WorldWideScience

Sample records for dietary micronutrient intakes

  1. Micronutrient bioavailability: Dietary Reference Intakes and a future perspective1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    This article provides a review of how the challenge of bioavailability was approached in establishing the Dietary Reference Intakes, with a special focus on folic acid, vitamin B-12, β-carotene, iron, selenium, and zinc, the targeted micronutrients for this workshop. In a future perspective, the necessity of having a clear working definition of bioavailability is emphasized. The bioavailability of micronutrients should be considered, with advantage, under subheadings determined by the broad factors that affect bioavailability. Special emphasis is given to giving greater and specific attention to factors involved in the maintenance of homeostasis. These factors, it is argued, are best considered separately from even a broad definition of bioavailability and have the potential to provide new insights into some micronutrient requirements. PMID:20200261

  2. The association between maternal dietary micronutrient intake and neonatal anthropometry - secondary analysis from the ROLO study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Horan, Mary K

    2015-01-01

    Micronutrients are necessary for fetal growth. However increasingly pregnant women are nutritionally replete and little is known about the effect of maternal micronutrient intakes on fetal adiposity in mothers with increased BMI. The aim of this study was to examine the association of maternal dietary micronutrient intake with neonatal size and adiposity in a cohort at risk of macrosomia.

  3. Micronutrient Intake and the Contribution of Dietary Supplements in Hispanic Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro-Rivera, Kiara; López-Cepero, Andrea; Diaz, Beatriz; Lee, Jae Eun; Palacios, Cristina

    2018-03-04

    To calculate micronutrient adequacy among infants and toddlers and to determine the contribution of dietary supplements to this adequacy, micronutrient intake was assessed using two nonconsecutive 24-hour recalls in a sample of 296 infants aged 0-24 months. Micronutrient intake was calculated from foods and beverages and from supplements and compared between nonusers and users of supplements. Percentages of children below the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) and above the tolerable upper limit intake (UL) were also compared between groups. A total of 241 participants had complete data. The prevalence of dietary supplement use among the sample was 15%. Mean intake of all micronutrients from foods and beverages was similar between nonusers and users of supplements (p > .05) but significantly higher for the following vitamins when supplements were included: D, E, B1, B2, B3, and B6 (p supplements were included, this percentage significantly decreased among users compared to nonusers (p supplements were added. Supplements significantly increased the intake of some vitamins. Vitamins D and E had the highest percentage of children below the DRI, which was partly corrected with the use of supplements. The UL was exceeded for magnesium, zinc, and vitamin B3 in many children. It is important to understand these patterns as they may be indicative of future nutritional deficiencies and excesses.

  4. Intake of micronutrients among Danish adult users and non-users of dietary supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Spagner, Camilla

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the intake of micronutrients from the diet and from supplements in users and non-users of dietary supplements, respectively, in a representative sample of the Danish adult population. A specific objective was to identify the determinants of supplement use. Design: A cross-...

  5. Marginal Micronutrient Intake in High-Performance Male Wheelchair Basketball Players: A Dietary Evaluation and the Effects of Nutritional Advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grams, Lena; Garrido, Guadalupe; Villacieros, Jorge; Ferro, Amelia

    2016-01-01

    Wheelchair basketball has evolved into a high-performance sport over several years, and small variations in player performance can determine the difference between winning and losing. Therefore, adequate micronutrient intake may influence this difference if performance-promoting macronutrient intake and physical fitness are equal between teams. Seventeen elite male wheelchair basketball players belonging to the Spanish National Team participated in this study. Macro- and micronutrient intake were determined using a food-weighing diary over three consecutive days during three training camps in two consecutive years. Current Dietary Reference Intake levels were used to determine the adequacy of intake of seventeen micronutrients of particular interest for athletes. After categorizing the consumed foods into fourteen food groups according to the National Nutrient Database for Standard References (USDA) these groups were used to identify the best predictors of the adequacy of intake for each micronutrient. Total energy intake correlated positively with the adequacy of all micronutrient intake levels, except for vitamins A and E. Five B vitamins and phosphorus, selenium, and iron showed 100% adequacy. All other micronutrient intake levels were found to be inadequate, e.g., vitamin E (51% adequacy) and calcium (73%). The fruit, fish and cereal food groups were found to be predictors of adequate intake of most micronutrients. Together with energy intake (p = .009, η2 = 0.49), the intake of the fruit (p = .032, η2 = 0.39) and egg (p = .036, Kendall's W = 0.42) food groups increased significantly over time, along with improved iodine (p = .008, W = 0.61) and magnesium (p = .030, W = 0.44) adequacy levels. Because the adequacy of micronutrient intake correlates positively with energy intake (R = 0.64, p nutritional knowledge of the athletes and assure adequate micronutrient intake.

  6. Dietary assessment methods for micronutrient intake in elderly people: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ortiz-Andrellucchi, A.; Sanzech-Villegas, A.; Doreste-Alonso, J.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Serra-Majem, L.

    2009-01-01

    The European micronutrient recommendations aligned (EURRECA) Network of Excellence seeks to establish clear guidelines for assessing the validity of reported micronutrient intakes among vulnerable population groups. A systematic literature review identified studies validating the methodology used in

  7. Reduced dietary intake of micronutrients with antioxidant properties negatively impacts muscle health in aged mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Van Miriam; Dijk, Francina J.; Hartog, Anita; Norren, Van Klaske; Verlaan, Sjors; Helvoort, Van Ardy; Jaspers, Richard T.; Luiking, Yvette

    2018-01-01

    Background. Inadequate intake of micronutrients with antioxidant properties is common among older adults and has been associated with higher risk of frailty, adverse functional outcome, and impaired muscle health. However, a causal relationship is less well known. The aim was to determine in old

  8. Reduced dietary intake of micronutrients with antioxidant properties negatively impacts muscle health in aged mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Miriam; Dijk, Francina J.; Hartog, Anita; van Norren, Klaske; Verlaan, Sjors; van Helvoort, Ardy; Jaspers, Richard T.; Luiking, Yvette

    2018-01-01

    Background: Inadequate intake of micronutrients with antioxidant properties is common among older adults and has been associated with higher risk of frailty, adverse functional outcome, and impaired muscle health. However, a causal relationship is less well known. The aim was to determine in old

  9. Micronutrient Dietary Intake in Latina Pregnant Adolescents and Its Association with Level of Depression, Stress, and Social Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelie Singh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent pregnant women are at greater risk for nutritional deficits, stress, and depression than their adult counterparts, and these risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes are likely interrelated. This study evaluated the prevalence of nutritional deficits in pregnant teenagers and assessed the associations among micronutrient dietary intake, stress, and depression. One hundred and eight pregnant Latina adolescents completed an Automated Self-Administered 24-hour dietary recall (ASA24 in the 2nd trimester. Stress was measured using the Perceived Stress Scale and the Prenatal Distress Questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were evaluated with the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale. Social support satisfaction was measured using the Social Support Questionnaire. More than 50% of pregnant teenagers had an inadequate intake (excluding dietary supplement of folate, vitamin A, vitamin E, iron, zinc, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorous. Additionally, >20% of participants had an inadequate intake of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, vitamin C, copper, and selenium. Prenatal supplement inclusion improved dietary intake for most micronutrients except for calcium, magnesium, and phosphorous, (>50% below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR and for copper and selenium (>20% below the EAR. Higher depressive symptoms were associated with higher energy, carbohydrates, and fats, and lower magnesium intake. Higher social support satisfaction was positively associated with dietary intake of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12, vitamin C, vitamin E, iron, and zinc. The findings suggest that mood and dietary factors are associated and should be considered together for health interventions during adolescent pregnancy for the young woman and her future child.

  10. Suboptimal Micronutrient Intake among Children in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Kaganov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Adequate dietary intake of micronutrients is not necessarily achieved even in resource-rich areas of the world wherein overeating is a public health concern. In Europe, population-based data suggests substantial variability in micronutrient intake among children. Two independent surveys of micronutrient consumption among European children were evaluated. Stratified by age, the data regarding micronutrient intake were evaluated in the context of daily requirements, which are typically estimated in the absence of reliable absolute values derived from prospective studies. The proportion of children living in Europe whose intake of at least some vitamins and trace elements are at or below the estimated average requirements is substantial. The most common deficiencies across age groups included vitamin D, vitamin E, and iodine. Specific deficiencies were not uniform across countries or by age or gender.  Micronutrient intake appears to be more strongly influenced by factors other than access to food. Substantial portions of European children may be at risk of reversible health risks from inadequate intake of micronutrients. Despite the growing health threat posed by excess intake of calories, adequate exposure to vitamins, trace elements, and other micronutrients may deserve attention in public health initiatives to optimize growth and development in the European pediatric population.

  11. Mapping low intake of micronutrients across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensink, G B M; Fletcher, R; Gurinovic, M; Huybrechts, I; Lafay, L; Serra-Majem, L; Szponar, L; Tetens, I; Verkaik-Kloosterman, J; Baka, A; Stephen, A M

    2013-08-01

    Achieving an understanding of the extent of micronutrient adequacy across Europe is a major challenge. The main objective of the present study was to collect and evaluate the prevalence of low micronutrient intakes of different European countries by comparing recent nationally representative dietary survey data from Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Poland, Spain and the United Kingdom. Dietary intake information was evaluated for intakes of Ca, Cu, I, Fe, Mg, K, Se, Zn and the vitamins A, B₁, B₂, B₆, B₁₂, C, D, E and folate. The mean and 5th percentile of the intake distributions were estimated for these countries, for a number of defined sex and age groups. The percentages of those with intakes below the lower reference nutrient intake and the estimated average requirement were calculated. Reference intakes were derived from the UK and Nordic Nutrition Recommendations. The impact of dietary supplement intake as well as inclusion of apparently low energy reporters on the estimates was evaluated. Except for vitamin D, the present study suggests that the current intakes of vitamins from foods lead to low risk of low intakes in all age and sex groups. For current minerals, the study suggests that the risk of low intakes is likely to appear more often in specific age groups. In spite of the limitations of the data, the present study provides valuable new information about micronutrient intakes across Europe and the likelihood of inadequacy country by country.

  12. Intake of macro- and micronutrients in Danish vegans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Nadja B; Madsen, Mia L; H Hansen, Tue

    2015-01-01

    Since information about macro- and micronutrient intake among vegans is limited we aimed to determine and evaluate their dietary and supplementary intake. Seventy 18-61 years old Danish vegans completed a four-day weighed food record from which their daily intake of macro- and micronutrients was ...

  13. Contribution of fish to intakes of micronutrients important for fetal development: a dietary survey of pregnant women in the Republic of Seychelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonham, Maxine P; Duffy, Emeir M; Robson, Paula J; Wallace, Julie M; Myers, Gary J; Davidson, Philip W; Clarkson, Tom W; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Strain, J J; Livingstone, M Barbara E

    2009-09-01

    To characterise the diets of pregnant women in the Republic of Seychelles and to determine the contribution of fish to intakes of nutrients important for fetal and neonatal development. Observational, prospective study. Seychelles Child Development Centre, Mahé, Republic of Seychelles. Pregnant women (n 300) were recruited at their first visit to an antenatal clinic. At 28 weeks' gestation subjects completed a 4 d diet diary (n 273) and intakes were analysed using dietary analysis software. Mean (sd) energy intake was 9.0 (2.5) MJ/d and fat intakes were higher than UK recommendations for almost two-thirds of the cohort. Fish consumption was lower than in previous surveys, suggesting a move towards a more Westernised diet. Low intakes of a number of nutrients important during pregnancy for fetal development (Fe, Zn, Se and iodine) were observed. However, women who met the current recommendations for these nutrients consumed significantly more fish than those who did not (97 v. 73 g/d). The present study highlights the importance of fish in the diet of pregnant Seychellois women for ensuring adequate intakes of micronutrients important in fetal development. Dietary patterns in Seychelles, however, are in a state of transition, with a move towards a Western-style diet as evidenced by higher fat and lower fish intakes. If these dietary trends continue and fish consumption declines further, micronutrient status may be compromised. These findings suggest caution in establishing public health policies that promote limitation of fish intake during pregnancy.

  14. Macro and Micro-Nutrients Intake, Food Groups Consumption and Dietary Habits among Female Students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadbakht, L; Esmaillzadeh, A

    2012-04-01

    Improving the dietary intake among different groups and population is important for improving the health status. This study determines the nutrients and food group intake as well as dietary habits among female students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Two hundreds and eighty nine healthy female youths who were randomly selected among students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in Isfahan, Iran were enrolled. A validated semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used. Folate, iron, calcium and fiber intake were lower than the recommended dietary allowances (RDA) amounts (70, 76, 90, 56% of RDA, respectively). Forty five percent of the population consumed fast foods 2 times a week and 35% used the frying oils for cooking most of the time. Female youths had lower amount of some micronutrients. Consuming frying oils, hydrogenated vegetable oils, and fast food intake should be limited among this group.

  15. Dietary habits and cardiovascular risk in the Spanish population: the DRECE study (II) micronutrient intake. Dieta y Riesgo de Enfermedades Cardiovasculares en España.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros-Pomar, M D; Rubio-Herrera, M A; Gutiérrez-Fuentes, J A; Gómez-Gerique, J A; Gómez-de-la-Cámara, A; Pascual, O; Gárate, I; Montero, R; Campiña, S

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the dietary micronutrient intake in the adult Spanish population participating in the DRECE study. The cross-sectional study was performed in two stages in 1991 and 1996 in 43 primary care clinics. One thousand two hundred people 'with cardiovascular risk' and 600 'without risk' answered a food frequency questionnaire. Significant increases in vitamin C, retinol, lycopenes, beta-cryptoxanthin and vitamin E intakes were found. Vitamin A, alpha-carotenoid and lutein intakes decreased. Vitamin B(12), B(6) and folic acid intakes increased in people with cardiovascular risk, whereas only the last two increased in the control group. Nearly 100% of the people consumed the recommended dietary allowances for vitamins B(12) and B(6) and >70% for folic acid. Calcium, iron, and zinc intake increased in both groups, but magnesium and selenium intake increased only in people at risk. Vitamin A, B(1) and zinc intakes have decreased, and >50% of the people do not consume the recommended dietary allowance. Antioxidant vitamins and vitamin B(12), B(6) and folic acid intakes seem to be adequate in the adult Spanish population, no significant differences appear regarding their cardiovascular risk status. Vitamin A, B(1) and zinc intakes are not appropriate. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Dietary intake in infants with complex congenital heart disease: a case-control study on macro- and micronutrient intake, meal frequency and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, L; Öhlund, I; Lind, T; Stecksén-Blicks, C; Rydberg, A

    2016-02-01

    Children with severe congenital heart disease (CHD) need considerable nutritional support to reach normal growth. The actual intake of macro- and micronutrients in outpatient CHD infants over a 6-month period in infancy is not described in the literature. The present study aimed to prospectively investigate the distribution between macro- and micronutrient intake, meal frequency and growth in children with CHD. At 6, 9 and 12 months of age, a 3-day food diary and anthropometric data were collected in 11 infants with severe CHD and 22 healthy age- and feeding-matched controls. Macro- and micronutrient intake, meal frequency and growth were calculated. Compared to the healthy controls, CHD infants had a statistically significantly higher intake of fat at 9 months of age (4.8 versus 3.6 g kg(-1) day(-1) ), a higher percentage energy (E%) from fat, (40.6% versus 34.5%) and a lower E% from carbohydrates (46.1% versus 39.6%) at 12 months of age, and a lower intake of iron (7.22 versus 9.28 mg day(-1) ) at 6 months of age. Meal frequency was significantly higher at 6 and 9 months of age (P meal frequency, the intake does not meet the needs for growth, and the results may indicate a low intake of micronutrients in CHD infants. © 2014 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  17. Intake of macro- and micronutrients in Danish vegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Nadja B; Madsen, Mia L; Hansen, Tue H; Allin, Kristine H; Hoppe, Camilla; Fagt, Sisse; Lausten, Mia S; Gøbel, Rikke J; Vestergaard, Henrik; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf

    2015-10-30

    Since information about macro- and micronutrient intake among vegans is limited we aimed to determine and evaluate their dietary and supplementary intake. Seventy 18-61 years old Danish vegans completed a four-day weighed food record from which their daily intake of macro- and micronutrients was assessed and subsequently compared to an age-range-matched group of 1,257 omnivorous individuals from the general Danish population. Moreover, the vegan dietary and supplementary intake was compared to the 2012 Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR). Dietary intake differed significantly between vegans and the general Danish population in all measured macro- and micronutrients (p vegans the intake of macro- and micronutrients (including supplements) did not reach the NNR for protein, vitamin D, iodine and selenium. Among vegan women vitamin A intake also failed to reach the recommendations. With reference to the NNR, the dietary content of added sugar, sodium and fatty acids, including the ratio of PUFA to SFA, was more favorable among vegans. At the macronutrient level, the diet of Danish vegans is in better accordance with the NNR than the diet of the general Danish population. At the micronutrient level, considering both diet and supplements, the vegan diet falls short in certain nutrients, suggesting a need for greater attention toward ensuring recommended daily intake of specific vitamins and minerals.

  18. Mapping low intake of micronutrients across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mensink, G. B. M.; Fletcher, R.; Gurinovic, M.

    2013-01-01

    Achieving an understanding of the extent of micronutrient adequacy across Europe is a major challenge. The main objective of the present study was to collect and evaluate the prevalence of low micronutrient intakes of different European countries by comparing recent nationally representative diet...

  19. Habitual micronutrient intake during and after pregnancy in Caucasian Londoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derbyshire, E; Davies, G J; Costarelli, V; Dettmar, P W

    2009-01-01

    Micronutrient status is of fundamental importance both upon conception and throughout pregnancy. There is an abundance of literature investigating nutrient intakes during individual trimesters of pregnancy but few studies have investigated baseline intakes of nutrients throughout gestation as a continuum. The current investigation set out to measure habitual micronutrient intakes at weeks 13, 25, 35 of pregnancy and 6 weeks postpartum using a prospective background information questionnaire, 4-7-day weighed food diary and postnatal questionnaire. Seventy-two primiparous, Caucasian Londoners were recruited at the study start with 42 completing the first, second, third trimester and postpartum study stages respectively. Study findings indicated that sodium intakes were significantly higher than UK guidelines throughout and after pregnancy (P pregnancy, but to varying levels of statistical significance (P health interventions may be required to help expectant mothers achieve an optimal diet, particularly after birth when dietary recommendations increase for some micronutrients.

  20. Micronutrient intake in relation to all-cause mortality in a prospective Danish cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roswall, Nina; Olsen, Anja; Christensen, Jane

    2012-01-01

    and supplements, and overall mortality. Furthermore, to examine effect modification by smoking, alcohol intake, and BMI and to investigate if the effect of supplement use differs with dietary micronutrient intake. Methods and Material: In a prospective cohort study of 55,453 middle-aged Danes, information...... regarding diet, supplement use, and lifestyle was collected through questionnaires. During follow-up, 6,767 deaths were identified and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of mortality related to micronutrient intake were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models. Results: The present study found no effect......, was suggested in relation to some dietary micronutrients. The effect of supplements did not differ in groups defined by dietary micronutrient intake. Conclusion: This study suggests no effect of dietary micronutrients in relation to overall mortality. Supplemental folic acid was found to be associated...

  1. Do dietary supplements improve micronutrient sufficiency in children and adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Regan L; Fulgoni, Victor L; Keast, Debra R; Lentino, Cindy V; Dwyer, Johanna T

    2012-11-01

    To examine if children use supplements to fill gaps in nutritionally inadequate diets or whether supplements contribute to already adequate or excessive micronutrient intakes from foods. Data were analyzed for children (2-18 years) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006, a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey (n = 7250). Diet was assessed using two 24-hour recalls, and dietary supplement use was assessed with a 30-day questionnaire. Prevalence of supplements use was 21% (vitamin D intakes were low for all children. Inadequate intakes of phosphorus, copper, selenium, folate, and vitamins B-6 and B-12 were minimal from foods alone among 2-8 year olds. However, among 9-18 year olds, a higher prevalence of inadequate intakes of magnesium, phosphorus, and vitamins A, C, and E were observed. Supplement use increased the likelihood of intakes above the upper tolerable intake level for iron, zinc, copper, selenium, folic acid, and vitamins A and C. Even with the use of supplements, more than a one-third of children failed to meet calcium and vitamin D recommendations. Children 2-8 years old had nutritionally adequate diets regardless of supplement use. However, in children older than 8 years, dietary supplements added micronutrients to diets that would have otherwise been inadequate for magnesium, phosphorus, vitamins A, C, and E. Supplement use contributed to the potential for excess intakes of some nutrients. These findings may have implications for reformulating dietary supplements for children. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  2. Do dietary supplements improve micronutrient sufficiency in children and adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Regan L.; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Keast, Debra R.; Lentino, Cindy V.; Dwyer, Johanna T.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine if children use supplements to fill gaps in nutritionally inadequate diets or whether supplements contribute to already adequate or excessive micronutrient intakes from foods. Study design Data were analyzed for children (2–18 y) from the NHANES 2003–2006, a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey (n=7,250). Diet was assessed using two 24-hour recalls, and dietary supplement use was assessed with a 30-day questionnaire. Results Prevalence of supplements use was 21% (Supplement users had higher micronutrient intakes than nonusers. Calcium and vitamin D intakes were low for all children. Inadequate intakes of phosphorus, copper, selenium, folate, and vitamins B-6 and B-12 were minimal from foods alone among 2–8 y olds. However, among 9–18 y olds, a higher prevalence of inadequate intakes of magnesium, phosphorus, and vitamins A, C, and E were observed. Supplement use increased the likelihood of intakes above the Upper Tolerable Intake Level for iron, zinc, copper, selenium, folic acid, and vitamins A and C. Conclusions Even with the use of supplements, more than a one-third of children failed to meet calcium and vitamin D recommendations. Children 2–8 y had nutritionally adequate diets regardless of supplement use. However, in children older than 8 y dietary supplements added micronutrients to diets that would have otherwise been inadequate for magnesium, phosphorus, vitamins A,C, and E. Supplement use contributed to the potential for excess intakes of some nutrients. These findings may have implications for reformulating dietary supplements for children. PMID:22717218

  3. Micronutrient Status and Dietary Intake of Iron, Vitamin A, Iodine, Folate and Zinc in Women of Reproductive Age and Pregnant Women in Ethiopia, Kenya, Nigeria and South Africa: A Systematic Review of Data from 2005 to 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajwinder Harika

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the status and intake of iron, vitamin A, iodine, folate and zinc in women of reproductive age (WRA (≥15–49 years and pregnant women (PW in Ethiopia, Kenya, Nigeria and South Africa. National and subnational data published between 2005 and 2015 were searched via Medline, Scopus and national public health websites. Per micronutrient, relevant data were pooled into an average prevalence of deficiency, weighted by sample size (WAVG. Inadequate intakes were estimated from mean (SD intakes. This review included 65 surveys and studies from Ethiopia (21, Kenya (11, Nigeria (21 and South Africa (12. In WRA, WAVG prevalence of anaemia ranged from 18–51%, iron deficiency 9–18%, and iron deficiency anaemia at 10%. In PW, the prevalence was higher, and ranged from 32–62%, 19–61%, and 9–47%, respectively. In WRA, prevalence of vitamin A, iodine, zinc and folate deficiencies ranged from 4–22%, 22–55%, 34% and 46%, while in PW these ranged from 21–48%, 87%, 46–76% and 3–12% respectively. Inadequate intakes of these micronutrients are high and corresponded with the prevalence figures. Our findings indicate that nationally representative data are needed to guide the development of nutrition interventions and public health programs, such as dietary diversification, micronutrient fortification and supplementation.

  4. Macro and Micro-Nutrients Intake, Food Groups Consumption and Dietary Habits among Female Students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Azadbakht, L; Esmaillzadeh, A

    2012-01-01

    Background Improving the dietary intake among different groups and population is important for improving the health status. This study determines the nutrients and food group intake as well as dietary habits among female students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Methods Two hundreds and eighty nine healthy female youths who were randomly selected among students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in Isfahan, Iran were enrolled. A validated semi quantitative food frequency ques...

  5. Changing micronutrient intake through (voluntary) behaviour change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birger Boutrup; Lähteenmäki, Liisa; Grunert, Klaus G

    2012-01-01

    change. The behaviours affecting folate intake were recognised and categorised. Behaviour change mechanisms from “rational model of man”, behavioural economics, health psychology and social psychology were identified and aligned against folate-related behaviours. The folate example demonstrated......The objective of this study was to relate behaviour change mechanisms to nutritionally relevant behaviour and demonstrate how the different mechanisms can affect attempts to change these behaviours. Folate was used as an example to illuminate the possibilities and challenges in inducing behaviour...... the complexity of mechanisms influencing possible behavioural changes, even though this only targets the intake of a single micronutrient. When considering possible options to promote folate intake, the feasibility of producing the desired outcome should be related to the mechanisms of required changes...

  6. Dietary Intake of Competitive Bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spendlove, Jessica; Mitchell, Lachlan; Gifford, Janelle; Hackett, Daniel; Slater, Gary; Cobley, Stephen; O'Connor, Helen

    2015-07-01

    details on rationale for different dietary intakes. The contribution of diet supplements was also often not reported. When supplements were reported, intakes of some micronutrients were excessive (~1000% of US Recommended Dietary Allowance) and above the tolerable upper limit. This review demonstrates that literature describing the dietary intake practices of competitive bodybuilders is dated and often of poor quality. Intake reporting required better specificity and details of the rationale underpinning the use. The review suggests that high-quality contemporary research is needed in this area, with the potential to uncover dietary strategies worthy of scientific exploration.

  7. ERICA: intake of macro and micronutrients of Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda de Moura Souza

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe food and macronutrient intake profile and estimate the prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intake of Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Data from 71,791 adolescents aged from 12 to 17 years were evaluated in the 2013-2014 Brazilian Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA. Food intake was estimated using 24-hour dietary recall (24-HDR. A second 24-HDR was collected in a subsample of the adolescents to estimate within-person variability and calculate the usual individual intake. The prevalence of food/food group intake reported by the adolescents was also estimated. For sodium, the prevalence of inadequate intake was estimated based on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL. The Estimated Average Requirement (EAR method used as cutoff was applied to estimate the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake. All the analyses were stratified according to sex, age group and Brazilian macro-regions. All statistical analyses accounted for the sample weight and the complex sampling design. RESULTS Rice, beans and other legume, juice and fruit drinks, breads and meat were the most consumed foods among the adolescents. The average energy intake ranged from 2,036 kcal (girls aged from 12 to 13 years to 2,582 kcal (boy aged from14 to 17 years. Saturated fat and free sugar intake were above the maximum limit recommended ( 50.0%. Sodium intake was above the UL for more than 80.0% of the adolescents. CONCLUSIONS The diets of Brazilian adolescents were characterized by the intake of traditional Brazilian food, such as rice and beans, as well as by high intake of sugar through sweetened beverages and processed foods. This food pattern was associated with an excessive intake of sodium, saturated fatty acids and free sugar.

  8. Periodontal disease severity is associated with micronutrient intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, P-P; Xu, H-S; Chen, Y-W; Wu, S-P

    2018-03-06

    This study aimed to examine if specific micronutrients were associated with periodontal disease using data from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2011 to 2014. Participants who were aged 30 years or more and received complete periodontal examinations were included. Regression analyses were performed to determine associations of variables of interest with periodontal disease. Data of 6415 NHANES participants were included in the analysis. Multivariable analysis revealed that less intake of vitamin A (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.784), vitamin B1 (aOR = 1.334), vitamin C (aOR = 1.401), vitamin E (aOR = 1.576), iron (aOR = 1.234), folate (aOR = 1.254) and phosphorus (aOR = 1.280) was associated with increased severity of periodontal disease. Compared with the highest level of vitamin D intake, the second highest level of vitamin D intake was associated with lower severity of periodontal disease (aOR = 0.727). Insufficient intake of vitamin A, B1, C and E, iron, folate and phosphorus was significantly associated with severity of periodontal disease. Results of the present study suggest that the above micronutrients may be increased in the diet or taken as dietary supplements in order to reduce severity of periodontal disease. © 2018 Australian Dental Association.

  9. Micronutrient Intakes in 553 Dutch Elite and Sub-Elite Athletes: Prevalence of Low and High Intakes in Users and Non-Users of Nutritional Supplements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wardenaar, Floris; Brinkmans, Naomi; Ceelen, Ingrid; Rooij, Van Bo; Mensink, Marco; Witkamp, Renger; Vries, De Jeanne

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether athletes meet micronutrient recommendations and whether the adequacy of their intake is related to the use of dietary supplements, sport nutrition products or a combination. Micronutrient intakes of 553 Dutch (sub-) elite athletes were assessed using web-based 24-h

  10. Multivitamin/mineral supplement contribution to micronutrient intakes in the United States, 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Taylor C; McBurney, Michael; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2014-01-01

    Multivitamin/mineral (MVMM) supplements are the most common dietary supplements consumed in the United States; however, intake data specific to how MVMM use contributes to micronutrient intakes among Americans are absent from the current scientific literature. This analysis aimed to assess contributions of micronutrients to usual intakes derived from MVMM supplements and to compare those intakes to the dietary reference intakes for US residents aged ≥ 4 years according to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2010 (n = 16,444). We used the National Cancer Institute method to assess usual intakes of 21 micronutrients. Our results showed that 51% of Americans consumed MVMM supplements containing ≥ 9 micronutrients. Large portions of the population had total usual intakes (food and MVMM supplement use) below the estimated average requirement for vitamins A (35%), C (31%), D (74%), and E (67%) as well as calcium (39%) and magnesium (46%). Only 0%, 8%, and 33% of the population had total usual intakes of potassium, choline, and vitamin K above the adequate intake when food and MVMM use was considered. The percentage of the population with total intakes greater than the tolerable upper intake level (UL) was very low for all nutrients; excess intakes of zinc were the highest (3.5%) across the population of all of the nutrients assessed in NHANES. In large proportions of the population, micronutrient sufficiency is currently not being achieved through food solutions for several essential vitamins and minerals. Use of age- and gender-specific MVMM supplements may serve as a practical means to increase the micronutrient status in subpopulations of Americans while not increasing intakes above the UL.

  11. Food Group Intake and Micronutrient Adequacy in Adolescent Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Loring Bradlee

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the contribution of food group intakes to micronutrient adequacy among 2379 girls in the National Growth and Health Study during three age periods (9–13, 14–18, and 19–20 years. Data on food and nutrient intakes from 3-day diet records over 10 years were used to estimate mean intakes and percent meeting Dietary Guidelines (DGA recommendations for food intakes and Institute of Medicine’s recommendations for vitamins and minerals. More than 90% of girls failed to consume the recommended amounts of fruit, vegetables and dairy; 75% consumed less than the recommended amounts in the “meat” group. The vast majority of girls of all ages had inadequate intakes of calcium, magnesium, potassium, and vitamins D and E. In contrast, they consumed >750 kcal/day (~40% of total energy from the DGA category of solid fat and added sugars, about five times the recommended maximum intakes. This study shows the importance of consuming a variety of foods in all five food groups, including those that are more energy dense such as dairy and meats, in order to meet a broad range of nutrient guidelines. Diet patterns that combined intakes across food groups led to greater improvements in overall nutritional adequacy.

  12. Food Group Intake and Micronutrient Adequacy in Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Lynn L.; Singer, Martha R.; Qureshi, M. Mustafa; Bradlee, M. Loring; Daniels, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the contribution of food group intakes to micronutrient adequacy among 2379 girls in the National Growth and Health Study during three age periods (9–13, 14–18, and 19–20 years). Data on food and nutrient intakes from 3-day diet records over 10 years were used to estimate mean intakes and percent meeting Dietary Guidelines (DGA) recommendations for food intakes and Institute of Medicine’s recommendations for vitamins and minerals. More than 90% of girls failed to consume the recommended amounts of fruit, vegetables and dairy; 75% consumed less than the recommended amounts in the “meat” group. The vast majority of girls of all ages had inadequate intakes of calcium, magnesium, potassium, and vitamins D and E. In contrast, they consumed >750 kcal/day (~40% of total energy) from the DGA category of solid fat and added sugars, about five times the recommended maximum intakes. This study shows the importance of consuming a variety of foods in all five food groups, including those that are more energy dense such as dairy and meats, in order to meet a broad range of nutrient guidelines. Diet patterns that combined intakes across food groups led to greater improvements in overall nutritional adequacy. PMID:23201841

  13. Dietary diversity scores: an indicator of micronutrient inadequacy instead of obesity for Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenzhi; Yu, Kai; Tan, Shengjie; Zheng, Yingdong; Zhao, Ai; Wang, Peiyu; Zhang, Yumei

    2017-05-12

    Micronutrient malnutrition affects the well-being of both adults and children. Dietary diversity score (DDS) is a useful evaluation index with a relatively well-developed guideline by FAO. It's meaningful to assess and predict inadequate micronutrient intakes using DDS in Chinese children, after ruling out the risk of obesity coming with more dietary diversity. Data for evaluation were extracted from the Nutrition Study of Preschool Children and School Children, which is a cross-sectional study covering 8 cities of China, including 1694 children in kindergartens and primary schools. This study applied DDS to Chinese children to test the validity for micronutrient inadequacy, and then explored the relationship between dietary diversity and obesity. It reveals that dietary diversity varied with age and place of residence; the older ones and the ones living in rural areas tend to have poorer dietary diversity. Another discovery is that DDS is positively correlated with indicators of micronutrient adequacy, with a score of 6-8 indicating the lowest risk of micronutrient inadequacy in different groups of children. In our study population, dietary diversity is not related with obesity. Dietary diversity score is a valid indicator to evaluate micronutrient inadequacy in Chinese children, though there is still room for improvement of the method. Besides, the relationship between increase of dietary diversity and risk of obesity should be treated circumspectly.

  14. Food Group and Micronutrient Intake Adequacy among Children, Adults and Elderly Women in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannis Manios

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to record the percentage of children, adults and elderly women in Greece meeting food and micronutrient intake recommendations. Additionally, the present study was aiming to identify the main food contributors of micronutrient intakes and assess the degree up to which meeting food intake recommendations also ensures micronutrient intake adequacy. Dietary intake data from three studies conducted in Greece (on 9–13-year-old children; 40–60-year-old adults; and 50–75-year-old women were used to estimate mean intakes, the percentages of subjects meeting food and nutrient intake recommendations and the contribution of six core food groups to nutrient intake adequacy. The present study showed that more than 50% of children, adults and elderly women were failing to consume the recommended portions of vegetables, dairy and grains. Furthermore, children and adults consuming the recommended portions of individual core food groups had significantly lower percentages of inadequate micronutrient intakes compared to their counterparts not meeting food intake recommendations (p < 0.05. Nevertheless, even among those consuming the recommended portions from a specific core food group, the recommended intake of the corresponding micronutrient (for which this food group is the main contributor was not always met. Indicatively, 18.2%–44.1% and 4.2%–7.0% of the populations under study were not meeting calcium and vitamin C intake recommendations, although they were consuming the recommended portions of dairy and fruits, respectively. In conclusion, these findings highlight the importance for public health policy makers to take all necessary initiatives to support the population in achieving the recommended intakes from all core food groups, but also emphasize on food variety to ensure adequate intake for all micronutrients.

  15. Dietary modifications to improve micronutrient status of Indian children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, Lavanya S; Chiplonkar, Shashi A; Khadilkar, Anuradha V; Khadilkar, Vaman V

    2015-01-01

    Diet plays a crucial role for maintaining normal growth and development while optimizing glycemic control in children with diabetes. Dietary restrictions, in a diabetic child's diet may lead to micronutrient deficiencies. To examine dietary nutritional deficiencies of Asian Indian children with Type 1 diabetes mellitus and develop micronutrient-rich recipes suitable for them. Anthropometry, diet (3-day recall) of 70 children with diabetes (24 boys) was recorded. Daily nutrient intakes and nutrient content of recipes were estimated using CDIET version 2.0. Mean intake amongst children for energy was 79% of Indian Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), protein was 105% RDA, but fat intakes were high (143% RDA). Mean intakes of riboflavin, β carotene, zinc, iron were less than 50%, and thiamin and calcium were around 60% RDA suggesting a possible multiple micronutrient deficiency. Based on popularly consumed snacks, 20 healthy recipes were devised that can be incorporated in children's diet. Mean energy content of new recipes was similar to routine snacks (281±28 kcal/100 g vs 306±27 kcal/100 g cooked weight). However, the mean vitamin and mineral content of new recipes was significantly higher (pcontent (zinc, calcium and iron) and twofold increase in total vitamin content (β carotene, vitamin C, vitamin B-1, B-2, and B-3) in new recipes compared with the routine snacks. Multiple dietary micronutrient deficiencies are observed in diabetic children. Addition of newly developed recipes in their everyday diet may help to enhance micronutrient intakes without increasing their energy load.

  16. Dietary intake of phytoestrogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker MI; SIR

    2004-01-01

    The dietary intake of phytoestrogens supposedly influences a variety of diseases, both in terms of beneficial and adverse effects. This report describes current knowledge on dietary intakes of phytoestrogens in Western countries, and briefly summarizes the evidence for health effects. The

  17. Consumo alimentar de macro e micronutrientes de crianças menores de cinco anos no Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil Dietary intake of macro and micronutrients by children under five years of age in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristianne Martins Ferreira Fidelis

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar o consumo alimentar de macro e micronutrientes, com base na Dietary Reference Intakes, das crianças menores de cinco anos do Estado de Pernambuco, considerando três áreas geográficas: Região Metropolitana do Recife, Interior Urbano e Interior Rural. MÉTODOS: a amostra constitui-se de 948 crianças menores de cinco anos de idade, com representatividade para o Estado de Pernambuco e suas três áreas geográficas. O consumo alimentar foi registrado mediante o recordatório de 24 horas e foram analisadas as medianas e prevalências de inadequação dos macro e micronutrientes de acordo com as Dietary Reference Intakes. RESULTADOS: o déficit de energia e micronutrientes mostrou-se prevalente nas crianças, em todas as faixas etárias e áreas geográficas; entretanto, o consumo de proteínas apresentou-se acima dos valores de referência. A prevalência de inadequação dos micronutrientes foi elevada, principalmente de ferro e zinco, nas crianças acima de 12 meses de idade. Os resultados no Interior Rural foram os mais baixos para todos os nutrientes analisados. CONCLUSÕES: o consumo alimentar das crianças do Estado de Pernambuco demonstrou déficit de energia, de macro e micronutrientes. Espera-se que estes resultados possam servir como subsídios para implementação de políticas de nutrição e alimentação no Estado, visando prevenir os principais distúrbios nutricionais em menores de cinco anos.OBJECTIVE: to analyze the food consumption of macro and micronutrients by children under fiver years old in the State of Pernambuco based on the Dietary Reference Intakes, in three geographic areas: Metropolitan Region of Recife, Urban Interior and Rural Interior. METHODS: the sample consisted of 948 children under five years old and was representative for the State of Pernambuco and its three geographic areas. The 24-hour recall method was used to register food consumption. The median and the prevalence of both macro and

  18. Micronutrient intake and risk of colon and rectal cancer in a Danish cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roswall, Nina; Olsen, Anja; Christensen, Jane; Dragsted, Lars O; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne

    2010-02-01

    Micronutrients may protect against colorectal cancer. Especially folate has been considered potentially preventive. However, studies on folate and colorectal cancer have found contradicting results; dietary folate seems preventive, whereas folic acid in supplements and fortification may increase the risk. To evaluate the association between intake of vitamins C, E, folate and beta-carotene and colorectal cancer risk, focusing on possibly different effects of dietary, supplemental and total intake, and on potential effect modification by lifestyle factors. In a prospective cohort study of 56,332 participants aged 50-64 years, information on diet, supplements and lifestyle was collected through questionnaires. 465 Colon and 283 rectal cancer cases were identified during follow-up. Incidence rate ratios of colon and rectal cancers related to micronutrient intake were calculated using Cox proportional hazard analyses. The present study found a protective effect of dietary but not supplemental folate on colon cancer. No association with any other micronutrient was found. Rectal cancer did not seem associated with any micronutrient. For both colon and rectal cancer, we found an interaction between dietary folate and alcohol intake, with a significant, preventive effect among those consuming above 10g alcohol/day only. This study adds further weight to the evidence that dietary folate protects against colon cancer, and specifies that there is a source-specific effect, with no preventive effect of supplemental folic acid. Further studies should thus take source into account. Vitamins C, E and beta-carotene showed no relation with colorectal cancer.

  19. Very low adequacy of micronutrient intakes by young children and women in rural Bangladesh is primarily explained by low food intake and limited diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, Joanne E; Yakes, Elizabeth A; Islam, M Munirul; Hossain, Mohammad B; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Hotz, Christine; Lewis, Bess; Rahman, Ahmed Shafiqur; Jamil, Kazi M; Brown, Kenneth H

    2013-02-01

    Documentation of micronutrient intake inadequacies among developing country populations is important for planning interventions to control micronutrient deficiencies. The objective of this study was to quantify micronutrient intakes by young children and their primary female caregivers in rural Bangladesh. We measured 24-h dietary intakes on 2 nonconsecutive days in a representative sample of 480 children (ages 24-48 mo) and women in 2 subdistricts of northern Bangladesh by using 12-h weighed food records and subsequent 12-h recall in homes. We calculated the probability of adequacy (PA) of usual intakes of 11 micronutrients and an overall mean PA, and evaluated dietary diversity by counting the total number of 9 food groups consumed. The overall adequacy of micronutrient intakes was compared to dietary diversity scores using correlation and multivariate regression analyses. The overall mean prevalence of adequacy of micronutrient intakes for children was 43% and for women was 26%. For children, the prevalence of adequate intakes for each of the 11 micronutrients ranged from a mean of 0 for calcium to 95% for vitamin B-6 and was foods.

  20. Added Sugar, Macro- and Micronutrient Intakes and Anthropometry of Children in a Developing World Context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni M W Maunder

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between added sugar and dietary diversity, micronutrient intakes and anthropometric status in a nationally representative study of children, 1-8.9 years of age in South Africa.Secondary analysis of a national survey of children (weighted n = 2,200; non weighted n = 2818 was undertaken. Validated 24-hour recalls of children were collected from mothers/caregivers and stratified into quartiles of percentage energy from added sugar (% EAS. A dietary diversity score (DDS using 9 food groups, a food variety score (FVS of individual food items, and a mean adequacy ratio (MAR based on 11 micronutrients were calculated. The prevalence of stunting and overweight/obesity was also determined.Added sugar intake varied from 7.5-10.3% of energy intake for rural and urban areas, respectively. Mean added sugar intake ranged from 1.0% of energy intake in Quartile 1 (1-3 years (Q1 to 19.3% in Q4 (4-8 years. Main sources of added sugar were white sugar (60.1%, cool drinks (squash type (10.4% and carbonated cool drinks (6.0%. Added sugar intake, correlated positively with most micronutrient intakes, DDS, FVS, and MAR. Significant negative partial correlations, adjusted for energy intake, were found between added sugar intake and intakes of protein, fibre, thiamin, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin E, calcium (1-3 years, phosphorus, iron (4-8 years, magnesium and zinc. The prevalence of overweight/obesity was higher in children aged 4-8 years in Q4 of %EAS than in other quartiles [mean (95%CI % prevalence overweight 23.0 (16.2-29.8% in Q4 compared to 13.0 (8.7-17.3% in Q1, p = 0.0063].Although DDS, FVS, MAR and micronutrient intakes were positively correlated with added sugar intakes, overall negative associations between micronutrients and added sugar intakes, adjusted for dietary energy, indicate micronutrient dilution. Overweight/obesity was increased with higher added sugar intakes in the 4-8 year old

  1. Utilizing Dietary Micronutrient Ratios in Nutritional Research May be More Informative than Focusing on Single Nutrients

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    Owen J. Kelly

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2015 US dietary guidelines advise the importance of good dietary patterns for health, which includes all nutrients. Micronutrients are rarely, if ever, consumed separately, they are not tissue specific in their actions and at the molecular level they are multitaskers. Metabolism functions within a seemingly random cellular milieu however ratios are important, for example, the ratio of adenosine triphosphate to adenosine monophosphate, or oxidized to reduced glutathione. Health status is determined by simple ratios, such as the waist hip ratio, or ratio of fat mass to lean mass. Some nutrient ratios exist and remain controversial such as the omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio and the sodium/potassium ratio. Therefore, examining ratios of micronutrients may convey more information about how diet and health outcomes are related. Summarized micronutrient intake data, from food only, from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, were used to generate initial ratios. Overall, in this preliminary analysis dietary ratios of micronutrients showed some differences between intakes and recommendations. Principles outlined here could be used in nutritional epidemiology and in basic nutritional research, rather than focusing on individual nutrient intakes. This paper presents the concept of micronutrient ratios to encourage change in the way nutrients are regarded.

  2. Food Groups Associated with a Composite Measure of Probability of Adequate Intake of 11 Micronutrients in the Diets of Women in Urban Mali

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kennedy, G.L.; Fanou-Fogny, N.M.L.; Seghieri, C.; Arimond, M.; Koreissi, Y.; Dossa, R.A.M.; Kok, F.J.; Brouwer, I.D.

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of micronutrient deficiency is high among women of reproductive age living in urban Mali. Despite this, there are little data on the dietary intake of micronutrients among women of reproductive age in Mali. This research tested the relationship between the quantity of intake of 21

  3. Poor micronutrient intake and status is a public health problem among adolescent Mozambican girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkalo, Liisa; Freese, Riitta; Alfthan, Georg; Fidalgo, Lourdes; Mutanen, Marja

    2015-08-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies can damage the health of adolescent girls and their offspring. There is a lack of population-based data on the micronutrient status of adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa. We conducted a cross-sectional, population-based study to examine the biochemical status, prevalence of deficiency, dietary intake, and food sources of selected micronutrients among adolescent girls in Central Mozambique. Separate groups of study participants were recruited in 2 seasons in 2010. The participants were girls between 14 and 19 years of age (n = 551) from 1 urban area and 2 rural districts. Micronutrient status indicators were analyzed from blood and urine samples. Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls were also carried out. The overall prevalence with 95% confidence interval (calculated using sampling weights) among nonpregnant girls was 42.4% (37.2%-47.8%; n = 466) for anemia, 27.4% (23.1%-32.2%; n = 427) for low serum ferritin, 32.7% (27.7%-38.1%; n = 423) for low serum zinc, 14.7% (11.2%-19.0%; n = 426) for low plasma retinol, and 4.1% (2.9%-5.8%; n = 448) for low serum folate. The selenium status was considered sufficient. Mild to moderate iodine deficiency was found in the rural districts, whereas the iodine status of urban girls was adequate. Significantly lower serum folate concentrations were found in the urban area compared to the rural districts. The seasonal differences in vitamin A intake were significant. The intakes of micronutrients from animal source foods were small. In summary, adolescent Mozambican girls are at risk of several micronutrient deficiencies. This raises concern especially because adolescent motherhood is common in the region. Actions need to be taken to prevent and control micronutrient deficiencies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Optimizing micronutrient intake of lactating women through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increasing consumption of wild edible plants, which are micronutrient rich, easy to grow, and culturally familiar, has been recommended to combat these deficiencies, but there is a gap in knowledge on which ... This data can provide policy makers with the information necessary to formulate effective nutritional interventions.

  5. Dietary intake of Croatian lactating women

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    Greta Krešić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional inadequacies during lactation may affect the well-being of both the mother and the infant. For this reason, breast-feeding women usually pay attention to their dietary practice during the breast-feeding period. The aim of this study was to examine changes in dietary intake of Croatian lactating women during six months postpartum. The study sample consisted of 83 lactating women whose diet records were collected at three measurements rounds: at 1 ± 0.25, 3 ± 0.25 and 6 ± 0.25 months postpartum. The mothers´ diets were investigated using two consecutive 24-hour dietary recalls. Energy and nutrient intakes were estimated using a nutritional database. The obtained results have shown that the diet of Croatian lactating women is hypocaloric (65.73 – 79.52 % DRI, p < 0.001 and deficient in magnesium, zinc, vitamins A, B1, B6, D and folate. Also evident was a moderate imbalance in the distribution of energy percentages from macronutrients. During six months postpartum, lactating women continuously decreased food intake resulting in a gradual decrease in energy intake (p < 0.001 and in the intake of all micronutrients. However, during six months postpartum, lactating women increased the share of total fat in energy intake (p = 0.006 and the share of saturated fatty acids (p = 0.048, while the share of monounsaturated fatty acids in total energy intake decreased (p = 0.004. It could be concluded that it is worthwhile to further study the nutritional status of Croatian lactating women during this vulnerable period especially regarding their micronutrients intake in order to achieve the recommended dietary requirements.

  6. Multiple micronutrient supplementation and dietary energy intake in pregnant women Suplementación con micronutrimentos múltiples y consumo de eneregía en mujeres embarazadas

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    María de Lourdes Flores

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare dietary intake of women supplemented with multiple micronutrients (MM or iron only during pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Design: Randomized, double-blind, controlled community-based trial. Setting: One semi-urban community in Central Mexico. Subjects: Pregnant women identified before week 13 of pregnancy, willing to provide informed consent. Interventions: Women were randomly assigned to receive daily supplementation with MM or iron only from recruitment until delivery. Supplements were delivered to the participants' home and compliance observed daily. Dietary intake was assessed by repeat 24-hr recall. Data were analyzed using non-parametric tests and multiple regression analysis to determine the impact of MM supplementation on dietary intake of energy and select micronutrients. RESULTS: During the third trimester, women in the MM group consumed more energy and iron from dietary sources than women in the iron only group. After adjustment for differences between the groups at baseline, women in the MM group consumed 111.3 kcal/day more (pOBJETIVO: Comparar la dieta de mujeres suplementada con múltiples micronutrimentos (MM o sólo con hierro durante el embarazo. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Diseño: ensayo comunitario, aleatorizado, controlado, doble ciego. Lugar: una comunidad semiurbana en el México central. Participantes: mujeres embarazadas identificadas antes de la semana 13 de embarazo, dispuestas a entregar el consentimiento informado. Actividades: las mujeres fueron asignadas en forma aleatoria a recibir suplementación diaria con MM o exclusivamente hierro desde el reclutamiento hasta el parto. Los suplementos se entregaron en la casa de las participantes y se observó su cumplimiento con frecuencia diaria. El consumo dietético fue valorado por mediciones repetidas de recordatorio de alimentos de 24 h. Los datos se analizaron mediante pruebas no paramétricas y análisis de regresión múltiple, para determinar el

  7. Decrease in specific micronutrient intake in colorectal cancer patients with tumors presenting Ki-ras mutation

    OpenAIRE

    JORDI SALAS; NURIA LASO; SERGI MAS; M. JOSE LAFUENTE; XAVIER CASTERAD; MANUEL TRIAS; ANTONIO BALLESTA; RAFAEL MOLINA; CARLOS ASCASO; SHICHUN ZHENG; JOHN K. WIENCKE; AMALIA LAFUENTE

    2004-01-01

    Decrease in specific micronutrient intake in colorectal cancer patients with tumors presenting Ki-ras mutation BACKGROUND: The diversity of the Mediterranean diet and the heterogeneity of acquired genetic alterations in colorectal cancer (CRC) led us to examine the possible association between dietary factors and mutations, such as Ki-ras mutations, in genes implicated in the pathogenesis of these neoplasms. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study was based on 246 cases and 296 controls. For th...

  8. Socioeconomic differences in micronutrient intake and status in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Novakovic, R.N.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to evaluate micronutrient intake and status of socioeconomic disadvantaged populations, such as from Central and Eastern European (CEE) as compared to other European populations, and low socioeconomic status (SES) groups as compared to high SES groups within European

  9. Micronutrient Daily Intake of Elementary School Children in Bandung as Determined by Using NAA and AAS Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Damastuti

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Micronutrients in human diet are known to be among the most essential sources of nutrition, that required by the human body in small amount to maintain normal physiological function. Micronutrient malnutrition (MNM is widespread all over the world, mostly in the developing country, where young children tend to be the most at risk of developing micronutrient deficiencies. In Indonesia, data of micronutrient status of children is limited. Therefore, the assessment of micronutrient intake of young children is needed to carry out. Food samples were taken by duplicate diet method of 19 elementary school children in Bandung and were analyzed using neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Quality control of data analysis was assessed using SRM NIST 1548a Typical Diet. The result was giving the average daily intake of Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Se and Zn were 228, 0.15, 0.57, 9.3, 929, 106, 2,1, 2314, 0.022 and 4.6 mg/day respectively and gives 22, 527, 86, 111, 17, 54, 116, 49 and 63% of Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA values. Its generally concluded that these children are still lack of micronutrient intake, and many of them were below their recommended dietary allowances. These result were expected could be used as baseline data and reference to encourage government and related institution in making policies for public health improvement and micronutrient malnutrition solution as well.

  10. Contribution of beverages to energy, macronutrient and micronutrient intake of third- and fourth-grade schoolchildren in Quetzaltenango, Guatemala.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montenegro-Bethancourt, G.; Vossenaar, M.; Doak, C.M.; Solomons, N.W.

    2010-01-01

    Beverages are selected based on availability, culture, taste preference, health, safety and social context. Beverages may be important to energy and to the macronutrient and micronutrient quality of overall intake. The aim of this study was to determine the contribution of beverages to the dietary

  11. Addressing the risk of inadequate and excessive micronutrient intakes: traditional versus new approaches to setting adequate and safe micronutrient levels in foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maaike J. Bruins

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fortification of foods consumed by the general population or specific food products or supplements designed to be consumed by vulnerable target groups is amongst the strategies in developing countries to address micronutrient deficiencies. Any strategy aimed at dietary change needs careful consideration, ensuring the needs of at-risk subgroups are met whilst ensuring safety within the general population. This paper reviews the key principles of two main assessment approaches that may assist developing countries in deciding on effective and safe micronutrient levels in foods or special products designed to address micronutrient deficiencies, that is, the cut-point method and the stepwise approach to risk–benefit assessment. In the first approach, the goal is to shift population intake distributions such that intake prevalences below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR and above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL are both minimized. However, for some micronutrients like vitamin A and zinc, a narrow margin between the EAR and UL exists. Increasing their intakes through mass fortification may pose a dilemma; not permitting the UL to be exceeded provides assurance about the safety within the population but can potentially leave a proportion of the target population with unmet needs, or vice versa. Risk–benefit approaches assist in decision making at different micronutrient intake scenarios by balancing the magnitude of potential health benefits of reducing inadequate intakes against health risks of excessive intakes. Risk–benefit approaches consider different aspects of health risk including severity and number of people affected. This approach reduces the uncertainty for policy makers as compared to classic cut-point methods.

  12. A questionnaire for screening the micronutrient intake of economically active South African adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senekal, Marjanne; Steyn, Nelia P; Nel, Johanna

    2009-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop (phase 1) and validate (phase 2) a screening questionnaire to assess the adequacy of micronutrient intake of economically active South African adults. For identification of indicator foods to be included in the screening questionnaire (phase 1), a comprehensive, eighty-six-item, quantified FFQ that reflected the food sources of thirteen selected micronutrients associated with the nutrition-related health status of South Africans was developed and completed by 554 adults of all four major ethnic groups. Resulting dietary data were subjected to stepwise regression analyses to identify indicator foods to be included in the final screening questionnaire. For validation of frequency of intake reporting of specific food items included in the screening questionnaire (phase 2), a sample of sixty-six African and eighty-four white adult volunteers of both genders completed a 7 d record as well as the screening questionnaire. The frequency of intake of specific food items derived from the two methods was then compared using Spearman correlation coefficients. Phase 1 identified thirty indicator foods that formed the basis of the screening questionnaire. In phase 2, significant correlations were found for the total group for twenty-two out of the thirty items in the questionnaire, with correlations being the best for white females and the poorest for African males and females. A screening questionnaire (thirty-item FFQ) that can be used by researchers and health professionals to assess an individual's risk of inadequate micronutrient intake was developed and validated.

  13. Pre-season dietary intake of professional soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raizel, Raquel; da Mata Godois, Allan; Coqueiro, Audrey Yule; Voltarelli, Fabrício Azevedo; Fett, Carlos Alexandre; Tirapegui, Julio; de Paula Ravagnani, Fabricio Cesar; de Faria Coelho-Ravagnani, Christianne

    2017-12-01

    Despite the well-documented importance of nutrition in optimizing performance and health, the dietary intake of soccer players has attracted little attention. We aimed to assess the pre-season dietary intake of professional soccer players and its adequacy in macro and micronutrients. The pre-season dietary intake of 19 male athletes was assessed using a semi-structured 3-day food record. To determine dietary adequacy and excess, energy and macronutrient intake were compared with the Brazilian dietary reference values for athletes, and micronutrients were compared with the Estimated Average Requirement - EAR (minimum recommendation) and Tolerable Upper Intake Level - UL (maximum recommendation). Mean daily energy intake (40.74±12.81 kcal/kg) was adequate. However, there was a low carbohydrate intake (5.44±1.86 g/kg/day) and a high amount of protein and fat (1.91±0.75 and 1.27±0.50 g/kg/day, respectively). Sodium intake (3141.77±939.76 mg/day) was higher than UL (2300 mg/day), while the majority of players showed daily intake of vitamin A (74%), vitamin D (100%), folate (58%), calcium and magnesium (68%) below the EAR (625, 10 and 320 µg/day, 800 and 330 mg/day, respectively). The dietary intake of professional soccer players was adequate in energy, but inadequate in macro and micronutrients, which suggests the need to improve nutritional practices to sustain the physical demands of soccer during pre-season.

  14. Effect of a nutrient-enriched drink on dietary intake and nutritional status in institutionalised elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manders, M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Blauw, Y.H.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Hoeckel-Prüst, van L.; Bindels, J.G.; Siebelink, E.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: (1) To determine whether nutritional supplementation (energy and micronutrients) in institutionalised elderly has a positive effect on dietary intake and nutritional status. (2) To investigate whether individuals tend to compensate for the energy content of the intervention product by

  15. Food prices and poverty negatively affect micronutrient intakes in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannotti, Lora L; Robles, Miguel; Pachón, Helena; Chiarella, Cristina

    2012-08-01

    Limited empirical evidence exists for how economic conditions affect micronutrient nutrition. We hypothesized that increasing poverty and rising food prices would reduce consumption of high-quality "luxury" foods, leading to an increased probability of inadequacy for several nutrients. The 2006 Guatemala National Living Conditions Survey was analyzed. First, energy and nutrient intakes and adequacy levels were calculated. Second, the income-nutrient relationships were investigated by assessing disparities in intakes, determining income-nutrient elasticities, and modeling nutrient intakes by reductions in income. Third, the food price-nutrient relationships were explored through determination of price-nutrient elasticities and modeling 2 price scenarios: an increase in food prices similar in magnitude to the food price crisis of 2007-2008 and a standardized 10% increase across all food groups. Disparities in nutrient intakes were greatest for vitamin B-12 (0.38 concentration index) and vitamin A (0.30 concentration index); these nutrients were highly and positively correlated with income (r = 0.22-0.54; P < 0.05). Although the baseline probability of inadequacy was highest for vitamin B-12 (83%), zinc showed the greatest increase in probability of inadequacy as income was reduced, followed by folate and vitamin A. With rising food prices, zinc intake was most acutely affected under both scenarios (P < 0.05) and folate intake in the poorest quintile (+7 percentage points) under the 10% scenario. Price-nutrient elasticities were highest for vitamin B-12 and the meat, poultry, and fish group (-0.503) and for folate and the legumes group (-0.343). The economic factors of food prices and income differentially influenced micronutrient intakes in Guatemala, notably zinc and folate intakes.

  16. Micronutrient Intake in Healthy Toddlers: A Multinational Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Hilger

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Adequate nutrient intake during early childhood is of particular importance for optimal growth and future health. However, cross-national comparative research on nutrient intake of toddlers is still limited. We conducted a literature review to examine the nutrient intake in healthy toddlers from some of the world’s most populous nations currently on different stages of socioeconomic development: Brazil, Germany, Russia and the United States. We aimed to identify national surveys reporting mean intakes of the following nutrients: vitamins A, D, E, folate, calcium, iron and zinc. To calculate the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake, we used a modified version of the Estimated Average Requirement cut-point method. Overall, five studies with 6756 toddlers were eligible for inclusion in this review. In countries where data were available, a prevalence of inadequate intake higher than 20% was found for vitamins A, D, E and calcium. In Germany, folate intake also appeared to be inadequate. The results of our review indicate that inadequate micronutrient intake in toddlers might be a global challenge affecting also affluent countries. However, to explore the full scope of this important public health issue joint efforts of researchers worldwide are needed to combine existing data and fill in data gaps.

  17. Dietary polyphenol intake in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Knaze, Viktoria; Rothwell, Joseph A

    2016-01-01

    were collected using a standardized 24-h dietary recall software administered to 36,037 adult subjects. Dietary data were linked with Phenol-Explorer, a database with data on 502 individual polyphenols in 452 foods and data on polyphenol losses due to cooking and food processing. RESULTS: Mean total....... The current cross-sectional analysis aimed at estimating dietary intakes of all currently known individual polyphenols and total intake per class and subclass, and to identify their main food sources in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. METHODS: Dietary data at baseline...... polyphenol intake was the highest in Aarhus-Denmark (1786 mg/day in men and 1626 mg/day in women) and the lowest in Greece (744 mg/day in men and 584 mg/day in women). When dividing the subjects into three regions, the highest intake of total polyphenols was observed in the UK health-conscious group...

  18. Dietary intakes in people with irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corfe Bernard M

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS is a functional bowel disorder characterised by episodes of abdominal pain associated with altered bowel habits. Many IBS sufferers believe that diet may play a role in triggering these episodes and may avoid certain foods. However relatively few studies have undertaken a dietary assessment in IBS sufferers to examine the wider impact of the condition upon diet. Methods 104 individuals with IBS were recruited and asked to complete a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. The data were analysed against Dietary Reference Values for food energy and nutrients for the United Kingdom and observed intakes for the general population and for differences between IBS subtypes and the UK population. Results The data show that the dietary intakes of this population of IBS sufferers met the UK Dietary Reference Values. The average energy intake of the population exceeded the Estimated Average Requirements of the UK population and the balance of macronutrients was favourable. Intakes of selected micronutrients significantly exceeded the reference nutrient intakes. There were no differences between IBS subtypes. Conclusions The IBS subpopulation appear to have an adequate and balanced macronutrient intake with no evidence of inadequate micronutrient intake.

  19. Daily dietary intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, H.S.

    1998-01-01

    As part of study on ''Reference Asian Man'' to strengthen radiation protection, the data on the dietary consumption patterns of the Asian region were collected. Eight provided dietary data - Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Pakistan, Philippines, and Viet Nam. Whereas the dietary information from Bangladesh, Indonesia, Pakistan and Viet Nam are preliminary in nature, the dietary information from China, India, Japan and Philippines, on the other hand, is quite substantial. The population of the countries from which sufficient dietary data are available represents more than 2/3 of the population of the Asian region. The details of the individual data available on dietary parameters from different Asian countries are listed below

  20. An Assessment of the Impact of Fortification of Staples and Condiments on Micronutrient Intake in Young Vietnamese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Berger

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Targeted fortification programs for infants and young children are an effective strategy to prevent micronutrient deficiencies in developing countries, but the role of large-scale fortification of staple foods and condiments is less clear. Dietary modeling in children aged 6–60 months was undertaken, based on food consumption patterns described in the 2009 national food consumption survey, using a 24-h recall method. Consumption data showed that the median intake of a child for iron, vitamin A and zinc, as a proportion of the Vietnamese Recommended Dietary Allowance (VRDA, is respectively 16%–48%, 14%–49% and 36%–46%, (depending on the age group. Potential fortification vehicles, such as rice, fish/soy sauces and vegetable oil are consumed daily in significant amounts (median: 170 g/capita/day, 4 g/capita/day and 6 g/capita/day, respectively by over 40% of the children. Vegetable oil fortification could contribute to an additional vitamin A intake of 21%–24% of VRDA recommended nutrient intake, while fortified rice could support the intakes of all the other micronutrients (14%–61% for iron, 4%–11% for zinc and 33%–49% of folate requirements. Other food vehicles, such as wheat flour, which is consumed by 16% of children, could also contribute to efforts to increase micronutrient intakes, although little impact on the prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies can be expected if used alone. The modeling suggests that fortification of vegetable oil, rice and sauces would be an effective strategy to address micronutrient gaps and deficiencies in young children.

  1. Micronutrient intake and status in Central and Eastern Europe compared with other European countries, results from the EURRECA network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Novakovic, R.N.; Cavelaars, A.J.E.M.; Bekkering, G.E.; Roman-Vinas, B.; Ngo, J.; Gurinovic, M.; Glibetic, M.; Golesorkhi, M.; Warthon-Medina, M.; Satalic, Z.; Geelen, A.; Serra Majem, L.; Veer, van 't P.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare micronutrient intakes and status in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) with those in other European countries and with reference values. Design: Review of the micronutrient intake/status data from open access and grey literature source

  2. Distribution of macro- and micronutrient intakes in relation to the meal pattern of third- and fourth-grade schoolchildren in the city of Quetzaltenango, Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vossenaar, Marieke; Montenegro-Bethancourt, Gabriela; Kuijper, Lothar D J; Doak, Colleen M; Solomons, Noel W

    2009-09-01

    Our objective was to assess the distribution of energy, macro- and micronutrient intakes by meal (breakfast, lunch, dinner and combined snacks) in a cross-sectional sample of schoolchildren. Cross-sectional dietary survey in schoolchildren. Twelve private and public schools in the urban setting of Quetzaltenango, Guatemala. A total of 449 schoolchildren (from higher and lower socio-economic strata) were enrolled in the study. Each child completed a single, pictorial 24 h prospective diary and a face-to-face interview to check completeness and estimate portion sizes. Estimated daily intakes were examined by mealtime as: (i) absolute intakes; (ii) relative nutrient distribution; and (iii) critical micronutrient density (i.e. nutrient density in relation to the WHO Recommended Nutrient Intakes/median age-specific Guatemalan energy requirements). The daily distribution of energy intake was 24% at breakfast, 30% at lunch, 23% at dinner and 23% among snacks. Lunch was also the leading meal for macronutrients, providing 35% of proteins, 27% of fat and 30% of carbohydrate. The distribution of selected micronutrients did not follow the pattern of energy, insofar as lunch provided relatively more vitamin C and Zn, whereas breakfast led in terms of vitamins A and D, thiamin, riboflavin, folate, Ca and Fe. Meal-specific distribution of energy, macro- and micronutrients provides a unique and little used perspective for evaluation of children's habitual intake, and may provide guidance to strategies to improve dietary balance in an era of coexisting energy overnutrition and micronutrient inadequacy.

  3. Associations between added sugars and micronutrient intakes and status: further analysis of data from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of Young People aged 4 to 18 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Sigrid; Boyd, Alison

    2009-01-01

    Added sugars are often viewed as 'empty calories', negatively impacting micronutrient intakes, yet reviews consider the evidence inconclusive. This study aimed to quantify associations between dietary added sugars (as a percentage of energy) and micronutrient intake and biochemical status in the National Diet and Nutrition Survey. Using data from 1688 British children aged 4-18 years who completed 7 d weighed dietary records in 1997, micronutrient intakes were examined across quintiles of added sugars. After excluding low energy reporters, mean dietary intakes of most nutrients exceeded the reference nutrient intake, except for zinc. Compared with quintile 1 (9% added sugars), high consumers in quintile 5 (23% added sugars) had micronutrient intakes ranging from 24% lower to 6% higher (mean 14% lower). Zinc intakes in quintile 1 v. quintile 5 averaged 93% v. 78% of reference nutrient intake; magnesium 114% v. 94%; iron 115% v. 100%; and vitamin A 111% v. 92%, respectively. Plasma levels of magnesium, zinc and carotenoids did not vary across quintiles, but weak negative correlations were observed with serum ferritin and transferrin saturation. Plasma selenium was inversely correlated with added sugars (r -0.17; P < 0.0001) but there was no association with glutathione peroxidase. The impact of added sugars on micronutrient intakes appears modest overall but may have relevance for children consuming inadequate amounts of nutrient-rich foods coupled with a diet high in added sugars (approximately 23%). Further work is needed to explore the impact of different sources of added sugars and to refine assessments of inadequate intakes and status.

  4. Dietary intake in asylum seeker children in The Netherlands, strongly related to age and origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stellinga-Boelen, A. A. M.; Wiegersma, P. A.; Bijleveld, C. M. A.

    Objective: To monitor the dietary intake of energy, macro- and micronutrients in asylum seeker children. Design and setting: Cross-sectional study in three asylum seeker centres in The Netherlands. Subjects: Hundred and sixteen children 2-12 years old (86% of the study cohort) provided a dietary

  5. Relative Validity of Micronutrient and Fiber Intake Assessed With Two New Interactive Meal- and Web-Based Food Frequency Questionnaires

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Sara E; Möller, Elisabeth; Bonn, Stephanie E; Ploner, Alexander; Bälter, Olle; Lissner, Lauren; Bälter, Katarina

    2014-01-01

    Background The meal- and Web-based food frequency questionnaires, Meal-Q and MiniMeal-Q, were developed for cost-efficient assessment of dietary intake in epidemiological studies. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the relative validity of micronutrient and fiber intake assessed with Meal-Q and MiniMeal-Q. The reproducibility of Meal-Q was also evaluated. Methods A total of 163 volunteer men and women aged between 20 and 63 years were recruited from Stockholm County, Sweden...

  6. Worldwide trends in dietary sugars intake.

    OpenAIRE

    Wittekind, Anna; Walton, Janette

    2014-01-01

    Estimating trends in dietary intake data is integral to informing national nutrition policy and monitoring progress towards dietary guidelines. Dietary intake of sugars is a controversial public health issue and guidance in relation to recommended intakes is particularly inconsistent. Published data relating to trends in sugars intake are relatively sparse. The purpose of the present review was to collate and review data from national nutrition surveys to examine changes and trends in dietary...

  7. Micronutrient intake of HIV-infected women in Mangaung, Free State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions. Insufficient micronutrient intakes are common in both HIV-infected and uninfected women. A well-balanced diet and micronutrient supplementation seem warranted to ensure optimal health and survival, particularly in HIV-infected women. South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition Vol. 20 (1) 2007: pp. 28-36 ...

  8. Contribution of beverages to energy, macronutrient and micronutrient intake of third- and fourth-grade schoolchildren in Quetzaltenango, Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro-Bethancourt, Gabriela; Vossenaar, Marieke; Doak, Colleen M; Solomons, Noel W

    2010-04-01

    Beverages are selected based on availability, culture, taste preference, health, safety and social context. Beverages may be important to energy and to the macronutrient and micronutrient quality of overall intake. The aim of this study was to determine the contribution of beverages to the dietary energy and estimated macro- and micronutrient intake to the diet of young schoolchildren. We analyzed data from third- and fourth-grade urban Guatemalan school-children aged predominantly 8-10 years old. One-day pictorial registries of all beverages, foods and snacks consumed over a 24-h period were collected from children from private (n = 219) and public (n = 230) schools. Food composition nutrient values were assigned to the items consumed. Eleven main categories of beverages were identified. The contribution of each of the 11 beverage categories to energy, macro- and micronutrients was evaluated. The estimated intake of beverages was 475,300 mL, as reported by the 449 children. As a group, the beverage consumed in the greatest quantity was coffee (126,500 mL), followed by plain water (62,000 mL). Beverages represented a mean energy contribution of 418 +/- 26 kcal (21.5% of total dietary energy). The beverages varied in energy density from 0 (water) to 1.5 kcal mL(-1) (thin gruels). Beverages contributed one-third of the dietary carbohydrate. Through the contribution of fortified drinks, beverages were important sources of vitamin A (55%), vitamin C (38%), zinc (21%) and calcium (19%). Milk was an important source for vitamin D (10%). These results show the importance of drinks to nutrition and the balance of concerns of overweight/obesity with micronutrient quality.

  9. Distribution of macro- and micronutrient intakes in relation to the meal pattern of third- and fourth-grade schoolchilderen in the city of Quetzaltenango, Guatemala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossenaar, M.; Montenegro-Bethancourt, G.; Kuijper, L.D.J.; Doak, C.M.; Solomons, N.W,

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Our objective was to assess the distribution of energy, macro- and micronutrient intakes by meal (breakfast, lunch, dinner and combined snacks) in a cross-sectional sample of schoolchildren. Design: Cross-sectional dietary survey in schoolchildren. Setting: Twelve private and public

  10. Distribution of macro- and micronutrient intakes in relation to the meal pattern of third- and fouth-grade schoolchilderen in the city of Quetzaltenango

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossenaar, M.; Montenegro-Bethancourt, G.; Kuijper, L.D.J.; Doak, C.M.; Solomons, N.W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Our objective was to assess the distribution of energy, macro- and micronutrient intakes by meal (breakfast, lunch, dinner and combined snacks) in a cross-sectional sample of schoolchildren. Design: Cross-sectional dietary survey in schoolchildren. Setting: Twelve private and public

  11. Distribution of macro- and micronutrient intakes in relation to the meal pattern of third- and fourth-grade schoolchildren in the city of Quetzaltenango, Guatemala.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossenaar, M.; Montenegro-Bethancourt, G.; Kuijper, L.D.J.; Doak, C.M.; Solomons, N.W,

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Our objective was to assess the distribution of energy, macro- and micronutrient intakes by meal (breakfast, lunch, dinner and combined snacks) in a cross-sectional sample of schoolchildren. Design: Cross-sectional dietary survey in schoolchildren. Setting: Twelve private and public

  12. Dietary Intake of Minerals, Vitamins, and Trace Elements Among Geriatric Population in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aakriti; Khenduja, Preetika; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan; Sati, Hem Chandra; Sofi, Nighat Yaseen; Kapil, Umesh

    2017-11-01

    The geriatric population is at a high risk of developing deficiencies of essential micronutrients such as minerals, vitamins, and trace elements and their related deficiency signs and symptoms. Scarce data is available on the dietary intake of essential micronutrients among geriatric subjects in India. Hence, to fill the gap in the existing knowledge, a community-based cross-sectional study was conducted during 2015-2016 in District Nainital, Uttarakhand State, India. A total of 255 geriatric subjects were enrolled from 30 clusters (villages) identified by using population proportionate to size sampling methodology. Data were collected on sociodemographic profile and dietary intake of essential micronutrients (24-h dietary recall, food frequency questionnaire) from all the geriatric subjects. A high percentage of geriatric subjects did not consume the recommended daily intake for essential micronutrients such as energy (78%), protein (78%), calcium (51%), thiamine (33%), riboflavin (64%), niacin (88%), vitamin C (42%), iron (72%), folic acid (72%), magnesium (48%), zinc (98%), copper (81%) and chromium (89%) adequately. Food groups rich in essential micronutrients such as pulses, green leafy vegetables, roots and tubers, other vegetables, fruits, nonvegetarian food items, and milk and milk products were consumed irregularly by the subjects. The overall intake of energy and essential micronutrients was inadequate among the geriatric population in India, possibly due to poor quality and quantity of the diet consumed.

  13. Worldwide trends in dietary sugars intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittekind, Anna; Walton, Janette

    2014-12-01

    Estimating trends in dietary intake data is integral to informing national nutrition policy and monitoring progress towards dietary guidelines. Dietary intake of sugars is a controversial public health issue and guidance in relation to recommended intakes is particularly inconsistent. Published data relating to trends in sugars intake are relatively sparse. The purpose of the present review was to collate and review data from national nutrition surveys to examine changes and trends in dietary sugars intake. Only thirteen countries (all in the developed world) appear to report estimates of sugars intake from national nutrition surveys at more than one point in time. Definitions of dietary sugars that were used include 'total sugars', 'non-milk extrinsic sugars', 'added sugars', sucrose' and 'mono- and disaccharides'. This variability in terminology across countries meant that comparisons were limited to within countries. Hence trends in dietary sugars intake were examined by country for the whole population (where data permitted), and for specific or combined age and sex subpopulations. Findings indicate that in the majority of population comparisons, estimated dietary sugars intake is either stable or decreasing in both absolute (g/d) and relative (% energy) terms. An increase in sugars intake was observed in few countries and only in specific subpopulations. In conclusion, the findings from the present review suggest that, in the main, dietary sugars intake are decreasing or stable. A consistent approach to estimation of dietary sugars intake from national nutrition surveys is required if more valid estimates of changes in dietary sugars intakes are required in the future.

  14. Micronutrient Intakes among Children and Adults in Greece: The Role of Age, Sex and Socio-Economic Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannis Manios

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to report the usual nutrient intakes of sixteen micronutrients by schoolchildren, adults and the elderly in Greece and to further explore the role of age, sex and socio-economic status (SES on meeting the recommended nutrient intakes. Dietary intake, demographic and SES data from three existing studies conducted in Greece (in 9–13-year-old children; 40–60-year-old adults; and 50–75-year-old women were collected. The prevalence of study participants with inadequate micronutrient intakes were assessed using the estimated average requirement (EAR cut-point method. Regarding sex and age differences, the highest prevalences of inadequate nutrient intakes occurred in post-menopausal women. In both sexes and all age groups, the prevalence of vitamin D intake below EAR reached 100%. Furthermore, nutrient intakes of 75% or more below EAR were found for vitamin E in all age groups, folate in women and for calcium and magnesium in post-menopausal women (p < 0.05. Regarding SES differences, the prevalences of inadequate calcium and vitamin C intakes were higher for children and postmenopausal women of lower SES compared to their higher SES counterparts (p < 0.05. The current study reported the highest prevalences of inadequate intakes for both sexes and all age and SES groups for calcium, folate and vitamins D and E. These findings could provide guidance to public health policy makers in terms of updating current dietary guidelines and fortifying foods to meet the needs of all population subgroups.

  15. Nutritional Adequacy of Dietary Intake in Women with Anorexia Nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan K. Raatz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding nutrient intake of anorexia nervosa (AN patients is essential for the treatment. Therefore, estimates of total energy and nutrient consumption were made in a group of young women (19 to 30 years with restricting and binge purge subtypes of AN participating in an ecological momentary assessment study. Participants completed three nonconsecutive 24-hour diet recalls. Mean nutrient intakes were stratified by subtype and by quartiles of energy intake and compared to the age specific Dietary Reference Intake (DRI levels, as well as to the reported intakes from the What We Eat In America (WWEIA dietary survey 2011–2012. Reported intake was determined for energy, macronutrients, and micronutrients. The mean body mass index (BMI for all participants was 17.2 ± 0.1 kg/m2. Reported nutrient intake was insufficient for participants in quartiles 1–3 of both AN subtypes when compared to the DRIs. Intake reported by participants in quartile 4 of both subgroups met requirements for most nutrients and even met or exceeded estimated energy needs. Counseling of AN patients should be directed to total food consumption to improve energy intake and to reduce individual nutritional gaps.

  16. Nutritional adequacy of dietary intake in women with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raatz, Susan K; Jahns, Lisa; Johnson, LuAnn K; Crosby, Ross; Mitchell, James E; Crow, Scott; Peterson, Carol; Le Grange, Daniel; Wonderlich, Stephen A

    2015-05-15

    Understanding nutrient intake of anorexia nervosa (AN) patients is essential for the treatment. Therefore, estimates of total energy and nutrient consumption were made in a group of young women (19 to 30 years) with restricting and binge purge subtypes of AN participating in an ecological momentary assessment study. Participants completed three nonconsecutive 24-hour diet recalls. Mean nutrient intakes were stratified by subtype and by quartiles of energy intake and compared to the age specific Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) levels, as well as to the reported intakes from the What We Eat In America (WWEIA) dietary survey 2011-2012. Reported intake was determined for energy, macronutrients, and micronutrients. The mean body mass index (BMI) for all participants was 17.2 ± 0.1 kg/m2. Reported nutrient intake was insufficient for participants in quartiles 1-3 of both AN subtypes when compared to the DRIs. Intake reported by participants in quartile 4 of both subgroups met requirements for most nutrients and even met or exceeded estimated energy needs. Counseling of AN patients should be directed to total food consumption to improve energy intake and to reduce individual nutritional gaps.

  17. Orange juice, a marker of diet quality, contributes to essential micronutrient and antioxidant intakes in the United States population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Meng; Lee, Sang-Gil; Wang, Ying; Lloyd, Beate; Chung, Sang-Jin; Song, Won O; Chun, Ock K

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of 100% orange juice (OJ) on the healthy diet and micronutrient intakes of the United States population. Cross-sectional study of 13,971 people in the United States aged ≥ 4 years using 2 24-hour diet recalls from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2006. Consumption of OJ was higher among 4- to 8-year-old children, older adults (> 50 y old), non-Hispanic blacks, those with lower body mass index, those of lower income level, nonsmokers, dietary supplement users, and those participating in regular exercise (P < .05). Consumption of OJ was positively associated with the percentage of participants meeting MyPyramid recommendations for fruit consumption. Increased OJ consumption was correlated with increased daily intakes of certain micronutrients and antioxidants (P < .05). Percentages of participants with intakes below Estimated Average Requirements for these micronutrients decreased with increased OJ consumption (P < .001). The implicated nutritional and potential health benefits of OJ warrant further investigation in clinical research studies. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Do Implant Overdentures Improve Dietary Intake? A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, N.M.; Gray-Donald, K.; Awad, M.A.; Johnson-Down, L.; Wollin, S.; Feine, J.S.

    2013-01-01

    People wearing mandibular two-implant overdentures (IOD) chew food with less difficulty than those wearing conventional complete dentures (CD). However, there is still controversy over whether or not this results in better dietary intake. In this randomized clinical trials (RCT), the amounts of total dietary fiber (TDF), macronutrients, 9 micronutrients, and energy in diets consumed by persons with IOD and CD were compared. Male and female edentate patients ≥ 65 yrs (n = 255) were randomly divided into 2 groups and assigned to receive a maxillary CD and either a mandibular IOD or a CD. One year following prosthesis delivery, 217 participants (CD = 114, IOD = 103) reported the food and quantities they consumed to a registered dietician through a standard 24-hour dietary recall method. The mean and median values of TDF, macro- and micronutrients, and energy consumed by both groups were calculated and compared analytically. No significant between-group differences were found (ps > .05). Despite quality-of-life benefits from IODs, this adequately powered study reveals no evidence of nutritional advantages for independently living medically healthy edentate elders wearing two-implant mandibular overdentures over those wearing conventional complete dentures in their dietary intake at one year following prosthesis delivery (International Clinical Trials ISRCTN24273915). PMID:24158335

  19. Nutrient intakes of US infants, toddlers, and preschoolers meet or exceed dietary reference intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butte, Nancy F; Fox, Mary Kay; Briefel, Ronette R; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Dwyer, Johanna T; Deming, Denise M; Reidy, Kathleen C

    2010-12-01

    To assess the usual nutrient intakes of 3,273 US infants, toddlers, and preschoolers, aged 0 to 47 months, surveyed in the Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS) 2008; and to compare data on the usual nutrient intakes for the two waves of FITS conducted in 2002 and 2008. The FITS 2008 is a cross-sectional survey of a national random sample of US children from birth through age 47 months. Usual nutrient intakes derived from foods, beverages, and supplements were ascertained using a telephone-administered, multiple-pass 24-hour dietary recall. Infants aged birth to 5 months (n=382) and 6 to 11 months (n=505), toddlers aged 12 to 23 months (n=925), and preschoolers aged 24 to 47 months (n=1,461) were surveyed. All primary caregivers completed one 24-hour dietary recall and a random subsample (n=701) completed a second 24-hour dietary recall. The personal computer version of the Software for Intake Distribution Estimation was used to estimate the 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th percentiles, as well as the proportions below and above cutoff values defined by the Dietary Reference Intakes or the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Usual nutrient intakes met or exceeded energy and protein requirements with minimal risk of vitamin and mineral deficiencies. The usual intakes of antioxidants, B vitamins, bone-related nutrients, and other micronutrients were adequate relative to the Adequate Intakes or Estimated Average Requirements, except for iron and zinc in a small subset of older infants, and vitamin E and potassium in toddlers and preschoolers. Intakes of synthetic folate, preformed vitamin A, zinc, and sodium exceeded Tolerable Upper Intake Level in a significant proportion of toddlers and preschoolers. Macronutrient distributions were within acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges, except for dietary fat, in some toddlers and preschoolers. Dietary fiber was low in the vast majority of toddlers and preschoolers, and saturated fat intakes exceeded

  20. Dietary intake of Senegalese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coomes Margerie

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this work is to identify major food sources and dietary constituents of Senegalese adults. We conducted a cross-sectional study, using a single 24-hour dietary recall interview. Foods were classified into food groups based on similarities in nutrient content or use. Food groups included foods consumed individually, or as part of food mixtures such as stews, soups, or sandwiches. Median consumption (amount/day of each food was determined and examined by relevant subgroups. Participants were 50 healthy Senegalese men, aged 20-62 years recruited at the Hôpital Général de Grand Yoff in Dakar, Senegal and from Sendou village, a rural area outside Dakar. A total of 90 foods and beverages were identified and classified into 11 groups. Sixty-five percent of foods identified could be classified as meats, grains, or fruits/vegetables. Fruits and vegetables comprised 42% (38/90 of all foods; meats 12% (11/90; and grains 11% (10/90. Sauces (6%, 5/90, sweets (4%, 4/90, and desserts (4%, 4/90 were also reported. The most common fruits/vegetables reported were potato, carrot, mango, and lettuce; commonly reported grains were bread and rice; and commonly reported meats were fish, beef, and ox. There were no differences in reported daily intake of each food by age, ethnicity, education, or residence. Most foods reported were traditional to the Senegalese diet, despite the increasing availability of Western foods in Senegal.

  1. Evaluation of Dietary Intakes and Supplement Use in Paralympic Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn F. Madden

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Dietary intakes and supplement use in Paralympic athletes remains largely unexplored, and specialized recommendations are lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate nutrient intakes and supplement use in high-performance athletes with physical disabilities using three-day food records and a validated dietary supplement use questionnaire. A secondary aim examined gender differences in nutrient and supplement intakes. Male (n = 18 and female (n = 22 athletes were recruited from nine Paralympic sports through sporting organizations, coaches, and social media. Athletes generally met able-bodied recommendations for macronutrients. Male and female athletes often failed to meet the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA or Adequate Intake (AI for vitamin D, vitamin E, pantothenic acid, magnesium, and potassium. On average, females did not meet the RDA for iron and calcium, whereas males did not meet the RDA for vitamin A and folate. Commonly consumed supplements were vitamin D, protein powder, sport bars, and sport drinks. Analysis of diet and supplement use within this population shows several micronutrient deficiencies and irregular use of specific supplements. Athlete support and education is required to optimize nutrition in Paralympic athletes.

  2. The excessive caloric intake and micronutrient deficiencies related to obesity after a long-term interdisciplinary therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Vanessa Fadanelli Schoenardie; Sanches, Ricardo Badan; Moraes, Amanda Dos Santos; Fidalgo, João Pedro Novo; Nascimento, Maythe Amaral; Bresciani, Paula; Andrade-Silva, Stephan Garcia; Cipullo, Marcos Alberto Taddeo; Clemente, José Carlos; Caranti, Danielle Arisa

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a long-term interdisciplinary lifestyle modification therapy on food intake, body composition, and anthropometric measurements of obese women. Seventy obese women (age 41 ± 5.9 y) attended the interdisciplinary therapy, with nutrition, physical exercise, physiotherapy, and psychological support during the course of 1 y. Usual food intake was estimated by 3-d dietary record. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry was performed to determine body fat and fat-free mass. Waist and hip circumferences also were measured. Student's t test and Wilcoxon test were used for comparisons among categories; P obesity; however, the present study reinforced the need to address the micronutrient deficiency in the target population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Socio-economic determinants of micronutrient intake and status in Europe: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Novakovic, R.N.; Cavelaars, A.J.E.M.; Geelen, A.; Nikolic, M.; Altaba, I.I.; Vinas, B.R.; Ngo, J.; Golsorkhi, M.; Medina, M.; Brzozowska, A.; Szczecinkska, A.; Cock, de D.; Vansant, G.; Renkema, J.M.S.; Serra Majem, L.; Moreno, L.A.; Glibetic, M.; Gurinovic, M.; Veer, van 't P.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide the evidence base for targeted nutrition policies to reduce the risk of micronutrient/diet-related diseases among disadvantaged populations in Europe, by focusing on: folate, vitamin B12, Fe, Zn and iodine for intake and status; and vitamin C, vitamin D, Ca, Se and Cu for

  4. Relative validity of micronutrient and fiber intake assessed with two new interactive meal- and Web-based food frequency questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Sara E; Möller, Elisabeth; Bonn, Stephanie E; Ploner, Alexander; Bälter, Olle; Lissner, Lauren; Bälter, Katarina

    2014-02-21

    The meal- and Web-based food frequency questionnaires, Meal-Q and MiniMeal-Q, were developed for cost-efficient assessment of dietary intake in epidemiological studies. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relative validity of micronutrient and fiber intake assessed with Meal-Q and MiniMeal-Q. The reproducibility of Meal-Q was also evaluated. A total of 163 volunteer men and women aged between 20 and 63 years were recruited from Stockholm County, Sweden. Assessment of micronutrient and fiber intake with the 174-item Meal-Q was compared to a Web-based 7-day weighed food record (WFR). Two administered Meal-Q questionnaires were compared for reproducibility. The 126-item MiniMeal-Q, developed after the validation study, was evaluated in a simulated validation by using truncated Meal-Q data. The study population consisted of approximately 80% women (129/163) with a mean age of 33 years (SD 12) who were highly educated (130/163, 80% with >12 years of education) on average. Cross-classification of quartiles with the WFR placed 69% to 90% in the same/adjacent quartile for Meal-Q and 67% to 89% for MiniMeal-Q. Bland-Altman plots with the WFR and the questionnaires showed large variances and a trend of increasing underestimation with increasing intakes. Deattenuated and energy-adjusted Spearman rank correlations between the questionnaires and the WFR were in the range ρ=.25-.69, excluding sodium that was not statistically significant. Cross-classifications of quartiles of the 2 Meal-Q administrations placed 86% to 97% in the same/adjacent quartile. Intraclass correlation coefficients for energy-adjusted intakes were in the range of .50-.76. With the exception of sodium, this validation study demonstrates Meal-Q and MiniMeal-Q to be useful methods for ranking micronutrient and fiber intake in epidemiological studies with Web-based data collection.

  5. Relative Validity of Micronutrient and Fiber Intake Assessed With Two New Interactive Meal- and Web-Based Food Frequency Questionnaires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Elisabeth; Bonn, Stephanie E; Ploner, Alexander; Bälter, Olle; Lissner, Lauren; Bälter, Katarina

    2014-01-01

    Background The meal- and Web-based food frequency questionnaires, Meal-Q and MiniMeal-Q, were developed for cost-efficient assessment of dietary intake in epidemiological studies. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the relative validity of micronutrient and fiber intake assessed with Meal-Q and MiniMeal-Q. The reproducibility of Meal-Q was also evaluated. Methods A total of 163 volunteer men and women aged between 20 and 63 years were recruited from Stockholm County, Sweden. Assessment of micronutrient and fiber intake with the 174-item Meal-Q was compared to a Web-based 7-day weighed food record (WFR). Two administered Meal-Q questionnaires were compared for reproducibility. The 126-item MiniMeal-Q, developed after the validation study, was evaluated in a simulated validation by using truncated Meal-Q data. Results The study population consisted of approximately 80% women (129/163) with a mean age of 33 years (SD 12) who were highly educated (130/163, 80% with >12 years of education) on average. Cross-classification of quartiles with the WFR placed 69% to 90% in the same/adjacent quartile for Meal-Q and 67% to 89% for MiniMeal-Q. Bland-Altman plots with the WFR and the questionnaires showed large variances and a trend of increasing underestimation with increasing intakes. Deattenuated and energy-adjusted Spearman rank correlations between the questionnaires and the WFR were in the range ρ=.25-.69, excluding sodium that was not statistically significant. Cross-classifications of quartiles of the 2 Meal-Q administrations placed 86% to 97% in the same/adjacent quartile. Intraclass correlation coefficients for energy-adjusted intakes were in the range of .50-.76. Conclusions With the exception of sodium, this validation study demonstrates Meal-Q and MiniMeal-Q to be useful methods for ranking micronutrient and fiber intake in epidemiological studies with Web-based data collection. PMID:24565605

  6. Estimated Dietary Polyphenol Intake and Major Food and Beverage Sources among Elderly Japanese

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    Chie Taguchi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Estimating polyphenol intake contributes to the understanding of polyphenols’ health benefits. However, information about human polyphenol intake is scarce, especially in the elderly. This study aimed to estimate the dietary intake and major sources of polyphenols and to determine whether there is any relationship between polyphenol intake and micronutrient intake in healthy elderly Japanese. First, 610 subjects (569 men, 41 women; aged 67.3 ± 6.1 years completed food frequency questionnaires. We then calculated their total polyphenol intake using our polyphenol content database. Their average total polyphenol intake was 1492 ± 665 mg/day, the greatest part of which was provided by beverages (79.1%. The daily polyphenol intake differed largely among individuals (183–4854 mg/day, also attributable mostly to beverage consumption. Coffee (43.2% and green tea (26.6% were the major sources of total polyphenol; the top 20 food items accounted for >90%. The polyphenol intake did not strongly correlate with the intake of any micronutrient, suggesting that polyphenols may exert health benefits independently of nutritional intake. The polyphenol intake in this elderly population was slightly higher than previous data in Japanese adults, and beverages such as coffee and green tea contributed highly to the intake.

  7. Micronutrient intake and risk of prostate cancer in a cohort of middle-aged, Danish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roswall, Nina; Larsen, Signe B.; Friis, Søren

    2013-01-01

    intake of vitamin C, E, folate, and beta-carotene and prostate cancer risk, focusing on possible different effects of dietary, supplemental, or total intake and on potential effect modification by alcohol intake and BMI. Methods: Danish prospective cohort study of 26,856 men aged 50-64 years...

  8. Micronutrient Intake in the Etiology, Prevention and Treatment of Osteosarcopenic Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Owen J; Gilman, Jennifer C; Kim, Youjin; Ilich, Jasminka Z

    2016-01-01

    Aging, chronic inflammation and/or many chronic conditions may result in loss of bone, loss of muscle and increased adiposity, manifested either overtly (overweight) or furtively as fat infiltration into bone and muscle. This combined condition has been identified as osteosarcopenic obesity. Micronutrients are required, not just to prevent deficiency diseases, but for optimal health and metabolic homeostasis. Further, micronutrients have multifunctional roles in the body. However, it is unknown if the micronutrient intake of the Western diet contributes to bone and muscle loss, increased adiposity, and ultimately osteosarcopenic obesity. The aim of this review is to examine the micronutrient intake using US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data, and explore if the insufficiencies, or excesses present contribute to the development of osteosarcopenic obesity in aging. First NHANES food intake data from 2002-2012 were obtained and transposed to Microsoft Excel for analysis. A literature search of PubMed and Medline for human data using combinations and synonyms of osteoporosis, sarcopenia and obesity, and each mineral and vitamin indicated as insufficient by NHANES. NHANES data suggested phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, potassium, iron, and vitamins B6/B12/C/A/D/E and K were candidates for further evaluation. 170 articles were included. While chronic single/multiple micronutrient insufficiency/excess is not studied in clinical trials, NHANES data suggest that they have existed for at least a decade. Examining the status and roles of those nutrients may be important to understanding the health issues associated with Western-type diets, including development of osteosarcopenic obesity.

  9. Nutritional status of Iranian women with rheumatoid arthritis: an assessment of dietary intake and disease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazi, Jalal; Mohtadinia, Javad; Kolahi, Soasan; Bakhtiyari, Mahmood; Delpisheh, Ali

    2011-09-01

    Long-standing chronic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis are known to be associated with impairment of nutritional status to some degree. The present study aimed to assess nutritional status of women with rheumatoid arthritis and compare their ingestion of certain micronutrients with dietary reference intakes. In this cross-sectional study, 90 eligible women were recruited. After examination, all patients were evaluated on the basis of disease activity score, calculated using the number of tender and swollen joints, patient global assessment of pain and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP). A three-day 24 h recall was completed and a 10 ml fasting blood sample was obtained to assess the plasma levels of malondialdehyde, total antioxidant and CRP. Despite normal BMI, intake of energy and micronutrients including calcium, folic acid, zinc, magnesium and vitamin B6 were considerably lower compared with the dietary reference intakes. There was no significant relationship between intake of different nutrients or food groups and disease activity score and the biochemical markers including malondialdehyde, CRP and total antioxidant. Intake of energy and some micronutrients were significantly lower than the recommended values. However, no relationship was found between intake of different food groups or nutrients with disease activity or serum antioxidant capacity.

  10. Meal Frequency but Not Snack Frequency Is Associated with Micronutrient Intakes and Overall Diet Quality in Australian Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leech, Rebecca M; Livingstone, Katherine M; Worsley, Anthony; Timperio, Anna; McNaughton, Sarah A

    2016-10-01

    Skipping breakfast is associated with poorer diet quality among adults, but evidence of associations for other eating patterns [e.g., eating occasion (EO), meal, or snack frequency] is equivocal. An understanding of how eating patterns are associated with diet quality is needed to inform population-level dietary recommendations. We aimed in this cross-sectional study to determine the relation between frequency of meals, snacks, and all EOs with nutrient intakes and diet quality in a representative sample of Australian adults. Dietary data for 5242 adults aged ≥19 y collected via two 24-h recalls during the 2011-2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey were analyzed. EO, meal, and snack frequency was calculated. Adherence to recommendations for healthy eating was assessed with the use of the 2013 Dietary Guidelines Index (DGI) and its subcomponents. Linear regression, adjusted for covariates and energy misreporting, was used to examine associations between eating patterns, energy-adjusted nutrient intakes, and the DGI-2013. The frequency of meals, but not of snacks, was positively associated with micronutrient intakes, overall diet quality [men: β = 5.6 (95% CI: 3.9, 7.3); women: β = 4.1 (95% CI: 2.2, 5.9); P snacks was positively associated with DGI-2013 scores for food variety, fruits, and dairy foods (P snack frequency was associated with a lower compliance with guidelines for discretionary foods and added sugars among men (P snack frequency suggest that the quality of snack choices is variable. More research examining the dietary profiles of eating patterns and their relations with diet quality is needed to inform the development of meal-based guidelines and messages that encourage healthy eating. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. Essential and Nonessential Micronutrients and Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavers, Kristen M.; Serra, Monica C.

    The purpose of this chapter is to review the role of micronutrients in sport. Attention is given to the function of micronutrients in the body, examples of quality dietary sources of each micronutrient, and an assessment of the literature examining how the recommended daily intake of a micronutrient may or may not change with exercise. The discussion includes plausible biological mechanisms of proposed performance enhancement and current research to support or negate these claims. Water-soluble vitamins, fat-soluble vitamins, macrominerals, and select microminerals are discussed in detail, and a comprehensive table reviewing all micronutrients recommendations for the athlete is provided. Practical applications for professionals working with athletes conclude the chapter.

  12. Dietary intake and adequacy of energy and nutrients in Mexican older adults: results from two National Health and Nutrition Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Góngora, Vanessa De la; Martínez-Tapia, Brenda; Cuevas-Nasu, Lucía; Flores-Aldana, Mario; Shamah-Levy, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    To describe energy and nutrient intakes and their adequacies in older Mexican adults participating in the National Health and Nutrition Survey (Ensanut) 2006 and 2012. Dietary information was obtained through a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) from 526 adults 60 y and older participating in Ensanut 2012 and 3 326 in Ensanut 2006 in Mexico. Quantile and logistic regression models were used to obtain medians and marginal effects of each nutrient, adjusting by confounders and survey design. Dietary intake of energy and nutrients was similar in both surveys. Most common micronutrients at risk of dietary deficiency were, for vitamins: A, B-12, C, D and folate, and for minerals: calcium, iron and zinc, in both surveys. Excessive intake of sugar and saturated fat and low fiber intake were common. Diet in older Mexican adults is low in micronutrient essentials, and excessive in fat and sugar. Attention to the diet in this age group through targeted interventions is necessary to promote a healthy diet.

  13. Dietary diversity and nutrient intake adequacy among women in Iwo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dietary diversity and nutrient intake adequacy among women in Iwo Local Government Area, Osun State Nigeria. ... A 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire was used to assess the food intake of the respondents, which was converted into nutrient intake using adapted Total Dietary Assessment (TDA) software. Dietary ...

  14. Estimating usual intakes mainly affects the micronutrient distribution among infants, toddlers and pre-schoolers from the 2012 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piernas, Carmen; Miles, Donna R; Deming, Denise M; Reidy, Kathleen C; Popkin, Barry M

    2016-04-01

    To compare estimates from one day with usual intake estimates to evaluate how the adjustment for within-person variability affected nutrient intake and adequacy in Mexican children. In order to obtain usual nutrient intakes, the National Cancer Institute's method was used to correct the first 24 h dietary recall collected in the entire sample (n 2045) with a second 24 h recall collected in a sub-sample (n 178). We computed estimates of one-day and usual intakes of total energy, fat, Fe, Zn and Na. 2012 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey. A total of 2045 children were included: 0-5·9 months old (n 182), 6-11·9 months old (n 228), 12-23·9 months old (n 537) and 24-47·9 months old (n 1098). From these, 178 provided an additional dietary recall. Although we found small or no differences in energy intake (kJ/d and kcal/d) between one-day v. usual intake means, the prevalence of inadequate and excessive energy intake decreased somewhat when using measures of usual intake relative to one day. Mean fat intake (g/d) was not different between one-day and usual intake among children >6 months old, but the prevalence of inadequate and excessive fat intake was overestimated among toddlers and pre-schoolers when using one-day intake (P6 months. There was overall low variability in energy and fat intakes but higher for micronutrients. Because the usual intake distributions are narrower, the prevalence of inadequate/excessive intakes may be biased when estimating nutrient adequacy if one day of data is used.

  15. Normal range of human dietary sodium intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarron, David A; Kazaks, Alexandra G; Geerling, Joel C

    2013-01-01

    The recommendation to restrict dietary sodium for management of hypertensive cardiovascular disease assumes that sodium intake exceeds physiologic need, that it can be significantly reduced, and that the reduction can be maintained over time. In contrast, neuroscientists have identified neural...... circuits in vertebrate animals that regulate sodium appetite within a narrow physiologic range. This study further validates our previous report that sodium intake, consistent with the neuroscience, tracks within a narrow range, consistent over time and across cultures....

  16. [Relationship between macronutrient and micronutrient intake and nutritional status of active older adults in Chillán, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrón, Verónica; Rodríguez, Alejandra; Cuadra, Ivonne; Flores, Carolina; Sandoval, Paulina

    Social participation by older adults is a health-protective element that promotes a normal nutritional status through the intake of appropriate nutrients that favour successful aging. A cross-sectional analytical study was performed on a sample of 118 older adults. Food intake was measured using a 24-h recall questionnaire. The body mass index was used to evaluate the nutritional status. The information was analysed using uni- and bivariate descriptive statistics. Given the abnormal distribution of the responses, the Mann-Whitney and Kolgomorov-Smirnov statistical test were used to compare data at the significance level α=0.05. More than half (55%) of the women and 61% of men had a normal nutritional status. The calories and macronutrient intake were within the recommended ranges and unrelated to the nutritional status (P>.05). The micronutrients showed significant differences in relation to the nutritional status, broken down by gender and age, in the majority of vitamins and minerals. (P>.01). The group between 75-90 years old accomplished the recommended dietary allowance in every case. The active participation in organised community groups, the educational level of the older adults, and higher income, could be key factors to explain the good nutritional status of the group, and appears to be a good indicator of healthy aging. Copyright © 2017 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessment of the Dietary Intake of Schoolchildren in South Africa: 15 Years after the First National Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelia Steyn

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available There has not been a national dietary study in children in South Africa since 1999. Fortification of flour and maize meal became mandatory in October 2003 to address micronutrient deficiencies found in the national study in 1999. The purpose of this review was to identify studies done after 1999 in schoolchildren, 6–15 years old, in order to determine whether dietary intakes reflected improvements in micronutrients, namely: iron, zinc, vitamin A, folate, thiamine, riboflavin, vitamin B6, and niacin. An electronic and hand search was done to identify all studies complying with relevant inclusion criteria. The search yielded 10 studies. Overall, there is a paucity of dietary studies which have included the fortified nutrients; only four, of which only one, reported on all micronutrients; making it difficult to determine whether fortification has improved the micronutrient intake of schoolchildren. This is further complicated by the fact that different dietary methods were used and that studies were only done in three of the nine provinces and thus are not generalizable. The results of these studies clearly point to the importance of doing a national study on the dietary intake of schoolchildren in order to confirm the outcomes of the fortification process.

  18. Suboptimal Vitamin B Intakes of Zambian Preschool Children: Evaluation of 24-Hour Dietary Recalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titcomb, Tyler J; Schmaelzle, Samantha T; Nuss, Emily T; Gregory, Jesse F; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2018-06-01

    Hidden hunger affects individuals who chronically consume an inadequate intake of at least 1 micronutrient and is associated with low dietary diversity. Little data are available on dietary intake or status assessment of B vitamins among preschool children in Zambia. The aim of this study was to assess 24-hour dietary recall records obtained from Zambian children aged 3 to 7 years for B vitamin intake in relation to adequacy and change over time in the same community. Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls were collected from 2 studies that were 2 years apart in the same district of Zambia. Data were retrospectively analyzed for B vitamin intake, that is, biotin, vitamin B 12 , folate, niacin, pantothenic acid, vitamin B 6 , riboflavin, and thiamin. The estimated average requirement (EAR) cut point method was used to assess inadequacy prevalence for EARs established by the Institute of Medicine in the United States. For all B vitamins, mean values were below the EARs established for children 4 to 8 years old. Relative to the EAR, children had the highest intakes of vitamin B 6 with inadequacies of 77.9% and 60.1% in 2010 and 2012, respectively. The highest prevalence of inadequate intake was associated with folate, where ≥95% of the children had intakes below the EAR in both studies. All median vitamin B intakes were inadequate among these young children in rural Zambia. Future researchers and policy makers may need to consider B vitamin status in resource-poor areas of the country.

  19. Beyond protein intake: bushmeat as source of micronutrients in the Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia M. Sarti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Wild meat is critical for the food security and income of millions of people, especially for poor rural households. Its role as a primary source of macronutrients worldwide has been recognized, but there have been few attempts to evaluate the contribution of bushmeat consumption to micronutrient intake. This is so particularly in the context of nutritional transitions induced by modernization and globalization. Here, we calculated the role of bushmeat as a source of micronutrients in the diets of urban and peri-urban inhabitants within the Tres Fronteras (Peru, Brazil, Colombia region in the Amazon. We gathered food intake data from 35 households using 3-day 24-h food recalls combined with food weighing. Additionally, we interviewed 105 households on food consumption frequency. Our results indicate that 14.3% of the households consumed bushmeat, which represented approximately 32% of their caloric intake, 72% of consumed protein, and 77% of iron. Typically, households consuming bushmeat presented higher a nutritional status, i.e., lower intake of carbohydrates (âˆ'10% and higher intake of proteins (+46%, iron (+151%, and zinc (+23%, than households not consuming bushmeat. Most of the sampled households did not achieve standard nutritional requirements for calories (94%, fiber, vitamin C, or iron (97% per adult per day. None of the households achieved the recommended daily intake for calcium. Households consuming bushmeat consumed statistically significantly higher levels of iron, zinc, and vitamin C than households that did not eat bushmeat. The latter consumed an excess of 31% calories from processed foods per adult per day, and lower amounts of iron (âˆ'60% and zinc (âˆ'19%. We argue that households not consuming bushmeat are at greater risk of anemia in the short run and other chronic health problems in the long run.

  20. Micronutrient dietary patterns associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus among women of the E3N-EPIC (Etude Epidémiologique auprès de femmes de l'Education Nationale) cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Francesca Romana; Dow, Courtney; Affret, Aurélie; Rajaobelina, Kalina; Dartois, Laureen; Balkau, Beverley; Bonnet, Fabrice; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy

    2018-02-19

    Micronutrients play a key role in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but methodological difficulties arise from their collinearity and interdependencies with foods. The aim of the present study was to identify micronutrient dietary patterns in the E3N-EPIC (Etude Epidémiologique auprès de femmes de l'Education Nationale) cohort and to investigate their association with risk of T2DM. Principal component analysis was used to identify micronutrient patterns among 71 270 women from the E3N-EPIC cohort. Associations between micronutrient patterns and risk of T2DM were quantified by hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) from Cox proportional hazards regression models, adjusted for potential confounders. Six micronutrient patterns were identified explaining 78% of the total variance in micronutrient intake. A positive association was found between T2DM and a pattern highly correlated with intake of vitamins B 2 and B 5 (HR 1.34; 95% CI 1.16-1.56). Similarly, a positive association was found with a pattern characterized by high intakes of vitamin B 12 and retinol, and a low intake of vitamin C (HR 1.30; 95% CI 1.15-1.48). An inverse association was observed between T2DM and another two patterns: one correlated with magnesium and vitamin B 3 (HR 0.75; 95% CI 0.66-0.86), and the other correlated with manganese intake (HR 0.82; 95% CI 0.72-0.94). The findings of the present study identify micronutrients that have an effect on the risk of T2DM, and enable better understanding of the complexity of the diet when investigating the association between micronutrients and T2DM. © 2018 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  1. Assessment of dietary intake among pregnant women in a rural area of western China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xueli

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adequate maternal nutrient intake during pregnancy is important to ensure satisfactory birth outcomes. There are no data available on the usual dietary intake among pregnant women in rural China. The present study describes and evaluates the dietary intake in a cohort of pregnant women living in two counties of rural Shaanxi, western China. Methods 1420 pregnant women were recruited from a trial that examined the effects of micronutrient supplementation on birth outcomes. Dietary information was collected at the end of their trimester or after delivery with an interviewed-administrated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. Nutrients intake was calculated from the FFQ and compared to the Estimated Average Requirements (EAR. The EAR cut-offs based on the Chinese Nutrition Society Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs were used to assess the prevalence of inadequate dietary intakes of energy, protein, calcium, zinc, riboflavin, vitamin C and folate. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal Wallis tests were used to compare nutrient intakes across subgroups. Results The mean nutrient intakes assessed by the FFQ was similar to those reported in the 2002 Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey from women living in rural areas except for low intakes of protein, fat, iron and zinc. Of the participants, 54% were at risk of inadequate intake of energy. There were high proportions of pregnant women who did not have adequate intakes of folate (97% and zinc (91%. Using the "probability approach", 64% of subjects had an inadequate consumption of iron. Conclusion These results reveal that the majority of pregnant women in these two counties had low intakes of nutrients that are essential for pregnancy such as iron and folate. Trial registration ISRCTN08850194.

  2. Estimate of dietary phosphorus intake using 24-h urine collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Yuuka; Sakuma, Masae; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Akitsu; Matsushita, Asami; Umeda, Minako; Ishikawa, Makoto; Taketani, Yutaka; Takeda, Eiji; Arai, Hidekazu

    2014-01-01

    Increases in serum phosphorus levels and dietary phosphorus intake induces vascular calcification, arterial sclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Limiting phosphorus intake is advisable, however, no assessment methods are capable of estimating dietary phosphorus intake. We hypothesized that urinary phosphorus excretion can be translated into estimation of dietary phosphorus intake, and we evaluated whether a 24-h urine collection method could estimate dietary phosphorus intake. Thirty two healthy subjects were recruited for this study. Subjects collected urine samples over 24 h and weighed dietary records. We calculated dietary protein intake and phosphorus intake from dietary records and urine collection, and investigated associations between the two methods in estimating protein and phosphorus intake. Significant positive correlations were observed between dietary records and UC for protein and phosphorus intake. The average intakes determined from dietary records were significantly higher than from urine collection for both protein and phosphorus. There was a significant positive correlation between both the phosphorus and protein difference in dietary records and urine collection. The phosphorus-protein ratio in urine collection was significantly higher than in dietary records. Our data indicated that the 24-h urine collection method can estimate the amount of dietary phosphorus intake, and the results were superior to estimation by weighed dietary record. PMID:25120281

  3. Nutritional status and dietary intake of urban residents in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amare Bemnet

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is paucity of data on the dietary intake and nutritional status of urban Ethiopians which necessitates comprehensive nutritional assessments. Therefore, the present study was aimed at evaluating the dietary intake and nutritional status of urban residents in Northwest Ethiopia. Methods This cross-sectional community based nutrition survey was conducted by involving 356 participants (71.3% female and 28.7% male with mean age of 37.3 years. Subjects were selected by random sampling. Socio demographic data was collected by questionnaire. Height, weight, hip circumference and waist circumference were measured following standard procedures. Dietary intake was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire and 24-h dietary recall. The recommended dietary allowance was taken as the cut-off point for the assessment of the adequacy of individual nutrient intake. Results Undernourished, overweight and obese subjects composed 12.9%, 21.3% and 5.9% of the participants, respectively. Men were taller, heavier and had higher waist to hip ratio compared to women (P  Conclusions The overall risk of nutritional inadequacy among the study participants was high along with their poor dietary intake. Hence, more stress should be made on planning and implementing nutritional programmes in urban settings aimed at preventing or correcting micronutrient and some macronutrient deficiencies which may be useful in preventing nutrition related diseases in life.

  4. An Assessment of the Potential Impact of Fortification of Staples and Condiments on Micronutrient Intake of Young Children and Women of Reproductive Age in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali Leyvraz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh has experienced rapid economic growth and achieved major health improvements in the past decade, but malnutrition rates remain high. A nationally representative study conducted in 2011 assessed the dietary habits of 841 children 24–59 months old, 1428 children 6–14 years old, and 1412 nonpregnant, nonlactating women. The study’s objective was to assess dietary intakes of key micronutrients and the consumption pattern of potentially fortifiable foods, and then to model the potential impact of the fortification of key staple foods. The current intakes of several micronutrients—namely, iron, zinc, folate, vitamin A, and vitamin B12—were found to be insufficient to meet the needs of Bangladesh’s children and women. The fortification of rice with iron and zinc and edible oil with vitamin A has the potential to fill a significant part of the nutrient gap, as these are consumed widely and in significant amounts. Wheat flour and sugar are not as promising food vehicles in the Bangladeshi context, as they were consumed by a smaller portion of the population and in smaller amounts. In conclusion, fortification of rice and oil is recommended to address the large gap in micronutrient intakes.

  5. Dietary intake of natural radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith-Briggs, J L; Bradley, E J [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (UK)

    1984-09-01

    The levels of the natural radionuclides, radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 were measured in food samples collected for a National Food Survey, thus reflecting current consumption patterns in the UK. Daily intakes of radium-226, lead-210 and inferred values of polonium-210 were calculated for 20 food groups. From these data, the annual effective dose equivalents from radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 in the UK diet were estimated to be 3..mu..Sv, 41..mu..Sv and 13..mu..Sv respectively.

  6. Dietary intake of natural radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith-Briggs, J.L.; Bradley, E.J.

    1984-01-01

    The levels of the natural radionuclides, radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 were measured in food samples collected for a National Food Survey, thus reflecting current consumption patterns in the UK. Daily intakes of radium-226, lead-210 and inferred values of polonium-210 were calculated for 20 food groups. From these data, the annual effective dose equivalents from radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 in the UK diet were estimated to be 3μSv, 41μSv and 13μSv respectively. (U.K.)

  7. Dietary patterns and trace elements intake evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, A.; Waheed, S.; Zaidi, J.H.; Ahmad, S.

    1998-01-01

    The dietary patterns and trace element contents of the integrated diets of middle income population in Gujranwala and of Islamabad have been studied and dietary intake of winter and summer are given. An overview of the elemental concentration in the two sets of integrated diets reveals similar zinc and manganese concentrations; comparatively higher nickel, selenium and potassium concentrations in Gujranwala and higher chromium, cesium, scandium, sodium and chlorine concentrations in Islamabad. These results undoubtedly reflect the difference in food selection and habits of the two populations, the influence of soil content and industrial pollution

  8. Age and disability affect dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartali, Benedetta; Salvini, Simonetta; Turrini, Aida; Lauretani, Fulvio; Russo, Cosimo R; Corsi, Anna M; Bandinelli, Stefania; D'Amicis, Amleto; Palli, Domenico; Guralnik, Jack M; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2003-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to provide information on dietary intake in the InCHIANTI study population, a representative sample (n = 1453) of persons living in two towns of Tuscany (Italy), including a large number of old and very old individuals (79.5% >65 y old). We also investigated whether difficulties in nutrition-related activities were associated with inadequate intake of selected nutrients. The percentage of persons with an inadequate intake of nutrients according to Italian Recommended Nutrients Levels (LARN) was higher in the older age groups. Older persons tended to adapt their diets in response to individual functional difficulties, often leading to monotonous food consumption and, as a consequence, to inadequate nutrient intakes. Multiple logistic models were used to evaluate whether inadequate intake of selected nutrients could be predicted by nutrition-related difficulties. Reporting difficulties in three or more nutrition-related activities (chewing, self-feeding, shopping for basic necessities, carrying a shopping bag, cooking a warm meal, using fingers to grasp or handle) significantly increased the risk of inadequate intake of energy [odds ratio (OR) = 3.8, 95% CI = 1.9-7.8) and vitamin C (OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.2-4.2, after adjustment for energy intake). More attention to functional problems in the elderly population and the provision of formal or informal help to those who have difficulty in purchasing, processing and eating food may reduce, at least in part, the percentage of older persons with poor nutrition.

  9. Comparison of strategies for assessing nutritional adequacy in elite female athletes' dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Susan; O'Connor, Helen; Gifford, Janelle; Naughton, Geraldine

    2010-06-01

    This study aimed to compare strategies for assessing nutritional adequacy in the dietary intake of elite female athletes. Dietary intake was assessed using an adapted food-frequency questionnaire in 72 elite female athletes from a variety of sports. Nutritional adequacy was evaluated and compared using mean intake; the proportion of participants with intakes below Australian nutrient reference values (NRV), U.S. military dietary reference intakes (MDRI), and current sports nutrition recommendations; and probability estimates of nutrient inadequacy. Mean energy intake was 10,551 +/- 3,836 kJ/day with macronutrient distribution 18% protein, 31% fat, and 46% carbohydrate, consistent with Australian acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges. Mean protein intake (1.6 g . kg(-1) . d(-1)) was consistent with (>1.2 g . kg(-1) . d(-1)), and carbohydrate intake (4.5 g . kg(-1) . d(-1)), below, current sports nutrition recommendations (>5 g . kg(-1) . d(-1)), with 30% and 65% of individuals not meeting these levels, respectively. Mean micronutrient intake met the relevant NRV and MDRI except for vitamin D and folate. A proportion of participants failed to meet the estimated average requirement for folate (48%), calcium (24%), magnesium (19%), and iron (4%). Probability estimates of inadequacy identified intake of folate (44%), calcium (22%), iron (19%), and magnesium (15%) as inadequate. Interpretation of dietary adequacy is complex and varies depending on whether the mean, proportion of participants below the relevant NRV, or statistical probability estimate of inadequacy is used. Further research on methods to determine dietary adequacy in athlete populations is required.

  10. Development of protein, dietary fiber, and micronutrient enriched extruded corn snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Faiz-Ul-Hassan; Sharif, Mian Kamran; Butt, Masood Sadiq; Shahid, Muhammad

    2017-06-01

    The study was aimed to develop protein, dietary fiber, and micronutrient enriched corn snacks through extrusion processing. Corn snacks supplemented with chickpea, defatted soy flour (20-40/100 g) and guar gum (7/100 g) were prepared through extrusion processing. Micronutrients (iron, zinc, iodine, and vitamins A, C, and folic acid) at recommended daily values were added in all formulations. Extruded corn snacks were analyzed for physical, textural, and sensory attributes. Results showed that piece density (0.34-0.44 g/cm 3 ), moisture (3.40-5.25%), water activity (0.203-0.361), hardness (64.4-133.2 N), and cohesiveness (0.25-0.44) was increased Whereas, expansion ratio (3.72-2.64), springiness (0.82-0.69), chewiness (1.63-0.42), and resilience (1.37-0.14) was decreased as supplementation with soy and chickpea flour increased from 20 to 40/100 g. Overall corn snack supplemented with 15/100 g of soy and 15/100 g of chickpea flour got the highest acceptance from the sensory panelists. The article focuses on physical, textural, and sensory attributes of extruded corn snacks enriched with protein, dietary fiber, and micronutrients Awareness about the importance of healthy snacks has grown among the consumers during the last decade. Extruded snacks developed using nutrient rich ingredients with good textural and sensory properties has always remained a challenge for the snack industry. Texture of the extruded snacks varies a lot with high levels of protein and dietary fiber. This study is helpful for the development of healthy snacks especially in developing countries lacking storage infrastructure or tropical environment. Nutrient rich extruded snacks can also be used to alleviate malnutrition by incorporating in school lunch programs. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Adult Nutrient Intakes from Current National Dietary Surveys of European Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly L. Rippin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization (WHO encourages countries to undertake national dietary survey (NDS but implementation and reporting is inconsistent. This paper provides an up-to-date review of adult macro and micronutrient intakes in European populations as reported by NDS. It uses WHO Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNIs to assess intake adequacy and highlight areas of concern. NDS information was gathered primarily by internet searches and contacting survey authors and nutrition experts. Survey characteristics and adult intakes by gender/age group were extracted for selected nutrients and weighted means calculated by region. Of the 53 WHO Europe countries, over a third (n = 19, mainly Central & Eastern European countries (CEEC, had no identifiable NDS. Energy and nutrient intakes were extracted for 21 (40% countries but differences in age group, methodology, under-reporting and nutrient composition databases hindered inter-country comparisons. No country met more than 39% WHO RNIs in all age/gender groups; macronutrient RNI achievement was poorer than micronutrient. Overall RNI attainment was slightly worse in CEEC and lower in women and female elderly. Only 40% countries provided adult energy and nutrient intakes. The main gaps lie in CEEC, where unknown nutrient deficiencies may occur. WHO RNI attainment was universally poor for macronutrients, especially for women, the female elderly and CEEC. All countries could be encouraged to report a uniform nutrient set and sub-analyses of nationally representative nutrient intakes.

  12. Plasma biomarker of dietary phytosterol intake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobo Lin

    Full Text Available Dietary phytosterols, plant sterols structurally similar to cholesterol, reduce intestinal cholesterol absorption and have many other potentially beneficial biological effects in humans. Due to limited information on phytosterol levels in foods, however, it is difficult to quantify habitual dietary phytosterol intake (DPI. Therefore, we sought to identify a plasma biomarker of DPI.Data were analyzed from two feeding studies with a total of 38 subjects during 94 dietary periods. DPI was carefully controlled at low, intermediate, and high levels. Plasma levels of phytosterols and cholesterol metabolites were assessed at the end of each diet period. Based on simple ordinary least squares regression analysis, the best biomarker for DPI was the ratio of plasma campesterol to the endogenous cholesterol metabolite 5-α-cholestanol (R2 = 0.785, P 0.600; P < 0.01.The ratio of plasma campesterol to the coordinately regulated endogenous cholesterol metabolite 5-α-cholestanol is a biomarker of dietary phytosterol intake. Conversely, plasma phytosterol levels alone are not ideal biomarkers of DPI because they are confounded by large inter-individual variation in absorption and turnover of non-cholesterol sterols. Further work is needed to assess the relation between non-cholesterol sterol metabolism and associated cholesterol transport in the genesis of coronary heart disease.

  13. Dietary fat intake and functional dyspepsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Khodarahm

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A few studies have assessed the effects of fat intake in the induction of dyspeptic symptoms. So, the aim of this study was to review the articles regarding the dietary fat intake and FD. We used electronic database of PubMed to search. These key words were chosen: FD, dietary fat, dyspeptic symptom, energy intake and nutrients. First, articles that their title and abstract were related to the mentioned subject were gathered. Then, full texts of related articles were selected for reading. Finally, by excluding four articles that was irrelevant to subject, 19 relevant English papers by designing clinical trial, cross-sectional, case–control, prospective cohort, and review that published from 1992 to 2012 were investigated. Anecdotally, specific food items or food groups, particularly fatty foods have been related to dyspepsia. Laboratory studies have shown that the addition of fat to a meal resulted in more symptoms of fullness, bloating, and nausea in dyspeptic patients. Studies have reported that hypersensitivity of the stomach to postprandial distension is an essential factor in the generation of dyspeptic symptoms. Small intestinal infusions of nutrients, particularly fat, exacerbate this hypersensitivity. Moreover, evidence showed that perception of gastric distension increased by lipids but not by glucose. Long chain triglycerides appear to be more potent than medium chain triglycerides in inducing symptoms of fullness, nausea, and suppression of hunger. Thus, Fatty foods may exacerbate dyspeptic symptoms. Therefore, it seems that a reduction in intake of fatty foods may useful, although this requires more evaluations.

  14. Dietary protein intake and chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Gang Jee; Obi, Yoshitsugu; Tortorici, Amanda R; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2017-01-01

    High-protein intake may lead to increased intraglomerular pressure and glomerular hyperfiltration. This can cause damage to glomerular structure leading to or aggravating chronic kidney disease (CKD). Hence, a low-protein diet (LPD) of 0.6-0.8 g/kg/day is often recommended for the management of CKD. We reviewed the effect of protein intake on incidence and progression of CKD and the role of LPD in the CKD management. Actual dietary protein consumption in CKD patients remains substantially higher than the recommendations for LPD. Notwithstanding the inconclusive results of the 'Modification of Diet in Renal Disease' (MDRD) study, the largest randomized controlled trial to examine protein restriction in CKD, several prior and subsequent studies and meta-analyses appear to support the role of LPD on retarding progression of CKD and delaying initiation of maintenance dialysis therapy. LPD can also be used to control metabolic derangements in CKD. Supplemented LPD with essential amino acids or their ketoanalogs may be used for incremental transition to dialysis especially on nondialysis days. The LPD management in lieu of dialysis therapy can reduce costs, enhance psychological adaptation, and preserve residual renal function upon transition to dialysis. Adherence and adequate protein and energy intake should be ensured to avoid protein-energy wasting. A balanced and individualized dietary approach based on LPD should be elaborated with periodic dietitian counseling and surveillance to optimize management of CKD, to assure adequate protein and energy intake, and to avoid or correct protein-energy wasting.

  15. Free-sugar, total-sugar, fibre, and micronutrient intake within elite youth British soccer players: a nutritional transition from schoolboy to fulltime soccer player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Robert J; Drust, Barry; O'Boyle, Andy; Abayomi, Julie; Mahon, Elizabeth; Morton, James P; Davies, Ian G

    2017-05-01

    It is recommended that soccer players consume a high carbohydrate diet to augment performance. However, growing evidence suggests that there is a link between high free-sugar (FS) intake (>5% total energy intake; TEI) and metabolic diseases. Furthermore, foods that are often high in sugar, such as processed foods, are typically lacking in nutrient quality. We therefore analysed total-sugar, FS, dietary fibre, and micronutrient intake of players from an English Premier League academy under (U) 18 (n = 13), U15/16 (n = 25), and U13/14 (n = 21) using a 7-day food diary. Data were compared with current United Kingdom (UK) dietary reference value (DRV) for FS via a t test. The U13/14s (10% ± 18%) and U15/16s (11% ± 30%) both consumed higher amounts of FS in comparison with the UK DRV of 5% TEI (P elite youth soccer players. We report an apparent "nutritional transition" from schoolboy to fulltime soccer player, with U18s showing a significantly lower intake of sugar in comparison with younger squads, and a similar intake of FS to the UK DRVs. Practitioners should target improving player education around sugar and fibre consumption.

  16. Association between Bone Turnover, Micronutrient Intake, and Blood Lead Levels in Pre-and Postmenopausal Women, NHANES 1999–2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Leila W.; Cromer, Barbara A.; Panneerselvamm, Ashok

    2010-01-01

    Background Blood lead levels (BLLs) have been shown to increase during periods of high bone turnover such as pregnancy and menopause. Objectives We examined the associations between bone turnover and micronutrient intake with BLLs in women 20–85 years of age (n = 2,671) participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999–2002. Methods Serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and urinary cross-linked N-telopeptides (NTx) were measured as markers of bone formation and resorption, respectively. Lead was quantified in whole blood. The association between tertiles of BAP and NTx, and BLLs was examined using linear regression with natural log-transformed BLLs as the dependent variable and interpreted as the percent difference in geometric mean BLLs. Results In adjusted analyses, mean BLLs among postmenopausal women in the upper tertiles of NTx and BAP were 34% [95% confidence interval (CI), 23%–45%] and 30% (95% CI, 17%–43%) higher than BLLs among women in the lowest tertiles of NTx and BAP, respectively. These associations were weaker, but remained statistically significant, among premenopausal women (NTx: 10%; 95% CI, 0.60%–19%; BAP: 14%; 95% CI, 6%–22%). Within tertiles of NTx and BAP, calcium intake above the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI), compared with below the DRI, was associated with lower mean BLLs among postmenopausal women but not premenopausal women, although most of the associations were not statistically significant. We observed similar associations for vitamin D supplement use. Conclusions Bone resorption and bone formation were associated with a significant increase in BLLs among pre-and postmenopausal women. PMID:20688594

  17. Association between bone turnover, micronutrient intake, and blood lead levels in pre- and postmenopausal women, NHANES 1999-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Leila W; Cromer, Barbara A; Panneerselvamm, Ashok

    2010-11-01

    Blood lead levels (BLLs) have been shown to increase during periods of high bone turnover such as pregnancy and menopause. We examined the associations between bone turnover and micronutrient intake with BLLs in women 20-85 years of age (n = 2,671) participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2002. Serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and urinary cross-linked N-telopeptides (NTx) were measured as markers of bone formation and resorption, respectively. Lead was quantified in whole blood. The association between tertiles of BAP and NTx, and BLLs was examined using linear regression with natural log transformed BLLs as the dependent variable and interpreted as the percent difference in geometric mean BLLs. In adjusted analyses, mean BLLs among postmenopausal women in the upper tertiles of NTx and BAP were 34% [95% confidence interval (CI), 23%-45%] and 30% (95% CI, 17%-43%) higher than BLLs among women in the lowest tertiles of NTx and BAP, respectively. These associations were weaker, but remained statistically significant, among premenopausal women (NTx: 10%; 95% CI, 0.60%-19%; BAP: 14%; 95% CI, 6%-22%). Within tertiles of NTx and BAP, calcium intake above the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI), compared with below the DRI, was associated with lower mean BLLs among postmenopausal women but not premenopausal women, although most of the associations were not statistically significant. We observed similar associations for vitamin D supplement use. Bone resorption and bone formation were associated with a significant increase in BLLs among pre- and postmenopausal women.

  18. Dietary intake in the dependent elderly: evaluation of the risk of nutritional deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Barrés, S; Martín, N; Canela, T; García-Barco, M; Basora, J; Arija, V

    2016-04-01

    Malnutrition is a frequent problem in elderly dependent patients and their prognosis is adversely affected. Assessment of food consumption and adequacy of energy and nutrient intake of dependent elderly is needed to plan any selected actions for this population. The study comprised a multicentre cross-sectional study of 190 users (≥65 years) of a home care programme provided by primary care centers in Tarragona (Spain), at nutritional risk (Mini Nutritional Assessment: 17-23.5 points). Food consumption was assessed using a semiquantitative validated food frequency questionnaire. Energy intake was compared with the Spanish dietary reference intake (DRI) and nutritional intakes with the DRI of the American Institute of Medicine. Mean (SD) age was 85.0 (7.2) years (67.5% female). The food items consumed were varied but lower than the recommended portions for cereals, fruits, vegetables and legumes. Energy intake was 7454.2 (1553.9 kJ day(-1)) [1781.6 (371.4) kcal day(-1)] (97.7% of recommended dietary allowance; RDA) and protein intake was 1.0 (0.4) g kg(-1) of weight (121.4% of RDA). Proteins provided 13.3%, carbohydrates provided 39.9% and fats provided 45.8% of energy intake. The intakes of calcium, vitamin D, vitamin E and folates were less than two-thirds of the RDA and their probability of inadequate intake was >85%. Dietary intakes of elderly dependent patients at nutritional risk were well balanced. In general, energy and protein intakes meet the recommendations. The diet was high in energy density, low in complex carbohydrates, high in simple carbohydrates and excessive in fats. The dependent elderly had inadequate intake of micronutrients often related to fragility, such as calcium, vitamin D, vitamin E and folates. © 2015 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  19. Plasma biomarker of dietary phytosterol intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaobo; Racette, Susan B; Ma, Lina; Wallendorf, Michael; Spearie, Catherine Anderson; Ostlund, Richard E

    2015-01-01

    Dietary phytosterols, plant sterols structurally similar to cholesterol, reduce intestinal cholesterol absorption and have many other potentially beneficial biological effects in humans. Due to limited information on phytosterol levels in foods, however, it is difficult to quantify habitual dietary phytosterol intake (DPI). Therefore, we sought to identify a plasma biomarker of DPI. Data were analyzed from two feeding studies with a total of 38 subjects during 94 dietary periods. DPI was carefully controlled at low, intermediate, and high levels. Plasma levels of phytosterols and cholesterol metabolites were assessed at the end of each diet period. Based on simple ordinary least squares regression analysis, the best biomarker for DPI was the ratio of plasma campesterol to the endogenous cholesterol metabolite 5-α-cholestanol (R2 = 0.785, P 0.600; P phytosterol intake. Conversely, plasma phytosterol levels alone are not ideal biomarkers of DPI because they are confounded by large inter-individual variation in absorption and turnover of non-cholesterol sterols. Further work is needed to assess the relation between non-cholesterol sterol metabolism and associated cholesterol transport in the genesis of coronary heart disease.

  20. Validation of a Food Frequency Questionnaire for Estimating Micronutrient Intakes in an Urban US Sample of Multi-Ethnic Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunst, Kelly J; Kannan, Srimathi; Ni, Yu-Ming; Gennings, Chris; Ganguri, Harish B; Wright, Rosalind J

    2016-02-01

    To validate the Block98 food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for estimating antioxidant, methyl-nutrient and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) intakes in a pregnant sample of ethnic/racial minority women in the United States (US). Participants (n = 42) were from the Programming of Intergenerational Stress Mechanisms study. Total micronutrient intakes from food and supplements was ascertained using the modified Block98 FFQ and two 24-h dietary recalls collected at random on nonconsecutive days subsequent to completion of the FFQ in mid-pregnancy. Correlation coefficients (r) corrected for attenuation from within-person variation in the recalls were calculated for antioxidants (n = 7), methyl-nutrients (n = 8), and PUFAs (n = 2). The sample was largely ethnic minorities (38 % Black, 33 % Hispanic) with 21 % being foreign born and 41 % having less than or equal to a high school degree. Significant and adequate deattenuated correlations (r ≥ 0.40) for total dietary intakes of antioxidants were observed for vitamin C, vitamin E, magnesium, and zinc. Reasonable deattenuated correlations were also observed for methyl-nutrient intakes of vitamin B6, betaine, iron, and n:6 PUFAs; however, they did not reach significance. Most women were classified into the same or adjacent quartiles (≥70 %) for total (dietary + supplements) estimates of antioxidants (5 out of 7) and methyl-nutrients (4 out of 5). The Block98 FFQ is an appropriate dietary method for evaluating antioxidants in pregnant ethnic/minorities in the US; it may be less efficient in measuring methyl-nutrient and PUFA intakes.

  1. Changing micronutrient intake through (voluntary) behaviour change. The case of folate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Birger B; Lähteenmäki, Liisa; Grunert, Klaus G; Brown, Kerry A; Timotijevic, Lada; Barnett, Julie; Shepherd, Richard; Raats, Monique M

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to relate behaviour change mechanisms to nutritionally relevant behaviour and demonstrate how the different mechanisms can affect attempts to change these behaviours. Folate was used as an example to illuminate the possibilities and challenges in inducing behaviour change. The behaviours affecting folate intake were recognised and categorised. Behaviour change mechanisms from "rational model of man", behavioural economics, health psychology and social psychology were identified and aligned against folate-related behaviours. The folate example demonstrated the complexity of mechanisms influencing possible behavioural changes, even though this only targets the intake of a single micronutrient. When considering possible options to promote folate intake, the feasibility of producing the desired outcome should be related to the mechanisms of required changes in behaviour and the possible alternatives that require no or only minor changes in behaviour. Dissecting the theories provides new approaches to food-related behaviour that will aid the development of batteries of policy options when targeting nutritional problems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Egg Intake and Dietary Quality among Overweight and Obese Mexican-American Postpartum Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Vega-López

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite their low cost and high nutrient density, the contribution of eggs to nutrient intake and dietary quality among Mexican-American postpartum women has not been evaluated. Nutrient intake and dietary quality, as assessed by the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010, were measured in habitually sedentary overweight/obese (body mass index (BMI = 29.7 ± 3.5 kg/m2 Mexican-American postpartum women (28 ± 6 years and compared between egg consumers (n = 82; any egg intake reported in at least one of three 24-h dietary recalls and non-consumers (n = 57. Egg consumers had greater intake of energy (+808 kJ (193 kcal or 14%; p = 0.033, protein (+9 g or 17%; p = 0.031, total fat (+9 g or 19%; p = 0.039, monounsaturated fat (+4 g or 24%; p = 0.020, and several micronutrients than non-consumers. Regarding HEI-2010 scores, egg consumers had a greater total protein foods score than non-consumers (4.7 ± 0.7 vs. 4.3 ± 1.0; p = 0.004, and trends for greater total fruit (2.4 ± 1.8 vs. 1.9 ± 1.7; p = 0.070 and the total composite HEI-2010 score (56.4 ± 12.6 vs. 52.3 ± 14.4; p = 0.082. Findings suggest that egg intake could contribute to greater nutrient intake and improved dietary quality among postpartum Mexican-American women. Because of greater energy intake among egg consumers, recommendations for overweight/obese individuals should include avoiding excessive energy intake and incorporating eggs to a nutrient-dense, fiber-rich dietary pattern.

  3. Dietary Protein Intake and Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Gang Jee; Obi, Yoshitsugu; Tortoricci, Amanda R.; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2018-01-01

    Purpose of review High protein intake may lead to increased intraglomerular pressure and glomerular hyperfiltration. This can cause damage to glomerular structure leading to or aggravating chronic kidney disease (CKD). Hence, a low protein diet (LPD) of 0.6–0.8 g/kg/day is often recommended for the management of CKD. We reviewed the effect of protein intake on incidence and progression of CKD and the role of LPD the CKD management. Recent findings Actual dietary protein consumption in CKD patients remain substantially higher than the recommendations for LPD. Notwithstanding the inconclusive results of the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) study, the largest randomized controlled trial to examine protein restriction in CKD, several prior and subsequent studies and meta-analyses including secondary analyses of the MDRD data appear to support the role of LPD on retarding progression of CKD and delaying initiation of maintenance dialysis therapy. LPD can also be used to control metabolic derangements in CKD. Supplemented LPD with essential amino acids or their keto-analogs may be used for incremental transition to dialysis especially in non-dialysis days. An LPD management in lieu of dialysis therapy can reduce costs, enhance psychological adaptation, and preserve residual renal function upon transition to dialysis. Adherence and adequate protein and energy intake should be ensured to avoid protein-energy wasting. Summary A balanced and individualized dietary approach based on LPD should be elaborated with periodic dietitian counselling and surveillance to optimize management of CKD, to assure adequate protein and energy intake and to avoid or correct protein-energy wasting. PMID:27801685

  4. Dietary patterns and nutrient intakes of a South African population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dietary patterns and nutrient intakes of a South African population and asymptomatic people infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus: The transition health and urbanisation in South Africa (Thusa) study.

  5. Eating out of home and its association with dietary intake: a systematic review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachat, C; Nago, E; Verstraeten, R; Roberfroid, D; Van Camp, J; Kolsteren, P

    2012-04-01

    During the last decades, eating out of home (OH) has gained importance in the diets worldwide. We document the nutritional characteristics of eating OH and its associations with energy intake, dietary quality and socioeconomic status. We carried out a systematic review of peer-reviewed studies in eight databases up to 10 March 2011. Of the 7,319 studies retrieved, 29 met the inclusion criteria and were analysed in this review. The quality of the data was assessed and a sensitivity analysis was conducted by isolating nationally representative or large cohort data from 6 and 11 countries, respectively. OH foods were important sources of energy in all age groups and their energy contribution increased in adolescents and young adults. Eating OH was associated with a higher total energy intake, energy contribution from fat in the daily diet and higher socioeconomic status. Two large studies showed how eating OH was also associated with a lower intake of micronutrients, particularly vitamin C, Ca and Fe. Although the studies were cross-sectional and heterogeneous in the way they classified eating OH, we conclude that eating OH is a risk factor for higher energy and fat intake and lower micronutrient intake. © 2011 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2011 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  6. Meat as an early complementary food for infants: implications for macro- and micronutrient intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Nancy F

    2007-01-01

    Optimal complementary feeding is recognized to be critical for prevention of infectious morbidity and mortality and for optimal growth and development. The nutrients which become limiting in human milk after approximately 6 months of exclusive breastfeeding are predictable based on the dynamic composition of human milk and the physiology of infant nutritional requirements. Iron and zinc are two micronutrients for which the concentrations in human milk are relatively independent of maternal intake, and for which the older infant is most dependent on complementary foods to meet requirements. Traditional feeding practices, including reliance on cereals and plant-based diets, do not complement these recognized gaps in human milk. Meats or cellular animal proteins are richer sources of these critical minerals as well as other essential nutrients. Yet, cellular animal proteins are often introduced only late in infancy in developed countries, and may be only rarely consumed by young children in developing countries. Plant-based diets result in a predominance of energy from carbohydrates, often including highly refined carbohydrates that are also likely to have a high glycemic index. This pattern of macronutrient intake is contrary to that of the period when the human genome evolved, and may influence the metabolic profile in young children, especially under conditions of nutritional abundance.

  7. Micronutrient status and intake in omnivores, vegetarians and vegans in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüpbach, R; Wegmüller, R; Berguerand, C; Bui, M; Herter-Aeberli, I

    2017-02-01

    Vegetarian and vegan diets have gained popularity in Switzerland. The nutritional status of individuals who have adopted such diets, however, has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to assess the intake and status of selected vitamins and minerals among vegetarian and vegan adults living in Switzerland. Healthy adults [omnivores (OVs), n OV  = 100; vegetarians (VGs), n VG  = 53; vegans (VNs), n VN  = 53] aged 18-50 years were recruited, and their weight and height were measured. Plasma concentrations of the vitamins A, C, E, B1, B2, B6, B12, folic acid, pantothenic acid, niacin, biotin and β-carotene and of the minerals Fe, Mg and Zn and urinary iodine concentration were determined. Dietary intake was assessed using a three-day weighed food record, and questionnaires were issued in order to assess the physical activity and lifestyle of the subjects. Omnivores had the lowest intake of Mg, vitamin C, vitamin E, niacin and folic acid. Vegans reported low intakes of Ca and a marginal consumption of the vitamins D and B12. The highest prevalence for vitamin and mineral deficiencies in each group was as follows: in the omnivorous group, for folic acid (58 %); in the vegetarian group, for vitamin B6 and niacin (58 and 34 %, respectively); and in the vegan group, for Zn (47 %). Despite negligible dietary vitamin B12 intake in the vegan group, deficiency of this particular vitamin was low in all groups thanks to widespread use of supplements. Prevalence of Fe deficiency was comparable across all diet groups. Despite substantial differences in intake and deficiency between groups, our results indicate that by consuming a well-balanced diet including supplements or fortified products, all three types of diet can potentially fulfill requirements for vitamin and mineral consumption.

  8. Healthy-eater self-schema and dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noureddine, Samar; Stein, Karen

    2009-03-01

    The types and amounts of foods consumed have been shown to influence the health risks of individuals. Empirical evidence has documented a link between high dietary fat and low fiber intake and the risks for cardiovascular disease, some types of cancer, and obesity. Dietary surveys of Americans show higher fat and lower fiber intake than stipulated in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, despite the noted increase in public awareness regarding the importance of adopting healthy eating habits. The lack of congruence between the availability of dietary knowledge and behavioral adherence to dietary recommendations suggests a need to further understand the predictors of dietary intake. In this study, the authors used the schema model of the self-concept to explore the role of self-beliefs in predicting dietary intake in community-dwelling, working-class, middle-aged adults.

  9. Dietary intake of carotenoids and risk of type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijs, I.; Cadier, E.; Beulens, J. W J; van der A, D. L.; Spijkerman, A. M W; van der Schouw, Y. T.

    Background and aims: Carotenoids may reduce diabetes risk, due to their antioxidant properties. However, the association between dietary carotenoids intake and type 2 diabetes risk is still unclear. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine whether higher dietary carotenoid intakes

  10. Dietary fat intake and nutritional status indicators of primary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglyceride levels, as well as dietary fat intakes usually associated with cardiovascular ... higher than the national prevalence rate of 10%. ... Serum cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels were within the normal ... The total dietary fat intakes showed significant relationships with

  11. Reduced Dietary Sodium Intake Increases Heart Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels A; Hubeck-Graudal, Thorbjørn; Jürgens, Gesche

    2016-01-01

    Reduced dietary sodium intake (sodium reduction) increases heart rate in some studies of animals and humans. As heart rate is independently associated with the development of heart failure and increased risk of premature death a potential increase in heart rate could be a harmful side......-effect of sodium reduction. The purpose of the present meta-analysis was to investigate the effect of sodium reduction on heart rate. Relevant studies were retrieved from an updated pool of 176 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in the period 1973-2014. Sixty-three of the RCTs including 72 study...... populations reported data on heart rate. In a meta-analysis of these data sodium reduction increased heart rate with 1.65 beats per minute [95% CI: 1.19, 2.11], p heart rate. This effect was independent of baseline blood pressure. In conclusion sodium reduction...

  12. Metabolic Phenotyping of Diet and Dietary Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignardello, J; Holmes, E; Garcia-Perez, I

    Nutrition provides the building blocks for growth, repair, and maintenance of the body and is key to maintaining health. Exposure to fast foods, mass production of dietary components, and wider importation of goods have challenged the balance between diet and health in recent decades, and both scientists and clinicians struggle to characterize the relationship between this changing dietary landscape and human metabolism with its consequent impact on health. Metabolic phenotyping of foods, using high-density data-generating technologies to profile the biochemical composition of foods, meals, and human samples (pre- and postfood intake), can be used to map the complex interaction between the diet and human metabolism and also to assess food quality and safety. Here, we outline some of the techniques currently used for metabolic phenotyping and describe key applications in the food sciences, ending with a broad outlook at some of the newer technologies in the field with a view to exploring their potential to address some of the critical challenges in nutritional science. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Cardiorespiratory fitness modifies the association between dietary fat intake and plasma fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, D; Väisänen, S B; Bouchard, C; Halle, M; Lakka, T A; Baumstark, M W; Alen, M; Berg, A; Rauramaa, R

    2003-07-01

    To investigate the relation between (1) cardiorespiratory fitness and plasma saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids and (2) the interactions between cardiorespiratory fitness, dietary fat intake and plasma fatty acid composition. Cross-sectional analysis. The subjects were randomly selected, 127 middle-aged Finnish men participating in the DNASCO exercise intervention study. Cardiorespiratory fitness was determined spiroergometrically, dietary intake of macro- and micronutrients by 4-day food records and plasma fatty acids by gas chromatography. The subjects were divided into tertiles of aerobic fitness. Differences between fitness tertiles were not observed for dietary intake of total fat, and saturated, monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids (percent of total energy). In contrast, plasma saturated fatty acids were significantly lower (P cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with different levels in plasma saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids and lead to modifications in the association between dietary and plasma fatty acids. These findings can perhaps be explained by a reduced hepatic fatty acid and lipoprotein synthesis as well as by an enhanced muscular lipid utilization, which are commonly seen in those who are physically active and who exhibit a higher level of fitness.

  14. Household food insufficiency is associated with dietary intake in Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Eun; Song, Yoon Ju; Kim, Young; Choe, Jeongsook; Paik, Hee-Young

    2016-04-01

    To examine the association of food insufficiency with dietary intake and eating and health behaviours. A cross-sectional study. Data were obtained from a secondary source, the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2012). The sample size consisted of 15 603 adults over 19 years of age (8898 households). Significant differences in socio-economic factors were observed according to food insufficiency level (Pfood-insufficient group, but we found no association with fat intake. Regarding micronutrients, Ca, Fe, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin niacin and vitamin C intakes were negatively associated with food insufficiency level (P trendfood groups, such as meat, fish, eggs and beans, vegetables and fruits, was significantly lower as food insufficiency level decreased after controlling for all possible variables; food group consumption also differed by sex. Overall eating and health behaviours were poorer in the mildly and severely food-insufficient groups, who received more food assistance but less nutritional education. Our results showed that dietary intake as well as eating and health behaviours are adversely associated with food insufficiency. These findings suggest that specific strategies to help food-insufficient individuals should be developed in order to improve their dietary quality and health status.

  15. Excessive Refined Carbohydrates and Scarce Micronutrients Intakes Increase Inflammatory Mediators and Insulin Resistance in Prepubertal and Pubertal Obese Children Independently of Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardia López-Alarcón

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Low-grade inflammation is the link between obesity and insulin resistance. Because physiologic insulin resistance occurs at puberty, obese pubertal children are at higher risk for insulin resistance. Excessive diets in refined carbohydrates and saturated fats are risk factors for insulin resistance, but calcium, magnesium, vitamin-D, and the omega-3 fatty acids likely protect against inflammation and insulin resistance. Objective. To analyze interactions among dietary saturated fat, refined carbohydrates, calcium, magnesium, vitamin D, and omega-3 fatty acids on the risk of inflammation and insulin resistance in a sample of prepubertal and pubertal children. Methods. A sample of 229 children from Mexico City was analyzed in a cross-sectional design. Anthropometric measurements, 24 h recall questionnaires, and blood samples were obtained. Serum insulin, glucose, calcium, magnesium, 25-OHD3, C-reactive protein, leptin, adiponectin, and erythrocytes fatty acids were measured. Parametric and nonparametric statistics were used for analysis. Results. While mean macronutrients intake was excessive, micronutrients intake was deficient (P<0.01. Inflammation determinants were central obesity and magnesium-deficient diets. Determinants of insulin resistance were carbohydrates intake and circulating magnesium and adiponectin. Conclusions. Magnesium-deficient diets are determinants of inflammation, while high intake of refined carbohydrates is a risk factor for insulin resistance, independently of central adiposity.

  16. Validation of a Tablet Application for Assessing Dietary Intakes Compared with the Measured Food Intake/Food Waste Method in Military Personnel Consuming Field Rations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavra Ahmed

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The collection of accurate dietary intakes using traditional dietary assessment methods (e.g., food records from military personnel is challenging due to the demanding physiological and psychological conditions of training or operations. In addition, these methods are burdensome, time consuming, and prone to measurement errors. Adopting smart-phone/tablet technology could overcome some of these barriers. The objective was to assess the validity of a tablet app, modified to contain detailed nutritional composition data, in comparison to a measured food intake/waste method. A sample of Canadian Armed Forces personnel, randomized to either a tablet app (n = 9 or a weighed food record (wFR (n = 9, recorded the consumption of standard military rations for a total of 8 days. Compared to the gold standard measured food intake/waste method, the difference in mean energy intake was small (−73 kcal/day for tablet app and −108 kcal/day for wFR (p > 0.05. Repeated Measures Bland-Altman plots indicated good agreement for both methods (tablet app and wFR with the measured food intake/waste method. These findings demonstrate that the tablet app, with added nutritional composition data, is comparable to the traditional dietary assessment method (wFR and performs satisfactorily in relation to the measured food intake/waste method to assess energy, macronutrient, and selected micronutrient intakes in a sample of military personnel.

  17. Pre- and post-season dietary intake, body composition, and performance indices of NCAA division I female soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Mandy; Reed, Debra B; Crouse, Stephen F; Armstrong, Robert B

    2003-09-01

    Little published data describe the dietary and physiological profiles of intercollegiate female soccer players; therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to report baseline dietary data, anthropometrics, and performance indices of soccer women during rigorous pre-season training (2 sessions/day) and then during the post-competitive season. Members of a NCAA Division I women's soccer squad completed 3-day diet records, anthropometrics, and physical tests, including VO2peak. Average body mass was 62 kg with 16% body fat, and no significant pre to post differences were observed. Total energy, carbohydrate (CHO), protein, and fat intakes were significantly greater during the pre-season. Pre-season energy intake met the DRI for females with an "active" lifestyle (37 kcal/kg). While CHO intake failed to meet minimum recommendations to promote glycogen repletion (7-10 g/kg), protein and fat intakes were above minimum recommendations. Pre- and post-season intakes of several micronutrients were marginal (failed to meet minimum CHO and micronutrient recommendations. Foods higher in protein and fat displaced more CHO-rich and nutrient-dense foods within athletes' energy requirements and satiety limits.

  18. Dietary reference intakes for water, potassium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Panel on Dietary Reference Intakes for Electrolytes and Water

    2005-01-01

    .... This new report, the sixth in a series of reports presenting dietary reference values for the intakes of nutrients by Americans and Canadians, establishes nutrient recommendations on water, potassium...

  19. dietary patterns and nutrient intakes of a south african population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alan Jackson

    1Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, College of Science, Kwame ... The pattern of diet is an important determinant of overall pattern of nutrient intake, ..... fibre. For the staple-based, dietary score showed significant positive linear ...

  20. urban dietary heavy metal intake from protein foods and vegetables

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    Contamination of food and food products by heavy metals has made dietary intake as one of the ... metals cadmium, copper, lead and zinc from protein-foods (beans, meat, fish, milk) and green ..... on food additives Technical report series. No.

  1. Dietary Intake of Athletes Seeking Nutrition Advice at a Major International Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J. Burkhart

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available International travel and short-term residence overseas is now a common feature of an elite athlete’s competition schedule, however, food choice away from home may be challenging and potentially impact on performance. Guidelines for dietary intake specific to competition exist for athletes, however, there is little evidence available to ascertain if athletes meet these recommendations during competition periods, particularly when food is provided in-house. During the Delhi 2010 Commonwealth Games, dietitians based in the dining hall recorded 24 h dietary recalls with all athletes who visited the nutrition kiosk. Analysis of dietary intake was conducted with FoodWorks (Xyris Pty Ltd., Brisbane, Australia. Overall, athletes reported consuming a median total daily energy intake of 8674 kJ (range 2384–18,009 kJ, with carbohydrate within the range of 1.0–9.0 g per kg of bodyweight (g/kg (median = 3.8 and contributing to 50% total energy (TE (range 14%–79%. Protein and fat intake ranged from 0.3–4.0 g/kg (median = 1.7 to 10–138 g (median = 67 g, and contributed to 21% TE (range 8%–48% and 24% TE (range 8%–44%, respectively. Athletes reported consuming between 4 and 29 different food items (median = 15 in the previous 24 h period, with predominately discretionary, grains/cereals, meats, poultry, fish, eggs, and meat alternative items. This suggests that dairy, fruit, and vegetable intake may be suboptimal and intake of the micronutrients iron, zinc, calcium, and vitamins A and C may be of concern for a number of athletes.

  2. Maternal first-trimester dietary intake and childhood blood pressure: the Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hil, Leontine C L; Rob Taal, H; de Jonge, Layla L; Heppe, Denise H M; Steegers, Eric A P; Hofman, Albert; van der Heijden, Albert J; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2013-10-01

    Suboptimal maternal dietary intake during pregnancy might lead to fetal cardiovascular adaptations and higher blood pressure in the offspring. The aim of the present study was to investigate the associations of maternal first-trimester dietary intake with blood pressure in children at the age of 6 years. We assessed first-trimester maternal daily dietary intake by a FFQ and measured folate, homocysteine and vitamin B₁₂ concentrations in the blood, in a population-based prospective cohort study among 2863 mothers and children. Childhood systolic and diastolic blood pressure was measured using a validated automatic sphygmomanometer. First-trimester maternal daily intake of energy, fat, protein and carbohydrate was not associated with childhood blood pressure. Furthermore, maternal intake of micronutrients was not associated with childhood blood pressure. Also, higher maternal vitamin B₁₂ concentrations were associated with a higher diastolic blood pressure (0·31 mmHg per standard deviation increase in vitamin B₁₂ (95% CI 0·06, 0·56)). After taking into account multiple testing, none of the associations was statistically significant. Maternal first-trimester folate and homocysteine concentrations were not associated with childhood blood pressure. The results from the present study suggest that maternal Fe intake and vitamin B₁₂ concentrations during the first trimester of pregnancy might affect childhood blood pressure, although the effect estimates were small and were not significant after correction for multiple testing. Further studies are needed to replicate these findings, to elucidate the underlying mechanisms and to assess whether these differences in blood pressure persist in later life.

  3. [Dietary sodium intakes and resources among residents in Shandong province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zilong; Zhang, Xiaofei; Li, Jianhong; Zhang, Jiyu; Zhao, Wenhua; Ma, Jixiang; Guo, Xiaolei; Yan, Liuxia; Chu, Jie; Xu, Aiqiang

    2014-01-01

    To describe dietary sodium intakes and resources among residents in Shandong province. A total of 2184 subjects were selected by multi-stage stratified cluster random sampling method from 18-69 years old people in Shandong province in June, 2011. A total of 2140 subjects completed the study, the completion rate was 98.0%. Three-day (24-hour per day) dietary recalls and weighting methods were conducted to collect information about all the foods and condiments consumed by the subjects. Individual dietary sodium intake was calculated, the differences of dietary sodium intake among subjects with different characteristics were analyzed, and the proportions of different dietary sodium resources were also analyzed. The amount of individual dietary sodium intake was 5745.0 (95%CI:5427.6-6062.5) mg/d in Shandong; 6147.4 (95%CI: 5823.8-6471.0) mg/d for male residents, 5339.3 (95%CI:5005.8-5672.8) mg/d for female residents. There was a significant difference between males and females (F = 75.22, P sodium intake was 5910.1 (95%CI:5449.3-6370.8) mg/d, 5341.6 (95%CI:5007.0-5676.1) mg/d for rural residents and urban residents respectively, and there was also a significant difference (F = 5.53, P sodium intake was 4640.3 (95%CI:4360.2-4920.4) mg/d, which was the largest contributor to sodium intake, accounting for 80.8% (95%CI:79.9%-81.6%) of total intake. Sodium intake from cereals was 650.7 (95%CI: 590.5-711.0) mg/d, accounting for 11.3% (95%CI:10.3%-12.3%) of total intake. Sodium intake from eggs was 118.9 (95%CI:95.2-142.6) mg/d, accounting for 2.1% (95%CI:1.6%-2.6%) of total intake. The amount of manufactured food sodium intake was 582.1(95%CI: 497.8-666.4) mg/d, accounting for 10.1% (95%CI:8.9%-11.4%) of total intake. Sodium intakes remain high among residents of Shandong province, and sodium from condiments was the largest source of dietary sodium intake, sodium of manufactured food only accounting for small part.

  4. Dietary iron intake in adolescent women in educational institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Vila, Mabel; Quintana, Margot

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Iron deficiency anemia is a public health problem. The low dietary intake of iron is one of its causes. Objective: To determine the dietary iron intake in adolescent women. Design: Descriptive, cross type study. Setting: Educational Institutions in the district of Ancon, Lima. Participants: Three hundred and fifty-five adolescent high school female students in Ancon chosen at random. Interventions: Previous informed consent, a semi-quantitative food and beverage frequency questi...

  5. Dietary tryptophan intake and suicide rate in industrialized nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voracek, Martin; Tran, Ulrich S

    2007-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the ecological association of dietary tryptophan intake and suicide rates across industrialized nations. Tryptophan, an essential amino acid, is the rate-limiting precursor of serotonin biosynthesis. The serotonergic system has been strongly implicated in the neurobiology of suicide. Contemporary male and female suicide rates for the general population (42 countries) and the elderly (38 countries) were correlated with national estimates of dietary tryptophan intake. Measures of tryptophan intake were significantly negatively associated to national suicide rates. Controlling for national affluence, total alcohol consumption and happiness levels slightly attenuated these associations, but left all of them negative. The effect is an ecological (group-level) finding. Estimated per capita tryptophan supply is only a proxy for actual consumption. Developed nations ranking high in dietary tryptophan intake rank low in suicide rates, independent of national wealth, alcohol intake and happiness.

  6. Physical activity, energy requirements, and adequacy of dietary intakes of older persons in a rural Filipino community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabalda Aegina B

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aging is a process associated with physiological changes such as in body composition, energy expenditure and physical activity. Data on energy and nutrient intake adequacy among elderly is important for disease prevention, health maintenance and program development. Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study was designed to determine the energy requirements and adequacy of energy and nutrient intakes of older persons living in private households in a rural Filipino community. Study participants were generally-healthy, ambulatory, and community living elderly aged 60–100 y (n = 98, 88 of whom provided dietary information in three nonconsecutive 24-hour food-recall interviews. Results There was a decrease in both physical activity and food intake with increasing years. Based on total energy expenditure and controlling for age, gender and socio-economic status, the average energy requirement for near-old (≥ 60 to 2 (p = 0.003 for every 1% decrease in total caloric intake as percentage of the total energy expenditure requirements. Conclusion These community living elderly suffer from lack of both macronutrient intake as compared with energy requirements, and micronutrient intake as compared with the standard dietary recommendations. Their energy intakes are ~65% of the amounts required based on their total energy expenditure. Though their intakes decrease with increasing age, so do their energy expenditure, making their relative insufficiency of food intake stable with age.

  7. High dietary protein intake, reducing or eliciting insulin resistance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietman, A.; Schwarz, J.; Tome, D.; Kok, F.J.; Mensink, M.R.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary proteins have an insulinotropic effect and thus promote insulin secretion, which indeed leads to enhanced glucose clearance from the blood. In the long term, however, a high dietary protein intake is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Moreover, branched-chain amino acids

  8. Eating attitude, lifestyle practices and dietary intakes of female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eating attitude was evaluated using the EAT-26 questionnaire, lifestyle practice was assessed using the adapted health promoting lifestyle questionnaire (HPLP II) while 24-hour dietary recall and pretested food frequency questionnaire was used to assess the dietary intakes and pattern of the participants. Data were ...

  9. Pregnant immigrant Nigerian women: an exploration of dietary intakes

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lindsay, K.L

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the study is to explore the dietary intakes of a prominent ethnic minority group of women from Sub-Saharan Africa during pregnancy, in order to identify nutritional issues of concern which may impact on pregnancy outcomes and whether different food based dietary guidelines may be required to meet their needs.

  10. Pregnant immigrant Nigerian women: an exploration of dietary intakes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lindsay, K L

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the study is to explore the dietary intakes of a prominent ethnic minority group of women from Sub-Saharan Africa during pregnancy, in order to identify nutritional issues of concern which may impact on pregnancy outcomes and whether different food based dietary guidelines may be required to meet their needs.

  11. Dietary fat intake, supplements, and weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Although there remains controversy regarding the role of macronutrient balance in the etiology of obesity, the consumption of high-fat diets appears to be strongly implicated in its development. Evidence that fat oxidation does not adjust rapidly to acute increases in dietary fat, as well as a decreased capacity to oxidize fat in the postprandial state in the obese, suggest that diets high in fat may lead to the accumulation of fat stores. Novel data is also presented suggesting that in rodents, high-fat diets may lead to the development of leptin resistance in skeletal muscle and subsequent accumulations of muscle triacylglycerol. Nevertheless, several current fad diets recommend drastically reduced carbohydrate intake, with a concurrent increase in fat content. Such recommendations are based on the underlying assumption that by reducing circulating insulin levels, lipolysis and lipid oxidation will be enhanced and fat storage reduced. Numerous supplements are purported to increase fat oxidation (carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid), increase metabolic rate (ephedrine, pyruvate), or inhibit hepatic lipogenesis (hydroxycitrate). All of these compounds are currently marketed in supplemental form to increase weight loss, but few have actually been shown to be effective in scientific studies. To date, there is little or no evidence supporting that carnitine or hydroxycitrate supplementation are of any value for weight loss in humans. Supplements such as pyruvate have been shown to be effective at high dosages, but there is little mechanistic information to explain its purported effect or data to indicate its effectiveness at lower dosages. Conjugated linoleic acid has been shown to stimulate fat utilization and decrease body fat content in mice but has not been tested in humans. The effects of ephedrine, in conjunction with methylxanthines and aspirin, in humans appears unequivocal but includes various cardiovascular side effects. None of these compounds have been

  12. Policy Options for Reducing Dietary Sodium Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay McLaren

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Faced with soaring health-care costs, Canadian governments should consider creative ways to enable the population to stay healthy — and making it possible for Canadians to reduce their sodium intake is an extremely cost-effective way to do so. Excess sodium consumption is a risk factor for high blood pressure, stroke and heart disease. On average, Canadians consume 3,400 mg of sodium a day (1,100 mg over recommended levels, at least three-quarters of which comes from processed foods. Any attempt at sodium reduction must therefore involve the food industry. This paper surveys sodium reduction efforts in jurisdictions around the globe, as well as past Canadian attempts, to provide provincial and federal policymakers with a comprehensive suite of lessons learned and a host of far-sighted policy recommendations ranging from food procurement to legislation and private sector engagement. Provincial governments, individually or together, must launch multi-pronged efforts involving food service companies, manufacturers, post-secondary institutes and the media to ensure that low-sodium alternatives are readily available, and that consumers are aware of them. They must also support federal action on changing dietary guidelines and introducing restrictions on food advertising to children. The benefits to be had are very real. In light of evidence showing that population-level intervention is superior to clinical intervention in terms of cost-effectiveness, returning up to $11.10 for every dollar spent and generating tens of billions in direct health-care savings, there is a very strong case for investing in population-level sodium reduction interventions that will work. The time for governments to act is now.

  13. Dietary Intake of the Urban Black Population of Cape Town: The Cardiovascular Risk in Black South Africans (CRIBSA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelia P. Steyn

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To determine dietary intake of 19 to 64 years old urban Africans in Cape Town in 2009 and examine the changes between 1990 and 2009. Methods: A representative cross-sectional sample (n = 544, stratified by gender and age was randomly selected in 2009 from the same areas sampled in 1990. Socio-demographic data and a 24-h dietary recall were obtained by trained field workers. The associations of dietary data with an asset index and degree of urbanization were assessed. Results: Fat intakes were higher in 19–44-year-old men (32% energy (E and women (33.4%E in 2009 compared with 1990 (men: 25.9%E, women: 27.0%E while carbohydrate intakes were lower in 2009 (men 53.2%E, women: 55.5%E than in 1990 (men: 61.3%E; women: 62%E while sugar intake increased significantly (p < 0.01 in women. There were significant positive correlations between urbanization and total fat (p = 0.016, saturated fat (p = 0.001, monounsaturated fat (p = 0.002 and fat as a %E intake (p = 0.046. Urbanization was inversely associated with intake of carbohydrate %E (p < 0.001. Overall micronutrient intakes improved significantly compared with 1990. It should also be noted that energy and macronutrient intakes were all significant in a linear regression model using mean adequacy ratio (MAR as a measure of dietary quality in 2009, as was duration of urbanization. Discussion: The higher fat and lower carbohydrate %E intakes in this population demonstrate a transition to a more urbanized diet over last two decades. These dietary changes reflect the nutrition transitions that typically occur as a longer time is spent in urban centers.

  14. FTO genetic variants, dietary intake and body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qi, Qibin; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O; Downer, Mary K

    2014-01-01

    FTO is the strongest known genetic susceptibility locus for obesity. Experimental studies in animals suggest the potential roles of FTO in regulating food intake. The interactive relation among FTO variants, dietary intake and body mass index (BMI) is complex and results from previous often small...

  15. Added sugar and dietary sodium intake from purchased fast food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, males and females consumed on average three times the recommended daily intake of added sugar, and more than half of the recommended daily salt intake from these purchased foods alone. These dietary patterns during adolescence may exacerbate the risk of obesity and hypertension in later adult life.

  16. Food Intake and Success or Failure of Dietary Restraint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anschutz, D.J.; Strien, T. van; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: Determination of success and failure of dietary restraint in relation to food intake in 510 females. Methods: Food intake as measured with the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) was assessed in low vs. high restrained eaters and overeaters, as measured with the DEBQ (Dutch Eating

  17. Dietary calcium intake and sunlight exposure among children aged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritional rickets can be caused by either or both calcium and vitamin D deficiencies, and can frequently occur in Africa. In Ethiopia, limited evidence exists regarding the calcium intake of children and their sunlight exposure practices. The purpose of this study was to assess information regarding dietary calcium intake and ...

  18. Intake of key micronutrients and food groups in patients with late-stage age-related macular degeneration compared with age-sex-matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, Bamini; Liew, Gerald; Russell, Joanna; Cosatto, Victoria; Burlutsky, George; Mitchell, Paul

    2017-08-01

    Knowledge of the risk factor profile of patients presenting with late-stage age-related macular degeneration (AMD) could help identify the most frequent modifiable AMD precursors among people who are referred for treatment. We aimed to assess dietary behaviours by comparing adjusted mean intakes of micronutrients and major food groups (fruits, vegetables, fish) among patients with AMD and a sample of age-sex-matched controls. Cross-sectional analysis of 480 late AMD cases and 518 population-based age-sex-matched controls with no AMD signs. AMD cases (aged 60+ years) were those presenting for treatment to a hospital eye clinic in Sydney, Australia, during 2012-2015. The comparator group were obtained from a cohort study (Blue Mountains Eye Study; Sydney, Australia) during 2002-2009. Dietary intake was assessed using a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. AMD lesions were assessed from retinal photographs. After multivariable adjustment, patients with late-stage AMD compared with controls had significantly lower intakes of vitamin E (7.4 vs 9.8 mg/day; p<0.0001), beta-carotene (6232 vs 7738 μg/day; p<0.0001), vitamin C (161 vs 184 mg/day; p=0.0002) and folate (498.3 vs 602 μg/day; p<0.0001); but had higher intakes of zinc (13.0 vs 11.9 mg/day; p<0.0001). A significantly lower proportion of patients with late AMD met the recommended intake of vegetables than controls: 52.9% versus 64.5%; p=0.0002. This study showed significant differences in intakes of vitamins C and E, beta-carotene, folate and vegetables between patients with late-stage AMD and healthy controls, and thus has provided a better understanding of the nutritional intake of patients presenting with advanced AMD. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Dietary Intakes of Urban, High Body Mass Index, African American Children: Family and Child Dietary Attributes Predict Child Intakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Lorrene D.; Raman, Aarthi; Sharma, Sushma; Fitch, Mark D.; Fleming, Sharon E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To identify family and child nutrition and dietary attributes related to children's dietary intakes. Design: African American children (ages 8-11 years, n = 156), body mass index greater than 85th percentile, from urban, low-income neighborhoods. Baseline, cross-sectional data collected as part of an ongoing diabetes prevention…

  20. Are Dietary Intakes Related to Obesity in Children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Papandreou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The purpose of this study was to report obesity status and identify any dietary substances that may be related to obesity in healthy school children from Northern Greece. METHODS: Four hundred and twenty-five (n = 425 children were randomly selected to participate in the study. A 24-h recall of three days (two weekdays and one weekend day was used to analyze the dietary data of the subjects. RESULTS: Out of 425 subjects, 146 (34.3% of them were found to be overweight and obese. Energy, protein, carbohydrate and thiamin intake was statistically positively correlated with obesity while dietary iron intake was statistically negatively correlated with obesity. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the children with dietary iron deficiency were 1.128 (95% CI: 0.002, 0.161 P < 0.031 times more likely of being obese compared to the normal group after adjustment for energy intake. CONCLUSIONS: Although most of the dietary intakes of our subjects were adequate, special consideration should be given to energy, carbohydrate, protein, and sugar and iron intake especially and its relation to obesity. Furthermore, additional studies are required to investigate any possible relation of low dietary iron consumption and obesity.

  1. Dietary intake of organic pollutants in children from Catalonia, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocio, A.; Falco, G.; Llobet, J.M.; Domingo, J.L. [Lab. of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Reus (Spain); Mueller, L. [SGS GmbH, Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2004-09-15

    Potential human toxicity of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is well known. Moreover, it is also well established that dietary intake is the major route of human exposure for most POPs. In recent years, concern on dietary intake of POPs and other organic environmental contaminants has notably increased. Dietary intake of these pollutants is of special interest in children populations, who in relation to their body weights consume greater quantities of food than adults. Consequently, they are more exposed to potentially toxic pollutants. In 2000, a wide survey on dietary intake of a number of organic contaminants by the general population of Catalonia Spain was carried out. The levels of the following pollutants were determined in an important number of food samples belonging to various food groups: polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDEs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The present study was undertaken to estimate the dietary intake of the above pollutants by children between 4 and 9 years old, as well as to assess the potential health risks derived from this intake.

  2. Dietary intake of patients with chronic kidney disease entering the LORD trial: adjusting for underreporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassett, Robert G; Robertson, Iain K; Geraghty, Dominic P; Ball, Madeleine J; Coombes, Jeff S

    2007-07-01

    The study objective was to determine the dietary intake of patients with chronic kidney disease before and after filtering for suspected underreporters and to investigate the impact of underreporting on the interpretation of diet data. This was a cross-sectional study. The study included outpatients from hospitals and clinics in Northern Tasmania, Australia. Data from 113 patients enrolled in the Lipid Lowering and Onset of Renal Disease trial were used in this study. Patients with serum creatinine greater than 120 mmol/L were included, and those taking lipid-lowering medication were excluded. Patients completed a 4-day self-report diet diary, and FoodWorks software was used to determine their daily intake of energy, macronutrients, and specific micronutrients. Diet diaries were assessed for likely underreporting using the Goldberg cutoff approach with a ratio of energy intake to estimated resting energy expenditure of 1.27. Nutrient intakes were compared with current National Kidney Foundation's Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative guidelines, World Health Organization recommendations, recommended daily allowances, and daily values adjusted for energy intake. Demographics of the patients were as follows: male/female, 71/42; age (mean +/- standard deviation), 60 +/- 15 years; body mass index, 28.6 +/- 6.0 kg/m(2), and serum creatinine, 223.4 +/- 110.0 mmol/L. According to the criteria, 80 patients (70.8%) were underreporting their energy intake. Underreporters were more likely to be female and younger, and have a higher body mass index and elevated serum creatinine. In all patients, daily energy intake (89.6 +/- 32.4 kJ/kg) was lower than recommended (125-145 kJ/kg); however, this was not the case for valid reporters (128.3 +/- 23.7 kJ/kg). Protein intake was higher (0.9 +/- 0.3 g/kg) than recommended (0.75 g/kg) in all patients and even higher (1.2 +/- 0.3 g/kg) in valid reporters. Mean calcium, zinc, and dietary fiber intakes were all below recommendations

  3. The Intake of Energy and Selected Nutrients by Thai Urban Sedentary Workers: An Evaluation of Adherence to Dietary Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katiya Ivanovitch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid changes in Thailand’s nutrition and lifestyles have led to increasing diet-related pathologies among people with sedentary occupations. This study examines the extent to which the dietary intake of nutrients and energy by a sample of Thai sedentary workers conforms to the Thai Dietary Reference Intakes (Thai DRIs. The nutrients and energy intake estimates were based on self-reported information collected with a single 24-hour dietary recall and nonweighed 2-day food record. The study participants were Thai adults aged 20–50 years employed in sedentary occupations. A convenience sample of 215 healthy individuals (75 males and 140 females was based on four randomly selected worksites in the Bangkok metropolitan area. For male participants, the study found a median energy intake of 1,485 kcal/day, with 54.4% of energy coming from carbohydrate, 15.9% from protein, and 29.6% from fat. Females’ median energy intake was 1,428 kcal/day, 56% of which came from carbohydrate, 16.2% from protein, and 28.6% from fat. Both genders showed insufficient intake of fiber and most micronutrients. This study provides the material for preventive public health interventions focusing on nutrition-related diseases affecting Thailand’s rapidly growing sedentary workforce.

  4. Validation of a food frequency questionnaire to assess macronutrient and micronutrient intake among Jordanians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayyem, Reema Fayez; Abu-Mweis, Suhad S; Bawadi, Hiba Ahmad; Agraib, Lana; Bani-Hani, Kamal

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) among a convenience sample of healthy adults in Jordan. A modified version of the questionnaire known as Diet History Questionnaire I, which measures dietary intakes over a 1-year period, was administrated to 101 apparently healthy men and women recruited from three large medical centers in Jordan. Fifty-five participants completed the modified FFQ and three 24-hour recalls. Participants (N=101) completed the FFQ two times separated by a 1-month period. Reliability of the FFQ was assessed using test-retest method. Mean age of participants was 33.4±18.5 years. Energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, saturated fat, calcium, and iron had deattenuated correlations of .732, .563, .544, .487, .484, .451, and .459, respectively. The FFQ and 24-hour recalls produced similar agreement percentages ranging between 25.5% and 43.6%. Mean energy-adjusted reliability coefficients ranged from .695 to .943. A Cronbach's α for the total FFQ items of .857 was found. The modified FFQ has reasonable relative validity and reliability for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, saturated fat, calcium, and iron intakes in Jordanian adults over a 1-year period. However, its application may require additional modifications and validation efforts. Future research is warranted to further modify and test the FFQ in a larger and more diverse sample of Jordanians as well as to develop FFQ for the use among other age groups. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Micronutrients, Essential Fatty Acids and Bone Health in Phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirdas, Serwet; van Spronsen, Francjan J; Hollak, Carla E M; van der Lee, J Hanneke; Bisschop, Peter H; Vaz, Fred M; Ter Horst, Nienke M; Rubio-Gozalbo, M Estela; Bosch, Annet M

    2017-01-01

    In phenylketonuria (PKU), a natural protein-restricted dietary treatment prevents severe cognitive impairment. Nutrient deficiencies may occur due to strict diet. This study is aimed at evaluating the dietary intake and blood concentrations of micronutrients and essential fatty acids (FA), bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture history in patients on long-term dietary treatment. Sixty early diagnosed Dutch patients (aged 1-39 years) were included in a multi-center cross-sectional study. Their dietary intake, blood concentrations of micronutrients, FA, fracture history and BMD were assessed. Selenium dietary intake and serum concentrations were low in 14 and 46% of patients, respectively. The serum 25-OH vitamin D2 + D3 concentration was low in 14% of patients while 20% of patients had a low vitamin D intake. Zinc serum concentrations were below normal in 14% of patients, despite adequate intake. Folic acid serum concentrations and intake were elevated. Despite safe total protein and fat intake, arginine plasma concentrations and erythrocyte eicosapentaenoic acid were below reference values in 19 and 6% of patients, respectively. Low BMD (Z-score <-2) was slightly more prevalent in patients, but the lifetime fracture prevalence was comparable to the general population. Dutch patients with PKU on long-term dietary treatment have a near normal nutrient status. Supplementation of micronutrients of which deficiency may be deleterious (e.g., vitamin D and selenium) should be considered. BMD warrants further investigation. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. A very-low-fat vegan diet increases intake of protective dietary factors and decreases intake of pathogenic dietary factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewell, Antonella; Weidner, Gerdi; Sumner, Michael D; Chi, Christine S; Ornish, Dean

    2008-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that dietary factors in plant-based diets are important in the prevention of chronic disease. This study examined protective (eg, antioxidant vitamins, carotenoids, and fiber) and pathogenic (eg, saturated fatty acids and cholesterol) dietary factors in a very-low-fat vegan diet. Ninety-three early-stage prostate cancer patients participated in a randomized controlled trial and were assigned to a very-low-fat (10% fat) vegan diet supplemented with soy protein and lifestyle changes or to usual care. Three-day food records were collected at baseline (n=42 intervention, n=43 control) and after 1 year (n=37 in each group). Analyses of changes in dietary intake of macronutrients, vitamins, minerals, carotenoids, and isoflavones from baseline to 1 year showed significantly increased intake of most protective dietary factors (eg, fiber increased from a mean of 31 to 59 g/day, lycopene increased from 8,693 to 34,464 mug/day) and significantly decreased intake of most pathogenic dietary factors (eg, saturated fatty acids decreased from 20 to 5 g/day, cholesterol decreased from 200 to 10 mg/day) in the intervention group compared to controls. These results suggest that a very-low-fat vegan diet can be useful in increasing intake of protective nutrients and phytochemicals and minimizing intake of dietary factors implicated in several chronic diseases.

  7. Dietary sodium intake: scientific basis for public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelton, Paul K

    2015-01-01

    National and international agencies recommend a reduction in dietary sodium intake. However, some have questioned the wisdom of these policies. The goal of this report was to assess the findings and quality of studies that have examined the relationship between dietary sodium and both blood pressure and cardiovascular disease. Literature review of the available observational studies and randomized controlled trials, including systematic reviews and meta-analyses. A large body of evidence from observational studies and clinical trials documents a direct relationship between dietary sodium intake and the level of blood pressure, especially in persons with a higher level of blood pressure, African-Americans, and those who are older or have comorbidity, including chronic kidney disease. A majority of the available observational reports support the presence of a direct relationship between dietary sodium intake and cardiovascular disease but the quality of the evidence according to most studies is poor. The limited information available from clinical trials is consistent with a beneficial effect of reduced sodium intake on incidence of cardiovascular disease. The scientific underpinning for policies to reduce the usual intake of dietary sodium is strong. In the United States and many other countries, addition of sodium during food processing has led to a very high average intake of dietary sodium, with almost everyone exceeding the recommended goals. National programs utilizing voluntary and mandatory approaches have resulted in a successful reduction in sodium intake. Even a small reduction in sodium consumption is likely to yield sizable improvement in population health. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Nutritional status and dietary intake in tribal children of Bihar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, R J; Singh, P

    1999-01-01

    To assess the dietary intake and nutritional status in children of the tribal areas of Bihar. Cross sectional survey with two stage probability proportional to size sampling. Study covered 396 villages from 17 tribal districts of Bihar. 1847 preschool children (0-6 Years) were studied. 24 hours recall method was used to assess the nutrition intake and anthropometric measurements included height and weight. Nutritional intake was compared with Indian Council of Medical Research recommended dietary allowances (RDA) and nutritional status assessed by SD classification. The intake of protein was broadly in line with the recommended dietary allowances (RDA) in all age groups among children. However, the average intake of energy and other nutrients was lower in allage groups as compared to RDA. Calorie deficiency was 38% whereas protein deficiency was about 19%. More than half of the children were caloric deficient in Katihar, Bokaro, Godda and Singhbhum (east and west). The overall prevalence of stunting was about 60% and underweight about 55% and was comparable in boys and girls. However, wasting was more frequent in girls (urban - 34.5% vs. 16.3% and rural - 34.9% vs 18%). The level of malnutrition was not very different in rural and urban areas. The nutritional status and dietary intakes of tribal children in Bihar is very poor. Urgent remedial measures are required in this context, particularly on a war footing in especially vulnerable districts identified by this survey.

  9. Association between Dietary Intake and Coronary Artery Calcification in Non-Dialysis Chronic Kidney Disease: The PROGREDIR Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Diego Machado

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery calcification (CAC is a widespread condition in chronic kidney disease (CKD. Diet may play an important role in CAC, but this role is not clear. This study evaluated the association between macro-and micronutrient intakes and CAC in non-dialysis CKD patients. We analyzed the baseline data from 454 participants of the PROGREDIR study. Dietary intake was evaluated by a food frequency questionnaire. CAC was measured by computed tomography. After exclusion of participants with a coronary stent, 373 people remained for the analyses. The highest tertile of CAC was directly associated with the intake of phosphorus, calcium and magnesium. There was a higher intake of pantothenic acid and potassium in the second tertile. After adjustments for confounding variables, the intake of pantothenic acid, phosphorus, calcium and potassium remained associated with CAC in the generalized linear mixed models. In order to handle the collinearity between these nutrients, we used the LASSO (least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression to evaluate the nutrients associated with CAC variability. In this approach, the nutrients that most explained the variance of CAC were phosphorus, calcium and potassium. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings and assess the role of interventions regarding these micronutrients on CAC prevention and progression.

  10. Critical evaluation of lowering the recommended dietary intake of folate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeid, Rima; Koletzko, Berthold; Pietrzik, Klaus

    2014-04-01

    We evaluated the recommendation of the Austrian, German, and Swiss Societies for Nutrition of lowering dietary folate intake from 400 to 300 μg dietary folate equivalents/d. A dose-response relation exists between folate intake or plasma level and disease risk within the normal range. Improving folate status can prevent between 30% and 75% of neural tube defects. A prepregnancy plasma folate of >18.0 nmol/L (mean 26.1 nmol/L) is associated with low total homocysteine (tHcy) (folate intake cannot achieve maximal risk reduction. The Austrian, German, and Swiss Societies for Nutrition recommend that young women should additionally supplement with 400 μg folic acid at least 4 weeks before conception. This short time window is not sufficient to achieve optimal plasma folate and tHcy levels in the majority of women. Factors affecting the relation between folate intake and blood biomarkers are total folate intake, baseline plasma folate, time available for supplement use, dose and form (folic acid or methyl folate), genetic polymorphisms, physiological and lifestyle factors. Lowering the recommended dietary folate intake may have important public health consequences. Elderly people and young women are at risk for diseases related to folate shortage. Reducing birth defects through supplementation of folic acid remains a poor option, as folate intake is crucial for reaching the target protective plasma folate levels in the population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of INTAKE24 (an Online 24-h Dietary Recall Tool with Interviewer-Led 24-h Recall in 11–24 Year-Old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Bradley

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Online dietary assessment tools offer a convenient, low cost alternative to traditional dietary assessment methods such as weighed records and face-to-face interviewer-led 24-h recalls. INTAKE24 is an online multiple pass 24-h recall tool developed for use with 11–24 year-old. The aim of the study was to undertake a comparison of INTAKE24 (the test method with interviewer-led multiple pass 24-h recalls (the comparison method in 180 people aged 11–24 years. Each participant completed both an INTAKE24 24-h recall and an interviewer-led 24-h recall on the same day on four occasions over a one-month period. The daily energy and nutrient intakes reported in INTAKE24 were compared to those reported in the interviewer-led recall. Mean intakes reported using INTAKE24 were similar to the intakes reported in the interviewer-led recall for energy and macronutrients. INTAKE24 was found to underestimate energy intake by 1% on average compared to the interviewer-led recall with the limits of agreement ranging from minus 49% to plus 93%. Mean intakes of all macronutrients and micronutrients (except non-milk extrinsic sugars were within 4% of the interviewer-led recall. Dietary assessment that utilises technology may offer a viable alternative and be more engaging than paper based methods, particularly for children and young adults.

  12. Comparison of INTAKE24 (an Online 24-h Dietary Recall Tool) with Interviewer-Led 24-h Recall in 11-24 Year-Old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Jennifer; Simpson, Emma; Poliakov, Ivan; Matthews, John N S; Olivier, Patrick; Adamson, Ashley J; Foster, Emma

    2016-06-09

    Online dietary assessment tools offer a convenient, low cost alternative to traditional dietary assessment methods such as weighed records and face-to-face interviewer-led 24-h recalls. INTAKE24 is an online multiple pass 24-h recall tool developed for use with 11-24 year-old. The aim of the study was to undertake a comparison of INTAKE24 (the test method) with interviewer-led multiple pass 24-h recalls (the comparison method) in 180 people aged 11-24 years. Each participant completed both an INTAKE24 24-h recall and an interviewer-led 24-h recall on the same day on four occasions over a one-month period. The daily energy and nutrient intakes reported in INTAKE24 were compared to those reported in the interviewer-led recall. Mean intakes reported using INTAKE24 were similar to the intakes reported in the interviewer-led recall for energy and macronutrients. INTAKE24 was found to underestimate energy intake by 1% on average compared to the interviewer-led recall with the limits of agreement ranging from minus 49% to plus 93%. Mean intakes of all macronutrients and micronutrients (except non-milk extrinsic sugars) were within 4% of the interviewer-led recall. Dietary assessment that utilises technology may offer a viable alternative and be more engaging than paper based methods, particularly for children and young adults.

  13. Dietary Intake of Vitamin D in the Moroccan Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Houcine Sebbar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Vitamin D deficiency is common in the elderly. The aim of our work is to evaluate the dietary intake of vitamin D in the Moroccan elderly. Methods: This study included 159 subjects aged over 60 years who performed a vitamin D questionnaire (VDQ, covering the consumption of four foods with high vitamin D content (fish, milk, margarine and yoghurt. Results: The average dietary vitamin D intake was 2.7 μg/day. This observational study in Moroccan elderly indicates a high prevalence of insufficient vitamin D intake, and below the recommended consumption values, particularly in those aged over 70 years. Conclusion: Inadequate vitamin D intake is common among the Moroccan elderly. To fight against this situation, initiatives must be implemented, including improved population education, lifestyle, and vitamin D supplementation, in order to avoid serious adverse health consequences of bone.

  14. Dietary intake, physical activities and nutritional status of adolescent girls in an urban population of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abbas Mohammad Kurshed

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In Bangladesh, under-nutrition is a common health problem, but for socio-cultural background, it is most predominant among the female population starting from their early life to motherhood. For the adolescent girls, there has been no such study though they will be the future mothers. Therefore, this study is designed to address the lifestyle and nutrition of the Bangladeshi female adolescents. The study was conducted purposively in Dhaka selecting randomly 15 of 95 City corporation wards of Dhaka City. All adolescent girls aged 10–18 years were considered eligible participants of an urban population of Bangladesh. The study included socio-demographic information, clinical examination, dietary intake, physical activities and body mass index (BMI = weight in kg / height in m. sq.. Overall, 352 adolescent girls volunteered. Socio-economically, 51% of them had monthly family income ³ 20,000 BDT and 11.4% had <10,000 BDT. Of the participants, 14.8% had BMI <18.5, 80.7% had 18.5 – 24.9, and 4.6% had ³ 25. BMI was found not to have significant association with physical activities. No clinical signs of vitamin A deficiency were observed. On clinical examination 75% of the participants were found healthy, 15.9% had anemia and 5.7% had diarrhea. Compared with the national dietary intake, the cereal intake was lower but protein containing foods like pulse and nuts, meat, egg, fish, milk and milk products were found very much close to the national intake. On the average, 95 % of calorie, 93.5 % of protein and 96.5 % of fat requirement were met. For micronutrient requirement, very low intake was observed with calcium (62 % and iron (63 %. In conclusion, the participants consumed rice daily with frequent consumption of vegetables. Although the study subjects were mostly from higher class of urban dwellers their dietary intake was found not healthy as evidenced by daily rice intake and very low intake of fruits, calcium and iron indicating lack of

  15. Dietary Intake of Vitamin D in the Moroccan Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    El-Houcine Sebbar; Hicham Sam; Ennouamane Saalaoui; Mohammed Choukri

    2018-01-01

    Aim: Vitamin D deficiency is common in the elderly. The aim of our work is to evaluate the dietary intake of vitamin D in the Moroccan elderly. Methods: This study included 159 subjects aged over 60 years who performed a vitamin D questionnaire (VDQ), covering the consumption of four foods with high vitamin D content (fish, milk, margarine and yoghurt). Results: The average dietary vitamin D intake was 2.7 μg/day. This observational study in Moroccan elderly indicates a high prevalence of ins...

  16. Micronutrient Gaps in Three Commercial Weight-Loss Diet Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew G. Engel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Weight-loss diets restrict intakes of energy and macronutrients but overlook micronutrient profiles. Commercial diet plans may provide insufficient micronutrients. We analyzed nutrient profiles of three plans and compared their micronutrient sufficiency to Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs for male U.S. adults. Hypocaloric vegan (Eat to Live-Vegan, Aggressive Weight Loss; ETL-VAWL, high-animal-protein low-carbohydrate (Fast Metabolism Diet; FMD and weight maintenance (Eat, Drink and Be Healthy; EDH diets were evaluated. Seven single-day menus were sampled per diet (n = 21 menus, 7 menus/diet and analyzed for 20 micronutrients with the online nutrient tracker CRON-O-Meter. Without adjustment for energy intake, the ETL-VAWL diet failed to provide 90% of recommended amounts for B12, B3, D, E, calcium, selenium and zinc. The FMD diet was low (<90% DRI in B1, D, E, calcium, magnesium and potassium. The EDH diet met >90% DRIs for all but vitamin D, calcium and potassium. Several micronutrients remained inadequate after adjustment to 2000 kcal/day: vitamin B12 in ETL-VAWL, calcium in FMD and EDH and vitamin D in all diets. Consistent with previous work, micronutrient deficits are prevalent in weight-loss diet plans. Special attention to micronutrient rich foods is required to reduce risk of micronutrient deficiency in design of commercial diets.

  17. Micronutrient Gaps in Three Commercial Weight-Loss Diet Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Kern, Hua; Brenna, J. Thomas; H. Mitmesser, Susan

    2018-01-01

    Weight-loss diets restrict intakes of energy and macronutrients but overlook micronutrient profiles. Commercial diet plans may provide insufficient micronutrients. We analyzed nutrient profiles of three plans and compared their micronutrient sufficiency to Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for male U.S. adults. Hypocaloric vegan (Eat to Live-Vegan, Aggressive Weight Loss; ETL-VAWL), high-animal-protein low-carbohydrate (Fast Metabolism Diet; FMD) and weight maintenance (Eat, Drink and Be Healthy; EDH) diets were evaluated. Seven single-day menus were sampled per diet (n = 21 menus, 7 menus/diet) and analyzed for 20 micronutrients with the online nutrient tracker CRON-O-Meter. Without adjustment for energy intake, the ETL-VAWL diet failed to provide 90% of recommended amounts for B12, B3, D, E, calcium, selenium and zinc. The FMD diet was low (diet met >90% DRIs for all but vitamin D, calcium and potassium. Several micronutrients remained inadequate after adjustment to 2000 kcal/day: vitamin B12 in ETL-VAWL, calcium in FMD and EDH and vitamin D in all diets. Consistent with previous work, micronutrient deficits are prevalent in weight-loss diet plans. Special attention to micronutrient rich foods is required to reduce risk of micronutrient deficiency in design of commercial diets. PMID:29361684

  18. Micronutrient Gaps in Three Commercial Weight-Loss Diet Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G Engel, Matthew; J Kern, Hua; Brenna, J Thomas; H Mitmesser, Susan

    2018-01-20

    Weight-loss diets restrict intakes of energy and macronutrients but overlook micronutrient profiles. Commercial diet plans may provide insufficient micronutrients. We analyzed nutrient profiles of three plans and compared their micronutrient sufficiency to Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for male U.S. adults. Hypocaloric vegan (Eat to Live-Vegan, Aggressive Weight Loss; ETL-VAWL), high-animal-protein low-carbohydrate (Fast Metabolism Diet; FMD) and weight maintenance (Eat, Drink and Be Healthy; EDH) diets were evaluated. Seven single-day menus were sampled per diet ( n = 21 menus, 7 menus/diet) and analyzed for 20 micronutrients with the online nutrient tracker CRON-O-Meter. Without adjustment for energy intake, the ETL-VAWL diet failed to provide 90% of recommended amounts for B 12 , B₃, D, E, calcium, selenium and zinc. The FMD diet was low (90% DRIs for all but vitamin D, calcium and potassium. Several micronutrients remained inadequate after adjustment to 2000 kcal/day: vitamin B 12 in ETL-VAWL, calcium in FMD and EDH and vitamin D in all diets. Consistent with previous work, micronutrient deficits are prevalent in weight-loss diet plans. Special attention to micronutrient rich foods is required to reduce risk of micronutrient deficiency in design of commercial diets.

  19. Conventional foods, followed by dietary supplements and fortified foods, are the key sources of vitamin D, vitamin B6, and selenium intake in Dutch participants of the NU-AGE study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, Agnes A.M.; Lieshout, van Lilou E.L.M.; Heuvel, van den Ellen G.H.M.; Matthys, Christophe; Péter, Szabolcs; Groot, de Lisette C.P.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    With aging, energy needs decrease, necessitating a more nutrient-dense diet to meet nutritional needs. To bridge this gap, the use of nutrient-dense foods, fortified foods, and dietary supplements can be important. This observational study aims to describe current micronutrient intakes of Dutch

  20. High dietary fiber intake prevents stroke at a population level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiglia, Edoardo; Tikhonoff, Valérie; Caffi, Sandro; Boschetti, Giovanni; Grasselli, Carla; Saugo, Mario; Giordano, Nunzia; Rapisarda, Valentina; Spinella, Paolo; Palatini, Paolo

    2013-10-01

    This research was aimed at clarifying whether high dietary fiber intake has an impact on incidence and risk of stroke at a population level. In 1647 unselected subjects, dietary fiber intake (DFI) was detected in a 12-year population-based study, using other dietary variables, anagraphics, biometrics, blood pressure, heart rate, blood lipids, glucose, insulin, uricaemia, fibrinogenaemia, erytrosedimentation rate, diabetes, insulin resistance, smoking, pulmonary disease and left ventricular hypertrophy as covariables. In adjusted Cox models, high DFI reduced the risk of stroke. In analysis based on quintiles of fiber intake adjusted for confounders, HR for incidence of stroke was lower when the daily intake of soluble fiber was >25 g or that of insoluble fiber was >47 g. In multivariate analyses, using these values as cut-off of DFI, the risk of stroke was lower in those intaking more that the cut-off of soluble (HR 0.31, 0.17-0.55) or insoluble (HR 0.35, 0.19-0.63) fiber. Incidence of stroke was also lower (-50%, p < 0.003 and -46%, p < 0.01, respectively). Higher dietary DFI is inversely and independently associated to incidence and risk of stroke in general population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  1. Food concentrations and dietary intakes of elements for Chinese man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Hongda; Wang Jixian; Chen Rusong

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To obtain concentrations of elements in Chinese current foods and their dietary intakes by adult man in order to provide a basis on intake parameters of Chinese Reference Man and make related hygienic evaluation. Methods: With mixed food sample method of total diet study, determination of element concentrations in constituent foods of diets for 4 areas with different diet types was carried out by using NAA, ICP-MS, ICP-AES, AAS and necessary QA measures, and estimation of their daily intakes and hygienic evaluation were also made. Results: The concentrations of 42 elements in 12 categories of foods, their intakes and hygienic evaluation for adult man were obtained. Conclusion: The data on element concentrations in Chinese foods and their dietary intakes were updated and widened. These data provided a new basis for developing the parameters of Chinese Reference Man and revealed some current hygienic problems. For example, from viewpoint of nutrition hygiene the Ca, Zn, and Cu intakes for Chinese Reference Man are insufficient, and from consideration of food hygiene the intakes of Pb,Cd and Na are excessive.. Especially, and Cd average daily intakes of Pb, Cd and Hg have been increased during recent years, those of Pb exceed their ADIs, which should be paid attention to

  2. Dietary intakes of pesticides based on community duplicate diet samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, Lisa Jo; Xue, Jianping; Brown, G Gordon; McCombs, Michelle; Nishioka, Marcia; Michael, Larry C

    2014-01-15

    The calculation of dietary intake of selected pesticides was accomplished using food samples collected from individual representatives of a defined demographic community using a community duplicate diet approach. A community of nine participants was identified in Apopka, FL from which intake assessments of organophosphate (OP) and pyrethroid pesticides were made. From these nine participants, sixty-seven individual samples were collected and subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Measured concentrations were used to estimate dietary intakes for individuals and for the community. Individual intakes of total OP and pyrethroid pesticides ranged from 6.7 to 996 ng and 1.2 to 16,000 ng, respectively. The community intake was 256 ng for OPs and 3430 ng for pyrethroid pesticides. The most commonly detected pesticide was permethrin, but the highest overall intake was of bifenthrin followed by esfenvalerate. These data indicate that the community in Apopka, FL, as represented by the nine individuals, was potentially exposed to both OP and pyrethroid pesticides at levels consistent with a dietary model and other field studies in which standard duplicate diet samples were collected. Higher levels of pyrethroid pesticides were measured than OPs, which is consistent with decreased usage of OPs. The diversity of pyrethroid pesticides detected in food samples was greater than expected. Continually changing pesticide usage patterns need to be considered when determining analytes of interest for large scale epidemiology studies. The Community Duplicate Diet Methodology is a tool for researchers to meet emerging exposure measurement needs that will lead to more accurate assessments of intake which may enhance decisions for chemical regulation. Successfully determining the intake of pesticides through the dietary route will allow for accurate assessments of pesticide exposures to a community of individuals, thereby significantly enhancing the research benefit

  3. Effect of a nutrient-enriched drink on dietary intake and nutritional status in institutionalised elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manders, M; de Groot, C P G M; Blauw, Y H; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R A M; van Hoeckel-Prüst, L; Bindels, J G; Siebelink, E; van Staveren, W A

    2009-10-01

    (1) To determine whether nutritional supplementation (energy and micronutrients) in institutionalised elderly has a positive effect on dietary intake and nutritional status. (2) To investigate whether individuals tend to compensate for the energy content of the intervention product by decreasing their habitual food consumption. A 24-week, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, intervention trial in homes for the elderly (n=3), in nursing homes (n=3) and 'mixed' homes (n=3) in The Netherlands. Institutionalised elderly people (n=176) older than 60 years of age, with a body mass index nutrition-related analyses in fasting blood samples were measured in all participants. Data on dietary intake were collected in a subsample (n=66). A significantly favourable effect (Pfood decreased in both groups to the same extent (-0.5 MJ/day). Therefore, this decrease cannot be considered as compensation for the energy content of the product. This group of institutionalised elderly people does not compensate for the energy content of a concentrated nutritional supplement. Therefore, this supplement is effective for counteracting the development of malnutrition in this population.

  4. Dietary Fiber Intake in Relation to Knee Pain Trajectory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhaoli; Lu, Na; Niu, Jingbo; Felson, David T; Zhang, Yuqing

    2017-09-01

    Dietary fiber may reduce knee pain, in part by lowering body weight and reducing inflammation. In this study, we assessed whether fiber intake was associated with patterns of knee pain development. In a prospective, multicenter cohort of 4,796 men and women ages 45-79 years with or at risk of knee osteoarthritis, participants underwent annual followups for 8 years. Dietary fiber intake was estimated using a validated food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Group-based trajectory modeling was used to identify Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index pain trajectories, which were assessed for associations with dietary fiber intake using polytomous regression models. Of the eligible participants (4,470 persons and 8,940 knees, mean ± SD age 61.3 ± 9.1 years, 58% women), 4.9% underwent knee replacement and were censored at the time of surgery. Four distinct knee pain patterns were identified: no pain (34.5%), mild pain (38.1%), moderate pain (21.2%), and severe pain (6.2%). Dietary total fiber was inversely related to membership in the moderate or severe pain groups (P ≤ 0.006 for trend for both). Subjects in the highest versus those in the lowest quartile of total fiber intake had a lower risk of belonging to the moderate pain pattern group (odds ratio [OR] 0.76 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.61-0.93]) and severe pain pattern group (OR 0.56 [95% CI 0.41-0.78]). Similar results were found with grain fiber and these 2 pain pattern groups. Our findings suggest that a high intake of dietary total or grain fiber, particularly the recommended daily fiber average intake of 25 gm per day, is associated with a lower risk of developing moderate or severe knee pain over time. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  5. The application of NAA and ASS techniques on determination of daily dietary intake of Ca, Fe and Zn in school-aged children in Bandung city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widya Dwi Ariyani; Katharina Oginawati; Muhayatun Santoso; Diah Dwiana L; Endah Damastuti; Syukria Kurniawati; Natalia Adventini; Woro Yatu Niken S

    2011-01-01

    Micronutrient elements contained in foods have an important role in the metabolism process in human body, so micronutrient element deficiencies can cause health problems and chronic diseases. Children are the population that generally more vulnerable in suffering of micronutrient deficiencies which have significant affects on their growth and development. Micronutrient deficiencies have long been happening in Indonesia but were not solved and the nutrition status data of children in Indonesia is still limited. Therefore, through this research the daily dietary intake of Ca, Fe and Zn micronutrient in school-aged children has been determined. Food sampling was carried out using duplicate diet method and the Fe and Zn elements were determined using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) while the Ca was determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) method. The analysis results show the range concentration of Ca, Fe and Zn in food samples obtained were 307-1991; 10,1-95,5 and 11,9-29,4 mg/kg respectively, while the average of Ca, Fe and Zn daily intake were 228; 9.3 and 4.6 mg/day and they were only fulfill 28%, 74% and 39% of AKG (adequate value of nutrient). The Ca, Fe and Zn deficiencies were observed on school-aged children in Bandung. This result is expected to give description and information to the authority on planning and policies taking as efforts in quality improvement of the next human resources. (author)

  6. Assessment of dietary lutein, zeaxanthin and lycopene intakes and sources in the Spanish survey of dietary intake (2009-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez-Santiago, Rocío; Beltrán-de-Miguel, Beatriz; Olmedilla-Alonso, Begoña

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the intake and major dietary sources of lutein, zeaxanthin and lycopene (non-provitamin A carotenoids) in Spain using food consumption data from the Spanish National Dietary Intake Survey (2009-2010). Three-day diaries and one 24-h recall were used to collect dietary data and a software application that includes HPLC data was used. Average intake of those carotenoids was 4290.8 μg/d (67.1% total carotenoid intake), mainly from vegetables (3414.0 μg/d), followed by fruits (393.5 μg/d), oils/fats (204.0 μg/d) and eggs/egg products (170.0 μg/d). Main sources of lutein and zeaxanthin were vegetables (62.9% total diet, 1235.2 μg/person/d). Lycopene intake was 3055.6 μg/d (71.2% of non-provitamin A carotenoids), mainly from tomato and by-products (86.3%) and watermelon. Red- and orange-colored fruits and vegetables were the major contributors of non-provitamin carotenoids (3219.0 μg/person/d). Balanced diets should favor fruits and vegetables over other dietary sources (oils, eggs, processed foods) that contain components to be consumed with moderation.

  7. Dietary intake, FTO genetic variants and adiposity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qi, Qibin; Downer, Mary K; Oskari Kilpeläinen, Tuomas

    2015-01-01

    The FTO gene harbors variation with the strongest effect on adiposity and obesity risk. Previous data support a role for FTO variation in influencing food intake. We conducted a combined analysis of 16,094 boys and girls aged 1–18 years from 14 studies to examine the following: 1) the association...

  8. Dietary intake of metals by Mumbai adult population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghunath, R. [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India); Tripathi, R.M. [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India)]. E-mail: rmt@apsara.barc.ernet.in; Suseela, B. [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India); Bhalke, Sunil [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India); Shukla, V.K. [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India); Puranik, V.D. [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India)

    2006-03-01

    Daily intake of 12 metals (Na, K, Ca, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Mg, Pb, Cd, Co and Ni) by Mumbai adult population were assessed by analysing duplicate diet samples. These metals were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) and stripping voltammetric techniques. A total of 250 diet samples containing 170 vegetarian diet and 80 non-vegetarian diet collected during April 2003 to March 2004 were analysed during this study. Daily dietary intakes of 2.4 g Na and 1.2 g K were observed for Mumbai adults. Daily dietary intakes of Ca, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn and Mg were 367, 1.0, 6.3, 6.7, 2.0 and 304 mg, respectively. Pb, Cd, Co and Ni intakes by Mumbai adults were 32.3, 2.2, 2.2 and 108 {mu}g/day, respectively. From this study it has been observed that the intake of toxic metals such as Pb, Cd and Ni is much lower than the tolerable daily intake derived from PTWI given by FAO/WHO and could not be considered harmful in this group of subjects. Daily intake of the studied 12 metals was found to be higher in non-vegetarian diet compared to the vegetarian diet (P < 0.02, 0.01)

  9. Dietary intake of metals by Mumbai adult population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghunath, R.; Tripathi, R.M.; Suseela, B.; Bhalke, Sunil; Shukla, V.K.; Puranik, V.D.

    2006-01-01

    Daily intake of 12 metals (Na, K, Ca, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Mg, Pb, Cd, Co and Ni) by Mumbai adult population were assessed by analysing duplicate diet samples. These metals were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) and stripping voltammetric techniques. A total of 250 diet samples containing 170 vegetarian diet and 80 non-vegetarian diet collected during April 2003 to March 2004 were analysed during this study. Daily dietary intakes of 2.4 g Na and 1.2 g K were observed for Mumbai adults. Daily dietary intakes of Ca, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn and Mg were 367, 1.0, 6.3, 6.7, 2.0 and 304 mg, respectively. Pb, Cd, Co and Ni intakes by Mumbai adults were 32.3, 2.2, 2.2 and 108 μg/day, respectively. From this study it has been observed that the intake of toxic metals such as Pb, Cd and Ni is much lower than the tolerable daily intake derived from PTWI given by FAO/WHO and could not be considered harmful in this group of subjects. Daily intake of the studied 12 metals was found to be higher in non-vegetarian diet compared to the vegetarian diet (P < 0.02, 0.01)

  10. Nutritional adequacy of dietary intake in women with anorexia nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Understanding nutrient intake of anorexia nervosa (AN) patients is essential for the establishment of dietary treatment. Design: Women, aged 19 to 30 years, with both restricting and binge purge types of AN, participating in an ecological momentary assessment study, completed three nonc...

  11. Secular trends in dietary intake in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briefel, Ronette R; Johnson, Clifford L

    2004-01-01

    This review focuses on dietary intake and dietary supplement use among the U.S. population age 1-74 based on four National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys conducted in 1971-74, 1976-80, 1988-94, and 1999-2000. Secular trends in intake of energy, macronutrients, cholesterol, sodium, calcium, iron, folate, zinc, vitamins A and C, fruits, vegetables, and grain products are summarized. During the 30-year period, mean energy intake increased among adults, and changed little among children age 1-19, except for an increase among adolescent females. Factors contributing to increases in energy intake include increases in the percentage of the population eating away from home (particularly at fast-food restaurants), larger portion sizes of foods and beverages, increased consumption of sweetened beverages, changes in snacking habits, and improved dietary methodology. Dietary supplement use increased among adult men and women, decreased among children age 1-5, and was stable for children age 6-11 and adolescents.

  12. Impact of dietary iron intake on anaemia in Tanzanian schoolchildren

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    economic implication.5 In developing countries dietary iron intake ... haem iron absorption ranges from 2% to 20%. Dependence on .... scale (calibrated in kg) and a fixed-base portable .... Of the 80 schoolchildren whose Hb concentration was .... Tolerance for entry ... several traditional methods of food processing.15 These.

  13. Dietary intake and nutritional status of adolescent girls and young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the study was to determine the dietary intake and nutritional status of adolescent girls (n=156) and young women students (n=367) in Durban, KwaZulu Natal (KZN), South Africa. No national prevalence rates for stunting, wasting and underweight could be found for adolescent girls in South Africa and the ...

  14. Familial Resemblance in Dietary Intakes of Children, Adolescents, and Parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogl, Leonie H.; Silventoinen, Karri; Hebestreit, Antje

    2017-01-01

    Information on familial resemblance is important for the design of effective family-based interventions. We aimed to quantify familial correlations and estimate the proportion of variation attributable to genetic and shared environmental effects (i.e., familiality) for dietary intake variables an...

  15. Dietary intake and biological measurement of folate: A qualitative review of validation studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, Y.H.; Vollset, S.E.; Boonstra, A.; Chajes, V.; Ueland, P.M.; Slimani, N.

    2013-01-01

    Folate is a nutrient of major health significance, but its dietary intake assessment is particularly complex to quantify through traditional approaches. Attempts have been made to validate dietary instruments for assessing folate intake against circulating concentration biomarkers. However, this

  16. The Association Between Parental Behavior Patterns and the Dietary Intake of Preschool Children in Tehran Kindergartens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Pazuki

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: Any effort to promote children’s dietary intake needs considering the role of parents in the development of feeding patterns, and interest in children to consume healthy foods. Keywords: Children, Dietary intake, Parental behavior patterns, Kindergarten

  17. Dietary intake assessment using integrated sensors and software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Junqing; Pepin, Eric; Johnson, Eric; Hazel, David; Teredesai, Ankur; Kristal, Alan; Mamishev, Alexander

    2012-02-01

    The area of dietary assessment is becoming increasingly important as obesity rates soar, but valid measurement of the food intake in free-living persons is extraordinarily challenging. Traditional paper-based dietary assessment methods have limitations due to bias, user burden and cost, and therefore improved methods are needed to address important hypotheses related to diet and health. In this paper, we will describe the progress of our mobile Diet Data Recorder System (DDRS), where an electronic device is used for objective measurement on dietary intake in real time and at moderate cost. The DDRS consists of (1) a mobile device that integrates a smartphone and an integrated laser package, (2) software on the smartphone for data collection and laser control, (3) an algorithm to process acquired data for food volume estimation, which is the largest source of error in calculating dietary intake, and (4) database and interface for data storage and management. The estimated food volume, together with direct entries of food questionnaires and voice recordings, could provide dietitians and nutritional epidemiologists with more complete food description and more accurate food portion sizes. In this paper, we will describe the system design of DDRS and initial results of dietary assessment.

  18. Dietary intake, physical activity and energy expenditure of Malaysian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalilah, M S; Khor, G L; Mirnalini, K; Norimah, A K; Ang, M

    2006-06-01

    Paediatric obesity is a public health concern worldwide as it can track into adulthood and increase the risk of adult morbidity and mortality. While the aetiology of obesity is multi-factorial, the roles of diet and physical activity are controversial. Thus, the purpose of this study was to report on the differences in energy intake, diet composition, time spent doing physical activity and energy expenditure among underweight (UW), normal weight (NW) and at-risk of overweight (OW) Malaysian adolescents (317 females and 301 males) aged 11-15 years. This was a cross-sectional study with 6,555 adolescents measured for weights and heights for body mass index (BMI) categorisation. A total of 618 subjects were randomly selected from each BMI category according to gender. The subjects' dietary intake and physical activity were assessed using self-reported three-day food and activity records, respectively. Dietary intake components included total energy and macronutrient intakes. Energy expenditure was calculated as a sum of energy expended for basal metabolic rate and physical activity. Time spent (in minutes) in low, medium and high intensity activities was also calculated. The OW adolescents had the highest crude energy intake and energy expenditure. However, after adjusting for body weight, the OW subjects had the lowest energy intake and energy expenditure (p-value is less than 0.001). The study groups did not differ significantly in time spent for low, medium and high intensity activities. Macronutrient intakes differed significantly only among the girls where the OW group had the highest intakes compared to UW and NW groups (p-value is less than 0.05). All study groups had greater than 30 percent and less than 55 percent of energy intake from fat and carbohydrate, respectively. The data suggested that a combination of low energy expenditure adjusted for body weight and high dietary fat intake may be associated with overweight and obesity among adolescents. To

  19. Dietary intake and nutritional status in cancer patients; comparing adults and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Valiente da Silva, Henyse; Fonseca de Andrade, Camila; Bello Moreira, Annie Seixas

    2014-04-01

    Evaluate the nutrient intake and nutritional status of food in cancer patients admitted to a university hospital, with comparison of adult and older adult age category. Cross-sectional study. This study involved cancer patients admitted to a hospital in 2010. Dietary habits were collected using a Brazilian food frequency questionnaire. Participants were divided in two groups: adults or older adults and in 4-cancer category: hematologic, lung, gastrointestinal and others. Body Mass Index evaluated nutritional status. A total of 86 patients with a mean age of 56.5 years, with 55% males and 42% older adults were evaluated. The older adult category had a higher frequency of being underweight (24.4% vs 16.3%, p cancer, nor with nutritional status. The food intake, macro and micronutrients ingestion is insufficient among cancer individuals. Food intake of older adults was inferior, when compared to the adult category. There was a high prevalence of BMI excess in the adult group and a worst nutritional status in the older adult category. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  20. Dietary monounsaturated fatty acids intake and risk of skin photoaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Latreille

    Full Text Available Intake of monounsaturated fatty acids has been reported to reduce oxidative stress, insulin resistance and related inflammatory processes and may thus protect from skin photoaging. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between the risk of photoaging, monounsaturated fatty acids intake and the sources of monounsaturated fatty acids.A cross sectional study was conducted within the framework of the SUVIMAX cohort. The survey included 1264 women and 1655 men aged between 45 and 60 years old. Dietary monounsaturated fatty acids intakes were estimated by dietary source through at least ten 24-h diet records completed during the first 2.5 years of the follow-up period. Severity of facial skin photoaging was graded by trained investigators at baseline during a clinical examination using a 6-grade scale illustrated by photographs. A lower risk of severe photoaging was associated with higher intakes of monounsaturated fatty acids from olive oil in both sexes. Strikingly, no association was found with intake of monounsaturated fatty acids from animal sources whether from dairy products, meat or processed meat.These findings support the beneficial effect of dietary olive oil or healthy diet habits associated with olive oil consumption on the severity of facial photoaging.

  1. Dietary intake and lifestyle behaviors of children in Mauritius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Digvijayini Bundhun

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to explore the dietary intake, fruit, vegetable and energy intake and lifestyle behaviors among Mauritian children. A validated questionnaire was used, assessing dietary intake, mean energy intake, mean body mass index (BMI, lifestyle behaviors as well as nutritional knowledge (NK among males and females. 336 children aged 6–12 years (165 males and 171 females from 8 public primary schools were recruited. Statistical analyses revealed that children consumed less nutritious foods such as fruits, vegetables and whole grains and more of refined and calorie-laden foods, with no significant differences across genders. Mean energy intake of children was 1522 ± 282.4 kcal per day while mean BMI was 17.5 ± 4.03 kg/m2. Majority of children had a low-to-moderate physical activity level (PAL, with males being more active than females on average (P = 0.021. 88.7% of children watched TV for more than an hour daily, with 84.8% of them reporting to be eating during the process. Females were more likely to be breakfast skippers (P = 0.003. Maximum frequency of snacking was twice daily (72.7% while consumption of fast food was once or twice weekly (44.0%. Results indicate the need for intervention with aim of improving the dietary and life quality of children in Mauritius.

  2. Dietary Sources of High Sodium Intake in Turkey: SALTURK II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus Erdem

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown daily salt intakes in Turkey to be far above the recommended limits. Knowing the sources of dietary salt could form a basis for preventive strategies aimed towards salt reduction. This study aimed to investigate dietary sources of salt in Turkey. A sub-group (n = 657 was selected from the PatenT2 study population, which represented the urban and rural areas of 4 major cities (Ankara, Istanbul, Izmir, and Konya. A questionnaire inquiring about sociodemographic characteristics, medical histories, detailed histories of diet, and salt consumption was completed. Participants were asked to collect a 24-h urine sample and to record their food intake (dietary recall on the same day. Of 925 participants selected, 657 (71% provided accurate 24-h urine collections, based on creatinine excretion data. The mean daily 24-h urinary sodium excretion was 252.0 ± 92.2 mmol/day, equal to daily salt intake of 14.8 ± 5.4 g. Of the 657 participants with accurate 24-h urine collections, 464 (70% provided fully completed dietary recalls. Among these 464 participants, there was a significant difference between the 24-h urinary sodium excretion-based salt intake estimation (14.5 ± 5.1 g/day and the dietary recall-based salt intake estimation (12.0 ± 7.0 g/day (p < 0.001. On the other hand, a positive correlation was obtained between the dietary recall-based daily salt intake and 24-h urinary sodium excretion-based daily salt intake (r = 0.277, p < 0.001. Bread was the main source of salt (34% followed by salt added during cooking and preparing food before serving (30%, salt from various processed foods (21%, and salt added at the table during food consumption (11%. Conclusively, this study confirmed a very high salt intake of the adult population in four major cities in Turkey. The present findings support the emerging salt reduction strategy in Turkey by promoting lower salt content in baked bread, and less salt use in habitual food

  3. Dietary intake and adequacy of energy and nutrients in Mexican older adults: results from two National Health and Nutrition Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa De la Cruz-Góngora

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe energy and nutrient intakes and their adequacies in older Mexican adults participating in the National Health and Nutrition Survey (Ensanut 2006 and 2012. Materials and methods. Dietary information was obtained through a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ from 526 adults 60 y and older participating in Ensanut 2012 and 3 326 in Ensanut 2006 in Mexico. Quantile and logistic regression models were used to obtain medians and marginal effects of each nutrient, ad­justing by confounders and survey design. Results. Dietary intake of energy and nutrients was similar in both surveys. Most common micronutrients at risk of dietary deficiency were, for vitamins: A, B-12, C, D and folate, and for minerals: calcium, iron and zinc, in both surveys. Excessive intake of sugar and saturated fat and low fiber intake were common. Conclusions. Diet in older Mexican adults is low in micro­nutrient essentials, and excessive in fat and sugar. Attention to the diet in this age group through targeted interventions is necessary to promote a healthy diet.

  4. Dietary intake of cadmium from Bangladeshi foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rmalli, S W; Jenkins, R O; Haris, P I

    2012-01-01

    Human exposure to cadmium (Cd) is associated with various diseases and high levels of Cd have been detected in Bangladeshi population warranting further research to identify the source of this exposure. In this study, Cd levels in 327 and 94 samples of Bangladeshi food and non-food samples, respectively, were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. This is the largest number of Bangladeshi food and nonfood samples investigated for their Cd content. High Cd levels were detected in leafy vegetables (mean 31 [SD 29]μg/kg). Of these vegetables, lal shak (Amaranthus tricolor) contained the highest Cd level (303 μg/kg [wet weight]; mean 100.5 [SD 95]μg/kg). Bangladeshi rice also showed significant concentration of Cd (mean 37.2 [SD 30]μg/kg). Of particular concern is the very high level of Cd detected in some puffed rice, which we attribute to the illegal practice of using urea for whitening the puffed rice. Tobacco leaves, which are commonly consumed during betel quid chewing by Bangladeshis, contain significant levels of Cd (mean 95 [SD 87]μg/kg). The total daily intake (TDI) of Cd from foods for Bangladeshis was estimated to be 34.55 μg/d. This is rather high when compared to the TDI of Cd for other populations. Our analysis reveals that this is mainly due to the very high intake of rice and vegetables, and lower consumption of animal products (which are low in Cd), by the Bangladeshis. We also determined the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake and target hazard quotients values for Cd. Clearly a more balanced diet is necessary to reduce the Cd intake in the Bangladeshi population, especially by reducing the very high intake of rice and certain leafy vegetables. Food manufacturing and agricultural practices needs to be altered to reduce the entry of Cd into the food chain. Exposure to high levels of Cd can be harmful to human health and this study provides a comprehensive analysis of Cd levels in a variety of food items from

  5. Contribution made by biomarkers of status to an FP6 Network of Excellence, EURopean micronutrient RECommendations Aligned (EURRECA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairweather-Tait, Susan J

    2011-08-01

    Dietary reference values for micronutrients vary considerably among countries, and harmonization is needed to facilitate nutrition policy and public health strategies at the European and global levels. The EURopean micronutrient RECommendations Aligned (EURRECA) Network of Excellence is developing generic instruments for systematically deriving and updating micronutrient reference values and dietary recommendations. These include best practice guidelines, interlinked web pages, online databases, and decision trees. Journal supplements have been published on micronutrient intakes and status, and an ongoing activity of EURRECA is the completion of systematic reviews on associations between intakes, status, and various health outcomes for priority micronutrients (ie, iron, zinc, folate, vitamin B-12, and iodine), which were selected by using a triage technique. Future activities include meta-analyses to identify dose-response relations and the variability, factorial estimates of requirements, bioavailability from whole diets, effects of genotype, and modeling techniques for addressing dietary recommendations for combinations of nutrients with common health endpoints.

  6. Do Chinese Children Get Enough Micronutrients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijun Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine usual daily micronutrient intake of Chinese children based on data from the 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey. We analyzed data from 4 to 17-year-old participants, who provided dietary data on three consecutive days combined with the household weighing method in 2011. Usual daily intake of each nutrient was estimated using a mixed effects model based on the China Food Composition published in 2009. The means, medians and percentages below Estimated Average Requirements (EAR were reported for selected micronutrients, including calcium, sodium, potassium, iron, zinc, selenium, vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavin and vitamin C. For sodium and potassium, the means and the distribution of intakes were compared to the Adequate Intake (AI level. The average usual daily intakes of all micronutrients increase with age, and the intakes of boys were found to be higher than girls in the same age group. The average calcium intake increased from 272 mg/day in 4–6 years to 391 mg/day in 14–17 years, but the percentage of inadequate calcium intake remained very high (>96%. The prevalence of inadequacy of calcium was the highest among the mineral nutrients reported in this study. As the requirements of micronutrients increased with age, the percentage of subjects with inadequate intake increased in the 11–17 years age groups. Among 14–17 years group, the percentages of study participants with dietary intakes of calcium, iron, zinc, selenium, vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavin and vitamin C below the EAR were 96.8%, 18.8%, 37.6%, 72.8%, 36.8%, 91.8%. 85.9% and 75.5%, respectively. Among 11–13 years group, the percentages of study participants with dietary intakes of iron, zinc and vitamin A below the EAR were 23.5%, 41.5%, and 41.6%, respectively. Thus, micronutrient deficiency is a problem in Chinese children. Nutrition education and intervention programs are needed to address these nutritional gaps.

  7. Dietary protein intake in community-dwelling, frail, and institutionalized elderly people: scope for improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieland, C.A.B.; Borgonjen-van den Berg, K.J.; Loon, van L.C.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    Adequate dietary protein intake is required to postpone and treat sarcopenia in elderly people. Insight into dietary protein intake in this heterogeneous population segment is needed to locate dietary inadequacies and to identify target populations and feeding strategies for dietary interventions.

  8. Evaluation of Dietary Intakes, Body Composition, and Cardiometabolic Parameters in Adolescent Team Sports Elite Athletes: A Cross-sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Javad; Maghsoudi, Zahra; Abbasi, Behnood; Daneshvar, Pooya; Hojjati, Atefeh; Ghiasvand, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Background: Nutritional intake is an important issue in adolescent athletes. Proper athletes’ performance is a multifactorial outcome of good training, body composition, and nutritional status. The aim of the present study was to assess nutritional status, body composition, and cardiometabolic factors in adolescent elite athlete's province of Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 100 adolescent elite athletes from volleyball, basketball, and soccer teams were selected for the study. Demographic, anthropometric, and cardiometabolic parameters were assessed. Nutritional intakes of participants were recorded using three 24-h recall questioners. Results: Thirty-four female athletes and 66 male athletes participated in this study. Body mass index had not significantly different between the sexes. Energy, protein, carbohydrate, iron, and fat intakes were significantly higher in male athletes (P = 0.02), but calcium and folic acid intakes were not significantly different between the sexes, and Vitamin D intake was significantly higher in females (P = 0.01). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was significantly higher in males (P = 0.04) and heart rate had not significantly different between the sexes (P = 0.09). Heart murmurs and heart sounds in the majority of participants were normal. Conclusion: All the evaluated anthropometric and cardiometabolic parameters were in normal range in the majority of participants. The results showed that dietary intake in these athletes is approximately normal but micronutrients intake status in these athletes needs to be investigated further and longer. PMID:28904935

  9. Global deposition of fallout radionuclides and their dietary intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morisawa, Shinsuke

    1993-01-01

    Japanese foods depend largely on foreign countries and domestic food supply now is no more than 30 percents if feedstuffs for live-stocks are included. Therefore not only ecological/natural but also social, e.g., human activities related, transportation of fallout radionuclides are to be taken into accounts for estimation of baseline internal irradiation dose and health risks of Japanese peoples through dietary intake of radionuclides. In this study, mathematical model is developed and examined for practical application on estimating Japanese dietary intake level of fallout strontium-90, which is accumulated in various kinds of foodstuffs and is transported to Japan associated with worldwide trades of foods, under appropriate limitations such that direct deposition on plants and seafood intake pathways are not evaluated. Deposition of strontium-90 onto the surface soil was simulated using the model, the compartment model described by a set ordinary differential equations, and the estimates were examined by comparing them with the observed data colleted and complied by the global scale environmental monitoring networks. Sensitivity analysis is also practised to find possible reduction of dietary intake of fallout radionuclides and the related potential health risks. (author)

  10. Dietary intake of aluminum in a Spanish population (Canary Islands).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Weller, Dailos; Gutiérrez, Angel José; Rubio, Carmen; Revert, Consuelo; Hardisson, Arturo

    2010-10-13

    The aim of this study was to analyze the aluminum content in foods and beverages most commonly consumed by the Canary Island population to determine the dietary intake of this metal throughout the Canary Islands as a whole and in each of the seven islands (Gran Canaria, Lanzarote, Fuerteventura, Tenerife, La Palma, La Gomera, and El Hierro). Four hundred and forty samples were analyzed by ICP-OES. Estimated total intake of aluminum for the Canary population was 10.171 mg/day, slightly higher than the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI; 10 mg/day for a person weighing 70 kg). Aluminum intake by age and sex of the Canary Island population was also determined and compared values from other populations, both national and international.

  11. Dietary protein intake in Dutch elderly people : a focus on protein sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieland, Michael; Borgonjen-Van den Berg, Karin J.; Van Loon, Luc J. C.; de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Sufficient high quality dietary protein intake is required to prevent or treat sarcopenia in elderly people. Therefore, the intake of specific protein sources as well as their timing of intake are important to improve dietary protein intake in elderly people. OBJECTIVES: to assess the

  12. Dietary protein intake in Dutch elderly people: a focus on protein sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieland, C.A.B.; Borgonjen-van den Berg, K.J.; Loon, van L.J.C.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Sufficient high quality dietary protein intake is required to prevent or treat sarcopenia in elderly people. Therefore, the intake of specific protein sources as well as their timing of intake are important to improve dietary protein intake in elderly people. Objectives: to assess the

  13. Maternal dietary fat intake in association with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyall, Kristen; Munger, Kassandra L; O'Reilly, Éilis J; Santangelo, Susan L; Ascherio, Alberto

    2013-07-15

    Our goal in this study was to determine whether maternal fat intake before or during pregnancy was associated with risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the offspring. Our primary analysis included 317 mothers who reported a child with ASD and 17,728 comparison mothers from the Nurses' Health Study II (index births in 1991-2007). Dietary information was collected prospectively through a validated food frequency questionnaire. Binomial regression was used to estimate crude and adjusted risk ratios. Maternal intake of linoleic acid was significantly inversely associated with ASD risk in offspring, corresponding to a 34% reduction in risk in the highest versus lowest quartiles of intake. Mothers in the lowest 5% of ω-3 fatty acid intake had a significant increase in offspring ASD risk as compared with the remaining distribution (risk ratio = 1.53, 95% confidence interval: 1.00, 2.32); this association was also seen in the subgroup of women (86 cases and 5,798 noncases) for whom dietary information during pregnancy was available (risk ratio = 2.42, 95% confidence interval: 1.19, 4.91). Thus, variations in intake of polyunsaturated fats within the range commonly observed among US women could affect fetal brain development and ASD risk. Because the number of women with diet assessed during pregnancy was small, however, these results should be interpreted cautiously.

  14. Dietary intake and body content of natural uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    The members of the uranium series found in the body that arise primarily from dietary intake are 238 U, 234 U, 226 Ra and 210 Pb. Lead 210, the predominant series radionuclide in the body, decays to the alpha emitter 210 Po, while the others are alpha emitters themselves. While 210 Pb primarily enters the body through diet, inhalation must also be considered, especially in smokers. The primary site of deposition for these nuclides is the skeleton and the dose to bone is the critical factor. In this section, the average background, elevated natural and enhanced dietary intakes of the uranium series radionuclides are discussed. Human skeletal levels and consequent alpha doses are summarized

  15. Usual Dietary Intakes: SAS Macros for Estimating Ratios of Two Dietary Components that are Consumed Nearly Every Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following SAS macros can be used to create a bivariate distribution of usual intake of two dietary components that are consumed nearly every day and to calculate percentiles of the population distribution of the ratio of usual intakes.

  16. Store turnover as a predictor of food and beverage provider turnover and associated dietary intake estimates in very remote Indigenous communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wycherley, Thomas; Ferguson, Megan; O'Dea, Kerin; McMahon, Emma; Liberato, Selma; Brimblecombe, Julie

    2016-12-01

    Determine how very-remote Indigenous community (RIC) food and beverage (F&B) turnover quantities and associated dietary intake estimates derived from only stores, compare with values derived from all community F&B providers. F&B turnover quantity and associated dietary intake estimates (energy, micro/macronutrients and major contributing food types) were derived from 12-months transaction data of all F&B providers in three RICs (NT, Australia). F&B turnover quantities and dietary intake estimates from only stores (plus only the primary store in multiple-store communities) were expressed as a proportion of complete F&B provider turnover values. Food types and macronutrient distribution (%E) estimates were quantitatively compared. Combined stores F&B turnover accounted for the majority of F&B quantity (98.1%) and absolute dietary intake estimates (energy [97.8%], macronutrients [≥96.7%] and micronutrients [≥83.8%]). Macronutrient distribution estimates from combined stores and only the primary store closely aligned complete provider estimates (≤0.9% absolute). Food types were similar using combined stores, primary store or complete provider turnover. Evaluating combined stores F&B turnover represents an efficient method to estimate total F&B turnover quantity and associated dietary intake in RICs. In multiple-store communities, evaluating only primary store F&B turnover provides an efficient estimate of macronutrient distribution and major food types. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.

  17. Dietary Macronutrient and Energy Intake and Urinary Incontinence in Women

    OpenAIRE

    Maserejian, Nancy N.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; McVary, Kevin T.; McGrother, Catherine; McKinlay, John B.

    2010-01-01

    Weight loss involving diet modification improves urinary incontinence (UI) in women, but little is known about dietary correlates of UI. The authors examined intakes of total energy, carbohydrate, protein, and fats in relation to UI in a cross-sectional sample of 2,060 women in the population-based Boston Area Community Health Survey (2002–2005). Data were collected from in-person home interviews and food frequency questionnaires. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and 95% ...

  18. Is placental iodine content related to dietary iodine intake?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burns, R

    2011-08-01

    Delivery of iodine to the foetus depends not only on maternal dietary iodine intake but also on the presence of a functioning placental transport system. A role for the placenta as an iodine storage organ has been suggested, and this study compares the iodine content of placentas from women giving birth at term in Ireland and Iran, areas with median urinary iodine of 79 and 206 μg\\/l respectively.

  19. Effects of food allergy on the dietary habits and intake of primary schools' Cypriot children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilopoulou, E; Christoforou, C; Andreou, E; Heraclides, A

    2017-07-01

    Aim. To determine whether food allergy affects overall dietary intake and food choices in Cypriot primary school children. Methods. As part of the first epidemiological study in Cyprus on food allergy in primary school children, two 24-hour recalls (one from a week and one from a weekend day) of twenty-eight food allergic children (21 girls) and thirty healthy children (20 girls) aged 6-11 years old, were analysed and compared regarding their macro- and micronutrient content, food choices and meal distribution. Results. Significant differences between the two subgroups of children were estimated regarding the total energy intake and macronutrients, where food allergic children were found to consume in lower quantities, as well as for calcium, niacin, fiber and vitamin E. Food allergic children were also found to avoid combining foods from the various food groups in their meals, and to prefer specific food products from each category, whereas they consumed higher amounts of sugar and fructose. Conclusion. Food allergy in Cypriot food allergic children impacts on both the quality and quantity of food choices, probably due to lack of nutritional education regarding proper elimination diet and alternative nutrient sources.

  20. Micronutrients intake associated with DNA damage assessed by in a human biomonitoring study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Ladeira

    2015-05-01

    Retinol was positively correlated with oxidative DNA damage in controls. The study by van Helden et al. (2009 demonstrated that vitamin A enhances OH radical formation in the Fenton reaction, showing that vitamin A can act as pro-oxidant or antioxidant, depending on the type of radicals involved, and may lead to DNA oxidative damage (Alakhras et al., 2011. Azqueta & Collins (2012 clearly distinguished between effects of vitamin A, pro-vitamin A carotenoids, and non-vitamin A carotenoids; being the latter group almost invariably reported to protect against DNA damage, whether endogenous or induced by exogenous agents, the pro-vitamin A carotenoids show a wider spectrum of effects, sometimes protecting and sometimes enhancing DNA damage. Vitamin E was found to be positively correlated with % DNA in tail. Watters et al. (2007 also found a positive association of vitamin E and oxidative DNA damage in a healthy, non-smoking population of young adults. A possible explanation for this result stems from some evidence that in the presence of copper or in smokers with a fat rich diet, vitamin E can act as a strong pro-oxidant, nevertheless it remains an unexpected result. Results found a positive correlation between iron and % DNA in tail, meaning that higher intake of iron associates with higher DNA damage. Oxidative lesions, and more specifically 8-OHdG, is one of the most prevalent lesions induced by iron containing substances (Prá et al., 2012, however the FPG biomarker was not statistically associated with iron. There is sound evidence that iron deficiency increases genome instability, among other mechanisms, by impairing enzymes involved in antioxidant and nuclei acid metabolism (Prá et al., 2012. Results presented herein found that the amount of calories ingested was negatively correlated with both biomarkers assessed by comet assay. This was somewhat unexpected, as calories restriction reduces metabolic rate and oxidative stress, meaning that lower calories

  1. ESTIMATING DIETARY INTAKE AND NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Sergeevna Aminova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Investigate dietary intake and nutritional status of students on the macronutrients consumption and body mass index. Materials and methods: The study involved 379 students aged 20,1±1,5. The survey was conducted with analyzing the frequency of food consumption. Nutritional status was assessed with body mass index. The results were processed with using a statistical software package Statistica 10.0 and MicrosoftExsel 2010. Results: Survey showed that most of the students ate three or four times a day, disorder of dietary pattern (eat less than 3times a day was observed in 23% women and 24% men. Estimating distribution of caloric intake during the day showed that 50% girls and 58% boys consumed the greatest amount of food for the evening food ingestion. Estimation of the average daily energy and macronutrients consumption has identified significant differences in sex groups. At the same time the excessive intake of dietary energy, due to the increased consumption of proteins and fats at students of both sexes were pointed. Average BMI values were assessed as normal in 66% students of both sexes. Underweight was registered in 25% women and 17% men. Overweight and obesity were found in 10% women and 18% men. Statistically significant differences in energy ration content among women with underweight and overweight were obtained. Such dependence has not been revealed in men. Conclusion: Study showed that nutrition of 70% students failed to meet hygienic requirements and had protein-fatty tendency.

  2. The contribution of dairy products to micronutrient intake in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, P.A.J.; Streppel, M.T.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the contribution of dairy products to the intake of various vitamins and minerals in several life stages in the Dutch population. Method: Data from 3 Dutch Food Consumption Surveys and the Leiden Longevity Study were used to estimate the contribution of dairy products—as

  3. Iterative Development of an Online Dietary Recall Tool: INTAKE24

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Simpson

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Collecting large-scale population data on dietary intake is challenging, particularly when resources and funding are constrained. Technology offers the potential to develop novel ways of collecting large amounts of dietary information while making it easier, more convenient, intuitive, and engaging for users. INTAKE24 is an online multiple pass 24 h dietary recall tool developed for use in national food and nutrition surveys. The development of INTAKE24 was a four-stage iterative process of user interaction and evaluation with the intended end users, 11–24 years old. A total of 80 11–24 years old took part in the evaluation, 20 at each stage. Several methods were used to elicit feedback from the users including, ‘think aloud’, ‘eye tracking’, semi-structured interviews, and a system usability scale. Each participant completed an interviewer led recall post system completion. Key system developments generated from the user feedback included a ‘flat’ interface, which uses only a single interface screen shared between all of the various activities (e.g., free text entry, looking up foods in the database, portion size estimation. Improvements to the text entry, search functionality, and navigation around the system were also influenced through feedback from users at each stage. The time to complete a recall using INTAKE24 almost halved from the initial prototype to the end system, while the agreement with an interviewer led recall improved. Further developments include testing the use of INTAKE24 with older adults and translation into other languages for international use. Our future aim is to validate the system with recovery biomarkers.

  4. Dietary Crude Lecithin Increases Systemic Availability of Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid with Combined Intake in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Nick; Balvers, Martin; Cansev, Mehmet; Maher, Timothy J; Sijben, John W C; Broersen, Laus M

    2016-07-01

    Crude lecithin, a mixture of mainly phospholipids, potentially helps to increase the systemic availability of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Nevertheless, no clear data exist on the effects of prolonged combined dietary supplementation of DHA and lecithin on RBC and plasma PUFA levels. In the current experiments, levels of DHA and choline, two dietary ingredients that enhance neuronal membrane formation and function, were determined in plasma and red blood cells (RBC) from rats after dietary supplementation of DHA-containing oils with and without concomitant dietary supplementation of crude lecithin for 2-3 weeks. The aim was to provide experimental evidence for the hypothesized additive effects of dietary lecithin (not containing any DHA) on top of dietary DHA on PUFA levels in plasma and RBC. Dietary supplementation of DHA-containing oils, either as vegetable algae oil or as fish oil, increased DHA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and total n-3 PUFA, and decreased total omega-6 PUFA levels in plasma and RBC, while dietary lecithin supplementation alone did not affect these levels. However, combined dietary supplementation of DHA and lecithin increased the changes induced by DHA supplementation alone. Animals receiving a lecithin-containing diet also had a higher plasma free choline concentration as compared to controls. In conclusion, dietary DHA-containing oils and crude lecithin have synergistic effects on increasing plasma and RBC n-3 PUFA levels, including DHA and EPA. By increasing the systemic availability of dietary DHA, dietary lecithin may increase the efficacy of DHA supplementation when their intake is combined.

  5. Differences in meal patterns and timing with regard to central obesity in the ANIBES ('Anthropometric data, macronutrients and micronutrients intake, practice of physical activity, socioeconomic data and lifestyles in Spain') Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Aránzazu; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Elena E; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Ortega, Rosa Maria

    2017-09-01

    To study the association of meal patterns and timing with central obesity to identify the best dietary strategies to deal with the increasing obesity prevalence. A cross-sectional study performed on data from a representative sample of the Spanish population. Height and waist circumference were measured using standardized procedures and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) was calculated. The sample was divided into those without central obesity (WHtRmacronutrients and micronutrients intake, practice of physical activity, socioeconomic data and lifestyles in Spain') Study. Adults aged 18-64 years (n 1655; 798 men and 857 women). A higher percentage of people ate more than four meals daily in the group without central obesity and those with central obesity more frequently skipped the mid-afternoon snack than those without. Breakfasts containing >25 % of total energy intake and lunches containing >35 % of total energy intake were associated with increased likelihood of central obesity (OR=1·874, 95 % CI 1·019, 3·448; P15 % of total energy were associated with decreased likelihood of central obesity (OR=0·477, 95 % CI 0·313, 0·727; P<0·001 and OR=0·650, 95 % CI 0·453, 0·932; P<0·05, respectively). The variety of cereals, wholegrain cereals and dairy was higher in the population without central obesity. Our results suggest that 'what and when we eat' should be considered dietary strategies to reduce central obesity.

  6. A measurement error approach to assess the association between dietary diversity, nutrient intake, and mean probability of adequacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Maria L; Carriquiry, Alicia

    2010-11-01

    Collection of dietary intake information requires time-consuming and expensive methods, making it inaccessible to many resource-poor countries. Quantifying the association between simple measures of usual dietary diversity and usual nutrient intake/adequacy would allow inferences to be made about the adequacy of micronutrient intake at the population level for a fraction of the cost. In this study, we used secondary data from a dietary intake study carried out in Bangladesh to assess the association between 3 food group diversity indicators (FGI) and calcium intake; and the association between these same 3 FGI and a composite measure of nutrient adequacy, mean probability of adequacy (MPA). By implementing Fuller's error-in-the-equation measurement error model (EEM) and simple linear regression (SLR) models, we assessed these associations while accounting for the error in the observed quantities. Significant associations were detected between usual FGI and usual calcium intakes, when the more complex EEM was used. The SLR model detected significant associations between FGI and MPA as well as for variations of these measures, including the best linear unbiased predictor. Through simulation, we support the use of the EEM. In contrast to the EEM, the SLR model does not account for the possible correlation between the measurement errors in the response and predictor. The EEM performs best when the model variables are not complex functions of other variables observed with error (e.g. MPA). When observation days are limited and poor estimates of the within-person variances are obtained, the SLR model tends to be more appropriate.

  7. Correlates of anaemia in pregnant urban South Indian women: a possible role of dietary intake of nutrients that inhibit iron absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Tinu Mary; Thomas, Tinku; Finkelstein, Julia; Bosch, Ronald; Rajendran, Ramya; Virtanen, Suvi M; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Kurpad, Anura V; Duggan, Christopher

    2013-02-01

    To identify correlates of anaemia during the first trimester of pregnancy among 366 urban South Indian pregnant women. Cross-sectional study evaluating demographic, socio-economic, anthropometric and dietary intake data on haematological outcomes. A government maternity health-care centre catering predominantly to the needs of pregnant women from the lower socio-economic strata of urban Bangalore. Pregnant women (n 366) aged ≥18 and ≤40 years, who registered for antenatal screening at ≤14 weeks of gestation. Mean age was 22·6 (sd 3·4) years, mean BMI was 20·4 (sd 3·3) kg/m2 and 236 (64·5 %) of the pregnant women were primiparous. The prevalence of anaemia (Hb poultry (1·94; 1·29, 2·91). Low dietary intake of multiple micronutrients, but higher intakes of nutrients that inhibit Fe absorption such as Ca and P, may help explain high rates of maternal anaemia in India.

  8. Dietary Antioxidant and Flavonoid Intakes Are Reduced in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Elżbieta Zujko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine sources and patterns of antioxidant and flavonoid intakes in the elderly (61–74 yrs in comparison with young (20–40 yrs and middle age (41–60 yrs groups in a cross-sectional study. More than 6000 subjects of both genders, aged 20–74 years, participants of the National Multicenter Health Survey (WOBASZ took part in this study. Daily food consumption was estimated by the single 24-hour dietary recall. Dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC and flavonoid content (FC were calculated according to the amount of food consumed by the participants combined with antioxidant capacity and flavonoid contents in foods. Food consumption, dietary TAC, and FC were significantly lower in the elderly, especially elderly women in comparison to the young and middle age groups. The consumption of tea, coffee, and apples was associated with the largest contribution to dietary TAC and FC in all participants. Despite high nutrient density of the energy-adjusted diet of ageing people, the elderly consumed the lowest amounts of antioxidants and flavonoids due to the lowest food intake.

  9. Food insecurity and dietary intake of immigrant food bank users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, Timothy J; Ng, Victor; Irwin, Jennifer D; Stitt, Larry W; He, Meizi

    2007-01-01

    The degree of food insecurity and dietary intake was examined in adult Colombians who are new immigrants to Canada and use a food bank. In-person surveys were conducted on a convenience sample of 77 adult Colombian immigrant food bank users in London, Ontario. Degree of food insecurity was measured by the Radimer/Cornell questionnaire, food intakes by 24-hour recall, sociodemographics, and questionnaires about changes in dietary patterns before and after immigration. Thirty-six men and 41 women participated in the study. Despite being highly educated, all respondents had experienced some form of food insecurity within the previous 30 days. The degree of food insecurity seems to be inversely associated with income and length of residency in Canada. Total daily energy intake was low, with a mean value of 1,568.3 +/- 606.0 kcal (6,217.5 +/- 2,336.4 kJ). In particular, a large proportion of participants consumed a diet low in fruits and vegetables (73%) and milk and dairy products (58%). Colombian immigrant food bank users new to Canada experience various degrees of food insecurity, which is associated with inadequate food intake. Interventions are needed to assist this population with adapting to society while concurrently sustaining healthy eating patterns.

  10. Monosodium glutamate intake, dietary patterns and asthma in Chinese adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zumin Shi

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Emerging evidence shows that diet is related to asthma. The aim of this analysis was to investigate the association between monosodium glutamate (MSG intake, overall dietary patterns and asthma. METHODS: Data from 1486 Chinese men and women who participated in the Jiangsu Nutrition Study (JIN were analyzed. In this study, MSG intake and dietary patterns were quantitatively assessed in 2002. Information on asthma history was collected during followed-up in 2007. RESULTS: Of the sample, 1.4% reported ever having asthma. MSG intake was not positively associated with asthma. There was a significant positive association between 'traditional' (high loadings on rice, wheat flour, and vegetable food pattern and asthma. No association between 'macho' (rich in meat and alcohol, 'sweet tooth' (high loadings on cake, milk, and yoghurt 'vegetable rich' (high loadings on whole grain, fruit, and vegetable food patterns and asthma was found. Smoking and overweight were not associated with asthma in the sample. CONCLUSION: While a 'Traditional' food pattern was positively associated with asthma among Chinese adults, there was no significant association between MSG intake and asthma.

  11. Changing micronutrient intake through (voluntary) behaviour change. The case of folate.

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, BB; Lähteenmäki, L; Grunert, KG; Brown, KA; Timotijevic, L; Barnett, J; Shepherd, R; Raats, MM

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to relate behaviour change mechanisms to nutritionally relevant behaviour and demonstrate how the different mechanisms can affect attempts to change these behaviours. Folate was used as an example to illuminate the possibilities and challenges in inducing behaviour change. The behaviours affecting folate intake were recognised and categorised. Behaviour change mechanisms from "rational model of man", behavioural economics, health psychology and social...

  12. Keloids in rural black South Africans. Part 2: dietary fatty acid intake and total phospholipid fatty acid profile in the blood of keloid patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louw, L; Dannhauser, A

    2000-11-01

    In the second part of this study, emphasis is placed on nutritional intakes (fatty acids and micronutrients) and fatty acid intake and metabolism in the blood, respectively, according to a combined 24 h recall and standardized food frequency questionnaire analyses of keloid prone patients (n=10), compared with normal black South Africans (n=80), and total phospholipid blood (plasma and red blood cell ) analyses of keloid patients (n=20), compared with normal individuals (n=20). Lipid extraction and fractionation by standard procedures, total phospholipid (TPL) separation with thin layer chromatography, and fatty acid methyl ester analyses with gas liquid chromatography techniques were used. Since nutrition may play a role in several disease disorders, the purpose of this study was to confirm or refute a role for essential fatty acids (EFAs) in the hypothesis of keloid formations stated in part 1 of this study. (1)According to the Canadian recommendation (1991), we observed that in keloid patients linoleic acid (LA) and arachidonic acid (AA) dietary intakes, as EFAs of the omega-6-series, are higher than the recommended 7-11 g/d. However, the a-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) dietary intakes, as EFAs of the omega-3 series, are lower than the recommendation of 1.1-1.5 g/d. This was also the case in the control group, where a higher dietary intake of the omega-6 fatty acids and a slightly lower dietary intake of the omega-3 fatty acids occurred. Thus, we confirm a high dietary intake of LA (as a product of organ meats, diary products and many vegetable oils) and AA (as a product of meats and egg yolks), as well as lower dietary intakes of ALA (as a product of grains, green leafy vegetables, soy oil, rapeseed oil and linseed), and EPA and DHA (as products of marine oils). Lower micronutrient intakes than the recommended dietary allowances were observed in the keloid group that may influence EFA metabolism and/or collagen

  13. Snacking for a Cause: Nutritional Insufficiencies and Excesses of U.S. Children, a Critical Review of Food Consumption Patterns and Macronutrient and Micronutrient Intake of U.S. Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Hess

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review was to identify dietary insufficiencies and excesses in children aged two to 11 in the United States (U.S. and eating habits that merit concern in terms of nutrient and energy density to improve overall diet quality. Data from the What We Eat in America (WWEIA tables from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES were examined as well as survey data from the School Nutrition Dietary Assessment Study (SNDA. Analysis of survey data revealed that children consume insufficient Vitamin D, calcium, and potassium and excess energy, carbohydrates, and sodium. Dietary modifications are necessary to prevent serious deficiencies and the development of chronic illness. Snacking has steadily increased in this population since the 1970s, and snacks provide necessary nutrients. However, carbohydrates and added sugars tend to be over-consumed at snacking occasions. Replacement of current snack choices with nutrient-dense foods could lower the risks of nutrient deficiencies and help lower excess nutrient consumption. Increased consumption of low sugar dairy foods, especially yogurt, at snack times could increase intake of important micronutrients without contributing to dietary excesses.

  14. Dietary fat and antioxidant vitamin intake in patients of neurodegenerative disease in a rural region of Jalisco, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Meza, Mónica; Gabriel-Ortiz, Genaro; Pacheco-Moisés, Fermín P.; Cruz-Ramos, José A.; López-Espinoza, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate and compare the intake of lipids and (A, E, and C) vitamins in patients with and without possible neurodegenerative diseases. Methods Twenty adults with possible Alzheimer's disease or Parkinson's disease and 41 control subjects (50–89 years old) from a rural region were studied. Dietary intake was evaluated with the analysis of macronutrients and micronutrients conducted by a food frequency questionnaire and 24 hours dietary record. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, and energy intake. Through interrogation and use of medical record form of health secretary we obtained information about the sociodemographic characteristics. Multivariate analysis of variance to allow for covariated adjustment was used. Results Patients had a lower energy intake, vitamin C (P = 0.016), fruits (P < 0.001), vegetables (P = 0.037), and oils and fat (P = 0.002), than the controls. Interestingly, the C vitamin intake in patients was still higher than the recommended. Patients had a higher consumption of cereals (P = 0.017), high-animal fat diet (P = 0.024), and whole milk (P < 0.001); 2.4% of the controls smoke and 5% are alcohol consumers. Eighty-five percent of patients and 78% of the controls do not have physical activity. Family history of subjects in this study indicated chronic diseases. Conclusion The subjects included in this study had a high intake of C vitamin, this is due to the consumption of fruits and vegetables. However, patients with possible Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease had a lower intake of fruits and vegetables, which could be due to type of food to which they have access. PMID:24257159

  15. [Comparison of 24 hour dietary recalls with a food frequency questionnaire in evaluating dietary fat intakes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Juan; Zhuo, Qin; He, Yu-na

    2016-05-01

    To compare the difference and correlation of dietary fat intakes measures from the food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) with measures from 24 hour dietary recalls (24HDRs), and provide evidence for the future research of dietary fat. A total of 511 participants, selected from Zhejiang province, were asked to complete an FFQ and 24HDRs. The consumption of energy, fat, fatty acids, the percentages of energy from fat were calculated with the FFQ and 24HDRs and the results were analyzed. There was no difference between FFQ and 24HDRs in energy, fat, fatty acids and the percentages of energy from fat. Sperman's rank correlation coefficient between the two methods were 0.51 in energy, 0.58 in fat and 0. 57 in the percentages of energy from fat. The proportion of subjects who were assigned to the same or adjacent quintile groups were 80.73% for energy, 84.81% for fat and 83. 38% for the percentages of energy from fat. An effective FFQ can evaluate dietary fat consumption and rank participants well. Selecting the simple and easy FFQ method to assess the dietary fat intake would he a good choice when research the relationship between dietary fat and chronic disease in the future.

  16. Compliance with WHO IYCF Indicators and Dietary Intake Adequacy in a Sample of Malaysian Infants Aged 6–23 Months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geok Lin Khor

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The 2010 World Health Organisation (WHO Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF indicators are useful for monitoring feeding practices. Methods: A total sample of 300 subjects aged 6 to 23 months was recruited from urban suburbs of Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya. Compliance with each IYCF indicator was computed according to WHO recommendations. Dietary intake based on two-day weighed food records was obtained from a sub-group (N = 119 of the total sample. The mean adequacy ratio (MAR value was computed as an overall measure of dietary intake adequacy. Contributions of core IYCF indicators to MAR were determined by multinomial logistic regression. Results: Generally, the subjects showed high compliance for (i timely introduction of complementary foods at 6 to 8 months (97.9%; (ii minimum meal frequency among non-breastfed children aged 6 to 23 months (95.2%; (iii consumption of iron-rich foods at 6 to 23 months (92.3%; and minimum dietary diversity (78.0%. While relatively high proportions achieved the recommended intake levels for protein (87.4% and iron (71.4%, lower proportions attained the recommendations for calcium (56.3% and energy (56.3%. The intake of micronutrients was generally poor. The minimum dietary diversity had the greatest contribution to MAR (95% CI: 3.09, 39.87 (p = 0.000 among the core IYCF indicators. Conclusion: Malaysian urban infants and toddlers showed moderate to high compliance with WHO IYCF indicators. The robustness of the analytical approach in this study in quantifying contributions of IYCF indicators to MAR should be further investigated.

  17. Compliance with WHO IYCF Indicators and Dietary Intake Adequacy in a Sample of Malaysian Infants Aged 6-23 Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, Geok Lin; Tan, Sue Yee; Tan, Kok Leong; Chan, Pauline S; Amarra, Maria Sofia V

    2016-12-01

    The 2010 World Health Organisation (WHO) Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) indicators are useful for monitoring feeding practices. A total sample of 300 subjects aged 6 to 23 months was recruited from urban suburbs of Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya. Compliance with each IYCF indicator was computed according to WHO recommendations. Dietary intake based on two-day weighed food records was obtained from a sub-group ( N = 119) of the total sample. The mean adequacy ratio (MAR) value was computed as an overall measure of dietary intake adequacy. Contributions of core IYCF indicators to MAR were determined by multinomial logistic regression. Generally, the subjects showed high compliance for (i) timely introduction of complementary foods at 6 to 8 months (97.9%); (ii) minimum meal frequency among non-breastfed children aged 6 to 23 months (95.2%); (iii) consumption of iron-rich foods at 6 to 23 months (92.3%); and minimum dietary diversity (78.0%). While relatively high proportions achieved the recommended intake levels for protein (87.4%) and iron (71.4%), lower proportions attained the recommendations for calcium (56.3%) and energy (56.3%). The intake of micronutrients was generally poor. The minimum dietary diversity had the greatest contribution to MAR (95% CI: 3.09, 39.87) ( p = 0.000) among the core IYCF indicators. Malaysian urban infants and toddlers showed moderate to high compliance with WHO IYCF indicators. The robustness of the analytical approach in this study in quantifying contributions of IYCF indicators to MAR should be further investigated.

  18. Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Dietary Patterns of Preadolescents Attending Schools in the Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepper, Martha J.; Chai, Weiwen

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The present study examined dietary intake of fruit and vegetables and dietary patterns of preadolescents attending schools in the Midwest. Methods: A total of 506 students (11.2 ± 1.3 years) from four public and private schools in Nebraska completed a validated 41-item Food Frequency Questionnaire to assess their dietary intake.…

  19. Body composition and habitual and match-day dietary intake of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of all the MVC rugby players (N=35), 18 completed the sections on body composition and match-day dietary intake, while 11 completed the habitual dietary intake section. Body composition data were collected by an International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry-accredited biokineticist. Habitual dietary ...

  20. Dietary patterns, food and macronutrient intakes among adults in three ethnic groups in rural Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Andreas Wolff; Christensen, Dirk; Larsson, Melanie

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To compare dietary patterns and food and macronutrient intakes among adults in three ethnic groups in rural Kenya. Design. In the present cross-sectional study, dietary intake was estimated in adult volunteers using two non-consecutive interactive 24 h recalls. Dietary patterns were...

  1. [Micronutrient consumption and overweight: is there a relationship?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leão, Ana Luisa Marcucci; dos Santos, Luana Caroline

    2012-03-01

    In past decades, the growth in obesity has been associated with changes in the lifestyle of the population, including comprehensive dietary changes, especially in the intake of micronutrients. To describe micronutrient intake and review its consequences on nutritional status. A literature review was performed covering domestic and international articles published over the past 11 years, on the SciELO, LILACS, MEDLINE and governmental databases, using descriptors such as "micronutrients", "food consumption", "excess weight", "health", "nutritional status" in Portuguese and in English. Micronutrient intake deficiency is a global health problem, affecting about 2 billion people and seems to be associated with an increased risk for non-communicable diseases and disorders, including obesity. Insufficient intake of vitamin A favors overweight by altering thyroid metabolism, while vitamin C is related to the synthesis of carnitine and fat oxidation; vitamin D favors the control of satiety and energy expenditure. As for minerals, calcium helps the regulation of thermogenesis and lipogenesis / lipolysis, and zinc is involved in regulating insulin and leptin. The promotion of healthy eating habits through educational practices is necessary for greater public awareness of the implications of micronutrient intake on nutritional status, and should be included in Public Health strategies in order to control obesity and its complications.

  2. Assessing dietary intake in childhood cancer survivors: Food frequency questionnaire versus 24-hour diet recalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer diagnosis and treatment may influence dietary intake. The validity of using self-reported methods to quantify dietary intake has not been evaluated in childhood cancer survivors. We validated total energy intake (EI) reported from Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and repeated 24-hour diet r...

  3. Zinc Biofortification of Rice in China: A stimulation of zinc intake with different dietary patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, Y.; Boonstra, A.; Yuan, B.; Pan, X.; Dai, Yue

    2012-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey of 2819 adults aged 20 years and above was undertaken in 2002 in Jiangsu Province. Zinc intake was assessed using a consecutive 3-day 24-h dietary recall method. Insufficient and excess intake was determined according to the Chinese Dietary Recommended Intakes. Four distinct

  4. Predictors of dietary heterocyclic amine intake in three prospective cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, C; Sinha, R; Platz, E A; Giovannucci, E; Colditz, G A; Hunter, D J; Speizer, F E; Willett, W C

    1998-06-01

    Cooking meat creates heterocyclic amines (HCAs) through pyrolysis of amino acids and creatinine. Although recognized as mutagenic, the etiological role of HCA in human cancer is unclear, due to the lack of information on the effect of typical food cooking methods on HCA concentrations and on variation in HCA exposure in populations. We estimated overall daily dietary HCA intake and variation in intake between individuals, using recent data on HCA concentrations in various meats prepared by cooking methods, temperatures, and times common in United States in the 1990s. Random samples of 250 participants from each of three large prospective cohorts were mailed a questionnaire to assess frequency of consumption, cooking method, and typical outside appearance of pan-fried, broiled, and grilled or barbecued chicken, fish, hamburger, and steak; fried, microwaved, and broiled bacon; fried sausage; roast beef; and homemade gravy. The 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), and 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5,f]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx) concentrations, measured in composite samples by solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography, were assigned to each food, cooking method, and doneness level. The dietary reports showed approximately 30-fold relative variation in 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline intake, 20-fold for 2-amino- -methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine, and over 110-fold for 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5,f]quinoxaline, when the 10th and 90th percentiles of HCA intake were compared (90th/10th percentile value). These reported variations in HCA exposure among participants in these three large cohorts indicates that estimation of HCA intake and determination of association with disease risk are feasible, if additional information on meat cooking methods is obtained.

  5. Evaluation of dietary intake in Danish adults by means of an index based on food-based dietary guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Vibeke K; Fagt, Sisse; Trolle, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    The diet quality index is a useful tool in assessing food and nutrient intake in individuals with high vs. low degree of compliance towards the dietary guidelines, and provides a valuable tool in future studies investigating variations in dietary intakes with respect to lifestyle, demographic...

  6. Role of micronutrients for physical growth and mental development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Meharban

    2004-01-01

    Due to control of florid and severe cases of protein-energy malnutrition, deficiencies of micronutrients in children have assumed public health importance. According to National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau of India, over 50% of apparently healthy looking children have subclinical or biochemical deficiencies of vitamin A, vitamins B2, B6, folate and vitamin C. Over two-third of children have clinical evidences of iron deficiency while deficiency of trace minerals like iodine and zinc is quite common in certain populations. Children have food preferences and they are quite fussy to take green leafy vegetables and fruits thus compromising their intake of micronutrients from dietary sources. The full genetic potential of the child for physical growth and mental development may be compromised due to subclinical deficiencies of micronutrients which are commonly referred to as "hidden hunger". Micronutrients are required for the integrity and optimal functioning of immune system. Children with subclinical deficiency of micronutrients are more vulnerable to develop frequent and more severe common day-to-day infections thus triggering a vicious cycle of undernutrition and recurrent infections. A number of micronutrients are required for optimal physical growth and neuromotor development. Isolated deficiencies of micronutrients are rare in clinical practice and usually deficiencies of multiple micronutrients co-exist. The first 3 years of life are most crucial and vulnerable to the hazards of undernutrition. All efforts should be made so that preschool children are given a balanced and nutritious home-based diet. However, it has been shown that it is not possible to meet 100% requirements of recommended dietary allowances (RDA's) of micronutrients from dietary sources alone and most preschool children need administration of nutritional supplements to optimize their genetic potential for physical growth and mental development.

  7. Quantitative estimates of dietary intake with special emphasis on snacking pattern and nutritional status of free living adults in urban slums of Delhi: impact of nutrition transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Archna; Gupta, Vidhu; Ghosh, Arpita; Lock, Karen; Ghosh-Jerath, Suparna

    2015-10-14

    The nutritional landscape of India is experiencing the fallout of urbanization and globalization. The changes are manifest in dietary patterns as well as health outcomes. The study aimed at assessing household dietary intake pattern with special emphasis on snacking pattern, anthropometric and lipid profiles in low socio-economic status households in an urban slum of Delhi. Community based cross-sectional study in 260 households of a purposively selected urban slum in North-East district of Delhi, India. Family dietary surveys including consumption pattern of commercial food products rich in Partially Hydrogenated Vegetable Oils (PHVOs), 24 h dietary recall and assessment of dietary diversity using Household Diet Diversity Scores (HDDS) were done. Assessment of nutritional status using anthropometric and lipid profile on a subsample ( n =130) were also conducted. Median energy and fat intake were adequate. Micronutrient intake was found to be inadequate for vitamin A, riboflavin, calcium and folate. PHVO usage was low (healthy diet and lifestyle practices with emphasis on quantity and quality of nutrient intake. This must be considered as an integral part of chronic disease prevention strategy for underprivileged communities in urban India.

  8. Effects of a low-fat vegan diet and a Step II diet on macro- and micronutrient intakes in overweight postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Barnard, Neal D; Scialli, Anthony R; Lanou, Amy J

    2004-09-01

    This study investigated the nutrient intake of overweight postmenopausal women assigned to a low-fat vegan diet or a Step II diet. Fifty-nine overweight (body mass index, 26 to 44 kg/m2) postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to a self-selected low-fat vegan or a National Cholesterol Education Program Step II diet in a 14-wk controlled trial on weight loss and metabolism. Nutrient intake, which was measured per 1000 kcal, was the main outcome measure. Statistical analyses included within-group and between-group t tests examining changes associated with each diet. Consumption of a low-fat vegan diet was associated with greater decreases in fat, saturated fat, protein, and cholesterol intakes and greater increases in carbohydrate, fiber, beta-carotene, and total vitamin A intakes than was a Step II diet. The low-fat vegan group also increased thiamin, vitamin B6, and magnesium intakes more than the Step II group, and both groups increased folic acid, vitamin C, and potassium intakes. If considering only food sources of micronutrients, the low-fat vegan group decreased vitamin D, vitamin B12, calcium, selenium, phosphorous, and zinc intakes compared with baseline. However, with incidental supplements included, decreases were evident only in phosphorous and selenium intakes. No micronutrient decreases were found in the Step II group. Individuals on a low-fat vegan or Step II diet should take steps to meet the recommended intakes of vitamin D, vitamin K, folic acid, calcium, magnesium, and zinc. Individuals on a low-fat vegan diet should also ensure adequate intakes of vitamin B12, phosphorous, and selenium.

  9. Dietary flavonoid intake at midlife and healthy aging in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samieri, Cécilia; Sun, Qi; Townsend, Mary K; Rimm, Eric B; Grodstein, Francine

    2014-12-01

    Dietary flavonoids have been related to lower risks of various chronic diseases, but it is unclear whether flavonoid intake in midlife helps to maintain good health and wellbeing in aging. We examined the relation of flavonoid intake in midlife with the prevalence of healthy aging. We included 13,818 women from the Nurses' Health Study with dietary data and no major chronic diseases in 1984-1986 when they were aged in their late 50s (median age: 59 y); all women provided information on multiple aspects of aging an average of 15 y later. Intakes of 6 major flavonoid subclasses in midlife were ascertained on the basis of averaged intakes of flavonoid-rich foods from 2 food-frequency questionnaires (1984-1986). We defined healthy compared with usual aging as of age 70 y; healthy aging was based on survival to ≥70 y with maintenance of 4 health domains (no major chronic diseases or major impairments in cognitive or physical function or mental health). Of women who survived until ≥70 y of age, 1517 women (11.0%) met our criteria for healthy aging. Compared with women in the lowest quintile of intake, women in the highest quintile of intake of several flavonoid subclasses at midlife had greater odds of healthy aging. After multivariable adjustment, ORs were as follows: flavones, 1.32 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.58); flavanone, 1.28 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.53); anthocyanin, 1.25 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.50); and flavonol, 1.18 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.42) (all P-trend ≤ 0.02). Consistently, greater intakes of major sources of these flavonoids (i.e., oranges, berries, onions, and apples) were associated with increased odds of healthy aging. We showed no association with flavan-3-ol monomers (P-trend = 0.80) or polymers (P-trend = 0.63). Higher intake of flavonoids at midlife, specifically flavones, flavanones, anthocyanins, and flavonols, is associated with greater likelihood of health and wellbeing in individuals surviving to older ages. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. Total dietary intake of mercury in the Canary Islands, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, C; Gutiérrez, A; Burgos, A; Hardisson, A

    2008-08-01

    Estimating the risk associated with dietary intake of heavy metals by consumers is a vital and integral part of regulatory processes. The assessment of exposure to mercury shown in this paper has been performed by means of a study on the whole diet. Total mercury (Hg) levels were determined by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) in 420 samples of regularly consumed food and drink. The total Hg concentrations measured in the different groups of food ranged from non-detectable to 119 microg kg(-1) w/w. The fish group had the highest concentrations of total Hg. All groups of food with regulated Hg content showed levels that were lower than the legally set values. The food consumption data used in the analysis were taken from the latest nutritional survey made in the Canary Islands, Spain. The estimated total Hg intake of local population (5.7 microg/person day(-1)) did not exceed the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) limit of 0.3 mg week(-1) of total mercury (43 microg/person day(-1)) fixed by the Joint Food and Agricultural Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) Expert Committee on Food Additives. Fishery products contributed 96% of the total Hg intake. The mean Hg intake for each island in this archipelago, formed by seven, has also been calculated. Fuerteventura, Lanzarote and El Hierro are the islands with the highest level of Hg intake (7.0, 7,0 and 6.1 microg/person day(-1), respectively). La Palma Island, due to its low fish consumption, had the lowest level of Hg intake (4.5 microg/person day(-1)), followed by La Gomera (5.4 microg/person day(-1)), Tenerife (5.5 microg/person day(-1)) and Gran Canaria (5.6 microg/person day(-1)). A comparison has been made of the results obtained in this study with those found for other national and international communities.

  11. Dietary fat intake and quality of life: the SUN project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano, Cristina; Henriquez, Patricia; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; del Burgo, Cristina López; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena

    2011-11-02

    Few studies have related nutritional factors with quality of life in healthy populations. The purpose of the study was to assess whether dietary fat intake is associated to mental and physical quality of life. This analysis included 8,430 participants from the SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra) Project. The intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), trans unsaturated fatty acids (TFA), and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) was assessed through a 136-item food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Quality of life was measured with the SF-36 Health Survey after 4 years of follow-up. Generalized Linear Models were fitted to assess the regression coefficients (b) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the 8 domains of the SF-36 according to successive quintiles of each kind of fatty acids intake. The multivariate-adjusted models revealed a significant inverse association for SFA intake (in quintiles) and two of the physical domains (physical functioning and general health). E.g. for general health domain: (highest quintile of intake (Q5) vs. lowest quintile (Q1), b = -1.6; 95% CI = -3.1, -0.1. General health also showed a dose-response relationship (p for trend < 0.05). For TFA intake (in quintiles), a significant inverse association was found for most of the mental domains (vitality, social functioning and role emotional). E.g. for vitality domain (Q5) vs. (Q1), b = -2.0, 95% CI = -3.4 to -0.6. We also found an inverse association between TFA intake and the bodily pain domain: (Q5 vs. Q1), b = -2.6; 95% CI = -4.4 to -0.8, with a statistically significant dose-response relationship (p for trend < 0.05). Except for TFA intake and the mental domains, the rest of the associations were attenuated when we repeated the analysis adjusting for adherence to the Mediterranean diet. A detrimental relationship between TFA intake at baseline and most of the SF-36 mental domains measured 4 years later were found, whereas weak inverse

  12. Dietary intake of pregnant women and their infants in a poor black South African community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Mostert

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were (i to determine the dietary intake of women in a poor rural area during pregnancy and lactation, and (ii to determine the nutritional status and dietary intake of their infants at age 6 months. We recruited 46 women, below 40 years old, in their 2nd trimester of pregnancy. The subjects were living in a rural area of Limpopo Province. Their heights and weights were recorded, as were their diets during pregnancy and for the first 6 months after delivery. We also recorded weights, lengths, and dietary intake of the infants at 3 and 6 months after birth. The subjects were living in severe poverty: none had running water and almost all did their cooking over an open fire. None of the subjects smoked and only one consumed alcohol. The diets of the subjects consisted mainly of maize, brown bread, sweetened beverages (cold drink and tea, and small amounts of vegetables and chicken. The diets were adequate in protein but were marginal in energy and in dietary fibre, and may be deficient in numerous micronutrients, particularly calcium, iron, zinc, niacin, folate, and vitamins A, C, E, and B6. This was seen during pregnancy and lactation. Blood analysis 6 months after birth revealed normal levels of vitamins A and E and an absence of anaemia. Body mass index (BMI of the women was 23.9 } 5.3 kg/m2 (mean } SD when measured 6 months after birth. Those above 25 years old had a higher BMI than did younger subjects (25.5 vs. 22.2; p= 0.028. Overall, 24% were overweight (BMI 25-30 while 9% were obese (BMI > 30. Most infants (93% were breastfed for at least 6 months but exclusive breastfeeding was only done by 65% of mothers. One-third of breastfed infants also received formula. The use of formula while breastfeeding was twice as common among mothers aged above 25 years (46% vs. 23%. Early introduction of solid foods was very common in this group. Younger mothers introduced solids in the first month (51% more often compared with

  13. Dietary intake and ghrelin and leptin changes after sleeve gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bužga, Marek; Zavadilová, Vladislava; Holéczy, Pavol; Švagera, Zdeněk; Švorc, Pavol; Foltys, Aleš; Zonča, Pavel

    2014-12-01

    Surgical intervention in obesity is today the most effective treatment method in high level obesity management. Bariatric interventions not only ensure body weight reduction, but may influence dietary habits. To assess changes in adipose hormones and dietary habits in obese patients after sleeve gastrectomy. The study set comprised 37 subjects (29 females and 8 males) 24 to 68 years old with body mass index 43.0 ±4.9 kg/m(2). Pre-operative examination included baseline measurements of body composition. Dietary habits and intake frequency were monitored by a questionnaire method. Follow-up examinations were carried out in a scope identical to the pre-operative examination, 6 and 12 months after surgery, respectively. The average patient weight loss 12 months after surgery was 31.7 kg. Excess weight loss was 55.2 ±20.6%. Patients reported reduced appetite (p meal portions per day (p = 0.003) and a decrease in consuming the largest portions during the afternoon and evening (p = 0.030). Plasma levels of fasting glucose, leptin and ghrelin significantly decreased (p = 0.006; p = 0.0.043); in contrast, the level of adiponectin significantly increased (p weight reduction within 1 year after surgery. An improvement of certain dietary habits in patients was registered. At 12 months after surgery, there were no statistically significant differences in decreases in ghrelin and leptin concentrations between patients without changed appetite and those reporting decreased appetite.

  14. Dietary supplement intake during pregnancy; better safe than sorry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Alie; Bast, Aalt; Godschalk, Roger

    2018-06-01

    Consumption of dietary supplements and specifically niche products such as supplements targeting pregnant women is increasing. The advantages of dietary supplementation during pregnancy with folic acid have been established, but health effects of many other supplements have not been confirmed. EU and US legislation on dietary supplements requires the product to be safe for the direct consumer, the mother. Long-term health effects for the fetus due to fetal programming (in utero adaptation of the fetal epigenome due to environmental stimuli such as supplementation) are not taken into account. Such epigenetic alterations can, however, influence the response to health challenges in adulthood. We therefore call for both conducting research in birth cohorts and animal studies to identify potential health effects in progeny of supplement consuming mothers as well as the establishment of a nutrivigilance scheme to identify favorable and adverse effects post-marketing. The acquired knowledge can be used to create more effective legislation on dietary supplement intake during pregnancy for safety of the child. Increasing knowledge on the effects of consuming supplements will create a safer environment for future mothers and their offspring to optimize their health before, during and after pregnancy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Dietary Intake and Food Habits of Pregnant Women Residing in Urban and Rural Areas of Deyang City, Sichuan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Hormann

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Micronutrient deficiencies and imbalanced dietary intake tend to occur during the reproductive period among women in China. In accordance with traditional Chinese culture, pregnant women are commonly advised to follow a specific set of dietary precautions. The purpose of this study was to assess dietary intake data and identify risk factors for nutritional inadequacy in pregnant women from urban and rural areas of Deyang region, Sichuan province of China. Cross-sectional sampling was applied in two urban hospitals and five rural clinics (randomly selected in Deyang region. Between July and October 2010, a total of 203 pregnant women in the third trimester, aged 19–42 years, were recruited on the basis of informed consent during antenatal clinic sessions. Semi-structured interviews on background information and 24-h dietary recalls were conducted. On the basis of self-reported height and pre-pregnancy weight, 68.7% of the women had a pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI within the normal range (18.5 ≤ BMI < 25, 26.3% were found to be underweight with a BMI <18.5 (20.8% in urban vs. 35.6% in rural areas, while only 5.1% were overweight with a BMI ≥30. In view of acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges (AMDRs the women’s overall dietary energy originated excessively from fat (39%, was low in carbohydrates (49.6%, and reached the lower limits for protein (12.1%. Compared to rural areas, women living in urban areas had significantly higher reference nutrient intake (RNI fulfillment levels for energy (106.1% vs. 93.4%, fat (146.6% vs. 119.7%, protein (86.9% vs. 71.6%, vitamin A (94.3% vs. 65.2%, Zn (70.9% vs. 61.8%, Fe (56.3% vs. 48%, Ca (55.1% vs. 41% and riboflavin (74.7% vs. 60%. The likelihood of pregnant women following traditional food recommendations, such as avoiding rabbit meat, beef and lamb, was higher in rural (80% than in urban (65.1% areas. In conclusion, culturally sensitive nutrition education sessions are necessary for both

  16. Dairy Intake, Dietary Adequacy, and Lactose Intolerance12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    Despite repeated emphasis in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans on the importance of calcium in the adult American diet and the recommendation to consume 3 dairy servings a day, dairy intake remains well below recommendations. Insufficient health professional awareness of the benefits of calcium and concern for lactose intolerance are among several possible reasons, This mini-review highlights both the role of calcium (and of dairy, its principal source in modern diets) in health maintenance and reviews the means for overcoming lactose intolerance (real or perceived). PMID:23493531

  17. Dietary Cadmium Intake and Its Effects on Kidneys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soisungwan Satarug

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd is a food-chain contaminant that has high rates of soil-to-plant transference. This phenomenon makes dietary Cd intake unavoidable. Although long-term Cd intake impacts many organ systems, the kidney has long been considered to be a critical target of its toxicity. This review addresses how measurements of Cd intake levels and its effects on kidneys have traditionally been made. These measurements underpin the derivation of our current toxicity threshold limit and tolerable intake levels for Cd. The metal transporters that mediate absorption of Cd in the gastrointestinal tract are summarized together with glomerular filtration of Cd and its sequestration by the kidneys. The contribution of age differences, gender, and smoking status to Cd accumulation in lungs, liver, and kidneys are highlighted. The basis for use of urinary Cd excretion to reflect body burden is discussed together with the use of urinary N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAG and β2-microglobulin (β2-MG levels to quantify its toxicity. The associations of Cd with the development of chronic kidney disease and hypertension, reduced weight gain, and zinc reabsorption are highlighted. In addition, the review addresses how urinary Cd threshold levels have been derived from human population data and their utility as a warning sign of impending kidney malfunction.

  18. Dietary calcium intake and the risk of colorectal cancer: a case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Changwoo; Shin, Aesun; Lee, Jeonghee; Lee, Jeeyoo; Park, Ji Won; Oh, Jae Hwan; Kim, Jeongseon

    2015-01-01

    Background High intake of dietary calcium has been thought to be a protective factor against colorectal cancer. To explore the dose-response relationship in the associations between dietary calcium intake and colorectal cancer risk by cancer location, we conducted a case-control study among Korean population, whose dietary calcium intake levels are relatively low. Methods The colorectal cancer cases and controls were recruited from the National Cancer Center in Korea between August 2010 and A...

  19. Nutrition activation and dietary intake disparities among US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langellier, Brent A; Massey, Philip M

    2016-12-01

    To introduce the concept 'nutrition activation' (the use of health and nutrition information when making food and diet decisions) and to assess the extent to which nutrition activation varies across racial/ethnic groups and explains dietary disparities. Cross-sectional sample representative of adults in the USA. Primary outcome measures include daily energy intake and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), fast foods and sit-down restaurant foods as determined by two 24 h dietary recalls. We use bivariate statistics and multiple logistic and linear regression analyses to assess racial/ethnic disparities in nutrition activation and food behaviour outcomes. USA. Adult participants (n 7825) in the 2007-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Nutrition activation varies across racial/ethnic groups and is a statistically significant predictor of SSB, fast-food and restaurant-food consumption and daily energy intake. Based on the sample distribution, an increase from the 25th to 75th percentile in nutrition activation is associated with a decline of about 377 kJ (90 kcal)/d. Increased nutrition activation is associated with a larger decline in SSB consumption among whites than among blacks and foreign-born Latinos. Fast-food consumption is associated with a larger 'spike' in daily energy intake among blacks (+1582 kJ (+378 kcal)/d) than among whites (+678 kJ (+162 kcal)/d). Nutrition activation is an important but understudied determinant of energy intake and should be explicitly incorporated into obesity prevention interventions, particularly among racial/ethnic minorities.

  20. An assessment of the dietary fiber intake of selected students in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... chronic diseases such as diabetes, obesity, colon cancer and heart disease. This study ... The study showed that the dietary fiber intake of the students was adequate. ... Keywords: Dietary Fiber, Cereal Fruits Vegetables, University Students ...

  1. Dietary intake and metabolic control of children aged six to ten with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    intake of children with type 1 diabetes and about how this compares to the dietary ... achieving a balance between food intake, insulin levels and energy ..... South African Health Review: Chronic conditions in children. In: Ijumba P, Padarath A, ...

  2. Impact of the Bolsa Família Program on energy, macronutrient, and micronutrient intakes: Study of the Northeast and Southeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naiara SPERANDIO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the impact of the Bolsa Família Program on the energy and nutrient intakes of beneficiaries from the Brazilian Northeast and Southeast regions. Methods: The study used data from the 2008-2009 Pesquisa de Orçamento Famíliar, which assessed individual food intake on two nonconsecutive days of individuals aged more than 10 years. Based the personal information booklet, food intake values were transformed into nutritional values (energy and nutrients. Analysis of the impact measure was preceded by propensity score matching, a technique that matches some socioeconomic characteristics of beneficiaries and nonbeneficiaries. Once the score was calculated, the impact of the Bolsa Família Program was estimated by nearest neighbor matching. Results: The program increased energy and macronutrient intakes and decreased calcium and vitamin A, D, E, and C intakes of adolescent beneficiaries in both regions. Adult beneficiaries from the Southeast region increased their fiber, iron, and selenium intakes, and those from the Northeast region decreased their energy, lipid, added sugar, sodium, zinc, vitamin E, and pyridoxine intakes. Conclusion: The results show a positive impact of the program on the energy and macronutrient intakes, and a negative impact on the intakes of most study micronutrients, especially in adolescents, which reinforce the importance of implementing intersectoral actions to improve the nutritional quality of the Bolsa Família Program beneficiaries' diet.

  3. Validity and Reproducibility of a Habitual Dietary Fibre Intake Short Food Frequency Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Genelle; Brough, Louise; Murphy, Rinki; Hedderley, Duncan; Butts, Chrissie; Coad, Jane

    2016-09-10

    Low dietary fibre intake has been associated with poorer health outcomes, therefore having the ability to be able to quickly assess an individual's dietary fibre intake would prove useful in clinical practice and for research purposes. Current dietary assessment methods such as food records and food frequency questionnaires are time-consuming and burdensome, and there are presently no published short dietary fibre intake questionnaires that can quantify an individual's total habitual dietary fibre intake and classify individuals as low, moderate or high habitual dietary fibre consumers. Therefore, we aimed to develop and validate a habitual dietary fibre intake short food frequency questionnaire (DFI-FFQ) which can quickly and accurately classify individuals based on their habitual dietary fibre intake. In this study the DFI-FFQ was validated against the Monash University comprehensive nutrition assessment questionnaire (CNAQ). Fifty-two healthy, normal weight male (n = 17) and female (n = 35) participants, aged between 21 and 61 years, completed the DFI-FFQ twice and the CNAQ once. All eligible participants completed the study, however the data from 46% of the participants were excluded from analysis secondary to misreporting. The DFI-FFQ cannot accurately quantify total habitual dietary fibre intakes, however, it is a quick, valid and reproducible tool in classifying individuals based on their habitual dietary fibre intakes.

  4. Increasing Dietary Phosphorus Intake from Food Additives: Potential for Negative Impact on Bone Health123

    OpenAIRE

    Takeda, Eiji; Yamamoto, Hironori; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Taketani, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    It is important to consider whether habitual high phosphorus intake adversely affects bone health, because phosphorus intake has been increasing, whereas calcium intake has been decreasing in dietary patterns. A higher total habitual dietary phosphorus intake has been associated with higher serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and lower serum calcium concentrations in healthy individuals. Higher serum PTH concentrations have been shown in those who consume foods with phosphorus additives. These fi...

  5. Gender differences in dietary intake among adults of Hindu communities in lowland Nepal: assessment of portion sizes and food consumption frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudo, N; Sekiyama, M; Maharjan, M; Ohtsuka, R

    2006-04-01

    To elucidate gender differences in dietary intake among adults in lowland Nepalese communities. For 122 male and 195 female subjects aged 20 years and over from 94 randomly selected households, interviews using a 19-item food frequency questionnaire were conducted. To determine the portion sizes of these foods, the samples consumed by 56 subjects in a full 1-day period were weighed. Energy expenditure was estimated by time spent on daily activities. Gender differences in per-day energy and protein intakes were related to sex differences in body size and energy expenditure. Apparent gender differences in the crude intakes disappeared when they were expressed by nutrient density (mg or microg/MJ) since micronutrient intakes were significantly correlated with energy intake. However, males' iron intake was larger even after adjustment for energy intake, attributing to their larger portion sizes of commonly consumed staple foods and higher frequencies of consuming luxury foods (fish and tea). The intrahousehold unequal distribution of food incurs risk of iron deficiency among female subjects. This study was financially supported by the Ajinomoto Foundation for Dietary Culture and the Alliance for Global Sustainability Program.

  6. Quantitative food frequency questionnaire and assessment of dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, S; Goyle, A; Gupta, R

    1998-01-01

    India is a land of varied foods and food habits. This makes the task of collecting dietary and nutrient intake data difficult. Methods need to be devised to improve the accuracy in reporting intakes by various population subgroups. There is an urgent need to develop a questionnaire that is simple enough to be administered on a large sample and whose validity and reproducibility has been quantified. Regional differences in food habits and availability will have to be taken into account in the questionnaire design. Packaging of food items with definite portion sizes is not a common practice in Indian markets and labels on food products are neither very informative nor descriptive. Epidemiologists addressing the effects of diet have generally used questionnaires that inquire about the frequency of specified foods consumed and sometimes also attempt to quantify usual portion sizes. A number of investigators have conveyed, apparently independently, that the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) as a method of dietary assessment is best suited for most epidemiological applications. A food frequency list can form the basis for nutrition education and allows the dietician and the patient to relate individual eating patterns to specific foods. Other advantages of the FFQ are that it is independent of the ability or inclination of an individual to maintain a diary and also provides immediate feedback to patients, physicians and counsellors.

  7. Need and seek for dietary micronutrients: endogenous regulation, external signalling and food sources of carotenoids in new world vultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Blanco

    Full Text Available Among birds, vultures show low concentrations of plasma carotenoids due to the combination of their large size, general dull colouration and a diet based on carrion. We recorded the concentration of each carotenoid type present in plasma of the Andean condor (Vultur gryphus according to age and sex, that determine colour signalling and dominance hierarchies in the carcasses. We compared the carotenoid profile in wild condors with that of captive condors fed with a controlled diet of flesh to test the hypothesis that wild individuals could acquire extra carotenoids from vegetal matter contained in carcass viscera and fresh vegetation. Wild American black vultures (Coragyps atratus were also sampled to evaluate the potential influence of colouration in the integument on absorption and accumulation patterns of plasma carotenoids. A remarkably higher concentration of lutein than β-carotene was found in wild condors, while the contrary pattern was recorded in American black vultures and captive condors. We found a consistent decrease in all plasma carotenoids with age, and a lower concentration of most xanthophylls in male compared to female wild condors. Positive correlations of all carotenoids indicated general common absorption and accumulation strategies or a single dietary source containing all pigments found in plasma. The comparatively low total concentration of carotenoids, and especially of lutein rather than β-carotene, found in captive condors fed with a diet restricted to flesh supports the hypothesis that Andean condors can efficiently acquire carotenoids from vegetal matter in the wild. Andean condors seem to be physiologically more competent in the uptake or accumulation of xanthophylls than American black vultures, which agrees with the use of colour-signalling strategies in sexual and competitive contexts in the Andean condor. This study suggests that vultures may use dietary vegetal supplements that provide pigments and

  8. Need and Seek for Dietary Micronutrients: Endogenous Regulation, External Signalling and Food Sources of Carotenoids in New World Vultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Guillermo; Hornero-Méndez, Dámaso; Lambertucci, Sergio A.; Bautista, Luis M.; Wiemeyer, Guillermo; Sanchez-Zapata, José A.; Garrido-Fernández, Juan; Hiraldo, Fernando; Donázar, José A.

    2013-01-01

    Among birds, vultures show low concentrations of plasma carotenoids due to the combination of their large size, general dull colouration and a diet based on carrion. We recorded the concentration of each carotenoid type present in plasma of the Andean condor (Vultur gryphus) according to age and sex, that determine colour signalling and dominance hierarchies in the carcasses. We compared the carotenoid profile in wild condors with that of captive condors fed with a controlled diet of flesh to test the hypothesis that wild individuals could acquire extra carotenoids from vegetal matter contained in carcass viscera and fresh vegetation. Wild American black vultures (Coragyps atratus) were also sampled to evaluate the potential influence of colouration in the integument on absorption and accumulation patterns of plasma carotenoids. A remarkably higher concentration of lutein than β-carotene was found in wild condors, while the contrary pattern was recorded in American black vultures and captive condors. We found a consistent decrease in all plasma carotenoids with age, and a lower concentration of most xanthophylls in male compared to female wild condors. Positive correlations of all carotenoids indicated general common absorption and accumulation strategies or a single dietary source containing all pigments found in plasma. The comparatively low total concentration of carotenoids, and especially of lutein rather than β-carotene, found in captive condors fed with a diet restricted to flesh supports the hypothesis that Andean condors can efficiently acquire carotenoids from vegetal matter in the wild. Andean condors seem to be physiologically more competent in the uptake or accumulation of xanthophylls than American black vultures, which agrees with the use of colour-signalling strategies in sexual and competitive contexts in the Andean condor. This study suggests that vultures may use dietary vegetal supplements that provide pigments and micronutrients that are

  9. Assessment of dietary intake in Spanish university students of health sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Rodríguez, María; Pocovi, Gabriela; Schmidt-RioValle, Jacqueline; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Rueda-Medina, Blanca

    2018-05-01

    Nutritional intake during early ages has been associated to disease onset later in life. This study aimed to assess dietary intake in Spanish university students of health sciences as compared to national recommended dietary intakes (DRIs). A cross-sectional study was conducted including 585 university students of health sciences aged 18-25 years. Dietary intake was assessed using a 72-h diet recall. A control group was selected from Spanish National Dietary Intake Survey (ENIDE) data. Intake of energy, protein, fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol was significantly lower (p<0.001) in university students compared to controls, while fiber intake showed the opposite trend (p<0.001). Total fat and carbohydrate intake was consistent with recommendations, but protein intake was lower than recommended. Intake of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) was markedly higher than nutrition goals, while intake of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) was lower. Both students and the reference control group did not reach the optimal dietary intake of iodine and vitamins D and E, while sodium intake was excessive in both groups. Dietary habits of university students were mainly characterized by low intakes of energy, protein, fats, fatty acids, and cholesterol, and high intake of fiber as compared to the general population. Intake of iodine and vitamins D and E was low, while sodium intake was excessive in both university students and the general population. Dietary interventions should be considered to prevent nutritional deficiencies and to ensure a balanced diet. Copyright © 2018 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Habitual intake of dietary flavonoids and risk of Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, X; Cassidy, A; Schwarzschild, M A; Rimm, E B; Ascherio, A

    2012-04-10

    To prospectively examine whether higher intakes of total flavonoids and their subclasses (flavanones, anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols, flavonols, flavones, and polymers) were associated with a lower risk of developing Parkinson disease (PD). In the current analysis, we included 49,281 men in the Health Professional Follow-up Study and 80,336 women from the Nurses' Health Study. Five major sources of flavonoid-rich foods (tea, berry fruits, apples, red wine, and orange/orange juice) were also examined. Flavonoid intake was assessed using an updated food composition database and a validated food frequency questionnaire. We identified 805 participants (438 men and 367 women) who developed PD during 20-22 years of follow-up. In men, after adjusting for multiple confounders, participants in the highest quintile of total flavonoids had a 40%lower PD risk than those in the lowest quintile (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.60; 95% confidence interval 0.43, 0.83; p trend = 0.001). No significant relationship was observed in women (p trend = 0.62) or in pooled analyses (p trend = 0.23). In the pooled analyses for the subclasses, intakes of anthocyanins and a rich dietary source, berries, were significantly associated with a lower PD risk (HR comparing 2 extreme intake quintiles were 0.76 for anthocyanins and 0.77 for berries, respectively; p trend < 0.02 for both). Our findings suggest that intake of some flavonoids may reduce PD risk, particularly in men, but a protective effect of other constituents of plant foods cannot be excluded.

  11. Assessment of Daily Food and Nutrient Intake in Japanese Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients Using Dietary Reference Intakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoto Nakamura

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Medical nutrition therapy for the management of diabetes plays an important role in preventing diabetes complications and managing metabolic control. However, little is known about actual eating habits of individuals with type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM, especially in Japan. Therefore, we sought to (1 assess the dietary intake of individuals with T2DM, and (2 characterize their intake relative to national recommendations. This cross-sectional study involved 149 patients (77 males and 72 females aged 40–79 years with T2DM recruited at a Kyoto hospital. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated self-administered diet history questionnaire. Under-consumption, adequacy, and over-consumption, of nutrients were compared to the age- and sex-based standards of the Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes. Among the results, most notable are (1 the inadequacy of diets in men with respect to intake of vitamins and minerals, likely owing to low intake of vegetables and fruits; (2 excess contributions of fat intake to total energy in both sexes; and (3 excess consumption of sweets and beverages relative to the national average. The prevalence of diabetes complications may be increasing because of a major gap between the typical dietary intake of individuals with T2DM and dietary recommendation.

  12. Dietary sodium intake and prediction of cardiovascular events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Äijälä, M; Malo, E; Santaniemi, M; Bloigu, R; Silaste, M-L; Kesäniemi, Y A; Ukkola, O

    2015-09-01

    The association of dietary sodium and cardiovascular disease (CVD), as well as the reduction of sodium intake in the prevention of CVD, has been under debate. To study whether sodium consumption has a role as a risk factor for fatal and non-fatal CVD. A well-defined population-based cohort of 1045 subjects collected between 1991 and 1993 (mean age 51.4 years) was used with approximately 19 years' follow-up. At the baseline, 716 subjects filled in a 1-week food follow-up diary, which was used to calculate the daily sodium intake (mg/1000 kcal). The baseline sodium intake correlated significantly with age (rs=0.117, P=0.002), BMI (rs=0.216, P=0.000), waist circumference (rs=0.268, P=0.000), smoking (rs=0.144, P=0.000), alcohol consumption (rs=0.111, P=0.003), systolic blood pressure (rs=0.106, P=0.005) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (rs=0.081, P=0.033). Those who had cardiovascular events in the follow-up consumed more sodium at the baseline (mean 2010.4 mg/1000 kcal/day, s.d. 435.2, n=101) compared with the subjects without events (mean 1849.9 mg/1000 kcal/day, s.d. 361.2, n=589; t-test; P=0.001). The incidence of cardiovascular events was greater in the highest quartile (22.1%) than in the lower quartiles (first 11.0%, second 9.9% and third 15.6%; X(2); P=0.005). Cox regression analysis showed that sodium intake as a continuous variable predicts CVD events (P=0.031) independently when age, sex, smoking, alcohol consumption, systolic blood pressure, LDL cholesterol and waist circumference were added as covariates. This predictive role is seen especially in the group of subjects on hypertensive medication (P=0.001). Dietary sodium intake is a significant independent predictor of cardiovascular events in the study population.

  13. Cadmium dietary intake in the Canary Islands, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio, C.; Hardisson, A.; Reguera, J.I.; Revert, C.; Lafuente, M.A.; Gonzalez-Iglesias, T.

    2006-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) in the human diet constitutes a potential chronic hazard to health. In the nonsmoking general population, diet is the major source of cadmium exposure; therefore, it is important to monitor the dietary intake of this heavy metal to quantify and improve the understanding of Cd accumulation in the human body. The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of Cd in a range of food and drink commonly consumed in the Canary Islands. Food samples (420) were analyzed for Cd by atomic absorption spectrometry. The most recent nutritional survey conducted for the Canarian population was used to define the food and drink groups analyzed. The measured Cd concentrations combined with the food consumption data resulted in a total Cd intake in the Canary Islands of 0.16 μg/kg of body weight/day, which is well below the respective provisional tolerable weekly intake of Cd of 1 μg/kg of body weight per day determined by the FAO/WHO. The results are also compared with values reported for other national and international communities

  14. Hidden hunger or knowledge hunger? Nutritional knowledge, diet diversity and micronutrient intake in Rwanda: The case of Vitamin A

    OpenAIRE

    Okello, Julius J.; Sindi, Kirimi; Low, Jan; Shikuku, Kelvin M.

    2013-01-01

    The problem of hidden hunger has emerged as one of the major development issues alongside food security. This problem highlights the likelihood of households having access to inadequate amount of key micronutrients in a diet despite having access to adequate quantities of food. , This paper uses a recent detailed household consumption data to investigate households’ nutritional knowledge, the diversity of diets consumed, and the micronutrient uptake, focusing specifically on Vitamin A. The st...

  15. Correlation between Intake of Dietary Fiber and Adherence to the Korean National Dietary Guidelines in Adolescents from Jeonju.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunmi; Na, Woori; Kim, Misung; Kim, Eunsoo; Sohn, Cheongmin

    2012-12-01

    This study surveyed dietary intake and adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines in Korean adolescents. To elucidate basic data for use in nutrition education, which aims to improve adolescent compliance with the national dietary guidelines and to increase the intake of dietary fiber, we evaluated the sources of fiber in adolescent diets. This study included 182 male and 212 female students from 2 middle schools in the Jeonju province. From November 15~20, 2011, we surveyed the students for general characteristics, adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines, and dietary intake. Dietary fiber intake was 16.57 ± 6.95 g/day for male students and 16.14 ± 7.11 g/day for female students. The food groups that contributed most to dietary fiber intake were (in descending order) cereals, vegetables, seasoning, and fruits. The fiber-containing food items consumed most were cabbage- kimchi, cooked rice, instant noodles, and cabbage. Based on adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines, the vegetable-based intake of dietary fiber in groups 1 (score 15~45), 2 (score 46~52), and 3 (score 53~75) were 4.41 ± 2.595 g/day, 4.12 ± 2.692 g/day, and 5.49 ± 3.157 g/day, respectively (p<0.001). In addition, the total intake of dietary fiber varied significantly among the three groups (p<0.001) as follows: Group 1, 14.99 ± 6.374 g/day; Group 2, 15.32 ± 6.772 g/day; and Group 3, 18.79 ± 7.361 g/day. In this study, we discovered that adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines correlates with improved intake of dietary fiber. Therefore, marketing and educational development is needed to promote adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines. In addition, nutritional education is needed to improve dietary fiber consumption through the intake of vegetables and fruits other than kimchi.

  16. Micronutrients and Diabetic Retinopathy A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Chee-Tin Christine; Gayton, Emma L.; Beulens, Joline W. J.; Flanagan, Declan W.; Adler, Amanda I.

    Background: We have evaluated the evidence for the association between intake and blood levels of micronutrients and diabetic retinopathy. Treatment for diabetic retinopathy requires significant clinical input and specialist ophthalmologic care. Micronutrients, including vitamin C, vitamin E, and

  17. Short sleep duration and dietary intake: epidemiologic evidence, mechanisms, and health implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Links between short sleep duration and obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease may be mediated through changes in dietary intake. This review provides an overview of recent epidemiologic studies on the relations between habitual short sleep duration and dietary intake in a...

  18. Usability of mobile phone food records to assess dietary intake in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobile technologies are emerging as a valuable tool to collect and assess dietary intake. Adolescents readily accept and adopt new technologies, hence, a food record application (FRapp) may provide an accurate mechanism to monitor dietary intake. We examined the usability of a FRapp in 17 free-livin...

  19. Dietary intake of zinc in the population of Jiangsu Province, China.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Q.; Boonstra, A.; Shi, Z.; Pan, X.; Yuan, B.; Dai, Yue; Zhao, J.; Zimmermann, M.B.; Kok, F.J.; Zhou, M.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate dietary zinc and other divalent minerals intake among the population of Jiangsu Province. Methods: 3,867 subjects aged 4-89 years were representatively sampled in two urban and six rural areas of Jiangsu Province. Dietary intake was assessed using 24-hour recalls on three

  20. The association of sleep quality and insomnia with dietary intake of tryptophan and niacin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verster, J.; Fernstrand, A.; Bury, D.; Roth, T.; Garssen, J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Dietary intake of tryptophan and niacin have been related to sleep. However, the sleep-promoting effects of these nutrients are still under investigation. The aim of the current study was to examine the relationship between daily dietary intake of tryptophan and niacin and sleep.

  1. Associations of Built Food Environment with Dietary Intake among Youth with Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamichhane, Archana P.; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.; Puett, Robin; Bottai, Matteo; Porter, Dwayne E.; Liese, Angela D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the associations of supermarket and fast-food outlet accessibility and availability with dietary intake among youth with diabetes. Design: Subjects' residential location and dietary intake was obtained from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study. Food outlet data obtained from the South Carolina Department of Health and…

  2. Impact on Dietary Intake of Removable Partial Dentures Replacing a Small Number of Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomata, Chisato; Ikebe, Kazunori; Okada, Tadashi; Takeshita, Hajime; Maeda, Yoshinobu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the impact of wearing removable partial dentures (RPDs) replacing a small number of teeth on dietary intake. Participants had at least 20 teeth and were classified as Eichner B1 or B2. The participants underwent dental and oral examinations, and their dietary intake was assessed. Analysis of covariance showed that RPD wearers consumed more vegetables, n-3 fatty acids, calcium, vitamin A, and dietary fiber than nonwearers after adjusting for possible confounding factors. It is concluded that RPDs are effective for improving dietary intake even in participants who have lost a small number of teeth.

  3. Daily dietary intake of iron, copper, zinc and manganese in a Spanish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Carmen; Gutiérrez, Angel José; Revert, Consuelo; Reguera, Juan Ignacio; Burgos, Antonio; Hardisson, Arturo

    2009-11-01

    To evaluate the daily dietary intake of essential metals in the Canary Islands, the iron, copper, zinc and manganese contents in 420 food and drink samples collected in local markets were analysed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The estimated daily dietary intakes of iron, copper, zinc and manganese are 13.161 mg/day, 2.098 mg/day, 8.954 mg/day and 2.372 mg/day, respectively. The iron dietary intake was found to be below the recommendations fixed for adult women, while the copper and manganese dietary intakes fulfilled the Recommended Dietary Allowances. The mean daily intake of zinc was below the Recommended Dietary Allowance. Cereals were found to be the food group that contributed most to the intake of these metals. While the island of El-Hierro presented iron, copper, zinc and manganese mean intakes over the estimated intakes for the whole archipelago, Fuerteventura island showed the lowest intakes. Tenerife and Fuerteventura showed the lowest iron intakes, being below the recommendations.

  4. Dietary intakes of essential nutrients among Arab and Berber ethnic groups on rural Tunisian island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroudi, Thouraya; Maiz, Hedi Ben; Abid, Hafaoua Kammoun; Benammar-Elgaaied, Amel; Alouane, Leila Trabelsi

    2010-01-01

    The dietary intake was investigated and food sources were identified among Tunisian ethnic groups from Jerba Island in the south of Tunisia. Ninety-four subjects of moderate socioeconomic status (47 Berbers and 47 Arabs) aged 32 to 64 y completed a 1-mo qualitative food-frequency questionnaire and a single 24-h dietary recall, and dietary intakes and demographic status were observed from 2006 to 2007. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was not significantly associated with Arab men compared with Berber men. Therefore, obesity was significantly associated with Berber women (PBerber women (PBerber group were significantly different from the Arab group. Intakes of calcium, zinc, iron, and folate were below recommended nutrient intakes in men and women in the two ethnic groups. Vitamin E intake was greater in Berbers than in Arabs (P<0.01). Ethnicity was significantly associated with dietary intakes in the two ethnic groups of Jerba Island.

  5. Defining the role of dietary intake in determining weight change in patients with cancer cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrah, R; Kanbalian, M; Van Der Borch, C; Swinton, N; Wing, S; Jagoe, R T

    2018-02-01

    Weight loss is a cardinal feature of cachexia and is frequently associated with reduced food intake and anorexia. It is still unclear how much reduced food intake contributes to cancer-related weight loss and how effective increasing dietary energy and protein is in combating this weight loss. The relationship between weight change and both diet and change in dietary intake, was examined in patients with advanced stage cancer referred to a multidisciplinary clinic for management of cancer cachexia. A retrospective study of data for each of the first three clinic visits for patients seen between 2009 and 2015. Data on weight change, dietary intake and change in dietary intake were compared. Regression analysis was used to determine independent explanatory factors for weight change, including the impact of appetite level and a marker of systemic inflammation. Of 405 eligible patients, 320 had data on dietary intake available. Dietary intake varied widely at baseline: 26.9% reported very poor diet and only 17% were consuming recommended levels of energy and protein. A highly significant positive correlation was found between dietary energy or protein intake and weight change, both before and after being seen in the clinic. Anorexia was also significantly correlated with weight loss at each clinic visit. However, there was no similar overall correlation between change in dietary intake and change in weight. Many patients with advanced cancer and weight loss are consuming diets that would likely be insufficient to maintain weight even in healthy individuals. Higher consumption of protein and energy correlates with greater weight gain, but it is impossible to predict the response to increased nutritional intake when patients are first assessed. There is a pressing need to improve understanding of factors that modulate metabolic responses to dietary intake in patients with cancer cachexia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and

  6. Dietary patterns of obese high school girls: snack consumption and energy intake

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Jin-Sook; Lee, Nan-Jo

    2010-01-01

    In order to develop an obesity management program for teenagers, we compared obese and non-obese girls attending high schools in terms of their dietary practices related to snack consumption. Dietary records were collected for 7 days. No significant differences were found for the average daily energy intake between obese and non-obese girls. However, the highest energy intake was greater for obese girls while not much difference was found for the lowest amount of energy intake. Obese girls ha...

  7. Eating out of home: energy, macro- and micronutrient intakes in 10 European countries. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfanos, P; Naska, A; Trichopoulou, A; Grioni, S; Boer, J M A; van Bakel, M M E; Ericson, U; Rohrmann, S; Boeing, H; Rodríguez, L; Ardanaz, E; Sacerdote, C; Giurdanella, M C; Niekerk, E M; Peeters, P H M; Manjer, J; van Guelpen, B; Deharveng, G; Skeie, G; Engeset, D; Halkjaer, J; Jensen, A M; McTaggart, A; Crowe, F; Stratigakou, V; Oikonomou, E; Touvier, M; Niravong, M; Riboli, E; Bingham, S; Slimani, N

    2009-11-01

    To assess the contribution of out-of-home (OH) energy and nutrient intake to total dietary intake, and to compare out- versus in-home nutrient patterns among 27 centres in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Between 1995 and 2000, 36,034 participants aged between 35-74 years completed a standardized 24-h dietary recall using a software programme (EPIC-Soft) that recorded the place of food/drink consumption. Eating OH was defined as the consumption of foods and beverages anywhere other than in household premises, irrespective of the place of purchase/preparation. Nutrient intakes were estimated using a standardized nutrient database. Mean intakes were adjusted for age and weighted by season and day of recall. Among women, OH eating contributed more to total fat intake than to intakes of protein and carbohydrates. Among both genders, and particularly in southern Europe, OH eating contributed more to sugar and starch intakes and less to total fibre intake. The contribution of OH eating was also lower for calcium and vitamin C intakes. The composition of diet at home was different from that consumed out of home in southern countries, but was relatively similar in the north. In northern Europe, OH and in-home eating are homogeneous, whereas southern Europeans consider OH eating as a distinctive occasion. In most centres, women selected more fat-rich items when eating out.

  8. Dietary calcium intake and risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, and fracture in a population with low calcium intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Sung Hye; Kim, Jung Hee; Hong, A Ram; Cho, Nam H; Shin, Chan Soo

    2017-07-01

    Background: The role of dietary calcium intake in cardiovascular disease (CVD), stroke, and fracture is controversial. Most previous reports have evaluated populations with high calcium intake. Objective: We aimed to evaluate whether high dietary calcium intake was associated with the risk of CVD, stroke, and fracture in a population with low calcium intake. Design: In a prospective cohort study beginning in 2001 in Ansung-Ansan, Korea, 2158 men and 2153 women aged >50 y were evaluated for all-cause mortality, CVD, stroke, and fractures over a median 9-y follow-up. Results: During follow-up, 242 and 100 deaths, 149 and 150 CVD events, 58 and 82 stroke events, and 211 and 292 incident fractures occurred in men and women, respectively. The first quartiles of energy-adjusted dietary calcium intake were 249 mg/d (IQR: 169 mg/d) in men and 209 mg/d (IQR: 161 mg/d) in women. Both men and women with higher dietary calcium intake tended to have higher fat, protein, sodium, phosphorus, fruit, and vegetable intakes. In men, outcomes were not significantly associated with dietary calcium intake with or without adjustments, and CVD risk tended to increase with increasing energy-adjusted dietary calcium intake, but this was not statistically significant ( P = 0.078 and P = 0.093 with and without adjustment, respectively). In women, CVD risk and dietary calcium intake showed a U-shaped association; the HRs (95% CIs) without adjustment relative to the first quartile were 0.71 (0.47, 1.07), 0.57 (0.36, 0.88), and 0.52 (0.33, 0.83) for quartiles 2, 3, and 4, respectively, and the values after adjustment were 0.70 (0.45, 1.07), 0.51 (0.31, 0.81), and 0.49 (0.29, 0.83) for quartiles 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Conclusion: In Korean women, increased dietary calcium intake was associated with a decreased CVD risk, but it did not influence the risk of stroke or fracture. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Differences in dietary intake during chemotherapy in breast cancer patients compared to women without cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Y C; van den Berg, M M G A; de Vries, J H M; Boesveldt, S; de Kruif, J Th C M; Buist, N; Haringhuizen, A; Los, M; Sommeijer, D W; Timmer-Bonte, J H N; van Laarhoven, H W M; Visser, M; Kampman, E; Winkels, R M

    2017-08-01

    Breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy often experience symptoms such as nausea, vomiting and loss of appetite that potentially affect dietary habits. This study assessed the intake of energy, macronutrients and food groups before and during chemotherapy in breast cancer patients compared with women without cancer, and determined the association between symptoms and energy and macronutrient intake. This study included 117 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients scheduled for chemotherapy and 88 women without cancer. Habitual intake before chemotherapy was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. Two 24-h dietary recalls were completed on random days for each participant during the whole chemotherapy treatment for patients and within 6 months after recruitment for women without cancer. Shortly, after the dietary recall, participants filled out questionnaires on symptoms. Before chemotherapy, habitual energy and macronutrient intake was similar for breast cancer patients and women without cancer. During chemotherapy, breast cancer patients reported a significantly lower total energy, fat, protein and alcohol intake than women without cancer, as shown by a lower intake of pastry and biscuits, cheese, legumes and meat products. A decline in subjective taste perception, appetite and hunger and experiencing a dry mouth, difficulty chewing, lack of energy and nausea were associated with a lower energy intake. Symptoms induced by chemotherapy are associated with lower dietary intake and manifested by a lower intake of specific food groups. To ensure an optimal dietary intake during chemotherapy, it is important to monitor nutritional status and symptom burden during chemotherapy in breast cancer patients.

  10. Increasing Plant Based Foods or Dairy Foods Differentially Affects Nutrient Intakes: Dietary Scenarios Using NHANES 2007–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Cifelli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Diets rich in plant foods and lower in animal-based products have garnered increased attention among researchers, dietitians and health professionals in recent years for their potential to, not only improve health, but also to lessen the environmental impact. However, the potential effects of increasing plant-based foods at the expense of animal-based foods on macro- and micronutrient nutrient adequacy in the U.S. diet is unknown. In addition, dairy foods are consistently under consumed, thus the impact of increased dairy on nutrient adequacy is important to measure. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to use national survey data to model three different dietary scenarios to assess the effects of increasing plant-based foods or dairy foods on macronutrient intake and nutrient adequacy. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2007–2010 for persons two years and older (n = 17,387 were used in all the analyses. Comparisons were made of usual intake of macronutrients and shortfall nutrients of three dietary scenarios that increased intakes by 100%: (i plant-based foods; (ii protein-rich plant-based foods (i.e., legumes, nuts, seeds, soy; and (iii milk, cheese and yogurt. Scenarios (i and (ii had commensurate reductions in animal product intake. In both children (2–18 years and adults (≥19 years, the percent not meeting the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR decreased for vitamin C, magnesium, vitamin E, folate and iron when plant-based foods were increased. However the percent not meeting the EAR increased for calcium, protein, vitamin A, and vitamin D in this scenario. Doubling protein-rich plant-based foods had no effect on nutrient intake because they were consumed in very low quantities in the baseline diet. The dairy model reduced the percent not meeting the EAR for calcium, vitamin A, vitamin D, magnesium, and protein, while sodium and saturated fat levels increased. Our modeling shows that

  11. Food intake and dietary diversity of farming households in Morogoro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The intake of fat was also low by 53% compared to the recommended intake for adults. The intake of iron, zinc, and calcium was 40, 53 and 64%, respectively, which was not sufficient to meet daily requirements. Low intake of nutrients was generally attributed to inadequate food intake due to low feeding frequency, poorly ...

  12. The relationship between household income and dietary intakes of 1-10 year old urban Malaysian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Shariff, Zalilah; Lin, Khor Geok; Sariman, Sarina; Lee, Huang Soo; Siew, Chin Yit; Mohd Yusof, Barakatun Nisak; Mun, Chan Yoke; Mohamad, Maznorila

    2015-06-01

    Diet plays an important role in growth and development of children. However, dietary intakes of children living in either rural or urban areas can be influenced by household income. This cross-sectional study examined energy, nutrient and food group intakes of 749 urban children (1-10 years old) by household income status. Children's dietary intakes were obtained using food recall and record for two days. Diet adequacy was assessed based on recommended intakes of energy and nutrients and food group servings. For toddlers, all nutrients except dietary fiber (5.5 g) exceeded recommended intakes. Among older children (preschoolers and school children), calcium (548 mg, 435 mg) and dietary fiber (7.4 g, 9.4 g) did not meet recommendations while percentage of energy from total fat and saturated fats exceeded 30% and 10%, respectively. The mean sodium intakes of preschoolers (1,684 mg) and school children (2,000 mg) were relatively high. Toddlers in all income groups had similar energy and nutrient intakes and percentages meeting the recommended intakes. However, low income older children had lowest intakes of energy (P diets, particularly for older children. Parents and caregivers may need dietary guidance to ensure adequate quantity and quality of home food supply and foster healthy eating habits in children.

  13. Urinary fructose: a potential biomarker for dietary fructose intake in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johner, S A; Libuda, L; Shi, L; Retzlaff, A; Joslowski, G; Remer, T

    2010-11-01

    Recently, urinary fructose and sucrose excretion in 24-h urine have been established experimentally as new biomarkers for dietary sugar intake in adults. Our objective was to investigate 1) whether the fructose biomarker is also applicable in free-living children and 2) for what kind of sugar it is standing for. Intakes of added and total sugar (including additional sugar from fruit and fruit juices) were assessed by 3-day weighed dietary records in 114 healthy prepubertal children; corresponding 24-h urinary fructose excretion was measured photometrically. The associations between dietary sugar intakes and urinary fructose excretion were examined using linear regression models. To determine whether one of the two sugar variables may be better associated with the urinary biomarker, the statistical Pitman's test was used. Added and total sugar correlated significantly with urinary fructose, but the linear regression indicated a weak association between intake of added sugar and urinary log-fructose excretion (β=0.0026, R(2)=0.055, P=0.01). The association between total sugar intake and log-urinary fructose (β=0.0040, R(2)=0.181, Pestimation of total sugar intake than for the estimation of added dietary sugar intake in children. However, as excreted fructose stems almost exclusively from the diet (both from food-intrinsic and added intakes), it can be assumed that urinary fructose represents a potential biomarker for total dietary fructose intake, irrespective of its source.

  14. Social desirability bias in dietary self-report may compromise the validity of dietary intake measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, J R; Clemow, L; Pbert, L; Ockene, I S; Ockene, J K

    1995-04-01

    Self-report of dietary intake could be biased by social desirability or social approval thus affecting risk estimates in epidemiological studies. These constructs produce response set biases, which are evident when testing in domains characterized by easily recognizable correct or desirable responses. Given the social and psychological value ascribed to diet, assessment methodologies used most commonly in epidemiological studies are particularly vulnerable to these biases. Social desirability and social approval biases were tested by comparing nutrient scores derived from multiple 24-hour diet recalls (24HR) on seven randomly assigned days with those from two 7-day diet recalls (7DDR) (similar in some respects to commonly used food frequency questionnaires), one administered at the beginning of the test period (pre) and one at the end (post). Statistical analysis included correlation and multiple linear regression. Cross-sectionally, no relationships between social approval score and the nutritional variables existed. Social desirability score was negatively correlated with most nutritional variables. In linear regression analysis, social desirability score produced a large downward bias in nutrient estimation in the 7DDR relative to the 24HR. For total energy, this bias equalled about 50 kcal/point on the social desirability scale or about 450 kcal over its interquartile range. The bias was approximately twice as large for women as for men and only about half as large in the post measures. Individuals having the highest 24HR-derived fat and total energy intake scores had the largest downward bias due to social desirability. We observed a large downward bias in reporting food intake related to social desirability score. These results are consistent with the theoretical constructs on which the hypothesis is based. The effect of social desirability bias is discussed in terms of its influence on epidemiological estimates of effect. Suggestions are made for future work

  15. Conventional foods, followed by dietary supplements and fortified foods, are the key sources of vitamin D, vitamin B6, and selenium intake in Dutch participants of the NU-AGE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendsen, Agnes A M; van Lieshout, Lilou E L M; van den Heuvel, Ellen G H M; Matthys, Christophe; Péter, Szabolcs; de Groot, Lisette C P G M

    2016-10-01

    With aging, energy needs decrease, necessitating a more nutrient-dense diet to meet nutritional needs. To bridge this gap, the use of nutrient-dense foods, fortified foods, and dietary supplements can be important. This observational study aims to describe current micronutrient intakes of Dutch elderly and to identify the contribution of nutrient-dense foods, fortified foods, and dietary supplements to the intake of micronutrients that are often inadequately consumed in Dutch elderly. Data of 245 Dutch volunteers from the NU-AGE study aged 65 to 80 years were used. Dietary intake was assessed by means of 7-day food records, and dietary supplement use was recorded with an additional questionnaire. Information on fortified foods was obtained from the Dutch Food Composition Table 2011. Nutrient density of foods was evaluated using the Nutrient Rich Food 9.3 score. The percentages of participants not meeting their average requirement were high for vitamin D (99%), selenium (41%), and vitamin B6 (54%) based on conventional foods and also when taking into account fortified foods (98%, 41%, and 27%, respectively) and vitamin and mineral supplements (87%, 36%, and 20%, respectively). Conventional foods were the main source of vitamin D, vitamin B6, and selenium intake (42%, 45%, and 82%, respectively), followed by vitamin and mineral supplements (41%, 44%, and 18%) and fortified foods (17%, 11%, and 1%). Foods with the highest nutrient density contributed most to total vitamin B6 intake only. To optimize nutrient intakes of elderly, combinations of natural food sources, fortified foods, and dietary supplements should be considered. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Dietary taurine intake, nutrients intake, dietary habits and life stress by depression in Korean female college students: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji-Yeon; You, Jeong-Soon; Chang, Kyung-Ja

    2010-08-24

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the dietary taurine intake, nutrients intake, dietary habits and life stress by depression in Korean female college students. In this study, research data were collected in March 2009 and 65 patients with depression and 65 controls without depression participated. The CES-D (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression) scale was used for depression measure and controls were matched for age. A 3-day recall method was used for dietary assessment (2 weekdays and 1 weekend day). Average height, weight and body mass index (BMI) were 161.3+/-0.5 cm, 55.3+/-1.0 kg and 21.2+/-0.4 kg/m2 for depression patients and those of control group were 161.4+/-0.7 cm, 53.1+/-0.8 kg and 20.3+/-0.2 kg/m2, respectively. Average dietary taurine intakes of depression patients and control group were 89.1 and 88.0 mg/day, respectively. There was no significant difference in dietary taurine intake between depression patients and control group. The average intakes of vitamin A (pdepression patients were significantly lower compared to control group. The average total dietary habit score of depression patients (47.2) was significantly lower than that of control group (51.3) (pdepression patients compare to control group. The average scores of total life stress (pdepression patients were significantly higher than those of control group except faculty problem score. These results show that depression patients have poor dietary habits and unbalanced nutrition status. Also depression patients have higher life stress score.Therefore, continuous nutrition education and counselling for good dietary habits and balanced nutrition status are needed to prevent depression in Korean college students.

  17. Creatinine, diet, micronutrients, and arsenic methylation in West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Arin; Mitra, Soma; Chung, Joyce; Guha Mazumder, D N; Ghosh, Nilima; Kalman, David; von Ehrenstein, Ondine S; Steinmaus, Craig; Liaw, Jane; Smith, Allan H

    2011-09-01

    Ingested inorganic arsenic (InAs) is methylated to monomethylated (MMA) and dimethylated metabolites (DMA). Methylation may have an important role in arsenic toxicity, because the monomethylated trivalent metabolite [MMA(III)] is highly toxic. We assessed the relationship of creatinine and nutrition--using dietary intake and blood concentrations of micronutrients--with arsenic metabolism, as reflected in the proportions of InAS, MMA, and DMA in urine, in the first study that incorporated both dietary and micronutrient data. We studied methylation patterns and nutritional factors in 405 persons who were selected from a cross-sectional survey of 7,638 people in an arsenic-exposed population in West Bengal, India. We assessed associations of urine creatinine and nutritional factors (19 dietary intake variables and 16 blood micronutrients) with arsenic metabolites in urine. Urinary creatinine had the strongest relationship with overall arsenic methylation to DMA. Those with the highest urinary creatinine concentrations had 7.2% more arsenic as DMA compared with those with low creatinine (p creatinine concentration was the strongest biological marker of arsenic methylation efficiency, and therefore should not be used to adjust for urine concentration in arsenic studies. The new finding that animal fat intake has a positive relationship with MMA% warrants further assessment in other studies. Increased MMA% was also associated, to a lesser extent, with low serum selenium and folate.

  18. Relative validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire to assess dietary fiber intake in Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vuholm, Stine; Lorenzen, Janne Kunchel; Kristensen, Mette Bredal

    2014-01-01

    months later. Results: Estimates of mean dietary fiber intake were 24.999.8 and 28.199.4 g/day when applying the FFQ and DR, respectively, where FFQ estimates were 12% lower (pB0.001). Pearson’s correlation coefficient between the estimated dietary fiber intake of the two methods was r0.63 (pB0......: The developed FFQ showed moderate underestimation of dietary fiber intake (g/day), adequate ranking of subjects according to their dietary fiber intake, and good reproducibility. The FFQ is therefore believed to be a valuable tool for epidemiology and screening in human interventions, where intake of dietary...

  19. Short Tools to Assess Young Children's Dietary Intake: A Systematic Review Focusing on Application to Dietary Index Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinda K. Bell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary indices evaluate diet quality, usually based on current dietary guidelines. Indices can therefore contribute to our understanding of early-life obesity-risk dietary behaviours. Yet indices are commonly applied to dietary data collected by onerous methods (e.g., recalls or records. Short dietary assessment instruments are an attractive alternative to collect data from which to derive an index score. A systematic review of studies published before April 2013 was conducted to identify short (≤50 items tools that measure whole-of-diet intake of young children (birth-five years and are applicable to dietary indices, in particular screening obesogenic dietary behaviours. The search identified 3686 papers of which 16, reporting on 15 tools (n=7, infants and toddlers birth-24 months; n=8, preschoolers 2–5 years, met the inclusion criteria. Most tools were food frequency questionnaires (n=14, with one innovative dietary questionnaire identified. Seven were tested for validity or reliability, and one was tested for both. Six tools (n=2, infants and toddlers; n=4, preschoolers are applicable for use with current dietary indices, five of which screen obesogenic dietary behaviours. Given the limited number of brief, valid and reliable dietary assessment tools for young children to which an index can be applied, future short tool development is warranted, particularly for screening obesogenic dietary behaviours.

  20. High Dietary Magnesium Intake Is Associated with Low Insulin Resistance in the Newfoundland Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Jennifer; Wadden, Danny; Gulliver, Wayne; Randell, Edward; Vasdev, Sudesh; Sun, Guang

    2013-01-01

    Background Magnesium plays a role in glucose and insulin homeostasis and evidence suggests that magnesium intake is associated with insulin resistance (IR). However, data is inconsistent and most studies have not adequately controlled for critical confounding factors. Objective The study investigated the association between magnesium intake and IR in normal-weight (NW), overweight (OW) and obese (OB) along with pre- and post- menopausal women. Design A total of 2295 subjects (590 men and 1705 women) were recruited from the CODING study. Dietary magnesium intake was computed from the Willett Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). Adiposity (NW, OW and OB) was classified by body fat percentage (%BF) measured by Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry according to the Bray criteria. Multiple regression analyses were used to test adiposity-specific associations of dietary magnesium intake on insulin resistance adjusting for caloric intake, physical activity, medication use and menopausal status. Results Subjects with the highest intakes of dietary magnesium had the lowest levels of circulating insulin, HOMA-IR, and HOMA-ß and subjects with the lowest intake of dietary magnesium had the highest levels of these measures, suggesting a dose effect. Multiple regression analysis revealed a strong inverse association between dietary magnesium with IR. In addition, adiposity and menopausal status were found to be critical factors revealing that the association between dietary magnesium and IR was stronger in OW and OB along with Pre-menopausal women. Conclusion The results of this study indicate that higher dietary magnesium intake is strongly associated with the attenuation of insulin resistance and is more beneficial for overweight and obese individuals in the general population and pre-menopausal women. Moreover, the inverse correlation between insulin resistance and dietary magnesium intake is stronger when adjusting for %BF than BMI. PMID:23472169

  1. Evaluation of dietary Intake and Food Patterns of Adolescent Girls in Sistan and Baluchistan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Montazerifar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The evidence suggests a relationship between lifestyle and diet-related risk factors.Objective: This study assessed the dietary intake and habits of high school girls in Sistan and Bluchistan province, in southeastern Iran.Methods: In a cross-sectional, descriptive study, 753 high school girls aged 14-18 years old wereenrolled by a clustered random sampling method. Dietary intake and food habits were evaluatedby a two-day, 24-hour dietary recall, and a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ.Results: The analysis of dietary intakes showed that energy, calcium, zinc, vitamin C and folate intake, compared to the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI, were found to be lower. The, infrequent intake of milk and dairy products, fruits and vegetables, and a high consumption of empty calorie foods e.g. salty snacks, sweets, soft drinks and junk foods were seen among adolescents.Conclusions: The adolescent girls had an improper dietary intake and food habits. Thus, the implementation of nutrition education programs in schools and the designing of proper patternstowards healthier food choices could help improve eating behaviors, the health maintenance of adolescents, and also prevent diet- related diseases in adulthood.

  2. Dietary protein intake in sarcopenic obese older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muscariello E

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Espedita Muscariello,1 Gilda Nasti,1 Mario Siervo,2 Martina Di Maro,1 Dominga Lapi,1 Gianni D’Addio,3 Antonio Colantuoni1 1Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 2Human Nutrition Research Centre, Institute for Ageing and Health, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK; 3IRCCS Salvatore Maugeri Foundation, Telese, Italy Objective: To determine the prevalence of sarcopenia in a population of obese older women and to assess the effect of a diet moderately rich in proteins on lean mass in sarcopenic obese older women.  Materials and methods: A total of 1,030 females, >65 years old, body mass index >30 kg/m2, were investigated about their nutritional status. Muscle mass (MM was estimated according to the Janssen equation (MM =0.401× height2/resistance measured at 50 kHz +3.825× sex -0.071× age +5.102. Sarcopenia was defined according to the MM index, MM/height2 (kg/m2, as two standard deviations lower than the obesity-derived cutoff score (7.3 kg/m2. A food-frequency questionnaire was used to measure participants’ usual food intake during the previous 3 months. Moreover, a group of sarcopenic obese older women (n=104 was divided in two subgroups: the first (normal protein intake [NPI], n=50 administered with a hypocaloric diet (0.8 g/kg desirable body weight/day of proteins, and the second treated with a hypocaloric diet containing 1.2 g/kg desirable body weight/day of proteins (high protein intake [HPI], n=54, for 3 months. Dietary ingestion was estimated according to a daily food diary, self-administered, and three reports of nonconsecutive 24-hour recall every month during the follow-up.  Results: The 104 women were classified as sarcopenic. After dieting, significant reductions in body mass index were detected (NPI 30.7±1.3 vs 32.0±2.3 kg/m2, HPI 30.26±0.90 vs 31.05±2.90 kg/m2; P<0.01 vs baseline. The MM index presented significant variations in the NPI as well as in the

  3. Dietary Intakes and Nutritional Issues in Neurologically Impaired Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Penagini

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Neurologically impaired (NI children are at increased risk of malnutrition due to several nutritional and non-nutritional factors. Among the nutritional factors, insufficient dietary intake as a consequence of feeding difficulties is one of the main issues. Feeding problems are frequently secondary to oropharyngeal dysphagia, which usually correlates with the severity of motor impairment and presents in around 90% of preschool children with cerebral palsy (CP during the first year of life. Other nutritional factors are represented by excessive nutrient losses, often subsequent to gastroesophageal reflux and altered energy metabolism. Among the non-nutritional factors, the type and severity of neurological impairment, ambulatory status, the degree of cognitive impairment, and use of entiepileptic medication altogether concur to determination of nutritional status. With the present review, the current literature is discussed and a practical approach for nutritional assessment in NI children is proposed. Early identification and intervention of nutritional issues of NI children with a multidisciplinary approach is crucial to improve the overall health and quality of life of these complex children.

  4. Dietary Intakes and Nutritional Issues in Neurologically Impaired Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penagini, Francesca; Mameli, Chiara; Fabiano, Valentina; Brunetti, Domenica; Dilillo, Dario; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo

    2015-11-13

    Neurologically impaired (NI) children are at increased risk of malnutrition due to several nutritional and non-nutritional factors. Among the nutritional factors, insufficient dietary intake as a consequence of feeding difficulties is one of the main issues. Feeding problems are frequently secondary to oropharyngeal dysphagia, which usually correlates with the severity of motor impairment and presents in around 90% of preschool children with cerebral palsy (CP) during the first year of life. Other nutritional factors are represented by excessive nutrient losses, often subsequent to gastroesophageal reflux and altered energy metabolism. Among the non-nutritional factors, the type and severity of neurological impairment, ambulatory status, the degree of cognitive impairment, and use of entiepileptic medication altogether concur to determination of nutritional status. With the present review, the current literature is discussed and a practical approach for nutritional assessment in NI children is proposed. Early identification and intervention of nutritional issues of NI children with a multidisciplinary approach is crucial to improve the overall health and quality of life of these complex children.

  5. Dietary pattern classifications with nutrient intake and health-risk factors in Korean men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Eun; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Son, Say Jin; Ahn, Younjhin; Lee, Juyoung; Park, Chan; Lee, Lilha; Erickson, Kent L; Jung, In-Kyung

    2011-01-01

    This study was performed to identify dietary patterns in Korean men and to determine the associations among dietary patterns, nutrient intake, and health-risk factors. Using baseline data from the Korean Health and Genome Study, dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis of data from a validated food-frequency questionnaire, and associations between these dietary patterns and health-risk factors were analyzed. Three dietary patterns were identified: 1) the "animal-food" pattern (greater intake of meats, fish, and dairy products), 2) the "rice-vegetable" pattern (greater intake of rice, tofu, kimchi, soybean paste, vegetables, and seaweed), and 3) the "noodle-bread" pattern (greater intake of instant noodles, Chinese noodles, and bread). The animal-food pattern (preferred by younger people with higher income and education levels) had a positive correlation with obesity and hypercholesterolemia, whereas the rice-vegetable pattern (preferred by older people with lower income and educational levels) was positively associated with hypertension. The noodle-bread pattern (also preferred by younger people with higher income and education levels) had a positive association with abdominal obesity and hypercholesterolemia. This study identifies three unique dietary patterns in Korean men, which are independently associated with certain health-risk factors. The rice-vegetable dietary pattern, modified for a low sodium intake, might be a healthy dietary pattern for Korean men. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The effect of nutrition knowledge and dietary iron intake on iron status in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Alecia J; Chalmers, Kerry A; Collins, Clare E; Patterson, Amanda J

    2014-10-01

    Previous research on the relationships between general nutrition knowledge and dietary intake, and dietary iron intake and iron status has produced inconsistent results. Currently, no study has focused on knowledge of dietary iron and its effect on dietary iron intake. This study aimed to determine whether nutrition knowledge of iron is related to dietary iron intake in young women, and subsequently whether greater knowledge and intake translates into better iron status. A cross-sectional assessment of nutrition knowledge of iron, dietary iron intake and iron status was conducted in women aged 18-35 years living in Newcastle, NSW, Australia. Iron status was assessed by serum ferritin, haemoglobin, soluble transferrin receptor and alpha-1-glycoprotein. One hundred and seven women (27.8 ± 4.7 years) completed the nutrition knowledge questionnaire and FFQ. Of these, 74 (70%) also had biomarkers of iron status measured. Mean iron intake was 11.2 ± 3.8 mg/day. There was no association between nutrition knowledge score and whether the women met the RDI for iron (F (1, 102) = .40, P = .53). A positive correlation was shown between nutrition knowledge score and iron intake (mg/day) (r = 0.25, P = .01). Serum ferritin was positively associated with the frequency of flesh food intake (r = .27 P = .02). Vegetarians (including partial vegetarians) had significantly lower serum ferritin levels than non-vegetarians (F (1, 71) = 7.44, P = .01). Significant positive correlations found between higher flesh food intake and biomarkers of iron status suggest that educating non-vegetarians about the benefits of increased flesh food consumption and vegetarians about dietary iron enhancers and inhibitors may have potential for addressing the high rates of iron deficiency among young women. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Total, Dietary, and Supplemental Vitamin C Intake and Risk of Incident Kidney Stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Pietro Manuel; Curhan, Gary C; Gambaro, Giovanni; Taylor, Eric N

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies of vitamin C and kidney stones were conducted mostly in men and either reported disparate results for supplemental and dietary vitamin C or did not examine dietary vitamin C. Prospective cohort analysis. 156,735 women in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) I and II and 40,536 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS). Total, dietary, and supplemental vitamin C intake, adjusted for age, body mass index, thiazide use, and dietary factors. Incident kidney stones. During a median follow-up of 11.3 to 11.7 years, 6,245 incident kidney stones were identified. After multivariable adjustment, total vitamin C intake (vitamin C intake for the 500- to 999-mg/d category was ∼700mg/d. Supplemental vitamin C intake (no use [reference], vitamin C intake was not associated with stones among men or women, although few participants had dietary intakes > 700mg/d. Nutrient intakes derived from food-frequency questionnaires, lack of data on stone composition for all cases. Total and supplemental vitamin C intake was significantly associated with higher risk for incident kidney stones in men, but not in women. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Global dietary calcium intake among adults: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose: Low calcium intake may adversely affect bone health in adults. Recognizing the presence of low calcium intake is necessary to develop national strategies to optimize intake. To highlight regions where calcium intake should be improved, we systematically searched for the most representative ...

  9. Spaceflight Dietary Intake – there’s (soon) an App for that!

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ultimate goal of this project was to develop an iPad application as a means to more accurately record dietary intake for each crewmember while minimizing crew...

  10. Estimation of pyrethroid pesticide intake using regression modeling of food groups based on composite dietary samples

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Population-based estimates of pesticide intake are needed to characterize exposure for particular demographic groups based on their dietary behaviors. Regression...

  11. DOI: 10.18697/ajfand.79.16510 12427 DIETARY CALCIUM INTAKE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    design with both descriptive and analytic components. A total of 170 ... data were used to convert dietary intake into nutrient content. The mean (SD) ... urban centers or those wearing clothing that concealed most of the skin from sun exposure.

  12. The impact of a nutrition programme on the dietary intake patterns of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-10-06

    Oct 6, 2010 ... Napier C, Food and Nutrition Consumer Sciences, Durban University of Technology ... Keywords: nutrition education, dietary intake behaviour, children .... which include the recommendation to drink plenty of clean and.

  13. Frequency of soup intake and amount of dietary fiber intake are inversely associated with plasma leptin concentrations in Japanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Motonaka; Ohta, Masanori; Okufuji, Tatsuya; Takigami, Chieko; Eguchi, Masafumi; Hayabuchi, Hitomi; Ikeda, Masaharu

    2010-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that the intake of soup negatively correlates with the body mass index (BMI), suggesting that soup intake reduces the risk of obesity. In this study, to clarify the association of the intake of soup and various nutrients with plasma leptin concentration, a cross-sectional study on 504 Japanese adults aged 20-76 years (103 men and 401 women) was performed. The intake of soup and various nutrients was investigated by food frequency questionnaires. Plasma leptin concentration was measured in fasting blood by radioimmunoassay. The correlation was analyzed by multiple regression analysis. The average frequency of soup intake was 7.6 times/week. The average plasma leptin concentration was 7.76 ng/ml. After adjusting the confounding factors, the frequency of soup intake has a significant inverse association with plasma leptin concentration. Among the macronutrients, only dietary fiber intake negatively correlated with plasma leptin concentration after the adjustment for potential confounding factors. These results suggest that the intakes of soup and dietary fiber were negatively correlated with plasma leptin concentration in Japanese adults. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Examination of vitamin intakes among US adults by dietary supplement use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Regan Lucas; Fulgoni, Victor L; Keast, Debra R; Dwyer, Johanna T

    2012-05-01

    More than half of US adults use dietary supplements. Some reports suggest that supplement users have higher vitamin intakes from foods than nonusers, but this observation has not been examined using nationally representative survey data. The purpose of this analysis was to examine vitamin intakes from foods by supplement use and how dietary supplements contribute to meeting or exceeding the Dietary Reference Intakes for selected vitamins using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey among adults (aged ≥19 years) in 2003-2006 (n=8,860). Among male users, mean intakes of folate and vitamins A, E, and K from food sources were significantly higher than among nonusers. Among women, mean intakes of folate and vitamins A, C, D, and E from foods were higher among users than nonusers. Total intakes (food and supplements) were higher for every vitamin we examined among users than the dietary vitamin intakes of nonusers. Supplement use helped lower the prevalence of intakes below the Estimated Average Requirement for every vitamin we examined, but for folic acid and vitamins A, B-6, and C, supplement use increased the likelihood of intakes above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level. Supplement use was associated with higher mean intakes of some vitamins from foods among users than nonusers, but it was not associated with the prevalence of intakes less than the Estimated Average Requirement from foods. Those who do not use vitamin supplements had significantly higher prevalence of inadequate vitamin intakes; however, the use of supplements can contribute to excess intake for some vitamins. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Examination of Vitamin Intakes among US Adults by Dietary Supplement Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Regan Lucas; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Keast, Debra R.; Dwyer, Johanna T.

    2013-01-01

    Background More than half of US adults use dietary supplements. Some reports suggest that supplement users have higher vitamin intakes from foods than nonusers, but this observation has not been examined using nationally representative survey data. Objective The purpose of this analysis was to examine vitamin intakes from foods by supplement use and how dietary supplements contribute to meeting or exceeding the Dietary Reference Intakes for selected vitamins using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey among adults (aged ≥19 years) in 2003–2006 (n=8,860). Results Among male users, mean intakes of folate and vitamins A, E, and K from food sources were significantly higher than among nonusers. Among women, mean intakes of folate and vitamins A, C, D, and E from foods were higher among users than nonusers. Total intakes (food and supplements) were higher for every vitamin we examined among users than the dietary vitamin intakes of nonusers. Supplement use helped lower the prevalence of intakes below the Estimated Average Requirement for every vitamin we examined, but for folic acid and vitamins A, B-6, and C, supplement use increased the likelihood of intakes above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level. Conclusions Supplement use was associated with higher mean intakes of some vitamins from foods among users than nonusers, but it was not associated with the prevalence of intakes less than the Estimated Average Requirement from foods. Those who do not use vitamin supplements had significantly higher prevalence of inadequate vitamin intakes; however, the use of supplements can contribute to excess intake for some vitamins. PMID:22709770

  16. Dietary Fiber Intake Is Inversely Associated with Periodontal Disease among US Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Samara Joy; Trak-Fellermeier, Maria Angelica; Joshipura, Kaumudi; Dye, Bruce A

    2016-12-01

    Approximately 47% of adults in the United States have periodontal disease. Dietary guidelines recommend a diet providing adequate fiber. Healthier dietary habits, particularly an increased fiber intake, may contribute to periodontal disease prevention. Our objective was to evaluate the relation of dietary fiber intake and its sources with periodontal disease in the US adult population (≥30 y of age). Data from 6052 adults participating in NHANES 2009-2012 were used. Periodontal disease was defined (according to the CDC/American Academy of Periodontology) as severe, moderate, mild, and none. Intake was assessed by 24-h dietary recalls. The relation between periodontal disease and dietary fiber, whole-grain, and fruit and vegetable intakes were evaluated by using multivariate models, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and dentition status. In the multivariate logistic model, the lowest quartile of dietary fiber was associated with moderate-severe periodontitis (compared with mild-none) compared with the highest dietary fiber intake quartile (OR: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.69). In the multivariate multinomial logistic model, intake in the lowest quartile of dietary fiber was associated with higher severity of periodontitis than dietary fiber intake in the highest quartile (OR: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.62). In the adjusted logistic model, whole-grain intake was not associated with moderate-severe periodontitis. However, in the adjusted multinomial logistic model, adults consuming whole grains in the lowest quartile were more likely to have more severe periodontal disease than were adults consuming whole grains in the highest quartile (OR: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.62). In fully adjusted logistic and multinomial logistic models, fruit and vegetable intake was not significantly associated with periodontitis. We found an inverse relation between dietary fiber intake and periodontal disease among US adults ≥30 y old. Periodontal disease was associated with low whole

  17. Sex differences in macronutrient intake and adherence to dietary recommendations: findings from the UK Biobank

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, E; Peters, SAE; Woodward, M

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: To characterise sex differences in macronutrient intakes and adherence to dietary recommendations in the UK Biobank population. Design: Cross-sectional population-based study. Setting: UK Biobank Resource. Participants: 210 106 (52.5% women) individuals with data on dietary behaviour. Main outcome measures: Women-to-men mean differences in nutrient intake in grams and as a percentage of energy and women-to-men ORs in non-adherence, adjusting for age, socioeconomic ...

  18. Relationships between Dietary Intake and Cognitive Function in Healthy Korean Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jin Young; Kang, Seung Wan

    2017-01-01

    Background It has long been theorized that a relatively robust dietary intake impacts cognitive function. The aim of the study was to explore dietary intake and cognitive function in healthy Korean children and adolescents. Methods Three hundred and seventeen healthy children with no previous diagnosis of neurologic or psychiatric disorders were evaluated (167 girls and 150 boys with a mean age of 11.8 ? 3.3 years). Analysis indicators including food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) consisting...

  19. Gaussian Graphical Models Identify Networks of Dietary Intake in a German Adult Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Khalid; Buijsse, Brian; Wirth, Janine; Schulze, Matthias B; Floegel, Anna; Boeing, Heiner

    2016-03-01

    Data-reduction methods such as principal component analysis are often used to derive dietary patterns. However, such methods do not assess how foods are consumed in relation to each other. Gaussian graphical models (GGMs) are a set of novel methods that can address this issue. We sought to apply GGMs to derive sex-specific dietary intake networks representing consumption patterns in a German adult population. Dietary intake data from 10,780 men and 16,340 women of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam cohort were cross-sectionally analyzed to construct dietary intake networks. Food intake for each participant was estimated using a 148-item food-frequency questionnaire that captured the intake of 49 food groups. GGMs were applied to log-transformed intakes (grams per day) of 49 food groups to construct sex-specific food networks. Semiparametric Gaussian copula graphical models (SGCGMs) were used to confirm GGM results. In men, GGMs identified 1 major dietary network that consisted of intakes of red meat, processed meat, cooked vegetables, sauces, potatoes, cabbage, poultry, legumes, mushrooms, soup, and whole-grain and refined breads. For women, a similar network was identified with the addition of fried potatoes. Other identified networks consisted of dairy products and sweet food groups. SGCGMs yielded results comparable to those of GGMs. GGMs are a powerful exploratory method that can be used to construct dietary networks representing dietary intake patterns that reveal how foods are consumed in relation to each other. GGMs indicated an apparent major role of red meat intake in a consumption pattern in the studied population. In the future, identified networks might be transformed into pattern scores for investigating their associations with health outcomes. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. Dietary Vitamin K Intake Is Associated with Cognition and Behaviour among Geriatric Patients: The CLIP Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine Chouet

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to determine whether dietary vitamin K intake was associated with cognition and behavior among older adults. 192 consecutive participants ≥65 years, recruited in the cross-sectional CLIP (Cognition and LIPophilic vitamins study, were separated into two groups according to the tertiles of dietary phylloquinone intake (i.e., lowest third below 207 µg/day versus the other two thirds combined. Daily dietary phylloquinone intake was estimated from 50-item interviewer-administered food frequency questionnaire. Cognition was assessed with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE; behaviour with Frontotemporal Behavioral Rating Scale (FBRS. Age, gender, social problems, education, body mass index (BMI, comorbidities, history of stroke, use vitamin K antagonists, inadequate fatty fish intake, serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, vitamin B12, albumin, and estimated glomerular filtration rate were used as confounders. Compared to participants in the lowest third of dietary phylloquinone intake (n = 64, those with higher intake had higher (i.e., better mean MMSE score (22.0 ± 5.7 versus 19.9 ± 6.2, p = 0.024 and lower (i.e., better FBRS score (1.5 ± 1.2 versus 1.9 ± 1.3, p = 0.042. In multivariate linear regressions, log dietary phylloquinone intake was positively associated with MMSE score (adjusted β = 1.66, p = 0.013 and inversely associated with FBRS score (adjusted β = −0.33, p = 0.037. Specifically, log dietary phylloquinone intake correlated negatively with FBRS subscore of physical neglect (r = −0.24, p = 0.001. Higher dietary phylloquinone intake was associated with better cognition and behavior among older adults.

  1. Dietary Vitamin K Intake Is Associated with Cognition and Behaviour among Geriatric Patients: The CLIP Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouet, Justine; Ferland, Guylaine; Féart, Catherine; Rolland, Yves; Presse, Nancy; Boucher, Kariane; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale; Beauchet, Olivier; Annweiler, Cedric

    2015-08-12

    Our objective was to determine whether dietary vitamin K intake was associated with cognition and behavior among older adults. 192 consecutive participants ≥65 years, recruited in the cross-sectional CLIP (Cognition and LIPophilic vitamins) study, were separated into two groups according to the tertiles of dietary phylloquinone intake (i.e., lowest third below 207 µg/day versus the other two thirds combined). Daily dietary phylloquinone intake was estimated from 50-item interviewer-administered food frequency questionnaire. Cognition was assessed with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE); behaviour with Frontotemporal Behavioral Rating Scale (FBRS). Age, gender, social problems, education, body mass index (BMI), comorbidities, history of stroke, use vitamin K antagonists, inadequate fatty fish intake, serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), vitamin B12, albumin, and estimated glomerular filtration rate were used as confounders. Compared to participants in the lowest third of dietary phylloquinone intake (n = 64), those with higher intake had higher (i.e., better) mean MMSE score (22.0 ± 5.7 versus 19.9 ± 6.2, p = 0.024) and lower (i.e., better) FBRS score (1.5 ± 1.2 versus 1.9 ± 1.3, p = 0.042). In multivariate linear regressions, log dietary phylloquinone intake was positively associated with MMSE score (adjusted β = 1.66, p = 0.013) and inversely associated with FBRS score (adjusted β = -0.33, p = 0.037). Specifically, log dietary phylloquinone intake correlated negatively with FBRS subscore of physical neglect (r = -0.24, p = 0.001). Higher dietary phylloquinone intake was associated with better cognition and behavior among older adults.

  2. Dietary Silicon Intake of Korean Young Adult Males and Its Relation to their Bone Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Kim, Mi-Hyun

    2017-03-01

    Accumulated data suggests a positive effect of silicon on bone health; however, limited research exists on the silicon content of foods. To further the understanding of the relationship between dietary silicon intake and bone health, a food composition database of commonly consumed foods in Korea is required. For quantitative data on the intake levels of silicon, we analyzed the silicon content of 365 food items commonly consumed in Korea using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry following microwave-assisted digestion. To investigate the dietary silicon intake status and to examine the potential role of dietary silicon intake in the bone status of men, a total of 400 healthy Korean adult males aged 19-25 were observed for their diet intake and calcaneus bone density using the 24-h recall method and quantitative ultrasound, respectively. Clinical markers reflecting bone metabolism such as serum total alkaline phosphatase, N-mid osteocalcin, and type 1 collagen C-terminal telopeptide concentrations were also analyzed. Silicon intake of the subjects was estimated as 37.5 ± 22.2 mg/day. Major food sources of dietary silicon in the Korean male were cereal and cereal products (25.6 % of total silicon intake), vegetables (22.7 %), beverages and liquors (21.2 %), and milk and milk products (7.0 %). Silicon intake correlated positively with age, weight, energy intake, protein intake, calcium intake, and alcohol intake. After adjusted for age, weight, energy intake, protein intake, calcium intake, alcohol intake, smoking cigarettes, and regular exercise status, daily total silicon intake had no correlation with calcaneus bone density and the bone metabolism markers, but silicon intake from vegetables had a positive correlation with serum total alkaline phosphatase activity, a bone formation maker. These findings show the possible positive relationship between dietary silicon intake from vegetables and the bone formation of young adult males. Further

  3. [DIETARY INTAKE AND NUTRITIONAL STATUS IN ONCOLOGY PATIENTS WHO START TREATMENT WITH TYROSINE KINASE INHIBITORS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuera-Pulgar, Isabel; Ribed, Almudena; Carrascal-Fabian, M Luisa; Bretón-Lesmes, Irene; Romero-Jiménez, Rosa M; Cuerda-Compes, Cristina; Velasco-Gimeno, Cristina; Camblor-Álvarez, Miguel; García-Peris, Pilar

    2015-09-01

    in recent years, researching about new oral antineoplastics has progressed while its impact on dietary intake and nutritional status (NS) hasn't developed enough yet. dietary intake and NS assessment in patients who start treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) and evaluate its impact on them. an observational, prospective-six-months study, in which were included patients starting treatment with TKI. The intake was evaluated by a 24 h dietary record and a food frequency questionnaire. The NS was evaluated by anthropometric measurements and the patient-generated Global Subjective Assessment (PG-GSA); the results were compared with the Spanish references (SENC-semFYC, 2007 and O. Moreiras, 2013). Friedman test, χ2, Wilcoxon, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney were used in the statistical analysis. Significance p Weight loss was no significant, although a high percentage of the energy and protein requirements hadn't been reached. The caloric intake was positively related with the number of meals. Dietary habits did not change during treatment. dietary intake did not reach nutritional requirements at baseline. The TKI don't seem to affect the patient's intake and nutritional status. The research about these parameters before starting treatment could prevent future complications and it would guide the dietary advice. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  4. The association between dietary zinc intake and risk of pancreatic cancer: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Gai, Xuesong

    2017-06-30

    Previous reports have suggested a potential association on dietary zinc intake with the risk of pancreatic cancer. Since the associations between different studies were controversial, we therefore conducted a meta-analysis to reassess the relationship between dietary zinc intake and pancreatic cancer risk. A comprehensive search from the databases of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Medline was performed until January 31, 2017. Relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) derived by using random effect model was used. Sensitivity analysis and publication bias were conducted. Our meta-analysis was based on seven studies involving 1659 cases, including two prospective cohort studies and five case-control studies. The total RR of pancreatic cancer risk for the highest versus the lowest categories of dietary zinc intake was 0.798 (0.621-0.984), with its significant heterogeneity among studies ( I 2 =58.2%, P =0.026). The average Newcastle-Ottawa scale (NOS) score was 7.29, suggesting a high quality. There was no publication bias in the meta-analysis about dietary zinc intake on the risk of pancreatic cancer. Subgroup analyses showed that dietary zinc intake could reduce the risk of pancreatic cancer in case-control studies and among American populations. In conclusion, we found that highest category of dietary zinc intake can significantly reduce the risk of pancreatic cancer, especially among American populations. © 2017 The Author(s).

  5. Dietary sodium intake in young Korean adults and its relationship with eating frequency and taste preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Eugene; Ryu, Ha-Jung; Hwang, Jinah; Kim, Soo Yeon; Chung, Eun-Jung

    2013-06-01

    Dietary sodium intake is considered one of the major causal factors for hypertension. Thus, to control the increase of blood pressure and reduce the risk of hypertension-related clinical complications, a reduction in sodium intake is recommended. The present study aimed at determining the association of dietary sodium intake with meal and snack frequency, snacking time, and taste preference in Korean young adults aged 20-26 years, using a 125-item dish-frequency questionnaire. The mean dietary sodium intakes of men and women were 270.6 mmol/day and 213.1 mmol/day, which were approximately 310% and 245% of the daily sodium intake goal for Korean men and women, respectively. Dietary sodium intake was positively correlated with systolic blood pressure in the total group, and BMI in the total and men-only groups. In the total and men-only groups, those who consumed meals more times per day consumed more dietary sodium, but the number of times they consumed snacks was negatively correlated with dietary sodium intake in the total, men-only, and women-only groups. In addition, those who consumed snacks in the evening consumed more sodium than those who did so in the morning in the men-only group. The sodium intake was also positively associated with preference for salty and sweet taste in the total and women-only groups. Such a high intake of sodium in these young subjects shows that a reduction in sodium intake is important for the prevention of hypertension and related diseases in the future.

  6. [Association between dietary calcium/dairy intakes and overweight/obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanrong; Liu, Yan; Xue, Hongmei; Bao, Yuxin; Luo, Jiao; Tian, Guo; Cheng, Guo

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the intakes of dietary calcium/dairy and the current prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents aged 7-15 in Longquanyi District, Chengdu, and to explore the association of dietary calcium and dairy intake with overweight/obesity. 1738 children and adolescents were recruited in the cross-sectional study using cluster random sampling method. Information on dietary calcium and dairy intakes was collected using 24-hour dietary recall and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Height, weight and waist circumference were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI)/waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and body mass index standard deviation (BMI SDS). Overweight/obesity was defined based on the criteria of Working Group on Obesity in China (WGOC). Participants were grouped into 3 categories indicating lower, moderate and higher intakes of dietary calcium and dairy, respectively. The association of dietary calcium and dairy consumption with (BMI SDS) /WHtR and the prevalence of overweight/obesity was analyzed after being stratified by gender and age. The prevalence of overweight/obesity in boys and girls were 11.92%/7.04% and 8.04%/6.30%, respectively. The intake of dietary calcium and dairy in girls were much higher than that in boys (P obesity in boys, however the associations were inconsistent among different age groups. Associations between consumption of calcium, dairy and overweight/obesity were not found among girls.

  7. Dietary changes and food intake in the first year after breast cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Vivienne; Campbell, Sharon; McCargar, Linda; Mourtzakis, Marina; Hanning, Rhona

    2014-06-01

    Understanding dietary habits of women after breast cancer is a critical first step in developing nutrition guidelines that will support weight management and optimal health in survivorship; however, limited data are available. The objective of this study was to describe changes in diet among breast cancer survivors in the first year after treatment, and to evaluate these changes in the context of current dietary intake. Changes in diet were assessed in 28 early stage breast cancer survivors, using a self-reported survey in which women identified changes in food intake since their diagnosis. Current dietary intake was estimated from 3-day food records and described relative to current recommendations. The majority of women reported changes in diet after diagnosis, most common being an increase in vegetables/fruit and fish, lower intake of red meat, and reduced alcohol. Many women reported that these changes were initiated during active treatment. Dietary changes were largely consistent with current recommendations for cancer prevention; however, some women were still above the guidelines for total and saturated fat, and many were below recommendations for vegetables/fruit, milk/alternatives, calcium, and vitamin D. Evidence that some women are willing and able to initiate positive changes in diet early in the treatment trajectory suggests that early intervention may be effective in promoting dietary habits that will assist with weight management and overall health. Data on current dietary intake highlights several possible targets for dietary intervention in this population.

  8. A Healthy Dietary Pattern at Midlife, Combined with a Regulated Energy Intake, Is Related to Increased Odds for Healthy Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assmann, Karen E; Lassale, Camille; Andreeva, Valentina A; Jeandel, Claude; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2015-09-01

    Few studies have investigated the long-term impact of overall dietary patterns (DPs) on healthy aging (HA), and current findings are inconsistent. Our study's objective was to investigate the association between empirically derived DPs in midlife and HA after 13 y of follow-up. Baseline dietary data from repeated 24-h dietary records (on average, 10 records per participant) of a subsample of the SU.VI.MAX (SUpplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux AntioXydants) study allowed extraction of 2 DPs with the use of principal components analysis on 37 food groups. HA was assessed in 2007-2009 among 2796 participants of the SU.VI.MAX study aged 45-60 y at baseline (1994-1995), who were initially free of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. HA was defined as not developing any major chronic disease, good physical and cognitive functioning, no limitations in instrumental activities of daily living, no depressive symptoms, no health-related limitations in social life, good overall self-perceived health, and no function-limiting pain. The association between DPs (in tertiles) and HA was evaluated by using multivariable logistic regression, and a potential interaction with energy intake was investigated. A "Western" and a "healthy" DP were identified. After adjustment for a large number of potential confounders, there was no significant association between the Western DP and HA. Moreover, the healthy pattern was not associated with HA among subjects with high (i.e., greater than or equal to the median) energy intake. Among subjects with low (i.e., less than the median) energy intake, on the other hand, higher scores on the healthy DP were related to higher odds of HA (OR for tertile 3 vs. tertile 1: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.11, 2.00; P-trend = 0.01). Adherence to a healthy diet in midlife that provides micronutrients, fiber, and antioxidants while regulating energy intake may help to promote HA. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Dietary Flavonols and Flavonol-rich foods intake and the risk of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adebamowo, C.A.; Sampson, L.; Katan, M.B.; Spiegelman, D.; Willett, W.C.; Holmes, M.D.; Cho, E.

    2005-01-01

    Laboratory and animal studies suggest that dietary flavonols may reduce breast cancer risk but there are limited epidemiological studies. We computed flavonol intakes from dietary data collected by validated food frequency questionnaires in 1991 and 1995 from 90,630 women in the Nurses Health Study

  10. Validation of the MEDFICTS dietary questionnaire: A clinical tool to assess adherence to American Heart Association dietary fat intake guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindeman Jody

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary assessment tools are often too long, difficult to quantify, expensive to process, and largely used for research purposes. A rapid and accurate assessment of dietary fat intake is critically important in clinical decision-making regarding dietary advice for coronary risk reduction. We assessed the validity of the MEDFICTS (MF questionnaire, a brief instrument developed to assess fat intake according to the American Heart Association (AHA dietary "steps". Methods We surveyed 164 active-duty US Army personnel without known coronary artery disease at their intake interview for a primary prevention cardiac intervention trial using the Block food frequency (FFQ and MF questionnaires. Both surveys were completed on the same intake visit and independently scored. Correlations between each tools' assessment of fat intake, the agreement in AHA step categorization of dietary quality with each tool, and the test characteristics of the MF using the FFQ as the gold standard were assessed. Results Subjects consumed a mean of 36.0 ± 13.0% of their total calories as fat, which included saturated fat consumption of 13.0 ± 0.4%. The majority of subjects (125/164; 76.2% had a high fat (worse than AHA Step 1 diet. There were significant correlations between the MF and the FFQ for the intake of total fat (r = 0.52, P 70 [high fat diet] was negligible (kappa statistic = 0.036. The MF was accurate at the extremes of fat intake, but could not reliably identify the 3 AHA dietary classifications. Alternative MF cutpoints of 50 (high fat diet were highly sensitive (96%, but had low specificity (46% for a high fat diet. ROC curve analysis identified that a MF score cutoff of 38 provided optimal sensitivity 75% and specificity 72%, and had modest agreement (kappa = 0.39, P Conclusions The MEDFICTS questionnaire is most suitable as a tool to identify high fat diets, rather than discriminate AHA Step 1 and Step 2 diets. Currently recommended

  11. Dietary fibres in the regulation of appetite and food intake. Importance of viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Mette; Jensen, Morten Georg

    2011-02-01

    Dietary fibres have many functions in the diet, one of which may be to promote control of energy intake and reduce the risk of developing obesity. This is linked to the unique physico-chemical properties of dietary fibres which aid early signalling of satiation and prolonged or enhanced sensation of satiety. Particularly the ability of some dietary fibres to increase viscosity of intestinal contents offers numerous opportunities to affect appetite regulation. Few papers on the satiating effect of dietary fibres include information on the physico-chemical characteristics of the dietary fibres being tested, including molecular weight and viscosity. For viscosity to serve as a proxy for soluble dietary fibres it is essential to have an understanding of individual dietary fibre viscosity characteristics. The goal of this paper is to provide a brief overview on the role of dietary fibres in appetite regulation highlighting the importance of viscosity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The influence of dietary energy concentration and feed intake level ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    feed intake levels on digestibility, feed intake, growth, feed efficiency and .... phosphorus and crude protein (N X 6.25) according to the methods of the .... supported by a parallel relationship between the ME content of .... dilution by saliva.

  13. Dietary protein intake and distribution patterns of well-trained Dutch athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gillen, Jenna B.; Trommelen, Jorn; Wardenaar, Floris C.; Brinkmans, Naomi Y.J.; Versteegen, Joline J.; Jonvik, Kristin L.; Kapp, Christoph; Vries, de Jeanne; Borne, van den Joost J.G.C.; Gibala, Martin J.; Loon, van Luc J.C.

    2017-01-01

    Dietary protein intake should be optimized in all athletes to ensure proper recovery and enhance the skeletal muscle adaptive response to exercise training. In addition to total protein intake, the use of specific proteincontaining food sources and the distribution of protein throughout the day

  14. Comparison of estimated dietary intake of acrylamide with hemoglobin adducts of acrylamide and glycidamide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjellaas, Thomas; Olesen, Pelle Thonning; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    2007-01-01

    , a significant positive correlation was found between the AA-Hb adduct concentration and the intake of chips/snacks and crisp bread. GA-Hb adduct did not correlate with consumption of any of the main food groups. Neither AA-Hb nor GA-Hb adduct concentration correlated with total dietary intake of AA...

  15. Dietary intake and nutritional status of children and adolescents in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambert, J.; Agostoni, C.; Elmadfa, I.; Hulshof, K.; Krause, E.; Livingstone, B.; Socha, P.; Pannemans, D.; Samartín, S.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this project was to collect and evaluate data on nutrient intake and status across Europe and to ascertain whether any trends could be identified. Surveys of dietary intake and status were collected from across Europe by literature search and personal contact with country experts.

  16. Dietary fibres in the regulation of appetite and food intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mette; Jensen, Morten Møller Georg

    2011-01-01

    of satiety. Particularly the ability of some dietary fibres to increase viscosity of intestinal contents offers numerous opportunities to affect appetite regulation. This may be linked to increased chyme viscosity, as linseed dietary fibre has water holding capacity and intrinsic viscosity which...... it is essential to have an understanding of individual dietary fibre viscosity characteristics. The goal of this paper is to provide a brief overview on the role of dietary fibres in appetite regulation highlighting the importance of viscosity and also include new findings on the role of linseed dietary fibre...... on appetite regulation....

  17. Dietary and economic effects of eliminating shortfall in fruit intake on nutrient intakes and diet cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Colin D; Drewnowski, Adam

    2016-07-07

    Children in the United States do not consume the recommended amounts of fruit. The economic and dietary consequences of meeting the shortfall in fruit consumption have not been evaluated. Analyses were based on a nationally representative sample of 4-18 year-old children (n = 2,647) from the 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The shortfall in total fruit consumption for each child was estimated based on the USDA MyPlate recommendations. The potential impact of filling the shortfall in total fruit consumption was projected with whole fruit alone (WF model) or a combination of 100 % fruit juice and whole fruit (FJ + WF model). Juice consumption was capped using American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) standards. The USDA national food prices database was used to estimate the cost of meeting the dietary recommendations for fruit. Selected nutrient and mineral intakes, as well as daily diet cost were estimated after eliminating the shortfall in fruit consumption. Among all children, vitamin C (+22.8 mg [95 % CI 21.4, 24.1] in the WF model and +48.1 mg [95 % CI 45.2, 51.1] in the FJ + WF model) and potassium intakes (+203 mg [95 % CI 190, 215] in WF and +263 mg [95 % CI 248, 280] in FJ + WF) were increased in both models. The FJ + WF model resulted in a marginal increase in dietary fiber (e.g., a relative change less than 10 %), while the WF model resulted in a meaningful increase in dietary fiber (e.g., a relative change greater than 10 %; +2.2 g [95 % CI 2.1, 2.3]). Conversely, the WF model resulted in only a marginal increase in calcium, while the FJ + WF model resulted in a meaningful increase in calcium (+85 mg [95 % CI 79, 89]). Calories were increased in all models (+4.5 % [95 % CI 4.1, 4.9 %] for FJ + WF and +3.5 % [95 % CI 3.2, 3.7 %] for WF). Meeting the fruit shortfall with whole fruit alone increased estimated diet costs by 9.9 % (+$0.44/d [95 % CI 0.42, 0.47]), while the fruit

  18. Dietary Sodium/Potassium Intake Does Not Affect Cognitive Function or Brain Imaging Indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Kristen L; Fried, Linda; Jovanovich, Anna; Ix, Joachim; Yaffe, Kristine; You, Zhiying; Chonchol, Michel

    2018-01-01

    Dietary sodium may influence cognitive function through its effects on cerebrovascular function and cerebral blood flow. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of dietary sodium intake with cognitive decline in community-dwelling older adults. We also evaluated the associations of dietary potassium and sodium:potassium intake with cognitive decline, and associations of these nutrients with micro- and macro-structural brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indices. In all, 1,194 participants in the Health Aging and Body Composition study with measurements of dietary sodium intake (food frequency questionnaire [FFQ]) and change in the modified Mini Mental State Exam (3MS) were included. The age of participants was 74 ± 3 years with a mean dietary sodium intake of 2,677 ± 1,060 mg/day. During follow-up (6.9 ± 0.1 years), 340 (28%) had a clinically significant decline in 3MS score (≥1.5 SD of mean decline). After adjustment, dietary sodium intake was not associated with odds of cognitive decline (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.50-1.84 per doubling of sodium). Similarly, potassium was not associated with cognitive decline; however, higher sodium:potassium intake was associated with increased odds of cognitive decline (OR 2.02 [95% CI 1.01-4.03] per unit increase). Neither sodium or potassium alone nor sodium:potassium were associated with micro- or macro-structural brain MRI indices. These results are limited by the use of FFQ. In community-dwelling older adults, higher sodium:potassium, but not sodium or potassium intake alone, was associated with decline in cognitive function, with no associations observed with micro- and macro-structural brain MRI indices. These findings do not support reduction dietary sodium/increased potassium intake to prevent cognitive decline with aging. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Associations of Dietary Protein and Energy Intakes With Protein-Energy Wasting Syndrome in Hemodialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beddhu, Srinivasan; Wei, Guo; Chen, Xiaorui; Boucher, Robert; Kiani, Rabia; Raj, Dominic; Chonchol, Michel; Greene, Tom; Murtaugh, Maureen A

    2017-09-01

    The associations of dietary protein and/or energy intakes with protein or energy wasting in patients on maintenance hemodialysis are controversial. We examined these in the Hemodialysis (HEMO) Study. In 1487 participants in the HEMO Study, baseline dietary protein intake (grams per kilogram per day) and dietary energy intake (kilocalories per kilograms per day) were related to the presence of the protein-energy wasting (PEW) syndrome at month 12 (defined as the presence of at least 1 criteria in 2 of the 3 categories of low serum chemistry, low body mass, and low muscle mass) in logistic regression models. In additional separate models, protein intake estimated from equilibrated normalized protein catabolic rate (enPCR) was also related to the PEW syndrome. Compared with the lowest quartile, the highest quartile of baseline dietary protein intake was paradoxically associated with increased risk of the PEW syndrome at month 12 (odds ratio [OR]: 4.11; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.79-6.05). This relationship was completely attenuated (OR: 1.35; 95% CI: 0.88-2.06) with adjustment for baseline body weight, which suggested mathematical coupling. Results were similar for dietary energy intake. Compared with the lowest quartile of baseline enPCR, the highest quartile was not associated with the PEW syndrome at 12 months (OR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.54-1.12). These data do not support the use of dietary protein intake or dietary energy intake criteria in the definition of the PEW syndrome in patients on maintenance hemodialysis.

  20. Dietary intake and the dynamics of stress, hypertension and obesity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypertension increased with mean age whiles stress decreased with mean age. Hypertensive subjects recorded a significantly higher BMI and sodium intake whiles high stress individuals recorded a lower animal protein but a higher cereal protein intake (p<.05). Chronic stress was associated with intake of low animal ...

  1. Instant noodles made with fortified wheat flour to improve micronutrient intake in Asia: a review of simulation, nutrient retention and sensory studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronder, Kayla L; Zimmerman, Sarah L; van den Wijngaart, Annoek; Codling, Karen; Johns, Kirsten Ag; Pachón, Helena

    2017-03-01

    Consumption of foods made with wheat flour, particularly instant noodles, is increasing in Asia. Given this trend, fortifying wheat flour with vitamins and minerals may improve micronutrient intake in the region. The objective of this review was to understand what is known about fortifying wheat flour used to make instant noodles. A literature review of seven databases was performed using the search terms "noodle" and ("Asian" or "instant"). Grey literature was requested through a food fortification listserv. Articles were title screened first for relevance and duplicity, with exclusion criteria applied during the second round of abstract-level screening. This review considered studies examining simulation, retention, sensory, bioavailability, efficacy, and effectiveness of instant noodles made with fortified wheat flour. Fourteen relevant documents were reviewed for simulation (n=1), retention (n=11), and sensory studies (n=3). The documents revealed that instant noodles produced from fortified wheat flour have potential to improve nutrient intakes, have high retention of most nutrients, and provoke no or minimal changes in sensory characteristics. The available literature indicates that using fortified wheat flour for instant noodle production results in retention of the added nutrients, except thiamin, with no significant sensory change to the final product. Given the rising consumption of instant noodles, production of this item with fortified wheat flour has potential to improve nutrient intakes in Asia. This review provides a resource for the design of a wheat flour fortification program in countries where a large proportion of wheat flour is consumed as instant noodles.

  2. Low dietary intake of n-3 fatty acids, niacin, folate, and vitamin C in Korean patients with schizophrenia and the development of dietary guidelines for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Jin; Lim, So Young; Lee, Hee Jae; Lee, Ju-Yeon; Choi, Seunggi; Kim, Seon-Young; Kim, Jae-Min; Shin, Il-Seon; Yoon, Jin-Sang; Yang, Soo Jin; Kim, Sung-Wan

    2017-09-01

    Inappropriate dietary intake and poor nutritional status are reported to be associated with metabolic syndrome and psychopathology in patients with schizophrenia. We hypothesized that inappropriate dietary habits and insufficient dietary intake of specific nutrients are associated with schizophrenia. To test the hypothesis, we assessed the dietary habits and nutritional intake of patients with schizophrenia and then developed suitable dietary guidelines. In total, 140 subjects (73 controls and 67 patients with schizophrenia from community mental health centers) were included, and dietary intakes were analyzed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. As a result, the proportion of overweight or obese patients was significantly higher in schizophrenia subjects (64.2%) compared with control subjects (39.7%) (P=.004). The male schizophrenia patients had significantly lower dietary intakes of protein, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), vitamin K, niacin, folate, and vitamin C than the male control subjects. In all multiple logistic regression models, subjects with the "low" dietary intake of protein, n-3 PUFAs, niacin, folate, and vitamin C had a significantly higher odds ratios for schizophrenia compared with those with the "high" dietary intake category of each nutrient. Therefore, maintenance of a healthy body weight and sufficient dietary intake of protein, PUFAs, niacin, folate, and vitamin C are recommended for Korean patients with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Dietary Protein Intake and Distribution Patterns of Well-Trained Dutch Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Jenna B; Trommelen, Jorn; Wardenaar, Floris C; Brinkmans, Naomi Y J; Versteegen, Joline J; Jonvik, Kristin L; Kapp, Christoph; de Vries, Jeanne; van den Borne, Joost J G C; Gibala, Martin J; van Loon, Luc J C

    2017-04-01

    Dietary protein intake should be optimized in all athletes to ensure proper recovery and enhance the skeletal muscle adaptive response to exercise training. In addition to total protein intake, the use of specific proteincontaining food sources and the distribution of protein throughout the day are relevant for optimizing protein intake in athletes. In the present study, we examined the daily intake and distribution of various proteincontaining food sources in a large cohort of strength, endurance and team-sport athletes. Well-trained male (n=327) and female (n=226) athletes completed multiple web-based 24-hr dietary recalls over a 2-4 wk period. Total energy intake, the contribution of animal- and plant-based proteins to daily protein intake, and protein intake at six eating moments were determined. Daily protein intake averaged 108±33 and 90±24 g in men and women, respectively, which corresponded to relative intakes of 1.5±0.4 and 1.4±0.4 g/kg. Dietary protein intake was correlated with total energy intake in strength (r=0.71, p sport (r=0.77, p protein intake was 57% and 43%, respectively. The distribution of protein intake was 19% (19±8 g) at breakfast, 24% (25±13 g) at lunch and 38% (38±15 g) at dinner. Protein intake was below the recommended 20 g for 58% of athletes at breakfast, 36% at lunch and 8% at dinner. In summary, this survey of athletes revealed they habitually consume > 1.2 g protein/kg/d, but the distribution throughout the day may be suboptimal to maximize the skeletal muscle adaptive response to training.

  4. Electronic Dietary Intake Assessment (e-DIA): relative validity of a mobile phone application to measure intake of food groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangan, Anna M; Tieleman, Laurissa; Louie, Jimmy C Y; Tang, Lie Ming; Hebden, Lana; Roy, Rajshri; Kay, Judy; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2016-06-01

    Automation of dietary assessment can reduce limitations of established methodologies, by alleviating participant and researcher burden. Designed as a research tool, the electronic Dietary Intake Assessment (e-DIA) is a food record in mobile phone application format. The present study aimed to examine the relative validity of the e-DIA with the 24-h recall method to estimate intake of food groups. A sample of eighty university students aged 19-24 years recorded 5 d of e-DIA and 3 d of recall within this 5-d period. The three matching days of dietary data were used for analysis. Food intake data were disaggregated and apportioned to one of eight food groups. Median intakes of food groups were similar between the methods, and strong correlations were found (mean: 0·79, range: 0·69-0·88). Cross-classification by tertiles produced a high level of exact agreement (mean: 71 %, range: 65-75 %), and weighted κ values were moderate to good (range: 0·54-0·71). Although mean differences (e-DIA-recall) were small (range: -13 to 23 g), limits of agreement (LOA) were relatively large (e.g. for vegetables, mean difference: -4 g, LOA: -159 to 151 g). The Bland-Altman plots showed robust agreement, with minimum bias. This analysis supports the use of e-DIA as an alternative to the repeated 24-h recall method for ranking individuals' food group intake.

  5. Maternal and child dietary intake: The role of maternal healthy-eater self-schema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueppers, Julie; Stein, Karen Farchaus; Groth, Susan; Fernandez, I Diana

    2018-06-01

    Mothers play a key role in shaping the dietary intake of their young children through their own dietary intake and the foods they make available at home. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms underlying maternal food choices is crucial. Cognitions about the self as a healthy eater, referred to as healthy-eater self-schema (HESS), predict dietary intake in diverse samples, but the linkage has not been investigated in mothers and their feeding behaviors. This study examined the relationship between a maternal HESS, maternal and child intake of fruits, vegetables, saturated fat, and added sugar, and home food availability. A cross-sectional, descriptive design was used with mothers and their 2-5 year old children (N = 124 dyads). Kendzierski's Healthy-Eater Self-Schema questionnaire was used to measure HESS. Block Food Frequency Screeners were used to measure diets (mother and child) and the Home Environment Survey was used to measure home availability of fruits/vegetables and fats/sweets. Multiple regression and multiple mediation analyses were performed. Maternal HESS was positively associated with maternal intake of fruits and vegetables, and negatively associated with intake of added sugar. Maternal HESS was not directly associated with child dietary intake, but was indirectly associated with child intake of fruits, vegetables, and added sugar through maternal intake of the same foods. Home food availability was not significantly associated with HESS. This study found that a mother's HESS was positively associated with her diet, which was subsequently associated with aspects of her child's diet. Interventions to foster development of HESS in mothers may be an effective means to promote healthy dietary intake in mothers and their young children. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fatty acid intakes of children and adolescents are not in line with the dietary intake recommendations for future cardiovascular health: a systematic review of dietary intake data from thirty countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harika, Rajwinder K; Cosgrove, Maeve C; Osendarp, Saskia J M; Verhoef, Petra; Zock, Peter L

    2011-08-01

    Fatty acid composition of the diet may influence cardiovascular risk from early childhood onwards. The objective of the present study was to perform a systematic review of dietary fat and fatty acid intakes in children and adolescents from different countries around the world and compare these with the population nutrient intake goals for prevention of chronic diseases as defined by the WHO (2003). Data on fat and fatty acid intake were mainly collected from national dietary surveys and from population studies all published during or after 1995. These were identified by searching PubMed, and through nutritionists at local Unilever offices in different countries. Fatty acid intake data from thirty countries mainly from developed countries were included. In twenty-eight of the thirty countries, mean SFA intakes were higher than the recommended maximum of 10 % energy, whereas in twenty-one out of thirty countries mean PUFA intakes were below recommended (6-10 % energy). More and better intake data are needed, in particular for developing regions of the world, and future research should determine the extent to which improvement of dietary fatty acid intake in childhood translates into lower CHD risk in later life. Despite these limitations, the available data clearly indicate that in the majority of the countries providing data on fatty acid intake, less than half of the children and adolescents meet the SFA and PUFA intake goals that are recommended for the prevention of chronic diseases.

  7. Trans Fat Intake and Its Dietary Sources in General Populations Worldwide: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne J. Wanders

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available After the discovery that trans fat increases the risk of coronary heart disease, trans fat content of foods have considerably changed. The aim of this study was to systematically review available data on intakes of trans fat and its dietary sources in general populations worldwide. Data from national dietary surveys and population studies published from 1995 onward were searched via Scopus and websites of national public health institutes. Relevant data from 29 countries were identified. The most up to date estimates of total trans fat intake ranged from 0.3 to 4.2 percent of total energy intake (En% across countries. Seven countries had trans fat intakes higher than the World Health Organization recommendation of 1 En%. In 16 out of 21 countries with data on dietary sources, intakes of trans fat from animal sources were higher than that from industrial sources. Time trend data from 20 countries showed substantial declines in industrial trans fat intake since 1995. In conclusion, nowadays, in the majority of countries for which data are available, average trans fat intake is lower than the recommended maximum intake of 1 En%, with intakes from animal sources being higher than from industrial sources. In the past 20 years, substantial reductions in industrial trans fat have been achieved in many countries.

  8. Trans Fat Intake and Its Dietary Sources in General Populations Worldwide: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanders, Anne J.; Zock, Peter L.; Brouwer, Ingeborg A.

    2017-01-01

    After the discovery that trans fat increases the risk of coronary heart disease, trans fat content of foods have considerably changed. The aim of this study was to systematically review available data on intakes of trans fat and its dietary sources in general populations worldwide. Data from national dietary surveys and population studies published from 1995 onward were searched via Scopus and websites of national public health institutes. Relevant data from 29 countries were identified. The most up to date estimates of total trans fat intake ranged from 0.3 to 4.2 percent of total energy intake (En%) across countries. Seven countries had trans fat intakes higher than the World Health Organization recommendation of 1 En%. In 16 out of 21 countries with data on dietary sources, intakes of trans fat from animal sources were higher than that from industrial sources. Time trend data from 20 countries showed substantial declines in industrial trans fat intake since 1995. In conclusion, nowadays, in the majority of countries for which data are available, average trans fat intake is lower than the recommended maximum intake of 1 En%, with intakes from animal sources being higher than from industrial sources. In the past 20 years, substantial reductions in industrial trans fat have been achieved in many countries. PMID:28783062

  9. Status of Dietary Intake of Calcium in Women of Reproductive Age in Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nighat Yaseen Sofi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium (Ca plays an important role in bone formation. Attaining optimal bone mass and peak bone densities is essential to prevent osteoporotic fractures in future life. In conditions of Ca deficiency, Ca from the bones maintains the blood levels of Ca leading to its depletion in bones. Calcium depletion leads to poor bone density and a higher risk of osteoporosis particularly in women who have repeated episodes of pregnancy and lactation.Aim & Objective: To assess the dietary intake of calcium.Material Methods: the study was conducted among 200 healthy women of reproductive age group of 20-49 years.Result: The dietary intake of calcium was less than the Recommended Dietary Allowances of 600mg/day. Women from upper socioeconomic class had a higher intake of dietary calcium 435±268 mg/day as compared to women from low socioeconomic class with a dietary intake of 295±163 mg/day.Conclusion: The dietary intake of calcium improved with an increase in socioeconomic class.

  10. Usual coffee intake in Brazil: results from the National Dietary Survey 2008-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Alessandra Gaspar; da Costa, Teresa Helena Macedo

    2015-05-28

    Coffee is central to the economy of many developing countries, as well as to the world economy. However, despite the widespread consumption of coffee, there are very few available data showing the usual intake of this beverage. Surveying usual coffee intake is a way of monitoring one aspect of a population's usual dietary intake. Thus, the present study aimed to characterise the usual daily coffee intake in the Brazilian population. We used data from the National Dietary Survey collected in 2008-9 from a probabilistic sample of 34,003 Brazilians aged 10 years and older. The National Cancer Institute method was applied to obtain the usual intake based on two nonconsecutive food diaries, and descriptive statistical analyses were performed by age and sex for Brazil and its regions. The estimated average usual daily coffee intake of the Brazilian population was 163 (SE 2.8) ml. The comparison by sex showed that males had a 12% greater usual coffee intake than females. In addition, the highest intake was recorded among older males. Among the five regions surveyed, the North-East had the highest usual coffee intake (175 ml). The most common method of brewing coffee was filtered/instant coffee (71%), and the main method of sweetening beverages was with sugar (87%). In Brazil, the mean usual coffee intake corresponds to 163 ml, or 1.5 cups/d. Differences in usual coffee intake according to sex and age differed among the five Brazilian regions.

  11. [The nutritional and dietary intake among community-dwelling elderly female users of mobile vendor vehicles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Yukio; Ito, Hideki; Yoshimura, Hidenori; Kamada, Chiemi; Okumura, Ryota; Shinno, Yuki; Suzuki, Taro; Horie, Kazumi; Takaya, Koji; Omi, Hideaki

    2018-01-01

    We compared the nutritional and dietary intakes of users of mobile vendor vehicles and users of stores to clarify the problems in the nutritional intake of users of mobile vendor vehicles. We conducted a questionnaire about the food accessibility among 257 elderly women (age: ≥65 years) who used mobile vendor vehicles and/or stores to shop. The nutritional intake was assessed using the 24-hour recall method. We used an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to calculate the age-adjusted mean values for the total nutritional intake. The nutritional intake among users of mobile vendor vehicles included significantly lower intakes of energy (168 kcal), green vegetables, other vegetables, and meats. Furthermore, those who only shopped at mobile vendor vehicles consumed less energy and fewer nutrients than those who shopped at places other than mobile vendor vehicles. The comparison of the shopping frequency and nutritional intake of the subjects who used mobile vendor vehicles alone revealed that the energy and protein intakes of those who shopped once per week was significantly lower in comparison to those who shopped twice per week. Users of mobile vendor vehicles had lower intakes of macronutrients and various minerals and vitamins. Among the food groups, intakes of vegetables, meat, and dairy products were low. These findings suggest that the lack of means of shopping other than mobile vendor vehicles and shopping once per week may be associated with an inadequate dietary intake among users of mobile vendor vehicles. It would be desirable to develop the shopping environment is desirable.

  12. Association between dietary nitrate and nitrite intake and sitespecific cancer risk: evidence from observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Li; Mo, Miao; Jia, Hui-Xun; Liang, Fei; Yuan, Jing; Zhu, Ji

    2016-08-30

    Epidemiological studies have reported inconsistent findings on the association between dietary nitrate and nitrite intake and cancer risk. We performed a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies to summarize available evidence on the association between dietary nitrate and nitrite intake and cancer risk from published prospective and case-control studies. PubMed database was searched to identify eligible publications through April 30th, 2016. Study-specific relative risks (RRs) with corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) from individual studies were pooled by using random- or fixed- model, and heterogeneity and publication bias analyses were conducted. Data from 62 observational studies, 49 studies for nitrates and 51 studies for nitrites, including a total of 60,627 cancer cases were analyzed. Comparing the highest vs. lowest levels, dietary nitrate intake was inversely associated with gastric cancer risk (RR = 0.78; 95%CI = 0.67-0.91) with moderate heterogeneity (I2 = 42.3%). In contrast, dietary nitrite intake was positively associated with adult glioma and thyroid cancer risk with pooled RR of 1.21 (95%CI = 1.03-1.42) and 1.52 (95%CI = 1.12-2.05), respectively. No significant associations were found between dietary nitrate/nitrite and cancers of the breast, bladder, colorectal, esophagus, renal cell, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, ovarian, and pancreas. The present meta-analysis provided modest evidence that positive associations of dietary nitrate and negative associations of dietary nitrite with certain cancers.

  13. Dietary, food service, and mealtime interventions to promote food intake in acute care adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Grace; Pizzola, Lisa; Keller, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Malnutrition is common in acute care hospitals. During hospitalization, poor appetite, medical interventions, and food access issues can impair food intake leading to iatrogenic malnutrition. Nutritional support is a common intervention with demonstrated effectiveness. "Food first" approaches have also been developed and evaluated. This scoping review identified and summarized 35 studies (41 citations) that described and/or evaluated dietary, foodservice, or mealtime interventions with a food first focus. There were few randomized control trials. Individualized dietary treatment leads to improved food intake and other positive outcomes. Foodservices that promote point-of-care food selection are promising, but further research with food intake and nutritional outcomes is needed. Protected mealtimes have had insufficient implementation, leading to mixed results, while mealtime assistance, particularly provided by volunteers or dietary staff, appears to promote food intake. A few innovative strategies were identified but further research to develop and evaluate food first approaches is needed.

  14. Estimates of fruit and vegetable intake in childhood and adult dietary behaviors of African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haire-Joshu, Debra; Kreuter, Matthew K; Holt, Cheryl; Steger-May, Karen

    2004-01-01

    This exploratory study examined how estimates of one's fruit and vegetable intake in childhood are related to 3 current dietary behaviors among African American women: intake of fruits and vegetables, exposure to and preference for fruits and vegetables, and preference for trying new foods. Baseline data from a randomized dietary intervention trial. Ten urban public health centers in St. Louis, Missouri. 1227 African American women. A 33-item fruit and vegetable food frequency questionnaire, items measuring estimates of childhood fruit and vegetable intake, adult fruit and vegetable intake, exposure to and preference for fruit and vegetable, and preference for trying new foods. Linear regression evaluated the association between predictors and continuous measures; logistic regression determined the association between predictors and categorical measures. Estimates of one's vegetable intake as a child were significantly related to exposure and preference for both fruits and vegetables, trying of new foods, and intake of both fruits and vegetables in adulthood. Estimates of eating fruit as a child were not significantly associated with these adult dietary behaviors. Developmental influences on adult dietary patterns may be stronger for vegetables than fruits among African American women. Additional emphasis is needed regarding exposure to and preference for vegetable intake in childhood.

  15. Dietary intakes among South Asian adults differ by length of residence in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talegawkar, Sameera A; Kandula, Namratha R; Gadgil, Meghana D; Desai, Dipika; Kanaya, Alka M

    2016-02-01

    To examine whether nutrient and food intakes among South Asian adult immigrants differ by length of residence in the USA. Cross-sectional analysis to examine differences in nutrient and food intakes by length of residence in the USA. Dietary data were collected using an interviewer-administered, culturally appropriate FFQ, while self-reported length of residence was assessed using a questionnaire and modelled as tertiles. The Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America (MASALA) study. Eight hundred and seventy-four South Asians (mean age=55 (sd 9) years; 47 % women; range of length of residence in the USA=2-58 years), part of the baseline examination of the MASALA study. Intakes of fat, including saturated and trans fats, dietary cholesterol and n-6 fatty acids, were directly associated with length of residence, while intakes of energy, carbohydrate, glycaemic index and load, protein, dietary fibre, folate and K were inversely associated with length of residence (P trend USA was also associated with higher intakes of alcoholic beverages, mixed dishes including pizza and pasta, fats and oils, and lower intakes of beans and lentils, breads, grains and flour products, milk and dairy products, rice, starchy vegetables and sugar, candy and jam (P for differences across groups USA influences diet and nutrient intakes among South Asian adult immigrants and should be considered when investigating and planning dietary interventions to mitigate chronic disease risk.

  16. [Assessment of dietary iodine intake of population in non-high-iodine areas in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoyu; Li, Fengqin; Liu, Zhaoping; He, Yuna; Sui, Haixia; Mao, Weifeng; Liu, Sana; Yan, Weixing; Li, Ning; Chen, Junshi

    2011-03-01

    To assess the potential risk of dietary iodine insufficiency of population in non-high-iodine areas (water iodine China. The dietary iodine intake of 13 age-sex population groups were estimated by combining the data of iodine intake from food, table salt and drinking water. Two conditions were considered: consuming iodized salt or non-iodized salt. The data of food and table salt consumption were derived from the Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey in 2002. Water consumption was calculated as the recommended water intake. Iodine contents of food, table salt and water were calculated from China Food Composition Table and iodine surveillance data. Under the condition of consuming iodized salt, the average iodine intake of all population groups was higher than the Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI), while the iodine intakes of individuals above Upper Limits (UL) and below RNI were 5.8% and 13.4% respectively, and the iodine intake of individuals lower than the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) was 9.4% in adults above 18 years of age (including pregnant and lactating women). If non-iodized salt was consumed, the average iodine intake of most sex-age population groups was higher than RNI, but the iodine intake of 97.6% of individuals would be lower than RNI, while the iodine intake of 97.4% of adults would be lower than EAR. The contribution of iodine from table salt was much higher than that from drinking water and food in the condition of consuming iodized salt, while food was the predominant contributor of dietary iodine in the condition of consuming non-iodized salt. The health risk of iodine deficiency was higher than that of iodine excess in areas where water iodine was China, and the risk of iodine insufficiency was much higher if non-iodized salt was consumed. Iodized salt should be the main sources of dietary iodine intake for population in areas where water iodine was China.

  17. Disclosure of genetic information and change in dietary intake: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiva E Nielsen

    Full Text Available Proponents of consumer genetic tests claim that the information can positively impact health behaviors and aid in chronic disease prevention. However, the effects of disclosing genetic information on dietary intake behavior are not clear.A double-blinded, parallel group, 2:1 online randomized controlled trial was conducted to determine the short- and long-term effects of disclosing nutrition-related genetic information for personalized nutrition on dietary intakes of caffeine, vitamin C, added sugars, and sodium. Participants were healthy men and women aged 20-35 years (n = 138. The intervention group (n = 92 received personalized DNA-based dietary advice for 12-months and the control group (n = 46 received general dietary recommendations with no genetic information for 12-months. Food frequency questionnaires were collected at baseline and 3- and 12-months after the intervention to assess dietary intakes. General linear models were used to compare changes in intakes between those receiving general dietary advice and those receiving DNA-based dietary advice.Compared to the control group, no significant changes to dietary intakes of the nutrients were observed at 3-months. At 12-months, participants in the intervention group who possessed a risk version of the ACE gene, and were advised to limit their sodium intake, significantly reduced their sodium intake (mg/day compared to the control group (-287.3 ± 114.1 vs. 129.8 ± 118.2, p = 0.008. Those who had the non-risk version of ACE did not significantly change their sodium intake compared to the control group (12-months: -244.2 ± 150.2, p = 0.11. Among those with the risk version of the ACE gene, the proportion who met the targeted recommendation of 1500 mg/day increased from 19% at baseline to 34% after 12 months (p = 0.06.These findings demonstrate that disclosing genetic information for personalized nutrition results in greater changes in intake for some dietary components compared to

  18. The effect of complex workplace dietary interventions on employees' dietary intakes, nutrition knowledge and health status: a cluster controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geaney, Fiona; Kelly, Clare; Di Marrazzo, Jessica Scotto; Harrington, Janas M; Fitzgerald, Anthony P; Greiner, Birgit A; Perry, Ivan J

    2016-08-01

    Evidence on effective workplace dietary interventions is limited. The comparative effectiveness of a workplace environmental dietary modification and an educational intervention both alone and in combination was assessed versus a control workplace on employees' dietary intakes, nutrition knowledge and health status. In the Food Choice at Work cluster controlled trial, four large, purposively selected manufacturing workplaces in Ireland were allocated to control (N=111), nutrition education (Education) (N=226), environmental dietary modification (Environment) (N=113) and nutrition education and environmental dietary modification (Combined) (N=400) in 2013. Nutrition education included group presentations, individual consultations and detailed nutrition information. Environmental dietary modification included menu modification, fruit price discounts, strategic positioning of healthier alternatives and portion size control. Data on dietary intakes, nutrition knowledge and health status were obtained at baseline and follow-up at 7-9months. Multivariate analysis of covariance compared changes across the four groups with adjustment for age, gender, educational status and other baseline characteristics. Follow-up data at 7-9months were obtained for 541 employees (64% of 850 recruited) aged 18-64years: control: 70 (63%), Education: 113 (50%), 74 (65%) and Combined: 284 (71%). There were significant positive changes in intakes of saturated fat (p=0.013), salt (p=0.010) and nutrition knowledge (p=0.034) between baseline and follow-up in the combined intervention versus the control. Small but significant changes in BMI (-1.2kg/m(2) (95% CI -2.385, -0.018, p=0.047) were observed in the combined intervention. Effects in the education and environment alone workplaces were smaller and generally non-significant. Combining nutrition education and environmental dietary modification may be an effective approach for promoting a healthy diet and weight loss at work. Copyright © 2016

  19. Dietary Supplement Intake and Associated Factors Among Gym Users in a University Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attlee, Amita; Haider, Amina; Hassan, Asma; Alzamil, Noura; Hashim, Mona; Obaid, Reyad Shaker

    2018-01-02

    Dietary supplement intake and associated factors among gym users in a university community in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates (UAE), were assessed using a structured, self-administered questionnaire in this cross-sectional study. Adults (N = 320) from five gyms in the University City of Sharjah participated in this cross-sectional study. The prevalence of dietary supplement intake was 43.8%. Statistically significant associations were found between the use of dietary supplements and sex (47.7% males, 28.1% females; p = .006), as well as weight lifting (88.6% taking supplements vs. 11.4% not taking supplements; p power and to boost exercise recovery. Females mainly used dietary supplements to increase energy, maintain their health, and prevent nutrition deficiency. Overall, protein supplements (whey proteins [48.6%] and protein powder [45.7%]) were among the most-consumed dietary supplements, followed by multivitamins (38.6%), branched-chain amino acids (36.4%), caffeine (35.0%), and creatine (29.3%). A widespread use of Internet-driven, self-prescribed dietary supplement intake was reported among gym users (60.7%). Only 12.8% of dietary supplement users sought information from dietitians. Practical implications suggest that gym instructors and coaches should be sufficiently trained to be able to provide accurate and scientifically sound information on dietary supplements to the exercisers in gyms in the university environment.

  20. Dietary calcium intake and the risk of colorectal cancer: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Changwoo; Shin, Aesun; Lee, Jeonghee; Lee, Jeeyoo; Park, Ji Won; Oh, Jae Hwan; Kim, Jeongseon

    2015-12-16

    High intake of dietary calcium has been thought to be a protective factor against colorectal cancer. To explore the dose-response relationship in the associations between dietary calcium intake and colorectal cancer risk by cancer location, we conducted a case-control study among Korean population, whose dietary calcium intake levels are relatively low. The colorectal cancer cases and controls were recruited from the National Cancer Center in Korea between August 2010 and August 2013. Information on dietary calcium intake was assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and locations of the colorectal cancers were classified as proximal colon cancer, distal colon cancer, and rectal cancer. Binary and polytomous logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between dietary calcium intake and risk of colorectal cancer. A total of 922 colorectal cancer cases and 2766 controls were included in the final analysis. Compared with the lowest calcium intake quartile, the highest quartile group showed a significantly reduced risk of colorectal cancer in both men and women. (Odds ratio (OR): 0.16, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.11-0.24 for men; OR: 0.16, 95% CI: 0.09-0.29 for women). Among the highest calcium intake groups, decrease in cancer risk was observed across all sub-sites of colorectum in both men and women. In conclusion, calcium consumption was inversely related to colorectal cancer risk in Korean population where national average calcium intake level is relatively lower than Western countries. A decreased risk of colorectal cancer by calcium intake was observed in all sub-sites in men and women.

  1. Dietary Iodine Intake of the Australian Population after Introduction of a Mandatory Iodine Fortification Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Charlton

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To address mild iodine deficiency in Australia, a mandatory fortification program of iodised salt in bread was implemented in 2009. This study aimed to determine factors associated with achieving an adequate dietary iodine intake in the Australian population post-fortification, and to assess whether bread consumption patterns affect iodine intake in high-risk groups. Using nationally representative data of repeated 24-h dietary recalls from the 2011–2012 Australian National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, dietary iodine intakes and food group contributions were compared by age, socioeconomic status (SES, and geographical remoteness (N = 7735. The association between fortified bread intake and adequacy of iodine intake (meeting age and sex-specific Estimated Average Requirements was investigated using logistic regression models in women of childbearing age 14–50 years (n = 3496 and children aged 2–18 years (n = 1772. The effect of SES on bread consumption was further investigated in a sub group of children aged 5–9 years (n = 488. Main sources of iodine intake at the time of the survey were cereal and cereal products, followed by milk products and dishes. Differences in iodine intake and dietary iodine habits according to age, SES and location were found (p < 0.001 for women of child-bearing age. Fortified bread consumption at ≥100 g/day was associated with five times greater odds of achieving an adequate iodine intake (OR 5.0, 95% CI 4.96–5.13; p < 0.001 compared to lower bread consumption in women and 12 times in children (OR 12.34, 95% CI 1.71–89.26; p < 0.001. Disparities in dietary iodine intake exist within sectors of the Australian population, even after mandatory fortification of a staple food. On-going monitoring and surveillance of iodine status is required.

  2. Dietary habits and selenium intake of residents in mountain and coastal communities in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Yukiko; Koyama, Hiroshi; Sasada, Yoko; Satoh, Hiroshi; Nojiri, Masami; Suzuki, Shosuke

    2004-10-01

    We used a Simple Food Frequency Questionnaire (SFFQ) in combination with other dietary approaches to estimate the selenium intake from different food groups based on the average long-term diet, in two rural communities in Japan, one in a mountain area and the other in a coastal area. The intake frequencies of rice and wheat products were significantly different in the two districts. The intake frequencies of fish, meat, and eggs, which are rich in selenium, were not significantly different. The mean dietary selenium intake, estimated from the SFFQ and the 24-h recall method, was 82.7 microg/d (n=234) (range 19.2-180.1 microg/d) in the mountain community. The mean dietary selenium intake estimated from the SFFQ and average value of the normal portion size was 118.0 microg/d (n=123) (range 22.6-255.3 microg/d) in the coastal community. These estimated mean values exceeded the Japanese RDA, although the range of daily selenium intake was large. In the mountain community, fish made the largest contribution to dietary selenium intake (48.2% of daily total), followed by eggs (24.3%), and meat (17.0%). In the coastal community, fish accounted for 57.7% of daily total selenium intake, followed by meat (17.5%), and eggs (16.1%). In both districts, the total contribution of rice and wheat products was around 10%. It was found that the contribution of fish to dietary selenium intake was high and the contribution of cereals was low among Japanese.

  3. Secular trends in regional differences in nutritional biomarkers and self-reported dietary intakes among American adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1988-1994 to 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Ashima K; Graubard, Barry I

    2018-04-01

    To understand the contribution of regional differentials in dietary exposures to regional gradients in health, we examined 20-year trends in the association of US census region of residence with nutritional biomarkers and dietary intakes of American adults. Observational. The biomarker and 24 h dietary recall data were from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) conducted during 1988-1994 and 1999-2010. The US census region was operationalized as Northeast, Midwest, South and West. Nutritional biomarker outcomes were serum folate, vitamins B6, B12, C, D and E, and carotenoids; dietary outcomes were intakes of nutrients, food groups and eating patterns. US adults, n>8000-40 000 for biomarkers and >43 000 for dietary outcomes. The interactions of survey time period and region were not significant for the examined biomarker and dietary outcomes, indicating similar secular trends among regions. The main effect of region was significant for all nutritional biomarkers except serum vitamin B6, most dietary micronutrients, food groups and eating patterns (P<0·001). The mean serum folate, vitamins B12, C and E, and all carotenoid (except lycopene) biomarker levels, and intakes of dietary fibre, vitamins A, E, C and B6, folate, K, Ca, Mg and Fe, fruits, vegetables and whole grains, were higher in the West and Northeast regions, relative to the South and Midwest regions. Overall, the regional gradients in dietary exposure, expressed objectively as biomarkers or as self-reported nutrient and food group intakes, paralleled trajectories reported for health outcomes and were remarkably persistent over time.

  4. Patterns of food and nutrient intakes of Dutch adults according to intakes of total fat, saturated fatty acids, dietary fibre, and of fruit and vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Löwik, M.R.H.; Hulshof, K.F.A.M.; Brussaard, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    Dietary intake characteristics were studied among 3833 adults of the second Dutch National Food Consumption Survey held in 1992. The subjects were classified into three groups based on their intake of total fat (% energy), saturated fatty acids (% energy), dietary fibre (g/MJ), and fruit and

  5. Evaluating the relationship between plasma and skin carotenoids and reported dietary intake in elementary school children to assess fruit and vegetable intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurate assessment of dietary intake of children can be challenging due to the limited reliability of current dietary assessment methods in children. While plasma carotenoid concentrations has been used to assess fruit and vegetable intake, this testing is rarely conducted in school settings in chi...

  6. Changes in nutrient intake and dietary quality among participants with type 2 diabetes following a low-fat vegan diet or a conventional diabetes diet for 22 weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Barnard, Neal D; Cohen, Joshua; Jenkins, David J A; Gloede, Lise; Green, Amber A

    2008-10-01

    Although vegan diets improve diabetes management, little is known about the nutrient profiles or diet quality of individuals with type 2 diabetes who adopt a vegan diet. To assess the changes in nutrient intake and dietary quality among participants following a low-fat vegan diet or the 2003 American Diabetes Association dietary recommendations. A 22-week randomized, controlled clinical trial examining changes in nutrient intake and diet quality. Participants with type 2 diabetes (n=99) in a free-living setting. Participants were randomly assigned to a low-fat vegan diet or a 2003 American Diabetes Association recommended diet. Nutrient intake and Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI) scores were collected at baseline and 22 weeks. Between-group t tests were calculated for changes between groups and paired comparison t tests were calculated for changes within-group. Pearson's correlation assessed relationship of AHEI score to hemoglobin A1c and body weight changes. Both groups reported significant decreases in energy, protein, fat, cholesterol, vitamin D, selenium, and sodium intakes. The vegan group also significantly reduced reported intakes of vitamin B-12 and calcium, and significantly increased carbohydrate, fiber, total vitamin A activity, beta carotene, vitamins K and C, folate, magnesium, and potassium. The American Diabetes Association recommended diet group also reported significant decreases in carbohydrate and iron, but reported no significant increases. The vegan group significantly improved its AHEI score (PVegan diets increase intakes of carbohydrate, fiber, and several micronutrients, in contrast with the American Diabetes Association recommended diet. The vegan group improved its AHEI score whereas the American Diabetes Association recommended diet group's AHEI score remained unchanged.

  7. Dietary Protein Intake in Dutch Elderly People: A Focus on Protein Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Tieland

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sufficient high quality dietary protein intake is required to prevent or treat sarcopenia in elderly people. Therefore, the intake of specific protein sources as well as their timing of intake are important to improve dietary protein intake in elderly people. Objectives: to assess the consumption of protein sources as well as the distribution of protein sources over the day in community-dwelling, frail and institutionalized elderly people. Methods: Habitual dietary intake was evaluated using 2- and 3-day food records collected from various studies involving 739 community-dwelling, 321 frail and 219 institutionalized elderly people. Results: Daily protein intake averaged 71 ± 18 g/day in community-dwelling, 71 ± 20 g/day in frail and 58 ± 16 g/day in institutionalized elderly people and accounted for 16% ± 3%, 16% ± 3% and 17% ± 3% of their energy intake, respectively. Dietary protein intake ranged from 10 to 12 g at breakfast, 15 to 23 g at lunch and 24 to 31 g at dinner contributing together over 80% of daily protein intake. The majority of dietary protein consumed originated from animal sources (≥60% with meat and dairy as dominant sources. Thus, 40% of the protein intake in community-dwelling, 37% in frail and 29% in institutionalized elderly originated from plant based protein sources with bread as the principle source. Plant based proteins contributed for >50% of protein intake at breakfast and between 34% and 37% at lunch, with bread as the main source. During dinner, >70% of the protein intake originated from animal protein, with meat as the dominant source. Conclusion: Daily protein intake in these older populations is mainly (>80% provided by the three main meals, with most protein consumed during dinner. More than 60% of daily protein intake consumed is of animal origin, with plant based protein sources representing nearly 40% of total protein consumed. During dinner, >70% of the protein intake originated from

  8. Reproducibility and relative validity of a food frequency questionnaire to estimate intake of dietary phylloquinone and menaquinones.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwakenberg, S R; Engelen, A I P; Dalmeijer, G W; Booth, S L; Vermeer, C; Drijvers, J J M M; Ocke, M C; Feskens, E J M; van der Schouw, Y T; Beulens, J W J

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the reproducibility and relative validity of the Dutch food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), to estimate intake of dietary phylloquinone and menaquinones compared with 24-h dietary recalls (24HDRs) and plasma markers of vitamin K status.

  9. Dietary Fat Intake and Risk of Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Meng, Qingyang; Xi, Qiulei; Zhuang, Qiulin; Han, Yusong; Gao, Ying; Ding, Qiurong; Wu, Guohao

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Consumption of dietary fat has been reported to be associated with gastric cancer risk, but the results of epidemiologic studies remain inconsistent. We conducted a meta-analysis to summarize the evidence regarding the association between dietary fat intake and gastric cancer risk. Methods A comprehensive search of PubMed and EMBASE was performed to identify observational studies providing quantitative estimates between dietary fat and gastric cancer risk. Random effects model was used to calculate the summary relative risk(SRR) in the highest versus lowest analysis. Categorical dose-response analysis was conducted to quantify the association between dietary fat intake and gastric cancer risk. Heterogeneity among studies was evaluated using I2 and tau2(between study variance)statistics. Subgroup analysis and publication bias analysis were also performed. Results Twenty-two articles were included in the meta-analysis. The SRR for gastric cancer was 1.18 for individuals with highest intake versus lowest intake of total fat (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.999–1.39; n = 28; Pgastric cancer risk were observed. Conclusions Our results suggest that intake of total fat is potentially positively associated with gastric cancer risk, and specific subtypes of fats account for different effects. However, these findings should be confirmed by further well-designed cohort studieswith detailed dietary assessments and strict control of confounders. PMID:26402223

  10. Reproducibility and relative validity of a food frequency questionnaire to estimate intake of dietary phylloquinone and menaquinones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Several observational studies have investigated the relation of dietary phylloquinone and menaquinone intake with occurrence of chronic diseases. Most of these studies relied on food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) to estimate the intake of phylloquinone and menaquinones. However, none of...

  11. Intake of dietary folate vitamers and risk of colorectal carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konings, E.J.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brants, H.A.M.; Saris, W.H.M.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Several studies have reported inverse associations between folate intake and colorectal carcinoma risk. Few were prospective studies and none evaluated the association between the intake of individual folate vitamers and colorectal carcinoma risk. METHODS. The aim of the current study

  12. Dietary Cholesterol Intake and Risk of Lung Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojing Lin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Multiple epidemiologic studies have evaluated the relationship between dietary cholesterol and lung cancer risk, but the association is controversial and inconclusive. A meta-analysis of case-control studies and cohort studies was conducted to evaluate the relationship between dietary cholesterol intake and lung cancer risk in this study. A relevant literature search up to October 2017 was performed in Web of Science, PubMed, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Sinomed, and VIP Journal Integration Platform. Ten case-control studies and six cohort studies were included in the meta-analysis, and the risk estimates were pooled using either fixed or random effects models. The case-control studies with a total of 6894 lung cancer cases and 29,736 controls showed that dietary cholesterol intake was positively associated with lung cancer risk (Odds Ratio = 1.70, 95% Confidence Interval: 1.43–2.03. However, there was no evidence of an association between dietary cholesterol intake and risk of lung cancer among the 241,920 participants and 1769 lung cancer cases in the cohort studies (Relative Risk = 1.08, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.94–1.25. Due to inconsistent results from case-control and cohort studies, it is difficult to draw any conclusion regarding the effects of dietary cholesterol intake on lung cancer risk. Carefully designed and well-conducted cohort studies are needed to identify the association between dietary cholesterol and lung cancer risk.

  13. Nutrition Education by a Registered Dietitian Improves Dietary Intake and Nutrition Knowledge of a NCAA Female Volleyball Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valliant, Melinda W.; Pittman Emplaincourt, Heather; Wenzel, Rachel Kieckhaefer; Garner, Bethany Hilson

    2012-01-01

    Eleven female participants from a NCAA Division I volleyball team were evaluated for adequate energy and macronutrient intake during two off-seasons. Total energy and macronutrient intake were assessed by food records and results were compared against estimated needs using the Nelson equation. Dietary intervention was employed regarding the individual dietary needs of each athlete as well as a pre- and post-sports nutrition knowledge survey. Post dietary intervention, total energy, and macronutrient intake improved, as well as a significant improvement in sports nutrition knowledge (p < 0.001). Nutrition education is useful in improving dietary intake and nutrition knowledge of female athletes. PMID:22822449

  14. Racial differences in correlations between reported dietary intakes of carotenoids and their concentration biomarkers123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab, Lenore; Cambou, Mary C; Craft, Neal; Wesseling-Perry, Katherine; Jardack, Patricia; Ang, Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    Background: The predictive ability of dietary assessment methods to estimate specific circulating plasma carotenoid concentrations has been compared between African Americans and whites in only one study to date. Objective: The predictive abilities of 24-h dietary recalls and a food-frequency questionnaire in reporting dietary carotenoids when measured against concentration biomarkers were assessed in African Americans and compared with the findings in whites. Design: Data were collected from 250 generally healthy, nonsmoking white and African American participants aged 21–69 y, who completed 8 self-administered online 24-h dietary recalls and one National Cancer Institute diet-history questionnaire in the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) Energetics Study. Mean intakes from 4-d dietary recalls were correlated with plasma xanthophyll concentrations (lutein + zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin) and hydrocarbon carotenoids (lycopene, α-carotene, and β-carotene). Results: Adjusted correlations of plasma carotenoids with reported dietary intakes for African Americans in the 24-h dietary recall ranged from 0.03 for β-carotene to 0.40 for β-cryptoxanthin. For whites, the correlations ranged from 0.13 for lycopene to 0.51 for β-cryptoxanthin. Conclusions: Despite stronger validity in reported energy intakes for African Americans than for whites in the 24-h dietary recall in the Energetics Study, both recalls and food-frequency dietary assessment methods yielded lower correlations in African Americans than in whites. This finding might be attributable to reporting differences in both dietary sources and food preparation or to racially related genetic variants influencing circulating concentrations. The current findings support the need to account for differences in race, age, sex, and body mass index in regression calibrations of dietary reports and measurement error adjustments. PMID:21389177

  15. Is there an association between dietary intake and academic achievement: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, T; Goldman, S; Pursey, K; Lim, R

    2017-04-01

    The majority of literature examining the effect of dietary behaviour on academic achievement has focused on breakfast consumption only. Here, we aim to systematically review the literature investigating the broader effects of dietary intake and behaviours on school-aged children's academic achievement. A search was undertaken across seven databases using keywords. For studies to be included, they needed to be conducted in: school-aged children (5-18 years); assess and report: (i) a measure of academic performance; (ii) a measure of dietary intake/behaviour; and (iii) the association between dietary intake/behaviours and academic performance. Forty studies were included in the review. The majority of studies were cross-sectional in design (n = 33) and studied children aged >10 years, with very few reports in younger age groups. More than 30 different dietary assessment tools were used, with only 40% of those using a validated/standardised assessment method. Half the studies collected outcomes of academic achievement objectively from a recognised educational authority, whereas 10 studies used self-reported measures. The dietary outcomes most commonly reported to have positive associations with academic achievement were: breakfast consumption (n = 12) and global diet quality/meal patterns (n = 7), whereas negative associations reported with junk/fast food (n = 9). This review highlights that moderate associations exist for dietary intakes characterised by regular breakfast consumption, lower intakes of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and overall diet quality with respect to outcomes of academic achievement. Future studies should consider the use of validated dietary assessment methods and standardised reporting of academic achievement. © 2016 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  16. No association between dietary sodium intake and the risk of multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, Marianna; Yuan, Changzheng; Chitnis, Tanuja; Ascherio, Alberto; Munger, Kassandra L

    2017-09-26

    To prospectively investigate the association between dietary sodium intake and multiple sclerosis (MS) risk. In this cohort study, we assessed dietary sodium intake by a validated food frequency questionnaire administered every 4 years to 80,920 nurses in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) (1984-2002) and to 94,511 in the Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII) (1991-2007), and calibrated it using data from a validation study. There were 479 new MS cases during follow-up. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the effect of energy-adjusted dietary sodium on MS risk, adjusting also for age, latitude of residence at age 15, ancestry, body mass index at age 18, supplemental vitamin D intake, cigarette smoking, and total energy intake in each cohort. The results in both cohorts were pooled using fixed effects models. Total dietary intake of sodium at baseline was not associated with MS risk (highest [medians: 3.2 g/d NHS; 3.5 g/d NHSII] vs lowest [medians: 2.5 g/d NHS; 2.8 g/d NHSII] quintile: HR pooled 0.98, 95% CI 0.74-1.30, p for trend = 0.75). Cumulative average sodium intake during follow-up was also not associated with MS risk (highest [medians: 3.3 g/d NHS; 3.4 g/d NHSII] vs lowest [medians: 2.7 g/d NHS; 2.8 g/d NHSII] quintile: HR pooled 1.02, 95% CI 0.76-1.37, p for trend = 0.76). Comparing more extreme sodium intake in deciles yielded similar results ( p for trend = 0.95). Our findings suggest that higher dietary sodium intake does not increase the risk of developing MS. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  17. EURRECA—Principles and Future for Deriving Micronutrient Recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessens, M.; Contor, L.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.; Groot, L.C.P.Q.M. de; Fairweather-Tait, S.J.; Gurinovic, M.; Koletzko, B.; Ommen, B. van; Raats, M.M.; Veer, P. van 't

    2013-01-01

    The EURopean micronutrient RECommendations Aligned (EURRECA) Network of Excellence (NoE) explored an approach for settingmicronutrient recommendations, which would address the variation in recommendations across Europe. Therefore, a framework for deriving and using micronutrient Dietary Reference

  18. Dietary intake of trace elements, minerals, and vitamins of patients on chronic hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossola, Maurizio; Di Stasio, Enrico; Viola, Antonella; Leo, Alessandra; Carlomagno, Giusy; Monteburini, Tania; Cenerelli, Stefano; Santarelli, Stefano; Boggi, Rolando; Miggiano, Giacinto; Vulpio, Carlo; Mele, Cristina; Tazza, Luigi

    2014-04-01

    We aimed to estimate dietary intakes of trace elements, minerals, and vitamins in hemodialysis patients (HDP) of three centers in one metropolitan and two urban areas of Italy. Daily dietary intake was assessed using a 3-day diet diary in 128 HDP. Mean daily intakes of trace elements were as follows: zinc, 7.6 ± 5.4 mg; copper, 14.3 ± 11.8 mg; selenium, 28.3 ± 18.1 μg; and iron, 7.2 ± 4.1 mg (7.8 ± 2.6 mg in women, 6.9 ± 2.4 mg in men). The distribution of patients by daily intakes of trace elements showed most were under the recommended values, with the exception of copper intake, which was much higher. Mean daily intakes of minerals were as follows: magnesium, 174.4 ± 94.3 mg; phosphorus, 842.6 ± 576.8 mg; calcium, 371.8 ± 363.7 mg; potassium, 1,616.2 ± 897.3 mg; and sodium, 1,350 ± 1,281 mg. Mean daily intakes of vitamins were as follows: vitamin A, 486.1 ± 544.6 μg; vitamin B1, 0.86 ± 0.7 mg; vitamin B2, 1.1 ± 0.7 mg; vitamin B3, 13.3 ± 8.1 mg; vitamin C, 47.8 ± 50.3 mg; and vitamin E, 9.5 ± 3.6 mg. The distribution of patients by daily intakes of vitamins showed most were under the recommended values. Daily intakes of trace elements and vitamins were similar among the three centers and did not differ between dialysis and non-dialysis days. Many HDP have daily dietary intakes of trace elements and vitamins below the recommended values, whereas the intake of copper is much higher.

  19. Emerging Disparities in Dietary Sodium Intake from Snacking in the US Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunford, Elizabeth K; Poti, Jennifer M; Popkin, Barry M

    2017-06-17

    The US population consumes dietary sodium well in excess of recommended levels. It is unknown how the contribution of snack foods to sodium intake has changed over time, and whether disparities exist within specific subgroups of the US population. To examine short and long term trends in the contribution of snack food sources to dietary sodium intake for US adults and children over a 37-year period from 1977 to 2014. We used data collected from eight nationally representative surveys of food intake in 50,052 US children aged 2-18 years, and 73,179 adults aged 19+ years between 1977 and 2014. Overall, patterns of snack food consumption, trends in sodium intake from snack food sources and trends in food and beverage sources of sodium from snack foods across race-ethnic, age, gender, body mass index, household education and income groups were examined. In all socio-demographic subgroups there was a significant increase in both per capita sodium intake, and the proportion of sodium intake derived from snacks from 1977-1978 to 2011-2014 ( p sodium intake from snacks. While in 1977-1978 Non-Hispanic Blacks had a lower sodium intake from snacks compared to Non-Hispanic Whites ( p sodium intake from snack sources in Non-Hispanic Blacks. Our findings have implications for future policy interventions targeting specific US population subgroups.

  20. Dietary Calcium Intake and Calcium Supplementation in Hungarian Patients with Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Speer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Adequate calcium intake is the basis of osteoporosis therapy—when this proves insufficient, even specific antiosteoporotic agents cannot exert their actions properly. Methods. Our representative survey analyzed the dietary intake and supplementation of calcium in 8033 Hungarian female and male (mean age: 68 years (68.01 (CI95: 67.81–68.21 patients with osteoporosis. Results. Mean intake from dietary sources was 665±7.9 mg (68.01 (CI95: 67.81–68.21 daily. A significant positive relationship could be detected between total dietary calcium intake and lumbar spine BMD (P=0.045, whereas such correlation could not be demonstrated with femoral T-score. Milk consumption positively correlated with femur (P=0.041, but not with lumbar BMD. The ingestion of one liter of milk daily increased the T-score by 0.133. Average intake from supplementation was 558±6.2 mg (68.01 (CI95: 67.81–68.21 daily. The cumulative dose of calcium—from both dietary intake and supplementation—was significantly associated with lumbar (r=0.024, P=0.049, but not with femur BMD (r=0.021, P=0.107. The currently recommended 1000–1500 mg total daily calcium intake was achieved in 34.5% of patients only. It was lower than recommended in 47.8% of the cases and substantially higher in 17.7% of subjects. Conclusions. We conclude that calcium intake in Hungarian osteoporotic patients is much lower than the current recommendation, while routinely applied calcium supplementation will result in inappropriately high calcium intake in numerous patients.

  1. Dietary diversity as an indicator of micronutrient adequacy of the diet of 5-8 year old Indian rural children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rani, V.R.; Arends, D.; Brouwer, I.D.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – Measures of dietary diversity are relatively simple and associated with nutrient adequacy and nutritional status. The aim of this study is to validate dietary diversity score (DDS) as an indicator of nutrient adequacy of diet of Indian rural children aged five to eight years.

  2. Dietary intakes of essential trace elements. Results from total diet studies supported by the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parr, R.M.; Iyengar, G.V.; Aras, N.K.

    2006-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has, for many years, supported research on human dietary intakes of trace elements taking advantage, for analysis, of the possibilities offered by nuclear techniques, particularly neutron activation analysis (NAA). This paper summarizes the results obtained from studies in more than 20 countries in which special emphasis was placed on the application of reliable methodologies (written protocols, special equipment, analytical quality control, etc.). Considerable variation was observed among dietary intakes of essential minor and trace elements though most elements showed a pattern of adequate nutrition in most countries. However, for some elements such as calcium, iodine, iron and zinc, the intakes in many countries were lower than the dietary requirements. (author)

  3. Inadequate dietary calcium and vitamin D intakes in renal-transplant recipients in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lynch, Irene T

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify the dietary calcium and vitamin D intake in adult renal-transplant recipients attending at a large teaching hospital in Ireland for follow-up. SETTING: Outpatient renal-transplant follow-up clinic. SUBJECTS: Fifty-nine adult renal transplant recipients (58% male) with a mean age of 46 years, a median transplant duration of 6 years, and a mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 50 mL\\/min per 1.73 m2. Fifty-three percent were at National Kidney Foundation stage 3 chronic kidney disease, and 14% had stage 4 chronic kidney disease. INTERVENTION: This cross-sectional, observational study used a tailored food frequency questionnaire specific for calcium and vitamin D intake in Irish adults, which was completed during a face-to-face interview with each subject. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The main outcome measure was the average daily dietary and supplemented calcium and vitamin D intake. RESULTS: The median interquartile range (IQR) dietary calcium intake was 820 mg\\/day (range, 576-1,177 mg\\/day), and was similar in men and women (recommended intake > or = 1,000 mg\\/day in adult men and nonmenopausal adult women, > or = 1,500 mg\\/day in menopausal women). Five participants received calcium supplementation. Overall, 59% of men and 64% of women had total calcium intakes below the recommended amounts. The median IQR estimated dietary vitamin D intake was 5.2 microg\\/day (range, 2.4-6.4 microg\\/day) in women, and 4.6 microg\\/day (range, 2.2-6.6 microg\\/day) in men (recommended intake, > or = 10 microg\\/day). Six subjects received vitamin D supplementation. Total vitamin D intakes were suboptimal in 91% of men and 87% of women. Dietary calcium and vitamin D intakes significantly correlated with each other, but neither was significantly related to eGFR category, and was similarly low in both presumed menopausal women and in the initial year posttransplantation. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that dietary and total calcium and

  4. dietary patterns and nutrient intakes of a south african population

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alan Jackson

    information on the patterns of habitual food consumption and nutrient intakes for ... the benefits of antiretroviral treatment and reducing side effects of the drugs, whilst ...... Scrimshaw NS, Taylor CE and JE Gordon Interactions of nutrition and.

  5. Effects of nutrients (in food) on the structure and function of the nervous system: update on dietary requirements for brain. Part 1: micronutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourre, J M

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this update is to give an overview of the effects of dietary nutrients on the structure and certain functions of the brain. As any other organ, the brain is elaborated from substances present in the diet (sometimes exclusively, for vitamins, minerals, essential amino-acids and essential fatty acids, including omega- 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids). However, for long it was not fully accepted that food can have an influence on brain structure, and thus on its function, including cognitive and intellectuals. In fact, most micronutrients (vitamins and trace-elements) have been directly evaluated in the setting of cerebral functioning. For instance, to produce energy, the use of glucose by nervous tissue implies the presence of vitamin B1; this vitamin modulates cognitive performance, especially in the elderly. Vitamin B9 preserves brain during its development and memory during ageing. Vitamin B6 is likely to benefit in treating premenstrual depression. Vitamins B6 and B12, among others, are directly involved in the synthesis of some neurotransmitters. Vitamin B12 delays the onset of signs of dementia (and blood abnormalities), provided it is administered in a precise clinical timing window, before the onset of the first symptoms. Supplementation with cobalamin improves cerebral and cognitive functions in the elderly; it frequently improves the functioning of factors related to the frontal lobe, as well as the language function of those with cognitive disorders. Adolescents who have a borderline level of vitamin B12 develop signs of cognitive changes. In the brain, the nerve endings contain the highest concentrations of vitamin C in the human body (after the suprarenal glands). Vitamin D (or certain of its analogues) could be of interest in the prevention of various aspects of neurodegenerative or neuroimmune diseases. Among the various vitamin E components (tocopherols and tocotrienols), only alpha-tocopherol is actively uptaken by the brain and is

  6. Relative validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire to assess dietary fiber intake in Danish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuholm, Stine; Lorenzen, Janne K; Kristensen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Differences in habitual dietary fiber intake may modify effects of dietary fiber interventions, thus measurement of habitual dietary fiber intake is relevant to apply in intervention studies on fiber-rich foods, and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) is a commonly used method. Rye bread is the major contributor of dietary fiber in the Danish population, and a nation-specific FFQ is therefore needed. The aim of this study was to assess the relative validity and reproducibility of a self-administered quantitative FFQ designed to assess total dietary fiber intake among Danish adults. In order to assess the relative validity of the FFQ, a total of 125 participants completed both a 7-day weighed dietary recording (DR) and an FFQ consisting of 60 questions. To evaluate the reproducibility of the FFQ, a sub-group of 12 participants subsequently completed an FFQ approximately 6 months later. Estimates of mean dietary fiber intake were 24.9±9.8 and 28.1±9.4 g/day when applying the FFQ and DR, respectively, where FFQ estimates were ~12% lower (pfiber intake of the two methods was r=0.63 (pfiber intake (g/day), adequate ranking of subjects according to their dietary fiber intake, and good reproducibility. The FFQ is therefore believed to be a valuable tool for epidemiology and screening in human interventions, where intake of dietary fibers is of specific interest.

  7. Estimated dietary sodium intake in haemodialysis patients using food frequency questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkza, Anastasia; Davenport, Andrew

    2017-10-01

    In clinical practice, dietary sodium assessment requires reliable and rapid screening tools. We wished to evaluate the usefulness of food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) in estimating dietary sodium intakes in haemodialysis patients. We used the Derby Salt Questionnaire (DSQ), and Scored Sodium Questionnaire (SSQ) to estimate sodium intake. Body composition was determined by bioimpedance. In total, 139 haemodialysis patients (95 men) completed the FFQs, with mean ± standard deviation age 67 ± 15 years. The mean FFQ scores were DSQ 3.5 ± 2.0 and SSQ 68.4 ± 24.5. Men had higher estimated dietary sodium intakes [DSQ median (range) 3.6 (0.6-10.1) versus female 2.2 (0.5-9.1), P = 0.007)]. Younger patients and those aged >75 years had the higher SSQ dietary sodium scores; 70.7 ± 27.8 and 76.8 ± 24.6 versus those aged 55-75 years, 61.8 ± 22.3, P = 0.04. Patients with greater estimated sodium intake had higher extracellular water (ECW) to intracellular water (ICW) ratios pre-dialysis [75.1 ±12.5 versus 67.7 ± 4.8, P sodium group (0.9 ± 13.7% versus 6.5 ± 14.1%, P = 0.04). Both questionnaires were acceptable to patients and identified higher estimated dietary sodium intake for men, those with greater ECW and, somewhat surprisingly, we found that older patients had a greater dietary sodium intake than expected. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA.

  8. Psychological distress is associated with inadequate dietary intake in Vietnamese marriage immigrant women in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ji-Yun; Lee, Sang Eun; Kim, Sun Hye; Chung, Hye Won; Kim, Wha Young

    2010-05-01

    Previous studies have reported that the nutritional status of Vietnamese female marriage immigrants in Korea is inadequate. And the mediation of acculturation stress can contribute to problems in their eating practices and dietary intakes. This study examines an association between psychological distress and inadequate dietary intake in Vietnamese female marriage immigrants living in Korea. A cross-sectional study analyzed baseline data (n=570) from the Cohort of Intermarried Women in Korea. Daily nutrient intakes were compared according to the quartiles of distress scores assessed by the Psychological Well-Being Index-Short Form. One-way analysis of variance and chi(2) tests were used to compare eating practices and nutrient intake across quartiles of psychological distress. Subjects in the highest stress scores were more likely to skip breakfast and to change their dietary habits after living in Korea than those in groups with low stress scores. Analyses of the subjects' Mini Dietary Assessments revealed that those with the highest stress scores were less likely to consume milk or dairy products, eat regular meals, or have balanced diets than those with the lowest stress scores. Nutrient intakes were found to be inadequate in the subjects, and those with the highest stress scores showed lower consumptions of energy, carbohydrate, protein, fat, calcium, zinc, thiamin, riboflavin, and folate compared to those with the lowest scores. The prevalence of underweight (body mass index [calculated as kg/m(2)] Korea was negatively associated with dietary intake. These findings can assist dietetics practitioners working with minority immigrants because such information is important in designing appropriate strategies for dietary counseling. A follow-up study should address the underlying mechanisms of the observed diet-distress association in Vietnamese marriage immigrant women in Korea, as well as other various ethnic minority immigrants in Korea. Copyright 2010 American

  9. Aluminium in food and daily dietary intake assessment from 15 food groups in Zhejiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hexiang; Tang, Jun; Huang, Lichun; Shen, Xianghong; Zhang, Ronghua; Chen, Jiang

    2016-06-01

    Aluminium was measured in 2580 samples of 15 food groups and dietary exposure was estimated. Samples were purchased and analysed during 2010 to 2014. High aluminium levels were found in jellyfish (mean 4862 mg/kg), laver (mean 455.2 mg/kg) and fried twisted cruller (mean 392.4 mg/kg). Dietary exposure to aluminium was estimated for Zhejiang residents. The average dietary exposure to aluminium via 15 food groups in Zhejiang Province was 1.15 mg/kg bw/week, which is below the provisional tolerable weekly intake of 2 mg/kg bw /week. Jellyfish is the main Al contributor, providing 37.6% of the daily intake via these 15 food groups. This study provided new information on aluminium levels and assessment of aluminium (Al) dietary exposure in Zhejiang Province of China.

  10. Family food involvement is related to healthier dietary intake in preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Jessica Jarick; Fiese, Barbara H

    2018-03-27

    Children in the United States fall far short of meeting federal dietary recommendations. The unhealthy diets common amongst young children are of crucial public health concern, given that they can inhibit healthy development and are predictive of chronic diseases in adulthood. Research investigating behaviors that are related to dietary habits is crucial to allow a better understanding of the causes of unhealthy dietary practices. Involvement in food preparation is known to be associated with healthy dietary behaviors in school-aged children, but little is known about these behaviors and their correlates in younger children. The present study sought to examine the influences and correlates of involvement in family food preparation in children at ages three and four. Parents of preschool aged children (n = 497) completed surveys including information about demographic background, their children's family food involvement, dietary intake, mealtime routines, and problematic eating behaviors. Data were collected when children were three (wave one of the survey) and four years of age (wave two). Findings from this study indicate that family food involvement at age three is predictive of healthier dietary intake at age four (increased consumption of fruits and vegetables, decreased consumption of fast food). These findings indicate that family food involvement is predictive of healthier dietary behaviors in young children, and that outreach efforts focused on family food involvement in early childhood may improve children's dietary habits. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Dietary intake of trace elements and magnesium by local population around tailings pond at Jaduguda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, V.N.; Sethy, N.K.; Sahoo, S.K.; Shukla, A.K.; Tripathi, R.M.; Puranik, V.D.

    2007-01-01

    Dietary intake of trace elements by local population residing within 0.5 Kms from tailings pond was assessed. Intake of Zn, Cu and Fe through processed whole meal vegetarian was estimated to be 28%, 45% and 18% of the Indian national average intake. Intake of manganese is more than the national average. This can be attributed to its elevated concentration in abiotic components of the ecosystem and easy bioavailability in the concerned environment. Intake of trace elements through non-veg meal is Zn: 0.94%, Cu: 0.75%, Mn: 1.83%, Fe: 0.72% whereas, intake through total vegetable is Zn: 1.85%, Cu: 1.8%, Mn: 4.5%, Fe 1% of the national average. (author)

  12. Lutein concentration in human milk during early lactation and its relationship with dietary lutein intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cena, Hellas; Castellazzi, Anna Maria; Pietri, Amedeo; Roggi, Carla; Turconi, Giovanna

    2009-10-01

    The present study aimed to estimate the lutein concentration in human milk during early lactation and its relationship with dietary lutein intake measured through the administration of a short FFQ. A cross-sectional study in which an FFQ was administered twice: on day 3 (T0) and day 30 (T1) postpartum; meanwhile two breast milk samples were collected. Maternal plasma samples were obtained at T0. The comparison of dietary lutein intakes and likewise lutein concentrations in breast milk at T0 and T1 were analysed with Student's t test. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to determine the association between dietary lutein intake and lutein concentration in milk and plasma, respectively, as well as the correlation between breast milk and plasma lutein concentrations at T0. Pavia, northern Italy. Twenty-one pregnant women, age range 24-42 years, were recruited during their last trimester on a voluntary basis. Both breast milk and plasma lutein concentrations were significantly correlated with dietary lutein intake (r = 0.86, P = 0.0001 and r = 0.94, P = 0.0001, respectively). There was a clear significant correlation between milk and plasma lutein concentrations (r = 0.87, P = 0.0001). Mature milk lutein concentration, although significantly reduced at T1 (P lutein intake (r = 0.82, P = 0.0001). Even though milk lutein concentration decreased during early lactation, it remained significantly correlated with daily lutein intake. Therefore, while awaiting further research, dietary recommendations advising intake of fresh fruit and vegetables rich in lutein, throughout the whole duration of pregnancy and lactation, are extremely useful.

  13. Dietary intake, physical activity, and time management are associated with constipation in preschool children in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakura, Keiko; Masayasu, Shizuko; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    Constipation is a common complaint in children, which is not fatal but can affect quality of life. Several lifestyle-related risk factors for constipation have been reported, particularly dietary factors, but results have been inconsistent. Here, we examined the relationship of dietary and lifestyle factors with constipation in Japanese preschool children using data of a nationwide study. Subjects were 5,309 children aged 5 to 6 years at 380 nursery schools in 44 of 47 prefectures in Japan. Children having three or fewer bowel movements per week were considered constipated. Dietary intake data was collected using a validated brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire for Japanese preschool children, and information about general lifestyle was collected using a 4-page questionnaire designed for this study. Multivariateadjusted odds ratios for constipation were calculated by logistic regression. Higher dietary fiber intake was significantly associated with a lower prevalence of constipation (adjusted odds ratio: 0.62, p for trend: 0.005), but higher carbohydrate intake was marginally associated with a higher prevalence of constipation. Intake of potatoes, pulses, vegetables, and fruits intake decreased constipation prevalence, whereas higher rice intake was significantly and independently associated with higher prevalence of constipation. Regarding lifestyle factors, high physical activity and sufficient preparation time for breakfast and dinner for guardians were significantly associated with lower prevalence. Prevalence tended to be negatively associated with a higher educational background of the mother. Several lifestyle factors were associated with a lower prevalence of constipation among Japanese preschool children, including dietary fiber intake.

  14. Dietary sources of energy and nutrient intake among children and adolescents with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen; Ducharme-Smith, Kirstie; Davis, Laura; Hui, Wun Fung; Warady, Bradley A; Furth, Susan L; Abraham, Alison G; Betoko, Aisha

    2017-07-01

    Our purpose was to identify the main food contributors to energy and nutrient intake in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). In this cross-sectional study of dietary intake assessed using Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQ) in the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) cohort study, we estimated energy and nutrient intake and identified the primary contributing foods within this population. Completed FFQs were available for 658 children. Of those, 69.9% were boys, median age 12 (interquartile range (IQR) 8-15 years). The average daily energy intake was 1968 kcal (IQR 1523-2574 kcal). Milk was the largest contributor to total energy, protein, potassium, and phosphorus intake. Fast foods were the largest contributors to fat and sodium intake, the second largest contributors to energy intake, and the third largest contributors to potassium and phosphorus intake. Fruit contributed 12.0%, 8.7%, and 6.7% to potassium intake for children aged 2-5, 6-13, and 14-18 years old, respectively. Children with CKD consumed more sodium, protein, and calories but less potassium than recommended by the National Kidney Foundation (NKF) guidelines for pediatric CKD. Energy, protein, and sodium intake is heavily driven by consumption of milk and fast foods. Limiting contribution of fast foods in patients with good appetite may be particularly important for maintaining recommended energy and sodium intake, as overconsumption can increase the risk of obesity and cardiovascular complications in that population.

  15. Dietary nitrate and nitrite intake and risk of colorectal cancer in the Shanghai Women's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellavalle, Curt T; Xiao, Qian; Yang, Gong; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Aschebrook-Kilfoy, Briseis; Zheng, Wei; Lan Li, Hong; Ji, Bu-Tian; Rothman, Nathaniel; Chow, Wong-Ho; Gao, Yu-Tang; Ward, Mary H

    2014-06-15

    Nitrate and nitrite are precursors of endogenously formed N-nitroso compounds (NOC), known animal carcinogens. Nitrosation reactions forming NOCs can be inhibited by vitamin C and other antioxidants. We prospectively investigated the association between dietary nitrate and nitrite intake and risk of colorectal cancer in the Shanghai Women's Health Study, a cohort of 73,118 women ages 40-70 residing in Shanghai. We evaluated effect modification by factors that affect endogenous formation of NOCs: vitamin C (at or above/below median) and red meat intake (at or above/below median). Nitrate, nitrite and other dietary intakes were estimated from a 77-item food frequency questionnaire administered at baseline. Over a mean of 11 years of follow-up, we identified 619 colorectal cancer cases (n = 383, colon; n = 236, rectum). Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazard regression. Overall, nitrate intake was not associated with colorectal cancer risk (HR = 1.08; 95% CI: 0.73-1.59). However, among women with vitamin C intake below the median (83.9 mg day(-1) ) and hence higher potential exposure to NOCs, risk of colorectal cancer increased with increasing quintiles of nitrate intake (highest vs. lowest quintile HR = 2.45; 95% CI: 1.15-5.18; p trend = 0.02). There was no association among women with higher vitamin C intake. We found no association between nitrite intake and risk of colorectal cancer overall or by intake level of vitamin C. Our findings suggest that high dietary nitrate intake among subgroups expected to have higher exposure to endogenously formed NOCs increases risk of colorectal cancer. © 2013 UICC.

  16. Relationship between sleep duration and dietary intake in 4- to 14-year-old Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoppe, Camilla; Rothausen, Berit Worm; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia

    2013-01-01

    A negative association between sleep duration and BMI has been observed in children. However, knowledge about the association between sleep duration and diet is limited. The objective was to examine the association between sleep duration and intake of foods and nutrients in children. In the present...... crosssectional study, dietary intake and sleep duration were recorded by the parents for seven consecutive days in a food and sleep record in a representative sample of 802 4- to 14-year-old children. No sex differences were found regarding age and sleep duration. Sleep duration was negatively correlated to age...... (ρ = –0·68; P duration was not associated with energy intake (b = –0·015; P = 0·20), but there was a trend towards a positive association with intake of dietary fibre (b = 0·006; P = 0·05) and vegetables (b = 0...

  17. Intake and Dietary Food Sources of Fibre in Spain: Differences with Regard to the Prevalence of Excess Body Weight and Abdominal Obesity in Adults of the ANIBES Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Rodríguez, Liliana G.; Perea Sánchez, José Miguel; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Ortega, Rosa M.

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to study the intake and food sources of fibre in a representative sample of Spanish adults and to analyse its association with excess body weight and abdominal obesity. A sample of 1655 adults (18–64 years) from the ANIBES (“Anthropometric data, macronutrients and micronutrients intake, practice of physical activity, socioeconomic data and lifestyles”) cross-sectional study was analysed. Fibre intake and dietary food sources were determined by using a three-day dietary record. Misreporters were identified using the protocol of the European Food Safety Authority. Mean (standard deviation) fibre intake was 12.59 (5.66) g/day in the whole sample and 15.88 (6.29) g/day in the plausible reporters. Mean fibre intake, both in the whole sample and the plausible reporters, was below the adequate intake established by European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and the Institute of Medicine of the United States (IOM). Main fibre dietary food sources were grains, followed by vegetables, fruits, and pulses. In the whole sample, considering sex, and after adjusting for age and physical activity, mean (standard error) fibre intake (adjusted by energy intake) was higher in subjects who had normal weight (NW) 13.40 (0.184) g/day, without abdominal obesity 13.56 (0.192) g/day or without excess body weight and/or abdominal obesity 13.56 (0.207) g/day compared to those who were overweight (OW) 12.31 (0.195) g/day, p obese (OB) 11.83 (0.266) g/day, p obesity 12.09 (0.157) g/day, p obesity 12.22 (0.148) g/day, p obesity or excess body weight and/or abdominal obesity in the plausible reporters. Fibre from afternoon snacks was higher in subjects with NW (6.92%) and without abdominal obesity (6.97%) or without excess body weight and/or abdominal obesity (7.20%), than those with OW (5.30%), p obesity (5.18%), p obesity (5.21%), p obesity only when the whole sample was considered. PMID:28346353

  18. Intake and Dietary Food Sources of Fibre in Spain: Differences with Regard to the Prevalence of Excess Body Weight and Abdominal Obesity in Adults of the ANIBES Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Rodríguez, Liliana G; Perea Sánchez, José Miguel; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Ortega, Rosa M

    2017-03-25

    The aim was to study the intake and food sources of fibre in a representative sample of Spanish adults and to analyse its association with excess body weight and abdominal obesity. A sample of 1655 adults (18-64 years) from the ANIBES ("Anthropometric data, macronutrients and micronutrients intake, practice of physical activity, socioeconomic data and lifestyles") cross-sectional study was analysed. Fibre intake and dietary food sources were determined by using a three-day dietary record. Misreporters were identified using the protocol of the European Food Safety Authority. Mean (standard deviation) fibre intake was 12.59 (5.66) g/day in the whole sample and 15.88 (6.29) g/day in the plausible reporters. Mean fibre intake, both in the whole sample and the plausible reporters, was below the adequate intake established by European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and the Institute of Medicine of the United States (IOM). Main fibre dietary food sources were grains, followed by vegetables, fruits, and pulses. In the whole sample, considering sex, and after adjusting for age and physical activity, mean (standard error) fibre intake (adjusted by energy intake) was higher in subjects who had normal weight (NW) 13.40 (0.184) g/day, without abdominal obesity 13.56 (0.192) g/day or without excess body weight and/or abdominal obesity 13.56 (0.207) g/day compared to those who were overweight (OW) 12.31 (0.195) g/day, p obese (OB) 11.83 (0.266) g/day, p obesity 12.09 (0.157) g/day, p obesity 12.22 (0.148) g/day, p obesity or excess body weight and/or abdominal obesity in the plausible reporters. Fibre from afternoon snacks was higher in subjects with NW (6.92%) and without abdominal obesity (6.97%) or without excess body weight and/or abdominal obesity (7.20%), than those with OW (5.30%), p obesity (5.18%), p obesity (5.21%), p association with excess body weight and abdominal obesity only when the whole sample was considered.

  19. Dietary intake of energy, nutrients and water in elderly people living at home or in nursing home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelheart, S; Akner, G

    2015-03-01

    There is a lack of detailed information on dietary intake in elderly people at an individual level, which is crucial for improvement of nutritional support. The aim of this study was to investigate the dietary intake in elderly people in two types of living situations. Observational study, analysing prospective data. The dietary intake was studied in elderly people living at home or in nursing home, in different cities of Sweden. A total of 264 elderly people (mean age 84) participated in the observational study. Dietary intake was measured using weighed food records and food diaries, comparing females and males. The observed dietary intake was related to Recommended intake and Lower intake level. All dietary intake and patient characteristic variables showed large individual differences (ranges). We found no significant differences (p>0.05) between those living at home and nursing home residents regarding the average intake of energy, protein and water when expressed as total intake per kg of body weight. A very low daily intake of energy (<20 kcal/kg body weight/day) was observed in 16% of the participants. For vitamin D and iron, 19% and 15%, respectively, had intakes below the Lower intake level. There was no correlation between intake of energy, protein or water and resident characteristics such as age, autonomy, morbidity, nutritional state or cognition. The large individual differences (ranges) in energy, nutrients and water show that the use of mean values when analysing dietary intake data from elderly people is misleading. From a clinical perspective it is more important to consider the individual intake of energy, nutrients and water. Ageism is intrinsic in the realm of 'averageology'.

  20. Childhood maltreatment and high dietary fat intake behaviors in adulthood: A birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Kisely, Steve; Williams, Gail; Strathearn, Lane; Najman, Jake Moses

    2017-10-01

    Childhood maltreatment has been associated with a wide range of chronic medical conditions including obesity, other metabolic events and eating disorders. However, little is known about the association between childhood maltreatment and high dietary fat intake. This study addresses the extent to which co-occurring and specific forms of substantiated childhood maltreatment are associated with self-reported high dietary fat intake in adulthood and whether there is a gender-childhood maltreatment interaction in predicting this association. The study also examines the association between age at substantiation of maltreatment, number of childhood maltreatment substantiations and high dietary fat intake-related behaviors. The data were from a prospective Australian pre-birth mother-child dyads study, the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy. The study followed 7223 mother-child dyads following the birth of a live, singleton baby at the Mater hospital. Recruitment was early in pregnancy, and then follow-ups at 3-5days postpartum and again when the child was 6 months, 5, 14 and 21 years of age. The data were linked to agency-substantiated cases of childhood maltreatment 0-14 years. This study extended the data linkage to 3766 (47.4% female) participants who had complete data on dietary fat intake behaviors at the 21-year follow-up. Consecutive logistic regressions were used to estimate odds ratios with respective 95% confidence intervals for high dietary fat intake for multiple and specific forms of childhood maltreatment, as well as age at and number of childhood maltreatment substantiations. Finally, a gender-childhood maltreatment interaction term was used to predict the outcome. In both unadjusted and adjusted analyses, substantiated childhood maltreatment including physical abuse were associated with high dietary fat intake-related behaviors. Similarly, substantiation of childhood maltreatment between the ages of 5 and 14 years was significantly

  1. The Association Between Parental Behavior Patterns and the Dietary Intake of Preschool Children in Tehran Kindergartens

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Pazuki; Majid Hajifaraji; Morvarid Nikoosokhan; Anahita Houshyarrad; Taghi Pourebrahim; Bahram Rashidkhani

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: This study was designed to investigate the association between parental behavior and the dietary intake of Tehranian preschool children aged 2-6 years. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study conducted on 310 children aged 2-6 years from the kindergartens of 22 districts of Tehran, a qualitative validated 85-item food frequency questionnaire was completed by interviewing with their parents. Also the effect of parental behavior on the children’s dietary ...

  2. Dietary intake and overweight and obesity among persons living with HIV in Atlanta Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Dominica; Kalichman, Seth; Cherry, Chauncey; Kalichman, Moira; Washington, Christopher; Grebler, Tamar

    2017-06-01

    In the U.S., there has been a rise in overweight and obesity among persons living with HIV (PLWH). The aim of this study was to examine dietary intake and body mass index (BMI) in PLWH in Atlanta Georgia relative to the U.S. Dietary intake among PLWH was compared with recommended standards as well as estimated dietary intake for adults in the U.S. Over 31% of the study participants were overweight [BMI = 25-29.9 kg/m 2 ], and 33.1% obese [BMI ≥ 30 kg/m 2 ]. Results indicated significant dietary differences between participants in our sample and U.S. daily recommendations for adults as well as estimated intakes of the U.S. Both males and females consumed more percentage of energy from fat and less fiber as well as fruit and vegetables servings than what is recommended. Results suggest that overweight and obesity are an additional health burden to PLWH in our sample and that their daily dietary practices are not meeting the U.S. government-recommended nutritional standards.

  3. Dietary Supplements Contribute Substantially to the Total Nutrient Intake in Pregnant Norwegian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, Margaretha; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Alexander, Jan; Meltzer, Helle Margrete

    2008-01-01

    Background Use of dietary supplements during pregnancy may give an important contribution to nutrient intake, and for nutrients like folate and vitamin D supplements are recommended. Our objective was to study use and contribution of dietary supplement to nutrient intake among women participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Methods This study is based on 40,108 women participating in MoBa which is conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. The women had filled inversion 2 of the food frequency questionnaire in MoBa between February 2002 and February 2005. Results 81% reported use of one or more dietary supplements. The most commonly used category was cod liver oil/fish oil supplements (59%) followed by singular folic acid supplements (36%) and multivitamin/multimineral supplements (31%). The nutrient contribution of the dietary supplements varied from 65% for folate and vitamin D to 1% for potassium among supplement users. The dietary intake of vitamin D, folate, iodine and iron did not reach the Nordic Recommendations for pregnant women. Conclusions Use of supplements improved the intake of folate, iron and vitamin D, but not sufficiently to reach the recommended amounts. PMID:18645244

  4. Dietary intake of dioxins, furans and dioxin-like PCBs in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher-Gabernig, Elke; Mischek, Daniela; Moche, Wolfgang; Prean, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Human exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs) should be assessed regularly. In order to evaluate the contamination levels in various food products on the Austrian market and to assess the dietary exposure of the Austrian population for the first time, a national monitoring programme was conducted from 2005 to 2011. The 235 food products comprised meat, poultry, game and offal, fish and fish products, milk and dairy products, eggs, animal fats and vegetable oils. To estimate the dietary intakes of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs, mean concentrations in food were combined with the respective food consumption data from the Austrian food consumption survey. Estimated dietary intakes were expressed as toxic equivalents (WHO-TEQs 1998). The mean intakes for PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs were estimated as 0.77, 0.75 and 0.61 pg WHO-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1) for children, women and men, respectively. The main contributors to total intake were milk and dairy products followed by fish and fish products for children and women, and meat, poultry, game and offal for men (65% and 15% for children, 67% and 14% for women, and 63% and 19% for men, respectively). Comparison of the estimated dietary intakes with the toxicological reference values shows that both children and adults are well below those values.

  5. Dietary trace element intakes of a selected sample of Canadian elderly women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, R.S.; MacDonald, A.C.; Martinez, O.B.

    1984-01-01

    Energy, and selected trace intakes of a sample of 90 noninstitutionalized Canadian women (mean age 66.2 +/- 6.2 years) living in a University community and consuming self-selected diets were assessed by chemical analysis of one-day duplicate diets and via 1-day dietary records collected by the subjects. Mean gross energy intake (determined via bomb calorimetry was 6.0 +/- 2.4 MJ (1435 +/- 580 kcal) and mean intakes of Cu and Mn (determined via atomic absorption spectrophotometry) were 1.2 +/- 0.6 mg and 3.8 +/- 2.1 mg/day, respectively. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used for Cr - median = 77.4 μg/day; Se - median = 69.6 μg/day; Zn - mean + SD = 7.7 +/- 3.6 mg/day; Ag - median = 26.9 μg/day; Cs - median = 4.8 μg/day; Rb - median = 1.6 mg/day; Sb - median = 1.8 μg/day; Sc - median = 0.3 μg/day. Dietary intakes of Cr, Mn and Se for the majority of the subjects fell within the US safe and adequate range. In contrast, a high proportion of subjects had apparently low intakes of dietary Cu and Zn in relation to current US dietary recommendations

  6. Sodium intake and dietary sources of sodium in undergraduate students from Novi Sad, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić-Bata Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Data on sodium intake and sources of sodium in the diet in Serbia are limited. The aim of this study was to estimate the sodium intake and identify the sources of sodium in the diet of undergraduate students attending the University of Novi Sad. Methods. Students completed a questionnaire to gather data on their gender, age and university faculty attended, and then a 24 h dietary recall. The sodium intake of the students was calculated using the dietary recall data and data on the sodium content of foods. The contribution of different food groups as well as of specific foodstuffs to the total sodium intake was calculated. Results. The mean estimated sodium intake of the students was 3,938.5 ± 1,708.1 mg/day. The sodium intake of 89.1% of the surveyed students exceeded the guideline for sodium intake, the majority of the sodium coming from processed foods (78.9% of the total sodium intake. The food groups that contributed the most to the total sodium intake of the students were meat and meat products (21.7% and cereals and cereal-based products (18.6%. Bread and other bakery products were responsible for 13.1% of the total sodium intake. Conclusion. High sodium intake in students of the University of Novi Sad puts them at high risk of developing high blood pressure. The food industry should work towards reformulating products with high sodium content, especially bread and other bakery products. Efforts should be taken to reduce sodium intake among undergraduate students in Novi Sad.

  7. Role of Macronutrients and Micronutrients in DNA Damage: Results From a Food Frequency Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladeira, Carina; Carolino, Elisabete; Gomes, Manuel C; Brito, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    The links between diet and genomic instability have been under investigation for several decades, and evidence suggests a significant causal or preventive role for various dietary factors. This study investigates the influence of macronutrients (calories, protein, and glucides) and micronutrients, such as vitamins and minerals, as assessed by a food frequency questionnaire, on genotoxicity biomarkers measured by cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay and comet assay. The results found significant positive and negative correlations. Micronucleus frequency tends to increase with higher intake of caffeine, calcium, magnesium, zinc, and protein ( P macronutrients and micronutrients.

  8. Impact of Second Trimester Maternal Dietary Intake on Gestational Weight Gain and Neonatal Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malshani L. Pathirathna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Poor maternal nutrition is a major contributor to the high incidence of low birth weight deliveries in developing countries. This study aimed to assess the impact of second trimester maternal dietary intake on gestational weight gain and neonatal birth weight. A longitudinal study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital in Sri Lanka. Participants were 141 pregnant women at 18–24 weeks gestation who were followed up until delivery. Maternal dietary intake was assessed using a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire at 21.1 ± 1.8 gestational weeks. Gestational weight gain was examined at the end of 28 weeks gestation and at the end of pregnancy. Energy and nutrient intakes were calculated using NutriSurvey 2007 (EBISpro, Willstaett, Germany nutrient analysis software, modified for Sri Lankan foods. The mean total gestational weight gain of women with low carbohydrate intake (229–429 g/day was 2.2 kg less than that of women with moderate carbohydrate intake (430–629 g/day (95% confidence interval (CI 0.428–4.083 kg; p = 0.016. Similarly, babies of women with low carbohydrate intake were 312 g lighter compared with those of women with a moderate carbohydrate intake (95% CI 91–534 g; p = 0.006. Our results suggest that second trimester maternal carbohydrate intake has significant impacts on total gestational weight gain and neonatal birth weight.

  9. Does television viewing predict dietary intake five years later in high school students and young adults?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neumark-Sztainer Dianne

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prior research has found that television viewing is associated with poor diet quality, though little is known about its long-term impact on diet, particularly during adolescence. This study examined the associations between television viewing behavior with dietary intake five years later. Methods Survey data, which included television viewing time and food frequency questionnaires, were analyzed for 564 middle school students (younger cohort and 1366 high school students (older cohort who had complete data available at Time 1 (1998–1999 and five years later at Time 2 (mean age at Time 2, 17.2 ± 0.6 and 20.5 ± 0.8 years, respectively. Regression models examined longitudinal associations between Time 1 television viewing behavior and Time 2 dietary intake adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, Time 1 dietary intake, and Time 2 total daily energy intake. Results Respondents were categorized as limited television users (2 hours/daily, moderately high television viewers (2–5 hours/daily, and heavy television viewers (≥5 hours/daily. Among the younger cohort, Time 1 heavy television viewers reported lower fruit intake and higher sugar-sweetened beverage consumption than the other two groups. Among the older cohort, watching five or more hours of television per day at Time 1, predicted lower intakes of fruits, vegetables, whole grain and calcium-rich foods, and higher intakes of trans fat, fried foods, fast food menu items, snack products, and sugar-sweetened beverages (products commonly advertised on television five years later. Conclusion Television viewing in middle and high school predicted poorer dietary intake five years later. Adolescents are primary targets of advertising for fast food restaurants, snack foods, and sugar-sweetened beverages, which may influence their food choices. Television viewing, especially during high school, may have long-term effects on eating choices and contribute to poor eating

  10. Maternal dietary fat intake during pregnancy is associated with infant temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Hanna C; Kuzava, Sierra E; Werner, Elizabeth A; Monk, Catherine

    2016-05-01

    Research with rodents and nonhuman primates suggests that maternal prenatal dietary fat intake is associated with offspring behavioral functioning indicative of risk for psychopathology. The extent to which these findings extend to humans remains unknown. The current study administered the Automated Self-Administered 24 hr Dietary Recall Questionnaire three times in pregnancy (n = 48) to examine women's dietary fat intake in relation to infant temperament assessed using the Infant Behavior Questionnaire at 4-months old. The amount of saturated fat that the mother consumed was considered as a moderator of the association between total fat intake and child temperament. Results from a series of multiple linear regressions indicate that greater total fat intake was associated with poorer infant regulation and lower surgency. However, this second effect was moderated by maternal saturated fat intake, such that total fat intake was only related to infant surgency when mothers consumed above the daily recommended allowance of saturated fat. Under conditions of high total fat and high saturated fat, infants were rated as lower on surgency; under conditions of low total fat yet high saturated fat, infants were rated as higher on surgency. There were no associations between maternal prenatal fat intake and infant negative reactivity. These findings provide preliminary evidence that pregnant women's dietary fat intake is associated with infants' behavioral development, though future research is needed to address this report's limitations: a relatively small sample size, the use of self-report measures, and a lack of consideration of maternal and infant postnatal diet. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The relations between dietary antioxidant vitamins intake and oxidative stress in follicular fluid and ART outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Kazemi, Ashraf; Ramezanzadeh, Fatemeh; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad Hosein

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oxidative stress (OS) in the follicular environment may affect on oocyte competence and antioxidant vitamins may modify its effects. Objective: This study was conducted to examine the effect of dietary intake of vitamin A, C and E on OS in follicular environment and assisted reproduction technology (ART) outcomes. Materials and Methods: In this obsevationalprospective study, the intake levels of vitamin A, C, and E were matured by validated food frequency questionnaire and ...

  12. Poor Appetite and Dietary Intake in Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meij, Barbara S; Wijnhoven, Hanneke A H; Lee, Jung S; Houston, Denise K; Hue, Trisha; Harris, Tamara B; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Newman, Anne B; Visser, Marjolein

    2017-10-01

    Poor appetite in older adults leads to sub-optimal food intake and increases the risk of undernutrition. The impact of poor appetite on food intake in older adults is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the differences in food intake among older community-dwelling adults with different reported appetite levels. Cross-sectional analysis of data from a longitudinal prospective study. Health, aging, and body composition study performed in the USA. 2,597 community-dwelling adults aged 70-79. A semi-quantitative, interviewer-administered, 108-item food frequency questionnaire designed to estimate dietary intake. Poor appetite was defined as the report of a moderate, poor, or very poor appetite in the past month and was compared with good or very good appetite. The mean age of the study sample was 74.5 ± 2.8 years; 48.2% were men, 37.7% were black, and 21.8% reported a poor appetite. After adjustment for total energy intake and potential confounders (including biting/chewing problems), participants with a poor appetite had a significantly lower consumption of protein and dietary fiber, solid foods, protein rich foods, whole grains, fruits, and vegetables, but a higher consumption of dairy foods, fats, oils, sweets, and sodas compared to participants with very good appetite. In addition, they were less likely to report consumption of significant larger portion sizes. Older adults reporting a poor appetite showed a different dietary intake pattern compared to those with (very) good appetite. Better understanding of the specific dietary intake pattern related to a poor appetite in older adults can be used for nutrition interventions to enhance food intake, diet variety, and diet quality. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  13. Dietary intakes differ between renal transplant recipients living in patient hotels versus home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahra, Terhi; Jenssen, Trond; Løvik, Astrid

    2004-04-01

    To compare dietary intake and health-related quality of life approximately 6 to 10 weeks after renal transplantation in patients living at home and at a patient hotel, and how the patients were following a heart-healthy diet according to the current American Heart Association guidelines. Cross-sectional observational study. Outpatient clinic at Rikshospitalet University Hospital, Norway. Forty renal transplant patients, 20 patients (14 men and 6 women) in both groups. There were 4 diabetic patients in each group. Dietary intake was assessed by 4-day dietary records. Health-related quality of life was investigated by the SF-36 questionnaire. The main outcome variables were daily energy intake and intakes of protein, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, fiber, and fruit and vegetables. The variables were tested by 2-sample t-tests, and significance was set at.05. There was no statistically significant difference in daily energy intake between the groups (P =.08), but there were significantly higher daily intakes of protein (P =.003), total fat (P =.03), monounsaturated fat (P =.02), cholesterol (P =.04), fiber (P =.02), calcium (P =.03), and fruit and vegetables (P =.03) in the group living at the patient hotel. The mean intake of saturated fat was 14.5% of total energy in the group living at home and 14.6% in the group living at the patient hotel. There were no significant differences in health-related quality of life between the groups. The results suggest that there are differences in dietary intake in renal transplant patients living at home compared with those at a patient hotel. It seems that neither of the groups follows current guidelines for reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease.

  14. Dietary intake and ghrelin and leptin changes after sleeve gastrectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Bu?ga, Marek; Zavadilov?, Vladislava; Hol?czy, Pavol; ?vagera, Zden?k; ?vorc, Pavol; Foltys, Ale?; Zon?a, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Surgical intervention in obesity is today the most effective treatment method in high level obesity management. Bariatric interventions not only ensure body weight reduction, but may influence dietary habits. Aim To assess changes in adipose hormones and dietary habits in obese patients after sleeve gastrectomy. Material and methods The study set comprised 37 subjects (29 females and 8 males) 24 to 68 years old with body mass index 43.0 ?4.9 kg/m2. Pre-operative examination inclu...

  15. Alcohol and dietary fibre intakes affect circulating sex hormones among premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Morimoto, Yukiko; Takata, Yumie; Murphy, Suzanne P; Stanczyk, Frank Z

    2006-10-01

    The association of alcohol and fibre intake with breast cancer may be mediated by circulating sex hormone levels, which are predictors of breast cancer risk. To evaluate the relationship of alcohol and dietary fibre intake with circulating sex hormone levels among premenopausal women. A total of 205 premenopausal women completed a validated food-frequency questionnaire at baseline and after 2 years; blood samples taken at the same time were analysed for circulating sex hormone concentrations, including oestrone (E1), oestradiol (E2), free E2, progesterone, androstenedione and sex hormone-binding globulin, by radioimmunoassay. We used mixed models to estimate least-square means of sex hormone concentrations for alcohol intake categories and quartiles of dietary intake. After adjustment for covariates, alcohol consumption was moderately associated with higher circulating oestrogen levels; those who consumed more than one drink per day had 20% higher E2 (Ptrend=0.07) levels than non-drinkers. In contrast, higher dietary fibre intake was associated with lower serum levels of androstenedione (-8% between the lowest and highest quartiles of intake, Ptrend=0.06), but not oestrogens. Similarly, consumption of fruits (-12%, Ptrend=0.03), vegetables (-9%, Ptrend=0.15) and whole grains (-7%, Ptrend=0.07) showed inverse associations with androstenedione levels. The consistency of the observed differences in sex hormone levels associated with alcohol and fibre-rich foods indicates that these nutritional factors may affect sex hormone concentrations and play a role in breast cancer aetiology and prevention.

  16. A Study on the Dietary Intake and the Nutritional Status among the Pancreatic Cancer Surgical Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jimin; Park, Joon Seong; Yoon, Dong Sup; Kim, Woo Jeong; Chung, Hae-Yun; Lee, Song Mi; Chang, Namsoo

    2016-10-01

    The adequate dietary intake is important to maintain the nutritional status of the patients after pancreatic cancer surgery. This prospective study was designed to investigate the dietary intake and the nutritional status of the patients who had pancreatic cancer surgery. Thirty-one patients (15 men, 16 women) were enrolled and measured body weight, body mass index (BMI), nutritional risk index (NRI), and Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST). Actual oral intake with nutritional impact symptoms recorded on the clinical research foam at every meal and medical information were collected from electronic medical charts. The rates of malnutrition at admission were 45.1% (14/31) and 28.9% (9/31) by NRI and MUST method, respectively, but those were increased to 87% (27/31) and 86.6% (26/31) after operation on discharge. The median values of daily intake of energy, carbohydrates, fat, and protein were 588.1 kcal, 96.0 g, 11.8 g, and 27.0 g, respectively. Most patients (n = 20, 64.5%) experienced two or more symptoms such as anorexia, abdominal bloating and early satiety. There were negative correlations between C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and the intake of total energy, protein, fat, and zinc. The rates of malnutrition were increased sharply after surgery and the dietary intake also influenced the inflammatory indicators. The results suggested that need of considering special therapeutic diets for the patients who received pancreatic surgery.

  17. Is dietary intake able to explain differences in body fatness in children and adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Gerardo; Moreno, Luis A

    2006-05-01

    Obesity is the result of an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. Controversial information exists about what are the strongest energy balance aspects influencing body fatness. This article is focused on food consumption facts that could be related to the risk of being obese in children and adolescents. It reviews whether energy intake, macronutrient composition of diet, eating patterns or other dietary intake factors are able to explain differences in body composition when obesity has been already developed or even in subjects at risk to become obese. There is not enough evidence to clarify the importance of diet on overweight children and adolescents, and conclusions derived are somewhat controversial. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies do not show clear relationships between energy intake or food composition and body fatness. To find relations between dietary factors and childhood obesity perhaps eating patterns or different types of foods must be considered: meal patterns and meal frequency, snacking and beverage consumption, fast food intake, portion sizes, etc. There is no clear association between different aspects of dietary intake and the development of obesity in children and adolescents. Longitudinal and experimental studies are needed in the future.

  18. MICRONUTRIENTS AND STRESS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    that both mental stress and nutritional factors are associated with the .... tract infections in endurance athletes." Vitamin ... the risk of breast cancer in women with very low intakes and .... smokers, and would be achieved by dietary means alone.

  19. Dietary protein intake and quality in early life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Mads V; Larnkjær, Anni; Mølgaard, Christian

    2017-01-01

    programming. Finally, infants with catch-up growth or specific genotypes might be particularly vulnerable to high-protein intake. SUMMARY: Recent studies confirm the associations between high-protein intake during the first 2 years and later obesity. Furthermore, knowledge of the mechanisms involved......PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity is an increasing problem and high-protein intake early in life seems to increase later risk of obesity. This review summarizes recent publications in the area including observational and intervention studies and publications on underlying mechanisms. RECENT FINDINGS...... seems to have an effect on obesity. Specific amino acids, such as leucine, have also been implicated in increasing later obesity risk maybe via specific actions on insulin-like growth factor I. Furthermore, additional underlying mechanisms including epigenetics have been linked to long-term obesogenic...

  20. Urban-rural difference in the determinants of dietary and energy intake patterns: A case study in West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaka, Satoko; Suda, Kazuhiro; Gunawan, Budhi; Raksanagara, Ardini; Watanabe, Chiho; Umezaki, Masahiro

    2018-01-01

    Few studies have explored differences in the determinants of individual dietary/energy intake patterns between urban and rural areas. To examine whether the associations between individual characteristics and dietary/energy intake patterns differ between urban and rural areas in West Java, Indonesia. A 3-day weighed food record, interviews, and anthropometric measurements were conducted in Bandung (urban area; n = 85) and Sumedang (rural area; n = 201). Total energy intake and intake from protein, fat, and carbohydrates were calculated. Food items were grouped into dietary categories based on the main ingredients to calculate their share of total energy intake. The associations between individual characteristics and dietary/energy intake were examined by fitting regression models. Models that also included education and body mass index (BMI) were fitted to adult samples only. In Sumedang, the total energy intake and energy intake from carbohydrates, fat, and grain/tubers were significantly associated with age and occupation. In Bandung, energy intake from grain/tubers and vegetables/legumes was related to sex and occupation, while other indicators showed no associations. Among adults, BMI was associated with the total energy intake and educational level was associated with energy intake from vegetables/legumes (both only in Sumedang). The relationship between demographic and socioeconomic factors and dietary/energy intake patterns differs in rural versus urban areas in West Java. These results suggest that different strategies are needed in rural and urban areas to identify and aid populations at risk of diet-related diseases.

  1. Relationship of dietary intake of fish and non-fish selenium to serum lipids in Japanese rural coastal community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Yukiko; Koyama, Hiroshi; Nojiri, Masami; Suzuki, Shosuke

    2002-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that dietary selenium deficiency may be associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). In the present study, 55 men and 71 women were selected from participants in a health examination in a rural coastal community in Japan. The mean dietary selenium intake calculated from the simple food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) was 127.5 micrograms/day. Fish was the major source of dietary selenium and it contributed to 68.7% of the daily total. HDL cholesterol was higher in the middle selenium intake group and in the high selenium intake group than in the low selenium intake group in all subjects and for males, and a significant difference was found between the middle selenium intake group and the low selenium intake group. The atherogenic index was significantly higher in the low selenium intake group than in the middle selenium intake group and in the high selenium intake group in males. GPx activity, total cholesterol and triacylglycerols did not show any significant differences among the three different selenium intake groups. Dietary intake of non-fish Se had a positive correlation with HDL cholesterol, and an inverse correlation with the atherogenic index in all subjects and for females. On the other hand, dietary intake of fish-Se had no relationship with any serum lipids. Non-fish Se is an important factor in selenium status for the prevention of CHD.

  2. Effect of Pre-Ramadan Education on Dietary Intake and Anthropometry-Comparison Between Two Groups of Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bencharif Meriem

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: Fasting of Ramadan leads to changes in dietary habits, physical activity, sleep and time of drug intake for diabetics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of pre-Ramadan education on dietary intake and anthropometry of two groups of patients.

  3. Relative validity of the food frequency questionnaire used to assess dietary intake in the Leiden Longevity Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streppel, M.T.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Meyboom, S.; Beekman, M.; Craen, A.J.M.; Slagboom, P.E.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background - Invalid information on dietary intake may lead to false diet-disease associations. This study was conducted to examine the relative validity of the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) used to assess dietary intake in the Leiden Longevity Study. Methods - A total of 128 men and women

  4. A Comparison of Dietary Intakes between Male and Female Korean American College Students: A Two Generation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Chick F.; Lew, PoLong; Schwartz, Miriam; Poon, George; An, JaeYoon; Lee, Jina; Chan, Katie; Li, Kenneth; Cheung, Yuen Ting; Luong, Duyen; Davis, Rebecca; Kim, James C.; Kim, Rachel Byungsook; Kim, Samuel Saychang

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to observe the differences in dietary intakes between two generations, male and female Korean American college students with their respective parents, living in the Los Angeles Areas. This study compared dietary nutrient intakes between old Koreans (KO) (n=28, average age: 53.4[plus or minus]6.4 years, with 13 males…

  5. Dietary fat knowledge and intake of mid-adolescents attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-07-29

    Jul 29, 2009 ... Venter I, M Nutrition. Winterbach A, BTech Consumer Science: Food and Nutrition .... (17 to 18-year-olds) were able to identify obesity and a high-fat ..... Table III: Associations between learner dietary fat knowledge and their.

  6. The Association of Dietary Fiber Intake with Cardiometabolic Risk in Four Countries across the Epidemiologic Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Lie

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The greatest burden of cardiovascular disease is now carried by developing countries with cardiometabolic conditions such as metabolic syndrome, obesity and inflammation believed to be the driving force behind this epidemic. Dietary fiber is known to have protective effects against obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and the metabolic syndrome. Considering the emerging prevalence of these cardiometabolic disease states across the epidemiologic transition, the objective of this study is to explore these associations of dietary fiber with cardiometabolic risk factors in four countries across the epidemiologic transition. We examined population-based samples of men and women, aged 25–45 of African origin from Ghana, Jamaica, the Seychelles and the USA. Ghanaians had the lowest prevalence of obesity (10%, while Jamaicans had the lowest prevalence of metabolic syndrome (5% across all the sites. Participants from the US presented with the highest prevalence of obesity (52%, and metabolic syndrome (22%. Overall, the Ghanaians consumed the highest dietary fiber (24.9 ± 9.7 g, followed by Jamaica (16.0 ± 8.3 g, the Seychelles (13.6 ± 7.2 g and the lowest in the USA (14.2 ± 7.1 g. Consequently, 43% of Ghanaians met the fiber dietary guidelines (14 g/1000 kcal/day, 9% of Jamaicans, 6% of Seychellois, and only 3% of US adults. Across all sites, cardiometabolic risk (metabolic syndrome, inflammation and obesity was inversely associated with dietary fiber intake, such that the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 13% for those in the lowest quartile of fiber intake, compared to 9% those in the highest quartile of fiber intake. Notably, twice as many of participants (38% in the lowest quartile were obese compared to those in the highest quartile of fiber intake (18%. These findings further support the need to incorporate strategies and policies to promote increased dietary fiber intake as one component for the prevention of cardiometabolic

  7. Salt intake and dietary sources of salt on weekdays and weekend days in Australian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowson, Caryl; Lim, Karen; Land, Mary-Ann; Webster, Jacqui; Shaw, Jonathan E; Chalmers, John; Flood, Victoria; Woodward, Mark; Grimes, Carley

    2018-02-01

    To assess if there is a difference in salt intake (24 h urine collection and dietary recall) and dietary sources of salt (Na) on weekdays and weekend days. A cross-sectional study of adults who provided one 24 h urine collection and one telephone-administered 24 h dietary recall. Community-dwelling adults living in the State of Victoria, Australia. Adults (n 598) who participated in a health survey (53·5 % women; mean age 57·1 (95 % CI 56·2, 58·1) years). Mean (95 % CI) salt intake (dietary recall) was 6·8 (6·6, 7·1) g/d and 24 h urinary salt excretion was 8·1 (7·8, 8·3) g/d. Mean dietary and 24 h urinary salt (age-adjusted) were 0·9 (0·1, 1·6) g/d (P=0·024) and 0·8 (0·3, 1·6) g/d (P=0·0017), respectively, higher at weekends compared with weekdays. There was an indication of a greater energy intake at weekends (+0·6 (0·02, 1·2) MJ/d, P=0·06), but no difference in Na density (weekday: 291 (279, 304) mg/MJ; weekend: 304 (281, 327) mg/MJ; P=0·360). Cereals/cereal products and dishes, meat, poultry, milk products and gravy/sauces accounted for 71 % of dietary Na. Mean salt intake (24 h urine collection) was more than 60 % above the recommended level of 5 g salt/d and 8-14 % more salt was consumed at weekends than on weekdays. Substantial reductions in the Na content of staple foods, processed meat, sauces, mixed dishes (e.g. pasta), convenience and takeaway foods are required to achieve a significant consistent reduction in population salt intake throughout the week.

  8. Impacts of maternal dietary protein intake on fetal survival, growth, and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Cassandra M; Bazer, Fuller W; Johnson, Gregory A; Wu, Guoyao

    2018-03-01

    Maternal nutrition during gestation, especially dietary protein intake, is a key determinant in embryonic survival, growth, and development. Low maternal dietary protein intake can cause embryonic losses, intra-uterine growth restriction, and reduced postnatal growth due to a deficiency in specific amino acids that are important for cell metabolism and function. Of note, high maternal dietary protein intake can also result in intra-uterine growth restriction and embryonic death, due to amino acid excesses, as well as the toxicity of ammonia, homocysteine, and H 2 S that are generated from amino acid catabolism. Maternal protein nutrition has a pronounced impact on fetal programming and alters the expression of genes in the fetal genome. As a precursor to the synthesis of molecules (e.g. nitric oxide, polyamines, and creatine) with cell signaling and metabolic functions, L-arginine (Arg) is essential during pregnancy for growth and development of the conceptus. With inadequate maternal dietary protein intake, Arg and other important amino acids are deficient in mother and fetus. Dietary supplementation of Arg during gestation has been effective in improving embryonic survival and development of the conceptus in many species, including humans, pigs, sheep, mice, and rats. Both the balance among amino acids and their quantity are critical for healthy pregnancies and offspring. Impact statement This review aims at: highlighting adverse effects of elevated levels of ammonia in mother or fetus on embryonic/fetal survival, growth, and development; helping nutritionists and practitioners to understand the mechanisms whereby elevated levels of ammonia in mother or fetus results in embryonic/fetal death, growth restriction, and developmental abnormalities; and bringing, into the attention of nutritionists and practitioners, the problems of excess or inadequate dietary intake of protein or amino acids on pregnancy outcomes in animals and humans. The article provides new

  9. Intake of milk with added micronutrients increases the effectiveness of an energy-restricted diet to reduce body weight: a randomized controlled clinical trial in Mexican women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado, Jorge L; Garcia, Olga P; Ronquillo, Dolores; Hervert-Hernández, Deisy; Caamaño, Maria Del C; Martínez, Guadalupe; Gutiérrez, Jessica; García, Sandra

    2011-10-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies have been associated with an increase in fat deposition and body weight; thus, adding them to low-fat milk may facilitate weight loss when accompanied by an energy-restricted diet. The objective was to evaluate the effect of the intake of low-fat milk and low-fat milk with added micronutrients on anthropometrics, body composition, blood glucose levels, lipids profile, C-reactive protein, and blood pressure of women following an energy-restricted diet. A 16-week randomized, controlled intervention study. One hundred thirty-nine obese women (aged 34±6 years) from five rural communities in Querétaro, Mexico. Women followed an energy-restricted diet (-500 kcal) and received in addition one of the following treatments: 250 mL of low-fat milk (LFM) three times/day, 250 mL of low-fat milk with micronutrients (LFM+M) three times/day, or a no milk control group (CON). Weight, height, and hip and waist circumferences were measured at baseline and every 4 weeks. Body composition measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, blood pressure, and blood analysis were done at baseline and at the end of the 16 weeks. Changes in weight and body composition. One-factor analysis of variance, adjusted by age, baseline values, and community random effects. After the 16-week intervention, participants in the LFM+M group lost significantly more weight (-5.1 kg; 95% CI: -6.2 to -4.1) compared with LFM (-3.6 kg; 95% CI: -4.7 to -2.6) and CON (-3.2 kg; 95% CI: -4.3 to -2.2) group members (P=0.035). Body mass index change in the LFM+M group (-2.3; 95% CI: -2.7 to -1.8) was significantly greater than LFM group members (-1.5; 95% CI: -2.0 to -1.1) and CON group members (-1.4; 95% CI: -1.9 to -0.9) (P=0.022). Change in percent body fat among LFM+M group members (-2.7%; 95% CI: -3.2 to -2.1) was significantly higher than LFM group members (-1.8%; 95% CI: -2.3 to -1.3) and CON group members (-1.6%; 95% CI: -2.2 to -1.0) (P=0.019). Change in bone mineral content was

  10. Dietary Calcium Intake and Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet in Spanish Children: The ANIVA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Rubio-López

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of dietary calcium intake with anthropometric measures, physical activity and adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet in 1176 Spanish children aged 6–9 years. Data were obtained from “Antropometría y Nutrición Infantil de Valencia” (ANIVA, a cross-sectional study of a representative sample. Dietary calcium intake assessed from three-day food records was compared to recommended daily intakes in Spain. Anthropometric measures (weight and height were measured according to international standards and adherence to the MedDiet was evaluated using the Mediterranean Diet Quality Index (KIDMED test. For the total sample of children, 25.8% had inadequate calcium intake, a significantly higher prevalence in girls (p = 0.006 and inadequate calcium intake was associated with lower height z-score (p = 0.001 for both sexes. In girls, there was an inverse relationship between calcium intake and body mass index (p = 0.001 and waist/hip ratio (p = 0.018. Boys presented a polarization in physical activity, reporting a greater level of both physical and sedentary activity in comparison with girls (p = 0.001. Children with poor adherence to MedDiet, even if they consume two yogurts or cheese (40 g daily, adjusted by gender, age, total energy intake, physical activity and father’s level of education, are at risk of inadequate total calcium intake (odds ratio adjusted [ORa]: 3.36, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.13–9.94, p = 0.001. The intake of these dairy products was insufficient to cover calcium intake recommendations in this age group (6–9 years. It is important to prioritize health strategies that promote the MedDiet and to increase calcium intake in this age group.

  11. Dietary Intake and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Icelanders Following Voluntarily a Low Carbohydrate Diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita S Elidottir

    Full Text Available Most studies regarding low-carbohydrate diets (LCDs have been intervention studies. The aim of the current study was to investigate dietary intake and cardiovascular risk factors among individuals who voluntarily follow a LCD.A cross-sectional study was conducted (N = 54, 20-66yrs in Reykjavik, Iceland. Participants recorded food intake for three days. Blood samples were analyzed for cardiovascular risk factors.Nearly half of the participants were obese and around 60% had been on a LCD for ≥ 6 months. Fifty percent claimed they had lost weight during the past month. The median intake of carbohydrate, protein and fat were 8%, 22% and 68% E (hereof 25% saturated fatty acids, respectively. The consumption of bread and wholegrain cereals was very low (<5g/day, including the intake of dietary fiber (11g/day. Median fruit intake was 12 g/day. Intake of red meat and meat products was double that of the general population or ~900 g/week. Median intake of vitamins and minerals were mostly higher than the estimated average requirements. Cardiovascular risk factors were mostly within normal range. Mean blood lipids were slightly elevated although the high density lipoprotein/total cholesterol ratio was normal.Despite poor diet quality and high prevalence of obesity, individuals who voluntarily follow a LCD have cardiovascular risk factors mostly within reference range. These individuals consume very low amounts of carbohydrates and high amounts of fat and saturated fat acids. Intake of red meat and processed meat exceeds recommended intake. Very low intake of whole grain cereals and fruits results in low intake of fiber. Long term health implications need to be examined further in longitudinal studies.

  12. Dietary intake, physical activity and body mass index among postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaya Ranasinghe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Nutrition plays a vital role in the quality of life in postmenopausal women. Aim: The aim is to determine the dietary intake, physical activity, and assess the body mass index (BMI among postmenopausal women. Settings and Design: A community-based sample survey. Materials and Methods: The present study included 140 postmenopausal women (40–70 years from Udupi, Manipal areas of Karnataka. The study was carried out between July and December 2013. Sociodemographic data were collected using a questionnaire. Anthropometric data included height, weight, waist, and hip circumference. Dietary intake was determined using 24 h dietary recall. Physical activity information was collected. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 software. Paired t-test was performed to determine the dietary adequacy. Results: Obesity was 42.1% among the study participants. Increased WHR and waist circumference were 82.1% and 77.1%. Mean daily intake of calcium and saturated fatty acids were significantly higher than recommended dietary allowance (RDA (P < 0.001. Mean intake of energy, protein, carbohydrate, mono and poly unsaturated fatty acid, fiber and sodium were significantly lower than RDA (P < 0.001. Average daily intake of cereals, pulses, roots and tubers, meat and products, fats and oils, green leafy, and other vegetables were significantly (P < 0.001 lower than RDA. Intake of fruits, milk and milk products, and sugar was significantly higher (P < 0.001 than RDA. Only 37.1% of women performed moderate or active exercises regularly. Conclusions: Even though, nutrient and food group deficiencies were observed among postmenopausal women physical inactivity and effects of menopausal transition instigate increased BMI imposing a need to educate on nutrition and physical activity.

  13. Seasonal Changes in Soccer Players' Body Composition and Dietary Intake Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Brooke L; Kingsley, Michael; Leveritt, Michael D; Belski, Regina

    2017-12-01

    Devlin, BL, Kingsley, M, Leveritt, MD, and Belski, R. Seasonal changes in soccer players' body composition and dietary intake practices. J Strength Cond Res 31(12): 3319-3326, 2017-The aims of this study were 2-fold: to determine seasonal changes in dietary intake and body composition in elite soccer players and to evaluate the influence of self-determined individual body composition goals on dietary intake and body composition. This longitudinal, observational study assessed body composition (total mass, fat-free soft tissue mass, and fat mass) using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and dietary intake (energy and macronutrients) via multiple-pass 24-hour recalls, at 4 time points over a competitive season in elite soccer players from one professional club in the Australian A-League competition. Self-reported body composition goals were also recorded. Eighteen elite male soccer players took part (25 ± 5 years, 180.5 ± 7.4 cm, 75.6 ± 6.5 kg). Majority (≥67%) reported the goal to maintain weight. Fat-free soft tissue mass increased from the start of preseason (55,278 ± 5,475 g) to the start of competitive season (56,784 ± 5,168 g; p nutrition recommendations. The self-reported body composition goals did not strongly influence dietary intake practices or changes in body composition. This study has demonstrated that body composition changes over the course of a soccer season are subtle in elite soccer players despite relatively low self-reported intake of energy and carbohydrate.

  14. Body Weight Status and Dietary Intakes of Urban Malay Primary School Children: Evidence from the Family Diet Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Yew Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia is experiencing a rise in the prevalence of childhood obesity. Evidence for the relationship between dietary intake and body weight among Malaysian children is limited, with the impact of energy intake misreporting rarely being considered. This paper describes the dietary intakes of urban Malay children in comparison to national recommendations and by weight status. This cross-sectional Family Diet Study (n = 236 was conducted in five national primary schools in Malaysia (August 2013–October 2014. Data on socio-demographics, anthropometrics, 24-h dietary recalls, and food habits were collected from Malay families, consisting of a child aged 8 to 12 years and their main caregiver(s. Multivariable analyses were used to assess dietary intake-body weight relationships. The plausibility of energy intake was determined using the Black and Cole method. Approximately three in 10 Malay children were found to be overweight or obese. The majority reported dietary intakes less than national recommendations. Children with obesity had the lowest energy intakes relative to body weight (kcal/kg compared to children in other weight categories (F = 36.21, p < 0.001. A positive moderate correlation between energy intake and weight status was identified (r = 0.53, p < 0.001 after excluding energy intake mis-reporters (n = 95, highlighting the need for the validation of dietary assessment in obesity-related dietary research in Malaysia.

  15. Body Weight Status and Dietary Intakes of Urban Malay Primary School Children: Evidence from the Family Diet Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wai Yew; Burrows, Tracy; MacDonald-Wicks, Lesley; Williams, Lauren T; Collins, Clare E; Chee, Winnie Siew Swee; Colyvas, Kim

    2017-01-20

    Malaysia is experiencing a rise in the prevalence of childhood obesity. Evidence for the relationship between dietary intake and body weight among Malaysian children is limited, with the impact of energy intake misreporting rarely being considered. This paper describes the dietary intakes of urban Malay children in comparison to national recommendations and by weight status. This cross-sectional Family Diet Study ( n = 236) was conducted in five national primary schools in Malaysia (August 2013-October 2014). Data on socio-demographics, anthropometrics, 24-h dietary recalls, and food habits were collected from Malay families, consisting of a child aged 8 to 12 years and their main caregiver(s). Multivariable analyses were used to assess dietary intake-body weight relationships. The plausibility of energy intake was determined using the Black and Cole method. Approximately three in 10 Malay children were found to be overweight or obese. The majority reported dietary intakes less than national recommendations. Children with obesity had the lowest energy intakes relative to body weight (kcal/kg) compared to children in other weight categories (F = 36.21, p < 0.001). A positive moderate correlation between energy intake and weight status was identified ( r = 0.53, p < 0.001) after excluding energy intake mis-reporters ( n = 95), highlighting the need for the validation of dietary assessment in obesity-related dietary research in Malaysia.

  16. Description and evaluation of a net energy intake model as a function of dietary chewing index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Laura Mie; Markussen, Bo; Nielsen, N. I.

    2016-01-01

    Previously, a linear relationship has been found between net energy intake (NEI) and dietary chewing index (CI) of the diet for different types of cattle. Therefore, we propose to generalize and calibrate this relationship into a new model for direct prediction of NEI by dairy cows from CI values...... a value of 2, implying a constant maximum daily chewing time. The intercept NEI0 in the regression of NEI on CINE may be interpreted as metabolic net energy intake capacity of the cows fed without physical constraints on intake. Based on experimental data, the maximum chewing time was estimated as 1...

  17. Human Milk Microbial Community Structure Is Relatively Stable and Related to Variations in Macronutrient and Micronutrient Intakes in Healthy Lactating Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Janet E; Carrothers, Janae M; Lackey, Kimberly A; Beatty, Nicola F; York, Mara A; Brooker, Sarah L; Shafii, Bahman; Price, William J; Settles, Matthew L; McGuire, Mark A; McGuire, Michelle K

    2017-09-01

    Background: The human milk microbiome has been somewhat characterized, but little is known about changes over time and relations with maternal factors such as nutrient intake. Objective: We sought to characterize the human milk microbiome and described associations with maternal nutrient intake, time postpartum, delivery mode, and body mass index (BMI; in kg/m 2 ). Methods: Milk samples ( n = 104) and 24-h diet recalls were collected 9 times from 21 healthy lactating women from day 2 to 6 mo postpartum. Women were classified by BMI as healthy weight (milk microbiome was relatively constant over time, although there were small changes in some of the lesser-abundant genera. Relative abundances of several taxa were associated with BMI, delivery mode, and infant sex. For instance, overweight and obese mothers produced milk with a higher relative abundance of Granulicatella than did healthy-weight women (1.8% ± 0.6% compared with 0.4% ± 0.2%, respectively; P milk microbiome are complex and may include maternal nutrient intake, maternal BMI, delivery mode, and infant sex. Future studies designed to investigate the relation between maternal nutrient intake and the milk microbiome should strive to also evaluate dietary supplement usage and analyze the collected milk for its nutrient content.

  18. Dietary reference intakes for water, potassium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Panel on Dietary Reference Intakes for Electrolytes and Water

    2005-01-01

    ... intake to the risk of high blood pressure and hypertension as well as other diseases and the amounts of water from beverages and foods needed to maintain hydration. In addition, since requirements for sulfur can be met by inorganic sulfate in the diets of animals, a review of the role in inorganic sulfur in the form of sulfate is included. The gro...

  19. Dietary Intake among U.S. Adults with Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ruopeng; Chiu, Chung-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Physical, mental, and financial barriers among individuals with disability may limit their access to fruit and vegetable. In this study, we examined the relationship between disability status and vegetable, fruit, and fruit juice intake among U.S. adults aged 18 years and older using a large nationally representative sample. Methods:…

  20. Dietary intake and the dynamics of stress, hypertension and obesity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-03-01

    Mar 1, 2016 ... with high stress (32.89%) especially in females (57.14%, p=.036). Hypertension increased with mean age whiles stress decreased with mean age. Hypertensive subjects recorded a significantly higher BMI and sodium intake whiles high stress individuals recorded a lower animal protein but a higher cereal ...

  1. Maternal dietary intake during pregnancy and offspring body composition: The Healthy Start Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crume, Tessa L; Brinton, John T; Shapiro, Allison; Kaar, Jill; Glueck, Deborah H; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Dabelea, Dana

    2016-11-01

    Consistent evidence of an influence of maternal dietary intake during pregnancy on infant body size and composition in human populations is lacking, despite robust evidence in animal models. We sought to evaluate the influence of maternal macronutrient intake and balance during pregnancy on neonatal body size and composition, including fat mass and fat-free mass. The analysis was conducted among 1040 mother-offspring pairs enrolled in the prospective prebirth observational cohort: the Healthy Start Study. Diet during pregnancy was collected using repeated 24-hour dietary recalls (up to 8). Direct measures of body composition were obtained using air displacement plethysmography. The National Cancer Institute measurement error model was used to estimate usual dietary intake during pregnancy. Multivariable partition (nonisocaloric) and nutrient density (isocaloric) linear regression models were used to test the associations between maternal dietary intake and neonatal body composition. The median macronutrient composition during pregnancy was 32.2% from fat, 15.0% from protein, and 47.8% from carbohydrates. In the partition multivariate regression model, individual macronutrient intake values were not associated with birthweight or fat-free mass, but were associated with fat mass. Respectively, 418 kJ increases in total fat, saturated fat, unsaturated fat, and total carbohydrates were associated with 4.2-g (P = .03), 11.1-g (P = .003), 5.9-g (P = .04), and 2.9-g (P = .02) increases in neonatal fat mass, independent of prepregnancy body mass index. In the nutrient density multivariate regression model, macronutrient balance was not associated with fat mass, fat-free mass, or birthweight after adjustment for prepregnancy body mass index. Neonatal adiposity, but not birthweight, is independently associated with increased maternal intake of total fat, saturated fat, unsaturated fat, and total carbohydrates, but not protein, suggesting that most forms of increased

  2. Dietary Intakes and Supplement Use in Pre-Adolescent and Adolescent Canadian Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill A. Parnell

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Young athletes experience numerous dietary challenges including growth, training/competition, unhealthy food environments, and travel. The objective was to determine nutrient intakes and supplement use in pre-adolescent and adolescent Canadian athletes. Athletes (n = 187 aged 11–18 years completed an on-line 24-h food recall and dietary supplement questionnaire. Median energy intake (interquartile range varied from 2159 kcal/day (1717–2437 in 11–13 years old females to 2905 kcal/day (2291–3483 in 14–18 years old males. Carbohydrate and protein intakes were 8.1 (6.1–10.5; 2.4 (1.6–3.4 in males 11–13 years, 5.7 (4.5–7.9; 2.0 (1.4–2.6 in females 11–13 years, 5.3 (4.3–7.4; 2.0 (1.5–2.4 in males 14–18 y and 4.9 (4.4–6.2; 1.7 (1.3–2.0 in females 14–18 years g/kg of body weight respectively. Median vitamin D intakes were below the recommended dietary allowance (RDA and potassium was below the adequate intake (AI for all athlete groups. Females 14–18 years had intakes below the RDA for iron 91% (72–112, folate 89% (61–114 and calcium 84% (48–106. Multivitamin-multiminerals, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin-enriched water, protein powder, sport foods, fatty acids, probiotics, and plant extracts were popular supplements. Canadian pre-adolescent and adolescent athletes could improve their dietary intakes by focusing on food sources of calcium, vitamin D, potassium, iron, and folate. With the exceptions of vitamin D and carbohydrates during long exercise sessions, supplementation is generally unnecessary.

  3. Micronutrient quality of weight-loss diets that focus on macronutrients: results from the A TO Z study123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Christopher D; Kim, Soowon; Bersamin, Andrea; Dopler-Nelson, Mindy; Otten, Jennifer; Oelrich, Beibei; Cherin, Rise

    2010-01-01

    Background: Information on the micronutrient quality of alternative weight-loss diets is limited, despite the significant public health relevance. Objective: Micronutrient intake was compared between overweight or obese women randomly assigned to 4 popular diets that varied primarily in macronutrient distribution. Design: Dietary data were collected from women in the Atkins (n = 73), Zone (n = 73), LEARN (Lifestyle, Exercise, Attitudes, Relationships, Nutrition) (n = 73), and Ornish (n = 72) diet groups by using 3-d, unannounced 24-h recalls at baseline and after 8 wk of instruction. Nutrient intakes were compared between groups at 8 wk and within groups for 8-wk changes in risk of micronutrient inadequacy. Results: At 8 wk, significant differences were observed between groups for all macronutrients and for many micronutrients (P macronutrient composition should attend to the overall quality of the diet, including the adequacy of micronutrient intakes. Concerning calorie-restricted diets, there may be a micronutrient advantage to diets providing moderately low carbohydrate amounts and that contain nutrient-dense foods. PMID:20573800

  4. Dietary intakes of energy and macronutrients by lactating women of different ethnic groups living in Yakutia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtseva, Tatiana; Solodkova, Irina; Savvina, Maya; Dranaeva, Galina; Shadrin, Victor; Avrusin, Sergei; Sinelnikova, Elena; Chasnyk, Vyacheslav

    2013-01-01

    There should be a substantial increase in the intake of dietary energy, protein and other nutrients by lactating women, though these special increments can be different in different ethnic groups. To evaluate the influence of maternal ethnicity and diet on the quality of breast milk and its potential effect on early childhood development. A total of 185 mothers (150 Native and 35 Russian) living in settlements and small towns of rural Yakutia and 54 mothers (26 Native and 28 Russian) living in Yakutsk were surveyed and average food intake was recorded during 3 successive days before the survey was analyzed. The amount of protein varied from 18 to 168.3 g/day, fat--from 12 to 176.1 g/day, energy--from 900 to 3680.4 kcal/day. Protein intake was at the level of current recommended dietary allowances (RDA) in Russians and was higher than in Natives living in rural settlements and small towns (p = 0.02) and in Yakutsk (p = 0.03). Carbohydrate intake was higher, though not significantly, in both ethnic groups compared with the current recommendations. Protein, fat, carbohydrates and, therefore, energy intake were lower (p macronutrients depended on the place where a woman lived rather than on her ethnicity. Overall, energy intake was considered to be at the lower limit (basal energy expenditure 2002/2005) for lactating women, with the exception of Native women living in Yakutsk whose energy intake was below the lower limit.

  5. Do dietary and supplementary intakes of antioxidants differ with smoking status?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zondervan, K.T.; Ocké, M C; Smit, H A; Seidell, J C

    BACKGROUND: Differences in dietary and supplementary intake of antioxidants were determine between different categories of smokers and never-smokers. METHODS: Data from a large, cross-sectional, population-based study were used. Subjects (n = 4244) were divided into five smoking categories according

  6. Differences in dietary intake during chemotherapy in breast cancer patients compared to women without cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, Y.C. de; Berg, M.M.; Vries, J.H.M. de; Boesveldt, S.; Kruif, J.; Buist, N.; Haringhuizen, A.; Los, M.; Sommeijer, D.W.; Timmer-Bonte, J.H.N.; Laarhoven, H.W. van; Visser, M.; Kampman, E.; Winkels, R.M.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy often experience symptoms such as nausea, vomiting and loss of appetite that potentially affect dietary habits. This study assessed the intake of energy, macronutrients and food groups before and during chemotherapy in breast cancer patients

  7. Differences in dietary intake during chemotherapy in breast cancer patients compared to women without cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Y.C.; Berg, van den M.M.G.A.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Boesveldt, S.; Kruif, de J.Th.C.M.; Buist, N.; Haringhuizen, A.; Los, M.; Sommeijer, D.W.; Timmer-Bonte, J.H.N.; Laarhoven, van H.W.M.; Visser, M.; Kampman, E.; Winkels, R.M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy often experience symptoms such as nausea, vomiting and loss of appetite that potentially affect dietary habits. This study assessed the intake of energy, macronutrients and food groups before and during chemotherapy in breast cancer patients

  8. Differences in dietary intake during chemotherapy in breast cancer patients compared to women without cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Y. C.; van den Berg, M. M. G. A.; de Vries, J. H. M.; Boesveldt, S.; de Kruif, J. Th C. M.; Buist, N.; Haringhuizen, A.; Los, M.; Sommeijer, D. W.; Timmer-Bonte, J. H. N.; van Laarhoven, H. W. M.; Visser, M.; Kampman, E.; Winkels, R. M.

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy often experience symptoms such as nausea, vomiting and loss of appetite that potentially affect dietary habits. This study assessed the intake of energy, macronutrients and food groups before and during chemotherapy in breast cancer patients compared

  9. Differences in dietary intake during chemotherapy in breast cancer patients compared to women without cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Y. C.; van den Berg, M. M.G.A.; de Vries, J. H.M.; Boesveldt, S.; de Kruif, J. Th C.M.; Buist, N.; Haringhuizen, A.; Los, M.; Sommeijer, D. W.; Timmer-Bonte, J. H.N.; van Laarhoven, H. W.M.; Visser, M.; Kampman, E.; Winkels, R. M.

    PURPOSE: Breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy often experience symptoms such as nausea, vomiting and loss of appetite that potentially affect dietary habits. This study assessed the intake of energy, macronutrients and food groups before and during chemotherapy in breast cancer patients

  10. Actigraphic sleep fragmentation, efficiency and duration associate with dietary intake in the Rotterdam study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short self-reported sleep duration is associated with dietary intake and this association may partly mediate the link between short sleep and metabolic abnormalities. Subjective sleep measures, however, may be inaccurate and biased. The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations betwee...

  11. Short sleep duration and dietary intake: epidemiological evidence, mechanisms, and health implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Links between short sleep duration and obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease may be mechanistically mediated through changes in dietary intake. This review aims to provide an overview of recent epidemiologic studies on the relationships between habitual short sleep durat...

  12. Acculturation and sociocultural influences on dietary intake and health status among Puerto Rican adults in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have shown negative consequences of acculturation on lifestyle factors, health status, and dietary intake of Hispanic immigrants in the US. Despite prevalent type 2 diabetes and low socioeconomic status (SES) among Puerto Rican adults living on the US mainland, little is known about...

  13. The impact of a nutrition programme on the dietary intake patterns of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of this study was to improve the dietary intake patterns and food choices of children aged 9-13 years in a periurban community. Methods: Two schools were randomly selected from within this periurban community. A nutrition education programme was implemented over one school term, with the testing of ...

  14. Dietary polyphenol intake in Europe: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Knaze, Viktoria; Rothwell, Joseph A.; Hemon, Bertrand; Moskal, Aurelie; Overvad, Kim; Tjonneland, Anne; Kyro, Cecilie; Fagherazzi, Guy; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Touillaud, Marina; Katzke, Verena; Kuehn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Foerster, Jana; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Valanou, Elissavet; Peppa, Eleni; Palli, Domenico; Agnoli, Claudia; Ricceri, Fulvio; Tumino, Rosario; de Magistris, Maria Santucci; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Engeset, Dagrun; Skeie, Guri; Hjartaker, Anette; Menendez, Virginia; Agudo, Antonio; Molina-Montes, Esther; Maria Huerta, Jose; Barricarte, Aurelio; Amiano, Pilar; Sonestedt, Emily; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Landberg, Rikard; Key, Timothy J.; Khaw, Kay-Thee; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Lu, Yunxia; Slimani, Nadia; Romieu, Isabelle; Riboli, Elio; Scalbert, Augustin

    Background/ObjectivesPolyphenols are plant secondary metabolites with a large variability in their chemical structure and dietary occurrence that have been associated with some protective effects against several chronic diseases. To date, limited data exist on intake of polyphenols in populations.

  15. Dietary fiber intake reduces risk for Barrett's esophagus and esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lingli; Zhang, Zhizhong; Xu, Jian; Xu, Gelin; Liu, Xinfeng

    2017-09-02

    Observational studies suggest an association between dietary fiber intake and risk of Barrett's esophagus and esophageal cancer. However, the results are inconsistent. To conduct a meta-analysis of observational studies to assess this association. All eligible studies were identified by electronic searches in PubMed and Embase through February 2015. Dose-response, subgroup, sensitivity, and publication bias analyses were performed. A total of 15 studies involving 16,885 subjects were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled odds ratio for the highest compared with the lowest dietary fiber intake was 0.52 (95% CI, 0.43-0.64). Stratified analyses for tumor subtype, study design, geographic location, fiber type, publication year, total sample size, and quality score yielded consistent results. Dose-response analysis indicated that a 10-g/d increment in dietary fiber intake was associated with a 31% reduction in Barrett's esophagus and esophageal cancer risk. Sensitivity analysis restricted to studies with control for conventional risk factors produced similar results, and omission of any single study had little effect on the overall risk estimate. Our findings indicate that dietary fiber intake is inversely associated with risk of Barrett's esophagus and esophageal cancer. Further large prospective studies are warranted.

  16. The Association between dietary flavonoid and lignan intakes and incident type 2 diabetes in European populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zamora-Ros, R.; Forouhi, N.G.; Buijsse, B.; Schouw, van der Y.T.; Boeing, H.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the association between dietary flavonoid and lignan intakes, and the risk of development of type 2 diabetes among European populations. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-InterAct case-cohort study included 12,403 incident

  17. Socio-economic status, dietary intake and 10 y trends: The Dutch National Food Consumption Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshof, K.F.A.M.; Brussaard, J.H.; Kruizinga, A.G.; Telman, J.; Löwik, M.R.H.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study differences in dietary intake between adults with different socioeconomic status (SES) and trends over time. Design: Cross-sectional study based on data of three Dutch National Food Consumption Surveys (DNFCS-1 1987/88; DNFCS-2 1992; DNFCS-3 1997/98), obtained from a panel by a

  18. School-Based Screening of the Dietary Intakes of Third Graders in Rural Appalachian Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovland, Jana A.; McLeod, Sara M.; Duffrin, Melani W.; Johanson, George; Berryman, Darlene E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Children in Appalachia are experiencing high levels of obesity, in large measure because of inferior diets. This study screened the dietary intake of third graders residing in 3 rural Appalachian counties in Ohio and determined whether the Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource Initiative (FoodMASTER) curriculum improved…

  19. Dietary intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in children - a workshop report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koletzko, B.; Uauy, R.; Palou, A.; Kok, F.J.; Hornstra, G.; Eilander, A.; Moretti, D.; Osendarp, S.J.M.; Zock, P.L.; Innis, S.

    2010-01-01

    There is controversy whether children should have a dietary supply of preformed long-chain polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA. The aims of the workshop were to review evidence for a possible benefit of a preformed EPA and/or DHA supply, of data required to set desirable intakes for children

  20. Dietary Intake and Associated Body Weight in Canadian Undergraduate Students Enrolled in Nutrition Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frehlich, Levi C; Eller, Lindsay K; Parnell, Jill A; Fung, Tak S; Reimer, Raylene A

    2017-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to describe dietary intakes among Canadian undergraduate students enrolled in an Introductory Nutrition course. A secondary objective was to determine food group servings associated with meeting more Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) of select nutrients and with a lower body mass index (BMI). Participants (n = 124, 20.7±3.2yrs) provided output from a 3-day dietary record and completed a physical activity/demographics questionnaire. Linear regression showed that the dietary intake associated with meeting the most DRIs included vegetables, fruits, protein foods, and dairy (p = 0.001). Protein foods were a positive predictor and fruit a negative predictor of BMI (p = 0.001 and p = 0.023 respectively). Males consumed more grains (p = 0.001), dairy (p = 0.04), protein foods (p empty calories (p = 0.007) and total calories than females (p < 0.001). A diet characterized by greater intake of vegetables, fruits, protein foods, and dairy was associated with a Canadian undergraduate population meeting the greatest number of nutrient requirements.

  1. Dietary intake of B-vitamins in mothers born a child with a congenital heart defect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkleij-Hagoort, A.C.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Ursem, N.T.C.; Jonge, de R.; Hop, W.C.J.; Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.M.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Periconceptional use of multivitamins reduces the risk of a child with a congenital heart defect (CHD). Data on the impact of maternal diet, however, are lacking. AIM OF THE STUDY: We investigated the association between the maternal dietary intake of B-vitamins and having a child with a

  2. Prospective study on dietary intakes of folate, betaine, and choline and cardiovascular disease risk in women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalmeijer, G.W.; Olthof, M.R.; Verhoef, P.; Bots, M.L.; van der Schouw, Y.T.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between dietary intakes of folate, betaine and choline and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Design: Prospective cohort study. Subjects: A total of 16165 women aged 49-70 years without prior CVD. Subjects were breast cancer screening participants in

  3. Dietary Intake Adequacy of People Living with HIV/AIDS in Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LIB SCI MOUAU

    there is need for extension to collaborate with the health sector to develop nutritional ... household nutrition, food insecurity, economic losses among others. ..... on dietary intake is expected to be high, resulting in a positive attitude ..... develop nutritional guidelines for PLWHA using local foods, while trying to work out means.

  4. Fatty acid intake and its dietary sources in relation with markers of type 2 diabetes risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanders, A.J.; Alssema, M.; Koning, de E.J.P.; Cessie, Le S.; Vries, de J.H.; Zock, P.L.; Rosendaal, F.R.; Heijer, den M.; Mutsert, de R.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the relations between intakes of total, saturated, mono-unsaturated, poly-unsaturated and trans fatty acids (SFA, MUFA, PUFA and TFA), and their dietary sources (dairy, meat and plant) with markers of type 2 diabetes risk. Subjects/Methods: This was

  5.  Effect of Mothers Nutritional Knowledge and Attitudes on Omani Children’s Dietary Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saif Al-Tobi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available  Objectives: The study investigates the dietary intakes of Omani preschoolers and associations with both socio-demographic characteristics and the mother’s nutritional knowledge and attitudes.Methods: A sample of 154 parents of preschoolers completed a questionnaire including socio-demographic characteristics, a food-frequency questionnaire to assess children’s food intake, nutritional knowledge and attitudes towards healthy eating.Results: The results showed a lower dietary adequacy of children’s food intake in mothers with low educational levels, high-ranked occupation, and lower levels of both nutritional knowledge and food related health attitudes. The highest food intake and healthy eating attitude scores were found in children of mothers with high education level and mother without a job. The association of the dietary adequacy with socio-demographic background can help the Omani healthcare decision makers to develop better-tailored nutrition interventions which are more suitable for the Omani community.Conclusion: The results from this study of mothers’ nutritional knowledge and attitudes support the inclusion of knowledge and attitudes in dietary interventions.

  6. Zinc intake and dietary pattern in Jiangsu Province, China: consequences of nutrition transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Jiangsu Province is an economically booming area in East China, where soil zinc concentrations are low. Nutrition transition to a dietary pattern with more animal source foods may have improved zinc intake in this area. However, such a transition may also have

  7. Associations between Parental Concern for Adolescent Weight and the Home Food Environment and Dietary Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFarlane, Abbie; Crawford, David; Worsley, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Examine associations between parental concern about adolescent weight and adolescent perceptions of their dietary intake, home food availability, family mealtime environment, and parents' feeding practices. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Adolescents, aged 12-15 years from 37 secondary schools in Victoria, Australia, and their…

  8. Child-care environment and dietary intake of 2- and 3-year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbels, J.S.; Kremers, S.P.J.; Stafleu, A.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Vries, N.K.de; Thijs, C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Previous research has shown that children in child-care do not comply with dietary intake recommendations (i.e. either exceeding or not meeting recommendations), which may be attributable to specific features of the child-care environment. The present study explored the relationship

  9. Atherosclerosis and liver inflammation induced by increased dietary cholesterol intake: A combined transcriptomics and metabolomics analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleemann, R.; Verschuren, L.; Erk, M.J. van; Nikolsky, Y.; Cnubben, N.H.P.; Verheij, E.R.; Smilde, A.K.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Zadelaar, A.S.M.; Smith, G.J.; Kaznacheev, V.; Nikolskaya, T.; Melnikov, A.; Hurt-Camejo, E.; Greef, J. van der; Ommen, B. van; Kooistra, T.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Increased dietary cholesterol intake is associated with atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis development requires a lipid and an inflammatory component. It is unclear where and how the inflammatory component develops. To assess the role of the liver in the evolution of inflammation, we

  10. Higher usual dietary intake of phytoestrogens is associated with lower aortic stiffness in postmenopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouw, van der Y.T.; Pijpe, A.; Lebrun, C.E.I.; Bots, M.L.; Peeters, P.H.M.; Staveren, van W.A.; Lamberts, S.W.J.; Grobbee, D.E.

    2002-01-01

    Objective¿ Phytoestrogens have been postulated to protect against cardiovascular diseases, but few studies have focused on the effect of Western dietary phytoestrogen intake. Methods and Results¿ Four hundred three women with natural menopause either between 1987 and 1989 or between 1969 and 1979

  11. Dietary intake of fiber and risk of knee osteoarthritis in two U.S. prospective cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives: Dietary fiber reduces body weight and inflammation both of which are linked with knee osteoarthritis (OA). We examined the association between fiber intake and risk of knee OA. Methods: We used data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) of 4796 participants and Framingham Offspring Os...

  12. Consumo de macronutrientes e ingestão inadequada de micronutrientes em adultos Consumo de macronutrientes e ingestión inadecuada de micronutrientes en adultos Macronutrient consumption and inadequate micronutrient intake in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosangela Alves Pereira

    2013-02-01

    nutrientes y la prevalencia de ingestión inadecuada de micronutrientes entre adultos brasileños. MÉTODOS: Se analizaron datos de la Pesquisa Nacional de Alimentación de la Investigación de Presupuesto Familiar 2008-2009. El consumo de alimentos fue evaluado por dos días no consecutivos de registro alimenticio. Un total de 21.003 individuos (52,5% mujeres entre 20 y 59 años de edad participó del estudio. La ingesta usual de nutrientes fue estimada por el método propuesto por el National Cancer Institute. Las prevalencias de ingestión inadecuada de micronutrientes fueron obtenidas por el método de la necesidad promedio estimada (EAR como punto de corte. Para manganeso y potasio, la Ingestión Adecuada (IA fue usada como punto de corte. La ingestión de sodio fue comparada con el nivel de ingestión máxima tolerable (UL. La prevalencia de ingestión inadecuada de hierro fue determinada por abordaje probabilístico. RESULTADOS: El promedio de consumo energético fue de 2.083 kcal entre los hombres y 1698 kcal entre las mujeres. Prevalencias de ingesta inadecuada mayores o iguales a 70% fueron observadas para calcio entre los hombre y magnesio, vitamina A, sodio en ambos sexos. Prevalencias mayores o iguales a 90% fueron encontradas para calcio entre las mujeres y vitaminas D y E en ambos sexos. Prevalencias menores que 5% fueron encontradas para hierro entre los hombres y niacina para hombres y mujeres. En general, la prevalencia de ingesta inadecuada fue más acentuada en el área rural y en la región Noreste. CONCLUSIONES: El consumo de energía es mayor entre individuos residentes en áreas urbanas y de la región norte. Los grupos con mayor riesgo de ingestión inadecuada de micronutrientes son las mujeres y los que residen en el área rural y en la región Noreste.OBJECTIVE: To estimate energy and nutrient intake and prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intake among Brazilian adults. METHODS: Data from the National Dietary Survey, from the 2008-2009 Household

  13. Does breakfast-club attendance affect schoolchildren's nutrient intake? A study of dietary intake at three schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belderson, Pippa; Harvey, Ian; Kimbell, Rosemary; O'Neill, Jennifer; Russell, Jean; Barker, Margo E

    2003-12-01

    Lack of breakfast has been implicated as a factor contributing to children's poor diets and school performance. Breakfast-club schemes, where children are provided with breakfast in school at the start of the school day, have been initiated by the Department of Health in schools throughout England, UK. The aim of the present study was to compare the energy and nutrient intakes of schoolchildren who attended breakfast clubs (attendee subjects) with those who did not (control subjects). Three different schools were studied, involving a total of 111 children aged between 9 and 15 years. There were fifty-nine attendee and fifty-two control subjects. The two groups were matched for eligibility for school meals. All subjects completed a 3 d weighed food diary for estimation of nutrient intake. Height and weight were measured and BMI calculated. Nutrient intake data were analysed using a general linear model with age as a covariate. The demographic and anthropometric characteristics of the attendee and control subjects were similar. Children who attended breakfast clubs had significantly greater intakes of fat (% energy), saturated fat (% energy) and Na than control subjects. Thus, in these schools breakfast-club participation was not associated with superior nutrient intake or improvements in dietary pattern.

  14. How dietary intake has been assessed in African countries? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila-Real, Catarina; Pimenta-Martins, Ana; Gomes, Ana Maria; Pinto, Elisabete; Maina, Ndegwa Henry

    2018-04-13

    Dietary patterns are often considered as one of the main causes of non-communicable diseases worldwide. It is of utmost importance to study dietary habits in developing countries since this work is scarce. To summarize the most recent research conducted in this field in African countries, namely the most used methodologies and tools. A systematic review was conducted on MEDLINE®/PubMed, aiming to identify scientific publications focused on studies of dietary intake of different African populations, in a ten-year period. Papers not written in English/Portuguese/Spanish, studies developed among African people but not developed in African countries, studies aiming to assess a particular nutrient/specific food/food toxin and studies that assessed dietary intake among children were excluded. Out of 99 included studies, the 24-hour recall and the food-frequency questionnaire were the most used dietary intake assessment tools, used to assess diet at an individual level. It was also observed that often country-unspecific food composition databases are used, and the methodologies employed are poorly validated and standardized. There is an emergent need to improve the existing food databases by updating food data and to develop suitable country-specific databases for those that do not have their own food composition table.

  15. Influence of dietary isoflavone intake on gastrointestinal symptoms in ulcerative colitis individuals in remission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Głąbska, Dominika; Guzek, Dominika; Grudzińska, Dominika; Lech, Gustaw

    2017-08-07

    To analyse the association between isoflavone intake and ulcerative colitis motility symptoms in individuals in remission. Cross-sectional study was conducted in a group of ulcerative colitis remission individuals, in sub-groups characterised by various intestinal motility and functioning characteristics (abdominal pain, flatulence, constipations, tenesmus). Total of 56 individuals with ulcerative colitis in remission (19 males and 37 females) were recruited for the study. Assessment of diet was based on self-reported data from each patient's dietary records taken over a period of three typical, random days (2 weekdays and 1 d of the weekend). The daily isoflavone intake (daidzein, genistein, glycitein and total isoflavones) and daily isoflavone intake per 1000 kcal of diet were assessed. No correlations between isoflavone intake levels and number of bowel movements per day were observed both in the case of intake and intake per 1000 kcal of diet. In the group of individuals declaring lack of abdominal pain, the higher intakes of daidzein ( P = 0.0075), daidzein per 1000 kcal of diet ( P = 0.0358) and total isoflavone ( P = 0.0358) were stated, than in the group of individuals declaring abdominal pain. In the group of individuals declaring lack of constipations, the lower intakes of glycitein ( P = 0.0213) and glycitein per 1000 kcal of diet ( P = 0.0213) were stated, than in the group of individuals declaring presence of constipations. No differences were observed in isoflavone intake between groups of ulcerative colitis individuals declaring lack of flatulence and declaring presence of flatulence, as well as between groups declaring lack of tenesmus and declaring presence of tenesmus. The moderate dietary isoflavone intake may be beneficial for individuals with ulcerative colitis in remission, however, before including it into recommendations, further prospective studies are needed.

  16. Dietary intake and food sources o