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Sample records for dietary nucleotides prevent

  1. Dietary Nucleotides Supplementation and Liver Injury in Alcohol-Treated Rats: A Metabolomics Investigation

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    Xiaxia Cai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies suggested that nucleotides were beneficial for liver function, lipid metabolism and so on. The present study aimed to investigate the metabolic response of dietary nucleotides supplementation in alcohol-induced liver injury rats. Methods: Five groups of male Wistar rats were used: normal control group (basal diet, equivalent distilled water, alcohol control group (basal diet, 50% alcohol (v/v, dextrose control group (basal diet, isocaloric amount of dextrose, and 0.04% and 0.16% nucleotides groups (basal diet supplemented with 0.4 g and 1.6 g nucleotides kg−1 respectively, 50% alcohol (v/v. The liver injury was measured through traditional liver enzymes, expression of oxidative stress markers and histopathological examination. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole-time-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS was applied to identify liver metabolite profiles. Results: Nucleotides supplementation prevented the progression of hepatocyte steatosis. The levels of total proteins, globulin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total cholesterol triglyceride, as well as the oxidative stress markers altered by alcohol, were improved by nucleotides supplementation. Elevated levels of liver bile acids (glycocholic acid, chenodeoxyglycocholic acid, and taurodeoxycholic acid, as well as lipids (stearic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid, phosphatidylcholine, and lysophosphatidylethanolamine in alcohol-treated rats were reversed by nucleotides supplementation. In addition, supplementation with nucleotides could increase the levels of amino acids, including valyl-Leucine, l-leucine, alanyl-leucine and l-phenylalanine. Conclusion: These data indicate potential biomarkers and confirm the benefit of dietary nucleotides on alcoholic liver injury.

  2. Performance-enhancing effects of dietary nucleotides: do mitochondria play a role?

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    Sergej M. Ostojic

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nucleotides are group of natural biomonomeric molecules and novel dietary supplements with performance-enhancing attributes. However, their mechanisms of action and target biological structures are poorly understood and identified. This short paper overviews the possible role of mitochondria during the utilization of nucleotides for exercise performance. Mitochondria-related effects of nucleotides have been identified, along with obstacles for dietary nucleotides delivery to the organelle.

  3. Dietary nucleotides influence immune responses and intestinal morphology of red drum Sciaenops ocellatus.

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    Cheng, Zhenyan; Buentello, Alejandro; Gatlin, Delbert M

    2011-01-01

    Dietary nucleotides have been shown to benefit many physiological and nutritional functions in higher vertebrates and fish. Therefore, a 6-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of graded levels of a commercial nucleotide product on growth performance, immune responses and intestinal morphology of juvenile red drum (initial average weight of 7.1g). The basal diet was formulated to contain 40% protein, 10% lipid and a digestible energy level of 3.5 kcal g(-1). Two levels of nucleotide (Ascogen P(®), 0.5% and 1% of diet) were added to the basal diet with menhaden fishmeal and menhaden oil adjusted to provide isonitrogenous and isolipidic diets. Nucleotide supplementation tended to improve weight gain and survival of red drum, but not at a significant level. Neutrophil oxidative radical anion production and serum lysozyme activity tended to be higher for fish fed diets supplemented with nucleotide, while extracellular superoxide anion production of head kidney macrophages from fish fed diets with 1% nucleotide was significantly (Pfish fed 0.5% nucleotide diet and the basal diet. Nucleotide supplementation significantly (Pfish fed with diets supplemented with nucleotides. It is therefore possible to use dietary nucleotides supplementation to significantly enhance the intestinal structure of red drum. Likewise, nucleotides in the diet may improve some components of the non-specific immune response of this sciaenid fish.

  4. Dietary strategies for cancer prevention.

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    Bal, D G; Foerster, S B

    1993-08-01

    Two-thirds of cancer cases are associated with two lifestyle practices: 35% with the typical American diet, and 30% with tobacco use. In contrast to the field of tobacco control, research and resources dedicated to the field of nutrition have been limited, in part because dietary change has been considered controversial and requires a more complex set of interventions. This series of papers reviews the science base underlying diet as a cancer control strategy, including research about diet-cancer relationships, current nutrition policy recommendations, American dietary trends, models of dietary behavior change, and diet in health care delivery. The history of technology transfer of new knowledge into widespread application will be compared and contrasted with other cancer control measures. There is scientific and policy agreement about three priority dietary goals for the year 2000: increase fruit and vegetable consumption to 5 or more servings every day, increase breads, cereals, and legumes to 6 or more servings daily, and decrease fat to no more than 30% of total calories. Current data do not indicate that these goals will be reached. As yet there is no organized effort, with clearly identified steps, to translate research into practice. The parallel with delays in implementing other cancer control measures, including Papanicolaou testing, mammography, and tobacco intervention, is striking. Without resources dedicated to dietary modification in the general population, it is not likely that the potential savings of more than 300,000 new cases, 160,000 deaths, and the $25 billion in associated costs will be realized in the foreseeable future.

  5. Cancer preventive role of selected dietary factors

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    Ray Amitabha

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary behavior seems to be an important modifiable determinant for the risk of cancer. The evidences from several epidemiological studies suggest that higher intakes of fruits and vegetables have been associated with lower risk of cancer. Dietary phenolic and polyphenolic substances, terpenoids, dietary fibers, fish oils, some micronutrients present in foods of both plant and animal origin, and a reduction of caloric intake appear to inhibit the process of cancer development. Many dietary factors possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and cause induction of phase II enzymes like glutathione-S-transferases. It has been suggested that cruciferous vegetables play an important role in cancer prevention, and their chemopreventive effects are due to high glucosinolate content which under enzymatic hydrolysis produces bioactive compound isothiocyanates. Further, isothiocyanates of a wide variety of cruciferous vegetables are powerful inhibitors of carcinogenesis in experimental animal models. Several flavonoids present in fruits, tea, soya beans, etc. may be useful as cancer preventive agents. Similarly, ellagic acid, perillyl alcohol and resveratrol found in various fruits may have chemoprotective effect. Moreover, different vanilloids such as curcumin and gingerol have been shown to possess antioxidative properties. Nevertheless, in spite of several studies, still the effects of various ingredients are not clearly distinguished. In human, little convincing evidence has been established for the proposed protective effects of dietary constituents. It is an important future research goal to provide necessary evidences to support the chemopreventive role of different dietary factors, and also to clarify misunderstandings in this perplexing area.

  6. Factors influencing consumer dietary health preventative behaviours

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    Ritson Christopher

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The deterioration of the health status of the Romanian population during the economic transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy has been linked to lifestyles factors (e.g. diet regarded as a main determinants of the disparity in life expectancy between Eastern and Western Europe. Reforms in the health care system in this transition economy aim to focus on preventive action. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that impact on the individual decision to engage in Dietary Health Preventive Behaviour (DHPB and investigate their influence in the context of an adapted health cognition model. Methods A population-based study recruited 485 adult respondents using random route sampling and face-to-face administered questionnaires. Results and discussion Respondents' health motivation, beliefs that diet can prevent disease, knowledge about nutrition, level of education attainment and age have a positive influence on DHPB. Perceived barriers to healthy eating have a negative impact on alcohol moderation. The information acquisition behaviour (frequency of reading food labels is negatively predicted by age and positively predicted by health motivation, education, self-reported knowledge about nutrition and household financial status. A significant segment of respondents believe they are not susceptible to the elicited diseases. Health promotion strategies should aim to change the judgments of health risk. Conclusion The adaptation of the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Health Preventive Behaviour represents a valid framework of predicting DHPB. The negative sign of perceived threat of disease on DHPB may suggest that, under an income constraint, consumers tend to trade off long-term health benefits for short-term benefits. This cautions against the use of negative messages in public health campaigns. Raising the awareness of diet-disease relationships, knowledge about nutrition (particularly

  7. The Role of Cyclic Nucleotide Signaling Pathways in Cancer: Targets for Prevention and Treatment

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    Fajardo, Alexandra M.; Piazza, Gary A. [Drug Discovery Research Center, Mitchell Cancer Institute, University of South Alabama, 1660 Springhill Ave, Suite 3029, Mobile, AL 36604 (United States); Tinsley, Heather N., E-mail: htinsley@montevallo.edu [Department of Biology, Chemistry, and Mathematics, University of Montevallo, Station 6480, Montevallo, AL 35115 (United States)

    2014-02-26

    For more than four decades, the cyclic nucleotides cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cyclic GMP (cGMP) have been recognized as important signaling molecules within cells. Under normal physiological conditions, cyclic nucleotides regulate a myriad of biological processes such as cell growth and adhesion, energy homeostasis, neuronal signaling, and muscle relaxation. In addition, altered cyclic nucleotide signaling has been observed in a number of pathophysiological conditions, including cancer. While the distinct molecular alterations responsible for these effects vary depending on the specific cancer type, several studies have demonstrated that activation of cyclic nucleotide signaling through one of three mechanisms—induction of cyclic nucleotide synthesis, inhibition of cyclic nucleotide degradation, or activation of cyclic nucleotide receptors—is sufficient to inhibit proliferation and activate apoptosis in many types of cancer cells. These findings suggest that targeting cyclic nucleotide signaling can provide a strategy for the discovery of novel agents for the prevention and/or treatment of selected cancers.

  8. Dietary fats and prevention of type 2 diabetes

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    Risérus, Ulf; Willett, Walter C; Frank B. Hu

    2008-01-01

    Although type 2 diabetes is determined primarily by lifestyle and genes, dietary composition may affect both its development and complications. Dietary fat is of particular interest because fatty acids influence glucose metabolism by altering cell membrane function, enzyme activity, insulin signaling, and gene expression. This paper focuses on the prevention of type 2 diabetes and summarizes the epidemiologic literature on associations between types of dietary fat and diabetes risk. It also s...

  9. Mechanisms linking dietary fiber, gut microbiota and colon cancer prevention.

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    Zeng, Huawei; Lazarova, Darina L; Bordonaro, Michael

    2014-02-15

    Many epidemiological and experimental studies have suggested that dietary fiber plays an important role in colon cancer prevention. These findings may relate to the ability of fiber to reduce the contact time of carcinogens within the intestinal lumen and to promote healthy gut microbiota, which modifies the host's metabolism in various ways. Elucidation of the mechanisms by which dietary fiber-dependent changes in gut microbiota enhance bile acid deconjugation, produce short chain fatty acids, and modulate inflammatory bioactive substances can lead to a better understanding of the beneficial role of dietary fiber. This article reviews the current knowledge concerning the mechanisms via which dietary fiber protects against colon cancer.

  10. Dietary prevention of allergic diseases in infants and small children

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    Høst, Arne; Halken, Susanne; Muraro, Antonella

    2008-01-01

    on Paediatrics, European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology (SP-EAACI) do not find that the exclusion of the four trials demands a change of the previous recommendations regarding primary dietary prevention of allergic diseases. Ideally, recommendations on primary dietary prevention should be based...... studies should be included in the evidence base. The study type combined with assessment of the methodological quality determines the level of evidence. In view of some methodological concerns in the Cochrane meta-analysis, particularly regarding definitions and diagnostic criteria for outcome measures...

  11. Dietary Natural Products for Prevention and Treatment of Liver Cancer

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    Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Zheng, Jie; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Liver cancer is the most common malignancy of the digestive system with high death rate. Accumulating evidences suggests that many dietary natural products are potential sources for prevention and treatment of liver cancer, such as grapes, black currant, plum, pomegranate, cruciferous vegetables, French beans, tomatoes, asparagus, garlic, turmeric, ginger, soy, rice bran, and some edible macro-fungi. These dietary natural products and their active components could affect the development and progression of liver cancer in various ways, such as inhibiting tumor cell growth and metastasis, protecting against liver carcinogens, immunomodulating and enhancing effects of chemotherapeutic drugs. This review summarizes the potential prevention and treatment activities of dietary natural products and their major bioactive constituents on liver cancer, and discusses possible mechanisms of action. PMID:26978396

  12. Dietary Natural Products for Prevention and Treatment of Liver Cancer

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    Yue Zhou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Liver cancer is the most common malignancy of the digestive system with high death rate. Accumulating evidences suggests that many dietary natural products are potential sources for prevention and treatment of liver cancer, such as grapes, black currant, plum, pomegranate, cruciferous vegetables, French beans, tomatoes, asparagus, garlic, turmeric, ginger, soy, rice bran, and some edible macro-fungi. These dietary natural products and their active components could affect the development and progression of liver cancer in various ways, such as inhibiting tumor cell growth and metastasis, protecting against liver carcinogens, immunomodulating and enhancing effects of chemotherapeutic drugs. This review summarizes the potential prevention and treatment activities of dietary natural products and their major bioactive constituents on liver cancer, and discusses possible mechanisms of action.

  13. Mechanisms linking dietary fiber, gut microbiota and colon cancer prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many epidemiological and experimental studies have suggested that dietary fiber plays an important role in colon cancer prevention. These findings may relate to the ability of fiber to reduce the contact time of carcinogens within the intestinal lumen and to promote healthy gut microbiota, which mod...

  14. The confusion about dietary fatty acids recommendations for CHD prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, D.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Menotti, A.; Jacobs, D.R.

    2011-01-01

    A recent meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies has not found an association between dietary saturated fat intake and CHD incidence. This funnelled the discussion about the importance of the recommendation to lower the intake of saturated fat for the prevention of CHD. At the same time a

  15. The confusion about dietary fatty acids recommendations for CHD prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, D.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Menotti, A.; Jacobs, D.R.

    2011-01-01

    A recent meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies has not found an association between dietary saturated fat intake and CHD incidence. This funnelled the discussion about the importance of the recommendation to lower the intake of saturated fat for the prevention of CHD. At the same time a docume

  16. Dietary supplement use and colorectal tumors : from prevention to diagnosis

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    Bröring, R.C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Expert guidelines formulated by the World Cancer Research Fund and the American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) advised no use of dietary supplements for cancer prevention. However, it is unclear whether those recommendations also apply to populations at high

  17. Nucleotide precursors prevent folic acid-resistant neural tube defects in the mouse.

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    Leung, Kit-Yi; De Castro, Sandra C P; Savery, Dawn; Copp, Andrew J; Greene, Nicholas D E

    2013-09-01

    Closure of the neural tube during embryogenesis is a crucial step in development of the central nervous system. Failure of this process results in neural tube defects, including spina bifida and anencephaly, which are among the most common birth defects worldwide. Maternal use of folic acid supplements reduces risk of neural tube defects but a proportion of cases are not preventable. Folic acid is thought to act through folate one-carbon metabolism, which transfers one-carbon units for methylation reactions and nucleotide biosynthesis. Hence suboptimal performance of the intervening reactions could limit the efficacy of folic acid. We hypothesized that direct supplementation with nucleotides, downstream of folate metabolism, has the potential to support neural tube closure. Therefore, in a mouse model that exhibits folic acid-resistant neural tube defects, we tested the effect of specific combinations of pyrimidine and purine nucleotide precursors and observed a significant protective effect. Labelling in whole embryo culture showed that nucleotides are taken up by the neurulating embryo and incorporated into genomic DNA. Furthermore, the mitotic index was elevated in neural folds and hindgut of treated embryos, consistent with a proposed mechanism of neural tube defect prevention through stimulation of cellular proliferation. These findings may provide an impetus for future investigations of supplemental nucleotides as a means to prevent a greater proportion of human neural tube defects than can be achieved by folic acid alone.

  18. Cruciferous vegetables: dietary phytochemicals for cancer prevention.

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    Abdull Razis, Ahmad Faizal; Noor, Noramaliza Mohd

    2013-01-01

    Relationships between diet and health have attracted attention for centuries; but links between diet and cancer have been a focus only in recent decades. The consumption of diet-containing carcinogens, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic amines is most closely correlated with increasing cancer risk. Epidemiological evidence strongly suggests that consumption of dietary phytochemicals found in vegetables and fruit can decrease cancer incidence. Among the various vegetables, broccoli and other cruciferous species appear most closely associated with reduced cancer risk in organs such as the colorectum, lung, prostate and breast. The protecting effects against cancer risk have been attributed, at least partly, due to their comparatively high amounts of glucosinolates, which differentiate them from other vegetables. Glucosinolates, a class of sulphur- containing glycosides, present at substantial amounts in cruciferous vegetables, and their breakdown products such as the isothiocyanates, are believed to be responsible for their health benefits. However, the underlying mechanisms responsible for the chemopreventive effect of these compounds are likely to be manifold, possibly concerning very complex interactions, and thus difficult to fully understand. Therefore, this article provides a brief overview about the mechanism of such compounds involved in modulation of carcinogen metabolising enzyme systems.

  19. Dietary Polyphenols in Prevention and Treatment of Prostate Cancer

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    Rahul K. Lall

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the most prevalent disease affecting males in many Western countries, with an estimated 29,480 deaths in 2014 in the US alone. Incidence rates for prostate cancer deaths have been decreasing since the early 1990s in men of all races/ethnicities, though they remain about 60% higher in African Americans than in any other group. The relationship between dietary polyphenols and the prevention of prostate cancer has been examined previously. Although results are sometimes inconsistent and variable, there is a general agreement that polyphenols hold great promise for the future management of prostate cancer. Various dietary components, including polyphenols, have been shown to possess anti-cancer properties. Generally considered as non-toxic, dietary polyphenols act as key modulators of signaling pathways and are therefore considered ideal chemopreventive agents. Besides possessing various anti-tumor properties, dietary polyphenols also contribute to epigenetic changes associated with the fate of cancer cells and have emerged as potential drugs for therapeutic intervention. Polyphenols have also been shown to affect post-translational modifications and microRNA expressions. This article provides a systematic review of the health benefits of selected dietary polyphenols in prostate cancer, especially focusing on the subclasses of polyphenols, which have a great effect on disease prevention and treatment.

  20. Factors influencing consumer dietary health preventative behaviours

    OpenAIRE

    Petrovici, Dan A.; Ritson, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Background The deterioration of the health status of the Romanian population during the economic transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy has been linked to lifestyles factors (e.g. diet) regarded as a main determinants of the disparity in life expectancy between Eastern and Western Europe. Reforms in the health care system in this transition economy aim to focus on preventive action. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that impact on the individual decis...

  1. Dietary polyphenols and the prevention of diseases.

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    Scalbert, Augustin; Manach, Claudine; Morand, Christine; Rémésy, Christian; Jiménez, Liliana

    2005-01-01

    Polyphenols are the most abundant antioxidants in the diet and are widespread constituents of fruits, vegetables, cereals, dry legumes, chocolate, and beverages, such as tea, coffee, or wine. Experimental studies on animals or cultured human cell lines support a role of polyphenols in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, cancers, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, or osteoporosis. However, it is very difficult to predict from these results the effects of polyphenol intake on disease prevention in humans. One of the reasons is that these studies have often been conducted at doses or concentrations far beyond those documented in humans. The few clinical studies on biomarkers of oxidative stress, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and tumor or bone resorption biomarkers have often led to contradictory results. Epidemiological studies have repeatedly shown an inverse association between the risk of myocardial infarction and the consumption of tea and wine or the intake level of some particular flavonoids, but no clear associations have been found between cancer risk and polyphenol consumption. More human studies are needed to provide clear evidence of their health protective effects and to better evaluate the risks possibly resulting from too high a polyphenol consumption.

  2. Chemo/Dietary prevention of cancer: perspectives in China.

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    Yang, Chung S; Feng, Qing

    2014-11-01

    Cancer is a major disease worldwide and different approaches are needed for its prevention. Previous laboratory and clinical studies suggest that cancer can be prevented by chemicals, including those from the diet. Furthermore, epidemiological studies have suggested that deficiencies in certain nutrients can increase the risk of some cancers. In this article on chemo/dietary prevention, examples will be given to illustrate the effectiveness of chemopreventive agents in the prevention of breast, colon and prostate cancers in high-risk populations and the possible side effects of these agents. The potential usefulness of dietary approaches in cancer prevention and the reasons for some of the failed trials will be discussed. Lessons learned from these studies can be used to design more relevant research projects and develop effective measures for cancer prevention in the future. The development of effective chemopreventive agents, the use of nutrient supplements in deficient or carcinogen-exposed populations, and the importance of cohort studies will be discussed in the context of the current socioeconomic situation in China. More discussions are needed on how we can influence society to pay more attention to cancer prevention research and measures.

  3. Dietary Natural Products for Prevention and Treatment of Breast Cancer.

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    Li, Ya; Li, Sha; Meng, Xiao; Gan, Ren-You; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Hua-Bin

    2017-07-08

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among females worldwide. Several epidemiological studies suggested the inverse correlation between the intake of vegetables and fruits and the incidence of breast cancer. Substantial experimental studies indicated that many dietary natural products could affect the development and progression of breast cancer, such as soy, pomegranate, mangosteen, citrus fruits, apple, grape, mango, cruciferous vegetables, ginger, garlic, black cumin, edible macro-fungi, and cereals. Their anti-breast cancer effects involve various mechanisms of action, such as downregulating ER-α expression and activity, inhibiting proliferation, migration, metastasis and angiogenesis of breast tumor cells, inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, and sensitizing breast tumor cells to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. This review summarizes the potential role of dietary natural products and their major bioactive components in prevention and treatment of breast cancer, and special attention was paid to the mechanisms of action.

  4. Promoting dietary change in the Stockholm Cancer Prevention Program.

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    Kanström, L; Holm, L E

    1992-01-01

    The Stockholm Cancer Prevention Program (SCPP) is a community-based program aimed at reducing cancer incidence and mortality by reducing risk factors related to life-style: dietary habits, tobacco use, and sunbathing. The program, which came about as a result of a political initiative and commitment, has as its dietary objectives to reduce fat intake to 30% of energy and to increase fiber intake to 30 g/day. SCPP strives to achieve these goals by simultaneously affecting food supply and food demand. To date, the program collaborates with 12 municipalities and several large occupational health services and restaurant chains. It has developed cook books for caterers and the general public and has organized food fairs targeting policymakers and those working with food, education, or health promotion. SCPP emphasizes collaboration across sectors of society and has initiated contests for students studying food service technology and for retailers with the aim of promoting dietary change. The intervention is based on the principles and strategies of community organization.

  5. Dietary interventions, lifestyle changes, and dietary supplements in preventing gestational diabetes mellitus: a literature review.

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    Facchinetti, Fabio; Dante, Giulia; Petrella, Elisabetta; Neri, Isabella

    2014-11-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with increased rates of fetal morbidity and mortality, both during the pregnancy and in the postnatal life. Current treatment of GDM includes diet with or without medications, but this management is expensive and poorly cost-effective for the health care systems. Strategies to prevent such condition would be preferable with respect to its treatment. The aim of this literature review was to evaluate studies reporting the efficacy of the most used approaches to prevent GDM as well as evidences of efficacy and safety of dietary supplementations. Systematic literature searches were performed in electronic databases, covering the period January 1983 to April 2014. Randomized controlled clinical trials were included. Quality of the articles was evaluated with the Jadad scale. We did not evaluate those articles that were already entered in the most recent systematic reviews, and we completed the research with the trials published thereafter. Of 55 articles identified, 15 randomized controlled trials were eligible. Quality and heterogeneity of the studies cannot allow firm conclusions. Anyway, trials in which only intake or expenditure has been targeted mostly reported negative results. On the contrary, combined lifestyle programs including diet control (orienting food intake, restricting energy intake) associated with moderate but continuous physical activity exhibit better efficacy in reducing GDM prevalence. The results from dietary supplements with myoinositol or probiotics are promising. The actual evidences provide enough arguments for implementing large-scale, high-quality randomized controlled trials looking at the possible benefits of these new approaches for preventing GDM.

  6. Coronary heart disease prevention: nutrients, foods, and dietary patterns.

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    Bhupathiraju, Shilpa N; Tucker, Katherine L

    2011-08-17

    Diet is a key modifiable risk factor in the prevention and risk reduction of coronary heart disease (CHD). Results from the Seven Countries Study in the early 1970s spurred an interest in the role of single nutrients such as total fat in CHD risk. With accumulating evidence, we have moved away from a focus on total fat to the importance of considering the quality of fat. Recent meta-analyses of intervention studies confirm the beneficial effects of replacing saturated fat with polyunsaturated fatty acids on CHD risk. Scientific evidence for a detrimental role of trans fat intake from industrial sources on CHD risk has led to important policy changes including listing trans fatty acid content on the "Nutrition Facts" panel and banning the use of trans fatty acids in food service establishments in some cities. The effects of such policy changes on changes in CHD incidence are yet to be evaluated. There has been a surging interest in the protective effects of vitamin D in primary prevention. Yet, its associations with secondary events have been mixed and intervention studies are needed to clarify its role in CHD prevention. Epidemiological and clinical trial evidence surrounding the benefit of B vitamins and antioxidants such as carotenoids, vitamin E, and vitamin C, have been contradictory. While pharmacological supplementation of these vitamins in populations with existing CHD has been ineffective and, in some cases, even detrimental, data repeatedly show that consumption of a healthy dietary pattern has considerable cardioprotective effects for primary prevention. Results from these studies and the general ineffectiveness of nutrient-based interventions have shifted interest to the role of foods in CHD risk reduction. The strongest and most consistent protective associations are seen with fruit and vegetables, fish, and whole grains. Epidemiological and clinical trial data also show risk reduction with moderate alcohol consumption. In the past decade, there has

  7. Short-term effect of dietary yeast nucleotide supplementation on small intestinal enzyme activities, bacterial populations and metabolites and ileal nutrient digestibilities in newly weaned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, N; Eklund, M; Roth, S; Rink, F; Jezierny, D; Bauer, E; Mosenthin, R

    2012-08-01

    In previous studies, dietary nucleotides have been shown to improve performance in single-stomached animals by promoting the renewal of small intestine epithelial cells and by influencing the activity and composition of the microbial community in the digestive tract. The present experiment was carried out with 12 barrows weaned at the age of 18 days and fitted with a simple T-cannula at the distal ileum. To determine short-term effects of dietary yeast nucleotides, the piglets received a grain-soybean meal-based basal diet with or without supplementation of 1 g/kg of a dried yeast product containing free nucleotides. Dietary supplementation with yeast did not affect bacterial numbers in the ileum as well as ileal concentrations of individual short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), total SCFA and total lactic acid (p > 0.05). Moreover, there was no effect of supplemental yeast nucleotides on ileal α-amylase, leucine amino peptidase, maltase and lactase activities (p > 0.05), as well as on ileal dry matter, crude protein and crude fibre digestibilities (p > 0.05). In conclusion, short-term supplementation with dietary yeast nucleotides did not affect microbial metabolite concentrations, bacterial numbers and enzyme activities in the ileal digesta as well as ileal nutrient digestibilities of newly weaned pigs.

  8. The influence of single nucleotide polymorphisms on the association between dietary acrylamide intake and endometrial cancer risk

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    Hogervorst, Janneke G. F.; van den Brandt, Piet A.; Godschalk, Roger W. L.; van Schooten, Frederik-Jan; Schouten, Leo J.

    2016-01-01

    It is unclear whether the association between dietary acrylamide intake and endometrial cancer risk as observed in some epidemiological studies reflects a causal relationship. We aimed at clarifying the causality by analyzing acrylamide-gene interactions for endometrial cancer risk. The prospective Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer includes 62,573 women, aged 55–69 years. At baseline, a random subcohort of 2589 women was selected for a case cohort analysis approach. Acrylamide intake of subcohort members and endometrial cancer cases (n = 315) was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes in acrylamide metabolism, sex steroid systems, oxidative stress and DNA repair were assessed through a MassARRAY iPLEX Platform. Interaction between acrylamide and SNPs was assessed with Cox proportional hazards analysis, based on 11.3 years of follow-up. Among the results for 57 SNPs and 2 gene deletions, there were no statistically significant interactions after adjustment for multiple testing. However, there were nominally statistically significant interactions for SNPs in acrylamide-metabolizing enzymes: CYP2E1 (rs915906 and rs2480258) and the deletions of GSTM1 and GSTT1. Although in need of confirmation, the interactions between acrylamide intake and CYP2E1 SNPs contribute to the evidence for a causal relationship between acrylamide and endometrial cancer risk. PMID:27713515

  9. Analyses of single nucleotide polymorphisms in selected nutrient-sensitive genes in weight-regain prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lesli Hingstrup; Ängquist, Lars Henrik; Vimaleswaran, Karani S

    2012-01-01

    Differences in the interindividual response to dietary intervention could be modified by genetic variation in nutrient-sensitive genes.......Differences in the interindividual response to dietary intervention could be modified by genetic variation in nutrient-sensitive genes....

  10. The degradation of nucleotide triphosphates extracted under boiling ethanol conditions is prevented by the yeast cellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Andres; Siegel, David; Bonsing-Vedelaar, Silke; Permentier, Hjalmar; Reijngoud, Dirk-Jan; Dekker, Frank; Bischoff, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    Boiling ethanol extraction is a frequently used method for metabolomics studies of biological samples. However, the stability of several central carbon metabolites, including nucleotide triphosphates, and the influence of the cellular matrix on their degradation have not been addressed. To study how a complex cellular matrix extracted from yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) may affect the degradation profiles of nucleotide triphosphates extracted under boiling ethanol conditions. We present a double-labelling LC-MS approach with a (13)C-labeled yeast cellular extract as complex surrogate matrix, and (13)C(15)N-labeled nucleotides as internal standards, to study the effect of the yeast matrix on the degradation of nucleotide triphosphates. While nucleotide triphosphates were degraded to the corresponding diphosphates in pure solutions, degradation was prevented in the presence of the yeast matrix under typical boiling ethanol extraction conditions. Extraction of biological samples under boiling ethanol extraction conditions that rapidly inactivate enzyme activity are suitable for labile central energy metabolites such as nucleotide triphosphates due to the stabilizing effect of the yeast matrix. The basis of this phenomenon requires further study.

  11. Diet and Skin Cancer: The Potential Role of Dietary Antioxidants in Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Rajani Katta; Danielle Nicole Brown

    2015-01-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common cancer among Americans. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure is the major risk factor for the development of NMSC. Dietary AOs may prevent free radical-mediated DNA damage and tumorigenesis secondary to UV radiation. Numerous laboratory studies have found that certain dietary AOs show significant promise in skin cancer prevention. These results have been substantiated by animal studies. In human studies, researchers have evaluated both oral AO...

  12. Canadian Initiatives to Prevent Hypertension by Reducing Dietary Sodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Strang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is the leading risk for premature death in the world. High dietary sodium is an important contributor to increased blood pressure and is strongly associated with other important diseases (e.g., gastric cancer, calcium containing kidney stones, osteoporosis, asthma and obesity. The average dietary sodium intake in Canada is approximately 3400 mg/day. It is estimated that 30% of hypertension, more than 10% of cardiovascular events and 1.4 billion dollars/year in health care expenses are caused by this high level of intake in Canada. Since 2006, Canada has had a focused and evolving effort to reduce dietary sodium based on actions from Non Governmental Organizations (NGO, and Federal and Provincial/Territorial Government actions. NGOs initiated Canadian sodium reduction programs by developing a policy statement outlining the health issue and calling for governmental, NGO and industry action, developing and disseminating an extensive health care professional education program including resources for patient education, developing a public awareness campaign through extensive media releases and publications in the lay press. The Federal Government responded by striking a Intersectoral Sodium Work Group to develop recommendations on how to implement Canada’s dietary reference intake values for dietary sodium and by developing timelines and targets for foods to be reduced in sodium, assessing key research gaps with funding for targeted dietary sodium based research, developing plans for public education and for conducting evaluation of the program to reduce dietary sodium. While food regulation is a Federal Government responsibility Provincial and Territorial governments indicated reducing dietary sodium needed to be a priority. Federal and Provincial Ministers of Health have endorsed a target to reduce the average consumption of sodium to 2300 mg/day by 2016 and the Deputy Ministers of Health have tasked a joint committee to review the

  13. Canadian initiatives to prevent hypertension by reducing dietary sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Norm R C; Willis, Kevin J; L'Abbe, Mary; Strang, Robert; Young, Eric

    2011-08-01

    Hypertension is the leading risk for premature death in the world. High dietary sodium is an important contributor to increased blood pressure and is strongly associated with other important diseases (e.g., gastric cancer, calcium containing kidney stones, osteoporosis, asthma and obesity). The average dietary sodium intake in Canada is approximately 3400 mg/day. It is estimated that 30% of hypertension, more than 10% of cardiovascular events and 1.4 billion dollars/year in health care expenses are caused by this high level of intake in Canada. Since 2006, Canada has had a focused and evolving effort to reduce dietary sodium based on actions from Non Governmental Organizations (NGO), and Federal and Provincial/Territorial Government actions. NGOs initiated Canadian sodium reduction programs by developing a policy statement outlining the health issue and calling for governmental, NGO and industry action, developing and disseminating an extensive health care professional education program including resources for patient education, developing a public awareness campaign through extensive media releases and publications in the lay press. The Federal Government responded by striking a Intersectoral Sodium Work Group to develop recommendations on how to implement Canada's dietary reference intake values for dietary sodium and by developing timelines and targets for foods to be reduced in sodium, assessing key research gaps with funding for targeted dietary sodium based research, developing plans for public education and for conducting evaluation of the program to reduce dietary sodium. While food regulation is a Federal Government responsibility Provincial and Territorial governments indicated reducing dietary sodium needed to be a priority. Federal and Provincial Ministers of Health have endorsed a target to reduce the average consumption of sodium to 2300 mg/day by 2016 and the Deputy Ministers of Health have tasked a joint committee to review the recommendations of

  14. p-Bromophenacyl bromide prevents cumene hydroperoxide-induced mitochondrial permeability transition by inhibiting pyridine nucleotide oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukova, A; Gogvadze, G; Gogvadze, V

    2004-01-01

    Mitochondrial permeability transition is commonly characterized as a Ca2+ -dependent non-specific increase in inner membrane permeability that results in swelling of mitochondria and their de-energization. In the present study, the effect of different inhibitors of phospholipase A2--p-bromophenacyl bromide, dibucaine, and aristolochic acid--on hydroperoxide-induced permeability transitions in rat liver mitochondria was tested. p-Bromophenacyl bromide completely prevented the hydroperoxide-induced mitochondrial permeability transition while the effects of dibucaine or aristolochic acid were negligible. Organic hydroperoxides added to mitochondria undergo reduction to corresponding alcohols by mitochondrial glutathione peroxidase. This reduction occurs at the expense of GSH which, in turn, can be reduced by glutathione reductase via oxidation of mitochondrial pyridine nucleotides. The latter is considered a prerequisite step for mitochondrial permeability transition. Among all the inhibitors tested, only p-bromophenacyl bromide completely prevented hydroperoxide-induced oxidation of mitochondrial pyridine nucleotides. Interestingly, p-bromophenacyl bromide had no affect on mitochondrial glutathione peroxidase, but reacted with mitochondrial glutathione that prevented pyridine nucleotides from being oxidized. Our data suggest that p-bromophenacyl bromide prevents hydroperoxide-induced deterioration of mitochondria via interaction with glutathione rather than through inhibition of phospholipase A2.

  15. Dietary supplements and disease prevention — a global overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary supplements are widely used and offer the potential to improve health if appropriately targeted to those in need. Inadequate nutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent conditions that adversely affect global health. Although improvements in diet quality are essential to address t...

  16. Potential role of dietary n-3 fatty acids in the prevention of dementia and macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Elizabeth J; Schaefer, Ernst J

    2006-06-01

    Dementia and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are major causes of disability in the elderly. n-3 Fatty acids, particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are highly concentrated in brain and retinal tissue and may prevent or delay the progression of dementia and AMD. Low dietary intakes and plasma concentrations have been reported to be associated with dementia, cognitive decline, and AMD risk. The major dietary sources of DHA are fish and fish oils, although dietary supplements are available. At this point, it is not possible to make firm recommendations regarding n-3 fatty acids and the prevention of dementia and AMD. Our own unpublished observations from the Framingham Heart Study suggest that > or =180 mg/d of dietary DHA (approximately 2.7 fish servings/wk) is associated with an approximately 50% reduction in dementia risk. At least this amount of DHA is generally found in one commercially available 1-g fish oil capsule given daily.

  17. Reduced or modified dietary fat for preventing cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Lee; Summerbell, Carolyn D; Thompson, Rachel; Sills, Deirdre; Roberts, Felicia G; Moore, Helen J; Smith, George Davey

    2016-04-01

    Reduction and modification of dietary fats have differing effects on cardiovascular risk factors (such as serum cholesterol), but their effects on important health outcomes are less clear. To assess the effect of reduction and/or modification of dietary fats on mortality, cardiovascular mortality, cardiovascular morbidity and individual outcomes including myocardial infarction, stroke and cancer diagnoses in randomised clinical trials of at least 6 months duration. For this review update, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Medline and Embase, were searched through to June 2010. References of Included studies and reviews were also checked. Trials fulfilled the following criteria: 1) randomized with appropriate control group, 2) intention to reduce or modify fat or cholesterol intake (excluding exclusively omega-3 fat interventions), 3) not multi factorial, 4) adult humans with or without cardiovascular disease, 5) intervention at least six months, 6) mortality or cardiovascular morbidity data available. Participant numbers experiencing health outcomes in each arm were extracted independently in duplicate and random effects meta-analyses, meta-regression, sub-grouping, sensitivity analyses and funnel plots were performed. This updated review suggested that reducing saturated fat by reducing and/or modifying dietary fat reduced the risk of cardiovascular events by 14% (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.77 to 0.96, 24 comparisons, 65,508 participants of whom 7% had a cardiovascular event, I2 50%). Subgrouping suggested that this reduction in cardiovascular events was seen in studies of fat modification (not reduction - which related directly to the degree of effect on serum total and LDL cholesterol and triglycerides), of at least two years duration and in studies of men (not of women). There were no clear effects of dietary fat changes on total mortality (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.04, 71,790 participants) or cardiovascular mortality (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.85 to

  18. Reduced or modified dietary fat for preventing cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Hooper

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Reduction and modification of dietary fats have differing effects on cardiovascular risk factors (such as serum cholesterol, but their effects on important health outcomes are less clear. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of reduction and/or modification of dietary fats on mortality, cardiovascular mortality, cardiovascular morbidity and individual outcomes including myocardial infarction, stroke and cancer diagnoses in randomised clinical trials of at least 6 months duration. METHODS: Search methods: For this review update, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Medline and Embase, were searched through to June 2010. References of Included studies and reviews were also checked. Selection criteria: Trials fulfilled the following criteria: 1 randomized with appropriate control group, 2 intention to reduce or modify fat or cholesterol intake (excluding exclusively omega-3 fat interventions, 3 not multi factorial, 4 adult humans with or without cardiovascular disease, 5 intervention at least six months, 6 mortality or cardiovascular morbidity data available. Data collection and analysis: Participant numbers experiencing health outcomes in each arm were extracted independently in duplicate and random effects meta-analyses, meta-regression, sub-grouping, sensitivity analyses and funnel plots were performed. MAIN RESULTS: This updated review suggested that reducing saturated fat by reducing and/or modifying dietary fat reduced the risk of cardiovascular events by 14% (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.77 to 0.96, 24 comparisons, 65,508 participants of whom 7% had a cardiovascular event, I2 50%. Subgrouping suggested that this reduction in cardiovascular events was seen in studies of fat modification (not reduction - which related directly to the degree of effect on serum total and LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, of at least two years duration and in studies of men (not of women. There were no clear effects of dietary fat

  19. Reduced or modified dietary fat for preventing cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Lee; Summerbell, Carolyn D; Thompson, Rachel; Sills, Deirdre; Roberts, Felicia G; Moore, Helen; Smith, George Davey

    2014-01-01

    Background Reduction and modification of dietary fats have differing effects on cardiovascular risk factors (such as serum cholesterol), but their effects on important health outcomes are less clear. Objectives To assess the effect of reduction and/or modification of dietary fats on mortality, cardiovascular mortality, cardiovascular morbidity and individual outcomes including myocardial infarction, stroke and cancer diagnoses in randomised clinical trials of at least 6 months duration. Search methods For this review update, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE and EMBASE, were searched through to June 2010. References of Included studies and reviews were also checked. Selection criteria Trials fulfilled the following criteria: 1) randomised with appropriate control group, 2) intention to reduce or modify fat or cholesterol intake (excluding exclusively omega-3 fat interventions), 3) not multi factorial, 4) adult humans with or without cardiovascular disease, 5) intervention at least six months, 6) mortality or cardiovascular morbidity data available. Data collection and analysis Participant numbers experiencing health outcomes in each arm were extracted independently in duplicate and random effects meta-analyses, meta-regression, sub-grouping, sensitivity analyses and funnel plots were performed. Main results This updated review suggested that reducing saturated fat by reducing and/or modifying dietary fat reduced the risk of cardiovascular events by 14% (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.77 to 0.96, 24 comparisons, 65,508 participants of whom 7% had a cardiovascular event, I2 50%). Subgrouping suggested that this reduction in cardiovascular events was seen in studies of fat modification (not reduction - which related directly to the degree of effect on serum total and LDL cholesterol and triglycerides), of at least two years duration and in studies of men (not of women). There were no clear effects of dietary fat changes on total mortality (RR 0

  20. Analyses of single nucleotide polymorphisms in selected nutrient-sensitive genes in weight-regain prevention: the DIOGENES study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Lesli H; Angquist, Lars; Vimaleswaran, Karani S; Hager, Jörg; Viguerie, Nathalie; Loos, Ruth J F; Handjieva-Darlenska, Teodora; Jebb, Susan A; Kunesova, Marie; Larsen, Thomas M; Martinez, J Alfredo; Papadaki, Angeliki; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; van Baak, Marleen A; Sørensen, Thorkild Ia; Holst, Claus; Langin, Dominique; Astrup, Arne; Saris, Wim H M

    2012-05-01

    Differences in the interindividual response to dietary intervention could be modified by genetic variation in nutrient-sensitive genes. This study examined single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in presumed nutrient-sensitive candidate genes for obesity and obesity-related diseases for main and dietary interaction effects on weight, waist circumference, and fat mass regain over 6 mo. In total, 742 participants who had lost ≥ 8% of their initial body weight were randomly assigned to follow 1 of 5 different ad libitum diets with different glycemic indexes and contents of dietary protein. The SNP main and SNP-diet interaction effects were analyzed by using linear regression models, corrected for multiple testing by using Bonferroni correction and evaluated by using quantile-quantile (Q-Q) plots. After correction for multiple testing, none of the SNPs were significantly associated with weight, waist circumference, or fat mass regain. Q-Q plots showed that ALOX5AP rs4769873 showed a higher observed than predicted P value for the association with less waist circumference regain over 6 mo (-3.1 cm/allele; 95% CI: -4.6, -1.6; P/Bonferroni-corrected P = 0.000039/0.076), independently of diet. Additional associations were identified by using Q-Q plots for SNPs in ALOX5AP, TNF, and KCNJ11 for main effects; in LPL and TUB for glycemic index interaction effects on waist circumference regain; in GHRL, CCK, MLXIPL, and LEPR on weight; in PPARC1A, PCK2, ALOX5AP, PYY, and ADRB3 on waist circumference; and in PPARD, FABP1, PLAUR, and LPIN1 on fat mass regain for dietary protein interaction. The observed effects of SNP-diet interactions on weight, waist, and fat mass regain suggest that genetic variation in nutrient-sensitive genes can modify the response to diet. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00390637.

  1. Pleiotropic preventive effects of dietary polyphenols in cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Y; Tani, M; Kondo, K

    2013-05-01

    Polyphenols are common constituents of the diet, and research on their health benefits has developed quickly over the past few years. Our purpose is to review recent findings highlighting daily dietary polyphenol intake and the diverse function of polyphenols and their possible relationships to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Several cohort studies have reported an inverse relationship between the daily consumption of polyphenols and CVD risk. Many studies showed that beverages could be a large source of polyphenols. Our previous findings provide that Japanese people intake polyphenols mainly from beverages, especially coffee and green tea (in descending order of polyphenol content). Many kinds of polyphenols act as an antioxidant against low-density lipoprotein oxidation, which is known to promote atherosclerosis. Recent accumulating evidence suggests that dietary polyphenols could exert their cardioprotective actions through their potential to improve metabolic disorder and vascular inflammation. These findings raise the possibility that polyphenols have a wide variety of roles in the intestine, liver and vascular tissue. In addition to identifying mechanisms of polyphenol bioactivity by basic research, much more epidemiological and clinical evidence linking reduced cardiovascular risk with dietary polyphenols intake are needed.

  2. Reduced dietary salt for the prevention of cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Rod S; Ashton, Kate E; Moxham, Tiffany; Hooper, Lee; Ebrahim, Shah

    2014-01-01

    Background An earlier Cochrane review of dietary advice identified insufficient evidence to assess effects of reduced salt intake on mortality or cardiovascular events. Objectives To assess the long term effects of interventions aimed at reducing dietary salt on mortality and cardiovascular morbidity. To investigate whether blood pressure reduction is an explanatory factor in any effect of such dietary interventions on mortality and cardiovascular outcomes. Search methods The Cochrane Library (CENTRAL, Health Technology Assessment (HTA) and Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effect (DARE)), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycInfo were searched through to October 2008. References of included studies and reviews were also checked. No language restrictions were applied. Selection criteria Trials fulfilled the following criteria: (1) randomised with follow up of at least six-months, (2) intervention was reduced dietary salt (restricted salt dietary intervention or advice to reduce salt intake), (3) adults, (4) mortality or cardiovascular morbidity data was available. Two reviewers independently assessed whether studies met these criteria. Data collection and analysis Data extraction and study validity were compiled by a single reviewer, and checked by a second. Authors were contacted where possible to obtain missing information. Events were extracted and relative risks (RRs) and 95% CIs calculated. Main results Six studies (including 6,489 participants) met the inclusion criteria - three in normotensives (n=3518), two in hypertensives (n=758), and one in a mixed population of normo- and hypertensives (n=1981) with end of trial follow-up of seven to 36 months and longest observational follow up (after trial end) to 12.7 yrs. Relative risks for all cause mortality in normotensives (end of trial RR 0.67, 95% CI: 0.40 to 1.12, 60 deaths; longest follow up RR 0.90, 95% CI: 0.58 to 1.40, 79 deaths) and hypertensives (end of trial RR 0.97, 95% CI: 0.83 to 1.13, 513 deaths

  3. Vegetables as a Source of Dietary Fiber to Prevent Degenerative Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deddy Muchtadi

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available For long time vegetables were thought only as sources of several vitamins; however, it has been shown that vegetables contain other component, which is also important for maintaining body's health, i.e., dietary fiber. Dietary fiber is a group of polysaccharides oan other polymers, which cannot be digested by upper gastro-intestinal system of human. Dietary fiber can be grouped as soluble and insoluble dietary fiber, showing in different physiological effect. Soluble dietary fiber (SDF is effective in preventing cardiovascular disease, while insoluble dietary fiber (IDF can prevent the development of colon cancer, diverticulosis as well as obesity.Local vegetables found to contain high SDF (higher than 3,06% db are: watercress, green bean, carrot, eggplant, lettuce, broccoli, spinach, string bean, and aubergine; while which contain high IDF (higher than 40,60% db are: winged bean, watercress, chinese leaves, katuk leaves, lettuce, green bean, broccoli, carrot and spinach. Cooking (i.e. boiling, steaming and pan frying decrease the IDF content of vegetables, while their SDF content is not affected by cooking treatments.

  4. Nutritional and nutraceutical approaches to dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis prevention: Focus on dietary proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirtori, Cesare R; Galli, Claudio; Anderson, James W; Arnoldi, Anna

    2009-03-01

    A correct lifestyle is crucial in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Innovative nutritional strategies to reduce the main risk factors have been developed including either dietary changes or consumption of specifically targeted functional foods and dietary supplements. These nutraceutical products may also provide an alternative to lipid lowering, antihypertensive, and antidiabetic drugs. Functional foods and beverages have the appearance of normal foods, but contain specific components whose activity on at least one measurable risk factor has been scientifically demonstrated. Dietary supplements, having formulations similar to drugs, allow the delivery of a bioactive ingredient in dosages that exceed those obtainable from food products. Among bioactive components, at present dietary proteins from both vegetable and animal sources are of high interest, because of their specific effects on cholesterolemia and blood pressure. Active peptides have been identified for the latter indication, whereas works is in progress in attempting to identify specific cholesterol lowering peptides.

  5. Dietary Agents and Phytochemicals in the Prevention and Treatment of Experimental Ulcerative Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpit Saxena

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs, consisting mainly of ulcerative colitis (UC and Crohn's disease (CD, are important immune-mediated diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. The etiology of the disease includes environmental and genetic factors. Its management presents a constant challenge for gastroenterologists and conventional surgeon. 5-Amninosalicylates, antibiotics, steroids, and immune modulators have been used to reduce the symptoms and for maintenance of remission. Unfortunately, long-term usage of these agents has been found to lead to severe toxicities, which are deterrent to the users. Pre-clinical studies carried out in the recent past have shown that certain dietary agents, spices, oils, and dietary phytochemicals that are consumed regularly possess beneficial effects in preventing/ameliorating UC. For the first time, this review addresses the use of these dietary agents and spices in the treatment and prevention of IBD and also emphasizes on the mechanisms responsible for their effects.

  6. Feasibility of recruiting families into a heart disease prevention program based on dietary patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offspring of parents with a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) inherit a similar genetic profile and share diet and lifestyle behaviors. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of recruiting families at risk of CVD to a dietary prevention program, determine the changes in diet achieved, an...

  7. Dietary prevention of allergic disease in children : Are current recommendations really based on good evidence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, Paul L. P.; Vlieg-Boerstra, Berber J.; Dubois, Anthony E. J. .

    2007-01-01

    We provide a critical appraisal of the literature on the effects of dietary prevention of atopic disease in children. In our view, currently available studies suffer from lack of blinding which is a major problem if the primary end point is subjective (Such as the diagnosis of eczema). In addition,

  8. Lifestyle and dietary factors in the prevention of lethal prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kathryn M; Giovannucci, Edward L; Mucci, Lorelei A

    2012-01-01

    The prevention of lethal prostate cancer is a critical public health challenge that would improve health and reduce suffering from this disease. In this review, we discuss the evidence surrounding specific lifestyle and dietary factors in the prevention of lethal prostate cancer. We present a summary of evidence for the following selected behavioral risk factors: obesity and weight change, physical activity, smoking, antioxidant intake, vitamin D and calcium, and coffee intake. PMID:22504869

  9. Lifestyle and dietary factors in the prevention of lethal prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kathryn M Wilson; Edward L Giovannucci; Lorelei A Mucci

    2012-01-01

    The prevention of lethal prostate cancer is a critical public health challenge that would improve health and reduce suffering from this disease.In this review,we discuss the evidence surrounding specific lifestyle and dietary factors in the prevention of lethal prostate cancer.We present a summary of evidence for the following selected behavioral risk factors:obesity and weight change,physical activity,smoking,antioxidant intake,vitamin D and calcium,and coffee intake.

  10. Dietary Selenium and Prostate Cancer Prevention: A Brief Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surasi VADHANAVIKIT

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that the trace nutrient selenium may reduce the risk of prostate cancer. There is, however, a need to prove that intake of high but not toxic levels of selenium can prevent the disease in the general population, and to conduct further relevant study.

  11. Dietary factors and epigenetic regulation for prostate cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Emily; Beaver, Laura M; Williams, David E; Dashwood, Roderick H

    2011-11-01

    The role of epigenetic alterations in various human chronic diseases has gained increasing attention and has resulted in a paradigm shift in our understanding of disease susceptibility. In the field of cancer research, e.g., genetic abnormalities/mutations historically were viewed as primary underlying causes; however, epigenetic mechanisms that alter gene expression without affecting DNA sequence are now recognized as being of equal or greater importance for oncogenesis. Methylation of DNA, modification of histones, and interfering microRNA (miRNA) collectively represent a cadre of epigenetic elements dysregulated in cancer. Targeting the epigenome with compounds that modulate DNA methylation, histone marks, and miRNA profiles represents an evolving strategy for cancer chemoprevention, and these approaches are starting to show promise in human clinical trials. Essential micronutrients such as folate, vitamin B-12, selenium, and zinc as well as the dietary phytochemicals sulforaphane, tea polyphenols, curcumin, and allyl sulfur compounds are among a growing list of agents that affect epigenetic events as novel mechanisms of chemoprevention. To illustrate these concepts, the current review highlights the interactions among nutrients, epigenetics, and prostate cancer susceptibility. In particular, we focus on epigenetic dysregulation and the impact of specific nutrients and food components on DNA methylation and histone modifications that can alter gene expression and influence prostate cancer progression.

  12. Dietary Bioactive Diallyl Trisulfide in Cancer Prevention and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Puccinelli

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive dietary agents have been shown to regulate multiple cancer hallmark pathways. Epidemiologic studies have linked consumption of Allium vegetables, such as garlic and onions, to decreased incidence of cancer. Diallyl trisulfide (DATS, a bioactive compound derived from Allium vegetables, has been investigated as an anti-cancer and chemopreventive agent. Preclinical studies provide ample evidence that DATS regulates multiple cancer hallmark pathways including cell cycle, apoptosis, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. DATS has been shown to arrest cancer cells at multiple stages of the cell cycle with the G2/M arrest being the most widely reported. Additionally, increased pro-apoptotic capacity as a result of regulating intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathway components has been widely reported following DATS treatment. Invasion, migration, and angiogenesis represent emerging targets of DATS and support its anti-cancer properties. This review summarizes DATS mechanisms of action as an anti-cancer and chemopreventive agent. These studies provide rationale for future investigation into its use as a cancer chemopreventive agent.

  13. Dietary sodium, potassium, and alcohol: key players in the pathophysiology, prevention, and treatment of human hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koliaki, Chrysi; Katsilambros, Nicholas

    2013-06-01

    Western industrialized societies are currently experiencing an epidemic expansion of hypertension (HTN), which extends alarmingly even to children and adolescents. HTN constitutes an independent risk factor for cardiorenal disease and represents an extremely common comorbidity of diabetes and obesity. Numerous randomized clinical trials and meta-analyses have provided robust scientific evidence that reduced dietary salt intake, increased dietary potassium intake, moderation of alcohol consumption, optimal weight maintenance, and the adoption of "heart-friendly" dietary patterns such as the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension or the Mediterranean diet can effectively lower blood pressure. Interestingly, the susceptibility of blood pressure to nutritional interventions is greatly variable among individuals, depending on age, race, genetic background, and comorbidities. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of currently available scientific evidence in the constantly evolving field of diet and HTN, placing particular emphasis on the key role of dietary sodium, dietary potassium, and alcohol intake in the pathophysiology, prevention, and treatment of human hypertension. © 2013 International Life Sciences Institute.

  14. Preventive effect of dietary astaxanthin on UVA-induced skin photoaging in hairless mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Toshiyuki; Sasaki, Suguru; Manabe, Yuki; Hirata, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Astaxanthin, a carotenoid found mainly in seafood, has potential clinical applications due to its antioxidant activity. In this study, we evaluated the effect of dietary astaxanthin derived from Haematococcus pluvialis on skin photoaging in UVA-irradiated hairless mice by assessing various parameters of photoaging. After chronic ultraviolet A (UVA) exposure, a significant increase in transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and wrinkle formation in the dorsal skin caused by UVA was observed, and dietary astaxanthin significantly suppressed these photoaging features. We found that the mRNA expression of lympho-epithelial Kazal-type-related inhibitor, steroid sulfatase, and aquaporin 3 in the epidermis was significantly increased by UVA irradiation for 70 days, and dietary astaxanthin significantly suppressed these increases in mRNA expression to be comparable to control levels. In the dermis, the mRNA expression of matrix metalloprotease 13 was increased by UVA irradiation and significantly suppressed by dietary astaxanthin. In addition, HPLC-PDA analysis confirmed that dietary astaxanthin reached not only the dermis but also the epidermis. Our results indicate that dietary astaxanthin accumulates in the skin and appears to prevent the effects of UVA irradiation on filaggrin metabolism and desquamation in the epidermis and the extracellular matrix in the dermis. PMID:28170435

  15. Dietary habits contributing to the cancer prevention among health college students in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogay, Nalan Hakime; Akinci, Ayse Cil; Sert, Havva; Kurtulus, Zeynep; Gedik, Selda

    2012-01-01

    This descriptive study was made to evaluate the dietary habits contributing to cancer prevention of 319 health college students. Data collection form included questions about demographic characteristics and 33 statements which evaluate dietary habits contributing to cancer prevention. Among the students, 56.1% consumed fast food outside the home/dormitory twice a week or more and 47% never exercised. Moreover, 63.9% of the students reported that their dietary habits changed negatively and 69% stated that their fruit and vegetable consumption decreased after starting the health college. The students mostly paid attention to preserving food and water consumption while they paid least attention to maintaining healthy weight and whole grain consumption. Female students, those who paid attention to the amount and calorie of the food they consumed, students who did not consume fast food, and students who exercised twice a week or three times a week had better dietary habits contributing to cancer prevention (pfast food consumption and increase fruit and vegetable consumption and exercising in university students should be implemented. For this purpose, appropriate conditions for preparing and preserving healthy food should be provided as well as increasing the frequency of vegetable containing meals and providing fruits and salads in every meal at school cafeterias.

  16. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  17. Dietary resveratrol prevents the development of food allergy in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yui Okada

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Resveratrol is a bioactive polyphenol enriched in red wine that exhibits many beneficial health effects via multiple mechanisms. However, it is unclear whether resveratrol is beneficial for the prevention of food allergy. This study investigated whether resveratrol inhibited the development of food allergy by using a mouse model of the disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mice fed standard diet or standard diet plus resveratrol were sensitized by intragastric administration of ovalbumin (OVA and mucosal adjuvant cholera toxin (CT. Several manifestations of food allergy were then compared between the mice. The effects of resveratrol on T cells or dendritic cells were also examined by using splenocytes from OVA-specific T cell-receptor (TCR transgenic DO11.10 mice or mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs in vitro. We found that mice fed resveratrol showed reduced OVA-specific serum IgE production, anaphylactic reaction, and OVA-induced IL-13 and IFN-ã production from the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs and spleens in comparison to the control mice, following oral sensitization with OVA plus CT. In addition, resveratrol inhibited OVA plus CT-induced IL-4, IL-13, and IFN-ã production in splenocytes from DO11.10 mice associated with inhibition of GATA-3 and T-bet expression. Furthermore, resveratrol suppressed the OVA plus CT-induced CD25 expression and IL-2 production in DO11.10 mice-splenocytes in association with decreases in CD80 and CD86 expression levels. Finally, resveratrol suppressed CT-induced cAMP elevation in association with decreases in CD80 and CD86 expression levels in BMDCs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Ingestion of resveratrol prevented the development of a food allergy model in mice. Given the in vitro findings, resveratrol might do so by inhibiting DC maturation and subsequent early T cell activation and differentiation via downregulation of CT-induced cAMP activation in mice. These results suggest that

  18. Dietary-induced cancer prevention: An expanding research arena of emerging diet related to healthcare system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilipkumar Pal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diet plays a vital role in the management of cancer because they are the source of important physiologically functional components. Scientific observations support the idea that dietary supplement can prevent breast cancer recurrences. Strong correlations are established between the high intake of saturated fat and the incidence of different types of cancer. It is found that chronic alcohol consumption is associated with increased risk of cancers of oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, and larynx. Again, some evidences are also found regarding phosphorous, glutamate level in the body, and incidence of cancer. Different physiologically functional components are found in the dietary materials. Fibers, the major dietary components, have long been recognized for the unique properties in the treatment of cancer, which are related to its antineoplastic functions. Antioxidant rich diet has been added to the list of cancer-preventing dietary components. Also, recently published research has shown that natural carotenoids in the diet leads to a normalization of body epithelial cells and protects against the risk of stomach and esophagus cancer, and improves the immune system′s response. Again, fruit juices, processed vegetable juices, orange peel, green tea, vitamins, flavonoids, and trace materials have cancer inhibitory properties. Clearly, there has been increasing recognition of chemoprotective functions. Now, it can be recognized for another kind of functionality for the improvement of the health of mankind.

  19. Dietary Nucleotides Supplementation Improves the Intestinal Development and Immune Function of Neonates with Intra-Uterine Growth Restriction in a Pig Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianqiang Che

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to determine whether dietary nucleotides supplementation could improve growth performance, intestinal development and immune function of intra-uterine growth restricted (IUGR neonate using pig as animal model. A total of 14 pairs of normal birth weight (NBW and IUGR piglets (7 days old were randomly assigned to receive a milk-based control diet (CON diet or diet supplemented with nucleotides (NT diet for a period of 21 days. Blood samples, intestinal tissues and digesta were collected at necropsy and analyzed for morphology, digestive enzyme activities, microbial populations, peripheral immune cells, expression of intestinal innate immunity and barrier-related genes and proteins. Compared with NBW piglets, IUGR piglets had significantly lower average daily dry matter intake and body weight gain (P<0.05. Moreover, IUGR markedly decreased the villous height and villi: crypt ratio in duodenum (P<0.05, as well as the maltase activity in jejunum (P<0.05. In addition, IUGR significantly decreased the serum concentrations of IgA, IL-1βand IL-10 (P<0.05, as well as the percentage of peripheral lymphocytes (P<0.05. Meanwhile, the down-regulation of innate immunity-related genes such as TOLLIP (P<0.05, TLR-9 (P = 0.08 and TLR-2 (P = 0.07 was observed in the ileum of IUGR relative to NBW piglets. Regardless of birth weight, however, feeding NT diet markedly decreased (P<0.05 feed conversion ratio, increased the villous height in duodenum (P<0.05, activities of lactase and maltase in jejunum (P<0.05, count of peripheral leukocytes (P<0.05, serum concentrations of IgA and IL-1β as well as gene expressions of TLR-9, TLR-4 and TOLLIP in ileum (P<0.05. In addition, expressions of tight junction proteins (Claudin-1 and ZO-1 in ileum were markedly increased by feeding NT diet relative to CON diet (P<0.05. These results indicated that IUGR impaired growth performance, intestinal and immune function, but dietary nucleotides supplementation

  20. Dietary Protein in the Prevention of Diet-Induced Obesity and Co-Morbidities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tastesen, Hanne Sørup

    Background: Obesity and related co‐morbidities are increasing problems worldwide and nutritional approaches to prevent and alleviate these diseases are thus of great interest. High‐protein diets have been shown to prevent and alleviate obesity and co‐morbidities in rodents and humans through...... increased energy expenditure and satiety. Similarly, protein from different sources and in different forms has been shown to modulate obesity and co‐morbidities. However, the impact of protein from different sources consumed at normal dietary levels remains to be further elucidated. Obesity‐prone C57BL/6J...... mice were fed obesity‐promoting diets with protein from different sources, in different forms and at different levels to evaluate the affect on development of obesity, glucose intolerance and dyslipidemia. Results: In the present study the dietary level of protein, 16 versus 32 percent energy from...

  1. Can We Prevent Obesity-Related Metabolic Diseases by Dietary Modulation of the Gut Microbiota?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahe, Lena K; Astrup, Arne; Larsen, Lesli H

    2016-01-01

    Obesity increases the risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and certain cancers, which are among the leading causes of death worldwide. Obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases are characterized by specific alterations in the human gut microbiota. Experimental studies with gut microbiota transplantations in mice and in humans indicate that a specific gut microbiota composition can be the cause and not just the consequence of the obese state and metabolic disease, which suggests a potential for gut microbiota modulation in prevention and treatment of obesity-related metabolic diseases. In addition, dietary intervention studies have suggested that modulation of the gut microbiota can improve metabolic risk markers in humans, but a causal role of the gut microbiota in such studies has not yet been established. Here, we review and discuss the role of the gut microbiota in obesity-related metabolic diseases and the potential of dietary modulation of the gut microbiota in metabolic disease prevention and treatment.

  2. Can We Prevent Obesity-Related Metabolic Diseases by Dietary Modulation of the Gut Microbiota?1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Obesity increases the risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and certain cancers, which are among the leading causes of death worldwide. Obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases are characterized by specific alterations in the human gut microbiota. Experimental studies with gut microbiota transplantations in mice and in humans indicate that a specific gut microbiota composition can be the cause and not just the consequence of the obese state and metabolic disease, which suggests a potential for gut microbiota modulation in prevention and treatment of obesity-related metabolic diseases. In addition, dietary intervention studies have suggested that modulation of the gut microbiota can improve metabolic risk markers in humans, but a causal role of the gut microbiota in such studies has not yet been established. Here, we review and discuss the role of the gut microbiota in obesity-related metabolic diseases and the potential of dietary modulation of the gut microbiota in metabolic disease prevention and treatment. PMID:26773017

  3. Prevention and treatment of recurrent Hepatitis B after liver transplantation: the current role of nucleoside and nucleotide analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schiff Eugene R

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Hepatitis B virus (HBV is a DNA virus that can cause both acute and chronic liver disease in humans. Approximately 350–400 million people are affected worldwide and up to one million deaths occur annually from cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. When cirrhosis and liver failure develop, the definitive treatment of choice remains orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT. In the past, an unacceptable HBV recurrence rate with a high rate of graft loss was noted. The use of Hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG has resulted in improved patient and graft survival rates. The addition of the nucleoside analog Lamivudine (LAM to HBIG has improved these survival curves to an even greater degree. Prolonged use of LAM will almost invariably lead to the development of viral mutations resistant to the drug. There are now several other nucleoside and nucleotide analogs (Adefovir, Entecavir, Tenofovir, and Truvada available for the clinician to utilize against these resistant strains. It should be possible to prevent recurrence in most, if not all, post-transplant patients and also to significantly reduce viral loads with normalization of transaminases in those who have developed recurrent infection. The antiviral regimen should be robust and minimize the risk of breakthrough mutations. A prudent approach may be the implication of combination antiviral therapy. This review summarizes the efficacy of previous regimens utilized to prevent and treat recurrent HBV following OLT. Particular attention will be paid to the newer nucleoside and nucleotide analogs and the direction for future strategies to treat HBV in the post transplant setting.

  4. Dietary regulation of histone acetylases and deacetylases for the prevention of metabolic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Tho X; Lee, Jiyoung

    2012-11-28

    Age-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer involve epigenetic modifications, where accumulation of minute changes in the epigenome over time leads to disease manifestation. Epigenetic changes are influenced by life style and diets. This represents an avenue whereby dietary components could accelerate or prevent age-related diseases through their effects on epigenetic modifications. Histone acetylation is an epigenetic modification that is regulated through the opposing action of histone acetylases (HATs) and deacetylases (HDACs). These two families of enzymes play critical roles in metabolic processes and their dysregulation is associated with pathogenesis of several diseases. Dietary components, such as butyrate, sulforaphane, and curcumin, have been shown to affect HAT and HDAC activity, and their health benefits are attributed, at least in part, to epigenetic modifications. Given the decades that it takes to accumulate epigenetic changes, it is unlikely that pharmaceuticals could undo epigenetic changes without side effects. Therefore, long term consumption of dietary components that can alter the epigenome could be an attractive means of disease prevention. The goal of this review is to highlight the roles of diets and food components in epigenetic modifications through the regulation of HATs and HDACs for disease prevention.

  5. Dietary Regulation of Histone Acetylases and Deacetylases for the Prevention of Metabolic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyoung Lee

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Age-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer involve epigenetic modifications, where accumulation of minute changes in the epigenome over time leads to disease manifestation. Epigenetic changes are influenced by life style and diets. This represents an avenue whereby dietary components could accelerate or prevent age-related diseases through their effects on epigenetic modifications. Histone acetylation is an epigenetic modification that is regulated through the opposing action of histone acetylases (HATs and deacetylases (HDACs. These two families of enzymes play critical roles in metabolic processes and their dysregulation is associated with pathogenesis of several diseases. Dietary components, such as butyrate, sulforaphane, and curcumin, have been shown to affect HAT and HDAC activity, and their health benefits are attributed, at least in part, to epigenetic modifications. Given the decades that it takes to accumulate epigenetic changes, it is unlikely that pharmaceuticals could undo epigenetic changes without side effects. Therefore, long term consumption of dietary components that can alter the epigenome could be an attractive means of disease prevention. The goal of this review is to highlight the roles of diets and food components in epigenetic modifications through the regulation of HATs and HDACs for disease prevention.

  6. Dietary supplements for the prevention and treatment of coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Jeffrey; Gaster, Barak

    2007-01-01

    With the recent growth in the use of dietary supplements, it is increasingly important for clinicians to be familiar with the evidence for and against their efficacy. We set out to systematically review the dietary supplements available for the prevention and treatment of coronary artery disease. Between May 2004 and May 2006, we searched MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, and Pro-Quest using the MeSH terms hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, myocardial infarction, dietary supplements, and herb-drug interactions. The MeSH terms of individual supplements identified were then added to the search. Reference lists of pertinent papers were also searched to find appropriate papers for inclusion. We included randomized controlled trials published in English of at least 1 week's duration that studied the efficacy of supplements in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia, or hypertension, or in the prevention of cardiac events. Qualifying papers were identified and assigned a Jadad quality score. In areas of uncertainty, a second investigator independently scored the trial. Fifteen (15) supplements were identified. Of these, most had little data available and most of the data were of poor quality. The supplements with the most supporting data were policosanol and garlic, both for hyperlipidemia. A growing body of literature exists for numerous supplements in the prevention of coronary artery disease, but much of these data are inconclusive. Clinicians should become familiar with the extent and limitations of this literature so that they may counsel their patients better.

  7. Prevention and management of type 2 diabetes: dietary components and nutritional strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, Sylvia H; Hamdy, Osama; Mohan, Viswanathan; Hu, Frank B

    2014-06-07

    In the past couple of decades, evidence from prospective observational studies and clinical trials has converged to support the importance of individual nutrients, foods, and dietary patterns in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes. The quality of dietary fats and carbohydrates consumed is more crucial than is the quantity of these macronutrients. Diets rich in wholegrains, fruits, vegetables, legumes, and nuts; moderate in alcohol consumption; and lower in refined grains, red or processed meats, and sugar-sweetened beverages have been shown to reduce the risk of diabetes and improve glycaemic control and blood lipids in patients with diabetes. With an emphasis on overall diet quality, several dietary patterns such as Mediterranean, low glycaemic index, moderately low carbohydrate, and vegetarian diets can be tailored to personal and cultural food preferences and appropriate calorie needs for weight control and diabetes prevention and management. Although much progress has been made in development and implementation of evidence-based nutrition recommendations in developed countries, concerted worldwide efforts and policies are warranted to alleviate regional disparities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. ABCC6 prevents ectopic mineralization seen in pseudoxanthoma elasticum by inducing cellular nucleotide release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Robert S.; Küçükosmanoğlu, Aslı; de Haas, Marcel; Sapthu, Sunny; Otero, Jon Andoni; Hegman, Ilse E. M.; Bergen, Arthur A. B.; Gorgels, Theo G. M. F.; Borst, P.; van de Wetering, Koen

    2013-01-01

    Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by progressive ectopic mineralization of the skin, eyes, and arteries, for which no effective treatment exists. PXE is caused by inactivating mutations in the gene encoding ATP-binding cassette sub-family C member 6 (ABCC6), an ATP-dependent efflux transporter present mainly in the liver. Abcc6−/− mice have been instrumental in demonstrating that PXE is a metabolic disease caused by the absence of an unknown factor in the circulation, the presence of which depends on ABCC6 in the liver. Why absence of this factor results in PXE has remained a mystery. Here we report that medium from HEK293 cells overexpressing either human or rat ABCC6 potently inhibits mineralization in vitro, whereas medium from HEK293 control cells does not. Untargeted metabolomics revealed that cells expressing ABCC6 excrete large amounts of nucleoside triphosphates, even though ABCC6 itself does not transport nucleoside triphosphates. Extracellularly, ectonucleotidases hydrolyze the excreted nucleoside triphosphates to nucleoside monophosphates and inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi), a strong inhibitor of mineralization that plays a pivotal role in several mineralization disorders similar to PXE. The in vivo relevance of our data are demonstrated in Abcc6−/− mice, which had plasma PPi levels <40% of those found in WT mice. This study provides insight into how ABCC6 affects PXE. Our data indicate that the factor that normally prevents PXE is PPi, which is provided to the circulation in the form of nucleoside triphosphates via an as-yet unidentified but ABCC6-dependent mechanism. PMID:24277820

  9. Prevention of non-enzymic glycation of proteins by dietary agents: prospects for alleviating diabetic complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswat, Megha; Reddy, P Yadagiri; Muthenna, P; Reddy, G Bhanuprakash

    2009-06-01

    The accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGE) due to non-enzymic glycation of proteins has been implicated in several pathophysiologies associated with ageing and diabetes. The formation of AGE is accelerated in hyperglycaemic conditions, which alter the structure and function of long-lived proteins. Thus inhibition of the formation of AGE is believed to play a role in the prevention of diabetic complications. In the present study we evaluated the antiglycating effect of aqueous extracts of various plant-based foods. The effect of aqueous extracts of these agents in terms of their ability to prevent the accumulation of AGE due to fructose-mediated in vitro glycation of eye lens soluble proteins was investigated. The degree of protein glycation in the absence and presence of dietary extracts was assessed by different complementary methods, i.e. non-tryptophan AGE fluorescence, AGE-induced cross-linking by SDS-PAGE and glyco-oxidative damage by carbonyl assay. Five out of the seventeen agents tested showed significant inhibitory potential against in vitro protein glycation in a dose-dependent manner. Prominent among them were ginger, cumin, cinnamon, black pepper and green tea, which inhibited in vitro AGE formation to lens proteins 40-90 % at 1.0 mg/ml concentration. Assessing their potential to reduce the amount of glycated protein using boronate affinity chromatography and also their ability to prevent the formation of specific antigenic-AGE structures by immunodetection further substantiated the importance of ginger, cumin and cinnamon in reducing AGE burden. These findings indicate the potential of some dietary components to prevent and/or inhibit protein glycation. Thus these dietary agents may be able to be exploited for controlling AGE-mediated diabetic pathological conditions in vivo.

  10. Prevention of disuse muscle atrophy by dietary ingestion of 8-prenylnaringenin in denervated mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rie Mukai

    Full Text Available Flavonoids have attracted considerable attention in relation to their effects upon health. 8-Prenylnaringenin (8-PN is found in the common hop (Humulus lupulus and assumed to be responsible for the health impact of beer consumption. We wanted to clarify the effects of prenylation on the physiological functions of dietary flavonoids by comparing the effects of 8-PN with that of intact naringenin in the prevention of disuse muscle atrophy using a model of denervation in mice. Consumption of 8-PN (but not naringenin prevented loss of weight in the gastrocnemius muscle further supported by the lack of induction of the protein content of a key ubiquitin ligase involved in muscle atrophy, atrogin-1, and by the activation of Akt phosphorylation. 8-PN content in the gastrocnemius muscle was tenfold higher than that of naringenin. These results suggested that, compared with naringenin, 8-PN was effectively concentrated into skeletal muscle to exert its preventive effects upon disuse muscle atrophy. It is likely that prenylation generates novel functions for 8-PN by enhancing its accumulation into muscle tissue through dietary intake.

  11. Feasibility of Recruiting Families into a Heart Disease Prevention Program Based on Dietary Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Tracy L; Burrows, Tracy L; Thompson, Deborah I; Spratt, Neil J; Callister, Robin; Collins, Clare E

    2015-08-21

    Offspring of parents with a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) inherit a similar genetic profile and share diet and lifestyle behaviors. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of recruiting families at risk of CVD to a dietary prevention program, determine the changes in diet achieved, and program acceptability. Families were recruited into a pilot parallel group randomized controlled trial consisting of a three month evidence-based dietary intervention, based on the Mediterranean and Portfolio diets. Feasibility was assessed by recruitment and retention rates, change in diet by food frequency questionnaire, and program acceptability by qualitative interviews and program evaluation. Twenty one families were enrolled over 16 months, with fourteen families (n = 42 individuals) completing the study. Post-program dietary changes in the intervention group included small daily increases in vegetable serves (0.8 ± 1.3) and reduced usage of full-fat milk (-21%), cheese (-12%) and meat products (-17%). Qualitative interviews highlighted beneficial changes in food purchasing habits. Future studies need more effective methods of recruitment to engage families in the intervention. Once engaged, families made small incremental improvements in their diets. Evaluation indicated that feedback on diet and CVD risk factors, dietetic counselling and the resources provided were appropriate for a program of this type.

  12. Feasibility of Recruiting Families into a Heart Disease Prevention Program Based on Dietary Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy L. Schumacher

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Offspring of parents with a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD inherit a similar genetic profile and share diet and lifestyle behaviors. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of recruiting families at risk of CVD to a dietary prevention program, determine the changes in diet achieved, and program acceptability. Families were recruited into a pilot parallel group randomized controlled trial consisting of a three month evidence-based dietary intervention, based on the Mediterranean and Portfolio diets. Feasibility was assessed by recruitment and retention rates, change in diet by food frequency questionnaire, and program acceptability by qualitative interviews and program evaluation. Twenty one families were enrolled over 16 months, with fourteen families (n = 42 individuals completing the study. Post-program dietary changes in the intervention group included small daily increases in vegetable serves (0.8 ± 1.3 and reduced usage of full-fat milk (−21%, cheese (−12% and meat products (−17%. Qualitative interviews highlighted beneficial changes in food purchasing habits. Future studies need more effective methods of recruitment to engage families in the intervention. Once engaged, families made small incremental improvements in their diets. Evaluation indicated that feedback on diet and CVD risk factors, dietetic counselling and the resources provided were appropriate for a program of this type.

  13. Fruit and Vegetable Dietary Behavior in Response to a Low-Intensity Dietary Intervention: The Rural Physician Cancer Prevention Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcaise-Edinboro, Patricia; McClish, Donna; Kracen, Amanda C.; Bowen, Deborah; Fries, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Context: Increased fruit and vegetable intake can reduce cancer risk. Information from this study contributes to research exploring health disparities in high-risk dietary behavior. Purpose: Changes in fruit and vegetable behavior were evaluated to assess the effects of a low-intensity, physician-endorsed dietary intervention in a rural…

  14. AMPK as a New Attractive Therapeutic Target for Disease Prevention: The Role of Dietary Compounds AMPK and Disease Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparrini, Massimiliano; Giampieri, Francesca; Alvarez Suarez, Josè; Mazzoni, Luca; Y Forbes Hernandez, Tamara; Quiles, Josè L; Bullon, Pedro; Battino, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    AMPK is a serine/threonine protein kinase that has the function of maintaining the balance between ATP production and consumption in most eukaryotic cells. It plays a relevant role in regulating cellular metabolism, preserving cellular energy homeostasis, and is involved in many other cellular processes as well as metabolic ones, including cell cycle regulation and endothelial and vascular relaxation. Recently, the effects of naturally occurring compounds able to prevent and treat diseases through AMPK activation have attracted the attention of many researchers. Among such compounds, flavonoids found in natural sources, like quercetin, genistein, epigallocatechins, resveratrol, have been proposed as AMPK activators. This review summarizes and updates the most recent findings concerning the mechanisms through which different dietary compounds, from plant foods, affect the AMPK pathway in healthy and pathological in vitro and in vivo models, paying particular attention to molecular mechanisms involved in diabetes, obesity, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease and cancer.

  15. Dietary fiber and fat-derivatives prevent mineral oil toxicity in rats by the same mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, T; Ebihara, K; Kiriyama, S

    1993-09-01

    The inclusion of 8% mineral oil in a fat-free diet causes severe growth retardation in rats. In the present study, this growth retardation was found to be primarily due to the reduction in nutrient intake, but not to the exacerbation of essential fatty acid deficiency. In addition, the growth retardation caused by mineral oil ingestion was prevented by the concurrent inclusion of 10% water-insoluble dietary fiber [gobo fiber prepared from Arctium lappa L. (gobo in Japanese) or cotton cellulose powder] or 5% fatty acids (C12-C18) as well as glycerol monostearate. The prevention of growth retardation by these substances was due to their ability to inhibit mineral oil absorption from the intestinal lumen.

  16. Mechanics behind breast cancer prevention - focus on obesity, exercise and dietary fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegre, Melissa Marie; Knowles, McKay Hovis; Robison, Richard A; O'Neill, Kim Leslie

    2013-01-01

    Cancer prevention is rapidly emerging as a major strategy to reduce cancer mortality. In the field of breast cancer, significant strides have recently been made in the understanding of underlying preventive mechanisms. Currently, three major strategies have been linked to an increase in breast cancer risk: obesity, lack of physical exercise, and high levels of saturated dietary fat. As a result, prevention strategies for breast cancer are usually centered on these lifestyle factors. Unfortunately, there remains controversy regarding epidemiological studies that seek to determine the benefit of these lifestyle changes. We have identified crucial mechanisms that may help clarify these conflicting studies. For example, recent reports with olive oil have demonstrated that it may influence crucial transcription factors and reduce breast tumor aggressiveness by targeting HER2. Similarly, physical exercise reduces sex hormone levels, which may help protect against breast cancer. Obesity promotes tumor cell growth and cell survival through upregulation of leptin and insulin-like growth factors. This review seeks to discuss these underlying mechanisms, and more behind the three major prevention strategies, as a means of understanding how breast cancer can be prevented.

  17. Recent dietary guidelines to prevent and treat cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie-Rosett, Judith; Mossavar-Rahmani, Yasmin; Gans, Kim

    2002-01-01

    Nutrition guidelines are emphasizing dietary patterns as primary and secondary prevention trials provide increasing evidence of the importance of lifestyle changes to prevent/control cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors such as diabetes and hypertension. Despite the increasing evidence that weight loss and modified dietary patterns are effective, there is considerable debate about the level of carbohydrate that will be most beneficial. Epidemiologic studies indicate that certain ethnic and racial minority groups have increased CVD risk with higher rates of obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and stroke. Immigrant and Native American populations have had a dramatic rise in obesity, diabetes, and ultimately CVD with acculturation, accompanied by a higher fat intake and decreased physical activity. Culturally tailored intervention approaches are being used to reduce risk. The lack of third-party payment still limits the availability of nutrition services. However, medical nutrition therapy is covered by Medicare for diabetes and pending legislation will extend coverage to CVD. Medical education researchers have developed tools such as the WAVE (Weight, Activity, Variety and Excess) pocket guide as a quick method to facilitate addressing referral for medical nutrition therapy that can be readily incorporated into practice settings.

  18. Dietary administration of inositol and/or inositol-6-phosphate prevents chemically-induced rat hepatocarcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae-Jeung; Lee, Sang-Ah; Choi, Haymie

    2005-01-01

    Chemoprevention is considered a rational strategy for dietary approaches to prevention of cancer. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that many of our dietary principles are able to intervene in the multistage carcinogenesis process and phytic acid (inositol hexaphosphate, IP6), a phytochemical present in a variety of plant species, has been shown to prevent various cancers, including those of the mammary gland, colon and liver. However, the mechanism of chemoprevention by IP6 has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we examined the effects of inositol and/or IP6 supplementation on rat hepatocarcinogenesis initiated by diethylnitrosamine (DEN) and promoted by partial hepatectomy (PH). Supplementation with either inositol or IP6, or their combination, starting one week prior to administration of DEN, resulted in a significant decrease in both the area and the number of placental glutathione S-transferase positive (GST-P+) foci, a preneoplastic marker for DEN-initiated hepatocarcinogenesis. The administration of inositol and/or IP6 in drinking water caused marked enhancement in the glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity. In addition, the production of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and the catalase activity were significantly reduced in rats supplemented with inositol and /or IP6. Based on these findings, it is likely that the chemopreventive effects of inositol and/or IP6 on rat hepatocarcinogenesis initiated by DEN and promoted by PH are associated with induction of GST activity and suppression of lipid peroxidation.

  19. Dietary prevention of Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric cancer with kimchi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Migyeong; Park, Jong-Min; Han, Young-Min; Park, Kun Young; Lee, Don Haeng; Yoo, Joon-Hwan; Cho, Joo Young; Hahm, Ki-Baik

    2015-10-06

    To prove whether dietary intervention can prevent Helicobacter pylori-induced atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer, we developed cancer preventive kimchi (cpKimchi) through special recipe and administered to chronic H. pylori-initiated, high salt diet-promoted, gastric tumorigenesis mice model. H. pylori-infected C57BL/6 mice were administered with cpKimchi mixed in drinking water up to 36 weeks. Gross and pathological gastric lesions were evaluated after 24 and 36 weeks, respectively and explored underlying molecular changes to explain efficacies. Cancer preventive actions of anti-inflammation and anti-mutagenesis were compared between standard recipe kimchi (sKimchi) and special recipe cpKimchi in in vitro H. pylori-infected cell model. The erythematous and nodular changes, mucosal ulcerative and erosive lesions in the stomach were noted at 24th weeks, but cpKimchi administration significantly ameliorated. After 36th weeks, scattered nodular masses, some ulcers, and thin nodular gastric mucosa were noted in H. pylori-infected mice, whereas these gross lesions were significantly attenuated in cpKimchi group. On molecular analysis, significant expressions of COX-2 and IL-6, activated NF-κB and STAT3, increased apoptosis, and marked oxidative stresses were noted in H. pylori-infected group relevant to tumorigenesis, but these were all significantly attenuated in cpKimchi group. cpKimchi extracts imparted significant selective induction of apoptosis only in cancer cells, led to inhibition of H. pylori-induced proliferation, while no cytotoxicity through significant HO-1 induction in non-transformed gastric cells. In conclusion, daily dietary intake of cpKimchi can be an effective way either to rejuvenate H. pylori-atrophic gastritis or to prevent tumorigenesis supported with the concerted actions of anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-mutagenic mechanisms.

  20. Dietary fiber's benefit for gallstone disease prevention during rapid weight loss in obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaberidze, G; Okujava, M; Liluashvili, K; Tughushi, M; Bezarashvili, S

    2014-06-01

    The aim of present study was to compare the effects of very low calorie diets - protein rich and dietary fiber rich food based - on gallstones formation during rapid weight loss. 68 patients were involved into the study. The body weight index in all cases exceeding normal value and equaled to 35±4,7 kg/m2. For weight correction purposes during 5 weeks the patients in first group were kept on a 520-800 kcal diet of "Margi" food products, prepared according our technology, and in the second group on a protein rich diet of the same calorie content. The body weight and changes in the gall-bladder wall and content were assessed by sonography before starting the diet, after three weeks from the commencement of the diet and upon its completion. The measurement of the body weight after completion of the 5 week diet revealed decrease by 10.9±1,5kg in the first group and by 11,2±1,1kg in the second group. Sonography disclosed growth in the amount of biliary sludge in 3 cases in the first group and in 9 cases in the second group. The statistical analyses of results indicate successful and nearly equal reduction of body weight by means of dietary fiber rich and protein rich diet, but high fiber consumption showed statistically significant benefits for prevention of biliary slug accumulation. The study showed that, in the respect to weight loss, diets based on fiber rich and protein rich food are equal, but fiber rich diet has considerable privilege in prevention of gallstone disease. Our findings support the presence of known association between increased dietary fiber consumption and reduction of gallstone formation. Obesity and rapid weight loss are risk factors for development of gallstones. Taking in an account the beneficial effect of dietary fiber, the food rich with this nutrient, particularly low-calorie fiber rich food "Margi", can be recommended for rapid weight loss in obese patients.

  1. Dietary behaviors related to cancer prevention among pre-adolescents and adolescents: the gap between recommendations and reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Mary C

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diet is thought to play an important role in cancer risk. This paper summarizes dietary recommendations for cancer prevention and compares these recommendations to the dietary behaviors of U.S. youth ages 8-18. Methods We identified cancer prevention-related dietary recommendations from key health organizations and assessed dietary consumption patterns among youth using published statistics from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, the national Youth Risk Behavior Survey, and other supplemental sources. Results Cancer prevention guidelines recommend a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, recommend limiting sugary foods and beverages, red and processed meats, sodium, and alcohol, and recommend avoiding foods contaminated with carcinogens. However, youth typically do not meet the daily recommendations for fruit, vegetable, or whole grain consumption and are over-consuming energy-dense, sugary and salty foods. Conclusions A large discrepancy exists between expert recommendations about diet and cancer and actual dietary practices among young people and points to the need for more research to better promote the translation of science into practice. Future research should focus on developing and evaluating policies and interventions at the community, state and national levels for aligning the diets of youth with the evolving scientific evidence regarding cancer prevention.

  2. Molecular targets of dietary agents for prevention and therapy of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Bharat B; Shishodia, Shishir

    2006-05-14

    While fruits and vegetables are recommended for prevention of cancer and other diseases, their active ingredients (at the molecular level) and their mechanisms of action less well understood. Extensive research during the last half century has identified various molecular targets that can potentially be used not only for the prevention of cancer but also for treatment. However, lack of success with targeted monotherapy resulting from bypass mechanisms has forced researchers to employ either combination therapy or agents that interfere with multiple cell-signaling pathways. In this review, we present evidence that numerous agents identified from fruits and vegetables can interfere with several cell-signaling pathways. The agents include curcumin (turmeric), resveratrol (red grapes, peanuts and berries), genistein (soybean), diallyl sulfide (allium), S-allyl cysteine (allium), allicin (garlic), lycopene (tomato), capsaicin (red chilli), diosgenin (fenugreek), 6-gingerol (ginger), ellagic acid (pomegranate), ursolic acid (apple, pears, prunes), silymarin (milk thistle), anethol (anise, camphor, and fennel), catechins (green tea), eugenol (cloves), indole-3-carbinol (cruciferous vegetables), limonene (citrus fruits), beta carotene (carrots), and dietary fiber. For instance, the cell-signaling pathways inhibited by curcumin alone include NF-kappaB, AP-1, STAT3, Akt, Bcl-2, Bcl-X(L), caspases, PARP, IKK, EGFR, HER2, JNK, MAPK, COX2, and 5-LOX. The active principle identified in fruit and vegetables and the molecular targets modulated may be the basis for how these dietary agents not only prevent but also treat cancer and other diseases. This work reaffirms what Hippocrates said 25 centuries ago, let food be thy medicine and medicine be thy food.

  3. Promising Potential of Dietary (Poly)Phenolic Compounds in the Prevention and Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Tania R; Alves, Marco G; Casal, Susana; Oliveira, Pedro F; Silva, Branca M

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of diabetes mellitus (DM) is reaching alarming proportions worldwide, particularly because it is increasingly affecting younger people. This reflects the sedentary lifestyle and inappropriate dietary habits, especially due to the advent of processed foods in modern societies. Thus, unsurprisingly, the first medical recommendation to patients with clinically evident DM is the alteration in their eating behaviour, particularly regarding carbohydrates and total energy intake. Despite individual and cultural preferences, human diet makes available a large amount of phytochemicals with therapeutic potential. Phenolic compounds are the most abundant class of phytochemicals in edible plants, fruits and beverages. These compounds have strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities that have been associated with specific features of their chemical structure. Among others, such properties make them promising antidiabetic agents and several mechanisms of action have already been proposed. Herein, we discuss the recent findings on the potential of dietary phenolic compounds for the prevention and/or treatment of (pre)diabetes, and associated complications. A broad range of studies supports the innate potential of phenolic compounds to protect against DM-associated deleterious effects. Their antidiabetic activity has been demonstrated by: i) regulation of carbohydrate metabolism; ii) improvement of glucose uptake; iii) protection of pancreatic β-cells; iv) enhancement of insulin action and v) regulation of crucial signalling pathways to cell homeostasis. Dietary phenolic compounds constitute an easy, safe and cost-effective way to combat the worrying scenario of DM. The interesting particularities of phenolic compounds reinforce the implementation of a (poly)phenolic-rich nutritional regime, not only for (pre)diabetic patients, but also for non-diabetic people. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. Understanding the gastrointestinal tract of the elderly to develop dietary solutions that prevent malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rémond, Didier; Shahar, Danit R; Gille, Doreen; Pinto, Paula; Kachal, Josefa; Peyron, Marie-Agnès; Dos Santos, Claudia Nunes; Walther, Barbara; Bordoni, Alessandra; Dupont, Didier; Tomás-Cobos, Lidia; Vergères, Guy

    2015-06-10

    Although the prevalence of malnutrition in the old age is increasing worldwide a synthetic understanding of the impact of aging on the intake, digestion, and absorption of nutrients is still lacking. This review article aims at filling the gap in knowledge between the functional decline of the aging gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and the consequences of malnutrition on the health status of elderly. Changes in the aging GIT include the mechanical disintegration of food, gastrointestinal motor function, food transit, chemical food digestion, and functionality of the intestinal wall. These alterations progressively decrease the ability of the GIT to provide the aging organism with adequate levels of nutrients, what contributes to the development of malnutrition. Malnutrition, in turn, increases the risks for the development of a range of pathologies associated with most organ systems, in particular the nervous-, muscoskeletal-, cardiovascular-, immune-, and skin systems. In addition to psychological, economics, and societal factors, dietary solutions preventing malnutrition should thus propose dietary guidelines and food products that integrate knowledge on the functionality of the aging GIT and the nutritional status of the elderly. Achieving this goal will request the identification, validation, and correlative analysis of biomarkers of food intake, nutrient bioavailability, and malnutrition.

  5. Prevention of nutritional rickets in Nigerian children with dietary calcium supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacher, Tom D; Fischer, Philip R; Isichei, Christian O; Zoakah, Ayuba I; Pettifor, John M

    2012-05-01

    Nutritional rickets in Nigerian children usually results from dietary calcium insufficiency. Typical dietary calcium intakes in African children are about 200mg daily (approximately 20-28% of US RDAs for age). We sought to determine if rickets could be prevented with supplemental calcium or with an indigenous food rich in calcium. We enrolled Nigerian children aged 12 to 18months from three urban communities. Two communities were assigned calcium, either as calcium carbonate (400mg) or ground fish (529±109mg) daily, while children in all three communities received vitamin A (2500IU) daily as placebo. Serum markers of mineral homeostasis and forearm bone density (pDEXA) were measured and radiographs were obtained at enrollment and after 18months of supplementation. The overall prevalence of radiographic rickets at baseline was 1.2% and of vitamin D deficiency [serum 25(OH)DRickets developed in 1, 1, and 2 children assigned to the calcium tablet, ground fish, and control groups, respectively (approximate incidence 6.4/1000 children/year between 1 and 3years of age). Children who developed rickets in the calcium-supplemented groups had less than 50% adherence. Compared with the group that received no calcium supplementation, the groups that received calcium had a greater increase in areal bone density of the distal and proximal 1/3 radius and ulna over time (Prickets.

  6. Dietary resveratrol prevents Alzheimer's markers and increases life span in SAMP8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porquet, David; Casadesús, Gemma; Bayod, Sergi; Vicente, Alberto; Canudas, Anna M; Vilaplana, Jordi; Pelegrí, Carme; Sanfeliu, Coral; Camins, Antoni; Pallàs, Mercè; del Valle, Jaume

    2013-10-01

    Resveratrol is a polyphenol that is mainly found in grapes and red wine and has been reported to be a caloric restriction (CR) mimetic driven by Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) activation. Resveratrol increases metabolic rate, insulin sensitivity, mitochondrial biogenesis and physical endurance, and reduces fat accumulation in mice. In addition, resveratrol may be a powerful agent to prevent age-associated neurodegeneration and to improve cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Moreover, different findings support the view that longevity in mice could be promoted by CR. In this study, we examined the role of dietary resveratrol in SAMP8 mice, a model of age-related AD. We found that resveratrol supplements increased mean life expectancy and maximal life span in SAMP8 and in their control, the related strain SAMR1. In addition, we examined the resveratrol-mediated neuroprotective effects on several specific hallmarks of AD. We found that long-term dietary resveratrol activates AMPK pathways and pro-survival routes such as SIRT1 in vivo. It also reduces cognitive impairment and has a neuroprotective role, decreasing the amyloid burden and reducing tau hyperphosphorylation.

  7. How dietary patterns could have a role in prevention, progression, or management of diabetes mellitus? Review on the current evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Maghsoudi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the role of dietary patterns in prevention and management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: A systematic review of databases which were published in ISI, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases, PubMed, Iran Medex, and MagIran was performed. "Diabetes" and "dietary pattern" were used as the keywords. Results: A total of 58 studies which aimed to focus on diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, dietary pattern, and other related key words were reviewed. More than 47,447 articles were found and 46,709 entries of the extracted studies were excluded on the basis of the title and abstracts. The major dietary patterns were: "Healthy," "Western," "Traditional," "Prudent," "Unhealthy," "Mediterranean," "Modern," and "Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension" (DASH diets. Comparison of the effects of different diets revealed that dietary patterns containing fiber-rich foods have a protective role in managing diabetes mellitus. "Healthy," "Mediterranean," "Prudent," and "DASH" dietary patterns were associated with lower risk of hyperglycemia. Conclusions: The adherence to the "Mediterranean," "Prudent," or "DASH" diets could control hyperglycemia. The higher intake of vegetables, fruits, nuts, whole grains, and lower intake of red meat could reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  8. Can we prevent obesity-related metabolic diseases by dietary modulation of the gut microbiota?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brahe, Lena Kirchner; Astrup, Arne; Larsen, Lesli Hingstrup

    2016-01-01

    Obesity increases the risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and certain cancers, which are among the leading causes of death worldwide. Obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases are characterized by specific alterations in the human gut microbiota. Experimental studies with gut...... microbiota transplantations in mice and in humans indicate that a specific gut microbiota composition can be the cause and not just the consequence of the obese state and metabolic disease, which suggests a potential for gut microbiota modulation in prevention and treatment of obesity-related metabolic...... diseases. In addition, dietary intervention studies have suggested that modulation of the gut microbiota can improve metabolic risk markers in humans, but a causal role of the gut microbiota in such studies has not yet been established. Here, we review and discuss the role of the gut microbiota in obesity...

  9. [THE EFFECTIVENESS OF EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF POPULATION DIETARY PATTERNS AND PREVENTION OF ANEMIAS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glagoleva, O N; Turchaninov, D V; Vilms, E A

    2015-01-01

    There was performed an experimental study of the use of educational programs as tools of the improvement of the structure of nutrition and primary prevention of anemias associated with nutrition. Educational programs were differentiated for each of the target audience (pupils of 5-7 classes, 1-4 year students of the medical school, the adult unorganized population; n = 645). Their efficacy was evaluated with the use of issues included in the educational program and analysis of the actual nutrition (only in groups of students and adults). Performance assessment were: testing on the issues included in the educational program and analysis of actual of dietary intake (only in groups of students and adults). Testing was performed at the points: before the intervention, immediately after 6 and 12 months after intervention. An analysis of the frequency of food consumption with an estimation of the actual consumption of nutrients was carried out at the initial and final points. There was noted the low level of public knowledge about the principles ofrational nutrition: the proportion ofcorrect answers, reflecting the level of awareness ofconstructing an optimal diet in the starting point of the study was 25%for schoolchildren, 45%--in adults, 35%--the students, after the intervention--75%, 90% and 85% respectively. One year after the implementation of the educational program the level ofresidual knowledge of study participants remained at a level above the original (the proportion of correct answers during testing of schoolchildren--50% (p < 0.001 to baseline), in adults--60% (p = 0.0005), students--60% (p < 0.001). There were also noted positive changes in the structure of nutrition of study participants 12 months after the intervention: in relation to the initial level there was increased consumption of ascorbic acid and calcium in students, decreased consumption of animal fats in adults and students, there was noted a trend towards increased consumption of dietary iron

  10. Preventive fluid and dietary therapy for urolithiasis: An appraisal of strength, controversies and lacunae of current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Mayank Mohan; Singh, Shwaran K; Mavuduru, Ravimohan; Mandal, Arup K

    2011-07-01

    Regulation of fluid and dietary intake habits is essential in comprehensive preventive management of urolithiasis. However, despite large body of epidemiological database, there is dearth of good quality prospective interventional studies in this regard. Often there is conflict in pathophysiological basis and actual clinical outcome. We describe conflicts, controversies and lacunae in current literature in fluid and dietary modifications in prevention of urolithiasis. Adequate fluid intake is the most important conservative strategy in urolithiasis-prevention; its positive effects are seen even at low volumes. Of the citrus, orange provides the most favorable pH changes in the urine, equivalent to therapeutic alkaline citrates. Despite being richest source of citrate, lemon does not increase pH significant due to its acidic nature. Fructose, animal proteins and fats are implicated in contributing to obesity, which is an established risk factor for urolithiasis. Fructose and proteins also contribute to lithogenecity of urine directly. Sodium restriction is commonly advised since natriuresis is associated with calciuresis. Calcium restriction is not advisable for urolithiasis prevention. Adequate calcium intake is beneficial if taken with food since it reduces absorption of dietary oxalate. Increasing dietary fiber does not protect against urolithiasis. Evidence for pyridoxine and magnesium is not robust. There is no prospective interventional study evaluating effect of many dietary elements, including citrus juices, carbohydrate, fat, dietary fiber, sodium, etc. Due to lack of good-quality prospective interventional trials it is essential to test the findings of pathophysiological understanding and epidemiological evidence. Role of probiotics and phytoceuticals needs special attention for future research.

  11. Preventive fluid and dietary therapy for urolithiasis: An appraisal of strength, controversies and lacunae of current literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank Mohan Agarwal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Regulation of fluid and dietary intake habits is essential in comprehensive preventive management of urolithiasis. However, despite large body of epidemiological database, there is dearth of good quality prospective interventional studies in this regard. Often there is conflict in pathophysiological basis and actual clinical outcome. We describe conflicts, controversies and lacunae in current literature in fluid and dietary modifications in prevention of urolithiasis. Adequate fluid intake is the most important conservative strategy in urolithiasis-prevention; its positive effects are seen even at low volumes. Of the citrus, orange provides the most favorable pH changes in the urine, equivalent to therapeutic alkaline citrates. Despite being richest source of citrate, lemon does not increase pH significant due to its acidic nature. Fructose, animal proteins and fats are implicated in contributing to obesity, which is an established risk factor for urolithiasis. Fructose and proteins also contribute to lithogenecity of urine directly. Sodium restriction is commonly advised since natriuresis is associated with calciuresis. Calcium restriction is not advisable for urolithiasis prevention. Adequate calcium intake is beneficial if taken with food since it reduces absorption of dietary oxalate. Increasing dietary fiber does not protect against urolithiasis. Evidence for pyridoxine and magnesium is not robust. There is no prospective interventional study evaluating effect of many dietary elements, including citrus juices, carbohydrate, fat, dietary fiber, sodium, etc. Due to lack of good-quality prospective interventional trials it is essential to test the findings of pathophysiological understanding and epidemiological evidence. Role of probiotics and phytoceuticals needs special attention for future research.

  12. Prevention of cardiovascular diseases: Role of exercise, dietary interventions, obesity and smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttar, Harpal S; Li, Timao; Ravi, Nivedita

    2005-01-01

    Hypertension, myocardial infarction, atherosclerosis, arrhythmias and valvular heart disease, coagulopathies and stroke, collectively known as cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), contribute greatly to the mortality, morbidity and economic burden of illness in Canada and in other countries. It has been estimated that over four million Canadians have high blood pressure, a comorbid condition that doubles or triples the risk of CVD. According to the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, CVDs caused 36% of deaths in 2001 and were responsible for 18% of the total hospital costs in Canada. The majority of Canadians exhibit at least one CVD-related risk factor, such as tobacco smoking, physical inactivity, diabetes, obesity, hypertension, a lack of daily fruit and vegetable consumption, and psychosocial factors, making these people more prone to developing a serious CVD-related illness in the future. It is therefore important that CVD-related causes and concerns be addressed. Given the scope and prevalence of CVDs, it is obvious that a population health approach - 'prevention is better than cure' - would be the most appropriate model to adopt to deal with this ubiquitous health problem and to reduce the costs of hospitalization, long-term medication and rehabilitation. The focus of the present review is to evaluate and compare the results of epidemiological, experimental and clinical studies, reporting on the influence of physical activity, dietary intervention, obesity and cigarette smoking on cardiovascular health and the prevention of CVDs. The prophylactic measures must be dealt with collectively because there is overwhelming evidence that the occurrence of CVDs can be reduced by approximately 80% by making lifestyle modifications. The preventive strategies against CVDs must be targeted at a primary health promotion level before some of the important underlying causes of CVD seriously afflict a person or a population at large. Such preventive approaches would help in

  13. Dietary diversification for prevention of anaemia among women of childbearing age from rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Shobha; Joshi, Smita; Bhide, Pradnya; Puranik, Bhairavi; Asawari, Kanade

    2014-04-01

    To assess the impact of an intervention modifying dietary habits for the prevention of anaemia in rural India. Intervention study with data on anthropometric (weight, height) measurements, Hb and diet pattern. As per the cut-off for Hb in the government programme, women with Hb 11 g/dl formed the non-supplemented group. Settings Three villages near Pune city, Maharashtra, India. Rural non-pregnant women (n 317) of childbearing age (15-35 years). After 1 year of intervention, mean Hb increased (from 10.94 (sd 1.22) g/dl to 11.59 (sd 1.11) g/dl) significantly (P 50% of the meetings or repeating >50% of the recipes at home (0.45 g/dl) in the non-supplemented group and was smaller than that observed in the supplemented group. Consumption of green leafy vegetables more than twice weekly increased substantially from 44.7% to 60.6%, as did consumption of seasonal fruits. Logistic regression showed that women with lower participation in the intervention had three times higher risk (OR = 3.08; 95% CI 1.04, 9.13; P = 0.04) for no gain in Hb compared with those having high participation. Developing action programmes for improving nutritional awareness to enhance the consumption of Fe-rich foods has great potential for preventing anaemia in rural India.

  14. Dietary polyphenol supplementation prevents alterations of spatial navigation in middle-aged mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien eBensalem

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Spatial learning and memory deficits associated with hippocampal synaptic plasticity impairments are commonly observed during aging. Besides, the beneficial role of dietary polyphenols has been suggested as potential functional food candidates to prevent this memory decline. Indeed, polyphenols could potentiate the signaling pathways of synaptic plasticity underlying learning and memory. In this study, spatial learning deficits of middle-aged mice were first highlighted and characterized according to navigation patterns in the Morris water maze task. An eight-week polyphenol-enriched diet, containing a polyphenol-rich extract from grape and blueberry (PEGB (from the Neurophenols Consortium with high contents of flavonoids, stilbenes and phenolic acids, was then successful in reversing these age-induced effects. The use of spatial strategies was indeed delayed with aging whereas a polyphenol supplementation could promote the occurrence of spatial strategies. These behavioral results were associated with neurobiological changes: while the expression of hippocampal CaMKII mRNA levels was reduced in middle-aged animals, the polyphenol-enriched diet could rescue them. Besides, an increased expression of NGF mRNA levels was also observed in supplemented adult and middle-aged mice. Thus these data suggest that supplementation with polyphenols could be an efficient nutritional way to prevent age-induced cognitive decline.

  15. Studies on neurolathyrism in Ethiopia: dietary habits, perception of risks and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikre, A; Van Moorhem, M; Ahmed, S; Lambein, F; Gheysen, G

    2011-03-01

    This study describes the correlation of traditional perceptions and dietary habits with the incidence of neurolathyrism to propose preventive measures. Therefore, 118 households of South Wollo and North Gondar (Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia), of which one third had at least one neurolathyrism affected member, were interviewed. Most of the affected families in this study had one neurolathyrism victim, being predominantly male and of younger age. The incidence among youngsters (boys and girls) was significantly correlated with the consumption of green unripe seeds (eshet), confirming this as a risk factor for developing neurolathyrism. The consumption of other popular grass pea preparations was not age related. Neurolathyrism patients did not attempt any medication as most people knew that neurolathyrism is incurable, but the consumption of grass pea was abandoned after developing the disease. The minority 'Woito' tribe was virtually unaffected. They were the only people reporting to consume fish which is rich in amino acids such as methionine and using metallic kitchen utensils in addition to clay pots. This observation points to the correlation between low neurolathyrism incidence and a better balanced diet as well as metallic kitchen utensils, suggesting a new approach for neurolathyrism prevention. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Beyond the Role of Dietary Protein and Amino Acids in the Prevention of Diet-Induced Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus J. Petzke

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available High-protein diets have been shown to prevent the development of diet-induced obesity and can improve associated metabolic disorders in mice. Dietary leucine supplementation can partially mimic this effect. However, the molecular mechanisms triggering these preventive effects remain to be satisfactorily explained. Here we review studies showing a connection between high protein or total amino nitrogen intake and obligatory water intake. High amino nitrogen intake may possibly lower lipid storage, and prevent insulin resistance. Suggestions are made for further systematical studies to explore the relationship between water consumption, satiety, and energy expenditure. Moreover, these examinations should better distinguish between leucine-specific and unspecific effects. Research in this field can provide important information to justify dietary recommendations and strategies in promoting long-term weight loss and may help to reduce health problems associated with the comorbidities of obesity.

  17. ROLE OF DIETARY SUPPLEMENTATION IN PREVENTING PROGRESSION OF AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Ermakova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is a chronic, progressive, degenerative eye disease affecting the central retina. It is the leading cause of blindness among individuals of 65 years and older. In the early stage patients have drusen and/or alterations of pigmentation in the macular region. This disease can progress to geographic atrophy and/or choroidal neovascularization. It has been shown that oxidative stress and hypoxia are important in the pathogenesis of AMD. Patients may gain some visual improvement with inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor, but complete restoration of visual function is achieved only in small cases. No effective therapies are known for atrophic AMD. Many large observational studies have shown that dietary antioxidant supplementation is beneficial in preventing the progression of AMD from early to late stages. The Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS demonstrated that daily oral supplementation with vitamins C (500 mg and E (400 IU, beta carotene (15 mg, zinc (80 mg and copper (2 mg reduced the risk of progression to advanced AMD by 25% at 5 years. In primary analyses AREDS II failed to show further reduce of this risk by addition of lutein (10 mg and zeaxanthin (2mg, or/and omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids [docosahexaenoic acid (350 mg DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid 650 mg (EPA] to the AREDS formulation. But there was no true placebo group. The simultaneous administration of beta carotene, lutein and zeaxanthin may suppress tissue level of the both laters because of competitive absorption of carotenoids. Subgroup analyses revealed that dietary supplementation with lutein, zeaxanthin and AREDS formulation without beta carotene may reduce the risk of progression to advanced AMD.The LUNA (Lutein nutrition effects measured by autofluorescence study demonstrated that supplementation with lutein (12 mg, zeaxanthin (1 mg, vitamin C (120 mg, vitamin E (17,6 mg, zinc (10 mg, selenium (40 mg resulted

  18. Nucleotide Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Jan; Willemoës, M.; Kilstrup, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic pathways are connected through their utilization of nucleotides as supplier of energy, allosteric effectors, and their role in activation of intermediates. Therefore, any attempt to exploit a given living organism in a biotechnological process will have an impact on nucleotide metabolism....... The aim of this article is to provide knowledge of nucleotide metabolism and its regulation to facilitate interpretation of data arising from genetics, proteomics, and transcriptomics in connection with biotechnological processes and beyond....

  19. Nucleotide Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Jan; Willemoës, M.; Kilstrup, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic pathways are connected through their utilization of nucleotides as supplier of energy, allosteric effectors, and their role in activation of intermediates. Therefore, any attempt to exploit a given living organism in a biotechnological process will have an impact on nucleotide metabolism....... The aim of this article is to provide knowledge of nucleotide metabolism and its regulation to facilitate interpretation of data arising from genetics, proteomics, and transcriptomics in connection with biotechnological processes and beyond....

  20. Interventions to enhance adherence to dietary advice for preventing and managing chronic diseases in adults: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gravel Karine

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adoption of a healthy diet has been identified as the cornerstone in the prevention and management of chronic diseases. However, non-adherence to lifestyle changes raises an important issue since adherence level to dietary advice is a key determinant of the effectiveness of dietary treatment. Therefore, based on the results of a Cochrane systematic review on interventions for enhancing adherence to dietary advice for preventing and managing chronic diseases in adults, the aim of this study is to assess the importance and applicability of interventions enhancing adherence to dietary advice in the Canadian context. Methods/Design In phase 1, dietitians' opinion will be assessed through a Delphi study regarding the importance and the applicability in the Canadian context of the interventions found the most effective to enhance adherence to dietary advice through a Cochrane systematic review. In phase 2, findings of the Cochrane systematic review assessing the effects of interventions for enhancing adherence to dietary advice will be reported in a practical format on an online knowledge translation tool for dietitians and other health professionals. Discussion In recent years, there has been an increasing recognition of the failure to translate research findings into clinical practice. Therefore, knowledge translation efforts need to prioritize effective interventions that will be the most relevant for practice and end-users by adapting them to the local context. Our study will provide decision makers in the field of dietetic practice with essential knowledge on adherence for elaborating educational activities for academic or professional settings that will respond to dietitians' priorities in terms of importance and applicability to day-to-day practice.

  1. Traditional Dietary Recommendations for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease: Do They Meet the Needs of Our Patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Scholl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of patients with CVD have changed: whereas smoking prevalence declines, obesity and metabolic syndrome are on the rise. Unfortunately, the traditional low-fat diet for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD still seems to be the “mainstream knowledge” despite contradicting evidence. But lowering LDL-cholesterol by the wrong diet even may be counterproductive, if sd-LDL is raised and HDL is lowered. New insights into the pathophysiology of insulin resistance and its influence on the effects of dietary changes have led to a better approach: (1 the higher a patient's insulin resistance, the more important is the glycemic load of the diet. (2 Fat quality is much more important than fat quantity. (3 The best principle for a reduced calorie intake is not fat counting, but a high volume diet with low energy density, which means fibre rich vegetables and fruits. (4 And finally, satiation and palatability of a diet is very important: there is no success without the patient's compliance. Thus, the best approach to the dietary prevention of CVD is a Mediterranean style low-carb diet represented in the LOGI pyramid. Dietary guidelines for the prevention of CVD should to be revised accordingly.

  2. Replication of the Association of BDNF and MC4R Variants With Dietary Intake in the Diabetes Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffery, Jeanne M; Jablonski, Kathleen A; Franks, Paul W; Delahanty, Linda M; Aroda, Vanita; Marrero, David; Hamman, Richard F; Horton, Edward S; Dagogo-Jack, Samuel; Wylie-Rosett, Judith; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Kitabchi, Abbas; Knowler, William C; Wing, Rena R; Florez, Jose C

    Genomewide association studies (GWAS) have identified consistent associations with obesity, with a number of studies implicating eating behavior as a primary mechanism. Few studies have replicated genetic associations with dietary intake. This study evaluates the association between obesity susceptibility loci and dietary intake. Data were obtained as part of the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), a clinical trial of diabetes prevention in persons at high risk of diabetes. The association of 31 genomewide association studies identified obesity risk alleles with dietary intake, measured through a food frequency questionnaire, was investigated in 3,180 participants from DPP at baseline. The minor allele at BDNF, identified as protective against obesity, was associated with lower total caloric intake (β = -106.06, SE = 33.13; p = .0014) at experimentwide statistical significance (p = .0016), whereas association of MC4R rs571312 with higher caloric intake reached nominal significance (β = 61.32, SE = 26.24; p = .0194). Among non-Hispanic white participants, the association of BDNF rs2030323 with total caloric intake was stronger (β = -151.99, SE = 30.09; p < .0001), and association of FTO rs1421085 with higher caloric intake (β = 56.72, SE = 20.69; p = .0061) and percentage fat intake (β = 0.37, SE = 0.08; p = .0418) was also observed. These results demonstrate with the strength of independent replication that BDNF rs2030323 is associated with 100 to 150 greater total caloric intake per allele, with additional contributions of MC4R and, in non-Hispanic white individuals, FTO. As it has been argued that an additional 100 kcal/d could account for the trends in weight gain, prevention focusing on genetic profiles with high dietary intake may help to quell adverse obesity trends. Clinicaltrials.gov,NCT00004992.

  3. A calcitonin receptor (CALCR) single nucleotide polymorphism is associated with growth performance and bone integrity in response to dietary phosphorus deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, L S; Qu, A; Cutler, S A; Mahajan, A; Rothschild, M F; Cai, W; Dekkers, J C; Stahl, C H

    2010-03-01

    Although concerns over the environmental impact of excess P in the excreta from pig production and governmental regulations have driven research toward reducing dietary supplementation of P to swine diets for over a decade, recent dramatic increases in feed costs have further motivated researchers to identify means to further reduce dietary P supplementation. We have demonstrated that genetic background impacts P utilization in young pigs and have identified genetic polymorphisms in several target genes related to mineral utilization. In this study, we examined the impact of a SNP in the calcitonin receptor gene (CALCR) on P utilization in growing pigs. In Exp. 1, 36 gilts representing the 3 genotypes identified by this CALCR SNP (11, 12, and 22) were fed a P-adequate (PA) or a marginally P-deficient (approximately 20% less available P; PD) diet for 14 wk. As expected, P deficiency reduced plasma P concentration, bone strength, and mineral content (P < 0.05). However, the dietary P deficiency was mild enough to not affect the growth performance of these pigs. A genotype x dietary P interaction (P < 0.05) was observed in measures of bone integrity and mineral content, with the greatest reduction in bone strength and mineral content due to dietary P deficiency being associated with the allele 1. In Exp. 2, 168 pigs from a control line and low residual feed intake (RFI) line were genotyped for the CALCR SNP and fed a PA diet. As expected, pigs from the low RFI line consumed less feed but also gained less BW when compared with the control line (P < 0.05). Although ADFI did not differ between genotypes, pigs having the 11 genotype gained less BW (P < 0.05) than pigs having the 12 or 22 genotypes. Pigs of the 11 and 12 genotypes had bones that tolerated greater load when compared with animals having the 22 genotype (P < 0.05). A similar trend was observed in bone modulus and ash % (P < 0.10). These data are supportive of the association of this CALCR SNP with bone

  4. Endostatin Prevents Dietary-Induced Obesity by Inhibiting Adipogenesis and Angiogenesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Hui; Chen, Yang; Lu, Xin-an; Liu, Guanghua; Fu, Yan; Luo, Yongzhang

    2015-01-01

    ... of endostatin on adipogenesis and dietary-induced obesity has never been demonstrated. Adipogenesis plays a critical role in controlling adipocyte cell number, body weight, and metabolic profile in a homeostatic state...

  5. The nucleotide excision repair (NER system of Helicobacter pylori: Role in mutation prevention and chromosomal import patterns after natural transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moccia Claudia

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive genetic diversity and rapid allelic diversification are characteristics of the human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori, and are believed to contribute to its ability to cause chronic infections. Both a high mutation rate and frequent imports of short fragments of exogenous DNA during mixed infections play important roles in generating this allelic diversity. In this study, we used a genetic approach to investigate the roles of nucleotide excision repair (NER pathway components in H. pylori mutation and recombination. Results Inactivation of any of the four uvr genes strongly increased the susceptibility of H. pylori to DNA damage by ultraviolet light. Inactivation of uvrA and uvrB significantly decreased mutation frequencies whereas only the uvrA deficient mutant exhibited a significant decrease of the recombination frequency after natural transformation. A uvrC mutant did not show significant changes in mutation or recombination rates; however, inactivation of uvrC promoted the incorporation of significantly longer fragments of donor DNA (2.2-fold increase into the recipient chromosome. A deletion of uvrD induced a hyper-recombinational phenotype. Conclusions Our data suggest that the NER system has multiple functions in the genetic diversification of H. pylori, by contributing to its high mutation rate, and by controlling the incorporation of imported DNA fragments after natural transformation.

  6. Age-related neuronal degeneration: complementary roles of nucleotide excision repair and transcription-coupled repair in preventing neuropathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dick Jaarsma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal degeneration is a hallmark of many DNA repair syndromes. Yet, how DNA damage causes neuronal degeneration and whether defects in different repair systems affect the brain differently is largely unknown. Here, we performed a systematic detailed analysis of neurodegenerative changes in mouse models deficient in nucleotide excision repair (NER and transcription-coupled repair (TCR, two partially overlapping DNA repair systems that remove helix-distorting and transcription-blocking lesions, respectively, and that are associated with the UV-sensitive syndromes xeroderma pigmentosum (XP and Cockayne syndrome (CS. TCR-deficient Csa(-/- and Csb(-/- CS mice showed activated microglia cells surrounding oligodendrocytes in regions with myelinated axons throughout the nervous system. This white matter microglia activation was not observed in NER-deficient Xpa(-/- and Xpc(-/- XP mice, but also occurred in Xpd(XPCS mice carrying a point mutation (G602D in the Xpd gene that is associated with a combined XPCS disorder and causes a partial NER and TCR defect. The white matter abnormalities in TCR-deficient mice are compatible with focal dysmyelination in CS patients. Both TCR-deficient and NER-deficient mice showed no evidence for neuronal degeneration apart from p53 activation in sporadic (Csa(-/-, Csb(-/- or highly sporadic (Xpa(-/-, Xpc(-/- neurons and astrocytes. To examine to what extent overlap occurs between both repair systems, we generated TCR-deficient mice with selective inactivation of NER in postnatal neurons. These mice develop dramatic age-related cumulative neuronal loss indicating DNA damage substrate overlap and synergism between TCR and NER pathways in neurons, and they uncover the occurrence of spontaneous DNA injury that may trigger neuronal degeneration. We propose that, while Csa(-/- and Csb(-/- TCR-deficient mice represent powerful animal models to study the mechanisms underlying myelin abnormalities in CS, neuron

  7. Lack of preventive effects of dietary fibers or chlorophyllin against acrylamide toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Gye-Hyeong; Shibutani, Makoto; Kuroiwa, Keiko; Lee, Kyoung-Youl; Takahashi, Miwa; Inoue, Kaoru; Fujimoto, Hitoshi; Hirose, Masao

    2007-08-01

    Dietary fibers and chlorophyllin have shown to exert anti-carcinogenic effects against co-administered carcinogens. To test the possibility of chemoprevention by such dietary supplements on subacutely induced acrylamide (ACR) toxicity, Sprague-Dawley male rats were administered 2.5% sodium alginate, 5% glucomannan, 5% digestion resistant maltodextrin, 2.5% chitin or 1% chlorophyllin in the diet, and starting one week later, co-administered 0.02% ACR in the drinking water for 4 weeks. For comparison, untreated control animals given basal diet and tap water were also included. Neurotoxicity was examined with reference to gait abnormalities and by quantitative assessment of histopathological changes in the sciatic and trigeminal nerves, as well as aberrant dot-like immunoreactivity for synaptophysin in the cerebellar molecular layer. Testicular toxicity was assessed by quantitation of seminiferous tubules with exfoliation of germ cells into the lumen and cell debris in the ducts of the epididymides. Development of testicular toxicity as well as neurotoxicity was evident with ACR-treatment, but was not suppressed by dietary addition of fibers or chlorophyllin, suggesting no apparent beneficial influence of these dietary supplements on experimentally induced subacute ACR toxicity.

  8. Dietary Strategies Implicated in the Prevention and Treatment of Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Iglesia, Rocio; Loria-Kohen, Viviana; Zulet, Maria Angeles; Martinez, Jose Alfredo; Reglero, Guillermo; Ramirez de Molina, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is established as the combination of central obesity and different metabolic disturbances, such as insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidemia. This cluster of factors affects approximately 10%–50% of adults worldwide and the prevalence has been increasing in epidemic proportions over the last years. Thus, dietary strategies to treat this heterogenic disease are under continuous study. In this sense, diets based on negative-energy-balance, the Mediterranean dietary pattern, n-3 fatty acids, total antioxidant capacity and meal frequency have been suggested as effective approaches to treat MetS. Furthermore, the type and percentage of carbohydrates, the glycemic index or glycemic load, and dietary fiber content are some of the most relevant aspects related to insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance, which are important co-morbidities of MetS. Finally, new studies focused on the molecular action of specific nutritional bioactive compounds with positive effects on the MetS are currently an objective of scientific research worldwide. The present review summarizes some of the most relevant dietary approaches and bioactive compounds employed in the treatment of the MetS to date. PMID:27834920

  9. Prevention of obesity relatred metabolic diseases by processed foods containing soluble dietary fibers and flavonoids (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asians and other non-caucasians are generally more susceptible to obesity related chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Viscous soluble dietary fibers such as cereal beta-glucans and psyllium reduce plasma cholesterol and postprandial glycemia in humans. We have stud...

  10. Dietary fat and the prevention of type 2 diabetes: impact on inflammation and underlying mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van S.J.

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of metabolic syndrome, which is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing rapidly. Changes in dietary fat composition from saturated fat (SFA) to monounsaturated fat (MUFA) from olive oil, which is highly consumed in a Mediterranea

  11. Dietary fat and the prevention of type 2 diabetes: impact on inflammation and underlying mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van S.J.

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of metabolic syndrome, which is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing rapidly. Changes in dietary fat composition from saturated fat (SFA) to monounsaturated fat (MUFA) from olive oil, which is highly consumed in a

  12. Prostate Cancer Prevention by Sulforaphane, a Novel Dietary Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    HDAC) enzymes. Pharmacological HDAC inhibitors are being tested in clinical trials and have similar anticancer properties as SFN, such as changes in...via epigenetic modulation of HDACs. Other dietary agents such as butyrate, biotin, lipoic acid, garlic organosulfur compounds, and metabolites of

  13. Dietary calcium and phosphate in the prevention of colorectal cancer. Mechanism and nutrition implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Govers, Maria Johanna Adriana Petronella

    1993-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (cancerof the large intestine) is the second most common cause of cancer deaths in Western countries. Epidemiological studies suggest that environmental factors, and in particular dietary habits, play an important role in the etiology of colorectal cancer. A positive association

  14. Dietary Strategies Implicated in the Prevention and Treatment of Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio de la Iglesia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS is established as the combination of central obesity and different metabolic disturbances, such as insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidemia. This cluster of factors affects approximately 10%–50% of adults worldwide and the prevalence has been increasing in epidemic proportions over the last years. Thus, dietary strategies to treat this heterogenic disease are under continuous study. In this sense, diets based on negative-energy-balance, the Mediterranean dietary pattern, n-3 fatty acids, total antioxidant capacity and meal frequency have been suggested as effective approaches to treat MetS. Furthermore, the type and percentage of carbohydrates, the glycemic index or glycemic load, and dietary fiber content are some of the most relevant aspects related to insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance, which are important co-morbidities of MetS. Finally, new studies focused on the molecular action of specific nutritional bioactive compounds with positive effects on the MetS are currently an objective of scientific research worldwide. The present review summarizes some of the most relevant dietary approaches and bioactive compounds employed in the treatment of the MetS to date.

  15. The role of vitamers and dietary-based metabolites of vitamin D in prevention of vitamin D deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin D. Cashman

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available There is little doubt that vitamin D deficiency across all age groups in Europe is a problem. Low vitamin D status arises due to limited, if any, dermal synthesis during the winter months at latitudes above 40°N, putting increased importance on dietary supply of the vitamin. However, dietary intakes by most populations are low due to the limited supply of vitamin D-rich foods in the food chain. Thus strategies that effectively address this public health issue are urgently required. It has been emphasized and re-emphasized that there are only a limited number of public health strategies available to correct low dietary vitamin D intake: 1 improving intake of naturally occurring vitamin D-rich foods, 2 vitamin D fortification (mandatory or voluntarily of food, and 3 vitamin D supplementation. Recent evidence suggests that the levels of vitamin D added to food would need to be high so as to ensure dietary requirements are met and health outcomes optimized. In addition, knowledge of the most effective forms of vitamin D to use in some of these preventative approaches is important. There is still uncertainty in relation to the relative efficacy of vitamin D2 versus D3, the two main food derived forms and those used in vitamin D supplements. The major metabolite of vitamin D with biological activity is 1,25(OH2D; however, this is usually used for pharmacological purposes and is not typically used in normal, healthy people. The other major metabolite, 25(OHD, which has also been used for pharmacological purposes is present in certain foods such as meat and meat products (particularly offal as well as eggs. This metabolite may have the potential to boost vitamin D status up to five times more effectively that native vitamin D3 in foods. However, the exact bioactivity of this compound needs to be established.

  16. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of cancer prevention by dietary phytochemicals:From experimental models to clinical trials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Girish B Maru; Rasika R Hudlikar; Gaurav Kumar; Khushboo Gandhi; Manoj B Mahimkar

    2016-01-01

    Chemoprevention is one of the cancer prevention approaches wherein natural/synthetic agent(s) are prescribed with the aim to delay or disrupt multiple pathways and processes involved at multiple steps, i.e., initiation, promotion, and progression of cancer. Amongst environmental chemopreventive compounds, diet/beverage-derived components are under evaluation, because of their long history of exposure to humans, high tolerability, low toxicity, and reported biological activities. This compilation briefly covers and compares the available evidence on chemopreventive efficacy and probable mechanism of chemoprevention by selected dietary phytochemicals(capsaicin, curcumin, diallyl sulphide, genistein, green/black tea polyphenols, indoles, lycopene, phenethyl isocyanate, resveratrol, retinoids and tocopherols) in experimental systems and clinical trials. All the dietary phytochemicals covered in this review have demonstrated chemopreventive efficacy against spontaneous or carcinogen-induced experimental tumors and/or associated biomarkers and processes in rodents at several organ sites. The observed anti-initiating, anti-promoting and anti-progression activity of dietary phytochemicals in carcinogen-induced experimental models involve phytochemical-mediated redox changes, modulation of enzymes and signaling kinases resulting to effects on multiple genes and cell signaling pathways. Results from clinical trials using these compounds have not shown them to be chemopreventive. This may be due to our:(1) inability to reproduce the exposure conditions, i.e., levels, complexity, other host and lifestyle factors; and(2) lack of understanding about the mechanisms of action and agent-mediated toxicity in several organs and physiological processes in the host. Current research efforts in addressing the issues of exposure conditions, bioavailability, toxicity and the mode of action of dietary phytochemicals may help address the reason for observed mismatch that may ultimately lead

  17. Impact on dietary intake of a self-directed, gender-tailored diabetes prevention program in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollo, Megan E; Aguiar, Elroy J; Pursey, Kirrilly M; Morgan, Philip J; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Young, Myles D; Collins, Clare E; Callister, Robin

    2017-08-15

    To investigate changes in dietary intake following a 6-mo randomised controlled trial of the self-directed, gender-tailored type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) Prevention Using LifeStyle Education (PULSE) program in men. Men aged 18-65 years, with a body mass index (BMI) 25-40 kg/m(2), and at high risk for developing T2DM were recruited from the Hunter Region of New South Wales, Australia. Eligible participants were randomised into one of two groups: (1) waitlist control; or (2) PULSE intervention. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline and immediately post-program using the Australian Eating Survey food frequency questionnaire and diet quality measured using the Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS). One hundred and one participants (n = 48, control; n = 53, intervention, mean age 52.3 ± 9.7 years, BMI of 32.6 ± 3.3 kg/m(2)) commenced the study. Following the active phase, differences between groups were observed for proportion of total energy consumed from healthful (core) foods (+7.6%EI, P < 0.001), energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods (-7.6%EI, P < 0.001), sodium (-369 mg, P = 0.047), and diet quality (ARFS) (+4.3, P = 0.004), including sub-scales for fruit (+1.1, P = 0.03), meat (+0.9, P = 0.004) and non-meat protein (+0.5, P = 0.03). The PULSE prevention program's nutrition messages led to significant improvements in dietary intake in men at risk of T2DM.

  18. Dietary magnesium, not calcium, prevents vascular calcification in a mouse model for pseudoxanthoma elasticum

    OpenAIRE

    Gorgels, Theo; Waarsing, Jan; Wolf, Anneke; Brink, Jacoline; Loves, Willem; Bergen, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    textabstractPseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is a heritable disorder characterized by ectopic calcification of connective tissue in skin, Bruch's membrane of the eye, and walls of blood vessels. PXE is caused by mutations in the ABCC6 gene, but the exact etiology is still unknown. While observations on patients suggest that high calcium intake worsens the clinical symptoms, the patient organization PXE International has published the dietary advice to increase calcium intake in combination with...

  19. Mechanism for Prevention of Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury by Dietary Methyl Donors

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Christine L.; Bradford, Blair U.; Craig, Christopher Patrick; Tsuchiya, Masato; Uehara, Takeki; O’Connell, Thomas M.; Pogribny, Igor P.; Melnyk, Stepan; Koop, Dennis R.; Bleyle, Lisa; Threadgill, David W.; Rusyn, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol-induced liver injury (ALI) has been associated with, among other molecular changes, abnormal hepatic methionine metabolism, resulting in decreased levels of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). Dietary methyl donor supplements such as SAM and betaine mitigate ALI in animal models; however, the mechanisms of protection remain elusive. It has been suggested that methyl donors may act via attenuation of alcohol-induced oxidative stress. We hypothesized that the protective action of methyl donors ...

  20. An update on dietary phenolic compounds in the prevention and management of rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosillo, María Angeles; Alarcón-de-la-Lastra, Catalina; Sánchez-Hidalgo, Marina

    2016-07-13

    Certain nutritional components influence the cellular metabolism and interfere in the pathological inflammatory process, so that they may act as a coadjuvant in the treatment of many chronic inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Particularly, a wide range of evidence has demonstrated the beneficial roles of dietary phenolic compounds in RA because of their ability to modulate pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory pathways reducing the onset of arthritic disease progression. These natural phenolic compounds can modulate both the action and the production of inflammatory mediators either directly or indirectly by modulating the action of other molecules involved in RA pathology. Subsequently, the purpose of this article is to review the main in vitro and in vivo studies in RA, which have documented interesting insights into the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory properties of dietary phenolic compounds focusing on their molecular action mechanisms involved in RA. The observations reported above are promising and suggest that the dietary phenolic compounds may influence the course of RA, ameliorating the RA symptoms and downregulating the inflammation at the molecular level; however, most of the studies conducted to date have been preclinical. Thus, future studies should therefore focus more on understanding the efficacy of these phenolic compounds in humans and bringing them to the forefront of the treatment of chronic human diseases.

  1. Dairy products, dietary calcium and bone health: possibility of prevention of osteoporosis in women: the Polish experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadolowska, Lidia; Sobas, Kamila; Szczepanska, Justyna W; Slowinska, Malgorzata A; Czlapka-Matyasik, Magdalena; Niedzwiedzka, Ewa

    2013-07-16

    The objective of the study was to analyze the consumption of dairy products and dietary calcium by women in the context of bone mineral density and to assess opportunities to prevent osteoporosis in a dietary manner. The study was carried out with 712 Polish women. In 170 women aged 32 to 59 bone mineral density (BMD) was measured. The data on the consumption of dairy products and dietary calcium and some other osteoporosis risk factors was collected from 712 women. The average calcium intake from a diet was 507 mg/day. Only 2% of the women met Polish calcium intake recommendations. During adulthood, dairy product consumption or dietary calcium intake did not differ significantly between women with low BMD (below -1 SD) and women with regular BMD (≥-1 SD) (47.4 vs. 44.3 servings/week and 459 vs. 510 mg/day, respectively, p > 0.05). The odds ratios adjusted for age, menstruation and BMI in women with upper BMD tercile in comparison to the reference group (bottom tercile) was 2.73 (95% CI: 1.14, 6.55; p dairy products during the pre-school period and 2.40 (95% CI: 1.01, 5.70; p dairy products during the school period. Two clusters of women were established. In the S1 cluster, low BMD (below -1 SD) was associated with older age (≥ 50 years), lack of menstrual cycle. In the S2 cluster, regular BMD (≥-1 SD) was related to younger aged women (dairy products (≥28 servings/week) during adulthood and daily intake of dairy products during childhood and adolescence. The results indicate that good bone health to the larg e extent depended upon the combined impact of dietary factors and some non-modifiable risk factors of osteoporosis such as age and the presence of menstruation. Consumption of dairy products in childhood and adolescence may improve bone mineral density and reduce the risk of osteoporosis in adult women.

  2. Dietary phytochemicals and cancer prevention: Nrf2 signaling, epigenetics, and cell death mechanisms in blocking cancer initiation and progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Hun; Khor, Tin Oo; Shu, Limin; Su, Zheng-Yuan; Fuentes, Francisco; Kong, Ah-Ng Tony

    2013-01-01

    Reactive metabolites from carcinogens and oxidative stress can drive genetic mutations, genomic instability, neoplastic transformation, and ultimately carcinogenesis. Numerous dietary phytochemicals in vegetables/fruits have been shown to possess cancer chemopreventive effects in both preclinical animal models and human epidemiological studies. These phytochemicals could prevent the initiation of carcinogenesis via either direct scavenging of reactive oxygen species/reactive nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) or, more importantly, the induction of cellular defense detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes. These defense enzymes mediated by Nrf2-antioxidative stress and anti-inflammatory signaling pathways can contribute to cellular protection against ROS/RNS and reactive metabolites of carcinogens. In addition, these compounds would kill initiated/transformed cancer cells in vitro and in in vivo xenografts via diverse anti-cancer mechanisms. These mechanisms include the activation of signaling kinases (e.g., JNK), caspases and the mitochondria damage/cytochrome c pathways. Phytochemicals may also have anti-cancer effects by inhibiting the IKK/NF-κB pathway, inhibiting STAT3, and causing cell cycle arrest. In addition, other mechanisms may include epigenetic alterations (e.g., inhibition of HDACs, miRNAs, and the modification of the CpG methylation of cancer-related genes). In this review, we will discuss: the current advances in the study of Nrf2 signaling; Nrf2-deficient tumor mouse models; the epigenetic control of Nrf2 in tumorigenesis and chemoprevention; Nrf2-mediated cancer chemoprevention by naturally occurring dietary phytochemicals; and the mutation or hyper-expression of the Nrf2–Keap1 signaling pathway in advanced tumor cells. The future development of dietary phytochemicals for chemoprevention must integrate in vitro signaling mechanisms, relevant biomarkers of human diseases, and combinations of different phytochemicals and/or non-toxic therapeutic drugs, including

  3. DIETARY FLAXSEED PREVENTS RADIATION-INDUCED OXIDATIVE LUNG DAMAGE, INFLAMMATION AND FIBROSIS IN A MOUSE MODEL OF THORACIC RADIATION INJURY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James C.; Krochak, Ryan; Blouin, Aaron; Kanterakis, Stathis; Chatterjee, Shampa; Arguiri, Evguenia; Vachani, Anil; Solomides, Charalambos C.; Cengel, Keith A.; Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo

    2009-01-01

    Flaxseed (FS) has high contents of omega-3 fatty acids and lignans with antioxidant properties. Its use in preventing thoracic X-ray radiation therapy (XRT)-induced pneumonopathy has never been evaluated. We evaluated FS supplementation given to mice given before and post-XRT. FS-derived lignans, known for their direct antioxidant properties, were evaluated in abrogating ROS generation in cultured endothelial cells following gamma radiation exposure. Mice were fed 10% FS or isocaloric control diet for three weeks and given 13.5 Gy thoracic XRT. Lungs were evaluated at 24 hours for markers of radiation-induced injury, three weeks for acute lung damage (lipid peroxidation, lung edema and inflammation), and at four months for late lung damage (inflammation and fibrosis). FS-Lignans blunted ROS generation in vitro, resulting from radiation in a dose-dependent manner. FS-fed mice had reduced expression of lung injury biomarkers (Bax, p21, and TGF-beta1) at 24 hours following XRT and reduced oxidative lung damage as measured by malondialdehyde (MDA) levels at 3 weeks following XRT. In addition, FS-fed mice had decreased lung fibrosis as determined by hydroxyproline content and decreased inflammatory cell influx into lungs at 4 months post XRT. Importantly, when Lewis Lung carcinoma cells were injected systemically in mice, FS dietary supplementation did not appear to protect lung tumors from responding to thoracic XRT. Dietary FS is protective against pulmonary fibrosis, inflammation and oxidative lung damage in a murine model. Moreover, in this model, tumor radioprotection was not observed. FS lignans exhibited potent radiation-induced ROS scavenging action. Taken together, these data suggest that dietary flaxseed may be clinically useful as an agent to increase the therapeutic index of thoracic XRT by increasing the radiation tolerance of lung tissues. PMID:18981722

  4. Encapsulated Synbiotic Dietary Supplementation at Different Dosages to Prevent Vibriosis in White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anis Zubaidah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of encapsulated synbiotic (Bacillus sp. NP5 and oligosaccharide dietary at different dosages on growth performance, survival rate, feed conversion ratio, and immune responses of Litopenaeus vannamei against Vibrio infection. The shrimps of the main treatments were fed by the diet that contained three different dosages of encapsulated synbiotic [0.5% (A, 1% (B, and 2% (C (w/w] with feeding rate of 5% of shrimp biomass (4 times a day. The shrimps of two control treatments (negative control and positive control were fed only by commercial feed without supplementation of encapsulated synbiotic. The growth, feed conversion ratio, and survival rate were observed after 30 days of encapsulated synbiotic dietary. The shrimps were then challenged by injection of Vibrio harveyi (6 log colony forming units/mL 0.1 mL/shrimp, excluded the negative control treatment. Afterward, the survival and immune responses were observed for 9 days after experimental infection. The shrimps treated with 2% encapsulated synbiotic (treatment C in the diet showed the highest growth performance (2.98 ± 0.42%, feed conversion ratio (1.26 ± 0.19, and better immune responses i.e. total hemocyte counts, differential hemocyte count, phenoloxidase, and intestine bacteria observation compared to those of positive control treatment.

  5. Dietary Milk Sphingomyelin Prevents Disruption of Skin Barrier Function in Hairless Mice after UV-B Irradiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chisato Oba

    Full Text Available Exposure to ultraviolet-B (UV-B irradiation causes skin barrier defects. Based on earlier findings that milk phospholipids containing high amounts of sphingomyelin (SM improved the water content of the stratum corneum (SC in normal mice, here we investigated the effects of dietary milk SM on skin barrier defects induced by a single dose of UV-B irradiation in hairless mice. Nine week old hairless mice were orally administrated SM (146 mg/kg BW/day for a total of ten days. After seven days of SM administration, the dorsal skin was exposed to a single dose of UV-B (20 mJ/cm2. Administration of SM significantly suppressed an increase in transepidermal water loss and a decrease in SC water content induced by UV-B irradiation. SM supplementation significantly maintained covalently-bound ω-hydroxy ceramide levels and down-regulated mRNA levels of acute inflammation-associated genes, including thymic stromal lymphopoietin, interleukin-1 beta, and interleukin-6. Furthermore, significantly higher levels of loricrin and transglutaminase-3 mRNA were observed in the SM group. Our study shows for the first time that dietary SM modulates epidermal structures, and can help prevent disruption of skin barrier function after UV-B irradiation.

  6. Effect of Dietary Resistant Starch on Prevention and Treatment of Obesity-related Diseases and Its Possible Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Li, Hua Ting; Shen, Li; Fang, Qi Chen; Qian, Ling Ling; Jia, Wei Ping

    2015-04-01

    Overweight or obesity has become a serious public health problem in the world, scientists are concentrating their efforts on exploring novel ways to treat obesity. Nowadays, the availabilities of bariatric surgery and pharmacotherapy have enhanced obesity treatment, but it should has support from diet, physical exercise and lifestyle modification, especially the functional food. Resistant starch, an indigestible starch, has been studied for years for its beneficial effects on regulating blood glucose level and lipid metabolism. The aim of this review is to summarize the effect of resistant starch on weight loss and the possible mechanisms. According to numerous previous studies it could be concluded that resistant starch can reduce fat accumulation, enhance insulin sensitivity, regulate blood glucose level and lipid metabolism. Recent investigations have focused on the possible associations between resistant starch and incretins as well as gut microbiota. Resistant starch seems to be a promising dietary fiber for the prevention or treatment of obesity and its related diseases.

  7. The role of dietary coconut for the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease: potential mechanisms of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, W M A D B; Martins, Ian J; Goozee, K G; Brennan, Charles S; Jayasena, V; Martins, R N

    2015-07-14

    Coconut, Cocos nucifera L., is a tree that is cultivated to provide a large number of products, although it is mainly grown for its nutritional and medicinal values. Coconut oil, derived from the coconut fruit, has been recognised historically as containing high levels of saturated fat; however, closer scrutiny suggests that coconut should be regarded more favourably. Unlike most other dietary fats that are high in long-chain fatty acids, coconut oil comprises medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA). MCFA are unique in that they are easily absorbed and metabolised by the liver, and can be converted to ketones. Ketone bodies are an important alternative energy source in the brain, and may be beneficial to people developing or already with memory impairment, as in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Coconut is classified as a highly nutritious 'functional food'. It is rich in dietary fibre, vitamins and minerals; however, notably, evidence is mounting to support the concept that coconut may be beneficial in the treatment of obesity, dyslipidaemia, elevated LDL, insulin resistance and hypertension - these are the risk factors for CVD and type 2 diabetes, and also for AD. In addition, phenolic compounds and hormones (cytokinins) found in coconut may assist in preventing the aggregation of amyloid-β peptide, potentially inhibiting a key step in the pathogenesis of AD. The purpose of the present review was to explore the literature related to coconut, outlining the known mechanistic physiology, and to discuss the potential role of coconut supplementation as a therapeutic option in the prevention and management of AD.

  8. Certain dietary carbohydrates promote Listeria infection in a guinea pig model, while others prevent it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersbach, Tine; Jørgensen, Julie Boeck; Heegaard, Peter Michael; Lahtinen, Sampo J; Ouwehand, Arthur C; Poulsen, Morten; Frøkiaer, Hanne; Licht, Tine Rask

    2010-06-15

    It has been proposed that dietary non-digestible carbohydrates can improve host resistance to intestinal infections by stimulating health-promoting bacteria in the gut. However, evidence from in vivo infection studies is scarce, particularly for gram-positive infections. We studied the effect of five non-digestible carbohydrates on the resistance of guinea pigs to Listeria monocytogenes infections. Animals were fed a diet supplemented with 10% xylooligosaccharides (XOS), galactooligosaccharides (GOS), inulin, apple pectin or polydextrose for three weeks before oral infection with a mixture of three different fluorescently labeled L. monocytogenes strains. Colonisation of L. monocytogenes in the intestine was determined by quantification of L. monocytogenes in faecal, ileal and caecal samples while translocation was determined by quantification of L. monocytogenes in mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen and liver. XOS and GOS significantly (Pcarbohydrates can have entirely different effects on the intestinal colonisation and translocation of a pathogenic bacterium.

  9. Activation of TRPV1 by dietary capsaicin improves endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation and prevents hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Dachun; Luo, Zhidan; Ma, Shuangtao

    2010-01-01

    enhances endothelium-dependent relaxation in wild-type mice, an effect absent in TRPV1-deficient mice. Long-term stimulation of TRPV1 can activate PKA, which contributes to increased eNOS phosphorylation, improves vasorelaxation, and lowers blood pressure in genetically hypertensive rats. We conclude......Some plant-based diets lower the cardiometabolic risks and prevalence of hypertension. New evidence implies a role for the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) cation channel in the pathogenesis of cardiometabolic diseases. Little is known about impact of chronic TRPV1 activation...... on the regulation of vascular function and blood pressure. Here we report that chronic TRPV1 activation by dietary capsaicin increases the phosphorylation of protein kinase A (PKA) and eNOS and thus production of nitric oxide (NO) in endothelial cells, which is calcium dependent. TRPV1 activation by capsaicin...

  10. Perceived Importance of Dietary Protein to Prevent Weight Gain: A National Survey among Midlife Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, Noel D.; Perry, Courtney; Thomas, William; Raatz, Susan K.; Reicks, Marla

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate reported use of the practice of "eating more protein" to prevent weight gain among midlife women. Design: Cross-sectional national survey. Participants: One thousand eight hundred twenty-four midlife women (40-60 y) from the 9 United States geographic regions, primarily married (71%), white (76%), and well educated; half were…

  11. Dietary prevention of allergic diseases in infants and small children. Part I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muraro, Antonella; Dreborg, Sten; Halken, Susanne

    2004-01-01

    The role of primary prevention of allergic diseases has been a matter of debate for the last 40 years. In order to shed some light into this issue, a group of experts of the Section of Pediatrics EAACI critically reviewed the existing literature on the subject. In this paper, the immunology of th...

  12. Dietary constituents of broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables: implications for prevention and therapy of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, Ingrid; Büchler, Markus W

    2010-08-01

    Over the past several decades, research on the action of bioactive constituents of plants has focused predominantly on their cancer-preventive properties. Today it can be explained why the consumption of fruits and vegetables may lead to a reduced frequency of certain cancer entities and why certain foods have therapeutic effects. Secondary plant products and especially glucosinolates from vegetables of the cruciferae family are supposed to have anti-carcinogenic potential. The present article gives an overview about secondary plant products in general and focuses to mechanisms of preventive and therapeutic effects of cruciferae, particular the brassica family and their famous member broccoli. Also, this article summarizes our knowledge of safety, tolerance and metabolism of glucosinolates and their therapeutic active degradation products isothiocyanates in animals and clinical studies.

  13. Mechanism for prevention of alcohol-induced liver injury by dietary methyl donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Christine L; Bradford, Blair U; Craig, Christopher Patrick; Tsuchiya, Masato; Uehara, Takeki; O'Connell, Thomas M; Pogribny, Igor P; Melnyk, Stepan; Koop, Dennis R; Bleyle, Lisa; Threadgill, David W; Rusyn, Ivan

    2010-05-01

    Alcohol-induced liver injury (ALI) has been associated with, among other molecular changes, abnormal hepatic methionine metabolism, resulting in decreased levels of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). Dietary methyl donor supplements such as SAM and betaine mitigate ALI in animal models; however, the mechanisms of protection remain elusive. It has been suggested that methyl donors may act via attenuation of alcohol-induced oxidative stress. We hypothesized that the protective action of methyl donors is mediated by an effect on the oxidative metabolism of alcohol in the liver. Male C57BL/6J mice were administered a control high-fat diet or diet enriched in methyl donors with or without alcohol for 4 weeks using the enteral alcohol feeding model. As expected, attenuation of ALI and an increase in reduced glutathione:oxidized glutathione ratio were achieved with methyl donor supplementation. Interestingly, methyl donors led to a 35% increase in blood alcohol elimination rate, and while there was no effect on alcohol metabolism in the stomach, a profound effect on liver alcohol metabolism was observed. The catalase-dependent pathway of alcohol metabolism was induced, yet the increase in CYP2E1 activity by alcohol was blunted, which may be mitigating production of oxidants. Additional factors contributing to the protective effects of methyl donors in ALI were increased activity of low- and high-K(m) aldehyde dehydrogenases leading to lower hepatic acetaldehyde, maintenance of the efficient mitochondrial energy metabolism, and promotion of peroxisomal beta-oxidation. Profound changes in alcohol metabolism represent additional important mechanism of the protective effect of methyl donors in ALI.

  14. Physical activity in the prevention and amelioration of osteoporosis in women : interaction of mechanical, hormonal and dietary factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borer, Katarina T

    2005-01-01

    characteristic of longitudinal training studies. After 9-12 months of regular exercise, young adult women often show very small benefits to bone health, possibly because of large subject attrition rates, inadequate exercise intensity, duration or frequency, or because at this stage of life accumulation of bone mass may be at its natural peak. The important influence of hormones as well as dietary and specific nutrient abundance on bone growth and health are emphasised, and premature bone loss associated with dietary restriction and estradiol withdrawal in exercise-induced amenorrhoea is described. In section 3, the same assessment is applied to the effects of physical activity in postmenopausal women. Studies of postmenopausal women are presented from the perspective of limitations of the capacity of the skeleton to adapt to mechanical stress of exercise due to altered hormonal status and inadequate intake of specific nutrients. After menopause, effectiveness of exercise to increase bone mineral depends heavily on adequate availability of dietary calcium. Relatively infrequent evidence that physical activity prevents bone loss or increases bone mineral after menopause may be a consequence of inadequate calcium availability or low intensity of exercise in training studies. Several studies with postmenopausal women show modest increases in bone mineral toward the norm seen in a healthy population in response to high-intensity training. Physical activities continue to stimulate increases in bone diameter throughout the lifespan. These exercise-stimulated increases in bone diameter diminish the risk of fractures by mechanically counteracting the thinning of bones and increases in bone porosity. Seven principles of bone adaptation to mechanical stress are reviewed in section 4 to suggest how exercise by human subjects could be made more effective. They posit that exercise should: (i) be dynamic, not static; (ii) exceed a threshold intensity; (iii) exceed a threshold strain frequency

  15. LEARNING AS A TOOL FOR CANCER PREVENTION THROUGH THE ACQUISITION OF NEW DIETARY HABITS AND BEHAVIORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Brito

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The need to promote knowledge of health entails, in part, by encouraging healthy eating habits. The creation of popular science materials, especially at schools, by promoting guidance for the eating habits is presented as an important tool. Foods that contain bioactive compounds are called nutraceutical foods and about 35% of various cancers occur due to inadequate diets. Conventional therapies are used in the treatment of cancer, even though they are efficient in fighting tumors, to cause many harmful effects to the patient, and therefore the researches for alternative therapies have increased. Especially those act strengthening the immunologic system. The mushrooms are able to modulate carcinogenesis in all stages of the disease through different mechanisms of action of the bioactive compounds, thus having an antitumor effect that is assigned to restore and improve the immune response through stimulation of cellular immunity which are present polysaccharides the composition of the mushrooms, such as beta-glucans that besides the anticancer effect, it still has activity as immunostimulant, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, which are already used in Japan as drugs for treating cancer patients. The aim of this work was to use learning as a tool for acquiring habits and eating behaviors in the general community and ownership and acquisition of knowledge about the antitumor potential of bioactive compounds in foods which are applied in cancer prevention through the scientific dissemination / education. Because it is a popular science work using written material and the dissemination of the material make for yourself the methodology used for the dissemination of scientific knowledge. Thus, the inclusion of consumption of mushrooms in the diet may represent an important step in the cancer prevention as the best form of prevention, and therefore it shows the need for available information to everyone, as it has proposed this work, disclosure.

  16. Phospholipids and products of their hydrolysis as dietary preventive factors for civilization diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parchem, Karol; Bartoszek, Agnieszka

    2016-12-31

    The results of numerous epidemiological studies indicate that phospholipids play an important role in the prevention of chronic diseases faced by contemporary society. Firstly, these compounds are responsible for the proper functioning of cell membranes, by ensuring liquidity and permeability, which is pivotal for normal activity of membrane proteins, including receptors. These mechanisms are at the core of prevention of cancer, autoimmune or neurological disorders. Secondly, structure and properties of phospholipids cause that they are highly available source of biologically active fatty acids. Thirdly, also products of endogenous hydrolysis of phospholipids exhibit biological activity. These include lysophospholipids formed as a result of disconnecting free fatty acid from glycerophospholipids in the reaction catalyzed by phospholipase A, phosphatidic acid and hydrophilic subunits released by the activity of phospholipase D. The bioactive products of hydrolysis also include ceramides liberated from phosphosphingolipids after removal of a hydrophilic unit catalyzed by sphingomyelinase. Phospholipids are supplied to the human body with food. A high content of phospholipids is characteristic for egg yolk, liver, pork and poultry, as well as some soy products. Particularly beneficial are phospholipids derived from seafood because they are a rich source of essential fatty acids of the n-3 family.

  17. Simultaneous Activation of Nrf2 and Elevation of Dietary and Endogenous Antioxidant Chemicals for Cancer Prevention in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Kedar N

    2016-01-01

    Despite extensive studies in cancer prevention, the incidence of cancer is increasing. We review studies that have identified several biochemical and genetic defects as well as potential carcinogens in the diet, environmental factors, and lifestyle-related habits. Two of the biochemical abnormalities increased oxidative stress and chronic inflammation, and chronic exposure to carcinogens and mutagens play a significant role in the initiation of multistage carcinogenesis. Therefore, attenuation of these biochemical defects may be useful in reducing the incidence of cancer. Activation of the transcriptional factor called nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), which enhances the levels of antioxidant enzymes and phase-2-detoxifying enzymes by complex mechanisms, may be one of the ways to reduce oxidative stress and chronic inflammation. Antioxidant enzymes destroy free radicals by catalysis, whereas phase-2-detoxifying enzymes remove potential carcinogens by converting them to harmless compounds for elimination from the body. However, increasing the levels of antioxidant enzymes by activating Nrf2 may not be sufficient to decrease oxidative stress and chronic inflammation optimally, because antioxidant chemicals, which are decreased in a high oxidative environment, must also be elevated. This review discusses the regulation of activation of Nrf2 and proposes a hypothesis that an elevation of the levels of antioxidant enzymes and dietary and endogenous antioxidant chemicals simultaneously may reduce the incidence of cancer by decreasing oxidative stress and chronic inflammation. The levels of antioxidant chemicals can be increased by supplementation, but increasing the levels of antioxidant enzymes requires activation of Nrf2 by reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent and-independent mechanisms. Several phytochemicals and antioxidant chemicals that activate Nrf2 have been identified. This review also describes clinical studies on antioxidants in cancer

  18. A dietary resveratrol-rich grape extract prevents the developing of atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta of pigs fed an atherogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azorín-Ortuño, María; Yañéz-Gascón, María Josefa; Pallarés, Francisco J; Rivera, José; González-Sarrías, Antonio; Larrosa, Mar; Vallejo, Fernando; García-Conesa, María Teresa; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco; Espín, Juan Carlos

    2012-06-06

    The presence of grape and wine polyphenol resveratrol (RES) in the diet is negligible. Therefore, the cardiovascular benefits of this molecule, in a dietary context, remain to be established. We aimed to investigate, through dietary intervention, the effects of a resveratrol-rich grape extract (GE-RES) on the prevention of early aortic lesions in pigs fed an atherogenic diet (AD). These effects were compared with those produced by a grape extract lacking RES (GE) or RES alone. Pigs fed the AD for 4 months showed early atherosclerotic lesions in the thoracic aorta: degeneration and fragmentation of elastic fibers, increase of intima thickness, subendothelial fibrosis, and accumulation of fatty cells and anion superoxide radicals. GE-RES was the most effective treatment and prevented the disruption of aortic elastic fibers, decreased their alteration (57%), and reduced the intima thickness (33%) and the accumulation of fatty cells (42%) and O(2)(•-) (38%) in aortic tissue. In addition, GE-RES moderately downregulated the expression of the suppressors of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) and 3 (SOCS3), key regulators of vascular cell responses, in peripheral mononuclear blood cells. Our results suggest that the consumption of this GE-RES nutraceutical, in a dietary prevention context, could prevent early atherosclerotic events. The presence of RES in the grape extract strengthened these effects.

  19. Association of the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene variant (rs9939609) with dietary intake in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappalainen, Tiina; Lindström, Jaana; Paananen, Jussi; Eriksson, Johan G; Karhunen, Leila; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti

    2012-11-28

    A cluster of variants in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene are associated with the common form of obesity. Well-documented dietary data are required for identifying how the genetic risk can be modified by dietary factors. The objective of the present study was to investigate the associations between the FTO risk allele (rs9939609) and dietary intake, and to evaluate how dietary intake affects the association between FTO and BMI in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study during a mean follow-up of 3·2 years. A total of 479 (BMI >25 kg/m2) men and women were genotyped for rs9939609. The participants completed a 3 d food record at baseline and before every annual study visit. The average intakes at baseline and during the years 1, 2 and 3 were calculated. At baseline, the FTO variant rs9939609 was not associated with the mean values of total energy intake, macronutrients or fibre. At baseline, a higher BMI by the FTO risk genotype was detected especially in those who reported a diet high in fat with mean BMI of 30·6 (sd 4·1), 31·3 (sd 4·6) and 34·5 (sd 6·2) kg/m2 for TT, TA and AA carriers, respectively (P =0·005). Higher BMI was also observed in those who had a diet low in carbohydrates (P =0·028) and fibre (P =0·015). However, in the analyses adjusted for total energy intake, age and sex, significant interactions between FTO and dietary intakes were not found. These findings suggest that the association between the FTO genotype and obesity is influenced by the components of dietary intake, and the current dietary recommendations are particularly beneficial for those who are genetically susceptible for obesity.

  20. Dietary Berries and Ellagic Acid Prevent Oxidative DNA Damage and Modulate Expression of DNA Repair Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh C. Gupta

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available DNA damage is a pre-requisite for the initiation of cancer and agents that reduce this damage are useful in cancer prevention. In this study, we evaluated the ability of whole berries and berry phytochemical, ellagic acid to reduce endogenous oxidative DNA damage. Ellagic acid was selected based on > 95% inhibition of 8-oxodeoxyguosine (8-oxodG and other unidentified oxidative DNA adducts induced by 4-hydroxy-17B;-estradiol and CuCl2 in vitro. Inhibition of the latter occurred at lower concentrations (10 u(microM than that for 8-oxodG (100 u(microM. In the in vivo study, female CD-1 mice (n=6 were fed either a control diet or diet supplemented with ellagic acid (400 ppm and dehydrated berries (5% w/w with varying ellagic acid contents -- blueberry (low, strawberry (medium and red raspberry (high, for 3 weeks. Blueberry and strawberry diets showed moderate reductions in endogenous DNA adducts (25%. However, both red raspberry and ellagic acid diets showed a significant reduction of 59% (p < 0.001 and 48% (p < 0.01, respectively. Both diets also resulted in a 3-8 fold over-expression of genes involved in DNA repair such as xeroderma pigmentosum group A complementing protein (XPA, DNA excision repair protein (ERCC5 and DNA ligase III (DNL3. These results suggest that red raspberry and ellagic acid reduce endogenous oxidative DNA damage by mechanisms which may involve increase in DNA repair.

  1. Dietary Intervention for Glucose Tolerance In Teens (DIG IT): Protocol of a randomized controlled trial using health coaching to prevent youth-onset type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Kelly A; Braun, Ethan; Armah, Seth M; Horan, Diarmuid; Smith, Lisa G; Pike, Julie; Tu, Wanzhu; Hamilton, Marc T; Delp, Edward J; Campbell, Wayne W; Boushey, Carol J; Hannon, Tamara S; Gletsu-Miller, Nana

    2017-02-01

    Youth-onset type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a disease that is newly emerging and behavioral strategies for its prevention are limited. Interventions that target the lifestyle behaviors of adolescents, to improve poor dietary quality and reduce excessive sedentariness, promise to reduce the risk of developing T2D. Health coaching is effective for promoting healthy behaviors in patients who have chronic disease, but few experimental studies are in adolescents. This randomized controlled trial, in adolescents with prediabetes, will determine the effectiveness of a health coaching intervention to facilitate adoption of healthy diet and activity behaviors that delay or prevent development of T2D. The Dietary Intervention for Glucose Tolerance In Teens (DIG IT) trial will involve an evaluation of a health coaching intervention in adolescents with prediabetes. Eligible participants will be randomized to receive 6months of health coaching or a single dietary consultation that is standard-of-care. The primary outcome will be 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test concentration. Secondary outcomes will include measures of glycemia and insulin action as well as dietary, physical activity and sedentary behaviors measured using an electronic food record, and by inclinometer. Data will be collected before and after the intervention (at 6months) and at 12months (to assess sustainability). This trial will determine whether a health coaching intervention, a personalized and low-cost approach to modify dietary and activity behaviors, is effective and sustainable for prevention of youth-onset T2D, relative to standard-of-care. Health coaching has the potential to be widely implemented in clinical or community settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Dietary intervention with green dwarf banana flour (Musa sp AAA) prevents intestinal inflammation in a trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid model of rat colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarminio, Viviane; Fruet, Andrea C; Witaicenis, Aline; Rall, Vera L M; Di Stasi, Luiz C

    2012-03-01

    Dietary products are among the therapeutic approaches used to modify intestinal microflora and to promote protective effects during the intestinal inflammatory process. Because the banana plant is rich in resistant starch, which is used by colonic microbiota for the anaerobic production of the short-chain fatty acids that serve as a major fuel source for colonocytes: first, green dwarf banana flour produces protective effects on the intestinal inflammation acting as a prebiotic and, second, combination of this dietary supplementation with prednisolone presents synergistic effects. For this, we used the trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS) model of rat colitis. Our results revealed that the protective effect produced by a combination of 10% green dwarf banana flour with prednisolone was more pronounced than those promoted by a single administration of prednisolone or a diet containing 10% or 20% banana flour. This beneficial effect was associated with an improvement in the colonic oxidative status because the banana flour diet prevented the glutathione depletion and inhibited myeloperoxidase activity and lipid peroxidation. In addition, the intestinal anti-inflammatory activity was associated with an inhibition of alkaline phosphatase activity, a reduction in macroscopic and microscopic scores, and an extension of the lesions. In conclusion, the dietary use of the green dwarf banana flour constitutes an important dietary supplement and complementary medicine product to prevention and treatment of human inflammatory bowel disease.

  3. Benefits and risks of the hormetic effects of dietary isothiocyanates on cancer prevention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongping Bao

    Full Text Available The isothiocyanate (ITC sulforaphane (SFN was shown at low levels (1-5 µM to promote cell proliferation to 120-143% of the controls in a number of human cell lines, whilst at high levels (10-40 µM it inhibited such cell proliferation. Similar dose responses were observed for cell migration, i.e. SFN at 2.5 µM increased cell migration in bladder cancer T24 cells to 128% whilst high levels inhibited cell migration. This hormetic action was also found in an angiogenesis assay where SFN at 2.5 µM promoted endothelial tube formation (118% of the control, whereas at 10-20 µM it caused significant inhibition. The precise mechanism by which SFN influences promotion of cell growth and migration is not known, but probably involves activation of autophagy since an autophagy inhibitor, 3-methyladenine, abolished the effect of SFN on cell migration. Moreover, low doses of SFN offered a protective effect against free-radical mediated cell death, an effect that was enhanced by co-treatment with selenium. These results suggest that SFN may either prevent or promote tumour cell growth depending on the dose and the nature of the target cells. In normal cells, the promotion of cell growth may be of benefit, but in transformed or cancer cells it may be an undesirable risk factor. In summary, ITCs have a biphasic effect on cell growth and migration. The benefits and risks of ITCs are not only determined by the doses, but are affected by interactions with Se and the measured endpoint.

  4. Randomized controlled trial of dietary fiber for the prevention of radiation-induced gastrointestinal toxicity during pelvic radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedlake, Linda; Shaw, Clare; McNair, Helen; Lalji, Amyn; Mohammed, Kabir; Klopper, Tanya; Allan, Lindsey; Tait, Diana; Hawkins, Maria; Somaiah, Navita; Lalondrelle, Susan; Taylor, Alexandra; VanAs, Nicholas; Stewart, Alexandra; Essapen, Sharadah; Gage, Heather; Whelan, Kevin; Andreyev, H Jervoise N

    2017-09-01

    Background: Therapeutic radiotherapy is an important treatment of pelvic cancers. Historically, low-fiber diets have been recommended despite a lack of evidence and potentially beneficial mechanisms of fiber.Objective: This randomized controlled trial compared low-, habitual-, and high-fiber diets for the prevention of gastrointestinal toxicity in patients undergoing pelvic radiotherapy.Design: Patients were randomly assigned to low-fiber [≤10 g nonstarch polysaccharide (NSP)/d], habitual-fiber (control), or high-fiber (≥18 g NSP/d) diets and received individualized counseling at the start of radiotherapy to achieve these targets. The primary endpoint was the difference between groups in the change in the Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire-Bowel Subset (IBDQ-B) score between the starting and nadir (worst) score during treatment. Other measures included macronutrient intake, stool diaries, and fecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations.Results: Patients were randomly assigned to low-fiber (n = 55), habitual-fiber (n = 55), or high-fiber (n = 56) dietary advice. Fiber intakes were significantly different between groups (P fiber group (mean ± SD: -3.7 ± 12.8) than in the habitual-fiber group (-10.8 ± 13.5; P = 0.011). At 1-y postradiotherapy (n = 126) the difference in IBDQ-B scores between the high-fiber (+0.1 ± 14.5) and the habitual-fiber (-8.4 ± 13.3) groups was significant (P = 0.004). No significant differences were observed in stool frequency or form or in short-chain fatty acid concentrations. Significant reductions in energy, protein, and fat intake occurred in the low- and habitual-fiber groups only.Conclusions: Dietary advice to follow a high-fiber diet during pelvic radiotherapy resulted in reduced gastrointestinal toxicity both acutely and at 1 y compared with habitual-fiber intake. Restrictive, non-evidence-based advice to reduce fiber intake in this setting should be abandoned. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT

  5. L-Arginine Intake Effect on Adenine Nucleotide Metabolism in Rat Parenchymal and Reproductive Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kocic

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available L-arginine is conditionally essetcial amino acid, required for normal cell growth, protein synthesis, ammonia detoxification, tissue growth and general performance, proposed in the treatment of men sterility and prevention of male impotence. The aim of the present paper was to estimate the activity of the enzymes of adenine nucleotide metabolism: 5′-nucleotidase (5′-NU, adenosine deaminase (ADA, AMP deaminase, and xanthine oxidase (XO, during dietary intake of L-arginine for a period of four weeks of male Wistar rats. Adenosine concentration in tissues is maintained by the relative activities of the adenosine-producing enzyme, 5′-NU and the adenosine-degrading enzyme-ADA adenosine deaminase. Dietary L-arginine intake directed adenine nucleotide metabolism in liver, kidney, and testis tissue toward the activation of adenosine production, by increased 5′-NU activity and decreased ADA activity. Stimulation of adenosine accumulation could be of importance in mediating arginine antiatherosclerotic, vasoactive, immunomodulatory, and antioxidant effects. Assuming that the XO activity reflects the rate of purine catabolism in the cell, while the activity of AMP deaminase is of importance in ATP regeneration, reduced activity of XO, together with the increased AMP-deaminase activity, may suggest that adenine nucleotides are presumably directed to the ATP regenerating process during dietary L-arginine intake.

  6. The dietary fatty acids of patients with coronary artery disease and controls in Curacao - Implications for primary and secondary prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, DAJ; vanderDijs, FPL; Leerink, CB; Steward, HN; Kroon, TAJ; Suverkropp, GHJ; Romer, JWP; vanDoormaal, JJ; Muskiet, FAJ

    1997-01-01

    Patients with coronary artery disease are advised to augment their dietary linoleic acid intakes at the expense of saturated fatty acids. We investigated whether the dietary linoleic acid intake of 57 patients with coronary artery disease (47 males, 10 females; ages 61 +/- 10 years) in Curacao is hi

  7. An Obesity Dietary Quality Index Predicts Abdominal Obesity in Women: Potential Opportunity for New Prevention and Treatment Paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores M. Wolongevicz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Links between dietary quality and abdominal obesity are poorly understood. Objective. To examine the association between an obesity-specific dietary quality index and abdominal obesity risk in women. Methods. Over 12 years, we followed 288 Framingham Offspring/Spouse Study women, aged 30–69 years, without metabolic syndrome risk factors, cardiovascular disease, cancer, or diabetes at baseline. An 11-nutrient obesity-specific dietary quality index was derived using mean ranks of nutrient intakes from 3-day dietary records. Abdominal obesity (waist circumference >88 cm was assessed during follow-up. Results. Using multiple logistic regression, women with poorer dietary quality were more likely to develop abdominal obesity compared to those with higher dietary quality (OR 1.87; 95% CI, 1.01, 3.47; P for trend =.048 independent of age, physical activity, smoking, and menopausal status. Conclusions. An obesity-specific dietary quality index predicted abdominal obesity in women, suggesting targets for dietary quality assessment, intervention, and treatment to address abdominal adiposity.

  8. Comparison of dietary profile of a rural south Indian population with the current dietary recommendations for prevention of non-communicable diseases (CURES 147

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narasimhan Sowmya

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: The dietary profile of this rural south Indian population reflected unhealthy choices, with the high consumption of refined cereals in the form of polished white rice and low intake of protective foods like fruits, vegetables, n-3 poly and monounsaturated fatty acids. This could potentially contribute to the increase in prevalence of NCDs like diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases in rural areas and calls for appropriate remedial action.

  9. Systematic review of clinical trials on dietary interventions to prevent excessive weight gain during pregnancy among normal weight, overweight and obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanentsapf, Ida; Heitmann, Berit L; Adegboye, Amanda R A

    2011-01-01

    Excessive weight gain during pregnancy and subsequent postpartum weight retention may contribute to the epidemic of obesity among women of childbearing age. Preventing excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) to optimize maternal, fetal and infant wellbeing is therefore of great importance. A number...... of dietary interventions in this area has been conducted with inconsistent results, which has made it difficult to identify effective strategies to prevent excessive weight gain during pregnancy among normal weight, overweight and obese women. The primary objective of this review was to evaluate the effect...

  10. Advantages of dietary, exercise-related, and therapeutic interventions to prevent and treat sarcopenia in adult patients: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DL Waters

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available DL Waters1, RN Baumgartner2, PJ Garry3, B Vellas41Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, Dunedin School of Medicine, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand; 2Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky, USA; 3Department of Pathology, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA; 4Department of Internal Medicine and Geriatric Medicine, University Hospital Center of Toulouse, Gerontopole, Toulouse, FranceAbstract: Sarcopenia is the loss of skeletal muscle mass and function with aging. Although the term sarcopenia was first coined in 1989, its etiology is still poorly understood. Moreover, a consensus for defining sarcopenia continues to elude us. Sarcopenic changes in the muscle include losses in muscle fiber quantity and quality, alpha-motor neurons, protein synthesis rates, and anabolic and sex hormone production. Other factors include basal metabolic rate, increased protein dietary requirements, and chronic inflammation secondary to age-related changes in cytokines and oxidative stress. These changes lead to decreased overall physical functioning, increased frailty, falls risk, and ultimately the loss of independent living. Because the intertwining relationships of these factors are complex, effective treatment options are still under investigation. The published data on sarcopenia are vast, and this review is not intended to be exhaustive. The aim of this review is to provide an update on the current knowledge of the definition, etiology, consequences, and current clinical trials that may help address this pressing public health problem for our aging populations.Keywords: aging, muscle loss, nutrition, physical activity

  11. Effectiveness of a Universal Parental Support Programme to Promote Healthy Dietary Habits and Physical Activity and to Prevent Overweight and Obesity in 6-Year-Old Children: The Healthy School Start Study, a Cluster-Randomised Controlled Trial: e0116876

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gisela Nyberg; Elinor Sundblom; Åsa Norman; Benjamin Bohman; Jan Hagberg; Liselotte Schäfer Elinder

    2015-01-01

      Objective To develop and evaluate the effectiveness of a parental support programme to promote healthy dietary and physical activity habits and to prevent overweight and obesity in Swedish children...

  12. Inhibition of Acyl-Coenzyme A:Cholesterol Acyltransferase 2 (ACAT2) Prevents Dietary Cholesterol-associated Steatosis by Enhancing Hepatic Triglyceride Mobilization*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alger, Heather M.; Brown, J. Mark; Sawyer, Janet K.; Kelley, Kathryn L.; Shah, Ramesh; Wilson, Martha D.; Willingham, Mark C.; Rudel, Lawrence L.

    2010-01-01

    Acyl-CoA:cholesterol O-acyl transferase 2 (ACAT2) promotes cholesterol absorption by the intestine and the secretion of cholesteryl ester-enriched very low density lipoproteins by the liver. Paradoxically, mice lacking ACAT2 also exhibit mild hypertriglyceridemia. The present study addresses the unexpected role of ACAT2 in regulation of hepatic triglyceride (TG) metabolism. Mouse models of either complete genetic deficiency or pharmacological inhibition of ACAT2 were fed low fat diets containing various amounts of cholesterol to induce hepatic steatosis. Mice genetically lacking ACAT2 in both the intestine and the liver were dramatically protected against hepatic neutral lipid (TG and cholesteryl ester) accumulation, with the greatest differences occurring in situations where dietary cholesterol was elevated. Further studies demonstrated that liver-specific depletion of ACAT2 with antisense oligonucleotides prevents dietary cholesterol-associated hepatic steatosis both in an inbred mouse model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (SJL/J) and in a humanized hyperlipidemic mouse model (LDLr−/−, apoB100/100). All mouse models of diminished ACAT2 function showed lowered hepatic triglyceride concentrations and higher plasma triglycerides secondary to increased hepatic secretion of TG into nascent very low density lipoproteins. This work demonstrates that inhibition of hepatic ACAT2 can prevent dietary cholesterol-driven hepatic steatosis in mice. These data provide the first evidence to suggest that ACAT2-specific inhibitors may hold unexpected therapeutic potential to treat both atherosclerosis and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:20231283

  13. Research-to-policy translation for prevention of disordered weight and shape control behaviors: A case example targeting dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, S Bryn; Yu, Kimberly; Tran, Alvin; Mayer, Beth

    2017-04-01

    New approaches to universal eating disorders prevention and interventions targeting macro-environmental change are greatly needed, and research-to-policy translation efforts hold promise for advancing both of these goals. This paper describes as a policy-translation case example an academic-community-government partnership of the Strategic Training Initiative for the Prevention of Eating Disorders, Multi-Service Eating Disorders Association, and the office of Massachusetts Representative Kay Khan, all based in Massachusetts, USA. The partnership's research-to-policy translation project focused on dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building, which have been linked with serious injury and death in consumers. Youth and people of all ages with eating disorders and body dysmorphic disorder may be especially vulnerable to use these products due to deceptive promises of fast and safe weight loss and muscle gain. The research-to-policy translation project was informed by a triggers-to-action framework to establish the evidentiary base of harm to consumers, operationalize policy solutions to mitigate harm through legislation, and generate political will to support action through legislation introduced in the Massachusetts legislature to restrict sales of weight-loss and muscle-building dietary supplements. The paper concludes with lessons learned from this unique policy translation effort for the prevention of disordered weight and shape control behaviors and offers recommendations for next steps for the field to advance research and practice for universal, macro-environmentally targeted prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Overview of the application of nucleotide in aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang Do Huu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Although long history application in infant formula, dietary nucleotide supplementation has been used only recently in the evaluation of growth performance, stress and pathogen resistance in aquaculture species. This paper addresses the present knowledge of the use of nucleotide supplemented in the diet for culture species. Research reveals that dietary nucleotide may have significant impact and is recommended to add to the feed of aquatic species to get better performance. However, more studies should also be conducted to have better understandings on dose requirement, duration of application, impact on different life stage and under different environmental stress and pathogens. Further study should also examine the effects of dietary nucleotide supplementation of intestinal microbiota and gut morphology, and immune response of aquaculture species.

  15. Overview of the application of nucleotide in aquaculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hoang Do Huu

    2016-01-01

    Although long history application in infant formula, dietary nucleotide supplementation has been used only recently in the evaluation of growth performance, stress and pathogen resistance in aquaculture species. This paper addresses the present knowledge of the use of nucleotide supplemented in the diet for culture species. Research reveals that dietary nucleotide may have significant impact and is recommended to add to the feed of aquatic species to get better performance. However, more studies should also be conducted to have better understandings on dose requirement, duration of application, impact on different life stage and under different environmental stress and pathogens. Further study should also examine the effects of dietary nucleotide supplementation of intestinal microbiota and gut morphology, and immune response of aquaculture species.

  16. The preventable causes of death in the United States: comparative risk assessment of dietary, lifestyle, and metabolic risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodarz Danaei

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Knowledge of the number of deaths caused by risk factors is needed for health policy and priority setting. Our aim was to estimate the mortality effects of the following 12 modifiable dietary, lifestyle, and metabolic risk factors in the United States (US using consistent and comparable methods: high blood glucose, low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol, and blood pressure; overweight-obesity; high dietary trans fatty acids and salt; low dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acids (seafood, and fruits and vegetables; physical inactivity; alcohol use; and tobacco smoking. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used data on risk factor exposures in the US population from nationally representative health surveys and disease-specific mortality statistics from the National Center for Health Statistics. We obtained the etiological effects of risk factors on disease-specific mortality, by age, from systematic reviews and meta-analyses of epidemiological studies that had adjusted (i for major potential confounders, and (ii where possible for regression dilution bias. We estimated the number of disease-specific deaths attributable to all non-optimal levels of each risk factor exposure, by age and sex. In 2005, tobacco smoking and high blood pressure were responsible for an estimated 467,000 (95% confidence interval [CI] 436,000-500,000 and 395,000 (372,000-414,000 deaths, accounting for about one in five or six deaths in US adults. Overweight-obesity (216,000; 188,000-237,000 and physical inactivity (191,000; 164,000-222,000 were each responsible for nearly 1 in 10 deaths. High dietary salt (102,000; 97,000-107,000, low dietary omega-3 fatty acids (84,000; 72,000-96,000, and high dietary trans fatty acids (82,000; 63,000-97,000 were the dietary risks with the largest mortality effects. Although 26,000 (23,000-40,000 deaths from ischemic heart disease, ischemic stroke, and diabetes were averted by current alcohol use, they were outweighed by

  17. A randomised control trial of low glycaemic index carbohydrate diet versus no dietary intervention in the prevention of recurrence of fetal macrosomia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Jennifer

    2010-04-23

    Abstract Background Maternal weight and maternal weight gain during pregnancy exert a significant influence on infant birth weight and the incidence of macrosomia. Fetal macrosomia is associated with an increase in both adverse obstetric and neonatal outcome, and also confers a future risk of childhood obesity. Studies have shown that a low glycaemic diet is associated with lower birth weights, however these studies have been small and not randomised 1 2 . Fetal macrosomia recurs in a second pregnancy in one third of women, and maternal weight influences this recurrence risk 3 . Methods\\/Design We propose a randomised control trial of low glycaemic index carbohydrate diet vs. no dietary intervention in the prevention of recurrence of fetal macrosomia. Secundigravid women whose first baby was macrosomic, defined as a birth weight greater than 4000 g will be recruited at their first antenatal visit. Patients will be randomised into two arms, a control arm which will receive no dietary intervention and a diet arm which will be commenced on a low glycaemic index diet. The primary outcome measure will be the mean birth weight centiles and ponderal indices in each group. Discussion Altering the source of maternal dietary carbohydrate may prove to be valuable in the management of pregnancies where there has been a history of fetal macrosomia. Fetal macrosomia recurs in a second pregnancy in one third of women. This randomised control trial will investigate whether or not a low glycaemic index diet can affect this recurrence risk. Current Controlled Trials Registration Number ISRCTN54392969

  18. Dietary antioxidants for chronic periodontitis prevention and its treatment: a review on current evidences from animal and human studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Varela-López

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Given the relationship between chronic periodontitis and high levels of oxidative stress, this review aims to clarify what role can played the dietary intake of different antioxidants in maintaining a healthy periodontium and in reducing chronic periodontitis risk, as well as possible use of dietary therapies based on them for this disease treatment. Methods: The database of the National Library of Medicine, Washington, DC (MEDLINE PubMed was used and all the studies in animals and humans are on the subject of interest in English writing online available from inception of the database until May 2015 were collected. Results: Antioxidants analyzed in this regard include vitamin C, vitamin A, carotenoids and some polyphenols, and coenzyme Q; as well as minerals iron, copper and zinc that are constituents of antioxidant enzymes. Still, there is a paucity of studies with few human studies, mostly observational. Among the various antioxidants, vitamin E and polyphenols seem to have more evidence for its beneficial effect, but in general the studies are insufficient to rule out or establish what antioxidants are useful and which are not. Conclusions: Overall, the data presented indicate that dietary antioxidants are beneficial for periodontal health, at least under certain circumstances. However more studies are needed to establish the relationship between chronic periodontitis and each specific antioxidant and to design useful dietary interventions for this disease management.

  19. Prevention of maternal and developmental toxicity in rats via dietary inclusion of common aflatoxin sorbents: potential for hidden risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayura, K; Abdel-Wahhab, M A; McKenzie, K S; Sarr, A B; Edwards, J F; Naguib, K; Phillips, T D

    1998-02-01

    In earlier work, we have reported that a phyllosilicate clay (HSCAS or NovaSil) can tightly and selectively bind the aflatoxins in vitro and in vivo. Since then, a variety of untested clay and zeolitic minerals have been added to poultry and livestock feeds as potential "aflatoxin binders." However, the efficacy and safety of these products have not been determined. A common zeolite that has been frequently added to animal feed is clinoptilolite. Our objectives in this study were twofold: (1) to utilize the pregnant rat as an in vivo model to compare the potential of HSCAS and clinoptilolite to prevent the developmental toxicity of aflatoxin B1 (AfB1), and (2) to determine the effect of these two sorbents on the metabolism and bioavailability of AfB1. Clay and zeolitic minerals (HSCAS or clinoptilolite) were added to the diet at a level of 0.5% (w/w) and fed to pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats throughout pregnancy (i.e., day 0 to 20). Treatment groups (HSCAS or clinoptilolite) alone and in combination with AfB1 were exposed to sorbents in the feed as well as by gavage. Untreated and AfB1 control animals were fed the basal diet without added sorbent. Between gestation days 6 and 13, animals maintained on diets containing sorbent were gavaged with corn oil in combination with an amount of the respective sorbent equivalent to 0.5% of the estimated maximum daily intake of feed. Animals receiving AfB1 were dosed orally (between days 6 and 13) with AfB1 (2 mg/kg body wt) either alone or concomitantly with a similar quantity of the respective sorbent. Evaluations of toxicity were performed on day 20. These included: maternal (mortality, body weights, feed intake, and litter weights), developmental (embryonic resorptions and fetal body weights), and histological (maternal livers and kidneys). Sorbents alone were not toxic; AfB1 alone and with clinoptilolite resulted in significant maternal and developmental toxicity. Animals treated with HSCAS (plus AfB1) were comparable to

  20. Dietary proanthocyanidins prevent ultraviolet radiation-induced non-melanoma skin cancer through enhanced repair of damaged DNA-dependent activation of immune sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katiyar, Santosh K; Pal, Harish C; Prasad, Ram

    2017-04-12

    Numerous plant products have been used to prevent and manage a wide variety of diseases for centuries. These products are now considered as promising options for the development of more effective and less toxic alternatives to the systems of medicine developed primarily in developed countries in the modern era. Grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) are of great interest due to their anti-carcinogenic effects that have been demonstrated using various tumor models including ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced non-melanoma skin cancer. In a pre-clinical mouse model supplementation of a control diet (AIN76A) with GSPs at concentrations of 0.2% and 0.5% (w/w) significantly inhibits the growth and multiplicity of UVB radiation-induced skin tumors. In this review, we summarize the evidence that this inhibition of UVB-induced skin tumor development by dietary GSPs is mediated by a multiplicity of coordinated effects including: (i) Promotion of the repair of damaged DNA by nuclear excision repair mechanisms, and (ii) DNA repair-dependent stimulation of the immune system following the functional activation of dendritic cells and effector T cells. Dietary GSPs hold promise for the development of an effective alternative strategy for the prevention of excessive solar UVB radiation exposure-induced skin diseases including the risk of non-melanoma skin cancer in humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Potential for dietary ω-3 fatty acids to prevent nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and reduce the risk of primary liver cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jump, Donald B; Depner, Christopher M; Tripathy, Sasmita; Lytle, Kelli A

    2015-11-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has increased in parallel with central obesity, and its prevalence is anticipated to increase as the obesity epidemic remains unabated. NAFLD is now the most common cause of chronic liver disease in developed countries and is defined as excessive lipid accumulation in the liver, that is, hepatosteatosis. NAFLD ranges in severity from benign fatty liver to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and NASH is characterized by hepatic injury, inflammation, oxidative stress, and fibrosis. NASH can progress to cirrhosis, and cirrhosis is a risk factor for primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The prevention of NASH will lower the risk of cirrhosis and NASH-associated HCC. Our studies have focused on NASH prevention. We developed a model of NASH by using mice with the LDL cholesterol receptor gene ablated fed the Western diet (WD). The WD induces a NASH phenotype in these mice that is similar to that seen in humans and includes robust induction of hepatic steatosis, inflammation, oxidative stress, and fibrosis. With the use of transcriptomic, lipidomic, and metabolomic approaches, we examined the capacity of 2 dietary ω-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5ω-3; EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6ω-3; DHA), to prevent WD-induced NASH. Dietary DHA was superior to EPA at attenuating WD-induced changes in plasma lipids and hepatic injury and at reversing WD effects on hepatic metabolism, oxidative stress, and fibrosis. The outcome of these studies suggests that DHA may be useful in preventing NASH and reducing the risk of HCC. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. Dietary determinants of obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huaidong, D.U.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity has become a serious public health problem worldwide, and dietary composition can play a role in its prevention and treatment. However, available literature on the impacts of different dietary factors on weight change is inconsistent, or even conflicting. In this review, we briefly summarize

  3. Dietary determinants of obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huaidong, D.U.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity has become a serious public health problem worldwide, and dietary composition can play a role in its prevention and treatment. However, available literature on the impacts of different dietary factors on weight change is inconsistent, or even conflicting. In this review, we briefly summarize

  4. Dietary determinants of obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huaidong, D.U.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity has become a serious public health problem worldwide, and dietary composition can play a role in its prevention and treatment. However, available literature on the impacts of different dietary factors on weight change is inconsistent, or even conflicting. In this review, we briefly

  5. Narrative Dietary Counseling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard Jakobsen, Nina; Hennesser, Yvonne; Kaufmann, Lisbeth

    2017-01-01

    Using cases and empirical data from a research and development project at a Danish prevention center, this study explores whether and how the use of narrative dietary counseling can strengthen dietitians' relationships and collaboration with clients who are chronically ill. The results of the study...... dietary counseling empowered clients and improved relationship building and collaboration between client and dietitian....

  6. Dietary intervention with narrow-leaved cattail rhizome flour (Typha angustifolia L.) prevents intestinal inflammation in the trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid model of rat colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruet, Andréa Costa; Seito, Leonardo Noboru; Rall, Vera Lúcia Mores; Di Stasi, Luiz Claudio

    2012-05-04

    effects were observed. Saponins, flavonoids and coumarins were detected in the rhizome flour. No changes were observed in the total number of lactic bacteria after dietary supplementation with cattail rhizome flour. Dietary supplementation with 10% cattail rhizome flour and its combination with prednisolone prevent TNBS-induced colonic damage in rats, but no synergistic effects were observed. The prevention of TNBS-induced colon damage was associated with an improvement in intestinal oxidative stress, which likely resulted from the antioxidant properties of the active compounds detected in the cattail rhizome. This protective effect was not related to an improvement in lactic bacteria counts.

  7. Dietary intervention with narrow-leaved cattail rhizome flour (Typha angustifolia L. prevents intestinal inflammation in the trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid model of rat colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fruet Andréa

    2012-05-01

    as effective as prednisolone, and no synergistic effects were observed. Saponins, flavonoids and coumarins were detected in the rhizome flour. No changes were observed in the total number of lactic bacteria after dietary supplementation with cattail rhizome flour. Conclusions Dietary supplementation with 10% cattail rhizome flour and its combination with prednisolone prevent TNBS-induced colonic damage in rats, but no synergistic effects were observed. The prevention of TNBS-induced colon damage was associated with an improvement in intestinal oxidative stress, which likely resulted from the antioxidant properties of the active compounds detected in the cattail rhizome. This protective effect was not related to an improvement in lactic bacteria counts.

  8. Dietary supplementation of cumin (Cuminum cyminum preventing streptococcal disease during first-feeding of Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevdan Yılmaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary cumin (Cuminum cyminum powder (CP as a feed additive on growth performance and disease resistance during first-feeding of Mozamique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus. Five isonitrogenous (40% crude protein and isocaloric (18.9 kj g-1 diets were formulated to contain 0 (control, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2.0% CP. In a 45-day feeding trial, 15 plastic tanks (21 L were stocked with 40 fry (0.012 ± 0.001 g each. After feeding experiment, fish were infected with Streptococcus iniae and mortalities were recorded. The second-order polynomial regression indicated that a dietary CP level of 1.14% provided the best survival rate challenge infection with S. iniae, growth performance and feed utilization. In conclusion, CP can be used as growth promoter to improve feed utilization and weight gain in tilapia fry, and it can be also used as an antimicrobial agent during first-feeding of O. mossambicus. Therefore, CP can be suggested as an alternative to antibiotics in controlling streptococcal disease in tilapia culture.

  9. Consensus dietary guidelines for healthy living and prevention of obesity, the metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and related disorders in Asian Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Anoop; Sharma, Rekha; Gulati, Seema; Joshi, Shashank R; Sharma, Vinita; Ghafoorunissa; Ibrahim, Ahamed; Joshi, Shilpa; Laxmaiah, Avula; Kurpad, Anura; Raj, Rebecca K; Mohan, Viswanathan; Chandalia, Hemraj; Krishnaswamy, Kamala; Boindala, Sesikeran; Gopalan, Sarath; Bhattiprolu, Siva Kumar; Modi, Sonal; Vikram, Naval K; Makkar, Brij Mohan; Mathur, Manju; Dey, Sanjit; Vasudevan, Sudha; Gupta, Shashi Prabha; Puri, Seema; Joshi, Prashant; Khanna, Kumud; Mathur, Prashant; Krishnaswamy, Sheela; Madan, Jagmeet; Karmarkar, Madhukar; Seth, Veenu; Passi, Santosh Jain; Chadha, Davinder; Bhardwaj, Swati

    2011-06-01

    India is undergoing rapid nutritional transition, resulting in excess consumption of calories, saturated fats, trans fatty acids, simple sugars, salt and low intake of fiber. Such dietary transition and a sedentary lifestyle have led to an increase in obesity and diet-related non-communicable diseases (type 2 diabetes mellitus [T2DM], cardiovascular disease [CVD], etc.) predominantly in urban, but also in rural areas. In comparison with the previous guidelines, these consensus dietary guidelines include reduction in the intake of carbohydrates, preferential intake of complex carbohydrates and low glycemic index foods, higher intake of fiber, lower intake of saturated fats, optimal ratio of essential fatty acids, reduction in trans fatty acids, slightly higher protein intake, lower intake of salt, and restricted intake of sugar. While these guidelines are applicable to Asian Indians in any geographical setting, they are particularly applicable to those residing in urban and in semi-urban areas. Proper application of these guidelines will help curb the rising "epidemics" of obesity, the metabolic syndrome, hypertension, T2DM, and CVD in Asian Indians.

  10. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Error processing SSI file About Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Heart disease and stroke are an epidemic in ... secondhand smoke. Barriers to Effective Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Many people with key risk factors for heart ...

  11. Headway and hurdles in the clinical development of dietary phytochemicals for cancer therapy and prevention: lessons learned from vitamin A derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Christina Y; Mao, Pingping; Spinella, Michael J

    2014-03-01

    Accumulating epidemiologic and preclinical evidence support the pharmacologic use of a variety of dietary chemicals for the prevention and treatment of cancer. However, it will be challenging to translate these findings into routine clinical practice since phytochemicals have pleiotropic biological activities that have to be balanced for optimal efficacy without unacceptable and potentially unanticipated toxicities. Correctly matching patient populations and settings with optimal, natural product-based phytochemical therapies will require a greater understanding of the specific mechanisms underlying the efficacy, toxicity, and resistance of each agent in a variety of normal, premalignant, and malignant settings. This, in turn, necessitates continued commitment from the basic research community to guide carefully designed and informed clinical trials. The most developed class of anticancer phytochemicals consists of the derivatives of vitamin A called retinoids. Unlike other natural product chemicals currently under study, the retinoids have been extensively tested in humans. Over 30 years of clinical investigation has resulted in several disappointments, but there were some spectacular successes where certain retinoid-based protocols are now FDA-approved standard of care therapies to treat specific malignancies. Furthermore, retinoids are one of the most evaluated pharmacologic agents in the ultra-challenging setting of interventional cancer prevention. This review will summarize the development of retinoids in cancer therapy and prevention with an emphasis on currently proposed mechanisms mediating their efficacy, toxicity, and resistance.

  12. 饲料中添加核苷酸对凡纳滨对虾幼虾生长、肠道形态及抗氧化酶活力的影响%Effects of dietary nucleotides on growth performance, intestinal morphology and anti-oxidative activities of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许丹丹; 曹俊明; 黄燕华; 李雅琪; 蓝汉冰; 陈冰; 陈晓瑛; 严晶; 张荣斌

    2011-01-01

    There has been extensive research into the role of nucleotides and their related metabolic products in aquatic feeds. Nucleotides and metabolites play key roles in many biological processes and are considered conditionally essential nutrients. During periods of rapid growth or certain disease states, dietary nucleotides may spare the cost of de novo nucleotides synthesis and optimize the function of rapidly dividing tissues, such as those in the gastrointestinal and immune systems. Research on dietary nucleotides in aquatic animals has illustrated that they may improve diet palatability, enhance growth in early stages of development, and maintain intestinal and liver health, as well as increase immunity and disease resistance. Despite their apparent importance, little is known about the benefits of supplementary nucleotides in Litopenaeus vannamei. We evaluated the effects of dietary nucleotides on growth, body composition, midgut morphology, and anti-oxidant activity in the hepatopancreas and serum in juvenile L. Vannamei. We randomly assigned 960 shrimp (mean body weight: 1.01 g±0.02 g) into 8 triplicate groups. Group GO (control) was fed a base diet and the remaining seven groups (G0.1, G0.2, G0.4, G0.6, G0.8, G1.0, and G1.2) were fed the base diet supplemented with 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, or 1.2 g/kg, respectively, of a nucleotide mixture containing adenosine-5'-monophosphate (AMP), cytidine-5'-monophosphate (CMP), uridine-5'- monophosphate disodium salt (UMP), inosine-S'-monophosphate disodium salt (IMP), and guanosine-5'-monophosphate disodium salt (GMP) (1:1:1:1:1 w/w, mix-NT). All groups were fed their respective diets three times a day (8:00, 15:00, and 20:00) at the same fixed rate, which ranged from 4% to 6% of body weight, for 7 weeks. Specific growth rate (SGR) and survival (SR) tended to increase as the concentration of the dietary mix-NT increased, peaking in the group supplemented with 0.6 g/kg, though the differences among the groups were

  13. Development and application of a web-based nutritional management program to improve dietary behaviors for the prevention of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoon; Lee, Min June; Kang, Hee Cheol; Lee, Mee Sook; Yoon, Sun

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a Web-based nutritional management program for the prevention of metabolic syndrome and to evaluate how the program affects health-related behaviors and the health status of office workers with metabolic syndrome risk factors. For the pilot test of the Web-based nutritional management program, 29 employees (19 males, 10 females) with more than one metabolic syndrome risk factor participated in the Web-based nutritional management program for 16 weeks. Participants visited the Web site more than two times per week and completed customized assessments of health status, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, dietary habits, food intake, ideal body weight, energy requirements, and exercise. Subjects had a significant decrease in body weight, waist circumference, body mass index (P Web evaluation questionnaire, and most of the participants were highly satisfied with Web site components such as the loading speed, configuration, privacy, design, functionality, and contents.

  14. [Influence of nutritional status on the effectiveness of a dietary supplement of live lactobacillus to prevent and cure diarrhoea in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Río, María Esther; Zago, Liliana Beatriz; Garcia, Hugo; Winter, Luis

    2004-09-01

    The influence of undernutrition on the effectiveness of a dietary supplement of live lactobacillus regarding prevention and treatment of infantile diarrhoea was studied on 200 children 6 to 24m old. Children, undernourished (D) or controls (C), received for 90 days, in a blind experiment, a fermented milk providing L. Acidofilus y L. Casei (10(7)-10(8)/ml) (LB) or an equivalent amount of fluid milk (L). diarrhoea episodes were recorded and classified according duration: 1-4, 5-14 days, and protracted diarrhea (DP) those lasting beyond 14 days. Study requirements were fulfilled by 119 children: D-L: n=25; D-LB: n=32; C-L: n=27 y C-LB: n=35. Preventive aspects were evaluated through number of episodes and through their lasting the therapeutic ones. Episodes recorded were 134: 29 in D-L; 48 in D-LB; 37 in C-L and 20 in C-LB. In the D-LB group over 90% episodes were very short (1-4 days), percentage far higher to that observed in D-L and similar to C-LB. There were 12 episodes of DP, 9 D and 3 in C, all in the L groups. In conclusion, although the fermented milk prevent half episode in the controls but not in the undernourished, it was able to shorter episodes duration and prevent protracted diarrhoea irrespectively of nutritional status. Therefore, undernutrition impaired the ability of the lactobacillus supplement to prevent children diarrhoea, which implicates immune system, but not curative effects which are the result of local actions.

  15. The role of olive oil in disease prevention: a focus on the recent epidemiological evidence from cohort studies and dietary intervention trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckland, Genevieve; Gonzalez, Carlos A

    2015-04-01

    Consumption of olive oil within the Mediterranean diet has been long known to have many health benefits. However, only over the last decade has epidemiological research confirmed its protective role against developing several chronic diseases. The objective of this review was to give an overview of the state of art epidemiological evidence concerning the relationship between olive oil and key public health outcomes including mortality, CVD, diabetes, metabolic syndrome (MetS), obesity and cancer, with a particular focus on recent results from cohort studies and dietary intervention trials. Recent epidemiological research has shown that regular consumption of olive oil is associated with increased longevity. This benefit is partly due to the olive oil's unequivocal cardio-protective role. There is converging evidence on the benefits of olive oil for preventing several CVD risk factors, including diabetes, MetS and obesity. Olive oil is also implicated in preventing certain cancers, with the most promising findings for breast and digestive tract cancers, although the data are still not entirely consistent and mainly from case-control studies. These health benefits are supported by strong mechanistic evidence from experimental studies, demonstrating that specific components of olive oil have antihypertensive, antithrombotic, antioxidant, antiinflammatory and anticarcinogenic action. Despite the accumulating epidemiological research, there is still a lack of consistent results from high-quality studies for many health outcomes (i.e. certain cancers and metabolism-related disorders). Further research is mandatory, above all from prospective studies and randomised dietary intervention trials when feasible, to confirm some of the still potential health benefits.

  16. Dietary Intake of Sulforaphane-Rich Broccoli Sprout Extracts during Juvenile and Adolescence Can Prevent Phencyclidine-Induced Cognitive Deficits at Adulthood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumi Shirai

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress and inflammation play a role in cognitive impairment, which is a core symptom of schizophrenia. Furthermore, a hallmark of the pathophysiology of this disease is the dysfunction of cortical inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA neurons expressing parvalbumin (PV, which is also involved in cognitive impairment. Sulforaphane (SFN, an isothiocyanate derived from broccoli, is a potent activator of the transcription factor Nrf2, which plays a central role in the inducible expressions of many cytoprotective genes in response to oxidative stress. Keap1 is a cytoplasmic protein that is essential for the regulation of Nrf2 activity. Here, we found that pretreatment with SFN attenuated cognitive deficits, the increase in 8-oxo-dG-positive cells, and the decrease in PV-positive cells in the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus after repeated administration of phencyclidine (PCP. Furthermore, PCP-induced cognitive deficits were improved by the subsequent subchronic administration of SFN. Interestingly, the dietary intake of glucoraphanin (a glucosinolate precursor of SFN during the juvenile and adolescence prevented the onset of PCP-induced cognitive deficits as well as the increase in 8-oxo-dG-positive cells and the decrease in PV-positive cells in the brain at adulthood. Moreover, the NRF2 gene and the KEAP1 gene had an epistatic effect on cognitive impairment (e.g., working memory and processing speed in patients with schizophrenia. These findings suggest that SFN may have prophylactic and therapeutic effects on cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. Therefore, the dietary intake of SFN-rich broccoli sprouts during the juvenile and adolescence may prevent the onset of psychosis at adulthood.

  17. Nucleotide Salvage Deficiencies, DNA Damage and Neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Fasullo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nucleotide balance is critically important not only in replicating cells but also in quiescent cells. This is especially true in the nervous system, where there is a high demand for adenosine triphosphate (ATP produced from mitochondria. Mitochondria are particularly prone to oxidative stress-associated DNA damage because nucleotide imbalance can lead to mitochondrial depletion due to low replication fidelity. Failure to maintain nucleotide balance due to genetic defects can result in infantile death; however there is great variability in clinical presentation for particular diseases. This review compares genetic diseases that result from defects in specific nucleotide salvage enzymes and a signaling kinase that activates nucleotide salvage after DNA damage exposure. These diseases include Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, mitochondrial depletion syndromes, and ataxia telangiectasia. Although treatment options are available to palliate symptoms of these diseases, there is no cure. The conclusions drawn from this review include the critical role of guanine nucleotides in preventing neurodegeneration, the limitations of animals as disease models, and the need to further understand nucleotide imbalances in treatment regimens. Such knowledge will hopefully guide future studies into clinical therapies for genetic diseases.

  18. Dietary Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    EGRP's goals in Dietary Assessment are to increase the precision of dietary intake estimates by improving self-report of dietary intake and the analytic procedures for processing reported information.

  19. Main: Nucleotide Analysis [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available -acting regulatory DNA elements Database kome_place_search_result.zip kome_place_search_result ... ...Nucleotide Analysis PLACE search result Result of signal search against PLACE : cis

  20. Main: Nucleotide Analysis [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Nucleotide Analysis Japonica genome blast search result Result of blastn search against japon...ica genome sequence kome_japonica_genome_blast_search_result.zip kome_japonica_genome_blast_search_result ...

  1. The peroxisomal enzyme L-PBE is required to prevent the dietary toxicity of medium-chain fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jun; Loizides-Mangold, Ursula; Rando, Gianpaolo; Zoete, Vincent; Michielin, Olivier; Reddy, Janardan K; Wahli, Walter; Riezman, Howard; Thorens, Bernard

    2013-10-17

    Specific metabolic pathways are activated by different nutrients to adapt the organism to available resources. Although essential, these mechanisms are incompletely defined. Here, we report that medium-chain fatty acids contained in coconut oil, a major source of dietary fat, induce the liver ω-oxidation genes Cyp4a10 and Cyp4a14 to increase the production of dicarboxylic fatty acids. Furthermore, these activate all ω- and β-oxidation pathways through peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) α and PPARγ, an activation loop normally kept under control by dicarboxylic fatty acid degradation by the peroxisomal enzyme L-PBE. Indeed, L-pbe(-/-) mice fed coconut oil overaccumulate dicarboxylic fatty acids, which activate all fatty acid oxidation pathways and lead to liver inflammation, fibrosis, and death. Thus, the correct homeostasis of dicarboxylic fatty acids is a means to regulate the efficient utilization of ingested medium-chain fatty acids, and its deregulation exemplifies the intricate relationship between impaired metabolism and inflammation. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Peroxisomal Enzyme L-PBE Is Required to Prevent the Dietary Toxicity of Medium-Chain Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ding

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Specific metabolic pathways are activated by different nutrients to adapt the organism to available resources. Although essential, these mechanisms are incompletely defined. Here, we report that medium-chain fatty acids contained in coconut oil, a major source of dietary fat, induce the liver ω-oxidation genes Cyp4a10 and Cyp4a14 to increase the production of dicarboxylic fatty acids. Furthermore, these activate all ω- and β-oxidation pathways through peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR α and PPARγ, an activation loop normally kept under control by dicarboxylic fatty acid degradation by the peroxisomal enzyme L-PBE. Indeed, L-pbe−/− mice fed coconut oil overaccumulate dicarboxylic fatty acids, which activate all fatty acid oxidation pathways and lead to liver inflammation, fibrosis, and death. Thus, the correct homeostasis of dicarboxylic fatty acids is a means to regulate the efficient utilization of ingested medium-chain fatty acids, and its deregulation exemplifies the intricate relationship between impaired metabolism and inflammation.

  3. 浅谈巨幼细胞贫血的常见原因和饮食预防%Common Causes of Megaloblastic Anemia and Dietary Prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兰

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the megaloblastic anemia (MgA) in the common cause, puts forward some nutritional requirements and prevention. Methods 30 cases of megaloblastic anemia in our hospital from 2013 to hospitalized (MgA) analysis of the clinical data of patients. Results The elderly and students are megaloblastic anemia (MgA) is the most common people, and the old person has the primary history. Conclusion The easy hair crowd dietary prevention and health education.%目的了解巨幼细胞贫血(MgA)的常见原因,提出几点饮食营养的要求和预防。方法对本院2013年来收住院的30例巨幼细胞贫血(MgA)确诊的患者进行临床资料分析。结果老年人和学生是巨幼细胞贫血(MgA)的最常见人群,并且老年人均有原发病史。结论针对易发人群进行饮食预防和健康宣教。

  4. Health-promoting and disease-preventive potential ofTrianthema portulacastrumLinn. (Gadabani)-An Indian medicinal and dietary plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jason Yamaki; Kalyan C Nagulapalli Venkata; Animesh Mandal; Piyali Bhattacharyya; Anupam Bishayee

    2016-01-01

    It is estimated that 80% of the world population depends on traditional medicine for primary healthcare need.Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. (family: Aizoaceae) is a smal perennial weed found in the Americas, Africa, India, and other regions of the world. This plant is used extensively in Indian traditional medicines and is also consumed as a vegetable throughout Asia for its perceived health beneifts. Phytochemical analysis ofT. portulacastrum reveals the presence of alkaloids, lfavonoids, terpenoids, saponins, and phenolic compounds. Emerging studies demonstrate that crude extracts as wel as bioactive phytoconstituents ofT. portulacastrum exhibit potent antioxidant, anti-infective, analgesic, and anti-inlfammatory activities. A growing number of in vitro andin vivo studies demonstrate various biological and pharmacological activities, including prevention and amelioration of hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, infectious diseases and cancer. This review aims to present and analyze available literature to understand the ful potential ofT. portulacastrum in health promotion and disease prevention. Current limitations and future directions of research on this medicinal and dietary plant are also criticaly discussed.

  5. Calcium and magnesium physiology and nutrition in relation to the prevention of milk fever and tetany (dietary management of macrominerals in preventing disease).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Tereso, Javier; Martens, Holger

    2014-11-01

    Dairy cows may suffer events of hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia, commonly known as milk fever and tetany. Milk fever is characterized by hypocalcemia at parturition as a consequence of a sudden increase in Ca demand and an unavoidable delay in Ca metabolism adaptation. Tetany is due to impaired Mg absorption from the rumen that cannot be compensated by absorptive or excretory adaptation, resulting in a net nutritional shortage of Mg and culminating in hypomagnesemia. Prevention strategies require triggering the activation of Ca gastrointestinal absorption and avoiding factors limiting ruminal Mg absorption. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A review of the evidence for dietary interventions in preventing or slowing the progression of age-related macular degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, J. R.; Lawrenson, J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To summarise the results of recent Cochrane systematic reviews that have investigated whether nutritional supplements prevent or slow the progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD).\\ud \\ud Recent findings: There is no good evidence from randomised controlled trials that the general population should be taking antioxidant vitamin supplements to reduce their risk of developing AMD later on in life. By contrast, there is moderate quality evidence that people with AMD may expe...

  7. Dietary polyacetylenes, falcarinol and falcarindiol, isolated from carrots prevents the formation of neoplastic lesions in the colon of azoxymethane-induced rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobaek-Larsen, Morten; El-Houri, Rime B; Christensen, Lars P; Al-Najami, Issam; Fretté, Xavier; Baatrup, Gunnar

    2017-03-22

    Falcarinol (FaOH) and falcarindiol (FaDOH) are found in many food plants of the Apiaceae family. Carrots are a major dietary source of these polyacetylenes. Feeding azoxymethane (AOM)-induced rats with carrots and purified FaOH have previously been shown to inhibit neoplastic transformations in the colon. FaOH and FaDOH have also shown to have a synergistic effect in vitro, resulting in a significant increased cytotoxic activity. Based on these findings the antineoplastic effect of FaOH and FaDOH (purity > 99%) was investigated in the AOM-induced rat model. Twenty rats received rat diet containing 7 μg FaOH per g feed and 7 μg FaDOH per g feed and 20 rats were controls receiving only rat diet. Then carcinogenesis was induced in all 40 rats with the carcinogen AOM. All animals received the designated diet for 2 weeks before AOM induction and continued on the designated diet throughout the experiment. Rats were euthanized 18 weeks after the first AOM injection and macroscopic polyp/cancers were measured, harvested and stained for histology. The difference in sizes of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) were analysed in a Wilcoxon rank sum test, in which the median number of small ACF was 218 in controls and 145 in polyacetylene treated rats (P < 0.001). Fifteen control rats and 8 treated rats had macroscopic tumors (P = 0.027). The number of tumors larger than 3 mm were 6 and 1 in control and treated rats, respectively (P = 0.032). In conclusion dietary supplements with FaOH and FaDOH reduced the number of neoplastic lesions as well as the growth rate of the polyps suggesting a preventive effect of FaOH and FaDOH on the development of colorectal cancer.

  8. Dietary long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids prevent impaired social behaviour and normalize brain dopamine levels in food allergic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Theije, Caroline G M; van den Elsen, Lieke W J; Willemsen, Linette E M; Milosevic, Vanja; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien A H; Lopes da Silva, Sofia; Broersen, Laus M; Korte, S Mechiel; Olivier, Berend; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D

    2015-03-01

    Allergy is suggested to exacerbate impaired behaviour in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. We have previously shown that food allergy impaired social behaviour in mice. Dietary fatty acid composition may affect both the immune and nervous system. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) on food allergy-induced impaired social behaviour and associated deficits in prefrontal dopamine (DA) in mice. Mice were fed either control or n-3 LCPUFA-enriched diet before and during sensitization with whey. Social behaviour, acute allergic skin response and serum immunoglobulins were assessed. Monoamine levels were measured in brain and intestine and fatty acid content in brain. N-3 LCPUFA prevented impaired social behaviour of allergic mice. Moreover, n-3 LCPUFA supplementation increased docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) incorporation into the brain and restored reduced levels of prefrontal DA and its metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3-methoxytyramine and homovanillic acid in allergic mice. In addition to these brain effects, n-3 LCPUFA supplementation reduced the allergic skin response and restored decreased intestinal levels of serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in allergic mice. N-3 LCPUFA may have beneficial effects on food allergy-induced deficits in social behaviour, either indirectly by reducing the allergic response and restoring intestinal 5-HT signalling, or directly by DHA incorporation into neuronal membranes, affecting the DA system. Therefore, it is of interest to further investigate the relevance of food allergy-enhanced impairments in social behaviour in humans and the potential benefits of dietary n-3 LCPUFA supplementation.

  9. [Role of dietary prevention in newborns at risk for atopy. Results of a follow-up study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agata, A; Betta, P; Sciacca, P; Morano, C; Praticò, G; Curreri, R; Quattrocchi, O; Sciacca, F

    1996-01-01

    The Authors have studied the role of various preventing diet for a primary prophylaxis of allergy in 125 newborns at risk of atopy: 30 exclusively breast-fed, 50 hypoallergenic milk fed, 30 soy milk fed, and 15 with conventional milk formula. IgE values were determined at 5 days, 6 months, and 12 months of age, IgE values at 5 days were compared to newborns not at atopic risk. The clinical follow-up lasted 4 years. Total IgE values at 5 days were significantly higher in new-born at atopic risk. Only breast-feeding subjects had IgE normal values at six months. Allergic symptoms were observed in 14% of infants with a guided diet and in 53% of infants with a conventional diet. Breast fed subjects had atopic disorders in only 8% of cases, subjects with hypoallergenic formula in 12% while soja milk fed in 25%. The Authors stress the role of breast feeding in preventing allergic disorders in subjects at atopic risk or, when human milk misses, of a hypoallergenic formula, more than soy milk and conventional formula and confirm the possibility of diet and ambiental prophylaxis of allergy.

  10. Dietary saffron reduced the blood pressure and prevented remodeling of the aorta in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Nasiri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of nutritional saffron (Crocus sativus L. stigma hydroalcoholic extract on blood pressure (BP and histology of the aorta in normotensive and hypertensive rats. Materials and Methods:   Saffron (200 mg/kg/day was given orally for 5 weeks to normotensive and hypertensive rats. Hypertension was induced by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 40 mg/kg/day administration in drinking water, and BP was measured weekly. Histological examination of the thoracic aorta included staining with hematoxylin and eosin, orcein, and periodic acid Schiff methods. Results:  Saffron had no effect on normotensive rats, but on hypertensive rats, prevented BP elevation form the third week of treatment (P

  11. Dietary Genistein Prevents Denervation-Induced Muscle Atrophy in Male Rodents via Effects on Estrogen Receptor-α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Shinya; Jia, Huijuan; Nakazawa, Kyoko; Yamamura, Junki; Saito, Kenji; Kato, Hisanori

    2016-06-01

    Genistein has high estrogenic activity. Previous studies have shown beneficial effects of estrogen or hormone replacement therapy on muscle mass and muscle atrophy. We investigated the preventive effects and underlying mechanisms of genistein on muscle atrophy. In Expt. 1, male Wistar rats were fed a diet containing no genistein [control (CON)] or 0.05% genistein (GEN; wt:wt diet) for 24 d. On day 14, the sciatic nerve in the left hind leg was severed, and the right hind leg was sham-treated. In Expt. 2, male C57BL6J mice were subcutaneously administered a vehicle (Veh group) or the estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist ICI 182,780 (ICI group) via an osmotic pump for 27 d, and each group was subsequently fed CON or GEN diets from day 3 to day 27. Muscle atrophy was induced on day 17 as in Expt. 1. In Expt. 3, male C57BL6J mice were subcutaneously administered vehicle or a selective ER agonist-ER-α [4,4',4'-(4-propyl-[1H]-pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl)trisphenol (PPT)] or ER-β [2,3-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propionitrile (DPN)]-or genistein (GEN-sc-i) via an osmotic pump for 13 d, and muscle atrophy was induced on day 3 as in Expt. 1. The ratio of denervated soleus muscle weight to sham-operated soleus muscle weight (d/s ratio) was used as the index of muscle atrophy. Expt. 1: The d/s ratio in the GEN group was 20% higher than that in the CON group (P muscle atrophy. ER-α was related to the preventive effect of genistein on muscle atrophy. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Claus; Pereira, Vania; Andersen, Jeppe Dyrberg

    2014-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most frequent DNA sequence variations in the genome. They have been studied extensively in the last decade with various purposes in mind. In this chapter, we will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using SNPs for human identification and bri...

  13. Preventive and Therapeutic Role of Dietary Inositol Supplementation in Periconceptional Period and During Pregnancy: A Summary of Evidences and Future Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noventa, Marco; Vitagliano, Amerigo; Quaranta, Michela; Borgato, Shara; Abdulrahim, Baydaa; Gizzo, Salvatore

    2016-03-01

    Although inositol dietary deficiency in the general population has not been demonstrated at the serum level, several findings are emerging regarding the impact of inositol supplementation in periconceptional period and in early phases of pregnancy. We are aimed to summarize all experimental (murine in vivo and in vitro murine embryo studies) and clinical (human) evidences regarding the role of inositol in the prevention and treatment of folate-resistant embryo neural tube defects (FR-NTDs) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We also collected all information regarding the effect that inositol supplementation may have in the metabolic reassessment of early and late pregnancy in order to draw evidence-based conclusions and suggest further studies defining the potential therapeutic role of this molecule in human reproduction. The systematic review of literature clearly showed that inositol supplementation in preconceptional period and in early phase of pregnancy reduces the risk of developing GDM in patients at increased risk. Furthermore, continued intake during pregnancy improves the metabolic status of affected patients, but further studies are needed to confirm this end point. All women at risk of FR-NTDs assuming inositol from the periconceptional period until late pregnancy are reported to have healthy newborns without any significant complications linked to inositol supplementation.

  14. DHA derivatives of fish oil as dietary supplements: a nutrition-based drug discovery approach for therapies to prevent metabolic cardiotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yonggang; Lindsey, Merry L.; Halade, Ganesh V.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction During the early 1970s, Danish physicians Jorn Dyerberg and colleagues observed that Greenland Eskimos consuming fatty fishes exhibited low incidences of heart disease. Fish oil is now one of the most commonly consumed dietary supplements. In 2004, concentrated fish oil was approved as a drug by the FDA for the treatment of hyperlipidemia. Fish oil contains two major omega-3 fatty acids: eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). With advancements in lipid concentration and purification techniques, EPA- or DHA-enriched products are now commercially available, and the availability of these components in isolation allows their individual effects to be examined. Newly synthesized derivatives and endogenously discovered metabolites of DHA exhibit therapeutic utility for obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Areas covered This review summarizes our current knowledge on the distinct effects of EPA and DHA to prevent metabolic syndrome and reduce cardiotoxicity risk. Since EPA is an integral component of fish oil, we will briefly review EPA effects, but our main theme will be to summarize effects of the DHA derivatives that are available today. We focus on using nutrition-based drug discovery to explore the potential of DHA derivatives for the treatment of obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. Expert opinion The safety and efficacy evaluation of DHA derivatives will provide novel biomolecules for the drug discovery arsenal. Novel nutritional-based drug discoveries of DHA derivatives or metabolites may provide realistic and alternative strategies for the treatment of metabolic and cardiovascular disease. PMID:22724444

  15. Dietary Shiitake Mushroom (Lentinus edodes Prevents Fat Deposition and Lowers Triglyceride in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Handayani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available High-fat diet (HFD induces obesity. This study examined the effects of Shiitake mushroom on the prevention of alterations of plasma lipid profiles, fat deposition, energy efficiency, and body fat index induced by HFD. Rats were given a low, medium, and high (7, 20, 60 g/kg = LD-M, MD-M, HD-M Shiitake mushroom powder in their high-fat (50% in kcal diets for 6 weeks. The results showed that the rats on the HD-M diet had the lowest body weight gain compared to MD-M and LD-M groups (P<0.05. The total fat deposition was significantly lower (−35%, P<0.05 in rats fed an HD-M diet than that of HFD group. Interestingly, plasma triacylglycerol (TAG level was significantly lower (−55%, P<0.05 in rats on HD-M than HFD. This study also revealed the existence of negative correlations between the amount of Shiitake mushroom supplementation and body weight gain, plasma TAG, and total fat masses.

  16. Utilization and Safety of Common Over-the-Counter Dietary/Nutritional Supplements, Herbal Agents, and Homeopathic Compounds for Disease Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Ruchir; Salvo, Marissa C

    2016-09-01

    Dietary supplements are commonly used by patients as part of their medical care plan. Often clinicians may not be aware of their use, because patients do not always consider these to be medications. All clinicians need to continually ask patients about their use of dietary supplements when collecting a medication history. Dietary supplements and prescription medications often share similar enzymatic pathways for their metabolism. These interactions may lead to severe adverse reactions. This article reviews available evidence for a variety of dietary supplements in select disease categories.

  17. Dietary management and genetic predisposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hanne Holbæk; Larsen, Lesli Hingstrup

    2013-01-01

    Today, dietary recommendations are based on recommended daily intake for the general population, and only a few subgroups are considered for additional dietary advice. Nutrigenetics aim to optimize health and prevent disease. Particularly for lifestyle disease, such as obesity, which has increase...

  18. The Mechanisms of Dietary Fiber in Preventing and Treating Overweight and Obesity%膳食纤维预防和治疗肥胖的机制探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王昕(综述); 王新颖(审校)

    2016-01-01

    近年来,肥胖和超重已经被认为是一项严重的公共卫生问题,而膳食纤维作为一种营养素在预防和治疗肥胖中的应用已经引起学界广泛的关注,越来越多的临床医师将膳食纤维应用到肥胖患者的治疗中。膳食纤维可以通过物理作用、免疫调节作用、抗炎作用、益生元作用等多个方面调节人体的血脂和血糖,从而产生预防、治疗超重和肥胖的作用。膳食纤维来源丰富,不良反应少,是超重和肥胖者极好的选择。%Recently,obesity and overweight have become a serious public health problem,and dietary fiber as a nutrient has been discussed over worldwide on preventing and treating overweight and obesity .At the same time,dietary fiber has become more popular clinically when treating obesity patients .One reason dietary fiber can prevent and treat overweight and obesity is that dietary fiber can reduce blood lipid and blood glucose from multiple aspects including physical process,immune process,anti-inflammation and prebi-otics effect.Dietary fiber is an excellent choice of overweight and obese people since it has rich source and less adverse events.

  19. Suppression of [sup 125]I-uptake in mouse thyroid by seaweed feeding; Possible preventative effect of dietary seaweed on internal radiation injury of the thyroid by radioactive iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, Hiroko; Yamamoto, Ichiro (Kitasato Univ., Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Hygienic Sciences)

    1992-12-01

    We conducted an animal experiment to determine how dietary seaweeds rich in iodine and dietary fibers suppress radioactive iodine uptake by the thyroid, using mice and four kinds of experimental diets, three with 1% or 2% powdered fronds of the kelp Laminaria religiosa and 2% powdered laver Porphyra yezoensis, and one with cellulose. Iodine content of a hot-water extract of the kelp was 0.530[+-]0.001%, and its dietary fiber (DF) values were 52.8[+-]1.2%. Iodine in an extract of the laver was 0.008[+-]0.001%, and its DF values were 41.4%[+-]0.7%. A statistically significant reduction of [sup 125]I uptake by the thyroid, 3 hours after intragastric administration of the radionuclide at a dosage of 18.5 kBq or 185 kBq in 0.3 ml aqueous solution per mouse, was observed in mice previously fed the experimental diets containing 1% and 2% kelp during periods varying from 24 hours to 7 days. The degree of the suppression was observed to depend on the amount of iodine in the diet or in the injected sample, no matter whether organic or inorganic, judging from the results of an additional experiment. Thus, we conclude that previously fed iodine-rich material, especially dietary seaweeds rich in iodine and other minerals, vitamins, and [beta]-carotene, such as kelps or laver supplemented with inorganic iodine, may be effective in prevention of internal radiation injury of the thyroid. (author).

  20. Dietary Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiber is a substance in plants. Dietary fiber is the kind you eat. It's a type of carbohydrate. You may also see it listed on a food label as soluble ... types have important health benefits. Good sources of dietary fiber include Whole grains Nuts and seeds Fruit and ...

  1. Preventing vitamin B12 deficiency in South Asian women of childbearing age: a randomised controlled trial comparing an oral vitamin B12 supplement with B12 dietary advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mearns, G J; Koziol-McLain, J; Obolonkin, V; Rush, E C

    2014-08-01

    To examine the effectiveness, acceptability and sustainability of interventions to reduce vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency in South Asian women before conception. A 6-month randomised controlled trial conducted in Auckland, New Zealand. Participants (62 South Asian women, 18-50 years old) were stratified by dietary practices, then randomised to three treatment groups: B12 Supplement (oral cyanocobalamin 6 μg/day) (n=21), Placebo (n=21), or B12 Dietary Advice (n=20). Primary outcome measures were changes in B12 biomarkers (serum B12 and holotranscobalamin (holoTC)) at 6 months. Dietary B12 intake was estimated from a B12 food-specific frequency questionnaire (B12FFQ). Intention-to-treat analysis was applied using 'last observation carried forward' method. Changes in B12 biomarkers by treatment were compared using analysis of variance. Pearson's correlations tested relationships between dietary B12 intake and B12 biomarkers. At baseline, 48% of women tested as insufficient or deficient in serum B12 (B12 status was moderately correlated with dietary B12 intake (r=0.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) (0.3-0.7)) and 44% of women reported insufficient dietary intake (B12 Supplement was the only treatment group to record a significant increase in B12 biomarkers over 6 months: serum B12 by 30% (95% CI (11-48%)) and holoTC by 42% (12-72%). The prevalence of B12 insufficiency among Auckland South Asian women is high and moderately correlated with inadequate intake of foods that contain B12. Cyanocobalamin supplementation (6 μg/day) was associated with improved B12 biomarkers, with a potential to improve preconception B12 status in South Asian women.

  2. Dietary resistant starch type 3 prevents tumor induction by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine and alters proliferation, apoptosis and dedifferentiation in rat colon.

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer-Marinovic, Morana; Florian, Simone; Müller-Schmehl, Katrin; Glatt, Hansruedi; Jacobasch, Gisela

    2006-01-01

    Dietary modulation of cancer & cancer biomarkers Dietary item or component studied:butyrate in resistant starch 3 (RS3)Outcome studied (cancer or cancer biomarker):actual cancer cancerStudy type(in vitro, animals, humans):Male Sprague-Dawley ratsTissue/biological material/sample size:The first 0.5 cm of the proximal colon and the final 0.5 cm of the distal colonMode of exposure (if in vivo):s.c. injection(for1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)) and oral( for RS3diet)Impact on outcome (including dose-...

  3. Measurement Characteristics of Dietary Psychosocial Scales in a Weight Gain Prevention Study with 8- to 10-Year-Old African-American Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrill-Mittleman, D. A.; Klesges, L. M.; Lanctot, J. Q.; Stockton, M. B.; Klesges, R. C.

    2009-01-01

    Few measurement instruments for children's eating behaviors and beliefs have been specifically validated for African-American children. Validation within this population is important because of potential cultural and ethnic influences. Objectives were to evaluate established and newly developed or adapted dietary psychosocial measures in a sample…

  4. Dietary long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids prevent impaired social behaviour and normalize brain dopamine levels in food allergic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Theije, Caroline G M; van den Elsen, Lieke W J; Willemsen, Linette E M; Milosevic, Vanja; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien A H; Lopes da Silva, Sofia; Broersen, Laus M; Korte, S Mechiel; Olivier, Berend; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D

    2015-01-01

    Allergy is suggested to exacerbate impaired behaviour in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. We have previously shown that food allergy impaired social behaviour in mice. Dietary fatty acid composition may affect both the immune and nervous system. The aim of this study was to assess the

  5. Dietary long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids prevent impaired social behaviour and normalize brain dopamine levels in food allergic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Theije, Caroline G M; van den Elsen, Lieke W J; Willemsen, Linette E M; Milosevic, Vanja; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien A H; Lopes da Silva, Sofia; Broersen, Laus M; Korte, S Mechiel; Olivier, Berend; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D

    2015-01-01

    Allergy is suggested to exacerbate impaired behaviour in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. We have previously shown that food allergy impaired social behaviour in mice. Dietary fatty acid composition may affect both the immune and nervous system. The aim of this study was to assess the eff

  6. A high amount of dietary zinc changes the expression of zinc transporters and metallothionein in jejunal epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo but does not prevent zinc accumulation in jejunal tissue of piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lena; Lodemann, Ulrike; Bondzio, Angelika; Gefeller, Eva-Maria; Vahjen, Wilfried; Aschenbach, Jörg Rudolf; Zentek, Jürgen; Pieper, Robert

    2013-08-01

    High dietary zinc concentrations are used to prevent or treat diarrhea in piglets and humans, but long-term adaptation to high zinc supply has yet not been assessed. Intestinal zinc uptake is facilitated through members of zinc transporter families SLC30 (ZnT) and SLC39 (ZIP). Whereas in rodents, regulation of zinc homeostasis at low or adequate zinc supply has been described, such mechanisms are unclear in piglets. A total of 54 piglets were fed diets containing 57 [low dietary zinc (LZn)], 164 [normal dietary zinc (NZn)], or 2425 [high dietary zinc (HZn)] mg/kg dry matter zinc. After 4 wk, 10 piglets/group were killed and jejunal tissues taken for analysis of zinc transporters SLC30A1 (ZnT1), SLC30A2 (ZnT2), SLC30A5 (ZnT5), SLC39A4 (ZIP4), divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), and metallothionein-1 (MT). Weight gain was higher (P < 0.05) in pigs fed HZn than in the LZn and NZn groups during the first 2 wk. Food intake did not differ between groups. The digesta and jejunal tissue zinc concentrations were higher (P < 0.05) in the HZn pigs than in NZn and LZn pigs. Expression of ZnT1 was higher (P < 0.05) and ZIP4 lower (P < 0.05) in HZn pigs than in the 2 other groups, whereas expression of ZnT5 and DMT1 did not differ between treatments. Expression of ZnT2 was lower (P < 0.05) in the LZn group than in the HZn and NZn groups. The mRNA expression and protein abundance of MT was higher (P < 0.05) in the HZn group than in the NZn and LZn groups. Studies with intestinal porcine cell line intestinal epithelial cell-J2 confirmed the dose-dependent downregulation of ZIP4 and upregulation of ZnT1 and MT (P < 0.05) with increasing zinc concentration within 24 h. In conclusion, high dietary zinc concentrations increase intracellular zinc, promote increased zinc export from intestinal tissues into extracellular compartments, and decrease zinc uptake from the gut lumen. The adaptive process appears to be established within 24 h; however, it does not prevent tissue zinc

  7. The arabidopsis cyclic nucleotide interactome

    KAUST Repository

    Donaldson, Lara

    2016-05-11

    Background Cyclic nucleotides have been shown to play important signaling roles in many physiological processes in plants including photosynthesis and defence. Despite this, little is known about cyclic nucleotide-dependent signaling mechanisms in plants since the downstream target proteins remain unknown. This is largely due to the fact that bioinformatics searches fail to identify plant homologs of protein kinases and phosphodiesterases that are the main targets of cyclic nucleotides in animals. Methods An affinity purification technique was used to identify cyclic nucleotide binding proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana. The identified proteins were subjected to a computational analysis that included a sequence, transcriptional co-expression and functional annotation analysis in order to assess their potential role in plant cyclic nucleotide signaling. Results A total of twelve cyclic nucleotide binding proteins were identified experimentally including key enzymes in the Calvin cycle and photorespiration pathway. Importantly, eight of the twelve proteins were shown to contain putative cyclic nucleotide binding domains. Moreover, the identified proteins are post-translationally modified by nitric oxide, transcriptionally co-expressed and annotated to function in hydrogen peroxide signaling and the defence response. The activity of one of these proteins, GLYGOLATE OXIDASE 1, a photorespiratory enzyme that produces hydrogen peroxide in response to Pseudomonas, was shown to be repressed by a combination of cGMP and nitric oxide treatment. Conclusions We propose that the identified proteins function together as points of cross-talk between cyclic nucleotide, nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species signaling during the defence response.

  8. Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary supplements are vitamins, minerals, herbs, and many other products. They can come as pills, capsules, powders, drinks, and energy bars. Supplements do not have to go through the testing that drugs do. Some supplements ...

  9. Effect Analysis of Health Education and Dietary Intervention on Hypertension in Community Comprehensive Prevention%健康教育及膳食干预对高血压社区综合防治的效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴玉秀

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the health education and the ef ect of dietary intervention on hypertension community comprehensive prevention. Methods On 450 patients with hypertension, high blood pressure and a high-risk population groups for health education and health dietary intervention,observe the relevant circumstances change.Results About 450 people grasp the extent of hypertension-related knowledge and control pressure dif erences exist in terms of the patients were 110 cases of high blood pressure before and after the intervention has a statistical y significant ( 0.05).Conclusion The residents of dietary intervention on health education and comprehensive prevention and control of hypertension community can play an ef ective role,worthy of promotion.%目的探讨健康教育及膳食干预对高血压社区综合防治的效果分析。方法对450例高血压患者、高血压高危人群以及健康人群进行健康教育及膳食干预,观察相关情况变化。结果该450例关于高血压相关知识的掌握程度和110例高血压患者控压方面存在的差异在干预前后均具有统计学意义(<0.05),而吸烟、肥胖等方面的检出率差异无统计学意义(P跃0.05)。结论对居民进行健康教育及膳食干预对高血压社区综合防治可起到有效作用,值得推广。

  10. Use of dietary phytochemicals to target inflammation, fibrosis, proliferation, and angiogenesis in uterine tissues: promising options for prevention and treatment of uterine fibroids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Soriful; Akhtar, Most Mauluda; Ciavattini, Andrea; Giannubilo, Stefano Raffaele; Protic, Olga; Janjusevic, Milijana; Procopio, Antonio Domenico; Segars, James H; Castellucci, Mario; Ciarmela, Pasquapina

    2014-08-01

    Uterine leiomyomas (fibroids, myomas) are the most common benign tumors of female reproductive tract. They are highly prevalent, with 70-80% of women burdened by the end of their reproductive years. Fibroids are a leading cause of pelvic pain, abnormal vaginal bleeding, pressure on the bladder, miscarriage, and infertility. They are the leading indication for hysterectomy, and costs exceed 6 billion dollars annually in the United States. Unfortunately, no long-term medical treatments are available. Dysregulation of inflammatory processes are thought to be involved in the initiation of leiomyoma and extracellular matrix deposition, cell proliferation, and angiogenesis are the key cellular events implicated in leiomyoma growth. In modern pharmaceutical industries, dietary phytochemicals are used as source of new potential drugs for many kinds of tumors. Dietary phytochemicals may exert therapeutic effects by interfering with key cellular events of the tumorigenesis process. At present, a negligible number of phytochemicals have been tested as therapeutic agents against fibroids. In this context, our aim was to introduce some of the potential dietary phytochemicals that have shown anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, antifibrotic, and antiangiogenic activities in different biological systems. This review could be useful to stimulate the evaluation of these phytochemicals as possible therapies for uterine fibroids.

  11. Vitamin A-Deficient Diet Accelerated Atherogenesis in Apolipoprotein E−/− Mice and Dietary β-Carotene Prevents This Consequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noa Zolberg Relevy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A is involved in regulation of glucose concentrations, lipid metabolism, and inflammation, which are major risk factors for atherogenesis. However, the effect of vitamin A deficiency on atherogenesis has not been investigated. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to examine whether vitamin A deficiency accelerates atherogenesis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice (apoE−/−. ApoE−/− mice were allocated into the following groups: control, fed vitamin A-containing chow diet; BC, fed chow diet fortified with Dunaliella powder containing βc isomers; VAD, fed vitamin A-deficient diet; and VAD-BC group, fed vitamin A-deficient diet fortified with a Dunaliella powder. Following 15 weeks of treatment, liver retinol concentration had decreased significantly in the VAD group to about 30% that of control group. Vitamin A-deficient diet significantly increased both plasma cholesterol concentrations and the atherosclerotic lesion area at the aortic sinus (+61% compared to the control group. Dietary βc fortification inhibited the elevation in plasma cholesterol and retarded atherogenesis in mice fed the vitamin A-deficient diet. The results imply that dietary vitamin A deficiency should be examined as a risk factor for atherosclerosis and that dietary βc, as a sole source of retinoids, can compensate for vitamin A deficiency.

  12. [Nucleotide receptors and renal function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    Kidney plays a key role in homeostasis of human body. It has heterogenic structure and is characterized by complicated vascular beds and numbers of sympathetic nerves endings. Nucleotides receptors are involved in the regulation of blood flow, a fundamental process for renal function. Plasma is filtrated in renal glomerulus and activity of nucleotides receptors located on cells of glomerular filter modifies the physi- cochemical properties of filter and affects the filtration process. Electrolytes, water and low molecular weight molecules are reabsorbed from tubular fluid or secreted into fluid in proximal and distal tubules. Glomerular filtration rate and activity of tubular processes are regulated via nucleotides receptors by glomerulotubularbalance and tubuloglomerular feedback. Nucleotides receptors are involved in systemic regulation of blood pressure and carbohydrate metabolism.

  13. A scoping review of skills and tools oral health professionals need to engage children and parents in dietary changes to prevent childhood obesity and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallonee, Lisa F; Boyd, Linda D; Stegeman, Cynthia

    2017-06-01

    Increased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has been linked to obesity. Obesity now affects one in six children in the United States. The purpose of this scoping review is to identify and review published studies that discuss skills and tools oral health professionals can use with children (under age 12) and their parents to encourage dietary changes to aid in preventing childhood obesity and reducing consumption of SSBs. Key search terms were identified and used to examine selected databases via PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. A total of 637 records were identified. After duplicates were removed and records were screened for eligibility, 33 remained. Six met established inclusion/exclusion criteria and were included in the review. Only two full-text articles included dental-office-based weight interventions. Patient response to education on healthy habits and weight maintenance in the dental setting was favorable. Literature supports oral health professionals expanding their role in health care delivery by offering nutrition and physical activity recommendations to prevent and/or reduce chronic disease. Active listening and motivational interviewing were techniques identified to promote beneficial lifestyle changes. There is limited research on behavior modification tools and skills that have been effectively implemented in the dental setting to decrease risk of obesity. Oral health professionals are uniquely positioned to address consumption of SSBs and promote positive dietary habits for improved weight management. Future studies are needed to identify effective techniques that techniques that oral health professionals can integrate into preventive patient care. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  14. Dietary guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsøe, Erling

    2015-01-01

    Dietary guidelines are issued regularly in most developed countries. In almost all cases they are concerned solely with the nutritional aspects of food and eating and are based on an understanding of food exclusively as a source of nutrients. In recent years, however, a growing number of proposals...... in a number of countries have addressed the issue of making dietary guidelines that integrate health and sustainability, but in all cases they have been met with different kinds of resistance. This article reviews the development towards an integrated understanding of health and sustainability in relation...... and the role of expert cultures for the elaboration and communication of messages about health and sustainability. Finally, the article briefly points to some answers to the complexity of issues surrounding the creation of dietary guidelines...

  15. 预防医学专业本科学生丙烯酰胺知晓度及摄入量调查%Investigation on awareness degree and dietary intake of acrylamide among preventive medicine professional undergraduate students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐宝宁; 孟娟娟; 陈丽剑; 成振红; 高倩

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解咸阳市某高校预防医学专业本科学生对食品中丙烯酰胺(A A )的知晓率和膳食摄入量情况。方法选择28种大学生经常食用的油炸及烘烤食品作为被调查对象,采用食物频数法对整群抽取的1~5年级248名预防医学专业在校本科生进行膳食问卷调查。结果38.71%的大学生从未听说A A ,32.26%听说过但不知A A是何物,11.29%知晓其危害;大学生每人AA的膳食摄入量约为31.57μg/d ,且不同性别和不同年级之间AA膳食摄入量差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论被调查预防医学专业本科学生对AA的知晓率相对较低,应加强AA相关食品安全知识的宣传教育。%Objective To understand the awareness degree and the dietary intake of acrylamide (AA) in food among preventive medicine professional undergraduate students in a university of Xianyang city .Methods 28 kinds of fried and baked food frequently eaten by undergraduates were selected as the respondents .The food-frequency method was adopted to perform the questionnaire in-vestigation on 248 undergraduates sampled from grade 1-5 of preventive medicine professional undergraduate students by the clus-ter sampling .Results More than 38 .71% of the investigated students had never known about the acrylamide ,32 .26% of the inves-tigated students had heard but did not know what it was ,11 .26% students knew about its hazard .The AA dietary intake was about 31 .57 μg/d per person ,and there was no statistical difference in the AA dietary intake between different sexes and grades .Conclu-sion The awareness degree of AA among investigated preventive medicine professional undergraduates is relatively low .Therefore it is necessary to strengthen the publicity and education of the AA-related food safety knowledge .

  16. Importance of dietary fiber in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C L

    1995-10-01

    Dietary fiber has important health benefits in childhood, especially in promoting normal laxation. Currently, children consume amounts of dietary fiber that appear to be inadequate for optimal health promotion and disease prevention. It is prudent to recommend that children older than 2 years of age increase dietary fiber intake to an amount equal to or greater than their age + 5 g/day. According to the "age + 5" rule dietary fiber intake would increase from 8 g/day at age 3 years to 25 g/day by age 20 years. After age 20, dietary fiber levels of 25 to 35 g/day are recommended. Dietary fiber intake should be increased gradually in childhood by increasing consumption of a variety of fruits, vegetables, legumes, cereals, and other whole-grain products. Although very high fiber intake in childhood could have adverse effects, the potential health benefits of a moderate increase in dietary fiber substantially outweigh the possible risks, especially in highly industrialized countries such as the United States. A safe range of dietary fiber intake for children may be between age + 5 and age + 10 g/day. This range is considered safe even for children and adolescents with marginal intakes of some vitamins and minerals; should provide enough dietary fiber for normal laxation; and may provide enough added dietary fiber to help prevent chronic diseases.

  17. Dietary phytic acid prevents fatty liver by reducing expression of hepatic lipogenic enzymes and modulates gut microflora in rats fed a high-sucrose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekita, Ayaka; Okazaki, Yukako; Katayama, Tetsuyuki

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of phytic acid (PA) on fatty liver and gut microflora in rats fed a high-sucrose (HSC) diet. Three groups of rats were fed a high-starch (HSR) diet or an HSC diet with or without 1.02% sodium PA for 12 d. We evaluated hepatic weight, total lipids, and triacylglycerol (TG) levels, the activities and expression of hepatic lipogenic enzymes (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, malic enzyme 1, and fatty acid synthetase), and fecal microflora. The HSC diet significantly increased hepatic total lipids and TG levels, and the activities and expression of the hepatic lipogenic enzymes compared with the HSR diet. These upregulations were clearly suppressed by dietary PA. Consumption of PA elevated the fecal ratio of Lactobacillus spp. and depressed the ratio of Clostridium cocoides, and suppressed the elevation in the ratio of C. leptum induced by the HSC diet. This work showed that dietary PA ameliorates sucrose-induced fatty liver through reducing the expression of hepatic lipogenesis genes and modulates gut microflora in rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Maternal obesity in the rat programs male offspring exploratory, learning and motivation behavior: prevention by dietary intervention pre-gestation or in gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, J S; Rodríguez-González, G L; Reyes-Castro, L A; Ibáñez, C; Ramírez, A; Chavira, R; Larrea, F; Nathanielsz, P W; Zambrano, E

    2012-04-01

    We studied the effects of maternal high fat diet (HFD, 25% calories from fat administered before and during pregnancy and lactation) and dietary intervention (switching dams from HFD to control diet) at different periconceptional periods on male offspring anxiety related behavior, exploration, learning, and motivation. From weaning at postnatal day (PND) 21, female subjects produced to be the mothers in the study received either control diet (CTR - 5% calories from fat), HFD through pregnancy and lactation (MO), HFD during PNDs 21-90 followed by CTR diet (pre-gestation (PG) intervention) or HFD from PND 21 to 120 followed by CTR diet (gestation and lactation (G) intervention) and bred at PND 120. At 19 days of gestation maternal serum corticosterone was increased in MO and the PG and G dams showed partial recovery with intermediate levels. In offspring, no effects were found in the elevated plus maze test. In the open field test, MO and G offspring showed increase zone entries, displaying less thigmotaxis; PG offspring showed partial recuperation of this behavior. During initial operant conditioning MO, PG and G offspring displayed decreased approach behavior with subsequent learning impairment during the acquisition of FR-1 and FR-5 operant conditioning for sucrose reinforcement. Motivation during the progressive ratio test increased in MO offspring; PG and G intervention recuperated this behavior. We conclude that dietary intervention can reverse negative effects of maternal HFD and offspring outcomes are potentially due to elevated maternal corticosterone.

  19. Revised dietary guidelines for Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Young Ai; Lee, Haeng Shin; Kim, Bok Hee; Lee, Yoonna; Lee, Hae Jeung; Moon, Jae Jin; Kim, Cho-il

    2008-01-01

    With rapidly changing dietary environment, dietary guidelines for Koreans were revised and relevant action guides were developed. First, the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee was established with experts and government officials from the fields of nutrition, preventive medicine, health promotion, agriculture, education and environment. The Committee set dietary goals for Koreans aiming for a better nutrition state of all after a thorough review and analysis of recent information related to nutritional status and/or problems of Korean population, changes in food production/supply, disease pattern, health policy and agricultural policy. Then, the revised dietary guidelines were proposed to accomplish these goals in addition to 6 different sets of dietary action guides to accommodate specific nutrition and health problems of respective age groups. Subsequently, these guidelines and guides were subjected to the focus group review, consumer perception surveys, and a public hearing for general and professional comments. Lastly, the language was clarified in terms of public understanding and phraseology. The revised Dietary guidelines for Koreans are as follows: eat a variety of grains, vegetables, fruits, fish, meat, poultry and dairy products; choose salt-preserved foods less, and use less salt when you prepare foods; increase physical activity for a healthy weight, and balance what you eat with your activity; enjoy every meal, and do not skip breakfast; if you drink alcoholic beverages, do so in moderation; prepare foods properly, and order sensible amounts; enjoy our rice-based diet.

  20. High-fat diet consumption disrupts memory and primes elevations in hippocampal IL-1β, an effect that can be prevented with dietary reversal or IL-1 receptor antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobesky, Julia L; Barrientos, Ruth M; De May, Henning S; Thompson, Brittany M; Weber, Michael D; Watkins, Linda R; Maier, Steven F

    2014-11-01

    High-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity is reaching worldwide proportions. In addition to causing obesity, HFDs also induce a variety of health disorders, which includes cognitive decline. Hippocampal function may be particularly vulnerable to the negative consequences of HFD, and it is suspected that 'primed' neuroinflammatory processes may mediate this response. To examine the link between diet, hippocampal function and neuroinflammation, male Wistar rats were fed a medium or HFD. Hippocampal memory function was measured using contextual pre-exposure fear conditioning (CPE-FC). Rats fed a HFD demonstrated impaired memory, an effect that was augmented with longer duration of HFD consumption. HFD-induced memory impairments were linked to potentiated levels of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) protein in the hippocampus 2h after the foot-shock that occurs during CPE-FC. Central IL-1 receptor antagonism, with intracisterna magna (ICM) administration of hIL-1RA prior to the foot-shock prevented the diet-induced memory disruption, suggesting a critical role for IL-1β in this phenomenon. Additionally, obese animals whose diet regimen was reversed from HFD back to standard chow recovered memory function and did not demonstrate a foot-shock-induced hippocampal IL-1β increase. Interestingly, dietary reversal neutralized the negative impact of HFD on memory and IL-1β, yet animals maintained physiological evidence of obesity (increased body mass and serum leptin), indicating that dietary components, not body mass, may mediate the negative effects on memory.

  1. Dietary Patterns in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise Beltoft Borup

    A healthy diet is essential for healthy growth and development during childhood and may prevent obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases throughout life. Traditionally, diet has been investigated as single nutrients. However, people do not eat one single nutrient and they do not even eat one...... nutrients. However, little is known about the development of dietary patterns in childhood both in relation to possible indicators and to obesity related outcomes. Therefore, the aim of this PhD thesis was to make exploratory analyses of dietary patterns in childhood using the method principal component...... analysis (PCA) and to investigate associations to possible indicators and outcomes related to growth and obesity. This was based on two observational cohort studies (SKOT I, SKOT II) and one intervention study (MoMS). The research showed that PCA is a suitable method for understanding some...

  2. Dietary fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madar, Z; Thorne, R

    1987-01-01

    Studies done on dietary fiber (DF) over the past five years are presented in this Review. The involvement of dietary fiber in the control of plasma glucose and lipid levels is now established. Two dietary fiber sources (soybean and fenugreek) were studied in our laboratory and are discussed herein. These sources were found to be potentially beneficial in the reduction of plasma glucose in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus subjects. They are shown to be acceptable by human subjects and are easy to use either in a mixture of milk products and in cooking. The mechanism by which dietary fiber alters the nutrient absorption is also discussed. The effect of DF on gastric emptying, transit time, adsorption and glucose transport may contribute to reducing plasma glucose and lipid levels. DF was found to be effective in controlling blood glucose and lipid levels of pregnant diabetic women. Dietary fiber may also be potentially beneficial in the reduction of exogenous insulin requirements in these subjects. However, increased consumption of DF may cause adverse side effects; the binding capabilities of fiber may affect nutrient availability, particularly that of minerals and prolonged and high DF dosage supplementation must be regarded cautiously. This is particularly true when recommending such a diet for pregnant or lactating women, children or subjects with nutritional disorders. Physiological effects of DF appear to depend heavily on the source and composition of fiber. Using a combination of DF from a variety of sources may reduce the actual mass of fiber required to obtain the desired metabolic effects and will result in a more palatable diet. Previously observed problems, such as excess flatus, diarrhea and mineral malabsorption would also be minimized.

  3. Dietary supplements in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, L M; Read, R S

    1993-01-01

    Studies of the dietary practices of athletes report that nutritional supplements are commonly used. Supplementation practices vary between sports and individual athletes; however, there is evidence that at least some athletes use a large number of supplements concurrently, often in doses that are very high in comparison with normal dietary intakes. In exploring supplementation practices we propose a classification system separating the supplements into dietary supplements and nutritional erogogenic aids. The dietary supplement is characterised as a product which can be used to address physiological or nutritional issues arising in sport. It may provide a convenient or practical means of consuming special nutrient requirements for exercise, or it may be used to prevent/reverse nutritional deficiencies that commonly occur among athletes. The basis of the dietary supplement is an understanding of nutritional requirements and physiological effects of exercise. When the supplement is used to successfully meet a physiological/nutritional goal arising in sport it may be demonstrated to improve sports performance. While there is some interest in refining the composition or formulation of some dietary supplements, the real interest belongs to the use or application of the supplement; i.e. educating athletes to understand and achieve their nutritional needs in a specific sports situation. The sports drink (carbohydrate-electrolyte replacement drink) is a well known example of a dietary supplement. Scientific attitudes towards the sports drink have changed over the past 20 years. Initial caution that carbohydrate-electrolyte fluids compromise gastric emptying during exercise has now been shown to be unjustified. Numerous studies have shown that 5 to 10% solutions of glucose, glucose polymers (maltodextrins) and other simple sugars all have suitable gastric emptying characteristics for the delivery of fluid and moderate amounts of carbohydrate substrate. The optimal

  4. Dietary sodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The 2013 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence" did not support the current recommendations of the IOM and the American Heart Association (AHA) to reduce daily dietary sodium intake to below 2,300 mg. The report concluded that the population...... Control (CDC), other public health advisory bodies, and major medical journals have continued to support the current policy of reducing dietary sodium.......-based health outcome evidence was not sufficient to define a safe upper intake level for sodium. Recent studies have extended this conclusion to show that a sodium intake below 2,300 mg/day is associated with increased mortality. In spite of this increasing body of evidence, the AHA, Centers for Disease...

  5. Nucleotide excision repair in yeast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijk, Patrick van

    2012-01-01

    Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER) is a conserved DNA repair pathway capable of removing a broad spectrum of DNA damage. In human cells a defect in NER leads to the disorder Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP). The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an excellent model organism to study the mechanism of NER. The

  6. Development of dietary pattern evaluation tool for adults and correlation with Dietary Quality Index

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Yeo Do; Kim, Kyung Won; Choi, Kyung-Suk; Kim, Misung; Cho, Yeo Jin; Sohn, Cheongmin

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES As the prevalence of chronic diseases has risen, the need for straightforward diagnostic tools for monitoring nutrition status to improve nutrition counseling and disease prevention has likewise increased. This study developed an easily usable dietary behavior pattern diagnosis checklist and investigated its correlation with dietary quality index. SUBJECTS/METHODS A draft dietary pattern evaluation tool was generated by analyzing previous studies. The draft questionnaire...

  7. Legume Rich in Starch and Dietary Prevention and Control of Diabetes%淀粉类干豆与糖尿病饮食防控

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淑颖; 范志红

    2011-01-01

    The research evidence and possible mechanism with respect to the association of legume rich in starch consumption and the risk of diabetes were reviewed. Studies had shown that legume rich in starch had a lower glycemic index and as a part of staple, intake of legume rich in starch could help reduce the risk of obesity, diabetes and its complications. The reason might be related to a slower digestion rate, dietary fiber and the existence of anti-nutritional factors.%综述了近年来国内外有关淀粉类干豆与糖尿病防控相关的研究证据和可能机制。研究表明,淀粉类干豆具有较低的血糖反应,摄入淀粉类干豆作为主食的一部分有利于降低肥胖、糖尿病及其并发症的发生风险。其原因可能与其较慢的消化速度、膳食纤维和抗营养因子的存在有关。

  8. Dietary indicaxanthin from cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L. Mill) fruit prevents eryptosis induced by oxysterols in a hypercholesterolaemia-relevant proportion and adhesion of human erythrocytes to endothelial cell layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesoriere, Luisa; Attanzio, Alessandro; Allegra, Mario; Livrea, Maria A

    2015-08-14

    Toxic oxysterols in a hypercholesterolaemia-relevant proportion cause suicidal death of human erythrocytes or eryptosis. This process proceeds through early production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), release of prostaglandin (PGE2) and opening of PGE2-dependent Ca channels, membrane phosphatidylserine (PS) externalisation, and cell shrinkage. The present study was the first to reveal that a bioavailable phytochemical, indicaxanthin (Ind) from cactus pear fruit, in a concentration range (1.0-5.0 μM) consistent with its plasma level after a fruit meal, prevents PS externalisation and cell shrinkage in a dose-dependent manner when incubated with isolated healthy human erythrocytes exposed to an oxysterol mixture for 48 h. Dietary Ind inhibited ROS production, glutathione (GSH) depletion, PGE2 release and Ca2+ entry. Ind alone did not modify the erythrocyte redox environment or affect other parameters. Ex vivo spiking of normal human blood with the oxysterol mixture for 48 h induced eryptosis, resulting in the production of ROS and decreased levels of GSH, which was prevented by concurrent exposure to 5 μm-Ind. The adherence of eryptotic erythrocytes to the endothelium causes vascular tissue injury. Erythrocytes isolated from blood incubated with the oxysterol mixture plus 5 μm-Ind did not adhere to endothelial cell monolayers. Eryptotic erythrocytes may contribute to thrombotic complications in hypercholesterolaemia. Our findings suggest the positive effects of diets containing Ind on erythrocytes in hypercholesterolaemic subjects.

  9. 脑血管病综合性预防对-K沙市社区人群膳食的影响%Effects of comprehensive prevention of cerebrovascular diseases on dietary nutrition in community population in Changsha

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田发发; 杨期东; 萧剑峰; 刘运海; 田奇

    2001-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of comprehensive prevention ofcerebrovascular diseases on levels of nutrient intakes in community population in Changsha. Methods Comprehensive prevention of cerebro-vascular diseases was carried out in 100 thousand people in Changsha during 1992 to 1995. Health education intervention programme wasput into practice in the intervention area. A baseline survey and re-survey was conducted in 200 random .sample aged 35 to 74 years old during 1992 and 1995. Results Daily intakes of energy and fat in prevention population decreased 13.6%, 15.7% respectively, especially in saturated fatty acid after intervention as compared with those in the control population. The levels of sodium intakes in prevention and control pupulation decreased23.7%, 13.9% respectively, especially in the intervention population(P<0.05). Conclusion Comprehensive intervention may change dietary nutrition of community population in Changsha and make their nutrient composition reasonable, which is beneficial for them to prevent from cerebrovascular diseases.%目的研究综合性预防对长沙市社区人群营养素摄入水平的影响。方法1992~1995年,在长沙市区10万人群中开展了脑血管病综合性预防研究,其中干预社区人群采取综合性干预措施,对研究人群中年龄在35~74岁的200人随机样本进行了膳食营养基线调查和复查。结果与对照社区相比,干预社区人群能量、脂肪摄入量明显减少,分别减少13.6%、15.7%,且以饱和脂肪酸为主。干预、对照社区人群钠摄入量分别减少23.7%、13.9%,干预社区比对照社区下降更显著(P<0.05)。结论干预措施可以改变人群膳食营养,使膳食结构趋于合理,有利于脑血管病的预防。

  10. Dietary prevention of allergic diseases in infants and small children. Part II. Evaluation of methods in allergy prevention studies and sensitization markers. Definitions and diagnostic criteria of allergic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muraro, Antonella; Dreborg, Sten; Halken, Susanne

    2004-01-01

    and interventional studies was evaluated with relevance to the important factors influencing outcome of studies on allergy development/prevention. in this analysis the statements of evidence as defined by WHO were applied. Best evidence of recommendations are those fulfilling the criteria for statements category 1...

  11. Dietary supplementation with dried plum prevents ovariectomy-induced bone loss while modulating the immune response in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendina, Elizabeth; Lim, Yin F; Marlow, Denver; Wang, Yan; Clarke, Stephen L; Kuvibidila, Solo; Lucas, Edralin A; Smith, Brenda J

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of dried plum on the changes in bone metabolism and the immune response associated with ovarian hormone deficiency. Adult female C57BL/6J mice were either sham-operated (Sham) and fed AIN-93 diet (control) or ovariectomized (OVX) and fed a control diet with 0%, 5%, 15% or 25% dried plum (w/w), corresponding to control, low- (LDP), medium- (MDP) and high (HDP)-dose dried plum. Four weeks of HDP supplementation prevented the decrease in spine bone mineral density and content induced by OVX. The OVX compromise in trabecular bone of the vertebra and proximal tibia was prevented by the higher doses of dried plum, and in the vertebra these effects resulted in greater (Pbone strength and stiffness. In the bone marrow, OVX suppressed granulocyte and committed monocyte populations and increased the lymphoblast population, but the MDP and HDP restored these myeloid and lymphoid populations to the level of the Sham. Dried plum also suppressed lymphocyte tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production ex vivo by splenocytes, in response to concanavalin (Con) A stimulation. These data indicate that dried plum's positive effects on bone structural and biomechanical properties coincide with the restoration of certain bone marrow myeloid and lymphoid populations, and suppressed splenocyte activation occurring with ovarian hormone deficiency. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effectiveness of a universal parental support programme to promote healthy dietary habits and physical activity and to prevent overweight and obesity in 6-year-old children: the Healthy School Start Study, a cluster-randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Gisela; Sundblom, Elinor; Norman, Åsa; Bohman, Benjamin; Hagberg, Jan; Elinder, Liselotte Schäfer

    2015-01-01

    To develop and evaluate the effectiveness of a parental support programme to promote healthy dietary and physical activity habits and to prevent overweight and obesity in Swedish children. A cluster-randomised controlled trial was carried out in areas with low to medium socio-economic status. Participants were six-year-old children (n = 243) and their parents. Fourteen pre-school classes were randomly assigned to intervention (n = 7) and control groups (n = 7). The intervention lasted for 6 months and included: 1) Health information for parents, 2) Motivational Interviewing with parents and 3) Teacher-led classroom activities with children. Physical activity was measured by accelerometry, dietary and physical activity habits and parental self-efficacy through a questionnaire. Body weight and height were measured and BMI standard deviation score was calculated. Measurements were conducted at baseline, post-intervention and at 6-months follow-up. Group differences were examined using analysis of covariance and Poisson regression, adjusted for gender and baseline values. There was no significant intervention effect in the primary outcome physical activity. Sub-group analyses showed a significant gender-group interaction in total physical activity (TPA), with girls in the intervention group demonstrating higher TPA during weekends (p = 0.04), as well as in sedentary time, with boys showing more sedentary time in the intervention group (p = 0.03). There was a significantly higher vegetable intake (0.26 servings) in the intervention group compared to the control group (p = 0.003). At follow-up, sub-group analyses showed a sustained effect for boys. The intervention did not affect the prevalence of overweight or obesity. It is possible to influence vegetable intake in children and girls' physical activity through a parental support programme. The programme needs to be intensified in order to increase effectiveness and sustain the effects long-term. These findings are an

  13. Effectiveness of a universal parental support programme to promote healthy dietary habits and physical activity and to prevent overweight and obesity in 6-year-old children: the Healthy School Start Study, a cluster-randomised controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Nyberg

    Full Text Available To develop and evaluate the effectiveness of a parental support programme to promote healthy dietary and physical activity habits and to prevent overweight and obesity in Swedish children.A cluster-randomised controlled trial was carried out in areas with low to medium socio-economic status. Participants were six-year-old children (n = 243 and their parents. Fourteen pre-school classes were randomly assigned to intervention (n = 7 and control groups (n = 7. The intervention lasted for 6 months and included: 1 Health information for parents, 2 Motivational Interviewing with parents and 3 Teacher-led classroom activities with children. Physical activity was measured by accelerometry, dietary and physical activity habits and parental self-efficacy through a questionnaire. Body weight and height were measured and BMI standard deviation score was calculated. Measurements were conducted at baseline, post-intervention and at 6-months follow-up. Group differences were examined using analysis of covariance and Poisson regression, adjusted for gender and baseline values.There was no significant intervention effect in the primary outcome physical activity. Sub-group analyses showed a significant gender-group interaction in total physical activity (TPA, with girls in the intervention group demonstrating higher TPA during weekends (p = 0.04, as well as in sedentary time, with boys showing more sedentary time in the intervention group (p = 0.03. There was a significantly higher vegetable intake (0.26 servings in the intervention group compared to the control group (p = 0.003. At follow-up, sub-group analyses showed a sustained effect for boys. The intervention did not affect the prevalence of overweight or obesity.It is possible to influence vegetable intake in children and girls' physical activity through a parental support programme. The programme needs to be intensified in order to increase effectiveness and sustain the effects long-term. These findings

  14. Dietary Salt Intake and Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Over the past century, salt has been the subject of intense scientific research related to blood pressure elevation and cardiovascular mortalities. Moderate reduction of dietary salt intake is generally an effective measure to reduce blood pressure. However, recently some in the academic society and lay media dispute the benefits of salt restriction, pointing to inconsistent outcomes noted in some observational studies. A reduction in dietary salt from the current intake of 9-12 g/day to the recommended level of less than 5-6 g/day will have major beneficial effects on cardiovascular health along with major healthcare cost savings around the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) strongly recommended to reduce dietary salt intake as one of the top priority actions to tackle the global non-communicable disease crisis and has urged member nations to take action to reduce population wide dietary salt intake to decrease the number of deaths from hypertension, cardiovascular disease and stroke. However, some scientists still advocate the possibility of increased risk of CVD morbidity and mortality at extremes of low salt intake. Future research may inform the optimal sodium reduction strategies and intake targets for general populations. Until then, we have to continue to build consensus around the greatest benefits of salt reduction for CVD prevention, and dietary salt intake reduction strategies must remain at the top of the public health agenda. PMID:25061468

  15. Reduced signaling of PI3K-Akt and RAS-MAPK pathways is the key target for weight-loss-induced cancer prevention by dietary calorie restriction and/or physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standard, Joseph; Jiang, Yu; Yu, Miao; Su, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Zhihui; Xu, Jianteng; Chen, Jie; King, Brenee; Lu, Lizhi; Tomich, John; Baybutt, Richard; Wang, Weiqun

    2014-12-01

    Weight control through either dietary calorie restriction (DCR) or exercise has been associated with cancer prevention in animal models. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully defined. Bioinformatics using genomics, proteomics and lipidomics was employed to elucidate the molecular targets of weight control in a mouse skin cancer model. SENCAR mice were randomly assigned into four groups for 10 weeks: ad-libitum-fed sedentary control, ad-libitum-fed exercise (AE), exercise but pair-fed isocaloric amount of control (PE) and 20% DCR. Two hours after topical TPA treatment, skin epidermis was analyzed by Affymetrix for gene expression, DIGE for proteomics and lipidomics for phospholipids. Body weights were significantly reduced in both DCR and PE but not AE mice versus the control. Among 39,000 transcripts, 411, 67 and 110 genes were significantly changed in DCR, PE and AE, respectively. The expression of genes relevant to PI3K-Akt and Ras-MAPK signaling was effectively reduced by DCR and PE but not AE as measured through GenMAPP software. Proteomics analysis identified ~120 proteins, with 27 proteins significantly changed by DCR, including up-regulated apolipoprotein A-1, a key antioxidant protein that decreases Ras-MAPK activity. Of the total 338 phospholipids analyzed by lipidomics, 57 decreased by PE including 5 phophatidylinositol species that serve as PI3K substrates. Although a full impact has not been determined yet, it appears that the reduction of both Ras-MAPK and PI3K-Akt signaling pathways is a cancer preventive target that has been consistently demonstrated by three bioinformatics approaches.

  16. Biomarkers for the activation of calcium metabolism in dairy cows: elevation of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity by lowering dietary cation-anion difference is associated with the prevention of milk fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosaki, Naotoshi; Yamato, Osamu; Sato, Jun; Naito, Yoshihisa; Mori, Fuminobu; Imoto, Seiichi; Maede, Yoshimitsu

    2007-03-01

    In our previous study, it was demonstrated that the administration of anion salts, which slightly lower the dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD), in the prepartum period is safe and effective for preventing milk fever in multiparous cows. In the present study, several biomarkers, which might show activation of Ca metabolism, were analyzed using stored samples in the previous study to investigate the mechanism of the preventive effect on milk fever by lowering DCAD. Changes in bone-specific alkaline phosphatase activity, osteocalcin and insulin-like growth factor I concentrations in serum were almost the same among the three groups of multiparous cows with or without the oral administration of anion salts, while the levels of these serum biomarkers in the group of primiparous cows (heifer group) were much higher compared with those in the three multiparous groups throughout the experimental period. Urinary deoxypyridinoline excretion was not a useful biomarker for dairy cows because it hardly changed during the peripartum period in all groups. However, serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity, which is known as a biomarker of osteoclast activity, was well associated with the administration of anion salts lowering DCAD because among the three multiparous groups, only the group of multiparous cows fed the anion salts (anion group) showed an increased level, which rose to the level in the heifer group, and was markedly higher than those in the other control groups of multiparous cows. The increased activity of serum TRAP in the anion group suggested that Ca in the plasma pool was mobilized smoothly from bone-bound Ca via mature osteoclasts at parturition, which might be due to prior activation under mild acidosis induced by slightly lowering DCAD. Therefore, TRAP was the best biomarker to monitor the activation of Ca metabolism in dairy cows fed anion salts.

  17. European Nucleotide Archive in 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toribio, Ana Luisa; Alako, Blaise; Amid, Clara; Cerdeño-Tarrága, Ana; Clarke, Laura; Cleland, Iain; Fairley, Susan; Gibson, Richard; Goodgame, Neil; ten Hoopen, Petra; Jayathilaka, Suran; Kay, Simon; Leinonen, Rasko; Liu, Xin; Martínez-Villacorta, Josué; Pakseresht, Nima; Rajan, Jeena; Reddy, Kethi; Rosello, Marc; Silvester, Nicole; Smirnov, Dmitriy; Vaughan, Daniel; Zalunin, Vadim; Cochrane, Guy

    2017-01-01

    The European Nucleotide Archive (ENA; http://www.ebi.ac.uk/ena) offers a rich platform for data sharing, publishing and archiving and a globally comprehensive data set for onward use by the scientific community. With a broad scope spanning raw sequencing reads, genome assemblies and functional annotation, the resource provides extensive data submission, search and download facilities across web and programmatic interfaces. Here, we outline ENA content and major access modalities, highlight major developments in 2016 and outline a number of examples of data reuse from ENA. PMID:27899630

  18. Adaptive response activated by dietary cis9, trans11 conjugated linoleic acid prevents distinct signs of gliadin-induced enteropathy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamo, Paolo; Palmieri, Gianna; Cocca, Ennio; Ferrandino, Ida; Gogliettino, Marta; Monaco, Antonio; Maurano, Francesco; Rossi, Mauro

    2016-03-01

    The beneficial effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) mixture (cis9, trans11, c9; trans10, cis12, t10) against gliadin-induced toxicity in HLA-DQ8-transgenic mice (DQ8) have been associated with improved duodenal cytoprotective mechanisms [nuclear factor-E2-related factor-2, Nrf2; acylpeptide hydrolase (APEH)/proteasome]. The present study was aimed at investigating the ability of individual CLA isomers to improve the efficacy of these defensive mechanisms and to protect against duodenal injury caused by the combined administration of gliadin and indomethacin (GI). Gluten-mediated enteropathy was induced in DQ8 mice by three intra-gastric administration of gliadin (20 mg kg(-1)/bw) and indomethacin (15 mg L(-1)) in drinking water for 10 days (GI). C9 or t10 CLA (520 mg kg(-1)/bw/day) were orally administered for 2 weeks. Pro-oxidant and toxic effects associated with GI treatment, anti-oxidant/detoxifying ability of c9 or t10-CLA and the protective effect induced by c9 pre-treatment (c9 + GI) were evaluated in DQ8 mice duodenum by combining enzymatic, immunoblotting, histological evaluation and quantitative real-time PCR assays. GI treatment produces the time-dependent decline of the considered detoxifying mechanisms thus leading to pro-apoptotic and pro-oxidant effects. APEH/proteasome pathway was not markedly affected by individual CLA isomers, but duodenal redox status and activity/mRNA levels of Nrf2-activated enzymes were significantly improved by c9 administration. c9 pre-treatment protects against GI-mediated accumulation of oxidative stress markers, and histological examination reveals the increase of goblet cells number in mouse duodenum but induces only a partial recovery of APEH/proteasome activity. The activation of and adaptive response by low doses of c9 supplementation prevents distinct signs of gliadin-induced enteropathy in DQ8 mice.

  19. Nucleotide Metabolism and DNA Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Digby F; Evans, Joanna C; Mizrahi, Valerie

    2014-10-01

    The development and application of a highly versatile suite of tools for mycobacterial genetics, coupled with widespread use of "omics" approaches to elucidate the structure, function, and regulation of mycobacterial proteins, has led to spectacular advances in our understanding of the metabolism and physiology of mycobacteria. In this article, we provide an update on nucleotide metabolism and DNA replication in mycobacteria, highlighting key findings from the past 10 to 15 years. In the first section, we focus on nucleotide metabolism, ranging from the biosynthesis, salvage, and interconversion of purine and pyrimidine ribonucleotides to the formation of deoxyribonucleotides. The second part of the article is devoted to DNA replication, with a focus on replication initiation and elongation, as well as DNA unwinding. We provide an overview of replication fidelity and mutation rates in mycobacteria and summarize evidence suggesting that DNA replication occurs during states of low metabolic activity, and conclude by suggesting directions for future research to address key outstanding questions. Although this article focuses primarily on observations from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, it is interspersed, where appropriate, with insights from, and comparisons with, other mycobacterial species as well as better characterized bacterial models such as Escherichia coli. Finally, a common theme underlying almost all studies of mycobacterial metabolism is the potential to identify and validate functions or pathways that can be exploited for tuberculosis drug discovery. In this context, we have specifically highlighted those processes in mycobacterial DNA replication that might satisfy this critical requirement.

  20. Protection of Dietary Polyphenols against Oral Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijian Ding

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer represents a health burden worldwide with approximate 275,000 new cases diagnosed annually. Its poor prognosis is due to local tumor invasion and frequent lymph node metastasis. Better understanding and development of novel treatments and chemo-preventive approaches for the preventive and therapeutic intervention of this type of cancer are necessary. Recent development of dietary polyphenols as cancer preventives and therapeutic agents is of great interest due to their antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic activities. Polyphenols may inhibit carcinogenesis in the stage of initiation, promotion, or progression. In particular, dietary polyphenols decrease incidence of carcinomas and exert protection against oral cancer by induction of cell death and inhibition of tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. In this review, we discuss current progress of dietary polyphenols against oral cancers in vitro, in vivo, and at population levels.

  1. Nucleotide Excision Repair in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Lans

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nucleotide excision repair (NER plays an essential role in many organisms across life domains to preserve and faithfully transmit DNA to the next generation. In humans, NER is essential to prevent DNA damage-induced mutation accumulation and cell death leading to cancer and aging. NER is a versatile DNA repair pathway that repairs many types of DNA damage which distort the DNA helix, such as those induced by solar UV light. A detailed molecular model of the NER pathway has emerged from in vitro and live cell experiments, particularly using model systems such as bacteria, yeast, and mammalian cell cultures. In recent years, the versatility of the nematode C. elegans to study DNA damage response (DDR mechanisms including NER has become increasingly clear. In particular, C. elegans seems to be a convenient tool to study NER during the UV response in vivo, to analyze this process in the context of a developing and multicellular organism, and to perform genetic screening. Here, we will discuss current knowledge gained from the use of C. elegans to study NER and the response to UV-induced DNA damage.

  2. Nutrition and melanoma prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, J Daniel; Wing, Gregory J; Dellavalle, Robert P

    2010-01-01

    Melanoma has continued to rise in incidence despite public efforts to promote sun protection behaviors. Because sunscreen use does not completely prevent skin cancer induced by ultraviolet radiation, additional chemopreventive methods for protecting against and reversing the effects of ultraviolet photodamage need evaluation. Recent years have brought increased interest in dietary factors, such as natural botanicals and vitamins, for the prevention of melanoma. This contribution provides a narrative review of the relevant, nutrition-related literature found by searching the keywords "melanoma chemoprevention," "nutrition and melanoma," "dietary botanicals and melanoma prevention," "green tea and melanoma," "vitamin D and melanoma," and "vitamin E and melanoma" in the PubMed database. Although randomized controlled trials of humans are lacking, basic science and epidemiologic studies show promising benefits of many natural products in chemoprevention for melanoma. Future studies, hopefully, will yield concrete answers and clarify the role of commonly available dietary nutrients in melanoma chemoprevention.

  3. Nucleotide Selectivity in Abiotic RNA Polymerization Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coari, Kristin M.; Martin, Rebecca C.; Jain, Kopal; McGown, Linda B.

    2017-09-01

    In order to establish an RNA world on early Earth, the nucleotides must form polymers through chemical rather than biochemical reactions. The polymerization products must be long enough to perform catalytic functions, including self-replication, and to preserve genetic information. These functions depend not only on the length of the polymers, but also on their sequences. To date, studies of abiotic RNA polymerization generally have focused on routes to polymerization of a single nucleotide and lengths of the homopolymer products. Less work has been done the selectivity of the reaction toward incorporation of some nucleotides over others in nucleotide mixtures. Such information is an essential step toward understanding the chemical evolution of RNA. To address this question, in the present work RNA polymerization reactions were performed in the presence of montmorillonite clay catalyst. The nucleotides included the monophosphates of adenosine, cytosine, guanosine, uridine and inosine. Experiments included reactions of mixtures of an imidazole-activated nucleotide (ImpX) with one or more unactivated nucleotides (XMP), of two or more ImpX, and of XMP that were activated in situ in the polymerization reaction itself. The reaction products were analyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to identify the lengths and nucleotide compositions of the polymerization products. The results show that the extent of polymerization, the degree of heteropolymerization vs. homopolymerization, and the composition of the polymeric products all vary among the different nucleotides and depend upon which nucleotides and how many different nucleotides are present in the mixture.

  4. Nucleotide Selectivity in Abiotic RNA Polymerization Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coari, Kristin M.; Martin, Rebecca C.; Jain, Kopal; McGown, Linda B.

    2017-02-01

    In order to establish an RNA world on early Earth, the nucleotides must form polymers through chemical rather than biochemical reactions. The polymerization products must be long enough to perform catalytic functions, including self-replication, and to preserve genetic information. These functions depend not only on the length of the polymers, but also on their sequences. To date, studies of abiotic RNA polymerization generally have focused on routes to polymerization of a single nucleotide and lengths of the homopolymer products. Less work has been done the selectivity of the reaction toward incorporation of some nucleotides over others in nucleotide mixtures. Such information is an essential step toward understanding the chemical evolution of RNA. To address this question, in the present work RNA polymerization reactions were performed in the presence of montmorillonite clay catalyst. The nucleotides included the monophosphates of adenosine, cytosine, guanosine, uridine and inosine. Experiments included reactions of mixtures of an imidazole-activated nucleotide (ImpX) with one or more unactivated nucleotides (XMP), of two or more ImpX, and of XMP that were activated in situ in the polymerization reaction itself. The reaction products were analyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to identify the lengths and nucleotide compositions of the polymerization products. The results show that the extent of polymerization, the degree of heteropolymerization vs. homopolymerization, and the composition of the polymeric products all vary among the different nucleotides and depend upon which nucleotides and how many different nucleotides are present in the mixture.

  5. Dietary fat knowledge and intake of mid-adolescents attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-07-29

    Jul 29, 2009 ... dominate nutrition strategies for the prevention of chronic disease.10 ... the value of teaching dietary knowledge to pupils, as it does not ... reliable nutritional information and dietary fat knowledge positively affected their fat intake. .... test score equalled 18 marks.28 These scores were used in this study.

  6. Sublingual nucleotides and immune response to exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostojic Sergej M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Evidence exists regarding the potential role of exogenous nucleotides as regulators of the immune function in physically active humans, yet the potential use of nucleotides has been hindered by their low bioavailability after oral administration. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial to assess the effect of sublingual nucleotides (50 mg/day on salivary and serum immunity indicators as compared to placebo, both administered to healthy males aged 20 to 25 years for 14 days. Sublingual administration of nucleotides for 14 days increased serum immunoglobulin A, natural killer cells count and cytotoxic activity, and offset the post-exercise drop of salivary immunoglobulins and lactoferrin (P  0.05. It seems that sublingual administration of nucleotides for two weeks considerably affected immune function in healthy males.

  7. Fatores dietéticos na prevenção e tratamento de comorbidades associadas à síndrome metabólica Dietary factors in preventing and treating comorbidities associated with the metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Roberta Bocca Santos

    2006-06-01

    . Otherwise, an adequate diet associated with other lifestyle modifications, such as regular physical activity and curb smoking contribute to an improved control of the disease, preventing its complications and increasing the quality of life. In this way, the proposal of this study was to review, in the scientific literature, the role of the diet in preventing and treating the metabolic syndrome. The articles on this matter inform that the nutritional therapy aims to limit the consumption of saturated fats and trans isomeric fatty acids, the main components involved in increasing cholesterolemia. The quantity of protein must be similar to the recommendations for the general population, with emphasis on plant and fish protein. Another important issue is the glycemic index of foods: diets with high glycemic index promote insulin resistance, obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In relation to dietary fibers, many studies show that a diet rich in fibers reduces the risk of coronary diseases and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and also contributes to improve glycemic control. Therefore, an adequate diet not only constitutes an indispensable factor in the treatment but also in the prevention of the metabolic syndrome.

  8. Dietary intervention in acne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Bodo

    2012-01-01

    industrialized food and fast food distribution of Westernized countries. An attenuation of mTORC1 signaling is only possible by increasing the consumption of vegetables and fruit, the major components of vegan or Paleolithic diets. The dermatologist bears a tremendous responsibility for his young acne patients who should be advised to modify their dietary habits in order to reduce activating stimuli of mTORC1, not only to improve acne but to prevent the harmful and expensive march to other mTORC1-related chronic diseases later in life. PMID:22870349

  9. Sublingual Nucleotides Prolong Run Time to Exhaustion in Young Physically Active Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergej M. Ostojic

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although dietary nucleotides have been determined to be required for normal immune function, there is limited direct interventional evidence confirming performance-enhancing effects of sublingual nucleotides in humans. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of sublingual nucleotides (50 mg/day administered for 14 days in thirty young healthy physically active males, on endurance performance and immune responses. Fasting white blood cell count, natural killer cells (NKC number, NKC cytotoxic activity, and serum immunoglobulin (IgA, IgM, IgG, and time to exhaustion, peak rate of perceived exertion, peak heart rate, and peak running speed during the exercise test were measured at baseline (day 0 and post-intervention (day 14. Time to exhaustion, as well as serum immunoglobulin A and NKC cytotoxic activity, were significantly higher at day 14 (p < 0.05 in participants supplemented with nucleotides compared with those who consumed placebo. No significant differences in other parameters were observed between groups at post-intervention. No volunteers withdrew before the end of the study nor reported any vexatious side effects of supplementation. The results of the present study suggest that sublingual nucleotides may provide pertinent benefit as both an ergogenic and immunostimulatory additive in active males.

  10. Nucleotides and inorganic phosphates as potential antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Yael; Fischer, Bilha

    2006-11-01

    Highly reactive OH radicals, formed in an iron-ion catalyzed Fenton reaction, are implicated in many pathological conditions. The quest for Fenton reaction inhibitors, either radical scavenger or metal-ion chelator antioxidants, spans the previous decades. Purine nucleotides were previously studied as natural modulators of the Fenton reaction; however, the modulatory role of purine nucleotides remained in dispute. Here, we have resolved this long-standing dispute and demonstrated a concentration-dependent biphasic modulation of the Fenton reaction by nucleotides. By electron spin resonance measurements with 0.1 mM Fe(II), we observed an increase of *OH production at low purine nucleotide concentrations (up to 0.15 mM), while at higher nucleotide concentrations, an exponential decay of *OH concentration was observed. We found that the phosphate moiety, not the nucleoside, determines the pro/antioxidant properties of a nucleotide, suggesting a chelation-based modulation. Furthermore, the biphasic modulation mode is probably due to diverse nucleotide-Fe(II) complexes formed in a concentration-dependent manner. At ATP concentrations much greater than Fe(II) concentrations, multiligand chelates are formed which inhibit the Fenton reaction owing to a full Fe(II) coordination sphere. In addition to natural nucleotides, we investigated a series of base- or phosphate-modified nucleotides, dinucleotides, and inorganic phosphates, as potential biocompatible antioxidants. Ap5A, inorganic thiophosphate and ATP-gamma-S proved highly potent antioxidants with IC50 values of 40, 30, and 10 microM, respectively. ATP-gamma-S proved 100 and 20 times more active than ATP and the potent antioxidant Trolox, respectively. In the presence of 30 microM ATP-gamma-S no *OH was detected after 5 min in the Fenton reaction mixture. The most potent antioxidants identified inhibit the Fenton reaction by forming full coordination sphere chelates.

  11. New insights into the health effects of dietary saturated and omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    de Lorgeril, Michel; Salen, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    .... Reducing dietary saturated fat and replacing it with polyunsaturated fat is still the main dietary strategy to prevent cardiovascular diseases, although major flaws have been reported in the analyses...

  12. Dietary fiber showed no preventive effect against colon and rectal cancers in Japanese with low fat intake: an analysis from the results of nutrition surveys from 23 Japanese prefectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugawara Kazuo

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since Fuchs' report in 1999, the reported protective effect of dietary fiber from colorectal carcinogenesis has led many researchers to question its real benefit. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between diet, especially dietary fiber and fat and colorectal cancer in Japan. Methods A multiple regression analysis (using the stepwise variable selection method was performed using the standardized mortality ratios (SMRs of colon and rectal cancer in 23 Japanese prefectures as objective variables and dietary fiber, nutrients and food groups as explanatory variables. Results As for colon cancer, the standardized partial correlation coefficients were positively significant for fat (1,13, P = 0.000, seaweeds (0.41, P = 0.026 and beans (0.45, P = 0.017 and were negatively significant for vitamin A (-0.63, P = 0.003, vitamin C (-0.42, P = 0.019 and yellow-green vegetables (-0.37, P = 0.046. For rectal cancer, the standardized partial correlation coefficient in fat (0.60, P = 0.002 was positively significant. Dietary fiber was not found to have a significant relationship with either colon or rectal cancers. Conclusions This study failed to show any protective effect of dietary fiber in subjects with a low fat intake (Japanese in this analysis, which supports Fuchs' findings in subjects with a high fat intake (US Americans.

  13. Dietary fiber prevents obesity-related liver lipotoxicity by modulating sterol-regulatory element binding protein pathway in C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat/cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shufen; Jiao, Jun; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Jiaying; Wan, Zhongxiao; Zhang, Weiguo; Gao, Xiaoran; Qin, Liqiang

    2015-10-29

    Adequate intake of dietary fibers has proven metabolic and cardiovascular benefits, molecular mechanisms remain still limited. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of cereal dietary fiber on obesity-related liver lipotoxicity in C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat/cholesterol (HFC) diet and underlying mechanism. Forty-eight adult male C57BL/6J mice were randomly given a reference chow diet, or a high fat/cholesterol (HFC) diet supplemented with or without oat fiber or wheat bran fiber for 24 weeks. Our results showed mice fed oat or wheat bran fiber exhibited lower weight gain, lipid profiles and insulin resistance, compared with HFC diet. The two cereal dietary fibers potently decreased protein expressions of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 and key factors involved in lipogenesis, including fatty acid synthase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase in target tissues. At molecular level, the two cereal dietary fibers augmented protein expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and gamma, liver X receptor alpha, and ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 in target tissues. Our findings indicated that cereal dietary fiber supplementation abrogated obesity-related liver lipotoxicity and dyslipidemia in C57BL/6J mice fed a HFC diet. In addition, the efficacy of oat fiber is greater than wheat bran fiber in normalizing these metabolic disorders and pathological profiles.

  14. Nucleotide excision repair in the test tube.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.G.J. Jaspers (Nicolaas); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThe eukaryotic nucleotide excision-repair pathway has been reconstituted in vitro, an achievement that should hasten the full enzymological characterization of this highly complex DNA-repair pathway.

  15. Current evidence on dietary pattern and cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Bernice H K; Ho, Ivan C H; Chan, Ruth S M; Sea, Mandy M M; Woo, Jean

    2014-01-01

    With global aging population, age-related cognitive decline becomes epidemic. Lifestyle-related factor is one of the key preventative measures. Dietary pattern analysis which considers dietary complexity has recently used to examine the linkage between nutrition and cognitive function. A priori approach defines dietary pattern based on existing knowledge. Results of several dietary pattern scores were summarized. The heterogeneity of assessment methods and outcome measurements lead to inconsistent results. Posteriori approach derives a dietary pattern independently of the existing nutrition-disease knowledge. It showed a dietary pattern abundant with plant-based food, oily fish, lower consumption of processed food, saturated fat, and simple sugar which appears to be beneficial to cognitive health. Despite inconclusive evidence from both approaches, diet and exercise, beneficial for other diseases, remains to be the two key modifiable factors for cognitive function. Large-scale prospective studies in multiethics population are required to provide stronger evidence in the future.

  16. Associations Between Social Vulnerabilities and Dietary Patterns in European Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iguacel, Isabel; Fernandez-Alvira, Juan M.; Bammann, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Socio-economic inequalities in childhood can determine dietary patterns, and therefore future health. This study aimed to explore associations between social vulnerabilities and dietary patterns assessed at two time points, and to investigate the association between accumulation of vulnerabilities...... and dietary patterns. A total of 9301 children aged 2–9 years participated at baseline and 2-year follow-up examinations of the Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS study. In all, three dietary patterns were identified at baseline and follow...... single-parent families, children of migrant origin and children with unemployed parents. Multinomial mixed models were used to assess the associations between social vulnerabilities and children’s dietary patterns at baseline and follow-up. Children whose parents lacked a social network (OR 1·31; 99 % CI...

  17. Dietary fiber prevents obesity-related liver lipotoxicity by modulating sterol-regulatory element binding protein pathway in C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat/cholesterol diet

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Adequate intake of dietary fibers has proven metabolic and cardiovascular benefits, molecular mechanisms remain still limited. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of cereal dietary fiber on obesity-related liver lipotoxicity in C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat/cholesterol (HFC) diet and underlying mechanism. Forty-eight adult male C57BL/6J mice were randomly given a reference chow diet, or a high fat/choleserol (HFC) diet supplemented with or without oat fiber or wheat bran fiber for ...

  18. Effects of nucleotides and nucleosides on coagulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bune, Laurids; Thaning, Pia; Johansson, Pär I;

    2010-01-01

    Nucleotides, including ADP, ATP and uridine triphosphate (UTP), are discharged profusely in the circulation during many pathological conditions including sepsis. Sepsis can cause hypotension and systemic activation of the coagulation and fibrinolytic systems in humans, which may cause disseminated...... intravascular coagulation. We investigated whether nucleotide-induced cardiovascular collapse as provoked by systemic infusion of adenosine, ADP, ATP, UTP and nitric oxide affected the haemostatic system as assessed by whole blood thromboelastography (TEG) analysis. Ten pigs received a randomized infusion...

  19. Polymorphisms in nucleotide excision repair genes, smoking and intake of fruit and vegetables in relation to lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Sørensen, Mette; Overvad, Kim

    2007-01-01

    Polymorphisms in nucleotide excision repair genes have been associated with risk for lung cancer. We examined gene-environment interactions in relation to lung cancer in 430 cases and 790 comparison persons identified within a prospective cohort of 57,053 persons. We included polymorphisms...... in the XPC, XPA and XPD genes involved in the nucleotide excision DNA repair pathway and analysed possible interactions with smoking and dietary intake of fruit and vegetables in relation to risk for lung cancer. We found that intake of fruit was associated with lower risk for lung cancer only among carriers...

  20. Effect of the types of dietary fats and non-dietary oils on bone metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Eman; Ibrahim, Khadiga

    2017-03-04

    Nutrients beyond calcium and vitamin D have a role on bone health, and in treatment and prevention of osteoporosis. Quality and quantity of dietary fat may have consequences on skeletal health. Diets with highly saturated fat content produce deleterious effects on bone mineralization in growing animals. Conversely, dietary n-3-long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids play an important role in bone metabolism and may help in prevention and treatment of bone disease. Some reports suggest a correlation between the dietary ratio of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and bone formation. Specific dietary fatty acids were found to modulate prostanoid synthesis in bone tissue and improve bone formation in both animal and clinical trials. The skeletal benefits of dietary isoprenoids are extremely documented. Higher isoprenoids intake may relate to higher bone mineral density. Dietary supplements containing fish oil, individual polyunsaturated fatty acids, and isoprenoids could be used as adjuvant with bone medications in osteoportic conditions but their doses must be considered to avoid detrimental effect of over dosages.

  1. The Relationship between Dietary Fatty Acids and Inflammatory Genes on the Obese Phenotype and Serum Lipids

    OpenAIRE

    Yael T. Joffe; Malcolm Collins; Goedecke, Julia H.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity, a chronic low-grade inflammatory condition is associated with the development of many comorbidities including dyslipidemia. This review examines interactions between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the inflammatory genes tumor necrosis alpha (TNFA) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and dietary fatty acids, and their relationship with obesity and serum lipid levels. In summary, dietary fatty acids, in particular saturated fatty acids and the omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty a...

  2. How parental dietary behavior and food parenting practices affect children's dietary behavior. Interacting sources of influence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Junilla K; Hermans, Roel C J; Sleddens, Ester F C; Engels, Rutger C M E; Fisher, Jennifer O; Kremers, Stef P J

    2015-06-01

    Until now, the literatures on the effects of food parenting practices and parents' own dietary behavior on children's dietary behavior have largely been independent from one another. Integrating findings across these areas could provide insight on simultaneous and interacting influences on children's food intake. In this narrative review, we provide a conceptual model that bridges the gap between both literatures and consists of three main hypotheses. First, parental dietary behavior and food parenting practices are important interactive sources of influence on children's dietary behavior and Body Mass Index (BMI). Second, parental influences are importantly mediated by changes in the child's home food environment. Third, parenting context (i.e., parenting styles and differential parental treatment) moderates effects of food parenting practices, whereas child characteristics (i.e., temperament and appetitive traits) mainly moderate effects of the home food environment. Future studies testing (parts of) this conceptual model are needed to inform effective parent-child overweight preventive interventions.

  3. A review of dietary influences on cardiovascular health: part 1: the role of dietary nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stradling, Clare; Hamid, Mash; Fisher, Katherine; Taheri, Shahrad; Thomas, G Neil

    2013-12-01

    Lifestyle modification, including diet, is a key strategy for prevention and regression of cardiovascular disease (CVD), a leading cause of death worldwide. Traditionally, the study of the relationship between diet and CVD has focused on the analysis of single nutrients, or foods, in relation to CVD risk. In part one of this review, we present current epidemiologic and clinical evidence on nutrition and cardiovascular health with regards to specific foods and nutrients aimed at preventing CVD. The Cochrane Library database between 2006 and 2012 was searched for studies on effects of dietary factors on cardiovascular health. Evidence is presented on soy protein, fats, fish, nuts, fruit, vegetables, electrolytes, vitamins, and carbohydrate including fibre, glycaemic index, and wholegrains. Evidence from specific foods underpins current dietary CVD prevention guidelines, that advise on replacing saturated with unsaturated fat, consuming carbohydrate foods that are wholegrain or of low glycaemic index, increased consumption of fruit, vegetables (particularly cruciferous), nuts, and oily fish. Other nutrients (such as soya protein, or reducing sodium intake) reduce CVD risk via favourable effects on disease contributors (such as LDL-cholesterol or blood pressure), but also infer/promote dietary change that impacts other nutrients (using less animal or processed foods, resulting in saturated fat reduction). The complexity and limitations of interpreting dietary epidemiologic studies is reviewed. With the general ineffectiveness of nutrient-based intervention, recently the shift has been towards the examination of associations between dietary patterns and cardiovascular health, which will be examined in the second part of this review.

  4. Dietary fiber and subsequent changes in body weight and waist circumference in European men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Huaidong; van der A, Daphne L; Boshuizen, Hendriek C;

    2010-01-01

    Dietary fiber may play a role in obesity prevention. Until now, the role that fiber from different sources plays in weight change had rarely been studied.......Dietary fiber may play a role in obesity prevention. Until now, the role that fiber from different sources plays in weight change had rarely been studied....

  5. Dietary Supplements: What Is Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and side effects of dietary supplements Dietary supplement advertising and promotion Talking with your doctor about dietary ... Statistics Center Volunteer Learning Center Follow Us Twitter Facebook Instagram Cancer Information, Answers, and Hope. Available Every ...

  6. Dietary habits and esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palladino-Davis, A G; Mendez, B M; Fisichella, P M; Davis, C S

    2015-01-01

    Cancer of the esophagus is an underestimated, poorly understood, and changing disease. Its overall 5-year survival is less than 20%, even in the United States, which is largely a function of a delay in diagnosis until its more advanced stages. Additionally, the epidemiologic complexities of esophageal cancer are vast, rendering screening and prevention limited at best. First, the prevalence of esophageal cancer is unevenly distributed throughout the world. Second, the two histological forms (squamous cell and adenocarcinoma) vary in terms of their geographic prevalence and associated risk factors. Third, some populations appear at particular risk for esophageal cancer. And fourth, the incidence of esophageal cancer is in continuous flux among groups. Despite the varied prevalence and risks among populations, some factors have emerged as consistent associations while others are only now becoming more fully recognized. The most prominent, scientifically supported, and long-regarded risk factors for esophageal cancer are tobacco, alcohol, and reflux esophagitis. Inasmuch as the above are regarded as important risk factors for esophageal cancer, they are not the sole contributors. Dietary habits, nutrition, local customs, and the environment may be contributory. Along these lines, vitamins, minerals, fruits, vegetables, meats, fats, salted foods, nitrogen compounds, carcinogens, mycotoxins, and even the temperature of what we consume are increasingly regarded as potential etiologies for this deadly although potentially preventable disease. The goal of this review is to shed light on the less known role of nutrition and dietary habits in esophageal cancer.

  7. Dietary intake of phytoestrogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker MI; SIR

    2004-01-01

    The dietary intake of phytoestrogens supposedly influences a variety of diseases, both in terms of beneficial and adverse effects. This report describes current knowledge on dietary intakes of phytoestrogens in Western countries, and briefly summarizes the evidence for health effects. The predominan

  8. Dietary intake of phytoestrogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker MI; SIR

    2004-01-01

    The dietary intake of phytoestrogens supposedly influences a variety of diseases, both in terms of beneficial and adverse effects. This report describes current knowledge on dietary intakes of phytoestrogens in Western countries, and briefly summarizes the evidence for health effects. The

  9. Design and synthesis of ATP-based nucleotide analogues and profiling of nucleotide-binding proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolters, Justina. C.; Roelfes, Gerard; Poolman, Bert

    2011-01-01

    Two nucleotide-based probes were designed and synthesized in order to enrich samples for specific classes of proteins by affinity-based protein profiling. We focused on the profiling of adenine nucleotide-binding proteins. Two properties were considered in the design of the probes: the bait needs to

  10. Design and synthesis of ATP-based nucleotide analogues and profiling of nucleotide-binding proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolters, Justina. C.; Roelfes, Gerard; Poolman, Bert

    Two nucleotide-based probes were designed and synthesized in order to enrich samples for specific classes of proteins by affinity-based protein profiling. We focused on the profiling of adenine nucleotide-binding proteins. Two properties were considered in the design of the probes: the bait needs to

  11. Regulation of Ca2+ release from mitochondria by the oxidation-reduction state of pyridine nucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehninger, A L; Vercesi, A; Bababunmi, E A

    1978-04-01

    Mitochondria from normal rat liver and heart, and also Ehrlich tumor cells, respiring on succinate as energy source in the presence of rotenone (to prevent net electron flow to oxygen from the endogenous pyridine nucleotides), rapidly take up Ca(2+) and retain it so long as the pyridine nucleotides are kept in the reduced state. When acetoacetate is added to bring the pyridine nucleotides into a more oxidized state, Ca(2+) is released to the medium. A subsequent addition of a reductant of the pyridine nucleotides such as beta-hydroxybutyrate, glutamate, or isocitrate causes reuptake of the released Ca(2+). Successive cycles of Ca(2+) release and uptake can be induced by shifting the redox state of the pyridine nucleotides to more oxidized and more reduced states, respectively. Similar observations were made when succinate oxidation was replaced as energy source by ascorbate oxidation or by the hydrolysis of ATP. These and other observations form the basis of a hypothesis for feedback regulation of Ca(2+)-dependent substrate- or energy-mobilizing enzymatic reactions by the uptake or release of mitochondrial Ca(2+), mediated by the cytosolic phosphate potential and the ATP-dependent reduction of mitochondrial pyridine nucleotides by reversal of electron transport.

  12. The International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Guy; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Takagi, Toshihisa; Sequence Database Collaboration, International Nucleotide

    2016-01-01

    The International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration (INSDC; http://www.insdc.org) comprises three global partners committed to capturing, preserving and providing comprehensive public-domain nucleotide sequence information. The INSDC establishes standards, formats and protocols for data and metadata to make it easier for individuals and organisations to submit their nucleotide data reliably to public archives. This work enables the continuous, global exchange of information about living things. Here we present an update of the INSDC in 2015, including data growth and diversification, new standards and requirements by publishers for authors to submit their data to the public archives. The INSDC serves as a model for data sharing in the life sciences. PMID:26657633

  13. Dietary fiber and blood pressure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleixandre, A; Miguel, M

    2016-04-01

    In the past few years, new strategies to control blood pressure levels are emerging by developing new bioactive components of foods. Fiber has been linked to the prevention of a number of cardiovascular diseases and disorders. β-Glucan, the main soluble fiber component in oat grains, was initially linked to a reduction in plasma cholesterol. Several studies have shown afterward that dietary fiber may also improve glycaemia, insulin resistance and weight loss. The effect of dietary fiber on arterial blood pressure has been the subject of far fewer studies than its effect on the above-mentioned variables, but research has already shown that fiber intake can decrease arterial blood pressure in hypertensive rats. Moreover, certain fibers can improve arterial blood pressure when administered to hypertensive and pre-hypertensive subjects. The present review summarizes all those studies which attempt to establish the antihypertensive effects of dietary fiber, as well as its effect on other cardiovascular risk factors.

  14. Personal dietary assessment using mobile devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariappan, Anand; Bosch, Marc; Zhu, Fengqing; Boushey, Carol J.; Kerr, Deborah A.; Ebert, David S.; Delp, Edward J.

    2009-02-01

    Dietary intake provides valuable insights for mounting intervention programs for prevention of disease. With growing concern for adolescent obesity, the need to accurately measure diet becomes imperative. Assessment among adolescents is problematic as this group has irregular eating patterns and have less enthusiasm for recording food intake. Preliminary studies among adolescents suggest that innovative use of technology may improve the accuracy of diet information from young people. In this paper we describe further development of a novel dietary assessment system using mobile devices. This system will generate an accurate account of daily food and nutrient intake among adolescents. The mobile computing device provides a unique vehicle for collecting dietary information that reduces burden on records that are obtained using more classical approaches. Images before and after foods are eaten can be used to estimate the amount of food consumed.

  15. Ramadan major dietary patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadman, Zhaleh; Poorsoltan, Nooshin; Akhoundan, Mahdieh; Larijani, Bagher; Soleymanzadeh, Mozhdeh; Akhgar Zhand, Camelia; Seyed Rohani, Zahra Alsadat; Khoshniat Nikoo, Mohsen

    2014-09-01

    There has been no data on population based dietary patterns during the Ramadan fasting month. The purpose of this study was to detect Ramadan major dietary patterns among those who fast in Tehran. This cross-sectional study included 600 subjects, aged 18-65 with body mass index (BMI) of 18.5-40, who had decided to fast during Ramadan. Anthropometric measurements, usual physical activity level and educational status were collected two weeks before Ramadan. Information on Ramadan dietary intakes was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire and factor analysis was used to identify major dietary patterns. We identified four major dietary patterns: 1) Western-like pattern; high in fast foods, salty snacks, nuts, potato, fish, poultry, chocolates, juices; 2) high cholesterol and high sweet junk food pattern; high in pickles, sweets and condiments, butter and cream, canned fish, visceral meats and eggs; 3) Mediterranean-like pattern; high in vegetables, olive oil, dates, dairy, dried fruits, fruits, red meats, tea and coffee and 4) Ramadan-style pattern; large consumption of Halim, soups, porridges, legumes and whole grains, soft drinks, Zoolbia and Bamieh. Age was positively and inversely associated with Mediterranean-like (P = 0.003; r = 0.17) and Ramadan style (P = 0.1; r = -0.13) dietary pattern, respectively. Pre-Ramadan physical activity level was associated with a Mediterranean-like dietary pattern (P < 0.0001; r = 0.20). This study showed a Ramadan-specific dietary pattern has unique characteristics, which has not yet been identified as a model of dietary pattern. Also, among identified dietary patterns, Mediterranean-like was the healthiest.

  16. Effects of nucleotides and nucleosides on coagulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bune, Laurids; Thaning, Pia; Johansson, Pär I;

    2010-01-01

    intravascular coagulation. We investigated whether nucleotide-induced cardiovascular collapse as provoked by systemic infusion of adenosine, ADP, ATP, UTP and nitric oxide affected the haemostatic system as assessed by whole blood thromboelastography (TEG) analysis. Ten pigs received a randomized infusion......Nucleotides, including ADP, ATP and uridine triphosphate (UTP), are discharged profusely in the circulation during many pathological conditions including sepsis. Sepsis can cause hypotension and systemic activation of the coagulation and fibrinolytic systems in humans, which may cause disseminated.......7 ng/ml; P blood was evaluated by TEG. Circulating ADP induces hypocoagulation without signs of increased fibrinolysis as evaluated by TEG. The potential...

  17. Nutritional policies and dietary guidelines in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Teiji

    2011-01-01

    The national government settled on "Healthy Japan 21" as the premier preventive policy of lifestyle related diseases in 2000. In 2005, the effectiveness of the campaign was conducted, but the results did not turn out as expected. The Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare made the "Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top (JFG-ST)" as a practical and easy way to improve eating habits for all of the people. The JFG-ST falls down when the balance of the diets worsens and expresses a stable thing in what a turn (exercise) does. Eyes down quantity to take out of each group per day is shown in the basic form by the 5 distinction from grain dishes, vegetable dishes, fish and meat dishes, milk, and fruits. In 2005, the Basic Law on Dietary Education was enacted to promote the dietary education about the importance of eating proper meals in order to solve problems such as inappropriate eating habits and nutrition intake, disturbances in diets, increases in lifestyle-related diseases, a fall in the rate of food self-sufficiency and so forth. The Ministry of Education and Science started a program to train people to become "diet and nutrition teacher" in primary school. JFG- ST is developed in a dietary education campaign as a standard method of the dietary education. In May, 2011, the government has announced the second dietary education promotional basic plan to assume five years.

  18. Independent, additive effects of five dietary variables on ad libitum energy intake in a residential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Lorien E; McCrory, Megan A; Rasmussen, Helen; Greenberg, Andrew S; Fuss, Paul J; Saltzman, Edward; Roberts, Susan B

    2014-09-01

    To examine the relationship between dietary characteristics of self-selected foods and energy balance in a cafeteria-style dining hall. Ad libitum dietary intake from a self-selection menu was measured over two days in 151 adults (70% female, mean age 41 years, mean BMI 24.9 kg/m(2) ). The associations of dietary variables with energy balance (calculated as measured energy intake/predicted energy requirements, pER) were assessed. Measured energy intake was significantly correlated with pER (R(2) =0.83, P obese individuals. There are independent associations of dietary protein, liquid calories, energy density, dietary variety, and glycemic index with energy balance, indicating additive effects of these dietary factors on energy intake and energy balance. Intervention studies are needed to determine whether dietary prescriptions combining these dietary factors facilitate long-term prevention of weight gain. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  19. Chemoprevention of photocarcinogenesis by selected dietary botanicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baliga, Manjeshwar S; Katiyar, Santosh K

    2006-02-01

    Epidemiological, clinical and laboratory studies have implicated solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation as a tumor initiator, tumor promoter and complete carcinogen, and their excessive exposure can lead to the development of various skin disorders including melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers. Sunscreens are useful, but their protection is not adequate to prevent the risk of UV-induced skin cancer. It may be because of inadequate use, incomplete spectral protection and toxicity. Therefore new chemopreventive methods are necessary to protect the skin from photodamaging effects of solar UV radiation. Chemoprevention refers to the use of agents that can inhibit, reverse or retard the process of skin carcinogenesis. In recent years, considerable interest has been focused on identifying naturally occurring botanicals, specifically dietary, for the prevention of photocarcinogenesis. A wide variety of botanicals, mostly dietary flavonoids or phenolic substances, have been reported to possess substantial anticarcinogenic and antimutagenic activities because of their antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties. This review summarizes chemopreventive effects of some selected botanicals, such as apigenin, curcumin, grape seed proanthocyanidins, resveratrol, silymarin, and green tea polyphenols, against photocarcinogenesis in in vitro and in vivo systems. Attention has also been focused on highlighting the mechanism of chemopreventive action of these dietary botanicals. We suggest that in addition to the use of these botanicals as dietary supplements for the protection of photocarcinogenesis, these botanicals may favorably supplement sunscreens protection and may provide additional antiphotocarcinogenic protection including the protection against other skin disorders caused by solar UV radiation.

  20. On defining dietary fibre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, Jonathan W

    2003-02-01

    Establishing a definition for dietary fibre has historically been a balance between nutrition knowledge and analytical method capabilities. While the most widely accepted physiologically-based definitions have generally been accurate in defining the dietary fibre in foods, scientists and regulators have tended, in practice, to rely on analytical procedures as the definitional basis in fact. As a result, incongruities between theory and practice have resulted in confusion regarding the components that make up dietary fibre. In November 1998 the president of the American Association of Cereal Chemists (AACC) appointed an expert scientific review committee and charged it with the task of reviewing and, if necessary, updating the definition of dietary fibre. The committee was further charged with assessing the state of analytical methodology and making recommendations relevant to the updated definition. After due deliberation, an updated definition of dietary fibre was delivered to the AACC Board of Directors for consideration and adoption (Anon, 2000; Jones 2000b). The updated definition includes the same food components as the historical working definition used for approximately 30 years (a very important point, considering that the majority of the research of the past 30 years delineating the positive health effects of dietary fibre is based on that working definition). However, the updated definition more clearly delineates the make-up of dietary fibre and its physiological functionality. As a result, relatively few changes will be necessary in analytical methodology. Current methodologies, in particular AACC-approved method of analysis 32-05 (Grami, 2000), Association of Official Analytical Chemists' official method of analysis 985.29 (Horwitz, 2000a) or AACC 32-07 (Grami, 2000) Association of Official Analytical Chemists 991.43 (Horwitz, 2000a) will continue to be sufficient and used for most foods. A small number of additional methods will be necessary to

  1. [Sublicons containing amino acids and nucleotides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaĭmakov, E A

    1979-01-01

    Sublicons have been obtained. Sublicons are threadlike structures appearing during sublimation of frozen solutions of small concentrations, containing racemate mixture of amino acids and nucleotides. It is suggested that close location of chains and their zonal distribution by the section of helix spire forming sublicon wall, should provide the formation of stereohomogenous and complementary successions of biomonomers of different clases.

  2. Composition, properties and health benefits of indigestible carbohydrate polymers as dietary fiber: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, Deepak; Barak, Sheweta

    2013-10-01

    In last few decades, indigestible carbohydrates as dietary fiber have attracted interest of food scientists and technologists due to its several physiological benefits. Dietary fibers are generally of two types based on their solubility, i.e. soluble and insoluble dietary fiber. Significant physicochemical properties of dietary fiber include solubility, viscosity, water holding capacity, bulking and fermentability. Some important dietary fibers are celluloses, hemicelluloses, hydrocolloids, resistant starches and non-digestible oligosaccharides. Inclusion of these fibers in daily diet imparts several health benefits such as prevention or reduction of bowel disorders, and decrease risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes.

  3. Preventing cancer through lifestyle modification: An essential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preventing cancer through lifestyle modification: An essential strategy for primary ... The ten most common cancers include Cervical, Breast, Prostate, Liver, ... viral, bacterial and helminthic infections; tobacco use, poor dietary habits, obesity, ...

  4. The role of dietary creatine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Margaret E; Brosnan, John T

    2016-08-01

    The daily requirement of a 70-kg male for creatine is about 2 g; up to half of this may be obtained from a typical omnivorous diet, with the remainder being synthesized in the body Creatine is a carninutrient, which means that it is only available to adults via animal foodstuffs, principally skeletal muscle, or via supplements. Infants receive creatine in mother's milk or in milk-based formulas. Vegans and infants fed on soy-based formulas receive no dietary creatine. Plasma and muscle creatine levels are usually somewhat lower in vegetarians than in omnivores. Human intake of creatine was probably much higher in Paleolithic times than today; some groups with extreme diets, such as Greenland and Alaskan Inuit, ingest much more than is currently typical. Creatine is synthesized from three amino acids: arginine, glycine and methionine (as S-adenosylmethionine). Humans can synthesize sufficient creatine for normal function unless they have an inborn error in a creatine-synthetic enzyme or a problem with the supply of substrate amino acids. Carnivorous animals, such as lions and wolves, ingest much larger amounts of creatine than humans would. The gastrointestinal tract and the liver are exposed to dietary creatine in higher concentrations before it is assimilated by other tissues. In this regard, our observations that creatine supplementation can prevent hepatic steatosis (Deminice et al. J Nutr 141:1799-1804, 2011) in a rodent model may be a function of the route of dietary assimilation. Creatine supplementation has also been reported to improve the intestinal barrier function of the rodent suffering from inflammatory bowel disease.

  5. FDA 101: Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dietary supplements to be proven safe to FDA's satisfaction before they are marketed. For most claims made ... the manufacturer or seller to prove to FDA's satisfaction that the claim is accurate or truthful before ...

  6. Dietary Fat and Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Dietary Fat and Cholesterol Posted under Health Guides . Updated 7 March 2017. + ... saturated fat found in red meat. What is cholesterol? Cholesterol is a fatlike substance that’s found in ...

  7. Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and US Department of Agriculture Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database Toggle navigation Menu Home About DSID Mission Current ... values can be saved to build a small database or add to an existing database for national, ...

  8. Dietary advanced glycation endproducts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Malene Wibe

    complications. A potential pathophysiological role of dietary AGEs in type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease has been discussed, as the contribution of dietary AGEs has been estimated to be larger than the amount of endogenously formed AGEs. Furthermore, the increased mortality associated with type 2...... diabetes and cardiovascular disease underlines the importance of identifying possible risk factors in the Western lifestyle. The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate if intake of dietary AGEs increases risk markers for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In an acute meal study, effects...... sensitivity, and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress of dietary AGEs with different molecular size were investigated over 2 weeks. It was concluded that the diet with low molecular weight AGEs was most efficient in up-regulating expression of AGE receptors in whole blood, but no effects on insulin...

  9. Influence of dietary components on regulatory T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navikas, Shohreh; Teimer, Roman; Bockermann, Robert

    2011-01-01

    are documented to exert multiple deleterious effects, including fatty liver diseases. Here we discuss the effect of dietary components on regulatory T cell (Tregs) homeostasis, a central element of the immune system to prevent chronic tissue inflammation. Accordingly, evidence bearing on the impact of dietary......It is no longer a myth that a balanced diet is fundamental for general health. Common dietary components including vitamins A and D, omega-3 and probiotics are now widely accepted to be essential to protect against many diseases with an inflammatory nature. On the other hand, high fat diets...

  10. A dietary pattern associated with LINE-1 methylation alters the risk of developing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piyathilake, Chandrika J; Badiga, Suguna; Kabagambe, Edmond K; Azuero, Andres; Alvarez, Ronald D; Johanning, Gary L; Partridge, Edward E

    2012-03-01

    There is a paucity of research examining the relationships between dietary patterns and risk of developing precancerous lesions as well as biomarkers associated with such dietary patterns. The purpose of the current study was to identify dietary patterns that are associated with higher grades of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 2+) and to determine whether these dietary patterns are associated with the degree of DNA methylation in the long interspersed nucleotide elements (L1s) of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), a biomarker associated with risk of developing CIN 2+. Study population consisted of 319 child-bearing age women. Dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis. The degree of PBMC L1 methylation was assessed by pyrosequencing. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the associations between dietary patterns and CIN 2+. Similar models were used to evaluate the associations between dietary patterns and degree of PBMC L1 methylation in women free of CIN 2+. Women with the unhealthiest dietary pattern were 3.5 times more likely to be diagnosed with CIN 2+ than women with the healthiest dietary pattern [OR = 3.5; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.2-10.1; P = 0.02]. Women at risk for developing CIN 2+ with the healthiest dietary pattern were 3.3 times more likely to have higher PBMC L1 methylation than women with the unhealthiest dietary pattern (OR = 3.3; 95% CI, 1.0-10.6; P = 0.04). Our findings suggest that human papilloma virus associated risk of developing CIN 2+ may be reduced by improving dietary patterns. The degree of PBMC L1 methylation may serve as a biomarker for monitoring the effectiveness of dietary modifications needed for reducing the risk of CIN 2+.

  11. Crystal structure of cyclic nucleotide-binding-like protein from Brucella abortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zheng; Gao, Yuan; Dong, Jing; Ke, Yuehua; Li, Xuemei; Chen, Zeliang; Zhang, Xuejun C

    2015-12-25

    The cyclic nucleotide-binding (CNB)-like protein (CNB-L) from Brucella abortus shares sequence homology with CNB domain-containing proteins. We determined the crystal structure of CNB-L at 2.0 Å resolution in the absence of its C-terminal helix and nucleotide. The 3D structure of CNB-L is in a two-fold symmetric form. Each protomer shows high structure similarity to that of cGMP-binding domain-containing proteins, and likely mimics their nucleotide-free conformation. A key residue, Glu17, mediates the dimerization and prevents binding of cNMP to the canonical ligand-pocket. The structurally observed dimer of CNB-L is stable in solution, and thus is likely to be biologically relevant.

  12. Herbal and dietary supplement hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Victor J

    2009-11-01

    Herbal and dietary supplements (HDS) are commonly used in the United States and throughout the world. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act and public standards set through the U.S. Pharmacopeia provide regulatory framework for these products. These regulations help to ensure the safety of grandfathered and new HDS coming onto the market, and the opportunity to identify and take action against unsafe products that have been distributed. The clinical patterns of presentation and severity of HDS-associated hepatotoxicity can be highly variable, even for the same product. In addition, accurate causality assessment in cases of suspected HDS hepatotoxicity is confounded by infrequent ascertainment of product intake by healthcare providers, under-reporting of HDS use by patients, the ubiquity of HDS and the complexity of their components, and the possibility for product adulteration. Additional measures to prevent HDS-induced hepatotoxicity include greater consumer and provider awareness, increased spontaneous reporting, and reassessment of regulations regarding the manufacturing, distribution, and marketing of these products.

  13. Dietary amelioration of Helicobacter infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, Jed W; Stephenson, Katherine K; Wallace, Alison J

    2015-06-01

    We review herein the basis for using dietary components to treat and/or prevent Helicobacter pylori infection, with emphasis on (a) work reported in the last decade, (b) dietary components for which there is mechanism-based plausibility, and (c) components for which clinical results on H pylori amelioration are available. There is evidence that a diet-based treatment may reduce the levels and/or the virulence of H pylori colonization without completely eradicating the organism in treated individuals. This concept was endorsed a decade ago by the participants in a small international consensus conference held in Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, and interest in such a diet-based approach has increased dramatically since then. This approach is attractive in terms of cost, treatment, tolerability, and cultural acceptability. This review, therefore, highlights specific foods, food components, and food products, grouped as follows: bee products (eg, honey and propolis); probiotics; dairy products; vegetables; fruits; oils; essential oils; and herbs, spices, and other plants. A discussion of the small number of clinical studies that are available is supplemented by supportive in vitro and animal studies. This very large body of in vitro and preclinical evidence must now be followed up with rationally designed, unambiguous human trials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Dietary Amelioration of Helicobacter Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, Jed W.; Stephenson, Katherine K.; Wallace, Alison J.

    2015-01-01

    We review herein the basis for using dietary components to treat and/or prevent Helicobacter pylori infection, with emphasis on: (a) work reported in the last decade, (b) dietary components for which there is mechanism-based plausibility, and (c) components for which clinical results on H. pylori amelioration are available. There is evidence that a diet-based treatment may reduce the levels and/or the virulence of H. pylori colonization without completely eradicating the organism in treated individuals. This concept was endorsed a decade ago by the participants in a small international consensus conference held in Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, and interest in such a diet-based approach has increased dramatically since then. This approach is attractive in terms of cost, treatment, tolerability and cultural acceptability. This review therefore highlights specific foods, food components, and food products, grouped as follows: bee products (e.g. honey and propolis), probiotics, dairy products, vegetables, fruits, oils, essential oils, and herbs, spices and other plants. A discussion of the small number of clinical studies that are available is supplemented by supportive in vitro and animal studies. This very large body of in vitro and pre-clinical evidence must now be followed up with rationally designed, unambiguous human trials. PMID:25799054

  15. Vietnam recommended dietary allowances 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nguyen Cong; Hoan, Pham Van

    2008-01-01

    It has been well acknowledged that Vietnam is undergoing a nutrition transition. With a rapid change in the country's reform and economic growth, food supply at the macronutrient level has improved. Changes of the Vietnamese diet include significantly more foods of animal origin, and an increase of fat/oils, and ripe fruits. Consequently, nutritional problems in Vietnam now include not only malnutrition but also overweight/obesity, metabolic syndrome and other chronic diseases related to nutrition and lifestyles. The recognition of these shifts, which is also associated with morbidity and mortality, was a major factor in the need to review and update the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for the Vietnamese population. This revised RDA established an important science-based tool for evaluation of nutrition adequacy, for teaching, and for scientific communications within Vietnam. It is expected that the 2007 Vietnam RDA and its conversion to food-based dietary guidelines will facilitate education to the public, as well as the policy implementation of programs for prevention of non-communicable chronic diseases and addressing the double burden of both under and over nutrition.

  16. Commonly Used Dietary Supplements on Coagulation Function during Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong-Zhi Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients who undergo surgery appear to use dietary supplements significantly more frequently than the general population. Because they contain pharmacologically active compounds, dietary supplements may affect coagulation and platelet function during the perioperative period through direct effects, pharmacodynamic interactions, and pharmacokinetic interactions. However, in this regard, limited studies have been conducted that address the pharmacological interactions of dietary supplements. To avoid possible bleeding risks during surgery, information about the potential complications of dietary supplements during perioperative management is important for physicians. Methods: Through a systematic database search of all available years, articles were identified in this review if they included dietary supplements and coagulation/platelet function, while special attention was paid to studies published after 1990. Results: Safety concerns are reported in commercially available dietary supplements. Effects of the most commonly used natural products on blood coagulation and platelet function are systematically reviewed, including 11 herbal medicines (echinacea, ephedra, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, kava, saw palmetto, St John’s wort, and valerian and four other dietary supplements (coenzyme Q10, glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate, fish oil, and vitamins. Bleeding risks of garlic, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, saw palmetto, St John’s wort, and fish oil are reported. Cardiovascular instability was observed with ephedra, ginseng, and kava. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions between dietary supplements and drugs used in the perioperative period are discussed. Conclusions: To prevent potential problems associated with the use of dietary supplements, physicians should be familiar with the perioperative effects of commonly used dietary supplements. Since the effects of dietary supplements on coagulation and platelet

  17. Technology-assisted dietary assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fengqing; Mariappan, Anand; Boushey, Carol J.; Kerr, Deb; Lutes, Kyle D.; Ebert, David S.; Delp, Edward J.

    2008-02-01

    Dietary intake provides valuable insights for mounting intervention programs for prevention of disease. With growing concern for adolescent obesity, the need to accurately measure diet becomes imperative. Assessment among adolescents is problematic as this group has irregular eating patterns and have less enthusiasm for recording food intake. Preliminary studies among adolescents suggest that innovative use of technology may improve the accuracy of diet information from young people. In this paper, we propose a novel food record method using a mobile device that will provide an accurate account of daily food and nutrient intake among adolescents. Our approach includes the use of image analysis tools for identification and quantification of food consumption. Images obtained before and after food is consumed can be used to estimate the diet of an individual. In this paper we describe our initial results and indicate the potential of the proposed system.

  18. Dietary nitrogen alters codon bias and genome composition in parasitic microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seward, Emily A; Kelly, Steven

    2016-11-15

    Genomes are composed of long strings of nucleotide monomers (A, C, G and T) that are either scavenged from the organism's environment or built from metabolic precursors. The biosynthesis of each nucleotide differs in atomic requirements with different nucleotides requiring different quantities of nitrogen atoms. However, the impact of the relative availability of dietary nitrogen on genome composition and codon bias is poorly understood. Here we show that differential nitrogen availability, due to differences in environment and dietary inputs, is a major determinant of genome nucleotide composition and synonymous codon use in both bacterial and eukaryotic microorganisms. Specifically, low nitrogen availability species use nucleotides that require fewer nitrogen atoms to encode the same genes compared to high nitrogen availability species. Furthermore, we provide a novel selection-mutation framework for the evaluation of the impact of metabolism on gene sequence evolution and show that it is possible to predict the metabolic inputs of related organisms from an analysis of the raw nucleotide sequence of their genes. Taken together, these results reveal a previously hidden relationship between cellular metabolism and genome evolution and provide new insight into how genome sequence evolution can be influenced by adaptation to different diets and environments.

  19. Radiation and thermal stabilities of adenine nucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidov, V V; Potaman, V N; Solyanina, I P; Trofimov, V I

    1995-03-01

    We have investigated in detail radiation and thermal stabilities and transformations of adenosine mono- and triphosphates in liquid and frozen solid aqueous solutions within a wide range of absorbed radiation dose (up to 75 kGy) and temperature (up to 160 degrees C). Dephosphorylation is the main pathway of high temperature hydrolysis of adenine nucleotides. Basic thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of this process have been determined. Radiolysis of investigated compounds at room temperature results in scission of N-glycosidic bond with a radiation yield about of 1 mol/100 eV. Solution freezing significantly enhances radiation stability of nucleotides as well as other biomolecules. This circumstance is essential in the discussion of panspermia concepts.

  20. Nucleotide sequence of papaya mosaic virus RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sit, T L; Abouhaidar, M G; Holy, S

    1989-09-01

    The RNA genome of papaya mosaic virus is 6656 nucleotides long [excluding the poly(A) tail] with six open reading frames (ORFs) more than 200 nucleotides long. The four nearest the 5' end each overlap with adjacent ORFs and could code for proteins with Mr 176307, 26248, 11949 and 7224 (ORFs 1 to 4). The fifth ORF produces the capsid protein of Mr 23043 and the sixth ORF, located completely within ORF1, could code for a protein with Mr 14113. The translation products of ORFs 1 to 3 show strong similarity with those of other potexviruses but the ORF 4 protein has only limited similarity with the other potexvirus ORF 4 proteins of 7K to 11K.

  1. Dietary fiber consumption and risk of stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhizhong; Xu, Gelin; Liu, Dezhi; Zhu, Wusheng; Fan, Xinying; Liu, Xinfeng

    2013-02-01

    Observational studies suggest an association between dietary fiber consumption and risk of stroke, but the results are inconclusive. The authors conducted a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to evaluate the relation between dietary fiber consumption and stroke risk and mortality. Relevant studies were identified by searching PubMed, Embase, and ISI Web of Science through February 2013. We included prospective studies that reported relative risks (RRs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between dietary fiber consumption and stroke risk and mortality. Both fixed- and random-effects models were used to calculate the summary risk estimates. Eleven prospective studies involving 325,627 participants were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled RR of stroke for the highest compared with the lowest dietary fiber consumption was 0.83 (95 % CI 0.74, 0.93). In addition, the increment in dietary fiber consumption was associated with decreased stroke risk in a dose-response manner. Sensitivity analysis restricted to studies with control for conventional risk factors yielded similar results, and omission of any single study had little effect on the combined risk estimate. Moreover, there was a trend toward an inverse association between higher fiber consumption and stroke mortality (RR 0.85; 95 % CI 0.60, 1.20), although it is not significant. This meta-analysis indicated that dietary fiber consumption is inversely associated with stroke risk, and the effect is probably independent of conventional risk factors. Our results support recommendations for higher consumption of fiber-rich foods to prevent stroke.

  2. Nucleotide Manipulatives to Illustrate the Central Dogma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja B. Yung

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The central dogma is a core concept that is critical for introductory biology and microbiology students to master. However, students often struggle to conceptualize the processes involved, and fail to move beyond simply memorizing the basic facts. To encourage critical thinking, we have designed a set of magnetic nucleotide manipulatives that allow students to model DNA structure, along with the processes of replication, transcription, and translation.

  3. Visualization of cyclic nucleotide dynamics in neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill eGorshkov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The second messengers cAMP and cGMP transduce many neuromodulatory signals from hormones and neurotransmitters into specific functional outputs. Their production, degradation and signaling are spatiotemporally regulated to achieve high specificity in signal transduction. The development of genetically encodable fluorescent biosensors has provided researchers with useful tools to study these versatile second messengers and their downstream effectors with unparalleled spatial and temporal resolution in cultured cells and living animals. In this review, we introduce the general design of these fluorescent biosensors and describe several of them in more detail. Then we discuss a few examples of using cyclic nucleotide fluorescent biosensors to study regulation of neuronal function and finish with a discussion of advances in the field. Although there has been significant progress made in understanding how the specific signaling of cyclic nucleotide second messengers is achieved, the mechanistic details in complex cell types like neurons are only just beginning to surface. Current and future fluorescent protein reporters will be essential to elucidate the role of cyclic nucleotide signaling dynamics in the functions of individual neurons and their networks.

  4. Nucleotide-Dependent Bioautocatalytic Timer Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting-Ru; Hsu, Ching-Fong; Chen, Chih-Lin; Witek, Henryk A; Urban, Pawel L

    2016-09-16

    We describe a biochemical timer composed of three biocatalytic reactions involving three types of adenylate nucleotides: adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and adenosine monophosphate (AMP). The timer is triggered by a small amount of ATP or ADP. An abrupt increase in the ATP concentration (following numerous amplification cycles) leads to a sudden increase of luminescence from the reaction mixture. The time point when the luminescence appears is found to be a function of the initial concentration of the triggering nucleotide (5.0 × 10(-8)-1.0 × 10(-6) M), even in the presence of a complex biological matrix. The mechanism of the observed dependence of the time of luminescence increase on the concentration has been confirmed with simple kinetic models. Due to the biocompatibility of the proposed trienzymatic reaction scheme (sensitivity to common nucleotides and occurrence in a neutral pH aqueous environment), the scheme can be used in bioengineered systems that require modulation of the response time (light emission) by concentration.

  5. Multiphasic interactions between nucleotides and target proteins

    CERN Document Server

    Nissen, Per

    2016-01-01

    The nucleotides guanosine tetraphosphate (ppGpp) and guanosine pentaphosphate (pppGpp) bind to target proteins to promote bacterial survival (Corrigan et al. 2016). Thus, the binding of the nucleotides to RsgA, a GTPase, inhibits the hydrolysis of GTP. The dose response, taken to be curvilinear with respect to the logarithm of the inhibitor concentration, is instead much better (P<0.001 when the 6 experiments are combined) represented as multiphasic, with high to exceedingly high absolute r values for the straight lines, and with transitions in the form of non-contiguities (jumps). Profiles for the binding of radiolabeled nucleotides to HprT and Gmk, GTP synthesis enzymes, were, similarly, taken to be curvilinear with respect to the logarithm of the protein concentration. However, the profiles are again much better represented as multiphasic than as curvilinear (the P values range from 0.047 to <0.001 for each of the 8 experiments for binding of ppGpp and pppGpp to HprT). The binding of GTP to HprT and ...

  6. Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization of carbohydrates and nucleotides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Joong-Won, E-mail: jshin@govst.edu [Division of Science, Governors State University, University Park, Illinois 60484-0975 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523-1872 (United States); Bernstein, Elliot R., E-mail: erb@lamar.colostate.edu [Department of Chemistry, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523-1872 (United States)

    2014-01-28

    Carbohydrates (2-deoxyribose, ribose, and xylose) and nucleotides (adenosine-, cytidine-, guanosine-, and uridine-5{sup ′}-monophosphate) are generated in the gas phase, and ionized with vacuum ultraviolet photons (VUV, 118.2 nm). The observed time of flight mass spectra of the carbohydrate fragmentation are similar to those observed [J.-W. Shin, F. Dong, M. Grisham, J. J. Rocca, and E. R. Bernstein, Chem. Phys. Lett. 506, 161 (2011)] for 46.9 nm photon ionization, but with more intensity in higher mass fragment ions. The tendency of carbohydrate ions to fragment extensively following ionization seemingly suggests that nucleic acids might undergo radiation damage as a result of carbohydrate, rather than nucleobase fragmentation. VUV photoionization of nucleotides (monophosphate-carbohydrate-nucleobase), however, shows that the carbohydrate-nucleobase bond is the primary fragmentation site for these species. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that the removed carbohydrate electrons by the 118.2 nm photons are associated with endocyclic C–C and C–O ring centered orbitals: loss of electron density in the ring bonds of the nascent ion can thus account for the observed fragmentation patterns following carbohydrate ionization. DFT calculations also indicate that electrons removed from nucleotides under these same conditions are associated with orbitals involved with the nucleobase-saccharide linkage electron density. The calculations give a general mechanism and explanation of the experimental results.

  7. 膳食干预在高血压社区综合防治中的作用%Effect of dietary intervention in hypertension prevention and treatment of community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱庆生; 程淑艳; 马小倩

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨膳食干预在社区高血压管理中的作用.方法 运用随机数字表法将2009年9月~2011年9月在某社区医院门诊就诊的98例首次被确诊为高血压的患者分为观察组和对照组,对照组患者仅仅给予常规药物治疗,而观察组患者在上述药物治疗的基础上给予膳食干预,分别对其于确诊为高血压时及3个月后进行自行设计问卷调查.结果 2组患者在高血压相关知识的了解、血医达标及生活方式改变上差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 在社区医院对高血压患者进行治疗的过程中,开展膳食干预有利于高血压患者加强对疾病相关知识的了解,改善其生活方式,提高患者的血压达标率,改善患者的预后,对防治高血压有积极作用,值得在各大社区推广运用.%OBJECTIVE To investigate the dietary intervention in the management of hypertension in the community. METHODS During September 2009 - September 2011, 98 cases were first diagnosed with hypertension in our community were divided into observation group and control group. The control group was treated with conventional therapy alone, and the observation group was treated by conventional therapy and dietary intervention. Self-designed questionnaire were used to investigate the 2 groups at 3 months after the diagnosis. RESULTS 2 groups had significant differences in the knowledge of hypertension, lifestyle and blood pressure (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION In the community hospital, dietary intervention can help patients with hypertension understanding of the disease, healthy lifestyle, normal blood pressure, to improve the prognosis of patients. It is worth wide using in the major community.

  8. The role of the dietary approaches to stop hypertension in the prevention and treatment of hypertension%终止高血压膳食疗法在预防和治疗高血压中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐静; 赵武

    2005-01-01

    高血压是人类健康的“头号杀手”,是心血管疾病的独立危险因素。近年来,终止高血压膳食疗法(Dietary Approaches to Stop HyPertension,DASH)作为非药物治疗措施即生活方式调整的一项重要内容在预防和治疗高血压中的作用日益引起国外的重视。研究证实,DASH饮食不仅能显著降低高血压患者的血压,而且还能降低未达高血压诊断标准人群的血压水平。

  9. Three-year effects on dietary quality of health education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maindal, Helle Terkildsen; Toft, Ulla; Lauritzen, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    Healthy diet is a core component in prevention and self-management of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The long-term efficacy was assessed of a theory-based health education programme 'Ready to Act' on dietary quality in people with screen-detected dysglycaemia.......Healthy diet is a core component in prevention and self-management of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The long-term efficacy was assessed of a theory-based health education programme 'Ready to Act' on dietary quality in people with screen-detected dysglycaemia....

  10. Compendium of dietary sources of vitamin A in the Thar desert

    OpenAIRE

    Desai Sanjiv; Desai Rajiv; Desai Navin

    1992-01-01

    The undisputed long term solution to prevent nutritional blindness lies in changing the dietary habits of a given population through nutritional education, nutritional supplementation, and nutritional rehabilitation. Before such strategies can be successfully implemented, it becomes necessary to study the existing dietary pattern of the population and to identify locally grown foods rich in vitamin A. Seventy eight rural women were interviewed to determine the common dietary items in western ...

  11. Determinants of the absorption of the dietary flavonoid quercetin in man.

    OpenAIRE

    Hollman, P.C.H.

    1997-01-01

    Oxidation of low density lipoprotein is hypothesised to play an important role in the development of cardiovascular disease. It might be prevented by dietary antioxidants. Quercetin is a dietary flavonoid antioxidant and its intake was inversely associated with cardiovascular disease in some studies. Absorption from the diet is a prerequisite for its potentially beneficial role. This thesis describes studies on the absorption and elimination kinetics of dietary quercetin in humans.To perform ...

  12. Endocrine disrupting effects in rats perinatally exposed to a dietary relevant mixture of phytoestrogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boberg, Julie; Mandrup, Karen; Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold

    2013-01-01

    Dietary phytoestrogens may prevent certain human diseases, but endocrine activity has been reported in animal studies. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed perinatally to a 1-, 10- or 100-fold “high human dietary intake” mixture of 12 phytoestrogens consisting of mainly the lignan secoisolarici resin....... Further studies are warranted to increase the knowledge upon which risk assessment on dietary phytoestrogen exposure during pregnancy and infancy is based....

  13. Nutritional rickets: pathogenesis and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettifor, John M

    2013-06-01

    Nutritional rickets remains a public health concern in many areas of the world despite cheap and effective means of preventing the disease. The roles of vitamin D deficiency, low dietary calcium intakes and the interrelationships between the two in the pathogenesis of the disease are discussed. It is now recognized that vitamin D deficiency in the pregnant and lactating mother predisposes to the development of rickets in the breastfed infant, and that cultural and social factors are important in the pathogenesis of the disease during the adolescent growth spurt. Prevention of rickets is dependent on the awareness of the medical profession and the general public of the need to ensure adequate intakes of vitamin D in at-risk populations, and of the importance of increasing dietary intakes of calcium using locally available and inexpensive foods in communities in which dietary calcium deficiency rickets is prevalent.

  14. Nucleotide supplementation: a randomised double-blind placebo controlled trial of IntestAidIB in people with Irritable Bowel Syndrome [ISRCTN67764449

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attree EA

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary nucleotide supplementation has been shown to have important effects on the growth and development of cells which have a rapid turnover such as those in the immune system and the gastrointestinal tract. Work with infants has shown that the incidence and duration of diarrhoea is lower when nucleotide supplementation is given, and animal work shows that villi height and crypt depth in the intestine is increased as a result of dietary nucleotides. Dietary nucleotides may be semi-essential under conditions of ill-health, poor diet or stress. Since people with Irritable Bowel Syndrome tend to fulfil these conditions, we tested the hypothesis that symptoms would be improved with dietary nucleotide supplementation. Methods Thirty-seven people with a diagnosis of Irritable Bowel gave daily symptom severity ratings for abdominal pain, diarrhoea, urgency to have a bowel movement, incomplete feeling of evacuation after a bowel movement, bloating, flatulence and constipation for 28 days (baseline. They were then assigned to either placebo (56 days followed by experimental (56 days or the reverse. There was a four week washout period before crossover. During the placebo and experimental conditions participants took one 500 mg capsule three times a day; in the experimental condition the capsule contained the nutroceutical substances. Symptom severity ratings and psychological measures (anxiety, depression, illness intrusiveness and general health were obtained and analysed by repeated measures ANOVAs. Results Symptom severity for all symptoms (except constipation were in the expected direction of baseline>placebo>experimental condition. Symptom improvement was in the range 4 – 6%. A feeling of incomplete evacuation and abdominal pain showed the most improvement. The differences between conditions for diarrhoea, bloating and flatulence were not significant at the p Conclusion Dietary nucleotide supplementation improves some of the

  15. Dietary proteins and angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Miguel Ángel; Quesada, Ana R

    2014-01-17

    Both defective and persistent angiogenesis are linked to pathological situations in the adult. Compounds able to modulate angiogenesis have a potential value for the treatment of such pathologies. Several small molecules present in the diet have been shown to have modulatory effects on angiogenesis. This review presents the current state of knowledge on the potential modulatory roles of dietary proteins on angiogenesis. There is currently limited available information on the topic. Milk contains at least three proteins for which modulatory effects on angiogenesis have been previously demonstrated. On the other hand, there is some scarce information on the potential of dietary lectins, edible plant proteins and high protein diets to modulate angiogenesis.

  16. Promoting dietary change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, S

    1995-01-01

    The discouraging failure rate of counselling patients for dietary change suggests that traditional methods require some reconsideration. These have been frequently based on generalized assumptions regarding patients' health values, their need for knowledge, level of literacy, and ability to translate abstract concepts into daily food. Similarly, both patient and counsellor often insufficiently examine the environmental context of the dietary changes to determine whether or not they are feasible. This brief overview examines ways in which nutrition counselling can be enhanced to ensure that patients are enabled to develop a heart-healthy diet through active problem solving and directed development of self-efficacy in the skills they will need for lasting change.

  17. Preventing stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroke - prevention; CVA - prevention; cerebral vascular accident - prevention; TIA - prevention, transient ischemic attack - prevention ... something that increases your chance of having a stroke. You cannot change some risk factors for stroke. ...

  18. [Prevention of nephrolithiasis: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Pietro Manuel; Lombardi, Gianmarco; Gambaro, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Nephrolithiasis is a very common condition, with a prevalence of about 8% in the general population. Genetic as well as environmental factors are thought to contribute to its pathogenesis. Environmental and especially dietary factors are important in primary as well as in secondary prevention. We review the relevant literature of factors associated with an increased risk of stones that might be object of medical prevention for nephrolithiasis.

  19. Dbl family guanine nucleotide exchange factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y

    2001-12-01

    The Dbl family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors are multifunctional molecules that transduce diverse intracellular signals leading to the activation of Rho GTPases. The tandem Dbl-homology and pleckstrin-homology domains shared by all members of this family represent the structural module responsible for catalyzing the GDP-GTP exchange reaction of Rho proteins. Recent progress in genomic, genetic, structural and biochemical studies has implicated Dbl family members in diverse biological processes, including growth and development, skeletal muscle formation, neuronal axon guidance and tissue organization. The detailed pictures of their autoregulation, agonist-controlled activation and mechanism of interaction with Rho GTPase substrates, have begun to emerge.

  20. Histone displacement during nucleotide excision repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinant, C.; Bartek, J.; Bekker-Jensen, S.

    2012-01-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is an important DNA repair mechanism required for cellular resistance against UV light and toxic chemicals such as those found in tobacco smoke. In living cells, NER efficiently detects and removes DNA lesions within the large nuclear macromolecular complex called...... of histone variants and histone displacement (including nucleosome sliding). Here we review current knowledge, and speculate about current unknowns, regarding those chromatin remodeling activities that physically displace histones before, during and after NER. © 2012 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel...

  1. Dietary glycemic index: health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand-Miller, Jennie; McMillan-Price, Joanna; Steinbeck, Katherine; Caterson, Ian

    2009-08-01

    Weight loss can be achieved by any means of energy restriction, but the challenge is to achieve sustainable weight loss and prevent weight "creep" without increasing the risk of chronic disease. The modest success of low fat diets has prompted research on alternative dietary strategies, including high protein diets and low glycemic index (GI) diets. Conventional high carbohydrate diets, even when based on wholegrain foods, increase postprandial glycemia and insulinemia and may compromise weight control via mechanisms related to appetite stimulation, fuel partitioning, and metabolic rate. This paper makes the case for the benefits of low glycemic index diets over higher protein diets. Both strategies are associated with lower postprandial glycemia, and both are commonly labeled as "low glycemic load," but the long-term health effects are likely to be different. A large body of evidence, which now comprises observational prospective cohort studies, randomized controlled trials, and mechanistic experiments in animal models, provides robust support for low GI carbohydrate diets in the prevention of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Although lower carbohydrate, higher protein diets increase the rate of weight loss, cohort studies and meta-analyses of clinical trials suggest the potential for increased mortality.

  2. Dietary patterns and their associations with childhood obesity in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiguo; Wang, Huijun; Wang, Youfa; Xue, Hong; Wang, Zhihong; Du, Wenwen; Su, Chang; Zhang, Ji; Jiang, Hongru; Zhai, Fengying; Zhang, Bing

    2015-06-28

    Dietary patterns represent the combined effects of foods, and illustrate efficaciously the impact of diet on health outcomes. Some findings of previous studies have limited applicability to Chinese children due to cultural factors. The present study was designed to identify dietary patterns and determine their relationships with obesity among Chinese children and adolescents. Data collected from 1282 children and adolescents aged 7-17 years from the 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) were used. Dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis of data from three consecutive 24-h dietary recalls. Weight and height were measured following standard methods, and BMI was calculated. Three dietary patterns were identified: modern (high intakes of milk, fast foods and eggs), traditional north (high intakes of wheat, tubers and other cereals) and traditional south (high intakes of vegetables, rice and pork). After adjusting for some confounders and total energy intake, subjects in the highest quartiles of the modern and traditional north patterns were found to have significantly greater risk of obesity (OR 3·10, 95 % CI 1·52, 6·32, and OR 2·42, 95 % CI 1·34, 4·39, respectively). In conclusion, the modern dietary pattern and the traditional north dietary pattern were associated with higher risk of obesity. Promoting healthier eating patterns could help prevent obesity in Chinese children.

  3. MECHANISM OF THE PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF SUPPLEMENTAL DIETARY CALCIUM ON CYTOLYTIC ACTIVITY OF FECAL WATER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LAPRE, JA; DEVRIES, HT; TERMONT, DSML; KLEIBEUKER, JH; DEVRIES, EGE; VANDERMEER, R

    1993-01-01

    Dietary calcium supplementation inhibits hyperproliferation of rectal epithelium, possibly by precipitating luminal surfactants and thus preventing their cell-damaging effects. Therefore, we studied the effects of supplemental dietary calcium (35.5 mmol/day) on composition and cytolytic activity of

  4. Dietary fiber and subsequent changes in body weight and waist circumference in European men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du, H.; A, van der A.D.; Boshuizen, H.C.; Forouchi, N.G.; Wareham, N.; Halkjaer, J.; Tjonneland, A.; Overvad, K.; Jakobsen, M.U.; Boeing, H.; Buijsse, B.; Masala, G.; Palli, D.; Sorensen, T.; Saris, W.H.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Dietary fiber may play a role in obesity prevention. Until now, the role that fiber from different sources plays in weight change had rarely been studied. Objective: Our aim was to investigate the association of total dietary fiber, cereal fiber, and fruit and vegetable fiber with change

  5. Dietary protein intake in Dutch elderly people: a focus on protein sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieland, C.A.B.; Borgonjen-van den Berg, K.J.; Loon, van L.J.C.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Sufficient high quality dietary protein intake is required to prevent or treat sarcopenia in elderly people. Therefore, the intake of specific protein sources as well as their timing of intake are important to improve dietary protein intake in elderly people. Objectives: to assess the

  6. Determinants of the absorption of the dietary flavonoid quercetin in man

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollman, P.C.H.

    1997-01-01

    Oxidation of low density lipoprotein is hypothesised to play an important role in the development of cardiovascular disease. It might be prevented by dietary antioxidants. Quercetin is a dietary flavonoid antioxidant and its intake was inversely associated with cardiovascular disease in

  7. Effects of dietary anticarcinogens and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on rat gastrointestinal UDP-glucuronosyltransferases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Logt, E.M.J. van der; Roelofs, H.M.J.; Lieshout, E.M.M. van; Nagengast, F.M.; Peters, W.H.M.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dietary compounds or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may reduce cancer rates. Elevation of phase II detoxification enzymes might be one of the mechanisms leading to cancer prevention. We investigated the effects of dietary anticarcinogens and NSAIDs on rat gastrointestinal

  8. Dietary fiber and subsequent changes in body weight and waist circumference in European men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du, H.; A, van der A.D.; Boshuizen, H.C.; Forouchi, N.G.; Wareham, N.; Halkjaer, J.; Tjonneland, A.; Overvad, K.; Jakobsen, M.U.; Boeing, H.; Buijsse, B.; Masala, G.; Palli, D.; Sorensen, T.; Saris, W.H.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Dietary fiber may play a role in obesity prevention. Until now, the role that fiber from different sources plays in weight change had rarely been studied. Objective: Our aim was to investigate the association of total dietary fiber, cereal fiber, and fruit and vegetable fiber with change

  9. Dietary fiber and subsequent changes in body weight and waist circumference in European men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du, H.; A, van der A.D.; Boshuizen, H.C.; Forouchi, N.G.; Wareham, N.; Halkjaer, J.; Tjonneland, A.; Overvad, K.; Jakobsen, M.U.; Boeing, H.; Buijsse, B.; Masala, G.; Palli, D.; Sorensen, T.; Saris, W.H.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Dietary fiber may play a role in obesity prevention. Until now, the role that fiber from different sources plays in weight change had rarely been studied. Objective: Our aim was to investigate the association of total dietary fiber, cereal fiber, and fruit and vegetable fiber with

  10. A systematic review of environmental correlates of obesity-related dietary behaviors in youth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. van der Horst (Klazine); A. Oenema (Anke); A. Ferreira (Isabel); G.C.W. Wendel-Vos (Wanda); K. Giskes (Katrina); F.J. van Lenthe (Frank); J. Brug (Hans)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThere is increasing interest in the role the environment plays in shaping the dietary behavior of youth, particularly in the context of obesity prevention. An overview of environmental factors associated with obesity-related dietary behaviors among youth is needed to inform the developme

  11. Determinants of the absorption of the dietary flavonoid quercetin in man.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollman, P.C.H.

    1997-01-01

    Oxidation of low density lipoprotein is hypothesised to play an important role in the development of cardiovascular disease. It might be prevented by dietary antioxidants. Quercetin is a dietary flavonoid antioxidant and its intake was inversely associated with cardiovascular disease in some studies

  12. Effects of dietary anticarcinogens and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on rat gastrointestinal UDP-glucuronosyltransferases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Logt, E.M.J. van der; Roelofs, H.M.J.; Lieshout, E.M.M. van; Nagengast, F.M.; Peters, W.H.M.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dietary compounds or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may reduce cancer rates. Elevation of phase II detoxification enzymes might be one of the mechanisms leading to cancer prevention. We investigated the effects of dietary anticarcinogens and NSAIDs on rat gastrointestinal

  13. Adiponectin in Hamster: Characterization and Functions in Soluble Dietary Fiber Mediated Lipid Homeostatis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aim: The hypocholesterolemic and hypoglycemic effects of various natural and semisynthetic dietary fibers have been studied in the past for their potential use in the prevention and improvement of metabolic syndrome. Among these dietary fibers, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) has been shown to...

  14. In Vitro Selection Using Modified or Unnatural Nucleotides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stovall, Gwendolyn M.; Bedenbaugh, Robert S.; Singh, Shruti; Meyer, Adam J.; Hatala, Paul J.; Ellington, Andrew D.; Hall, Bradley

    2014-01-01

    Incorporation of modified nucleotides into in vitro RNA or DNA selections offer many potential advantages, such as the increased stability of selected nucleic acids against nuclease degradation, improved affinities, expanded chemical functionality, and increased library diversity. This unit provides useful information and protocols for in vitro selection using modified nucleotides. It includes a discussion of when to use modified nucleotides; protocols for evaluating and optimizing transcription reactions, as well as confirming the incorporation of the modified nucleotides; protocols for evaluating modified nucleotide transcripts as template in reverse transcription reactions; protocols for the evaluation of the fidelity of modified nucleotides in the replication and the regeneration of the pool; and a protocol to compare modified nucleotide pools and selection conditions. PMID:25606981

  15. Long-term treatment of aged Long Evans rats with a dietary supplement containing neuroprotective peptides (N-PEP-12) to prevent brain aging: effects of three months daily treatment by oral gavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter-Paier, B; Reininger-Gutmann, B; Wronski, R; Doppler, E; Moessler, H

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with morphological and functional changes in the brain, resulting in the deterioration of cognitive performance. Growth factors like BDNF are suggested to be involved in the regulation of age-related processes in the brain. A novel dietary supplement produced from purified nerve cell proteins, N-PEP-12, has shown to share properties with naturally occurring peptide growth factors by stimulating neurite outgrowth and beneficial effects on neuronal survival and protection against metabolic stress in cell cultures. The current study investigates the effects of long-term intake on age-dependent memory decline by assessing cognitive performance and synaptic density. All the experiments were performed in aged Long Evans rats randomly assigned to saline or N-PEP-12 once daily by gavage over a period of three months. Behavioral tests were performed in the Morris Water Maze after one, two and three months of treatment. Histological examinations were performed in the hippocampal formation and in the entorhinal cortex by measuring the synaptic density. This study shows that the oral intake of N-PEP-12 has beneficial effects on the cognitive performance of aged animals and that these effects go along with an increase in the synaptic density. Thus, N-PEP-12 may help maintain memory and learning performance during the aging process.

  16. Dietary fat and carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woutersen, R.A.; Appel, M.J.; Garderen-Hoetmer, A. van; Wijnands, M.V.W.

    1999-01-01

    Epidemiologic investigations have suggested a relationship between dietary fat intake and various types of cancer incidences. Furthermore, epidemiologic studies as well as studies with animal models have demonstrated that not only the amount but also the type of fat consumed is important. At present

  17. Evolution of dietary antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzie, Iris F F

    2003-09-01

    Oxygen is vital for most organisms but, paradoxically, damages key biological sites. Oxygenic threat is met by antioxidants that evolved in parallel with our oxygenic atmosphere. Plants employ antioxidants to defend their structures against reactive oxygen species (ROS; oxidants) produced during photosynthesis. The human body is exposed to these same oxidants, and we have also evolved an effective antioxidant system. However, this is not infallible. ROS breach defences, oxidative damage ensues, accumulates with age, and causes a variety of pathological changes. Plant-based, antioxidant-rich foods traditionally formed the major part of the human diet, and plant-based dietary antioxidants are hypothesized to have an important role in maintaining human health. This hypothesis is logical in evolutionary terms, especially when we consider the relatively hypoxic environment in which humans may have evolved. In this paper, the human diet is discussed briefly in terms of its evolutionary development, different strategies of antioxidant defence are outlined, and evolution of dietary antioxidants is discussed from the perspectives of plant need and our current dietary requirements. Finally, possibilities in regard to dietary antioxidants, evolution, and human health are presented, and an evolutionary cost-benefit analysis is presented in relation to why we lost the ability to make ascorbic acid (vitamin C) although we retained an absolute requirement for it.

  18. [Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms in centenarians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambini, Juan; Gimeno-Mallench, Lucía; Inglés, Marta; Olaso, Gloria; Abdelaziz, Kheira Mohamed; Avellana, Juan Antonio; Belenguer, Ángel; Cruz, Raquel; Mas-Bargues, Cristina; Borras, Consuelo; Viña, José

    2016-01-01

    Longevity is determined by genetic and external factors, such as nutritional, environmental, social, etc. Nevertheless, when living conditions are optimal, longevity is determined by genetic variations between individuals. In a same population, with relative genotypic homogeneity, subtle changes in the DNA sequence affecting a single nucleotide can be observed. These changes, called single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) are present in 1-5% of the population. A total of 92 subjects were recruited, including 28 centenarians and 64 controls, in order to find SNP that maybe implicated in the extreme longevity, as in the centenarians. Blood samples were collected to isolate and amplify the DNA in order to perform the analysis of SPN by Axiom™ Genotyping of Affymetrix technology. Statistical analyses were performed using the Plink program and libraries SNPassoc and skatMeta. Our results show 12 mutations with a p<.001, where 5 of these (DACH1, LOC91948, BTB16, NFIL3 y HDAC4) have regulatory functions of the expressions of others genes. Therefore, these results suggest that the genetic variation between centenarians and controls occurs in five genes that are involved in the regulation of gene expression to adapt to environmental changes better than controls. Copyright © 2015 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Estimation of evolutionary distances between nucleotide sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zharkikh, A

    1994-09-01

    A formal mathematical analysis of the substitution process in nucleotide sequence evolution was done in terms of the Markov process. By using matrix algebra theory, the theoretical foundation of Barry and Hartigan's (Stat. Sci. 2:191-210, 1987) and Lanave et al.'s (J. Mol. Evol. 20:86-93, 1984) methods was provided. Extensive computer simulation was used to compare the accuracy and effectiveness of various methods for estimating the evolutionary distance between two nucleotide sequences. It was shown that the multiparameter methods of Lanave et al.'s (J. Mol. Evol. 20:86-93, 1984), Gojobori et al.'s (J. Mol. Evol. 18:414-422, 1982), and Barry and Hartigan's (Stat. Sci. 2:191-210, 1987) are preferable to others for the purpose of phylogenetic analysis when the sequences are long. However, when sequences are short and the evolutionary distance is large, Tajima and Nei's (Mol. Biol. Evol. 1:269-285, 1984) method is superior to others.

  20. Classifying Coding DNA with Nucleotide Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Carels

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this report, we compared the success rate of classification of coding sequences (CDS vs. introns by Codon Structure Factor (CSF and by a method that we called Universal Feature Method (UFM. UFM is based on the scoring of purine bias (Rrr and stop codon frequency. We show that the success rate of CDS/intron classification by UFM is higher than by CSF. UFM classifies ORFs as coding or non-coding through a score based on (i the stop codon distribution, (ii the product of purine probabilities in the three positions of nucleotide triplets, (iii the product of Cytosine (C, Guanine (G, and Adenine (A probabilities in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd positions of triplets, respectively, (iv the probabilities of G in 1st and 2nd position of triplets and (v the distance of their GC3 vs. GC2 levels to the regression line of the universal correlation. More than 80% of CDSs (true positives of Homo sapiens (>250 bp, Drosophila melanogaster (>250 bp and Arabidopsis thaliana (>200 bp are successfully classified with a false positive rate lower or equal to 5%. The method releases coding sequences in their coding strand and coding frame, which allows their automatic translation into protein sequences with 95% confidence. The method is a natural consequence of the compositional bias of nucleotides in coding sequences.

  1. Use of technology in children's dietary assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boushey, C J; Kerr, D A; Wright, J; Lutes, K D; Ebert, D S; Delp, E J

    2009-02-01

    Information on dietary intake provides some of the most valuable insights for mounting intervention programmes for the prevention of chronic diseases. With the growing concern about adolescent overweight, the need to accurately measure diet becomes imperative. Assessment among adolescents is problematic as this group has irregular eating patterns and they have less enthusiasm for recording food intake. We used qualitative and quantitative techniques among adolescents to assess their preferences for dietary assessment methods. Dietary assessment methods using technology, for example, a personal digital assistant (PDA) or a disposable camera, were preferred over the pen and paper food record. There was a strong preference for using methods that incorporate technology such as capturing images of food. This suggests that for adolescents, dietary methods that incorporate technology may improve cooperation and accuracy. Current computing technology includes higher resolution images, improved memory capacity and faster processors that allow small mobile devices to process information not previously possible. Our goal is to develop, implement and evaluate a mobile device (for example, PDA, mobile phone) food record that will translate to an accurate account of daily food and nutrient intake among adolescents. This mobile computing device will include digital images, a nutrient database and image analysis for identification and quantification of food consumption. Mobile computing devices provide a unique vehicle for collecting dietary information that reduces the burden on record keepers. Images of food can be marked with a variety of input methods that link the item for image processing and analysis to estimate the amount of food. Images before and after the foods are eaten can estimate the amount of food consumed. The initial stages and potential of this project will be described.

  2. Rasp21 sequences opposite the nucleotide binding pocket are required for GRF-mediated nucleotide release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leonardsen, L; DeClue, J E; Lybaek, H;

    1996-01-01

    , the sensitivity of H-Ras to GRF was abolished when residues 130-139 were replaced by proline-aspartic acid-glutamine, whereas substitution of the entire loop 8 (residues 123-130 replaced by leucine-isoleucine-arginine) had no effect on the stimulation of guanine nucleotide release by GRF. Substrate activity...

  3. Prevention of urological cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M S Ansari

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Many urological cancers like prostate and bladder have protracted course and maybe ideal for chemoprevention strategies. This article reviews the biol-ogy, epidemiology and possible preventive strategies for the various urological cancers. Methods: The author reviewed the relevant articles published in the last 20 years and studied the biology of the various urological cancers. An attempt is made to identify the various dietary, nutritional and occupation-related factors implicated in the onset and progression of various urological cancers. The various interventions and clinical trial results are described to prove the relevance of these factors. Results: Epidemiological reports provide the strongest evidence of protective role for dietary agents in cancer of prostate, bladder and kidney. Cancers of prostate and blad-der are uniquely suitable for chemopreventive strategies. For prostate cancer strong evidence exists for a preven-tive effect of reduced fat intake, vitamin E, selenium, lycopene and soya proteins. Vitamin A administration shows a strong inverse relation to bladder cancer. Better prevention is seen with combination of high doses of vita-mins A, C, E and B6. High-energy intake is related to the higher incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC. While vitamins D and E supplementation has resulted in lower incidence of RCC. Conclusions: Numerous studies implicate dietary and nutritional factors in the onset and progression of various urological cancers. Hence, it is possible that bioactive compounds (anti-oxidants like vits. A, D, C, and E, min-erals like selenium and carotenoids like lycopene along with reduction of animal fat in diet can be a part of pre-ventive strategies for various urological cancers.

  4. Dietary folate, methionine, riboflavin, and vitamin B-6 and risk of sporadic colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, S. de; Dindore, V.; Engeland, M. van; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Weijenberg, M.P.

    2008-01-01

    Adequate intake of folate, methionine, riboflavin, and vitamin B-6 may prevent aberrant DNA methylation and thereby protect against colorectal cancer (CRC). However, previous epidemiological studies investigating associations between dietary intakes of these nutrients and CRC have been inconsistent.

  5. Dietary folate, methionine, riboflavin, and vitamin B-6 and risk of sporadic colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, S. de; Dindore, V.; Engeland, M. van; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Weijenberg, M.P.

    2008-01-01

    Adequate intake of folate, methionine, riboflavin, and vitamin B-6 may prevent aberrant DNA methylation and thereby protect against colorectal cancer (CRC). However, previous epidemiological studies investigating associations between dietary intakes of these nutrients and CRC have been inconsistent.

  6. Genetic determinant for amino acid metabolites and changes in body weight and insulin resistance in response to weight-loss diets: the Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS LOST) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Min; Qi, Qibin; Liang, Jun; Bray, George A; Hu, Frank B; Sacks, Frank M; Qi, Lu

    2013-03-26

    Circulating branched-chain amino acids and aromatic amino acids were recently related to insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus in prospective cohorts. We tested the effects of a genetic determinant of branched-chain amino acid/aromatic amino acid ratio on changes in body weight and insulin resistance in a 2-year diet intervention trial. We genotyped the branched-chain amino acid/aromatic amino acid ratio-associated variant rs1440581 near the PPM1K gene in 734 overweight or obese adults who were assigned to 1 of 4 diets varying in macronutrient content. At 6 months, dietary fat significantly modified genetic effects on changes in weight, fasting insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) after adjustment for the confounders (all P for interaction ≤0.006). Further adjustment for weight change did not appreciably change the interactions for fasting insulin and HOMA-IR. In the high-fat diet group, the C allele was related to less weight loss and smaller decreases in serum insulin and HOMA-IR (all P ≤ 0.02 in an additive pattern), whereas an opposite genotype effect on changes in insulin and HOMA-IR was observed in the low-fat diet group (P=0.02 and P=0.04, respectively). At 2 years, the gene-diet interactions remained significant for weight loss (P=0.008) but became null for changes in serum insulin and HOMA-IR resulting from weight regain. Individuals carrying the C allele of the branched-chain amino acid/aromatic amino acid ratio-associated variant rs1440581 may benefit less in weight loss and improvement of insulin sensitivity than those without this allele when undertaking an energy-restricted high-fat diet. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00072995.

  7. Dietary Acculturation among Filipino Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persephone Vargas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acculturation, the subsequent changes that occur in one culture after continuous first hand contact with another culture, impacts the dietary habits and health risks of individuals. This study examines the acculturation, dietary habits and anthropometric measurements in a sample of 210 first generation Filipino American immigrants in New Jersey (NJ. Acculturation was measured using the Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans (ASASFA. Dietary acculturation was measured using the Dietary Acculturation Questionnaire for Filipino Americans (DAQFA and dietary intake was determined using the Block’s Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire (BFFQ. Anthropometric measurements were obtained including weight, height and waist circumference. Acculturation had a significant negative relationship with Filipino Dietary acculturation. Western dietary acculturation was significantly correlated with caloric intake (r(208 = 0.193, p < 0.01, percentage fat intake (r(208 = 0.154, p < 0.05, percentage carbohydrate intake (r(208 = −0.172, p < 0.05, Body Mass Index (BMI (r(208 = 0.216, p < 0.01 and waist circumference (r(208 = 0.161, p < 0.01. There was no significant correlation between Filipino dietary acculturation, dietary intake and anthropometric measurements. The results showed that Filipino American immigrants have increased risks including increased BMI, waist circumference and increased fat intake. Over all, this research highlighted some dietary changes and their effects on dietary intake and health status.

  8. Mutations of PKA cyclic nucleotide-binding domains reveal novel aspects of cyclic nucleotide selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Robin; Moon, Eui-Whan; Kim, Jeong Joo; Schmidt, Sven H; Sankaran, Banumathi; Pavlidis, Ioannis V; Kim, Choel; Herberg, Friedrich W

    2017-07-06

    Cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP are ubiquitous second messengers that regulate the activity of effector proteins in all forms of life. The main effector proteins, the 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and the 3',5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKG), are preferentially activated by cAMP and cGMP, respectively. However, the molecular basis of this cyclic nucleotide selectivity is still not fully understood. Analysis of isolated cyclic nucleotide-binding (CNB) domains of PKA regulatory subunit type Iα (RIα) reveals that the C-terminal CNB-B has a higher cAMP affinity and selectivity than the N-terminal CNB-A. Here, we show that introducing cGMP-specific residues using site-directed mutagenesis reduces the selectivity of CNB-B, while the combination of two mutations (G316R/A336T) results in a cGMP-selective binding domain. Furthermore, introducing the corresponding mutations (T192R/A212T) into the PKA RIα CNB-A turns this domain into a highly cGMP-selective domain, underlining the importance of these contacts for achieving cGMP specificity. Binding data with the generic purine nucleotide 3',5'-cyclic inosine monophosphate (cIMP) reveal that introduced arginine residues interact with the position 6 oxygen of the nucleobase. Co-crystal structures of an isolated CNB-B G316R/A336T double mutant with either cAMP or cGMP reveal that the introduced threonine and arginine residues maintain their conserved contacts as seen in PKG I CNB-B. These results improve our understanding of cyclic nucleotide binding and the molecular basis of cyclic nucleotide specificity. © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  9. The 5' binding MID domain of human Argonaute2 tolerates chemically modified nucleotide analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deleavey, Glen F; Frank, Filipp; Hassler, Matthew; Wisnovsky, Simon; Nagar, Bhushan; Damha, Masad J

    2013-02-01

    Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) can trigger potent gene silencing through the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway. The RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) is key to this targeted mRNA degradation, and the human Argonaute2 (hAGO2) endonuclease component of RISC is responsible for the actual mRNA cleavage event. During RNAi, hAGO2 becomes loaded with the siRNA guide strand, making several key nucleic acid-enzyme interactions. Chemically modified siRNAs are now widely used in place of natural double-stranded RNAs, and understanding the effects chemical modifications have on guide strand-hAGO2 interactions has become particularly important. Here, interactions between the 5' nucleotide binding domain of hAGO2, MID, and chemically modified nucleotide analogues are investigated. Measured dissociation constants reveal that hAGO2 does not discriminate between nucleotide analogues during binding, regardless of the preferred sugar conformation of the nucleotide analogues. These results correlate well with cell-based gene silencing results employing siRNAs with 5'-modified guide strands. Additionally, chemical modification with 2'-deoxy-2'-fluoroarabino nucleic acid (2'F-ANA) and 2'-deoxy-2'-fluororibonucleic acid (2'F-RNA) at the passenger strand cleavage site of siRNAs has been shown to prevent hAGO2-mediated strand cleavage, an observation that appears to have little impact on overall gene silencing potency.

  10. Poor adherence to dietary guidelines among adult survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Robien, Kim; Ness, Kirsten K.; Klesges, Lisa M.; Baker, K. Scott; Gurney, James G.

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that survivors of childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) are at increased risk of obesity and cardiovascular disease, conditions that healthy dietary patterns may help ameliorate or prevent. To evaluate the usual dietary intake of adult survivors of childhood ALL, food frequency questionnaire data were collected from 72 participants, and compared with the 2007 WCRF/AICR Cancer Prevention recommendations, the DASH diet, and the 2005 USDA Food Guide. Mean daily energ...

  11. Prevention of food allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S

    1997-01-01

    Development of a food allergy appears to depend on both genetic factors and exposure-especially in early infancy-to food proteins. In prospective studies, the effect of dietary allergy prevention programmes has only been demonstrated in high-risk infants, i.e. infants with at least one first degree...... relative with documented atopic disease. High-risk infants feeding exclusively on breast milk and/or extensively hydrolysed formula (eHF) combined with avoidance of cow's milk proteins and solid foods during at least the first 4 months of life are found to have a significant reduction in the cumulative...... incidence of food allergy, especially cow's milk protein allergy/intolerance (CMPA/CMPI), in the first 4 years of life. As no studies have been conducted pertaining to the preventive effect of avoidance of milk and other foods after the age of 4-6 months, recommendation of preventive elimination diets...

  12. Rice bran phytochemicals and dietary colon chemoprevention teamwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    A growing body of evidence supports that dietary rice bran exhibits gastrointestinal cancer control and prevention activity using carcinogen induced animal models and human colon cancer cell lines. Our laboratory has recently reported metabolomic differences in rice from globally and genetically dis...

  13. Dietary factors affecting hindgut protein fermentation in broilers: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qaisrani, S.N.; Krimpen, van M.M.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2015-01-01

    High growth rates in modern-day broilers require diets concentrated in digestible protein and energy. In addition to affecting feed conversion efficiency, it is important to prevent surplus dietary protein because of greater amounts of undigested protein entering the hindgut that may be fermented by

  14. Regulation of nucleotide excision repair through ubiquitination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Li; Audesh Bhat; Wei Xiao

    2011-01-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is the most versatile DNA-repair pathway in all organisms.While bacteria require only three proteins to complete the incision step of NER,eukaryotes employ about 30 proteins to complete the same step.Here we summarize recent studies demonstrating that ubiquitination,a post-translational modification,plays critical roles in regulating the NER activity either dependent on or independent of ubiquitin-proteolysis.Several NER components have been shown as targets of ubiquitination while others are actively involved in the ubiquitination process.We argue through this analysis that ubiquitination serves to coordinate various steps of NER and meanwhile connect NER with other related pathways to achieve the efficient global DNA-damage response.

  15. [Nucleotide receptors--structure and function, history and perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barańska, Jolanta

    2014-01-01

    First nucleotide receptors were discovered by Geoffrey Burnstock in 70ties of the last century, as a purinoreceptors activated by ATP. It was further found that they may be activated both by purine and pyrimidine nucleotides and their name was changed to nucleotide receptors. They are divided into two fsamilies: P1, activated by adenosine and P2, activated by nucleotides which are further divided into P2X and P2Y subfamilies. P2X are ionotropic receptors activated by ATP, P2Y (as the P1) are metabotropic receptors coupled with protein G. P2Y receptors are activated by ATP, ADP, UTP, UDP and UDP-sugar derivatives. This review describes early history of extracellular nucleotide signaling studies and presents current knowledge of the particular nucleotide receptors subtypes. The article also describes the structure and functional roles of these receptors and speculates about future research and therapeutic directions in this field.

  16. Dietary treatments of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, W

    1987-01-01

    Dietary treatment of obesity is based on one or another of two premises: that the obese eat too much or that they eat the wrong things. The first is a tautology lacking explanatory power. The second is a meaningful and promising hypothesis but has yet to be effectively applied. At present, virtually all outpatient treatments of obesity, including behavior modification, are based on the first premise and consist of strategies for reducing the subject's caloric intake. Most such interventions produce short-term weight loss. Regain after the end of treatment remains the usual outcome. A survey of studies published in the period 1977-1986 and reporting on dietary or behavioral treatment of obesity reveals that the maximum percentage of body weight lost is, on average, 8.5 percent--no different from the value, 8.9%, in similar studies from 1966-1976, as reviewed by Wing and Jeffery. The principal determinant of success in such programs appears to be the intake weight of the subjects: the higher the intake weight, the more successful the intervention will appear to be. The goals and research methods of studies on dietary treatments for obesity are overdue for ethical as well as scientific reevaluation. The same may be said for the numerous programs providing such treatment outside the context of research.

  17. Dietary treatment of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Pita Lottenberg

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The fast global increased prevalence of obesity has been classifiedas an epidemics by the World Health Organization. The etiology ofobesity is very complex and involves genetic and environmentalfactors. One of the main factors that trigger obesity is sedentarylife, as well as the great availability of fat-rich foods that present ahigh energy density. According to the NHANES II, although thepopulation has decreased the ingestion of fat, the total consumptionof food has increased. The main factors that influence in choice offood are flavor, followed by cost, convenience and, finally, itsnutritional value. The dietary treatment of obesity should haverealistic goals concerning weight loss rate and amount. It issuggested to prescribe a balanced low-calorie diet, emphasizingmostly the quality of foods by using the food pyramid. Therefore,patients may learn the appropriate criteria to select food and makehealthy choices. The dietary treatment of obesity also includesthe use of behavioral techniques directed at dietary education,thus resulting in choice of healthy foods with adequate energyvalue.

  18. Dietary methanol and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Ralph G; Monte, Woodrow C

    2015-10-01

    The authors sought to establish whether maternal dietary methanol during pregnancy was a factor in the etiology of autism spectrum disorders. A seven item questionnaire was given to women who had given birth to at least one child after 1984. The subjects were solicited from a large primary care practice and several internet sites and separated into two groups - mothers who had given birth to a child with autism and those who had not. Average weekly methanol consumption was calculated based on questionnaire responses. 550 questionnaires were completed by women who gave birth to a non-autistic child. On average these women consumed 66.71mg. of methanol weekly. 161 questionnaires were completed by women who had given birth to an autistic child. The average estimated weekly methanol consumption for this group was 142.31mg. Based on the results of the Wilcoxon rank sum-test, we see a significant difference between the reported methanol consumption rates of the two groups. This study suggests that women who have given birth to an autistic child are likely to have had higher intake of dietary sources of methanol than women who have not. Further investigation of a possible link of dietary methanol to autism is clearly warranted.

  19. Dietary Acculturation among Filipino Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Persephone; Jurado, Leo-Felix

    2015-12-22

    Acculturation, the subsequent changes that occur in one culture after continuous first hand contact with another culture, impacts the dietary habits and health risks of individuals. This study examines the acculturation, dietary habits and anthropometric measurements in a sample of 210 first generation Filipino American immigrants in New Jersey (NJ). Acculturation was measured using the Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans (ASASFA). Dietary acculturation was measured using the Dietary Acculturation Questionnaire for Filipino Americans (DAQFA) and dietary intake was determined using the Block's Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire (BFFQ). Anthropometric measurements were obtained including weight, height and waist circumference. Acculturation had a significant negative relationship with Filipino Dietary acculturation. Western dietary acculturation was significantly correlated with caloric intake (r(208) = 0.193, p acculturation, dietary intake and anthropometric measurements. The results showed that Filipino American immigrants have increased risks including increased BMI, waist circumference and increased fat intake. Over all, this research highlighted some dietary changes and their effects on dietary intake and health status.

  20. Frequency and Correlation of Nearest Neighboring Nucleotides in Human Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Neng-zhi; Liu, Zi-xian; Qiu, Wen-yuan

    2009-02-01

    Zipf's approach in linguistics is utilized to analyze the statistical features of frequency and correlation of 16 nearest neighboring nucleotides (AA, AC, AG, ..., TT) in 12 human chromosomes (Y, 22, 21, 20, 19, 18, 17, 16, 15, 14, 13, and 12). It is found that these statistical features of nearest neighboring nucleotides in human genome: (i) the frequency distribution is a linear function, and (ii) the correlation distribution is an inverse function. The coefficients of the linear function and inverse function depend on the GC content. It proposes the correlation distribution of nearest neighboring nucleotides for the first time and extends the descriptor about nearest neighboring nucleotides.

  1. Fluoride ion promoted deprotection and transesterification in nucleotide triesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, K K; Beaucage, S L

    1979-10-10

    Tetrabutylammonium fluoride will remove phenyl, trichloroethyl and cyanoethyl groups from nucleotides. In addition to the desired nucleotide products other results including chain cleavage, phosphofluoridates and cyanoethylated thymidine units may be obtained depending on the conditions used. Fluoride ion has been used to successfully exchange phenyl and trichloroethyl groups for methyl, ethyl and butyl groups in nucleotide triesters. This represents a rapid high yield route to a variety of phosphate esters. The synthesis of a novel nucleotide analogue in which two chains are bridged through their phosphates is described.

  2. Correlated Evolution of Nucleotide Positions within Splice Sites in Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisov, Stepan; Bazykin, Georgii; Favorov, Alexander; Mironov, Andrey; Gelfand, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    Splice sites (SSs)--short nucleotide sequences flanking introns--are under selection for spliceosome binding, and adhere to consensus sequences. However, non-consensus nucleotides, many of which probably reduce SS performance, are frequent. Little is known about the mechanisms maintaining such apparently suboptimal SSs. Here, we study the correlations between strengths of nucleotides occupying different positions of the same SS. Such correlations may arise due to epistatic interactions between positions (i.e., a situation when the fitness effect of a nucleotide in one position depends on the nucleotide in another position), their evolutionary history, or to other reasons. Within both the intronic and the exonic parts of donor SSs, nucleotides that increase (decrease) SS strength tend to co-occur with other nucleotides increasing (respectively, decreasing) it, consistent with positive epistasis. Between the intronic and exonic parts of donor SSs, the correlations of nucleotide strengths tend to be negative, consistent with negative epistasis. In the course of evolution, substitutions at a donor SS tend to decrease the strength of its exonic part, and either increase or do not change the strength of its intronic part. In acceptor SSs, the situation is more complicated; the correlations between adjacent positions appear to be driven mainly by avoidance of the AG dinucleotide which may cause aberrant splicing. In summary, both the content and the evolution of SSs is shaped by a complex network of interdependences between adjacent nucleotides that respond to a range of sometimes conflicting selective constraints.

  3. Bienestar: A Diabetes Risk-Factor Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Robert P.; Pugh, Jacqueline A.; Hernandez, Arthur E.; Menchaca, Velma D.; Ramirez, Robert R.; Mendoza, Monica

    1998-01-01

    The Bienestar Health Program is a diabetes risk-factor prevention program targeting Mexican American fourth graders. Program goals are to decrease overweight and dietary fats. The program is based on social cognitive theory and uses culturally relevant material. Preliminary evaluation indicates the program significantly decreases dietary fat,…

  4. Bienestar: A Diabetes Risk-Factor Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Robert P.; Pugh, Jacqueline A.; Hernandez, Arthur E.; Menchaca, Velma D.; Ramirez, Robert R.; Mendoza, Monica

    1998-01-01

    The Bienestar Health Program is a diabetes risk-factor prevention program targeting Mexican American fourth graders. Program goals are to decrease overweight and dietary fats. The program is based on social cognitive theory and uses culturally relevant material. Preliminary evaluation indicates the program significantly decreases dietary fat,…

  5. Cyclic nucleotide specific phosphodiesterases of Leishmania major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linder Markus

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leishmania represent a complex of important human pathogens that belong to the systematic order of the kinetoplastida. They are transmitted between their human and mammalian hosts by different bloodsucking sandfly vectors. In their hosts, the Leishmania undergo several differentiation steps, and their coordination and optimization crucially depend on numerous interactions between the parasites and the physiological environment presented by the fly and human hosts. Little is still known about the signalling networks involved in these functions. In an attempt to better understand the role of cyclic nucleotide signalling in Leishmania differentiation and host-parasite interaction, we here present an initial study on the cyclic nucleotide-specific phosphodiesterases of Leishmania major. Results This paper presents the identification of three class I cyclic-nucleotide-specific phosphodiesterases (PDEs from L. major, PDEs whose catalytic domains exhibit considerable sequence conservation with, among other, all eleven human PDE families. In contrast to other protozoa such as Dictyostelium, or fungi such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida ssp or Neurospora, no genes for class II PDEs were found in the Leishmania genomes. LmjPDEA contains a class I catalytic domain at the C-terminus of the polypeptide, with no other discernible functional domains elsewhere. LmjPDEB1 and LmjPDEB2 are coded for by closely related, tandemly linked genes on chromosome 15. Both PDEs contain two GAF domains in their N-terminal region, and their almost identical catalytic domains are located at the C-terminus of the polypeptide. LmjPDEA, LmjPDEB1 and LmjPDEB2 were further characterized by functional complementation in a PDE-deficient S. cerevisiae strain. All three enzymes conferred complementation, demonstrating that all three can hydrolyze cAMP. Recombinant LmjPDEB1 and LmjPDEB2 were shown to be cAMP-specific, with Km values in the low micromolar range

  6. Dietary fat and cardiovascular disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lie T. Merijanti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dietary saturated fat (SF intake has been shown to increase low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol and therefore has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD. This evidence coupled with inferences from epidemiologic studies and clinical trials, had led to longstanding public health recommendations for limiting SF intake as a means of preventing CVD. However the relationship between SF and CVD risk remains controversial, due at least in part to the intrinsic limitations of clinical studies that have evaluated this relationship. A recent meta analysis showed that current evidence does not clearly support cardiovascular guidelines that encourage high consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and low consumption of total SF. They found weak positive associations between circulating palmitic and stearic acids (found largely in palm oil and animal fats, respectively and CVD, whereas circulating margaric acid (a dairy fat significantly reduced the risk of CVD.(2,3 Saturated fat are not associated with all cause mortality, CVD, CHD, ischemic stroke or type 2 diabetes, but the evidence is heterogenous with methodological limitations.

  7. Neuroprotective Actions of Dietary Choline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Krzysztof Blusztajn

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Choline is an essential nutrient for humans. It is a precursor of membrane phospholipids (e.g., phosphatidylcholine (PC, the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, and via betaine, the methyl group donor S-adenosylmethionine. High choline intake during gestation and early postnatal development in rat and mouse models improves cognitive function in adulthood, prevents age-related memory decline, and protects the brain from the neuropathological changes associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD, and neurological damage associated with epilepsy, fetal alcohol syndrome, and inherited conditions such as Down and Rett syndromes. These effects of choline are correlated with modifications in histone and DNA methylation in brain, and with alterations in the expression of genes that encode proteins important for learning and memory processing, suggesting a possible epigenomic mechanism of action. Dietary choline intake in the adult may also influence cognitive function via an effect on PC containing eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids; polyunsaturated species of PC whose levels are reduced in brains from AD patients, and is associated with higher memory performance, and resistance to cognitive decline.

  8. Dietary change, nutrition education and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brug, Johannes; Schols, Annemie; Mesters, Ilse

    2004-03-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a prevalent and serious condition. Nutrition might play a role in COPD prevention and is definitely important in COPD management. There are some indications from epidemiological studies that dietary factors such as ample consumption of fruit and fish may decrease COPD risk. The available evidence is, however, not substantial enough to warrant dietary recommendations for primary prevention of COPD. Substantial evidence does point to the conclusion that, regardless of disease severity, weight loss is related to decreased exercise capacity, health status and mortality as well as to increased morbidity among patients with moderate to severe COPD. Current nutritional support strategies have primarily focussed on treatment of severely underweight and disabled patients. In an in-patient setting or when incorporated in a pulmonary rehabilitation programme, nutritional support has proved effective in inducing weight gain and related functional improvements. However, such interventions are only feasible for a selected group of patients and are very laborious. Therefore, opportunities for dietary and nutrition interventions in COPD management should be explored, aiming at early detection, prevention and early treatment of involuntary weight loss. This means expanding the target group to include COPD out-patients and primary care patients before they have become underweight, and putting more emphasis on dietary change than on medically prescribed supplementation. Successful intervention assumes (voluntary) adjustment of dietary behaviour, and health professionals may play an essential role in encouraging patients to make and maintain these changes. Achieving dietary change among COPD patients may require a combination of diet counselling and self-management. A model for such a combination is presented.

  9. A very-low-fat vegan diet increases intake of protective dietary factors and decreases intake of pathogenic dietary factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewell, Antonella; Weidner, Gerdi; Sumner, Michael D; Chi, Christine S; Ornish, Dean

    2008-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that dietary factors in plant-based diets are important in the prevention of chronic disease. This study examined protective (eg, antioxidant vitamins, carotenoids, and fiber) and pathogenic (eg, saturated fatty acids and cholesterol) dietary factors in a very-low-fat vegan diet. Ninety-three early-stage prostate cancer patients participated in a randomized controlled trial and were assigned to a very-low-fat (10% fat) vegan diet supplemented with soy protein and lifestyle changes or to usual care. Three-day food records were collected at baseline (n=42 intervention, n=43 control) and after 1 year (n=37 in each group). Analyses of changes in dietary intake of macronutrients, vitamins, minerals, carotenoids, and isoflavones from baseline to 1 year showed significantly increased intake of most protective dietary factors (eg, fiber increased from a mean of 31 to 59 g/day, lycopene increased from 8,693 to 34,464 mug/day) and significantly decreased intake of most pathogenic dietary factors (eg, saturated fatty acids decreased from 20 to 5 g/day, cholesterol decreased from 200 to 10 mg/day) in the intervention group compared to controls. These results suggest that a very-low-fat vegan diet can be useful in increasing intake of protective nutrients and phytochemicals and minimizing intake of dietary factors implicated in several chronic diseases.

  10. Dietary Patterns and CKD Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Tanushree; Liu, Yang; Crews, Deidra C

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients and their clinicians seek ways to mitigate the risk of CKD progression and its associated complications. Emerging data suggest that dietary modifications may be beneficial adjuvant approaches to reducing the risk of adverse CKD outcomes. This review focuses on several different dietary patterns, including the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension and Mediterranean diets, and their kidney health benefits. We discuss how healthful dietary patterns are lower in dietary acid load and how improving diet quality may slow the progression of CKD. We also discuss some barriers that may impede socially disadvantaged individuals from following healthful diets. Dietary patterns low in dietary acid load might slow the progression of CKD. Current evidence suggests that a reduction in dietary acid load could be beneficial in patients with CKD, but the supremacy of any particular diet is yet to be established. Additional randomized controlled dietary interventions among CKD patients are needed to inform evidence-based recommendations, which can be tailored to an individual's preferences and ability to access healthful foods. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Health effects of dietary fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semih Ötles

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fi bre is a group of food components which is resistant to digestive enzymes and found mainly in cereals, fruits and vegetables. Dietary fi ber and whole grains contain a unique blend of bioactive components including resistant starches, vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals and antioxidants. Dietary fi ber which indigestible in human small intestinal, on the other hand digested completely or partially fermented in the large intestine, is examined in two groups: water-soluble and water insoluble organic compounds. Dietary fi ber can be separated into many different fractions. These fractions include arabinoxylan, inulin, pectin, bran, cellulose, β-glucan and resistant starch. Dietary fi bres compose the major component of products with low energy value that have had an increasing importance in recent years. Dietary fi bres also have technological and functional properties that can be used in the formulation of foods, as well as numerous benefi cial effects on human health. Dietary fi bre components organise functions of large intestine and have important physiological effects on glucose, lipid metabolism and mineral bioavailability. Today, dietary fi bers are known to be protective effect against certain gastrointestinal diseases, constipation, hemorrhoids, colon cancer, gastroesophageal refl ux disease, duodenal ulcer, diverticulitis, obesity, diabetes, stroke, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. In this review the physicochemical and biological properties of dietary fi bers and their important implications on human health will be investigated.

  12. Novel insights of dietary polyphenols and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu; Moustaid-Moussa, Naima; Chen, Lixia; Mo, Huanbiao; Shastri, Anuradha; Su, Rui; Bapat, Priyanka; Kwun, InSook; Shen, Chwan-Li

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has steadily increased over the past three decades both in the United States and worldwide. Recent studies have shown the role of dietary polyphenols in the prevention of obesity and obesity-related chronic diseases. Here, we evaluated the impact of commonly consumed polyphenols, including green tea catechins, especially epigallocatechin gallates, resveratrol and curcumin, on obesity and obesity-related inflammation. Cellular studies demonstrated that these dietary polyphenols reduce viability of adipocytes and proliferation of preadipocytes, suppress adipocyte differentiation and triglyceride accumulation, stimulate lipolysis and fatty acid β-oxidation, and reduce inflammation. Concomitantly, the polyphenols modulate signaling pathways including the adenosine-monophosphate-activated protein kinase, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α, peroxisome proliferator activator receptor gamma activator 1-alpha, sirtuin 1, sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, uncoupling proteins 1 and 2, and nuclear factor-κB that regulate adipogenesis, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory responses. Animal studies strongly suggest that commonly consumed polyphenols described in this review have a pronounced effect on obesity as shown by lower body weight, fat mass and triglycerides through enhancing energy expenditure and fat utilization, and modulating glucose hemostasis. Limited human studies have been conducted in this area and are inconsistent about the antiobesity impact of dietary polyphenols probably due to the various study designs and lengths, variation among subjects (age, gender, ethnicity), chemical forms of the dietary polyphenols used and confounding factors such as other weight-reducing agents. Future randomized controlled trials are warranted to reconcile the discrepancies between preclinical efficacies and inconclusive clinic outcomes of these polyphenols. © 2014.

  13. Human molecular cytogenetics: From cells to nucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegel, Mariluce

    2014-03-01

    The field of cytogenetics has focused on studying the number, structure, function and origin of chromosomal abnormalities and the evolution of chromosomes. The development of fluorescent molecules that either directly or via an intermediate molecule bind to DNA has led to the development of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), a technology linking cytogenetics to molecular genetics. This technique has a wide range of applications that increased the dimension of chromosome analysis. The field of cytogenetics is particularly important for medical diagnostics and research as well as for gene ordering and mapping. Furthermore, the increased application of molecular biology techniques, such as array-based technologies, has led to improved resolution, extending the recognized range of microdeletion/microduplication syndromes and genomic disorders. In adopting these newly expanded methods, cytogeneticists have used a range of technologies to study the association between visible chromosome rearrangements and defects at the single nucleotide level. Overall, molecular cytogenetic techniques offer a remarkable number of potential applications, ranging from physical mapping to clinical and evolutionary studies, making a powerful and informative complement to other molecular and genomic approaches. This manuscript does not present a detailed history of the development of molecular cytogenetics; however, references to historical reviews and experiments have been provided whenever possible. Herein, the basic principles of molecular cytogenetics, the technologies used to identify chromosomal rearrangements and copy number changes, and the applications for cytogenetics in biomedical diagnosis and research are presented and discussed.

  14. Human molecular cytogenetics: from cells to nucleotides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariluce Riegel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The field of cytogenetics has focused on studying the number, structure, function and origin of chromosomal abnormalities and the evolution of chromosomes. The development of fluorescent molecules that either directly or via an intermediate molecule bind to DNA has led to the development of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH, a technology linking cytogenetics to molecular genetics. This technique has a wide range of applications that increased the dimension of chromosome analysis. The field of cytogenetics is particularly important for medical diagnostics and research as well as for gene ordering and mapping. Furthermore, the increased application of molecular biology techniques, such as array-based technologies, has led to improved resolution, extending the recognized range of microdeletion/microduplication syndromes and genomic disorders. In adopting these newly expanded methods, cytogeneticists have used a range of technologies to study the association between visible chromosome rearrangements and defects at the single nucleotide level. Overall, molecular cytogenetic techniques offer a remarkable number of potential applications, ranging from physical mapping to clinical and evolutionary studies, making a powerful and informative complement to other molecular and genomic approaches. This manuscript does not present a detailed history of the development of molecular cytogenetics; however, references to historical reviews and experiments have been provided whenever possible. Herein, the basic principles of molecular cytogenetics, the technologies used to identify chromosomal rearrangements and copy number changes, and the applications for cytogenetics in biomedical diagnosis and research are presented and discussed.

  15. Adenine nucleotides of the stria vascularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalmann, I; Marcus, N Y; Thalmann, R

    1979-01-01

    The levels of the adenine nucleotides ATP, ADP, and AMP in the stria vascularis were measured under normal conditions, and following various durations of ischemia. The concentrations of these compounds were used for the calculation of the adenylate energy charge, the energy status and the phosphorylation state of the stria. Following 10 min of ischemia the adenylate energy charge had decreased three fold, the energy status seven fold and the phosphorylation state 14 fold. To study the potential for recovery of strial function following various brief and prolonged ischemic intervals, a method for the perfusion of the ear via the anterior inferior cerebellar artery was developed. For various reasons it was found advantageous to use "artifical blood" as perfusate, relying upon fluorocarbons as oxygen carriers. The endolymphatic potential was used as electrical indicator of strial function. Recovery of the endolymphatic potential following brief periods of ischemia was paralleled by a corresponding increase of the ATP levels and a drastic decrease of the AMP levels of the stria vascularis. Preliminary results on the effects of substrate-free perfusion are presented.

  16. Comparative genomic analysis reveals a critical role of de novo nucleotide biosynthesis for Saccharomyces cerevisiae virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Pérez-Torrado

    Full Text Available In recent years, the number of human infection cases produced by the food related species Saccharomyces cerevisiae has increased. Whereas many strains of this species are considered safe, other 'opportunistic' strains show a high degree of potential virulence attributes and can cause infections in immunocompromised patients. Here we studied the genetic characteristics of selected opportunistic strains isolated from dietary supplements and also from patients by array comparative genomic hybridization. Our results show increased copy numbers of IMD genes in opportunistic strains, which are implicated in the de novo biosynthesis of the purine nucleotides pathway. The importance of this pathway for virulence of S. cerevisiae was confirmed by infections in immunodeficient murine models using a GUA1 mutant, a key gene of this pathway. We show that exogenous guanine, an end product of this pathway in its triphosphorylated form, increases the survival of yeast strains in ex vivo blood infections. Finally, we show the importance of the DNA damage response that activates dNTP biosynthesis in yeast cells during ex vivo blood infections. We conclude that opportunistic yeasts may use an enhanced de novo biosynthesis of the purine nucleotides pathway to increase survival and favor infections in the host.

  17. Dietary glycemic index and the regulation of body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, David S

    2003-02-01

    Prevalence rates of overweight and obesity have risen precipitously in the United States and other developed countries since the 1960s, despite comprehensive public health efforts to combat this problem. Although considerable attention has been focused on decreasing dietary fat and increasing physical activity level, the potential relevance of the dietary glycemic index to obesity treatment has received comparatively little scientific notice. This review examines how the glycemic and insulinemic responses to diet may affect body weight regulation, and argues for the potential utility of low glycemic index diets in the prevention and treatment of obesity and related complications.

  18. Condensing the information in DNA with double-headed nucleotides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornum, Mick; Sharma, Pawan K; Reslow-Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    A normal duplex holds as many Watson-Crick base pairs as the number of nucleotides in its constituent strands. Here we establish that single nucleotides can be designed to functionally imitate dinucleotides without compromising binding affinity. This effectively allows sequence information to be ...

  19. Supplementary Material for: The arabidopsis cyclic nucleotide interactome

    KAUST Repository

    Donaldson, Lara

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Cyclic nucleotides have been shown to play important signaling roles in many physiological processes in plants including photosynthesis and defence. Despite this, little is known about cyclic nucleotide-dependent signaling mechanisms in plants since the downstream target proteins remain unknown. This is largely due to the fact that bioinformatics searches fail to identify plant homologs of protein kinases and phosphodiesterases that are the main targets of cyclic nucleotides in animals. Methods An affinity purification technique was used to identify cyclic nucleotide binding proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana. The identified proteins were subjected to a computational analysis that included a sequence, transcriptional co-expression and functional annotation analysis in order to assess their potential role in plant cyclic nucleotide signaling. Results A total of twelve cyclic nucleotide binding proteins were identified experimentally including key enzymes in the Calvin cycle and photorespiration pathway. Importantly, eight of the twelve proteins were shown to contain putative cyclic nucleotide binding domains. Moreover, the identified proteins are post-translationally modified by nitric oxide, transcriptionally co-expressed and annotated to function in hydrogen peroxide signaling and the defence response. The activity of one of these proteins, GLYGOLATE OXIDASE 1, a photorespiratory enzyme that produces hydrogen peroxide in response to Pseudomonas, was shown to be repressed by a combination of cGMP and nitric oxide treatment. Conclusions We propose that the identified proteins function together as points of cross-talk between cyclic nucleotide, nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species signaling during the defence response.

  20. Prebiotic nucleotide synthesis demonstration of a geologically plausible pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwartz, A.W.; Veen, van der M.; Bisseling, T.; Chittenden, G.J.

    1975-01-01

    Mineral phosphate (apatite) is activated for the synthesis of nucleotides when dilute solutions containing nucleoside and ammonium oxalate are evaporated in its presence. A natural, igneous fluorapatite was found to be even more effective in nucleotide synthesis than the more soluble hydroxylapatite

  1. Dietary Patterns: Challenges and Opportunities in Dietary Patterns Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, increasing numbers of researchers have used dietary patterns to characterize the population’s diet and to examine associations between diet and disease outcomes. Many methods, primarily data-driven and index-based approaches, are available for characterizing dietary patterns in a p...

  2. Parental dietary patterns and social determinants of children's dietary patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana SALLES-COSTA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To identify dietary patterns in children up to thirty months of age and verify whether they are associated with parental dietary patterns, and socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. Methods This is a cross-sectional study with baseline data from a population-based study composed of 1,085 households from a representative sample of a metropolitan region in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The children's food intake was evaluated by two 24-hour recalls, and the dietary patterns were identified by principal component analysis stratified into two groups according to the children's age: 6 to 17 months; and 18 to 30 months. The explanatory variables collected by a structured questionnaire were socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, age at introduction of complementary foods, and parental dietary pattern. A Food Frequency Questionnaire was administered to assess parental dietary pattern, which was determined by principal component analysis. Multivariate linear regression estimated the effect of each explanatory variable on the children's dietary patterns. Results Three dietary patterns were identified in children aged 6-17 months (basic-mixed; mixed-plus; and milk-flours and two dietary patterns were identified in children aged 18-30 months: basic-mixed and mixed-plus. Multivariate linear regression showed that complementary feeding (b=0.108; p=0.004 was positively associated with the basic-mixed dietary pattern, and family income (b=0.002; p£0.01, with the mixed-plus dietary pattern. A negative association was found between the traditional parental dietary pattern and children's mixed-plus pattern in children aged 6-17 months (b=0.152; p=0.006 and in children aged 18-30 months (b=0.152; p=0.016. In children aged up to 18 months, parental education level (b=0.368; p£0.01 was positively associated with the mixed-plus dietary pattern. Conclusion Family income, parental education level, and parental dietary patterns are

  3. National Children's Study Dietary Assessment Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Children's Study dietary assessment workshop was an opportunity for experts in dietary assessment methodology to gather and discuss the current state of knowledge about methodologies used to assess dietary intake during pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence.

  4. Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dietary supplements? Dietary supplements include such ingredients as vitamins, minerals, herbs, amino acids, and enzymes. Dietary supplements are marketed in forms such as tablets, capsules, softgels, gelcaps, powders, and liquids. What are the ...

  5. National Children's Study Dietary Assessment Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Children's Study dietary assessment workshop was an opportunity for experts in dietary assessment methodology to gather and discuss the current state of knowledge about methodologies used to assess dietary intake during pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence.

  6. Injury Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Visits Prevent Poison! ACEP Observes 50th National Poison Prevention Week Small, Shiny and Dangerous: ACEP Puts the Spotlight on Children Swallowing Objects Like Magnets, Coins or Batteries School & Sports Injuries Safety Helmets Save Lives, Prevent Traumatic Brain Injury ...

  7. Prevent Cyberbullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Roles Kids Play Other Types of Aggressive Behavior CYBER BULLYING What is Cyberbullying? Prevent Cyberbullying Report Cyberbullying WHO ... More Than a Bystander GET HELP NOW Home > Cyber Bullying > Prevent Cyberbullying CYBER BULLYING What is Cyberbullying? Prevent ...

  8. Rape prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date rape - prevention; Sexual assault - prevention ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexual assault and abuse and STDs. In: 2015 sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines 2015. Updated June 4, 2015. www.cdc.gov/ ...

  9. Dengue Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir This photograph ... medications to treat a dengue infection. This makes prevention the most important step, and prevention means avoiding ...

  10. Poor adherence to dietary guidelines among adult survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robien, Kim; Ness, Kirsten K; Klesges, Lisa M; Baker, K Scott; Gurney, James G

    2008-11-01

    Recent studies indicate that survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are at increased risk of obesity and cardiovascular disease, conditions that healthy dietary patterns may help ameliorate or prevent. To evaluate the usual dietary intake of adult survivors of childhood ALL, food frequency questionnaire data were collected from 72 participants, and compared with the 2007 World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) Cancer Prevention recommendations, the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, and the 2005 United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Guide. Mean daily energy intake was consistent with estimated requirements; however, mean body mass index was 27.1 kg/m2 (overweight). Dietary index scores averaged fewer than half the possible number of points on all 3 scales, indicating poor adherence to recommended guidelines. No study participant reported complete adherence to any set of guidelines. Although half the participants met minimal daily goals for 5 servings of fruits and vegetables (WCRF/AICR recommendations) and Food Guide), participants reported dietary sodium and added sugar intake considerably in excess of recommendations, and suboptimal consumption of whole grains. Guideline adherence was not associated with either body mass index or waist circumference, perhaps due to the low dietary index scores. These findings suggest that dietary intake for many adult survivors of childhood ALL is not concordant with dietary recommendations that may help reduce their risk of obesity, cardiovascular disease, or other treatment-related late effects.

  11. Dietary Therapies for Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric H Kossoff

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Since their introduction in 1921, high-fat, low-carbohydrate "ketogenic" diets have been used worldwide for refractory childhood epilepsy. Approximately half of the children have at least half their seizures reduced, including 15% who are seizure free. The mechanisms of action of dietary therapies are under active investigation and appear to involve mitochondria. Once perceived as a last resort, modifications to initiation and maintenance, as well as the widespread use of pre-made ketogenic formulas have allowed dietary treatment to be used earlier in the course of epilepsy. For infantile spasms (West syndrome specifically, the ketogenic diet is successful about 50% of the time as a first-line treatment. New "alternative" diets such as the modified Atkins diet were created in 2003 and can be started more easily and are less restrictive. They may have particular value for countries in Asia. Side effects include constipation, dyslipidemia, growth slowing, acidosis, and kidney stones. Additionally, neurologists are studying ketogenic diets for conditions other than epilepsy, including Alzheimer's disease, autism, and brain tumors.

  12. Empirical Bayes analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ickstadt Katja

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important goal of whole-genome studies concerned with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs is the identification of SNPs associated with a covariate of interest such as the case-control status or the type of cancer. Since these studies often comprise the genotypes of hundreds of thousands of SNPs, methods are required that can cope with the corresponding multiple testing problem. For the analysis of gene expression data, approaches such as the empirical Bayes analysis of microarrays have been developed particularly for the detection of genes associated with the response. However, the empirical Bayes analysis of microarrays has only been suggested for binary responses when considering expression values, i.e. continuous predictors. Results In this paper, we propose a modification of this empirical Bayes analysis that can be used to analyze high-dimensional categorical SNP data. This approach along with a generalized version of the original empirical Bayes method are available in the R package siggenes version 1.10.0 and later that can be downloaded from http://www.bioconductor.org. Conclusion As applications to two subsets of the HapMap data show, the empirical Bayes analysis of microarrays cannot only be used to analyze continuous gene expression data, but also be applied to categorical SNP data, where the response is not restricted to be binary. In association studies in which typically several ten to a few hundred SNPs are considered, our approach can furthermore be employed to test interactions of SNPs. Moreover, the posterior probabilities resulting from the empirical Bayes analysis of (prespecified interactions/genotypes can also be used to quantify the importance of these interactions.

  13. Nucleotide excision repair in differentiated cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wees, Caroline van der [Department of Toxicogenetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Department of Cardiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Jansen, Jacob [Department of Toxicogenetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Vrieling, Harry [Department of Toxicogenetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Laarse, Arnoud van der [Department of Cardiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Zeeland, Albert van [Department of Toxicogenetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Mullenders, Leon [Department of Toxicogenetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands)]. E-mail: l.mullenders@lumc.nl

    2007-01-03

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is the principal pathway for the removal of a wide range of DNA helix-distorting lesions and operates via two NER subpathways, i.e. global genome repair (GGR) and transcription-coupled repair (TCR). Although detailed information is available on expression and efficiency of NER in established mammalian cell lines, little is known about the expression of NER pathways in (terminally) differentiated cells. The majority of studies in differentiated cells have focused on repair of UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) and 6-4-photoproducts (6-4PP) because of the high frequency of photolesions at low level of toxicity and availability of sensitive technologies to determine photolesions in defined regions of the genome. The picture that emerges from these studies is blurred and rather complex. Fibroblasts and terminally differentiated myocytes of the rat heart display equally efficient GGR of 6-4PP but poor repair of CPD due to the absence of p48 expression. This repair phenotype is clearly different from human terminal differentiated neurons. Furthermore, both cell types were found to carry out TCR of CPD, thus mimicking the repair phenotype of established rodent cell lines. In contrast, in intact rat spermatogenic cells repair was very inefficient at the genome overall level and in transcriptionally active genes indicating that GGR and TCR are non-functional. Also, non-differentiated mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells exhibit low levels of NER after UV irradiation. However, the mechanisms that lead to low NER activity are clearly different: in differentiated spermatogenic cells differences in chromatin compaction and sequestering of NER proteins may underlie the lack of NER activity in pre-meiotic cells, whereas in non-differentiated ES cells NER is impaired by a strong apoptotic response.

  14. Obesity Prevention in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Stella Lucia; Sukumar, Deeptha; Milliron, Brandy-Joe

    2016-06-01

    The number of older adults living in the USA, 65 years of age and older, has been steadily increasing. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2007-2010, indicate that more than one-third of older adults, 65 years of age and older, were obese. With the increased rate of obesity in older adults, the purpose of this paper is to present research on different methods to prevent or manage obesity in older adults, namely dietary interventions, physical activity interventions, and a combination of dietary and physical activity interventions. In addition, research on community assistance programs in the prevention of obesity with aging will be discussed. Finally, data on federal programs for older adults will also be presented.

  15. Dietary polyphenol intake in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Knaze, Viktoria; Rothwell, Joseph A

    2016-01-01

    . The current cross-sectional analysis aimed at estimating dietary intakes of all currently known individual polyphenols and total intake per class and subclass, and to identify their main food sources in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. METHODS: Dietary data at baseline......BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Polyphenols are plant secondary metabolites with a large variability in their chemical structure and dietary occurrence that have been associated with some protective effects against several chronic diseases. To date, limited data exist on intake of polyphenols in populations...... were collected using a standardized 24-h dietary recall software administered to 36,037 adult subjects. Dietary data were linked with Phenol-Explorer, a database with data on 502 individual polyphenols in 452 foods and data on polyphenol losses due to cooking and food processing. RESULTS: Mean total...

  16. Molecular mechanisms for anti-aging by natural dietary compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Min-Hsiung; Lai, Ching-Shu; Tsai, Mei-Ling; Wu, Jia-Ching; Ho, Chi-Tang

    2012-01-01

    Aging is defined as a normal decline in survival with advancing age; however, the recent researches have showed that physiological functions of the body change during the aging process. Majority of the changes are often subject to a higher risk of developing diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, as well as the dysregulated immune and inflammatory disorders. Aging process is controlled by a complicated and precise signaling network that involved in energy homeostasis, cellular metabolism and stress resistance. Over the past few decades, research in natural dietary compounds by various organism and animal models provides a new strategy for anti-aging. Natural dietary compounds act through a variety mechanisms to extend lifespan and prevent age-related diseases. This review summarizes the current understanding on signaling pathways of aging and knowledge and underlying mechanism of natural dietary compounds that provide potential application on anti-aging and improve heath in human.

  17. Nucleotide Excision Repair in Cellular Chromatin: Studies with Yeast from Nucleotide to Gene to Genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Reed

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Here we review our development of, and results with, high resolution studies on global genome nucleotide excision repair (GGNER in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have focused on how GGNER relates to histone acetylation for its functioning and we have identified the histone acetyl tranferase Gcn5 and acetylation at lysines 9/14 of histone H3 as a major factor in enabling efficient repair. We consider results employing primarily MFA2 as a model gene, but also those with URA3 located at subtelomeric sequences. In the latter case we also see a role for acetylation at histone H4. We then go on to outline the development of a high resolution genome-wide approach that enables one to examine correlations between histone modifications and the nucleotide excision repair (NER of UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers throughout entire genomes. This is an approach that will enable rapid advances in understanding the complexities of how compacted chromatin in chromosomes is processed to access DNA damage and then returned to its pre-damaged status to maintain epigenetic codes.

  18. Identifying 2'-O-methylationation sites by integrating nucleotide chemical properties and nucleotide compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Feng, Pengmian; Tang, Hua; Ding, Hui; Lin, Hao

    2016-06-01

    2'-O-methylationation is an important post-transcriptional modification and plays important roles in many biological processes. Although experimental technologies have been proposed to detect 2'-O-methylationation sites, they are cost-ineffective. As complements to experimental techniques, computational methods will facilitate the identification of 2'-O-methylationation sites. In the present study, we proposed a support vector machine-based method to identify 2'-O-methylationation sites. In this method, RNA sequences were formulated by nucleotide chemical properties and nucleotide compositions. In the jackknife cross-validation test, the proposed method obtained an accuracy of 95.58% for identifying 2'-O-methylationation sites in the human genome. Moreover, the model was also validated by identifying 2'-O-methylation sites in the Mus musculus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae genomes, and the obtained accuracies are also satisfactory. These results indicate that the proposed method will become a useful tool for the research on 2'-O-methylation.

  19. Frequency and Correlation of Nearest Neighboring Nucleotides in Human Genome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Neng-zhi Jin; Zi-xian Liu; Wen-yuan Qiu

    2009-01-01

    Zipf's approach in linguistics is utilized to analyze the statistical features of frequency and mosomes (Y, 22, 21, 20, 19, 18, 17, 16, 15, 14, 13, and 12). It is found that these statistical features of nearest neighboring nucleotides in human genome: (ⅰ) the frequency distribution is a linear function, and (ⅱ) the correlation distribution is an inverse function. The coeffi-cients of the linear function and inverse function depend on the GC content. It proposes the correlation distribution of nearest neighboring nucleotides for the first time and extends the descriptor about nearest neighboring nucleotides.

  20. Building phylogenetic trees by using gene Nucleotide Genomic Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristea, Paul Dan

    2012-01-01

    Nucleotide genomic signal (NuGS) methodology allows a molecular level approach to determine distances between homologous genes or between conserved equivalent non-coding genome regions in various species or individuals of the same species. Therefore, distances between the genes of species or individuals can be computed and phylogenetic trees can be built. The paper illustrates the use of the nucleotide imbalance (N) and nucleotide pair imbalance (P) signals to determine the distances between the genes of several Hominidae. The results are in accordance with those of other genetic or phylogenetic approaches to establish distances between Hominidae species.

  1. A variant in the fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) and variants near the melanocortin-4 receptor gene (MC4R) do not influence dietary intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Ann L; Angquist, Lars; Christiansen, Lene

    2010-01-01

    . In a population-based sample of 756 healthy adult twin pairs, we studied associations between FTO rs9939609, near-MC4R rs12970134, rs17700633, and rs17782313 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and habitual dietary intake. Habitual dietary intake was assessed by a 247-question FFQ. Nontransformed variables...... and variables transformed by natural logarithm were analyzed by linear regression and dichotomized variables were analyzed by logistic regression. FTO SNP rs9939609 was not associated with habitual dietary intake. For the near-MC4R SNP rs12970134 and rs17700633, we found significant positive associations...

  2. The effect of hydroxyurea and trichostatin a on targeted nucleotide exchange in yeast and Mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh-Olmedo, Hetal; Engstrom, Julia U; Kmiec, Eric B

    2003-12-01

    Targeted nucleotide exchange (TNE) is a process by which a synthetic DNA oligonucleotide, partially complementary to a site in a chromosomal or an episomal gene directs the reversal of a single nucleotide at a specific site. To protect against nuclease digestion, the oligonucleotide is modified with derivative linkages among the terminal bases. We have termed these molecules modified single-stranded oligonucleotides (MSOs). Current models suggest that the reaction occurs in two steps. The first, DNA pairing, involves the alignment of the MSO with the target site and its assimilation into the target helix forming a D-loop. The second phase centers around the repair of a single base mismatch formed between the MSO and its complementary strand in the D-loop. Nucleotide exchange is promoted in all likelihood by the mismatch repair system. A critical feature of successful TNE is the accessibility of the target site for the MSO and the factors that increase the dynamic nature of the chromatin that will likely increase the frequency. Here, we report that two factors, trichostatin A and hydroxyurea, elevate gene repair of a mutant hygromycin gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and a mutant eGFP gene in a mammalian cell line, MCF-10AT1 cells. Trichostatin A (TSA) acts by preventing the deacetylation of histones while hydroxyurea (HU) reduces the rate of replication. Both of these activities, by their very nature, create a more open configuration of the MSO into the target site.

  3. Dietary treatments of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, M

    2000-11-01

    Numerous dietary treatments that purport to promote something unique for stimulating weight loss have been published. These treatments include fad diets, diets formulated by various commercial slimming clubs, very-low-energy diets (VLCD) and conventional diets. Fad diets may possibly reduce some weight short-term; however, there is no scientific basis to their long-term use. Commercial slimming clubs may be suitable for some individuals but they need to be properly assessed professionally. There are specific guidelines for the use of VLCD, which are only appropriate for short-term use. There is scientific evidence to suggest that conventional diets can produce both short- and long-term weight loss. A successful weight-loss programme depends on a multidisciplinary team approach. Management strategies should be devised for addressing issues such as goals, monitoring, follow-up, relapse and evaluation. Initial assessments should include medical, laboratory and anthropometric data, fitness level and dietary and behavioural attitudes. These results will form the basis of the treatment plan. Frequent visits to the clinic are fundamental in promoting continuing weight loss during the long-term maintenance stage of treatment. The visits should be made worthwhile for the patient. Realistic and attainable goals for diet, exercise and behaviour modification should be made. The diet should have a novel approach and be tailored to the needs of the patient. It should be adequate nutritionally, low in energy and fat. The overall aim should be to promote lifelong changes in lifestyle, improvement in quality of life and health risks.

  4. Classification of pseudo pairs between nucleotide bases and amino acids by analysis of nucleotide-protein complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Jiro; Westhof, Eric

    2011-10-01

    Nucleotide bases are recognized by amino acid residues in a variety of DNA/RNA binding and nucleotide binding proteins. In this study, a total of 446 crystal structures of nucleotide-protein complexes are analyzed manually and pseudo pairs together with single and bifurcated hydrogen bonds observed between bases and amino acids are classified and annotated. Only 5 of the 20 usual amino acid residues, Asn, Gln, Asp, Glu and Arg, are able to orient in a coplanar fashion in order to form pseudo pairs with nucleotide bases through two hydrogen bonds. The peptide backbone can also form pseudo pairs with nucleotide bases and presents a strong bias for binding to the adenine base. The Watson-Crick side of the nucleotide bases is the major interaction edge participating in such pseudo pairs. Pseudo pairs between the Watson-Crick edge of guanine and Asp are frequently observed. The Hoogsteen edge of the purine bases is a good discriminatory element in recognition of nucleotide bases by protein side chains through the pseudo pairing: the Hoogsteen edge of adenine is recognized by various amino acids while the Hoogsteen edge of guanine is only recognized by Arg. The sugar edge is rarely recognized by either the side-chain or peptide backbone of amino acid residues.

  5. Dietary Fat and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: Recent Controversies and Advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong D; Hu, Frank B

    2017-08-21

    Health effects of dietary fats have been extensively studied for decades. However, controversies exist on the effects of various types of fatty acids, especially saturated fatty acid (SFA), on cardiovascular disease (CVD). Current evidence supports that different types of dietary fatty acids have divergent effects on CVD risk, and the effects also depend strongly on the comparison or replacement macronutrient. A significant reduction in CVD risk can be achieved if SFAs are replaced by unsaturated fats, especially polyunsaturated fatty acids. Intake of industrially produced trans fat is consistently associated with higher CVD risk. Both n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are associated with lower CVD risk, although the effects of fish oil supplementation remains inconsistent. The 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans place greater emphasis on types of dietary fat than total amount of dietary fat and recommend replacing SFAs with unsaturated fats, especially polyunsaturated fatty acids for CVD prevention.

  6. China's Developing Dietary Supplement Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeff Crowther

    2011-01-01

    @@ With the increasingly large size and forward momentum of China's economy, one would think there has to be a well-developed dietary supplement industry.However, although China has been posting re-cord gains to its GDP, it is far behind the U.S., E.U.and Japan in regard to a well-defined and prosperous dietary supplement industry.With that said, having an established dietary supple-ment industry is not the measure by which countries are judged in terms of economic prowess.

  7. Nucleotide Metabolism and its Control in Lactic Acid Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilstrup, Mogens; Hammer, Karin; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2005-01-01

    Most metabolic reactions are connected through either their utilization of nucleotides or their utilization of nucleotides or their regulation by these metabolites. In this review the biosynthetic pathways for pyrimidine and purine metabolism in lactic acid bacteria are described including...... the interconversion pathways, the formation of deoxyribonucleotides and the salvage pathways for use of exogenous precursors. The data for the enzymatic and the genetic regulation of these pathways are reviewed, as well as the gene organizations in different lactic acid bacteria. Mutant phenotypes and methods...... for manipulation of nucleotide pools are also discussed. Our aim is to provide an overview of the physiology and genetics of nucleotide metabolism and its regulation that will facilitate the interpretation of data arising from genetics, metabolomics, proteomics, and transcriptomics in lactic acid bacteria....

  8. Association study of nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrera, Noa; Arrojo, Manuel; Sanjuán, Julio

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies using several hundred thousand anonymous markers present limited statistical power. Alternatively, association studies restricted to common nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) have the advantage of strongly reducing the multiple testing problem, ...

  9. Use of Desirable Dietary Pattern (DDP) for Study of Dietary Pattern in Urban and Rural Residents of Jiangsu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王灿楠; 刘沛; 韦平; 胥占中

    2001-01-01

    Objective To make retrospective assessment of the quality of diet in the urban and rural residents of Jiangsu province, China, during the 1990′s and a prospective study of the dietary pattern in the year of 2010 with desirable dietary pattern (DDP). Methods The calorie intake was calculated according to the method of balanced diet and the dietary pattern was assessed in terms of DDP score. Results Retrospective study revealed that the DDP score of cereals was decreased and that of animal foods increased remarkably in both the urban and rural residents during the decade. Prospective study showed that the readjustment of dietary structure for the urban residents should be focused on preventing the drop of cereal consumption and further lowering the intake of pork. Promotion of soybean and milk consumption to great extents will be needed to improve the quality of diet for both urban and rural residents of Jiangsu in the future. Conclusion It was illustrated that DDP is feasible for retrospective and prospective studies on dietary pattern as it is simple in calculation, its results are easy to understand and of practical significance to the masses and health workers.

  10. Determinants of dietary supplement use - healthy individuals use dietary supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Christina L F; Christensen, Jane; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2015-01-01

    and lifestyle between 1993 and 1997. A health index including smoking, physical activity, alcohol and diet, and a metabolic risk index including waist circumference, urinary glucose and measured hypertension were constructed. Logistic regression was used to investigate these determinants in relation...... common supplement use. In conclusion, those with the healthiest lifestyle were more likely to use dietary supplements. Thus, lifestyle and dietary composition should be considered as confounders on supplement use and health outcomes....

  11. Effect of calcium from dairy and dietary supplements on faecal fat excretion: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, R.; Lorenzen, Janne Kunchel; Svith, Carina Roholm

    2009-01-01

    in an increase in faecal fat of 5.2 (1.6-8.8) g day(-1). In conclusion, dietary calcium has the potential to increase faecal fat excretion to an extent that could be relevant for prevention of weight (re-)gain. Long-term studies are required to establish its potential contribution.......Observational studies have found that dietary calcium intake is inversely related to body weight and body fat mass. One explanatory mechanism is that dietary calcium increases faecal fat excretion. To examine the effect of calcium from dietary supplements or dairy products on quantitative faecal...

  12. The effect of mitochondrial dysfunction on cytosolic nucleotide metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Claus Desler; Lykke, Anne; Rasmussen, Lene Juel

    2010-01-01

    of cytosolic ribonucleotides and deoxyribonucleotides, which in turn can result in aberrant RNA and DNA synthesis. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to genomic instability, and it is possible that the limiting effect of mitochondrial dysfunction on the levels of nucleotides and resulting aberrant RNA...... and DNA synthesis in part can be responsible for this link. This paper summarizes the parts of the metabolic pathways responsible for nucleotide metabolism that can be affected by mitochondrial dysfunction....

  13. Nucleotide binding switches the information flow in ras GTPases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondi, Francesco; Portella, Guillem; Orozco, Modesto; Fanelli, Francesca

    2011-03-01

    The Ras superfamily comprises many guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) that are essential to intracellular signal transduction. The guanine nucleotide-dependent intrinsic flexibility patterns of five G proteins were investigated in atomic detail through Molecular Dynamics simulations of the GDP- and GTP-bound states (S(GDP) and S(GTP), respectively). For all the considered systems, the intrinsic flexibility of S(GDP) was higher than that of S(GTP), suggesting that Guanine Exchange Factor (GEF) recognition and nucleotide switch require higher amplitude motions than effector recognition or GTP hydrolysis. Functional mode, dynamic domain, and interaction energy correlation analyses highlighted significant differences in the dynamics of small G proteins and Gα proteins, especially in the inactive state. Indeed, S(GDP) of Gα(t), is characterized by a more extensive energy coupling between nucleotide binding site and distal regions involved in GEF recognition compared to small G proteins, which attenuates in the active state. Moreover, mechanically distinct domains implicated in nucleotide switch could be detected in the presence of GDP but not in the presence of GTP. Finally, in small G proteins, functional modes are more detectable in the inactive state than in the active one and involve changes in solvent exposure of two highly conserved amino acids in switches I and II involved in GEF recognition. The average solvent exposure of these amino acids correlates in turn with the rate of GDP release, suggesting for them either direct or indirect roles in the process of nucleotide switch. Collectively, nucleotide binding changes the information flow through the conserved Ras-like domain, where GDP enhances the flexibility of mechanically distinct portions involved in nucleotide switch, and favors long distance allosteric communication (in Gα proteins), compared to GTP.

  14. Nucleotide binding switches the information flow in ras GTPases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Raimondi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Ras superfamily comprises many guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins that are essential to intracellular signal transduction. The guanine nucleotide-dependent intrinsic flexibility patterns of five G proteins were investigated in atomic detail through Molecular Dynamics simulations of the GDP- and GTP-bound states (S(GDP and S(GTP, respectively. For all the considered systems, the intrinsic flexibility of S(GDP was higher than that of S(GTP, suggesting that Guanine Exchange Factor (GEF recognition and nucleotide switch require higher amplitude motions than effector recognition or GTP hydrolysis. Functional mode, dynamic domain, and interaction energy correlation analyses highlighted significant differences in the dynamics of small G proteins and Gα proteins, especially in the inactive state. Indeed, S(GDP of Gα(t, is characterized by a more extensive energy coupling between nucleotide binding site and distal regions involved in GEF recognition compared to small G proteins, which attenuates in the active state. Moreover, mechanically distinct domains implicated in nucleotide switch could be detected in the presence of GDP but not in the presence of GTP. Finally, in small G proteins, functional modes are more detectable in the inactive state than in the active one and involve changes in solvent exposure of two highly conserved amino acids in switches I and II involved in GEF recognition. The average solvent exposure of these amino acids correlates in turn with the rate of GDP release, suggesting for them either direct or indirect roles in the process of nucleotide switch. Collectively, nucleotide binding changes the information flow through the conserved Ras-like domain, where GDP enhances the flexibility of mechanically distinct portions involved in nucleotide switch, and favors long distance allosteric communication (in Gα proteins, compared to GTP.

  15. Dietary determinants of dental caries and dietary recommendations for preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinanoff, Norman; Palmer, Carol A

    2003-04-01

    restricting sugar containing snacks that are slowly eaten (e.g., candy, cough drops, lollipops, suckers). Along with nutritional factors, a comprehensive approach to preventing dental caries in preschool children must include improved general dietary habits, good oral hygiene, appropriate use of fluorides, and access to preventive and restorative dental care.

  16. Allergy and asthma prevention 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieto, Antonio; Wahn, Ulrich; Bufe, Albrecht

    2014-01-01

    . This manuscript reviews the current evidence, divided into four areas of activity. Interventions modifying environmental exposure to allergens have provided inconsistent results, with multifaceted interventions being more effective in the prevention of asthma. Regarding nutrition, the use of hydrolyzed formulas......Asthma and allergic diseases have become one of the epidemics of the 21st century in developed countries. Much of the success of other areas of medicine, such as infectious diseases, lies on preventive measures. Thus, much effort is also being placed lately in the prevention of asthma and allergy...... in high-risk infants reduces the incidence of atopic dermatitis, while there is for now not enough evidence to recommend other dietary modifications, pre-biotics, probiotics, or other microbial products. Pharmacologic agents used until now for prevention have not proved useful, while there is hope...

  17. Cyclic Nucleotide Signalling in Kidney Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Schinner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kidney fibrosis is an important factor for the progression of kidney diseases, e.g., diabetes mellitus induced kidney failure, glomerulosclerosis and nephritis resulting in chronic kidney disease or end-stage renal disease. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP were implicated to suppress several of the above mentioned renal diseases. In this review article, identified effects and mechanisms of cGMP and cAMP regarding renal fibrosis are summarized. These mechanisms include several signalling pathways of nitric oxide/ANP/guanylyl cyclases/cGMP-dependent protein kinase and cAMP/Epac/adenylyl cyclases/cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Furthermore, diverse possible drugs activating these pathways are discussed. From these diverse mechanisms it is expected that new pharmacological treatments will evolve for the therapy or even prevention of kidney failure.

  18. Nucleotide-sugar transporters: structure, function and roles in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handford M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The glycosylation of glycoconjugates and the biosynthesis of polysaccharides depend on nucleotide-sugars which are the substrates for glycosyltransferases. A large proportion of these enzymes are located within the lumen of the Golgi apparatus as well as the endoplasmic reticulum, while many of the nucleotide-sugars are synthesized in the cytosol. Thus, nucleotide-sugars are translocated from the cytosol to the lumen of the Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum by multiple spanning domain proteins known as nucleotide-sugar transporters (NSTs. These proteins were first identified biochemically and some of them were cloned by complementation of mutants. Genome and expressed sequence tag sequencing allowed the identification of a number of sequences that may encode for NSTs in different organisms. The functional characterization of some of these genes has shown that some of them can be highly specific in their substrate specificity while others can utilize up to three different nucleotide-sugars containing the same nucleotide. Mutations in genes encoding for NSTs can lead to changes in development in Drosophila melanogaster or Caenorhabditis elegans, as well as alterations in the infectivity of Leishmania donovani. In humans, the mutation of a GDP-fucose transporter is responsible for an impaired immune response as well as retarded growth. These results suggest that, even though there appear to be a fair number of genes encoding for NSTs, they are not functionally redundant and seem to play specific roles in glycosylation.

  19. Mammalian mismatches in nucleotide metabolism: implications for xenotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalpey, Zain; Yuen, Ada H Y; Lavitrano, Marialuisa; McGregor, Christopher G A; Kalsi, Kameljit K; Yacoub, Magdi H; Smolenski, Ryszard T

    2007-10-01

    Acute humoral rejection (AHR) limits the clinical application of animal organs for xenotransplantation. Mammalian disparities in nucleotide metabolism may contribute significantly to the microvascular component in AHR; these, however remain ill-defined. We evaluated the extent of species-specific differences in nucleotide metabolism. HPLC analysis was performed on venous blood samples (nucleotide metabolites) and heart biopsies (purine enzymes) from wild type mice, rats, pigs, baboons, and human donors.Ecto-5'-nucleotidase (E5'N) activities were 4-fold lower in pigs and baboon hearts compared to human and mice hearts while rat activity was highest. Similar differences between pigs and humans were also observed with kidneys and endothelial cells. More than 10-fold differences were observed with other purine enzymes. AMP deaminase (AMPD) activity was exceptionally high in mice but very low in pig and baboon hearts. Adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity was highest in baboons. Adenosine kinase (AK) activity was more consistent across different species. Pig blood had the highest levels of hypoxanthine, inosine and adenine. Human blood uric acid concentration was almost 100 times higher than in other species studied. We conclude that species-specific differences in nucleotide metabolism may affect compatibility of pig organs within a human metabolic environment. Furthermore, nucleotide metabolic mismatches may affect clinical relevance of animal organ transplant models. Supplementation of deficient precursors or application of inhibitors of nucleotide metabolism (e.g., allopurinol) or transgenic upregulation of E5'N may overcome some of these differences.

  20. Review article: dietary fibre-microbiota interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, H L; Campbell, B J

    2015-07-01

    Application of modern rapid DNA sequencing technology has transformed our understanding of the gut microbiota. Diet, in particular plant-based fibre, appears critical in influencing the composition and metabolic activity of the microbiome, determining levels of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) important for intestinal health. To assess current epidemiological, experimental and clinical evidence of how long-term and short-term alterations in dietary fibre intake impact on the microbiome and metabolome. A Medline search including items 'intestinal microbiota', 'nutrition', 'diet', 'dietary fibre', 'SCFAs' and 'prebiotic effect' was performed. Studies found evidence of fibre-influenced differences in the microbiome and metabolome as a consequence of habitual diet, and of long-term or short-term intervention (in both animals and humans). Agrarian diets high in fruit/legume fibre are associated with greater microbial diversity and a predominance of Prevotella over Bacteroides. 'Western'-style diets, high in fat/sugar, low in fibre, decrease beneficial Firmicutes that metabolise dietary plant-derived polysaccharides to SCFAs and increase mucosa-associated Proteobacteria (including enteric pathogens). Short-term diets can also have major effects, particularly those exclusively animal-based, and those high-protein, low-fermentable carbohydrate/fibre 'weight-loss' diets, increasing the abundance of Bacteroides and lowering Firmicutes, with long-term adherence to such diets likely increasing risk of colonic disease. Interventions to prevent intestinal inflammation may be achieved with fermentable prebiotic fibres that enhance beneficial Bifidobacteria or with soluble fibres that block bacterial-epithelial adherence (contrabiotics). These mechanisms may explain many of the differences in microbiota associated with long-term ingestion of a diet rich in fruit and vegetable fibre. © 2015 The Authors. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Dietary transfatty acids and cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jinfu; La Vecchia, Carlo; de Groh, Margaret; Negri, Eva; Morrison, Howard; Mery, Les

    2011-11-01

    This study assesses the association between dietary transfatty acid (TFA) intake and the risk of selected cancers. Mailed questionnaires were completed between 1994 and 1997 in eight Canadian provinces by 1182 incident, histologically confirmed cases of the stomach, 1727 of the colon, 1447 of the rectum, 628 of the pancreas, 3341 of the lung, 2362 of the breast, 442 of the ovary, 1799 of the prostate, 686 of the testis, 1345 of the kidney, 1029 of the bladder, 1009 of the brain, 1666 non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, 1069 leukemias, and 5039 population controls. Information on dietary habits and nutrition intake was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire, which provided data on eating habits 2 years before the study. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidenc530e intervals (CI) were derived by unconditional logistic regression to adjust for total energy intake and other potential confounding factors. Dietary TFA were positively associated with the risk of cancers of the colon (OR: 1.38 for the highest vs. the lowest quartile), breast in premenopause (OR: 1.60), and prostate (OR: 1.42). There were a borderline association for pancreas cancer (OR: 1.38; P=0.06). No significant association was observed for cancers of the stomach, rectum, lung, ovary, testis, kidney, bladder, brain, non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, and leukemia, although the ORs for the highest quartile were above unity for all neoplasms considered, except testis. Our findings add evidence that high TFA is associated with an increased risk of various cancers. Thus, a diet low in transfat may play a role in the prevention of several cancers.

  2. Dietary polyphenols: Antioxidants or not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Kevin D

    2016-04-01

    Population studies have shown a strong association between dietary intake of polyphenols and reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. These associations have been confirmed to some extent by intervention studies which have shown improvements in vascular function and blood pressure with certain polyphenols or food extracts rich in polyphenols. The mechanisms involved in the bioactivity of dietary polyphenols is still under active investigation. It is unlikely that polyphenols act as antioxidants in vivo. Evidence suggests that dietary polyphenols or their metabolites act as signalling molecules and can increase nitric oxide bioavailability and induce protective enzymes. This review will outline some of the key issues in dietary polyphenol research that suggest mechanistic insights into the action of these bioactive compounds. There are a number of issues that remain to be resolved in bridging the gap between observational studies and intervention trials using food extracts or pure polyphenol compounds.

  3. Dietary Recommendations for Healthy Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Restaurant Deciphering the Menu Ordering Your Meal Eating Fast Food Dining Out Tips by Cuisine Physical Activity Fitness ... Food and Beverage Toolkit Dietary Recommendations for Healthy Children Updated:Jul 22,2016 The American Heart Association ...

  4. Evolutionary adaptations to dietary changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, F; Perry, G H; Di Rienzo, A

    2010-08-21

    Through cultural innovation and changes in habitat and ecology, there have been a number of major dietary shifts in human evolution, including meat eating, cooking, and those associated with plant and animal domestication. The identification of signatures of adaptations to such dietary changes in the genome of extant primates (including humans) may shed light not only on the evolutionary history of our species, but also on the mechanisms that underlie common metabolic diseases in modern human populations. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the major dietary shifts that occurred during hominin evolution, and we discuss the methods and approaches used to identify signals of natural selection in patterns of sequence variation. We then review the results of studies aimed at detecting the genetic loci that played a major role in dietary adaptations and conclude by outlining the potential of future studies in this area.

  5. Dietary fiber and retrograde starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivković, R

    1998-01-01

    The history of the recognition of the importance of dietary fiber, their current classification into water-soluble and water-insoluble fiber, and lignin, a single non-carbohydrate fiber, and the physiologic role of dietary fiber, with particular reference to retrograde starch resistance to small intestine digestion, are briefly presented. Dietary fiber are highly hygroscopic, thus they greatly contribute to stool voluminosity by binding water, decrease the glycemic index, and exert a protective action, via an as yet unknown mechanism, against the occurrence of colon cancer. It should be added that some dietary fiber decrease the concentration of cholesterol in the blood, i.e. in the human body. The importance of the methodology used for NSP determination is underlined, since some methods determine only some of the polysaccharides, other also measure some other substances, whereas Englyst's method determines NSP only.

  6. The digestion of dietary triacylglycerols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2004-01-01

    structure and the species composition are of importance when considering the nutritional effects of a dietary fat. There is good evidence that in addition to its short-term effects in the intestine on absorption of fatty acids the TAG structure also has long-term effects resulting from differences......Dietary triacylglycerols (TAGs) are the major lipid components in the human diet and they are carriers of energy as well as important fatty acids. Many factors affect the digestion and absorption of TAGs. Evidence is accumulating that, in addition to the overall fatty acid profile, the TAG...... in the profile of absorbed fatty acids. Observations on the different atherogenic potential of dietary fats have given us a clear indication of the importance of the TAG structure for absorption of saturated fatty acids. In this context, one may focus on the effects of the structure of dietary fats as such...

  7. PATIENT SATISFACTION AND DIETARY OUTCOMES FROM ATTENDING A MULTIDISCIPLINARY CYSTINURIA CLINIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Doherty

    2012-06-01

    Patients had varying degrees of success with making changes to each dietary parameter. Multi-source diet analysis allowed us to develop tailored consultations. All patients made some positive dietary changes which may help prevent stone formation. The areas of least change were fluid (due to changes made prior to clinic attendance and vegetable protein. Our results support the need for continued dietetic input. These results should be re-audited to check that patients are maintaining the changes made.

  8. Dietary Patterns in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise Beltoft Borup

    A healthy diet is essential for healthy growth and development during childhood and may prevent obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases throughout life. Traditionally, diet has been investigated as single nutrients. However, people do not eat one single nutrient and they do not even eat one...

  9. Obesity-Related Diseases Dietary Modulation of the Gut Microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brahe, Lena Kirchner

    The prevalence of obesity has increased epidemically during the past four decades and worldwide more than half a billion adults are now obese. Obesity increases the risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer, which are among the leading causes of death worldwide. Thus, effective ...... for prevention. The main purpose of this PhD was to explore the effect of dietary modulation of the gut microbiota on disease markers in obese individuals....

  10. Dietary Patterns, Cognitive Decline, and Dementia: A Systematic Review12

    OpenAIRE

    van de Rest, Ondine; Berendsen, Agnes AM; Haveman-Nies, Annemien; de Groot, Lisette CPGM

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition is an important modifiable risk factor that plays a role in the strategy to prevent or delay the onset of dementia. Research on nutritional effects has until now mainly focused on the role of individual nutrients and bioactive components. However, the evidence for combined effects, such as multinutrient approaches, or a healthy dietary pattern, such as the Mediterranean diet, is growing. These approaches incorporate the complexity of the diet and possible interaction and synergy bet...

  11. Evolutionary Adaptations to Dietary Changes

    OpenAIRE

    De Luca, F; Perry, G. H.; Di Rienzo, A.

    2010-01-01

    Through cultural innovation and changes in habitat and ecology, there have been a number of major dietary shifts in human evolution, including meat eating, cooking, and those associated with plant and animal domestication. The identification of signatures of adaptations to such dietary changes in the genome of extant primates (including humans) may shed light not only on the evolutionary history of our species, but also on the mechanisms that underlie common metabolic diseases in modern human...

  12. Cognitive aspects of dietary assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Wirfält, Elisabeth

    1998-01-01

    Imprecise dietary reports are often cited as one reason for weak or non-existent relations between diet and disease in epidemiological studies. Studies in applied cognitive psychology have contributed to the improved utility of general survey questionnaires. However, only a few studies have examined cognitive processes in diet recall, and the designs of dietary assessment instruments that may enhance recall of habitual diet. This paper briefly summarises some research on cognition in diet rec...

  13. Choking Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find a Pediatrician Newsletters Symptom Checker Apps E-Magazine Webinars Our Mission Our ... Prevention Page Content Article Body Choking can be prevented. Food accounts for over 50% of choking episodes. Be ...

  14. Poison Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Safety & Prevention Immunizations All Around At Home At Play On ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Poison Prevention Page Content Article Body Post the Poison Help ...

  15. HIV Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV/AIDS Prevention Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... All Is abstinence the only 100% effective HIV prevention option? Yes. Abstinence means not having oral, vaginal, ...

  16. Dietary Factors and Epigenetic Regulation for Prostate Cancer Prevention12

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Emily; Laura M Beaver; Williams, David E.; DASHWOOD, RODERICK H.

    2011-01-01

    The role of epigenetic alterations in various human chronic diseases has gained increasing attention and has resulted in a paradigm shift in our understanding of disease susceptibility. In the field of cancer research, e.g., genetic abnormalities/mutations historically were viewed as primary underlying causes; however, epigenetic mechanisms that alter gene expression without affecting DNA sequence are now recognized as being of equal or greater importance for oncogenesis. Methylation of DNA, ...

  17. Dietary lipids and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados, S; Quiles, J L; Gil, A; Ramírez-Tortosa, M C

    2006-05-01

    Cancer is one of the main causes of death in Western countries. Among the factors that contribute to the appearance of this disease, diet has a fundamental role, and specifically fats are the main component related to the increase in the incidence of cancerous diseases, particularly breast, colon-rectal, and prostate cancer. From dietary lipids, much attention has been given to the beneficial effects of fish oil, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids n-3 serie, as well as of olive oil, rich in monounsaturated fatty acids--primarily oleic acid. On the contrary, a negative effect has been reported for polyunsaturated fatty acids n-6 serie and for saturated fatty acids. Nutrition constitutes an important aspect of the life of cancer patients. Currently, nutritional formulas are being designed with supplements of polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids and other components such as arginine, RNA, lysine, etc., with the aim of ameliorating the effects of this pathology. The results demonstrate the lower morbility and therefore improved quality of life, a decline in mortality, and a reduction in related costs.

  18. Phosphate-Modified Nucleotides for Monitoring Enzyme Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermert, Susanne; Marx, Andreas; Hacker, Stephan M

    2017-04-01

    Nucleotides modified at the terminal phosphate position have been proven to be interesting entities to study the activity of a variety of different protein classes. In this chapter, we present various types of modifications that were attached as reporter molecules to the phosphate chain of nucleotides and briefly describe the chemical reactions that are frequently used to synthesize them. Furthermore, we discuss a variety of applications of these molecules. Kinase activity, for instance, was studied by transfer of a phosphate modified with a reporter group to the target proteins. This allows not only studying the activity of kinases, but also identifying their target proteins. Moreover, kinases can also be directly labeled with a reporter at a conserved lysine using acyl-phosphate probes. Another important application for phosphate-modified nucleotides is the study of RNA and DNA polymerases. In this context, single-molecule sequencing is made possible using detection in zero-mode waveguides, nanopores or by a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based mechanism between the polymerase and a fluorophore-labeled nucleotide. Additionally, fluorogenic nucleotides that utilize an intramolecular interaction between a fluorophore and the nucleobase or an intramolecular FRET effect have been successfully developed to study a variety of different enzymes. Finally, also some novel techniques applying electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)-based detection of nucleotide cleavage or the detection of the cleavage of fluorophosphates are discussed. Taken together, nucleotides modified at the terminal phosphate position have been applied to study the activity of a large diversity of proteins and are valuable tools to enhance the knowledge of biological systems.

  19. Evolution of Nucleotide Punctuation Marks: From Structural to Linear Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Houmami, Nawal; Seligmann, Hervé

    2017-01-01

    We present an evolutionary hypothesis assuming that signals marking nucleotide synthesis (DNA replication and RNA transcription) evolved from multi- to unidimensional structures, and were carried over from transcription to translation. This evolutionary scenario presumes that signals combining secondary and primary nucleotide structures are evolutionary transitions. Mitochondrial replication initiation fits this scenario. Some observations reported in the literature corroborate that several signals for nucleotide synthesis function in translation, and vice versa. (a) Polymerase-induced frameshift mutations occur preferentially at translational termination signals (nucleotide deletion is interpreted as termination of nucleotide polymerization, paralleling the role of stop codons in translation). (b) Stem-loop hairpin presence/absence modulates codon-amino acid assignments, showing that translational signals sometimes combine primary and secondary nucleotide structures (here codon and stem-loop). (c) Homopolymer nucleotide triplets (AAA, CCC, GGG, TTT) cause transcriptional and ribosomal frameshifts. Here we find in recently described human mitochondrial RNAs that systematically lack mono-, dinucleotides after each trinucleotide (delRNAs) that delRNA triplets include 2x more homopolymers than mitogenome regions not covered by delRNA. Further analyses of delRNAs show that the natural circular code X (a little-known group of 20 translational signals enabling ribosomal frame retrieval consisting of 20 codons {AAC, AAT, ACC, ATC, ATT, CAG, CTC, CTG, GAA, GAC, GAG, GAT, GCC, GGC, GGT, GTA, GTC, GTT, TAC, TTC} universally overrepresented in coding versus other frames of gene sequences), regulates frameshift in transcription and translation. This dual transcription and translation role confirms for X the hypothesis that translational signals were carried over from transcriptional signals.

  20. Uncovering the polymerase-induced cytotoxicity of an oxidized nucleotide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenthal, Bret D.; Beard, William A.; Perera, Lalith; Shock, David D.; Kim, Taejin; Schlick, Tamar; Wilson, Samuel H.

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress promotes genomic instability and human diseases. A common oxidized nucleoside is 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine, which is found both in DNA (8-oxo-G) and as a free nucleotide (8-oxo-dGTP). Nucleotide pools are especially vulnerable to oxidative damage. Therefore cells encode an enzyme (MutT/MTH1) that removes free oxidized nucleotides. This cleansing function is required for cancer cell survival and to modulate Escherichia coli antibiotic sensitivity in a DNA polymerase (pol)-dependent manner. How polymerases discriminate between damaged and non-damaged nucleotides is not well understood. This analysis is essential given the role of oxidized nucleotides in mutagenesis, cancer therapeutics, and bacterial antibiotics. Even with cellular sanitizing activities, nucleotide pools contain enough 8-oxo-dGTP to promote mutagenesis. This arises from the dual coding potential where 8-oxo-dGTP(anti) base pairs with cytosine and 8-oxo-dGTP(syn) uses its Hoogsteen edge to base pair with adenine. Here we use time-lapse crystallography to follow 8-oxo-dGTP insertion opposite adenine or cytosine with human pol β, to reveal that insertion is accommodated in either the syn- or anti-conformation, respectively. For 8-oxo-dGTP(anti) insertion, a novel divalent metal relieves repulsive interactions between the adducted guanine base and the triphosphate of the oxidized nucleotide. With either templating base, hydrogen-bonding interactions between the bases are lost as the enzyme reopens after catalysis, leading to a cytotoxic nicked DNA repair intermediate. Combining structural snapshots with kinetic and computational analysis reveals how 8-oxo-dGTP uses charge modulation during insertion that can lead to a blocked DNA repair intermediate.

  1. 个体化饮食运动指导对孕前超重和肥胖者妊娠期糖尿病预防效果的研究%Preventive effects of individualized dietary and exercise interventions on gestational diabetes mellitus in gravidas with overweight and obesity before pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙宇; 赵红; 李蕊

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨个体化饮食、运动指导对孕前超重、肥胖孕妇妊娠期糖尿病( GDM )的预防效果. 方法 采用类实验性研究设计,便利选取北京市某三甲医院产科门诊孕8~12周符合入选标准的孕妇66例,按就诊时间分为干预组32例和对照组34例. 对照组给予孕期饮食、运动和体质量增长知识宣教,干预组在此基础上进行个体化方案制订和每周电话随访. 比较两组孕24~28周50 g葡萄糖筛查试验阳性率和GDM的发病率. 结果 干预组50 g葡萄糖筛查试验阳性率和GDM发病率分别为53. 1%和28. 1%,对照组分别为82. 4%和55. 9%,两组比较差异有统计学意义(χ2 值分别为6. 491,5. 200;P<0. 05). 结论 个体化饮食、运动指导可有效降低孕前超重肥胖者GDM的发病率.%Objective To investigate the preventive effects of individualized dietary and exercise intervention on gestational diabetes mellitus ( GDM) in gravidas with overweight and obesity before pregnancy. Methods A quasi-experimental trial was conducted in a level three class A hospital in Beijing. A total of 66 pregnant women, who met the inclusion criteria and went to outpatient during gestational weeks 8 -12, were divided into experimental group ( n = 32 ) and control group ( n = 34 ) according to the sequence of hospitalization time. The patients of control group were given prenatal diets, excises and the knowledge education of body weight increasing, while the patients of experimental group were taken individualized interventions and weekly telephone follow-up. We compared 50 glucose screening test positive rate between two groups when gravidas were in gestational 24-28 weeks. Results The incidences of 50 glucose screening test positive rate and GDM were 53. 1% and 28. 1% in the experimental group, while they were 82. 4% and 55. 9%respectively in the control group(χ2 =6. 491, 5. 200;P <0. 05). Conclusions Individualized dietary and exercise direction can effectively decrease

  2. Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for fluoride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA derived Dietary Reference Values (DRVs for fluoride, which are provided as Adequate Intake (AI from all sources, including non-dietary sources. Fluoride is not an essential nutrient. Therefore, no Average Requirement for the performance of essential physiological functions can be defined. Nevertheless, the Panel considered that the setting of an AI is appropriate because of the beneficial effects of dietary fluoride on prevention of dental caries. The AI is based on epidemiological studies (performed before the 1970s showing an inverse relationship between the fluoride concentration of water and caries prevalence. As the basis for defining the AI, estimates of mean fluoride intakes of children via diet and drinking water with fluoride concentrations at which the caries preventive effect approached its maximum whilst the risk of dental fluorosis approached its minimum were chosen. Except for one confirmatory longitudinal study in US children, more recent studies were not taken into account as they did not provide information on total dietary fluoride intake, were potentially confounded by the use of fluoride-containing dental hygiene products, and did not permit a conclusion to be drawn on a dose-response relationship between fluoride intake and caries risk. The AI of fluoride from all sources (including non-dietary sources is 0.05 mg/kg body weight per day for both children and adults, including pregnant and lactating women. For pregnant and lactating women, the AI is based on the body weight before pregnancy and lactation. Reliable and representative data on the total fluoride intake of the European population are not available.

  3. Diet and Pancreatic Cancer Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casari, Ilaria; Falasca, Marco

    2015-11-23

    Pancreatic cancer is without any doubt the malignancy with the poorest prognosis and the lowest survival rate. This highly aggressive disease is rarely diagnosed at an early stage and difficult to treat due to its resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Therefore, there is an urgent need to clarify the causes responsible for pancreatic cancer and to identify preventive strategies to reduce its incidence in the population. Some circumstances, such as smoking habits, being overweight and diabetes, have been identified as potentially predisposing factors to pancreatic cancer, suggesting that diet might play a role. A diet low in fat and sugars, together with a healthy lifestyle, regular exercise, weight reduction and not smoking, may contribute to prevent pancreatic cancer and many other cancer types. In addition, increasing evidence suggests that some food may have chemo preventive properties. Indeed, a high dietary intake of fresh fruit and vegetables has been shown to reduce the risk of developing pancreatic cancer, and recent epidemiological studies have associated nut consumption with a protective effect against it. Therefore, diet could have an impact on the development of pancreatic cancer and further investigations are needed to assess the potential chemo preventive role of specific foods against this disease. This review summarizes the key evidence for the role of dietary habits and their effect on pancreatic cancer and focuses on possible mechanisms for the association between diet and risk of pancreatic cancer.

  4. Diet and Pancreatic Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Casari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is without any doubt the malignancy with the poorest prognosis and the lowest survival rate. This highly aggressive disease is rarely diagnosed at an early stage and difficult to treat due to its resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Therefore, there is an urgent need to clarify the causes responsible for pancreatic cancer and to identify preventive strategies to reduce its incidence in the population. Some circumstances, such as smoking habits, being overweight and diabetes, have been identified as potentially predisposing factors to pancreatic cancer, suggesting that diet might play a role. A diet low in fat and sugars, together with a healthy lifestyle, regular exercise, weight reduction and not smoking, may contribute to prevent pancreatic cancer and many other cancer types. In addition, increasing evidence suggests that some food may have chemo preventive properties. Indeed, a high dietary intake of fresh fruit and vegetables has been shown to reduce the risk of developing pancreatic cancer, and recent epidemiological studies have associated nut consumption with a protective effect against it. Therefore, diet could have an impact on the development of pancreatic cancer and further investigations are needed to assess the potential chemo preventive role of specific foods against this disease. This review summarizes the key evidence for the role of dietary habits and their effect on pancreatic cancer and focuses on possible mechanisms for the association between diet and risk of pancreatic cancer.

  5. Insertions/deletions-associated nucleotide polymorphism in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjiang Guo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Although high levels of within-species variation are commonly observed, a general mechanism for the origin of such variation is still lacking. Insertions and deletions (indels are a widespread feature of genomes and we hypothesize that there might be an association between indels and patterns of nucleotide polymorphism. Here, we investigate flanking sequences around 18 indels (>100bp among a large number of accessions of the plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. We found two distinct haplotypes, i.e. a nucleotide dimorphism, present around each of these indels and dimorphic haplotypes always corresponded to the indel-present/-absent patterns. In addition, the peaks of nucleotide diversity between the two divergent alleles were closely associated with these indels. Thus, there exists a close association between indels and dimorphisms. Further analysis suggests that indel-associated substitutions could be an important component of genetic variation shaping nucleotide polymorphism in Arabidopsis. Finally, we suggest a mechanism by which indels might generate these highly divergent haplotypes. This study provides evidence that nucleotide dimorphisms, which are frequently regarded as evidence of frequency-dependent selection, could be explained simply by structural variation in the genome.

  6. Moss Phylogeny Reconstruction Using Nucleotide Pangenome of Complete Mitogenome Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goryunov, D V; Nagaev, B E; Nikolaev, M Yu; Alexeevski, A V; Troitsky, A V

    2015-11-01

    Stability of composition and sequence of genes was shown earlier in 13 mitochondrial genomes of mosses (Rensing, S. A., et al. (2008) Science, 319, 64-69). It is of interest to study the evolution of mitochondrial genomes not only at the gene level, but also on the level of nucleotide sequences. To do this, we have constructed a "nucleotide pangenome" for mitochondrial genomes of 24 moss species. The nucleotide pangenome is a set of aligned nucleotide sequences of orthologous genome fragments covering the totality of all genomes. The nucleotide pangenome was constructed using specially developed new software, NPG-explorer (NPGe). The stable part of the mitochondrial genome (232 stable blocks) is shown to be, on average, 45% of its length. In the joint alignment of stable blocks, 82% of positions are conserved. The phylogenetic tree constructed with the NPGe program is in good correlation with other phylogenetic reconstructions. With the NPGe program, 30 blocks have been identified with repeats no shorter than 50 bp. The maximal length of a block with repeats is 140 bp. Duplications in the mitochondrial genomes of mosses are rare. On average, the genome contains about 500 bp in large duplications. The total length of insertions and deletions was determined in each genome. The losses and gains of DNA regions are rather active in mitochondrial genomes of mosses, and such rearrangements presumably can be used as additional markers in the reconstruction of phylogeny.

  7. Running out of time: the decline of channel activity and nucleotide activation in adenosine triphosphate-sensitive K-channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proks, Peter; Puljung, Michael C.; Vedovato, Natascia; Sachse, Gregor; Mulvaney, Rachel; Ashcroft, Frances M.

    2016-01-01

    KATP channels act as key regulators of electrical excitability by coupling metabolic cues—mainly intracellular adenine nucleotide concentrations—to cellular potassium ion efflux. However, their study has been hindered by their rapid loss of activity in excised membrane patches (rundown), and by a second phenomenon, the decline of activation by Mg-nucleotides (DAMN). Degradation of PI(4,5)P2 and other phosphoinositides is the strongest candidate for the molecular cause of rundown. Broad evidence indicates that most other determinants of rundown (e.g. phosphorylation, intracellular calcium, channel mutations that affect rundown) also act by influencing KATP channel regulation by phosphoinositides. Unfortunately, experimental conditions that reproducibly prevent rundown have remained elusive, necessitating post hoc data compensation. Rundown is clearly distinct from DAMN. While the former is associated with pore-forming Kir6.2 subunits, DAMN is generally a slower process involving the regulatory sulfonylurea receptor (SUR) subunits. We speculate that it arises when SUR subunits enter non-physiological conformational states associated with the loss of SUR nucleotide-binding domain dimerization following prolonged exposure to nucleotide-free conditions. This review presents new information on both rundown and DAMN, summarizes our current understanding of these processes and considers their physiological roles. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Evolution brings Ca2+ and ATP together to control life and death’. PMID:27377720

  8. 日粮阳阴离子负平衡对预防奶牛围产期产褥热的影响%Effects of Low Level Dietary Cation-Anion Difference on Preventing Milk Fever in Transition Dairy Cows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁楷; 严璐艳; 尹文宾; 刘学忠; 王宗元

    2009-01-01

    acidifying rations(dietary cation-anion difference,DCAD).The addition of anionic salts helps create a negative dietary cation-anion difference(DCAD),which will make the blood of the cow slightly acidic.The response of the cow will be to mobilize and absorb more calcium in attempt to buffer the acid in her bloodstream,which can better prepare her for the time when calcium will be lost in milk.However,there are potential problems on feeding low level DCAD that need to be considered.The major problem encountered is they arc very unpalatable and can reduce dry matter intake.Therefore,it is necessary to closely monitor the close-up pen and precisely control the feeding.Urine pH of the COWS provides a cheap and fairly accurate gauge of the appropriate level of anion supplementation.Additionally,some recent publications and discussed their research results in this area was also reviewed,SO that help readers better understand applying low level DCAD in preventing milk fever in transition cows.

  9. Nutrition Frontiers E-Newsletter | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nutritional Science Research Group, Division of Cancer Prevention at NCI issues a quarterly electronic newsletter, Nutrition Frontiers, that highlights emerging evidence linking diet to cancer prevention and showcases recent findings about who will likely benefit most from dietary change. |

  10. Prevention of low birthweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Dewan S

    2009-01-01

    Globally an estimated 20 million infants are born with low birthweight (LBW), of those over 18 million are born in developing countries. These LBW infants are at a disproportionately higher risk of mortality, morbidity, poor growth, impaired psychomotor and cognitive development as immediate outcomes, and are also disadvantaged as adults due to their greater susceptibility to type 2 diabetes, hypertension and coronary heart disease. Maternal malnutrition prior to and during pregnancy manifested by low bodyweight, short stature, inadequate energy intake during pregnancy and coexisting micronutrient deficiency are considered major determinants in developing countries where the burden is too high. LBW is a multifactorial outcome and its prevention requires a lifecycle approach and interventions must be continued for several generations. So far, most interventions are targeted during pregnancy primarily due to the increased nutritional demand and aggravations of already existing inadequacy in most women. Several individually successful interventions during pregnancy include balanced protein energy supplementation, several single micro-nutrients or more recently a mix of multiple micronutrients. Nutrition education has been successful in increasing the dietary intake of pregnant women but has had no effect on LBW. The challenge is to identify a community-specific intervention package. Current evidence supports intervention during pregnancy with increased dietary intakes including promotions of foods rich in micronutrients and micronutrient supplementation, preferably with a multiple micronutrient mix. Simultaneously a culturally appropriate educational component is required to address misconceptions about diet during pregnancy and childbirth including support for healthy pregnancy with promotion of antenatal and perinatal care services. While further research is needed to identify more efficacious interventions, an urgent public health priority would be to select and

  11. Antigenotoxicity of Dietary Coconut Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Lim-Sylianco

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Benzo(apyrene, dimethylnitrosamine, methylmethanesulfonate and tetracycline induced formation of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes indicating that these substances are genotoxic to bone marrow cells of the experimental mice.Genotoxicity of these substances to germ cells was also observed when low fertility index and high percentage dead implants were induced in experimental mice.When each genotoxin was administered to mice fed with diets containing 18 % coconut oil for 23 days, the formation of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes was greatly reduced. Antigenotoxic activity of dietary coconut oil was very much greater than dietary soybean oil.Germ cell genotoxicity of each genotoxin was also reduced when male mice fed the 18 % coconut oil diet were used. When male mice treated with the genotoxin was mated with virgin females, fertility index was increased in the group fed with coconut oil diet. Percentage dead implants was reduced. The antigenotoxic activity of dietary coconut oil on germ cells far exceeds that of dietary soybean oil.Dietary restriction of coconut oil diets enhanced the antigenotoxic activity of coconut oil in bone marrow cells and germs cells.Among the triacylglycerols of coconut oil, trilaurin gave the best antigenotoxic activity in bone marrow cells. Trilaurin is the major triacylglycerol in coconut oil.

  12. Presenilin promotes dietary copper uptake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Southon

    Full Text Available Dietary copper is essential for multicellular organisms. Copper is redox active and required as a cofactor for enzymes such as the antioxidant Superoxide Dismutase 1 (SOD1. Copper dyshomeostasis has been implicated in Alzheimer's disease. Mutations in the presenilin genes encoding PS1 and PS2 are major causes of early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease. PS1 and PS2 are required for efficient copper uptake in mammalian systems. Here we demonstrate a conserved role for presenilin in dietary copper uptake in the fly Drosophila melanogaster. Ubiquitous RNA interference-mediated knockdown of the single Drosophila presenilin (PSN gene is lethal. However, PSN knockdown in the midgut produces viable flies. These flies have reduced copper levels and are more tolerant to excess dietary copper. Expression of a copper-responsive EYFP construct was also lower in the midgut of these larvae, indicative of reduced dietary copper uptake. SOD activity was reduced by midgut PSN knockdown, and these flies were sensitive to the superoxide-inducing chemical paraquat. These data support presenilin being needed for dietary copper uptake in the gut and so impacting on SOD activity and tolerance to oxidative stress. These results are consistent with previous studies of mammalian presenilins, supporting a conserved role for these proteins in mediating copper uptake.

  13. Cardiovascular benefits of dietary fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satija, Ambika; Hu, Frank B

    2012-12-01

    The relationship between dietary fiber and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been extensively studied. There is considerable epidemiological evidence indicating an inverse association between dietary fiber intake and CVD risk. The association has been found to be stronger for cereal fiber than for fruit or vegetable fiber, and several studies have also found increased whole grain consumption to be associated with CVD risk reduction. In light of this evidence, recent US dietary guidelines have endorsed increased consumption of fiber rich whole grains. Regular consumption of dietary fiber, particularly fiber from cereal sources, may improve CVD health through multiple mechanisms including lipid reduction, body weight regulation, improved glucose metabolism, blood pressure control, and reduction of chronic inflammation. Future research should focus on various food sources of fiber, including different types of whole grains, legumes, fruits, vegetables, and nuts, as well as resistant starch in relation to CVD risk and weight control; explore the biological mechanisms underlying the cardioprotective effect of fiber-rich diets; and study different ethnic groups and populations with varying sources of dietary fiber.

  14. Palladium-Catalyzed Modification of Unprotected Nucleosides, Nucleotides, and Oligonucleotides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin H. Shaughnessy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic modification of nucleoside structures provides access to molecules of interest as pharmaceuticals, biochemical probes, and models to study diseases. Covalent modification of the purine and pyrimidine bases is an important strategy for the synthesis of these adducts. Palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling is a powerful method to attach groups to the base heterocycles through the formation of new carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom bonds. In this review, approaches to palladium-catalyzed modification of unprotected nucleosides, nucleotides, and oligonucleotides are reviewed. Polar reaction media, such as water or polar aprotic solvents, allow reactions to be performed directly on the hydrophilic nucleosides and nucleotides without the need to use protecting groups. Homogeneous aqueous-phase coupling reactions catalyzed by palladium complexes of water-soluble ligands provide a general approach to the synthesis of modified nucleosides, nucleotides, and oligonucleotides.

  15. Compositions and methods for detecting single nucleotide polymorphisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Hsin-Chih; Werner, James; Martinez, Jennifer S.

    2016-11-22

    Described herein are nucleic acid based probes and methods for discriminating and detecting single nucleotide variants in nucleic acid molecules (e.g., DNA). The methods include use of a pair of probes can be used to detect and identify polymorphisms, for example single nucleotide polymorphism in DNA. The pair of probes emit a different fluorescent wavelength of light depending on the association and alignment of the probes when hybridized to a target nucleic acid molecule. Each pair of probes is capable of discriminating at least two different nucleic acid molecules that differ by at least a single nucleotide difference. The methods can probes can be used, for example, for detection of DNA polymorphisms that are indicative of a particular disease or condition.

  16. Dynamics of Charge Transfer in Ordered and Chaotic Nucleotide Sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Fialko, N S

    2013-01-01

    Charge transfer is considered in systems composed of a donor, an acceptor and bridge sites of (AT) nucleotide pairs. For a bridge consisting of 180 (AT) pairs, three cases are dealt with: a uniform case, when all the nucleotides in each strand are identical; an ordered case, when nucleotides in each DNA strand are arranged in an orderly fashion; a chaotic case, when (AT) and (TA) pairs are arranged randomly. It is shown that in all the cases a charge transfer from a donor to an acceptor can take place. All other factors being equal, the transfer is the most efficient in the uniform case, the ordered and chaotic cases are less and the least efficient, accordingly. The results obtained are in agreement with experimental data on long-range charge transfer in DNA.

  17. Extracellular nucleotide derivatives protect cardiomyctes against hypoxic stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golan, O; Issan, Y; Isak, A

    2011-01-01

    in cardioprotection against hypoxic stress has not been reported. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides and nucleosides in protective effects in cardiomyocytes subjected to hypoxia. METHODS AND RESULTS: Rat cultured cardiomyocytes were treated with various extracellular nucleotides...... and nucleosides, before or during hypoxic stress. The results revealed that GTP or CTP exhibit cardioprotective ability, as revealed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, by propidium iodide (PI) staining, by cell morphology, and by preserved mitochondrial activity. Pretreatment with various P2 antagonists...... (suramin, RB-2, or PPADS) did not abolish the cardioprotective effect of the nucleotides. Moreover, P2Y₂ -/- , P2Y₄ -/-, and P2Y₂ -/-/P2Y₄ -/- receptor knockouts mouse cardiomyocytes were significantly protected against hypoxic stress when treated with UTP. These results indicate that the protective effect...

  18. Effect of nucleotides on broiler performance and carcass yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VC Pelícia

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the effect of nucleotides on the performance and carcass yield of broilers fed diets with no antibiotic growth promoters (AGP, anticoccidials, or animal feedstuffs. In the trial, 600 Ross 308 male broilers were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design into six treatments with four replicates of 25 birds each. Treatments consisted of a control diet (CD, CD + AGP, CD + 0.04%, CD + 0.05%, CD + 0.06%, and CD + 0.07% nucleotides. The experimental diets did not contain anticoccidials, and birds were vaccinated against coccidiosis at three days of age. No significant differences were detected among broilers submitted to the different treatments in none of the studied parameters. Under the conditions of this experiment, diets supplemented with nucleotides did not influence broiler performance or carcass yield at 42 days of age, and were not different from the feeds not containing any additive or with AGP.

  19. Fixed-gap tunnel junction for reading DNA nucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Pei; Ashcroft, Brian Alan; Song, Weisi; Zhang, Peiming; Biswas, Sovan; Qing, Quan; Yang, Jialing; Nemanich, Robert J; Bai, Jingwei; Smith, Joshua T; Reuter, Kathleen; Balagurusamy, Venkat S K; Astier, Yann; Stolovitzky, Gustavo; Lindsay, Stuart

    2014-12-23

    Previous measurements of the electronic conductance of DNA nucleotides or amino acids have used tunnel junctions in which the gap is mechanically adjusted, such as scanning tunneling microscopes or mechanically controllable break junctions. Fixed-junction devices have, at best, detected the passage of whole DNA molecules without yielding chemical information. Here, we report on a layered tunnel junction in which the tunnel gap is defined by a dielectric layer, deposited by atomic layer deposition. Reactive ion etching is used to drill a hole through the layers so that the tunnel junction can be exposed to molecules in solution. When the metal electrodes are functionalized with recognition molecules that capture DNA nucleotides via hydrogen bonds, the identities of the individual nucleotides are revealed by characteristic features of the fluctuating tunnel current associated with single-molecule binding events.

  20. Nucleotide frequencies in human genome and fibonacci numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Michel E Beleza; Shimabukuro, Alex Itiro

    2008-04-01

    This work presents a mathematical model that establishes an interesting connection between nucleotide frequencies in human single-stranded DNA and the famous Fibonacci's numbers. The model relies on two assumptions. First, Chargaff's second parity rule should be valid, and second, the nucleotide frequencies should approach limit values when the number of bases is sufficiently large. Under these two hypotheses, it is possible to predict the human nucleotide frequencies with accuracy. This result may be used as evidence to the Fibonacci string model that was proposed to the sequence growth of DNA repetitive sequences. It is noteworthy that the predicted values are solutions of an optimization problem, which is commonplace in many of nature's phenomena.

  1. Characterization of nucleotide misincorporation patterns in the iceman's mitochondrial DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Olivieri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The degradation of DNA represents one of the main issues in the genetic analysis of archeological specimens. In the recent years, a particular kind of post-mortem DNA modification giving rise to nucleotide misincorporation ("miscoding lesions" has been the object of extensive investigations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To improve our knowledge regarding the nature and incidence of ancient DNA nucleotide misincorporations, we have utilized 6,859 (629,975 bp mitochondrial (mt DNA sequences obtained from the 5,350-5,100-years-old, freeze-desiccated human mummy popularly known as the Tyrolean Iceman or Otzi. To generate the sequences, we have applied a mixed PCR/pyrosequencing procedure allowing one to obtain a particularly high sequence coverage. As a control, we have produced further 8,982 (805,155 bp mtDNA sequences from a contemporary specimen using the same system and starting from the same template copy number of the ancient sample. From the analysis of the nucleotide misincorporation rate in ancient, modern, and putative contaminant sequences, we observed that the rate of misincorporation is significantly lower in modern and putative contaminant sequence datasets than in ancient sequences. In contrast, type 2 transitions represent the vast majority (85% of the observed nucleotide misincorporations in ancient sequences. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides a further contribution to the knowledge of nucleotide misincorporation patterns in DNA sequences obtained from freeze-preserved archeological specimens. In the Iceman system, ancient sequences can be clearly distinguished from contaminants on the basis of nucleotide misincorporation rates. This observation confirms a previous identification of the ancient mummy sequences made on a purely phylogenetical basis. The present investigation provides further indication that the majority of ancient DNA damage is reflected by type 2 (cytosine

  2. MAC: identifying and correcting annotation for multi-nucleotide variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lei; Liu, Lu T; Conroy, Jacob R; Hu, Qiang; Conroy, Jeffrey M; Morrison, Carl D; Johnson, Candace S; Wang, Jianmin; Liu, Song

    2015-08-01

    Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies have rapidly advanced our understanding of human variation in cancer. To accurately translate the raw sequencing data into practical knowledge, annotation tools, algorithms and pipelines must be developed that keep pace with the rapidly evolving technology. Currently, a challenge exists in accurately annotating multi-nucleotide variants (MNVs). These tandem substitutions, when affecting multiple nucleotides within a single protein codon of a gene, result in a translated amino acid involving all nucleotides in that codon. Most existing variant callers report a MNV as individual single-nucleotide variants (SNVs), often resulting in multiple triplet codon sequences and incorrect amino acid predictions. To correct potentially misannotated MNVs among reported SNVs, a primary challenge resides in haplotype phasing which is to determine whether the neighboring SNVs are co-located on the same chromosome. Here we describe MAC (Multi-Nucleotide Variant Annotation Corrector), an integrative pipeline developed to correct potentially mis-annotated MNVs. MAC was designed as an application that only requires a SNV file and the matching BAM file as data inputs. Using an example data set containing 3024 SNVs and the corresponding whole-genome sequencing BAM files, we show that MAC identified eight potentially mis-annotated SNVs, and accurately updated the amino acid predictions for seven of the variant calls. MAC can identify and correct amino acid predictions that result from MNVs affecting multiple nucleotides within a single protein codon, which cannot be handled by most existing SNV-based variant pipelines. The MAC software is freely available and represents a useful tool for the accurate translation of genomic sequence to protein function.

  3. Dietary Acrylamide and Human Cancer: A Systematic Review of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Tim R.; Barnes, Stephen; Groopman, John

    2014-01-01

    Cancer remains the second leading cause of death in the United States, and the numbers of cases are expected to continue to rise worldwide. Cancer prevention strategies are crucial for reducing the cancer burden. The carcinogenic potential of dietary acrylamide exposure from cooked foods is unknown. Acrylamide is a by-product of the common Maillard reaction where reducing sugars (i.e., fructose and glucose) react with the amino acid, asparagine. Based on the evidence of acrylamide carcinogenicity in animals, the International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified acrylamide as a group 2A carcinogen for humans. Since the discovery of acrylamide in foods in 2002, a number of studies have explored its potential as a human carcinogen. This paper outlines a systematic review of dietary acrylamide and human cancer, acrylamide exposure and internal dose, exposure assessment methods in the epidemiologic studies, existing data gaps, and future directions. A majority of the studies reported no statistically significant association between dietary acrylamide intake and various cancers, and few studies reported increased risk for renal, endometrial, and ovarian cancers; however, the exposure assessment has been inadequate leading to potential misclassification or underestimation of exposure. Future studies with improved dietary acrylamide exposure assessment are encouraged. PMID:24875401

  4. Provocative dietary factors in geriatric hypertension: A surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagtap, Madhavi V; Deole, Yogesh S; Chandola, Harimohan; Ravishankar, B

    2012-10-01

    Hypertension is the most common psychosomatic disorder affecting 972 million people worldwide being more prevalent in old age. The present survey of hypertensive patients fulfilling the standard diagnostic criteria of WHO/ISH (2004) is carried out in geriatric age group from the Saurashtra region of Gujarat in India to observe the dietary pattern and provocative factors. Total 120 patients of 50 to 80 years of age having systolic blood pressure >140 mm Hg and ≤180 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure >90 mm Hg and ≤110 mm Hg irrespective of gender and religion were selected for the present study. They were interviewed for list of provocative factors enlisted in Ayurveda. As observed, the study supported the facts described in Ayurveda that dietary etiological factors, such as excess intake of Lavana (salty), Amla (sour), Katu (pungent), Tikshna, Ushna (hot), Vidahi (producing burning sensation), Viruddha (incompatible), Snigdha (unctuous), Abhishyandi (leading to obstruction), Madhura (sweet), Guru (heavy to digest) dietary articles, Ajirnashana (taking diet before complete digestion of previous meal), Adhyashana (repeated eating at short intervals), will vitiate Rakta dhatu as well as Pitta dosha in the body leading to disorders like hypertension. Hypertension in old age is found to be a disease of Vata-Pitta dominant vitiation with the involvement of Rasa, Rakta, Meda as main Dushya (vitiated factors) and dietary factors can contribute to worsening of the disease. The etiological factors having role in the pathogenesis can also be applied for preventive guidelines for the management of hypertension.

  5. Skin protection against UV light by dietary antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-García, Elisabet

    2014-09-01

    There is considerable interest in the concept of additional endogenous photoprotection by dietary antioxidants. A number of efficient micronutrients are capable of contributing to the prevention of UV damage in humans. These compounds protect molecular targets by scavenging reactive oxygen species, including excited singlet oxygen and triplet state molecules, and also modulate stress-dependent signaling and/or suppress cellular and tissue responses like inflammation. Micronutrients present in the diet such as carotenoids, vitamins E and C, and polyphenols contribute to antioxidant defense and may also contribute to endogenous photoprotection. This review summarizes the literature concerning the use of dietary antioxidants as systemic photoprotective agents towards skin damage induced by UVA and UVB. Intervention studies in humans with carotenoid-rich diets have shown photoprotection. Interestingly, rather long treatment periods (a minimum of 10 weeks) were required to achieve this effect. Likewise, dietary carotenoids exert their protective antioxidant function in several in vitro and in vivo studies when present at sufficiently high concentration. A combination of vitamins E and C protects the skin against UV damage. It is suggested that daily consumption of dietary polyphenols may provide efficient protection against the harmful effects of solar UV radiation in humans. Furthermore, the use of these micronutrients in combination may provide an effective strategy for protecting human skin from damage by UV exposure.

  6. Fluorescence chemosensors with pyrene and their interaction with nucleotide phosphate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华平; 汪鹏飞; 吴世康

    1999-01-01

    A group of fluorescence chemosensor with pyrene, compounds (Ⅰ), (Ⅱ) and (Ⅲ), were synthesized The fluorescence spectra and the lifetime of these compounds were carefully measured. The fluorescence quenching spec tra of pyrenyl butyric acid, compounds (Ⅰ), (Ⅱ) and (Ⅲ) by different nucleotide phosphates, AMP ADP, ATP dTTP, were also recorded and studied. The quenching and the stability constants were calculated by Stern-Volmer equa tion and eq. (2), respectively. The mechanism of interaction between fluorescence chemosensor and nucleotide phos phate was didscussed based on the comparison of the results obtained with the CPK model of free molecules of these com pounds in the ground state.

  7. Effect of nucleotides on broiler performance and carcass yield

    OpenAIRE

    VC Pelícia; JR Sartori; KC Zavarize; AC Pezzato; AC Stradiotti; PC Araujo; MAO Mituo; LA Madeira

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the effect of nucleotides on the performance and carcass yield of broilers fed diets with no antibiotic growth promoters (AGP), anticoccidials, or animal feedstuffs. In the trial, 600 Ross 308 male broilers were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design into six treatments with four replicates of 25 birds each. Treatments consisted of a control diet (CD), CD + AGP, CD + 0.04%, CD + 0.05%, CD + 0.06%, and CD + 0.07% nucleotides. The experimental ...

  8. Dietary Polyphenols and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Meydani

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of overweight and obesity and their associated metabolic disorders are considered a major threat to the public’s health. While several diet and exercise programs are available for weight loss and prevention of weight regain, progress is often slow and disappointing. Recently, natural bioactive phytochemicals present in foods have been discovered for their potential health benefit effects on the prevention of chronic disorders such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, inflammatory and metabolic diseases including obesity.Polyphenols are a class of naturally-occurring phytochemicals, of which some such as catechins, anthocynines, resveratrol and curcumin have been shown to modulate physiological and molecular pathways that are involved in energy metabolism, adiposity, and obesity. The potential in vivo, beneficial effects of these polyphenols on adiposity and obesity as complementary agents in the up-regulation of energy expenditure have emerged by investigating these compounds in cell cultures, animal models of obesity and in some human clinical and epidemiological studies. In this brief review, the efficacy of the above-named polyphenols and their potential efficacy to modulate obesity and some associated disorders are discussed.

  9. The Prediction of Radiotherapy Toxicity Using Single Nucleotide Polymorphism-Based Models: A Step Toward Prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.L. Kerns (Sarah L.); S. Kundu (Suman); J.H. Oh (Jung Hun); S.K. Singhal (Sandeep K.); M. Janelsins (Michelle); L.B. Travis (Lois B.); J.O. Deasy (Joseph O.); A.C.J.W. Janssens (Cécile); H. Ostrer (Harry); M. Parliament (Matthew); N. Usmani (Nawaid); B.S. Rosenstein (Barry S.)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractRadiotherapy is a mainstay of cancer treatment, used in either a curative or palliative manner to treat approximately 50% of patients with cancer. Normal tissue toxicity limits the doses used in standard radiation therapy protocols and impedes improvements in radiotherapy efficacy. Damag

  10. Dietary phosphorus and kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribarri, Jaime

    2013-10-01

    High serum phosphate is linked to poor health outcome and mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients before or after the initiation of dialysis. Therefore, maintenance of normal serum phosphate levels is a major concern in the clinical care of this population with dietary phosphorus restriction and/or use of oral phosphate binders considered to be the best corrective care. This review discusses (1) evidence for an association between serum phosphate levels and bone and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in CKD patients as well as progression of kidney disease itself; (2) the relationship between serum phosphate and dietary phosphorus intake; and (3) implications from these data for future research. Increasing our understanding of the relationship between altered phosphorus metabolism and disease in CKD patients may clarify the potential role of excess dietary phosphorus as a risk factor for disease in the general population.

  11. Dietary carotenoids are associated with cardiovascular disease risk biomarkers mediated by serum carotenoid concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Chung, Sang-Jin; McCullough, Marjorie L; Song, Won O; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Koo, Sung I; Chun, Ock K

    2014-07-01

    Hyperlipidemia and elevated circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) and total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations are cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Previous studies indicated that higher serum carotenoid concentrations were inversely associated with some of these biomarkers. However, whether dietary carotenoid intake is inversely associated with these CVD risk biomarkers is not well known. We assessed the associations between individual dietary carotenoid intake and CVD risk biomarkers and tested whether the serum carotenoid concentrations explain (mediate) or influence the strength of (moderate) the associations, if any association exists. Dietary data collected from 2 24-h dietary recalls and serum measurements in adult men (n = 1312) and women (n = 1544) from the NHANES 2003-2006 were used. Regression models designed for survey analysis were used to examine the associations between individual dietary carotenoids and log-transformed blood cholesterol, CRP, and tHcy. The corresponding individual serum carotenoid concentration was considered as mediator (and moderator if applicable). After adjustment for covariates, significant inverse associations with LDL cholesterol were observed for dietary β-carotene (P carotenoids (P carotenoid concentrations, indicating the complete mediation effects of serum carotenoids. Serum β-carotene significantly moderated the associations between dietary β-carotene and CRP (P-interaction 0.43 μmol/L. In this population-based cross-sectional study, serum carotenoids were mediators of dietary carotenoids and CVD risk biomarker associations. Serum β-carotene was also a moderator of the dietary β-carotene and CRP association. These findings may help in the design of future intervention studies on dietary carotenoids in the prevention of CVD.

  12. Role of a GAG hinge in the nucleotide-induced conformational change governing nucleotide specificity by T7 DNA polymerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhinan; Johnson, Kenneth A

    2011-01-14

    A nucleotide-induced change in DNA polymerase structure governs the kinetics of polymerization by high fidelity DNA polymerases. Mutation of a GAG hinge (G542A/G544A) in T7 DNA polymerase resulted in a 1000-fold slower rate of conformational change, which then limited the rate of correct nucleotide incorporation. Rates of misincorporation were comparable to that seen for wild-type enzyme so that the net effect of the mutation was a large decrease in fidelity. We demonstrate that a presumably modest change from glycine to alanine 20 Å from the active site can severely restrict the flexibility of the enzyme structure needed to recognize and incorporate correct substrates with high specificity. These results emphasize the importance of the substrate-induced conformational change in governing nucleotide selectivity by accelerating the incorporation of correct base pairs but not mismatches.

  13. Dietary supplements in sport nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    BOČAN, David

    2015-01-01

    Thesis deals with dietary supplements and their use by amateurs and professionals.The theoretical part is in the 1st part devoted to supplements and their legislation,forms and division.To the 2nd part was selected substances used by athletes and further discussed in terms of their function and effects on the organism.Within the general information was drafted in the 3rd part risks related to the use of dietary supplements due to wrong dosage or concentration and the issue of doping. Research...

  14. Physiogenomic analysis of weight loss induced by dietary carbohydrate restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruaño, Gualberto; Windemuth, Andreas; Kocherla, Mohan; Holford, Theodore; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Forsythe, Cassandra E; Wood, Richard J; Kraemer, William J; Volek, Jeff S

    2006-05-15

    Diets that restrict carbohydrate (CHO) have proven to be a successful dietary treatment of obesity for many people, but the degree of weight loss varies across individuals. The extent to which genetic factors associate with the magnitude of weight loss induced by CHO restriction is unknown. We examined associations among polymorphisms in candidate genes and weight loss in order to understand the physiological factors influencing body weight responses to CHO restriction. We screened for genetic associations with weight loss in 86 healthy adults who were instructed to restrict CHO to a level that induced a small level of ketosis (CHO approximately 10% of total energy). A total of 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected from 15 candidate genes involved in fat digestion/metabolism, intracellular glucose metabolism, lipoprotein remodeling, and appetite regulation. Multiple linear regression was used to rank the SNPs according to probability of association, and the most significant associations were analyzed in greater detail. Mean weight loss was 6.4 kg. SNPs in the gastric lipase (LIPF), hepatic glycogen synthase (GYS2), cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and galanin (GAL) genes were significantly associated with weight loss. A strong association between weight loss induced by dietary CHO restriction and variability in genes regulating fat digestion, hepatic glucose metabolism, intravascular lipoprotein remodeling, and appetite were detected. These discoveries could provide clues to important physiologic adaptations underlying the body mass response to CHO restriction.

  15. Physiogenomic analysis of weight loss induced by dietary carbohydrate restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wood Richard J

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diets that restrict carbohydrate (CHO have proven to be a successful dietary treatment of obesity for many people, but the degree of weight loss varies across individuals. The extent to which genetic factors associate with the magnitude of weight loss induced by CHO restriction is unknown. We examined associations among polymorphisms in candidate genes and weight loss in order to understand the physiological factors influencing body weight responses to CHO restriction. Methods We screened for genetic associations with weight loss in 86 healthy adults who were instructed to restrict CHO to a level that induced a small level of ketosis (CHO ~10% of total energy. A total of 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were selected from 15 candidate genes involved in fat digestion/metabolism, intracellular glucose metabolism, lipoprotein remodeling, and appetite regulation. Multiple linear regression was used to rank the SNPs according to probability of association, and the most significant associations were analyzed in greater detail. Results Mean weight loss was 6.4 kg. SNPs in the gastric lipase (LIPF, hepatic glycogen synthase (GYS2, cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP and galanin (GAL genes were significantly associated with weight loss. Conclusion A strong association between weight loss induced by dietary CHO restriction and variability in genes regulating fat digestion, hepatic glucose metabolism, intravascular lipoprotein remodeling, and appetite were detected. These discoveries could provide clues to important physiologic adaptations underlying the body mass response to CHO restriction.

  16. Multigenerational genomic responses to dietary phosphorus and temperature in Daphnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalal, Marwa; Shala, Nita K; Wojewodzic, Marcin W; Andersen, Tom; Hessen, Dag O

    2014-08-01

    Temperature and nutrient availability are both hypothesized to affect organisms at the cellular and genomic levels. In this multigenerational study, Daphnia magna (D. magna) and Daphnia pulex (D. pulex) were maintained at high (20 °C) and low (10 °C) temperatures and nourished with phosphorus (P)-sufficient (50 μmol/L) and P-deficient (2 μmol/L) algae for up to 35 generations to assess the multigenerational impacts on genome size and nucleus size. Analysis by flow cytometry revealed significant increases in nucleus size for both species as well as genome size for D. magna in response to a low temperature. The degree of endoreplication, measured as cycle value, was species specific and responded to temperature and dietary composition. Under dietary P deficiency, D. magna, but not D. pulex, showed an apparent reduction in haploid genome size (C-value). These genomic responses are unlikely to reflect differences in nucleotide numbers, but rather structural changes affecting fluorochrome binding. While the ultimate and proximate causes of these responses are unknown, they suggest an intriguing potential for genomic responses that merits further research.

  17. A novel method to discover fluoroquinolone antibiotic resistance (qnr genes in fragmented nucleotide sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boulund Fredrik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone antibiotics are central in modern health care and are used to treat and prevent a wide range of bacterial infections. The recently discovered qnr genes provide a mechanism of resistance with the potential to rapidly spread between bacteria using horizontal gene transfer. As for many antibiotic resistance genes present in pathogens today, qnr genes are hypothesized to originate from environmental bacteria. The vast amount of data generated by shotgun metagenomics can therefore be used to explore the diversity of qnr genes in more detail. Results In this paper we describe a new method to identify qnr genes in nucleotide sequence data. We show, using cross-validation, that the method has a high statistical power of correctly classifying sequences from novel classes of qnr genes, even for fragments as short as 100 nucleotides. Based on sequences from public repositories, the method was able to identify all previously reported plasmid-mediated qnr genes. In addition, several fragments from novel putative qnr genes were identified in metagenomes. The method was also able to annotate 39 chromosomal variants of which 11 have previously not been reported in literature. Conclusions The method described in this paper significantly improves the sensitivity and specificity of identification and annotation of qnr genes in nucleotide sequence data. The predicted novel putative qnr genes in the metagenomic data support the hypothesis of a large and uncharacterized diversity within this family of resistance genes in environmental bacterial communities. An implementation of the method is freely available at http://bioinformatics.math.chalmers.se/qnr/.

  18. Validation of the MEDFICTS dietary questionnaire: A clinical tool to assess adherence to American Heart Association dietary fat intake guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindeman Jody

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary assessment tools are often too long, difficult to quantify, expensive to process, and largely used for research purposes. A rapid and accurate assessment of dietary fat intake is critically important in clinical decision-making regarding dietary advice for coronary risk reduction. We assessed the validity of the MEDFICTS (MF questionnaire, a brief instrument developed to assess fat intake according to the American Heart Association (AHA dietary "steps". Methods We surveyed 164 active-duty US Army personnel without known coronary artery disease at their intake interview for a primary prevention cardiac intervention trial using the Block food frequency (FFQ and MF questionnaires. Both surveys were completed on the same intake visit and independently scored. Correlations between each tools' assessment of fat intake, the agreement in AHA step categorization of dietary quality with each tool, and the test characteristics of the MF using the FFQ as the gold standard were assessed. Results Subjects consumed a mean of 36.0 ± 13.0% of their total calories as fat, which included saturated fat consumption of 13.0 ± 0.4%. The majority of subjects (125/164; 76.2% had a high fat (worse than AHA Step 1 diet. There were significant correlations between the MF and the FFQ for the intake of total fat (r = 0.52, P 70 [high fat diet] was negligible (kappa statistic = 0.036. The MF was accurate at the extremes of fat intake, but could not reliably identify the 3 AHA dietary classifications. Alternative MF cutpoints of 50 (high fat diet were highly sensitive (96%, but had low specificity (46% for a high fat diet. ROC curve analysis identified that a MF score cutoff of 38 provided optimal sensitivity 75% and specificity 72%, and had modest agreement (kappa = 0.39, P Conclusions The MEDFICTS questionnaire is most suitable as a tool to identify high fat diets, rather than discriminate AHA Step 1 and Step 2 diets. Currently recommended

  19. Nutritional status and dietary intake of urban residents in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amare Bemnet

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is paucity of data on the dietary intake and nutritional status of urban Ethiopians which necessitates comprehensive nutritional assessments. Therefore, the present study was aimed at evaluating the dietary intake and nutritional status of urban residents in Northwest Ethiopia. Methods This cross-sectional community based nutrition survey was conducted by involving 356 participants (71.3% female and 28.7% male with mean age of 37.3 years. Subjects were selected by random sampling. Socio demographic data was collected by questionnaire. Height, weight, hip circumference and waist circumference were measured following standard procedures. Dietary intake was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire and 24-h dietary recall. The recommended dietary allowance was taken as the cut-off point for the assessment of the adequacy of individual nutrient intake. Results Undernourished, overweight and obese subjects composed 12.9%, 21.3% and 5.9% of the participants, respectively. Men were taller, heavier and had higher waist to hip ratio compared to women (P  Conclusions The overall risk of nutritional inadequacy among the study participants was high along with their poor dietary intake. Hence, more stress should be made on planning and implementing nutritional programmes in urban settings aimed at preventing or correcting micronutrient and some macronutrient deficiencies which may be useful in preventing nutrition related diseases in life.

  20. Prevention Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention Tips Post-Exposure Treatment  Blood Tests and Diagnosis Hepatitis B Blood Tests Understanding Your Hepatitis B Test Results ... acupuncture Home About Us Quick Links What Is Hepatitis B? Prevention & Diagnosis Treatment & Management Resources & Support Research & Programs News & Events ...

  1. Preventive Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozwiak, Dick

    1998-01-01

    Argues the importance of regularly inspecting thermoplastic roofs to avoid costly repairs. Preventive measures such as access restriction and the use of protective mats and pads to prevent third-party accidents are discussed as is the importance of checking for drain blockages. (GR)

  2. Dietary Lipids and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rgia A Othman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available For many years, epidemiological studies continued to suggest that high fat diets are linked to an increased incidence of certain cancers. However, whether the oncogenic properties of fat are associated with their quantity rather than the quality has become debatable. Epidemiological studies have been suggesting that n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 PUFA and saturated fats are more likely to increase the incidence of cancer, whereas monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA are more likely to prevent or decrease the chance of carcinogenesis. A firm conclusion cannot be drawn yet because of insufficient research. This paper reviews the current knowledge of the effects of saturated fats, different types of unsaturated fats, and fat-soluble vitamins on the etiology of cancer.

  3. Nutrition and prevention of Alzheimer’s dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Swaminathan, Arun; Jicha, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    A nutritional approach to prevent, slow, or halt the progression of disease is a promising strategy that has been widely investigated. Much epidemiologic data suggests that nutritional intake may influence the development and progression of Alzheimer’s dementia (AD). Modifiable, environmental causes of AD include potential metabolic derangements caused by dietary insufficiency and or excess that may be corrected by nutritional supplementation and or dietary modification. Many nutritional supp...

  4. Nutrition Frontiers - Summer 2016 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volume 7, Issue 3 The summer issue of Nutrition Frontiers showcases the combined effects of ursolic acid and resveratrol for skin cancer, the potential chemopreventive effects of the dietary supplement 4-MU, and a method to monitor a heterocyclic aromatic amine in dyed hair. Learn about our spotlight investigators, Drs. Michael Caligiuri and Jianhua Yu, and their research on dietary components for cancer prevention, upcoming announcements and more. |

  5. Inuit dietary patterns in modern Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Jeppesen, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to apply two different approaches of dietary pattern definition to data from Greenland and to analyse the contemporary dietary patterns of the Inuit in Greenland in relation to urbanization and socio-economic positions.......The purpose of the study was to apply two different approaches of dietary pattern definition to data from Greenland and to analyse the contemporary dietary patterns of the Inuit in Greenland in relation to urbanization and socio-economic positions....

  6. Nucleotide excision repair: ERCC1 and TFIIH complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. van Vuuren (Hanneke)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractDNA is the carrier of genetic information in living organisms. The information stored in the nucleotide sequence of DNA is transmitted to the offspring by generating identical copies of the parental DNA molecules. Damage in DNA can cause loss of genetic information. Nevertheless, the DNA

  7. Single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with rat expressed sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guryev, Victor; Berezikov, Eugene; Malik, Rainer; Plasterk, Ronald H A; Cuppen, Edwin

    2004-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most common source of genetic variation in populations and are thus most likely to account for the majority of phenotypic and behavioral differences between individuals or strains. Although the rat is extensively studied for the latter, data on naturall

  8. Nucleotide excision repair syndromes: molecular basis and clinical symptoms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Bootsma (Dirk); G. Weeda (Geert); W. Vermeulen (Wim); H. van Vuuren; C. Troelstra (Christine); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); P.J. van der Spek (Peter)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThe phenotypic consequences of a nucleotide excision repair (NER) defect in man are apparent from three distinct inborn diseases characterized by hypersensitivity of the skin to ultraviolet light and a remarkable clinical and genetic heterogeneity. These are the prototype repair

  9. Nucleotide Sequence of the Protective Antigen Gene of Bacillus Anthracis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-02

    Montie, S. Kadis, and S. I. Ajl (ed.), Microbial toxins, vol. 3. Academic Press, Inc., New York. 23. Little, S. F., and G. B. Knudaon. 1986...Takkinen, and L. Kaariainen. 1981. Nucleotide sequence of the promoter and NHa-terminal signal peptide region of the a- amylase gene from Bacillus

  10. Single nucleotide polymorphism in genome-wide association of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohd Fareed

    2012-09-25

    Sep 25, 2012 ... The arrival of new technologies that type more than millions of the single nucleotide polymor- .... and quality control now permit affordable, reliable genotyping of up to 1 million ... disease. Such pooled studies, like all genetic association stud- .... to researchers interested in evolutionary biology, and hence.

  11. Environmental heat stress, hyperammonemia and nucleotide metabolism during intermittent exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Magni; Rasmussen, Peter; Drust, Barry

    2006-01-01

    Abstract  This study investigated the influence of environmental heat stress on ammonia (NH3) accumulation in relation to nucleotide metabolism and fatigue during intermittent exercise. Eight males performed 40 min of intermittent exercise (15 s at 306±22 W alternating with 15 s of unloaded cycli...

  12. Mitochondrial DNA analysis reveals a low nucleotide diversity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-17

    Jun 17, 2009 ... 3Technical Center for Inspection and Quarantine, Beijing Entry-Exit Inspection ... differentiation related to geographical distribution in C. japonica ... gene sequences of C. japonica in China to assess nucleotide ... Map of China with locations from which Caligula japonica was sampled indicated a black dot.

  13. THE NUCLEOTIDE RECEPTORS ON MOUSE C2C12 MYOTUBES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HENNING, RH; NELEMANS, A; VANDENAKKER, J; DENHERTOG, A

    1992-01-01

    1 The response of C2C12 mouse myotubes to stimulation with adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and other nucleotides was studied by measuring changes in membrane potential. 2 A transient hyperpolarization followed by a slowly declining depolarization of the cells was observed in the presence of ATP (10-mu-

  14. Increased nucleotide diversity with transient Y linkage in Drosophila americana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryant F McAllister

    Full Text Available Recombination shapes nucleotide variation within genomes. Patterns are thought to arise from the local recombination landscape, influencing the degree to which neutral variation experiences hitchhiking with selected variation. This study examines DNA polymorphism along Chromosome 4 (element B of Drosophila americana to identify effects of hitchhiking arising as a consequence of Y-linked transmission. A centromeric fusion between the X and 4(th chromosomes segregates in natural populations of D. americana. Frequency of the X-4 fusion exhibits a strong positive correlation with latitude, which has explicit consequences for unfused 4(th chromosomes. Unfused Chromosome 4 exists as a non-recombining Y chromosome or as an autosome proportional to the frequency of the X-4 fusion. Furthermore, Y linkage along the unfused 4 is disrupted as a function of the rate of recombination with the centromere. Inter-population and intra-chromosomal patterns of nucleotide diversity were assayed using six regions distributed along unfused 4(th chromosomes derived from populations with different frequencies of the X-4 fusion. No difference in overall level of nucleotide diversity was detected among populations, yet variation along the chromosome exhibits a distinct pattern in relation to the X-4 fusion. Sequence diversity is inflated at loci experiencing the strongest Y linkage. These findings are inconsistent with the expected reduction in nucleotide diversity resulting from hitchhiking due to background selection or selective sweeps. In contrast, excessive polymorphism is accruing in association with transient Y linkage, and furthermore, hitchhiking with sexually antagonistic alleles is potentially responsible.

  15. Nucleotide excision repair of DNA: The very early history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedberg, Errol C

    2011-07-15

    This article, taken largely from the book Correcting the Blueprint of Life: An Historical Account of the Discovery of DNA Repair Mechanisms, summarizes the very early history of the discovery of nucleotide excision repair. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The nucleotide sequences of two leghemoglobin genes from soybean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiborg, O; Hyldig-Nielsen, J J; Jensen, E O

    1982-01-01

    We present the complete nucleotide sequences of two leghemoglobin genes isolated from soybean DNA. Both genes contain three intervening sequences in identical positions. Comparison of the coding sequences with known amino-acid sequences of soybean leghemoglobins suggest that the two genes...

  17. [Tabular excel editor for analysis of aligned nucleotide sequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demkin, V V

    2010-01-01

    Excel platform was used for transition of results of multiple aligned nucleotide sequences obtained using the BLAST network service to the form appropriate for visual analysis and editing. Two macros operators for MS Excel 2007 were constructed. The array of aligned sequences transformed into Excel table and processed using macros operators is more appropriate for analysis than initial html data.

  18. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Predict Symptom Severity of Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yun; Chen, Rong; Ke, Xiaoyan; Cheng, Lu; Chu, Kangkang; Lu, Zuhong; Herskovits, Edward H.

    2012-01-01

    Autism is widely believed to be a heterogeneous disorder; diagnosis is currently based solely on clinical criteria, although genetic, as well as environmental, influences are thought to be prominent factors in the etiology of most forms of autism. Our goal is to determine whether a predictive model based on single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)…

  19. THE NUCLEOTIDE RECEPTORS ON MOUSE C2C12 MYOTUBES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HENNING, RH; NELEMANS, A; VANDENAKKER, J; DENHERTOG, A

    1 The response of C2C12 mouse myotubes to stimulation with adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and other nucleotides was studied by measuring changes in membrane potential. 2 A transient hyperpolarization followed by a slowly declining depolarization of the cells was observed in the presence of ATP

  20. Synthesis, bioanalysis and pharmacology of nucleoside and nucleotide analogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, R.S.

    2009-01-01

    Nucleoside analogs are an important class of drugs in anticancer and antiviral therapy. The compounds are, however, only active after intracellular conversion to their mono-, di- and triphosphate nucleotide form. In this thesis the development of sensitive liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mas