PCBs from a chemical plant manufacturing Delors contaminated the surrounding district7. The total serum PCB levels in samples from the general population there exceeded by several times the background levels in subjects living in a comparable unexposed Svidnik district. PCB levels in breast milk samples in the Michalovce region were the highest in Slovakia. Levels of toxic polychlorinated aromatics (PCDFs, PCNs, and planar PCBs) in technical Delors were high. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of long-term exposure to PCBs, measured at the individual level, on developmental dental defects in children in eastern Slovakia.

  8. Ultratrace analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs) in human serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takasuga, T.; Senthilkumar, K.; Watanabe, K.; Takemori, H. [Shimadzu Techno Research, Inc., Kyoto (Japan); Shoda, T. [Ehime Univ. Medical Research Center, Matsuyama (Japan); Kuroda, Y. [Tokyo Metropolitan Inst. for Neuroscience, Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    In the present study, we established pretreatment and high sensitivity analytical method of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs) in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of humans for the first time. Analyzing serum and CSF samples from humans found unique because PCBs behavior and metabolism could be discerned. Furthermore, so far studies reported concentrations of OH-PCBs in wildlife samples obtained by HRGC-LRMS or GC-ECD data. In this study, we established cleanup and analytical methods by high resolution gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC-HRMS) using 1 mL of sample. Mainly, total PCBs and OH-PCBs in the CSF were extracted by specialized developed method. Using this method, PCBs and OH-PCBs could be determined swiftly. Based on this method, major OH-PCB congeners were detected from human, serum, CSF, control serum and Rhesus monkey plasma. Present methodology developed based on the isotope dilution technique using OH-PCBs standard and thus we suggest the present methodology could apply for ultra trace analysis of OHPCBs as well as total PCBs in human samples.

  9. PCBs and OH-PCBs in polar bear mother-cub pairs: a comparative study based on plasma levels in 1998 and 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bytingsvik, Jenny; Lie, Elisabeth; Aars, Jon; Derocher, Andrew E; Wiig, Øystein; Jenssen, Bjørn M

    2012-02-15

    The aim of this study was to examine the plasma concentrations and prevalence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hydroxylated PCB-metabolites (OH-PCBs) in polar bear (Ursus maritimus) mothers (n=26) and their 4 months old cubs-of-the-year (n=38) from Svalbard to gain insight into the mother-cub transfer, biotransformation and to evaluate the health risk associated with the exposure to these contaminants. As samplings were performed in 1997/1998 and 2008, we further investigated the differences in levels and pattern of PCBs between the two sampling years. The plasma concentrations of Σ(21)PCBs (1997/1998: 5710 ± 3090 ng/g lipid weight [lw], 2008: 2560 ± 1500 ng/g lw) and Σ(6)OH-PCBs (1997/1998: 228 ± 60 ng/g wet weight [ww], 2008: 80 ± 38 ng/g ww) in mothers were significantly lower in 2008 compared to in 1997/1998. In cubs, the plasma concentrations of Σ(21)PCBs (1997/1998: 14680 ± 5350 ng/g lw, 2008: 6070 ± 2590 ng/g lw) and Σ(6)OH-PCBs (1997/1998: 98 ± 23 ng/g ww, 2008: 49 ± 21 ng/g ww) were also significantly lower in 2008 than in 1997/1998. Σ(21)PCBs in cubs was 2.7 ± 0.7 times higher than in their mothers. This is due to a significant maternal transfer of these contaminants. In contrast, Σ(6)OH-PCBs in cubs were approximately 0.53 ± 0.16 times the concentration in their mothers. This indicates a lower maternal transfer of OH-PCBs compared to PCBs. The majority of the metabolite/precursor-ratios were lower in cubs compared to mothers. This may indicate that cubs have a lower endogenous capacity to biotransform PCBs to OH-PCBs than polar bear mothers. Exposure to PCBs and OH-PCBs is a potential health risk for polar bears, and the levels of PCBs and OH-PCBs in cubs from 2008 were still above levels associated with health effects in humans and wildlife. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Organochlorine Pesticides And Pcbs In Human Breast Milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and Fifty (150) samples of human breast milk (colostrums) collected from donors patronizing a postnatal center in Nigeria were analyzed for the levels of lindane, total DDT and total PCBs residues. Donors were stratified with respect to factors that may affect accumulation of these compounds such as age, ...

  11. 75 FR 17645 - Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Reassessment of Use Authorizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... Office (DCO), EPA East Bldg., Rm. 6428, 1201 Constitution Ave., NW., Washington, DC. Attention: Docket ID... action or selective metabolism of individual congeners. Noteworthy impacts on fish, birds, and mammals... have taken or planned to take and how these measures will help to safely manage their PCBs. EPA also is...

  12. 77 FR 54863 - Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs): Revisions to Manifesting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... today's rule on small entities, small entity is defined as: (1) A small business that is primarily...). Today's changes are to match, as much as possible, the manifesting requirements for PCBs under TSCA to... to be Confidential Business Information (CBI) or other information whose disclosure is restricted by...

  13. Developmental disorders of the brain can be caused by PCBs; low doses of hydroxy-PCBs disrupt thyroid hormone-dependent dendrite formation from Purkinje neurons in culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroda, Y; Kimura-Kuroda, J [Tokyo Metropol. Inst. for Neuroscience, Tokyo (Japan); Nagata, I [CREST/ JST, Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Exposure to some environmental chemicals during the perinatal period causes developmental disorders of the brain. Cognitive impairment and hyperactivity in infants were reported in Taiwan, known as Yu-cheng incidents caused by the accidental contamination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Together with recent experimental data, Kuroda proposes a hypothesis that spatio-temporal disruptions of developing neuronal circuits by PCB exposure can cause the comobidity of learning disorders (LD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autsm with the co-exposure to other environmental chemicals. PCBs and hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs) have similar chemical structures to thyroid hormones (TH), thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). TH deficiency in the perinatal period causes cretinism children with severe cognitive and mental retardation. In primate model, Rice demonstrates that postnatal exposure to PCBs can dramatically influence later behavioral function. Epidemiological studies also indicate the possible developmental neurotoxicity of PCBs accumulated in human bodies. However, the precise underlying mechanisms and which types of PCB or OH-PCB with such effects have yet to be elucidated. It is important to establish a simple, reproducible, and sensitive in vitro assay for determining the effects of PCBs and OH-PCBs on the development of the central nervous system. Recently Iwasaki et al. established a reporter assay system and disclosed that low doses of PCBs potentially interfere TH-dependent gene expressions. This is the first demonstration that PCBs and OH-PCBs directly affect TH-receptor (TR)-mediated gene expressions crucial to the brain development, through unique mechanism. We also have demonstrated TH-dependent development of Purkinje neurons in vitro using a serum-free chemically defined medium. The degree of dendritic development of Purkinje cells is TH dose-dependent and exhibits high sensitivity in the pM order. Therefore, in the present study

  14. PCDFs, PCDDs, non-ortho PCBs, and mono-ortho PCBs in northern fulmars from the Faroe Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ericson, I.M.; Hagberg, J.; Bavel van, B.; Lindstrom, G. [Orebro Univ., Orebro (Sweden). MTM Research Centre; Dam, M. [Food and Environment Agency, Torshavn, Faroe Islands (Denmark); Jensen, J.K.; Danielsen, J. [Faroese Museum of Natural History, Faroe Islands (Denmark)

    2005-07-01

    Eggs and tissues of Northern Fulmars have been used to monitor the contamination of the Canadian Arctic marine environment since 1975. Dioxin levels for northern fulmars in the Arctic are among the highest reported for birds. This study reported the results of analyses of dioxins (PCDDs) and non- and mono-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in liver tissue from juvenile northern fulmars from the Faeroe Islands in 2003. The samples were collected during a traditional hunt and ground with anhydrous sodium sulfate. Sample extraction was performed using supercritical fluid extraction coupled to a solid phase liquid chromatography trap (SFE-LC). Target compounds were collected on a solid phase trap containing AX-21 carbon on ODS silica and eluted with 6 ml n-hexane/dichloromethane for non-planar compounds and xylene for planar compounds. PCDD and planar PCB analysis was performed on an a high resolution gas chromatography (GC) mass spectrometer (MS) operating at 10,000 resolution using EI ionization at 35 eV. Concentrations of PCDFs, PCDDs, non, and mono-ortho PCBs were detected in all samples. High levels of mono-ortho PCBs were detected, as well as non-ortho PCBs, PCDFs, and PCDDs. It was concluded that levels and congener patterns in fulmars from the Faroe Islands and the Canadian Arctic were comparable. However, slightly higher levels were detected in the Faeroe Islands samples. 9 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  15. Depuration of PCBS and DDTS in mullet under captivity conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antunes, P.; Gil, O.; Vale, C. [Inst. Nacional de Investigacao Agraria e das Pescas/IPIMAR, Lisboa (Portugal); Ferreira, M. [ICBAS-Inst. de Ciencias Biomedicas Abel Salazar, Porto (Portugal); Reis-Henriques, M.A. [CIIMAR-Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigacao Marinha e Ambiental, Porto (Portugal)

    2004-09-15

    Fish captured in the coastal zone and estuaries often contains enhanced residues of organochlorine compounds in their tissues, in response to environmental contamination. Residues in fish tissues may be eliminated by different pathways, but most of what is known comes from laboratory studies with species that are exposed to contaminants. In recent years, the importance of ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), one of the hepatic cytochrome P-450 dependent monooxidase, has become widely known, and it is increasingly accepted as an indicator of exposure to common organic pollutants. The mullet (Mugil cephalus) from the Douro estuary may present relatively high content of PCBs and DDTs. The objective of this study was to examine the levels of PCBs and DDTs in muscle and liver when individuals are exposed to clean sea water and uncontaminated food, and to evaluate whether this is a feasible option for depuration.

  16. Learning from Dioxin & PCBs in meat - problems ahead?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, R.

    2017-09-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs; “Dioxins”), or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widely recognized environmental and food contaminants. More than 90% of PCDD/Fs and PCB exposure of the average population stem from animal based food including meat. While average PCDD/F and PCB levels have decreased compared to levels 1980s, still contamination above regulatory limits are observed and a share of the population is above the tolerable daily intake recommended by the WHO. For PCBs the contamination of feed and food along the life cycle from production, use, recycling, end of life and related contaminated sites has been documented and can be seen as a model. Furthermore, it has been recently discovered that levels of PCBs in feed and soil below regulatory limits can result in meat contamination above EU regulatory limits. In particular, beef meat and chicken meat/eggs have been found very sensitive towards PCB contamination in the environment (soil and feed) but also in stables (paints and sealants). For PCDD/Fs, the major exposure pathways are feed, feed additives and contaminated sites. Chlorinated paraffins have substituted PCBs the last 40 years in open application and short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) were recently (05/2017) listed in the Stockholm Convention. Furthermore, brominated and fluorinated POPs have been listed in the Convention. All these POPs groups can accumulate in meat animals. For these new listed POPs no regulatory limits in food including meat has been established yet. Initial information on presence and risk of new listed POPs to food animals is compiled. A more systematic assessment of exposure and risks of POPs to food animals/meat is needed.

  17. Potential for phytoextraction of PCBs from contaminated soils using weeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficko, Sarah A; Rutter, Allison; Zeeb, Barbara A

    2010-07-15

    A comprehensive investigation of the potential of twenty-seven different species of weeds to phytoextract polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from contaminated soil was conducted at two field sites (Etobicoke and Lindsay) in southern Ontario, Canada. Soil concentrations were 31 microg/g and 4.7 microg/g at each site respectively. All species accumulated PCBs in their root and shoot tissues. Mean shoot concentrations at the two sites ranged from 0.42 microg/g for Chenopodium album to 35 microg/g for Vicia cracca (dry weight). Bioaccumulation factors (BAF=[PCB](plant tissue)/[PCB](mean soil)) at the two sites ranged from 0.08 for Cirsium vulgare to 1.1 for V. cracca. Maximum shoot extractions were 420 microg for Solidago canadensis at the Etobicoke site, and 120 microg for Chrysanthemum leucanthemum at the Lindsay site. When plant density was taken into account with a theoretical density value, seventeen species appeared to be able to extract a similar or greater quantity of PCBs into the shoot tissue than pumpkins (Curcurbita pepo ssp. pepo) which are known PCB accumulators. Therefore, some of these weed species are promising candidates for future phytoremediation studies. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Toxicity and biodegradation of PCBs in contaminated sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dercova, K.; Cicmanova, J.; Lovecka, P.; Demnerova, K.; Mackova, M.; Hucko, P.; Kusnir, P.

    2006-01-01

    PCBs represent a serious ecological problem due to their low degradability, high toxicity, and strong bioaccumulation. Because of many environmental and economical problems, there are efforts to develop bio-remediation technologies for decontamination of the PCB-polluted areas. PCB were used by storage of spent nuclear fuel in nuclear power plants Jaslovske Bohunice. In the locality of the former producer of PCB - Chemko Strazske a. s. - big amount of these substances is still persisting in sediments and soil. The goal of this study was to analyze the contaminated sediments from Strazsky canal and Zemplinska Sirava water reservoir from several points of view. The study of eco-toxicity confirmed that both sediments were toxic for various tested organisms. The genotoxicity test has not proved the mutagenic effect. The subsequent step included microbiological analysis of the contaminated sediments and isolation of pure bacterial cultures capable of degrading PCBs. In order to determine the genetic potential for their biodegradability, the gene bphA1 was identified using PCR technique in their genomes. This gene codes the enzyme biphenyl-dioxygenase, which is responsible for PCB degradation. The final goal was to perform aerobic biodegradation of PCBs in the sediments. The bacteria present in both sediments are able to degrade certain low chlorinated congeners. The issue of biodiversity is still open and has to be studied to reveal the real cooperation between bacteria. (authors)

  19. Enhanced PCBs sorption on biochars as affected by environmental factors: Humic acid and metal cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yu; Wang Lei; Fang Guodong; Herath, H.M.S.K.; Wang Yujun; Cang Long; Xie Zubin; Zhou Dongmei

    2013-01-01

    Biochar plays an important role in the behaviors of organic pollutants in the soil environment. The role of humic acid (HA) and metal cations on the adsorption affinity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to the biochars in an aqueous medium and an extracted solution from a PCBs-contaminated soil was studied using batch experiments. Biochars were produced with pine needles and wheat straw at 350 °C and 550 °C under anaerobic condition. The results showed that the biochars had high adsorption affinity for PCBs. Pine needle chars adsorbed less nonplanar PCBs than planar ones due to dispersive interactions and separation. Coexistence of HA and metal cations increased PCBs sorption on the biochars accounted for HA adsorption and cation complexation. The results will aid in a better understanding of biochar sorption mechanism of contaminants in the environment. - Highlights: ► Application of the biochars for PCBs sorption was a new and effective way. ► The biochars had higher adsorption affinity for PCBs in the soil extracted solution. ► Pine needle chars adsorbed less nonplanar PCBs than planar ones. ► Coexisting humic acid or metal cations increased PCBs sorption on the biochars. - The biochars had higher adsorption affinity for PCBs in the extracted soil solution because coexisting humic acid and metal cations increased their sorption.

  20. Desorption, partitioning, and dechlorination characteristics of PCBs in sediments in interaction with reactive activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hyeok; Lawal, Wasiu; Al-Abed, Souhail R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Problematic aged real PCBs-contaminated sediment (WHS) was examined. • Performance of reactive activated carbon (RAC) impregnated with Pd–ZVI was tested. • Fate and transport of PCBs bound to WHS in the presence of RAC was fully traced. • Direct mixing configuration was compared with compartment configuration. • Results reflected real world complexities associated with slow desorption of PCBs. - Abstract: Sediment (WHS) in Waukegan Harbor, Illinois, heavily contaminated and aged with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), was treated with reactive activated carbon (RAC) impregnated with palladized iron nanoparticles. Lab test proceeded in a direct mixing configuration of RAC and WHS. A compartment configuration, where RAC was physically separated from WHS, was also designed to trace the sequential transport and fate of PCBs, including desorption, adsorption, dechlorination, and re-partitioning. PCBs, once desorbed from WHS, were immediately sequestrated to RAC and subject to dechlorination. Direct mixing of WHS with RAC was one-order of magnitude more effective for dechlorination than compartment configuration. Compared to their desorption-followed by-adsorption route, direct physical contact of RAC with PCBs bound to WHS exhibited negligible contribution to the availability of PCBs for dechlorination reaction. Addition of RAC even in compartment configuration facilitated PCBs desorption from WHS. However, slow desorption of PCBs limited overall performance, resulting in a five-order of magnitude lower dechlorination yield when compared with treatment of purely aqueous PCBs. The low dechlorination yield reflected real world complexities in treating 3.19% organic carbon-containing WHS aged with PCBs for 40 years. These observations were further supported when compared with results on clean Cesar Creek sediment spiked with 2-chlorinated biphenyls

  1. Desorption, partitioning, and dechlorination characteristics of PCBs in sediments in interaction with reactive activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hyeok, E-mail: hchoi@uta.edu [Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Texas at Arlington, 416 Yates Street, Arlington, TX 76019-0308 (United States); Environmental and Earth Sciences Program, The University of Texas at Arlington, 500 Yates Street, Arlington, TX 76019-0049 (United States); Lawal, Wasiu [Environmental and Earth Sciences Program, The University of Texas at Arlington, 500 Yates Street, Arlington, TX 76019-0049 (United States); Al-Abed, Souhail R. [National Risk Management Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 26 W. Martin Luther King Dr., Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States)

    2015-04-28

    Highlights: • Problematic aged real PCBs-contaminated sediment (WHS) was examined. • Performance of reactive activated carbon (RAC) impregnated with Pd–ZVI was tested. • Fate and transport of PCBs bound to WHS in the presence of RAC was fully traced. • Direct mixing configuration was compared with compartment configuration. • Results reflected real world complexities associated with slow desorption of PCBs. - Abstract: Sediment (WHS) in Waukegan Harbor, Illinois, heavily contaminated and aged with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), was treated with reactive activated carbon (RAC) impregnated with palladized iron nanoparticles. Lab test proceeded in a direct mixing configuration of RAC and WHS. A compartment configuration, where RAC was physically separated from WHS, was also designed to trace the sequential transport and fate of PCBs, including desorption, adsorption, dechlorination, and re-partitioning. PCBs, once desorbed from WHS, were immediately sequestrated to RAC and subject to dechlorination. Direct mixing of WHS with RAC was one-order of magnitude more effective for dechlorination than compartment configuration. Compared to their desorption-followed by-adsorption route, direct physical contact of RAC with PCBs bound to WHS exhibited negligible contribution to the availability of PCBs for dechlorination reaction. Addition of RAC even in compartment configuration facilitated PCBs desorption from WHS. However, slow desorption of PCBs limited overall performance, resulting in a five-order of magnitude lower dechlorination yield when compared with treatment of purely aqueous PCBs. The low dechlorination yield reflected real world complexities in treating 3.19% organic carbon-containing WHS aged with PCBs for 40 years. These observations were further supported when compared with results on clean Cesar Creek sediment spiked with 2-chlorinated biphenyls.

  2. PCBs contamination in seafood species at the Eastern Coast of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaikanlaya, Chate; Settachan, Daam; Denison, Michael S; Ruchirawat, Mathuros; van den Berg, Martin

    2009-06-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a large group of persistent organic substances spread throughout the world. The most toxic PCBs are those that are dioxin-like (dl-PCBs). Environmental studies on PCBs in Thailand are limited, especially with regards to dl-PCBs. This study is one of the first in this country that demonstrates contamination of seafood with PCBs and determines the levels of PCBs and total dioxin like activity in mussels, oysters and shrimp, from the Eastern Coast of Thailand. Sixty pooled samples of mussels and twenty-seven pooled samples of oysters were collected from cultivation farms and twenty-one pooled samples of shrimp were collected from fisherman piers. Qualitative and quantitative measurements of 49 PCB congeners was obtained by HRGC-ECD analysis and total dioxin-like activity using the CAFLUX bioassay. Total PCB concentrations varied between three species, ranging between 19 and 1100 ng g(-1) lipid adjusted weight, and the levels of PCBs in shrimp was three time higher than that in mussels and oysters. With respected to the pattern of PCB congeners, it implied that the source of PCBs exposure in this area could be from the regional contamination. The calculated CAFLUX bioanalytical equivalents (BEQs) values ranged between 0.8 and 18 pg BEQ g(-1) lipid adjusted weight, and showed a good relationship with the chemical-derived TEQs. Therefore, the CAFLUX bioassay can be used for effective screening of dioxin-like activity in marine species effectively.

  3. Desorption, partitioning, and dechlorination characteristics of PCBs in sediments in interaction with reactive activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyeok; Lawal, Wasiu; Al-Abed, Souhail R

    2015-04-28

    Sediment (WHS) in Waukegan Harbor, Illinois, heavily contaminated and aged with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), was treated with reactive activated carbon (RAC) impregnated with palladized iron nanoparticles. Lab test proceeded in a direct mixing configuration of RAC and WHS. A compartment configuration, where RAC was physically separated from WHS, was also designed to trace the sequential transport and fate of PCBs, including desorption, adsorption, dechlorination, and re-partitioning. PCBs, once desorbed from WHS, were immediately sequestrated to RAC and subject to dechlorination. Direct mixing of WHS with RAC was one-order of magnitude more effective for dechlorination than compartment configuration. Compared to their desorption-followed by-adsorption route, direct physical contact of RAC with PCBs bound to WHS exhibited negligible contribution to the availability of PCBs for dechlorination reaction. Addition of RAC even in compartment configuration facilitated PCBs desorption from WHS. However, slow desorption of PCBs limited overall performance, resulting in a five-order of magnitude lower dechlorination yield when compared with treatment of purely aqueous PCBs. The low dechlorination yield reflected real world complexities in treating 3.19% organic carbon-containing WHS aged with PCBs for 40 years. These observations were further supported when compared with results on clean Cesar Creek sediment spiked with 2-chlorinated biphenyls. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Further studies on the use of enzyme profiles to monitor residue accumulation in wildlife: Plasma enzymes in starlings fed graded concentrations of morsodren, DDE, Aroclor 1254, and malathion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieter, M.P.

    1975-01-01

    Wild-trapped starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) were fed concentrations of Morsodren (2, 4, and 8 ppm), DDE or Aroclor 1254 (5, 25, and 100 ppm), or malathion (8, 35, and 160 ppm) that were found to be sublethal in pen-reared Coturnix quail fed these amounts for 12 weeks. Plasma enzymes had to be measured earlier than planned in starlings fed Morsodren (at three weeks) or the organochlorine compounds (at seven weeks) because of unexpected, subsequent mortality. Variations in enzyme response were greater in wild than in pen-reared birds, but not enough to mask the toxicant-induced changes in enzyme activity. Cholinesterase activities decreased in birds fed Morsodren or malathion, and increased in those fed the organochlorine compounds. Lactate dehydrogenase activities increased two-fold in starlings fed Morsodren and two- to four-fold in those fed the organochlorine compounds, but only 50% in those fed malathion. Further examination of enzyme profiles showed that creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase activities increased two-to four-fold in birds fed Morsodren or the organochlorine compounds but not at all in those fed malathion. Thus the classes of environmental contaminants fed to starlings could be easily distinguished by these enzymatic parameters. Evaluation of enzymatic profiles appears to be a potentially valuable technique to monitor the presence of toxicants in wild populations, especially if used to complement standard chemical residue analyses. Here the residue analyses showed, after three weeks feeding, that mercury in the carcasses reflected the concentrations fed daily, whereas accumulation in the livers was two- to four-fold greater. After seven weeks feeding, liver residues of either organochlorine compound were about three-fold higher than the concentrations fed daily. However, four times as much DDE as Aroclor 1254 had accumulated in the carcasses.

  5. Degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) using palladized iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, O.R.; Liang, L.; Holden, W.L.

    1996-06-01

    Contamination from polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is a persistent problem within the Department of Energy complex, as well as in numerous industrial sites around the US. To date, commercially available technologies for destroying these highly stable compounds involve degradation at elevated temperatures either through incineration or base-catalyzed dehalogenation at 300 degrees C. Since the heating required with these processes substantially increases the costs for treatment of PCB-contaminated wastes, there is a need for finding an alternative approach where PCB can be degraded at ambient temperatures. This report describes the degradation of PCB's utilizing the bimetallic substrate of iron/palladium

  6. PCDD/Fs, dioxin-like PCBs and marker PCBs in eggs of peregrine falcons from Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malisch, R.; Baum, F. [CVUA, Freiburg (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Adverse effects of persistent organochlorine pesticides (POPs) on wildlife have been widely documented in the literature. For birds, the reproductive cycle is negatively influenced. Therefore, bird's eggs are frequently used to monitor the contamination of the environment with xenobiotic substances. A high content of PCBs and p,p'-DDE (as main metabolite of p,p'-DDT) was found in eggs of peregrine falcons collected between 1988 and 1993 in the German ''Bundesland'' Baden- Wuerttemberg. Many other publications presented results for organochlorine pesticides, indicator PCBs or organobromine compounds in various bird's eggs. PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs were determined in eggs of California peregrine falcons, of cormorants in Japan, of predatory birds in Spain, of common terns in Michigan, USA, of peregrine falcons in Spain (vii) and of different sorts of hawks in Germany. The Stockholm Convention is a global treaty signed now by 55 parties to take action against certain POPs, among them PCBs, PCDDs and PCDFs. After ratification by France as the 50th Party, the Convention entered into force on 17 May 2004. The effectiveness should be evaluated four years after the date of entry into force and periodically thereafter at intervals. Therefore, a Global POPs Monitoring Programme was developed. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) organized a workshop to provide a scientific basis for this programme. One of the conclusions was to select the following matrices: air; bivalves; wildlife species (fish, bird's eggs, marine mammals) and human milk. The main reason for inclusion wildlife including bird's eggs was to gain information on temporal trends on, at the least, a regional basis, in animals, which represent either top predators or important species within aquatic or terrestrial food chains. For falcons, a high accumulation of POPs was observed. Regarding the migration habits it is known that older peregrine falcons

  7. Bioaccumulation of metals and PCBs in Raja clavata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Paulo; Tristão da Cunha, Regina; Micaelo, Cristina; Rodrigues, Armindo Dos Santos

    2016-12-15

    The goal of this study was to assess stable isotopes profiles, metals concentration and PCBs in Raja clavata muscle and liver, according to sex and size, and to elucidate its suitability as a Mid-Atlantic biomonitor. The results reflected bioaccumulation and suggested biomagnification processes for As and Hg in muscle tissue. Cd, Cu and Zn were detected in high amounts in liver, Cr, Mn and Rb were relatively stable and low, Pb was not detected and Sr was present in muscle at high levels, decreasing with length. Hg and Se were strongly correlated, suggesting a mitigation role. Both tissues presented low concentrations of PCBs, especially the dioxin-like congeners, although always higher in liver and not correlated with size. None of these contaminants exceed EU legislated limits. However, they need to be monitored given study area's location, volcanic nature and the expected increase of anthropogenic activity related to future prospective mining activities and the establishment of the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) between Europe and the USA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Management of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) questions ampersand answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This open-quotes Management of PCBs Questions and Answersclose quotes has been developed from a presentation given by Dr. John Smith of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the transcribed question and answer session which followed the presentation. Dr. Smith was featured at the first DOE complex-wide PCB Focus Group meeting held in San Francisco, California in December 1992. The meeting was attended by representatives from field elements who were actively involved in the management of PCBs. The meeting served as a forum for the exchange of information and discussion of PCB management issues. This document has been prepared as one of several guidance documents developed by the Department of Energy Office of Environmental Policy and Assistance (EH-41) (formerly the Office of Environmental Guidance, EH-23) to assist DOE elements in their PCB management programs. This document is organized into three parts: (1) an introduction describing the conception and development of this document, (2) a summary of Dr. Smith's presentation, and (3) the question and answer session

  9. Leeches as Sensor-bioindicators of River Contamination by PCBs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorzyslaw Poleszczuk

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the use of leeches of the genus Erpobdella as a means of assessing polychlorinated biphenyl contamination of watercourses. The River Skalice, heavily contaminated with PCBs, was selected as a model. The source of contamination was a road gravel processing factory in Rožmitál pod Třemšínem from which an estimated 1 metric ton of PCBs leaked in 1986. Levels of PCB were measured in leeches collected between 1992 to 2003 from 11 sites covering about 50 km of the river (the first sampling site upstream to the source of contamination and 10 sites downstream. The PCB indicator congeners IUPA no. 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, and 180 were measured. Levels were highest at the four sampling sites nearest the source of pollution. The highest values of PCB congeners were found in 1992. PCB content decreased from 1992 to 2003 and with distance from the source. The study indicated that leeches of the genus Erpobdella are a suitable bioindicator of contamination in the surface layer of river sediments.

  10. 40 CFR 761.187 - Reporting importers and by persons generating PCBs in excluded manufacturing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS General Records and Reports § 761.187 Reporting importers and by persons generating PCBs in excluded manufacturing processes. In addition to... generating PCBs in excluded manufacturing processes. 761.187 Section 761.187 Protection of Environment...

  11. Residues of dioxins and PCBs in fat of growing pigs and broilers fed contaminated feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Kan, C.A.; Bovee, T.F.H.; Weg, van der G.; Onstenk, C.G.M.; Traag, W.A.

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the kinetics of PCBs and dioxins, 3 week old broilers and 3 month old pigs were fed with a 10-fold diluted feed from the Belgium crisis for one week, followed by a period on clean feed. In the case of broilers this resulted in levels for dioxins, non-ortho and mono-ortho PCBs in fat

  12. Fetal exposure to PCBs and their hydroxylated metabolites in a Dutch cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soechitram, S.D.; Athanasiadou, M.; Hovander, L.; Bergman, A.; Sauer, P. J. J.

    2004-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are still the most abundant pollutants in wildlife and humans. Hydroxylated PCB metabolites (OH-PCBs) are known to be formed in humans and wildlife. Studies in animals show that these metabolites cause endocrine-related toxicity. The health effects in humans have not

  13. Neurodevelopmental toxicity of prenatal polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs by chemical structure and activity: a birth cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Hye-Youn

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are ubiquitous environmental toxins. Although there is growing evidence to support an association between PCBs and deficits of neurodevelopment, the specific mechanisms are not well understood. The potentially different roles of specific PCB groups defined by chemical structures or hormonal activities e.g., dioxin-like, non-dioxin like, or anti-estrogenic PCBs, remain unclear. Our objective was to examine the association between prenatal exposure to defined subsets of PCBs and neurodevelopment in a cohort of infants in eastern Slovakia enrolled at birth in 2002-2004. Methods Maternal and cord serum samples were collected at delivery, and analyzed for PCBs using high-resolution gas chromatography. The Bayley Scales of Infant Development -II (BSID were administered at 16 months of age to over 750 children who also had prenatal PCB measurements. Results Based on final multivariate-adjusted linear regression model, maternal mono-ortho-substituted PCBs were significantly associated with lower scores on both the psychomotor (PDI and mental development indices (MDI. Also a significant association between cord mono-ortho-substituted PCBs and reduced PDI was observed, but the association with MDI was marginal (p = 0.05. Anti-estrogenic and di-ortho-substituted PCBs did not show any statistically significant association with cognitive scores, but a suggestive association between di-ortho-substituted PCBs measured in cord serum and poorer PDI was observed. Conclusion Children with higher prenatal mono-ortho-substituted PCB exposures performed more poorly on the Bayley Scales. Evidence from this and other studies suggests that prenatal dioxin-like PCB exposure, including mono-ortho congeners, may interfere with brain development in utero. Non-dioxin-like di-ortho-substituted PCBs require further investigation.

  14. Assessment of exposure and transfer of dioxins, dioxin-like PCBs and PCBs. Literature review; Expositionsbetrachtung und Beurteilung des Transfers von Dioxinen, dioxinaehnlichen PCB und PCB. Literaturstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennecke, Dieter [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Molekularbiologie und Angewandte Oekologie (IME), Schmallenberg (Germany); Duering, Rolf-Alexander; Becker, Leonie [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Bodenkunde und Bodenerhaltung

    2011-09-15

    Causal correlations between environmental contamination with PCBs and PCDD/Fs and food and feed contamination with these substances are not been found so far. Because of the high importance of the transfer of these substances into the food chain this is subject to wide research. The present literature review summarizes the actual knowledge regarding emission, exposition and transfer of PCBs and Dioxins within the food chain. A particular focus has been laid to sources of emission, distribution processes and exposure assessment for environment and consumer. International publications as well as publications and reports on a German national level and so called ''grey'' literature were evaluated. In general it can be noticed that comparison of different publications is difficult since the authors usually do not differentiate between non-dioxin-like PCBs (ndl-PCBs) and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs). Most authors mix dl-PCBs and ndl-PCBs, a breakdown of the PCBs in single congeners is rarely given. Extended Abstract Due to atmospheric translocation PCBs and PCDD/Fs are ubiquitous distributed in the environment. The emissions in Germany could be reduced drastically in the first half of the nineties due to regulatory restrictions. At the same time contaminations detected in food and feed dropped down. But since 1997 no significant further reduction of environmental concentrations of PCBs and PCDD/Fs can be observed. Present emissions of PCBs and PCDD/Fs derive from nonpoint sources mainly, e.g. remobilisation from soils and sediments by surface erosion and volatilization. Further increasing emissions of PCDD/Fs are expected due to promotion of renewable energies (combustion of wood). A short term reduction of environmental concentrations is not likely due to the persistence of the compounds. Major exposure pathway for plants is via dry and wet deposition of contaminated particles and volatiles, depending on the physical-chemical properties of the various congeners. Uptake by

  15. Assessment of exposure and transfer of dioxins, dioxin-like PCBs and PCBs. Literature review; Expositionsbetrachtung und Beurteilung des Transfers von Dioxinen, dioxinaehnlichen PCB und PCB. Literaturstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennecke, Dieter [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Molekularbiologie und Angewandte Oekologie (IME), Schmallenberg (Germany); Duering, Rolf-Alexander; Becker, Leonie [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Bodenkunde und Bodenerhaltung

    2011-09-15

    Causal correlations between environmental contamination with PCBs and PCDD/Fs and food and feed contamination with these substances are not been found so far. Because of the high importance of the transfer of these substances into the food chain this is subject to wide research. The present literature review summarizes the actual knowledge regarding emission, exposition and transfer of PCBs and Dioxins within the food chain. A particular focus has been laid to sources of emission, distribution processes and exposure assessment for environment and consumer. International publications as well as publications and reports on a German national level and so called ''grey'' literature were evaluated. In general it can be noticed that comparison of different publications is difficult since the authors usually do not differentiate between non-dioxin-like PCBs (ndl-PCBs) and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs). Most authors mix dl-PCBs and ndl-PCBs, a breakdown of the PCBs in single congeners is rarely given. Extended Abstract Due to atmospheric translocation PCBs and PCDD/Fs are ubiquitous distributed in the environment. The emissions in Germany could be reduced drastically in the first half of the nineties due to regulatory restrictions. At the same time contaminations detected in food and feed dropped down. But since 1997 no significant further reduction of environmental concentrations of PCBs and PCDD/Fs can be observed. Present emissions of PCBs and PCDD/Fs derive from nonpoint sources mainly, e.g. remobilisation from soils and sediments by surface erosion and volatilization. Further increasing emissions of PCDD/Fs are expected due to promotion of renewable energies (combustion of wood). A short term reduction of environmental concentrations is not likely due to the persistence of the compounds. Major exposure pathway for plants is via dry and wet deposition of contaminated particles and volatiles, depending on the physical-chemical properties of the various

  16. An integrative risk assessment approach for persistent chemicals: a case study on dioxins, furans and dioxin-like PCBs in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béchaux, Camille; Zeilmaker, Marco; Merlo, Mathilde; Bokkers, Bas; Crépet, Amélie

    2014-10-01

    For persistent chemicals slowly eliminated from the body, the accumulated concentration (body burden), rather than the daily exposure, is considered the proper starting point for the risk assessment. This work introduces an integrative approach for persistent chemical risk assessment by means of a dynamic body burden approach. To reach this goal a Kinetic Dietary Exposure Model (KDEM) was extended with the long term time trend in the exposure (historic exposure) and the comparison of bioaccumulation with body burden references for toxicity. The usefulness of the model was illustrated on the dietary exposure to PolyChlorinatedDibenzo-p-Dioxins (PCDDs), PolyChlorinatedDibenzoFurans (PCDFs) and PolyChlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in France. Firstly the dietary exposure to these compounds was determined in 2009 and combined with its long term time trend. In order to take differences between the kinetics of PCDD/F and dl-PCBs into account, three groups of congeners were considered i.e. PCDD/Fs, PCB 126 and remaining dl-PCBs. The body burden was compared with reference body burdens corresponding to reproductive, hepatic and thyroid toxicity. In the case of thyroid toxicity this comparison indicated that in 2009 the probability of the body burden to exceed its reference ranged from 2.8% (95% CI: 1.5-4.9%) up to 3.9% (95% CI: 2.7-7.1%) (18-29 vs. 60-79year olds). Notwithstanding the decreasing long-term time trend of the dietary dioxin exposure in France, this probability still is expected to be 1.5% (95% CI: 0.3-2.5%) in 2030 in 60-79 olds. In the case of reproductive toxicity the probability of the 2009 body burden to exceed its reference ranged from 3.1% (95% CI: 1.4-5.0%) (18-29year olds) to 3.5% (95% CI: 2.2-5.2%) (30-44year olds). In 2030 this probability is negligible in 18-29year olds, however small though significant in 30-44year olds (0.7%, 95% CI: 0-1.6%). In the case of hepatic toxicity the probability in 2009 even in 60-79year olds already was negligible. In

  17. PCDD/F, dioxin-like and markers PCBs in trouts from French aquaculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchand, P.; Matayron, G.; Gade, C.; Le Bizec, B.; Andre, F. [LABERCA-ENVN, Nantes (France)

    2004-09-15

    Since the introduction of 12 ''dioxin-like'' polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) into the assessment of a tolerable daily intake (TDI) for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1998, the analytical determination of nonand mono-ortho PCBs is of increasing interest in the scientific community. The European Commission has already published a regulation that sets maximum limits for dioxins in foodstuffs (Council Regulation 2375/01/EC amending Commission regulation (EC) N 466/2001 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs). As an additional feature of the reduction strategy for this group of compounds, the European Commission has planned to include the dioxinlike PCBs in the limit values for food and feeding stuffs starting at the end of 2004. The LABERCA (French National Reference Laboratory for dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs)) and the CIPA (French Interprofessional Committee for Aquaculture products) reported levels in French farmed trout according to WHO-TEQ expression and sum of Markers PCBs (m-PCBs). It must be emphasized that this survey only represents a snapshot in time. The results cannot be used to determine the potential contamination of other batches that have not been tested. However, the fish samples were taken from 58 aquaculture sites and 10 fishes were pooled from each site. It is the reason why the results can be interpreted as a good indicative of the contamination levels in farmed trout produced in France.

  18. The associations between the environmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and breast cancer risk and progression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls(PCBs) are chlorinated biphenyl compounds with wide applications in the industry.In spite of a ban on their production in the late 1970s,PCBs,as a group of POPs,are still persistent and widely spread in the environment,posing potential threats to human health.The role of PCBs as etiologic agents for breast cancer has been intensively explored in a variety of in vivo,animal and epidemiologic studies.Initial investigations indicated higher levels of PCBs in mammary tissues or sera corresponded to the occurrence of breast cancer,but later studies showed no positive association between PCB exposure and breast cancer development.More recent data suggested that the CYP1A1 m2 polymorphisms might add increased risk to the etiology of breast cancer in women with environmental exposure to PCBs.PCBs are implicated in advancing breast cancer progression,and our unpublished data reveals that PCBs activate the ROCK signaling to enhance breast cancer metastasis.Therefore,the correlation between PCB exposure and breast cancer risk warrants further careful investigations.

  19. Mode of action of dioxin-like versus non-dioxin-like PCBs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoeters, G. [VITO (Flemish Institute for Technological Research), Dept. of Environemental Toxicology (Belgium)]|[Antwerp Univ. (Belgium); Birnbaum, L. [United States Environmental Protection Agency, Experimental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Exposure of humans to polychlorinated biphenyls has been associated with different adverse effects such as immune impairment, changes in hormone levels, reproductive and neuropsychological changes and cancer. It is difficult to attribute the observed effects to either dioxin-like, non-dioxin-like PCBs or to both. All known human exposures are mixed, comprising dioxin and non-dioxin like PCB congeners as well as dioxins and furans. The purpose of this work was to evaluate, based on mechanistic data available in the open literature, whether non-dioxin like PCBs (NDL-PCBs) themselves may pose specific health risks. It is clear that dioxin and NDL-PCBs differ in the spectrum of metabolizing enzymes they induce, but the mechanistic links to health of these biochemical changes remain unclear at the moment. NDL-PCBs also cause immunotoxicity and tumor promotion via different mechanisms than do dioxin-like PCBs. We focus on neurotoxicity which has been associated with developmental exposure to PCBs and which is considered as one of the most sensitive adverse health effects.

  20. Reducing the bioavailability of PCBs in soil to plant by biochars assessed with triolein-embedded cellulose acetate membrane technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yu; Wang, Yu-Jun; Wang, Lei; Fang, Guo-Dong; Cang, Long; Herath, H.M.S.K.; Zhou, Dong-Mei

    2013-01-01

    Coupling with triolein-embedded cellulose acetate membrane (TECAM) technique, hydroxypropyl β-cyclodextrins (HPCD) extraction method, and the greenhouse pot experiments, the influences of biochars on polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) bioavailability in soil to plant (Brassica chinensis L. and Daucus carota) were investigated. Addition of 2% biochars to soils significantly reduced the uptake of PCBs in plant, especially for di-, tri- and tetra-chlorobiphenyls. PCBs concentrations in the roots of B. chinensis and D. carota were reduced for 61.5–93.7%, and 12.7–62.4%, respectively in the presence of biochars. The kinetic study showed that in the soils amended with/without biochars, PCBs concentrations accumulated in TECAM, as well as in the HPCD extraction solution, followed significant linear relationships with those in plant roots. Application of biochars to soil is a potentially promising method to reduce PCBs bioavailability whereas TECAM technique can be a useful tool to predict the bioavailability of PCBs in soil. -- Highlights: ► Application of biochars significantly reduced the uptake of PCBs in plant. ► TECAM was a new and effective method to predict the PCBs bioavailability in soil. ► PCBs accumulated in TECAM followed significant linear relationships with plant. ► PCBs in TECAM were more similar with the plant uptake than HPCD solution. -- The reduced PCBs concentrations in plant roots by biochars show good linear relationship with those in TECAM

  1. Life cycle of PCBs and contamination of the environment and of food products from animal origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Roland; Herold, Christine; Hollert, Henner; Kamphues, Josef; Ungemach, Linda; Blepp, Markus; Ballschmiter, Karlheinz

    2018-06-01

    This report gives a summary of the historic use, former management and current release of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Germany and assesses the impact of the life cycle of PCBs on the contamination of the environment and of food products of animal origin. In Germany 60,000 t of PCBs were used in transformers, capacitors or as hydraulic oils. The use of PCB oils in these "closed applications", has been banned in Germany in 2000. Thirty to 50% of these PCBs were not appropriately managed. In West Germany, 24,000 t of PCBs were used in open applications, mainly as additive (plasticiser, flame retardant) in sealants and paints in buildings and other construction. The continued use in open applications has not been banned, and in 2013, an estimated more than 12,000 t of PCBs were still present in buildings and other constructions. These open PCB applications continuously emit PCBs into the environment with an estimated release of 7-12 t per year. This amount is in agreement with deposition measurements (estimated to 18 t) and emission estimates for Switzerland. The atmospheric PCB releases still have an relevant impact on vegetation and livestock feed. In addition, PCBs in open applications on farms are still a sources of contamination for farmed animals. Furthermore, the historic production, use, recycling and disposal of PCBs have contaminated soils along the lifecycle. This legacy of contaminated soils and contaminated feed, individually or collectively, can lead to exceedance of maximum levels in food products from animals. In beef and chicken, soil levels of 5 ng PCB-TEQ/kg and for chicken with high soil exposure even 2 ng PCB-TEQ/kg can lead to exceedance of EU limits in meat and eggs. Areas at and around industries having produced or used or managed PCBs, or facilities and areas where PCBs were disposed need to be assessed in respect to potential contamination of food-producing animals. For a large share of impacted land, management measures

  2. Comparative bioleaching of metals from pulverized and non-pulverized PCBs of cell phone charger: advantages of non-pulverized PCBs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Vyenkatesh; Shah, Neha; Wakte, Prashant; Dhakephalkar, Prashant; Dhakephalkar, Anita; Khobragade, Rahul; Naphade, Bhushan; Shaikh, Sajid; Deshmukh, Arvind; Adhapure, Nitin

    2017-12-01

    Sample inhomogeneity is a severe issue in printed circuit boards especially when we are comparing the bioleaching efficiency. To avoid the ambiguous results obtained due to inhomogeneity in PCBs, 12 similar cell phone chargers (of renowned company) having same make and batch number were collected from scrap market. PCBs obtained from them were used in present studies. Out of these 12, three PCBs were used separately for chemical analysis of PCBs with prior acid digestion in aqua regia. It was found that, 10.8, 68.0, and 710.9 mg/l of Zn, Pb, and Cu were present in it, respectively. Six PCBs were used for bioleaching experiment with two variations, pulverized and non-pulverized. Though the pulverized sample have shown better leaching than non-pulverized one, former has some disadvantages if overall recycling of e-waste (metallic and nonmetallic fraction) is to be addressed. At the end of leaching experiments, copper was recovered using a simple setup of electrodeposition and 92.85% recovery was attained. The acidophiles involved in bioleaching were identified by culture dependent and culture independent techniques such as DGGE and species specific primers in PCR.

  3. Ecotoxicity and risk to human fish consumers of polychlorinated biphenyls in fish near the Hanford Site (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delistraty, Damon

    2013-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to quantify three groups of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (i.e., dioxin-like toxic equivalents [TEQ], non-dioxin-like PCBs, total PCBs) in fish in several species, tissues, and locations in the Columbia River near the Hanford Site. For TEQ and total PCBs, fish ecotoxicity and risk to human fish consumers were also evaluated. Non-dioxin-like PCBs were not assessed for toxicity, due to lack of available benchmarks. In sturgeon liver, TEQ was significantly higher (Pfillet than in other species (except carp) and significantly higher (Pfillet, relative to bass. All PCB residues in carcass were significantly elevated (Pfillet. In addition to PCB source, many factors (e.g., dietary composition, tissue lipid content, fish mobility and home range, age, toxicokinetic processes, seasonal adaptations) influence patterns in PCB bioaccumulation across species, tissues, and locations. TEQ and total PCB residues in liver, fillet, and carcass, observed in this study, were below corresponding no effect residues for TEQ and Aroclors in the literature for fish survival, growth, and reproduction. In contrast, TEQ and total PCBs in fillet in this study exceeded USEPA tissue screening levels for cancer (1E-6 risk) and noncancer (hazard quotient [HQ]=1) toxicity for human fish consumers. Key uncertainties in these comparisons to assess toxicity relate to variation in fish species sensitivity to PCBs and use of Aroclor data in the literature to represent total PCBs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Trophic Magnification of PCBs and Its Relationship to the Octanol−Water Partition Coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) bioaccumulation relative to octanol-water partition coefficient (KOW) and organism trophic position (TP) at the Lake Hartwell Superfund (South Carolina, USA). We measured PCBs (127 congeners) and stable isotopes (δ15...

  5. Enantioselective gas chromatographic separation of methylsulfonyl PCBs in seal blubber, pelican muscle and human adipose tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karasek, L.; Rosmus, J. [Veterinary Institute Prague (Czech Republic). Dept. of Chemistry; Hajslova, J. [Institute of Chemical Technology (Czech Republic). Dept. of Food Chemistry and Analysis; Huehnerfuss, H. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Organische Chemie

    2004-09-15

    Methyl sulfone derivatives are known to represent primary metabolic products of PCBs (MeSO2- CB) and DDE (MeSO2-DDE). These metabolites are formed via mercapturic acid pathway and belong to persistent, lipophilic compounds which accumulate in the adipose, lung, liver and kidney tissues of mammals exposed to PCBs. In 1976 Jenssen and Jansson reported the identification of PCB methyl sulfones as metabolites of PCBs in Baltic grey seal blubber. Methyl sulfones are moderately polar compounds that are only slightly less hydrophobic than the parent PCBs, and their partition coefficients fulfill the requirements for bioaccumulation. The highest concentrations have been found in kidney and lung tissues of seals, otters, beluga whales, polar bears, fishes and in human tissues. In the present investigation two samples of seal blubber, two pelican muscles and eleven human adipose tissue samples were analysed with regard to their concentrations of PCB parent compounds as well as to the respective chiral methylsulfonyl metabolites.

  6. Development and Application of Immunoaffinity Chromatography for Coplanar PCBs in Soil and Sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    An immunoaffinity chromatography (IAC) column was developed as a simple cleanup procedure for preparing environmental samples for analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Soil and sediment samples were prepared using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), followed by the IAC c...

  7. The geography of mercury and PCBs in North Carolina’s local seafood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitag, Amy; Sohn, Nari; Hooper, Mark; Rittschof, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Mercury and PCBs are used by non-governmental organizations and federal agencies to inform seafood safety recommendations. Pollution dynamics suggest recommendations on the national scale may be too large to be accurate. We tested softshell and hardshell blue crab, white and pink shrimp, oysters, clams, spot, and mullet from fishers in each of the three North Carolina fishery districts. We measured mercury using EPA method 7473 and PCBs using a commercially available ELISA kit. Over 97% of samples were below the Environmental Protection Agency levels of concern for both mercury and PCBs. Mercury and PCBs have different spatial dynamics, but both differ significantly by water body, suggesting that seafood safety recommendations should occur by water body instead of at the national scale. This finding supports previous research suggesting that differences in water chemistry, terrestrial influence, and flushing time in a particular water body control the contaminant load in locally resident species.

  8. Associations between congenital cryptorchidism in newborn boys and levels of dioxins and PCBs in placenta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virtanen, H E; Koskenniemi, J J; Sundqvist, E

    2012-01-01

    In animal studies, exposure to dioxins has been associated with disrupted development of the male reproductive system, including testicular maldescent. Some polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have also dioxin-like effects. In addition, one previous case-control study has reported an association...... between congenital cryptorchidism and colostrum PCB levels. We performed a case-control study to evaluate whether congenital cryptorchidism in boys was associated with increased levels of dioxins or PCBs in placenta reflecting foetal exposure. In addition, associations between placenta levels...... controls) and 168 Danish (39 cases, 129 controls)] were analysed for 17 toxic polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and 37 PCBs (including 12 dioxin-like PCBs). Infant serum samples taken at 3 months were analysed for reproductive hormones. No significant differences between cases...

  9. Compilations of measured and calculated physicochemical property values for PCBs, PBDEs, PCDDs and PAHs

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The dataset consists of compilations of measured and calculated physicochemical property values for PCBs, PBDEs, PCDDs and PAHs. The properties included in this...

  10. THE EFFECT OF PCBS ON GLYCOGEN RESERVES IN THE EASTERN OYSTER CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA. (R825349)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent declines in Chesapeake Bay oyster populations have been attributed to disease, and reduced water quality from pollution. The stress associated with pollutant exposure may reduce energy available for growth and reproduction. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are lipophilic c...

  11. Exposure assessment of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in pasteurised bovine milk using probabilistic modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adekunte, Adefunke O; Tiwari, Brijesh K; O'Donnell, Colm P

    2010-09-01

    Quantitative exposure assessment is a useful technique to investigate the risk from contaminants in the food chain. The objective of this study was to develop a probabilistic exposure assessment model for dioxins (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) in pasteurised bovine milk. Mean dioxins and DL-PCBs (non-ortho and mono-ortho PCBs) concentrations (pg WHO-TEQ g(-1)) in bovine milk were estimated as 0.06 ± 0.07 pg WHO-TEQ g(-1) for dioxins and 0.08 ± 0.07 pg WHO-TEQ g(-1) for DL-PCBs using Monte Carlo simulation. The simulated model estimated mean exposure for dioxins was 0.19 ± 0.29 pg WHO-TEQ kg(-1)bw d(-1) and 0.14 ± 0.22 pg WHO-TEQ kg(-1) bw d(-1) and for DL-PCBs was 0.25 ± 0.30 pg WHO-TEQ kg(-1) bw d(-1) and 0.19 ± 0.22 pg WHO-TEQ kg(-1) bw d(-1) for men and women, respectively. This study showed that the mean dioxins and DL-PCBs exposure from consumption of pasteurised bovine milk is below the provisional maximum tolerable monthly intake of 70 pg TEQ kg(-1) bw month(-1) (equivalent of 2.3 pg TEQ kg(-1) bw d(-1)) recommended by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives and Contaminants (JECFA). Results from this study also showed that the estimated dioxins and DL-PCBs concentration in pasteurised bovine milk is comparable to those reported in previous studies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Review of chemical and electrokinetic remediation of PCBs contaminated soils and sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Guangping; Wang, Yu; Fang, Guodong; Zhu, Xiangdong; Zhou, Dongmei

    2016-09-14

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are manmade organic compounds, and pollution due to PCBs has been a global environmental problem because of their persistence, long-range atmospheric transport and bioaccumulation. Many physical, chemical and biological technologies have been utilized to remediate PCBs contaminated soils and sediments, and there are some emerging new technologies and combined methods that may provide cost-effective alternatives to the existing remediation practice. This review provides a general overview on the recent developments in chemical treatment and electrokinetic remediation (EK) technologies related to PCBs remediation. In particular, four technologies including photocatalytic degradation of PCBs combined with soil washing, Fe-based reductive dechlorination, advanced oxidation process, and EK/integrated EK technology (e.g., EK coupled with chemical oxidation, nanotechnology and bioremediation) are reviewed in detail. We focus on the fundamental principles and governing factors of chemical technologies, and EK/integrated EK technologies. Comparative analysis of these technologies including their major advantages and disadvantages is summarized. The existing problems and future prospects of these technologies regarding PCBs remediation are further highlighted.

  13. Toxicological effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on freshwater turtles in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming-Ch'eng Adams, Clare Isabel; Baker, Joel E; Kjellerup, Birthe V

    2016-07-01

    Prediction of vertebrate health effects originating from persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has remained a challenge for decades thus making the identification of bioindicators difficult. POPs are predominantly present in soil and sediment, where they adhere to particles due to their hydrophobic characteristics. Animals inhabiting soil and sediment can be exposed to PCBs via dermal exposure while others may obtain PCBs through contaminated trophic interaction. Freshwater turtles can serve as bioindicators due to their strong site fidelity, longevity and varied diet. Previous research observed the health effects of PCBs on turtles such as decreased bone mass, changed sexual development and decreased immune responses through studying both contaminated sites along with laboratory experimentation. Higher deformity rates in juveniles, increased mortality and slower growth have also been observed. Toxicological effects of PCBs vary between species of freshwater turtles and depend on the concertation and configuration of PCB congeners. Evaluation of ecotoxicological effects of PCBs in non-endangered turtles could provide important knowledge about the health effects of endangered turtle species thus inform the design of remediation strategies. In this review, the PCB presence in freshwater turtle habitats and the ecotoxicological effects were investigated with the aim of utilizing the health status to identify areas of focus for freshwater turtle conservation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Direct and indirect atmospheric deposition of PCBs to the Delaware River watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totten, Lisa A; Panangadan, Maya; Eisenreich, Steven J; Cavallo, Gregory J; Fikslin, Thomas J

    2006-04-01

    Atmospheric deposition can be an important source of PCBs to aquatic ecosystems. To develop the total maximum daily load (TMDL) for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) for the tidal Delaware River (water-quality Zones 2-5), estimates of the loading of PCBs to the river from atmospheric deposition were generated from seven air-monitoring sites along the river. This paper presents the atmospheric PCB data from these sites, estimates direct atmospheric deposition fluxes, and assesses the importance of atmospheric deposition relative to other sources of PCBs to the river. Also, the relationship between indirect atmospheric deposition and PCB loads from minor tributaries to the Delaware River is discussed. Data from these sites revealed high atmospheric PCB concentrations in the Philadelphia/Camden urban area and lower regional background concentrations in the more remote areas. Wet, dry particle, and gaseous absorption deposition are estimated to contribute about 0.6, 1.8, and 6.5 kg year-(-1) sigmaPCBs to the River, respectively, exceeding the TMDL of 0.139 kg year(-1) by more than an order of magnitude. Penta-PCB watershed fluxes were obtained by dividing the tributary loads by the watershed area. The lowest of these watershed fluxes are less than approximately 1 ng m(-2) day(-1) for penta-PCB and probably indicates pristine watersheds in which PCB loads are dominated by atmospheric deposition. In these watersheds, the pass-through efficiency of PCBs is estimated to be on the order of 1%.

  15. Automated rapid analysis for dioxins and PCBs in food, feedingstuff and environmental matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelscher, K.; Maulshagen, A.; Behnisch, P.A. [eurofins-GfA, Muenster (Germany); Shirkhan, H. [Fluid Management Systems Inc., Waltham, MA (United States); Lieck, G. [University of Applied Science, Steinfurt (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Today there is a need to develop high throughput specific and sensitive methods for the determination of dioxins, dioxin-like PCBs and indicator-PCBs to ensure their rapid and reliable quantification in several kinds of food and feedingstuffs. Ideally one method would fit for several matrices with highest quality standards and with the possibility of a cost/time-effective samplehandling. However, generally in case of the numerous different PCDD/Fs, dioxin-like PCBs and indicator-PCBs as well as the large concentration range to cover this is quite difficult to fulfill. The implementation of an automated sample-treatment flow process (''dioxin street''), which contains an accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), a Power-Prep workstation (Fluid Management Systems, FMS) for automated clean-up, a Syncore Polyvap (Buechi, Switzerland) for solvent evaporation and a HRGC/HRMS (VG AutoSpec) analysis as detection method for several kinds of different matrices is described here. The aim of the present study is to confirm the high quality, low limits of quantification (LOQ), low PCB background levels and reliability of the Power-Prep system in combination with ASE extraction for dioxins, dioxin-like PCBs and indicator-PCBs.

  16. Uptake of PCBs contained in marine sediments by the green macroalga Ulva rigida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Donald; Rajic, Ljiljana; Sly, Elizabeth; Meric, Dogus; Sheahan, Thomas

    2014-11-15

    The uptake of PCBs contained in marine sediments by the green macroalga Ulva rigida was investigated in both laboratory and field experiments. Under laboratory conditions, total PCBs (tPCBs) uptake was significantly greater in live vs dead plants. The concentration of tPCB taken up in live plants was greatest in the first 24h (1580 μg kg(-1) dry weight), and then increased at a lower rate from day 2 to 14. Dead plants had a significantly lower tPCB concentration after 24h (609 μg kg(-1) dry weight) and lower uptake rate through day 14. Lesser chlorinated PCB congeners (below 123) made up the majority of PCBs taken up. Congener composition in both laboratory and field experiments was correlated to congener logKow value and sediment content. Field experiments showed that Ulva plants could concentrate PCBs to 3.9 mg kg(-1) in 24h. Thus, U. rigida is capable of removing PCBs in sediments at a rapid rate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Correlations between dioxin-like and indicators PCBs: Potential consequences for environmental studies involving fish or sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babut, M.; Miege, C.; Villeneuve, B.; Abarnou, A.; Duchemin, J.; Marchand, P.; Narbonne, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    Among the numerous PCB congeners, most of the dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) need to be characterized by hyphenated techniques. It has been shown in several instances that these congeners are well related to the total PCB content in fish. We examined datasets collected mainly in France, on freshwater and marine fish and sediments. A statistical model linking DL- and indicator PCBs was developed for a dataset composed of freshwater fishes, and proved to predict well DL-PCBs from indicator PCBs in all other fish sets, including marine ones. Type II error rates remained low in almost all fish sets. A similar correlation was observed in sediments. Non-dioxin-like PCBs elicit various adverse effects and represent 95% of the total PCBs. A European guideline for them is needed; the correlation between DL- and indicator PCBs could help develop this standard in the future. - Dioxin-like PCBs in fish and maybe sediments are rather well predicted by indicator PCBs.

  18. Interspecies variability of Dioxin-like PCBs accumulation in five plants from the modern Yellow River delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Guolan; Cui Zhaojie; Liu Jing

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the interspecies variance of Dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in the plants from modern Yellow River delta, the concentrations of 12 DL-PCBs congeners were examined in five plant species and their associated soils. The DL-PCBs concentrations in plants (2.32-287.60 ng/kg dry weight) were low compared to most published literature, and the concentrations and ratios of DL-PCBs congeners in plants varied greatly among species. The properties of plants and PCBs were then studied to explore the factors affecting the interspecies variance of DL-PCBs accumulation. The plants with the smallest variance of morphological and physiological characteristics (Imperata cylindrical var. Major and Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud) had the most similar accumulation patterns of DL-PCBs among the species tested. As the octanol-air partitioning coefficient (K oa ) of the DL-PCBs increased, interspecies variance decreased on the whole plant level. Interestingly, the correlation between the DL-PCBs concentrations in plants and log K oa of congeners was found to be significant for annual plants, but for perennial plants it was not significant. Thus the patterns of uptake of DL-PCBs are different between annual and perennial plants

  19. Interspecies variability of Dioxin-like PCBs accumulation in five plants from the modern Yellow River delta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guolan, Fan [Environmental Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Province 250100 (China); Cui Zhaojie [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Province 250100 (China)], E-mail: cuizj@sdu.edu.cn; Jing, Liu [School of City Planning and Environmental Engineering, Shandong Jianzhu University, Jinan, Shandong Province 250101 (China)

    2009-04-30

    To investigate the interspecies variance of Dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in the plants from modern Yellow River delta, the concentrations of 12 DL-PCBs congeners were examined in five plant species and their associated soils. The DL-PCBs concentrations in plants (2.32-287.60 ng/kg dry weight) were low compared to most published literature, and the concentrations and ratios of DL-PCBs congeners in plants varied greatly among species. The properties of plants and PCBs were then studied to explore the factors affecting the interspecies variance of DL-PCBs accumulation. The plants with the smallest variance of morphological and physiological characteristics (Imperata cylindrical var. Major and Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud) had the most similar accumulation patterns of DL-PCBs among the species tested. As the octanol-air partitioning coefficient (K{sub oa}) of the DL-PCBs increased, interspecies variance decreased on the whole plant level. Interestingly, the correlation between the DL-PCBs concentrations in plants and log K{sub oa} of congeners was found to be significant for annual plants, but for perennial plants it was not significant. Thus the patterns of uptake of DL-PCBs are different between annual and perennial plants.

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs enhance metastatic properties of breast cancer cells by activating Rho-associated kinase (ROCK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijin Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are a family of structurally related chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons. Numerous studies have documented a wide spectrum of biological effects of PCBs on human health, such as immunotoxicity, neurotoxicity, estrogenic or antiestrogenic activity, and carcinogenesis. The role of PCBs as etiologic agents for breast cancer has been intensively explored in a variety of in vivo, animal and epidemiologic studies. A number of investigations indicated that higher levels of PCBs in mammary tissues or sera correlated to breast cancer risk, and PCBs might be implicated in advancing breast cancer progression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the current study, we for the first time report that PCBs greatly promote the ROCK activity and therefore increase cell motility for both non-metastatic and metastatic human breast cancer cells in vitro. In the in vivo study, PCBs significantly advance disease progression, leading to enhanced capability of metastatic breast cancer cells to metastasize to bone, lung and liver. Additionally, PCBs robustly induce the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS in breast cancer cells; ROS mechanistically elevate ROCK activity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: PCBs enhance the metastatic propensity of breast cancer cells by activating the ROCK signaling, which is dependent on ROS induced by PCBs. Inhibition of ROCK may stand for a unique way to restrain metastases in breast cancer upon PCB exposure.

  1. Dechlorination of PCBs in the rhizosphere of switchgrass and poplar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meggo, Richard E.; Schnoor, Jerald L.; Hu, Dingfei

    2013-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (PCB 52, 77, and 153) singly and in mixture were spiked and aged in soil microcosms and subsequently planted with switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) or poplar (Populus deltoids x nigra DN34). The planted reactors showed significantly greater reductions in PCB parent compounds when compared to unplanted systems after 32 weeks. There was evidence of reductive dechlorination in both planted and unplanted systems, but the planted microcosms with fully developed roots and rhizospheres showed greater biotransformation than the unplanted reactors. These dechlorination products accounted for approximately all of the molar mass of parent compound lost. Based on the transformation products, reductive dechlorination pathways are proposed for rhizospheric biotransformation of PCB 52, 77, and 153. This is the first report of rhizosphere biotransformation pathways for reductive dechlorination in marginally aerobic, intermittently flooded soil as evidenced by a mass balance on transformation products. -- Highlights: •Soil was spiked and aged and then planted with poplar and switchgrass. •Planted microcosms showed significant reductive dechlorination and greater biotransformation than unplanted reactor. •Rhizospheric reductive dechlorination pathways are proposed. -- This study provides insight into rhizospheric transformation of PCBs

  2. Dietary sodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The 2013 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence" did not support the current recommendations of the IOM and the American Heart Association (AHA) to reduce daily dietary sodium intake to below 2,300 mg. The report concluded that the population...

  3. The Norwegian human milk study HUMIS variations in levels of chlorinated pesticides, PCBs and PBDEs in Norwegian breast milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polder, A.; Loeken, K. [The Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, Oslo (Norway); Thomsen, C.; Becher, G.; Eggesboe, M. [Norwegian Inst. of Public Health, Oslo (Norway); Skaare, J.U. [National Veterinary Inst., Oslo (Norway)

    2004-09-15

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated, -dibenzo-pdioxins (PCDDs), -dibenzofurans (PCDFs), -biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are among the persistent organic pollutants (POPs) that have been found to accumulate in human breast milk. Because nursing children are exposed to these chemicals through the contaminated breast milk, health authorities worldwide are concerned for the infants' intake and therefore human milk monitoring programs are performed in many countries. While restrictions and bans resulted in a decline of organochlorines (OCs) in human milk during the last decades, an increasing trend has been found for PBDEs. The main goals of ''The Norwegian Human Milk Study, HUMIS'' are: to elucidate the human exposure in Norway to POPs, to identify dietary habits and other lifestyle factors that are associated with high levels of POPs in human milk, and to study the impact of exposure to the these contaminants on child health. This study reports preliminary results of recent levels of POPs in human milk in 4 different counties in Norway.

  4. Exchange of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) between air and a mixed pasture sward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Jonathan L; Thomas, Gareth O; Bailey, Rebekah; Kerstiens, Gerhard; Jones, Kevin C

    2004-07-15

    To improve understanding of air-to-vegetation transfer of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), uptake and depuration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) between grass sward and air was investigated. Pasture swards were placed in fanned (2 m s(-1) wind speed) and unfanned conditions for a period of 20 days and sampled at intervals. Depuration was carried out after a short (4 days) and a long (14 days) exposure period. Prior to contamination, a mixed pasture sward at a semi-rural location contained sigmaPCN concentrations 15-20% of the sigmaPCB concentration. Uptake of both PCBs and PCNs was broadly linear in fanned and unfanned conditions over the 20-day period, i.e., the pasture did not reach equilibrium with the air. Uptake rates (fluxes) were greater under the fanned conditions. The difference in uptake rates between fanned and unfanned conditions increased with degree of chlorination for both PCBs and PCNs, ranging between a factor of 2 for tri-chlorinated PCBs and PCNs and a factor 5 for octa-chlorinated PCBs. Depuration results over the first hours were very scattered, showing an initial period of loss, followed by an increase in concentrations, possibly as a result of re-volatilization of PCBs from the soil in the trays, with consequent recapture by the overlying sward. Rapid clearance was observed over the following days, but depuration of PCBs and PCNs was still incomplete after 14 days, with 20% of the initial concentration of the sigmaPCBs and 10% of the sigmaPCNs retained by the sward. There was no difference in the proportion of POPs retained in the sward between the 4- and 14-day contamination treatments. POP-specific differences in the amount of compound "trapped" in leaves after contamination were observed. The results show that, although changes in the rate of air movement around a pasture have an effect on the uptake rate of POPs into the vegetation, plant-side resistance controls both the air-to-pasture and

  5. Painted surfaces - Important sources of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contamination to the urban and marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jartun, Morten; Ottesen, Rolf Tore; Steinnes, Eiliv; Volden, Tore

    2009-01-01

    A study of a large number of samples of flaking old paint from various buildings in Bergen, Norway (N = 68) suggests that paint may be the most important contemporary source of PCBs in this urban environment with concentrations of PCB 7 up to 3.39 g/kg. Twenty-three of the samples were collected from a single building, and the concentrations were found to vary over 3 orders of magnitude. In addition, 16 concrete samples from a large bridge previously coated with PCB-containing paint were collected and separated into outer- and inner samples indicating that PCBs are still present in high concentrations subsequent to renovation. PCBs were found in several categories of paint from wooden and concrete buildings, potentially introduced to the environment by natural weathering, renovation, and volatilization. Consequently, this dispersion may lead to increased levels of PCBs in urban atmospheres, soils, and harbor sediments where high concentrations have resulted in Governmental advice against consumption of certain seafood. - Paint from structures built during the period 1950-1970 may be the most important source of PCBs in an urban environment

  6. War in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegowina, and Kosovo, and PCBs hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picer, M.; Kovac, T.; Picer, N.; Calic, V. [Rudjer Boskovic Inst., Zagreb (Croatia); Miosic, N. [Geological Survey, Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegowina); Kodba, Z.C. [Maribor Environmental Protection Inst., Maribor (Slovenia); Rugova, A. [Pristina Univ., Pristina (Serbia)

    2005-07-01

    Recent warfare in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegowina, and Kosovo has increased hazardous waste levels in the involved regions. Data on contaminant levels from water and soil samples collected before 1995 did not demonstrate significant levels of contamination. This paper provided the results of a study which showed that significant levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) exist in many of the areas worst affected by the war. During the study, soil and sediment samples were extracted with n-hexane. Fish extracts were extracted using a high revolution blender. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were then separated from organochlorine insecticides on a silica gel column. Electron capture detection gas chromatography (ECD-GC) was used to quantify the POPs. Results showed that levels of PCBs in soil samples from Bosnia and Herzegowina sampled during 2003 showed significantly high levels of total PCBs. Levels of contamination exceeded tolerance levels accepted in Netherlands. Fish samples did not demonstrate high levels of contaminants. Sediment samples from Bosnian rivers showed significant levels of PCBs. It was concluded that levels of PCBs in Bosnia and Herzegowina in 2003 were lower than levels observed in fish sampled in Dalmatia and Croatia. 5 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  7. PCBs determination in water, soils and biota by perchlorination and GC-ECD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feshin, D. [Institute of Ecology and Evolution RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Klyuev, N.; Brodsky, E.; Kalinkevich, G.

    2004-09-15

    Most of the PCB pollutions are caused by industrial application. PCB-containing mixtures whose compositions are well known and constant should be rapidly and precisely analyzable as total PCB to monitor real pollution exposure. Consequently, a simple but reproducible and cheap method for operative control is needed which should be periodically controlled by standard analytical methods. So it is advisable to have a rapid method that will allow PCBs determination in wide range of quantities by simple instrumentation with internal standards. The method based on perchlorination of PCBs considerably simplifies the detection of PCB congeners as compared to other techniques. In this practice all polychlorinated derivatives are converted into decachlorobiphenyl (DCB). This is followed by gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD), which is highly sensitive for the substances of interest. Currently EPA procedure 508a (1989) is the only official screening method for detection of PCBs using perchlorination. This uses SbCl5 and powdered Fe mixture as reagent at 270 C without internal standard. We reported about using of perchlorination reagent based on mixture of powdered duralumin, sulphur and SO2Cl2 heated at 105 C for 2 h for detection of PCBs as decachlorobiphenyls in a wide range of concentration: 16.4 ng/sample to 164 {mu}/sample. 4,4'-difluorobiphenyl was proposed as internal standard that allowed to control all steps of sample preparation including perchlorination reaction. In the present work we extended our experience of perchlorination to detect the PCBs.

  8. Decomposition of PCBs in transformer oil using an electron beam accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, In-Ha; Lee, Myun-Joo; Mah, Yoon-Jung

    2012-01-01

    Decomposition of PCBs in commercially used transformer oil used for more than 30 years has been carried out at normal temperature and pressure without any additives using an electron beam accelerator. The experiments were carried out in two ways: batch and continuous pilot plant with 1.5 MeV of energy, a 50 mA current, and 75 kW of power in a commercial scale accelerator. The electron beam irradiation seemed to transform large molecular weight compounds into lower ones, but the impact was considered too small on the physical properties of oil. Residual concentrations of PCBs after irradiation depend on the absorption dose of the electron beam energy, but aliphatic chloride compounds were produced at higher doses of irradiation. As the results from FT-NMR, chloride ions decomposed from the PCBs are likely to react with aliphatic hydro carbon compounds rather than existing as free radical ions in the transformer oil. Since this is a dry process, treated oil can be used as cutting oil or machine oil for heavy equipment without any additional treatments. - Highlights: ► We developed a novel technology of decomposing PCBs in transformer oil using an electron beam. ► Distinct feature is accomplishing at ambient temperature and pressure without any additives. ► Residual PCBs were depended on absorption dose, but aliphatic chlorides were produced at higher dose. ► Treated oil can be reused as heating oil with chlorine removal technology developed here.

  9. Heavy metals and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) sedimentation in the Lianhua Mountain Reservoir, Pearl River Delta, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingyu; Amuzu-Sefordzi, Basil; Li, Ming

    2015-05-01

    The Pearl River Delta is one of the biggest electronics manufacturing regions in the world. Due to the presence of abandoned industrial sites and the proliferation of large-scale electronics companies in the past four decades, it is therefore imperative to investigate the extent of heavy metals and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contamination in the region. Spatial and temporal distribution of heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and PCBs (PCB28, PCB52, PCB101, PCB118, PCB138, PCB153, and PCB180) in the Lianhua Mountain reservoir in the Pearl River Delta, Dongguan City, China were examined based on a sedimentary profile analysis. Higher concentrations of the heavy metals detected were recorded in bottom sediments whereas 70% of the detected PCBs recorded maximum concentrations in top sediments. The geo-accumulation indices (Igeo) indicate that the study area is uncontaminated to moderately contaminated. Also, the integrated pollution indices (IPI) were above 1, except Pb, which shows that the study area is contaminated with heavy metals from anthropogenic sources. The concentrations of individual heavy metals and PCBs over a period of 60 years were also analyzed in order to establish a historical trend of pollution in the study area. This study provides baseline information on the level and historical trend of heavy metals and PCBs pollution in the study area.

  10. Levels of PCBs, DDT, DDE and DDD in Italian human blood samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocca, C. La; Abate, V.; Alivernini, S.; Iacovella, N.; Mantovani, A.; Turrio-Baldassarri, L. [Ist. Superiore di Sanita, Roma (Italy); Silvestroni, L.; Spera, G. [Dept. of Medical Pathophysiology, Univ. (Italy)

    2004-09-15

    The environmental contamination from polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is effecting the exposure of the general population in a direct way through air inhalation, ingestion of particulate matter and dermal absorption and, most of all, in an indirect way through diet. Diet represents, in fact, the main way of human exposure to PCBs. PCBs have potential teratogenic, carcinogenic, hormonal and immunological effects. An association between endometriosis and high levels of PCB in plasma has also been reported3. Moreover, some congeners (PCB 105, PCB 118, PCB 153) have effects on thyroid hormones in animal models, although the PCB dose used in these experiments was an order of magnitude higher than the estimated human exposure. Humans are, however, exposed to a complex mixtures of PCB congeners. In this study identification and quantification of 60 PCB congeners and 3 chlorinated pesticides in human whole blood samples are presented. The subjects examined in this pilot study were a small group of patients with possible endocrine-related problems and unknown specific exposure. The aim of this study was to increase the present understanding about the distribution of the PCBs in human whole blood. The levels of DDT and metabolites were measured as well, since these compounds are consistently reported to contribute to the whole body burden of persistent chlorinated compounds, together with PCBs.

  11. Determination of potential sources of PCBs and PBDEs in sediments of the Niagara River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samara, Fatin [Department of Chemistry, 611 Natural Science Complex, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260-3000 (United States); Tsai, Christina W. [Department of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering, 233 Jarvis Hall, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260-4400 (United States); Aga, Diana S. [Department of Chemistry, 611 Natural Science Complex, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260-3000 (United States)]. E-mail: dianaaga@buffalo.edu

    2006-02-15

    Sediments from Niagara River, an important waterway connecting two of the Great Lakes (Lake Erie to Lake Ontario), were analyzed for 14 congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 9 congeners of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) using accelerated solvent extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Total concentrations of PCBs ranged from 1.7 to 124.6 ng/g were PCBs 138 and 153 were found in all samples. All sites but one showed PBDE in sediments with total concentrations as high as 148 ng/g, suggesting that PBDE is becoming an important class of POP. A land-use and coverage map was used to trace potential localized sources of PCB and PBDE contamination. Results indicate that the highest levels of PCBs and PBDEs were found in sediments collected from areas closest to the discharge locations of municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) and local industries. This is the first study that suggests the importance of WWTP discharges as a potential source of PBDE contamination in the Great Lakes. - Wastewater treatment plant discharges are a main source of PCBs and PBDEs to Niagara River sediments.

  12. Reproduction of European eel jeopardised by high levels of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geeraerts, C; Focant, J-F; Eppe, G; De Pauw, E; Belpaire, C

    2011-09-01

    Dioxins, furans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were analysed in muscle tissue from yellow phased European eel (Anguilla anguilla) from 38 sites in Belgium. Dioxin concentrations in eel vary considerably between sampling locations, indicating that yellow eel is a good indicator of local pollution levels. Measured levels of dioxin-like PCBs are much higher than those of the dioxins and furans. In the majority of the sites, eel has levels considered to be detrimental for their reproduction. Field levels of dioxin and dioxin-like PCBs are therefore suggested as an additional causal factor contributing to the decline of the European eel. 42% of the sampling sites show especially dioxin-like PCB levels exceeding the European consumption level (with a factor 3 on average). Human consumption of eel, especially in these highly contaminated sites, seems unjustified. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Organochlorine Pesticides (OCs) and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Tilapia zillii from Lake El-Manzala, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Greisy, Zeinab Abdalbagi; Abdallah, A. Mohamed Ali

    2005-01-01

    A fresh water fish species, (Tilapia zillii) from Lake El-Manzala was analyzed for concentrations of several Organochlorine pesticides (OCs) and Polychlorine piphenyl's (PCBs) in liver, gonads, mesenteric fat, flesh and the digestive tract in mature fish during the breeding season. Polychlorinated piphenyls (PCBs) and Organochloripe pesticides (OCs) were calculated in (ng/g) dry weight (dw) in homogenized samples. The obtained results revealed differences in lipid content between these different organs. The females showed higher lipid content than males. There was significant positive correlation the lipid content and organochlorines and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The results come concomitant with the lipophilicity of studied compounds. However, the recoded concentration of these studied pollutants still does not exceed international hazardous levels. (author)

  14. Chlorinated hydrocarbons and PCBs in field soils, sediments and sewage sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaaf, H.

    1992-01-01

    As requested by the Ministry of Agriculture of the FRG, the 'Verband Deutscher Landwirtschaftlicher Untersuchungs- und Forschungsanstalten (VDLUFA)' built up a data collection over chlorinated hydrocarbons and PCBs in field soils, sediments, sewage sludges. Nearly 70.000 samples were collected and statistically evaluated. The results of these investigations will be described. The major constituents of the chlorinated hydrocarbons generally were Lindane, DDT(total) and HCB. In sewage sludges PCBs could be detected in nearly every sample. The contents of PCBs in field soils are smaller than in sewage sludges. Rather 'high contents', greater than 100-200 μg/kg d.m./organic pollutants, were detected only in 2% of the samples. 7 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Import, use, and emissions of PCBs in Switzerland from 1930 to 2100.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Glüge

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are persistent organic compounds that are ubiquitously found in the environment. Their use and manufacture were restricted or banned in many countries in the 1970-1980s, however, they still persist in the antroposphere, the environment and in biota worldwide today. Conventions like the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution encourage or bind the member parties to annually submit emission inventories of regulated air pollutants. Unfortunately, several member states have not yet reported PCB emissions. The identification and quantification of stocks and emissions sources is, however, an important precondition to handle and remove the remaining reservoirs of PCBs and, thus, to be able to reduce emissions and subsequently environmental exposure. Here, we estimate past, present, and future emissions of PCBs to air in Switzerland and provide emission factors for all relevant emission categories. Switzerland hereby represents a typical developed industrial country, and most of the assumptions and parameters presented here can be used to calculate PCB emission also for other countries. PCB emissions to air are calculated using a dynamic mass flow and emissions model for Switzerland, which is run for the years 1930-2100. The results point out the importance of the use of PCBs in open applications, which have largely been previously overlooked. Additionally, we show that PCBs will persist in applications during the coming decades with ongoing emissions. Especially the use of PCBs in open applications will cause Swiss emissions to remain above 100 kg PCB per year, even after the year 2030. Our developed model is available in Excel/VBA and can be downloaded with this article.

  16. Electrokinetic delivery of persulfate to remediate PCBs polluted soils: effect of injection spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Guangping; Cang, Long; Fang, Guodong; Qin, Wenxiu; Ge, Liqiang; Zhou, Dongmei

    2014-12-01

    Persulfate-based in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) is a promising technique for the remediation of organic compounds contaminated soils. Electrokinetics (EK) provides an alternative method to deliver oxidants into the target zones especially in low permeable-soil. In this study, the flexibility of delivering persulfate by EK to remediate polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) polluted soil was investigated. 20% (w/w) of persulfate was injected at the anode, cathode and both electrodes to examine its transport behaviors under electrical field, and the effect of field inversion process was also evaluated. The results showed that high dosage of persulfate could be delivered into S4 section (near cathode) by electroosmosis when persulfate was injected from anode, 30.8% of PCBs was removed from the soil, and the formed hydroxyl precipitation near the cathode during EK process impeded the transportation of persulfate. In contrast, only 18.9% of PCBs was removed with the injection of persulfate from cathode, although the breakthrough of persulfate into the anode reservoir was observed. These results indicated that the electroosmotic flow is more effective for the transportation of persulfate into soil. The addition of persulfate from both electrodes did not significantly facilitate the PCBs oxidation as well as the treatment of electrical field reversion, the reinforced negative depolarization function occurring in the cathode at high current consumed most of the oxidant. Furthermore, it was found that strong acid condition near the anode favored the oxidation of PCBs by persulfate and the degradation of PCBs was in consistent with the oxidation of Soil TOC in EK/persulfate system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Import, use, and emissions of PCBs in Switzerland from 1930 to 2100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glüge, Juliane; Steinlin, Christine; Schalles, Simone; Wegmann, Lukas; Tremp, Josef; Breivik, Knut; Hungerbühler, Konrad; Bogdal, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic compounds that are ubiquitously found in the environment. Their use and manufacture were restricted or banned in many countries in the 1970-1980s, however, they still persist in the antroposphere, the environment and in biota worldwide today. Conventions like the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution encourage or bind the member parties to annually submit emission inventories of regulated air pollutants. Unfortunately, several member states have not yet reported PCB emissions. The identification and quantification of stocks and emissions sources is, however, an important precondition to handle and remove the remaining reservoirs of PCBs and, thus, to be able to reduce emissions and subsequently environmental exposure. Here, we estimate past, present, and future emissions of PCBs to air in Switzerland and provide emission factors for all relevant emission categories. Switzerland hereby represents a typical developed industrial country, and most of the assumptions and parameters presented here can be used to calculate PCB emission also for other countries. PCB emissions to air are calculated using a dynamic mass flow and emissions model for Switzerland, which is run for the years 1930-2100. The results point out the importance of the use of PCBs in open applications, which have largely been previously overlooked. Additionally, we show that PCBs will persist in applications during the coming decades with ongoing emissions. Especially the use of PCBs in open applications will cause Swiss emissions to remain above 100 kg PCB per year, even after the year 2030. Our developed model is available in Excel/VBA and can be downloaded with this article.

  18. Evaluation of PCB sources and releases for identifying priorities to reduce PCBs in Washington State (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Holly; Delistraty, Damon

    2016-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitously distributed in the environment and produce multiple adverse effects in humans and wildlife. As a result, the purpose of our study was to characterize PCB sources in anthropogenic materials and releases to the environment in Washington State (USA) in order to formulate recommendations to reduce PCB exposures. Methods included review of relevant publications (e.g., open literature, industry studies and reports, federal and state government databases), scaling of PCB sources from national or county estimates to state estimates, and communication with industry associations and private and public utilities. Recognizing high associated uncertainty due to incomplete data, we strived to provide central tendency estimates for PCB sources. In terms of mass (high to low), PCB sources include lamp ballasts, caulk, small capacitors, large capacitors, and transformers. For perspective, these sources (200,000-500,000 kg) overwhelm PCBs estimated to reside in the Puget Sound ecosystem (1500 kg). Annual releases of PCBs to the environment (high to low) are attributed to lamp ballasts (400-1500 kg), inadvertent generation by industrial processes (900 kg), caulk (160 kg), small capacitors (3-150 kg), large capacitors (10-80 kg), pigments and dyes (0.02-31 kg), and transformers (PCB distribution and decrease exposures include assessment of PCBs in buildings (e.g., schools) and replacement of these materials, development of Best Management Practices (BMPs) to contain PCBs, reduction of inadvertent generation of PCBs in consumer products, expansion of environmental monitoring and public education, and research to identify specific PCB congener profiles in human tissues.

  19. Behavior and source characteristic of PCBS in urban ambient air of Yokohama, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyoung-Soo; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2005-01-01

    To understand the behavior and sources of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in ambient air, gaseous and particulate phase concentrations were measured at Yokohama City, Japan, during March 2002 and February 2003. The concentration of total PCB and TEQ ranged from 62 to 250 pg/m 3 and from 2 to 14 fgTEQ/m 3 , respectively. The gas-particle partition coefficient (K p ) was obtained as a function of temperature. The relationship between the partition coefficient and the sub-cooled liquid vapor pressure (P L ) was also established (coefficients of determination for log K p versus log P L plot were >0.76, except for three samples). As a result, the partition ratio of gaseous and particulate phase PCBs can be estimated for an arbitrary temperature. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the source identification of PCBs in ambient air. The concentrations of 122 congeners between tetra-CBs and deca-CB were used as input variables, and three PCs with eigenvalue more than 10 were obtained. The principal component 1 (PC 1) accounted for 43.4% of the total variance, and was interpreted as volatilization from PCB products and/or sites polluted by PCBs. The concentrations of PCB congeners were strongly related with PC 1 which showed high correlation with temperature. PC 2 accounted for 22.3%, and was interpreted as PCBs from incineration sources, while PC 3 accounted for 10.8%, but could not be interpreted. - The relationship between the gas-particle partition coefficient (K p ) and sub-cooled liquid vapor pressure was estimated using gaseous and particle phase concentration in ambient air, and was estimated source apportionment of PCBs

  20. Pollution of HCHs, DDTs and PCBs in tidal flat of Hangzhou Bay 2009-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Peng; Gong, Wenjie; Mao, Guohua; Li, Jige; Xu, Fenfen; Shi, Jiawei

    2016-05-01

    The concentration and distribution of three persistent organic pollutants (hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)) was assessed in tidal flat sediments collected from the south bank of Hangzhou Bay, China from 2009 to 2013. Gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) was used for analysis, based on United States Environmental Protection Agency methods EPA8080A, EPA8081B, and EPA3550B. The results showed that the levels of HCHs, DDTs and PCBs decreased in the order of DDTs transformer or electronic equipment in the south bank of Hangzhou Bay.

  1. Simultaneous determination of aliphatic hydrocarbons, PCBs and PCTs in pork liver by gas chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Barros, C [Dept. de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Area Nutricion y Bromatologia, Facultad de Farmacia, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Alvarez Pineiro, M E [Inst. de Investigacion y Analisis Alimentarios, Lab. de Bromatologia, Facultad de Farmacia, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Simal Lozano, J [Dept. de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Area Nutricion y Bromatologia, Facultad de Farmacia, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Lage Yusty, M A [Inst. de Investigacion y Analisis Alimentarios, Lab. de Bromatologia, Facultad de Farmacia, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    1996-10-01

    A multicomponent extraction/concentration procedure has been developed for the enrichment of PCBs, PCTs and aliphatic hydrocarbons (pristane, C{sub 18}, C{sub 19}, C{sub 20}, C{sub 22}, C{sub 24}, C{sub 28}, C{sub 32} and C{sub 36}) in pork liver. These components of the enriched extract were then simultaneously determined by gas chromatography. Mean recoveries ranged from 81.5% for pristane to 93% for PCBs; CV % (0.9-6.7) indicated the method to be both precise and reproducible. (orig.)

  2. Predicted bioaccumulation of PCBs and toxaphene in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus): the contribution of contaminated prey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruya, K.; Smalling, K. [Skidaway Inst. of Oceanography, Savannah, GA (United States); Pulster, E. [Savannah State Univ., Savannah, GA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Residues of two organochlorines (OCs) -- Aroclor 1268 (a highly chlorinated PCB formulation) and toxaphene (a DDT-replacement pesticide) -- are major persistent contaminants in St. Simons Sound near Brunswick, Georgia, USA. Although studies have recently documented OC levels in Brunswick area fish that are routinely consumed by humans, little is known about organochlorine body burdens in resident marine mammals. Sub-populations of the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), an abundant odontocete of the coastal mid-south Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico regions, have recently been shown to exhibit a limited home range and site fidelity in a northern Florida estuary, underscoring the need to assess the impact of OCs in individuals exposed via their natural prey (i.e. contaminated fish).

  3. CHANGES IN THE DNA-BINDING OF SEVERAL TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS IN THE DEVELOPING RAT CEREBELLUM BY PCBS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PCBs are a class of persistent halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon chemical pollutants and considered as one of the major environmental contaminants resulting from intensive industrial use and inadequate disposal. In utero exposure to PCBs has been known to cause delayed neuronal de...

  4. Studying placental transfer of highly purified non-dioxin-like PCBs in two models of the placental barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Correia Carreira, S; Cartwright, L; Mathiesen, L

    2011-01-01

    Currently, toxicology and toxicokinetics of purified non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCBs) are poorly characterised. Transplacental kinetics of NDL-PCBs can be studied in a variety of models, but careful validation of each model is crucial. We aimed to develop a standard operating...

  5. Comparison of Passive and Active Air Sampling (PAAS) Methods for PCBs – A Pilot Study in New York City Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    PCBs were used extensively in school building materials (caulk and lighting fixture ballasts) during the approximate period of 1950-1978. Most of the schools built nationwide during this period have not had indoor air sampling conducted for PCBs. Passive air sampling holds promi...

  6. Neuroprotective Effect of Melatonin Against PCBs Induced Behavioural, Molecular and Histological Changes in Cerebral Cortex of Adult Male Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavithra, S; Selvakumar, K; Sundareswaran, L; Arunakaran, J

    2017-02-01

    There is ample evidence stating Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as neurotoxins. In the current study, we have analyzed the behavioural impact of PCBs exposure in adult rats and assessed the simultaneous effect of antioxidant melatonin against the PCBs action. The rats were grouped into four and treated intraperitoneally with vehicle, PCBs, PCBs + melatonin and melatonin alone for 30 days, respectively. After the treatment period the rats were tested for locomotor activity and anxiety behaviour analysis. We confirmed the neuronal damage in the cerebral cortex by molecular and histological analysis. Our data indicates that there is impairment in locomotor activity and behaviour of PCBs treated rats compared to control. The simultaneous melatonin treated rat shows increased motor coordination and less anxiety like behaviour compared to PCBs treated rats. Molecular and histological analysis supports that, the impaired motor coordination in PCBs treated rats is due to neurodegeneration in motor cortex region. The results proved that melatonin treatment improved the motor co-ordination and reduced anxiety behaviour, prevented neurodegeneration in the cerebral cortex of PCBs-exposed adult male rats.

  7. Extraction of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Dibenzyl Disulfide from Transformer Oils using Polar Aprotic Solvents andReductive Dehalogenation of Extracted PCBs

    OpenAIRE

    Kaštánek, P. (Petr); Kaštánek, F. (František); Maléterová, Y. (Ywetta); Matějková, M. (Martina); Spáčilová, L. (Lucie); Šolcová, O. (Olga)

    2014-01-01

    Extractions of PCBs from mineral oils with polar aprotic solvents (PAS) acrylonitrile AC, dimethyl sulfoxide DMSO, dimethyl formamide DMF, N-methyl pyrrolidone NMP and propylene carbonate PC were performed in order to compare the extraction efficiencies. In a single-stage extraction performed at room temperature, the efficiencies ranged from the highest to the lowest as follows: NMP → DMF → DMSO → PC → AC. NMP exhibited the highest efficiency, around 70%. . Pyridine N-oxide was also used a...

  8. Mineralization of PCBs by the genetically modified strain Cupriavidus necator JMS34 and its application for bioremediation of PCBs in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saavedra, Juan Matias; Acevedo, Francisca; Gonzalez, Myriam; Seeger, Michael [Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Valparaiso (Chile). Lab. de Microbiologia Molecular y Biotecnologia

    2010-07-15

    Polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) are classified as ''high-priority pollutants''. Diverse microorganisms are able to degrade PCBs. However, bacterial degradation of PCBs is generally incomplete, leading to the accumulation of chlorobenzoates (CBAs) as dead-end metabolites. To obtain a microorganism able to mineralize PCB congeners, the bph locus of Burkholderia xenovorans LB400, which encodes one of the most effective PCB degradation pathways, was incorporated into the genome of the CBA-degrading bacterium Cupriavidus necator JMP134-X3. The bph genes were transferred into strain JMP134-X3, using the mini-Tn5 transposon system and biparental mating. The genetically modified derivative, C. necator strain JMS34, had only one chromosomal insertion of bph locus, which was stable under nonselective conditions. This modified bacterium was able to grow on biphenyl, 3-CBA and 4-CBA, and degraded 3,5-CBA in the presence of m-toluate. The strain JMS34 mineralized 3-CB, 4-CB, 2,4{sup '}-CB, and 3,5-CB, without accumulation of CBAs. Bioaugmentation of PCB-polluted soils with C. necator strain JMS34 and with the native B. xenovorans LB400 was monitored. It is noteworthy that strain JMS34 degraded, in 1 week, 99% of 3-CB and 4-CB and approximately 80% of 2,4{sup '}-CB in nonsterile soil, as well as in sterile soil. Additionally, the bacterial count of strain JMS34 increased by almost two orders of magnitude in PCB-polluted nonsterile soil. In contrast, the presence of native microflora reduced the degradation of these PCBs by strain LB400 from 73% (sterile soil) to approximately 50% (nonsterile soil). This study contributes to the development of improved biocatalysts for remediation of PCB-contaminated environments. (orig.)

  9. Simultaneous elimination of cyanotoxins and PCBs via mechanical collection of cyanobacterial blooms: An application of "green-bioadsorption concept".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Jia, Yunlu; Liu, Anyue; Zhou, Qichao; Song, Lirong

    2017-07-01

    In this study, the distribution, transfer and fate of both polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and cyanotoxins via phytoplankton routes were systematically investigated in two Chinese lakes. Results indicated that PCB adsorption/bioaccumulation dynamics has significantly positive correlations with the biomass of green alga and diatoms. Total lipid content of phytoplankton is the major factor that influences PCB adsorption/bioaccumulation. Cyanobacterial blooms with relatively lower lipid content could also absorb high amount of PCBs due to their high cell density in the water columns, and this process was proposed as major route for the transfer of PCBs in Chinese eutrophic freshwater. According to these findings, a novel route on fates of PCBs via phytoplankton and a green bioadsorption concept were proposed and confirmed. In the practice of mechanical collections of bloom biomass from Lake Taihu, cyanotoxin/cyanobacteria and PCBs were found to be removed simultaneously very efficiently followed this theory. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Dietary intake of organic pollutants in children from Catalonia, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocio, A.; Falco, G.; Llobet, J.M.; Domingo, J.L. [Lab. of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Reus (Spain); Mueller, L. [SGS GmbH, Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2004-09-15

    Potential human toxicity of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is well known. Moreover, it is also well established that dietary intake is the major route of human exposure for most POPs. In recent years, concern on dietary intake of POPs and other organic environmental contaminants has notably increased. Dietary intake of these pollutants is of special interest in children populations, who in relation to their body weights consume greater quantities of food than adults. Consequently, they are more exposed to potentially toxic pollutants. In 2000, a wide survey on dietary intake of a number of organic contaminants by the general population of Catalonia Spain was carried out. The levels of the following pollutants were determined in an important number of food samples belonging to various food groups: polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDEs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The present study was undertaken to estimate the dietary intake of the above pollutants by children between 4 and 9 years old, as well as to assess the potential health risks derived from this intake.

  11. Comment on "Exposure to mercury and Aroclor 1268 congeners in least terns (Sternula antillarum) in coastal Georgia, USA" by G. L. Robinson, G. L. Mills, A. H. Lindell, S. H. Schweitzer and S. M. Hernandez, Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, 2015, 17, 1424.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchsman, P C; Henning, M H; Magar, V S

    2016-02-01

    In a recent paper published in this journal (Robinson et al., Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, 2015, 17, 1424), Robinson et al. reported concentrations of Aroclor 1268 congeners in least tern eggs in coastal Georgia, USA. This comment describes important omissions in Robinson et al.'s interpretation of those egg concentrations that alter the overall conclusions of the least tern study.

  12. Residues of dioxins (PCDD/Fs) and PCBs in eggs, fat and livers of laying hens following consumption of contaminated feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Traag, W.A.; Kan, C.A.; Weg, van der G.; Onstenk, C.G.M.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2006-01-01

    Laying hens were fed with feed from the Belgian dioxin incident diluted ten-fold with non-contaminated feed, resulting in concentrations of 61 ng TEQ kg(-1) PCDD/Fs, 23 ng TEQ kg(-1) non-ortho PCBs, 116 ng TEQ kg(-1) mono-ortho PCBs and 3.2 mg kg(-1) of the seven indicator PCBs. Following exposure

  13. European developments following incidents with dioxins and PCBs in the food en feed chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Traag, W.A.; Fernandes, A.; Rose, M.

    2015-01-01

    Incidents with dioxins and PCBs have resulted in a strategy within the EU to reduce the exposure of the population to these compounds. Maximum levels were set for food and feed products and criteria were developed for the analytical methods (both confirmatory and screening) used for official control

  14. EFFECTS OF POLYCHLORINATED-BIPHENYLS (PCBS) AND DIOXINS ON GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SAUER, PJJ; HUISMAN, M; KOOPMANESSEBOOM, C; MORSE, DC; SMITSVANPROOIJE, AE; VANDEBERG, KJ; TUINSTRA, LGMT; VANDERPAAUW, CG; BOERSMA, ER; WEISGLASKUPERUS, N; LAMMERS, JHCM; KULIG, BM; BROUWER, A

    1994-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins are potentially toxic compounds which occur widely in the environment. Their effects on the growth and development of infants at the levels currently found in highly industrialised western countries is not well known. This Dutch multicenter study,

  15. PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs co-occurrence in TiO2 nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ctistis, Georgios; Schön, Peter; Bakker, Wouter; Luthe, Gregor

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we report on the co-occurrence of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) adsorbed on nanoparticular titanium dioxide (TiO2). We report on the finding of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on the

  16. Bioaccumulation of PCBs from microplastics in Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) : An experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devriese, Lisa I.; De Witte, Bavo; Vethaak, A. Dick; Hostens, Kris; Leslie, Heather A.

    2017-01-01

    Plastic debris acts as a sorbent phase for hydrophobic organic compounds like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Chemical partitioning models predict that the ingestion of microplastics with adsorbed chemicals in the field will tend not to result in significant net desorption of the chemical to the

  17. Decontamination of PCBs-containing soil using subcritical water extraction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Nazrul; Park, Jeong-Hun; Shin, Moon-Su; Park, Ha-Seung

    2014-08-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are one of the excision compounds listed at the Stockholm convention in 2001. Although their use has been heavily restricted, PCBs can be found in some specific site-contaminated soils. Either removal or destruction is required prior to disposal. The subcritical water extraction (SCWE) of organic hazardous compounds from contaminated soils is a promising technique for hazardous waste contaminated-site cleanup. In this study, the removal of PCBs by the SCWE process was investigated. The effects of temperature and treatment time on removal efficiency have been determined. In the SCWE experiments, a removal percentage of 99.7% was obtained after 1h of treatment at 250°C. The mass removal efficiency of low-chlorinated species was higher than high-chlorinated congeners at lower temperatures, but it was oppositely observed at higher temperatures because the lower chlorinated congeners are formed by dechlorination of higher chlorinated congeners. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis confirmed that the PCBs underwent partial degradation. Several degradation products including mono- and di-chlorinated biphenyls, oxygen-containing aromatic compounds, and small-size hydrocarbons were identified in the effluent water, which were not initially present in the contaminated soil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Transformation of chiral polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a stream food web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, V.D.; Walters, D.M.; Lee, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    The enantiomeric composition of chiral PCB congeners was determined in Twelvemile Creek (Clemson, SC) to examine potential mechanisms of biotransformation in a stream food web. We measured enantiomeric fractions (EFs) of six PCB atropisomers (PCBs 84, 91, 95, 136, 149, and 174) in surface sediment, fine benthic organic matter (FBOM), coarse particulate organic matter (CPOM), periphyton, Asian clam, mayflies, yellowfin shiner, and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) using gas chromatography (GC-ECD). Nonracemic EFs of PCBs 91, 95, 136, and 149 were measured in almost all samples. Enantiomeric compositions of PCBs 84 and 174 were infrequently detected with racemic EFs measured in samples except for a nonracemic EF of PCB 84 in clams. Nonracemic EFs of PCBs 91, 136, and 149 in SPMDs may be due to desorption of nonracemic residues from FBOM. EFs for some atropisomers were significantly different among FBOM, CPOM, and periphyton, suggesting that their microbial communities have different biotransformation processes. Nonracemic EFs in clams and fish suggest both in vivo biotransformation and uptake of nonracemic residues from their food sources. Longitudinal variability in EFs was generally low among congeners observed in matrices. ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

  19. Thirty year monitoring of PCBs, organochlorine pesticides and tetrabromodiphenylether in eel from The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de J.; Dao, Q.T.; Leeuwen, van P.W.; Kotterman, M.J.J.; Schobben, J.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    Because of their excellent properties as a biomonitor, yellow eels (Anguilla anguilla) have been used for time-trend monitoring of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and tetrabrominated diphenylether (tetra-BDE). The program has now lasted for thirty years and has

  20. Comparison of supercritical fluid extraction and Soxhlet extraction for the determination of PCBs in seaweed samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punín Crespo, M O; Lage Yusty, M A

    2005-06-01

    The efficiency of supercritical fluid extraction for the determination of 12 polychlorinated biphenyls from algae samples is compared to Soxhlet extraction. Analytical detection limits for the individual congeners ranged from 0.62 microgl(-1) to 19 microgl(-1). Recovery was tested for both methods using standard addition procedure. At maximum spike level of concentration, the mean recoveries were not significantly different (P>0.05) of all PCBs studied, with the exception of PCBs 28, 52, 77 and 169. Method precision for Soxhlet extraction (yield comparable results, SFE offers the advantage of detecting all PCBs studied at lower concentrations, reducing extraction time, and reducing the amount of solvents needed. The optimized methods were applied to the analysis of three real seaweed samples, except for PCB101 the concentrations of all PCBs were low or below the detection limits. The levels of PCB101 found in sample 1 were 6.6+/-0.54 ng g(-1) d.w., in sample 2 the levels were 8.2+/-0.86 ng g(-1) d.w. and in sample 3 they were 7.7+/-0.08 ng g(-1) d.w.

  1. Contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) from the Southeastern Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storelli, Maria Maddalena; Barone, Grazia; Giacominelli-Stuffler, Roberto; Marcotrigiano, Giuseppe Onofrio

    2012-09-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including dioxin-like PCBs (non-ortho, PCB 77, PCB 126, and PCB 169 and mono-ortho, PCB 105, PCB 118, and PCB 156) were measured in different organs and tissues (melon, blubber, liver, kidney, lung, heart, and muscle tissue) of striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) from the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (Adriatic Sea). The mean highest levels were in blubber and melon, followed by liver, kidney, lung, heart, and muscle tissue. PCB profiles were similar in all tissues and organs being dominated by the higher chlorinated homologues (hexa-CBs, 55.8-62.1%; penta-CBs, 15.4-20.0%; and hepta-CB PCB 180, 12.7-16.5%). Major PCBs in all tissues were congeners 138 and 153 collectively accounting for 50.6-58.3% of the total PCB concentrations, followed by PCB 101, 105, 118, and 180 constituting from 27.0% to 31.0%. PCB levels were higher in adult males than in adult females. The estimated 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalents of non- and mono-ortho PCBs were much higher than the threshold level above which adverse effects have been observed in other marine mammals species, suggesting that striped dolphins in this region are at risk for toxic effects.

  2. Assessment of gold and silver in assorted mobile phone printed circuit boards (PCBs): Original article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vats, M C; Singh, S K

    2015-11-01

    Demand for gold and silver has been escalating with increasing usage of electronic equipment globally. Around 267.3 MT of gold and 7275 MT of silver are being consumed annually for manufacturing mobile phones, laptops and other electronic equipment. However, only 15% is recuperated from these equipment; the remainder lies in the storage yards or landfills. The waste comprise glass, plastics, wires, batteries, PCBs, metal casing, etc. The PCB is composed of precious metals, which creates immense purpose for recycling and recovery. This paper characterises and assesses the recoverable metallic fraction of gold and silver from PCBs of mobile phones. The methodology is based on dismantling of the mobile handset and subjecting the PCBs to roasting and acid digestion. The digested samples were analysed by atomic absorption spectroscopy and the content of gold and silver in the PCBs was to be found in the range of 0.009-0.017% and 0.25-0.79% by weight respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 77 FR 74006 - Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Recycling Plastics From Shredder Residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... instance, because substantial automotive recycling systems are already in place for the primary purpose of... (PCBs); Recycling Plastics From Shredder Residue AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... currently under consideration that would generally allow for the recycling of plastic separated from...

  4. 78 FR 20640 - Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... (PCBs); Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION....gov or at the Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics Docket (OPPT Docket), Environmental Protection... that would produce broad environmental benefits and increase global competitiveness (Ref. 2). ISRI...

  5. Radiation evaluation method of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) electronic printed circuit boards (PCBs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaBel, K.A.; Gruner, T.D.; Reed, R.A.; Settles, B.; Wilmot, J.; Dougherty, L.F.; Russo, A.; Yuknis, W.; Foster, M.G.; Garrisson-Darrin, A.; Marshall, P.W.

    1999-01-01

    We present a radiation evaluation methodology and proton ground test results for candidate COTS PCBs (commercial off-the-shelf electronic printed circuit boards) and their associated electronics for low-altitude, low-inclination orbits. We will also discuss the implications associated with mission orbit and duration. (authors)

  6. Biodegradation of PCBs by ligninolytic fungi and characterization of the degradation products

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čvančarová, Monika; Křesinová, Zdena; Filipová, Alena; Covino, S.; Cajthaml, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 11 (2012), s. 1317-1323 ISSN 0045-6535 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA525/09/1058 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Polychlorinated biphenyls * PCBs * Biodegradation Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.137, year: 2012

  7. Presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in bottled drinking water in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Rutilio Ortiz; Bermudez, Beatriz Schettino; Tolentino, Rey Gutiérrez; Gonzalez, Gilberto Díaz; Vega y León, Salvador

    2010-10-01

    This paper describes the concentrations of seven polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in bottled drinking water samples that were collected over 1 year from Mexico City in two sizes (1.5 and 19 L), using gas chromatography with an electron capture detector. PCBs 28 (0.018-0.042 μg/L), 52 (0.006-0.015 μg/L) and 101 (0.001-0.039 μg/L) were the most commonly found and were present in the majority of the samples. However, total concentrations of PCBs in bottled drinking water (0.035-0.039 μg/L) were below the maximum permissible level of 0.50 μg/L stated in Mexican regulations and probably do not represent a hazard to human health. PCBs were detectable in all samples and we recommend a monitoring program be established to better understand the quality of drinking bottled water over time; this may help in producing solutions for reducing the presence of organic contaminants.

  8. Comparative effects of PBDEs and PCBs on intracellular signaling in rat cerebellar granule neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are synthetic chemicals that do not occur in nature and are structurally similar to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs; Figure I) and several chlorinated pesticides. They are comprised of two phenyl rings linked by oxygen and are resistant to p...

  9. Dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in marine fish from Shandong, China, and human dietary exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yanping; Jiang, Dafeng; Li, Fenghua; Chen, Jindong; Li, Wei; Jiao, Yanni; Li, Lu

    2018-05-22

    The occurrence and human dietary exposure of 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in 41 marine fish samples from Shandong Province of China were investigated. The DL-PCB congeners were extracted using automated Soxhlet extraction, purified via a composite column cleanup procedure and analyzed by gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. DL-PCB congeners were found in all analyzed samples, with a mean concentration of 0.887 ng/g ww (wet weight). The TEQ concentrations of DL-PCBs in individual fish samples ranged from 0.011 to 9.214 pg WHO TEQ/g ww. The mean dietary intake for all fish species was 36.5 pg TEQ/kg bw/month, which was lower than the provisional tolerable monthly intake of 70 pg TEQ/kg bw/month set by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. To monitor the trend of DL-PCBs in fish for food safety control it is necessary to maintain a surveillance program.

  10. Levels of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in food and feed in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallani, B.; Verstraete, F. [European Commission, DG SANCO, Brussels (Belgium); Boix, A.; Holst, C. von; Anklam, E. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Geel (Belgium)

    2004-09-15

    Regulation (EC) No 466/2001 as amended by Council Regulation (EC) No 2375/2001 of November 2001 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs, inter alia dioxins, stipulates that foodstuffs should not, when placed on the market, contain higher contaminant levels than those specified in that Regulation. The Regulation also states that the Commission shall review Section 5 of Annex I, which outlines the maximum levels for dioxins and furans in food, by 31 December 2004 at the latest, in the light of new data on the presence of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs, in particular with a view to the inclusion of dioxin-like PCBs in the levels to be set. Section 5 of Annex I shall be further reviewed by 31 December 2006 at the latest with the aim of significantly reducing the maximum levels. An EC Recommended Monitoring Programme for Food (Ref 1) was discussed to provide the Commission with the necessary data to make it possible to meet these commitments. A considerable amount of data was received by the Commission on the occurrence of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in food and was analysed to determine whether any patterns emerge in the ratios between dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in certain food types or in certain areas. Directive 2002/32/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council as amended by Commission Directive 2003/57/EC of 17 June 2003 on undesirable substances in animal feed establishes maximum levels for dioxins in several feed materials and compound feeding stuffs. Similar revision clauses to the Regulation on food apply to this Directive on feeding stuffs. A monitoring programme similar to the one recommended for food was discussed for undesirable substances in animal feed (Ref 2). Data submitted by Member states on the occurrence of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in feed have also been analysed to determine whether any patterns emerge in the ratios between dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in certain feedstuffs or in certain areas. This paper describes

  11. Thyroid hormone-like and estrogenic activity of hydroxylated PCBs in cell culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Shigeyuki; Jinno, Norimasa; Suzuki, Tomoharu; Sugihara, Kazumi; Ohta, Shigeru; Kuroki, Hiroaki; Fujimoto, Nariaki

    2005-01-01

    The thyroid hormone-disrupting activity of hydroxylated PCBs was examined. 4-Hydroxy-2,2',3,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (4-OH-2,2',3,4',5,5'-HxCB), 4-hydroxy-3,3',4',5-tetrachlorobiphenyl (4-OH-3,3',4',5-TCB) and 4,4'-dihydroxy-3,3',5,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (4,4'-diOH-3,3',5,5'-TCB), which have been detected as metabolites of PCBs in animals and humans, and six other 4-hydroxylated PCBs markedly inhibited the binding of triiodothyronine (1 x 10 -10 M) to thyroid hormone receptor (TR) in the concentration range of 1 x 10 -6 to 1 x 10 -4 M. However, 4-hydroxy-2',4',6'-trichlorobiphenyl (4-OH-2',4',6'-TCB), 3-hydroxy-2,2',5,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl, 4-hydroxy-2,2',5,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl, 4-hydroxy-2,3,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl, 2,3',5,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl and 2,3',4',5,5'-pentachlorodiphenyl did not show affinity for TR. The thyroid hormonal activity of PCBs was also examined using rat pituitary cell line GH3 cells, which grow and release growth hormone in a thyroid hormone-dependent manner. 4-OH-2,2',3,4',5,5'-HxCB, 4,4'-diOH-3,3',5,5'-TCB and 4-OH-3,3',4',5-TCB enhanced the proliferation of GH3 cells and stimulated their production of growth hormone in the concentration range of 1 x 10 -7 to 1 x 10 -4 M, while PCBs which had no affinity for thyroid hormone receptor were inactive. In contrast, only 4-OH-2',4',6'-TCB exhibited a significant estrogenic activity using estrogen-responsive reporter assay in MCF-7 cells. However, the 3,5-dichloro substitution of 4-hydroxylated PCBs markedly decreased the estrogenic activity. These results suggest that, at least for the 17 PCB congeners and hydroxylated metabolites tested, a 4-hydroxyl group in PCBs is essential for thyroid hormonal and estrogenic activities, and that 3,5-dichloro substitution favors thyroid hormonal activity, but not estrogenic activity

  12. Cancer risk assessment of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in former agricultural soils of Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Man, Yu Bon; Lopez, Brenda Natalia; Wang, Hong Sheng; Leung, Anna Oi Wah; Chow, Ka Lai; Wong, Ming H.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Electronic recycling site contain high concentrations of PCBs and PBDEs in Hong Kong. → Changing of agricultural land use to electronic waste recycling sites can increase potential cancer risk on human. → High levels of soil organic matter in soils render PBDEs and PCBs more resistant to degradation. - Abstract: The major objective of this study was to evaluate the carcinogenic risk posed to humans through PBDEs and PCBs of changing agricultural land use for recycling of e-waste and open burning of municipal waste. Nine locations were selected to represent 6 different types of land use such as e-waste dismantling workshop (EW (DW)) and e-waste open burning site (EW (OBS)). The total concentrations for PBDEs and PCBs, and the bioaccessibility of PCBs were determined using Soxhlet extraction and in vitro simulated gastric solution, respectively. Both total and bioaccessible concentrations were subsequently used to establish the cancer risk probabilities in humans via ingestion, dermal contact and inhalation of soil particles. It was found that very low cancer risk in all 6 types of different land use was caused by BDE-209. Nevertheless, at the 95th centile, the concentration of PCBs in EW (DW) and EW (OBS) indicate a low cancer risk to humans of 40 and 2.1 in a million, respectively, while the same was also observed for the bioaccessible PCBs in EW (DW) of 1.71 ± 2.96 in a million.

  13. PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in blubber biopsies from free-ranging St. Lawrence River Estuary beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas), 1994-1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, K.E.; Muir, D.C.G.; Michaud, Robert; Beland, Pierre; Letcher, R.J.; Norstrom, R.J.

    2003-01-01

    Measuring contaminants only in stranded whales may result in overestimation of organochlorines. - For the first time, organochlorine (OC) contaminants were measured in blubber biopsies from free-ranging St. Lawrence River Estuary beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas), to compare contaminant levels to those previously measured in dead stranded belugas. PCBs, DDTs, toxaphene and chlordane-related compounds were the major OC contaminants detected in 44 belugas biopsied in 1994-1998. ΣPCB (the sum of 104 congeners) ranged from 2080 to 128,000 ng/g lipid in males (n=34; minimum estimated ages 8-22 years), and from 148 to 44,100 ng/g lipid in females (n=10; minimum estimated ages 7-22 years). The concentrations of PCBs and OC pesticides in the blubber of these whales overlapped those observed in stranded belugas from an earlier study, and demonstrated comparable age and sex-related trends. However, lower proportions of mirex, HCB, DDTs, and many of the highly chlorinated PCBs occurred in the biopsy samples compared to results for blubber from stranded carcasses. Most major OC compounds were present at lower concentrations in the biopsies, but this does not appear to be solely related to age differences between the two groups, or to emaciation in the stranded whales. Nor does it appear to be associated with the use of superficial biopsies, and the possible stratification of lipids and OCs in the blubber layer. Nevertheless, given these possible confounding factors, and the uncertainty in age estimates for the biopsied whales, the results point to the need for careful interpretation of biopsy results when comparing with data taken from the full depth of the blubber mantle in stranded whales. Taken together, results from both biopsied whales and previously studied stranded belugas indicate that PCB and OC pesticide contamination of St. Lawrence beluga whales may occur across a broader range of levels than previously thought, at least for males which formed the largest

  14. Daily dietary intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, H.S.

    1998-01-01

    As part of study on ''Reference Asian Man'' to strengthen radiation protection, the data on the dietary consumption patterns of the Asian region were collected. Eight provided dietary data - Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Pakistan, Philippines, and Viet Nam. Whereas the dietary information from Bangladesh, Indonesia, Pakistan and Viet Nam are preliminary in nature, the dietary information from China, India, Japan and Philippines, on the other hand, is quite substantial. The population of the countries from which sufficient dietary data are available represents more than 2/3 of the population of the Asian region. The details of the individual data available on dietary parameters from different Asian countries are listed below

  15. KINETIC DISTRIBUTION MODEL OF EVAPORATION, BIOSORPTION AND BIODEGRADATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) IN THE SUSPENSION OF PSEUDOMONAS STUTZERI. (R826652)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractKinetics of distribution of PCBs in an active bacterial suspension of Pseudomonas stutzeri was studied by monitoring the evaporated amounts and the concentration remaining in the liquid medium with the biomass. To determine the biodegradation rate const...

  16. Comparison of PCBs and PAHs levels in European coastal waters using mussels from the Mytilus edulis complex as biomonitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olenycz, M.; Sokolowski, A.; Niewinska, A.; Wolowicz, M.; Namiesnik, J.; Hummel, H.; Jansen, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Mussels from the Mytilus edulis complex were used as biomonitors for two groups of organic pollutants: polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, congeners: 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene,

  17. Air-sea gas exchange of HCHs and PCBs and enantiomers of α-HCH in the Kattegat Sea region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundqvist, Kristina L.; Wingfors, Haakan; Brorstoem-Lunden, Eva; Wiberg, Karin

    2004-01-01

    Concentrations and air-water gas exchange of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were determined in nine paired air and water samples. The samples were collected monthly in the Kattegat Sea between December 1998 and November 1999. Average fugacity and flux values indicated that PCBs were oversaturated in the water, while HCHs were net deposited. Variations were large over the year, especially during spring and summer. Air parcel back trajectories suggested that air concentrations over the Kattegat Sea are largely dependent of air mass origin. Seasonal trends were detected for airborne HCHs and for PCBs in water. The air and water enantiomeric compositions of α-HCH indicated that a larger portion of α-HCH in air originated from the underlying water during summer than during winter. - Air-water exchange of PCBs and HCHs is studied in the Kattegat Sea and shows to vary seasonally

  18. Investigation into levels of dioxins, furans and PCBs in battery, free range, barn and organic eggs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tlustos, C.; Pratt, I. [Food Safety Authority of Ireland, Dublin (Ireland); Moylan, R.; Neilan, R. [Dept. of Agriculture and Food, Maynooth (Ireland); White, S.; Fernandes, A.; Rose, M. [Central Science Lab., York (United Kingdom)

    2004-09-15

    The Food Safety Authority of Ireland (FSAI) has a statutory responsibility to assure the safety of food consumed, distributed, produced and sold on the Irish market. The results of a targeted surveillance study on levels of dioxins, furans and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in battery, free-range, barn and organic eggs are presented here. The study was undertaken against the background of increased awareness in the European Union of the possible health risks posed by dioxins, furans and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the food chain, and builds on previous studies undertaken by FSAI into levels of these contaminants in milk, fish and fish oils. The opportunity was taken at the same time to investigate the levels of a number of metals in these eggs, and results of the full study are available on the FSAI website.

  19. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in recreational marina sediments of San Diego Bay, southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neira, Carlos; Vales, Melissa; Mendoza, Guillermo; Hoh, Eunha; Levin, Lisa A

    2018-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were determined in surface sediments from three recreational marinas in San Diego Bay, California. Total PCB concentrations ranged from 23 to 153, 31-294, and 151-1387ngg -1 for Shelter Island Yacht Basin (SIYB), Harbor Island West (HW) and Harbor Island East (HE), respectively. PCB concentrations were significantly higher in HE and PCB group composition differed relative to HW and SIYB, which were not significantly different from each other in concentration or group composition. In marina sediments there was a predominance (82-85%) of heavier molecular weight PCBs with homologous groups (6CL-7CL) comprising 59% of the total. In HE 75% of the sites exceeded the effect range median (ERM), and toxicity equivalence (TEQ dioxin-like PCBs) values were higher relative to those of HW and SIYB, suggesting a potential ecotoxicological risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. PCBs with immersion tin finish - some experiences with lead-free reflow process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukat, K.; Koziol, G.; Sitek, J.; Borecki, J.; Hackiewicz, H. [Tele and Radio Research Inst., Warsaw (Poland); Merkle, H.; Schroeder, S. [Ormecon Chemie GmbH and Co. KG, Ammersbek (Germany); Girulska, A.; Gardela, K. [Eldos Sp. z o.o., Wroclaw (Poland)

    2004-07-01

    Substitution of lead-free solders in electronic assemblies requires changes in the conventional SnPb finishes of PCBs. The Craft project ''PRINT'' objectives respond to this challenge. Its main goal is to develop and implement the new technology of high solderability immersion tin for printed circuit boards at small and medium enterprises. The subject of the research was organic based immersion tin coating which would fulfil demands of SMT. In the paper the results of reflow soldering process on PCBs covered by Ormecon registered immersion tin finish with using lead-free solder pastes will be described. Solderability of tin coating as well as wettability of lead-free solder paste will be presented. (orig.)

  1. Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in air of southern Mexico (2002-2004)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegria, Henry A.; Wong, Fiona; Jantunen, Liisa M.; Bidleman, Terry F.; Figueroa, Miguel Salvador; Bouchot, Gerardo Gold; Moreno, Victor Ceja; Waliszewski, Stefan M.; Infanzon, Raul

    Air samples were collected in southern Mexico in 2002-2004 to determine the extent of contamination with organochlorine (OC) pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The ΣDDTs ranged from 239 to 2360 pg m -3. Other prominent OC pesticides were endosulfans, toxaphene and lindane. Pesticides detected in lower concentrations include chlordanes, dieldrin, and heptachlor. Proportions of DDT compounds suggested fresh use of DDT in some locations and a mix of fresh and aged residues at others. Ratios of trans-chlordane/ cis-chlordane were consistent with fresh chlordane usage or emission of residues from former termiticide applications. The ΣPCBs was relatively low at all sites. Concentrations of OC pesticides measured with passive samplers agreed well with those measured using high-volume samplers. Air back trajectory analysis suggests a complex pattern of regional atmospheric transport.

  2. A holistic approach to recycling of CRT glass and PCBs in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Wiesmeth, Hans; Häckl , Dennis; Do, Quang Trung; Bui, Duy Cam

    2012-01-01

    Rapidly growing quantities of e-waste (WEEE) demand the increasing attention of environmental policy all over the world. Developing countries are particularly affected by recycling and disposal activities, which are deemed harmful to health and environment. Holistic or integrated approaches to WEEE policy are required. The paper discusses first recycling technologies for glass from cathode ray tubes (CRT) and printed circuit boards (PCBs) in Vietnam. Thereafter the German approach to WEEE ...

  3. A retrospective study of PBDEs and PCBs in human milk from the Faroe Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grandjean Philippe

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Persistent organic pollutants (POPs in wildlife and humans remain a cause of global concern, both in regard to traditional POPs, such as the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, and emerging POPs, such as the polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs. To determine the time related concentrations, we analyzed human milk for these substances at three time points between 1987 and 1999. Polychlorobiphenylols (OH-PCBs, the dominating class of PCB metabolites, some of which are known to be strongly retained in human blood, were also included in the assessment. Methods We obtained milk from the Faroe Islands, where the population is exposed to POPs from their traditional diet (which may include pilot whale blubber. In addition to three pools, nine individual samples from the last time point were also analyzed. After cleanup, partitioning of neutral and acidic compounds, and separation of chemical classes, the analyses were carried out by gas chromatography and/or gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Results Compared to other European populations, the human milk had high PCB concentrations, with pool concentrations of 2300 ng/g fat 1987, 1600 ng/g fat in 1994, and 1800 ng/g fat in 1999 (based on the sum of eleven major PCB congeners. The nine individual samples showed great variation in PCB concentrations. The OH-PCBs were present in trace amounts only, at levels of approximately 1% of the PCB concentrations. The PBDE concentrations showed a clear increase over time, and their concentrations in human milk from 1999 are among the highest reported so far from Europe, with results of individual samples ranging from 4.7 to 13 ng/g fat Conclusion Although remote from pollution sources, the Faroe Islands show high concentrations of POPs in human milk, particularly PCBs, but also PBDEs. The PBDEs show increasing concentrations over time. The OH-PCB metabolites are poorly transferred to human milk, which likely is related to their acidic character.

  4. Children and Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Digest for health professionals Children and Dietary Supplements Share: September 2012 © Matthew Lester Research has shown that many children use herbs and other dietary supplements. However, there are little data available on their ...

  5. Review on occurrence and behavior of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in atmosphere of East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Minh Man; Chang, Moo Been

    2018-05-01

    This paper reviews the data from studies mainly published after 2000 to provide the current understanding of the physicochemical properties, atmospheric occurrence, gas/particle partitioning, fate and temporal trends in atmospheric matrix of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs of East Asia. Ambient PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs concentrations in East Asia are found to be tens to hundreds times higher than that measured in Europe and North America. After strict regulations on PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs emissions are enacted, the concentrations of these compounds decrease dramatically in Eastern Asian countries. In general, most of PCDD/Fs distribute in particle phase while dl-PCBs majorly exist in gas phase. Three main factors including physicochemical properties of the compounds, properties of particle and atmospheric condition affect the gas/particle partitioning of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs. The accuracy of absorption and adsorption models on predicting gas/particle partitioning of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs is evaluated. Gas-phase compounds are mostly removed from the atmosphere via reactions with OH radicals while those in particle phase are majorly removed by wet/dry deposition processes. The effects of removing processes and long-range transport on gas/particle partitioning are also discussed.

  6. Passive air monitoring of PCBs and PCNs across East Asia: a comprehensive congener evaluation for source characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogarh, Jonathan Nartey; Seike, Nobuyasu; Kobara, Yuso; Habib, Ahsan; Nam, Jae-Jak; Lee, Jong-Sik; Li, Qilu; Liu, Xiang; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2012-02-01

    A comprehensive congener specific evaluation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in the atmosphere was conducted across East Asia in spring 2008, applying polyurethane foam (PUF) disk passive air sampler (PAS) as monitoring device. Mean concentrations derived for Japan, China and Korea were 184 ± 24, 1100 ± 118, and 156 ± 20 pg m(-3) for ∑(202) PCBs, and 9.5 ± 1.5, 61 ± 6, and 16 ± 2.4 pg m(-3) for ∑(63) PCNs, respectively. Relative to reported data from 2004, the present results suggest that air PCBs concentrations have not changed much in Japan and Korea, while it has increased by one order of magnitude in China. From principal component analysis, combustion emerged highly culpable in contemporary emissions of both PCBs and PCNs across the East Asian sub-region. Another factor derived as important to air PCBs was re-emissions/volatilization. Signals from PCBs formulations were also picked, but their general importance was virtually consigned to the re-emissions/volatilization tendencies. On the contrary, counterpart PCNs formulations did not appear to contribute much to air PCNs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in industrial and municipal effluents: Concentrations, congener profiles, and partitioning onto particulates and organic carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramani, Aparna; Howell, Nathan L.; Rifai, Hanadi S.

    2014-01-01

    Wastewater effluent samples were collected in the summer of 2009 from 16 different locations which included municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants and petrochemical industrial outfalls in the Houston area. The effluent samples were analyzed for all 209 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congeners using high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) using the USEPA method 1668A. The total PCBs (∑ 209) concentration in the dissolved medium ranged from 1.01 to 8.12 ng/L and ranged from 2.03 to 31.2 ng/L in the suspended medium. Lighter PCB congeners exhibited highest concentrations in the dissolved phase whereas, in the suspended phase, heavier PCBs exhibited the highest concentrations. The PCB homolog concentrations were dominated by monochlorobiphenyls through hexachlorobiphenyls, with dichlorobiphenyls exhibiting the highest concentration amongst them at most of the effluent outfalls, in the suspended phase. Both total suspended solids (TSS) and various organic carbon fractions played an important role in the distribution of the suspended fractions of PCBs in the effluents. The log K oc values determined in the effluents suggest that effluent PCB loads might have more risk and impact than what standard partitioning models predict. - Highlights: • 209 PCB congeners were measured in 16 different municipal and industrial effluents. • PCB congener differences were elucidated for the various effluent types. • In addition to log K ow , organic carbon and TSS affect partitioning of PCBs. • High concentrations of homolog 2 maybe due to biotransformation of PCBs

  8. Levels, distribution and air-soil exchange fluxes of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the environment of Punjab Province, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Jabir Hussain; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Jones, Kevin C

    2013-11-01

    An initial survey of the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) compounds in air and soils across industrial and agricultural areas of Punjab Province, Pakistan, was conducted from January to March 2011. The total concentration of all PCBs (31 PCBs) ranged from 34 to 389pgm(-3) in air and from 7 to 45ngg(-1) dry weight in soils, where both ranges were similar to the average ranges in other areas of the world. PCBs were elevated across industrial regions near urban and industrial sources. Consistently low air concentrations of PCBs at the agricultural sites suggest that they are less widespread or uniformly distributed in the Pakistani atmosphere. The calculated air and soil fugacity fraction values indicated that soils are a potential secondary source of PCBs in agricultural areas, whereas they are in equilibrium or atmospheric deposition in industrial and urban areas. TEQ concentrations of dioxin-like PCBs for soil samples met the Canadian standard. However, local authorities should address the human health threats from urban and industrial soils in Punjab Province, Pakistan. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Determination of DDTs and PCBs by capillary gas chromatography and electron capture detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This reference method deals with the determination of DDTs and PCBs in marine environmental samples using high resolution gas chromatography. Several other halogenated pesticides and other electron capturing organic compounds may be present in samples and many of these may also be determined by this method. Not all electron capturing residues will be resistant to all of the clean up procedures described here for the analysis of DTTs and PCBs. Therefore, additional information on the stability of some common pesticides using this methodology is also provided. The high separation power of open tubular (''capillary'') columns allows the identification and quantification of many compounds in the complex mixtures occurring in environmental samples. This manual provides information on the theoretical and practical aspects of the use of these high resolution columns for the analysis of DDTs and PCBs in environmental samples. The qualitative and quantitative method can be applied to any sample type (aerosol/vapour, water, particulates, biota, etc.) provided that suitable cleaned-up extracts dissolved in n-hexane are available for injection into the GC system. For example, methods for obtaining these cleaned-up sample extracts from marine organisms are described in detail in UNEP Reference Method no. 14 and for sediments in No. 17. The change in the field of application by analysing by capillary rather than packed columns may be less dramatic for DDTs. However, with the increased separation, the possibilities of inaccurate analysis resulting from overlap with interfering compounds is reduced. 7 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

  10. Dioxins and dl-PCBs in gull eggs from Spanish Natural Parks (2010-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Laura; Gene'rosa Martrat, Ma; Parera, Jordi; Bertolero, Albert; Ábalos, Manuela; Santos, Francisco Javier; Lacorte, Silvia; Abad, Esteban

    2016-04-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence and distribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and biphenyls (PCBs), concretely those so-called as dioxin-like PCBs, in yellow-legged gull eggs (Larus michahellis) collected from five Natural Parks (some of them National Parks) in Spain during the period 2010-2013. PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs were detected in all the samples. Due to the proximity to important urban and industrial areas higher concentrations were determined in colonies located in the Northern Mediterranean coast than those found in the Southern Mediterranean or Atlantic colonies where a softer anthropogenic impact occurs. Mean ∑PCDD/F concentrations ranged from 49 to 223pg/g lipid weight (lw) and ∑dl-PCB concentrations varied from 146 to 911ng/g lw. In the Natural Park of the Ebro Delta (Northern Mediterranean coast) two gull species share habitat: yellow-legged and Audouin gull (Larus audouinii). Eggs from both species were collected and PCDD/F and dl-PCB levels compared. The species that feeds exclusively on pelagic fish (L. audouinii) had significantly higher PCDD/F and dl-PCB levels than the scavenger L. michahellis, pointing out the diet-dependent differences in the accumulation of persistent organic pollutants between similar cohabitant breeding species. Finally, mean TEQ values were in general below those considered as critical for toxicological effects in birds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Trends in European background air reflect reductions in primary emissions of PCBs and PBDEs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Jasmin K; Gioia, Rosalinda; Breivik, Knut; Steinnes, Eiliv; Scheringer, Martin; Jones, Kevin C

    2010-09-01

    Data are presented for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyls ethers (PBDEs) in passive air samplers (PAS) collected along a rural/remote latitudinal transect from southern UK to northern Norway during 2004-2008. This study is part of an ongoing campaign, using semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) as PAS over two year intervals since 1994. Absolute sequestered amounts of selected PCB congeners have decreased in a first order fashion between 1994-2008, with the average time of 8.4+/-3.2 years for atmospheric concentrations to decline by 50%. PCBs have continued to fractionate with latitude during this period. PBDE concentrations declined by 50% between 2000 and 2008 every 2.2+/-0.4 years. Results are discussed in terms of sources, long-range atmospheric transport, global fractionation, and clearance processes. It is concluded that the spatial and temporal trends in background European air mainly reflect the strength of primary diffusive emissions of these compounds and subsequently their ongoing declines. The direct evidence for this is similar rates of decline at all the sites; similar rates of decline for all congeners; no systematic change in the fractionation pattern since 1994. The latest results indicate a reduction in the rate of decline for PCBs (and hence in primary emissions).

  12. Associations between dioxins/furans and dioxin-like PCBs in estuarine sediment and blue crab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebens, J.; Mohrherr, C.J.; Karouna-Renier, N. K.; Snyder, R.A.; Rao, K.R.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the relationships between the quantity, toxicity, and compositional profile of dioxin/furan compounds (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in estuarine sediment and in the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus). Sediment and blue crab samples were collected in three small urban estuaries that are in relatively close proximity to each other. Results show that differences between PCDD/F and DL-PCB mass concentrations and total toxic equivalents (TEQ) toxicity in sediments of the three estuaries are reflected in those of the blue crab. TEQs are higher in the hepatopancreas of the crabs than in the sediment, but the concentration factor is inversely proportional to the TEQ in the sediments. Congener profiles in the crabs are systematically different from those in the sediments, and the difference is more pronounced for PCDD/Fs than for DL-PCBs, possibly due to differences in metabolization rates. Compared with sediment profiles, more lesser-chlorinated PCDD/Fs that have higher TEFs accumulate in crab hepatopancreas. This selective bioaccumulation of PCDD/Fs results in a TEQ augmentation in crab hepatopancreas compared with sediments. The bioaccumulation in the blue crab is also selective for PCDD/Fs over DL-PCBs. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  13. PCBs and PCDD/Fs distribution in tissues and organs of marine animals in Russian Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amirova, Z.; Kruglov, E.; Loshkina, E.; Khalilov, R. [Environmental Research and Protection Centre, Ufa (Russian Federation); Melnikov, S.; Vlasov, S. [Regional Centre Monitoring of the Arctic, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2004-09-15

    Studies of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the Russian Arctic were conducted recently by a Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program (AMAP) project. This project developed new data on the POPs pollution levels in the environment and biosphere, including PCBs and PCDD/Fs, in arctic regions of Russia. Transboundary transport and biomagnification within food chains in arctic regions result in POPs accumulation in tissues of fish and marine animals. The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of indicator PCBs, co-planar PCBs and PCDD/Fs in different tissues and organs of seals, walruses and whales caught near the seashore of Chukotski Peninsula (settlement of Lavrenty), Russia, to determine the background level of arctic biota pollution and to study distribution of toxicants in organisms of marine animals. Sampling was made in the course of the 1{sup st} and the 2{sup nd} stages of the 4{sup th} phase of Raipon/AMAP/GEF project ''Persistent Toxic Substances (PTS), Food Security and Indigenous Peoples of the Russian North'' in 2002 by researchers of the Regional Center for Monitoring of the Arctic (RCMA), St. Petersburg, Russia.

  14. PCBs and OCPs in marine species from the Belgian North Sea and the Western Scheldt Estuary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voorspoels, S.; Covaci, A.; Maervoet, J.; Schepens, P. [Antwerp Univ., Wilrijk (Belgium). Toxicological Centre

    2004-09-15

    The use and/or production of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), such as 2,2-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (DDT), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and lindane ({gamma}-HCH) have been banned in most developed countries since the 1970's. Despite this measure, these compounds are among the most prevalent environmental pollutants and they can be found in various environmental compartments, both biotic and abiotic. Their widespread presence is due to their extremely persistant and lipophilic nature, resulting in enrichment throughout the food chain. Prolonged exposure to these pollutants can interfere with normal physiology and biochemistry3, resulting in adverse effects in various organisms, including starfish, shrimp, crabs, and fish4. Because humans readily consume seafood, such as shrimp, crab and various fish species, these organisms are of great scientific value to estimate the possible exposure to PCBs and OCPs through marine food sources. The area studied in this investigation covered both commercial fishing grounds (Belgian North Sea - BNS) and a recreational fishing area (Western Scheldt Estuary - SE). The drainage basin of the SE covers a very densely populated and highly industrialised region, causing a high level of pollution in the SE. In this work, PCBs and OCPs were determined in benthic invertebrates and different fish species from both BNS and SE in order to evaluate trends in levels, congener distribution, and geographical variation.

  15. Accumulation of PCBs and other POPs in Canada's Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2001-02-01

    High concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been found in sea-food traditionally eaten by First Nations' people of the Arctic. Since PCBs have never been manufactured in the Arctic these high concentrations cannot be attributed to local sources; they must have been transported from other regions. Due to its cold climate, the Arctic acts a sink for contaminants such as PCBs, originating from around the world and carried by Arctic air masses. Semi-volatile compounds are carried to the Arctic by cycles of evaporation, transport and condensation. Rain, snow, ice and dry deposition capture the airborne contaminants and pollute the surface on which they settle. The contaminants are processed in rivers by sedimentation and resuspension of particles, and lakes, estuaries and deltas act as sinks. The effects of these contaminants is not fully understood, although it is clear that they accumulate in fatty tissues, thus posing special danger to First Nations people who are known to consume fatty sea mammals. Inuit adults from Arctic Quebec and Greenland have PCB concentrations in their blood seven times higher than found in North American adults; 35 times higher than Health Canada's 'level of concern' for women of reproductive age. The cleanup of all PCB and other POP sources is believed to be the only preventative solution, but agreement among countries about how to deal with the existing POPs in the environment to date has proven to be difficult.

  16. Decomposition of PCBs in transformer oil using an electron beam accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, In-Ha; Lee, Myun-Joo; Mah, Yoon-Jung

    2012-07-01

    Decomposition of PCBs in commercially used transformer oil used for more than 30 years has been carried out at normal temperature and pressure without any additives using an electron beam accelerator. The experiments were carried out in two ways: batch and continuous pilot plant with 1.5 MeV of energy, a 50 mA current, and 75 kW of power in a commercial scale accelerator. The electron beam irradiation seemed to transform large molecular weight compounds into lower ones, but the impact was considered too small on the physical properties of oil. Residual concentrations of PCBs after irradiation depend on the absorption dose of the electron beam energy, but aliphatic chloride compounds were produced at higher doses of irradiation. As the results from FT-NMR, chloride ions decomposed from the PCBs are likely to react with aliphatic hydro carbon compounds rather than existing as free radical ions in the transformer oil. Since this is a dry process, treated oil can be used as cutting oil or machine oil for heavy equipment without any additional treatments.

  17. Atmospheric deposition, retention, and stream export of dioxins and PCBs in a pristine boreal catchment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergknut, Magnus; Laudon, Hjalmar; Jansson, Stina; Larsson, Anna; Gocht, Tilman; Wiberg, Karin

    2011-01-01

    The mass-balance between diffuse atmospheric deposition of organic pollutants, amount of pollutants retained by the terrestrial environment, and levels of pollutants released to surface stream waters was studied in a pristine northern boreal catchment. This was done by comparing the input of atmospheric deposition of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) and PCBs with the amounts exported to surface waters. Two types of deposition samplers were used, equipped with a glass fibre thimble and an Amberlite sampler respectively. The measured fluxes showed clear seasonality, with most of the input and export occurring during winter and spring flood, respectively. The mass balance calculations indicates that the boreal landscape is an effective sink for PCDD/Fs and PCBs, as 96.0-99.9 % of received bulk deposition was retained, suggesting that organic pollutants will continue to impact stream water in the region for an extended period of time. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: → The fluxes of organic pollutants in a pristine boreal catchment were measured. → Most of the input and export occurred during winter and spring flood. → 96.0-99.9% of received bulk deposition was retained by the landscape. → Organic pollutants will impact boreal stream waters for an extended period of time. - The boreal landscape is effective in retaining diffuse atmospheric deposition of dioxins and PCBs, slowly releasing these pollutants into nearby streams.

  18. Cat serum contamination by phthalates, PCBs, and PBDEs versus food and indoor air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braouezec, Clélie; Enriquez, Brigitte; Blanchard, Martine; Chevreuil, Marc; Teil, Marie-Jeanne

    2016-05-01

    A wide variety of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) with semi-volatile properties are emitted to indoor air and, thus, humans might get exposed to these compounds. Pet cats spend the major part of their lifetime at home and might integrate indoor contamination so that they could mirror the human exposure. Three classes of EDCs, polybromodiphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and phthalates (PAEs), were simultaneously considered and quantified in the serum of cats (Felis silvestris catus) living in the Paris area (France). The main compound concentrations by decreasing importance order were as follows: for PAEs, di-n-butyl phthalate (79,900 ng L(-1)) next di-iso-butyl phthalate (53,200 ng L(-1)), di-iso-nonyl phthalate (43,800 ng L(-1)), and di-ethylhexyl phthalate (32,830 ng L(-1)); for PCBs, CB153 (1378 ng L(-1)) next CB52 (509 ng L(-1)), CB101 (355 ng L(-1)), CB110 (264 ng L(-1)), and CB118 (165 ng L(-1)); and for PBDEs, BDE 153/154 (35 ng L(-1)) next BDE47 (10.7 ng L(-1)). Total serum concentrations as mean ± standard deviation were 107 ± 98 μg L(-1) for ∑9PAEs, 2799 ± 944 ng L(-1) for ∑19PCBs, and 56 ± 21 ng L(-1) for ∑9BDEs. The three chemical groups were found in cat food: 0.088 ng g(-1) for ∑9BDEs, 1.7 ng g(-1) for ∑19PCBs, and 2292 ng g(-1) for ∑9PAEs and in indoor air: 0.063 ng m(-3) for ∑9BDEs, 1.5 ng m(-3) for ∑19PCBs, and 848 ng m(-3) for ∑9PAEs. Contaminant intake by food ingestion was approximately 100-fold higher than that by indoor air inhalation.

  19. Impact of dietary exposure to food contaminants on the risk of Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Maria Skaalum; Halling, Jónrit; Bech, Sára

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association of Parkinson's disease (PD) with dietary exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and methylmercury (MeHg) in a community with increased exposure levels. A total of 79 clinically verified idiopathic PD cases and 154 controls matched by sex and a...... in adult life was significantly associated with PD, thus suggesting a positive association between previous exposure to marine food contaminants and development of PD......., pesticides and metals also suggested an increased risk for PD. Current serum concentrations of summation operator PCB and related contaminants suggested slightly increased ORs, although only beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH) was statistically significant. Increased intake of whale meat and blubber...

  20. PBDEs, PCBs, and DDE in eggs and their impacts on aplomado falcons (Falco femoralis) from Chihuahua and Veracruz, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, M.A.; Baxter, C.; Sericano, J.L.; Montoya, A.B.; Gallardo, J.C.; Rodriguez-Salazar, J.R.

    2011-01-01

    Eggs from aplomado falcons (Falco femoralis septentrionalis) nesting in Chihuahua and Veracruz, Mexico, were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and PBDEs. p,p'-DDE was the only organochlorine found in all eggs at concentrations ranging from 0.13 to 7.85 μg/g wet weight. PCBs ranged from 0.04 to 2.80 μg/g wet weight and PBDEs from 62 to 798 ng/g lipid weight. DDE concentrations in eggs were not significantly different among regions; however, PCBs were significantly greater (P = 0.015) in Tinaja Verde, Chihuahua than in the other three regions. Also, PBDEs were significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in eggs from Veracruz than in those from Chihuahua. DDE concentrations in eggs were much lower than those associated with eggshell thinning. PBDEs and PCBs were lower than those reported in raptors from industrialized countries. Overall, contaminant concentrations observed suggest no likely impact on hatching success. The PBDE concentrations are among the first to be reported in raptor species in Mexico. - Highlights: → We analyzed environmental contaminants in eggs of aplomado falcons from Mexico. → Of all the organochlorine pesticides, only p,p'-DDE was detected in all the eggs. → Eggshell thickness was 20% thicker than the reported in eggshells from the 1970s. → Total PCBs and PBDEs were lower than those reported in industrialized countries. → Aplomado falcons in Mexico are currently not affected by DDE, PCBs, or PBDEs. - PBDEs, PCBs, and p,p'-DDE were not elevated in eggs and not likely to impact aplomado falcons in eastern and northern Mexico.

  1. Monitoring OH-PCBs in PCB transport worker's urine as a non-invasive exposure assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haga, Yuki; Suzuki, Motoharu; Matsumura, Chisato; Okuno, Toshihiro; Tsurukawa, Masahiro; Fujimori, Kazuo; Kannan, Narayanan; Weber, Roland; Nakano, Takeshi

    2018-04-14

    In this study, we analyzed hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) in urine of both PCB transport workers and PCB researchers. A method to monitor OH-PCB in urine was developed. Urine was solid-phase extracted with 0.1% ammonia/ methanol (v/v) and glucuronic acid/sulfate conjugates and then decomposed using β-glucuronidase/arylsulfatase. After alkaline digestion/derivatization, the concentration of OH-PCBs was determined by HRGC/HRMS-SIM. In the first sampling campaign, the worker's OH-PCB levels increased several fold after the PCB waste transportation work, indicating exposure to PCBs. The concentration of OH-PCBs in PCB transport workers' urine (0.55~11 μg/g creatinine (Cre)) was higher than in PCB researchers' urine (PCB storage area. In the second sampling, after recommended PCB exposure reduction measures had been enacted, the worker's PCB levels did not increase during handling of PCB equipment. This suggests that applied safety measures improved the situation. Hydroxylated trichlorobiphenyls (OH-TrCBs) were identified as a major homolog of OH-PCBs in urine. Also, hydroxylated tetrachlorobiphenyls (OH-TeCBs) to hydroxylated hexachlorobiphenyls (OH-HxCBs) were detected. For the sum of ten selected major indicators, a strong correlation to total OH-PCBs were found and these can possibly be used as non-invasive biomarkers of PCB exposure in workers managing PCB capacitors and transformer oils. We suggest that monitoring of OH-PCBs in PCB management projects could be considered a non-invasive way to detect exposure. It could also be used as a tool to assess and improve PCB management. This is highly relevant considering the fact that in the next 10 years, approx. 14 million tons of PCB waste need to be managed. Also, the selected populations could be screened to assess whether exposure at work, school, or home has taken place.

  2. PCDDs, PCDFs, and coplanar PCBs in albatross from the North Pacific and Southern Oceans: levels, patterns, and toxicological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Shinsuke; Watanabe, Mafumi; Minh, Tu Binh; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Nakanishi, Shigeyuki; Ono, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki

    2004-01-15

    Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (coplanar PCBs) were determined in five albatross species collected from the North Pacific and Southern Oceans to assess the north-south differences in residue levels, accumulation patterns, and toxic potential. Black-footed and Laysan albatrosses from the North Pacific Ocean contained higher levels of PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs than albatrosses from the Southern Ocean, indicating that emission sources of these contaminants were predominant in the northern hemisphere. Residue levels in albatrosses from the remote North Pacific Ocean far from the point source of pollution were comparable to or higher than those in terrestrial and coastal birds from contaminated areas in developed nations, suggesting the specific exposure and accumulation of PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs in albatross. The long life span and ingestion of plastic resin pellets by albatrosses could be the plausible explanations for the elevated accumulation of persistent and lipophilic contaminants including PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs in these birds. Relative proportions of PCDFs and coplanar PCBs in albatross were higher than those observed in birds inhabiting terrestrial and coastal areas, suggesting that these toxic chemicals may have higher transportability by air and water than PCDDs. Congener patterns of PCDD/Fs in albatross showed less variability as compared to those in terrestrial species, indicating that contamination patterns of PCDD/Fs were similar within the open ocean environment. Contributions of PCDD/Fs to total TEQs in albatrosses from the open ocean were generally lower than those in terrestrial birds, suggesting different toxic potency of PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs on animals inhabiting open ocean and terrestrial environment. Whereas albatrosses from southern oceans retained lower TEQ concentrations, possible adverse effects of PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs

  3. Blood levels of dioxins, furans, dioxin-like PCBs, and TEQs in general populations: a review, 1989-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consonni, Dario; Sindaco, Raffaella; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto

    2012-09-01

    A comprehensive worldwide literature review of blood levels of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in non-exposed adult general populations was performed. The studies published in 1989-2010 reporting information on polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), non-ortho-PCBs (nPCBs), mono-ortho-PCBs (mPCBs) levels and Toxic Equivalencies (TEQs, a summary weighted measure of their combined toxicity) were reviewed. TEQs were calculated using as standard the most recent WHO 2005 reevaluation of Toxic Equivalency Factors (TEFs). Weighted multiple regression analyses adjusted for year, subject's age, type of sample analyzed, method used for values below detection limit, and central tendency measure used were performed for each congener and standardized TEQs (log-transformed). We identified 187 studies regarding 29,687 subjects of 26 countries. Year of blood collection ranged from 1985 to 2008. The studies reporting congener levels 161. In adjusted analyses, European countries showed higher levels of most dioxin-like congeners and TEQs. A strong positive association of subjects' age with most congeners and with TEQ values was found, confirming previous findings. Significant decreases over time (1985-2008) were documented for PCCDs, PCDFs, and TEQs including their contributions. No significant decrease was found for non-ortho-PCBs, notably PCB 126. Only some mono-ortho-PCBs showed clear significant declines. Accordingly, TEQs including only PCB contribution did not decrease over time. In interpreting these findings, it should be considered that for dioxin-like PCBs the analysis period was shorter (17 years), since these compounds were first measured in 1992. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. PBDEs, PCBs, and DDE in eggs and their impacts on aplomado falcons (Falco femoralis) from Chihuahua and Veracruz, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora, M.A., E-mail: mmora@tamu.edu [Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-2258 (United States); Baxter, C. [Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-2258 (United States); Sericano, J.L. [Geochemical and Environmental Research Group, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77845 (United States); Montoya, A.B. [The Peregrine Fund, Inc, Boise, ID 83709 (United States); Gallardo, J.C. [Instituto de Neuroetologia, Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa, Veracruz 91190 (Mexico); Rodriguez-Salazar, J.R. [The Peregrine Fund, Inc, Boise, ID 83709 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    Eggs from aplomado falcons (Falco femoralis septentrionalis) nesting in Chihuahua and Veracruz, Mexico, were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and PBDEs. p,p'-DDE was the only organochlorine found in all eggs at concentrations ranging from 0.13 to 7.85 {mu}g/g wet weight. PCBs ranged from 0.04 to 2.80 {mu}g/g wet weight and PBDEs from 62 to 798 ng/g lipid weight. DDE concentrations in eggs were not significantly different among regions; however, PCBs were significantly greater (P = 0.015) in Tinaja Verde, Chihuahua than in the other three regions. Also, PBDEs were significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in eggs from Veracruz than in those from Chihuahua. DDE concentrations in eggs were much lower than those associated with eggshell thinning. PBDEs and PCBs were lower than those reported in raptors from industrialized countries. Overall, contaminant concentrations observed suggest no likely impact on hatching success. The PBDE concentrations are among the first to be reported in raptor species in Mexico. - Highlights: > We analyzed environmental contaminants in eggs of aplomado falcons from Mexico. > Of all the organochlorine pesticides, only p,p'-DDE was detected in all the eggs. > Eggshell thickness was 20% thicker than the reported in eggshells from the 1970s. > Total PCBs and PBDEs were lower than those reported in industrialized countries. > Aplomado falcons in Mexico are currently not affected by DDE, PCBs, or PBDEs. - PBDEs, PCBs, and p,p'-DDE were not elevated in eggs and not likely to impact aplomado falcons in eastern and northern Mexico.

  5. Can epidemiological studies discern subtle neurological effects due to perinatal exposure to PCBs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seegal, R F

    1996-01-01

    What conclusions can be drawn concerning the potential neurological effects of perinatal exposure to either PCBs, or PCBs and other fish-borne contaminants? First, by their very nature epidemiological studies are limited in their ability to detect subtle associations--including possible links between exposure to low levels of environmental contaminants and disease. As stated by Dr. Schantz, both Rogan and the Jacobsons report small changes in motor and cognitive behavior--typically less than one-half of a standard deviation--and only in the most highly exposed children. Given these small changes in CNS function, the substantive criticisms of Paneth (including the Jacobsons' choice to employ a random, rather than matched, control sample and the related fact that fish-eating mothers differed from non-fish-eating mothers on several important characteristics) and similar "generic" concerns raised by Taubes, a critical reader must question both the validity of the findings from the Michigan study and the reasons for discrepancies in results between the Jacobson and Rogan studies. Are the differences in neurobehavioral effects reported by the Jacobsons and colleagues, and Rogan and colleagues, due to the presence of confounders, exposure to different neurotoxicants, or subtle differences in methodologies? At present it is not possible to answer these questions. Nevertheless, certain commonalities exist between the Rogan and Jacobson studies, and most recently, the study conducted by Daly and colleagues in New York. All of these studies report alterations in the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale, suggesting that exposure to environmental contaminants (including PCBs) may induce subtle, transient alterations in maturation of the human CNS. Secondly, because contaminated fish contain a large number of putative developmental neurotoxicants (e.g., methyl-mercury, p,p'-DDE, PCBs, and pesticides), I am pessimistic that additional studies of human populations

  6. Latitudinal exposure to DDTs, HCB, PCBs, PBDEs and DP in giant petrels (Macronectes spp.) across the Southern Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roscales, Jose L., E-mail: jlroscales@iqog.csic.es [Department of Instrumental Analysis and Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Organic Chemistry, CSIC (IQOG-CSIC), Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006 Madrid (Spain); González-Solís, Jacob; Zango, Laura [Institut de Recerca de la Biodiversitat (IRBio) and Department of Animal Biology, Universitat de Barcelona, Av Diagonal 643, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Ryan, Peter G. [Percy FitzPatrick Institute, DST-NRF Centre of Excellence, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Jiménez, Begoña [Department of Instrumental Analysis and Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Organic Chemistry, CSIC (IQOG-CSIC), Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-07-15

    Studies on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in Antarctic wildlife are scarce, and usually limited to a single locality. As a result, wildlife exposure to POPs across the Southern Ocean is poorly understood. In this study, we report the differential exposure of the major southern ocean scavengers, the giant petrels, to POPs across a wide latitudinal gradient. Selected POPs (PCBs, HCB, DDTs, PBDEs) and related compounds, such as Dechlorane Plus (DP), were analyzed in plasma of southern giant petrels (Macronectes giganteus) breeding on Livingston (62°S 61°W, Antarctica), Marion (46°S 37°E, sub-Antarctic), and Gough (40°S 10°W, cool temperate) islands. Northern giant petrels (Macronectes halli) from Marion Island were also studied. Stable isotope ratios of C and N (δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N) were used as dietary tracers of the marine habitat and trophic level, respectively. Breeding locality was a major factor explaining petrel exposure to POPs compared with species and sex. Significant relationships between δ{sup 13}C values and POP burdens, at both inter- and intra-population levels, support latitudinal variations in feeding grounds as a key factor in explaining petrel pollutant burdens. Overall, pollutant levels in giant petrels decreased significantly with latitude, but the relative abundance (%) of the more volatile POPs increased towards Antarctica. DP was found at negligible levels compared with legacy POPs in Antarctic seabirds. Spatial POP patterns found in giant petrels match those predicted by global distribution models, and reinforce the hypothesis of atmospheric long-range transport as the main source of POPs in Antarctica. Our results confirm that wildlife movements out of the polar region markedly increase their exposure to POPs. Therefore, strategies for Antarctic wildlife conservation should consider spatial heterogeneity in exposure to marine pollution. Of particular relevance is the need to clarify the exposure of Antarctic predators to

  7. Latitudinal exposure to DDTs, HCB, PCBs, PBDEs and DP in giant petrels (Macronectes spp.) across the Southern Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roscales, Jose L.; González-Solís, Jacob; Zango, Laura; Ryan, Peter G.; Jiménez, Begoña

    2016-01-01

    Studies on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in Antarctic wildlife are scarce, and usually limited to a single locality. As a result, wildlife exposure to POPs across the Southern Ocean is poorly understood. In this study, we report the differential exposure of the major southern ocean scavengers, the giant petrels, to POPs across a wide latitudinal gradient. Selected POPs (PCBs, HCB, DDTs, PBDEs) and related compounds, such as Dechlorane Plus (DP), were analyzed in plasma of southern giant petrels (Macronectes giganteus) breeding on Livingston (62°S 61°W, Antarctica), Marion (46°S 37°E, sub-Antarctic), and Gough (40°S 10°W, cool temperate) islands. Northern giant petrels (Macronectes halli) from Marion Island were also studied. Stable isotope ratios of C and N (δ 13 C and δ 15 N) were used as dietary tracers of the marine habitat and trophic level, respectively. Breeding locality was a major factor explaining petrel exposure to POPs compared with species and sex. Significant relationships between δ 13 C values and POP burdens, at both inter- and intra-population levels, support latitudinal variations in feeding grounds as a key factor in explaining petrel pollutant burdens. Overall, pollutant levels in giant petrels decreased significantly with latitude, but the relative abundance (%) of the more volatile POPs increased towards Antarctica. DP was found at negligible levels compared with legacy POPs in Antarctic seabirds. Spatial POP patterns found in giant petrels match those predicted by global distribution models, and reinforce the hypothesis of atmospheric long-range transport as the main source of POPs in Antarctica. Our results confirm that wildlife movements out of the polar region markedly increase their exposure to POPs. Therefore, strategies for Antarctic wildlife conservation should consider spatial heterogeneity in exposure to marine pollution. Of particular relevance is the need to clarify the exposure of Antarctic predators to emerging

  8. PCBs and DDT in the serum of juvenile California sea lions: associations with vitamins A and E and thyroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debier, Cathy; Ylitalo, Gina M.; Weise, Michael; Gulland, Frances; Costa, Daniel P.; Le Boeuf, Burney J.; Tillesse, Tanguy de; Larondelle, Yvan

    2005-01-01

    Top-trophic predators like California sea lions bioaccumulate high levels of persistent fat-soluble pollutants that may provoke physiological impairments such as endocrine or vitamins A and E disruption. We measured circulating levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in 12 healthy juvenile California sea lions captured on An-tilde o Nuevo Island, California, in 2002. We investigated the relationship between the contamination by PCBs and DDT and the circulating levels of vitamins A and E and thyroid hormones (thyroxine, T4 and triiodothyronine, T3). Serum concentrations of total PCBsPCBs) and total DDT were 14 ± 9 mg/kg and 28 ± 19 mg/kg lipid weight, respectively. PCB toxic equivalents (ΣPCB TEQs) were 320 ± 170 ng/kg lipid weight. Concentrations of ΣPCBs and ΣPCB TEQs in serum lipids were negatively correlated (p 0.1). As juvenile California sea lions are useful sentinels of coastal contamination, the high levels encountered in their serum is cause for concern about the ecosystem health of the area. - Results show high levels of organochlorine contaminants in juvenile California sea lions and a link between vitamin A, thyroid hormones and PCB exposure

  9. PCBs Contaminantion of Transformer Oil and its Occupational Health and Safety Status in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxman K.C.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrification in Kathmandu valley had started in 1911 and the use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs probably started since 1940s (Devkota, 2005. This research work was undertaken to find out the degree and extent of PCBs contamination in transformer oil and to explore its impacts on occupational health and safety issues of the workers and on the environment. The research was focused on Distributions Centers of the Nepal Electricity Authority (NEA in the Kathmandu valley, NEA Lainchaur workshop and welding workshops of the Kathmandu valley. The samples of transformer oil were collected, safely stored and analyzed using L2000DX Chloride Analyzer, PCBs contamination at >50 ppm level was found in 184 distribution transformers with total volume of PCBs contaminated transformer oil to be 67566.3 Kg. The knowledge on impacts of PCBs contaminated transformer oil on human health and environment was better among NEA employees than among employees of welding workshops, though not satisfactory. Due to very low awareness, the workers come in contact with the transformer oil regularly and many health impacts such as eye problems, skin related complication, weakness and respiratory problems might be due to this exposure; however, exact impacts could not be verified scientifically.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i4.11727       International Journal of EnvironmentVolume-3, Issue-4, Sep-Nov 2014Page : 12-23 

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in the equatorial Indian Ocean: temporal trend, continental outflow and air-water exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yumei; Li, Jun; Xu, Yue; Xu, Weihai; Cheng, Zhineng; Liu, Junwen; Wang, Yan; Tian, Chongguo; Luo, Chunling; Zhang, Gan

    2014-03-15

    Nineteen pairs of air and seawater samples collected from the equatorial Indian Ocean onboard the Shiyan I from 4/2011 to 5/2011 were analyzed for PCBs and HCB. Gaseous concentrations of ∑(ICES)PCBs (ICES: International Council for the Exploration of the Seas) and HCB were lower than previous data over the study area. Air samples collected near the coast had higher levels of PCBs relative to those collected in the open ocean, which may be influenced by proximity to source regions and air mass origins. Dissolved concentrations of ∑(ICES)PCBs and HCB were 1.4-14 pg L⁻¹ and 0.94-13 pg L⁻¹, with the highest concentrations in the sample collected from Strait of Malacca. Fugacity fractions suggest volatilization of PCBs and HCB from the seawater to air during the cruise, with fluxes of 0.45-34 ng m⁻² d⁻¹ and 0.36-18 ng m⁻² d⁻¹, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. War waste and pollution of karstic area of Bosnia and Herzegovina with PCBs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picer, N.; Hodak-Kobasic, V.; Kovac, T.; Calic, V. [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Miosic, N.; Hrvatovic, H. [Geological Survey, Sarajevo (Yugoslavia)

    2004-09-15

    During the recent war, the karst area of Bosnia and Herzegovina has been jeopardized by hazardous waste and deserves particular attention because of its exceptional ecological sensitivity and unfortunately unscrupulous destruction of natural resources, infrastructure, homes and enterprises. This was the reason for creation and planning of a joint three year Project - APOPSBAL, within which scientists from the jeopardized countries (Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Serbia and Montenegro) with the help of scientists from other friendly countries (Czech Republic, Austria, Slovenia and Greece) would identify the real problems concerning the PCB and other POP's contamination of the environment. Objectives of this Project in Bosnia and Herzegovina are: To collect data about damaged facilities with oil with PCBs and also other even more dangerous POPs in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Much better determining the hydrogeological fate of PCBs and other POPs compounds in the most threatened areas of Bosnia and Herzegovina polluted with the POPs. Special emphasis will be paid for the sensitive karstic media of these areas. To recognize in the field directly the technical state of electrotransformers and capacitors with pyralene with special attention to spilling of this oil into the environment. To sample soil and sediments from the sites thought polluted with PCBs and to analyse themselves on its content. To choose several sites for atmospheric monitoring samples with POPs, which are in surroundings to the ground argumentative contaminated with POPs in Bosnia and Herzegovina to establish real data about level of contamination of this very important part of human ecosphere. In this paper it will be reported the results of investigation from the first to the fourth objectives.

  12. Probabilistic Ecological Risk Assessment of OCPs, PCBs, and DLCs in the Haihe River, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Haihe River is the most seriously polluted river among the seven largest rivers in China. Dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethanes (DDTs, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs, and PCBs (noncoplanar polychlorinated biphenyls in the Haihe River, Tianjin were determined using a gas chromatograph – electron capture detector (GC-ECD. Dioxin-like compounds (DLCs were determined using Chemically Activated LUciferase gene eXpression (CALUX bioassay. HCH and DDT levels were, respectively, 0.06–6.07 μg/L and ND (not detected to 1.21 μg/L; PCB levels ranged from 0.12 to 5.29 μg/L; and the total DLCs in sediment were 4.78–343 pg TEQ (toxic equivalency/g. Aquatic ecological risk assessment was performed using the joint probability curve method and the Monte Carlo-based HQ (hazard quotient distribution method. The combined risks of similar chemicals and the total risk of dissimilar categories of chemicals were assessed based on the principles of joint toxicity. Due to the adjacent industrial activities, the risk levels of PCBs, DDTs, and HCHs were relatively high. The risk order was as follows: PCBs > DDTs ≈ HCHs > DLCs. The risk of HCHs approximated that of DDTs, which is different from the fact that risk of HCHs is usually much lower in the other Chinese rivers. The total risk caused by these pollutants was very high. Due to their high persistence and potential source from land, the high risks of such pollutants are likely to last for a long period of time.

  13. PCBs and OCPs in human milk and selected foods from Luqiao and Pingqiao in Zhejiang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Gaofeng; Xu Ying; Li Wen; Han Guanggen; Ling Bo

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted to measure the levels of 23 PCB congeners and 6 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in human milk and three food types collected from Luqiao and Pingqiao in Zhejiang Province, China. An effort was also made to explore the potential health risk for the mothers and breast-fed infants living in these two localities. Luqiao was selected as the sampling site because it is the largest place for the disassembly of obsolete transformers and electrical waste in China. Pingqiao, located 100 km NW of Luqiao, is not known to be a place for any electronic or electrical waste and hence was chosen as the control site. Both localities are important agricultural places in the province. The organochlorines were measured in the samples using the GC-μECD technique. Micro-EROD bioassay method was also used as a complement of the chemical analysis to estimate the TEQ levels of dioxin-like PCBs in human milk. The data showed that the human milk, rice, hen egg, and fish samples from Luqiao were more heavily contaminated with PCBs than those from Pingqiao, suggesting that the mothers and their breast-fed infants in Luqiao tended to receive greater exposure to PCBs than those living in Pingqiao. The OCP levels in the two localities were found comparable, suggesting that the major source of contamination with these pesticides was from their agricultural uses. Significant correlation (R 2 = 0.87, P < 0.001) of PCB TEQs was found between the bioassay and chemical analysis method, suggesting that micro-EROD is an effective method for comprehensive determination of TEQ levels in human milk. Comparison with literature data showed that the PCB levels in milk samples from Luqiao were significantly higher than those from localities in other Chinese provinces and comparable to those in developed or industrialized countries

  14. Dioxins and PCBs in ostrich meat and eggs: levels and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskorska-Pliszczynska, Jadwiga; Strucinski, Pawel; Mikolajczyk, Szczepan; Pajurek, Marek; Maszewski, Sebastian; Pietron, Wojciech

    2017-12-01

    Although consumption of eggs is an essential part of our diet, limited information is available for table eggs other than those laid by hens. The aim of our study was to determine concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like (DL-) and non-dioxin-like (NDL) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in ostrich eggs and meat available on the Polish market, in order to obtain baseline information on the current status of these pollutants in comparison to poultry products. Obtained data were compared with the binding EU limits set for chicken eggs and meat. The levels of individual PCDD/Fs and PCBs congeners varied considerably. The percentage share of total WHO toxic equivalency factor (WHO-TEQ) content indicates the dominant role of PCDD/Fs. High concentrations of PCDD/F and DL-PCBs, in the range of 0.85-74.48 pg WHO-TEQ g -1 fat, were found in ostrich eggs; this exceeds the maximum level permitted for chicken eggs by a factor of up to 15. Eight of the 11 egg samples exceeded the action level for hen eggs. Although the ostrich meat concentrations of PCDD/Fs do not exceed the limit established for poultry muscle (1.75 pg g -1 fat), average contents of PCDD/Fs exceeded almost four times the levels in chicken and turkey muscle. Human exposure was evaluated and the resulting risk was characterised. Taking into account the low average consumption of ostrich eggs, the resulting exposure to dioxins for the general population can be considered as negligibly low. However, the individuals who frequently consume such eggs may be at risk of elevated exposure. Although ostrich products are not consumed frequently, such data are nevertheless useful for food safety purposes.

  15. Spatial and temporal trends in PCBs in sediment along the lower Rhone River, France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desmet, Marc, E-mail: marc.desmet@univ-tours.fr [EA 6293 GeHCO Universite Francois-Rabelais de Tours, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France); Mourier, Brice, E-mail: brice.mourier@entpe.fr [Universite Lyon 1, UMR 5023 Ecologie des Hydrosystemes Naturels et Anthropises, ENTPE, CNRS, 3, Rue Maurice Audin, 69518 Vaulx-en-Velin (France); Mahler, Barbara J., E-mail: bjmahler@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, 1505 Ferguson Lane, Austin, TX 78754 (United States); Van Metre, Peter C., E-mail: pcvanmet@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, 1505 Ferguson Lane, Austin, TX 78754 (United States); Roux, Gwenaeelle, E-mail: gwenaelle.roux@entpe.fr [Universite Lyon 1, UMR 5023 Ecologie des Hydrosystemes Naturels et Anthropises, ENTPE, CNRS, 3, Rue Maurice Audin, 69518 Vaulx-en-Velin (France); Persat, Henri, E-mail: persat@biomserv.univ-lyon1.fr [Universite de Lyon, UMR 5023 Ecologie des Hydrosystemes Naturels et Anthropises, Universite Lyon 1, ENTPE, CNRS, 5 rue Raphaeel Dubois, 69221 Villeurbanne (France); Lefevre, Irene, E-mail: Irene.Lefevre@lsce.ipsl.fr [UMR 8212, LSCE, Bat. 12, avenue de la Terrasse, F-91198 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Peretti, Annie, E-mail: royannie@gmail.com [Irstea, UR MALY, 3 bis Quai Chauveau, CP220, F-69336 Lyon (France); and others

    2012-09-01

    Despite increasingly strict control of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) releases in France since the mid-1970s, PCB contamination of fish recently has emerged as a major concern in the lower Rhone River basin. We measured PCB concentrations in Rhone sediment to evaluate the effects of PCB releases from major urban and industrial areas, sediment redistribution by large floods, and regulatory controls on PCB trends from 1970 to present. Profiles of PCBs (the sum of seven indicator PCB congeners) were reconstructed from sediment cores collected from an off-river rural reference site and from three depositional areas along the Rhone upstream and downstream from the city of Lyon, France. Core chronology was determined from radionuclide profiles and flood deposits. PCB concentrations increased progressively in the downstream direction, and reached a maximum concentration in 1991 of 281 {mu}g/kg at the most downstream site. At the rural reference site and at the upstream Rhone site, PCB concentrations peaked in the 1970s (maximum concentration of 13 and 78 {mu}g/kg, respectively) and have decreased exponentially since then. PCB concentrations in the middle and downstream cores were elevated into the early 1990s, decreased very rapidly until 2000, and since then have remained relatively stable. Congener profiles for three time windows (1965-80, 1986-93, and 2000-08) were similar in the three sediment cores from the Rhone and different from those at the rural reference site. The results indicate that permitted discharges from a hazardous-waste treatment facility upstream from Lyon might have contributed to high concentrations into the 1980-90s, but that industrial discharges from the greater Lyon area and tributaries to the Rhone near Lyon have had a greater contribution since the 1990s. There is little indication that PCB concentration in sediments downstream from Lyon will decrease over at least the short term. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We reconstructed

  16. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the frame of the dismantling of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagenbart, Lars; Held, Christian; Reichert, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    During construction and maintenance of nuclear facilities PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls) containing paints were used in a large extent in the past. The WAK dismantling and disposal Company has dismantles such facilities and identified the PCB in the buildings. Besides the radionuclides the conventional hazardous material group of the PCBs has also to be disposed. The respective legal regulations have to be considered. In the frame of the contribution the radiological release of building structures with respect to re-use or demolition and residual PCB containing materials is discussed. The radiological disposal in final repositories and the conventional disposal regulations for releasable residual wastes are reported.

  17. Preliminary study of PCBs in raccoons living on or near the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halbrook, Richard S. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Zoology. Cooperative Wildlife Research Lab. Kentucky Research Consortium for Energy and Environment

    2016-01-15

    The “Ecological Monitoring at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant: Historical Evaluation and Guidelines for Future Monitoring” report (Halbrook, et al. 2007) recommended the raccoon as a species for study at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). This species was selected to fill data gaps in ecological resources and provide resource managers with knowledge that will be valuable in making decisions and implementing specific actions to safeguard ecological resources and reduce human exposure. The current paper reports results of a preliminary evaluation to establish protocols for collection of tissues and initial screening of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in raccoons collected near the PGDP. These data are useful in developing future more comprehensive studies.

  18. Comparison of PCBs and PAHs levels in European coastal waters using mussels from the Mytilus edulis complex as biomonitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Olenycz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mussels from the Mytilus edulis complex were used as biomonitors for two groups of organic pollutants: polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, congeners: 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz(aanthracene, chrysene, benzo(bfluoranthene, benzo(kfluoranthene, benzo(apyrene, indeno(1,2,3-cdpyrene, dibenz(a,hanthracene, benzo(g,h,iperylene at 17 sampling sites to assess their relative bioavailabilities in coastal waters around Europe. Because of the temporal differences in PCBs and PAHs concentrations, data were adjusted using Seasonal Variation Coefficients (SVC before making large-scale spatial comparisons. The highest concentrations of PCBs were found near estuaries of large rivers flowing through urban areas and industrial regions. Elevated bioavailabilities of PAHs occurred in the vicinity of large harbors, urban areas, and regions affected by petroleum pollution as well as in some remote locations, which indicated long-range atmospheric deposition.

  19. PBDEs, PCBs, and DDE in eggs and their impacts on aplomado falcons (Falco femoralis) from Chihuahua and Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, M A; Baxter, C; Sericano, J L; Montoya, A B; Gallardo, J C; Rodríguez-Salazar, J R

    2011-12-01

    Eggs from aplomado falcons (Falco femoralis septentrionalis) nesting in Chihuahua and Veracruz, Mexico, were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and PBDEs. p,p'-DDE was the only organochlorine found in all eggs at concentrations ranging from 0.13 to 7.85 μg/g wet weight. PCBs ranged from 0.04 to 2.80 μg/g wet weight and PBDEs from 62 to 798 ng/g lipid weight. DDE concentrations in eggs were not significantly different among regions; however, PCBs were significantly greater (P = 0.015) in Tinaja Verde, Chihuahua than in the other three regions. Also, PBDEs were significantly higher (P Mexico. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. K Basin Sludge Conditioning Process Testing Partitioning of PCBs in Dissolver Solution After Neutralization/Precipitation (Caustic Adjustment)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, A.J.; Thornton, B.M.; Hoppe, E.W.; Mong, G.M.; Silvers, K.L.; Slate, S.O.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the work described in this report was to gain a better understanding of how PCB congeners present in a simulated K Basin sludge dissolver solution will partition upon neutralization and precipitation (i.e., caustic adjustment). In a previous study (Mong et al. 1998),the entire series of sludge conditioning steps (acid dissolution, filtration, and caustic adjustment) were examined during integrated testing. In the work described here, the caustic adjustment step was isolated to examine the fate of PCBs in more detail within this processing step. For this testing, solutions of dissolver simulant (containing no solids) with a known initial concentration of PCB congeners were neutralized with caustic to generate a clarified supernatant and a settled sludge phase. PCBs were quantified in each phase (including the PCBs associated with the test vessel rinsates), and material balance information was collected

  1. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in industrial and municipal effluents: Concentrations, congener profiles, and partitioning onto particulates and organic carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramani, Aparna, E-mail: aparna.27889@gmail.com; Howell, Nathan L., E-mail: nlhowell@central.uh.edu; Rifai, Hanadi S., E-mail: rifai@uh.edu

    2014-03-01

    Wastewater effluent samples were collected in the summer of 2009 from 16 different locations which included municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants and petrochemical industrial outfalls in the Houston area. The effluent samples were analyzed for all 209 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congeners using high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) using the USEPA method 1668A. The total PCBs (∑ 209) concentration in the dissolved medium ranged from 1.01 to 8.12 ng/L and ranged from 2.03 to 31.2 ng/L in the suspended medium. Lighter PCB congeners exhibited highest concentrations in the dissolved phase whereas, in the suspended phase, heavier PCBs exhibited the highest concentrations. The PCB homolog concentrations were dominated by monochlorobiphenyls through hexachlorobiphenyls, with dichlorobiphenyls exhibiting the highest concentration amongst them at most of the effluent outfalls, in the suspended phase. Both total suspended solids (TSS) and various organic carbon fractions played an important role in the distribution of the suspended fractions of PCBs in the effluents. The log K{sub oc} values determined in the effluents suggest that effluent PCB loads might have more risk and impact than what standard partitioning models predict. - Highlights: • 209 PCB congeners were measured in 16 different municipal and industrial effluents. • PCB congener differences were elucidated for the various effluent types. • In addition to log K{sub ow}, organic carbon and TSS affect partitioning of PCBs. • High concentrations of homolog 2 maybe due to biotransformation of PCBs.

  2. A Review on Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in South Asia with a Focus on Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaw, Han Yeong; Kannan, Narayanan

    Malaysia is a developing country in Southeast Asia, with rapid industrial and economic growth. Speedy population growth and aggressive consumerism in the past five decades have resulted in environmental pollution issues, including products containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). PCBs and PBDEs are classified as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) by the Stockholm Convention due to their persistence, bioaccumulation in the environment and toxicity to humans and wildlife. These compounds are known to cause liver dysfunction, thyroid toxicity, developmental neuro-toxicity and possibly cancer. PCBs in air, mussels, pellets, seawater, fresh water, and human breast milk samples were analyzed in Malaysia, while studies on the pollution level of PBDEs in Malaysia were conducted on mussels, soils, leachate and sediment samples. PCBs in breast milk collected from Malaysia was the highest among Asian developing countries, with mean concentration of 80 ng/g lipid weight. On the other hand, the mean concentration of PCBs in mussels collected from Malaysia recorded the second lowest, with 56 ng/g and 89 ng/g lipid weight in two studies respectively. The concentrations of PBDEs in mussels taken from Malaysia fall in the range of 0.84-16 ng/g lipid weight, which is considerably low compared to 104.5 ng/g lipid weight in Philippines and 90.59 ng/g in Korea. Nevertheless, there are limited studies on these compounds in Malaysia, particularly there is no research on PBDEs in breast milk and sediment samples. This review will summarize the contamination levels of PCBs and PBDEs in different samples collected from Asian countries since 1988 until 2010 with a focus on Malaysia and will provide needed information for further research in this field.

  3. Spatial variation of PAHs and PCBs in coastal air, seawater, and sediments in a heavily industrialized region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odabasi, Mustafa; Dumanoglu, Yetkin; Kara, Melik; Altiok, Hasan; Elbir, Tolga; Bayram, Abdurrahman

    2017-05-01

    Concurrent coastal seawater (n = 22), sediment (n = 22), and atmospheric samples (n = 10) were collected in the Aliaga industrial region, Turkey, to explore the spatial variation, sources, and air-seawater exchange of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Seawater Σ 16 PAH concentrations (particle + dissolved) ranged between 5107 and 294,624 pg L -1 , while Σ 41 PCB concentrations were in the range of 880-50,829 pg L -1 . Levels in sediments were highly variable ranging between 35.5-49,682 and 2.7-2450 μg kg -1 in dry weight for Σ 16 PAHs and Σ 41 PCBs, respectively. Atmospheric concentrations varied between 1791-274,974 and 104-20,083 pg m -3 for Σ 16 PAHs and Σ 41 PCBs, respectively. Sediment organic matter (OM) content and levels of Σ 16 PAHs and Σ 41 PCBs correlated weakly (r 2  = 0.19-0.23, p seawater, and sediment and factor analysis on the sediment levels pointed out that the major sources in the region are steel plants, petroleum refinery, petrochemical complex, ship breaking, loading/unloading activities at the ports, vehicular emissions, and fossil fuel combustion emissions. The direction of the air-seawater exchange was also explored by estimating seawater fugacity fractions of PAHs and PCBs. For PAHs, the number of cases implying deposition (43.0%) and volatilization (39.5%) was similar, while for PCBs, the number of cases implying volatilization (60.4%) was much higher compared to deposition (21.6%). Fugacity fractions were generally seawater and sediment levels were measured, implying that atmospheric deposition is an important mechanism affecting seawater and sediment PAH and PCB levels.

  4. Hydrocarbons, PCBs and DDT in the NW Mediterranean deep-sea fish Mora moro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé, Montserrat; Porte, Cinta; Albaigés, Joan

    2001-02-01

    Data on aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and DDTs in the deep-sea fish Mora moro are reported in relation to the animal's weight/size and tissues (muscle, liver, digestive tube and gills). Fish samples were collected in the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean) at an approximate depth of 1000 m. The concentrations of these organic pollutants followed the trend musclelipid content of the organs. No clear bioaccumulation dependence on fish weight/size was observed for gills, digestive tube and liver when the fat contents of these tissues were taken into account. However, the concentrations in muscle decreased with size, possibly implying a simple dilution effect by the increase of body weight. Hydrocarbons, and particularly PAHs, were strongly depleted in all tissues with respect to organochlorinated compounds if compared with the amounts present in bottom waters and sediment. Smaller specimens displayed for most pollutants qualitatively different patterns than larger fish, which could be attributed to their particular habitat/diet. The aliphatic hydrocarbon profiles suggested that Mora moro was exposed to a more predominant intake of biogenic rather than petrogenic hydrocarbons. The entrance and storage organs exhibited characteristic PAH and PCB distributions, reflecting different bioaccumulation and metabolic pathways. Compared with the profiles currently found in surface fish species, a relatively higher contribution of heavier components, namely hepta- and octochlorinated PCBs, and 4-6-ringed PAHs, was found in the deep-sea fish.

  5. Emission of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs from metallurgy industries in S. Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Byeong-Woon; Jin, Guang-Zhu; Moon, Young-Hoon; Kim, Min-Kwan; Kyoung, Jong-Dai; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2006-01-01

    The metallurgy industry and municipal waste incinerators are considered the main sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in many countries. This study investigated the emission factors and total emissions of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) emitted from metallurgy industries (including ferrous and nonferrous foundries) in Korea. The toxic equivalency (TEQ) emission factor of PCDD/Fs was the highest for secondary copper production, at 24451 ng I-TEQ/ton. The total estimated emissions of PCDD/Fs from these sources were 35.259 g I-TEQ/yr, comprising 0.088 g I-TEQ/yr from ferrous foundries, 31.713 g I-TEQ/yr from copper production, 1.716 g I-TEQ/yr from lead production, 0.111 g I-TEQ/yr from zinc production, and 1.631 g I-TEQ/yr from aluminum production. The total estimated annual amounts of dioxin-like PCBs emitted from these sources were 13.260 g WHO-TEQ/yr, comprising 0.014 g WHO-TEQ/yr from ferrous foundries, 12.675 g WHO-TEQ/yr from copper production, 0.170 g WHO-TEQ/yr from lead production, 0.017 g WHO-TEQ/yr from zinc production, and 0.384 g WHO-TEQ/yr from aluminum production. The highest emission factor was found for secondary copper smelting, at 9770 ng WHO-TEQ/ton.

  6. Tracing the sources of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in Lake Baikal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamontov, A.A.; Mamontova, E.A.; Tarasova, E.N.; McLachlan, M.S.

    2000-03-01

    Lake Baikal is a unique freshwater ecosystem that has been declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It contains high levels of PCBs, and Baikal seal were recently found to have PCDD/F concentrations comparable to those in the Baltic Sea. In this work fish and soil were analyzed to trace the sources of these compounds to the lake. The fish samples indicated that the PCDD/F and PCB contamination of Lake Baikal does not originate from background inputs and that the contamination increases from north to south. The soil inventory was determined at 34 sites around Lake Baikal and in the Angara River valley. For the PCDD/Fs and most PCBs, the soil inventory is a good approximation of the cumulative atmospheric deposition. It varied over a factor of 1,000, with the highest levels in Usol'ye Sibirskoe, a city 110 km north of the southwestern tip of the lake in the highly industrialized Angara River valley, and the lowest values in the pristine areas to the northeast of the lake. A continuous decrease in the soil inventory was observed moving from Usol'ye S. up the Angara River valley to Lake Baikal and from there northeastward along the lake.

  7. Bioaccumulation of PCBs in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis from seawater, sediment and food pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danis, B.; Bustamante, P.; Cotret, O.; Teyssie, J.L.; Fowler, S.W.; Warnau, M.

    2005-01-01

    The cuttlefish Sepia officinalis was selected as a model cephalopod to study PCB bioaccumulation via seawater, sediments and food. Newly hatched, juvenile cuttlefish were exposed for 17 days to environmentally realistic concentrations of 14 C-labeled 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB no. 153) (18 ng PCB l -1 seawater; 30 ng PCB g -1 dry wt sediments; Artemia salina exposed to 18 ng PCB l -1 seawater). Accumulation of PCB no. 153 was followed in three body compartments: digestive gland, cuttlebone and the combined remaining tissues. Results showed that (1) uptake kinetics were source- and body compartment-dependent, (2) for each body compartment, the accumulation was far greater when S. officinalis was exposed via seawater, (3) the cuttlebone accumulated little of the contaminant regardless of the source, and (4) the PCB congener showed a similar distribution pattern among the different body compartments following exposure to contaminated seawater, sediment or food with the lowest concentrations in the cuttlebone and the highest in the remaining tissues. The use of radiotracer techniques allowed delineating PCB kinetics in small whole organisms as well as in their separate tissues. The results underscore the enhanced ability of cephalopods to concentrate organic pollutants such as PCBs, and raise the question of potential risk to their predators in contaminated areas. - Bioaccumulation of PCBs by cuttlefish is studied, via seawater, sediments and their food

  8. Dioxins, dioxin-like PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in farmed salmon of various origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karl, H. [Bundesforschungszentrum fuer Ernaehrung und Nahrung, Hamburg (Germany); Ruoff, U. [Bundesforschungszentrum fuer Ernaehrung und Nahrung, Kiel (Germany); Schwind, K.H.; Jira, W. [Bundesforschungszentrum fuer Ernaehrung und Nahrung, Kulmbach (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    With a market share of 8.4% in 2001 (approx. 100,000 t) farmed salmon is one of the most important fish species on the German market. The world wide production of salmon in 2001 was approximately 1.2 Mio t. Norway has produced around 450,000 t of Atlantic salmon of which 60,000 t has been exported to Germany. Other important suppliers of salmon to the German market are Scotland, Denmark, Chile and Ireland. The annual amount from Ireland is relatively small, being approximately 2,000 t. Most salmon is raised under conventional farming conditions. During the last years also high priced organically grown salmon is available on the German market, mainly produced in Ireland. With 800 t per year the market share of organically farmed salmon is less than 1%. Within the context of a study to develop methods for the detection of organically produced products taking salmon as example it was checked if the contaminant levels and/or the contaminant patterns are suitable to differentiate between organically and conventionally farmed salmon. Conventionally farmed salmon, referred as to farmed salmon, was collected from different European farms; organically farmed salmon, referred as to organic salmon, came from Ireland as well as wild Atlantic salmon, which was included into the study. In the present study dioxins, dioxin-like PCBs, marker PCBs and a range of organochlorine pesticides (toxaphene, chlordane, DDT, HCB etc.) in the muscle meat of salmon were investigated.

  9. Leaching of gold, silver and accompanying metals from circuit boards (PCBs waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Ficeriová

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Au-Ag noble metal wastes represent a wide range of waste types and forms, with various accompanying metallic elements.The presented leaching strategy for Au-Ag contained in circuit boards (PCBs aims at gaining gold and silver in the metallic form.Application of the proposed ammonium thiosulphate leaching process for the treatment of the above mentioned Au-Ag containing wastesrepresents a practical, economic and at the same time an ecological solution. The ammonium thiosulphate based leaching of gold and silverfrom PCBs waste, using crushing as a pretreatment, was investigated. It was possible to achieve 98 % gold and 93 % silver recovery within48 hours of ammonium thiosulphate leaching. This type of leaching is a better leaching procedure for recovery of gold and silver from PCBwaste than the classical toxic cyanide leaching. 84 % Cu, 82 % Fe, 77 % Al, 76 % Zn, 70 % Ni, 90 % Pd, 88 % Pb and 83 % Sn recovery ofthe accompanying metals was achieved, using sulphuric acid with hydrogen peroxide, sodium chloride and aqua regia. A four steps leachingprocess gave a very satisfactory yield and a more rapid kinetics for all observed metals solubilization than other technologies.

  10. Coupling of bioaugmentation and phytoremediation to improve PCBs removal from a transformer oil-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimizadeh, Maryam; Shirvani, Mehran; Shariatmadari, Hossein; Nikaeen, Mahnaz; Leili Mohebi Nozar, Seyedeh

    2018-06-07

    This study was carried out to assess the dissipation of 17 selected polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB i ) congeners in a transformer oil-contaminated soil using bioaugmentation with 2 PCB-degrading bacterial strains, i.e., Pseudomonas spp. S5 and Alcaligenes faecalis, assisted or not by the maize (Zea mays L.) plantation. After 5 and 10 weeks of treatment, the remaining concentrations of the target PCB i congeners in the soil were extracted and measured using GC-MS. Results showed that the bacterial augmentation treatments with Pseudomonas spp. S5 and A. faecalis led to 21.4% and 20.4% reduction in the total concentration of the target PCBs (ΣPCB i ), respectively, compared to non-bioaugmented unplanted control soil. The ΣPCB i decreased by 35.8% in the non-bioaugmented planted soil compared with the control. The greatest degradation of the PCB congeners was observed over a 10-week period in the soil inoculated with Pseudomonas spp. S5 and cultivated with maize. Under this treatment, the ΣPCB i decreased from 357 to 119 ng g -1 (66.7% lower) and from 1091 to 520 ng g -1 (52.3% lower). Overall, the results suggested that the combined application of phytoremediation and bioaugmentation was an effective technique to remove PCBs and remediate transformer oil-contaminated soils.

  11. Dioxins, PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in human breast milk from Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudaryanto, A.; Kunisue, T.; Iwata, H.; Tanabe, S. [Center for Marine Environmental Studies, Ehime Univ., Matsuyama (Japan); Niida, M. [Japan Offspring Fund, Tokyo (Japan); Hashim, H. [Consumers Association of Penang, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2004-09-15

    Contaminations by persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides in the environment have been of great concern due to their endocrine disrupting effects on humans and wildlife. Chemically stable and lipophilic properties of these contaminants led to their high contamination in higher trophic biota, including human. Despite the intensive monitoring efforts and anticipated results of decreasing trends of POPs in developed countries as a consequence of their regulation on use and waste treatment, little information are available on their contamination status in developing countries even though these chemicals are still being used and unintentionally produced in several parts of these countries. To ensure the reliability of exposure data and to delineate contamination status, fate and behavior in tropical developing countries, during last few years, our research groups conducted monitoring studies using various environmental matrices including air, water, sediment, soil, biota and human from several Asian developing countries. From these results, existing sources of OCs and formation of dioxins and related compounds could be predicted in this region. However, there is very little information addressing the accumulation of OCs pollution in Malaysia. Particularly available data are only on marine biota. To date no data are available on OCs contaminations in human milk samples from Malaysia. The present study aims at understanding recent contamination of POPs, including dioxins and related compounds, PCBs and OCs pesticides in human breast milk from the general population of Malaysia.

  12. Food contamination by PCBs and waste disposal crisis: Evidence from goat milk in Campania (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrante, M C; Fusco, G; Monnolo, A; Saggiomo, F; Guccione, J; Mercogliano, R; Clausi, M T

    2017-11-01

    The study aims at investigating whether, and if so, to what extent the strong presence of urban and industrial waste in a territory may cause PCB contamination in goat milk produced therein. We compared PCB concentrations in goat milk from three different locations in the Campania region (Italy). One of the three locations, together with its surrounding area, has long suffered from illegal waste disposal and burning mainly by the so-called Ecomafia. The other locations, not involved in these illegal activities, allowed us to create a control group of goats with characteristics very similar to those of main interest. In milk from the waste contaminated area we identified high PCB concentrations (six indicator PCBs amounted to 170 ng g -1 on lipid weight, on average), whereas there was an almost total absence of such pollutants in milk from the control group. Concentrations of the six indicator PCBs were above the current European maximum residue limit fixed by the EU. At the same time, we found a lower average value of lipid content and a negative relationship between lipid content and PCB concentrations. Evidence indicates the potential health risk for consumers living in areas involved in illegal dumping of waste. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Historical analysis of salmon-derived polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in lake sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruemmel, Eva M.; Scheer, Michael; Gregory-Eaves, Irene; Macdonald, Robie W.; Kimpe, Lynda E.; Smol, John P.; Finney, Bruce; Blais, Jules M.

    2009-01-01

    Several recent studies have highlighted the importance of salmon as a means to deliver biomagnifying contaminants to nursery lakes. There is a lack of studies, however, which demonstrate empirically how this source has varied through time. This is of great significance because past salmon-derived contaminant loading was potentially greater than it is today. By analyzing radiometrically dated sediment cores collected from ten lakes in Alaska and British Columbia (B.C.), we relate historical numbers of sockeye salmon spawners to ΣPCB concentrations and δ 15 N values (a paleolimnological proxy for past salmon-derived nitrogen) in the sediments. The results confirm that sockeye salmon have provided an important route for PCBs to enter the lakes in the past, a finding that is especially evident when the data of all lakes are pooled. Significant relationships between sockeye salmon numbers and δ 15 N, as well as ΣPCB concentrations and δ 15 N in sediments, were also found. However, it is difficult to establish relationships between salmon numbers, ΣPCBs and δ 15 N in individual lakes. This may be due to a number of factors which may influence contaminant loadings to the lakes. The factors include: a) changing salmon contaminant loads over time resulting from a lag in the upper ocean reservoir and/or changing salmon feeding locations; b) greater importance of atmospheric transport in lakes with relatively low salmon returns; and c) increased PCB scavenging due to higher algae productivity in the lakes in recent years

  14. Dry deposition and soil-air gas exchange of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in an industrial area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozlaker, Ayse; Odabasi, Mustafa; Muezzinoglu, Aysen

    2008-12-01

    Ambient air and dry deposition, and soil samples were collected at the Aliaga industrial site in Izmir, Turkey. Atmospheric total (particle+gas) Sigma(41)-PCB concentrations were higher in summer (3370+/-1617 pg m(-3), average+SD) than in winter (1164+/-618 pg m(-3)), probably due to increased volatilization with temperature. Average particulate Sigma(41)-PCBs dry deposition fluxes were 349+/-183 and 469+/-328 ng m(-2) day(-1) in summer and winter, respectively. Overall average particulate deposition velocity was 5.5+/-3.5 cm s(-1). The spatial distribution of Sigma(41)-PCB soil concentrations (n=48) showed that the iron-steel plants, ship dismantling facilities, refinery and petrochemicals complex are the major sources in the area. Calculated air-soil exchange fluxes indicated that the contaminated soil is a secondary source to the atmosphere for lighter PCBs and as a sink for heavier ones. Comparable magnitude of gas exchange and dry particle deposition fluxes indicated that both mechanisms are equally important for PCB movement between air and soil in Aliaga.

  15. Dioxins, Furans and PCBs in Recycled Water for Indirect Potable Reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemencia Rodriguez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available An assessment of potential health impacts of dioxin and dioxin-like compounds in recycled water for indirect potable reuse was conducted. Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs for 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD and dibenzofurans (PCDFs and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs congeners have been developed by the World Health Organization to simplify the risk assessment of complex mixtures. Samples of secondary treated wastewater in Perth, Australia were examined pre-and post-tertiary treatment in one full-scale and one pilot water reclamation plant. Risk quotients (RQs were estimated by expressing the middle-bound toxic equivalent (TEQ and the upper-bound TEQ concentration in each sampling point as a function of the estimated health target value. The results indicate that reverse osmosis (RO is able to reduce the concentration of PCDD, PCDF and dioxin-like PCBs and produce water of high quality (RQ after RO=0.15. No increased human health risk from dioxin and dioxin-like compounds is anticipated if highly treated recycled water is used to augment drinking water supplies in Perth. Recommendations for a verification monitoring program are offered.

  16. Dioxins, Furans and PCBs in Recycled Water for Indirect Potable Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Clemencia; Cook, Angus; Devine, Brian; Van Buynder, Paul; Lugg, Richard; Linge, Kathryn; Weinstein, Philip

    2008-01-01

    An assessment of potential health impacts of dioxin and dioxin-like compounds in recycled water for indirect potable reuse was conducted. Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congeners have been developed by the World Health Organization to simplify the risk assessment of complex mixtures. Samples of secondary treated wastewater in Perth, Australia were examined pre-and post-tertiary treatment in one full-scale and one pilot water reclamation plant. Risk quotients (RQs) were estimated by expressing the middle-bound toxic equivalent (TEQ) and the upper-bound TEQ concentration in each sampling point as a function of the estimated health target value. The results indicate that reverse osmosis (RO) is able to reduce the concentration of PCDD, PCDF and dioxin-like PCBs and produce water of high quality (RQ after RO=0.15). No increased human health risk from dioxin and dioxin-like compounds is anticipated if highly treated recycled water is used to augment drinking water supplies in Perth. Recommendations for a verification monitoring program are offered. PMID:19151430

  17. Electrochemical peroxidation of PCBs and VOCs in superfund site water and sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scrudato, R.J.; Chiarenzelli, J.R. [SUNY, Oswego, NY (United States)

    1996-12-31

    An electrochemical peroxidation (ECP) process has been developed and used to degrade polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and volatile organic compounds (VOC)-contaminated water, sludge, and sediments at a New York State Federal and State Superfund Site. The process involves passing an oscillating low-amperage (<10 amps) current through steel electrodes immersed in an acidified water or sediment slurry into which hydrogen peroxide (<1,000 ppm) is added. The generated free radicals attack organic compounds, including organo-metallic complexes and refractory compounds including PCBs. PCB degradation ranged from about 30% to 80% in experiments involving Federal Superfund Site sediments; total PCBs were reduced by {approximately}97% to 68%, respectively, in water and slurry collected from a State Superfund subsurface storage tank. VOC bench-scale experiments involved chloroethane, 1,1-dichloroethane, dichloromethane, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and acetone and after a 3-min ECP treatment, degradation ranged from >94% to about 99.9%. Results indicate the ECP is a viable process to degrade organic contaminants in water and sediment suspensions. Because the treated water suspensions are acidified, select trace metal sorbed to the particulates is solubilized and therefore can be segregated from the particulates, offering a process that simultaneously degrades organic contaminants and separates trace metals. 19 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  18. Zero-Valent Metallic Treatment System and Its Application for Removal and Remediation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (Pcbs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Jacqueline W. (Inventor); Clausen, Christian A. (Inventor); Geiger, Cherie L. (Inventor); Brooks, Kathleen B. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    PCBs are removed from contaminated media using a treatment system including zero-valent metal particles and an organic hydrogen donating solvent. The treatment system may include a weak acid in order to eliminate the need for a coating of catalytic noble metal on the zero-valent metal particles. If catalyzed zero-valent metal particles are used, the treatment system may include an organic hydrogen donating solvent that is a non-water solvent. The treatment system may be provided as a "paste-like" system that is preferably applied to natural media and ex-situ structures to eliminate PCBs.

  19. Task 3 Report - PCBs in the Environment Near the Oak Ridge Reservation - A Reconstruction of Historical Doses and Health Risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Paul S; Widner, Thomas; Bonnevie, Nancy; Schmidt, Charlie; McCrodden-Hamblen, Jane; Vantaggio, Joanne; Gwinn, Patrick

    1999-07-01

    This report presents the results of an in-depth assessment of historical releases of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and risks of adverse health effects in local populations. The study was conducted by ChemRisk, a service of McLaren/Hart, Inc., for the Tennessee Department of Health. The project team (1) investigated releases of PCBs from the government sites, (2) evaluated PCB levels in environmental media in the area, (3) described releases of PCBs from other sources in the area, and (4) evaluated potential human exposures and health impacts associated with the historical presence of these contaminants in the environment. Beginning in the 1940s, PCBs were used extensively on the ORR and throughout the U.S. as a fire retardant in electrical components. PCBs were also used as cutting fluids for lubrication and cooling during metal working operations. Using information specific to the ORR, the project team estimated health risks for five off-site populations: (1) farm families that raised beef, dairy cattle, and vegetables on the flood plain of East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC); (2) individuals who may have purchased beef and milk from cattle raised in the EFPC flood plain; (3) commercial and recreational fish consumers; (4) individuals that may have consumed turtles; and (5) users of surface water for recreation. Noteworthy features of the study include a two-dimensional analysis of uncertainty and variability in the non-cancer risk estimates and an assessment of the uncertainty in PCB toxicology thresholds. Conservative estimates of cancer risks from the ORR releases of PCBs to consumers of fish from Watts Bar Reservoir and the Clinch River range from less than 1 in a 1,000,000 to 2 in 10,000. Three or less excess cases of cancer would be expected to occur among individuals who consumed fish from these local waters since the 1940's. Persons who consumed large amounts of fish from the Clinch R. and Watts Bar were also at risk

  20. Monitoring of organic micropollutants in Ghana by combination of pellet watch with sediment analysis: E-waste as a source of PCBs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoda, Junki; Ofosu-Anim, John; Sabi, Edward Benjamin; Akita, Lailah Gifty; Onwona-Agyeman, Siaw; Yamashita, Rei; Takada, Hideshige

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Pellet watch was conducted in Ghanaian coast, including capital city, Accra. • PCBs concentrations in pellets near Accra were higher than global background. • Sedimentary PCBs were higher at a location down e-waste scrapyard in Accra. • Triphenylbenzene, an indicator of plastic combustion, was abundant near the dump site. • The importance of e-waste as source of PCBs in Ghana was elucidated. - Abstract: Plastic resin pellets collected at 11 beaches covering the whole Ghanaian coastline were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). PCB concentrations (∑13 congeners) were higher in Accra, capital city, and Tema (39–69 ng/g-pellets) than those in rural coastal towns (1–15 ng/g-pellets) which are close to global background, indicating local inputs of PCBs. River sediments were also analyzed for PCBs together with molecular markers. Sedimentary PCBs concentrations were highest at a site (AR02) downstream of an electronic waste (e-waste) scrapyard. At the site (AR02), concentration of linear alkylbenzenes (LABs), a marker of municipal wastewater, was lower than another site (AR03) which is located at the downstream of downtown Accra. This result suggests that PCBs are introduced more to the river from the e-waste site than from activities in downtown Accra. PAHs concentrations were relatively higher in urban areas with strong petrogenic signature. Abundance of triphenylbenzenes suggested plastic combustion near e-waste scrapyard

  1. Narrative Dietary Counseling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard Jakobsen, Nina; Kaufmann, Lisbeth; Hennesser, Yvonne

    2017-01-01

    Using cases and empirical data from a research and development project at a Danish prevention center, this study explores whether and how the use of narrative dietary counseling can strengthen dietitians' relationships and collaboration with clients who are chronically ill. The results of the study...... dietary counseling empowered clients and improved relationship building and collaboration between client and dietitian....

  2. Dietary determinants of obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huaidong, D.U.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity has become a serious public health problem worldwide, and dietary composition can play a role in its prevention and treatment. However, available literature on the impacts of different dietary factors on weight change is inconsistent, or even conflicting. In this review, we briefly

  3. Dietary intake of phytoestrogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker MI; SIR

    2004-01-01

    The dietary intake of phytoestrogens supposedly influences a variety of diseases, both in terms of beneficial and adverse effects. This report describes current knowledge on dietary intakes of phytoestrogens in Western countries, and briefly summarizes the evidence for health effects. The

  4. Gaseous and Freely-Dissolved PCBs in the Lower Great Lakes Based on Passive Sampling: Spatial Trends and Air-Water Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Wang, Siyao; McDonough, Carrie A; Khairy, Mohammed; Muir, Derek C G; Helm, Paul A; Lohmann, Rainer

    2016-05-17

    Polyethylene passive sampling was performed to quantify gaseous and freely dissolved polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the air and water of Lakes Erie and Ontario during 2011-2012. In view of differing physical characteristics and the impacts of historical contamination by PCBs within these lakes, spatial variation of PCB concentrations and air-water exchange across these lakes may be expected. Both lakes displayed statistically similar aqueous and atmospheric PCB concentrations. Total aqueous concentrations of 29 PCBs ranged from 1.5 pg L(-1) in the open lake of Lake Erie (site E02) in 2011 spring to 105 pg L(-1) in Niagara (site On05) in 2012 summer, while total atmospheric concentrations were 7.7-634 pg m(-3) across both lakes. A west-to-east gradient was observed for aqueous PCBs in Lake Erie. River discharge and localized influences (e.g., sediment resuspension and regional alongshore transport) likely dominated spatial trends of aqueous PCBs in both lakes. Air-water exchange fluxes of Σ7PCBs ranged from -2.4 (±1.9) ng m(-2) day(-1) (deposition) in Sheffield (site E03) to 9.0 (±3.1) ng m(-2) day(-1) (volatilization) in Niagara (site On05). Net volatilization of PCBs was the primary trend across most sites and periods. Almost half of variation in air-water exchange fluxes was attributed to the difference in aqueous concentrations of PCBs. Uncertainty analysis in fugacity ratios and mass fluxes in air-water exchange of PCBs indicated that PCBs have reached or approached equilibrium only at the eastern Lake Erie and along the Canadian shore of Lake Ontario sites, where air-water exchange fluxes dominated atmospheric concentrations.

  5. Dietary macronutrient recommendations for optimal Dietary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both resistance and endurance-trained athletes have a higher dietary protein requirement of between 1.2 and 1.8 g protein/kg body weight (BW)/day, with an upper limit of 2 g protein/kg BW/day. To increase the rate of protein synthesis during the recovery period, immediate ingestion of protein postexercise is recommended ...

  6. PCBs in Rain Water, Streams and a Reservoir in a Small Catchment of NW Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Martín, Jordi; Cereijo-Arango, José Luis; García-Morrondo, David; Juncosa-Rivera, Ricardo; Cillero-Castro, Carmen; Muñoz-Ibáñez, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) constitute a significant environmental concern due to its persistence, tendency to bio-accumulate, acknowledged toxicity and ubiquity. In the present study, a small water catchment (~100 km2) inclusive of a two-tailed water supply reservoir (Abegondo-Cecebre) has been monitored between 2009 and 2014. Sampling stations include: a) one precipitation gauge used to collect monthly-integrated bulk precipitation (25 samples); b) seven streams (95 samples); c) five surface and one bottom points within the reservoir (104 samples); d) five points for sediment sampling in two surveys (spring and summer; 10 samples). All the water samples as well as the leachates of sediment washing have been analyzed for their concentration in 6 marker PCB (congeners 28, 52, 101, 138, 153 and 180) and 12 dioxin-like PCB (congeners 77, 81, 105, 114, 118, 123, 126, 156, 157, 167, 169 and 189) compounds. The average concentration of PCBtot in the bulk precipitation during the sampling period is ~406 pg/L although a very significant decrease has occurred since the end of 2011 (~800 pg/L) to the end of 2014 (~60 pg/L). Likewise, the mean concentration of PCBtot in the stream water samples is 174 pg/L and a similar reduction in the concentration of PCBtot is also acknowledged for the same period of time (~250 pg/L before the end of 2011 and ~30 pg/L after then). Reservoir surface water has a PCBtot concentration of ~234 pg/L which, according to its sampling time (2010-2011) is consistent with the measured stream waters. However, deep reservoir water reveals an average concentration which is higher than the corresponding top water (~330 pg/L) but significantly smaller than the water-leached sediments (~860 pg/L). The available data suggest that up to a 30% of PCBs associated with precipitation becomes sequestered by the soil/sediment system while no significant change takes place during the transfer of water from the stream to the reservoir system, at least in

  7. Dioxins and PCBs in game animals: Interspecies comparison and related consumer exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warenik-Bany, Malgorzata; Strucinski, Pawel; Piskorska-Pliszczynska, Jadwiga

    2016-01-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCB) and non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCB) are ubiquitous, persistent toxic compounds that are highly bioaccumulative in nature. Wild-living animals are vulnerable to the negative impacts of human activity. Dioxins and PCBs enter the animal organisms through foraging. Due to the toxicological threat, much attention is paid to these compounds worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the dioxin contamination status of three game animal species (red deer, roe deer, and wild boar) and compare the PCDD/F and PCB congener bioaccumulation in the muscles, abdominal fat and liver. The chemical analysis was performed by the isotope dilution technique (IDMS) with high-resolution gas chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). Dioxins and PCBs were found in specimens collected from all studied species, suggesting the presence of the test compounds in the environment of the animals. The highest concentrations were found in the livers of all animals. The toxic equivalent (TEQ) levels in the muscles, adipose tissue and liver were in the order red deer > roe deer > wild boar. PCDD/Fs were the dominant congeners in TEQ value. For all tested species, the dominant contributors to the total WHO-TEQ were PCB-126, 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF and 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD. Among the PCDD/F congeners in the deer tissues, OCDD, OCDF and 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF were dominant, while in wild boar, OCDD, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCF occurred in the highest amounts. Among PCBs, PCB-105, 118, 156, 138, 153 and 180 were dominant in all species, but with different levels. The regular consumption of muscle meat from game animals should not cause unacceptable dioxin intake above the Tolerable Weekly Intake (TWI) value for children and adults. However, liver consumption should be avoided, especially by children and pregnant or lactating

  8. Evidence of Spatially Extensive Resistance to PCBs in an Anadromous Fish of the Hudson River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhanpeng; Courtenay, Simon; Chambers, R. Christopher; Wirgin, Isaac

    2006-01-01

    Populations of organisms that are chronically exposed to high levels of chemical contaminants may not suffer the same sublethal or lethal effects as naive populations, a phenomenon called resistance. Atlantic tomcod (Microgadus tomcod) from the Hudson River, New York, are exposed to high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and bioaccumulate polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). They have developed resistance to PCBs and PCDDs but not to PAHs. Resistance is largely heritable and manifests at early-life-stage toxic end points and in inducibility of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) mRNA expression. Because CYP1A induction is activated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) pathway, as are most toxic responses to these compounds, we sought to determine the geographic extent of resistance to CYP1A mRNA induction by PCBs in the Hudson River tomcod population. Samples of young-of-the-year tomcod were collected from seven locales in the Hudson River, extending from the Battery at river mile 1 (RM 1) to RM 90, and from the Miramichi River, New Brunswick, Canada. Laboratory-reared offspring of tomcod adults from Newark Bay, in the western portion of the Hudson River estuary, were also used in this study. Fish were partially depurated in clean water and intraperitoneally injected with 10 ppm coplanar PCB-77, 10 ppm benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), or corn oil vehicle, and levels of CYP1A mRNA were determined. CYP1A was significantly inducible by treatment with BaP in tomcod from the Miramichi River, from laboratory-spawned offspring of Newark Bay origin, and from all Hudson River sites spanning 90 miles of river. In contrast, only tomcod from the Miramichi River displayed significantly induced CYP1A mRNA expression when treated with PCB-77. Our results suggest that the population of tomcod from throughout the Hudson River estuary has developed resistance to CYP1A inducibility and probably

  9. Levels of polychlorinated dibenzo(p)dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin-like PCBs in Irish farmed salmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruemping, R.; Hamm, S.; Stegemann, D.; Maulshagen, A. [eurofins/GfA, Muenster (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    A recent survey published by Hites in the journal Science compared the level of organochlorine contaminants including PCBs and dioxins in farmed versus wild salmon collected from around the world. Most organochlorine substances analysed in the study show a significantly higher concentration level in farmed than in wild salmon. While dioxin and PCB levels of wild fish mainly reflect the contamination level of the environment in which the fish is grown, the dioxin and PCB concentration in farmed fish may mainly be attributed to the fish feed used. In January 2004, the Irish Sea Fisheries Board (BIM) conducted the present study on the concentration of Polychlorinated Dibenzo(p)dioxins (PCDDs), Dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxinlike PCBs (WHO-PCBs) in farmed salmon from two locations in Ireland. The present study should examine whether the PCDD/F and WHO-PCB levels of Irish farmed salmon correlate to the dioxin data for farmed Atlantic salmon from other countries in Northern Europe (e.g. Scotland, Faroe Islands and Norway) presented in the study by Hites. In the Hites survey, raw salmon filets with skin on were tested. Since PCBs, dioxins and other organic pollutants are mainly bound to the fish fat, a reduction of fat content by removal of the skin was supposed to lower the amount of organic contaminants. Thus, the effect of skin removal on the dioxin and PCB levels was also examined in the present study. In addition, the influence of cooking the fish meat was investigated.

  10. Determination of levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) present in caulk and window glazing material samples from older buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in caulk and window glazing material samples from older buildings were determined, using a method developed for this purpose. This method was evaluated by analyzing a combination of 47 samples of caulk, glazing materials, including quali...

  11. Bioleaching of gold, copper and nickel from waste cellular phone PCBs and computer goldfinger motherboards by two Aspergillus nigerstrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Enrique Madrigal-Arias

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to develop alternate techniques to recover metals from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE, this research evaluated the bioleaching efficiency of gold (Au, copper (Cu and nickel (Ni by two strains of Aspergillus niger in the presence of gold-plated finger integrated circuits found in computer motherboards (GFICMs and cellular phone printed circuit boards (PCBs. These three metals were analyzed for their commercial value and their diverse applications in the industry. Au-bioleaching ranged from 42 to 1% for Aspergillus niger strain MXPE6; with the combination of Aspergillus niger MXPE6 + Aspergillus niger MX7, the Au-bioleaching was 87 and 28% for PCBs and GFICMs, respectively. In contrast, the bioleaching of Cu by Aspergillus niger MXPE6 was 24 and 5%; using the combination of both strains, the values were 0.2 and 29% for PCBs and GFICMs, respectively. Fungal Ni-leaching was only found for PCBs, but with no significant differences among treatments. Improvement of the metal recovery efficiency by means of fungal metabolism is also discussed.

  12. Bioleaching of gold, copper and nickel from waste cellular phone PCBs and computer goldfinger motherboards by two Aspergillus nigerstrains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrigal-Arias, Jorge Enrique; Argumedo-Delira, Rosalba; Alarcón, Alejandro; Mendoza-López, Ma Remedios; García-Barradas, Oscar; Cruz-Sánchez, Jesús Samuel; Ferrera-Cerrato, Ronald; Jiménez-Fernández, Maribel

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to develop alternate techniques to recover metals from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), this research evaluated the bioleaching efficiency of gold (Au), copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni) by two strains of Aspergillus niger in the presence of gold-plated finger integrated circuits found in computer motherboards (GFICMs) and cellular phone printed circuit boards (PCBs). These three metals were analyzed for their commercial value and their diverse applications in the industry. Au-bioleaching ranged from 42 to 1% for Aspergillus niger strain MXPE6; with the combination of Aspergillus niger MXPE6 + Aspergillus niger MX7, the Au-bioleaching was 87 and 28% for PCBs and GFICMs, respectively. In contrast, the bioleaching of Cu by Aspergillus niger MXPE6 was 24 and 5%; using the combination of both strains, the values were 0.2 and 29% for PCBs and GFICMs, respectively. Fungal Ni-leaching was only found for PCBs, but with no significant differences among treatments. Improvement of the metal recovery efficiency by means of fungal metabolism is also discussed.

  13. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and biphenyls (PCBs) in home-produced eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Dam, ten G.; Bruggen, van Mark; Jeurissen, Suzanne; Leeuwen, van S.P.J.; Theelen, R.M.C.; Zeilmaker, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Home produced eggs from 62 addresses in the Netherlands were investigated for the levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and biphenyls (PCBs), both dioxin-like (dl) and non-dioxin-like (ndl). Compared to commercial eggs, levels were relatively high with a median of 4.6

  14. A comparison of dioxins, dibenzofurans and coplanar PCBs in uncooked and broiled ground beef, catfish and bacon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schecter, A; Dellarco, M; Päpke, O; Olson, J

    1998-01-01

    The primary source of dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and coplanar PCBs for the general population is food, especially meat, fish, and dairy products. However, most data on the levels of these chemicals is from food in the raw or uncooked state. We report here the effect of one type of cooking (broiling) on the levels of PCDDs, PCDFs, and coplanar PCBs in ground beef (hamburger), bacon and catfish. Samples of hamburger, bacon, and catfish were broiled and compared to uncooked samples in order to measure changes in the amounts of dioxins in cooked food. The total amount of PCDD, PCDF, and coplanar PCB TEQ decreased by approximately 50% on average for each portion as a result of broiling the hamburger, bacon and catfish specimens. The mean concentration (pg TEQ/kg, wet weight) of PCDDs, PCDFs, and coplanar PCBs, however, remained the same in the hamburger, increased by 83% in the bacon, and decreased by 34% in the catfish. On average, the total measured concentration (pg/kg) of the congeners of PCDDs, PCDFs, and coplanar PCBs increased 14% in the hamburger, increased 29% in the bacon, and decreased 33% in the catfish.

  15. Concentrations of dioxins and dioxine-like PCBs in feed material in the Netherlands, 2001-11

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adamse, P.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Schoss, S.; Jong, de J.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to obtain insights into contamination of feed materials used in the Netherlands with dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Monitoring results from the period 2001-11, covering in total 4938 samples, were

  16. Characteristics, distribution and sources of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in coastal sediments from the heavily industrialized area of Asalouyeh, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfaeinia, Hossein; Asadgol, Zahra; Ahmadi, Ehsan; Seifi, Morteza; Moradi, Masoud; Dobaradaran, Sina

    2017-12-01

    In this research, the levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were investigated in the marine sediments of Asaluyeh harbor, in the Persian Gulf. The samples were taken from industrial, semi-industrial and urban regions. The mean concentration levels of total (Σ) 18 detected PCBs were 514.32, 144.67 and 31.6 pg/g dw for the industrial, semi-industrial and urban sampling stations, respectively. Based on a multivariate statistical analysis, it was found that high contamination levels of PCBs in sediments collected along the Persian Gulf were associated with releases from local industries. Total organic carbon (TOC) content was significantly and positively correlated with the concentrations of PCB congeners. World Health Organization toxic equivalents (TEQs) for PCBs ranged from 0.04 to 2.66 pg TEQ/g dry weight (dw) in the coastal sediments. The TEQ values in this study were higher than many reported worldwide in the literature for sediments. This suggests that there are high levels of contamination in the area due to industrial and other human activities.

  17. Optimization of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) of dioxin-furans and dioxin-like PCBs from environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Pedro; Viana, Paula; Vinhas, Tereza; Capelo, J L; Rivera, J; Gaspar, Elvira M S M

    2008-05-30

    Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) applying three extraction cycles, temperature and pressure, improved the efficiency of solvent extraction when compared with the classical Soxhlet extraction. Polychlorinated-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like PCBs (coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs)) in two Certified Reference Materials [DX-1 (sediment) and BCR 529 (soil)] and in two contaminated environmental samples (sediment and soil) were extracted by ASE and Soxhlet methods. Unlike data previously reported by other authors, results demonstrated that ASE using n-hexane as solvent and three extraction cycles, 12.4 MPa (1800 psi) and 150 degrees C achieves similar recovery results than the classical Soxhlet extraction for PCDFs and Co-PCBs, and better recovery results for PCDDs. ASE extraction, performed in less time and with less solvent proved to be, under optimized conditions, an excellent extraction technique for the simultaneous analysis of PCDD/PCDFs and Co-PCBs from environmental samples. Such fast analytical methodology, having the best cost-efficiency ratio, will improve the control and will provide more information about the occurrence of dioxins and the levels of toxicity and thereby will contribute to increase human health.

  18. Implications of chiral signatures of PCBs in soil, outdoor, and indoor air in the West Midlands conurbation, UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamshidi, A.; Hazrati, S.; Harrad, S. [Birmigham Univ., Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01

    This paper provided additional data related to a study conducted to determine chiral signatures of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) in outdoor air and topsoil from urban, rural and semi-urban locations in the United Kingdom's West Midlands conurbation. The study hypothesized that the ventilation of PCB-contaminated indoor air was a principal source of the racemic PCBs observed in outdoor air. Measurements of chiral signatures of PCBs in indoor air were measured. Chiral signatures of PCB 136 and 149 were expressed in terms of enantiomeric excess. Outdoor air and soil samples were collected from 10 sites located on a southwest to northeast transect of the conurbation at intervals of between 3 and 17 km. Topsoil and air samples were collected on a monthly basis to examine seasonal variability. Passive air samplers were used to provide a time-integrated atmospheric signal over each sampling period. Twenty indoor air samples were collected using PUF disk samplers. All samples were then extracted, purified, and subjected to enantioselective gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Results suggested that chiral signatures in outdoor air for all target PCBs were racemic at all locations, and confirmed earlier hypotheses that the ventilation of PCB-contaminated indoor air is the principal source of PCB contamination in the urban atmosphere. It was concluded that actions to reduce PCB stocks remaining in use in indoor environments will result in a significant reduction in atmospheric concentrations. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  19. The cumulative MeHg and PCBs exposure and risk of tribal and US general population with SHEDS-multimedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies have shown that the U.S. population continues to be exposed to methyl mercury (MeHg) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) due to the long half-life of those environmental contaminants. Fish intake of Tribal populations is much higher than the U.S. general population due t...

  20. Environmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins - Consequences for longterm neurological and cognitive development of the child. A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, ER

    2001-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl's (PCBs) and dioxins are environmental pollutants. Calculated on a body weight basis, prenatally as well as postnatally through breast-feeding, large amounts are transferred from mother to the child. Formula is free of these substances. Considering their potential

  1. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and biphenyls (PCBs) in home-produced eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; Ten Dam, Guillaume; van Bruggen, Mark; Jeurissen, Suzanne M F; van Leeuwen, Stefan P J; Theelen, Rob M C; Zeilmaker, Marco J

    2016-05-01

    Home produced eggs from 62 addresses in the Netherlands were investigated for the levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and biphenyls (PCBs), both dioxin-like (dl) and non-dioxin-like (ndl). Compared to commercial eggs, levels were relatively high with a median of 4.6 pg TEQ g(-1) fat for the sum of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs, and a highest level of 18.9 pg TEQ g(-1) fat. A number of samples showed clearly elevated ndl-PCB levels with a median of 13 ng g(-1) fat and a highest level of 80 ng g(-1) fat. There were no clear regional differences, even though part of the samples were derived from the rather industrial Rotterdam/Rijnmond area. Based on the congener patterns, former backyard burning of waste seems the most likely source for most eggs, with two exceptions where other sources contributed to the contamination. Similar is true for the ndl-PCBs. The study shows that average levels are about ten-fold higher than commercial eggs and may substantially contribute to the intake of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs by consumers. Intervention measures to reduce the intake of these contaminants by laying hens are advised. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of Perinatal Exposure to PCBs on Neuropsychological Functions in the Rotterdam Cohort at 9 Years of Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreugdenhil, H.J.I.; Emmen, H.H.; Mulder, P.G.H.; Weisglas-Kuperus, N.

    2004-01-01

    PCBs are known for their neurotoxic properties, especially on the developing brain. To increase insight into the neurotoxic effects of PCB exposure, the authors studied the effects of perinatal exposure to environmental levels of these compounds on different neuropsychological domains. In 9-year-old

  3. Exposure to coplanar PCBs induces endothelial cell inflammation through epigenetic regulation of NF-κB subunit p65

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Dandan; Perkins, Jordan T. [Superfund Research Center, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Department of Animal and Food Sciences, College of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Petriello, Michael C. [Superfund Research Center, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Graduate Center for Toxicology and Cancer Biology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Hennig, Bernhard, E-mail: bhennig@uky.edu [Superfund Research Center, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Department of Animal and Food Sciences, College of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Epigenetic modifications of DNA and histones alter cellular phenotypes without changing genetic codes. Alterations of epigenetic marks can be induced by exposure to environmental pollutants and may contribute to associated disease risks. Here we test the hypothesis that endothelial cell dysfunction induced by exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is mediated in part though histone modifications. In this study, human vascular endothelial cells were exposed to physiologically relevant concentrations of several PCBs congeners (e.g., PCBs 77, 118, 126 and 153) followed by quantification of inflammatory gene expression and changes of histone methylation. Only exposure to coplanar PCBs 77 and 126 induced the expression of histone H3K9 trimethyl demethylase jumonji domain-containing protein 2B (JMJD2B) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) subunit p65, activated NF-κB signaling as evidenced by nuclear translocation of p65, and up-regulated p65 target inflammatory genes, such as interleukin (IL)-6, C-reactive protein (CRP), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and IL-1α/β. The increased accumulation of JMJD2B in the p65 promoter led to a depletion of H3K9me3 repression mark, which accounts for the observed up-regulation of p65 and associated inflammatory genes. JMJD2B gene knockdown confirmed a critical role for this histone demethylase in mediating PCB-induced inflammation of the vascular endothelium. Finally, it was determined, via chemical inhibition, that PCB-induced up-regulation of JMJD2B was estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-α) dependent. These data suggest that coplanar PCBs may exert endothelial cell toxicity through changes in histone modifications. - Highlights: • Coplanar PCBs significantly induced histone demethylase JMJD2B expression. • Coplanar PCBs activated NF-κB through p65 up-regulation and nuclear translocation. • Histone H3K4 and K9 modifications were mediated by ER-α/JMJD2B/MLL2 complex.

  4. Distribution characteristics of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in coastal areas of Okinawa Island, Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Surface sediment and seawater samples were collected from coastal areas around Okinawa Island from September 2001 to May 2002. The samples were analyzed for total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels and homolog composition. The results show that total PCB levels ranged from 0.32 to 128.7 ng/g (dry wt.) in sediment and 1.59 to 2.48 ng/L in seawater. The levels exceed the Environmental Quality Standard (EQS) for water pollution of Japan. The distribution of PCB homolog showed different patterns in the sediments and seawaters. Penta-chlorobiphenyls (CBs) comprised the main congener group in seawater, while hexa-CBs were more abundant homologs in the sediments. The heavily contaminated sites featured higher CBs, including penta-CBs, hexa-CBs, and hepta-CBs, than those in less contaminated sites where tri-CBs dominated. This study provides current distribution and geochemical behavior of PCBs in the coastal areas around Okinawa Island.

  5. Separation and identification of picogram levels of dioxins and PCBs by GC/cryogenic trapping FTIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David J.; Powell, Jay R.; Krishnan, K.

    1994-01-01

    Capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has routinely been used by the analytical chemist to separate and identify low levels of environmentally important compounds. A GC/Cryogenic Trapping Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (Tracer) provides the sensitivity of the GC/MS with the added capability of differentiating between compounds of the same mass. In this work, the Tracer was utilized to study low levels of six Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), eight Chlorinated Dibenzo-p-Doxins and Norflurazon. In all cases, picogram levels of these compounds were easily detected from `on the fly' generated IR chromatograms. Since the separated compounds eluting from the capillary column are cryogenically trapped onto a moving liquid nitrogen cooled ZnSe crystal, excellent signal-to- noise spectra of these same compounds may be collected after the run by returning to the same areas of deposition and signal averaging.

  6. Testing of TSCA [Toxic Substances Control Act] incinerator for destruction of PCBs in uranium contaminated wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    A Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) incinerator for environmentally safe destruction of PCBs and hazardous organic materials contaminated with low level radioactive wastes from seven DOE facilities has been constructed at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant, and has undergone performance testing with PCB surrogates. The system incorporates state-of-the-art off-gas treatment, a highly instrumented kiln and secondary combustion chamber, and an inert atmosphere solids handling feed system. Release of organic during an upset event, which triggers opening of the secondary combustion chamber relief vent, will be prevented by maintaining excess oxygen in the kiln and a high temperature in the secondary combustion chamber with an operating burner. Mixtures of chlorinated benzenes used in performance testing to simulate destruction of PCB, worst case studies to satisfy regulatory concerns, and implications of performance test results will be discussed. 4 refs

  7. Testing of TSCA incinerator for destruction of PCBs in uranium-contaminated wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    A Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) incinerator for environmentally safe destruction of PCBs and hazardous organic materials contaminated with low-level radioactive wastes from seven DOE facilities has been constructed at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant, and has undergone performance testing with PCB surrogates. The system incorporates state-of-the-art off-gas treatment, a highly instrumented kiln and secondary combustion chamber, and an inert-atmosphere solids-handling feed system. Release of organic during an upset event, which triggers opening of the secondary combustion-chamber relief vent, will be prevented by maintaining excess oxygen in the kiln and a high temperature in the secondary combustion chamber with an operating burner. Mixtures of chlorinated benzenes used in performance testing to simulate destruction of PCB, worst-case studies to satisfy regulatory concerns, and implications of performance test results are discussed. 4 references

  8. Temporal and spatial variation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contamination in environmental compartments of highly polluted area in Central Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malina, Natalia; Mazlova, Elena A

    2017-10-01

    This study highlights the fact that serious contamination from polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) still exists in Serpukhov City (Russia). The research help to determine the temporal (16- and 24-year periods) and spatial PCBs distribution in the environmental compartments of the studied region. Samples of soil, sediments, water and plants were analysed in order to establish their contamination levels. The most recent data on the Serpukhov City's soil contamination showed that the PCBs concentrations varies from 0.0009 to 1169 mg/kg depending on the sampling point and the distance from the pollution source. The temporal trends of the contamination distribution with the soil depth showed contamination migration in the upper soil layers of the highly polluted site. The high level of water pollution (11.5 μg/L) in the proximity to the contamination source and the sediments contamination (0.098-119 mg/kg) were determined, as well as the water migration pathways of the PCBs that were prevalent in the studied region. The PCB congener group (by the level of chlorination) analysis showed that heptachlorinated biphenyls were only found in the soils in close proximity to the contamination place, while biphenyls with Cl ≤ 6 were found in the soil samples downstream of the condenser plant and with Cl ≤ 5 in the soil samples upstream of the plant. The plant uptake of PCBs, even on the extremely contaminated site, was shown. In turn, this research present new knowledge necessary for the development of a contaminated territory remediation strategy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A question of origin: dioxin-like PCBs and their relevance in stock management of European eels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freese, Marko; Sühring, Roxana; Pohlmann, Jan-Dag; Wolschke, Hendrik; Magath, Victoria; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Hanel, Reinhold

    2016-01-01

    The stock of European Eel (Anguilla anguilla L.) has reached an all-time low in 2011. Spawner quality of mature eels in terms of health status and fitness is considered one of the key elements for successful migration and reproduction. Dioxin-like Polychlorinated Biphenyls (dl-PCBs) are known persistent organic pollutants potentially affecting the reproductive capability and health status of eels throughout their entire lifetime. In this study, muscle tissue samples of 192 European eels of all continental life stages from 6 different water bodies and 13 sampling sites were analyzed for contamination with lipophilic dl-PCBs to investigate the potential relevance of the respective habitat in light of eel stock management. Results of this study reveal habitat-dependent and life history stage-related accumulation of targeted PCBs. Sum concentrations of targeted PCBs differed significantly between life stages and inter-habitat variability in dl-PCB levels and -profiles was observed. Among all investigated life stages, migrant silver eels were found to be the most suitable life history stage to represent their particular water system due to habitat dwell-time and their terminal contamination status. With reference to a possible negative impact of dl-PCBs on health and the reproductive capability of eels, it was hypothesized that those growing up in less polluted habitats have a better chance to produce healthy offspring than those growing up in highly polluted habitats. We suggest that the contamination status of water systems is fundamental for the life cycle of eels and needs to be considered in stock management and restocking programs.

  10. Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and three organochlorine pesticides in fish from the Aleutian Islands of Alaska.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Hardell

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Persistent organic pollutants (POPs, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and chlorinated pesticides, have been shown to have many adverse human health effects. These contaminants therefore may pose a risk to Alaska Natives that follow a traditional diet high in marine mammals and fish, in which POPs bioaccumulate.This study examined the levels of PCBs and three pesticides [p, p'-DDE, mirex, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB] in muscle tissue from nine fish species from several locations around the Aleutian Islands of Alaska. The highest median PCB level was found in rock sole (Lepidopsetta bilineata, 285 ppb, wet weight, while the lowest level was found in rock greenling (Hexagrammos lagocephalus, 104 ppb, wet weight. Lipid adjusted PCB values were also calculated and significant interspecies differences were found. Again, rock sole had the highest level (68,536 ppb, lipid weight. Concerning the PCB congener patterns, the more highly chlorinated congeners were most common as would be expected due to their greater persistence. Among the pesticides, p, p'-DDE generally dominated, and the highest level was found in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka, 6.9 ppb, wet weight. The methodology developed by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA was used to calculate risk-based consumption limits for the analyzed fish species. For cancer health endpoints for PCBs, all species would trigger strict advisories of between two and six meals per year, depending upon species. For noncancer effects by PCBs, advisories of between seven and twenty-two meals per year were triggered. None of the pesticides triggered consumption limits.The fish analyzed, mainly from Adak, contain significant concentrations of POPs, in particular PCBs, which raises the question whether these fish are safe to eat, particularly for sensitive populations. However when assessing any risk of the traditional diet, one must also consider the many health and cultural benefits from eating

  11. PCBs, liver lesions, and biomarker responses in adult walleye (Stizostedium vitreum vitreum) collected from Green Bay, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Mace G.; Anderson, Michael J.; Cacela, Dave; Lipton, Joshua; Teh, Swee J.; Hinton, David E.; Zelikoff, Judith T.; Dikkeboom, Audrey L.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Holey, Mark; Denslow, Nancy

    2000-01-01

    Adult walleye were collected from several locations in the Lower Fox River and Green Bay, Wisconsin (the assessment area) and two relatively uncontaminated reference locations (Lake Winnebago and Patten Lake, Wisconsin) between July and October in 1996 and 1997. Whole body and liver samples collected in 1996 were analyzed for total PCBs, PCB congeners, and liver histological lesions. Follow-up sampling in 1997 included examination of liver histopathology, PCBs in liver samples, measurement of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, immunological evaluation of kidney and blood samples, measurement of plasma vitellogenin, and examination of tissues for parasites as well as bacterial and viral infections. Mean PCB concentrations in whole body and liver samples were elevated in assessment area walleye (4.6 to 8.6 and 3.6 to 6.4 mg/kg wet weight, respectively) compared to PCB concentrations in reference areas (0.04 mg/kg in walleye fillets from Lake Winnebago). A significant (p blood monocyte counts were 40% lower than those of reference area fish. The data did not show any clear distinctions in the prevalence of disease between reference and assessment area walleye. EROD activity was similar in assessment area and reference area walleye. Plasma vitellogenin was elevated in female walleye from eastern Green Bay, but was not detected in male fish from this location. The results of this investigation demonstrate significant elevation in hepatic preneoplastic lesions and hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas in assessment area walleye exposed to elevated concentrations of PCBs. These histopathological lesions are consistent with long-term exposure to tumor promoters such as PCBs, although quantitative association between tumors and PCBs was not observed at the level of the individual fish. Additional research would be needed to elucidate the causal mechanisms underlying tumorigenesis.

  12. Solubility enhancement of dioxins and PCBs by surfactant monomers and micelles quantified with polymer depletion techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schacht, Veronika J; Grant, Sharon C; Escher, Beate I; Hawker, Darryl W; Gaus, Caroline

    2016-06-01

    Partitioning of super-hydrophobic organic contaminants (SHOCs) to dissolved or colloidal materials such as surfactants can alter their behaviour by enhancing apparent aqueous solubility. Relevant partition constants are, however, challenging to quantify with reasonable accuracy. Partition constants to colloidal surfactants can be measured by introducing a polymer (PDMS) as third phase with known PDMS-water partition constant in combination with the mass balance approach. We quantified partition constants of PCBs and PCDDs (log KOW 5.8-8.3) between water and sodium dodecyl sulphate monomers (KMO) and micelles (KMI). A refined, recently introduced swelling-based polymer loading technique allowed highly precise (4.5-10% RSD) and fast (KMO. SHOC losses to experimental surfaces were substantial (8-26%) in monomer solutions, but had a low impact on KMO (0.10-0.16 log units). Log KMO for PCDDs (4.0-5.2) were approximately 2.6 log units lower than respective log KMI, which ranged from 5.2 to 7.0 for PCDDs and 6.6-7.5 for PCBs. The linear relationship between log KMI and log KOW was consistent with more polar and moderately hydrophobic compounds. Apparent solubility increased with increasing hydrophobicity and was highest in micelle solutions. However, this solubility enhancement was also considerable in monomer solutions, up to 200 times for OCDD. Given the pervasive presence of surfactant monomers in typical field scenarios, these data suggest that low surfactant concentrations may be effective long-term facilitators for subsurface transport of SHOCs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Historical analysis of salmon-derived polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in lake sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruemmel, Eva M. [Inuit Circumpolar Council (ICC), Canada Office, 75 Albert St., Suite 1001, Ottawa, Ontario, K1P 5E7 (Canada)], E-mail: eva_kruemmel@hotmail.com; Scheer, Michael [Scheer Software Solutions, 6 Coghlan Lane, P.O. Box 86, Barry' s Bay, Ontario, K0J 1B0 (Canada); Gregory-Eaves, Irene [Department of Biology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 1B1 (Canada); Macdonald, Robie W. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Institute of Ocean Sciences, Sidney, British Columbia, V8L 4B2 (Canada); Kimpe, Lynda E. [Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Smol, John P. [Paleoecological Environmental Assessment and Research Laboratory, Department of Biology, Queen' s University, 10 Kingston, Ontario, K7L 3N6 (Canada); Finney, Bruce [Department of Biological Sciences, Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID 83209 (United States); Blais, Jules M. [Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2009-03-01

    Several recent studies have highlighted the importance of salmon as a means to deliver biomagnifying contaminants to nursery lakes. There is a lack of studies, however, which demonstrate empirically how this source has varied through time. This is of great significance because past salmon-derived contaminant loading was potentially greater than it is today. By analyzing radiometrically dated sediment cores collected from ten lakes in Alaska and British Columbia (B.C.), we relate historical numbers of sockeye salmon spawners to {sigma}PCB concentrations and {delta}{sup 15}N values (a paleolimnological proxy for past salmon-derived nitrogen) in the sediments. The results confirm that sockeye salmon have provided an important route for PCBs to enter the lakes in the past, a finding that is especially evident when the data of all lakes are pooled. Significant relationships between sockeye salmon numbers and {delta}{sup 15}N, as well as {sigma}PCB concentrations and {delta}{sup 15}N in sediments, were also found. However, it is difficult to establish relationships between salmon numbers, {sigma}PCBs and {delta}{sup 15}N in individual lakes. This may be due to a number of factors which may influence contaminant loadings to the lakes. The factors include: a) changing salmon contaminant loads over time resulting from a lag in the upper ocean reservoir and/or changing salmon feeding locations; b) greater importance of atmospheric transport in lakes with relatively low salmon returns; and c) increased PCB scavenging due to higher algae productivity in the lakes in recent years.

  14. Incontinence Treatment: Dietary Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... helpful, please consider supporting IFFGD with a small tax-deductible donation. Lifestyle Changes Dietary Tips Medication Bowel ... arises requiring an expert’s care. © Copyright 1998-2018 International Foundation for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders, Inc. (IFFGD). All ...

  15. Dietary Supplement Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Primary Mitochondrial Disorders Weight Loss A Acai Aloe Vera Anabolic Steroids Antioxidants (see Exercise and Athletic Performance ) ... Pills (see Weight Loss ) Dietary Supplements Vitamin D E Echinacea Ephedra Essiac/Flor-Essence European Elder Evening ...

  16. Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and US Department of Agriculture Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database Toggle navigation Menu Home About DSID Mission Current ... values can be saved to build a small database or add to an existing database for national, ...

  17. Survey on the presence of non-dioxine-like PCBs (NDL-PCBs) in loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) stranded in south Mediterranean coasts (Sicily, Southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammilleri, Gaetano; Calvaruso, Enza; Pantano, Licia; Cascio, Giovanni Lo; Randisi, Barbara; Macaluso, Andrea; Vazzana, Mirella; Caracappa, Giulia; Giangrosso, Giuseppe; Vella, Antonio; Ferrantelli, Vincenzo

    2017-11-01

    A total of 71 loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) stranded along the coasts of Sicily (Southern Italy) were examined for non-dioxine like polychlorinated biphenyl (NDL-PCB) levels in muscle and adipose tissue by a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) method. The results revealed 6 high-indicator congener (∑ 6 PCB IND ) levels in 45% of the loggerhead turtles examined, with mean values of 980.39 ± 2508.39 ng/g wet weight in adipose tissue and 102.53 ± 238.58 ng/g wet weight in muscle tissue. The hexachloro and heptachloro PCB congeners were the most abundant in both the sample types. The highest NDL-PCB levels were reached in an adipose tissue sample of a loggerhead turtle of 80 kg stranded along the coasts of Termini Imerese (14 183.85 ng/g wet wt). No significant correlation was found between modified Fulton's K values of the loggerhead turtles and PCB contents (S = 47 151, p > 0.05). Furthermore, no significant differences were found between sexes (W = 365, p >  0.05). The PCB levels found in the present study were much higher than those found in the literature. The present study is the first report on the existence of NDL-PCBs in loggerhead turtles stranded in Sicilian coasts confirming C. caretta as a valuable indicator of contaminant exposure in the marine environment because of their specific biological and ecological characteristics. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2997-3002. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  18. K Basin Sludge Conditioning Process Testing Fate of PCBs During K Basin Sludge Dissolution in Nitric Acid and with Hydrogen Peroxide Addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, A.J.; Thornton, B.M.; Hoppe, E.W.; Mong, G.M.; Pool, K.H.; Silvers, K.L.

    1999-01-01

    The work described in this report is part of the studies being performed to address the fate of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in K Basin sludge before the sludge can be transferred to the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) double shell tanks. One set of tests examined the effect of hydrogen peroxide on the disposition of PCBs in a simulated K Basin dissolver solution containing 0.5 M nitric acid/1 M Fe(NO 3 ) 3 . A second series of tests examined the disposition of PCBs in a much stronger (∼10 M) nitric acid solution, similar to that likely to be encountered in the dissolution of the sludge

  19. Dietary supplements for football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespel, P; Maughan, R J; Greenhaff, P L

    2006-07-01

    Physical training and competition in football markedly increase the need for macro- and micronutrient intake. This requirement can generally be met by dietary management without the need for dietary supplements. In fact, the efficacy of most supplements available on the market is unproven. In addition, players must be cautious of inadequate product labelling and supplement impurities that may cause a positive drug test. Nonetheless, a number of dietary supplements may beneficially affect football performance. A high endurance capacity is a prerequisite for optimal match performance, particularly if extra time is played. In this context, the potential of low-dose caffeine ingestion (2 - 5 mg . kg body mass(-1)) to enhance endurance performance is well established. However, in the case of football, care must be taken not to overdose because visual information processing might be impaired. Scoring and preventing goals as a rule requires production of high power output. Dietary creatine supplementation (loading dose: 15 - 20 g . day(-1), 4 - 5 days; maintenance dose: 2 - 5 g g . day(-1)) has been found to increase muscle power output, especially during intermittent sprint exercises. Furthermore, creatine intake can augment muscle adaptations to resistance training. Team success and performance also depend on player availability, and thus injury prevention and health maintenance. Glucosamine or chondroitin may be useful in the treatment of joint pain and osteoarthritis, but there is no evidence to support the view that the administration of these supplements will be preventative. Ephedra-containing weight-loss cocktails should certainly be avoided due to reported adverse health effects and positive doping outcomes. Finally, the efficacy of antioxidant or vitamin C intake in excess of the normal recommended dietary dose is equivocal. Responses to dietary supplements can vary substantially between individuals, and therefore the ingestion of any supplement must be assessed

  20. Assessment of current dietary intake of organochlorine contaminants and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in killer whales (Orcinus orca) through direct determination in a group of whales in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formigaro, Costanza; Henríquez-Hernandez, Luis A; Zaccaroni, Annalisa; Garcia-Hartmann, Manuel; Camacho, María; Boada, Luis D; Zumbado, Manuel; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2014-02-15

    We determined the levels of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 19 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the plasma of captive adult killer whales and in their food. The goal of this research was the assessment of the dietary exposure of killer whales to these pollutants to gain insight on what is the actual magnitude of the exposure in this species, which is considered among the most contaminated in the planet. Plasma median ∑OCP and ∑PCB contents were 3150.3 and 7985.9 ng g(-1)l.w., respectively. A total of 78.9% of the PCBs were marker-PCBs, and 21.1% were dioxin-like PCBs (6688.7 pg g(-1)l.w. dioxin toxic equivalents). This is the first report of the blood levels of PAHs in killer whales, and their median value was 1023.1 ng g(-1)l.w. In parallel, we also determined the levels of these contaminants in the fish species that are used to feed these animals to estimate the orcas' average daily dietary intake of pollutants. All the contaminants in the fish were detected in the plasma of the killer whales, and proportionality between the intake and the blood levels was observed in all the animals. The calculated intake was extremely high for certain contaminants, which is a concern, giving a glimpse of what possibly occurs in the wild, where exposure to these contaminants can be even higher. Therefore, although many of these chemicals have been banned for decades, even today, the levels of these chemicals could reach very toxic concentrations in the tissues of these endangered animals because of their diet. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Dietary ecology of human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minagawa, Masao

    1990-01-01

    The dietary life of humans varies with the environment where they live and has been changing with time. It has become possible to examine such changes by using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition as a chemical tool. The present report outlines recent developments in the application of this tool and compares the dietary ecologies of various human groups from the viewpoint of isotope geochemistry. The history of the application of this tool to dietary analysis is summarized first, and features of the carbon and nitrogen isotope composition in animals and their relations with the food chain are outlined. The dietary ecology of the current people is then discussed in relation to the isotope composition in food, the isotope composition in hair of the current people, and determination of food habit of specific groups of people from such isotope compositions. For prediction of dietary composition, the report presents a flow chart for an algorism which is based on the Monte Carlo method. It also outlines processes for analyzing food habits of people in the prehistoric age, focusing on distribution of isotope composition in humans over the world. (N.K.)

  2. Bioaccumulation Patterns Of PCBs In A Temperate, Freshwater Food Web And Their Relationshop To The Octanol-Water Partition Coefficient (Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) bioaccumulation relative to octanol-water partition coefficient (KOW) and organism tropic position (TP) at the Lake Hartwell Superfund site (South Carolina, USA). We measured PCBs (127 congeners) and stable isotopes (δ

  3. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Polybrominated Diphenol Ethers (PBDEs) in Current and Historical Samples of Avian Eggs from Nesting Sites in Buzzards Bay, MA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    We measured concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in eggs from breeding colonies in Buzzards Bay, MA, USA. Eggs from two piscivorous bird species, common (Sterna hirundo) and roseate (Sterna dougallii) terns, were collected...

  4. Selective recovery of gold from waste mobile phone PCBs by hydrometallurgical process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun-young; Kim, Min-seuk; Lee, Jae-chun; Pandey, B.D.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Selective leaching of Au from scrap mobile phone PCBs by two stage electro-generated chlorine and recovery by ion exchange. ► Copper leaching (97%) by 1st stage electro-generated leaching (ORP value Ag/AgCl ) with a minor gold (5%). ► Gold leaching (93%, ∼67 mg/L) by 2nd leaching (ORP value >1100 mV Ag/AgCl ) in 0.1 mol/L HCl at 25 °C. ► A concentrated gold solution, 6034 mg/L with 99.9% purity was obtained by ion exchange process. - Abstract: The leaching of gold from the scrap mobile phone PCBs by electro-generated chlorine as an oxidant and its recovery by ion exchange process was investigated. The leaching experiments were carried out by employing separate leaching reactor connected with the anode compartment of a Cl 2 gas generator. The leaching of gold increased with increase in temperature and initial concentration of chlorine, and was favorable even at low concentration of acid, whereas copper leaching increased with increase in concentration of acid and decrease in temperature. In a two-stage leaching process, copper was mostly dissolved (97%) in 165 min at 25 °C during the 1st stage leaching in 2.0 mol/L HCl by electro-generated chlorine at a current density of 714 A/m 2 along with a minor recovery of gold (5%). In the 2nd stage gold was mostly leached out (93% recovery, ∼67 mg/L) from the residue of the 1st stage by the electro-generated chlorine in 0.1 mol/L HCl. Gold recovery from the leach liquor by ion exchange using Amberlite XAD-7HP resin was found to be 95% with the maximum amount of gold adsorbed as 46.03 mg/g resin. A concentrated gold solution, 6034 mg/L with 99.9% purity was obtained in the ion exchange process.

  5. Selective recovery of gold from waste mobile phone PCBs by hydrometallurgical process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun-young [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Penn State, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Kim, Min-seuk [Mineral Resources Research Division, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM), Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae-chun, E-mail: jclee@kigam.re.kr [Mineral Resources Research Division, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM), Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Pandey, B.D. [Metal Extraction and Forming Division, National Metallurgical Laboratory (NML), Jamshedpur 831007 (India)

    2011-12-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Selective leaching of Au from scrap mobile phone PCBs by two stage electro-generated chlorine and recovery by ion exchange. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Copper leaching (97%) by 1st stage electro-generated leaching (ORP value <350 mV{sub Ag/AgCl}) with a minor gold (5%). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gold leaching (93%, {approx}67 mg/L) by 2nd leaching (ORP value >1100 mV{sub Ag/AgCl}) in 0.1 mol/L HCl at 25 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A concentrated gold solution, 6034 mg/L with 99.9% purity was obtained by ion exchange process. - Abstract: The leaching of gold from the scrap mobile phone PCBs by electro-generated chlorine as an oxidant and its recovery by ion exchange process was investigated. The leaching experiments were carried out by employing separate leaching reactor connected with the anode compartment of a Cl{sub 2} gas generator. The leaching of gold increased with increase in temperature and initial concentration of chlorine, and was favorable even at low concentration of acid, whereas copper leaching increased with increase in concentration of acid and decrease in temperature. In a two-stage leaching process, copper was mostly dissolved (97%) in 165 min at 25 Degree-Sign C during the 1st stage leaching in 2.0 mol/L HCl by electro-generated chlorine at a current density of 714 A/m{sup 2} along with a minor recovery of gold (5%). In the 2nd stage gold was mostly leached out (93% recovery, {approx}67 mg/L) from the residue of the 1st stage by the electro-generated chlorine in 0.1 mol/L HCl. Gold recovery from the leach liquor by ion exchange using Amberlite XAD-7HP resin was found to be 95% with the maximum amount of gold adsorbed as 46.03 mg/g resin. A concentrated gold solution, 6034 mg/L with 99.9% purity was obtained in the ion exchange process.

  6. Dioxins, dibenzofurans, dioxin-like PCBs, and DDE in U.S. fast food, 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schecter, A; Li, L

    1997-01-01

    Food, especially dairy products, meat, and fish, is the primary source of environmental exposure to dioxins in the general population. Little data exists on dioxin levels in the popular and widely consumed "fast foods". Data presented in a previously published pilot study was limited to measuring only the levels of dioxins and dibenzofurans in three types of U.S. fast food. This study adds to the previous paper by presenting data, in addition to dioxins and dibenzofurans, on the closely related dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and the persistent metabolite of DDT, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl) ethylene (DDE), in four types of popular U.S. fast food. These include McDonald's Big Mac Hamburger, Pizza Hut's Personal Pan Pizza Supreme, Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC) three piece original recipe mixed dark and white meat luncheon package, and Häagen-Daz chocolate-chocolate chip ice cream. Dioxin plus dibenzofuran dioxin toxic equivalents (TEQ) ranged from 0.03 to 0.28 TEQ pg/g wet or whole weight for the Big Mac, from 0.03 to 0.29 for the Pizza, from 0.01 to 0.31 for the KFC, and from 0.03 to 0.49 TEQ pg/g for the ice cream. Daily TEQ consumption per kilogram body weight (kg/BW), assuming an average 65 kg adult and a 20 kg child, from one serving of each of these fast food ranged between 0.046 and 1.556 pg/kg in adults whereas in children the values were between 0.15 and 5.05 pg/kg. Total measured PCDD/Fs in the Big Mac, Personal Pan Pizza, KFC, and the Häagen-Daz ice cream varied from 0.58 to 9.31 pg/g. Measured DDE levels in the fast foods ranged from 180 to 3170 pg/g. Total mono-ortho PCB levels ranged up to 500 pg/g or 1.28 TEQ pg/g for the KFC and for di-ortho PCBs up to 740 pg/g or 0.014 TEQ pg/g for the pizza sample. Total PCB values in the four samples ranged up to 1170 pg/g or 1.29 TEQ pg/g for the chicken sample.

  7. Dioxins, furans and dioxin-like PCBs in human blood: causes or consequences of diabetic nephropathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Charles J; Thompson, Olivia M

    2014-07-01

    Nephropathy, or kidney disease, is a major, potential complication of diabetes. We assessed the association of 6 chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, 9 chlorinated dibenzofurans and 8 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in blood with diabetic nephropathy in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (unweighted N=2588, population estimate=117,658,357). Diabetes was defined as diagnosed or undiagnosed (glycohemoglobin ≥ 6.5%) and nephropathy defined as urinary albumin to creatinine ratio >30 mg/g, representing microalbuminuria or macroalbuminuria. For the 8 chemicals analyzed separately, values above the 75th percentile were considered elevated, whereas for the other 15 compounds values above the maximum limit of detection were considered elevated. Seven of 8 dioxins and dioxin-like compounds, analyzed separately, were found to be associated with diabetic nephropathy. The chemicals associated with diabetic nephropathy were: 1,2,3,6,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin; 1,2,3,4,6,7,8,9-Octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin; 2,3,4,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran; PCB 126; PCB 169; PCB 118; and PCB 156. Three of the 8 dioxins and dioxin-like compounds; 1,2,3,4,6,7,8,9-Octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin; 2,3,4,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran and PCB 118; expressed as log-transformed continuous variables; were associated with diabetes without nephropathy. When 4 or more of the 23 chemicals were elevated the odds ratios were 7.00 (95% CI=1.80-27.20) for diabetic nephropathy and 2.13 (95% CI=0.95-4.78) for diabetes without nephropathy. Log-transformed toxic equivalency (TEQ) was associated with both diabetic nephropathy, and diabetes without nephropathy, the odds ratios were 2.35 (95% CI=1.57-3.52) for diabetic nephropathy, and 1.44 (95% CI=1.11-1.87) for diabetes without nephropathy. As the kidneys function to remove waste products from the blood, diabetic nephropathy could be either the cause or the consequence (or both) of exposure to dioxins, furans and dioxin-like PCBs. Copyright © 2014

  8. Time-trends and congener profiles of PBDEs and PCBs in California peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, June-Soo; Holden, Arthur; Chu, Vivian; Kim, Michele; Rhee, Alexandra; Patel, Puja; Shi, Yating; Linthicum, Janet; Walton, Brian J; McKeown, Karen; Jewell, Nicholas P; Hooper, Kim

    2009-12-01

    High levels (microg/g lw) of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in peregrine falcon eggs from California (n = 90 eggs from 52 birds, 38 nest sites, collected 1986-2007, SigmaPBDEs median = 4.53, range = 0.08-53.1). Over the past 22 years, PBDE levels more than tripled each decade in the eggs, whereas PCB levels had no significant changes. PBDE levels were highest in eggs from major California cities ("Big Cities"), whereas PCBs showed no difference across the regions. For PBDEs, Big City eggs had markedly different patterns from Coastal eggs: BDE-209 and the higher brominated PBDEs (hexa-nona) were dominant congeners in Big City eggs, while BDE-47 and -99 were dominant in Coastal eggs. In many of the birds that gave multiple eggs over time ("time series"), PBDE patterns changed over time: the high proportions of BDE-209 and higher brominated PBDEs (short half-lives) in young birds contrasted with increasingly higher proportions of BDE-153 (long half-life) and other lower brominated PBDEs as the birds aged. These data are consistent with metabolic debromination of BDE-209 (t(1/2) = 1-2 weeks) to the lower brominated PBDEs, with accumulation over time of BDE-153 (t(1/2) = 3-4 years). In contrast, PCB patterns showed no differences by locations, and did not change over time. Diet (prey birds) may explain the urban PBDE pattern, as the patterns in urban pigeons and peregrines were similar, with high proportions of BDE-209 and the higher-brominated PBDEs. Also, our prey data (feathers from peregrine nests) showed urban peregrines having a higher proportion (>2 fold) of granivorous/opportunistic birds (e.g., "introduced feral" pigeons, mourning doves, starlings) in their diet than coastal peregrines. In summary, these data indicate that BDE-209 exits consumer products as an environmental contaminant to be taken up by wildlife (particularly in urban locations), and undergoes metabolic debromination to the banned lower

  9. Dietary antioxidants and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Scott K; DeRuisseau, Keith C; Quindry, John; Hamilton, Karyn L

    2004-01-01

    Muscular exercise promotes the production of radicals and other reactive oxygen species in the working muscle. Growing evidence indicates that reactive oxygen species are responsible for exercise-induced protein oxidation and contribute to muscle fatigue. To protect against exercise-induced oxidative injury, muscle cells contain complex endogenous cellular defence mechanisms (enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants) to eliminate reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, exogenous dietary antioxidants interact with endogenous antioxidants to form a cooperative network of cellular antioxidants. Knowledge that exercise-induced oxidant formation can contribute to muscle fatigue has resulted in numerous investigations examining the effects of antioxidant supplementation on human exercise performance. To date, there is limited evidence that dietary supplementation with antioxidants will improve human performance. Furthermore, it is currently unclear whether regular vigorous exercise increases the need for dietary intake of antioxidants. Clearly, additional research that analyses the antioxidant requirements of individual athletes is needed.

  10. Dietary Patterns in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise Beltoft Borup

    A healthy diet is essential for healthy growth and development during childhood and may prevent obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases throughout life. Traditionally, diet has been investigated as single nutrients. However, people do not eat one single nutrient and they do not even eat one...... single food. People consume meals and these meals vary during a day, over a year and during a life time. To comprehend some of this complexity it could be advantageous to investigate dietary patterns representing the whole diet as patterns might be better markers of growth and health than single...... childhood. These associations might contribute to the identification of families, who would benefit from guidance to help them establish healthy dietary patterns for their infants. Finding tracking for some infants and changes in adherence to dietary patterns for others as well as the association between...

  11. Dietary hyperthyroidism in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, B; Stengel, C; Neiger, R

    2012-03-01

    Evaluation of dogs with elevated plasma thyroxine concentration fed raw food before and after changing the diet. Between 2006 and 2011 all dogs presented with an elevated plasma thyroxine concentration and a dietary history of feeding raw food were included. Thyroxine (reference interval: 19·3 to 51·5 nmol/L) and in many cases also thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations (reference interval: weight loss, aggressiveness, tachycardia, panting and restlessness while six dogs had no clinical signs. After changing the diet eight dogs were examined: thyroxine concentration normalised in all dogs and clinical signs resolved. Dietary hyperthyroidism can be seen in dogs on a raw meat diet or fed fresh or dried gullets. Increased plasma thyroxine concentration in a dog, either with or without signs of hyperthyroidism, should prompt the veterinarian to obtain a thorough dietary history. © 2012 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  12. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Predator and Bottom-Feeding Fish from Abiquiu and Cochiti Reservoirs in North-Central New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.J. Gonzales, P.R. Fresquez

    2006-03-01

    Concern has existed for years that the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), a complex of nuclear weapons research and support facilities, has released polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to the environment that may have reached adjacent bodies of water through canyons that connect them. In 1997, we began measuring PCBs in fish in the Rio Grande upstream and downstream of ephemeral streams that cross LANL and later began sampling fish in Abiquiu and Cochiti reservoirs, which are situated on the Rio Chama and Rio Grande upstream and downstream of LANL, respectively. In 2005, six species of fish from Abiquiu and Cochiti reservoirs were collected and the edible portion (fillets) was analyzed for 209 possible PCB congeners. Fish from the reservoirs were last sampled in 2001. Mean total PCB concentrations in fish from Abiquiu Reservoir ({mu} = 2.4 ng/g) were statistically similar ({alpha} = 0.01; P (T{le}t) [range = 0.23-0.71]) to mean total PCB concentrations in fish from Cochiti Reservoir ({mu} = 2.7 ng/g), implying that LANL is not the source of PCBs in fish in Cochiti Reservoir. The levels of PCBs in fish from Cochiti Reservoir generally appear to be declining, at least since 2001, which is when PCB levels might have peaked resulting from storm water runoff after the Cerro Grande Fire. Although a PCB ''fingerprinting'' method can be used to relate PCB ''signatures'' in one area to signatures in another area, this method of implicating the source of PCBs cannot be effectively used for biota because they alter the PCB signature through metabolic processes. Regardless of the source of the PCBs, certain species of fish (catfish and carpsuckers) at both Abiquiu and Cochiti reservoirs continue to harbor levels of PCBs that could be harmful to human health if they are consistently eaten over a long period of time. Bottom-feeding fish (carpsucker and catfish) from Cochiti Reservoir contained statistically higher levels of total PCBs

  13. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in indoor air originating from sealants in contaminated and uncontaminated apartments within the same housing estate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Marie; Meyer, Harald William; Ebbehøj, Niels Erik

    2012-01-01

    . The PCB(tot) levels in the air of the contaminated section were 168-3843 ng m(-3) (mean: 1030 ng m(-3)), while the mean levels in the reference apartments were 6.03 ng m(-3). The sum of the 24 measured PCB congeners in sealants from the contaminated section was 187-221680 mg kg(-1). Principal component......Twenty-four congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in 83 air samples and 20 elastic sealants samples of apartments with PCB-containing sealants. In addition, PCBs were measured in 21 air samples from reference apartments located in an uncontaminated section of the same estate...... analysis revealed four groups among the sealant samples with different congener compositions, only two of which were clearly similar to known PCB mixtures, while two were not. Significant correlations and intercorrelations were observed between the lower chlorinated congeners in air and sealant, e...

  14. NMR-based metabonomic analysis of the hepatotoxicity induced by combined exposure to PCBs and TCDD in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Chunfeng; Wang Yimei; Sheng Zhiguo; Liu Gang; Fu Ze; Zhao Jing; Zhao Jun; Yan Xianzhong; Zhu Benzhan; Peng Shuangqing

    2010-01-01

    A metabonomic approach using 1 H NMR spectroscopy was adopted to investigate the metabonomic pattern of rat urine after oral administration of environmental endocrine disruptors (EDs) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo- p-dioxin (TCDD) alone or in combination and to explore the possible hepatotoxic mechanisms of combined exposure to PCBs and TCDD. 1 H NMR spectra of urines collected 24 h before and after exposure were analyzed via pattern recognition by using principal component analysis (PCA). Serum biochemistry and liver histopathology indicated significant hepatotoxicity in the rats of the combined group. The PCA scores plots of urinary 1 H NMR data showed that all the treatment groups could be easily distinguished from the control group, so could the PCBs or TCDD group and the combined group. The loadings plots of the PCA revealed remarkable increases in the levels of lactate, glucose, taurine, creatine, and 2-hydroxy-isovaleric acid and reductions in the levels of 2-oxoglutarate, citrate, succinate, hippurate, and trimethylamine-N-oxide in rat urine after exposure. These changes were more striking in the combined group. The changed metabolites may be considered possible biomarker for the hepatotoxicity. The present study demonstrates that combined exposure to PCBs and TCDD induced significant hepatotoxicity in rats, and mitochondrial dysfunction and fatty acid metabolism perturbations might contribute to the hepatotoxicity. There was good conformity between changes in the urine metabonomic pattern and those in serum biochemistry and liver histopathology. These results showed that the NMR-based metabonomic approach may provide a promising technique for the evaluation of the combined toxicity of EDs.

  15. Concentrations of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in feed materials in the Netherlands, 2001-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamse, Paulien; Van der Fels-Klerx, H J Ine; Schoss, Stefanie; de Jong, Jacob; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to obtain insights into contamination of feed materials used in the Netherlands with dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Monitoring results from the period 2001-11, covering in total 4938 samples, were statistically analysed and evaluated against the statutory limits set at the beginning or during this period. The percentage of samples exceeding maximum levels set within the European Union for either dioxins or the sum of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs were below 1% for most feed categories, except for fish meal (4.1%), clay minerals (binders and anti-caking agents) (3.4%), and vegetable oils and byproducts (1.7%). For most feed categories, non-compliance with the action threshold (roughly 33% lower than maximum levels) for either dioxins or dioxin-like PCBs was up to three times higher than non-compliance with the respective maximum levels. Exceedance of action thresholds was just above 1% for animal fat, pre-mixtures and feed materials of plant origin excluding vegetable oils. For the categories fish meal, clay minerals, and vegetable oils and byproducts, the action thresholds were exceeded by 5.0%, 9.8% and 3.0% of the samples, respectively. In general, the percentages of samples that exceeded the action thresholds and maximum levels were lower than those reported for the European Union by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). In most of the feed materials, there seems to be a decreasing trend in concentrations of dioxins or dioxin-like PCBs over the years. However, a lowering of the limits of quantification during this period and the low concentrations in most samples precludes drawing strong conclusions.

  16. PCB 126 and Other Dioxin-Like PCBs Specifically Suppress Hepatic PEPCK Expression via the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenshuo; Sargis, Robert M.; Volden, Paul A.; Carmean, Christopher M.; Sun, Xiao J.; Brady, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds encompass a group of structurally related heterocyclic compounds that bind to and activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). The prototypical dioxin is 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a highly toxic industrial byproduct that incites numerous adverse physiological effects. Global commercial production of the structurally similar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), however, commenced early in the 20th century and continued for decades; dioxin-like PCBs therefore contribute significantly to total dioxin-associated toxicity. In this study, PCB 126, the most potent dioxin-like PCB, was evaluated with respect to its direct effects on hepatic glucose metabolism using primary mouse hepatocytes. Overnight treatment with PCB 126 reduced hepatic glycogen stores in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, PCB 126 suppressed forskolin-stimulated gluconeogenesis from lactate. These effects were independent of acute toxicity, as PCB 126 did not increase lactate dehydrogenase release nor affect lipid metabolism or total intracellular ATP. Interestingly, provision of cells with glycerol instead of lactate as the carbon source completely restored hepatic glucose production, indicating specific impairment in the distal arm of gluconeogenesis. In concordance with this finding, PCB 126 blunted the forskolin-stimulated increase in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) mRNA levels without affecting glucose-6-phosphatase expression. Myricetin, a putative competitive AhR antagonist, reversed the suppression of PEPCK induction by PCB 126. Furthermore, other dioxin-like PCBs demonstrated similar effects on PEPCK expression in parallel with their ability to activate AhR. It therefore appears that AhR activation mediates the suppression of PEPCK expression by dioxin-like PCBs, suggesting a role for these pollutants as disruptors of energy metabolism. PMID:22615911

  17. An effective and low cost carbon based clean-up method for PCDD/Fs and PCBs analysis in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedikoglou, Kleopatra; Costopoulou, Danae; Vassiliadou, Irene; Bakeas, Evangelos; Leondiadis, Leondios

    2018-09-01

    Sample preparation is of critical importance in dioxin analysis of food and feed samples. It is a complex procedure that includes lipid extraction followed by the application of chromatographic separation techniques, aiming in removing undesirable interferences from the matrix. The separation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) from polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is achieved by carbon-based materials which should have high fat capacity in order to be suitable for lipid-containing matrices. Automated methods are available but due to high cost and use of high amounts of solvents, manual methods are also applied. An active carbon material (Carbosphere) with high fat capacity that has been used in the past for manual methods is no longer commercially available. The present study assesses an alternative active carbon material, FU 4652, that can be used for the separation of PCDD/Fs and non-ortho PCBs. Mono-ortho and 6 non-dioxin-like PCBs are also analyzed. The method was validated according to the analytical criteria set in EU regulations 589/2014 and 709/2014. Control samples analyzed for the evaluation of the above material were olive oil reference samples spiked with PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs at two concentration levels. The new method was tested successfully on food samples of interlaboratory trials organized in previous years. Farmed fish samples collected within national surveillance programs for the years 2016-2017 were analyzed with the method developed. The results obtained indicate that the FU 4652 carbon sorbent has high fat capacity and is capable of separating congeners with good recoveries. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. PCB 126 and other dioxin-like PCBs specifically suppress hepatic PEPCK expression via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenshuo Zhang

    Full Text Available Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds encompass a group of structurally related heterocyclic compounds that bind to and activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR. The prototypical dioxin is 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, a highly toxic industrial byproduct that incites numerous adverse physiological effects. Global commercial production of the structurally similar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, however, commenced early in the 20(th century and continued for decades; dioxin-like PCBs therefore contribute significantly to total dioxin-associated toxicity. In this study, PCB 126, the most potent dioxin-like PCB, was evaluated with respect to its direct effects on hepatic glucose metabolism using primary mouse hepatocytes. Overnight treatment with PCB 126 reduced hepatic glycogen stores in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, PCB 126 suppressed forskolin-stimulated gluconeogenesis from lactate. These effects were independent of acute toxicity, as PCB 126 did not increase lactate dehydrogenase release nor affect lipid metabolism or total intracellular ATP. Interestingly, provision of cells with glycerol instead of lactate as the carbon source completely restored hepatic glucose production, indicating specific impairment in the distal arm of gluconeogenesis. In concordance with this finding, PCB 126 blunted the forskolin-stimulated increase in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK mRNA levels without affecting glucose-6-phosphatase expression. Myricetin, a putative competitive AhR antagonist, reversed the suppression of PEPCK induction by PCB 126. Furthermore, other dioxin-like PCBs demonstrated similar effects on PEPCK expression in parallel with their ability to activate AhR. It therefore appears that AhR activation mediates the suppression of PEPCK expression by dioxin-like PCBs, suggesting a role for these pollutants as disruptors of energy metabolism.

  19. Application of Fenton process to remove organic matter and PCBs from waste (fuller's earth) contaminated with insulating oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Milady Renata Apolinário; Rodrigues, Eduardo de Oliveira; Espanhol-Soares, Melina; Silva, Flavio Soares; Kondo, Márcia Matiko; Gimenes, Rossano

    2018-01-09

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are carcinogenic to humans and can be found in fuller's earth used for the treatment of used transformer oil. This work describes an optimization of the Fenton process for the removal of contaminants from fuller's earth. The effects of pH (2.5 and 4.0), [H 2 O 2 ] (1.47 and 2.07 mol L -1 ), and [Fe 2+ ] (1.7 and 40 mmol L -1 ) were studied. The Fenton process efficiency was monitored using the decreases in the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and the concentrations of oil and grease, total carbon (TC), PCBs, and H 2 O 2 . The fuller's earth contaminated with insulating oil presented 35% (w/w) of TC, 34% (w/w) of oil and grease, 297.0 g L -1 COD, and 64 mg of PCBs per kg. The material could therefore be considered a dangerous waste. After Fenton treatment, using a slurry mode, there was a removal of 55% of COD, 20% of oil and grease, and 20% of TC, achieved at pH 2.5 using 2.07 mol L -1 of H 2 O 2 and 40.0 mmol L -1 of Fe 2+ . No PCBs were detected in the samples after the Fenton treatment, even using smaller amounts of Fenton reagents (1.47 mol L -1 of H 2 O 2 , 1.7 mmol L -1 of Fe 2+ , pH 2.5). The results indicated that the treated fuller's earth was free from PCB residues and could be disposed of in a simple landfill, in accordance with Brazilian PCB regulations.

  20. Dietary Reference Values for choline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derives Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for choline. In this Opinion, the Panel considers dietary choline including choline compounds (e.g. glycerophosphocholine, phosphocholine...

  1. Fate of PCBs, PAHs and their source characteristic ratios during composting and digestion of source-separated organic waste in full-scale plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braendli, Rahel C.; Bucheli, Thomas D.; Kupper, Thomas; Mayer, Jochen; Stadelmann, Franz X.; Tarradellas, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Composting and digestion are important waste management strategies. However, the resulting products can contain significant amounts of organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this study we followed the concentration changes of PCBs and PAHs during composting and digestion on field-scale for the first time. Concentrations of low-chlorinated PCBs increased during composting (about 30%), whereas a slight decrease was observed for the higher chlorinated congeners (about 10%). Enantiomeric fractions of atropisomeric PCBs were essentially racemic and stable over time. Levels of low-molecular-weight PAHs declined during composting (50-90% reduction), whereas high-molecular-weight compounds were stable. The PCBs and PAHs concentrations did not seem to vary during digestion. Source apportionment by applying characteristic PAH ratios and molecular markers in input material did not give any clear results. Some of these parameters changed considerably during composting. Hence, their diagnostic potential for finished compost must be questioned. - During field-scale composting, low molecular weight PCBs and PAHs increased and decreased, respectively, whereas high molecular weight compounds remained stable

  2. Levels of dioxin (PCDD/F) and PCBs in a random sample of Australian aquaculture-produced Southern Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus maccoyii)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padula, D.; Madigan, T.; Kiermeier, A.; Daughtry, B.; Pointon, A. [South Australian Research and Development Inst. (Australia)

    2004-09-15

    To date there has been no published information available on the levels of dioxin (PCDD/F) and PCBs in Australian aquaculture-produced Southern Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus maccoyii). Southern Bluefin Tuna are commercially farmed off the coast of Port Lincoln in the state of South Australia, Australia. This paper reports the levels of dioxin (PCDD/F) and PCBs in muscle tissue samples from 11 randomly sampled aquaculture-produced Southern Bluefin Tuna collected in 2003. Little published data exists on the levels of dioxin (PCDD/F) and PCBs in Australian aquacultureproduced seafood. Wild tuna are first caught in the Great Australian Bight in South Australian waters, and are then brought back to Port Lincoln where they are ranched in sea-cages before being harvested and exported to Japan. The aim of the study was to identify pathways whereby contaminants such as dioxin (PCDD/F) and PCBs may enter the aquaculture production system. This involved undertaking a through chain analysis of the levels of dioxin (PCDD/F) and PCBs in wild caught tuna, seafloor sediment samples from the marine environment, levels in feeds and final harvested exported product. Detailed study was also undertaken on the variation of dioxin (PCDD/F) and PCBs across individual tuna carcases. This paper addresses the levels found in final harvested product. Details on levels found in other studies will be published elsewhere shortly.

  3. Photodegradation of Selected PCBs in the Presence of Nano-TiO2 as Catalyst and H2O2 as an Oxidant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongtao Yu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Photodegradation of five strategically selected PCBs was carried out in acetonitrile/water 80:20. Quantum chemical calculations reveal that PCBs without any chlorine on ortho-positions are closer to be planar, while PCBs with at least one chlorine atoms at the ortho-positions causes the two benzene rings to be nearly perpendicular. Light-induced degradation of planar PCBs is much slower than the perpendicular ones. The use of nano-TiO2 speeds up the degradation of the planar PCBs, but slows down the degradation of the non-planar ones. The use of H2O2 speeds up the degradation of planar PCBs greatly (by >20 times, but has little effect on non-planar ones except 2,3,5,6-TCB. The relative photodegradation rate is: 2,2’,4,4’-TCB > 2,3,5,6-TCB > 2,6-DCB ≈ 3,3’,4,4’-TCB > 3,4’,5-TCB. The use of H2O2 in combination with sunlight irradiation could be an efficient and “green” technology for PCB remediation.

  4. Influence of activated carbon amendment on the accumulation and elimination of PCBs in the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Piuly; Ghosh, Upal

    2011-01-01

    In this study we investigated the use of activated carbon (AC) as a soil amendment for reducing bioavailability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Artificial soil was contaminated with PCBs and used in bioaccumulation experiments fresh or after aging for 19 months. PCB bioaccumulation in earthworms was reduced by 68% when AC was placed as a layer without mixing and by 94% when AC was manually mixed into the soil. Aging of the same AC mixed soil for 19 months resulted in an overall reduction of 99% in PCB biouptake. AC-treated aged soil also showed two orders of magnitude lower equilibrium aqueous concentrations of PCBs compared to untreated aged soils. The findings from this study indicate that application of engineered sorbents like AC to PCB impacted soils may greatly reduce PCB uptake at the base of the terrestrial food chain. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: → Activated carbon studied as a sorbent for PCB impacted unsaturated soil. → Bioaccumulation of PCB greatly reduced in earthworms after carbon amendment. → Aging of the activated carbon amended soil further reduced bioaccumulation. → Activated carbon can be used for in-situ stabilization of PCB impacted soil. - Addition of activated carbon to PCB impacted soil reduces equilibrium aqueous concentrations and uptake at the base of the terrestrial food chain.

  5. PCBs in air, soil and milk in industrialized and urban areas of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batterman, S. [Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 109 Observatory Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029 (United States)], E-mail: stuartb@umich.edu; Chernyak, S. [Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 109 Observatory Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029 (United States); Gouden, Y. [Centre for Occupational and Environmental Health, University of KwaZulu-Natal, 719 Umbilo Road, Private Bag 7, Congella, 4013 Durban (South Africa); Hayes, J.; Robins, T. [Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 109 Observatory Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029 (United States); Chetty, S. [Pollution Control Support Unit, Health Department, eThekwini Municipality (South Africa)

    2009-02-15

    Information regarding polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in environmental media in Africa is limited. This paper presents results of a monitoring program conducted in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa designed to characterize levels, trends and sources of airborne PCBs. Particulate and vapor samples were sampled over the 2004-2005 period at three sites. The total PCB concentration averaged 128 {+-} 47 pg m{sup -3}, and levels were highest in winter. Tri- through hexa-congeners predominated, and the vapor fraction was predominant. Several tetra- through hexa-chlorinated congeners had levels comparable to those at urban sites in the northern hemisphere, but hepta- through deca-congeners resembled levels at background sites. PCB source areas, deduced using spatial and temporal patterns, compositional information and trajectory analyses, likely included local, regional and global sources. Soils at three rural sites showed high PCB concentrations, and milk from a local dairy showed PCB concentrations comparable to USA levels in year 2000. - Airborne PCBs in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa have similar concentrations but distinctive congener patterns compared to areas of historically high PCB use.

  6. Influence of activated carbon amendment on the accumulation and elimination of PCBs in the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Piuly [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Maryland Baltimore County, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, MA 21250 (United States); Ghosh, Upal, E-mail: ughosh@umbc.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Maryland Baltimore County, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, MA 21250 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    In this study we investigated the use of activated carbon (AC) as a soil amendment for reducing bioavailability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Artificial soil was contaminated with PCBs and used in bioaccumulation experiments fresh or after aging for 19 months. PCB bioaccumulation in earthworms was reduced by 68% when AC was placed as a layer without mixing and by 94% when AC was manually mixed into the soil. Aging of the same AC mixed soil for 19 months resulted in an overall reduction of 99% in PCB biouptake. AC-treated aged soil also showed two orders of magnitude lower equilibrium aqueous concentrations of PCBs compared to untreated aged soils. The findings from this study indicate that application of engineered sorbents like AC to PCB impacted soils may greatly reduce PCB uptake at the base of the terrestrial food chain. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: > Activated carbon studied as a sorbent for PCB impacted unsaturated soil. > Bioaccumulation of PCB greatly reduced in earthworms after carbon amendment. > Aging of the activated carbon amended soil further reduced bioaccumulation. > Activated carbon can be used for in-situ stabilization of PCB impacted soil. - Addition of activated carbon to PCB impacted soil reduces equilibrium aqueous concentrations and uptake at the base of the terrestrial food chain.

  7. Demonstration Testing of a Thermal Desorption Unit to Receive and Treat Waste with Unlimited Concentration of PCBs - 13437

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orton, Timothy L. [EnergySolutions, 423 West 300 South, Salt Lake City, UT 84101 (United States); Palmer, Carl R. [TD.X Associates LP, 148 South Dowlen Road, PMB 700, Beaumont, TX 77707 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    For the last nine years, EnergySolutions and TD*X Associates LP have teamed up to provide the most comprehensive organic removal treatment process in the radioactive waste industry. The high performance thermal desorption unit (HP-TDU) located at the EnergySolutions Clive facility in Utah has successfully processed over 1,850 tons of organically contaminated radioactive mixed waste. Products from the HP-TDU system include a radioactively contaminated dry solid material that can be disposed in the on-site landfill and an organic condensate with high thermal energy content that is generally below background radiation and capable of free-release to a non-radioactive incinerator. Over the years, Permits and approvals have been obtained through the state of Utah, United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Region 8, and USEPA headquarters that enable the treatment of several waste categories including volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds, combustion-coded (CMBST) compounds, volatile metals, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The unit has recently successfully completed Demonstration Testing for PCB concentrations up to 660,000 ppm (parts per million). Solid processed material from this Demonstration Testing was less than two ppm PCBs in three separate treatment runs; reprocessing or additional treatment was not needed to meet this limit. Through post-demonstration permitting, the system is unlimited in scope as approval has been given to receive and solidify up to pure PCBs down to this processing limit concentration to complete treatment of mixed waste. (authors)

  8. PCBs in air, soil and milk in industrialized and urban areas of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batterman, S.; Chernyak, S.; Gouden, Y.; Hayes, J.; Robins, T.; Chetty, S.

    2009-01-01

    Information regarding polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in environmental media in Africa is limited. This paper presents results of a monitoring program conducted in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa designed to characterize levels, trends and sources of airborne PCBs. Particulate and vapor samples were sampled over the 2004-2005 period at three sites. The total PCB concentration averaged 128 ± 47 pg m -3 , and levels were highest in winter. Tri- through hexa-congeners predominated, and the vapor fraction was predominant. Several tetra- through hexa-chlorinated congeners had levels comparable to those at urban sites in the northern hemisphere, but hepta- through deca-congeners resembled levels at background sites. PCB source areas, deduced using spatial and temporal patterns, compositional information and trajectory analyses, likely included local, regional and global sources. Soils at three rural sites showed high PCB concentrations, and milk from a local dairy showed PCB concentrations comparable to USA levels in year 2000. - Airborne PCBs in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa have similar concentrations but distinctive congener patterns compared to areas of historically high PCB use

  9. PCBs, HCHs and DDTs in cow's milk and soil of pasture from the Irkutsk region, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamontova, E.A.; Tarasova, E.N.; Mamontov, A.A.; Kuzmin, M.I. [A.P. Vinogradov Inst. of Geochemistry, SB of RAS, Irkutsk (Russian Federation); Chuvashev, I.A. [Inst. of Chemistry, SB of RAS, Irkutsk (Russian Federation); McLachlan, M.S. [Inst. of Applied Environmental Research, Stockholm Univ. (Sweden)

    2004-09-15

    The main pathway of human exposure to organochlorine compounds is food, especially dairy products. Our previous investigations of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in food produced in the Irkutsk region showed that the average daily intake amounts to 88 pg PCDD/F TEQ per day and 95 pg PCB TEQ per day1. Thus the contribution of PCBs and PCDD/Fs to the total daily intake is 51.7 and 48.3 % respectively. Cow's milk contributes up to 24 % of the daily intake of PCBs, and is exceeded only by fish (64 %). It was shown also that PCDD/F and PCB levels in milk and the daily intake of these compounds depends on the distance of the farms from the largest PCB source in the Irkutsk Region located in the Usol'e-Sibirskoe area. In the previous study milk samples were taken from dairies which collect milk from a lot of farms. The aim of the paper is to investigate the organochlorine contamination in milk from single farms and to see if this is related to the contaminant levels in soil from the farms' pastures.

  10. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediments from the Gulf of Batabanó, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Hernandez, C M; Mesa-Albernas, M; Tolosa, I

    2014-01-01

    The spatial distribution of various organochlorinated compounds, e.g. PCBs, DDTs, HCB and HCHs, were investigated in sediments of the Gulf of Batabanó, Cuba. Among the target organochlorine compounds measured, ΣDDT isomers were the predominant contaminant with concentrations ranging from 0.019 to 1.27 ng g(-1)dry wt. Lindane was present at very low concentrations in the range n.d. to 0.05 ng g(-1), while PCBs and other organochlorine pesticide residues, such as HCB, Heptaclor, Aldrin and Mirex were lower than detection limits (∼0.010 ng g(-1)). According to established sediment quality guidelines, the OCPs concentrations encountered in the surface sediments are probably not having an adverse effect on sediment dwelling organisms. Compared to concentrations reported in coastal environments from other parts of the world, PCBs and OCs concentrations in surface sediments of Batabanó Gulf were low and similar to the reported for remote and pristine environments. These results contribute to the sparse regional database for organochlorinated compounds in the Caribbean marine environment. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Tayyem, Reema F.; Bawadi, Hiba A.; Shehadah, Ihab; Agraib, Lana M.; AbuMweis, Suhad S.; Al-Jaberi, Tareq; Al-Nusairr, Majed; Bani-Hani, Kamal E.; Heath, Dennis D.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background & aimsDietary pattern and lifestyle have been reported to be important risk factors in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the mechanism of action of dietary factors in CRC disease is unclear. The aim of this study is the examination of several dietary choices and their potential association with the risk of developing CRC. MethodsDietary data was collected from 220 subjects who were previously diagnosed with CRC, and 281 control subjects (matched by age, g...

  12. Dioxins/furans and PCBs in Canadian human milk: 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawn, Dorothea F K; Sadler, Amy R; Casey, Valerie A; Breton, François; Sun, Wing-Fung; Arbuckle, Tye E; Fraser, William D

    2017-10-01

    Human milk was collected between 2008 and 2011 as part of the Maternal - Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) study that was initiated to establish Canadian national estimates of maternal and infant exposure to a broad suite of environmental contaminants (e.g., persistent organic pollutants [POPs], trace elements, phthalates, etc.). Among the 1017 human milk samples collected, 298 were analysed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). World Health Organization (WHO) toxic equivalency concentrations (WHO TEQ 2005 ) for PCDD/F+dioxin-like (DL) PCB ranged from 2.2pg TEQ 2005 g -1 lipid to 27pg TEQ 2005 g -1 lipid. The relative contribution of PCDDs to the overall WHO TEQ 2005 (PCDD/F+DL PCB) has decreased from earlier investigations into POP levels in Canadian human milk. Significantly higher PCB concentrations were observed in milk from women born in Europe relative to those born in Canada (pmilk ∑PCB concentrations (p=0.018), with elevated concentrations observed in milk from women >30years relative to those milk from primiparous women (p=0.019) and those >30years relative to those milk since the last sampling of human milk was performed. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. PCBs are associated with altered gene transcript profiles in arctic Beluga Whales (Delphinapterus leucas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël, Marie; Loseto, Lisa L; Helbing, Caren C; Veldhoen, Nik; Dangerfield, Neil J; Ross, Peter S

    2014-01-01

    High trophic level arctic beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) are exposed to persistent organic pollutants (POP) originating primarily from southern latitudes. We collected samples from 43 male beluga harvested by Inuvialuit hunters (2008-2010) in the Beaufort Sea to evaluate the effects of POPs on the levels of 13 health-related gene transcripts using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Consistent with their role in detoxification, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr) (r(2) = 0.18, p = 0.045 for 2008 and 2009) and cytochrome P450 1A1 (Cyp1a1) (r(2) = 0.20, p sea ice extent (2008 and 2010). δ(13)C results suggested a shift in feeding ecology and/or change in condition of these ice edge-associated beluga whales during these two years. While this provides insight into the legacy of PCBs in a remote environment, the possible impacts of a changing ice climate on the health of beluga underscores the need for long-term studies.

  14. PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in the Tone River, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Eiki; Heesoo, Eun; Koji, Baba; Tomohito, Arao; Shozo, Endo [National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, Tsukuba (Japan); Tadashi, Sekino [Environmental Research Center, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Environmental pollution by PCDD/Fs has arisen exclusively from human activities, and for example, they are inadvertently produced from various combustion sources and manufacturing processes, such as municipal solid waste incineration steel production processes and chemical production processes. In Japan, it is well known that the environmental pollution has close relation to agricultural operation, that is, some PCDD/Fs are contained as impurities in a kind of pesticide. The Tone River is the largest basin area (about 16,900 km{sup 2}) in Japan, and after the Shinano River, is the second longest river (about 322 km). The river has many tributaries (about 800 rivers), and the rivers taking the Kokai River, the Kinu River, the Edo River, and the Watarase River as objects of the present study are also representative tributaries. Since the Tone River basin corresponding to about 4.5% of the total area of Japan leads about twelve million population corresponding to about 10% of the gross population in Japan, it plays an important part in a supply of water for human activities. Not only some residential zones near Tokyo and industrial zones but also representative agricultural zones in Japan expand in the basin expands, and especially the lower basin leads a leading granary. The objective of our effort is to investigate the levels of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in surface sediment and water samples from the Tone River and some related tributaries, and to assess their distribution and origin using congener-specific characterization approach.

  15. Distribution of pesticides and PCBs in sediments of agricultural drains in the Culiacan Valley, Sinaloa, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-de la Parra, Luz María; Cervantes-Mojica, L Juleny; González-Valdivia, Carolina; Martínez-Cordero, Francisco J; Aguilar-Zárate, Gabriela; Bastidas-Bastidas, Pedro; Betancourt-Lozano, Miguel

    2012-10-01

    Agriculture is one of the most important economic activities in Sinaloa, Mexico. The Culiacan Valley is an extensive agricultural region characterized by a variety of crops with high-yield productions. In this study, concentrations of organochlorine (OCPs) and organophosphorus (OPs) pesticides and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) were determined in sediments of the agricultural drainage system of Culiacan Valley. Overall, 32 compounds were detected, with concentrations widely ranging from 0.03 to 1 294 ng g(-1) dry weight. OCP concentrations (15) ranged from 0.1 to 20.19 ng g(-1) dw. OP concentrations (8) ranged from 0.03 to 1294 ng g(-1) dw, and diazinon was the compound with the highest concentration. PCB concentrations were also determined and varied from 0.05 to 3.29 ng g(-1) dw. Other compounds detected included permethrin, triadimefon, and fipronil. The central zone registered the higher concentrations and the greatest number of compounds, which could be related to the occurrence of horticultural fields in this zone. According to sediment quality guidelines, the compounds exceeding the probable effect level were γ-HCH, p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE, while the pesticides above the maximum permissible concentration were endosulfan, azinphos methyl, diazinon, dichlorvos, and permethrin. Although Sinaloa is an important agricultural crop producer in northwest Mexico, there are not many studies dealing with pesticide distribution in agricultural areas.

  16. Trophic magnification of PCBs and Its relationship to the octanol-water partition coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, David M; Mills, Marc A; Cade, Brian S; Burkard, Lawrence P

    2011-05-01

    We investigated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) bioaccumulation relative to octanol-water partition coefficient (K(OW)) and organism trophic position (TP) at the Lake Hartwell Superfund site (South Carolina). We measured PCBs (127 congeners) and stable isotopes (δ¹⁵N) in sediment, organic matter, phytoplankton, zooplankton, macroinvertebrates, and fish. TP, as calculated from δ¹⁵N, was significantly, positively related to PCB concentrations, and food web trophic magnification factors (TMFs) ranged from 1.5-6.6 among congeners. TMFs of individual congeners increased strongly with log K(OW), as did the predictive power (r²) of individual TP-PCB regression models used to calculate TMFs. We developed log K(OW)-TMF models for eight food webs with vastly different environments (freshwater, marine, arctic, temperate) and species composition (cold- vs warmblooded consumers). The effect of K(OW) on congener TMFs varied strongly across food webs (model slopes 0.0-15.0) because the range of TMFs among studies was also highly variable. We standardized TMFs within studies to mean = 0, standard deviation (SD) = 1 to normalize for scale differences and found a remarkably consistent K(OW) effect on TMFs (no difference in model slopes among food webs). Our findings underscore the importance of hydrophobicity (as characterized by K(OW)) in regulating bioaccumulation of recalcitrant compounds in aquatic systems, and demonstrate that relationships between chemical K(OW) and bioaccumulation from field studies are more generalized than previously recognized.

  17. Biocontainment of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on flat concrete surfaces by microbial carbonate precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwadha, George D O; Li, Jin

    2011-10-01

    In this study, a biosealant obtained from microbial carbonate precipitation (MCP) was evaluated as an alternative to an epoxy-coating system. A bacterium Sporosarcina pasteurii strain ATCC 11859, which metabolizes urea and precipitates calcite in a calcium-rich environment, was used in this study to generate the biosealant on a PCB-contaminated concrete surface. Concrete cylinders measuring 3 in (76.2 mm) by 6 in (152.4 mm) were made in accordance with ASTM C33 and C192 and used for this purpose. The PCB, urea, Ca(2+), and bacterial cell concentrations were set at 10 ppm, 666 mM, 250 mM, and about 2.1 × 10(8) cells mL(-1), respectively. The results indicate that the biosealed surfaces reduced water permeability by 1-5 orders of magnitude, and had a high resistance to carbonation. Since the MCP biosealant is thermally stable under temperatures of up to 840 °C, the high temperatures that normally exist in the surrounding equipment, which may contain PCB-based fluids, have no effect on the biosealed surfaces. Consequently, there is greater potential to obtain a stronger, coherent, and durable surface by MCP. No measurable amount of PCBs was detected in the permeating water, indicating that the leaching water, if any, will have a minimum impact on the surrounding environment. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Allantoinase in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush): In vitro effects of PCBs, DDT and metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passino, Dora R. May; Cotant, Carol A.

    1979-01-01

    1. Allantoinase, an enzyme in the purine-urea cycle, was found in livers of Salvelinus namaycush (Osteichthyes: Salmoniformes).2. The enzyme was active from pH 6.6 to 8.2 at 37°C and from pH 7.4 to 9.0 at 10°C and had an Arrhenius energy was activation of 11.0 kcal/mol and a temperature quotient of 2.0. The Km of the enzyme homogenate was 8.4 mM allantoin.3. The concentrations of inorganic metals at which 50% inhibition occurred during in vitro exposure were 6.0 mg/l Cu2+, 6.7 mg/l Cd2+, 34 mg/l Hg2+ and 52 mg/l Pb2+. The in vitro sensitivity to PCBs, DDT and DDE and kinetics in the presence of metals were determined.4. Allantoinase activity was negatively correlated with body length for fish from Lake Michigan but not from Lake Superior or the laboratory.

  19. Behavioral effects of pre- and postnatal exposure to a mixture of low chlorinated PCBs in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienthal, H; Neuf, M; Munoz, C; Winneke, G

    1990-10-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-treated Wistar rats were tested on three different behavioral paradigms. Animals were pre- and postnatally exposed to a technical mixture of PCBs with a chlorine content of 42%. Exposure levels were 0, 5, or 30 mg/kg diet. These conditions did not affect the health of the dams, the litter size or weight, or the physical development of the offspring. Relative liver weights in the offspring, however, were elevated in a dose-dependent manner. Open-field ambulation, active avoidance learning, and operant conditioning on a fixed interval 30-sec schedule (FI-30-sec) were used to evaluate PCB-induced behavioral alterations. Ambulation was increased in 30-mg-treated rats at Day 22, but not at Day 120. There were more avoidance responses and intertrial responses in the 30-mg group than in both other groups. On the FI-30-sec schedule slightly more reactions were emitted by the 30-mg group during the first 10 sec of the interval than by the other animals. More pronounced, however, were the differences between groups in the temporal pattern of responses within the 30-sec interval. It is concluded that in rats PCB exposure causes consistent alterations in all of the tested activity-dependent behaviors.

  20. Long-term experiment on digestibility, accumulation and metabolisation of low-level dietary polychlorinated biphenyls in laying hens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vos, S. De; Schrijver, R. De [Catholic Univ., Leuven (Belgium)

    2004-09-15

    With regard to their bioaccumulation and toxicity, scientifically based standards concerning acceptable concentrations of PCBs in animal feeds and products should be determined. Therefore, insight in the accumulation of PCBs in the food chain is required. Until now, the maximally admitted PCB content in Belgian animal feeds and products, based on the sum of 7 reference PCB congeners, amounts to 200 ng/g fat. The present study with laying hens was designed to examine the long-term effects of low level dietary PCB contents on animal performance, egg quality, apparent PCB digestibility, PCB retention and PCB incorporation in egg yolk, abdominal adipose tissue, thigh and breast muscle tissues. Moreover, the effect of low dietary amounts of added fat, varying between 1.5% and 4.5%, on PCB digestibility and incorporation in laying hens was investigated. Also we addressed the question whether PCB incorporation in egg yolk as well as in adipose and muscle tissue would meet the current standard of 200 ng/g fat.

  1. Dietary fat and carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woutersen, R.A.; Appel, M.J.; Garderen-Hoetmer, A. van; Wijnands, M.V.W.

    1999-01-01

    Epidemiologic investigations have suggested a relationship between dietary fat intake and various types of cancer incidences. Furthermore, epidemiologic studies as well as studies with animal models have demonstrated that not only the amount but also the type of fat consumed is important. At

  2. Neuropsychological effects of chronic low-dose exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klett Martin

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to indoor air of private or public buildings contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs has raised health concerns in long-term users. This exploratory neuropsychological group study investigated the potential adverse effects of chronic low-dose exposure to specific air-borne low chlorinated PCBs on well-being and behavioral measures in adult humans. Methods Thirty employees exposed to indoor air contaminated with PCBs from elastic sealants in a school building were compared to 30 non-exposed controls matched for education and age, controlling for gender (age range 37–61 years. PCB exposure was verified by external exposure data and biological monitoring (PCB 28, 101, 138, 153, 180. Subjective complaints, learning and memory, executive function, and visual-spatial function was assessed by standardized neuropsychological testing. Since exposure status depended on the use of contaminated rooms, an objectively exposed subgroup (N = 16; PCB 28 = 0.20 μg/l; weighted exposure duration 17.9 ± 7 years was identified and compared with 16 paired controls. Results Blood analyses indicated a moderate exposure effect size (d relative to expected background exposure for total PCB (4.45 ± 2.44 μg/l; d = 0.4. A significant exposure effect was found for the low chlorinated PCBs 28 (0.28 ± 0.25 μg/l; d = 1.5 and 101 (0.07 ± 0.09 μg/l; d = 0.7. Although no neuropsychological effects exceeded the adjusted significance level, estimation statistics showed elevated effect sizes for several variables. The objectively exposed subgroup showed a trend towards increased subjective attentional and emotional complaints (tiredness and slowing of practical activities, emotional state as well as attenuated attentional performance (response shifting and alertness in a cued reaction task. Conclusion Chronic inhalation of low chlorinated PCBs that involved elevated blood levels was associated with a subtle attenuation of emotional well

  3. Organochlorine pesticides residues and PCBs in benthic organisms of the inner shelf of the São Sebastião Channel, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela Gorni

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Thirty seven benthic samples of the inner shelf area of São Sebastião, Brazil, were collected between April 1994 and August 1998 and analysed for seventeen chlorinated pesticide residues and PCBs congeners. Pesticide residues and PCBs congeners levels were low (ng/g and predominantly found in the crustacean samples. DDE was the most frequently residue with a maximum of 9,7 ng/g followed by HCHs with maximum of 17,1ng/g. As for the PCBs, the heavier congeners predominate: CB 138,153,170, 180 and 183. Maximum total PCBs was 17,4 ug/g in a crab sample. Higher levels of PCBs are related to feeding habits and local inputs of raw sewage or land runoff. Although EPA and FDA (U.S.A below the guidelines for human consumption propose these levels, they do show that even in marine areas without intense agricultural or industrial activities these compounds are present at detectable levels.Trinta e sete amostras de bentos da área interna do Canal de São Sebastião, Brasil, foram coletadas entre Abril de 1994 e Agosto de 1998 e analisadas quanto aos níveis de resíduos de 17 pesticidas organoclorados os congêneres dos PCBs. Os níveis de resíduos de organoclorados e PCBs foram baixos( ng/g e encontrados com maior freqüência nas amostras de crustáceos. DDE foi o resíduo de pesticida encontrado com mais freqüência apresentado um máximo de 9,7 ng/g seguido dos isômeros de HCHs com um máximo de 17,1 ng/g. No caso dos PCBs os congêneres mais pesados foram os predominantes: CB 138, 153, 170, 180 e 183. O valor máximo de PCBs totais foi de 17,4 ug/g numa amostra de crustáceo. Níveis maiores de PCBs estão associados aos hábitos alimentares e introduções pontuais de esgotos e água de drenagem urbana. Apesar dos níveis observados estarem abaixo dos recomendados para consumo humano pela EPA e da FDA( U.S.A ,eles demonstram que mesmo em área marinhas costeiras sem agricultura intensiva ou atividades industriais de porte , estes compostos org

  4. Dietary Acculturation among Filipino Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Persephone; Jurado, Leo-Felix

    2015-12-22

    Acculturation, the subsequent changes that occur in one culture after continuous first hand contact with another culture, impacts the dietary habits and health risks of individuals. This study examines the acculturation, dietary habits and anthropometric measurements in a sample of 210 first generation Filipino American immigrants in New Jersey (NJ). Acculturation was measured using the Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans (ASASFA). Dietary acculturation was measured using the Dietary Acculturation Questionnaire for Filipino Americans (DAQFA) and dietary intake was determined using the Block's Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire (BFFQ). Anthropometric measurements were obtained including weight, height and waist circumference. Acculturation had a significant negative relationship with Filipino Dietary acculturation. Western dietary acculturation was significantly correlated with caloric intake (r(208) = 0.193, p Filipino dietary acculturation, dietary intake and anthropometric measurements. The results showed that Filipino American immigrants have increased risks including increased BMI, waist circumference and increased fat intake. Over all, this research highlighted some dietary changes and their effects on dietary intake and health status.

  5. Dietary Acculturation among Filipino Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persephone Vargas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acculturation, the subsequent changes that occur in one culture after continuous first hand contact with another culture, impacts the dietary habits and health risks of individuals. This study examines the acculturation, dietary habits and anthropometric measurements in a sample of 210 first generation Filipino American immigrants in New Jersey (NJ. Acculturation was measured using the Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans (ASASFA. Dietary acculturation was measured using the Dietary Acculturation Questionnaire for Filipino Americans (DAQFA and dietary intake was determined using the Block’s Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire (BFFQ. Anthropometric measurements were obtained including weight, height and waist circumference. Acculturation had a significant negative relationship with Filipino Dietary acculturation. Western dietary acculturation was significantly correlated with caloric intake (r(208 = 0.193, p < 0.01, percentage fat intake (r(208 = 0.154, p < 0.05, percentage carbohydrate intake (r(208 = −0.172, p < 0.05, Body Mass Index (BMI (r(208 = 0.216, p < 0.01 and waist circumference (r(208 = 0.161, p < 0.01. There was no significant correlation between Filipino dietary acculturation, dietary intake and anthropometric measurements. The results showed that Filipino American immigrants have increased risks including increased BMI, waist circumference and increased fat intake. Over all, this research highlighted some dietary changes and their effects on dietary intake and health status.

  6. The role of heavy metals and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the oncogenesis of head and neck tumors and thyroid diseases: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosino, V; Motta, G; Tenore, G; Coletta, M; Guariglia, A; Testa, D

    2018-04-01

    Previous literature has highlighted the mechanisms of molecular toxicity induced by substances such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead, barium and PCBs. The research was carried out on 20 volunteers, all the patients gave their consent to the research: the aim of the study was to evaluate the presence of metals and PCBs in these different matrices (blood and hair), correlating the biochemical data to pathological conditions present, and also to the area in which patients resided. Various quantitative determinations were carried out on samples of blood and hair for 14 heavy metals and on blood samples for 12 PCBs. For the 11 patients the results indicated that blood levels for half of the 14 displayed heavy metals measured considerably higher compared to the reference values, whilst the levels measured in hair evidenced some positive values significantly higher than the maximum reference. Of the 12 PCBs assayed in blood some showed higher positive values compared to the maximum tabular reference (although there is no clear reference quantified in the WHO-2005 report). In the 9 healthy patients heavy metals in the blood were within the expected target range, with those showing positive results (≤ 3 out of 14 heavy metals for each patient) having values only slightly higher than the reference maximum. The levels of 14 heavy metals measured in hair were below thresholds, and levels for the 12 PCBs measured in blood showed negativity or positivity with values close to the minimum benchmarks. The analyses carried out on biological matrices have uncovered important and significant differences between healthy and unhealthy subjects, both qualitative and quantitative differences with respect to heavy metals and PCBs. All patients with head and neck cancer enlisted for the study had heavy metal and PCB blood levels at least twice the maximum reference level. The levels of heavy metals in hair were at least double the maximum reference. In contrast, all healthy

  7. Spatial and temporal trends in PCBs in sediment along the lower Rhone River, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmet, Marc; Mourier, Brice; Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Roux, Gwenaelle; Persat, Henri; Lefevre, Irene; Peretti, Annie; Chapron, Emmanuel; Anaelle, Simonneau; Miege, Cecile; Babut, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Despite increasingly strict control of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) releases in France since the mid-1970s, PCB contamination of fish recently has emerged as a major concern in the lower Rhone River basin. We measured PCB concentrations in Rhone sediment to evaluate the effects of PCB releases from major urban and industrial areas, sediment redistribution by large floods, and regulatory controls on PCB trends from 1970 to present. Profiles of PCBs (the sum of seven indicator PCB congeners) were reconstructed from sediment cores collected from an off-river rural reference site and from three depositional areas along the Rhone upstream and downstream from the city of Lyon, France. Core chronology was determined from radionuclide profiles and flood deposits. PCB concentrations increased progressively in the downstream direction, and reached a maximum concentration in 1991 of 281 μg/kg at the most downstream site. At the rural reference site and at the upstream Rhone site, PCB concentrations peaked in the 1970s (maximum concentration of 13 and 78 μg/kg, respectively) and have decreased exponentially since then. PCB concentrations in the middle and downstream cores were elevated into the early 1990s, decreased very rapidly until 2000, and since then have remained relatively stable. Congener profiles for three time windows (1965–80, 1986–93, and 2000–08) were similar in the three sediment cores from the Rhone and different from those at the rural reference site. The results indicate that permitted discharges from a hazardous-waste treatment facility upstream from Lyon might have contributed to high concentrations into the 1980-90s, but that industrial discharges from the greater Lyon area and tributaries to the Rhone near Lyon have had a greater contribution since the 1990s. There is little indication that PCB concentration in sediments downstream from Lyon will decrease over at least the short term.

  8. Human exposure to PCDDs, PCDFs, and dioxin like PCBs in Japan, 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mato, Y.; Nakayama, S. [Japan Environmental Sanitation Center, Kawasaki (Japan); Suzuki, N.; Morita, M. [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan); Kadokami, K. [Kitakyushu City Inst. of Environmental Sciences, Kitakyushu (Japan); Katatani, N. [Univ. of Yamanashi, Kofu (Japan); Nakano, T. [Hyogo Prefectural Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Sciences, Kobe (Japan); Matsuoka, T.; Takei, T. [Ministry of the Environment, Tokyo (Japan); Uchiyama, I. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan); Miyata, H. [Setsunan Univ., Hirakata (Japan); Toyoda, M. [Jissen Women' s Univ., Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    In our previous study, we have estimated the level of human exposure to dioxins (PCDDs, PCDFs, and Dioxin like PCBs) in Japan based on dioxins monitoring data and results of total diet studies (TDS) in fiscal 2000 (April 2000- March 2001). It has been reported that the national PCDDs/DFs emission in 2001 against the 1997 level has been reduced by approximately 77% In addition, reduction of environmental levels was reported. The enforcement of Japan's Law Concerning Special Measures against Dioxins has significant impact on the reduction of the average dioxins concentrations in the ambient air. Therefore, the transitions of Japanese dioxins exposure levels in recent years are worthy of attention. In order to determine exposure level in fiscal 2001, collection and compilation for surveillance results derived from the regular environmental monitoring under the law as well as other dioxins surveys by national and local governmental bodies were continued, and the data were analyzed. The exposure level in fiscal 2001 was estimated by a ''point'' estimate (i.e., a single value derived from arithmetic means) approach based on the collected data. Because dioxins exposure is not clearly below the level of concern, an emphasis is placed on the importance of quantitatively characterizing the variability in exposure assessments. Therefore, the ''probabilistic'' approach using a Monte Carlo simulation was also conducted. However, elaboration in curve fitting to the distribution of dioxins intake through diet wasn't completely achieved due to the limitation of TDS data size in fiscal 2000 (n=16) in our previous study. In the present study, the curve fitting to diet were updated and elaborated, based on larger size of TDS data (n=54) by combining all the data in fiscal 1998-2001.

  9. Evaluation of the release of dioxins and PCBs during kiln-firing of ball clay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadwater, Kendra; Meeker, John D; Luksemburg, William; Maier, Martha; Garabrant, David; Demond, Avery; Franzblau, Alfred

    2014-01-01

    Ball clay is known to be naturally contaminated with high levels of polychlorinated di-benzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs). This study evaluated the potential for PCDD, polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) release during the kiln firing of ball clay in an art studio. Toxic equivalence (TEQ) were calculated using World Health Organization (WHO) 2005 toxic equivalence factors (TEF) and congener concentrations. Ten bags of commercial ball clay were found to have an average TEQ of 1,370 nanograms/kilogram (ng kg(-1)) dry weight (dw), almost exclusively due to PCDDs (99.98% of TEQ). After firing, none of the 29 dioxin-like analytes was measured above the limits of detection (LOD) in the clay samples. Air samples were taken during firings using both low-flow and high-flow air samplers. Few low-flow air samples contained measurable levels of dioxin congeners above the LOD. The mean TEQ in the high volume air samples ranged from 0.07 pg m(-3) to 0.21 pg m(-3) when firing ball clay, and was 0.11 pg m(-3) when no clay was fired. These concentrations are within the range measured in typical residences and well-controlled industrial settings. The congener profiles in the high-flow air samples differed from the unfired clay; the air samples had a considerable contribution to the TEQ from PCDFs and PCBs. Given that the TEQs of all air samples were very low and the profiles differed from the unfired clay, it is likely that the PCDDs in dry ball clay were destroyed during kiln firing. These results suggest that inhalation of volatilized dioxins during kiln firing of dry ball clay is an unlikely source of exposure for vocational and art ceramicists. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Seasonal atmospheric deposition variations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and comparison of some deposition sampling techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgül, Askın; Tasdemir, Yücel

    2011-03-01

    Ambient air and bulk deposition samples were collected between June 2008 and June 2009. Eighty-three polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were targeted in the samples. The average gas and particle PCB concentrations were found as 393 ± 278 and 70 ± 102 pg/m(3), respectively, and 85% of the atmospheric PCBs were in the gas phase. Bulk deposition samples were collected by using a sampler made of stainless steel. The average PCB bulk deposition flux value was determined as 6,020 ± 4,350 pg/m(2) day. The seasonal bulk deposition fluxes were not statistically different from each other, but the summer flux had higher values. Flux values differed depending on the precipitation levels. The average flux value in the rainy periods was 7,480 ± 4,080 pg/m(2) day while the average flux value in dry periods was 5,550 ± 4,420 pg/m(2) day. The obtained deposition values were lower than the reported values given for the urban and industrialized areas, yet close to the ones for the rural sites. The reported deposition values were also influenced by the type of the instruments used. The average dry deposition and total deposition velocity values calculated based on deposition and concentration values were found as 0.23 ± 0.21 and 0.13 ± 0.13 cm/s, respectively.

  11. Dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in fish in general and in particular from Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karl, H. [Federal Research Centre for Nutrition and Food, Hamburg (Germany); Ruoff, U. [Federal Research Centre For Nutrition and Food, Kiel (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Commission Regulation No 466/2001 establishes maximum levels for dioxins in foodstuffs, foreseeing to review the maximum levels by 31 December 2006 and to include dioxin-like PCBs in the levels to be set. Fish is known to accumulate dioxins and dioxin related compounds in the lipid phase of their tissue. To collect information of the actual contamination levels in fish species on the German market, samples were taken from fishing grounds important for the supply and in particular from the Baltic Sea. Sampling concentrates on fish species with higher fat content like mackerel (Scomber scombrus), salmon (Salmo salar), trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), red fish (Sebastes sp.) and herring (Clupea harengus), because lean fish species are known to be less contaminated. Herring is the most important fat fish species for the German fish processing industry with a market share of 19% in 2001. The annual demand is approximately 149.000 t. Herring and other fish species accumulate PCDD/Fs with increasing age and dioxin levels in the edible part of eastern Baltic herring exceeds the maximum limit of 4 ng WHOPCDD/ F-TEQ/kg wet weight (w.w.) at ages of 4 - 6 years, corresponding to sizes of approximately 17 - 18 cm and a weight of 40 g, respectively. Hence Isosaari recommended to use preferably young fish from this area for human consumption. However, the German herring industry is based on the processing of large herring with a minimum weight of > 85g up to 250g. Therefore our interest focused on herring sizes of potential interest for the German processing industry. Samples were collected in September 1999 within two weeks covering an area from the Skagerrak to the Coast of Latvia. Additionally the contamination levels in sprat (Sprattus sprattus), flounder, brown trout (Salmo trutta) and in spring spawning herring from commercial landings around the area of Ruegen have been analysed.

  12. Remotely Sensing Pollution: Detection and Monitoring of PCBs in the San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, A.; Kudela, R. M.; Bausell, J.

    2016-12-01

    While the EPA banned polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in 1977, they continue to persist in San Francisco Bay (SF Bay), often at dangerously high concentrations due to their long half-life. However, in spite of their associated health and environmental risks, PCB monitoring within SF Bay is extremely limited, due in large part to the high costs, both in terms of labor and capital that are associated with it. In this study, a cost effective alternative to in-situ PCB sampling is presented by demonstrating the feasibility of PCB detection via remote sensing. This was done by first establishing relationships between in-situ measurements of sum of 40 PCB concentrations and total suspended sediment concentration (SSC) collected from 1998-2006 at 37 stations distributed throughout SF Bay. A correlation was discovered for all stations at (R2 =0.32), which improved markedly upon partitioning stations into north bay, (R2 =0.64), central bay (R2 =0.80) and south bay (R2 =0.52) regions. SSC was then compared from three USGS monitoring stations with temporally consistent Landsat 8 imagery. The resulting correlation between Landsat 8 (Rrs 654) and SSC measured at USGS stations (R2 =0.50) was validated using an Airborne Visible/ Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) image. The end product is a two-step empirical algorithm that can derive PCB from Landsat 8 imagery within SF Bay. This algorithm can generate spatial PCB concentration maps for SF Bay, which can in turn be utilized to increase ability to forecast PCB concentration. The observation that correlation between AVIRIS (Rrs 657) and SSC was stronger than that of Landsat 8 suggests that the accuracy of this algorithm could be enhanced with improved atmospheric correction.

  13. Air-soil exchange of PCBs: levels and temporal variations at two sites in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yolsal, Didem; Salihoglu, Güray; Tasdemir, Yücel

    2014-03-01

    Seasonal distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at the air-soil intersection was determined for two regions: one with urban characteristics where traffic is dense (BUTAL) and the other representing the coastal zone (Mudanya). Fifty-one air and soil samples were simultaneously collected. Total PCB (Σ82 PCB) levels in the soil samples collected during a 1-year period ranged between 105 and 7,060 pg/g dry matter (dm) (BUTAL) and 110 and 2,320 pg/g dm (Mudanya). Total PCB levels in the gaseous phase were measured to be between 100 and 910 pg/m(3) (BUTAL) and 75 and 1,025 pg/m(3) (Mudanya). Variations in the concentrations were observed depending on the season. Though the PCB concentrations measured in the atmospheres of both regions in the summer months were high, they were found to be lower in winter. However, while soil PCB levels were measured to be high at BUTAL during summer months, they were found to be high during winter months in Mudanya. The direction and amount of the PCB movement were determined by calculating the gaseous phase change fluxes at air-soil intersection. While a general PCB movement from soil to air was found for BUTAL, the PCB movement from air to soil was calculated for the Mudanya region in most of the sampling events. During the warmer seasons PCB movement towards the atmosphere was observed due to evaporation from the soil. With decreases in the temperature, both decreases in the number of PCB congeners occurring in the air and a change in the direction of some congeners were observed, possibly caused by deposition from the atmosphere to the soil. 3-CB and 4-CB congeners were found to be dominant in the atmosphere, and 4-, 5-, and 6-CBs were found to dominate in the surface soils.

  14. Dietary Proteins and Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Medina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Both defective and persistent angiogenesis are linked to pathological situations in the adult. Compounds able to modulate angiogenesis have a potential value for the treatment of such pathologies. Several small molecules present in the diet have been shown to have modulatory effects on angiogenesis. This review presents the current state of knowledge on the potential modulatory roles of dietary proteins on angiogenesis. There is currently limited available information on the topic. Milk contains at least three proteins for which modulatory effects on angiogenesis have been previously demonstrated. On the other hand, there is some scarce information on the potential of dietary lectins, edible plant proteins and high protein diets to modulate angiogenesis.

  15. [Dietary counseling in obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Nathalie; Haslebacher, Yvonne; Teuscher-Sick, Patricia; Fischer, Beatrice

    2013-02-01

    Information on weight management and a healthy eating is accessible to anyone. However, recommendations are inconsistent. This often leads to confusion rather than to real changes in eating behavior. The principle of a long-term weight reduction is based on the idea of achieving negative energy balance with a healthy, balanced and slightly hypocaloric diet. The regimen is neither supposed to be rigid nor should it ban any food products or food products. Changes in eating patterns come about step by step and the counseling approach should be based on the patient's habits and capabilities. The basic requirement to successfully treat obese patients is their own motivation Therefore, the timing of launching the therapy needs to be well chosen. Apart from goals directly concerning weight loss, goals related to well-being, general health and exercise should be set and pursued. However, the main focus should be on changes of dietary behavior. Dietary counseling is preferably embedded in a multidisciplinary treatment concept.

  16. Effecting dietary change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Ashley J; Mathers, John C

    2004-11-01

    A world epidemic of diet-related chronic disease is currently being faced. In the UK incidence of obesity alone has tripled in the last 20 years and this trend is predicted to continue. Consensus exists for the urgent need for a change in diet and other lifestyle factors and for the direction and targets for this change. The evidence for how this change can be achieved is less certain. It has been established that disease processes begin in childhood. Recent evidence indicates that dietary habits too are established in childhood but that these habits are amenable to change. While establishing a healthy lifestyle in childhood is paramount, interventions have the potential to promote positive change throughout the life course. Success in reversing current trends in diet-related disease will depend on commitment from legislators, health professionals, industry and individuals, and this collaboration must seek to address not only the food choices of the individual but also the environment that influences such choices. Recent public health policy development in England, if fully supported and implemented, is a positive move towards this goal. Evidence for effective strategies to promote dietary change at the individual level is emerging and three reviews of this evidence are discussed. In addition, three recent dietary intervention studies, in three different settings and with different methods and aims, are presented to illustrate methods of effecting dietary change. Further work is required on what factors influence the eating behaviour and physical activity of individuals. There is a need for further theory-based research on which to develop more effective strategies to enable individuals to adopt healthier lifestyles.

  17. Dietary treatment of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Pita Lottenberg

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The fast global increased prevalence of obesity has been classifiedas an epidemics by the World Health Organization. The etiology ofobesity is very complex and involves genetic and environmentalfactors. One of the main factors that trigger obesity is sedentarylife, as well as the great availability of fat-rich foods that present ahigh energy density. According to the NHANES II, although thepopulation has decreased the ingestion of fat, the total consumptionof food has increased. The main factors that influence in choice offood are flavor, followed by cost, convenience and, finally, itsnutritional value. The dietary treatment of obesity should haverealistic goals concerning weight loss rate and amount. It issuggested to prescribe a balanced low-calorie diet, emphasizingmostly the quality of foods by using the food pyramid. Therefore,patients may learn the appropriate criteria to select food and makehealthy choices. The dietary treatment of obesity also includesthe use of behavioral techniques directed at dietary education,thus resulting in choice of healthy foods with adequate energyvalue.

  18. Natural Dietary Phytosterols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racette, Susan B; Lin, Xiaobo; Ma, Lina; Ostlund, Richard E

    2015-01-01

    Most clinical phytosterol studies are performed by adding purified supplements to smaller phytosterol amounts present in the natural diet. However, natural dietary phytosterols themselves may also have important effects on cholesterol metabolism. Epidemiological work using food frequency questionnaires to estimate dietary intake suggest that extremes of normal consumption may be associated with 3-14% changes in LDL cholesterol. Standardized food databases do not have enough phytosterol values to allow calculation of phytosterol intake for individuals outside of specialized studies. Natural diets contain phytosterol amounts ranging from less than 60 mg/2000 kcal to over 500 mg/2000 kcal. Physiological studies in which whole body cholesterol metabolism is investigated show large effects of natural dietary phytosterols on cholesterol absorption efficiency, cholesterol biosynthesis and cholesterol excretion which exceed the magnitude of changes in LDL cholesterol. The dual effects of natural phytosterols on both LDL-C and whole body cholesterol metabolism need to be considered in relating them to potential protection from coronary heart disease risk.

  19. Dietary methanol and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Ralph G; Monte, Woodrow C

    2015-10-01

    The authors sought to establish whether maternal dietary methanol during pregnancy was a factor in the etiology of autism spectrum disorders. A seven item questionnaire was given to women who had given birth to at least one child after 1984. The subjects were solicited from a large primary care practice and several internet sites and separated into two groups - mothers who had given birth to a child with autism and those who had not. Average weekly methanol consumption was calculated based on questionnaire responses. 550 questionnaires were completed by women who gave birth to a non-autistic child. On average these women consumed 66.71mg. of methanol weekly. 161 questionnaires were completed by women who had given birth to an autistic child. The average estimated weekly methanol consumption for this group was 142.31mg. Based on the results of the Wilcoxon rank sum-test, we see a significant difference between the reported methanol consumption rates of the two groups. This study suggests that women who have given birth to an autistic child are likely to have had higher intake of dietary sources of methanol than women who have not. Further investigation of a possible link of dietary methanol to autism is clearly warranted. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Determinants of dietary supplement use - healthy individuals use dietary supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Christina L F; Christensen, Jane; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2015-01-01

    influence the use of dietary supplements. Only few studies investigating the use of dietary supplements have been conducted in the Danish population. The present cross-sectional study is based on 54 948 Danes, aged 50-64 years, who completed self-administrated questionnaires on diet, dietary supplements...... and lifestyle between 1993 and 1997. A health index including smoking, physical activity, alcohol and diet, and a metabolic risk index including waist circumference, urinary glucose and measured hypertension were constructed. Logistic regression was used to investigate these determinants in relation...... to the intake of dietary supplements. We found that 71 % of the participants were dietary supplement users; female sex, older age groups and higher educated participants were more likely to be users of any dietary supplements. One additional point in the health index was associated with 19, 16 and 9 % higher...

  1. Dietary biomagnification of organochlorine contaminants in Alaskan polar bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentzen, T.W.; Follmann, Erich H.; Amstrup, Steven C.; York, G.S.; Wooller, M.J.; Muir, D.C.G.; O'Hara, T. M.

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of organochlorine contaminants in the adipose tissue of polar bears (Ursus maritimus Phipps, 1774) vary throughout the Arctic. The range in concentrations has not been explained fully by bear age, sex, condition, location, or reproductive status. Dietary pathways expose polar bears to a variety of contaminant profiles and concentrations. Prey range from lower trophic level bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus L., 1758), one of the least contaminated marine mammals, to highly contaminated upper trophic level ringed seals (Phoca hispida (Schreber, 1775)). We used ??15N and ??13C signatures to estimate the trophic status of 42 polar bears sampled along Alaska's Beaufort Sea coast to determine the relationship between organochlorine concentration and trophic level. The ?? 15N values in the cellular portions of blood ranged from 18.2% to 20.7%. We found strong positive relationships between concentrations of the most recalcitrant polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and ??15N values in models incorporating age, lipid content, and ??13C value. Specifically these models accounted for 67% and 76% of the variation in PCB153 and oxychlordane concentration in male polar bears and 85% and 93% in females, respectively. These results are strong indicators of variation in diet and biomagnification of organochlorines among polar bears related to their sex, age, and trophic position. ?? 2008 NRC.

  2. Effects of PCBs and PBDEs on thyroid hormone, lymphocyte proliferation, hematology and kidney injury markers in residents of an e-waste dismantling area in Zhejiang, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Peiwei, E-mail: pwxu@cdc.zj.cn; Lou, Xiaoming; Ding, Gangqiang, E-mail: gqding@cdc.zj.cn; Shen, Haitao; Wu, Lizhi; Chen, Zhijian; Han, Jianlong; Wang, Xiaofeng, E-mail: zjcdcwxf@gmail.com

    2015-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are two typical categories of contaminants released from e-waste dismantling environments. In China, the body burdens of PCBs and PBDEs are associated with abnormal thyroid hormones in populations from e-waste dismantling sites, but the results are limited and contradictory. In this study, we measured the serum levels of PCBs and PBDEs and the thyroid hormone free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in 40 residents in an e-waste dismantling area and in 15 residents in a control area. Additionally, we also measured some lymphocyte proliferation indexes, hematologic parameters and kidney injury markers, including white blood cells, neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, hemoglobin, platelets, serum creatinine and beta 2-microglobulin (β{sub 2}-MG). The results indicated that the mean level of ΣPCBs in the exposure group was significantly higher than that in the control group (964.39 and 67.98 ng g{sup −1}, p < 0.0001), but the mean level of ΣPBDEs in the exposure group was not significantly higher than that in the controls (139.32 vs. 75.74 ng g{sup −1}, p > 0.05). We determined that serum levels of FT3, FT4, monocytes and lymphocytes were significantly lower, whereas the levels of neutrophils, hemoglobin, platelets and serum creatinine were significantly higher in the exposed group (p < 0.05). The mean level of ΣPCBs was negatively correlated with levels of FT3, FT4, monocytes and lymphocytes (p < 0.05) and positively correlated with levels of neutrophils, hemoglobin, serum creatinine and β{sub 2}-MG (p < 0.05). Additionally, the mean level of ΣPBDEs was positively correlated with levels of white blood cells, hemoglobin and platelets (p < 0.05). Our data suggest that exposure to an e-waste dismantling environment may increase the body burdens of PCBs and the specific PBDEs congeners in native residents and that the contaminants released

  3. Atmospheric concentrations, distributions and air-soil exchange tendencies of PAHs and PCBs in a heavily industrialized area in Kocaeli, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Banu; Yurdakul, Sema; Keles, Melek; Celik, Isil; Ozturk, Fatma; Dogan, Cevdet

    2017-09-01

    Dilovasi is one of the heavily industrialized areas in Turkey with serious environmental problems. In this study, the atmospheric concentration of PAHs and PCBs were measured for a whole year at 23 sites. The average ambient air Σ 15 PAH and Σ 41 PCB concentrations were found as 285 ± 431 ng m -3 and 4152 ± 6072 pg m -3 , respectively. PAH concentrations increased with decreasing temperature especially in urban areas, indicating the impact of residential heating. However, PCB concentrations mostly increased with temperature probably due to enhanced volatilization from their sources. The gradient obtained for PCBs, rural air were higher in industrial-urban areas than rural sites, showing that soil was a secondary source for PAHs. Fugacity ratios of PCBs were mostly <1.0 for the whole sampling period. Although the source/sink tendency of soil for some PCBs depends on their volatility, considering the whole data, PCBs were generally deposited to soil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Contrast Enhancement Method Based on Gray and Its Distance Double-Weighting Histogram Equalization for 3D CT Images of PCBs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zeng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT is a new detection method for 3D nondestructive testing of printed circuit boards (PCBs. However, the obtained 3D image of PCBs exhibits low contrast because of several factors, such as the occurrence of metal artifacts and beam hardening, during the process of CBCT imaging. Histogram equalization (HE algorithms cannot effectively extend the gray difference between a substrate and a metal in 3D CT images of PCBs, and the reinforcing effects are insignificant. To address this shortcoming, this study proposes an image enhancement algorithm based on gray and its distance double-weighting HE. Considering the characteristics of 3D CT images of PCBs, the proposed algorithm uses gray and its distance double-weighting strategy to change the form of the original image histogram distribution, suppresses the grayscale of a nonmetallic substrate, and expands the grayscale of wires and other metals. The proposed algorithm also enhances the gray difference between a substrate and a metal and highlights metallic materials. The proposed algorithm can enhance the gray value of wires and other metals in 3D CT images of PCBs. It applies enhancement strategies of changing gray and its distance double-weighting mechanism to adapt to this particular purpose. The flexibility and advantages of the proposed algorithm are confirmed by analyses and experimental results.

  5. Monitoring of organic micropollutants in Ghana by combination of pellet watch with sediment analysis: e-waste as a source of PCBs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoda, Junki; Ofosu-Anim, John; Sabi, Edward Benjamin; Akita, Lailah Gifty; Onwona-Agyeman, Siaw; Yamashita, Rei; Takada, Hideshige

    2014-09-15

    Plastic resin pellets collected at 11 beaches covering the whole Ghanaian coastline were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). PCB concentrations (∑13 congeners) were higher in Accra, capital city, and Tema (39-69 ng/g-pellets) than those in rural coastal towns (1-15 ng/g-pellets) which are close to global background, indicating local inputs of PCBs. River sediments were also analyzed for PCBs together with molecular markers. Sedimentary PCBs concentrations were highest at a site (AR02) downstream of an electronic waste (e-waste) scrapyard. At the site (AR02), concentration of linear alkylbenzenes (LABs), a marker of municipal wastewater, was lower than another site (AR03) which is located at the downstream of downtown Accra. This result suggests that PCBs are introduced more to the river from the e-waste site than from activities in downtown Accra. PAHs concentrations were relatively higher in urban areas with strong petrogenic signature. Abundance of triphenylbenzenes suggested plastic combustion near e-waste scrapyard. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. PCBs and DDE, but not PBDEs, increase with trophic level and marine input in nestling bald eagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamish Elliott, Kyle; Cesh, Lillian S.; Dooley, Jessica A.; Letcher, Robert J.; Elliott, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Concentrations of persistent contaminants often vary widely among individuals within a population. We hypothesized that such variation was caused mainly by differences in diet (biomagnification) and in coastal systems by the tendency of marine systems to act as contaminant sinks. We examined the relationship between contaminant concentrations and stable isotope ratios in nestling plasma from an apex predator with a particularly broad diet. Our study included freshwater, estuarine, inshore and pelagic breeding sites. Bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) at the pelagic marine sites showed high trophic level and marine input, eagles at the freshwater sites showed low trophic level and marine input, and eagles at the estuarine and inshore marine sites had intermediate values. The relationship between trophic level and marine input may reflect longer food chains in pelagic compared to terrestrial ecosystems. ΣPCBs and DDE concentrations generally increased with trophic level and marine input, with the exception of the freshwater sites, while ΣPBDEs, hydroxylated-PBDEs and hydroxylated-PCBs increased with marine input, but were independent of trophic level. The relationships for ΣPCBs and DDE were often slightly stronger with marine input than trophic level, suggesting that oceanographic processes may be more important than trophic level. At freshwater locations, spatial variation may be more important than trophic level due to the heterogeneity of contaminant profiles between feeding locations (lakes, rivers, agricultural fields). Adults had similar isotopic composition to their chicks but higher contamination. Based on nests where prey composition was determined independently, isotopic enrichment values for nestling plasma were 1.6 ± 0.1 (δ 15 N) and - 0.4 ±0.2 (δ 13 C). We conclude that trophic level and marine influence are significant factors influencing PCB and DDE concentrations in eagles. However, trophic level in particular did not influence PBDEs

  7. PCDDs/PCDFs, dl-PCBs and HCB in the flue gas from coal fired CFB boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grochowalski, Adam; Konieczyński, Jan

    2008-08-01

    The aim of the project was to measure the actual emissions of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) from four selected power plants in Poland in order to update the national inventory of PCDDs/PCDFs emission. Relatively low PCDDs/PCDFs as well as dl-PCBs concentrations in flue gas obtained in measurements in this study for four different circulated fluidized bed (CFB) boilers indicate practical absence of any hazards caused by PCDDs/PCDFs emission from these units. The results of PCDDs/PCDFs determination obtained in this study indicate that hard coal combustion in large CFB in the four central heating plants (CHP) is not a significant source of PCDDs/PCDFs emission to the environment even if operated by co-firing of waste coal. PCDDs/PCDFs concentration in flue gases as well as emission factors were recorded in the range of 0.012-0.060 ng I-TEQ/m(n)(3) and 7.51-46.4 microg I-TEQ/TJ, respectively. Dl-PCBs concentration was practically below the LOQ=0.006 ng WHO-PCB TEQ/m(n)(3) in all experiments. HCB concentration as well as emission factors were recorded in the range of 11.5-42.0 ng/m(n)(3) and 6.19-26.7 mg/TJ, respectively, where the highest value was obtained for co-firing of waste coal, however. Obtained in this work emission factors will be used for national emission inventory purposes instead of the factors proposed by Toolkit or taken from previous measurements. However, consideration should be given to the fact that the measurements in most cases are related to single installations. Therefore, the need for further development of national factors for the power generation industry in Poland is desired.

  8. Health risk assessment of exposure to dioxin-like PCBs and dioxins in the City of Menen (Belgium)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouwen, J.; Provoost, J.; Cornelis, C.; Bronders, J.; Fre, R. de; Clauvenbergern, R. van [Flemish Insitute for Technological Research (Vito) (Belgium)

    2004-09-15

    The City of Menen is a well-outlined residential area located in the neighbourhood of two waste incinerators. The waste incinerators (Menen (Belgium) and Roncq (France)) are in full operation since the eighties. Emission measurements indicate that they fulfil the European Union dioxin emission standard of 0.1 ng TEQ/m{sup 3}. Despite this, new deposition measurements and analysis of milk in this region indicate a high burden of the local environment with dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dioxin-like PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). It should be noted that formerly the City of Menen was also surrounded by other potential dioxin sources, among them a dye factory, some small illegal cable burning houses, a pressed board manufacturer, and a metal recycling plant. Before 1984, fly ashes of the waste incinerator were locally used as road materials and transported. This could be a secondary source. Additionally the Environmental Inspection has regularly noticed some large open waste fires in this region and follows up the situation. On request of the Public Waste Agency of Flanders (OVAM) an inventory of all dioxin measurements within the city area was made. The ratio of the dioxin-like PCBs compared to the PCDD/Fs in these measurement results was unexpectedly high. As a consequence of this and in order to achieve an optimal risk assessment for the people living in the City of Menen an additional sampling of soil, vegetables and eggs was carried out. This article focuses on the relative amounts of dioxin-like PCBs and PCDD/Fs in the different media and the consequences for the outcome of the risk assessment.

  9. Exposure to PCBs, through inhalation, dermal contact and dust ingestion at Taizhou, China--a major site for recycling transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Guan Hua; Liang, Ying; Chen, Ling Xuan; Wu, Sheng Chun; Wong, Ming Hung

    2011-04-01

    Air samples containing gaseous and particulate phases were collected from e-waste workplaces and residential areas of an intensive e-waste recycling area and compared with a reference site. The highest total concentration of PCBs was detected at transformer recycling workshops (17.6 ng m(-3)), followed by the residential area (3.37 ng m(-3)) at Taizhou, and the lowest was obtained at the residential area of the reference site, Lin'an (0.46 ng m(-3)). The same trend was also observed with regards to PCB levels in dust samples. The highest average PCBs level of 2824 ng g(-1) (dry wt) was found in the transformer recycling workshops, and was significantly higher than that of residential areas of Taizhou (572 ng g(-1) dry wt) and Lin'an (42.4 ng g(-1) dry wt). WHO-PCB-TEQ level in the workshops of Taizhou was 2216 pg TEQ(1998)g(-1) dry wt or 2159 pg TEQ(2005)g(-1) dry wt, due to the high abundance of PCB 126 (21.5 ng g(-1) dry wt), which contributed 97% or 99% of WHO-PCB-TEQs. The estimated intake of PCBs via dust ingestion and dermal absorption by transformer recycling workers were 77.5×10(-5) and 36.0×10(-5) pg WHO-PCB-TEQ(1998)kg(-1)d(-1), and 67.3×10(-5) and 31.3×10(-5) pg WHO-PCB-TEQ(2005)kg(-1)d(-1), respectively. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Characterization and mechanical separation of metals from computer Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) based on mineral processing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvar, Mojtaba; Salarirad, Mohammad Mehdi; Shabani, Mohammad Amin

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, a novel mechanical process is proposed for enriching metal content of computer Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs). The PCBs are crushed and divided into three different size fractions namely: -0.59, +0.59 to 1.68 and +1.68 mm. Wet jigging and froth flotation methods are selected for metal enrichment. The coarse size fraction (+1.68 mm) is processed by jigging. The plastic free product is grinded and screened. The oversized product is separated as the first concentrate. It was rich of metal because the grinding process was selective. The undersized product is processed by froth flotation. Based on the obtained results, the middle size fraction (+0.59 to 1.68 mm) and the small size fraction (-0.59 mm) are processed by wet jigging and froth flotation respectively. The wet jigging process is optimized by investigating the effect of pulsation frequency and water flow rate. The results of examining the effect of particle size, solid to liquid ratio, conditioning time and using apolar collector showed that collectorless flotation is a promising method for separating nonmetals of PCBs. 95.6%, 97.5% and 85% of metal content of coarse size, middle size and small size fraction are recovered. The grades of obtained concentrates were 63.3%, 92.5% and 75% respectively. The total recovery is calculated as 95.64% and the grade of the final concentrate was 71.26%. Determining the grade of copper and gold in the final product reveals that 4.95% of copper and 24.46% of gold are lost during the concentration. The major part of the lost gold is accumulated in froth flotation tail. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Inhalation Exposure to Dioxins and dl-PCBs Depending on the Season in Upper Silesia, Poland: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziubanek, Grzegorz; Marchwińska, Ewa; Hajok, Ilona; Piekut, Agata

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the seasonal fluctuation of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs levels in the ambient air of Upper Silesia in the aspect of human inhalation exposure as well as the estimation of health risk attributed to this exposure pathway to dioxins and dl-PCBs. In the study air samples were taken in five urban districts of Upper Silesia, Poland, where the houses are heated with coal. The same sampling points in summer and winter were analyzed for dioxins/furans and dl-PCBs. In addition, information was collected on awareness of the residents about the co-incineration of plastic waste and effects of this activity on human health. The results show that the average daily exposure of residents of Upper Silesia to TCDD and DLCs in the heating season was about 6.5.-fold higher than in summer. The risk assessment showed that expected excess of cancer cases per 1,000,000 people ranged from 4.5 to 13.2 in winter and from 0.9 to 2.1 in summer. The practice of mixing waste with coal for houses heating has been confirmed by investigated families, who do not associate it with the possibility of negative health effects. Air pollution can be a significant source of dioxin and dl-PCB for people during the winter season, as a result of co-burning coal and waste containing plastics. The dose of dioxins inhaled through the respiratory pathway in winter can be associated with the higher cancer risk in the population of Upper Silesia. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2015.

  12. A baseline study on levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, non-ortho and mono-ortho PCBs, non-dioxin-like PCBs and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Northeast Arctic cod (Gadus morhua) from different parts of the Barents Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julshamn, Kaare; Duinker, Arne; Berntssen, Marc; Nilsen, Bente M.; Frantzen, Sylvia; Nedreaas, Kjell; Maage, Amund

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Livers of cod from the Barents Sea have been analysed for dioxins, PCBs and PBDEs. • The overall mean concentration of dioxins and DL-PCBs was 14.2 ng TEQ WHO-2005 /kg ww. • The concentrations of dioxins and DL-PCBs varied between 1.0 and 151 ng TEQ/kg ww. • 20% of the samples had concentrations higher than 20 ng TEQ/kg ww. • The highest concentrations of dioxins and PCB were found in samples from the east area of the Barents Sea. -- Abstract: This study is one of several baseline studies on commercially important Norwegian wild fish species that will provide information concerning metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and food safety. The cod liver is a traditional food product in Norway and a potential source for POPs in the diet. The concentrations of dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs), non-dioxin-like PCBs (NDL-PCBs, PCB 6 ) and polybrominated flame retardants (PBDEs) were determined in the liver of 784 individual Northeast Arctic cod caught at 32 positions in the Barents Sea in the period from 2009–2010. In addition, muscle samples from 30 individual cod were analysed for the same substances. The mean concentration of the sum of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs for all samples was 14.2 ng TEQ who-2005 /kg ww with a variation between 1.0 and 151 ng TEQ/kg ww. The concentrations of POPs in the fillet samples were very low

  13. NUEVAS ALTERNATIVAS ANALISTICAS EN LA PREPARACION DE MUESTRAS PARA LA DETERMINACION DE BIFENILOS POLICLORADOS (PCBS) EN CARNES DE EXPORTACION

    OpenAIRE

    TOLEDO NEIRA, CARLA BEATRIZ

    2012-01-01

    Los bifenilos policlorados (PCBs) son un grupo de contaminantes orgánicos persistentes formado por 209 compuestos individuales. A pesar de estar prohibidos desde 1970-1980, todavía se encuentran en matrices ambientales y tejidos animales. Debido a esto es importante el desarrollo de nuevas metodologías analíticas para la determinación de estos compuestos en matrices alimentarias a fin de tener un mayor control de estos contaminantes y de una temprana prevención en el cuidado del hombre y ...

  14. Occupational exposure to PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs of metallurgical workers in some industrial plants of the Brescia area, northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abballe, Annalisa; Barbieri, Pietro Gino; di Domenico, Alessandro; Garattini, Siria; Iacovella, Nicola; Ingelido, Anna Maria; Marra, Valentina; Miniero, Roberto; Valentini, Silvia; De Felip, Elena

    2013-01-01

    The study was carried out in order to respond to public concern on the occupational exposure of metallurgical workers to highly toxic PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs in the area of the city of Brescia, northern Italy. The study investigated the effects on the haematic burden of occupational exposures to the aforesaid contaminants in different work environments, attempting to establish causal relationships and providing indications for occupational health preventive measures. Chemical concentrations were measured in blood serum of "professionally exposed" (PE) and "not professionally exposed" (NPE) subjects. NPE subjects included industrial administrative employees, Brescia inhabitants, and remote rural people. The central tendency indexes of contaminant cumulative concentrations were higher in PE than in NPE samples (for the mean values: PCDDs+PCDFs, 22.9 vs. 19.5 pgWHO-TEQ(1997)/g lb; DL-PCBs, 26.0 vs. 23.6 pgWHO-TEQ(1997)/g lb; PCDDs+PCDFs+DL-PCBs (TEQ(TOT)), 48.9 vs. 43.1 pgWHO-TEQ(1997)/g lb; Σ(6)[NDL-PCBs], 427 vs. 401 ng g(-1)lb); however, no statistical differences were detected at P=0.05. A significant difference for PCDDs+PCDFs and TEQ(TOT) was observed as the NPE data were progressively reduced to those of the remote rural people. The existence of a differential occupational exposure due to different environments was detected by applying the factor analysis to congener-specific data (analytical profiles). Findings indicate that metallurgical workers may be exposed to PCDD, PCDF, and PCB more than the general population, in particular due to non-negligible contributions to exposure from workplace ambient air. Findings also suggest that an improvement of preventive measures may be required to avoid chemical overexposure in certain metallurgical workplaces. To identify exposure groups, the DL- and NDL-PCB analytical profiles seemed to be more sensitive to environmental exposure sources/pathways than those of PCDDs and PCDFs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All

  15. Spatial and temporal trends in PCBs in sediment along the lower Rhône River, France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desmet, Marc; Mourier, Brice; Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Roux, Gwenaëlle; Persat, Henri; Lefèvre, Irène; Peretti, Annie

    2012-01-01

    Despite increasingly strict control of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) releases in France since the mid-1970s, PCB contamination of fish recently has emerged as a major concern in the lower Rhône River basin. We measured PCB concentrations in Rhône sediment to evaluate the effects of PCB releases from major urban and industrial areas, sediment redistribution by large floods, and regulatory controls on PCB trends from 1970 to present. Profiles of PCBs (the sum of seven indicator PCB congeners) were reconstructed from sediment cores collected from an off-river rural reference site and from three depositional areas along the Rhône upstream and downstream from the city of Lyon, France. Core chronology was determined from radionuclide profiles and flood deposits. PCB concentrations increased progressively in the downstream direction, and reached a maximum concentration in 1991 of 281 μg/kg at the most downstream site. At the rural reference site and at the upstream Rhône site, PCB concentrations peaked in the 1970s (maximum concentration of 13 and 78 μg/kg, respectively) and have decreased exponentially since then. PCB concentrations in the middle and downstream cores were elevated into the early 1990s, decreased very rapidly until 2000, and since then have remained relatively stable. Congener profiles for three time windows (1965–80, 1986–93, and 2000–08) were similar in the three sediment cores from the Rhône and different from those at the rural reference site. The results indicate that permitted discharges from a hazardous-waste treatment facility upstream from Lyon might have contributed to high concentrations into the 1980-90s, but that industrial discharges from the greater Lyon area and tributaries to the Rhône near Lyon have had a greater contribution since the 1990s. There is little indication that PCB concentration in sediments downstream from Lyon will decrease over at least the short term. -- Highlights: ►We reconstructed trends in PCBs in

  16. Dietary Determinants of Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chu, Lisa W

    2005-01-01

    .... Epidemiologic studies suggest that dietary factors may be important in the etiology of PCa. The objective of our research is to determine how nutritional compounds genistein, betasitosterol (STT...

  17. Estimating the total TEQ in human blood from naturally-occurring vs. anthropogenic dioxins. A dietary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, K [Exponent, Natick, MA (United States); Harris, M [Exponent, Houston, TX (United States); Edwards, M [Exponent, Bellevue, WA (United States); Chu, A; Clark, G [XDS, Inc., Durham, NC (United States); Finley, B [Exponent, Santa Rosa, CA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Numerous naturally-occurring compounds in the human diet can bind to the aryl hydrocarbon, or dioxin receptor (AhR) and activate the AhR signaling pathway. These compounds include certain indole carbinols and their derivatives, heterocyclic aromatic amines, flavonoids, carotinoids, vitamin A derivatives (retinoids), and tryptophan metabolites. Several researchers have suggested that the daily dietary intake of these ''endodioxins'', in terms of a TCDD-equivalency (TEQ) is likely to be far greater than that associated with daily background intake of anthropogenic dioxins. The purpose of this study was to provide preliminary data for evaluating whether dietary endodioxins may in fact be significant contributors to the non-PCDD/F and PCB fraction of the blood TEQ. This was accomplished by measuring the total bioassay (CALUX {sup registered}) TEQ in the blood of several volunteers under various dietary regimens. Specifically, blood samples were collected from volunteers who maintained a baseline diet, which was relatively free of vegetables, followed by a diet enriched in endodioxin-containing vegetables. The background blood levels of PCDD/Fs and PCBs were measured for each volunteer at the beginning of the study in order to establish a baseline TEQ for each participant. To provide a measure of study sensitivity, CALUX {sup registered} analysis was also performed on blood samples from volunteers who took an off-the-shelf indole-3-carbinole (I3C) supplement. I3C is the main dietary ICZ precursor and could be expected to increase the levels of this endodioxin in blood.

  18. Effects of in ovo exposure to PCBs (coplanar congener, kanechlor mixture, hydroxylated metabolite) on the developing cell-mediated immunity in chickens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, J.; Matsuda, M.; Kawano, M.; Wakimoto, T. [Faculty of Agriculture, Ehime Univ., Matsuyama, Ehime (Japan); Kashima, Y. [Dept. of Hygiene, Yokohama City Univ. School of Medicine, Yokohama (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are wide spread environmental contaminants and known to cause various adverse effects on health of human and wildlife. Immune system is one of the several targets for toxic effects of PCBs and its normal balance is often disrupted by the exposure of the compounds. For example, PCBs may induce immune suppression and result in increased susceptibility to bacterial and viral infections, or conversely, excessive immune enhancement may cause adverse outcomes including as autoimmune disease and anergy. Therefore immune function is regarded as one of an important endpoint in toxicological risk assessment. There are a number of studies shown that neonatal organisms perinatally exposed to polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs) such as PCBs have severer effects on their immune system than adult. Dioxins and coplanar PCB congeners, structurally planar PHAHs are known to have high affinity for aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) have the strongest affinity among such compounds and these are considered to act on immune system through AhR. On the other hand, such as non-planar PCB congeners with low affinity for AhR, which are abundantly contained in commercial PCB preparations have non-additive (antagonistic) effects on immune function. Prenatal exposure of TCDD to rodent induced abnormal lymphoid development in the thymus and thymus-dependent immune functions were remarkably disturbed. Although several experimental studies in mammals have been carried out on the developmental immunotoxicity of PCBs, there are still limited information available on avian species. Thus in this study, prenatal exposure to low level of PCBs and the effects on the developing immune system were investigated with chicken as a model animal of avian species, especially it is focused on the cell-mediated immune function.

  19. Congener Profiles and Source-Wise Phase Partitioning Analysis of PCDDs/Fs and PCBs in Gyeonggi-Do Ambient Air, South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongwon Heo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The atmospheric concentrations and gas–particle partitioning of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDDs/Fs and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs were investigated at two sites (Suwon and Ansan in Gyeonggi-do, a heavily industrialized area of Korea, during the year 2010. The sum level (Σ17 of PCDDs/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs in the ambient air at Suwon and Ansan ranged from 0.04 to 0.30 pg-TEQ·m−3 (geometric mean: 0.09 pg-TEQ·m−3 and 0.17 to 0.63 pg-TEQ·m−3 (geometric mean: 0.36 pg-TEQ·m−3, respectively. Moreover, the geometric mean concentrations of Σ180 PCBs at Suwon and Ansan were 233.6 pg·m−3 and 274.2 pg·m−3, respectively, and di-chlorinated biphenyls and tri-chlorinated biphenyls were the predominant homologs. Among the PCB congeners, 3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl (PCB-11 was the dominant species at both sites during all sampling periods, comprising up to 15.1% of Σ180 PCBs at Ansan and 24.6% at Suwon. We evaluated their gas-to-particle equilibriums by conducting regression between the particle–gas partition coefficient Kp (m3·ug−1 and the corresponding subcooled liquid vapor pressure (PL°. The slope (m values for log–log plots of Kp vs. PL° were steeper in industrial areas owing to local source proximity. Moreover, owing to enhanced emissions from combustion-related sources at low temperatures, PCDD/Fs exhibited the largest deviation from the regression line of the particle–gas partition coefficient. Incinerators were found to be the primary emission source of atmospheric PCDDs/Fs, whereas re-evaporation from pre-existing environmental loads (e.g., storage areas or spilled soil and water bodies was the dominant source for PCBs.

  20. National Children's Study Dietary Assessment Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Children's Study dietary assessment workshop was an opportunity for experts in dietary assessment methodology to gather and discuss the current state of knowledge about methodologies used to assess dietary intake during pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence.

  1. Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Food Home Food Resources for You Consumers Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know Share Tweet Linkedin ... and nutrients you personally need. What are dietary supplements? Dietary supplements include such ingredients as vitamins, minerals, ...

  2. Exposure assessment for dioxin-like PCBs intake from organic and conventional meat integrating cooking and digestion effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tressou, Jessica; Ben Abdallah, Nadia; Planche, Christelle; Dervilly-Pinel, Gaud; Sans, Pierre; Engel, Erwan; Albert, Isabelle

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, exposure to Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) related to bovine meat consumption is assessed based on multiples sources of data, namely data collected within the national research project "SoMeat" that objectively assesses the potential risks and benefits of organic and conventional food production systems in terms of contaminants respective contents. The work focuses on dioxin like PCBs in bovine meat in France. A modular Bayesian approach is proposed including measures after production, effect of cooking, levels and frequency of consumption and effect of digestion. In each module, a model is built and prior information can be integrated through previously acquired data commonly used in food risk assessment or vague priors. The output of the global model is the exposure including both production modes (organic and conventional) for three different cooking intensities (rare, medium, and well-done), before digestion and after digestion. The main results show that organic meat is more contaminated than conventional meat in mean after production stage and after cooking although cooking reduces the contamination level. This work is a first step of refined risk assessment integrating different steps such as cooking and digestion in the context of chemical risk assessment similarly to current microbiological risk assessments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Human Health Risks Assessment Associated with Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Soil from Different Contaminated Areas of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Maldonado, Iván N; Ochoa Martínez, Ángeles C; Ruíz-Vera, Tania; Orta-García, Sandra T; Varela-Silva, José A

    2017-09-01

    Recent studies have documented environmental contamination by PCBs in soil from different areas in Mexico (industrial, mining, and urban sites). However, the real significance of that soil contamination has not been established. Therefore, the aim of this study was to perform a human health risk assessment (Monte Carlos simulation) to evaluate the probable toxic effects of soils contaminated with PCBs on children in four sites in Mexico. A high non-carcinogenic risk (total nHQ = 1.1E+01; if nHQ ≥1, hazardous health effects cannot be ruled out) was found in Alpuyeca, Morelos, Mexico. Moreover, the total CR (cancer risk) found in Alpuyeca, Morelos is of concern (total CR = 5.1E-03), being that a cut-point of 1.0E-06 has been suggested as a safe level for cancer risk. Taking into consideration the data shown in this research, we conclude that a strategy to protect human health is necessary for the assessed sites.

  4. PBDEs in U.S. milk, blood, and food, and temporal trends for PBDEs, PCDDs, and PCBs in US blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schecter, A.; Tung, K.C. [Univ. of Texas School of Public Health at Dallas, TX (United States); Paepke, O. [ERGO Research Lab., Hamburg (Germany); Ryan, J.J. [Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Rosen, R. [Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Pavuk, M. [SpecPro, San Antonio (United States); Staskal, D. [Curriculum in Toxicology, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Birnbaum, L. [EPA, Office of Research and Development, NHEERL, RTP, NC (United States); Quynh, H.T. [Oncology Center, Ha Noi (Viet Nam); Constable, J.D. [Harvard Medical School, Boston (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Recent findings document elevated PBDE flame retardant in human tissues in the USA and lower levels in Europe with increasing levels in both areas over the last decades. Levels of PBDEs have also been reported in limited food surveys, and especially in fish. We report here on findings of PBDEs in samples of recently collected USA blood, milk, and a market basket survey of food as well as two samples of human milk from Vietnam, a developing country. Levels of PBDEs in samples from U.S. nursing mothers milk are 10 - 100 times higher than European milks. Milk intake estimates for the USA and Germany are presented for nursing infants. Archived blood from Dallas, Texas from 1973 was analyzed for PBDEs, PCDD/Fs and PCBs and compared with blood from the same location collected in 2003. Almost no PBDE was found in 1973 US blood whereas current blood levels are similar to the elevated U.S. milk levels. Dioxins, dibenzofurans and PCBs were relatively high in the 1973 samples and much lower in the 2003 blood samples. Food PBDE levels are highest in fish, followed by meat and then dairy products in our survey. Levels were found to be extremely low in the two Vietnamese samples. All samples analyzed to date were positive for some levels of PBDEs with the exception of the 1973 archived US serum.

  5. Dietary Therapies for Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric H Kossoff

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Since their introduction in 1921, high-fat, low-carbohydrate "ketogenic" diets have been used worldwide for refractory childhood epilepsy. Approximately half of the children have at least half their seizures reduced, including 15% who are seizure free. The mechanisms of action of dietary therapies are under active investigation and appear to involve mitochondria. Once perceived as a last resort, modifications to initiation and maintenance, as well as the widespread use of pre-made ketogenic formulas have allowed dietary treatment to be used earlier in the course of epilepsy. For infantile spasms (West syndrome specifically, the ketogenic diet is successful about 50% of the time as a first-line treatment. New "alternative" diets such as the modified Atkins diet were created in 2003 and can be started more easily and are less restrictive. They may have particular value for countries in Asia. Side effects include constipation, dyslipidemia, growth slowing, acidosis, and kidney stones. Additionally, neurologists are studying ketogenic diets for conditions other than epilepsy, including Alzheimer's disease, autism, and brain tumors.

  6. Trace elements, pesticides and PCBs levels in sediments of a bay influenced by anthropogenic activities (Thermaikos bay, N.W. Aegean Sea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voutsinou-Taliadouri, F.; Hatzianestis, J.; Georgakopoulou-Gregoriadou, E.

    1999-01-01

    Surface sediment samples recovered from the study area over a grid of 13 stations during 1995 were examined for organic carbon, Fe, Cr, Ni, Mn, Zn, Co, Cu, Pb, herbicides, DDTs and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The organic carbon was obtained according to Gaudette et al. The extraction of the metals was achieved with 2N HCl and the determination of the metal content was performed on a Perkin-Elmer 305B AAS. The pesticides and PCBs after extraction on a Soxhlet apparatus and clean-up on an alumina column were determined by gas chromatography on a Varian 3400 Gas Chromatograph equipped with TSD and ECD

  7. Task 3 Report - PCBs in the Environment Near the Oak Ridge Reservation - A Reconstruction of Historical Doses and Health Risks; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, Paul S; Widner, Thomas; Bonnevie, Nancy; Schmidt, Charlie; McCrodden-Hamblen, Jane; Vantaggio, Joanne; Gwinn, Patrick

    1999-01-01

    This report presents the results of an in-depth assessment of historical releases of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and risks of adverse health effects in local populations. The study was conducted by ChemRisk, a service of McLaren/Hart, Inc., for the Tennessee Department of Health. The project team (1) investigated releases of PCBs from the government sites, (2) evaluated PCB levels in environmental media in the area, (3) described releases of PCBs from other sources in the area, and (4) evaluated potential human exposures and health impacts associated with the historical presence of these contaminants in the environment. Beginning in the 1940s, PCBs were used extensively on the ORR and throughout the U.S. as a fire retardant in electrical components. PCBs were also used as cutting fluids for lubrication and cooling during metal working operations. Using information specific to the ORR, the project team estimated health risks for five off-site populations: (1) farm families that raised beef, dairy cattle, and vegetables on the flood plain of East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC); (2) individuals who may have purchased beef and milk from cattle raised in the EFPC flood plain; (3) commercial and recreational fish consumers; (4) individuals that may have consumed turtles; and (5) users of surface water for recreation. Noteworthy features of the study include a two-dimensional analysis of uncertainty and variability in the non-cancer risk estimates and an assessment of the uncertainty in PCB toxicology thresholds. Conservative estimates of cancer risks from the ORR releases of PCBs to consumers of fish from Watts Bar Reservoir and the Clinch River range from less than 1 in a 1,000,000 to 2 in 10,000. Three or less excess cases of cancer would be expected to occur among individuals who consumed fish from these local waters since the 1940's. Persons who consumed large amounts of fish from the Clinch R. and Watts Bar were also at risk from

  8. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Catfish and Carp Collected from the Rio Grande Upstream and Downstream of Los Alamos National Laboratory: Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert J. Gonzales

    2008-05-12

    Concern has existed for years that the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), a complex of nuclear weapons research and support facilities, has released polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to the environment that may have reached adjacent bodies of water through canyons that connect them. In 1997, LANL's Ecology Group began measuring PCBs in fish in the Rio Grande upstream and downstream of ephemeral streams that cross LANL and later began sampling fish in Abiquiu and Cochiti reservoirs, which are situated on the Rio Chama and Rio Grande upstream and downstream of LANL, respectively. In 2002, we electroshocked channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and common carp (Carpiodes carpio) in the Rio Grande upstream and downstream of LANL and analyzed fillets for PCB congeners. We also sampled soils along the Rio Chama and Rio Grande drainages to discern whether a background atmospheric source of PCBs that could impact surface water adjacent to LANL might exist. Trace concentrations of PCBs measured in soil (mean = 4.7E-05 {micro}g/g-ww) appear to be from background global atmospheric sources, at least in part, because the bimodal distribution of low-chlorinated PCB congeners and mid-chlorinated PCB congeners in the soil samples is interpreted to be typical of volatilized PCB congeners that are found in the atmosphere and dust from global fallout. Upstream catfish (n = 5) contained statistically (P = 0.047) higher concentrations of total PCBs (mean = 2.80E-02 {micro}g/g-ww) than downstream catfish (n = 10) (mean = 1.50E-02 {micro}g/g-ww). Similarly, upstream carp (n = 4) contained higher concentrations of total PCBs (mean = 7.98E-02 {micro}g/g-ww) than downstream carp (n = 4) (3.07E-02 {micro}g/g-ww); however, the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.42). The dominant PCB homologue in all fish samples was hexachlorobiphenyls. Total PCB concentrations in fish in 2002 are lower than 1997; however, differences in analytical methods and other uncertainties

  9. Scientific opinion on the assessment of a decontamination process for dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in fish oil by physical filtration with activated carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annette

    the amount of dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs)) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs). All feed decontamination processes must comply with the acceptability criteria specified in the Commission Regulation (EU) 2015/786. The data...... to demonstrate the safe disposal of the waste material. The CONTAM Panel concluded that on the basis of the information submitted by the feed business operator the proposed decontamination process to remove dioxins (PCDD/Fs) and DL-PCBs from the fish oil by means of physical filtration with activated carbon...

  10. Levels of Polychlorinated Bihpenyls (PCBs) in plastic resin pellets collected from selected beaches in Accra and Tema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agbo, I.A.

    2012-01-01

    This research seeks to investigate marine pollution along selected beaches in Accra and Tema in Ghana by measuring the levels of PCBs in plastic resin pellets. The PCB congeners identified included PCB numbers; 28, 52, 101, 105, 153, 156, 138 and 180. PCB numbers was deducted in all sample locations. The mean concentrations values were in the range of 0.4-3.23 μg/kg, 3.43-5.67 μg/kg, 0.33-2.73 μg/kg, 0.13-0.93 μg/kg and 0.13-0.2 μg/kg for PCB-28, 52, 101, 153, 180 respectively. The highest concentration of PCBs recorded in the study was that of PCB numbers 52 (5.67μg/kg), from the independence square beach. Generally, it was observed that the white pellets from most of the beaches absorbed higher levels of PCBs followed by the coloured and fouled pellets (white > coloured > discoloured). However, the coloured pellets from Tema Sakumono Beach retained higher levels of PCBs (10.3μg/kg) than the white pellets. The average concentration of PCB congeners detected ranges between 0.02 μg/kg and 2.25 μg/kg. The percentage distribution of the individual congeners are in the decreasing order of PCB 28 (43%) > PCB 52 (28%) > PCB 101 (11%), > PCB 156 (10%) > PCB 153 (5%), > PCB 180 (2%) > PCB 138 (1%) > PCB 105 (0%). The results also show that the sum total concentration of PCSs from the various sample locations ranged from 6.8 μg/kg to 47 μg/kg, with the highest concentration occurring at the Accra Independence Square Beach and the least concentration at Korle Gonno Beach. The pollution level is in the order of AISB> TSB> TMB> AACB> LB> KGB> (Accra Independence Square Beach > Tema Sakumono Beach > Tema Mighty Beach > Accra Art Center Beach Labadi Beach > Korle Gonno Beach). Results from the INAA for chlorine analysis revealed that coloured pellets had more extracted organochlorine than the fouled and the white pellets (Coloured> Fouled> White). The range of EOCI mean concentration in all samples ranged from 2.24mg/kg to 30.90 mg/kg. The range of EOCI mean

  11. Carry-over of dioxins and PCBs from feed and soil to eggs at low contamination levels-- influence of mycotoxin binders on the carry-over from feed to eggs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, L A P; Kan, C A; Zeilmaker, Marco J; Eijkeren, Jan C H van; Traag, Win A

    2006-01-01

    Laying hens were fed with compound feed containing six different levels of dioxins, dioxin-like PCBs and indicator PCBs for a period of 56 days. This was followed by a period of 56 days on clean feed. Dioxin levels in feed varied from background levels to three times the current EU tolerance limit

  12. Carry-over of dioxins and PCBs from feed and soil to eggs at low contamination levels - influence of mycotoxin binders on the carry-over from feed to eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Kan, C.A.; Zeilmaker, M.; Eijkeren, van J.; Traag, W.A.

    2006-01-01

    Laying hens were fed with compound feed containing six different levels of dioxins, dioxin-like PCBs and indicator PCBs for a period of 56 days. This was followed by a period of 56 days on clean feed. Dioxin levels in feed varied from background levels to three times the current EU tolerance limit

  13. Dietary exposure and risk assessment of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls of the population in the Region of Valencia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijano, Leyre; Marín, Silvia; Millan, Encarnación; Yusà, Vicent; Font, Guillermina; Pardo, Olga

    2018-04-01

    Dietary exposure of the Valencia Region population to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and PCBs was assessed in the Region of Valencia in 2010-2011. A total of 7700 food samples were collected. Occurrence data were combined with consumption data to estimate dietary exposure in adults (>15 years of age) and young people (6-15 years of age). The estimated intake was calculated by a probabilistic approach. Average intake levels (upper-bound scenario) were 1.58 and 2.76 pg toxic equivalent (TEQ) kg -1 body weight (bw) day -1 for adults and young people, respectively. These average intakes are within range of the tolerable daily intake of 1-4 pg WHO-TEQ kg -1 bw day -1 recommended by WHO, and slightly above the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) of 14 pg TEQ kg -1 bw week -1 and the Provisional tolerable monthly intake of 70 pg TEQ kg -1 bw month -1 set by the Scientific Committee on Food and the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food, respectively. These results show that the contamination levels in food and therefore the exposure of the general population to PCDD/Fs and PCBs have declined in this region and therefore show the efficiency of the European risk-management measures. In terms of risk characterisation, the results showed that, under the upper-bound scenario, 22% of the adult and 58% of the young people population could exceed the TWI.

  14. Dietary intervention in acne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Bodo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to highlight the endocrine signaling of Western diet, a fundamental environmental factor involved in the pathogenesis of epidemic acne. Western nutrition is characterized by high calorie uptake, high glycemic load, high fat and meat intake, as well as increased consumption of insulin- and IGF-1-level elevating dairy proteins. Metabolic signals of Western diet are sensed by the nutrient-sensitive kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), which integrates signals of cellular energy, growth factors (insulin, IGF-1) and protein-derived signals, predominantly leucine, provided in high amounts by milk proteins and meat. mTORC1 activates SREBP, the master transcription factor of lipogenesis. Leucine stimulates mTORC1-SREBP signaling and leucine is directly converted by sebocytes into fatty acids and sterols for sebaceous lipid synthesis. Over-activated mTORC1 increases androgen hormone secretion and most likely amplifies androgen-driven mTORC1 signaling of sebaceous follicles. Testosterone directly activates mTORC1. Future research should investigate the effects of isotretinoin on sebocyte mTORC1 activity. It is conceivable that isotretinoin may downregulate mTORC1 in sebocytes by upregulation of nuclear levels of FoxO1. The role of Western diet in acne can only be fully appreciated when all stimulatory inputs for maximal mTORC1 activation, i.e., glucose, insulin, IGF-1 and leucine, are adequately considered. Epidemic acne has to be recognized as an mTORC1-driven disease of civilization like obesity, type 2 diabetes, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. These new insights into Western diet-mediated mTORC1-hyperactivity provide a rational basis for dietary intervention in acne by attenuating mTORC1 signaling by reducing (1) total energy intake, (2) hyperglycemic carbohydrates, (3) insulinotropic dairy proteins and (4) leucine-rich meat and dairy proteins. The necessary dietary changes are opposed to the evolution of

  15. Dietary Advice on Prescription: A novel approach to dietary counseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Johansson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a novel approach to giving dietary advice, which is called “Dietary Advice on Prescription” (DAP; Matordning på Recept [MoR] in Swedish. It is the same principle as prescription on medicine and “Physical Activity on Prescription” (PAP; Fysisk aktivitet på Recept [FaR] in Swedish. The main idea is that a written prescription will strengthen the oral advice and emphasize certain aspects of the dietary recommendation. The DAP is on the brink of being tested in a planned study.

  16. Revised dietary guidelines for Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Young Ai; Lee, Haeng Shin; Kim, Bok Hee; Lee, Yoonna; Lee, Hae Jeung; Moon, Jae Jin; Kim, Cho-il

    2008-01-01

    With rapidly changing dietary environment, dietary guidelines for Koreans were revised and relevant action guides were developed. First, the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee was established with experts and government officials from the fields of nutrition, preventive medicine, health promotion, agriculture, education and environment. The Committee set dietary goals for Koreans aiming for a better nutrition state of all after a thorough review and analysis of recent information related to nutritional status and/or problems of Korean population, changes in food production/supply, disease pattern, health policy and agricultural policy. Then, the revised dietary guidelines were proposed to accomplish these goals in addition to 6 different sets of dietary action guides to accommodate specific nutrition and health problems of respective age groups. Subsequently, these guidelines and guides were subjected to the focus group review, consumer perception surveys, and a public hearing for general and professional comments. Lastly, the language was clarified in terms of public understanding and phraseology. The revised Dietary guidelines for Koreans are as follows: eat a variety of grains, vegetables, fruits, fish, meat, poultry and dairy products; choose salt-preserved foods less, and use less salt when you prepare foods; increase physical activity for a healthy weight, and balance what you eat with your activity; enjoy every meal, and do not skip breakfast; if you drink alcoholic beverages, do so in moderation; prepare foods properly, and order sensible amounts; enjoy our rice-based diet.

  17. Global pollution monitoring of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), furans (PCDFs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (coplanar PCBs) using skipjack tuna as bioindicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, Daisuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Watanabe, Mafumi [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Subramanian, Annamalai [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Tanaka, Hiroyuki [National Research Institute of Fisheries and Environment of Inland Sea (Japan); Fillmann, Gilberto [Fundacao Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (Brazil); Lam, Paul K.S. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Zheng, Gene J. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Muchtar, Muswerry [Research and Development Center for Oceanology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences (Indonesia); Razak, Hamidah [Research and Development Center for Oceanology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences (Indonesia); Prudente, Maricar [Science Education Department, De La Salle University (Philippines); Chung, Kyu-Hyuck [College of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University (Korea, Republic of); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)]. E-mail: shinsuke@agr.ehime-u.ac.jp

    2005-07-15

    In order to elucidate the global distribution of dioxins and related compounds, such as PCDDs, PCDFs and coplanar PCBs, levels of these compounds were determined in the muscle of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) collected from the offshore waters and open seas near Japan, Taiwan, Philippines, Indonesia, Seychelles and Brazil, and the Japan Sea, the East China Sea, the South China Sea, the Indian Ocean and the North Pacific Ocean. PCDDs, PCDFs and coplanar PCBs were detected in almost all the specimens collected from all the locations surveyed, indicating widespread contamination by these compounds in the marine environment. Higher concentrations of dioxins and coplanar PCBs were detected in the samples from temperate Asian regions, plausibly due to larger usage and anthropogenic generation in highly industrialized countries around the East China Sea and the South China Sea, such as Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong and coastal China. - Global pollution monitoring of PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs in offshore water and open sea were conducted using skipjack tuna as bioindicator.

  18. Global pollution monitoring of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), furans (PCDFs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (coplanar PCBs) using skipjack tuna as bioindicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Daisuke; Watanabe, Mafumi; Subramanian, Annamalai; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Fillmann, Gilberto; Lam, Paul K.S.; Zheng, Gene J.; Muchtar, Muswerry; Razak, Hamidah; Prudente, Maricar; Chung, Kyu-Hyuck; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2005-01-01

    In order to elucidate the global distribution of dioxins and related compounds, such as PCDDs, PCDFs and coplanar PCBs, levels of these compounds were determined in the muscle of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) collected from the offshore waters and open seas near Japan, Taiwan, Philippines, Indonesia, Seychelles and Brazil, and the Japan Sea, the East China Sea, the South China Sea, the Indian Ocean and the North Pacific Ocean. PCDDs, PCDFs and coplanar PCBs were detected in almost all the specimens collected from all the locations surveyed, indicating widespread contamination by these compounds in the marine environment. Higher concentrations of dioxins and coplanar PCBs were detected in the samples from temperate Asian regions, plausibly due to larger usage and anthropogenic generation in highly industrialized countries around the East China Sea and the South China Sea, such as Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong and coastal China. - Global pollution monitoring of PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs in offshore water and open sea were conducted using skipjack tuna as bioindicator

  19. Temporal trends in serum concentrations of polychlorinated dioxins, furans, and PCBs among adult women living in Chapaevsk, Russia: a longitudinal study from 2000 to 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burns Jane S

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study assessed the temporal trend in serum concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls (PCBs among residents of a Russian town where levels of these chemicals are elevated due to prior industrial activity. Methods Two serum samples were collected from eight adult women (in 2000 and 2009, and analyzed with gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry. Results The average total toxic equivalency (TEQ decreased by 30% (from 36 to 25 pg/g lipid, and the average sum of PCB congeners decreased by 19% (from 291 to 211 ng/g lipid. Total TEQs decreased for seven of the eight women, and the sum of PCBs decreased for six of eight women. During this nine year period, larger decreases in serum TEQs and PCBs were found in women with greater increases in body mass index. Conclusions This study provides suggestive evidence that average serum concentrations of dioxins, furans, and PCBs are decreasing over time among residents of this town.

  20. A Methodological Approach to Assessing the Health Impact of Environmental Chemical Mixtures: PCBs and Hypertension in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul White

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We describe an approach to examine the association between exposure to chemical mixtures and a health outcome, using as our case study polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and hypertension. The association between serum PCB and hypertension among participants in the 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was examined. First, unconditional multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and associated 95% confidence intervals. Next, correlation and multicollinearity among PCB congeners was evaluated, and clustering analyses performed to determine groups of related congeners. Finally, a weighted sum was constructed to represent the relative importance of each congener in relation to hypertension risk. PCB serum concentrations varied by demographic characteristics, and were on average higher among those with hypertension. Logistic regression results showed mixed findings by congener and class. Further analyses identified groupings of correlated PCBs. Using a weighted sum approach to equalize different ranges and potencies, PCBs 66, 101, 118, 128 and 187 were significantly associated with increased risk of hypertension. Epidemiologic data were used to demonstrate an approach to evaluating the association between a complex environmental exposure and health outcome. The complexity of analyzing a large number of related exposures, where each may have different potency and range, are addressed in the context of the association between hypertension risk and exposure to PCBs.

  1. Degradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by Fe and Fe-Pd bimetals in the presence of surfactants and cosolvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, B.; Liang, L.; West, O.R.; Cameron, P.; Davenport, D.

    1997-01-01

    Surfactants and cosolvents are being used to enhance the removal of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL) such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBS) from contaminated soils. However, the waste surfactant solution containing TCE and PCBs must be treated before it can be disposed. This study evaluated the use of zero-valence iron and palladized iron fillings on the dechlorination of TCE and a PCB congener in a dihexylsulfosuccinate surfactant solution. Batch experimental results indicated that TCE can be rapidly degraded by palladized iron filings with a half-life of 27.4 min. PCB was degraded at a slower rate than TCE with a half-life ranging from 100 min to 500 min as the concentration of surfactant increased. In column flow-through experiments, both TCE and PCBs degrade at an enhanced rate with a half-life about 1.5 and 6 min because of an increased solid to solution ratio in the column than in the batch experiments. Results of this work suggest that Fe-Pd filings may be potentially applicable for ex-situ treatment of TCE and PCBs in the surfactant solutions that are generated during surfactant washing of the contaminated soils

  2. Additional exposure of the Irish adult population to dioxins and PCBs from the diet as a consequence of the 2008 Irish dioxin food contamination incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlustos, C; Anderson, W; Flynn, A; Pratt, I

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, the discovery of elevated levels of dioxins and PCBs in a porcine fat sample taken as part of the national residues monitoring programme led to the detection of a major feed contamination incidence in the Republic of Ireland. To estimate additional exposure to dioxins and PCBs due to the contamination incident, all data associated with the contamination incident were collected and reviewed. An exposure model was devised that took into account the proportion of contaminated product reaching the final consumer during the contamination incident window and which utilised all additional information that became available after the incident occurred. Exposure estimates derived for both dioxins and PCBs showed that the body burden of the general population remained largely unaffected by the contamination incident and only approximately 10% were exposed to elevated levels of dioxins and PCBs. Whilst this proportion of the population experienced quite a significant additional load to the existing body burden, the estimated exposure values do not suggest that these would be associated with adverse health effects, based on current knowledge. The exposure period was also limited in time to approximately 3 months, following the recall of contaminated meat immediately on detection of the contamination.

  3. Organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, dibenzodioxin, and furan concentrations in common snapping turtle eggs (Chelydra serpentina serpentina) in Akwesasne, Mohawk Territory, Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Solla, S R; Bishop, C A; Lickers, H; Jock, K

    2001-04-01

    Subsamples of eight clutches of common snapping turtle eggs (Chelydra serpentina serpentina) were collected from four sites from the territory of the Mohawk Nation, Akwesasne, on the shore of the St. Lawrence River. Egg contents were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzodioxins, and furans. The sites were 2 to 13 km downstream from PCB-contaminated landfill sites. Maximum concentrations of total PCBs in snapping turtle clutches were extremely high, and ranged from 2 378.2 ng/g to 737 683 ng/g (wet weight) and are among the highest recorded in any tissue of a free-ranging animal. Similarly, in a pooled sample of eggs from all four sites, the summed concentrations of non-ortho PCBs (n = 6 congeners) was also very high at 54.54 ng/g and the summed dioxin and furan concentrations (n = 11 congeners) was 85.8 ng/g. Sum organochlorine pesticide levels varied from 28 to 2,264 ng/g among the four sites. The levels of PCBs found in turtle eggs exceed concentrations associated with developmental problems and reduced hatching success in snapping turtles and other species and also exceed the Canadian tissue residue guidelines for toxic equivalency concentrations. The extremely high levels of organochlorine contaminants demonstrate the high degree of contamination in the environment in the Akwesasne area.

  4. Transformer oils as a potential source of environmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs): an assessment in three central provinces of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeedi, Reza; Khakzad, Saeed; Koolivand, Ali; Dobaradaran, Sina; Khaloo, Shokooh Sadat; Jorfi, Sahand; Abtahi, Mehrnoosh

    2017-08-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination of oils from all transformers of the national electrical grid in Tehran, Qom, and Alborz, three central provinces of Iran, was assessed. The concentration of PCBs in transformer oils was determined by gas chromatography. At the national level, the proportions of transformers with oil PCB contents of 5000 ppm were determined to be 85.7, 12.4, 1.6, 0.1, and 0.1%, respectively. About 0.5% of transformer oils (66,000 kg out of 13,342,000 kg) exhibited PCB levels higher than 50 ppm that based on the Stockholm Convention should be phased out before 2025. The contaminated oils contained 91.4% of detected PCBs (132 kg PCBs out of 144 kg PCBs) and were located in 1.9% of transformers (27 transformers out of 1449 transformers). Statistical analysis indicated that the year of manufacture and manufacturing company provided significant effects on PCB contamination (p value transformer oils in Tehran was higher than that of the other provinces that could be mainly caused by the older average year of manufacture. PCB levels higher than 499 ppm were also observed only in Tehran. This study provided valuable information for future studies on identification of PCB-contaminated transformers as well as planning and design of waste management facilities for PCB-contaminated oils at the national level.

  5. Effects of lactational exposure to organochlorine pesticides, PCBs and dioxins on immune response and thyroid hormone systems in Japanese male and female infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagayama, J. [School of Health Sciences, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Tsuji, H. [Kitakyushu-Tsuyazaki Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan); Iida, T.; Nakagawa, R.; Matsueda, T.; Hirakawa, H. [Fukuoka Inst. of Health and Environmental Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Shiraha, A.; Yanagawa, T. [Graduate School of Mathematics, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Fukushige, J. [Fukuoka Children' s Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan); Watanabe, T. [Watanabe O.B.G.Y. Clinic, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Our environments including food have been polluted with some organochlorine compounds such as dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and pesticides. Japanese people have also been contaminated with these chemicals. Consequently, some pesticides such as hexachlorocyclohexans (HCHs), 1,1,1-trichloro- 2,2-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)-ethane (DDT), dieldrin and heptachlor epoxide (HCE), and PCBs have been determined in Japanese breast milk and their mean or median concentrations on fat weight basis were about 420, 330, 3, 4 and 110 ppb, respectively. Their levels were considered more than 100 to 10,000 times higher than those of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs), so-called dioxins, in 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) toxic equivalent (TEQ) value as a whole. Therefore, we should give due attention to possible health consequences of these organochlorine pesticides and PCBs as well as dioxins in Japanese infants. We have already reported effects of the perinatal exposure to these compounds on lymphocyte subsets and thyroid hormone statuses in the peripheral blood of Japanese infants. In this study, in order to clarify the sexual distinction in their effects on the immune response and thyroid hormone systems, we investigated the lymphocyte subsets and thyroid related chemicals in the blood of Japanese male and female infants in relation to their concentrations of the breast milk.

  6. WHO/UNEP global surveys of PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs and DDTs in human milk and benefit-risk evaluation of breastfeeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Martin|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/08660466X; Kypke, Karin; Kotz, Alexander; Tritscher, Angelika; Lee, Seoung Yong; Magulova, Katarina; Fiedler, Heidelore; Malisch, Rainer

    Since 1987, the World Health Organization (WHO) carried out global surveys on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human milk. This study presents a review of the three most recent surveys from 2000 to 2010,

  7. Seasonal and spatial variability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in vegetation and cow milk from a high altitude pasture in the Italian Alps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tato, Liliana [Department of Biology, University of Milan, Via Celoria 26, Milan, I-20133 (Italy); Tremolada, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.tremolada@unimi.it [Department of Biology, University of Milan, Via Celoria 26, Milan, I-20133 (Italy); Ballabio, Cristiano [Department of Environmental and Land Sciences, University of Milano-Bicocca, Piazza Della Scienza 1, Milan, I-20126 (Italy); Guazzoni, Niccolo; Parolini, Marco; Caccianiga, Marco; Binelli, Andrea [Department of Biology, University of Milan, Via Celoria 26, Milan, I-20133 (Italy)

    2011-10-15

    The seasonal and spatial variability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in vegetation and cow milk was studied in a high altitude pasture in the Alps (1900 m a.s.l.). PCB contamination in vegetation shows a concentration peak in June, which is mainly interpreted as the consequence of a temporary PCB enrichment of the air layer above the ground due to net emission fluxes from the soil. A three compartment dynamic model was developed to test this hypothesis. The North/South enrichment factor in the vegetation was 1.5-1.6 for penta- and hexa-substituted congeners and 1.7 for hepta- and octa-PCBs, according to the effect of temperature on compounds having higher K{sub oa} values. Milk concentrations followed the vegetation seasonal trend. The congener abundance in milk is in agreement with the biotransformation susceptibility, absorption efficiency and residence time of the different congeners in dairy cows. - Highlights: > A PCB peak in vegetation was found at the end of June. > Higher PCB concentrations in vegetation were found in the Northern aspect. > A temperature-dependent bioaccumulation process was found in the vegetation. > A direct transfer of PCBs was found from vegetation to dairy milk. > Carry-over ratios and bioaccumulation factors were calculated for dairy cow. - In a mountain pasture, PCBs concentrations in vegetation were found to be related to emission flux from soil and to the mean temperature of the site, and a direct transfer to milk was also observed.

  8. Exposure Assessment of Breast-Fed Infants in the Czech Republic to Indicator Pcbs and Selected Chlorinated Pesticides: Area-Related Differences

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Černá, M.; Bencko, V.; Brabec, Marek; Šmíd, J.; Krsková, A.; Jech, L.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 2 (2010), s. 160-168 ISSN 0045-6535 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : human milk * Czech Republic * PCBs and OCPs * breast-fed infant exposure * statistical modeling of exposure * Bayesian modeling Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 3.155, year: 2010

  9. Impacts of urbanization on surface sediment quality: evidence from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contaminations in the Grand Canal of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Youwei; Yu, Shen; Yu, Guangbin; Liu, Yi; Li, Guilin; Wang, Min

    2012-06-01

    Organic pollutants, especially synthetic organic compounds, can indicate paces of anthropogenic activities. Effects of urbanization on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) distributions in surface sediment were conducted in urban sections of the Grand Canal, China, consisting of a four-level urbanization gradient. The four-level urbanization gradients include three countryside towns, two small-size cities, three medium-size cities, and a large-size city. Diagnostic ratio analysis and factor analysis-multiple linear regression model were used for source apportionment of PAHs. Sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) of USA and Canada were employed to assess ecological risks of PAHs and PCBs in surface sediments of the Canal. Ranges of PAH and PCB concentrations in surface sediments were 0.66-22 mg/kg and 0.5-93 μg/kg, respectively. Coal-related sources were primary PAH sources and followed by vehicular emission. Total concentration, composition, and source apportionment of PAHs exhibited urbanization gradient effects. Total PCB concentrations increased with the urbanization gradient, while total PAHs concentration in surface sediments presented an inverted U Kuznets curve with the urbanization gradient. Elevated concentrations of both PAHs and PCBs ranged at effect range low levels or interim SQG, assessed by USA and Canadian SQGs. PAHs and PCBs in surface sediments of the Grand Canal showed urbanization gradient effects and low ecological risks.

  10. Bioaccumulation of PCBs in liver tissue of dusky Carcharhinus obscurus, sandbar C. plumbeus and white Carcharodon carcharias sharks from south-eastern Australian waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Jann M; Baduel, Christine; Li, Yan; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda J; Butcher, Paul A; McGrath, Shane P; Peddemors, Victor M; Hearn, Laurence; Mueller, Jochen; Christidis, Les

    2015-12-30

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous pollutants in the marine environment that are known to accumulate in apex predators such as sharks. Liver samples from dusky Carcharhinus obscurus, sandbar Carcharhinus plumbeus, and white Carcharodon carcharias sharks from south-eastern Australian waters were analysed for the seven indicator PCBs 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180. Median ∑PCBs were significantly higher in white than sandbar sharks (3.35 and 0.36 μg g(-1) lipid, respectively, p=0.05) but there were no significant differences between dusky sharks (1.31 μg g(-1) lipid) and the other two species. Congener concentrations were also significantly higher in white sharks. Significant differences in PCB concentrations between mature and immature dusky (3.78 and 0.76 μg g(-1) lipid, respectively) and sandbar (1.94 and 0.18 μg g(-1) lipid, respectively) sharks indicated that PCB concentrations in these species increased with age/growth. Higher-chlorinated congeners (hexa and heptachlorobiphenyls) dominated results, accounting for ~90% of ∑PCBs. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Distribution of PCBs in sediments of the Červený potok, stream contaminated by technical PCB mixtures Delor, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hnaťuková, Petra; Burešová, H.; Kochánková, L.; Bäumeltová, Jitka

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 1 (2010), s. 15-22 ISSN 0042-790X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200600902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : PCBs (Polychlorinated Biphenyls) * sediments * Delor * TOC (Total Organic Carbon ) * PCA (Principal Component Analysis) Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.553, year: 2010

  12. Dietary Intake of Competitive Bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spendlove, Jessica; Mitchell, Lachlan; Gifford, Janelle; Hackett, Daniel; Slater, Gary; Cobley, Stephen; O'Connor, Helen

    2015-07-01

    Competitive bodybuilders are well known for extreme physique traits and extremes in diet and training manipulation to optimize lean mass and achieve a low body fat. Although many of the dietary dogmas in bodybuilding lack scientific scrutiny, a number, including timing and dosing of high biological value proteins across the day, have more recently been confirmed as effective by empirical research studies. A more comprehensive understanding of the dietary intakes of bodybuilders has the potential to uncover other dietary approaches, deserving of scientific investigation, with application to the wider sporting, and potential health contexts, where manipulation of physique traits is desired. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review of dietary intake practices of competitive bodybuilders, evaluate the quality and currency of the existing literature, and identify research gaps to inform future studies. A systematic search of electronic databases was conducted from the earliest record until March 2014. The search combined permutations of the terms 'bodybuilding', 'dietary intake', and 'dietary supplement'. Included studies needed to report quantitative data (energy and macronutrients at a minimum) on habitual dietary intake of competitive bodybuilders. The 18 manuscripts meeting eligibility criteria reported on 385 participants (n = 62 women). Most studies were published in the 1980-1990s, with three published in the past 5 years. Study methodological quality was evaluated as poor. Energy intake ranged from 10 to 24 MJ/day for men and from 4 to 14 MJ/day for women. Protein intake ranged from 1.9 to 4.3 g/kg for men and from 0.8 to 2.8 g/kg for women. Intake of carbohydrate and fat was 6 months from competition) or immediate post-competition period and lowest during competition preparation (≤6 months from competition) or competition week. The most commonly reported dietary supplements were protein powders/liquids and amino acids. The studies failed to provide

  13. Dietary adherence in the Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-01

    This article describes adherence to a low-fat dietary pattern (less than 20% energy from fat, five or more fruit/vegetable and six or more grain servings daily) in Years 1 and 5 of the Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification Trial, which was designed to examine the effects of a low-fat dietary pattern on risk of breast and colorectal cancers and other chronic diseases in postmenopausal women. Participants were randomly assigned to a low-fat dietary intervention arm (40%, n=19,542) or a usual diet control arm (60%, n=29,294). Women in the intervention arm completed 18 group sessions during the first year, followed by quarterly annual maintenance sessions. Adherence was assessed as control minus intervention (C-I) group differences in percent total energy from fat as estimated by a food frequency questionnaire. Based on these self-reported dietary data, mean C-I was 10.9 percentage points of energy from fat at Year 1, decreasing to 9.0 at Year 5. Factors associated with poorer adherence were being older, being African American or Hispanic (compared with white), having low income, and being obese. Group session attendance was strongly associated with better dietary adherence. There are many limitations of self-reported dietary data, particularly related to social desirability and intervention-associated bias. Nonetheless, these data indicate that long-term dietary change was achieved in this clinical trial setting and reinforce the potential of the ongoing trial to answer questions of public health importance.

  14. The Effect of Specific Conditions on Cu, Ni, Zn and Al Recovery from PCBS Waste Using Acidophilic Bacterial Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrážiková A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of static, stirring and shaking conditions on copper, zinc, nickel and aluminium dissolution from printed circuit boards (PCBs using the mixed acidophilic bacterial culture of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans. The results revealed that static conditions were the most effective in zinc and aluminium dissolution. Zinc was removed almost completely under static conditions, whereas maximum of nickel dissolution was reached under the stirring conditions. The highest copper recovery (36% was reached under stirring conditions. The shaking conditions appeared to be the least suitable. The relative importance of these systems for the bioleaching of copper and nickel decreased in the order: stirring, static conditions, shaking.

  15. Potential contamination of shipboard air samples by diffusive emissions of PCBs and other organic pollutants: implications and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, Rainer; Jaward, Foday M; Durham, Louise; Barber, Jonathan L; Ockenden, Wendy; Jones, Kevin C; Bruhn, Regina; Lakaschus, Soenke; Dachs, Jordi; Booij, Kees

    2004-07-15

    Air samples were taken onboard the RRS Bransfield on an Atlantic cruise from the United Kingdom to Halley, Antarctica, from October to December 1998, with the aim of establishing PCB oceanic background air concentrations and assessing their latitudinal distribution. Great care was taken to minimize pre- and post-collection contamination of the samples, which was validated through stringent QA/QC procedures. However, there is evidence that onboard contamination of the air samples occurred,following insidious, diffusive emissions on the ship. Other data (for PCBs and other persistent organic pollutants (POPs)) and examples of shipboard contamination are presented. The implications of these findings for past and future studies of global POPs distribution are discussed. Recommendations are made to help critically appraise and minimize the problems of insidious/diffusive shipboard contamination.

  16. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE) in human milk: effects on growth, morbidity, and duration of lactation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogan, W.J.; Gladen, B.C.; McKinney, J.D.; Carreras, N.; Hardy, P.; Thullen, J.; Tingelstad, J.; Tully, M.

    1987-10-01

    The authors followed 858 children from birth to one year of age to determine whether the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE) in breast milk affected their growth or health. Neither chemical showed an adverse effect on weight or frequency of physician visits for various illnesses, although differences were seen between breast-fed and bottle-fed children, with bottle-fed children being heavier and having more frequent gastroenteritis and otitis media. Children of mothers with higher levels of DDE were breast-fed for markedly shorter times, but adjustments for possible confounders and biases did not change the findings. In absence of any apparent effect on the health of the children, they speculate that DDE may be interfering with the mother's ability to lactate, possibly because of its estrogenic properties.

  17. PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in soils after the flooding of River Elbe and Mulde in 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umlauf, G.; Christoph, E.H.; Bidoglio, G. [European Commission, Ispra (IT). Institute for Environment and Sustainability (IES), Joint Research Center (JRC)

    2004-09-15

    On account of the Elbe and Mulde flooding in 2002 the UFZ Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig/Halle co-ordinated an ad hoc project entitled 'Pollutant studies following the flooding in August 2002 - determining the potential hazards in the Elbe and the Mulde' (BMBF ad-hoc- Verbundprojekt Elbe Hochwasser 2002). In the frame of this project, the Institute of Environment and Sustainability of the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission addressed the issue of the contamination of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in flooded soils. The objective of this survey was to assess the contamination of urban and agricultural soils in relation to current land use, to estimate the specific impact of the flooding in 2002 and to link the contamination data to possible sources.

  18. Optimization of an oil leaching process to reduce the level of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in fishmeal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oterhals, Åge; Kvamme, Bjørn

    2013-05-01

    Fishmeal produced from fish caught in polluted fishing areas might contain dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) above maximum permitted levels (MPL) for use in feed. Decontamination of the fishmeal can be achieved by hexane extraction. The principal objective of this study was to optimize a more environmentally friendly alternative based on oil leaching of the moist presscake intermediate product during fishmeal manufacturing. A central composite design and response surface methodology was used to study the influence of the process variables temperature (T), presscake moisture content (MC) and leaching time (LT) on the decontamination process. A significant squared MC effect was observed, resulting in an optimum leaching rate at 27% MC. This corresponds to 5% improved dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzo furan (PCDD/F)-PCB toxic equivalent (TEQ) reduction compared to normal presscake (55% MC). The initial leaching rate was fast, with a TEQ reduction of 69% after only 2 min at 87 °C and 55% MC. Under the best experimental conditions (87 °C, 38% MC, 12 min LT) a TEQ reduction of 82% was achieved. Excess oil in the presscake after the leaching operation could be removed by use of a water washing step. No reduction in protein quality measured by mink digestibility could be observed. The results confirm that the oil leaching process is robust and offers easily achievable TEQ levels well below present MPLs based on process conditions normally used by the industry. Comparative effects on non-dioxin-like PCBs are expected. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Search and studying of salt resisting bacteria -destructors of organochlorine pesticides with help of tritium labeled PCBs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, A.A.; Djuraeva, G.T.; Dadakhanov, J.A.; Djumaniyazova, G.I.; Yadgarov, Kh.T.; Zinovev, P.V.; Norbaeva, Kh.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Salinization of soils is one of serious problems of agriculture of Uzbekistan. The problem is also aggravated as the salted soils are strongly contaminated with pesticides. We isolated aboriginal active strains of bacteria- destructors of organochlorine compounds from soils contaminated by pesticides (HCCH, DDT, PCBs). We investigated their cultural-morphological and physiological -biochemical properties and determined their taxonomic position. In laboratory experiments the effect of various concentrations of NaCl - 3%-5-7-10-20-30-40-50 % and reproduction of the active strains-destructors was investigated. It was found that the culture number 20 stands the NaCl concentration - up to 3 %, culture number 505 - up to 7 % salt in medium that specifies ability of this culture to survive in the middle salinated soils, cultures number 28 and 33 stand the NaCl concentration up to 30-40 % that characterize their survival rate in strongly salinated soils; the culture number 26 stood the NaCl concentration up to 50 % that characterizes its ability to survive and propagate in brackish soils. With the help of designed radiochemical methods we had been explored ability of the active salt resisting strains of bacteria to utilize and destroy the tritium labeled PCBs. The precise quantity and quality characteristics of the PCB-destructive activity of each investigated strain were received. The salt resisting strains of bacteria having high PCB-destructive activity were determined. At present, investigation on development of the new biological preparation designed for destruction of persistent organochlorine compounds in salted soils are carried out. (author)

  20. Patterns of benthic bacterial diversity in coastal areas contaminated by heavy metals, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Marina eQuero

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Prokaryotes in coastal sediments are fundamental players in the ecosystem functioning and regulate processes relevant in the global biogeochemical cycles. Nevertheless, knowledge on benthic microbial diversity patterns across spatial scales, or as function to anthropogenic influence, is still limited. We investigated the microbial diversity in two of the most chemically polluted sites along the coast of Italy. One site is the Po River Prodelta (Northern Adriatic Sea, which receives contaminant discharge from one of the largest rivers in Europe. The other site, the Mar Piccolo of Taranto (Ionian Sea, is a chronically-polluted area due to steel production plants, oil refineries, and intense maritime traffic. We collected sediments from 30 stations along gradients of contamination, and studied prokaryotic diversity using Illumina sequencing of amplicons of a 16S rDNA gene fragment. The main sediment variables and the concentration of eleven metals, PCBs and PAHs were measured. Chemical analyses confirmed the high contamination in both sites, with concentrations of PCBs particularly high and often exceeding the sediment guidelines. The analysis of more than 3 millions 16S rDNA sequences showed that richness decreased with higher contamination levels. Multivariate analyses showed that contaminants significantly shaped community composition. Assemblages differed significantly between the two sites, but showed wide within-site variations related with spatial gradients in the chemical contamination, and the presence of a core set of OTUs shared by the two geographically distant sites. A larger importance of PCB-degrading taxa was observed in the Mar Piccolo, suggesting their potential selection in this historically-polluted site. Our results indicate that sediment contamination by multiple contaminants significantly alter benthic prokaryotic diversity in coastal areas, and suggests considering the potential contribution of the resident microbes to

  1. Dioxins and Nonortho PCBs in Breast Milk of Vietnamese Mothers Living in the Largest Hot Spot of Dioxin Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghi, Tran Ngoc; Nishijo, Muneko; Manh, Ho Dung; Tai, Pham The; Van Luong, Hoang; Anh, Tran Hai; Thao, Pham Ngoc; Trung, Nguyen Viet; Waseda, Tomoo; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Kido, Teruhiko; Nishijo, Hisao

    2015-05-05

    Bien Hoa Air Base is the largest dioxin contamination hot spot in Vietnam. In 2012, we recruited 216 mothers who were living in 10 communities around Bien Hoa Air Base and had delivered newborns at a prefecture hospital, and we investigated recent exposure levels of dioxins and nonortho PCBs in their breast milk. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetraCDD) was present at 2.6 pg/g lipid in primiparae and 2.2 pg/g lipid in multiparae. Among multiparae and total subjects, significant high prevalence of 2,3,7,8-tetraCDD≥5 pg/g lipid and 2,3,7,8-tetraCDD contribution≥40% were observed in mothers living in the five communities closest to Bien Hoa Air Base. The TEQ for nonortho PCBs was 1.6 pg-TEQ/g lipid for primiparae, and this was even lower than that in the unsprayed area. The length of residency was a strong factor to increase dioxins, including 2,3,7,8-tetraCDD. Residency in the five communities with the highest exposure was a specific risk factor for increased 2,3,7,8-tetraCDD in breast milk. Food intake might contribute partly to the increased levels of dioxin congeners other than 2,3,7,8-tetraCDD in breast milk. These results suggest that Bien Hoa Air Base has led to elevated 2,3,7,8-tetraCDD levels in breast milk of mothers in nearby areas even in the recent years.

  2. Using the kingfisher (Alcedo atthis) as a bioindicator of PCBs and PBDEs in the dinghushan biosphere reserve, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Ling; Wu, Jiang-Ping; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Li, Ke-Lin; Peng, Ying; Feng, An-Hong; Zhang, Qiang; Zou, Fa-Sheng; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2013-07-01

    The Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve is a nature reserve and a site for the study of tropical and subtropical forest ecosystems. Rapid industrialization and intensive electronic waste-recycling activities around the biosphere reserve have resulted in elevated levels of industrial organic contaminants in the local environment that may cause adverse effects on wildlife that inhabits this area. In the present study, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and 2 alternative brominated flame retardants (BFRs)-decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) and 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane (BTBPE)-were investigated in the biosphere reserve and a reference site by using the kingfisher (Alcedo atthis) as a bioindicator. Residue concentrations in kingfishers from the Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve ranged from 490 ng/g to 3000 ng/g, 51 ng/g to 420 ng/g, 0.44 ng/g to 90 ng/g, and 0.04 ng/g to 0.87 ng/g lipid weight for ∑PCBs, ∑PBDEs, DBDPE, and BTBPE, respectively. With the exception of the BTBPE, these levels were 2 to 5 times higher than those detected in kingfishers from the reference site. The contaminant patterns from the biosphere reserve were also different, with larger PCB contributions in comparison with the reference site. The estimated predator-prey biomagnification factors (BMFs) showed that most of the PCB and PBDE congeners and BTBPE were biomagnified in kingfishers from the biosphere reserve. The calculated toxic equivalent quantity (TEQ) concentrations of major coplanar PCB congeners in kingfishers from the biosphere reserve ranged from 18 pg/g to 66 pg/g wet weight, with some of these TEQ concentrations reaching or exceeding the levels known to impair bird reproduction and survival. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  3. Dietary supplements containing prohibited substances

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with information regarding dietary supplements and be advised to minimise risks for ... to promote strength and muscle mass, ... selective oestrogen receptor modulators or .... It has also come to the attention of the WADA that another sub-.

  4. Dietary polyphenol intake in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Knaze, Viktoria; Rothwell, Joseph A

    2016-01-01

    were collected using a standardized 24-h dietary recall software administered to 36,037 adult subjects. Dietary data were linked with Phenol-Explorer, a database with data on 502 individual polyphenols in 452 foods and data on polyphenol losses due to cooking and food processing. RESULTS: Mean total....... The current cross-sectional analysis aimed at estimating dietary intakes of all currently known individual polyphenols and total intake per class and subclass, and to identify their main food sources in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. METHODS: Dietary data at baseline...... polyphenol intake was the highest in Aarhus-Denmark (1786 mg/day in men and 1626 mg/day in women) and the lowest in Greece (744 mg/day in men and 584 mg/day in women). When dividing the subjects into three regions, the highest intake of total polyphenols was observed in the UK health-conscious group...

  5. Evolutionary adaptations to dietary changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, F; Perry, G H; Di Rienzo, A

    2010-08-21

    Through cultural innovation and changes in habitat and ecology, there have been a number of major dietary shifts in human evolution, including meat eating, cooking, and those associated with plant and animal domestication. The identification of signatures of adaptations to such dietary changes in the genome of extant primates (including humans) may shed light not only on the evolutionary history of our species, but also on the mechanisms that underlie common metabolic diseases in modern human populations. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the major dietary shifts that occurred during hominin evolution, and we discuss the methods and approaches used to identify signals of natural selection in patterns of sequence variation. We then review the results of studies aimed at detecting the genetic loci that played a major role in dietary adaptations and conclude by outlining the potential of future studies in this area.

  6. Should You Take Dietary Supplements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2013 Print this issue Should You Take Dietary Supplements? A Look at Vitamins, Minerals, Botanicals and More ... Gut in Check Wise Choices Safe Use of Supplements Tell all of your health care providers about ...

  7. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayyem, Reema F; Bawadi, Hiba A; Shehadah, Ihab; Agraib, Lana M; AbuMweis, Suhad S; Al-Jaberi, Tareq; Al-Nusairr, Majed; Bani-Hani, Kamal E; Heath, Dennis D

    2017-06-01

    Dietary pattern and lifestyle have been reported to be important risk factors in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the mechanism of action of dietary factors in CRC disease is unclear. The aim of this study is the examination of several dietary choices and their potential association with the risk of developing CRC. Dietary data was collected from 220 subjects who were previously diagnosed with CRC, and 281 control subjects (matched by age, gender, occupation and marital status). The data was collected between January 2010 and December 2012, using interview-based questionnaires. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the relationship between dietary choices and risk of developing colorectal cancer. Factor analysis revealed three major dietary patterns. The first pattern we identified as the "Healthy Pattern", the second was identified as "High Sugar/High Tea Pattern" and the third as "Western Pattern". In the Healthy Pattern group we found a 10.54% variation in food intake, while the intake variation was 11.64% in the Western Pattern. After adjusting for confounding factors, the Western Pattern food choice was found to be significantly associated with an increased risk of developing CRC (OR = 1.88; 95% CI = 1.12-3.16). The results for the Healthy and High-Sugar/High Tea Patterns showed a decrease, but the statistic was not significant for the risk of CRC development. The Western Pattern of dietary choice was directly associated with CRC. The association between the dietary food choice in the Healthy and High-Sugar/High Tea Patterns and colorectal cancer needs further study in our Jordanian population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  8. Determinação de ΣDDT e PCBs na água do mar através de pré-concentração em resinas poliméricas Determination of ΣDDT and PCBs in the seawater by pre-concentration method in polymerical resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Roland Weber

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available A pre-concenvration method for extracting organochlorines from seawater was employed to analyse ΣDDTs and PCBs. The sampling device and the conditions for optimal adsortion performance are described. Recovery tests with spiked solutions were made before applying the method on real samples. Working up of the samples prior to gas chromatographic analysis, precautions and advantages of the procedure are also discussed. The application of the method for seawater, containing very low levels of organochlorines, is shown by data from equatorial surface waters. The average level for ΣDDT and PCBs was 0.21 ng/l and 0.37 ng/l. The overall precision of the method is about ± 15% with a lower limit of detection of 0.1 ng/l-1 for PCBs and 0.05 ng/l-1 for ZDDT.

  9. Evaluation of mitogen-induced responses in marine mammal and human lymphocytes by in-vitro exposure of butyltins and non-ortho coplanar PCBs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, H.; Sakakibara, A.; Kanoh, M.; Kudo, S.; Watanabe, H.; Nagai, N.; Miyazaki, N.; Asano, Y.; Tanabe, S.

    2002-01-01

    Butyltins may affect the immune response in marine mammals. - The effects of exposure to butyltin compounds (BTs: tributyltin; TBT, dibutyltin; DBT and monobutyltin; MBT) and non-ortho coplanar PCBs (IUPAC 77, 126 and 169) on marine mammals and human lymphocyte were evaluated. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from Dall's porpoises (Phocoenoides dalli), bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), a California sealion (Zalophus californianus), a larga seal (Phoca largha) and humans (Homo sapiens) were exposed at varying concentrations of BTs and coplanar PCBs. Concanavalin A (Con A)-stimulated mitogenesis found significantly suppressed (P<0.01) when the cells were exposed at 300 nM (89 ng/ml) of TBT and 330 nM of DBT (77 ng/ml), while MBT showed little cytotoxicity at treatment levels of up to 3600 nM (620 ng/ml). BTs concentrations in the liver of Dall's porpoises from Japanese coastal waters ranged between 81-450 ng/g for TBT and 200-1100 ng/g (wet wt.) for DBTs, which is greater than the cytotoxic levels registered in this study. In contrast, non-ortho coplanar PCBs did not suppress cell proliferation at concentrations of up to 30 nM (10 ng/ml). The residue levels of coplanar PCBs in the blubber of Dall's porpoises were 0.12-1.3 ng/g, which were one order of lower than those levels that do cell proliferation. When cells were exposed to a mixture of TBT/DBTand coplanar PCBs, the proliferation was significantly reduced to 33 nM DBT plus 34 nM CB-77 and 33 nM DBT plus 28 nM CB-169 mixtures, respectively. The investigations relating the contaminant-induced immunosuppression in marine mammals have been focused on persistent organochlorines such as PCBs, pesticides and dioxin compounds. However, this study suggested the possibility of BTs could also pose a serious threat to the immune functions in free-ranging marine mammals and humans

  10. Evaluation of mitogen-induced responses in marine mammal and human lymphocytes by in-vitro exposure of butyltins and non-ortho coplanar PCBs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakata, H.; Sakakibara, A.; Kanoh, M.; Kudo, S.; Watanabe, H.; Nagai, N.; Miyazaki, N.; Asano, Y.; Tanabe, S

    2002-12-01

    Butyltins may affect the immune response in marine mammals. - The effects of exposure to butyltin compounds (BTs: tributyltin; TBT, dibutyltin; DBT and monobutyltin; MBT) and non-ortho coplanar PCBs (IUPAC 77, 126 and 169) on marine mammals and human lymphocyte were evaluated. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from Dall's porpoises (Phocoenoides dalli), bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), a California sealion (Zalophus californianus), a larga seal (Phoca largha) and humans (Homo sapiens) were exposed at varying concentrations of BTs and coplanar PCBs. Concanavalin A (Con A)-stimulated mitogenesis found significantly suppressed (P<0.01) when the cells were exposed at 300 nM (89 ng/ml) of TBT and 330 nM of DBT (77 ng/ml), while MBT showed little cytotoxicity at treatment levels of up to 3600 nM (620 ng/ml). BTs concentrations in the liver of Dall's porpoises from Japanese coastal waters ranged between 81-450 ng/g for TBT and 200-1100 ng/g (wet wt.) for DBTs, which is greater than the cytotoxic levels registered in this study. In contrast, non-ortho coplanar PCBs did not suppress cell proliferation at concentrations of up to 30 nM (10 ng/ml). The residue levels of coplanar PCBs in the blubber of Dall's porpoises were 0.12-1.3 ng/g, which were one order of lower than those levels that do cell proliferation. When cells were exposed to a mixture of TBT/DBTand coplanar PCBs, the proliferation was significantly reduced to 33 nM DBT plus 34 nM CB-77 and 33 nM DBT plus 28 nM CB-169 mixtures, respectively. The investigations relating the contaminant-induced immunosuppression in marine mammals have been focused on persistent organochlorines such as PCBs, pesticides and dioxin compounds. However, this study suggested the possibility of BTs could also pose a serious threat to the immune functions in free-ranging marine mammals and humans.

  11. Antigenotoxicity of Dietary Coconut Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Lim-Sylianco

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Benzo(apyrene, dimethylnitrosamine, methylmethanesulfonate and tetracycline induced formation of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes indicating that these substances are genotoxic to bone marrow cells of the experimental mice.Genotoxicity of these substances to germ cells was also observed when low fertility index and high percentage dead implants were induced in experimental mice.When each genotoxin was administered to mice fed with diets containing 18 % coconut oil for 23 days, the formation of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes was greatly reduced. Antigenotoxic activity of dietary coconut oil was very much greater than dietary soybean oil.Germ cell genotoxicity of each genotoxin was also reduced when male mice fed the 18 % coconut oil diet were used. When male mice treated with the genotoxin was mated with virgin females, fertility index was increased in the group fed with coconut oil diet. Percentage dead implants was reduced. The antigenotoxic activity of dietary coconut oil on germ cells far exceeds that of dietary soybean oil.Dietary restriction of coconut oil diets enhanced the antigenotoxic activity of coconut oil in bone marrow cells and germs cells.Among the triacylglycerols of coconut oil, trilaurin gave the best antigenotoxic activity in bone marrow cells. Trilaurin is the major triacylglycerol in coconut oil.

  12. Effects of subacute PVB-exposure (Arocolor 1254) on oxygen consumption, swimming behavior and biotransformation (GST-activity) of carp (Cyprinus carpio); Wirkung subakuter PCB-Exposition (Aroclor 1254) auf Sauerstoffverbrauch, Schwimmbewegung und Biotransformation (GST-Aktivitaet) des Karpfens (Cyprinus carpio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pflugmacher, S.; Staaks, G.B.O.; Steinberg, C.E.W. [Leibniz Inst. fuer Gewaesseroekologie und Binnenfischerei, Berlin (Germany); Schmidt, K.

    2005-07-01

    Objective and Background. PCB (polychlorinated biphenyle) are typical man-made environmental pollutants that cause a broad spectrum of effects in vertebrates. Although a lot has been studied about the toxic effects of xenobiotic substances on aquatic organisms, their subacute effects are not yet well known. Fish occupies a central position in freshwater food webs and therefore, carp was chosen to be our test organism. The aim of our study was the investigation of subacute effects of Aroclor 1254 (22 {mu}g l{sup -1}) on respiration, swimming activity, and biotransformation, allowing discussion of changed interaction between the available energy resources. Methods. The respiration experiments under controlled laboratory conditions were run for 29 days (5 d before, 16 d with and 8 d after chemical exposure) with exposed carp compared to the non-exposed fish. Furthermore, the BehavioQuant system quantitatively monitors the positions of each individual fish before (8 d) and during (21 d) PCB exposure and swimming activity (number of horizontal turnings s{sup -1}) of animals was calculated. Thereafter, liver samples were taken from animals for analysis of the phase 2 enzyme activity (glutathione-S-transferase). In the respiration experiments were 6 exposure, 6 control, and 3 solubilizer control groups (12 animals each group); in the behavioral experiments were 9 exposure, 6 control- and 3 solubilizer control groups (6 animals each group), and in the enzyme activity measurements were 9 exposure, 6 control and 3 solubilizer control groups (6 animals each group) examined. (orig.)

  13. Human exposure to PCBs and some other presistent organochlorines in eastern Slovakia as a consequence of former PCB production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocan, A.; Drobna, B.; Petrik, J.; Jursa, S.; Chovancova, J.; Conka, K.; Balla, B.; Sovcikova, E.; Trnovec, T. [Slovak Medical Univ., Bratislava (Czechoslovakia)

    2004-09-15

    Out of estimated 1.3 million tonnes of PCBs totally produced in the world, about 21,500 t were manufactured in 1959-1984 by the chemical plant Chemko situated at the town of Strazske, Michalovce District, eastern Slovakia. Chemko PCB products called Delor 103, Delor 105, Delor 106, Delotherm and Hydelor were used inside former Czechoslovakia chiefly as heat transfer fluids, capacitor and transformer oils, and paint additives. Because of poor production technology, especially in the 1960s and early 1970s, high amounts of PCB waste discharged, into an open, several km long, muddy Chemko effluent canal causing the increased contamination of the nearby Laborec River and Zemplinska Sirava Lake. A higher PCB content in water sediment, surface water, soil, and air has resulted in high exposure of wild fish and food products coming from cattle, swine and poultry kept in the polluted area and fed with locally produced feed. Two previous pilot studies realized in 1993 and 1997-98 indicated that mean PCB levels measured in the blood, adipose tissue and milk of the human population living in the polluted area (Michalovce District) are several times higher if compared with other Slovak districts. The objective of this exposure oriented part of the EU's 5{sup th} Framework Programme PCBRISK project (www.pcbrisk.sk) was to evaluate the PCB and selected organochlorine pesticide exposure of minimally 2,000 adults (equally men and women) and 400 children (equally boys and girls, 8/9 years old) living in the towns and villages of the Michalovce District adjacent to the Laborec River downstream the Chemko plant where higher PCB human levels could be expected and in the towns and villages of the Svidnik and Stropkov Districts lying several tens km upstream the Laborec where lower PCB exposure was expected. The exposure of at least 300 adults out of those 2,000 to dioxins, furans and dioxin-like PCBs was evaluated as well. The assessment of health effects and other factors

  14. Prediction of octanol-air partition coefficients for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) using 3D-QSAR models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Cai, Xiaoyu; Jiang, Long; Li, Yu

    2016-02-01

    Based on the experimental data of octanol-air partition coefficients (KOA) for 19 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, two types of QSAR methods, comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA), are used to establish 3D-QSAR models using the structural parameters as independent variables and using logKOA values as the dependent variable with the Sybyl software to predict the KOA values of the remaining 190 PCB congeners. The whole data set (19 compounds) was divided into a training set (15 compounds) for model generation and a test set (4 compounds) for model validation. As a result, the cross-validation correlation coefficient (q(2)) obtained by the CoMFA and CoMSIA models (shuffled 12 times) was in the range of 0.825-0.969 (>0.5), the correlation coefficient (r(2)) obtained was in the range of 0.957-1.000 (>0.9), and the SEP (standard error of prediction) of test set was within the range of 0.070-0.617, indicating that the models were robust and predictive. Randomly selected from a set of models, CoMFA analysis revealed that the corresponding percentages of the variance explained by steric and electrostatic fields were 23.9% and 76.1%, respectively, while CoMSIA analysis by steric, electrostatic and hydrophobic fields were 0.6%, 92.6%, and 6.8%, respectively. The electrostatic field was determined as a primary factor governing the logKOA. The correlation analysis of the relationship between the number of Cl atoms and the average logKOA values of PCBs indicated that logKOA values gradually increased as the number of Cl atoms increased. Simultaneously, related studies on PCB detection in the Arctic and Antarctic areas revealed that higher logKOA values indicate a stronger PCB migration ability. From CoMFA and CoMSIA contour maps, logKOA decreased when substituents possessed electropositive groups at the 2-, 3-, 3'-, 5- and 6- positions, which could reduce the PCB migration ability. These results are

  15. Comparison of dioxin-like PCBs in passive air and vegetation samples surrounding a metal reclamation incinerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucaciu, C.M.; Fayez, L.; Reiner, E.J.; Kolic, T.M.; MacPherson, K.A.; Crozier, P.W.; Emerson, R. [Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto, ON (Canada); Wania, F. [Toronto Univ., Scarborough, ON (Canada). Dept. of Physical and Environmental Sciences

    2004-09-15

    In 1998 the WHO identified 12 PCBs to be dioxin-like (DLPCB). This list includes 4 coplanar: 77, 81, 126, 169 and 8 mono-ortho: 105, 114, 118, 123, 156, 157, 167 and 189 congeners. Determination of DLPCBs allows results to be converted into TEQ (toxic equivalent quantity of 2,3,7,8-TCDD) values and enables data comparison at very low (sub ppt (pg/g)) levels. Vegetation and air samples were collected from an area surrounding a metal recovery incinerator in order to assess spatial and temporal trends for DLPCBs stemming from the long term operation of the incinerator. Foliage samples were harvested in September (1999 - 2 sets, 2000 to 2003) from maple and ash trees surrounding the incinerator at varying distances. Mature tree leaves are exposed to atmospheric deposition of PCBs for about 4 months (June to September) and the levels determined in foliage are representative of DLPCBs in the atmosphere surrounding each tree. Additionally, a passive air sampling technique based on the sorption of gaseous pollutants on XAD-2 (a styrene-divinylbenzene co-polymer) resin was used for measuring long-term average gas-phase concentrations in the area surrounding the incinerator. Ten passive samplers were placed adjacent to trees previously sampled for DLPCBs at locations presented in Figure 1. The deployment period, lasting approximately 4 month (June to September 2003), corresponds to the time that mature leaves were present on the adjacent trees. Four other air samplers were placed close to a main highway in Toronto in order to compare the concentration of DLPCB in the urban area with the concentration in the rural area surrounding the incineration facility. Passive air samplers allow the characterization of the gaseous distribution of DLPCBs in the atmosphere. The advantages of using this technique are that it is independent of the atmospheric conditions (winds, precipitation, UV exposure) and can be used for sampling year round. Atmospheric deposition is expected to control

  16. Association of dioxins, furans and dioxin-like PCBs in human blood with nephropathy among US teens and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Charles J; Thompson, Olivia M

    2016-06-01

    We assessed the association of three chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, a chlorinated dibenzofuran, and four dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human blood with nephropathy (microalbuminuria or macroalbuminuria) among teens and young adults (12-30 years old) having normal glycohemoglobin (A1c Dioxins, furans and dioxin-like PCBs in human blood: causes or consequences of diabetic nephropathy? Environ Res 2014;132:126-31), the cut-offs for these chemicals being considered elevated, were defined as the 75th percentile. Using these same cut-offs again, the proportion of those with one or more of the eight dioxin-like compounds elevated was 9.9%. The four chemicals associated with nephropathy were 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, PCB 126, PCB 169, and PCB 156. The proportion with one or more of these four dioxin-like chemicals elevated was 3.9% (unweighted n=46) and the odds ratio (OR) for nephropathy was 7.1 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.8-28.1]. The association was strong among females (OR 17.4, 95% CI 3.4-88.6), but among males there were no cases of nephropathy when one or more of the four dioxin-like chemicals were elevated, and therefore no association. In a separate analysis, elevated toxic equivalency, defined using the eight dioxin-like chemicals (TEQ8), was associated with nephropathy. TEQ8 ≥50.12 fg/g included 2.6% of the sample (unweighted n=28) and had an OR of 5.8 (95% 1.3-25.9) for nephropathy. As found in the analysis of one or more of four dioxin-like chemicals elevated, TEQ8 ≥50.12 fg/g was associated with nephropathy among females (OR 11.9, 95% CI 1.6-87.2), but not males. Trends for least-squares means also differed by gender, but there were no significant differences in mean TEQ8 between normal subjects and those having nephropathy in either males or females. We also evaluated pre-diabetes (A1c 5.7-6.4%) without nephropathy and found no associations when one or more of four dioxin-like compounds were elevated, or when TEQ8 was

  17. Investigation of Polychlorinated Dioxins, Furans (PCDD/Fs and Dioxin-like Polychlorinated Bbiphenyls (dl-PCBs in Human Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Pacheco Ferreira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A study on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs was conducted in a pooled sample of breast milk from 27 first-time mothers (primiparous living in twelve locations at mesoregion industrial area, southern of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between August 2012 and July 2014. Questionnaires with questions regarding to food habits, social and economic conditions, places of dwelling were applied. Mothers were breast-feeding only one infant and milk was collected between 4 and 6 weeks after delivery. TEQs of PCDDs/Fs, and dl-PCBs were 10.6, 4.77, 6.96 TEQ pg/g, respectively. The understanding and identification of pollution sources may be helpful for taking better counter measures against breast milk dioxin contamination. It’s important for pregnant women to have a diet free as possible of contaminants chemical. Further research must be undertaken in the context of epidemiological investigations to more accurately assess the effects of these compounds. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi; mso-bidi-language:AR-SA;}    

  18. Estudo do coeficiente de partição octanol-água de bifenilas policloradas (PCBs utilizando parâmetros topológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Lucicleide Ribeiro da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A model based on chemical structure was developed for the accurate prediction of octanol/water partition coefficient (K OW of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, which are molecules of environmental interest. Partial least squares (PLS was used to build the regression model. Topological indices were used as molecular descriptors. Variable selection was performed by Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA. In the modeling process, the experimental K OW measured for 30 PCBs by thin-layer chromatography - retention time (TLC-RT has been used. The developed model (Q² = 0,990 and r² = 0,994 was used to estimate the log K OW values for the 179 PCB congeners whose K OW data have not yet been measured by TLC-RT method. The results showed that topological indices can be very useful to predict the K OW.

  19. Dietary reference values for thiamin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derived dietary reference values (DRVs) for thiamin (vitamin B1). The Panel considers that data from depletion–repletion studies in adults on the amount of dietary thiamin intake...... were measured. Results from other depletion–repletion studies are in agreement with this value. The Panel agrees on the coefficient of variation of 20% used by the SCF to cover uncertainties related to distribution of thiamin requirements in the general population, and endorses the population reference...

  20. A sensitive, rapid, and simple DR-EcoScreen bioassay for the determination of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in environmental and food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Hiroyuki; Takeuchi, Shinji; Iida, Mitsuru; Nakayama, Shoji F; Shiozaki, Takuya

    2018-03-01

    In developing countries in Asia, such as China, Vietnam, and Thailand, there is a strong need for the development of relatively rapid and low-cost bioassays for the determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in environmental and food samples. These compounds are known to induce a variety of toxic and biological effects through their ligand-specific binding of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Indeed, several AhR-mediated reporter gene assays are widely used as prescreening tools for high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC-HRMS) analysis, which individually measures 17 PCDD/Fs and 12 DL-PCBs. In 2008, we have developed a new sensitive and rapid reporter gene assay using a genetically engineered stable cell line, designated DR-EcoScreen cells. The DR-EcoScreen assay using these cells has a number of great advantages of its sensitivity to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and its simple procedure, which shows little variance in the data (within CV 10 %) compared to other reporter gene assays. In this review, we summarize the application of the DR-EcoScreen assay to the determination of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs in ambient air samples, in fish and shellfish samples, and in flue gas samples from incinerators and provide potential usefulness of this bioassay for the determination of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs in various matrices.

  1. The Effect of Solvent, Hydrogen Peroxide and Dioxide Titanium on Degradation of PCBs, Using Microwave Radiation in Order to Reduce Occupational Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajik Reza

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are one group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs that are of international concern because of global distribution, persistence, and toxicity. Removal of these compounds from the environment remains a very difficult challenge because the compounds are highly hydrophobic and have very low solubility in water. A 900 W domestic microwave oven, pyrex vessel reactor, pyrex tube connector and condensing system were used in this experiment. Radiation was discontinuous and ray powers were 540, 720 and 900 W. The PCBS were analyzed by GC-ECD. The application of microwave radiation and H2O2/TiO2 agents for the degradation of polychlorinated biphenyl contaminated oil was explored in this study. PCB – contaminated oil was treated in a pyrex reactor by microwave irradiation at 2450 MHz with the addition of H2O2/TiO2. A novel grain TiO2 (GT01 was used. The determination of PCB residues in oil by gas chromatography (GC revealed that rates of PCB decomposition were highly dependent on microwave power, exposure time, ratio to solvent with transformer oil in 3:1, the optimal amount of GT01 (0.2 g and 0.116 mol of H2O2 were used in the study. It was suggested that microwave irradiation with the assistance of H2O2/TiO2 might be a potential technology for the degradation of PCB – contaminated oil. The experiments show that MW irradiation, H2O2 oxidant and TiO2 catalyst lead to a degradation efficiency of PCBs only in the presence of ethanol. The results showed that the addition of ethanol significantly enhanced degradation efficiency of PCBs.

  2. Distribution of PCBs and PBDEs in soils along the altitudinal gradients of Balang Mountain, the east edge of the Tibetan Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Xiaoyan; Liu Xiande; Jiang Guibin; Wang Yawei; Zhang Qinghua; Cai Yaqi; Cong Zhiyuan

    2012-01-01

    Surface soils were collected in Balang Mountain to explore the environmental process of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) during air transport. The average concentrations of ∑ 25 PCBs and ∑ 13 PBDEs in soils were 163 pg/g and 26 pg/g, respectively. The significant correlations between the concentrations of pollutants and total organic carbon (TOC) indicated the importance of TOC in accumulation potential of POPs. The slopes from fitted curves of PCBs were highly related with logK oa , demonstrating that TOC dominates the soil-air exchange of PCBs. The TOC-normalized concentrations of contaminants in samples from below-treeline were higher than those from alpine meadow, probably due to the forest filter effect. The increasing trends of the concentrations with altitude from the alpine meadow samples, could be attributed to the mountain cold-trapping effect. And the weak cold-trapping effect of POPs might be due to the less precipitation in 2008 when comparing with those in 2006. - Highlights: ► Total organic carbon plays an important role in accumulation potential of POPs. ► Forest filter effect might enhance the chemical levels for below-treeline soils. ► Precipitation was the key factor of mountain cold-trapping effect in this area. ► The reduction of precipitation might lead to a weak cold-trapping effect of POPs. ► Higher level of BDE-153 at Site 7 probably resulted from the human disturbance. - The concentrations of POPs in soils in the east edge of the Tibetan Plateau were mainly influenced by forest filter effect and mountain cold-trapping.

  3. PCB-containing wood floor finish is a likely source of elevated PCBs in residents' blood, household air and dust: a case study of exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seryak Liesel M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are persistent pollutants identified worldwide as human blood and breast milk contaminants. Because they bioaccumulate, consumption of meat, fish, and dairy products predicts human blood concentrations. PCBs were also used widely in building materials, including caulks and paints, but few studies have evaluated the contribution of these exposures to body burden. Methods In an earlier study, we detected PCBs in indoor air in 31% of 120 homes on Cape Cod, MA. Two of the homes had much higher concentrations than the rest, so we retested to verify the initial finding, evaluate blood PCB concentrations of residents, and identify the PCB source. Results Air and dust concentrations remained elevated over 5 years between initial and follow-up sampling. Blood serum concentrations of PCBs in residents of the homes were generally elevated above the 95th percentile of a representative sample of the US population. Serum concentrations in residents and air and dust concentrations were especially high in a home where a resident reported use of PCB-containing floor finish in the past, and where the floor of one room was sanded and refinished just prior to sample collection. Conclusion This case-study suggests that PCB residues in homes may be more significant contributors to overall exposure than diet for some people, and that use of a commercially-available PCB-containing wood floor finish in residences during the 1950s and 1960s is an overlooked but potentially important source of current PCB exposure in the general population.

  4. A study of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the livestock waste compost of Hong Kong, PR China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Q.Y.C.; Chan, A.H.M.; Ma, S.W.Y.

    2008-01-01

    Composting is one of the waste disposal methods adopted for disposal of livestock waste in Hong Kong. The composting livestock waste normally undergoes 6-8 weeks fermentation, followed by 16-20 weeks maturation. The matured compost is sold as soil conditioner in the local market. In 2006, feedstock material and a time-series of compost samples were collected throughout the fermentation and maturation process from the Sha Ling Composting Plant in the New Territories. The feedstock material and compost samples were analyzed for contents of three unintentional persistent organic pollutants (POPs), i.e. dioxins/furans, dioxin-like PCBs and total PCBs. These POPs are unintentionally produced by-products of chemical industrial processes and combustion processes. Selected heavy metals were also analyzed, which served as conservative tracers to determine potential mass loss during the composting process. Levels of contamination by these POPs were found to be low in the matured compost for sale. The mean concentrations (lower-upper bound) of total dioxins/furans, total dioxin-like PCBs and total PCBs were 2.01-2.05 ng I-TEQ/kg dw, 0.04-0.05 ng WHO-TEQ/kg dw and 1.55-1.55 μg/kg dw, respectively. Progressively elevated levels of these POPs were observed in the compost samples during the fermentation process. Analysis of the congener profiles revealed that the heptaCDD and octaCDD were the main contributors to the observed increase in dioxin/furan content. The possible sources of dioxins/furans in the compost were discussed. The study results established a local dioxins/furans emission factor specific to the trade and provided a better estimate of the annual dioxins/furans emission for the livestock waste composting activity in Hong Kong

  5. The first countrywide monitoring of selected POPs: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and selected organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the atmosphere of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt-Karakus, Perihan Binnur; Ugranli-Cicek, Tugba; Sofuoglu, Sait C.; Celik, Halil; Gungormus, Elif; Gedik, Kadir; Sofuoglu, Aysun; Okten, Hatice Eser; Birgul, Askın; Alegria, Henry; Jones, Kevin C.

    2018-03-01

    Atmospheric levels of 43 PCBs, 22 OCPs, and 14 PBDEs were determined in 16 cities at urban and rural sites by passive sampling to generate the first large-scale nationwide dataset of POP residues in Turkey's atmosphere. Sampling campaign was performed from May 2014 to April 2015 with three-month sampling periods at locations on east-west and north-south transects through the country to investigate seasonal and spatial variations, including long range atmospheric transport (LRAT). Factor analysis was conducted to infer on the potential sources. Overall average Σ43PCBs concentration was 108 ± 132 pg/m3. PCB-118 (26.3 ± 44.6 pg/m3) was the top congener, and penta-CBs had the highest contribution with 54.3%. ΣDDTs had the highest annual mean concentration with 134 ± 296 pg/m3 among the OCP groups among which the highest concentration compound was p'p-DDE (97.6 ± 236 pg/m3). Overall average concentration of Σ14PBDEs was 191 ± 329 pg/m3 with the highest contribution from BDE-190 (42%). Comparison of OCPs and PCBs concentrations detected at temperatures which were above and below annual average temperature indicated higher concentrations in the warmer periods, hence significance of secondary emissions for several OCPs and Σ43PCBs, as well as inference as LRAT from secondary emissions. The first nationwide POPs database constructed in this study, point to current use, local secondary emissions, and LRAT for different individual compounds, and indicate the need for regular monitoring.

  6. A pilot study on health risk assessment based on body loadings of PCBs of lactating mothers at Taizhou, China, the world's major site for recycling transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Yu Bon; Chow, Ka Lai; Xing, Guan Hua; Chan, Janet Kit Yan; Wu, Sheng Chun; Wong, Ming Hung

    2017-08-01

    Our early study reported an extraordinarily high Estimated Daily Intake (EDI) of PCBs of lactating mothers from Taizhou, Zhejiang Province, China (based on a food consumption survey and food basket analysis). The EDI well exceeded the intake limit stipulated by FAO/WHO 70 pg TEQ/kg body weight (bw)/month. The present pilot study provided further information on PCBs body burden in lactating mothers of Taizhou. The total PCBs detected in human milk, placenta and hair samples of these lactating mothers were 363 ng/g lipid, 224 ng/g lipid, and 386 ng/g dry wt. Respectively, three times higher than those samples collected from the reference site (Lin'an). Compared with the previous reported values in the 3rd WHO coordinated study, Taizhou topped the list of 32 countries/regions with regards to WHO-PCB-TEQ values of milk samples, which could be attributed to the relatively higher level of PCB-126 derived from electronic waste. In addition, the corresponding EDI of PCBs of Taizhou mothers (12.9 pg WHO-PCB-TEQ/kg bw/day) and infants (438 pg WHO-PCB-TEQ/kg) were derived from individual congener levels in human milk. The results were also higher than the tolerable daily intakes recommended by WHO (1-4 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day) by 3 and 110 times, for mothers and infants, respectively. A more intensive epidemiological study on the potential health effects of e-waste recycling activities affecting both workers and residents seems to be of top priority, based on findings of this pilot study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Emission profiles of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like PCBs and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) from secondary metallurgy industries in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Pedro; Viana, Paula; Vinhas, Tereza; Rivera, J; Gaspar, Elvira M S M

    2012-09-01

    This paper reports, for the first time, a study of dioxin emissions from 10 siderurgies and metallurgies, secondary copper, aluminum and lead metallurgies, in Portugal. The study reports the emission factors and total emission amounts of PCDD/Fs, dioxin-like PCBs and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). The congener patterns were characterized and are discussed. The results showed that the total amount of PCDFs is higher than PCDDs in flue gas of each industrial unit. The toxic equivalent emission factors of pollutants emitted are 3098-3338 ngI-TEQt(-1) for PCDD/Fs and 597-659 ng I-TEQt(-1) for dioxin-like PCBs in siderurgies production (total estimated emission amounts released to atmosphere of 3.9-4.5 g I-TEQyr(-1)), 50-152 ng I-TEQt(-1) for PCDD/Fs and 24-121 ng I-TEQt(-1) for dioxin-like PCBs in ferrous foundries production (total estimated emission amounts released to atmosphere of 0.0010-0.0016 g I-TEQyr(-1)) and 5.8-5715 ng I-TEQt(-1) for PCDD/Fs and 0.49-259 ng I-TEQt(-1) for dioxin-like PCBs in non-ferrous foundries production (total estimated emission amounts released to atmosphere of 0.00014-0.12 g I-TEQyr(-1)). The HCB emission from siderurgies production is 0.94-3.2 mg t(-1) (total estimated emission amounts released 0.94-3.8 g yr(-1)), being much smaller, residual, in the emissions of the other types of plants (0.0012-0.026 mg t(-1) production and total estimated emission amounts released to atmosphere of 0.013-1.7 mg yr(-1)). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Occurrence, sources, and ecological risks of PBDEs, PCBs, OCPs, and PAHs in surface sediments of the Yangtze River Delta city cluster, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting; Yang, Wen-Long; Chen, She-Jun; Shi, Dian-Long; Zhao, Hu; Ding, Yi; Huang, Ye-Ru; Li, Nan; Ren, Yue; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2014-08-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 25 surface sediments in three cities (Nantong, Wuxi, and Suzhou) in the Yangtze River Delta, eastern China were measured. The mean concentrations were 378, 45.8, 1.98, 4,002 ng/g for PBDEs, OCPs, PCBs, and PAHs, respectively. Their levels in the sediments in the three cities were generally consistent with the city industrialization. PBDEs and OCPs were markedly dominated by deca-BDE (>90 %) and DDTs (>70 %). A principle component analysis of the analytes identified three major factors suggesting different sources of the contaminants in the sediments. PBDEs and the organic carbon in the sediments have common sources from industrial activities; whereas OCPs and PCBs, correlated with the second factor, were mainly from historical sources. The third factor with loadings of PAHs is indicative of various combustion sources. Ecological risk assessment indicated that the potential highest risk is from DDTs, for which 22 sites exceed the effects range low (ERL) values and three sites exceed the effects range median (ERM) value.

  9. A probabilistic risk assessment of the effects of methylmercury and PCBs on mink and kingfishers along East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, D.R.J.; Sample, B.E.; Suter, G.W.; Parkhurst, B.R.; Teed, R.S.

    1999-12-01

    Over fifty years of operations, storage, and disposal of wastes from the US Department of Energy (US DOE) Y-12 nuclear weapons facility at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, has resulted in the contamination of water, sediment, biota, and floodplain soils of East Fork Poplar Creek. A preliminary assessment revealed that methylmercury and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were the contaminants of most concern. Because these contaminants are persistent, accumulate in tissues, and biomagnify up the food chain, piscivorous wildlife are the biota at greatest risk of exposure. The objective of this study was to estimate the risks posed by methylmercury and PCBs to two piscivorous species: mink and belted kingfishers. The authors conducted Monte Carlo simulations to estimate total daily intakes of each contaminant by each species and then integrated the resulting distributions with their respective dose-response curves to estimate risks. The results indicate that methylmercury poses a moderate risk to female mink (24% probability of at least 15% mortality) and kingfishers (50% probability of at least a 12--28% decline in fecundity depending on location). The PCBs pose a very serious risk to mink (52% probability of at least a 50% decline in reproductive fecundity), a species known to be especially sensitive to the effects of organochlorine substances, but little risk to kingfishers (<5% probability of