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Sample records for dietary fish meal

  1. Evaluation of dietary soybean meal as fish meal replacer for juvenile whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei reared in biofloc system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeonho Yun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Different levels of dietary soybean meal (SBM as a fish meal (FM replacer, with and without amino acid supplementation, for whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei reared in the biofloc system was examined in eight weeks of feeding trial. Eight experimental diets consisted of a basal diet with 0% FM replacement by SBM provided in clear sea water without biofloc system (S0SW, four diets replacing FM at 0% (S0, 33% (S33, 67% (S67 and 100% (S100 by SBM, and three diets replacing FM at 33% (S33A, 67% (S67A and 100% (S100A by SBM supplemented with amino acids (methionine and lysine in the seawater biofloc system. Results of water quality analyses showed significantly lower total suspended solids and nitrate for S0SW group than all other treatments. Diets S0 and S33A resulted in higher weight gain and specific growth rate among all groups, with no significant differences with S33 group. In addition, whole-body protein and amino acid compositions of shrimp fed S0SW were lower than most biofloc groups. Haemolymph parameters showed significant differences in total protein, cholesterol and triglyceride between groups S0 and S0SW. Also, superoxide dismutase activity showed a decreasing trend with increasing replacement level. In conclusion, based on these results, SBM could replace up to 33% of FM with or without amino acid supplementation in juvenile whiteleg shrimp diets reared in the biofloc system.

  2. Effect of dietary substitution of feather meal for fish meal on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Also significant differences (p<0.05) were observed in daily feed intake, daily weight gain and feed cost/kg weight gain. Considering the results of final live weight and daily weight gain, it appeared that the 7.5% level of FEM is the optimal replacement level for FM. Keywords: Feather meal, fishmeal, poultry feed, broiler chick ...

  3. Dietary nucleotide supplementation enhances immune responses and survival to Streptococcus iniae in hybrid tilapia fed diet containing low fish meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Yen Shiau

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of nucleotide (NT supplementation in diet on immune responses and disease resistance of juvenile hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus × Oreochromis aureus. Nucleotide was added at 0, 120, 240, 360, 480 and 600 mg NT/kg to low fish meal (6% and high soybean meal (56% basal diet for a total of 6 experimental diets. Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of tilapia (initial body weight 0.15 ± 0.005 g in a recirculated freshwater rearing system for 10 weeks. Head kidney leukocyte superoxide anion production ratio was higher (P 80% were observed in fish fed diets supplemented with NT than fish fed the NT unsupplemented control diet (56.7%. These results suggest that nucleotides supplemented at 120–240 mg NT/kg in diet enhances immune responses and survival of tilapia fed low fish meal and high soybean meal diet.

  4. Fish, shellfish, and meat meals of the public in Singapore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Joanna; Fleischer, Jennifer; Gochfeld, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Understanding different patterns of fish consumption is an important component of the assessment of risk from contaminants in fish. While there have been extensive studies of fish consumption in Western cultures, less attention has been devoted to the role of fish and meat in the diets of people in other cultures. A survey of 212 people living in Singapore was conducted to examine the relative importance of fish, shellfish, and other meat in their diets and to ascertain whether there were differences as a function of age, income, education or gender. As expected, fish and shellfish played an important role in their daily diets. On average, people ate fish in about 10 meals a week, chicken for eight meals, and shrimp and pork for about six meals each. While nearly 8% never ate fish, 18% ate fish at all 21 meals a week and over 20% ate shellfish for all 21 meals. Income explained about 14% of the variation in the number of fish meals consumed, and age explained about 8% of the variation in number of chicken meals per week. There were no gender differences in the number of meals of each type. People less than 26 years old ate significantly more pork, chicken, and other meat meals and fewer shellfish meals than older people. People with higher incomes ate significantly more fish meals than those with lower incomes. Chinese individuals ate significantly more meals of pork, chicken, and other meat than other ethnic groups, and they ate only 26% of their meals at home, while others ate 33% of their meals at home. The data indicate a great deal of variation in the number of meals of fish, shellfish, and other meats eaten by the people interviewed, making dietary and risk assessments challenging

  5. Effect of dietary fish meal replacement by red algae, Gracilaria arcuata, on growth performance and body composition of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, El-Sayed M; Al-Quffail, Abdullah S; Al-Asgah, Nasser A; Abdel-Warith, Abdel-Wahab A; Al-Hafedh, Yousef S

    2018-02-01

    A 12-week long feeding experiment was initiated to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of red algae, Gracilaria arcuata , on the growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758). The fish were fed with an algae-free control diet (C) and three experimental diets which replaced conventional fish meal with varying levels of dried G. arcuata (20%, 40% and 60%, represented as G20, G40 and G60, respectively). The growth parameters of final weight (FW), weight gain (WG), percentage of weight gain (WG%), daily growth rate (DGR) and specific growth rate (SGR) were significantly reduced (P algae incorporation compared to the control diet. Moreover, the negative impact of Gracilaria meal on the growth performance of Nile tilapia increased as the proportion of algae in the diet increased, with fish on diet G20 exhibiting a significantly higher growth performance than the fish on either of the G40 and G60 diets. On the other hand, the feed utilization parameters feed conversion ratio (FCR) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) did not show significant differences between the fish in the control group and those on diet G20, although poorer FCR and PER outcomes were achieved in the case of fish on diet G60. The content of moisture, protein and ash in muscle and carcass increased as the proportion of Gracilaria meal in the diets increased, but the reverse was true for lipid level. These results indicate that incorporation of less than 20% red algae, Gracilaria arcuata , could be feasible in the diet of Nile tilapia and further studies are recommended to optimize the level of algae to improve growth performance.

  6. Does dietary insect meal affect the fish immune system? The case of mealworm, Tenebrio molitor on European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, M A; Gasco, L; Chatzifotis, S; Piccolo, G

    2018-04-01

    Feeding small European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, for 6 weeks with Tenebrio molitor larval meal showed significant anti-inflammatory responses (ceruloplasmin, myeloperoxidase and nitric oxide). Serum bacteriolytic activity against a Gram negative bacterium was not significantly affected by dietary Tenebrio, while both lysozyme antibacterial activity and serum trypsin inhibition usually linked to the anti-parasite activity of the fish, were significantly enhanced. The latter may be due to the similarities in the composition of the exoskeleton of parasites and insects that may therefore act as an immunostimulant potentially increasing the anti-parasitic activity. The addition of exogenous proteases significantly decreased both trypsin-inhibition and serum bacteriolytic activity probably through direct inhibition of the proteins responsible for these immune functions. Further investigation involving bacterial or parasitic challenges will be necessary to assess if the effects of dietary mealworm meal on the immune system observed in the present study are translated into an improved resistance to diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218... Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in Column (7) of the HMT in § 172.101 of this subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized for...

  8. Commercial production of fish meal from fish waste

    OpenAIRE

    Eyo, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    The importance of fish meal production as a means of reducing fish waste currently being experienced in the fisheries subsector is discussed. Cost estimate for Nigeria establishing a fish meal manufacturing plant and suggestions on rational execution of the project are presented. If properly located and well managed, the project will serve to convert fish waste to cash in the industrial fishery

  9. Development and validation of a Meal Index of dietary Quality (Meal IQ) to assess the dietary quality of school lunches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabinsky, Marianne S; Toft, Ulla; Andersen, Klaus K; Tetens, Inge

    2012-11-01

    School lunch programmes are one strategy to promote healthier dietary habits in children, but better evaluation tools for assessing the dietary quality of such programmes are needed. The aim of the present study was to develop and validate a simple index to assess the dietary quality of school lunches for children aged 7-13 years. A Meal Index of dietary Quality (Meal IQ) was developed to consist of seven components (nutrients and food groups) based on dietary issues for children aged 7-13 years, which were identified in a national dietary survey. The Meal IQ was validated against calculated nutrient contents of school lunches both provided by the school and brought from home. At eight public schools from all over Denmark, data were collected on 191 individual lunches brought from home (which is most common in Denmark) and thirty-one lunches provided as part of a school food programme. In addition thirty-two lunches provided at eighteen other public schools were included. A total of 254 school lunches. A higher Meal IQ score was associated with a higher overall dietary quality, including lower contents of fat, saturated fat and added sugars, higher contents of fibre, various vitamins and minerals, and more fruits, vegetables and fish. The Meal IQ is a valid and useful evaluation tool for assessing the dietary quality of lunches provided by schools or brought to school from home.

  10. Silkworm caterpillar - soybean meal blend as dietary protein source ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the utilization of silkworm caterpillar meat (SCM) blended with soybean meal (SBM) as a dietary protein source in the practical diet of Heterobranchus bidorsalis fingerlings (M±SE=17.04±_0.02g). The fish were fed five isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets containing blends of SCM ...

  11. Effects of partial dietary supplementation of fish meal with soymeal on the stress and apoptosis response in the digestive system of common dentex (Dentex dentex).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonopoulou, Efthimia; Chouri, Eleni; Feidantsis, Konstantinos; Lazou, Antigone; Chatzifotis, Stavros

    2017-12-01

    Soybean is a common alternative protein source of plant origin in aquafeeds as it has a reasonably balanced amino acid profile and is widely available. This study aimed to investigate the influence of partial substitution of fish meal with soy meal on cytoprotective pathways and apoptosis in the digestive system of common dentex ( Dentex dentex ), using the activation of Hsp70, p38 MAPK, Bcl-2 and caspase-3. The experimental approach involved feeding of common dentex with three isoprotein and isoenergetic diets that contained fish meal as a protein source (FM), partial replacement of fish meal by soy meal 25% (SM25) and 40% (SM40) for 3 months. The SM40 diet induced Hsp70 activation only in the middle part of intestine. On the other hand, both SM25 and SM40 diets diminished the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK in the anterior and the middle part of intestine, whereas only SM25 induced p38 MAPK phosphorylation in the stomach. Moreover, a decrease in the levels of caspase-3 activity was observed in the middle and posterior intestine, as well as in the stomach after feeding with SM25 diets. Furthermore, Bcl-2 levels were increased by SM40 in the anterior and by SM25 in the middle part of intestine. SM25 and SM40 diets elicited a tissue and soy concentration specific cellular and cell protective response in the different parts of the digestive tract in common dentex.

  12. Maggot meal as a substitute for fish meal in laying chicken diet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 56-day experiment was conducted to determine thereplacement value of maggot meal for fish meal in diet of laying chicken. Fish meal was included at 30 g kg-1 of the control diet. Maggot meal incrementally replaced fish meal at 250, 500, 750, and 1000 g kg-1 on crude protein basis. The five diets were fed to a total of ...

  13. Replacement of fish meal with maggots in broiler diets: Effects on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Replacement of fish meal with maggots in broiler diets: Effects on performance and nutrient retention. JO Atteh, FD Ologbenla. Abstract. The effects of replacing O, 33.3, 66.7 or 100% of dietary fish meal (9%) with housefly maggots (Musca domestica. Linn) was investigated using broilers from day old to 5 weeks of age.

  14. Effects of blood meal, chicken offal meal and fish meal as sources of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects were studied of using combinations or plant protein sources, GNC, Palm Kernel cake, and cotton and seed cake diets, supplementeil with 4 sources of methionine (M) and Lysine (L), synthetic M + L, blood meal + M, fish meal, or chicken offal meal (COM) in 8-Week 3 x 4 factorial experiment with sta11er cockerels ...

  15. Meal types as sources for intakes of fruits, vegetables, fish and whole grains among Norwegian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhre, Jannicke B; Løken, Elin B; Wandel, Margareta; Andersen, Lene F

    2015-08-01

    To study how different meals contribute to intakes of fruits, vegetables, fish and whole grains in a group of Norwegian adults and in subgroups of this population. Moreover, to investigate the consequences of skipping the meal contributing most to the intake of each food group (main contributing meal). Cross-sectional dietary survey in Norwegian adults. Dietary data were collected using two non-consecutive telephone-administered 24 h recalls. The recorded meal types were breakfast, lunch, dinner, supper/evening meal and snacks. Nationwide, Norway (2010-2011). Adults aged 18-70 years (n 1787). Dinner was the main contributing meal for fish and vegetables, while snacks were the main contributing meal for fruit intake. For whole grains, breakfast was the main contributing meal. The main contributing meal did not change for any of the food groups when studying subgroups of the participants according to intake of each food group, educational level or age. A substantially lower intake of the food groups in question was found on days when the main contributing meal was skipped. Intakes of fruits, vegetables, fish and whole grains largely depend on one meal type. Inclusion of these foods in other meals in addition to the main contributing meal, preferably replacing energy-dense nutrient-poor foods, should be promoted.

  16. Performance of broilers fed with snail (Pomacea caniculata meal as substitute to fish meal or meat and bone meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulep, LJL.

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Snail meal was used as a substitution to fish meat and bone meal in broiler rations. Final weightand feed conversion efficiency of the birds, profit and return on investment differed significantly among treatments. Feed consumption and production costs were comparable. Results show that snail meal can replace fish or meat and bone meal in broiler diets.

  17. Phosphorus reduction by sifting fish waste meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Lima de Lima

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Fish meal is widely included in animal feed because it contains ideal essential amino acids profile, it is rich in energy, essential fatty acids, vitamins and minerals and with >80% apparent protein digestibility in peneid shrimp. In human nutrition, studies are investigating the inclusion of fish meal in snacks, cakes, breads and cookies, as an enrichment in calcium, phosphorus, iron, protein and, especially, omega-3 fatty acids. Omega-3 fatty acids reduces heart diseases and have antithrombotic and anti-inflammatory properties (eicosapentaenoic acid, and are essential to the formation of brain tissue and retina in infants and are important during pregnancy and lactation (docosahexaenoic acid. Fish meal produced from fish waste is rich in minerals (phosphorus, which may cause eutrophication and impair water quality in aquaculture. The aim of this study was to reduce phosphorus content from commercial fish meal produced from waste by sifting (0.60 - 1.00 - 1.18 - 1.40 - 2.36 and 3.35mm mesh sizes. Fish meal samples were collected monthly for 24 months. Proximate composition of subsamples per mesh size was compared to the unsieved sample. Results indicate that sifting through a 0.60mm sieve total phosphorus and ash contents were reduced up to 32% and 36%, respectively, further to increase protein content up to 20%. Average composition of the subsamples was 47.04% ash, 5.56% of total phosphorus and 39.45% protein, suggesting that the residue of the fractionation may be marketed as a mineral and protein supplement.

  18. Dietary nitrogen and fish welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, Luis E C; Aragão, Cláudia; Dias, Jorge; Costas, Benjamín; Terova, Genciana; Martins, Catarina; Tort, Lluis

    2012-02-01

    Little research has been done in optimizing the nitrogenous fraction of the fish diets in order to minimize welfare problems. The purpose of this review is to give an overview on how amino acid (AA) metabolism may be affected when fish are under stress and the possible effects on fish welfare when sub-optimal dietary nitrogen formulations are used to feed fish. In addition, it intends to evaluate the current possibilities, and future prospects, of using improved dietary nitrogen formulations to help fish coping with predictable stressful periods. Both metabolomic and genomic evidence show that stressful husbandry conditions affect AA metabolism in fish and may bring an increase in the requirement of indispensable AA. Supplementation in arginine and leucine, but also eventually in lysine, methionine, threonine and glutamine, may have an important role in enhancing the innate immune system. Tryptophan, as precursor for serotonin, modulates aggressive behaviour and feed intake in fish. Bioactive peptides may bring important advances in immunocompetence, disease control and other aspects of welfare of cultured fish. Fishmeal replacement may reduce immune competence, and the full nutritional potential of plant-protein ingredients is attained only after the removal or inactivation of some antinutritional factors. This review shows that AA metabolism is affected when fish are under stress, and this together with sub-optimal dietary nitrogen formulations may affect fish welfare. Furthermore, improved dietary nitrogen formulations may help fish coping with predictable stressful events.

  19. Optimal levels of fish meal and lysine in maize based diets for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for growing pigs, before threonine and/or tryptophan, are non- essential amino acids which is probably also the case for the low protein diets used in the present trial. Conclusions. For both sexes, live mass gain and feed utilization improved with an increase in dietary fish meal level from 4 to 8 0J0 while an increase in lysine ...

  20. Pasteurization of fish meal by irradiation. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reusse, U.; Bischoff, J.; Fleischhauer, G.; Geister, R.

    1976-01-01

    Studies were made on a number of samples of fish meal heavily contaminated (several foci of infection per sample, corresponding 'more than 100% contamination') with salmonella. A dose of 0.7 Mrad proved to be sufficient to inactivate all salmonellaes in all samples. The apparently reduced effect of radiation after artificial contamination of the meal was due to the extreme super-infection. Inactivation curves showed that the salmonella strains used for artificial contamination were more susceptible than those in naturally infected fish meal. Calculation of the slope parameter for a single salmonella type enables the dose of radiation needed to ensure freedom of the meal from salmonella to be determined for each level of infection. With two naturally infected fish meals which contained a total of 18 different serotypes a mean slope parameter of b = -1.99 was calculated which met the requirements posed by the problem of freeing meal from salmonella. (orig.) [de

  1. Development and validation of a Meal Index of dietary Quality (Meal IQ) to assess the dietary quality of school lunches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabinsky, Marianne S; Toft, Ulla; Andersen, Klaus Kaae

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: School lunch programmes are one strategy to promote healthier dietary habits in children, but better evaluation tools for assessing the dietary quality of such programmes are needed. The aim of the present study was to develop and validate a simple index to assess the dietary quality...... of school lunches for children aged 7-13 years. DESIGN: A Meal Index of dietary Quality (Meal IQ) was developed to consist of seven components (nutrients and food groups) based on dietary issues for children aged 7-13 years, which were identified in a national dietary survey. The Meal IQ was validated...... against calculated nutrient contents of school lunches both provided by the school and brought from home. SETTING: At eight public schools from all over Denmark, data were collected on 191 individual lunches brought from home (which is most common in Denmark) and thirty-one lunches provided as part...

  2. Dietary supplementation with olive stone meal in growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerolamo Xiccato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive stone meal is a low-digested fibre source potentially useful in the prevention of digestive troubles in growing rabbit permitting a better balance of dietary fibre fractions. To evaluate its efficacy, three experimental diets containing 0, 3 or 6% olive stone meal were fed to 222 rabbits from weaning (28 d to slaughter (73 d. Olive stone inclusion increased the proportion of large dietary particles while did not affect growth performance, digestive physiology and carcass and meat quality. Due to optimum health status observed in all experimental groups, the preventive action of olive stone meal against the occurrence of digestive troubles was not proven.

  3. Haematology, Blood Chemistry and Carcass Characteristics of Growing Rabbits Fed Grasshopper Meal as a Substitute for Fish Meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Njidda* and C. E. Isidahomen1

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing fish meal with grasshopper meal on haematology, blood chemistry and carcass characteristics of growing rabbits. Forty rabbits of mixed breeds, aged 6-10 weeks, were randomly assigned to the dietary treatments in a complete randomized design with eight rabbits per treatment. The rabbits were fed with diets containing 0, 1.25, 2.50, 3.75 and 5% grasshopper meal in diets designated as T1 (control, T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively. The experimental diets and clean drinking water were supplied ad libitum throughout the experimental period of nine weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, three rabbits per treatment were slaughtered for carcass evaluation, while blood samples were collected for analysis. The result of the experiment showed significant differences (P0.05 on haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC. The results also revealed significant differences (P0.05 on serum albumin and total protein. The results of carcass characteristics showed significant differences among treatments (P<0.05 for slaughter weight, carcass weight, dressing percentage, skin pelt, tail, feet and abdominal fat. The slaughter weight and carcass weight were better in groups receiving 2.5% grass hopper meal (50% fish meal replacement. From the results, it can be concluded that inclusion of 2.50% grasshopper meal as a replacement for fish meal (50% replacement has no adverse effects on the haematological parameters, serum biochemistry and carcass characteristics of rabbits.

  4. Influence of fermented fish meal supplementation on growth performance, blood metabolites, and fecal microflora of weaning pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyuk Jun Lee

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted to estimate the effect of dietary supplementation with fermented fish meal on growth performance, blood metabolites, and fecal microflora in weaning pigs. A total of 180 weaned pigs ((Landrace ×Yorkshire × Duroc; with average body weight of 6.0 kg were randomly distributed among three dietary treatments (0, 0.2, and 0.5% fermented fish meal in three replicate pens (20 heads per pen in a completely randomized trial over three weeks. Addition of fermented fish meal to weanling pig diets had a linear effect on average feed intake and a quadratic trend on final body weight, average daily gain, and gain:feed ratio throughout the whole period (but not initial body weight. Hematocrit, monocyte, immunoglobulin G, and blood urea nitrogen levels responded linearly and quadratically with increasing levels of dietary fermented fish meal. Moreover, we found a linear correlation between the diets and lymphocyte and insulin levels among the different dietary treatments. In contrast, red blood cells, white blood cells, hemoglobin, insulin-like growth factor 1, and glucose levels were not affected by diets with different levels of fermented fish. During the experimental period, diets with 0.2% and 0.5% fermented fish meal showed a reduction in Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli populations (but not E. coli populations at week 3 that were linear, quadratic, or both, compared with controls. In particular, there was a significant reduction in S. enterica population when pigs were fed 0.5% fermented fish meal over the period of 3 weeks. Dietary supplementation with 0.2% and 0.5% fermented fish meal can be used as a protein source to improve growth performance and the parameters chosen for the blood profile, which reduces harmful microorganisms in the feces of weanling pigs.

  5. Replacement of fish meal by poultry by-product meal, food grade, in diets for juvenile spotted rose snapper (Lutjanus guttatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crisantema Hernández

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of replacing fish meal protein at different levels with poultry by product meal food grade (PBM-FG was assessed in diets for spotted rose snapper Lutjanus guttatus. Four diets were formulated, the control diet fish meal was used as the main protein source (FM; the other three diets had increasing levels of PBM-FG replacing 25, 50 or 75% of the fish meal protein respectively. The diets were fed close to apparent satiation, three times a day to quadruplicate groups of juvenile snapper (average body weight 11.0 ± 0.04 g. The fish were randomly distributed into groups of 15 fish in a 120 L seawater tank. The response of snapper to diets containing graded levels of fish meal was evaluated by measuring weight gain, feed efficiency, body composition, hematological parameters and apparent nutrient digestibility during a 12-week period. The replacing of the 25% of fish meal protein by PBM-FG did show a similar trend for feed efficiency and growth performance than control diet. Feed efficiency and growth performance was reduced at 75% level of fish meal protein replacement by PBM-FG, due to deficiencies of lysine and methionine. The final whole-body proximate composition did not differ among treatments. The hematological characteristics were similar among the treatments control, 25 and 50%, but the fish fed PBM-FG 75% showed the lowest levels for total protein and glucose parameters. The dietary dry matter and protein apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs decreased with increasing dietary PBM-FG. High values for lipid ADCs were observed in all diets.

  6. School meals with fish affect serum vitamin d in 8-11 year-old children - preliminary results from the opus school meal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, R. A.; Damsgaard, C. T.; Dalskov, S.-M.

    -over intervention. A total of 784 third and fourth graders received NND school meals for 3 months and habitual packed lunch for 3 months. Dietary intake and serum 25(OH)D was measured, and DXA-scans performed, at baseline and after each dietary period. Results Intake of fatty fish (? 3.6-7.2 g/d) and vitamin D (? 0...... Nordic Diet (NND) school meals with two weekly fish servings affect serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and bone in children. Methods The OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy NND) School Meal Study was a cluster-randomized controlled cross...... Body Less Head size-adjusted Bone Mineral Content than the control diet, but lower in May/June (pschool meals affected vitamin D intake and ?status, and seemed to mitigate children?s decreases in 25(OH...

  7. Effect of replacing fish meal with maggot meal on growth nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and twenty (120) 4-week old finisher broilers of Ross breed were used to study the effect of feeding maggot meal replacing fish meal on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, carcass and organ characteristics. The birds were divided into 5 treatment groups identified as T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 with 24 birds in ...

  8. Evaluation of poultry visceral offal meal as a substitute for fish meal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of replacing fish meal (FM) with graded levels of poultry visceral offal meal (PVOM) in five grower pullets diets were investigated in a 4 week study using 200 Isa Brown pullets from 14 to 18 weeks of age. There were four replicates per test diet, with 10 birds per replicate. Diets A (control) contained 4% FM as the ...

  9. Food variety in commercial and homemade complementary meals for infants in Germany. Market survey and dietary practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesch, Christina M; Stimming, Madlen; Foterek, Kristina; Hilbig, Annett; Alexy, Ute; Kersting, Mathilde; Libuda, Lars

    2014-05-01

    Already infants do not meet the recommendations for fruit and vegetable intake although the complementary feeding period offers the possibility to expose the infant to a variety of flavours from fruits and vegetables. The objective of the present analysis was to identify differences in the vegetable variety in commercial vs. homemade complementary meals and to describe fish and meat variety in these meals in dietary practice in Germany. A further objective was to provide an overview of the food variety in commercial complementary vegetable-potato-meat/fish meals available on the German baby food market in 2012. 3-day weighed dietary records from the German DOrtmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) study were used to describe the fish and meat variety and to compare the vegetable variety in commercial and homemade meals using a vegetable variety score (VegVS). The online data base 'Nutrichild' served to describe the food variety on the market. The vegetable variety was low in homemade as well as in commercial meals without any differences in total variety at 6 and 9months of age. At 12months of age infants fed with commercial meals got a higher vegetable variety than those fed with homemade meals. In homemade and commercial meals most often carrot was used, whereas other vegetables were far below this frequency. In both meals, poultry and beef were most often used whereas fish meals were rarely offered. The market survey showed the same low vegetable variety and low fish offer as the results of the DONALD study. The data show that it is necessary to promote the advantages of a vegetable variety and fish consumption in Germany, already in early infancy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Properties of South African fish meal: A review

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Koning, AJ

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available . In the past, stickwater was simply discarded and run into the sea but at present all South African fish meal factories have a stickwater plant, resulting in the produc- tion of a ‘full meal.’ This distinguishes it from an old-fashioned ‘normal meal...). The structure of gizzerosine is shown in Fig. 1. In a remarkable investigation, Japanese workers isolated traces (2 mg) of gizzero- sine from 10 kg of mackerel (Scombridae species) meal and subsequently also syn- thesized it.13–15 Synthetic gizzerosine...

  11. Apparent digestibility coefficients of the extruded pellet diets containing various fish meals for olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Mostafizur Rahman

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs of dry matter, crude protein, crude lipid, energy, essential amino acids, and fatty acids in extruded pellets containing various fish meals were determined for olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus. Eight extruded pellet diets were prepared to contain different fish meals (herring fish meal, anchovy fish meal, mackerel fish meal, sardine fish meal-A, sardine fish meal-B, tuna fish meal, pollock fish meal-A, and pollock fish meal-B designated as HM, AM, MM, SM-A, SM-B, TM, PM-A, and PM-B, respectively. Chromic oxide (Cr2O3 was used as an inert indicator at a concentration of 0.5 % in the diet. Feces were collected from triplicate groups of fish (151 ± 4.0 g using a fecal collection column attached to the fish rearing tank for 4 weeks. Dry matter ADCs of the MM, SM-A, SM-B, and PM-A diets were higher than those of all the other dietary groups, and the lowest digestibility of dry matter was observed in the PM-B diet. Fish fed the MM, SM-A, and PM-A diets showed significantly higher ADC of protein than those fed the AM, SM-B, TM, and PM-B diets. Lipid ADC of PM-B was significantly lower than that of the other diets. Energy ADCs of fish fed the MM, SM-A, and PM-A diets were significantly higher than those of the other diets. The availability of essential amino acids in the MM, SM-A, and PM-A diets were generally higher than that of the other fish meal diets, while TM showed the lowest values among all the experimental diets. ADCs of fatty acids in the AM, MM, SM-A, and PM-A diets were generally higher than those of fatty acids in the other diets, and the lowest values were recorded for the PM-B diet. These results provide information on the bioavailability of nutrients and energy in various fish meals which can be used to properly formulate practical extruded feeds for olive flounder.

  12. Extruded snacks with the addition of different fish meals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenice Souza dos Reis GOES

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tilapia, salmon, tuna and sardine meals were prepared to develop and analyze extruded snacks with residue meal from fish processing. Residue meals were included in five types of corn snacks: control (0% fish meal and four with 9% tilapia, salmon, tuna and sardine meals. Although moisture, lipids and carbohydrates rates did not differ among the snacks, protein rates increased with the increment of fish meal, reaching 11.85% in the tuna snack. Tuna and sardine snacks had the highest iron levels. The most abundant fatty acids were linoleic, oleic, palmitic, linolenic and stearic acids, with sardine, salmon and tuna snacks presenting the highest values of n-3 series fatty acids. Greater luminosity rate was reported for salmon snack, followed by tilapia, tuna and sardine snacks. The highest sensory acceptance index was verified in tilapia (78.07% and salmon (72.40%. A 9% addition of residue meals of tilapia, salmon and tuna improved the nutritional value of the snacks.

  13. Effect of replacing deitary fish meal with maggots on performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laying hens (53 weeks old) were fed a basal diet with 9% fi sh meal and diets in which housefly maggots (Musca domestica, Linn) replaced 33.3, 66.7 and 100% of the fish meal in the basal diet during a 6-week trial period. Average daily fee(, intake were 125.1, 115.1, 109.1 and 105.7g respectively (P<0.05).

  14. Establishment of a Meal Coding System for the Characterization of Meal-Based Dietary Patterns in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kentaro; Livingstone, M Barbara E; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2017-11-01

    Background: Most studies on dietary patterns to date have focused on the daily intake of individual foods, rather than the combination of foods simultaneously consumed during specific eating occasions (breakfast, lunch, dinner, and snacks). Objective: We aimed to establish a meal coding system for characterizing meal-based dietary patterns in Japan. Methods: Dietary data used were from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey, Japan, in which 1-d weighed dietary records were collected from 26,361 adults aged ≥20 y. The food diary was based on a typical Japanese eating pattern, which comprised breakfast, lunch, dinner, and snacks; these eating occasions were prescribed in the diary. A total of 94,439 eating occasions (25,187 breakfasts, 25,888 lunches, 26,248 dinners, and 17,116 snacks) were identified. For all meal types, common food group combinations were identified to produce a range of generic meals. These generic meals were then used in principal components analysis to establish meal patterns. Results: In total, 94 generic meals (24 breakfasts, 27 lunches, 26 dinners, and 17 snacks) were identified. The most frequently identified food group combination for all 3 main meals was "rice and vegetables" (9 generic meals for breakfast, 12 for lunch, and 16 for dinner), whereas "confectioneries and nonalcoholic and noncaloric beverages" was the most prevalent combination for snacks (3 generic meals). In total, 19 meal patterns were established by using principal components analysis, which accounted for 24.1% of total variance. Patterns ranged considerably with regard to meal-type inclusion and the selection of staple foods (rice, bread, and noodles) and beverages, as well as with regard to meal constituents. Conclusions: With the use of a meal coding system, we identified a wide range of meal-based dietary patterns in Japanese adults. This meal coding system may be useful in capturing and investigating the complex nature of Japanese meals and food combination

  15. Biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas aeruginosain kefir and fish meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaskatepe, Banu; Yildiz, Sulhiye; Gumustas, Mehmet; Ozkan, Sibel A.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to increase rhamnolipid production by formulating media using kefir and fish meal for Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from different environmental resources. The strains, named as H1, SY1, and ST1, capable of rhamnolipid production were isolated from soil contaminated with wastes originating from olive and fish oil factories. Additionally, P. aeruginosa ATCC 9027 strain, which is known as rhamnolipid producer, was included in the study. Initially, rhamnolipid production by the strains was determined in Mineral Salt Medium (MSM) and then in media prepared by using kefir and fish meal. The obtained rhamnolipids were purified and quantified according to Dubois et al. (1956). The quantity of rhamnolipids of ATCC, H1 and SY1 strains in kefir media were determined as 11.7 g/L, 10.8 g/L and 3.2 g/L, respectively, and in fish meal media as 12.3 g/L, 9.3 g/L and 10.3 g/L, respectively. In addition, effect of UV light exposure on rhamnolipid production was also investigated but contrary a decrease was observed. The results indicate that P. aeruginosa strains isolated from various environmental resources used in this study can be important due to their rhamnolipid yield, and fish meal, which is obtained from waste of fish, can be an alternative source in low cost rhamnolipid production. PMID:26413070

  16. Biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas aeruginosain kefir and fish meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Kaskatepe

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to increase rhamnolipid production by formulating media using kefir and fish meal for Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from different environmental resources. The strains, named as H1, SY1, and ST1, capable of rhamnolipid production were isolated from soil contaminated with wastes originating from olive and fish oil factories. Additionally, P. aeruginosa ATCC 9027 strain, which is known as rhamnolipid producer, was included in the study. Initially, rhamnolipid production by the strains was determined in Mineral Salt Medium (MSM and then in media prepared by using kefir and fish meal. The obtained rhamnolipids were purified and quantified according to Dubois et al. (1956. The quantity of rhamnolipids of ATCC, H1 and SY1 strains in kefir media were determined as 11.7 g/L, 10.8 g/L and 3.2 g/L, respectively, and in fish meal media as 12.3 g/L, 9.3 g/L and 10.3 g/L, respectively. In addition, effect of UV light exposure on rhamnolipid production was also investigated but contrary a decrease was observed. The results indicate that P. aeruginosa strains isolated from various environmental resources used in this study can be important due to their rhamnolipid yield, and fish meal, which is obtained from waste of fish, can be an alternative source in low cost rhamnolipid production.

  17. Hermetia illucens meal as fish meal replacement for rainbow trout on farm

    OpenAIRE

    Stadtlander, Timo; Stamer, Andreas; Buser, Andrea; Wohlfahrt, Jens; Leiber, Florian; Sandrock, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    In a 7-week on-farm feeding trial rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were provided with a diet containing 28% mechanically de-fatted insect meal prepared from larvae of the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (HIM) and compared to a control that received a certified organic and fishmeal based diet. In the test diet insect meal replaced almost 50% of the fishmeal. The whole experiment was conducted under practical conditions on an organically certified rainbow trout farm in Switzerland. Fish...

  18. Development and validation of a Meal Index of dietary Quality (Meal IQ) to assess the dietary quality of school lunches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabinsky, Marianne; Toft, Ulla; Andersen, Klaus K.

    2012-01-01

    of a school food programme. In addition thirty-two lunches provided at eighteen other public schools were included. Subjects A total of 254 school lunches. Results A higher Meal IQ score was associated with a higher overall dietary quality, including lower contents of fat, saturated fat and added sugars...

  19. Dietary effects of introducing school meals based on the New Nordic Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Christensen, Tue

    2014-01-01

    The OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet (NND)) School Meal Study investigated the effects on the intake of foods and nutrients of introducing school meals based on the principles of the NND covering lunch and all snacks during the...... to the higher fish intake. In conclusion, the present study showed that the overall dietary intake at the food and nutrient levels was improved among children aged 8-11 years when their habitual packed lunches were replaced by school meals following the principles of the NND.......The OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet (NND)) School Meal Study investigated the effects on the intake of foods and nutrients of introducing school meals based on the principles of the NND covering lunch and all snacks during...... the school day in a cluster-randomised cross-over design. For two 3-month periods, 834 Danish children aged 8-11 years from forty-six school classes at nine schools received NND school meals or their usual packed lunches brought from home (control) in random order. The whole diet of the children was recorded...

  20. Partial and total fish meal replacement by agricultural products in the diets improve sperm quality in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyina-wamwiza, L.; Milla, S.; Pierrard, M.A.; Rurangwa, E.; Mandiki, S.N.M.; Look, van K.J.W.; Kestemont, P.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the long-term effects of total and partial replacement of dietary fish meal (FM) by a mixture of agricultural products on sperm quality of African catfish Clarias gariepinus. Four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated containing graded levels of either 50% FM

  1. Fish meal supplementation to early lactation Jersey cows grazing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This trial was conducted to test the hypothesis that early lactation cows grazing ryegrass pasture and receiving maize and mineral supplementation could respond to additional supplementation with a protein source such as fish meal. Multiparous Jersey cows in early to mid lactation that grazed annual ryegrass pasture in ...

  2. THE EFFECT OF THE PROTEIN SOLUBILITY OF FISH MEAL AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    starch. however, increasing levels of supplementation soon reached a stage when the values for these parameters started to decrease. The point of decrease was reached at a much lower level of supplementation in the case of the more insoluble proteins. It is possible that the utilization of fish meal proteins was determined ...

  3. Effects of blood meal as a substitute for fish meal in the culture of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A feeding trial was conducted for 12 weeks to evaluate the nutritive value of fermented and un-fermented blood meal as a possible protein source for diets of juvenile silver pompano, Trachinotus blochii. The experiments were carried out concurrently in a completely randomized design. A total of 330 fish (10.98 ±0. 5g and ...

  4. Partial replacement of fish meal with Azolla meal in diets for Nile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The replacement of fishmeal (FM) with Azolla meal (AM) in diets on growth and fatty acid in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (initial mean weight: 16.4 g) was studied. Fish were fed with six isonitrogenous (29.2% CP) and isoenergetic (16.9 kJ.g-1) diets containing 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% AM respectively, ...

  5. Comparison of amino acid digestibility coefficients for soybean meal, canola meal, fish meal, and meat and bone meal among 3 different bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, E J; Utterback, P L; Parsons, C M

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine amino acid digestibility of 4 feedstuffs [soybean meal (SBM), canola meal, fish meal, and meat and bone meal (MBM)] using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay (PFR), the standardized ileal assay (SIAAD), and a newly developed precision-fed ileal broiler assay (PFC). For the PFR, cecectomized roosters were precision-fed approximately 30 g of feed sample, and excreta were collected 48 h postfeeding. For the SIAAD, 16-d-old broilers were fed a semipurified diet containing the feed samples as the only source of protein from 17 to 21 d, with ileal digesta collected at 21 d. For the PFC, 22-d-old broilers were precision-fed 10 g of feed sample mixed with chromic oxide, and ileal digesta were collected at 4 h postfeeding. Digestibility coefficients were standardized using a nitrogen-free diet for the SIAAD and PFC and using fasted roosters for the PFR. There were generally no consistent differences in standardized amino acid digestibility values among assays, and values were in general agreement among assays, particularly for SBM and MBM. Differences did occur among methods for amino acid digestibility in fish meal; however, these differences were not consistent among methods or amino acids. The results of the study indicated that all 3 bioassays are acceptable for determining the amino acid digestibility of SBM, canola meal, MBM, and fish meal for poultry.

  6. Evaluation of standardized ileal digestible valine:lysine, total lysine:crude protein, and replacing fish meal, meat and bone meal, and poultry byproduct meal with crystalline amino acids on growth performance of nursery pigs from seven to twelve kilograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemechek, J E; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; Goodband, R D; DeRouchey, J M

    2014-04-01

    Five experiments were conducted to evaluate replacing fish meal, meat and bone meal, and poultry byproduct meal with crystalline AA for 7- to 12-kg pigs. In all experiments, pigs (PIC TR4 × 1050) were fed a common diet for 3 d postweaning, treatment diets for 14 d (d 0 to 14), and, again, a common diet for 14 d (d 14 to 28). Treatment diets were corn-soybean meal based and formulated to contain 1.30% standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys. Experiment 1 evaluated replacing dietary fish meal with crystalline AA. For the 6 treatments, crystalline Lys, Met, Thr, Trp, Ile, Val, Gln, and Gly all increased to maintain minimum AA ratios as fish meal decreased (4.50, 3.60, 2.70, 1.80, and 0.90 to 0.00%). There was no difference in ADG, ADFI, or G:F among treatments, validating a low-CP, AA-fortified diet for subsequent experiments. Experiment 2 evaluated deleting crystalline AA from a low-CP, AA-fortified diet with 6 treatments: 1) a positive control similar to the diet validated in Exp. 1, 2) positive control with l-Ile deleted, 3) positive control with l-Trp deleted, 4) positive control with l-Val deleted, 5) positive control with l-Gln and l-Gly deleted, and 6) positive control with l-Ile, l-Trp, l-Val, l-Gln, and l-Gly deleted (NC). Pigs fed the positive control or Ile deleted diet had improved (P meat and bone meal, or poultry byproduct meal). Low- and high-crystalline AA diets contained 4.5 or 1% fish meal, 6 or 1.2% meat and bone meal, and 6 or 1% poultry byproduct meal, respectively. No AA × protein source interactions were observed. From d 0 to 14, no differences in growth performance among protein sources was found, whereas increasing crystalline AA improved (P = 0.04) ADG. In conclusion, crystalline AA can replace fish meal, meat and bone meal, and poultry byproduct meal when balanced for SID AA ratios of Met and Cys:Lys (58%), Thr:Lys (62%), Trp:Lys (16.5%), Val:Lys (65%), and Ile:Lys (52%).

  7. [Design and implementation of a questionnaire to evaluate the dietary quality of school meals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mateo Silleras, Beatriz; Camina Martín, M Alicia; Ojeda Sainz, Berta; Carreño Enciso, Laura; de la Cruz Marcos, Sandra; Marugán de Miguelsanz, José Manuel; Redondo del Río, Paz

    2014-10-03

    The school canteen provides a substantial proportion of the daily nutritional intake for many children. There are nutritional standards for school meals, however, it is still difficult to assess the dietary quality. To design a questionnaire for assessing the dietary quality of school meals, quickly and easily. A dietary questionnaire (COMES) was designed on the basis of the current recommendations. COMES consist of 15 items related to the food-frequency and to other characteristics of school meals. Then, a longitudinal prospective study was performed in order to analyze, with COMES, 36 school meals of 4 catering companies from Castilla y León during the academic years 2006-2007 to 2010-2011. Differences in dietary quality menus according to the management system of catering companies (in situ vs. transported) were analyzed by using the Mann-Whitney and the Kruskal-Wallis tests. The significance was reached at p products was higher to the recommended in 97,2%, 94,4% and 27,8% of the analyzed menus, respectively. By contrast, the frequency intake of fish, fruit, legume, and vegetable garnishes were lower to the recommended in 83,3%, 94,4%, 91,7% and 75% of menus, respectively. Nevertheless, recommendations established by our consensus document for school meals are complied for all food groups, except for dairy and fruits. The variety of foods and culinary techniques were appropriate. No significant differences were found in the COMES score according to the management system (p=0,87), although catering system provides higher dietary quality. A new tool to assess quickly and easily the nutritional quality of school meals has been proposed. The assessment of the frequency intake of the most problematic foods for schoolchildren with this scale is much more demanding than the current recommendations. Even so, menus analyzed showed an acceptable quality in terms of variety of foods and culinary techniques, although milk frequency in the menus was excessive at the expense

  8. Effects of replacing fish meal with rubber seed meal on growth, nutrient utilization, and cholesterol metabolism of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × O. aureus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Junming; Wang, Kun; Mai, Kangsen; Chen, Liqiao; Zhang, Lu; Mi, Haifeng

    2017-08-01

    A feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of replacing fish meal with rubber seed meal (RSM) on growth, nutrient utilization, and cholesterol metabolism of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × Oreochromis aureus). Five experimental diets were formulated with 0, 150, 300, 450, and 600 g kg -1 RSM replacing graded levels of fish meal, respectively. Each diet was randomly assigned to triplicate groups of 25 fish (initial average weight 65.3 g) per aquarium in a rearing system maintained at 29 ± 1 °C for 8 weeks. Dietary 150 g kg -1 RSM inclusion did not affect the weight gain and daily growth coefficient, whereas these were depressed by a further inclusion. Additionally, feed efficiency ratio and protein efficiency ratio were not affected by dietary RSM inclusion regardless of inclusion level. However, the inclusion of 450 and 600 g kg -1 RSM decreased the mid-intestinal trypsin, lipase, and amylase activities; the hepatic acyl-CoA/cholesterol acyl transferase; low-density lipoprotein receptor; and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase activities. Similarly, dietary 600 g kg -1 RSM inclusion inhibited the plasma catalase and hepatic glutathione peroxidase activities. These results indicated that 150 g kg -1 RSM can be included in tilapia diets, whereas higher inclusion of RSM inhibited the growth rate, digestive enzyme activity, antioxidant capacity, and cholesterol metabolism.

  9. 76 FR 15225 - Incorporating the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans Into the Proposed School Meal Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans Into the Proposed School Meal Patterns AGENCY: Food and Nutrition... meal patterns and nutrition standards according to the latest dietary recommendations. DATES: The... change in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans that affects the proposed rule ``Nutrition Standards in...

  10. Dietary nitrogen and fish welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conceicao, L.E.C.; Aragao, C.; Dias, J.; Costas, B.; Terova, G.; Martins, C.I.; Tort, L.

    2012-01-01

    Little research has been done in optimizing the nitrogenous fraction of the fish diets in order to minimize welfare problems. The purpose of this review is to give an overview on how amino acid (AA) metabolism may be affected when fish are under stress and the possible effects on fish welfare when

  11. Dietary Safety Assessment of Flk1-Transgenic Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yalan; Huang, Ling; Cao, Jinghui; Wang, Chenghui; Yan, Jizhou

    2018-01-01

    Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification, is facing with growing demands of aquaculture and aquatic products. Although various genetically modified (GM) aquatics have been generated, it is important to evaluate biosafety of GM organisms on the human health before entering into our food chain. For this purpose, we establish a zebrafish wild adult feeding Flk1-transgenic larvae model to examine the predatory fish's histology in multiple tissues, and the global gene expression profile in the liver. 180 days of feeding trial show that there are no significantly morphological changes in intestine, liver, kidney, and sex gonads between fish fed with Flk1 transgenic fish diet (TFD) and fish fed with regular food meal (RFM). However, a characteristic skin spot and autofluorescence increase in the theca of follicle are observed in F1 generation of TFD fish. Liver RNA-sequencing analyses demonstrate that 53 out of 56712 genes or isoforms are differentially transcribed, and mostly involved in proteolysis in extracellular region. According to GO enrichment terms these deregulated genes function in catalytic activity, steroid storing, lipid metabolic process and N-Glycan biosynthesis. These results suggest that a long term of Flk1-transgenic fish diet could alter certain metabolic pathways and possibly cause related tissue deformation. Compared to the previous reports, our feasible transgenic dietary assess system could evaluate subchronic and potential health impact of transgenic fish diet by combining multi-tissue histology and liver transcriptome analyses.

  12. Physical and processing properties of milk, butter, and cheddar cheese from cows fed supplemental fish meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avramis, C A; Wang, H; McBride, B W; Wright, T C; Hill, A R

    2003-08-01

    Physical, chemical, sensory and processing properties of milk produced by feeding a rumen-undegradable fish meal protein supplement to Holstein cows were investigated. The supplement contained (as fed basis) 25% soft-white wheat, 60% herring meal, and 15% feather meal. The total fat level in the milk decreased to 2.43%. For both pasteurized and ultra-high temperature processed drinking milk, no difference was found between fish meal (FM) milk and control milk in terms of color, flavor and flavor stability; in particular, no oxidized flavor was observed. Cheddar cheese made from FM milk ripened faster after 3 mo of ripening and developed a more desirable texture and stronger Cheddar flavor. The yield efficiencies for FM and control cheese, 94.4 (+/- 2.44 SE) and 96.4 (+/- 2.26 SE), respectively, were not different. Relative to controls, average fat globule size was smaller in FM milk and churning time of FM cream was longer. FM butter had softer texture and better cold spreadability, and butter oils from FM enriched milk had lower dropping points compared to control butter oil (average 32.89 versus 34.06 degrees C). These differences in physical properties of butter fat were greater than expected considering that iodine values were not different. This study demonstrates the feasibility of producing high quality products from milk naturally supplemented with FM, but the results also show that dietary changes affect processing properties.

  13. Design, fabrication and evaluation of fish meal pelletizing machine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 113.1kg/h fish meal pellet processing machine which produced 4mm diameter pellet, with an average length of 6mm was designed and fabricated. Design values of 210 was used for the maximum angle that the hopper wall formed with the vertical in the discharge zone, a critical stress of 1.3kPa of the ground particulate ...

  14. Relationship between family meal frequency and individual dietary intake among diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhee, Divya; Mahomoodally, Fawzi

    2015-01-01

    Notoriously, the island of Mauritius has one of the highest prevalence of diabetes in the world. Management of the disease is very important and family meals are undoubtedly beneficial to patients as they promote the development of healthy eating behaviours and food choices. This study has aimed to probe into potential relationship(s) between family meal frequency and individual dietary intake among diabetic patients and to establish whether family cohesion may be a plausible mediator of this relationship. A cross-sectional survey was carried out with a random sample of 384 diabetic patients. The Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale III was used to obtain information on two general aspects of family functioning, that is, cohesiveness and adaptability. Chi-squared (χ (2)) tests, independent sample t-tests and one-way ANOVA were used to determine statistical significance. Pearson correlation was used to examine associations between family meal frequency, individual dietary intake and family cohesion. Hierarchical linear regression models were performed for the mediation analysis. Family meal frequency (breakfast, lunch and dinner) was observed to be positively associated with intake of fish, raw vegetables, dried and fresh fruits, low-fat milk, cheese, yogurt, nuts and light butter and negatively associated with intake of red meat, white rice, white bread, whole egg fried, chocolates, fried cakes, burgers, chips, and fried noodles/rice. Average mediation (52.6 %) was indicated by family cohesion for the association between family meal frequency and individual dietary intake among diabetic patients. Sobel's test further confirmed the trend towards complete mediation (z = 15.4; P family meal frequency and individual dietary intake among diabetic patients was recorded. The present study is one of the few studies that have examined family cohesion as a mediator of the relationship and to our best knowledge is the first work to demonstrate a trend

  15. Relationships of adolescent's dietary habits with personality traits and food neophobia according to family meal frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Mi Sook; Kim, Miseon; Cho, Wookyoun

    2014-08-01

    A higher frequency of family meals is associated with good dietary habits in young people. This study focused on the relationships of family meal frequency with food neophobia and personality traits in adolescents. For this purpose, we administered a survey to 495 middle school students in Seoul metropolitan city, after which the data were analyzed using the SPSS (18.0) program. Pearson correlation was used to determine the relationships among dietary habits, personality traits, and food neophobia according to frequency of family meals. Dietary habits, personality traits, and food neophobia all showed significant differences according to the frequency of family meals. Further, eating regular family meals was associated with good dietary habits (P food neophobia (P food neophobia showed a negative correlation (P food neophobia showed a negative correlation (P frequency of family meals affects dietary habits, personality traits, and food neophobia in adolescents.

  16. Effects of fish-meal, cow blood-meal, and sorghum diets on food utilization and growth of cage cultured Sarotherodon niloticus

    OpenAIRE

    Ufodike, E.B.C.; Ugwuzor, G.N.

    1986-01-01

    The growth responses and feed utilization of Sarotherodon niloticus held in metal cages in a pond and fed diets containing fish-meal, cow blood-meal or sorghum was studied. Results indicate that the best growth, feed conversion and protein efficiency ratio were obtained with the diet containing 60% fish-meal. The growth performance of fish on 40% fish-meal, and 40% and 60% blood meal were not significantly different, and were quite close to the performance with 60% fish-meal. The growth and f...

  17. A study on the meat and bone meal and poultry by-product meal as protein substitutes of fish meal in practical diets for Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Baigang; Wang, Fuzhen; Yu, Yu

    2004-10-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of meat and bone meal (MBM) and poultry by-product meal (PBM) as the replacement of fish meal in the diets on the growth performance, survival and apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of Litopenaeus vannamei. The basal diets were formulated with 22% fish meal and other ingredients which provided about 40% protein and 9% lipid in the diet. The experimental diets included MBM or PBM to replace 0, 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% of total fish meal respectively. All diets were iso-nitrogenous and isocaloric in gross terms. The results showed that there were no significant differences (Pτ;0.05) in growth performance and ADC among the treatments fed with the diets in which 0 60% fish meal had been replaced with MBM, while the percent weight gain (WG, %), body length gain (BLG, %) and ADC significantly decreased when the MBM was up to 80% of the fish meal. There were no significant differences (Pτ;0.05) in growth performance and ADC among all the treatments fed with the diets in which 0 80% fish meal had been replaced with PBM.

  18. Dietary nutrients, additives, and fish health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disease outbreaks have become a major threat to the sustainability of the aquaculture industry, with antibiotics and chemicals historically used to treat animals ineffective or not allowed to be used today. In this book Dietary Nutrients, Additives, and Fish Health, the relationships between dietar...

  19. School Meal Program Participation and Its Association with Dietary Patterns and Childhood Obesity. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Philip; Briefel, Ronette; Wilson, Ander; Dodd, Allison Hedley

    2009-01-01

    We used data from the School Nutrition Dietary Assessment III Study to examine the dietary patterns of school meal program participants and nonparticipants and the relationship between school meal participation and children's BMI and risk of overweight or obesity. School Breakfast Program (SBP) participants consumed more low nutrient energy dense…

  20. Fish condensate as effective replacer of fish meal protein in diet for striped snakehead, Channa striata (Bloch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattanakul, Wattana; Wattanakul, Uraiwan; Thongprajukaew, Karun; Muenpo, Chutchawan

    2017-02-01

    The optimal protein replacement of fish meal (FM) by fish condensate (FC) was investigated in striped snakehead, Channa striata (Bloch) (1.78 ± 0.02 g initial weight). The FM-based diet (0FC) was replaced by substituting protein from FC for 100 (100FC), 200 (200FC), 300 (300FC), 400 (400FC), 500 (500FC) or 600 (600FC) g kg -1 of the FM, and a commercial diet (CD) for carnivorous fish was included for comparison. The experiment was conducted indoors under completely randomized design (8 treatments × 3 replications × 60 fish per pond) over a 6-month trial. There were no significant differences in water quality during the experiment. The fish fed with 500FC had superior growth performance and feed utilization. This dietary treatment gave similar levels to all observed specific activities of digestive enzymes as did baseline 0FC. Survival, carcass composition, hematological parameters and liver histopathology were not negatively impacted by this protein replacement level. Economic analysis also supports the use of this by-product as a potent protein replacer in striped snakehead diet. Findings from the current study indicate that a 500 g kg -1 protein replacement of FM by FC is near optimal for striped snakehead, and similar use of it in the aquafeed of other species appears worth further studies.

  1. Characterization of the nutritional quality of amaranth leaf protein concentrates and suitability of fish meal replacement in Nile tilapia feeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles C. Ngugi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A number of leafy vegetables, their protein concentrates and hydrolasates are under evaluation as alternative protein ingredients to fish meal (FM in aquafeeds. This study evaluated the nutritional characteristics and suitability of replacing FM with the amaranth (Amaranthus hybridus leaf protein concentrates (ALPC as a protein ingredient in the diet of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Experimental diets were formulated, where 100%, 75%, 50%, 40%, 20% and 0% FM protein was substituted by protein from ALPC. The six dietary treatments were tested in triplicate in static flow-through tanks. The substitution effects were compared in terms of fish growth performance, nutrient utilization, whole body composition and apparent nutrient digestibility. After 160 days of feeding, the growth, nutrient utilization and Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR in fish fed diets containing 100%, 75%, 50%, 40% and 20% FM were better (P < 0.05 than those fed diet with 0% FM. The Apparent nutrient digestibility was high for protein, lipid and energy and differed significantly among the dietary treatments (P < 0.05. Protein digestibility in fish was highest in feed formulated with 100%, 75%, 50% and 40% FM, which were significantly (P < 0.05 higher than at 25% and 0% FM. Lipid digestibility was comparable for all the diets except fish fed 0% FM. Digestible carbohydrates and dry matter were similar for all dietary treatments (P < 0.05. We demonstrate that it is possible to replace up to 80% of fish meal with ALPC without compromising the performance O. niloticus. These results demonstrate that although it is possible to replace large part of fish meal with ALPC, it is not possible to eliminate it in Nile tilapia diet as alternative protein ingredient.

  2. Partial replacement of fish and soyabean meal protein in mirror carp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An 80-day feeding trial was conducted as two experiments to evaluate the effects of replacement of fish meal (FM) and soyabean meal (SBM) protein with hazelnut meal (HM) protein in the diets of mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio) fingerlings. Growth parameters and body composition were measured in fingerlings cultured ...

  3. Structural and Interpersonal Characteristics of Family Meals: Associations with Adolescent BMI and Dietary Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Berge, Jerica M.; Jin, Seok Won; Hannan, Peter; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    The last decade of research has suggested that family meals play an important role in promoting healthful dietary intake in youth. However, little is known about the structural characteristics and interpersonal dynamics of family meals that may help to inform why family meals are protective for youth. The current mixed methods, cross-sectional study conducted in 2010–2011 includes adolescents and parents who participated in two linked population-based studies. Participants included 40 parents...

  4. Effect of dietary levels of a modified meat meal on performance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 100 g feather meal and 150 g zeolite per kg. Experimentally, this leads to an improvement in physical texture and preservation characteristics. In this experiment, six hundred 3-week-old Cobb 500 broiler chicks of both sexes were assigned randomly to 24 floor pens with 25 chicks in each pen. Dietary modified meat meal

  5. The contribution of the USDA school breakfast and lunch program meals to student daily dietary intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Weber Cullen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the United States, the National School Breakfast (SBP and School Lunch Program (NSLP meals are provided for free or at a reduced price to eligible children, and are a nutrition safety net for low income children. Consuming both meals could provide 58% of daily intake. This paper evaluates the contribution of SBP and NSLP meals to the dietary intakes of 5–18 year old children participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES from 2007 through 2012. The participants completed 24-hour dietary recalls. Least-square means and standard errors of the mean for energy and food group intakes for the total day and by school meal, and the percent of daily energy and food groups contributed by school meals were computed by analysis of covariance, with BMI, ethnicity, sex, age and poverty level as covariates. Of the 7800 participating children aged 5–18 years in the entire dataset, 448 consumed both SBP-NSLP meals on a weekday. Almost one-half (47% of the day's energy intake was provided by the two school meals. For the major food groups, the contribution of school meals ranged from between 40.6% for vegetables to 77.1% for milk. Overall, these results provide important information on contribution of the SBP and NSLP meals to low income children's daily dietary intake.

  6. Relationship of Consumption of Meals Including Grain, Fish and Meat, and Vegetable Dishes to the Prevention of Nutrient Deficiency: The INTERMAP Toyama Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Tatsuya; Yoshita, Katsushi; Sakurai, Masaru; Miura, Katsuyuki; Naruse, Yuchi; Okuda, Nagako; Okayama, Akira; Stamler, Jeremiah; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Nakagawa, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    A Japanese-style diet consists of meals that include grain (shushoku), fish and meat (shusai), and vegetable dishes (fukusai). Little is known about the association of such meals (designated well-balanced meals hereafter) with nutrient intake. We therefore examined the frequency of well-balanced meals required to prevent nutrient deficiency. Participants were Japanese people, ages 40 to 59 y, from Toyama, recruited for INTERMAP, in an international population-based study. Each person provided 4 in-depth 24-h dietary recalls (149 men, 150 women). The prevalence of risk ratios of not meeting the Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese (2015) was calculated. Well-balanced diets were assessed by the Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top. We counted the frequencies of meals in which participants consumed 1.0 or more servings of all 3 dishes categories. We divided the frequency of consumption of well-balanced meals into the following 4 groups: <1.00 time/d, 1.00-1.49 times/d, 1.50-1.74 times/d, and ≥1.75 times/d. Compared with participants in the highest frequency group for well-balanced meals, those who consumed well-balanced meals less than once a day had a higher risk of not meeting the adequate intake for potassium and the recommended dietary allowance for vitamin A. Those who consumed well-balanced meals on average less than 1.50 times per day had a higher risk of not meeting the recommended dietary allowance for calcium and vitamin C. Our results suggest that individuals should on average consume well-balanced meals more than 1.5 times per day to prevent calcium and vitamin C deficiencies.

  7. Postprandial nutrient-sensing and metabolic responses after partial dietary fishmeal replacement by soyabean meal in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dandan; He, Gen; Mai, Kangsen; Zhou, Huihui; Xu, Wei; Song, Fei

    2016-02-14

    In this study, we chose a carnivorous fish, turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.), to examine its nutrient-sensing and metabolic responses after ingestion of diets with fishmeal (FM), or 45% of FM replaced by soyabean meal (34·6% dry diet) balanced with or without essential amino acids (EAA) to match the amino acid profile of FM diet for 30 d. After a 1-month feeding trial, fish growth, feed efficiency and nutrient retention were markedly reduced by soyabean meal-incorporated (SMI) diets. Compared with the FM diet, SMI led to a reduction of postprandial influx of free amino acids, hypoactivated target of rapamycin signalling and a hyperactivated amino acid response pathway after refeeding, a status associated with reduced protein synthesis, impaired postprandial glycolysis and lipogenesis. These differential effects were not ameliorated by matching an EAA profile of soyabean meal to that of the FM diet through dietary amino acid supplementation. Therefore, this study demonstrated that the FM diet and SMI diets led to distinct nutrient-sensing responses, which in turn modulated metabolism and determined the utilisation efficiency of diets. Our results provide a new molecular explanation for the role of nutrient sensing in the inferior performance of aquafeeds in which FM is replaced by soyabean meal.

  8. Effect of dietary cottonseed meal on growth performance, physiological response, and gossypol accumulation in pre-adult grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haokun; Yan, Quangen; Han, Dong; Jin, Junyan; Zhu, Xiaoming; Yang, Yunxia; Xie, Shouqi

    2016-09-01

    Cottonseed meal (CM) was used at up to 36.95% content in the diet (replacing 60% of dietary fish meal protein) without any negative eff ects on growth performance of pre-adult grass carp (initial body weight, 761 g) under outdoor conditions. A culture trial was conducted in net cages installed in a large concrete pond. Seven isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets containing a gradient of CM concentrations (0, 12.2%, 24.4%, 36.6%, 48.8%, 54.8%, and 61.0%) as replacement for dietary fish meal protein (0, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, 90%, and 100%) were formulated. Dietary non-resistant starch (from maize) was inverse to dietary CM. Growth performance and feed utilization of fish fed the diets containing CM replacing 0-40% fishmeal protein were not aff ected after the 6-week feeding trial. Accumulation of hepatopancreatic total gossypol in the hepatopancreas was significantly correlated with free gossypol content in the diets (HTG=88.6+1.5×DFG, R 2=0.89, Preplacement). Increasing dietary CM content increased serum alanine aminotransferase levels but decreased serum alkaline phosphatase, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and albumin ( P<0.05).

  9. Chemometric analysis for near-infrared spectral detection of beef in fish meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun-Chieh; Garrido-Novell, Cristóbal; Pérez-Marín, Dolores; Guerrero-Ginel, José E.; Garrido-Varo, Ana; Kim, Moon S.

    2015-05-01

    This paper reports the chemometric analysis of near-infrared spectra drawn from hyperspectral images to develop, evaluate, and compare statistical models for the detection of beef in fish meal. There were 40 pure-fish meal samples, 15 pure-beef meal samples, and 127 fish/beef mixture meal samples prepared for hyperspectral line-scan imaging by a machine vision system. Spectral data for 3600 pixels per sample, in which individual spectra was obtain, were retrieved from the region of interest (ROI) in every sample image. The spectral data spanning 969 nm to 1551 nm (across 176 spectral bands) were analyzed. Statistical models were built using the principal component analysis (PCA) and the partial least squares regression (PLSR) methods. The models were created and developed using the spectral data from the purefish meal and pure-beef meal samples, and were tested and evaluated using the data from the ROI in the mixture meal samples. The results showed that, with a ROI as large as 3600 pixels to cover sufficient area of a mixture meal sample, the success detection rate of beef in fish meal could be satisfactory 99.2% by PCA and 98.4% by PLSR.

  10. Decontamination of salmonella from the coastal fish meals by 60Co γ ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saheki, Kazuaki; Konno, Kenjiro; Sato, Takae; Kawabata, Toshiharu.

    1988-01-01

    The decontamination fo salmonellae from fish meal samples by irradiation which 60 Co γ ray was examined. Sixteen strains of Salmonella were used. A composite fish meal sample was prepared by mixing with different coastal meals, and after radiation sterilization at a dose of 20 kGy 60 Co γ ray, which was employed as the salmonella-free meal sample. D 10 values of test strains determined in buffered saline were found to range from 0.08 to 0.36 kGy, and inactivation factors at a dose of 1 kGy ranged from 10 2.8 to 10 13 . D 10 values of test strains determined in the salmonella-free meal sample ranged from 0.59 to 1.64 kGy, and the inactivation factors at a dose of 10 kGy were found to range from 10 6.1 to 10 17 . Interestingly the D 10 values of salmonellae determined in fish meal samples were 10 times as much compared with those determined in buffered saline. From the commercial aspects of coastal fish meal production, destruction of salmonellae in fish meals by 60 Co γ ray irradiation was found to be much more practical than other methods such as dry heating and ethylene oxide fumigation. (author)

  11. Fostering sustainable dietary habits through optimized school meals in Sweden – OPTIMAT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eustachio Colombo, Patricia; Schäfer-Elinder, Liselotte; Parlesak, Alexandr

    2017-01-01

    The fulfilment of commitments to international agreements that relate to sustainable development requires fundamental changes in food consumption. This project aims to promote healthy and sustainable dietary habits in Sweden through optimized school meals. Several studies are planned. The first...... is an analysis of children’s dietary intake in relation to school meal quality. The second is a modelling study where nutritious, affordable and theoretically acceptable food baskets, optimized for low emissions of greenhouse gases, are developed. Menus based on these baskets will be developed and tested...... for acceptability in schools. Lastly, challenges in the implementation of climate-friendlier school meals will be studied. Currently, the collection of data on dietary habits and school meal quality has been finalised. Preliminary optimisation analyses have also been performed. This project has the potential...

  12. Selection for adaptation to dietary shifts: towards sustainable breeding of carnivorous fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Le Boucher

    Full Text Available Genetic adaptation to dietary environments is a key process in the evolution of natural populations and is of great interest in animal breeding. In fish farming, the use of fish meal and fish oil has been widely challenged, leading to the rapidly increasing use of plant-based products in feed. However, high substitution rates impair fish health and growth in carnivorous species. We demonstrated that survival rate, mean body weight and biomass can be improved in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss after a single generation of selection for the ability to adapt to a totally plant-based diet (15.1%, 35.3% and 54.4%, respectively. Individual variability in the ability to adapt to major diet changes can be effectively used to promote fish welfare and a more sustainable aquaculture.

  13. Development of a single-meal fish consumption advisory for methyl mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginsberg, G.L.; Toal, B.F.

    2000-02-01

    Methyl mercury (meHg) contamination of fish is the leading cause of fish consumption advisories in the US. These advisories have focused upon repeated or chronic exposure, whereas risks during pregnancy may also exist from a single-meal exposure if the fish tissue concentration is high enough. In this study, acute exposure to meHg from a single fish meal was analyzed by using the one-compartment meHg biokinetic model to predict maternal hair concentrations. These concentrations were evaluated against the mercury hair concentration corresponding to the US Environmental Protection Agency's reference dose (RfD), which is intended to protect against neurodevelopmental effects. The one-compartment model was validated against blood concentrations from three datasets in which human subjects ingested meHg in fish, either as a single meal or multiple meals. Model simulations of the single-meal scenario at different fish meHg concentrations found that concentrations of 2.0 ppm or higher can be associated with maternal hair concentrations elevated above the RfD level for days to weeks during gestation. A single-meal fish concentration cutoff of {ge} 2.0 ppm is an important consideration, especially because this single high exposure event might be in addition to a baseline meHg body burden from other types of fish consumption. This type of single-meal advisory requires that fish sampling programs provide data for individual rather than composited fish, and take into account seasonal differences that may exist in fish concentrations.

  14. Effects of partially replacing dietary soybean meal or cottonseed meal with completely hydrolyzed feather meal (defatted rice bran as the carrier) on production, cytokines, adhesive gut bacteria, and disease resistance in hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus ♀ × Oreochromis aureus ♂).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Xu, Li; Liu, Wenshu; Yang, Yalin; Du, Zhenyu; Zhou, Zhigang

    2014-12-01

    We formulated experimental diets for hybrid tilapia to investigate the effects of replacing dietary soybean meal (SBM) or cottonseed meal (CSM) by completely hydrolyzed feather meal (defatted rice bran as the carrier; abbreviated as CHFM), with emphasis on fish growth, the composition of adhesive gut bacteria, intestinal and hepatic immune responses, and disease resistance. A series of four isonitrogenous (33% crude protein) and isolipidic (6% crude lipid) diets were formulated to replace the isonitrogenous percentages of CSM or SBM by 6% or 12% CHFM. Quadruplicate groups of healthy and uniformly sized hybrid tilapia were assigned to each experimental diet. Fish were hand fed three times a day for 8 weeks at a rearing temperature of 25-28 °C. The growth performance of hybrid tilapia fed diets with partial replacement of dietary SBM or CSM with CHFM was comparable to the group of fish fed the control diet. The CHFM-containing diets affected the intestinal autochthonous bacterial community in similar ways. All CHFM-containing diets stimulated the expression of heat shock protein 70 in the intestine but suppressed its expression in the liver. Only the CHFM6/SBM diet stimulated the expression of interleukin-1β in intestine, and no effects were observed in all diets to the expression of interleukin-1β in liver. Thus, regarding the immune response in the intestine and liver, CHFM is a good alternative protein source that induces less stress in the host. CHFM did not affect disease resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila infection in hybrid tilapia. These data suggest that CHFM is a good alternative to partially replace SBM and CSM in tilapia feed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of partial replacement of dietary maize with cassava peel meal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of dietary cassava peel meal (CPM) inclusion in partial replacement for maize on egg quality characteristics during storage was investigated in this study. In a completely randomized design, ISA brown pullets (n=3,000) aged 20-week were assigned to three dietary treatments. Diets A, B, C contained CPM at 0, 10 and ...

  16. Dietary effects of introducing school meals based on the New Nordic Diet - a randomised controlled trial in Danish children. The OPUS School Meal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Rikke; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja; Christensen, Tue; Andersen, Elisabeth W; Ege, Majken; Thorsen, Anne V; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Astrup, Arne; Michaelsen, Kim F; Tetens, Inge

    2014-06-14

    The OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet (NND)) School Meal Study investigated the effects on the intake of foods and nutrients of introducing school meals based on the principles of the NND covering lunch and all snacks during the school day in a cluster-randomised cross-over design. For two 3-month periods, 834 Danish children aged 8-11 years from forty-six school classes at nine schools received NND school meals or their usual packed lunches brought from home (control) in random order. The whole diet of the children was recorded over seven consecutive days using a validated Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children. The NND resulted in higher intakes of potatoes (130 %, 95 % CI 2·07, 2·58), fish (48 %, 95 % CI 1·33, 1·65), cheese (25 %, 95 % CI 1·15, 1·36), vegetables (16 %, 95 % CI 1·10, 1·21), eggs (10 %, 95 % CI 1·01, 1·19) and beverages (6 %, 95 % CI 1·02, 1·09), and lower intakes of bread (13 %, 95 % CI 0·84, 0·89) and fats (6 %, 95 % CI 0·90, 0·98) were found among the children during the NND period than in the control period (all, Pmeals following the principles of the NND.

  17. Replacing dietary soybean meal with canola meal improves production and efficiency of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Glen A; Faciola, Antonio P; Armentano, Louis E

    2015-08-01

    Previous research suggested that crude protein (CP) from canola meal (CM) was used more efficiently than CP from solvent soybean meal (SBM) by lactating dairy cows. We tested whether dietary CP content influenced relative effectiveness of equal supplemental CP from either CM or SBM. Fifty lactating Holstein cows were blocked by parity and days in milk into 10 squares (2 squares with ruminal cannulas) in a replicated 5×5 Latin square trial. Five squares were fed: (1) low (14.5-14.8%) CP with SBM, (2) low CP with CM, (3) low CP with SBM plus CM, (4) high (16.4-16.7%) CP with SBM, and (5) high CP with CM; the other 5 squares were fed the same diets except with rumen-protected Met plus Lys (RPML) added as Mepron (Degussa Corp., Kennesaw, GA) and AminoShure-L (Balchem Corp., New Hampton, NY), which were assumed to provide 8g/d of absorbed dl-Met and 12g/d of absorbed l-Lys. Diets contained [dry matter (DM) basis] 40% corn silage, 26% alfalfa silage, 14 to 23% corn grain, 2.4% mineral-vitamin premixes, and 29 to 33% neutral detergent fiber. Periods were 3wk (total 15wk), and data from the last week of each period were analyzed using the Mixed procedures of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). The only effects of RPML were increased DM intake and milk urea N (MUN) and urinary N excretion and trends for decreased milk lactose and solids-not-fat concentrations and milk-N:N intake; no significant RPML × protein source interactions were detected. Higher dietary CP increased milk fat yield and tended to increase milk yield but also elevated MUN, urine volume, urinary N excretion, ruminal concentrations of ammonia and branched-chain volatile fatty acids (VFA), lowered milk lactose concentration and milk-N:N intake, and had no effect on milk true protein yield. Feeding CM instead of SBM increased feed intake, yields of milk, energy-corrected milk, and true protein, and milk-N:N intake, tended to increase fat and lactose yields, and reduced MUN, urine volume, and urinary N

  18. Optimizing fish meal-free commercial diets for Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    A feeding trial was conducted in a closed recirculating aquaculture system with Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus juveniles (mean weight, 6.81 g) to examine the response to a practical diet containing protein primarily from menhaden fish meal (FM) and soybean meal (SBM) (control, Diet 1) or to diet...

  19. Pasteurization of fish meal by irridation. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reusse, U.; Messow, C.; Geister, R.; Tieraerztliche Hochschule Hannover

    1979-01-01

    Earlier experiments showed that pigs had a higher mitosis rate in the crypt region of the jejunum compared with control animals when the fish meal constituted part of their diet had been irradiated with 0.7 or 0.4 Mrad in order to destroy slamonellas. In these repeated experiments a statistically significant increase in mitosis rate was again found in some animal groups. On the other hand, some control pigs had high significantly varying mitosis rates. The findings reveal that correctly randomized groups of pigs may contain groups which show significantly higher mitosis rates than others, purely as a matter of chance. This heterogeneity may result in demonstrable differences in mitosis rates between control and experimental groups being due solely to chance. A subsequent follow-up of the earlier records on mitosis rates confirmed this marked heterogeneity of the natural mitosis rate in pigs. On these grounds, the former conclusion that feeding the irradiated food to pigs resulted in a higher mitosis rate is considered no longer valid. (orig.) 891 AJ/orig. 892 GR [de

  20. Utilization of fish offal meal in the diet of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A feeding trial was conducted to investigate effect of replacing fish meal (FM) at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% with fish offal meal (FOM) in the diets of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings. At the start of experiment, ten glass aquaria of size 70 cm x 45 cm x 40 cm/each, filled with well water up to 70 L of its volume were stocked with 100 ...

  1. Effect of replacing fish meal with extruded soybean meal on growth, feed utilization and apparent nutrient digestibility of juvenile white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qihui; Tan, Beiping; Dong, Xiaohui; Chi, Shuyan; Liu, Hongyu

    2015-10-01

    Extruded soybean meal (ESBM) was evaluated as a protein source for partial replacement of fish meal (FM) in diets of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei. In the control diet (Diet 1), FM protein was replaced with increasing dietary levels of ESBM (4.28%, 8.40%, 12.62%, 16.82%, and 25.26%) at 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 60% levels (Diets 2 to 6, respectively). An eight-week feeding trial was conducted on 720 juvenile shrimp (0.67 g ± 0.01 g mean initial weight), and nutrient digestibility of the six diets was determined. ESBM could replace 20% of FM without causing a significant reduction in growth of shrimp, but other dietary treatments strongly affected whole body composition. Crude protein content of the whole body fed Diet 6 was significantly lower than that fed Diet 2 ( P replacement level. This study indicates that 20% FM replacement with ESBM in the basic diet containing 40% protein and 30% FM is optimal for juvenile L. vannamei.

  2. Evaluation of skate meal and sablefish viscera meal as fish meal replacement in diets for Pacific threadfin (Polydactylus saxfilis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the nutritional value of skate meal (SM) and black cod viscera meal (BCVM) from Alaska and to ascertain their suitability as replacements for commercial pollock fishmeal in diets for Pacific threadfin (Polydactylus sexfilis). Test diets were made by r...

  3. The effect of replacing Fish meal with 10% of Groundnut cake in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth, food conversion efficiency and survival of H. longifilis fed diets with varying levels of protein in which 10% of fish meal was replaced with groundnut cake were studied for 84 days. Fish fed the diet containing 44.17% crude protein showed the best weight gain, specific growth rate, food conversion ratio and efficiency.

  4. Serving Fish in School Meals: Perceptions of School Nutrition Professionals in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Betty T.; Pickus, Hayley A.; Contesti, Amy; Dawson, Jo; Bersamin, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: Fish and other seafood high in omega-3 fats are important components of a healthy diet. The purpose of this study was to explore perceptions regarding serving fish in school meals among nutrition professionals in Alaska. Methods: Interviews with 22 school nutrition professionals in Alaska were conducted to investigate the…

  5. Structural and interpersonal characteristics of family meals: associations with adolescent body mass index and dietary patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; Jin, Seok Won; Hannan, Peter; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2013-06-01

    The last decade of research has suggested that family meals play an important role in promoting healthful dietary intake in youth. However, little is known about the structural characteristics and interpersonal dynamics of family meals that might help to inform why family meals are protective for youth. The current mixed methods, cross-sectional study conducted in 2010-2011 includes adolescents and parents who participated in two linked population-based studies. Participants included 40 parents (91.5% female) and adolescents (57.5% female) from the Minneapolis/St Paul, MN, area participating in EAT (Eating and Activity Among Teens) 2010 and F-EAT (Families and Eating and Activity Among Teens). The structural (eg, length of the meal, types of foods served) and interpersonal characteristics (eg, communication, emotion/affect management) of family meals were described, and associations between interpersonal dynamics at family meals and adolescent body mass index and dietary intake were examined via direct observational methods. Families were videorecorded during two mealtimes in their homes. Results indicated that family meals were approximately 20 minutes in length, included multiple family members, were typically served family style (70%), and occurred in the kitchen 62% of the time and 38% of the time in another room (eg, family room, office). In addition, significant associations were found between positive interpersonal dynamics (ie, communication, affect management, interpersonal involvement, overall family functioning) at family meals and lower adolescent body mass index and higher vegetable intake. These findings add to the growing body of literature on family meals by providing a better understanding of what is happening at family meals in order to inform obesity-prevention studies and recommendations for providers working with families of youth. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Structural and Interpersonal Characteristics of Family Meals: Associations with Adolescent BMI and Dietary Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M.; Jin, Seok Won; Hannan, Peter; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    The last decade of research has suggested that family meals play an important role in promoting healthful dietary intake in youth. However, little is known about the structural characteristics and interpersonal dynamics of family meals that may help to inform why family meals are protective for youth. The current mixed methods, cross-sectional study conducted in 2010–2011 includes adolescents and parents who participated in two linked population-based studies. Participants included 40 parents (91.5% female) and adolescents (57.5% female) from the Minneapolis/St. Paul area participating in EAT 2010 and F-EAT. The structural (e.g. length of the meal, types of foods served) and interpersonal characteristics (e.g., communication, emotion/affect management) of family meals were described and associations between interpersonal dynamics at family meals and adolescent body mass index (BMI) and dietary intake were examined via direct observational methods. Families were video-recorded during two mealtimes in their homes. Results indicated that family meals were approximately 20 minutes in length, included multiple family members, were typically served family style (70%) and occurred in the kitchen 62% of the time and 38% of the time in another room (e.g., family room, office). Additionally, significant associations were found between positive interpersonal dynamics (i.e., communication, affect management, interpersonal involvement, overall family functioning) at family meals and lower adolescent BMI and higher vegetable intake. These findings add to the growing body of literature on family meals by providing a better understanding of what is happening at family meals in order to inform obesity prevention studies and recommendations for providers working with families of youth. PMID:23567247

  7. Associations between adult perception of body weight, diet, preparing meals and dietary patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezewska-Zychowicz, Marzena; Guzek, Dominika

    The links between dietary patterns, the perception of one’s body weight and diet as well preparing meals are poorly recognised in the literature. In order to develop effective nutritional education and focused interventions, more of such information is thereby required to improve the nation’s health To identify dietary patterns based on declared food consumption rates and subject responses on whether dieting, perception of body weight and diet and preparing meals are linked to such dietary patterns The survey was conducted in 2016 on 344 consumers chosen for age (20-65 years) and their consent for study participation. Rates of eating the foods selected were measured using a 7-point scale. Cluster analysis was used to identify three dietary patterns of behaviour: ‘potentially beneficial to health’, ‘potentially unfavourable for health; deficient’ and ‘potentially unfavourable for health; excessive’. The analysis was performed using IBM SPSS Statistics version 23.0 There were significantly more subjects showing ‘potentially beneficial for health’ behaviour, normal body weight, those dieting (whether now or in the past) and those who evaluated their diet as being very good or good compared to other groups. They were also more involved in preparing their meals at home. Differences were found between the ‘unfavourable for health’ dietary patterns concerning subject’s involvement in meal preparation. The dietary pattern for ‘deficient’ behaviour found lower rates of those preparing their meals at home The pattern of potentially beneficial dietary habits was linked to weight control through a slimming diet and greater involvement in the preparation of food for consumption. The results show the need to develop food choice skills rather than just transferring knowledge in the nutrition education process

  8. Growth of fresh-water prawn Macrobrachium tenellum (Smith, 1871 juveniles fed isoproteic diets substituting fish meal by soya bean meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel García-Ulloa Gomez

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Growth parameters (standard length, weight, specific growth rate and daily weight gain of prawn Macrobrachium tenellum juveniles fed 40% crude protein isoproteic diets substituting fish meal with soya bean meal at various levels (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% were evaluated for 45 days under laboratory conditions. Experimental diets were compared with a 100% fish meal based diet. Total survival was recorded for all the treatments at the end of the experiment. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05 for all the growth parameters among the dietary treatments. The initial mean weight (0.36 ± 0.10 g increased almost three times (1.00 ± 0.13 g after 45 days. The final specific growth fluctuated from 1.82% BW/d for the 60% soya bean meal inclusion diet, to 2.62% for the 100% fish meal diet. The mean final survival was 91.66%. Growth performance of M. tenellum juveniles was not affected by the dietary soya bean meal levels tested.Os parâmetros do crescimento (comprimento padrão, peso, taxa de crescimento específica e ganho diário do peso de juveniles do Macrobrachium tenellum alimentaram a 40% a proteína crua as dietas isoproteic que substituem a refeição de peixes com feijão de soya a refeição nos vários níveis (20, 40, 60, 80 e 100% foi avaliada por 45 dias sob condições do laboratório. As dietas experimentais foram comparadas com uma dieta baseada da refeição de peixes de 100%. A sobrevivência total foi gravada para todos os tratamentos no fim da experiência. Não havia nenhuma diferença significativa (p > 0.05 para todos os parâmetros do crescimento entre os tratamentos dietéticos. O peso médio inicial (0.36 ± 0.10 g aumentado quase três vezes (1.00 ± 0.13 g após 45 dias da cultura. O crescimento específico final flutuou de 1.82% BW/d para a dieta do inclusion da refeição do feijão de soya de 60%, a 2.62% obtidos para a dieta da refeição de peixes de 100%. A sobrevivência final média foi de 91.66%. O

  9. Dietary influence of Daniellia oliveri leaf meal (Dolm) on the growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine the dietary influence of Daniellia Oliveri Leaf Meal (DOLM) on the growth and digestibility of Savannah Brown goats. Forty five does with average initial weight of 10.66kg were used in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) which lasted for 90 days with the last 7days for digestibility ...

  10. Optimum dietary protein requirement for Amazonian Tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum Cuvier, 1818, fed fish meal free diets Exigência protéica de juvenis de tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum Cuvier, 1818, alimentados com rações livres de farinha de peixe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Augusto Oishi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Fish meal free diets were formulated to contain graded protein levels as 25% (diet 1, 30% (diet 2, 35% (diet 3 and 40% (diet 4. The diets were fed to tambaqui juveniles (Colossoma macropomum (46.4 ± 6.3g in randomly designed recirculating systems for 60 days, to determine the optimum protein requirement for the fish. The final weight of the fish, weight gain (28.1, 28.5, 32.2, 28.0g and specific growth rate increased (P>0.05 consistently with increasing dietary protein up to treatment with 35% protein diet and then showed a declining trend. Feed intake followed the same trend resulting in best feed efficiency (62.5% in fish fed diet with 35% protein. Similarly, the protein intake increased significantly with increasing dietary protein levels and reduced after the fish fed with 35% protein; while protein efficiency ratio (2.28, 1.99, 1.87, 1.74 decreased with increasing dietary protein levels. Carcass ash and protein had linear relationship with dietary protein levels while the lipid showed a decreasing trend. Ammonia content (0.68, 0.73, 0.81, 1.21 mg L-1 of the experimental waters also increased (PForam formuladas quatro dietas sem a inclusão de farinha de peixes contendo os níveis crescentes de proteína de 25% (dieta 1, 30% (dieta 2, 35% (dieta 3 e 40% (dieta 4. As dietas foram fornecidas a juvenis de tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum (46.4 ± 6.3g distribuídos ao acaso em um sistema de recirculação durante 60 dias, para determinar o requerimento protéico ótimo para o peixe nesta faixa etária. O peso final dos peixes, o ganho de peso (28.1, 28.5, 32.2, 28.0g e a taxa de crescimento específico tiveram um aumento não significativo (P>0,05 conforme aumentou o nível protéico das rações até o nível de 35% proteína e então uma tendência ao declínio. O consumo de alimento seguiu a mesma tendência resultando em melhor eficiência alimentar (62.5% para os peixes alimentados com a dieta contendo 35% de proteína. Similarmente, o

  11. Chicken Feather Silage Meal As A Fish Meal Protein Source Replacement In Feed Formula Of Pomfret (Colossoma macropomum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arning Wilujeng Ekawati

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to know the effect and to determine the best utilization of the chiken feather silage meal as a substitute for fish meal protein source in the feed formula of Colossoma macropomum. This study used experimental method based on Completely Randomized Design (CRD with 5 treatments and 3 replications. Five diets (33% isoprotein and 3.85 kcal/g diet isoenergi were formulated with substitution of the chiken feather silage meal to fishmeal protein. These substituted 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 % (A, B, C, D and E respectively of the fishmeal protein. Parameters observed and analyzed were: survival rate, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio, protein retention and protein digestibility. The results showed that the treatment had no effect on survival rate, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio, and protein retention but the effect on protein digestibility. Based on these results, it can be concluded that fishmeal protein can be substituted with the chiken feather silage meal up to 100% in the feed formula of Colossoma macropomum.

  12. Changes in leucine kinetics during meal absorption: effects of dietary leucine availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nissen, S.; Haymond, M.W.

    1986-01-01

    Whole-body leucine and α/-ketoisocaproate (KIC) metabolism were estimated in mature dogs fed a complete meal, a meal devoid of branched-chain amino acids, and a meal devoid of all amino acids. Using a constant infusion of [4,5- 3 H]leucine and α-[1- 14 C]ketoisocaproate (KIC), combined with dietary [5,5,5- 2 H 3 ]leucine, the rate of whole-body proteolysis, protein synthesis, leucine oxidation, and interconversion leucine and KIC were estimated along with the rate of leucine absorption. Digestion of the complete meal resulted in a decrease in the rate of endogenous proteolysis, a small increase in the estimated rate of leucine entering protein, and a twofold increase in the rate of leucine oxidation. Ingestion of either the meal devoid of branched-chain amino acids or devoid of all amino acids resulted in a decrease in estimates of whole-body rates of proteolysis and protein synthesis, decreased leucine oxidation, and a decrease in the interconversion of leucine and KIC. The decrease in whole-body proteolysis was closely associated with the rise in plasma insulin concentrations following meal ingestion. Together these data suggest that the transition from tissue metabolism to anabolism is the result, at least in part, of decreased whole-body proteolysis. This meal-related decrease in proteolysis is independent of the dietary amino acid composition or content. In contrast, the rate of protein synthesis was sustained only when the meal complete in all amino acids was provided, indicating an overriding control of protein synthesis by amino acid availability

  13. Effects of dietary Tenebrio molitor meal on the growth performance, immune response and disease resistance of yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jingzhi; Gong, Yulong; Cao, Shenping; Lu, Fei; Han, Dong; Liu, Haokun; Jin, Junyan; Yang, Yunxia; Zhu, Xiaoming; Xie, Shouqi

    2017-10-01

    This study evaluated the influence of diets containing mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) meal in partial substitution of fishmeal on growth performance and immune responses of juvenile yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco). Four diets were formulated to contain 0 (the control diet), 9, 18 and 27 g mealworm meal per 100 g diet with 0%, 25%, 50% and 75% of fishmeal replacement, respectively. Yellow catfish were randomly divided into 4 groups with 3 replicates in each group. The fish in each group were fed with one of the four experimental diets for 5 weeks. Growth performance, plasma parameters (SOD, MDA, IgM, C3, lysozyme) and immune related genes (MHC II, IL-1, CypA, IgM, HE) of yellow catfish were determined at the end of the feeding trial, as well as 24 h post bacterial (Edwardsiella ictaluri) challenge. The present results showed that dietary inclusion of mealworm meal (MW) had no negative effects on the growth performance of the juvenile yellow catfish, compared to the control group. At the end of the feeding trial, plasma MDA contents of MW supplemented groups were significant lower than the control group. Plasma SOD activities increased significantly with the increasing dietary MW contents at the end of feeding trial (pre-challenge) and 24 h post challenge with E. ictaluri. Significant increase of plasma lysozyme activity was found in MW supplemented groups compared to the control group 24 h post bacterial challenge. Plasma IgM levels increased significantly with the increasing dietary MW contents at the end of feeding trial. Compared with the control group, the immune related genes of MHC II, IL-1, IgM and HE of the fish in the MW supplemented groups significantly upregulated pre-challenge or 24 h post bacterial challenge. Finally, it was observed that the survival rate of the 27% MW group was significant higher (P < 0.05) than the control group but was not significantly differed from the 18% MW group. The present results indicated that dietary

  14. Effects of dietary corn gluten meal on growth performance and protein metabolism in relation to IGF-I and TOR gene expression of juvenile cobia ( Rachycentron canadum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yiwen; Ai, Qinghui; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Wenbing; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Yanjiao; Liufu, Zhiguo

    2013-09-01

    A growth experiment was conducted on cobia ( Rachycentron canadum, initial weight 108.2 g ± 3.0 g) to investigate the effects of dietary corn gluten meal (CGM) levels on the fish growth, whole body composition and protein metabolism in relation to specific gene expression. Five isonitrogenous (crude protein 45%) and isoenergetic (gross energy 20 kJ g-1) practical diets were formulated by replacing 0% (the control), 17.5%, 35.0%, 52.5%, and 70.0% of fish meal (FM) protein with CGM protein. No significant differences were observed in the survival, feed intake (FI), specific growth rate (SGR), feed efficiency (FE) and protein productive value (PPV) among fish fed diets with 0%, 17.5%, 35.0%, and 52.5% of CGM protein. However, these indices were significantly lower in fish fed the diet with 70.0% of CGM protein than those in fish fed the control diet ( P replaced by CGM, plasma total protein and cholesterol contents were significantly lower than those in the control group ( P replaced by CGM in the diets without significant influences on the growth, feed utilization and protein metabolism of juvenile cobia. The present results might be useful for developing cost effective and sustainable cobia dietary formulations.

  15. Mixtures of oilseed meals as dietary protein sources in diets of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CSM) and groundnut cake (GNC) as ingredients to replace fish meal in the diets of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.), was evaluated over a 56-day growth period. Nine isonitrogenous (320g.kg-1), isolipidic (100 g.kg-1) and isoenergetic (18 ...

  16. Effect of the partial replacement of fish meal and oil by vegetable products on performance and quality traits of juvenile shi drum (Umbrina cirrosa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igino Andrighetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A four-month growth trial was carried out in order to evaluate performance and quality traits of juvenile shi drum fedwith two isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets having different amounts of vegetable products (Vegetable diet vs. Controldiet. Compared to the Control diet, the Vegetable diet was formulated by increasing the replacement of fish meal (14%with soybean and cereal products, and fish oil (12% with a mixture of vegetable oil. On June, 4 groups of 225 fish (2replicates per dietary treatment were sorted according to live weight and reared in fibreglass tanks over a four- monthlong experimental period. Fish were hand fed to apparent satiety. Offered feed, growth parameters and feed efficiencywere recorded as productive performance. At the end of the trial (October biometric, chemical and reological traits wereexamined to assess fish quality. The dietary treatments showed similar productive performance. The relatively high inclusionof vegetable sources led to a significant modification of body shape, mesenteric fat and viscera weight. Among qualitytraits, Vegetable diet-fed fish demonstrated a significantly lower whole body and fillet crude protein content.Yellowness value of the cooked fillet was significantly lower in the Control diet-fed fish, whereas fillet texture was similar.The results of this research showed that shi drum is a suitable candidate for Mediterranean marine aquaculture andits dietary formulation might include at least the amount of vegetable sources used in this trial.

  17. Utilization of fish meal and fish oil for production of Cryptococcus sp. MTCC 5455 lipase and hydrolysis of polyurethane thereof

    OpenAIRE

    Thirunavukarasu, K.; Purushothaman, S.; Gowthaman, M. K.; Nakajima-Kambe, T.; Rose, C.; Kamini, N. R.

    2015-01-01

    Fish meal has been used as an additional nitrogen source and fish oil as inducer for the growth and production of lipase from Cryptococcus sp. MTCC 5455. A response surface design illustrated that the optimum factors influencing lipase production were fish meal, 1.5 %, w/v, Na2HPO4, 0.2 %, w/v, yeast extract, 0.25 %, w/v and sardine oil, 2.0 %, w/v with an activity of 71.23 U/mL at 96 h and 25 °C, which was 48.39 % higher than the conventional one-factor-at-a-time method. The crude concentrat...

  18. EFFECT OF THE DIETARY PELLET:MEAL RATIO ON THE PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF LAYING HENS

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    Luis Armando Sarmiento-Franco

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of dietary pellet:meal ratio on the performance of laying hens was evaluated using 60 Plymouth Barred Rock 30 week old hens. Hens were distributed at random to three treatments: 100:0, 75:25 and 50:50% of pellet:meal ratio in the diet along 49 days, with 20 replicates each. Final body weight of hens, polar and ecuatorial diameters of the egg, eggshell weight, eggshell thickness, and yolk colour were not different between treatments (p>0.05. However, egg production, egg weight, egg mass, food consumption, food conversion and production cost were affected by treatments (p

  19. Replacement of dietary fish oil with vegetable oils improves the growth and flesh quality of large yellow croaker ( Larmichthys crocea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Qingyuan; Mai, Kangsen; Shentu, Jikang; Ai, Qinghui; Zhong, Huiying; Jiang, Yujian; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Chunxiao; Guo, Sitong

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the effect of the replacement of dietary fish oil with vegetable oils on the growth and flesh quality of large yellow croaker ( Larmichthys crocea). The basal diet (FO) was formulated to contain 66.5% fish meal and 6.4% menhaden fish oil; whereas the other 3 experimental diets were formulated by replacing the fish oil with 50% soybean oil (SO50), 100% soybean oil (SO100) and 100% palm oil (PO100), respectively. The 4 diets were randomly assigned to 4 floating sea cages (3.0 m × 3.0 m × 3.0 m), and each was stocked with 250 fish individuals with an initial average weight of 245.29 g ± 7.45 g. The fish were fed to apparent satiation twice a day at 5:00 and 17:00, respectively, for 12 weeks. Experimental analysis showed that the specific growth rate of fish fed SO50 or PO100 were significantly higher than that of fish fed FO or SO100 ( P0.05). Compared to FO diet, SO50, SO100 and PO100 diets led to substantial decreases in the liquid loss and water loss from fresh fillets (1 d, 4°C) ( Preplacement of fish oil with vegetable oils. These findings indicated that the growth performance and selected flesh quality properties (liquid holding capacity and TBARS value) of large yellow croaker were substantially improved by replacing dietary fish oil with vegetable oils.

  20. Feeds and feeding strategies for Colossoma macropomum (Cuvier 1818) : fish growth as related to dietary protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der M.B.

    1997-01-01

    Colossoma macropomum is an indigenous fish species from the Amazon region. The amino acid profile of its body protein proved to be similar to that of other fish species. Soya meal and fish meal have, based on their amino acid profiles, a comparable protein quality. This

  1. Fish by-product meal in diets for commercial laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Ferreira Silva

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the increasing levels (0, 1, 2, 3 e 4% of fish by-product meal in diets for laying hens on performance, egg quality and economic analysis. A total of 160 Dekalb White hens with 52-wk old were distributed in a completely randomized design with five treatments and four replicates of eight birds each. The experiment lasted 84 days divided into four periods of 21 days. Estimates of fish by-product meal levels were determined by polynomial regression. Differences (p < 0.05 were detected for all variables of performance, in egg weight, yolk and albumen percentage, yolk and albumen height, feed cost and production cost, in which the inclusion of fish by-product meal in the diets showed better results. It can be concluded that fish by-product meal can be used in diets for hens as alternative feed, with better results in egg production, feed conversion, egg weight, yolk-albumen ratio and a reduction in feed cost and production cost.

  2. In vitro organic matter digestibility and gas production of fish-meal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, an in vitro rumen gas production technique was utilized to evaluate fish-meal coated with different types and levels of fats for total gas production, Metabolizable energy (ME) and organic matter digestibility (OMD) contents. Approximately 200 mg of sample was weighed and inserted in glass syringes, then ...

  3. the influence of fish meal and yellow maize on the nutritive value of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I , 25 -26 ( 1971 ). THE INFLUENCE OF FISH MEAL AND YELLOW MAIZE ON THE NUTRITIVE. VALUE OF TTIEMEDA TRIANDR,4 FOR MERINO SHEEP. J.A. Swart, P.J. Niemann, E.A.N. Engels & L.C. Biel. Agricultural Research Institute, Glen, O. F.S.. The climax grass of the central Orange Free State is Themeda triandra.

  4. The influence of fish meal and yellow maize on the nutritive value of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of fish meal and yellow maize on the nutritive value of Themeda triandra for Merino sheep. J.A. Swart, P.J. Niemann, E.A.N. Engels, L.C. Biel. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online.

  5. In vitro organic matter digestibility and gas production of fish-meal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-03-28

    Mar 28, 2011 ... fish-meal coated with 200, 400, 600 and 800 (g/kg) of hydrogenated palm oil; GP, gas production; DM, dry matter. the diet is a logical feeding strategy for early lactating dairy cows (Elliott, 1994). The addition of supplemental fat as well as improving the energy status of cows might be used to coat proteins in ...

  6. Dietary fish oil and experimental atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Hartog

    1989-01-01

    textabstractIn the review of (most human) fish oil studies in chapter 1 it was shown that the data are not all confirmative and only a few studies were well-controlled. However, the safety of the needed experimental high doses of fish oil requires further investigation. The general aims of this

  7. Levels of polybrominated diphenyl-ethers and polybrominated dioxins in fish, total diet study food groups, and Japanese meals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashizuka, Y.; Nakagawa, R.; Hori, T.; Tobiishi, K.; Iida, T. [Fukuoka Inst. of Health and Environmental Sciences, Dazaifu (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Since they were found in mother's milk and blood in several studies, the polybrominated diphenyl-ethers (PBDEs) and other polybrominated flame-retardants (BFRs) that are used in plastics, electrical appliances, and textiles have been recognized as ubiquitous pollutants. BFRs are precursors of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/ polybrominated dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs). Recently, 2,3,7,8-TBDD/Fs and PBDEs have been detected in adipose tissue and blood in Japanese people. Food is naturally suspected. However, there is very few information on food contamination with those brominated compounds in Japan. Therefore, we measured the levels of PBDEs and PBDD/Fs in various fish samples, meal samples, and total diet study (TDS) food groups and estimated Japanese people's dietary intake of PBDD/Fs and PBDEs.

  8. Comparative efficacy of up to 50% partial fish meal replacement with fermented soybean meal or enzymatically prepared soybean meal on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and fecal microflora in weaned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jin Suk; Kim, In Ho

    2015-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine the comparative efficacy of partial fish meal (FM) replacement (up to 50%) with fermented soybean meal (FSBM; SoELAB, PepSoyGen and Soytide) or enzymatically prepared SBM (HP 300) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and fecal microflora in weaned pigs. A total of 100 weaned pigs (body weight 6.59 ± 0.29 kg) were used in experimental feeding trials, lasting for up to 6 weeks, and were randomly allotted to five groups with four block replicates of five pigs per pen serving as one block. Dietary treatments were as follows: (i) 100% FM, (ii) 50% FM + 50% SoELAB-54, (iii) 50% FM + 50% PepSoyGen, (iv) 50% FM + 50% Soytide and (v) 50% FM + 50% HP 300. Concerning growth performance, none of the treated SBM preparations demonstrated any significantly different effect compared with FM treatment. With respect to nutrient digestibility, SoELAB and HP 300 treatments demonstrated no significant difference compared with FM treatment. Lastly, none of the SBM preparations demonstrated any significant differences in animal fecal score and all of the differentially treated SBM increased fecal Lactobacillus counts, while maintaining similar Escherichia coli counts compared with FM treatment. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  9. Dietary diversity and meal frequency among infant and young children: a community based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belew, Aysheshim Kassahun; Ali, Bekrie Mohammed; Abebe, Zegeye; Dachew, Berihun Assefa

    2017-08-15

    Insufficient quantities, frequencies, and inadequate quality of complementary feedings have a negative effect on child health and growth, especially in the first two years of life. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the minimum dietary diversity, meal frequency and its associated factors among infants and young children aged 6-23 months at Dabat District, northwest, Ethiopia. A community- based cross-sectional study was conducted from February 15 to March 10, 2016. The simple random sampling method was used to select study participants. An interviewer- administered structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Both Crude and Adjusted Odds Ratio with the corresponding 95% confidence interval were calculated to show the strength of association. In the multivariable analysis, variables with less than 0.05 P-value were considered statistically significant. The proportion of children who met the minimum dietary diversity and meal frequency were 17% (95% CI: 14.9, 19.4%) and 72.2% (95% CL: 69.3, 75%), respectively. Satisfactory media exposure (AOR = 2.79; 95% CI: 1.74, 4.47), postnatal care visits (AOR = 1.96; 95% CI: 1.32, 2.88), participation in child growth and monitoring follow ups (AOR = 1.65; 95% CI: 1.14, 2.39), age of children (AOR = 2.34; 95% CI: 1.33, 4.11) and age of mothers (AOR = 1.89; 95% CI: 1.09, 3.27) were positively associated with dietary diversity. Similarly, age of children (AOR = 2.38; 95% CI: 1.56, 3.65), household wealth status (AOR = 1.84; 95% CI: 1.27, 2.68), residence (AOR = 3.02; 95% CI: 1.41, 6.48), sources of information (AOR = 1.72; 95% CI:1.14, 2.59) and participation in child growth monitoring folow ups (AOR = 1.57; 95% CI: 1.13, 2.19) were significantly associated with meal frequency. In this study, the proportion of children who received the minimum dietary diversity and meal frequency were low. Media exposure, age of children, postnatal care visits, and participation in child growth and monitoring

  10. The Effect of Replacing Fish Meal in the Diet with Enzyme-Treated Soybean Meal (HP310) on Growth and Body Composition of Rainbow Trout Fry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghbayan, Samira; Shamsaie Mehrgan, Mehdi

    2015-11-26

    The potential of enzyme-treated soybean meal powder (HP310) as fish meal alternative in diets for rainbow trout weighing 1.17 ± 0.3 g was evaluated for 60 days. Fish meal was replaced with HP310 at 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of experimental diets. A control group was also considered. The results showed that diets containing 75% and 100% HP310 had significantly higher feed conversion ratio and lower feed intake, weight gain and specific growth rate compared to fish feed diets containing higher levels of fish protein ingredients (p replacement levels of diet (p > 0.05). However increasing in level of HP310 in the diet caused a significant increase of the white blood cells (p replaced by HP310 showed the highest values of ash and moisture content among the diets and showed significantly different levels when compared with the control and other feeding treatments (p < 0.05).

  11. Nutritive value of meals, dietary habits and nutritive status in Croatian university students according to gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colić Barić, Irena; Satalić, Zvonimir; Lukesić, Zeljka

    2003-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate daily menus at students' restaurants and to report dietary habits and other health-related behaviour of Croatian university students (n=2075) according to gender. A specially designed self-administered questionnaire was used. One hundred and twenty daily menus were chosen by random sampling, and the nutritive value was calculated using food composition tables. Daily menus on average provide an adequate amount of energy, protein and most micronutrients: 88.2% of daily menus provide a balanced intake of protein, fat and carbohydrates, 22.5% of daily menus provide more than 300 mg of cholesterol, and 58.8% have more than 25 g dietary fibre. On average, students had 2.4 meals and 1.3 snacks per day. Breakfast was the most often skipped meal. Red meat, cereals and fast food were consumed more often by males (Pconsumption it was vice versa: 88.9 and 84.8% of males and females, respectively. A total of 80.4% of students were well nourished. This study showed that meals offered at students' restaurants are adequate. Dietary and other health-related behaviour differed according to gender. Clustering of some behaviours was observed.

  12. Apparent ileal digestibility of nutrients and amino acids in soybean meal, fish meal, spray-dried plasma protein and fermented soybean meal to weaned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jin Suk; Park, Jae Won; Lee, Sang In; Kim, In Ho

    2016-05-01

    This study sought to determine whether fermentation could increase apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of dry matter (DM), nitrogen (N), energy (E) and amino acids (AA) in fermented soybean meal (FSBM) greater than that of soybean meal (SBM) in weaned pigs. Four weaned pigs (10.00 ± 0.30 kg) were surgically equipped with T-cannulas and randomly followed a 4 × 4 Latin square design of treatments (SBM, FSBM, fish meal and spray-dried plasma protein). Overall, the fermentation process was able to reduce the amount of anti-nutritional factors (ANF), including trypsin inhibitors, raffinose and stachyose, in the FSBM diet, which were significantly reduced by 39.4, 92.2, and 92.9%, respectively, as compared to the SBM diet. As a consequence of ANF reduction in FSBM, the AID of DM, N and E as well as AA was significantly greater with FSBM than SBM. Taken all together, the fermentation process improved the nutritional quality of SBM, due to ANF reduction, leading to improvement of digestibility of AA. As such, FSBM can be potentially used as a specialized feed ingredient, especially for young animal diets in an attempt to reduce diet costs. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  13. A review of associations between family or shared meal frequency and dietary and weight status outcomes across the lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulkerson, Jayne A; Larson, Nicole; Horning, Melissa; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    To summarize the research literature on associations between family meal frequency and dietary outcomes as well as weight status across the lifespan. Reviewed literature of family or shared meals with dietary and weight outcomes in youth, adults, and older adults. Across the lifespan, eating with others, particularly family, is associated with healthier dietary outcomes. Among children and adolescents, these findings appear to be consistent for both boys and girls, whereas mixed findings are seen by gender for adult men and women. The findings of associations between family or shared meals and weight outcomes across the lifespan are less consistent and more complicated than those of dietary outcomes. Now is the time for the field to improve understanding of the mechanisms involved in the positive associations seen with family meal frequency, and to move forward with implementing interventions aimed at increasing the frequency of, and improving the quality of, food served at family meals, and evaluating their impact. Given the more limited findings of associations between family or shared meals and weight outcomes, capitalizing on the positive benefits of family and shared meals while addressing the types of foods served, portion sizes, and other potential mechanisms may have a significant impact on obesity prevention and reduction. Future research recommendations are provided. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Eating School Meals Daily Is Associated with Healthier Dietary Intakes: The Healthy Communities Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Lauren E; Gurzo, Klara; Gosliner, Wendi; Webb, Karen L; Crawford, Patricia B; Ritchie, Lorrene D

    2018-03-16

    Research on the association between school meal consumption and overall dietary intake post-Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act implementation is limited. This study examines the association between frequency of participating in the National School Lunch and School Breakfast Programs and children's dietary intakes. The Healthy Communities Study was a cross-sectional observational study conducted between 2013 and 2015. US children aged 4 to 15 years (n=5,106) were included. Dietary measures were assessed using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Dietary Screener Questionnaire. Dietary intake included fruit and vegetables, fiber, whole grains, dairy, calcium, total added sugar, sugar-sweetened beverages, and energy-dense foods of minimal nutritional value. Multivariate statistical models assessed associations between frequency of eating school breakfast or lunch (every day vs not every day) and dietary intake, adjusting for child- and community-level covariates. Children who ate school breakfast every day compared with children who ate 0 to 4 days/wk, reported consuming more fruits and vegetables (0.1 cup/day, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.1), dietary fiber (0.4 g/day, 95% CI: 0.2, 0.7), whole grains (0.1 oz/day, 95% CI: 0.05, 0.1), dairy (0.1 cup/day, 95% CI: 0.05, 0.1), and calcium (34.5 mg/day, 95% CI: 19.1, 49.9). Children who ate school lunch every day, compared with those who ate less frequently, consumed more dairy (0.1 cup/day, 95% CI: 0.1, 0.2) and calcium (32.4 mg/day, 95% CI: 18.1, 46.6). No significant associations were observed between school meal consumption and energy-dense nutrient-poor foods or added sugars. Eating school breakfast and school lunch every day by US schoolchildren was associated with modestly healthier dietary intakes. These findings suggest potential nutritional benefits of regularly consuming school meals. Copyright © 2018 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of partial replacement of fish meal by yeast hydrolysate on complement system and stress resistance in juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiang-Yang; Liu, Wen-Bin; Liang, Chao; Sun, Cun-Xin; Xue, Yun-Fei; Wan, Zu-De; Jiang, Guang-Zhen

    2017-08-01

    A 10-week feeding trial was carried out to investigate the effects of dietary fish meal replacement by yeast hydrolysate (YH) on growth performance, complement system and stress resistance of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) (initial average weight 19.44 ± 0.06 g). In the study, there were five groups: one control group was fed with a basal diet (YH0), and four treatment groups were fed with dietary fish meal replaced by 1% YH (YH1), 3% (YH3), 5% (YH5) and 7% (YH7), respectively. Each group had four replicates. At the end of feeding trial, twelve fish from each group (three fish per replicate) were randomly selected for assessing the growth and immunity. Meanwhile, 20 fish per replicate were injected by Aeromonas hydrophila. The results showed that (1) Replacement levels of YH significantly affected the growth of the fish with the highest values of weight gain (WG) occurred in fish fed YH3 diet. However, no significant difference in feed conversion ratios (FCR) was observed among all groups. (2) Pre-stressed plasma lysozyme activity, total protein and albumin contents and complement component 3 (C3) and complement component 4 (C4) levels of fish fed YH3 diet were significantly higher than those of fish fed YH0 diet. However, post-stressed immune parameters of fish in all groups were significantly lower. (3) There was a trend that the expression levels of the complement-related genes (c1r/s-A, c4-1, c3-H1, c5-1, fb/c2-A, mbl-2 and masp) initially increased and then decreased except mbl-2 and masp, with the maximum values observed in fish fed YH3 diet. Before stress, the expression levels of the inflammation-related genes (alp, il-1β and tnf-α) in the hepatopancreas and spleen of fish fed YH1 diet and YH7 diet were significant higher than that of fish fed YH0 diet. After stress, no significant difference in the expression levels of those genes was observed among all groups. These results indicated that FM replacement by YH could improve growth

  16. The treatment of fish meal with gamma radiation - effect on protein fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchman, W.; Konieczny, P.; Zabielski, J.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was determination of the gamma radiation effect on changes of protein fraction of fish meal. For determination of the changes seven dose levels (0-20 kGy) were applied. The doses up to 5 kGy did not influence significantly on solubility, aminoacids composition, content of amino-nitrogen and enzymatic digestibility of proteins in vitro. For 5-10 kGy doses an insignificant decrease of the content of tryptophan was observed. The dose of 5 kGy is quite satisfactory in elimination of vegetative forms of most pathogens. For elimination of yeasts and moulds, the doses up to 10 kGy have to be applied. In this situation supplementation the fish meal with tryptophan is recommended

  17. Dietary diversity, meal frequency and associated factors among infant and young children in Northwest Ethiopia: a cross- sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyene, Melkamu; Worku, Abebaw Gebeyehu; Wassie, Molla Mesele

    2015-10-03

    Inappropriate feeding practice increases risk of under nutrition, illness, and mortality amongst children less than 2 years of age. The objective of this study is to assess minimum dietary diversity, meal frequency and its associated factors among infant and young children aged 6-23 months in Dangila Town, Northwest Ethiopia. A community based cross sectional study was conducted. Simple random sampling technique was used to select study participants. Interviewer administered questionnaire were used. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses was employed to identify factors associated with minimum dietary diversity and meal frequency. A total of 920 children 6-23 months were included. Proportion of children who met the minimum dietary diversity and meal frequency was 12.6 and 50.4 %, respectively. Mothers education [AOR =2.52], age of a child [AOR = 2.05], birth order of index child [AOR = 2.08], living in urban area [AOR = 2.09], having home gardening [AOR = 2.03], and media exposure [AOR = 2.74] were positively associated with dietary diversity. Moreover, age of the child [AOR = 3.03], birth order of index child [AOR = 1.58], mothers involvement in decision making [AOR = 1.51], media exposure [AOR = 2.62], and having postnatal visit [AOR = 2.30] were positively associated with meal frequency. The proportion of children who received minimum dietary diversity and meal frequency was low. Being at younger age, first birth order, and lack of media exposure affect both dietary diversity and meal frequency. Increasing mother's education, home gardening, mass media promotion and empowering women in decision making are highly recommended to increase dietary diversity and meal frequency.

  18. NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF CHICKEN OFFAL AS REPLACEMENT FOR LOCAL FISH MEAL IN GROWING SNAILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A OMOLE

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of ninety six growing snails of mean weight 91.23±2.4g were used to determine the effects of partial or total replacement of local fish meal, a source of protein but expensive to a less expensive, alternative source, chicken offal in the diet of growing snails. Completely randomized design was used for the study. The feeding trial had four treatments, C1, C2, C3 and C4 in which fish meal fraction of the diets was replaced at 0, 50, 75 and 100% with chicken offal respectively. The parameters taken were weight gain, feed intake. Feed conversion ratio, total feed cost, and cost per weight gain were calculated. The trial lasted for twelve weeks. Significant differences were not observed in the mean weekly feed intake of the snails in all the treatments. The mean weight gain in all the treatments were not significantly influenced by the inclusion of chicken offal in the diet (P>0.005. Total feed cost and cost/weight gain reduced as the level of the chicken offal increased while the lowest cost/weight gain was observed in C4. The inclusion of Chicken offal in all the diets had no detrimental effect on the snails in all the treatments. Based on the present results chicken offal could replace local fish meal in the diet of growing snail up to 100% and hereby reduce feed cost

  19. Acceptance of fish hamburgers in school meals in the Southwest Region of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandra Schuastz BREDA

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The regular consumption of fish provides health gains for people, and its introduction in school meals is an important strategy to insert the habit of consuming this food by a population. Thus the objective of this study was to verify the acceptance of fish, presented in the form of hamburger, by children in municipal primary schools in the town of Pato Branco, Brazil, in which the school cooks had been trained to produce fish hamburgers. Acceptance was evaluated using a hedonic scale with 5 facial classifications (1 = disliked extremely to 5 = liked extremely. Students of both genders from 5 to 10 years of age (n = 142 were served the hamburgers for their midday meal, representing the protein portion of the meal. The results were analyzed by logistic regression. No effect of age or gender was observed between the children in the acceptance of the hamburgers, but the interaction between age and gender was significant. The cluster analysis was applied to distinguish this interaction using two-way joining to present the results, which showed the effect between specific age and gender situations. The acceptance index was 87% showing the potential for the consumption of this food by children.

  20. Examining the relationship between family meal frequency and individual dietary intake: does family cohesion play a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Ericka M; French, Simone A; Wall, Melanie

    2011-01-01

    To confirm previously reported associations between family meal frequency and dietary intake, and to examine family cohesion as a potential mediator of this relationship. Cross-sectional observational study. Data collected at baseline via questionnaire. Randomized, controlled household weight gain prevention trial. Participants were 152 adults and 75 adolescents from 90 community households. Family meal frequency assessed with a single question. Perceived family cohesion measured by the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale-III. Usual intake of targeted food items assessed with modified food frequency questionnaire. Hierarchical linear regression with mediation analysis. Statistical significance set at α-level .05. Family meal frequency was associated with intake of fruits and vegetables in adults, and sweets and sugar-sweetened beverages in adolescents. Family meal frequency was positively correlated with perceived family cohesion (r = 0.41, P family cohesion was observed for family meal frequency and sweets intake in adolescents. Results suggest that family cohesion is not a consistent mediator of relationship between family meal frequency and individual dietary intake. Future studies should assess additional plausible mediators of this relationship in order to better understand the effect of family meals on dietary intake. Copyright © 2011 Society for Nutrition Education. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Utilization of fish meal and fish oil for production of Cryptococcus sp. MTCC 5455 lipase and hydrolysis of polyurethane thereof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirunavukarasu, K; Purushothaman, S; Gowthaman, M K; Nakajima-Kambe, T; Rose, C; Kamini, N R

    2015-09-01

    Fish meal has been used as an additional nitrogen source and fish oil as inducer for the growth and production of lipase from Cryptococcus sp. MTCC 5455. A response surface design illustrated that the optimum factors influencing lipase production were fish meal, 1.5 %, w/v, Na2HPO4, 0.2 %, w/v, yeast extract, 0.25 %, w/v and sardine oil, 2.0 %, w/v with an activity of 71.23 U/mL at 96 h and 25 °C, which was 48.39 % higher than the conventional one-factor-at-a-time method. The crude concentrated enzyme hydrolyzed polyurethane (PUR) efficiently and hydrolysis was 94 % at 30 °C and 96 h. The products, diethylene glycol and adipic acid were quantified by HPLC and scanning electron microscopic studies of the degraded polymer showed significant increase in size of the holes from 24 to 72 h of incubation. Hydrolysis of PUR within 96 h makes the lipase novel for disposal of PUR and provides an innovative solution to the problems created by plastic wastes.

  2. Energy concentration and phosphorus digestibility in yeast products produced from the ethanol industry, and in brewers' yeast, fish meal, and soybean meal fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, B G; Liu, Y; Stein, H H

    2014-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the DE, ME, and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in 2 novel sources of yeast (C-yeast and S-yeast) and in brewers' yeast, fish meal, and soybean meal fed to growing pigs. The 2 new sources of yeast are coproducts from the dry-grind ethanol industry. The concentrations of DM, GE, and P were 94.8%, 5,103 kcal/kg, and 1.07% in C-yeast; 94.4%, 4,926 kcal/kg, and 2.01% in S-yeast; 93.6%, 4,524 kcal/kg, and 1.40% in brewers' yeast; 91.4%, 4,461 kcal/kg, and 3.26% in fish meal; and 87.7%, 4,136 kcal/kg, and 0.70% in soybean meal, respectively. The DE and ME in each of the ingredients were determined using 42 growing barrows (28.9±2.18 kg BW). A corn-based basal diet and 5 diets containing corn and 24% to 40% of each test ingredient were formulated. The total collection method was used to collect feces and urine, and the difference procedure was used to calculate values for DE and ME in each ingredient. The concentrations of DE in corn, C-yeast, S-yeast, brewers' yeast, fish meal, and soybean meal were 4,004, 4,344, 4,537, 4,290, 4,544, and 4,362 kcal/kg DM (SEM=57), respectively, and the ME values were 3,879, 3,952, 4,255, 3,771, 4,224, and 4,007 kcal/kg DM (SEM=76), respectively. The ME in S-yeast and fish meal were greater (P<0.05) than the ME in corn and brewers' yeast, whereas the ME in C-yeast and soybean meal were not different from those of any of the other ingredients. The STTD of P in the 5 ingredients was determined using 42 barrows (28.3±7.21 kg BW) that were placed in metabolism cages. Five diets were formulated to contain each test ingredient as the sole source of P, and a P-free diet was used to estimate the basal endogenous loss of P. Feces were collected for 5 d using the marker to marker method after a 5-d adaptation period. The STTD of P in brewers' yeast (85.2%) was greater (P<0.05) than the STTD of P in all the other ingredients except S-yeast (75.7%). The STTD of P in C-yeast (73.9%) was

  3. Replacement of fish meal protein by surimi by-product protein in the diet of blue gourami Trichogaster trichopterus fingerlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanta, K N; Subramanian, S; Korikanthimath, V S

    2013-02-01

    Based on the nutrient requirement of Trichogaster trichopterus, a fish meal-based basal diet with 350 g/kg diet crude protein and 16.7 MJ/kg energy was formulated, in which the fish meal protein was replaced by surimi by-product protein at 0.0 (control), 12.5, 25, 50, 75 and 100% levels. The formulated diets were fed ad libitum to T. trichopterus fingerlings (4.80 ± 0.03 g) in triplicate groups for 45 days in a closed water system. Eighteen fibre-reinforced plastic tanks with 200 l of water were used for rearing the fish. Weight gain, specific growth rate, feed/gain ratio, protein efficiency ratio, nutrient retention and digestibility (protein and energy) of fish were not affected (p > 0.05) up to 50% fish meal protein replacement level by surimi by-product protein. While whole-body protein content of fish was marginally decreased, the lipid content was increased with increase in surumi by-product incorporation level in the diet. The study results suggest that the fish meal protein, which is scarce and costly nowadays, could be replaced up to 50% by surimi by-product protein in the diet of blue gourami without hampering the growth and nutrient utilization of fish. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Assessment of the effects of fish meal, wheat gluten, soy protein concentrate and feed moisture on extruder system parameters and the technical quality of fish feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draganovic, V.; Goot, van der A.J.; Boom, R.M.; Jonkers, J.

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of feed ingredient functionality plays a vital role in modern fish feed manufacturing practice. The aim of this study was to examine the extrusion behaviour of blends containing alternative protein sources from plant origin to fish meal (FM), such as wheat gluten (WG) and soy protein

  5. Appetitive and Dietary Effects of Consuming an Energy-Dense Food (Peanuts with or between Meals by Snackers and Nonsnackers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Devitt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Energy-dense foods are inconsistently implicated in elevated energy intake (EI. This may stem from other food properties and/or differences in dietary incorporation, that is, as snacks or with meals. Objective. Assess intake pattern and food properties on acute appetitive ratings (AR and EI. Design. 201 normal and overweight adults consuming a standard lunch. Test loads of 1255.2 kJ (300 kcal were added to the lunch or provided as snack. Loads (peanuts, snack mix, and snack mix with peanuts were energy, macronutrient, and volumetrically matched with a lunch portion as control. Participants completed meal and snack sessions of their randomly assigned load. Results. No differences were observed in daily EI or AR for meal versus snack or treatment versus control. Consumption of peanuts as a snack tended to strengthen dietary compensation compared to peanuts or other loads with a meal. Conclusions. Inclusion of an energy-dense food as a snack or meal component had comparable influence on AR and EI. Peanuts tended to elicit stronger dietary compensation when consumed as a snack versus with a meal. If substantiated, this latter observation suggests that properties other than those controlled here (energy, macronutrient content, and volume modify AR and EI.

  6. EFFECT OF DIETARY RAW CHICKPEA (Cicer arietinum L.) SEEDS REPLACEMENT GROUNDNUT MEAL, SESAME MEAL ON BROILER PERFORMANCE AND BLOOD CONSTITUENTS

    OpenAIRE

    T.A. Algam; Kh.A. Abdel Atti; B.M. Dousa; S.M. Elawad; B.A. Atta Elmanan

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of chickpea seeds on performance and blood constituents of broilers. One hundred and twenty eight unsexed one day old (Ross) broiler chicks were randomly assigned to four approximately isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets labeled as follows: Diet (F0) containing 0% chickpea (control diet), diet (F1) 10% chickpea substitute same levels of sesame meal and groundnuts meal, diet (F2) 10% chickpea substitute from groundnuts meal only and diet (F3) ...

  7. Impact of Diets Containing Plant Raw Materials as Fish Meal and Fish Oil Replacement on Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata, and Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio Freshness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorakis Kriton

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate whether the total or high substitution of fish meal (FM and fish oil (FO by sustainable plant raw materials (plant meal and oils in long-term feeding for rainbow trout, gilthead sea bream, and common carp can result in spoilage alterations during ice storage. These three species were fed throughout their whole rearing cycle with plant-based diets and compared to counterparts that received FM/FO-based diets or commercial-like diets. Sensory QIM schemes adopted for these species and ATP breakdown products (K-value and components were used to evaluate the freshness. Sensory acceptability of 14, 15, and 12 days was found for rainbow trout, gilthead sea bream, and common carp, respectively. This corresponded to K-values of approximately 80%, 35%, and 65% for rainbow trout, gilthead sea bream, and common carp, respectively. No major effect of dietary history on postmortem shelf life was shown for gilthead sea bream and common carp; neither sensory-perceived nor chemical freshness showed diet-related differences. Rainbow trout fed with the plant-based diet exhibited slightly worse sensory freshness than fish fed with FM/FO-based diets, at the end of shelf life. These findings imply that FM and FO can be successfully substituted without major impacts on shelf life of fish.

  8. What's Being Served for Dinner? An Exploratory Investigation of the Associations between the Healthfulness of Family Meals and Child Dietary Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofholz, Amanda C; Tate, Allan D; Draxten, Michelle L; Rowley, Seth S; Schulte, Anna K; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; MacLehose, Richard F; Berge, Jerica M

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the healthfulness of foods offered at family meals or the relationship between the food's healthfulness and child overall dietary intake. This exploratory study uses a newly developed Healthfulness of Meal Index to examine the association between the healthfulness of foods served at family dinners and child dietary intake. Direct observational, cross-sectional study. Primarily low-income, minority families (n=120) video recorded 8 days of family dinners and completed a corresponding meal screener. Dietary recalls were completed on the target child (6 to 12 years old). The Healthfulness of Meal Index was used to measure meal healthfulness and included component scores for whole fruit, 100% juice, vegetables, dark green vegetables, dairy, protein, added sugars, and high-sodium foods. Child dietary intake measured by three 24-hour dietary recalls. Linear regression models estimated the association between the healthfulness of foods served at dinner meals and overall child HEI. The majority of coded meals included foods from protein and high-sodium components; more than half included foods from dairy and vegetable components. Nearly half of the meals had an added-sugar component food (eg, soda or dessert). Few meals served foods from fruit, 100% juice, or dark green vegetable components. Many components served at family dinner meals were significantly associated with child daily intake of those same foods (ie, dark green vegetable, non-dark green vegetables, dairy, and added sugars). The Healthfulness of Meal Index total score was significantly associated with child HEI score. This study represents the first report of a new methodology to collect data of foods served at family dinners. Results indicated a significant association between the majority of components served at family dinner meals and child overall dietary intake. Validation of the Healthfulness of Meal Index and video-recorded family meal methodology is needed to strengthen these

  9. Effects of Increasing Levels of Dietary Cooked and Uncooked Banana Meal on Growth Performance and Carcass Parameters of Broiler Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S.B.M Atapattu* and T.S.M.S. Senevirathne

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Discarded banana is a valuable feed ingredient for poultry feed formulations. However, due to the presence of resistant starches, inclusion of more than 10% banana meal in poultry rations reduces the growth performance. The objective of this study was to determine whether higher levels of banana meal could be included in broiler diets if raw banana is cooked before being processed into meal. Discarded banana (Cavendish collected at harvesting was processed into two types of banana meals. Cooked banana meal was prepared by cooking banana at 100oC for 15 minutes and subsequent drying. Uncooked banana meal was prepared by drying at 800C for three days. Giving a 2 x 4 factorial arrangement, 144 broiler chicks in 48 cages received one of the eight experimental diets containing either cooked or uncooked banana meal at 0, 10, 20 or 30% ad libitum from day 21-42. Birds fed cooked banana meal were significantly heavier on day 28 and 35. Live weight on day 42, weight gain, feed intake or feed conversion efficiency were not affected either by the type or level of banana meal and their interaction. Cooked banana meal increased the weights of the crop and liver significantly. Weight of the small intestine, proventriculus, gizzard abdominal fat pad and the fat free tibia ash contents were not affected by the dietary treatments. It was concluded that uncooked banana meal produced using peeled raw banana can be included up to 30% in nutritionally balanced broiler finisher diets without any adverse effects on performance.

  10. Impact of replacing fish meal by a mixture of different plant protein sources on the growth performance in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Thobaiti, A; Al-Ghanim, K; Ahmed, Z; Suliman, E M; Mahboob, S

    2017-10-23

    The present study aimed to assess the appropriate level of replacement of fish meal (FM) with alternative plant sources in the feed fed to Oreochromis niloticus to evaluate the growth performance. Three isoproteinious (40% crude protein) diets were prepared from different ingredients viz., fish meal, corn gluten meal, wheat gluten meal, and bagasse kenna meal. O. niloticus showed a maximum increase in weight as 9.70, 11.09, 8.53 and 8.32 g during the 2nd, 2nd, 3rd and 2nd fortnight with feeding treatment A, B, C and D, respectively. The growth performance of the fish in terms of weight gain, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio were found to be significantly (P replacement of fishmeal in diet B. The worst growth performance was observed in fish fed with commercial diet, designated as diet D. It was concluded that the fish meal can be replaced up to 20 percent with other plant protein sources without any negative impact on fish health. The replacement of fish meal with local plant sources (corn gluten meal, wheat gluten meal, soybean meal and bagasse kenna mix) will not only be beneficial to achieve better growth performance in O. niloticus, it will be a value addition as well.

  11. Examining the Relationship between Family Meal Frequency and Individual Dietary Intake: Does Family Cohesion Play a Role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Ericka M.; French, Simone A.; Wall, Melanie

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To confirm previously reported associations between family meal frequency and dietary intake, and to examine family cohesion as a potential mediator of this relationship. Design: Cross-sectional observational study. Data collected at baseline via questionnaire. Setting: Randomized, controlled household weight gain prevention trial.…

  12. Postprandial lipid responses of butter blend containing fish oil in a single-meal study in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Julie; Porsgaard, Trine; Guo, Zheng

    2008-01-01

    The postprandial effects of a butter product containing fish oil were investigated in a single-meal, randomized crossover study with a commercial butter product as the control. Twelve healthy males consumed two test meals with (13)C-labelled cholesterol (45 mg) and either an interesterified butter...... blend with fish oil (352 mg n-3 long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA)) or the commercial butter blend. Blood samples were collected after the meals and in the fasting condition on the test day and the following morning, and were analysed for cholesterol absorption, plasma lipid profile and fatty acid composition....... No significant difference in the postprandial plasma fatty acid composition was observed between the groups, neither difference in cholesterol absorption, plasma cholesterol or the cholesterol contents of plasma lipoproteins. The incorporation of fish oil in the butter resulted in a significant lower...

  13. Replacement of fish meal by protein soybean concentrate in practical diets for Pacific white shrimp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Soares

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of Litopenaeus vannameifed different levels (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% of soybean protein concentrate (63.07% crude protein, CP to replace fish meal-by product (61.24% CP. The study was conducted in clear water in fifteen 800 L tanks equipped with aeration systems, constant heating (29 ºC, and daily water exchange (30%. Each tank was stocked with 37.5 shrimp/m3 (3.03±0.14 g. Feed was supplied four times a day, at 6% of the initial biomass, adjusted daily. After 42 days, the weight gain of shrimp fed diets with 0 and 25% protein replacement was higher than that observed in shrimp fed 100% replacement, and there were no differences among those fed the other diets. Feed efficiency and survival did not differ among shrimp fed different protein replacements. There was a negative linear trend for growth parameters and feed intake as protein replacement with soybean protein concentrate increased. Fish meal by-product can be replaced by up to 75% of soybean protein concentrate, with no harm to the growth of Pacific white shrimp.

  14. The contribution of school meals to energy and nutrient intake of Swedish children in relation to dietary guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Persson Osowski

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Sweden, school meals are served free of charge and Swedish law states that school meals must be nutritious. Nevertheless, data on children's energy and nutrient intake from school meals are scarce. Objective: The aim was to describe the contribution of school meals to Swedish children's nutrient and energy intake during weekdays and compare this to the reference values based on the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR, which have been adopted as the official Swedish recommendations. Design: A cross-sectional food consumption survey was performed on 1,840 Swedish children attending Grade 2 (mean age 8.6 and Grade 5 (mean age 11.7. The children's nutrient and energy intake was compared to the reference values based on the NNR. Results: The mean intake from school meals of energy, carbohydrates, dietary fiber, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, and vitamins D and E did not reach the reference values and the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA and sodium exceeded the reference values in both age groups (significant differences, all p≤0.001. Additionally, the pupils in Grade 5 did not reach the reference values for folate, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, selenium, and zinc (significant differences, all p≤0.001. Standardized for energy, dietary fiber, PUFA, and vitamins D and E did not reach the reference values, whereas the reference values for SFA and sodium were exceeded in both age groups (significant differences, all p≤0.001. Conclusions: The study pointed to some central nutrients in need of improvement as regards school meals in Sweden, namely the quality of fat, dietary fiber, sodium, vitamin D, and iron. Some of these results may be attributed to the children not reporting eating the recommended number of calories, the children omitting some components of the meal, or underreporting, as a consequence of which the reference values for several nutrients were not met.

  15. Postprandial lipid responses of butter blend containing fish oil in a single-meal study in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overgaard, Julie; Porsgaard, Trine; Guo, Zheng; Lauritzen, Lotte; Mu, Huiling

    2008-10-01

    The postprandial effects of a butter product containing fish oil were investigated in a single-meal, randomized crossover study with a commercial butter product as the control. Twelve healthy males consumed two test meals with (13)C-labelled cholesterol (45 mg) and either an interesterified butter blend with fish oil (352 mg n-3 long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA)) or the commercial butter blend. Blood samples were collected after the meals and in the fasting condition on the test day and the following morning, and were analysed for cholesterol absorption, plasma lipid profile and fatty acid composition. No significant difference in the postprandial plasma fatty acid composition was observed between the groups, neither difference in cholesterol absorption, plasma cholesterol or the cholesterol contents of plasma lipoproteins. The incorporation of fish oil in the butter resulted in a significant lower concentration of triacylglycerols in the plasma 2 h after the meal in comparison with the commercial butter blend (p = 0.02); there was, however, no significant difference 24 h after the meal. In conclusion, fish oil-enriched butter blend provides a source to increase the intake of n-3 LCPUFA in the population, but has no acute effect on cholesterol absorption and plasma cholesterol concentration in human.

  16. Full replacement of menhaden fish meal protein by low-gossypol cottonseed flour protein in the diet of juvenile black sea bass Centropristis striata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eight iso-nitrogeneous (46% crude protein) and iso-lipidic (14% crude lipid) diets were formulated and prepared to replace menhaden fish meal (FM) protein (59.5% CP) by low-gossypol glandless meal (GCSM) protein (50.4% CP), solvent-extracted cottonseed meal (SCSM) protein (53.8% protein) and high go...

  17. Impact of replacing fish meal by a mixture of different plant protein sources on the growth performance in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) diets

    OpenAIRE

    A. Al-Thobaiti; K. Al-Ghanim; Z. Ahmed; E. M. Suliman; S. Mahboob

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The present study aimed to assess the appropriate level of replacement of fish meal (FM) with alternative plant sources in the feed fed to Oreochromis niloticus to evaluate the growth performance. Three isoproteinious (40% crude protein) diets were prepared from different ingredients viz., fish meal, corn gluten meal, wheat gluten meal, and bagasse kenna meal. O. niloticus showed a maximum increase in weight as 9.70, 11.09, 8.53 and 8.32 g during the 2nd, 2nd, 3rd and 2nd fortnight w...

  18. How we eat what we eat: identifying meal routines and practices most strongly associated with healthy and unhealthy dietary factors among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laska, Melissa N; Hearst, Mary O; Lust, Katherine; Lytle, Leslie A; Story, Mary

    2015-08-01

    (i) To examine associations between young adults' meal routines and practices (e.g. food preparation, meal skipping, eating on the run) and key dietary indicators (fruit/vegetable, fast-food and sugar-sweetened beverage intakes) and (ii) to develop indices of protective and risky meal practices most strongly associated with diet. Cross-sectional survey. Minneapolis/St. Paul metropolitan area, Minnesota (USA). A diverse sample of community college and public university students (n 1013). Meal routines and practices most strongly associated with healthy dietary patterns were related to home food preparation (i.e. preparing meals at home, preparing meals with vegetables) and meal regularity (i.e. routine consumption of evening meals and breakfast). In contrast, factors most strongly associated with poor dietary patterns included eating on the run, using media while eating and purchasing foods/beverages on campus. A Protective Factors Index, summing selected protective meal routines and practices, was positively associated with fruit/vegetable consumption and negatively associated with fast-food and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption (PMeal routines and practices were significantly associated with young adults' dietary patterns, suggesting that ways in which individuals structure mealtimes and contextual characteristics of eating likely influence food choice. Thus, in addition to considering specific food choices, it also may be important to consider the context of mealtimes in developing dietary messaging and guidelines.

  19. Effects of mannan oligosaccharide and inulin on sharpsnout seabream (Diplodus puntazzo) in the context of partial fish meal substitution by soybean meal

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Piccolo; Gerardo Centoducati; Fulvia Bovera; Raffaele Marrone; Antonino Nizza

    2013-01-01

    One hundred forty-four sharpsnout seabream of about 100 g initial body weight were randomly stocked in 12 experiment tanks (180 L). Testing conditions included 12 fish per tank, with triplicate tanks for treatment. The experimental period lasted 150 days. Average water temperature was 21.9±1.6°C, salinity was 30.0‰ and pH ranged from 7 to 8, throughout the experiment. A control diet (FM) was made from fish meal. One similar diet (SBM) was made with approximately 40% of the protein supplied by...

  20. Dietary sources of polyphenols in the Mediterranean healthy Eating, Aging and Lifestyle (MEAL) study cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godos, Justyna; Marventano, Stefano; Mistretta, Antonio; Galvano, Fabio; Grosso, Giuseppe

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the dietary intake and major food sources of polyphenols in the Mediterranean healthy Eating, Aging and Lifestyles (MEAL) study cohort. A total of 1937 individuals (18 + y) of urban population of Catania, Italy, completed a validated 110-item food frequency questionnaire; Phenol-Explorer database was used to estimate polyphenol intake. Mean intake of polyphenols was 663.7 mg/d; the most abundant classes were phenolic acids (362.7 mg/d) and flavonoids (258.7 mg/d). The main dietary sources of total polyphenols were nuts, followed by tea and coffee as source of flavanols and hydroxycinnamic acids, respectively, fruits (i.e. cherries were sources of anthocyanins and citrus fruits of flavanones) and vegetables (i.e. artichokes and olives were sources of flavones and spinach and beans of flavonols); chocolate, red wine and pasta contributed to flavanols and tyrosols, respectively. These findings will be useful to assess the potential benefits of foods with high polyphenol content.

  1. Skipping of meals has a significant impact on dietary intake and nutritional status of old (65+ y) nursing home residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, A M; Ovesen, L

    2004-01-01

    In spite of a high prevalence of undernutrition among old nursing home residents, studies have generally reported a mean intake of energy sufficient to cover the mean estimated energy requirement. This discrepancy could be due to skipping of meals and hence periods of insufficient energy intake too intermittent to be identified, when mean results are presented. To examine the significance of skipping of (part of) meals on dietary intake and nutritional status of old (65+y) nursing home residents. Participants were 132 nursing home residents (84 (82-85) y). They were characterised according to activity of daily living-functions (ADL-functions), cognitive performance, intake of energy and protein (4-days dietary record), skipping of meals, energy and protein balance, and nutritional status (body mass index (BMI)). The participants had an energy intake, which was significantly higher than the estimated energy requirement (p eat or only had desert at one or more meals during the 4-day registration period. Participants who were skipping meals had a lower BMI, energy and protein intake (all p <0.001) and a higher prevalence of negative protein balance (p <0.01), than the other residents. More focus should be given to individualized nutritional assessment in order to discover the cause to this problem and target individuals who could be helped by nutritional intervention.

  2. Sheep response to fish meal supplements for diets based on industrial by-products or native pastures of the Peruvian High Andes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talavera, V.

    1987-01-01

    Rumen degradabilities were determined for various proteins by incubation for 48 h in nylon bags. Values obtained were 37.3% for corn grain and feather meal, 59.6% for alfalfa meal, 63.4% for cottonseed meal, 66.8% for soybean meal and 68.0% for rice polishings. Fish meal protein degradability was less than 45%. Sheep given either cottonseed meal or fish meal as sources of 'bypass' protein did not show differences in daily gain or intake. Fish meal diets gave better feed/gain ratios. Fish meal or urea supplementation of a basal diet containing 4.6% crude protein increased feed intake, daily gain, the feed/gain ratio and wool staple length. Castrated sheep grazing native pastures of the Peruvian Andes (altitude approximately 3800 m) during either the rainy or dry season did not show significant improvement in growth rate with fish meal supplementation. Supplementation of ewes at first mating produced higher weights at the end of gestation, as well as an increase in the number and weight of lambs born, in the weaning rate and in wool weight from the ewes. (author)

  3. Evaluation of elevated dietary corn fiber from corn germ meal in growing female pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, T E; Trabue, S L; Ziemer, C J; Kerr, B J

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of dietary hemicellulose from corn on growth and metabolic measures, female pigs (n = 48; initial BW 30.8 kg) were fed diets containing 0 to 38.6% solvent-extracted corn germ meal for 28 d. Increasing the hemicellulose level had no impact on ADG or ADFI, but resulted in a quadratic response (P dietary hemicellulose, blood, colon contents, and tissue samples from the liver and intestine were obtained from a subset (n = 16; 8 pigs/treatment) of pigs fed the least and greatest hemicellulose levels. The abundance of phospho-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the mitochondrial respiratory protein, cytochrome C oxidase II (COXII) were determined in liver, jejunum, ileum, and colon by Western blotting. The mRNA expression levels of AMPKalpha1, AMPKalpha2, PPAR coactivator 1alpha (PGC1-alpha), PPARgamma2, and sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) were determined in liver and intestinal tissues. When compared with pigs fed the control diet, pigs fed the high hemicellulose diet had increased (P alkaline phosphatase activity was increased (P effect on phospho-AMPK, AMPK mRNA, or colonic VFA, but in pigs consuming the high fiber diet there was a greater (P dietary fiber in liver, jejunum, or ileum tissue. In colon tissue from pigs fed the high fiber diet there was an increase (P < 0.09) in Sirt1 mRNA and a trend (P < 0.12) toward increased of PGC1-alpha mRNA. These data suggest that alterations in metabolism involved in adaptation to a diet high in hemicellulose are associated with increased colonic Sirt1 mRNA and COXII expression, indicating an increased propensity for oxidative metabolism by the intestine.

  4. Minimizing use of fish meal in sunshine bass diets using standard and new varieties of non-genetically modified soybeans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improved plant ingredients are needed to support sustainable culture of carnivorous fish, such as hybrid striped bass (HSB). We are evaluating meals made from new strains of non-genetically-modified soybeans (non-GMO) with high protein and reduced anti-nutritional factors (ANFs) on HSB nutrient dige...

  5. Comparison of chemical, electrophoretic and in vitro digestion methods for predicting fish meal nutritive quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassompierre, M.; Larsen, K.L.; Zimmermann, W.

    1998-01-01

    different quantities of water-soluble protein (wsp). A low-temperature-dried FM was employed as a reference. Acquired chemical data for each of the FMs included amino acid analysis and proximal composition (protein, fat, ash, ammonia, titration, salt, moisture). Biological methods in rat (net protein......Chemical, electrophoretic and in vitro digestion methods were compared with respect to predictions given regarding fish meal (FM) quality. FMs were manufactured by mixing a press-cake, with spray dried stickwater concentrate from the identical raw material, thereby providing samples containing...... comparisons with FM wsp content. A high correlation (R = 0.97; P titration volume was observed. In contrast to BV and NPU (R = 0.98; P

  6. Effects of dietary supplementation with krill meal on pigmentation and quality of flesh of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Sirri

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Effects of administration of krill meal and synthetic astaxanthin during the finisher phase of the fattening cycle of rainbow trout on flesh pigmentation and quality traits were studied. The inclusion of krill meal increased the body weight and size and decreased the peri-visceral fat and visceral weight indices. The astaxanthin diet produced the highest accumulation of total carotenoids in the fillet compared to the krill meal diet: the difference was significant after 15 days of feeding (2.50 vs 2.10 mg/kg till the end of the trial (5.00 vs 4.80 mg/kg. The same pattern was observed for astaxanthin concentration with the highest values in the fillets of fish fed the astaxanthin diet. Fillet lightness (L* was not affected by trout diets whereas redness (a* and yellowness (b* were significantly higher in fish fed the astaxanthin diet until day 30 of the trial. Hue was not affected by feeding, whereas chroma was significantly higher in the fish fed astaxanthin throughout the trial except on day 45 of sampling. Trout fed the krill meal diet had a paler pink-red colour on the SalmoFan scale than those receiving the astaxanthin diet. No significant differences emerged in proximate composition and cholesterol content of trout in the two groups. The fatty acid profile of the fillets reflected the fatty acids of the diets administered to the trout: eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic and docosapentaenoic acids and total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids were significantly higher in the fish fed the krill meal.

  7. Substitution of dietary fish oil with plant oils is associated with shortened mid intestinal folds in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldal, Torfinn; Løkka, Guro; Wiik-Nielsen, Jannicke; Austbø, Lars; Torstensen, Bente E; Rosenlund, Grethe; Dale, Ole Bendik; Kaldhusdal, Magne; Koppang, Erling Olaf

    2014-03-07

    Fish meal and fish oil are increasingly replaced by ingredients from terrestrial sources in the feeds for farmed salmonids due to expanding production and reduced availability of marine feed raw material. Fish oil that is rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is considered beneficial to human health in general and to prevent intestinal inflammation and carcinogenesis in particular. In contrast, n-6 fatty acids that are present in many vegetable oils have been associated with increased risk of colitis and colon cancer in rodents and humans, as well as lowered transcription levels of certain stress and antioxidant-related genes in Atlantic salmon.The aim of the present study was to investigate the intestinal health in Atlantic salmon fed with different vegetable oils as partial substitutes of fish oil in the diet. A feed trial lasting for 28 weeks included one reference diet containing fish oil as the sole lipid source and three diets where 80% of the fish oil was replaced by a plant oil blend with either olive oil, rapeseed oil or soybean oil as the main lipid source. These plant oils have intermediate or low n-3/n-6-ratios compared to fish oil having a high n-3/n-6-ratio. The protein and carbohydrate fractions were identical in all the feeds. Morphometric measurements showed significantly shorter folds in the mid intestine in all groups fed vegetable oils compared to the group fed fish oil. In the distal intestine, the complex folds were significantly shorter in the fish fed soybean oil compared to the fish fed rapeseed oil. Histological and immunohistochemical examination did not show clear difference in the degree of inflammation or proliferation of epithelial cells related to dietary groups, which was further confirmed by real-time RT-PCR which revealed only moderate alterations in the mRNA transcript levels of selected immune-related genes. Shortened intestinal folds might be associated with reduced intestinal surface and impaired nutrient absorption and

  8. Effects of dietary Tenebrio molitor meal inclusion in free-range chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasato, I; De Marco, M; Rotolo, L; Renna, M; Lussiana, C; Dabbou, S; Capucchio, M T; Biasibetti, E; Costa, P; Gai, F; Pozzo, L; Dezzutto, D; Bergagna, S; Martínez, S; Tarantola, M; Gasco, L; Schiavone, A

    2016-12-01

    Insects are currently being considered as a novel protein source for animal feeds, because they contain a large amount of protein. The larvae of Tenebrio molitor (TM) have been shown to be an acceptable protein source for broiler chickens in terms of growth performance, but till now, no data on histological or intestinal morphometric features have been reported. This study has had the aim of evaluating the effects of dietary TM inclusion on the performance, welfare, intestinal morphology and histological features of free-range chickens. A total of 140 medium-growing hybrid female chickens were free-range reared and randomly allotted to two dietary treatments: (i) a control group and (ii) a TM group, in which TM meal was included at 75 g/kg. Each group consisted of five pens as replicates, with 14 chicks per pen. Growth performance, haematological and serum parameters and welfare indicators were evaluated, and the animals were slaughtered at the age of 97 days. Two birds per pen (10 birds/treatment) were submitted to histological (liver, spleen, thymus, bursa of Fabricius, kidney, heart, glandular stomach and gut) and morphometric (duodenum, jejunum and ileum) investigations. The inclusion of TM did not affect the growth performance, haematological or serum parameters. The morphometric and histological features were not significantly affected either, thus suggesting no influence on nutrient metabolization, performance or animal health. Glandular stomach alterations (chronic flogosis with epithelial squamous metaplasia) were considered paraphysiological in relation to free-range farming. The observed chronic intestinal flogosis, with concomitant activation of the lymphoid tissue, was probably due to previous parasitic infections, which are very frequently detected in free-range chickens. In conclusion, the findings of this study show that yellow mealworm inclusion does not affect the welfare, productive performances or morphological features of free-range chickens

  9. Dietary diversity, meal frequency and associated factors among infant and young children in Northwest Ethiopia: a cross- sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Beyene, Melkamu; Worku, Abebaw Gebeyehu; Wassie, Molla Mesele

    2015-01-01

    Background Inappropriate feeding practice increases risk of under nutrition, illness, and mortality amongst children less than 2 years of age. The objective of this study is to assess minimum dietary diversity, meal frequency and its associated factors among infant and young children aged 6–23 months in Dangila Town, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross sectional study was conducted. Simple random sampling technique was used to select study participants. Interviewer administere...

  10. Effects of mannan oligosaccharide and inulin on sharpsnout seabream (Diplodus puntazzo in the context of partial fish meal substitution by soybean meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Piccolo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available One hundred forty-four sharpsnout seabream of about 100 g initial body weight were randomly stocked in 12 experiment tanks (180 L. Testing conditions included 12 fish per tank, with triplicate tanks for treatment. The experimental period lasted 150 days. Average water temperature was 21.9±1.6°C, salinity was 30.0‰ and pH ranged from 7 to 8, throughout the experiment. A control diet (FM was made from fish meal. One similar diet (SBM was made with approximately 40% of the protein supplied by soybean meal. The remaining two diets (SBM-MOS and SBM-INU were formulated adding 8 g of mannanoligosaccharide (MOS and inulin (INU per kg of the SBM diet, respectively. The results showed that mean final weight (average values 234.4 g, specific growth rate (average values 0.585, feed conversion rate (average values 2.05 and protein efficiency ratio (average values 1.01 were unaffected by MOS or INU supplementation to SBM diet. Body proximate composition was affected by MOS and INU supplementation. Fish fed SBM-MOS and SBM-INU diets showed the highest moisture level and the lowest lipid content. Also the total polyunsaturated fatty of the lipids was reduced by MOS and INU in comparison to SBM diet alone.

  11. Effects of dietary sweet potato leaf meal on the growth, non-specific immune responses, total phenols and antioxidant capacity in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochmann, Rebecca T; Islam, Shahidul; Phillips, Harold; Adam, Zelalem; Everette, Jace

    2013-04-01

    Traditional energy sources in catfish diets have become costly, and economical alternatives are needed. Sweet potato leaves are underutilised agricultural by-products that provide energy and substantial amounts of phenols, which affect animal and human health. There is little information on the effects of these compounds on catfish, or the capacity of catfish to accumulate dietary phenols. Catfish enriched with phenols have marketing potential as functional foods. This study investigated the effects of diets with sweet potato leaf meal (SPLM) on growth performance, health and total phenolic compounds in catfish. SPLM was substituted for wheat middlings in three diets fed to groups of juvenile catfish for 10 weeks. Weight gain, feed conversion, survival, alternative complement activity and lysozyme activity were similar among diets. Haematocrit was lower in fish fed diets with SPLM, but within the normal range. Total phenols and antioxidant capacity in the whole body were similar among treatments. SPLM was an effective energy source for catfish up to the maximum level tested (230 g kg(-1) diet). SPLM did not enhance total phenols in catfish, but there were no apparent antinutritional effects of the meal on catfish growth, health or survival. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Effects of dietary inclusions of oilseed meals on physical characteristics and feed intake of diets for the Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwasi Adu Obirikorang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effects of the inclusion of three oilseed by-products (soybean, copra and palm kernel meals on some physical characteristics of pelletized feeds as well as on voluntary feed intake and faecal matter production by the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. The dietary inclusion of soybean meal resulted in a significantly higher feed bulk density relative to the fishmeal control diet. The inclusions of copra and palm kernel meals, however, resulted in lower feed bulk densities. Sinking rates, water stabilities and nutrient retention efficiencies of feed pellets were directly related to feed bulk densities. The soybean meal diet had the fastest sinking velocities, greatest water stability and highest nutrient retention rates. The dietary inclusion of soybean meal, however, significantly impaired feed intake compared to the other three diets. Mean daily feed intakes of the control, palm kernel meal and copra meal diets corresponded to 28.88, 27.01 and 28.31 g during the experimental period and varied significantly from the mean daily intake of the soybean meal diet which corresponded to 20.01 g. Faecal matter production (g dry mass kg−1 ingested feed was significantly higher in the tilapia groups fed the copra and palm kernel meals. The results obtained from this study show that 30% inclusions of unrefined forms of copra and palm kernel meal in Nile tilapia diets is possible, without adversely affecting feed intake or pellet nutrient losses prior to ingestion.

  13. Differential effects of dietary protein sources on postprandial low-grade inflammation after a single high fat meal in obese non-diabetic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herzig Karl-Heinz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a state of chronic low-grade inflammation. Chronic low-grade inflammation is associated with the pathophysiology of both type-2 diabetes and atherosclerosis. Prevention or reduction of chronic low-grade inflammation may be advantageous in relation to obesity related co-morbidity. In this study we investigated the acute effect of dietary protein sources on postprandial low-grade inflammatory markers after a high-fat meal in obese non-diabetic subjects. Methods We conducted a randomized, acute clinical intervention study in a crossover design. We supplemented a fat rich mixed meal with one of four dietary proteins - cod protein, whey isolate, gluten or casein. 11 obese non-diabetic subjects (age: 40-68, BMI: 30.3-42.0 kg/m2 participated and blood samples were drawn in the 4 h postprandial period. Adiponectin was estimated by ELISA methods and cytokines were analyzed by multiplex assay. Results MCP-1 and CCL5/RANTES displayed significant postprandial dynamics. CCL5/RANTES initially increased after all meals, but overall CCL5/RANTES incremental area under the curve (iAUC was significantly lower after the whey meal compared with the cod and casein meals (P = 0.0053. MCP-1 was initially suppressed after all protein meals. However, the iAUC was significantly higher after whey meal compared to the cod and gluten meals (P = 0.04. Conclusion We have demonstrated acute differential effects on postprandial low grade inflammation of four dietary proteins in obese non-diabetic subjects. CCL5/RANTES initially increased after all meals but the smallest overall postprandial increase was observed after the whey meal. MCP-1 was initially suppressed after all 4 protein meals and the whey meal caused the smallest overall postprandial suppression. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT00863564

  14. Nitrogen utilization from diets with refined and blended poultry by-products as partial fish meal replacements in diets for low-salinity cultured Florida pompano, Trachinotus carolinus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three trials were performed to evaluate partial fish meal (FM) replacement with poultry by-products in a practical-type diet for Florida pompano, Trachinotus carolinus reared in low-salinity. Two refined and blended meals (BP67, BP70), two chicken concentrates (CC66, CC70) and one standard pet-food ...

  15. Nutritional assessment for primary school children in tehran: an evaluation of dietary pattern with emphasis on snacks and meals consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Maryam; Dadkhah-Piraghaj, Monireh; Abtahi, Mitra; Abdollahi, Morteza; Houshiarrad, Anahita; Kimiagar, Masoud

    2014-05-01

    In order to provide better advice for prevention of obesity and eating disorders among children, there is a need to have more knowledge of their dietary patterns. This study examined meal and snacking patterns of primary school children in Tehran. A total of 761 male and female primary school children from all educational areas in Tehran were recruited in a cross-sectional survey. The data was collected by interviewing the students and their mothers or caregivers. Information on food consumption patterns was collected by one 24-h-recall and one snack-oriented food frequency questionnaire which covered a period of 1 month. Means, standard deviations, frequencies, percentages, energy and nutrient analyzes and nutrient densities were reported. All of the students snacked at least once on the day of the survey. Snacks provided 38% of total energy intake by the students. Fruits and sweet snacks were consumed by almost all of the students during a week. Energy and most nutrient intakes from meals were greater than those consumed from snacks. Snacks had a higher density of fiber, carbohydrate, calcium, iron, vitamin C, riboflavin and thiamin and had a lower density of protein, fat and niacin, compared with main meals. Salty snacks such as extruded cheese curls (Cheetos) and chips were not consumed so often. Results provide detailed information about dietary patterns, which in turn enable development of targeted messages and/or interventions to improve nutritional status of school children.

  16. Effects of Replacement of Fish Meal by Soy Protein Isolate on the Growth, Digestive Enzyme Activity and Serum Biochemical Parameters for Juvenile Amur Sturgeon (

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Y. Xu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available An 8-wk experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing fish meal (FM with soy protein isolate (SPI on the growth, digestive enzyme activity and serum biochemical parameters of juvenile Amur sturgeon (Acipenser schrenckii. SPI was used to replace 0, 25, 50, 62.5, 75, 87.5, 100% of dietary FM and 100% replacement supplemented crystalline amino acid. Healthy sturgeon with an average initial weight of 26.38±0.24 g were randomly assigned to 24 aquaria (8 treatments with triplicates each at an initial stocking density of 11 fish per aquarium and cultured for 8 wks. The results showed that 75.00% or more substitution resulted in a poor weight gain rate, feed conversion ratio and survival rate compared to that of fish fed the control diet (p<0.05, whereas no significant differences were observed between diets of 25.00% to 62.50% substitution. Protease, lipase and amylase activity in foregut, mid-gut and hindgut were significantly (p<0.05 decreased by diets where SPI replacement levels were 62.50% or more. Levels of serum total protein (TP and globulin decreased significantly from 21.03, 10.34 to 14.05, 5.63 g/L with the increasing dietary SPI (p<0.05, but alkaline phosphatase activity significantly increased (p<0.05. In addition, supplemental crystalline amino acid in the FM absence diet did not improve growth performance, intestine digestive enzyme activities and serum biochemical parameters. In conclusion, the results from this study showed adverse effects of inclusion of SPI in diets on growth performance, feed utilization and serum biochemical parameters in juvenile Amur sturgeon. Based on WGR and replacement ratio presented in this report, a 57.64% replacement level was recommended.

  17. Studies on substitutional protein sources for fish meal in the diet of Japanese flounder; Hirame shiryo ni okeru miriyo shigen no riyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, K.; Furuta, T.; Sakaguchi, I. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-08-01

    Effectiveness of livestock industry wastes and vegetable protein added to fish meal in fish farming is tested by feeding the Japanese flounder. In the experiment, a part or the whole of the fish meal protein is replaced by the meat meal (MM), meat and bone meal (MBM), corngluten meal (CGM), or dried silkworm pupa meal (SPM), and fries of the Japanese flounder are fed on the new diets for eight weeks. On a diet containing 60% or less of MM, no change is detected in the fish in terms of increase in weight, protein efficiency ratio, and blood components, indicating that 60% at the highest of fish meal may be replaced by MM. In the case of MBM, it can occupy approximately 20%. As for CGM, the proper substitution rate is approximately 40%. Essential amino acids that the new diets may lack are added for an approximately 10% improvement on the result. The SPM substitution works up to 40%, when, however, the blood components are degraded. The proper substitution rate is therefore placed at approximately 20%. 38 refs., 2 figs., 17 tabs.

  18. The contribution of the USDA school breakfast and lunch program meals to student daily dietary intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the United States, the National School Breakfast (SBP) and School Lunch Program (NSLP) meals are provided for free or at a reduced price to eligible children, and are a nutrition safety net for low income children. Consuming both meals could provide 58% of daily intake. This paper evaluates the c...

  19. Evaluation of Peanut Meal as an Alternative Dietary Protein Source for Channel Catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of peanut meal as an alternative protein source in diets for channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus was evaluated in a 9-week study under controlled laboratory conditions. Five practical diets (28% crude protein and 6% crude lipid) were formulated to contain 0, 10, 15, 20, and 25% peanut meal as a ...

  20. Fourth-grade children's dietary reporting accuracy by meal component: Results from a validation study that manipulated retention interval and prompts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Suzanne D; Hitchcock, David B; Royer, Julie A; Smith, Albert F; Guinn, Caroline H

    2017-06-01

    We examined reporting accuracy by meal component (beverage, bread, breakfast meat, combination entrée, condiment, dessert, entrée, fruit, vegetable) with validation-study data on 455 fourth-grade children (mean age = 9.92 ± 0.41 years) observed eating school meals and randomized to one of eight dietary recall conditions (two retention intervals [short, long] crossed with four prompts [forward, meal-name, open, reverse]). Accuracy category (match [observed and reported], omission [observed but unreported], intrusion [unobserved but reported]) was a polytomous nominal item response variable. We fit a multilevel cumulative logit model with item variables meal component and serving period (breakfast, lunch) and child variables retention interval, prompt and sex. Significant accuracy category predictors were meal component (p meal-component × serving-period (p meal-component × retention-interval (p = 0.001). The relationship of meal component and accuracy category was much stronger for lunch than breakfast. For lunch, beverages were matches more often, omissions much less often and intrusions more often than expected under independence; fruits and desserts were omissions more often. For the meal-component × retention-interval interaction, for the short retention interval, beverages were intrusions much more often but combination entrées and condiments were intrusions less often; for the long retention interval, beverages were matches more often and omissions less often but fruits were matches less often. Accuracy for each meal component appeared better with the short than long retention interval. For lunch and for the short retention interval, children's reporting was most accurate for entrée and combination entrée meal components, whereas it was least accurate for vegetable and fruit meal components. Results have implications for conclusions of studies and interventions assessed with dietary recalls obtained from children. Copyright © 2017

  1. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid, fish oil and soybean oil on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    2013-12-18

    Dec 18, 2013 ... oil or fish oil as the only dietary fat deposited more fat in breast tissue compared with other groups (P < ... lipid analysis. Lipids content of liver, breast and thigh tissues were measured by the method of Folch et al. (1957). The serum lipoprotein fractions were ..... Effects of dietary fatty acids on blood pressure:.

  2. Relationship of dietary intake of fish and non-fish selenium to serum lipids in Japanese rural coastal community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Yukiko; Koyama, Hiroshi; Nojiri, Masami; Suzuki, Shosuke

    2002-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that dietary selenium deficiency may be associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). In the present study, 55 men and 71 women were selected from participants in a health examination in a rural coastal community in Japan. The mean dietary selenium intake calculated from the simple food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) was 127.5 micrograms/day. Fish was the major source of dietary selenium and it contributed to 68.7% of the daily total. HDL cholesterol was higher in the middle selenium intake group and in the high selenium intake group than in the low selenium intake group in all subjects and for males, and a significant difference was found between the middle selenium intake group and the low selenium intake group. The atherogenic index was significantly higher in the low selenium intake group than in the middle selenium intake group and in the high selenium intake group in males. GPx activity, total cholesterol and triacylglycerols did not show any significant differences among the three different selenium intake groups. Dietary intake of non-fish Se had a positive correlation with HDL cholesterol, and an inverse correlation with the atherogenic index in all subjects and for females. On the other hand, dietary intake of fish-Se had no relationship with any serum lipids. Non-fish Se is an important factor in selenium status for the prevention of CHD.

  3. Effect of Fish Meal Level on Growth, Food Digestibility and Fur Properties of Farmed Mink (Mustela vison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HT Korhonen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Our study sought to determine the effects of normal vs high fish meal levels in the diet on the growing-furring process and apparent food digestibility of farmed male mink (Mustela vison. The subjects were two groups of juvenile dark mink born in May and weaned in August. The experiment started after weaning with two diet groups: (1 normal level of fish meal (NOR, i.e. 4.5% of diet, and (2 high level of fish meal (HIGH, i.e. 10.0% of diet. We found that the mink on the high fishmeal (HIGH diet consumed slightly more fresh food than the mink on the normal fishmeal diet (NOR (total consumption 30.6 kg vs 28.1 kg. The mink in the NOR group ingested almost the same amount of food as dry matter and energy as the mink in the HIGH group. On October 22, the body weights of the HIGH group animals were significantly higher than those of the NOR animals. At the final weighing on December 3 (at pelting, a tendency for the body weights of NOR mink was noted to be lower than those of HIGH mink. Skin length was significantly shorter in NOR than in HIGH mink. The number of white wool skins (i.e. fur defect was higher in NOR than in HIGH mink (4 vs 2 skins. Statistically significant differences in other fur variables were not found between the groups. The apparent digestibility of protein, fat and organic matter was significantly better in HIGH than in NOR mink. Our findings tempt us to conclude that the proportion of fish products, at least those of fishmeal, can be increased in the diet of farm-raised juvenile mink. Keywords: farm-raised mink, feeding, fish products, diet, growing-furring period Animal Production 14(1:63-69, January 2012

  4. Family food involvement and frequency of family dinner meals among Australian children aged 10-12years. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations with dietary patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leech, Rebecca M; McNaughton, Sarah A; Crawford, David A; Campbell, Karen J; Pearson, Natalie; Timperio, Anna

    2014-04-01

    Involvement in meal preparation and eating meals with the family are associated with better dietary patterns in adolescents, however little research has included older children or longitudinal study designs. This 3-year longitudinal study examines cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between family food involvement, family dinner meal frequency and dietary patterns during late childhood. Questionnaires were completed by parents of 188 children from Greater Melbourne, Australia at baseline in 2002 (mean age=11.25years) and at follow-up in 2006 (mean age=14.16years). Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to identify dietary patterns. Factor analysis (FA) was used to determine the principal factors from six indicators of family food involvement. Multiple linear regression models were used to predict the dietary patterns of children and adolescents at baseline and at follow-up, 3years later, from baseline indicators of family food involvement and frequency of family dinner meals. PCA revealed two dietary patterns, labeled a healthful pattern and an energy-dense pattern. FA revealed one factor for family food involvement. Cross-sectionally among boys, family food involvement score (β=0.55, 95% CI: 0.02, 1.07) and eating family dinner meals daily (β=1.11, 95% CI: 0.27, 1.96) during late childhood were positively associated with the healthful pattern. Eating family dinner meals daily was inversely associated with the energy-dense pattern, cross-sectionally among boys (β=-0.56, 95% CI: -1.06, -0.06). No significant cross-sectional associations were found among girls and no significant longitudinal associations were found for either gender. Involvement in family food and eating dinner with the family during late childhood may have a positive influence on dietary patterns of boys. No evidence was found to suggest the effects on dietary patterns persist into adolescence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. An evaluation of replacing fish meal with fermented soybean meal in the diet of Macrobrachium nipponense: Growth, nonspecific immunity, and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhili; Zhang, Yixiang; Ye, Jinyun; Du, Zhenyu; Kong, Youqin

    2015-05-01

    Partial or complete replacement of fish meal (FM) with fermented soybean meal (FSM) was examined in Macrobrachium nipponense over an 8-week growth trial. Growth and immune characteristics were evaluated. Fermented soybean meal replaced 0 (FM, control), 25% (R25), 50% (R50), 75% (R75), or 100% of the FM (R100) in five isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets. Each diet was fed to juvenile prawns (mean weight, 0.103 ± 0.0009 g) twice daily to apparent satiation in five replicates. Weight gain and specific growth rate of M. nipponense were significantly higher in prawns fed the R25 diet than that of prawns fed the FM diet. No significant differences were observed among the other treatments. Total hemocyte count and hemolymph phagocytic activity decreased as the proportion of FSM increased. Total antioxidant activity competence and malondialdehyde level in the hepatopancreas were highest in prawns fed the R100 diet. mRNA levels of the antioxidant genes Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase and catalase, heat shock cognate protein 70, and heat shock protein 90 were significantly differentially regulated in the prawn hepatopancreas. In addition, percent mortality increased after challenge with live Aeromonas hydrophila. Percent mortality of prawns fed the R100 diet was significantly higher than that of prawns fed the FM and R25 diets. These findings demonstrate that (1) M. nipponense growth performance was not affected by including a high proportion of FSM in the diet, and the best growth performance was obtained when 25% of the FM was replaced with FSM; (2) nonspecific immunity was impaired when all of the FM was replaced with FSM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of brown fish meal replacement with fermented soybean meal on growth performance, feed efficiency and enzyme activities of Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yurong; Ai, Qinghui; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Wenbing; Zhang, Yanjiao; Xu, Wei

    2012-06-01

    A 120-day feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of partial replacement of brown fish meal (BFM) by fermented soybean meal (FSBM) in diets of Chinese soft-shelled turtle ( Pelodiscus sinensis). The turtles (initial mean body weight, (115.52 ± 1.05) g) were fed with three experimental diets, in which 0%, 4.72% and 9.44% BFM protein was replaced by 0%, 3% and 6% FSBM, respectively. Results showed that the feeding rate (FR), specific growth rate (SGR) and feed efficiency ratio (FER) of turtles fed with the diet containing 3% FSBM were not significantly different from the control group (0% FSBM) ( P > 0.05). However, FR, SGR and FER of turtles fed with the diet containing 6% FSBM were significantly lower than those of the control group ( P 0.05). However, the uric acid concentration in turtles fed with the diet containing 3% or 6% FSBM was significantly lower than that in the control group ( P 0.05). The results suggested that FSBM could replace 4.72% BFM protein in turtle diets without exerting adverse effects on turtle growth, feed utilization and measured immune parameters.

  7. Predicting methionine and lysine contents in soybean meal and fish meal using a group method of data handling-type neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mottaghitalab, M.; Nikkhah, N.; Darmani-Kuhi, H.; López, S.; France, J.

    2015-07-01

    Artificial neural network models offer an alternative to linear regression analysis for predicting the amino acid content of feeds from their chemical composition. A group method of data handling-type neural network (GMDH-type NN), with an evolutionary method of genetic algorithm, was used to predict methionine (Met) and lysine (Lys) contents of soybean meal (SBM) and fish meal (FM) from their proximate analyses (i.e. crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre, ash and moisture). A data set with 119 data lines for Met and 116 lines for Lys was used to develop GMDH-type NN models with two hidden layers. The data lines were divided into two groups to produce training and validation sets. The data sets were imported into the GEvoM software for training the networks. The predictive capability of the constructed models was evaluated by their abilities to estimate the validation data sets accurately. A quantitative examination of goodness of fit for the predictive models was made using a number of precision, concordance and bias statistics. The statistical performance of the models developed revealed close agreement between observed and predicted Met and Lys contents for SBM and FM. The results of this study clearly illustrate the validity of GMDH-type NN models to estimate accurately the amino acid content of poultry feed ingredients from their chemical composition . (Author)

  8. The effect of dietary inclusion of meat and bone meal on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of the inclusion of meat and bone meal (MBM) in the diet of old laying hens on their egg production and the quality of their eggs was investigated. Meat and bone meal containing a high concentration of ash and a low concentration of crude protein was included at levels of 2.0, 4.0 and 6.0% in the diets and fed for ...

  9. Evaluation of cassava leaf meal protein in fish and soybean meal-based diets for young pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siaka Seriba Diarra

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The unavailability and high cost of traditional ingredients calls for more research into alternative sources for pig feeding in the South Pacific region. The effect of replacing feed protein with cassava leaf meal (CLM protein in weaner and growing pigs’ diets was investigated in two experiments. In experiment 1, three diets in which CLM protein replaced 0, 15 and 30% of feed protein were fed each to five replicate pens of weaner pigs. Feed intake (FI, body weight gain (BWG and feed conversion ratio (FCR were improved and feed cost of gain reduced (P<0.05 on 30% while dressing percentage was maximized (P<0.05 on 15% protein replacement diets. In experiment 2, three diets containing 0, 30 and 45% CLM protein as replacement for feed protein were fed as in experiment 1 to grower pigs. FI and BWG were reduced while FCR and feed cost of gain were increased (P<0.05 above 30% protein replacement. Dressing percentage assumed the highest value (P<0.05 on 30% replacement. It was concluded that replacing 30% of feed protein with sun-dried CLM protein will maintain growth and reduce cost of pork production. Efficient use of CLM in the diet will be an alternative way of value addition to this by-product.

  10. Improvement of broiler meat quality due to dietary inclusion of soybean oligosaccharide derived from soybean meal extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthama, N.; Pramono, Y. B.; Sukamto, B.

    2018-01-01

    Dietary inclusion of antibiotics as growth promoters (AGPs) in poultry production has been applied for decades worldwide, but recently AGPs have been banned due to the negative consequences for health and food safety. Soybean oligosccharide (SOS) derived from soybean meal extract is one of natural compound without carrying-over the residue to product and is consumer’s health friendly. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate dietary inclusion of SOS on broiler meat quality. A total of 120 broilers of 7-day-old were allocated into 3 treatments with 4 replications (10 birds each) in completely randomized design. Treatments applied were D1: diet without SOS, D2: D1 plus 0.15% SOS, and D3: D1 plus 0.30% SOS. Intestinal lactic acid bacteria (LAB), protein digestibility, meat protein and fat depositions, and meat cholesterol were the parameters observed. Data were statistically tested using analysis of variance and Duncan test. Dietary SOS inclusion at 0.30% (D3) significantly (P<0.05) increased LAB population (7.21x104 cfu/g), protein digestibility (72.80%), and meat protein deposition (90.83 g/bird), but it decreased meat fat (8.27 g/bird) and meat cholesterol (37.28 mg/100 g). In conclusion, dietary SOS inclusion at 0.30% improves meat quality of broiler based on the increase in meat protein deposition with lower fat and cholesterol.

  11. Effects of school meals with weekly fish servings on vitamin D status in Danish children: secondary outcomes from the OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet) School Meal Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rikke A.; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde

    2015-01-01

    Children's vitamin D intake and status can be optimised to meet recommendations. We investigated if nutritionally balanced school meals with weekly fish servings affected serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and markers related to bone in 8- to 11-year-old Danish children. We conducted an explorat......Children's vitamin D intake and status can be optimised to meet recommendations. We investigated if nutritionally balanced school meals with weekly fish servings affected serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and markers related to bone in 8- to 11-year-old Danish children. We conducted...

  12. Effect of dietary mannan-oligosaccharides from copra meal on intestinal microbes and blood profile of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. S. Putri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mannan-oligosaccharides (MOS is a common prebiotics used as a feed additives. The use of antibiotic can be replaced by MOS to reduce the number of pathogenic bacteria in small intestines of chickens. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of MOS extracted from copra meal on intestinal microbial population and blood profile of broiler chickens. The study was conducted by using 150 day-old male broiler chickens (average body weight 46.00 +  1.41 g. The design of this experiment was a completely randomized design (CRD with 3 dietary treatments, 5 replications and 10 birds in each replication. The dietary treatments consisted of control diet (corn-soybean meal diet without supplementation of antibiotic and prebiotic, control + 0.1% antibiotic bambermycin, and control + 0.035% MOS. For the first 4 weeks the birds were fed treatment diets, followed by commercial feed for 2 weeks. The parameters observed in this study were intestinal microbes population and blood profiles. The results showed that the administration of 0,035% MOS increased the lactic acid bacteria (LAB number compared with antibiotics feed (P0.05 with the control group. The total aerobic and coliform bacteria were higher in MOS and antibiotic treatment compared than control group. The supplementation of 0.035% MOS from copra meal in diet increased the level of leucocytes which is important to immune response of broilers and its usage was safe because the level of chicken blood profile were within the normal range.

  13. Utilisation of Giant African snail (Achatina fulica) meal as protein source by laying hens

    OpenAIRE

    Diarra, Siaka Seriba; Kant, Rashmi; Tanhimana, Jemarlyn; Lela, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    A 12-week experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of substituting Giant African snail meal for fish meal in laying hens diet. Four diets were formulated to contain snail meal as replacement for fish meal at 0 (control), 33, 67 and 100%. A total of 120 Shaver Brown pullets aged 18 weeks were allocated to the dietary treatments in a randomised design. Each treatment consisted of three replicates and ten birds per replicate. Feed intake increased only for the 33% treatment as compa...

  14. Replacement of fish oil with a DHA-rich algal meal derived from Schizochytrium sp. on the fatty acid and persistent organic pollutant levels in diets and flesh of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, L.) post-smolts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, M; Walton, J; Campbell, P J; Strachan, F; Dick, J R; Bell, J G

    2015-10-15

    The replacement of fish oil (FO) with a DHA-rich Schizochytrium sp. algal meal (AM) at two inclusion levels (11% and 5.5% of diet) was tested in Atlantic salmon post-smolts compared to fish fed a FO diet of northern (NFO) or southern hemisphere (SFO) origin. Fish were preconditioned prior to the 19-week experimental feeding period to reduce long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) and persistent organic pollutant levels (POPs). Dietary POP levels differed significantly between treatments in the order of NFO>SFO>11 AM/5.5 AM and were subsequently reflected in the flesh. Fish fed the 11 AM diet contained similar DHA levels (g 100 g(-1) flesh) to FO-fed fish, despite percentage differences. However, the low levels of EPA in the diets and flesh of algal-fed fish compromised the overall nutritional value to the final consumer. Nevertheless, further developments in microalgae culture offer a promising alternative lipid source of LC-PUFA to FO in salmon feeds that warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Association of Meal Practices and Other Dietary Correlates With Dietary Intake Among High School Students in the United States, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demissie, Zewditu; Eaton, Danice K; Lowry, Richard; Kim, Sonia A; Park, Sohyun; Grimm, Kirsten A; Merlo, Caitlin; Harris, Diane M

    2015-01-01

    To examine behavioral and environmental factors that may be related to dietary behaviors among U.S. high school students. Data were obtained from the 2010 National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study, a cross-sectional study. The study was school-based. Study subjects were a nationally representative sample of students in grades 9 to 12 (n = 11,458). Variables of interest included meal practices, in-home snack availability, and intakes of healthful foods/beverages (fruits, vegetables, water, and milk) and less healthful foods/beverages (fried potatoes, pizza, and sugar-sweetened beverages). Sex-stratified logistic regression models were used to examine associations of meal practices and snack availability with dietary intake. Odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for race/ethnicity and grade. Eating breakfast daily, frequent family dinners, and bringing lunch from home were associated with higher odds of consuming at least three healthful foods or beverages. High fast-food intake was associated with lower odds of healthful dietary intake and higher odds of sugar-sweetened beverage intake (female OR = 3.73, male OR = 4.60). Students who mostly/always had fruits and vegetables available at home had increased odds of fruits (female OR = 3.04, male OR = 2.24), vegetables (female OR = 2.12, male OR = 1.65), water (female OR = 1.82, male OR = 1.85), and milk intake (female OR = 1.45, male OR = 1.64). Encouraging daily breakfast consumption, frequent family dinners, and fruit and vegetable availability at home may lead to higher intakes of healthful foods among high school students.

  16. Dietary Diversity and Meal Frequency Practices among Infant and Young Children Aged 6–23 Months in Ethiopia: A Secondary Analysis of Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melkam Aemro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Appropriate complementary feeding practice is essential for growth and development of children. This study aimed to assess dietary diversity and meal frequency practice of infants and young children in Ethiopia. Methods. Data collected in the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS from December 2010 to June 2011 were used for this study. Data collected were extracted, arranged, recoded, and analyzed by using SPSS version 17. A total of 2836 children aged 6–23 months were used for final analysis. Both bivariate and multivariate analysis were done to identify predictors of feeding practices. Result. Children with adequate dietary diversity score and meal frequency were 10.8% and 44.7%, respectively. Children born from the richest households showed better dietary diversity score (OR = 0.256. Number of children whose age less than five years was important predictor of dietary diversity (OR = 0.690. Mothers who had exposure to media were more likely to give adequate meal frequency to their children (OR = 0.707. Conclusion. Dietary diversity and meal frequency practices were inadequate in Ethiopia. Wealth quintile, exposure to media, and number of children were affecting feeding practices. Improving economic status, a habit of eating together, and exposure to media are important to improve infant feeding practices in Ethiopia.

  17. Effect of meal size on excess post-exercise oxygen consumption in fishes with different locomotive and digestive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shi-Jian; Zeng, Ling-Qing; Li, Xiu-Ming; Pang, Xu; Cao, Zhen-Dong; Peng, Jiang-Lan; Wang, Yu-Xiang

    2009-05-01

    Effects of feeding on pre-exercise VO(2) and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) after exhaustive exercise were investigated in sedentary southern catfish, active herbivorous grass carp, omnivorous crucian carp, and sluggish omnivorous darkbarbel catfish to test whether feeding had different effects on EPOC and to compare EPOC in fishes with different ecological habits. For fasting fish, the pre-exercise and peak post-exercise VO(2) were higher and recovery rates were faster in crucian carp and grass carp compared to those of darkbarbel catfish and southern catfish. EPOC magnitudes of grass carp and southern catfish were significantly larger than those of crucian carp and darkbarbel catfish. Feeding had no significant effect on peak post-exercise VO(2), recovery rate, and EPOC magnitude in grass carp. Both the pre-exercise and peak post-exercise VO(2) increased with meal size, while the EPOC magnitude and duration decreased significantly in the larger meal size groups of crucian carp and southern catfish. In darkbarbel catfish, both the pre-exercise and peak post-exercise VO(2) increased with meal size, but the VO(2) increment elicited by exercise was larger in feeding groups compared with the fasting group. These results suggest that (1) the characteristics of the post-exercise VO(2) profile, such as peak post-exercise VO(2) and recovery rate, were closely related to the activity of fishes, whereas the EPOC magnitude was not and (2) the effects of feeding on EPOC were more closely related to the postprandial increase in VO(2).

  18. Amino acid fortified diets for weanling pigs replacing fish meal and whey protein concentrate: Effects on growth, immune status, and gut health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Weaver, Alexandra C; Fellner, Vivek; Payne, Robert L; Kim, Sung Woo

    2014-01-01

    Limited availability of fish meal and whey protein concentrate increases overall feed costs. Availability of increased number of supplemental amino acids including Lys, Met, Thr, Trp, Val, and Ile allows replacing expensive protein supplements to reduce feed costs. This study was to evaluate the effect of replacing fish meal and/or whey protein concentrate in nursery diets with 6 supplemental amino acids on growth performance and gut health of post-weaning pigs. Treatments were 1) FM-WPC: diet with fish meal (FM) and whey protein concentrate (WPC); 2) FM-AA: diet with FM and crystalline amino acids (L-Lys, L-Thr, L-Trp, DL-Met, L-Val, and L-Ile); 3) WPC-AA: diet with WPC and crystalline amino acid; and 4) AA: diet with crystalline amino acid. Pigs in FM-AA, WPC-AA, and AA had greater (P replace fish meal and/or whey protein concentrate without adverse effects on growth performance, immune status, and gut health of pigs at d 21 to 49 of age. Positive response with the use of 6 supplemental amino acids in growth during the first week of post-weaning may due to increased plasma insulin potentially improving uptake of nutrients for protein synthesis and energy utilization. The replacement of fish meal and/or whey protein concentrate with 6 supplemental amino acids could decrease the crude protein level in nursery diets, and potentially lead to substantial cost savings in expensive nursery diets.

  19. A theory-based newsletter nutrition education program reduces nutritional risk and improves dietary intake for congregate meal participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Sarah L; MacNab, Lindsay; Shelley, Mack

    2014-01-01

    At-risk older adults need community-based nutrition programs that improve nutritional status and practices. This 6-month study assessed the impact of the traditional Chef Charles (CC) program (Control) compared to a theory-based CC program (Treatment) on nutritional risk (NR), dietary intakes, self-efficacy (SE), food security (FS), and program satisfaction for congregate meal participants. Participants were mostly educated, single, "food secure" White females. NR change for the treatment group was significantly higher (P = 0.042) than the control group. No differences were noted for SE or FS change and program satisfaction between groups. The overall distribution classification levels of FS changed significantly (P < .001) from pre to post. Over half (n = 46, 76.7%) reported making dietary changes and the majority (n = 52, 86.7%) rated CC as good to excellent. Results suggest the theory-based CC program (treatment) is more effective in reducing NR and dietary practices than the traditional CC program (control).

  20. [Dietary exposure assessment of substances in foods : The BfR MEAL study - the first German total diet study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvan, Irmela; Bürgelt, Michaela; Lindtner, Oliver; Greiner, Matthias

    2017-07-01

    The dietary exposure of a population to chemical substances is estimated based on representative consumption data and data on the occurrence of substances in foods. Consumption data in Germany for different age groups are provided by the National Nutrition Survey ll, VELS, EsKiMo and the ongoing KiESEL study. The data for the levels of substances in foods is currently obtained from the German food monitoring programme (Lebensmittel-Monitoring) and the German Food Composition Table (Bundeslebensmittelschlüssel) and is not sufficient for a comprehensive evaluation of dietary exposure in Germany. More data is needed and, in particular, the range of analysed substances should be broadened to reduce the uncertainties of the exposure assessment. A representative data basis for concentrations of substances in foods will be established with the first German total diet study, called the BfR MEAL study. The study will markedly reduce major uncertainties in the dietary exposure assessment through its wide coverage of substances in food groups, the inclusion of prepared foods, the orientation on low measurement limits as well as the analysis of substances without a reliable data basis.

  1. Substitution of fish oil with camelina oil and inclusion of camelina meal in diets fed to Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and their effects on growth, tissue lipid classes, and fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hixson, S M; Parrish, C C

    2014-03-01

    Developing a commercially relevant Atlantic cod aquaculture industry will require improvements in feed sustainability. Camelina oil and meal are potential replacements of fish oil and fish meal in aquaculture feeds. Camelina oil is high in 18:3ω3 (30%), with an ω3/ω6 ratio > 1. Camelina meal has a considerable crude protein level (38%), which includes significant amounts of methionine and phenylalanine. Four diets were tested; each diet was fed to triplicate tanks (3 tanks per diet) of Atlantic cod (14.4 g/fish; 70 fish per tank) for 13 wk. The diets included a fish oil/fish meal control (FO) and three diets which replaced 100% of fish oil with camelina oil: one diet contained fish meal (100CO), another solvent extracted fish meal (100COSEFM), and another had fish meal partially reduced by 15% inclusion of camelina meal (100CO15CM). Growth was measured (length and weight) and tissue samples were collected for lipid analysis (muscle, liver, brain, gut, spleen, skin, and carcass) at wk 0 (before feeding the experimental diet) and at wk 13. Cod fed camelina oil had a lower (P replacement of fish oil with camelina oil, plus solvent extracted fish meal had an overarching effect on the entire fatty acid profile of the whole animal. Fatty acid mass balance calculations indicated that cod fed 100COSEFM elongated 13% of 18:3ω3 to 20:3ω3 and oxidized the remaining 87%, whereas cod fed fish oil showed a much lower (P meal caused the greatest change in cod lipid composition and utilization.

  2. Effect of meals with milk on body iron stores and improvement of dietary habit during weight loss in female rhythmic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Yukari; Ishizaki, Sakuko; Sasamoto, Shigeko; Katoh, Youko; Kobayashi, Shuhei

    2002-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of different timings of milk intake on body iron stores and improvement in the dietary habit of female collegiate rhythmic gymnasts. Subjects took iron tablets at both breakfast and dinner times during a weight-loss period. In addition, subjects ingested low-fat milk twice a day either at breakfast or dinner (group I; n = 7), or between meals (group II; n = 6) for 3 mo. Blood was collected four times. Red blood cell count, hemoglobin, serum iron, ferritin and erythropoietin concentrations were measured. Subjects completed a dietary survey for three consecutive days before each blood sampling. The mean body fat in both groups I and II was significantly lower after 3 mo than at the start of the study (p meals. In conclusion, iron-supplemented meals via milk ingestion did not decrease body iron stores and maintained higher body iron stores compared to a diet that included milk intake between meals. Further, milk intake with meals is related to keeping regular meal times and frequency.

  3. The effect of dietary cricket meal (Gryllus bimaculatus) on growth performance, antioxidant enzyme activities, and haematological response of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taufek, Norhidayah Mohd; Aspani, Firdaus; Muin, Hasniyati; Raji, Ameenat Abiodun; Razak, Shaharudin Abdul; Alias, Zazali

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the growth performance, biomarkers of oxidative stress, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) as well as the haematological response of African catfish after being fed with fish feed containing different levels of cricket meal. The juvenile fish were assigned to three different treatments with isonitrogenous (35 %) and isoenergetic (19 kJ g(-1)) diets containing 100 % cricket meal (100 % CM), 75 % cricket meal (75 % CM), and 100 % fishmeal (100 % FM) as control groups for 7 weeks. The results indicated that a diet containing 100 % CM and 75 % CM improved growth performance in terms of body weight gain and specific growth rate, when compared to 100 % FM. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) did not differ significantly between all diets, but reduced FCR and increased PER were observed with a higher inclusion of cricket meal. A haematological examination of fish demonstrated no significant difference of red blood cells in all diets and white blood cells showed a significantly higher value in fishmeal-fed fish. On the other hand, haemoglobin and haematocrit significantly increased with increasing amounts of cricket meal in the diet. Antioxidant activity of CAT was higher in the 100 % CM group compared to fish fed other diets, whereas GST and SOD showed increasing trends with a higher incorporation of cricket, although insignificant differences were observed between all diets. These results suggest that cricket meal could be an alternative to fishmeal as a protein source in the African catfish diet.

  4. Dominance of dietary intake of metals in marine elasmobranch and teleost fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathews, Teresa [Marine Sciences Research Center, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-5000 (United States); Fisher, Nicholas S., E-mail: nfisher@notes.cc.sunysb.edu [Marine Sciences Research Center, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-5000 (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Metal accumulation in marine fish is a global public health concern, because the consumption of seafood provides the largest dose of many toxic metals to humans. While water quality criteria often rely on aqueous exposures of metals to fish in developing safety guidelines, it is increasingly recognized that marine fish obtain an important fraction of their metal body burden from their diet. Using experimental data, we modeled the accumulation of six metals (Am, Cd, Cs, Co, Mn, Zn) from diet and from the aqueous phase in two marine fish species, the teleost Psetta maxima and elasmobranch Scyliorhinus canicula. We estimated steady-state metal concentrations and calculated the relative contributions of dietary and aqueous intake in both species. For both species > 60% and often > 90% of Mn, Cd, and Zn derives from dietary intake in these species, even at the lowest ingestion rates reported for these fish. At low ingestion rates, Am was obtained predominantly from the aqueous phase and Cs varied considerably depending on prey selection. Inter-specific differences were noted, especially in Co uptake. Model predictions of steady-state tissue metal concentrations are within the range of field measurements for these species. Our findings underscore the importance of including dietary exposure in understanding metal accumulation in marine fish.

  5. Dietary Fish Oil in Reducing Bone Metastasis of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ghosh-Choudhury, Nandini

    2006-01-01

    .... The tumors arising within the animals fed a fish oil diet have decreased expression of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 and BclXL, increased expression of cytochrome-c, and activation of caspase 3, indicating increased apoptosis...

  6. GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND FEED CONVERSION RATIO (FCR IN HYBRID FISH (CATLA CATLA X LABEO ROHITA FED ON WHEAT BRAN, RICE BROKEN AND BLOOD MEAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UM-E-KALSOOM, M. SALIM, T. SHAHZADI AND A. BARLAS1

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Growth performance and feed conversion ratio (FCR of wheat bran, rice broken and blood meal were evaluated in hybrid fish Catla catla x Labeo rohita. Two replicates for each treatment (ingredient were followed. The feed was supplied at the rate of 4% of wet body weight of fish fingerlings twice a day. The fish gained higher body weight (1.60 ± 0.14g on wheat bran, followed by rice broken (1.51 ± 0.07g and blood meal (1.24 ± 0.09g. The body weight of fish on wheat bran and rice broken was significantly higher (p<0.05 than those fed blood meal, while the difference between the former two groups was non significant. The total length obtained by the fish averaged 5.06 ± 0.03, 5.05 ± 0.09 and 4.96 ± 0.32 cm on wheat bran, rice broken and blood meal, respectively, the difference being non significant. Feed conversion ratio (FCR was highest (poorest on blood meal (1.68 ± 0.96, followed by that of rice broken (1.64 ± 0.64 and wheat bran (1.59 ± 0.71. The FCR value for wheat bran was significantly better than that for rice broken and blood meal. It was concluded that efficacy of wheat bran was better for the growth of hybrid fish and this supported the inclusion of this ingredient in the diet of hybrids.

  7. Fish protein substrates can substitute effectively for poultry by-product meal when incorporated in high-quality senior dog diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinn, K E; Hernot, D C; Fastinger, N D; Karr-Lilienthal, L K; Bechtel, P J; Swanson, K S; Fahey, G C

    2009-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to analytically define several novel fish substrates and determine the effects of feeding diets containing these substrates on total tract nutrient digestibilities and on immune status of senior dogs. The control diet contained poultry by-product meal while test diets contained 20% milt meal (MM), pink salmon hydrolysate (PSH) and white fish meal (WFM) added at the expense of poultry by-product meal. Concentrations of lymphocytes positive for CD3, CD4, CD8 and CD21 cell-surface markers and immunoglobulin concentrations were measured. Gene expression of cytokines tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-, interleukin (IL)-6, interferon (IFN)-, IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β was determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Major compositional differences were noted among fish substrates but apparent nutrient digestibility coefficients and immune indices were not affected by treatment. Fish protein substrates were found to be effective substitutes for poultry by-product meal, providing diets of high nutritive value for senior dogs.

  8. The effectiveness of dietary sunflower meal and exogenous enzyme on growth, digestive enzymes, carcass traits, and blood chemistry of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagawany, Mahmoud; Attia, Adel I; Ibrahim, Zenat A; Mahmoud, Reda A; El-Sayed, Sabry A

    2017-05-01

    High costs of conventional protein feed sources including soybean meal (SBM) generated the need for finding other alternatives. Thus, the present study was designed to evaluate the impact of graded replacements of SBM by sunflower seed meal (SFM) with or without enzyme supplementation on growth performance, digestive enzymes, carcass traits, and blood profile of broiler chickens. A total of 240 unsexed 1-week-old broiler chicks (Hubbard) were randomly divided into eight treatment groups of 30 chicks each in five replicates each of six chicks in a factorial design (4 × 2) arrangement, including four levels of SFM (0, 25, 50, and 75% replacing SBM) and two levels of enzyme (0- or 0.1-g/kg diet) supplementation. Performance traits including feed conversion ratio, body weight, and weight gain were significantly (P enzyme supplementation in broiler diet during the experiment. However, feed intake of broiler chicks was decreased with enzyme supplementation (P enzymes (protease and amylase) were significantly (P enzyme inclusion in diets, respectively. The activities of protease and amylase were improved with SFM diet supplemented with 0.1 g/kg enzyme in comparison with those with the un-supplemented diet. The evaluated carcass traits were not statistically (P > 0.05) influenced by feeding SFM meal or enzyme addition. Biochemical blood parameters were significantly (P enzyme, or their interaction in broiler diets, except for globulin that was not affected by dietary enzyme. It is concluded that increasing SFM level in the diet up to 50% replacing SBM with the supplementation of enzyme improved the growth performance and enhanced positively carcass traits as well as the activity of digestive enzymes in broiler chickens.

  9. The Impact of a Home-Delivered Meal Program on Nutritional Risk, Dietary Intake, Food Security, Loneliness, and Social Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Lauri; Vance, Lauren; Sudduth, Christina; Epps, James B

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining independence and continuing to live at home is one solution to manage the rising health care costs of aging populations in the United States; furthermore, seniors are at risk of malnutrition and food insecurity. Home-delivered meal programs are a tool to address food, nutrition, and well-being concerns of this population. Few studies have identified outcomes from these programs; this pilot study reviews the nutritional status, dietary intake, well-being, loneliness, and food security levels of seniors participating in a Meals on Wheels delivery service. Clients, new to the meal program, participated in pre- and postphone interviews, and 51 seniors completed the study. The survey was composed of five scales or questionnaires, and statistical analyses were conducted using SPSS. Improvements across all five measures were statistically significant after participating two months in the home-delivered meal program. Implications for further research, practice, and the Older Americans Act are discussed.

  10. Prevalence of consumption and nutritional content of breakfast meal among adolescents from the Brazilian National Dietary Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Jaqueline L; Castro, Michelle A de; Hopkins, Sinead; Gugger, Carolyn; Fisberg, Regina M; Fisberg, Mauro

    2017-11-06

    To estimate the prevalence of breakfast consumption and describe the foods and nutrients consumed at this meal and throughout the day by Brazilian adolescents. A total of 7276 adolescents aged 10-19 years were evaluated in the Brazilian National Dietary Survey 2008-9, a population-based cross-sectional study. Individuals' information was collected at home. Dietary data were obtained by two food records. Breakfast was defined as the first eating occasion of the day that occurred between 6 and 9:59am. Differences between breakfast consumers, occasional consumers, and skippers were tested through Pearson's chi-squared test or F-test of regression analysis. Breakfast was consumed by 93% of adolescents and it was associated with age, income, geographic region and household area. The most frequently consumed foods at breakfast were white bread, coffee, butter/margarine, refined cookies and crackers, and whole milk. The mean daily intakes of total energy, sugar, and calcium were higher among occasional consumers and skippers. Breakfast consumers had higher intake of vitamins B12, C, and D. Breakfast contributed more to total intake of calcium, phosphorus, thiamin, riboflavin, and vitamins A, B6, and D (17-32%), trans fat and sodium (about 30%) and less to folate, vitamin C, iron, zinc, and fiber (8-12%) and energy intake (16%). Although the prevalence of breakfast consumption among Brazilian adolescents was high, the overall nutritional quality of this meal is suboptimal, highlighting the need to support adolescents and their families to make more nutrient-dense food choices. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  11. SIMULATING PROTEIN DIGESTION ON TROUT A RAPID AND INEXPENSIVE METHOD FOR DOCUMENTING FISH MEAL QUALITY AND SCREENING NOVEL PROTEIN SOURCES FOR USE IN AQUAFEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bassompierre

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available A novel in vitro digestion system, which simulated rainbow trout gastric and intestinal digestion was developed. The method was employed to evaluate the impact of the gastric phase of digestion upon degradation of three fish meals od differing quality. Results illustrated that two-phase gastric-intestinal digestion increased the discriminatory powers of the system when compared to one-step intestinal digestion. A comparison of the system with pH-STAT methods demonstrated that the in vitro technique was superior. The presented method provides an ethical and cost effective means for rapid evaluation of fish meals and potentially, alternative protein sources for aquafeeds.

  12. Effects of a randomized intervention promoting healthy children's meals on children's ordering and dietary intake in a quick-service restaurant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzman-Frasca, Stephanie; Braun, Abbey C; Ehrenberg, Sarah; Epstein, Leonard H; Gampp, April; Leone, Lucia A; Singh, Anita; Tauriello, Sara

    2018-01-31

    Children's consumption of restaurant foods is associated with higher energy intake and lower nutritional quality compared to foods prepared at home. The aim of this pilot study was to test whether an in-restaurant intervention promoting healthy children's meals (i.e. two meals that met nutrition recommendations and were thus healthier than typical children's meal offerings across leading restaurants) affected children's meal selection and intake. Families with 4-to-8-year-old children were recruited from one location of Anderson's Frozen Custard, a regional quick-service restaurant chain. Families were randomly assigned to return to the restaurant during an intervention or control period and were blinded to group assignment. All families received free meals. During the intervention period families also received placemats featuring two healthy "Kids' Meals of the Day" upon restaurant entry. After families finished dining, researchers recorded children's orders and collected leftovers for quantifying dietary intake via weighed plate waste. Poisson regression and chi-square tests were used to compare children's orders between study groups, and t-tests were used to test for differences in dietary intake among children ordering a promoted healthy entrée (main dish) versus those who did not. Fifty-eight families participated. Children who were exposed to the study placemats prior to ordering ordered a significantly greater number of healthy food components compared to controls (p = 0.03). Overall, in the intervention group, 21% of children ordered a healthy entrée or side dish, versus 7% of controls. Children who ordered one of the promoted healthy entrées consumed less saturated fat across the total meal compared to those who did not (p = 0.04). Manipulating the prominence of healthy choices in restaurants may shift children's meal selections. Future research should build on these initial promising results, aiming to increase the potency of the intervention

  13. Dietary Tools To Modulate Glycogen Storage In Fish Muscle: A Proteomic Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Tomé S.; Matos, Elisabete; Cordeire, Odete

    proteins, and consequent muscle softening. The purpose of this study was to modulate the energy status of the muscle at the time of death through the use of dietary muscle buffering compounds, namely glycerol and maslinic acid. Four fish groups of gilthead seabream (in duplicate) were fed for three months...... and isolipidic. Fish were slaughtered by immersion in ice-salt water slurry and muscle samples were immediately obtained from three fish of each tank, for a total of six muscle samples per treatment. Sarcoplasmic proteins were extracted from each muscle sample, separated/quantified by 2D-DIGE and identified...

  14. Functional Feed Assessment on Litopenaeus vannamei Using 100% Fish Meal Replacement by Soybean Meal, High Levels of Complex Carbohydrates and Bacillus Probiotic Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalia Contreras

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Functional feed supplemented with alternative-economic nutrient sources (protein, carbohydrates, lipids and probiotics are being considered in shrimp/fish aquaculture production systems as an option to increase yield and profits and to reduce water pollution. In this study the probiotic potential to formulate functional feeds have been evaluated using four dietary treatments: Treatment 1 (B + Bs; Bacillus subtilis potential probiotic strain was supplemented to a soybeanmeal (SBM—carbohydrates (CHO basal feed. Treatment 2 (B + Bm; Bacillus megaterium potential probiotic strain was supplemented to the same SBM-CHO basal feed. In Treatment 3 (B; SBM-CHO basal feed was not supplemented with probiotic strains. Treatment 4 (C; fishmeal commercial feed (FM was utilized as positive control. Feeding trials evaluated the survival, growth, and food conversion ratio and stress tolerance of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone Pacific white shrimp. Best overall shrimp performance was observed for animals fed with Treatment 1 (B+Bs; additionally, stress tolerance and hemolymph metabolites also showed the best performance in this treatment. SBM-CHO basal feed not supplemented with probiotic strains (B presented smaller growth and lower feed conversion ratio (FCR. Shrimps fed with the fishmeal commercial feed (C presented the lowest stress tolerance to high ammonia and low oxygen levels. Specifically selected B. subtilis strains are recommended to formulate functional and economical feeds containing high levels of vegetable; protein and carbohydrates as main dietary sources in L. vannamei cultures.

  15. Functional feed assessment on Litopenaeus vannamei using 100% fish meal replacement by soybean meal, high levels of complex carbohydrates and Bacillus probiotic strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmos, Jorge; Ochoa, Leonel; Paniagua-Michel, Jesus; Contreras, Rosalia

    2011-01-01

    Functional feed supplemented with alternative-economic nutrient sources (protein, carbohydrates, lipids) and probiotics are being considered in shrimp/fish aquaculture production systems as an option to increase yield and profits and to reduce water pollution. In this study the probiotic potential to formulate functional feeds have been evaluated using four dietary treatments: Treatment 1 (B + Bs); Bacillus subtilis potential probiotic strain was supplemented to a soybeanmeal (SBM)-carbohydrates (CHO) basal feed. Treatment 2 (B + Bm); Bacillus megaterium potential probiotic strain was supplemented to the same SBM-CHO basal feed. In Treatment 3 (B); SBM-CHO basal feed was not supplemented with probiotic strains. Treatment 4 (C); fishmeal commercial feed (FM) was utilized as positive control. Feeding trials evaluated the survival, growth, and food conversion ratio and stress tolerance of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) Pacific white shrimp. Best overall shrimp performance was observed for animals fed with Treatment 1 (B+Bs); additionally, stress tolerance and hemolymph metabolites also showed the best performance in this treatment. SBM-CHO basal feed not supplemented with probiotic strains (B) presented smaller growth and lower feed conversion ratio (FCR). Shrimps fed with the fishmeal commercial feed (C) presented the lowest stress tolerance to high ammonia and low oxygen levels. Specifically selected B. subtilis strains are recommended to formulate functional and economical feeds containing high levels of vegetable; protein and carbohydrates as main dietary sources in L. vannamei cultures.

  16. Dietary fish oil (MaxEPA) enhances pancreatic carcinogenesis in azaserine-treated rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appel, M.J.; Woutersen, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    In the present study the putative chemopreventive effect of dietary fish oil (MaxEPA) on azaserine-induced pancreatic carcinogenesis in rats was investigated. Groups of rats were maintained on a semipurified low-fat (LF; 5 wt%) diet or on semipurified high-fat (HF; 25 wt%) diets containing 5 wt%

  17. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid, fish oil and soybean oil on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted on broiler chickens to study the effects of dietary fats rich in conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), fish oil (n-3 rich oil), soybean oil (n-6 rich oil), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) alone or in dual mixtures, as well as palm oil as a more saturated fat on tissue fat deposition and serum lipid ...

  18. Comparing the effects of feeding a grain- or a fish meal-based diet on water quality, waste production, and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss performance within low exchange water recirculating aquaculture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeding a fish meal-free grain-based diet (GB) was compared to feeding a fish meal-based diet (FM) relative to water quality criteria, waste production, water treatment process performance, and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss performance within six replicated water recirculating aquaculture system...

  19. Substitution of dietary fish oil with plant oils is associated with shortened mid intestinal folds in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    OpenAIRE

    Moldal, Torfinn; Løkka, Guro; Wiik-Nielsen, Jannicke; Austbø, Lars; Torstensen, Bente E; Rosenlund, Grethe; Dale, Ole Bendik; Kaldhusdal, Magne; Koppang, Erling Olaf

    2014-01-01

    Background Fish meal and fish oil are increasingly replaced by ingredients from terrestrial sources in the feeds for farmed salmonids due to expanding production and reduced availability of marine feed raw material. Fish oil that is rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is considered beneficial to human health in general and to prevent intestinal inflammation and carcinogenesis in particular. In contrast, n-6 fatty acids that are present in many vegetable oils have been associated with incr...

  20. Association between Dietary Patterns of Meat and Fish Consumption with Bone Mineral Density or Fracture Risk: A Systematic Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Perna, Simone; Avanzato, Ilaria; Nichetti, Mara; D’Antona, Giuseppe; Negro, Massimo; Rondanelli, Mariangela

    2017-01-01

    This systematic review aimed to investigate the association of fish and sea fish dietary patterns (FishDiet) and meat or processed meat dietary patterns (MeatDiet) with bone mineral density (BMD) and/or risk of fractures (RF). This review includes 37 studies with a total of 432,924 subjects. The results suggest that MeatDiet and FishDiet did not affect BMD or RF in 48.2% of the subjects with MeatDiet and in 86.5% of the subjects with FishDiet. Positive effects on bone were found in 3% of subj...

  1. Giant Taro (Alocasia macrorrhiza Root Meal with or without Coconut Oil Slurry as Source of Dietary Energy for Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diarra, S.S.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of feeding Alocasia macrorrhiza root meal (AMRM with or without added coconut oil slurry (COS on egg production and egg qualities was investigated in a 20-week experiment. A control diet based on maize and 4 other diets containing 10 and 20% AMRM with or without COS were fed each to 4 replicates of 10 birds in a completely randomized design. There were no significant dietary effects on feed intake (FI and the intake of lysine, methionine and metabolizable energy (ME. Birds fed the 20% AMRM_COS added significantly less weight during the experimental period compared to the control fed group. Body weight change (BWC did not differ among the AMRM fed birds. Per cent hen-day and feed conversion ratio were depressed on 20% AMRM and egg weight on 10% AMRM but these depressing effects were overcome by COS addition. Egg shape index, Haugh unit and per cent shell were not affected by the diet. It is concluded that AMRM can replace 10% dietary maize without adverse effect on laying performance but 20% replacement negatively impacts on hen-day and egg weight. These adverse effects are however, overcome by treating AMRM with COS at the ratio of 9: 1. More research into higher levels of COS treated AMRM in the diet is warranted.

  2. Soy-Milk Waste with Soybean Meal Dietary Substitution: Effects on Growth Performance and Meat Quality of Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Dono

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sixty male broiler chickens was used to investigate the effects of dietary soybean meal (SBM with soy-milk waste (SMW substitution using growth performance, protein-energy efficiency ratio, and physical meat quality as response criteria. The birds were given control diet (SMW-0, or a control diets with 5% (SMW-1, 10% (SMW-2, and 15% (SMW-3 soy-milk waste substitutions. Each treatment was replicate 3 times, with 5 birds per replication. The obtained data were subjected to Oneway arrangement of ANOVA, and continued subsequently with Duncan’s new Multiple Range Test. Results showed that substituting SBM with SMW did not influence protein and energy consumption, as well as feed consumption and energy efficiency ratio. However, dietary substitution with 10% SMW improved (P<0.05 protein efficiency ratio, body weight gain, and slaughter weight, resulting in lower (P<0.05 feed conversion ratio. The meat pH, water holding capacity, cooking loss, and tenderness values did not influence by 5-15% SMW substitution.

  3. Fish on farms combat dietary deficits in Cambodia | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2014-04-11

    Apr 11, 2014 ... The farmers are learning to build and maintain ponds where they raise fish for family consumption and for sale in local markets. These activities are an extension of the Homestead Food Production program introduced to Cambodia by Helen Keller International in 1998. The program initially focused solely ...

  4. Nutritional status, dietary habits and social and health profile of home meal service users for elderly of Vitoria-Gasteiz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Gómez-Busto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The home meals service (HMS is a little-developed resource in the Basque Country, and is dependent on social services. The aim of this study is to establish the nutritional status, eating habits and main social and healthcare characteristics of the users of this service.Material and Methods: A descriptive and transversal study carried out in 2 phases: (a phase 1: an assessment of nutritional status and eating habits using an abbreviated version of the Mini Nutritional Assessment and a questionnaire on food consumption. (b phase 2: the assessment of the dependency risk at home and quality of life related to health by means of Barber and EuroQoL-5D questionnaires.Results: Eighty users (35 men, 45 women fulfilled the criteria for inclusion; average age: 83.62 years (± 5.53. Nutritional status: the prevalence of malnutrition was 11% and that of risk of malnutrition 39%. Eating habits: the meal provided guaranteed a minimal provision of legumes, pasta, rice or potatoes (once or twice a week, fish (once or twice a week, and meat (three or four times a week. In spite of this, the frequency of consumption of vegetables, fish, rice, eggs or meat was less than recommended in over 70% of the group. Social and healthcare profile: 127 users (60 men, 67 women took part; average age: 83.82 years (± 6.17. Barber’s questionnaire: living alone: 48%; housebound through illness: 20%. Poor hearing: 44%; poor sight: 34%; although: 30% needed help, 95% were receiving support. EuroQoL-5D: Serious problems reported: 4.7% had difficulties with mobility; 7.9% with personal care; 23.6% had problems with carrying out daily activities; 15% reported pain or discomfort; 3.9% anxiety/depression. Perceived health status: 32.3% considered their health to be good or very good, 34,6% fair, and 33% bad or very bad.Conclusions: The group studied consists of a vulnerable people, with social and health problems and more malnutrition than the older population living at

  5. The influence of dietary and supplemental calcium on postprandial effects of a high-fat meal on lipaemia, glycaemia, C-reactive protein and adiponectin in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Thaís da S; Antunes, Vanessa P; Leal, Priscila M; Sanjuliani, Antonio F; Klein, Márcia R S T

    2017-10-01

    Non-fasting hypertriacylglycerolaemia is a risk factor for CVD and the amount of fat in a meal seems to be the main factor influencing postprandial lipaemia. Although several studies suggest that Ca can increase faecal fat excretion, it is not known whether Ca can decrease postprandial TAG. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of dietary Ca (DC) and supplemental Ca (SC) on lipaemia, glucose metabolism, C-reactive protein (CRP) and adiponectin during postprandial period in obese women challenged with a high-fat meal. In this cross-over controlled trial, sixteen obese women aged 20-50 years were randomly assigned to receive three test meals (approximately 2900 kJ; 48 % fat): high DC (547 mg DC), high SC (HSCM; 500 mg SC-calcium carbonate) and low Ca (42 mg DC). Blood samples were collected in the fasting period and at minutes 120 and 240 after meals to evaluate total cholesterol and fractions, TAG, glucose, insulin, high-sensitivity CRP and adiponectin. Serum levels of TAG and insulin increased significantly after all test meals. Only after HSCM total cholesterol did not present a significant increase and LDL-cholesterol had a significant decrease. Postprandial glucose, HDL-cholesterol, CRP and adiponectin did not present significant changes after the three test meals. The comparative analysis of the effects of the three test meals on serum lipids, glucose, insulin, CRP and adiponectin revealed no significant meal-by-time interaction. These results suggest that in obese women challenged with a high-fat meal DC and SC do not interfere with postprandial lipaemia, glucose metabolism, CRP and adiponectin.

  6. Effect of dietary supplementation of sea buckthorn and giloe leaf meal on the body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, biochemical attributes, and meat composition of turkey poults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Aditya; Shukla, Pankaj Kumar; Bhattacharyya, Amitav; Kumar, Upendra; Roy, Debashis; Yadav, Brijesh; Prakash, Atul

    2018-01-01

    In the recent past, few studies have been carried out about sea buckthorn (SBT) and giloe in chicken as a part of the quest for suitable alternatives to antibiotics. However, studies in turkeys are lacking. Hence, the present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of SBT and giloe leaf meal by dietary feed supplementation in turkey poults. A total of 1-day-old turkey poults (n=84) of small white variety were distributed into four dietary treatments having three replicates each with seven birds. The study was conducted in turkey poults during 0-8 weeks of age. During the experiment, the poults were fed basal ration (28% crude protein [CP], 2800 Kcal/kg ME) T1, T2-basal ration was supplemented with SBT leaf meal powder at 0.5%, T3-basal ration was supplemented with giloe leaf meal powder at 0.5%, and T4-basal ration was fed along with supplementation of both SBT at 0.5% and giloe leaf meal powder at 0.5%. T2 turkey poults had a significantly higher (pturkey poults. Supplementation of 0.5% SBT leaf meal may result in higher levels of zinc and EE in the breast and thigh cuts of turkey poults.

  7. Effect of polyethylene glycol 4000 supplementation on the performance of yearling male Pedi goats fed dietary mixture levels of Acacia karroo leaf meal and Setaria verticillata grass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David; Ng'ambi, Jones W

    2017-06-01

    Eighteen yearling male Pedi goats weighing 21.7 ± 3.1 kg were used in a 42-day trial in a 2 (Acacia karroo leaf meal levels) × 3 (levels of PEG 4000) factorial arrangement in a completely randomized design to determine PEG 4000 supplementation levels for optimal productivity of indigenous Pedi goats fed different mixture levels of A. karroo leaf meal and Setaria verticillata (L.) P.Beauv. grass hay. Each goat was supplemented with 0, 23 or 30 g of PEG 4000 per day in addition to dietary mixture of A. karroo and S. verticillata hay. Polyethylene glycol 4000 supplementation had no effect (P > 0.05) on nutrient intake of goats. However, a diet × PEG (P optimized at PEG 4000 supplementation levels of 19.62, 19.62, 19.61 and 19.53 g/goat/day, respectively, for diets containing 20% A. karroo leaf meal. Polyethylene glycol 4000 supplementation had no effect (P > 0.05) on the apparent digestibility of all nutrients. The dietary inclusion level of A. karroo leaf meal at 20% improved (P optimized at a PEG 4000 supplementation level of 15.78 g/goat/day. Dietary mixture level and PEG 4000 supplementation had no effect (P > 0.05) on final weights of Pedi goats. Similar results were observed for blood urea and glucose concentrations of yearling male Pedi goats. However, daily body weight gain was higher (P < 0.05) in goats fed 50% A. karroo leaf meal than those on 20% inclusion level. Polyethylene glycol 4000 has potential to improve the feeding value of tanninifeorus A. karroo leaf meal.

  8. Meal-Specific Dietary Changes From Squires Quest! II: A Serious Video Game Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Karen W; Liu, Yan; Thompson, Debbe I

    2016-05-01

    Squire's Quest! II: Saving the Kingdom of Fivealot, an online video game, promotes fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption. An evaluation study varied the type of implementation intentions used during the goal-setting process (none, action, coping, or both action and coping plans). Participants who created action plans reported higher FV consumption 6 months after baseline. This study assessed changes by specific meal in that study. A total of 400 fourth- and fifth-grade children completed 3 24-hour recalls at baseline and 6 months later. These were averaged to obtain FV intake. Analyses used repeated-measures ANCOVA. There was a significant group by time effect for vegetables at 6 months (P = .01); Action (P = .01) and coping (P = .04) group participants reported higher vegetable intake at dinner. There were significant increases in fruit intake at breakfast (P = .009), lunch (P = .01), and snack (P < .001). Setting meal-specific goals and action or coping plans may enable children to overcome barriers and consume FV. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. All rights reserved.

  9. Dietary lysine requirement for 7-16 kg pigs fed wheat-corn-soybean meal-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahindi, R K; Htoo, J K; Nyachoti, C M

    2017-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the lysine requirement of weaned pigs [Duroc × (Yorkshire × Landrace)] with an average initial BW of 7 kg and fed wheat-corn-soybean meal-based diets. The experiments were conducted for 21 days during which piglets had free access to diets and water. Average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI) and gain to feed ratio (G:F) were determined on day 7, 14 and 21. Blood samples were collected on day 0 and 14 to determine plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) concentration. In experiment 1, 96 weaned pigs were housed four per pen and allocated to four dietary treatments with six replicates per treatment. The diets contained 0.99%, 1.23%, 1.51% and 1.81% standardized ileal digestible (SID) lysine, respectively, corrected analysed values. The rest of the AA were provided to meet the ideal AA ratio for protein accretion. Increasing dietary lysine content linearly increased (p requirement was determined to be 1.29% and 1.34% respectively. On average, optimal dietary SID lysine content for optimal growth of 7-16 kg weaned piglets fed wheat-corn-SBM-based diets was estimated to be 1.32%; at this level, the ADG and ADFI were 444 and 560 g, respectively, thus representing an SID lysine requirement, expressed on daily intake basis as, 7.4 g/day or 16.76 mg/g gain. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. evaluation of the protein quality of fish meals by means of the npu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    more or less the same. Lysine supplementation did not have a consistent effect on growth of broilen at the protein level and lsh meal inclusion level used in this trial. The effect of the 6 treatments on incidence of g;z- zard erosion in the experimental birds at 8 weeks of age is shown in Table 5. The composition of the diets are ...

  11. Variety within a cooked meal increases meal energy intake in older women with a poor appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnhoven, Hanneke Ah; van der Meij, Barbara S; Visser, Marjolein

    2015-12-01

    Effective strategies to increase dietary intake in older persons with a poor appetite are needed. Previous studies have shown that increasing diet variety may increase dietary intake. This has not been tested in older adults with a poor appetite. We investigated if an increased variety of foods within a cooked meal results in a higher meal energy intake in older women with a poor appetite. This study was a randomized, controlled, cross-over trial among 19 older (>65 years) women with a poor appetite. Two cooked meals of similar weight and energy density (except starch) were served under standardized conditions on two weekdays: a test meal consisting of three different varieties of vegetables, meat or fish, and starch components, and a control meal without variety. Participants ate ad libitum and the actual consumed amounts and their nutritional content were calculated. Data were analyzed by mixed linear models. Average intake in energy was 427 kcal (SD 119) for the test meal with variety and 341 kcal (SD 115) for the control meal without variety. This resulted in a statistically significant (for period effects adjusted) mean difference of 79 kcal (95% CI = 25-134). Total meal intake in grams was also higher for the test meal with variety (48 g, 95% CI = 1-97) but protein intake (g) was not (3.7 g, 95% CI = -1.4 to 8.8). This was consistent for all meal components except starch and within each component three varieties were consumed equally. The results of the present study suggest that increasing meal variety may be an effective strategy to increase energy intake in older adults with a poor appetite. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Bacterial protein meal in diets for pigs and minks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Skrede, Anders

    2007-01-01

    containing no BPM served as controls, i.e. for minks diet M1, for pigs P1; the experimental diets contained increasing levels of BPM to replace fish meal (minks) or soybean meal (pigs), so that up to 17% (P2), 20% (M2), 35% (P3), 40% (M3), 52% (P4), and 60% (M4) of digestible N was BPM derived. Protein......The effect of increasing the dietary content of bacterial protein meal (BPM) on protein turnover rate, and on nucleic acid and creatinine metabolism in growing minks and pigs was investigated in two experiments. In each experiment, 16 animals were allocated to four experimental diets. The diets...

  13. Dietary fish oil stimulates hepatic low density lipoprotein transport in the rat.

    OpenAIRE

    Ventura, M A; Woollett, L A; Spady, D K

    1989-01-01

    These studies were undertaken to examine the effect of fish oil, safflower oil, and hydrogenated coconut oil on the major processes that determine the concentration of low density lipoprotein (LDL) in plasma, i.e., the rate of LDL production and the rates of receptor-dependent and receptor-independent LDL uptake in the various organs of the body. When fed at the 20% level, fish oil reduced plasma LDL-cholesterol levels by 38% primarily by increasing LDL receptor activity in the liver. Dietary...

  14. Physical modification of palm kernel meal improved available carbohydrate, physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility in economic freshwater fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongprajukaew, Karun; Yawang, Pinya; Dudae, Lateepah; Bilanglod, Husna; Dumrongrittamatt, Terdtoon; Tantikitti, Chutima; Kovitvadhi, Uthaiwan

    2013-12-01

    Unavailable carbohydrates are an important limiting factor for utilization of palm kernel meal (PKM) as aquafeed ingredients. The aim of this study was to improve available carbohydrate from PKM. Different physical modifications including water soaking, microwave irradiation, gamma irradiation and electron beam, were investigated in relation to chemical composition, physicochemical properties and in vitro carbohydrate digestibility using digestive enzymes from economic freshwater fish. Modified methods had significant (P carbohydrates. Improvements in physicochemical properties of PKM, such as water solubility, microstructure, relative crystallinity and lignocellulosic spectra, were mainly achieved by soaking and microwave irradiation. Carbohydrate digestibility varied among the physical modifications tested (P carbohydrate digestion specifically in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), whereas either soaking or microwave irradiation was effective for striped snakehead (Channa striata). For walking catfish (Clarias batrachus), carbohydrate digestibility was similar among raw, soaked and microwave-irradiated PKM. These findings suggest that soaking and microwave irradiation could be practical methods for altering appropriate physicochemical properties of PKM as well as increasing carbohydrate digestibility in select economic freshwater fish. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. School Nutrition Dietary Assessment Study-III: Volume I: School Food Service, School Food Environment, and Meals Offered and Served.

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Gordon; Mary Kay Crepinsek; Renée Nogales; Elizabeth Condon

    2007-01-01

    SNDA-III provides detailed information on the operation of school meal programs, the school environment that affects these programs, the nutrient content of school meals, and the contribution of school meals to students’ diets. Mathematica collected data for the study during school year 2004-2005 from a nationally representative sample of districts, schools, and students. This summary report notes that in a typical week, more than 70 percent of schools served meals that met standards for key ...

  16. Improving the quality of ready-to-eat meals by gamma irrdiation, Baked de-boned chicken meat with potatoe slices or baked fish and cooked rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badr, H.M.; Rady, A.H.; Abdel-Daiem, M.H.; Khalaf, H.

    2005-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to study the possibility of using gamma irradiation for improving the quality of ready-to-eat meals. The prepared meals (included baked chicken meat with potato slices or baked fish and cooked rice) were subjected to gamma irradiation at doses of O, 1.5, 3 and 4.5 KGy followed by cold storage (4 C). The effects of irradiation and cold storage on the microbiological aspects, chemical and organoleptic properties of samples were studied. The results showed that irradiation of the prepared meals decreased the initial total bacterial count, total psychrophilic bacteria and total yeast and molds, proportionally to the applied dose, hence prolonged their refrigerated shelf-life. Moreover, irradiation at dose of 1.5 KGy reduced the counts of Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis, while 3 KGy dose completely eliminated these bacteria in all samples. Salmonella was not detected in all irradiated and non-irradiated meals and Vibrio sp. were absent in irradiated and non-irradiated baked fish. On the other hand, gamma irradiation had no remarkable effects neither on the chemical composition of the main component of meals nor on their ph, while it increased the thiobarbituric acid (TEA) value for baked chicken and fish meat. However, cold storage gradually increased the values of TEA and gradually decreased the ph value for irradiated and non-irradiated samples. Finally, irradiation treatments had no effects on the sensory properties (appearance, odor and taste) of all meals and extended their time of sensory preference

  17. Probabilistic estimation of dietary exposure of the general Japanese population to dioxins in fish, using region-specific fish monitoring data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hongbin; Suzuki, Noriyuki; Sakurai, Takeo; Matsuzaki, Kanae; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Morita, Masatoshi

    2008-05-01

    Many studies show that dietary consumption of fish is the greatest contributor to dioxin exposure of humans in Japan. To establish a link between ocean contamination and human exposure to dioxins in fish, we proposed a method of estimating exposure by integrating region-specific measured concentrations of dioxins in fish samples and information on the production and import-export volumes of fish. The advantage over "total diet studies" (TDS) was that the proposed method could analyze the impact of the geographical variability of ocean contamination on human exposure to dioxins in fish; this may help us to apply more effective measures against dioxin exposure. Probabilistic distributions (probability density functions (PDFs)) were assigned to express the variability in the results of monitoring dioxin concentrations in fish from coastal areas divided according to prefecture, and from offshore and distant waters and imported sources. The Monte Carlo technique was applied for probabilistic estimation of dietary exposure of the general Japanese population to dioxins in fish. The mean and 5th to 95th percentile range of dietary exposure were estimated, respectively, as 67.12 and 22.65-184.35 pg toxic equivalent per day. Sensitivity analysis showed that some specific coastal areas with higher dioxin levels in fish and some with larger production volumes of fish impacted more than others to total exposure and may thus attract priority in the implementation of dioxin abatement measures.

  18. Beneficial metabolic effects of regular meal frequency on dietary thermogenesis, insulin sensitivity, and fasting lipid profiles in healthy obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farshchi, Hamid R; Taylor, Moira A; Macdonald, Ian A

    2005-01-01

    Although a regular meal pattern is recommended for obese people, its effects on energy metabolism have not been examined. We investigated whether a regular meal frequency affects energy intake (EI), energy expenditure, or circulating insulin, glucose, and lipid concentrations in healthy obese women. Ten women [x +/- SD body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 37.1 +/- 4.8] participated in a randomized crossover trial. In phase 1 (14 d), the subjects consumed their normal diet on 6 occasions/d (regular meal pattern) or followed a variable meal frequency (3-9 meals/d, irregular meal pattern). In phase 2 (14 d), the subjects followed the alternative pattern. At the start and end of each phase, a test meal was fed, and blood glucose, lipid, and insulin concentrations were determined before and for 3 h after (glucose and insulin only) the test meal. Subjects recorded their food intake on 3 d during each phase. The thermogenic response to the test meal was ascertained by indirect calorimetry. Regular eating was associated with lower EI (P thermogenesis (P meal pattern, but peak insulin concentrations and area under the curve of insulin responses to the test meal were lower after the regular than after the irregular meal pattern (P thermogenesis.

  19. 3D tooth microwear texture analysis in fishes as a test of dietary hypotheses of durophagy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purnell, Mark A; Darras, Laurent P G

    2016-01-01

    An understanding of how extinct animals functioned underpins our understanding of past evolutionary events, including adaptive radiations, and the role of functional innovation and adaptation as drivers of both micro- and macroevolution. Yet analysis of function in extinct animals is fraught with difficulty. Hypotheses that interpret molariform teeth in fishes as evidence of durophagous (shell-crushing) diets provide a good example of the particular problems inherent in the methods of functional morphology. This is because the assumed close coupling of form and function upon which the approach is based is weakened by, among other things, behavioural flexibility and the absence of a clear one to one relationship between structures and functions. Here we show that ISO 25178-2 standard parameters for surface texture, derived from analysis of worn surfaces of molariform teeth of fishes, vary significantly between species that differ in the amount of hard-shelled prey they consume. Two populations of the Sheepshead Seabream (Archosargus probatocephalus) were studied. This fish is not a dietary specialist, and one of the populations is known to consume more vegetation and less hard-shelled prey than the other; this is reflected in significant differences in their microwear textures. The Archosargus populations differ significantly in their microwear from the specialist shell-crusher Anarhichas lupus (the Atlantic Wolffish). Multivariate analysis of these three groups of fishes lends further support to the relationship between diet and tooth microwear, and provides robust validation of the approach. Application of the multivariate models derived from microwear texture in Archosargus and Anarhichas to a third fish species—the cichlid Astatoreochromis alluaudi—successfully separates wild caught fish that ate hard-shelled prey from lab-raised fish that did not. This cross-taxon validation demonstrates that quantitative analysis of tooth microwear texture can

  20. 3D tooth microwear texture analysis in fishes as a test of dietary hypotheses of durophagy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnell, Mark A.; Darras, Laurent P. G.

    2016-03-01

    An understanding of how extinct animals functioned underpins our understanding of past evolutionary events, including adaptive radiations, and the role of functional innovation and adaptation as drivers of both micro- and macroevolution. Yet analysis of function in extinct animals is fraught with difficulty. Hypotheses that interpret molariform teeth in fishes as evidence of durophagous (shell-crushing) diets provide a good example of the particular problems inherent in the methods of functional morphology. This is because the assumed close coupling of form and function upon which the approach is based is weakened by, among other things, behavioural flexibility and the absence of a clear one to one relationship between structures and functions. Here we show that ISO 25178-2 standard parameters for surface texture, derived from analysis of worn surfaces of molariform teeth of fishes, vary significantly between species that differ in the amount of hard-shelled prey they consume. Two populations of the Sheepshead Seabream (Archosargus probatocephalus) were studied. This fish is not a dietary specialist, and one of the populations is known to consume more vegetation and less hard-shelled prey than the other; this is reflected in significant differences in their microwear textures. The Archosargus populations differ significantly in their microwear from the specialist shell-crusher Anarhichas lupus (the Atlantic Wolffish). Multivariate analysis of these three groups of fishes lends further support to the relationship between diet and tooth microwear, and provides robust validation of the approach. Application of the multivariate models derived from microwear texture in Archosargus and Anarhichas to a third fish species—the cichlid Astatoreochromis alluaudi—successfully separates wild caught fish that ate hard-shelled prey from lab-raised fish that did not. This cross-taxon validation demonstrates that quantitative analysis of tooth microwear texture can

  1. incorporation of dpw, t]rea ant} fish meal with varying molasses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the increasing shortages and costs of conventional protein-rich ti:euistuffs such ls oilcakes and fish rnoal, arrd with the ever increasing cost of yeliow ... feeding value of pouitry manure for ruminants has been extensively investigated in ... manure (DPW) The amount of supplementary crude protein derived from each of ...

  2. Effects of dietary replacement of fishmeal by mealworm meal on muscle quality of farmed shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panini, Roseane L; Pinto, Stephanie S; Nóbrega, Renata O; Vieira, Felipe N; Fracalossi, Débora M; Samuels, Richard I; Prudêncio, Elane S; Silva, Carlos P; Amboni, Renata D M C

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated the muscle quality of the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei fed on a diet containing different proportions of mealworm meal (MW) (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%) as a substitute for fishmeal, which is the normal diet used in shrimp commercial production. The proximate composition, fatty acid profile, colour and texture of the shrimps were evaluated. Moisture, protein, and ash content of shrimp muscle were not significantly altered when fishmeal was replaced by MW (p>0.05). However, the replacement resulted in a linear increase in lipid content (p<0.05). The fatty acid composition of the experimental diets directly mirrored the fatty acid composition of shrimp muscle. The absence of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in MW composition resulted in a linear decrease in eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic fatty acids in shrimp muscle with increasing levels of MW in the diet. The n-3/n-6 ratio ranged from 0.50 to 0.67. Colour and firmness were unchanged between the treatments. Although the use of MW as a fishmeal substitute in L. vannamei diets has affected the lipid and fatty acid composition of shrimp muscle, from a human nutritional perspective, the lipid content of the shrimps is considered low and the n-3/n-6 ratio remained within the human dietary requirements. Therefore the use of a mealworm diet for shrimp production is a viable alternative to increasingly expensive fishmeal based diets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Determination of dietary intake of total arsenic, inorganic arsenic and total mercury in the Chilean school meal program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastías, J M; Bermúdez, M; Carrasco, J; Espinoza, O; Muñoz, M; Galotto, M J; Muñoz, O

    2010-10-01

    The dietary intake of total arsenic (tAs), inorganic arsenic (iAs) and total mercury (tHg) in lunch and breakfast servings provided by the Chilean School Meal Program (SMP) was estimated, using the duplicate-portion variant of the total diet study. Lunch and breakfast samples were collected from 65 schools throughout the country in 2006. The population sample was a group of girls and boys between 6 and 18 years old. The tAs concentration was measured via hydride-generation atomic absorption spectrometry. The total mercury concentration was measured via cold-vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy. The estimated iAs intake was 12.5% (5.4 μg/day) of the Provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI) as proposed by the FAO/WHO, and the tHg intake was 13.2% (1.9 μg/day) of the PTDI as proposed by the FAO/WHO. It was therefore concluded that tAs, iAs and tHg intake from food provided by the SMP do not pose risks to student health.

  4. Dietary additives as a method for reducing cerium absorption in sucklings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landeka, M.; Kostial, K.; Kargachin, B.

    1987-01-01

    Dietary additives (cow's milk, rat diet or some rat diet ingredients) were administered to 6-day-old artificially fed suckling rats. 141 Ce was administered orally. Rat diet ingredients (fish meal, sunflower meal, alfalfa, cane molasses and premix) were found to be extremely efficient in reducing cerium retention even if administered two days after 141 Ce application. (author) 4 refs.; 1 tab

  5. Oily fish consumption, dietary docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid intakes, and associations with neovascular age-related macular degeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augood, Cristina; Chakravarthy, Usha; Young, Ian; Vioque, Jesus; de Jong, Paulus T. V. M.; Bentham, Graham; Rahu, Mati; Seland, Johan; Soubrane, Gisele; Tomazzoli, Laura; Topouzis, Fotis; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Fletcher, Astrid E.

    2008-01-01

    Fish intake, the major source of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), may reduce the risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We investigated the association of oily fish and dietary DHA and EPA with neovascular AMD (NV-AMD). Participants aged >/=65 y in the

  6. Effect of dietary fish oil on renal function and rejection in cyclosporine-treated recipients of renal transplants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, J. J.; Bilo, H. J.; Donker, J. M.; Wilmink, J. M.; Tegzess, A. M.

    1993-01-01

    Dietary fish oil exerts effects on renal hemodynamics and the immune response that may benefit renal-transplant recipients treated with cyclosporine. To evaluate this possibility, we studied the effect of fish oil on renal function, blood pressure, and the incidence of acute rejection episodes in

  7. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of effects of dietary fish oil on total fatty acid composition in mouse skin

    OpenAIRE

    Peiru Wang; Min Sun; Jianwei Ren; Zora Djuric; Gary J. Fisher; Xiuli Wang; Yong Li

    2017-01-01

    Altering the fatty acid (FA) composition in the skin by dietary fish oil could provide therapeutic benefits. Although it has been shown that fish oil supplementation enhances EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) abundance in the skin, comprehensive skin FA profiling is needed. We established a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method, which allows precise quantification of FA profile using small (

  8. TRP channel blamed for burning cold after a tropical fish meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voets, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    EMBO J (2012) 31 19, 3795–3808 doi:10.1038/emboj.2012.207; published online 07312012 Ciguatera is one of the most common forms of food poisoning, occurring after consumption of fish contaminated with ciguatoxins. New work by Vetter et al (2012) reveals the key molecular players that underlie the altered temperature sensation associated with ciguatera. In particular, they show that ciguatoxins act on sensory neurons that express TRPA1, an ion channel implicated in the detection of noxious cold. PMID:22960637

  9. (Z)-9-Tricosene based Musca domestica lure study on a garbage dump yard using plywood sticky trap baited with fish meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundar, S T Bino; Latha, Bhaskaran Ravi; Vijayashanthi, R; Pandian, Serma Saravana

    2016-03-01

    A study was undertaken to find out the efficacy of (Z)-9-Tricosene in attracting flies in a garbage dump yard using a plywood sticky glue trap with fish meal as a food bait. (Z)-9-Tricosene was dissolved in acetone or hexane before application on a filter paper strip fixed at the centre of the trap. The traps were left in areas of the garbage dump yard of high fly activity for 6 h and then the trapped flies were counted species wise. Significantly more number of Musca domestica flies were caught in (Z)-9-Tricosene treated fish meal baited traps compared to those traps without (Z)-9-Tricosene. No significant difference was noted in trap catches in (Z)-9-Tricosene treated traps between the solvents acetone and hexane. In addition Sarcophaga sp. and Chrysomyia sp. flies were also caught in the traps.

  10. Albatrosses following fishing vessels: how badly hooked are they on an easy meal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José P Granadeiro

    Full Text Available Fisheries have major impacts on seabirds, both by changing food availability and by causing direct mortality of birds during trawling and longline setting. However, little is known about the nature and the spatial-temporal extent of the interactions between individual birds and vessels. By studying a system in which we had fine-scale data on bird movements and activity, and near real-time information on vessel distribution, we provide new insights on the association of a threatened albatross with fisheries. During early chick-rearing, black-browed albatrosses Thalassarche melanophris from two different colonies (separated by only 75 km showed significant differences in the degree of association with fisheries, despite being nearly equidistant to the Falklands fishing fleet. Most foraging trips from either colony did not bring tracked individuals close to vessels, and proportionally little time and foraging effort was spent near ships. Nevertheless, a few individuals repeatedly visited fishing vessels, which may indicate they specialise on fisheries-linked food sources and so are potentially more vulnerable to bycatch. The evidence suggests that this population has little reliance on fisheries discards at a critical stage of its nesting cycle, and hence measures to limit fisheries waste on the Patagonian shelf that also reduce vessel attractiveness and the risk of incidental mortality, would be of high overall conservation benefit.

  11. Albatrosses Following Fishing Vessels: How Badly Hooked Are They on an Easy Meal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granadeiro, José P.; Phillips, Richard A.; Brickle, Paul; Catry, Paulo

    2011-01-01

    Fisheries have major impacts on seabirds, both by changing food availability and by causing direct mortality of birds during trawling and longline setting. However, little is known about the nature and the spatial-temporal extent of the interactions between individual birds and vessels. By studying a system in which we had fine-scale data on bird movements and activity, and near real-time information on vessel distribution, we provide new insights on the association of a threatened albatross with fisheries. During early chick-rearing, black-browed albatrosses Thalassarche melanophris from two different colonies (separated by only 75 km) showed significant differences in the degree of association with fisheries, despite being nearly equidistant to the Falklands fishing fleet. Most foraging trips from either colony did not bring tracked individuals close to vessels, and proportionally little time and foraging effort was spent near ships. Nevertheless, a few individuals repeatedly visited fishing vessels, which may indicate they specialise on fisheries-linked food sources and so are potentially more vulnerable to bycatch. The evidence suggests that this population has little reliance on fisheries discards at a critical stage of its nesting cycle, and hence measures to limit fisheries waste on the Patagonian shelf that also reduce vessel attractiveness and the risk of incidental mortality, would be of high overall conservation benefit. PMID:21399696

  12. Influence of Dietary Supplementation of Condensed Tannins through Leaf Meal Mixture on Intake, Nutrient Utilization and Performance of Infected Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Pathak

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the effect of dietary supplementation of leaf meal mixture (LMM containing condensed tannins (CT on feed intake, nutrient utilization and performance of sheep infected with Haemonchus contortus. Eighteen adult sheep of similar age and body weight (25.03±1.52 were included in this study and out of these, 12 sheep were infected with single dose of infective third stage larvae of H. contortus at 2,000 larvae per sheep. The experimental sheep were allocated in three different groups’ i.e. negative control (NC; no infection, control (C; H. contortus infected and treatment (T; H. contortus infected+CT at 1.5% of the DM through LMM and the experiment was conducted for a period of 90 d. The intake of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM and digestibility of DM, OM, neutral detergent fibre (NDF and acid detergent fibre (ADF were comparable among three animal groups. However, digestibility of crude protein (CP and ether extract (EE were significantly (p<0.05 higher in NC group as compared to both C and T groups. Nitrogen (N retention (g/d or % of N intake was significantly (p = 0.038 lower in C group as compared to T and NC groups. Daily intake (g/kg W0.75 of digestible crude protein (DCP, digestible organic matter (DOM and total digestible nutrient (TDN did not differ significantly (p<0.05 in the three groups. Haemoglobin (Hb and packed cell volume (PCV were significantly (p<0.001 higher in treatment group as compared to control. The level of Hb and PCV reduced (p<0.001 after 30 days of experimental feeding. CT significantly (p<0.001 reduced serum urea in T group as compared to NC and C groups. Serum proteins differed significantly (p<0.01 among the three groups. The activity of serum enzymes AST, ALT, ALP and LDH were also statistically non significant (p<0.05 among treatments. The weight of abomasal lymph nodes (ALN in T group was higher (p<0.05 than in C group. Treatment group had lower (p<0.05 total worms and fecal egg count

  13. Effect of replacement of fish meal by potato protein concentrate in the diet for rainbow trout on feeding rate, digestibility and growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, Shougi; Jokumsen, Alfred

    1999-01-01

    . The control diet contained all Danish L T-fish meal as protein sources. The other experimental diets contained 2.2, 5.6, 8.9 and 11.1% PPC respectively. Diet 6 contained 5.6% PPC and 1.7% methionine. A 4-week trial was conducted at about 12degreeC. The results showed that feeding rate decreased with increased...

  14. Occurrence and human dietary assessment of fluoroquinolones antibiotics in cultured fish around tai lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chao; Zhang, Cong; Kamira, Barry; Qiu, Liping; Fan, Limin; Wu, Wei; Meng, Shunlong; Hu, Gengdong; Chen, Jiazhang

    2017-11-01

    Fluoroquinolone antibiotics are widely used in the production of aquatic products and considered to be a significant contributing factor to the burden of both natural and aquaculture environments. However, the main types of fluoroquinolones present in aquaculture systems have not been determined. The objectives of the present study were to explore the occurrence of residual fluoroquinolone antibiotics in fish muscle tissues sampled from across the entire aquaculture season in the Tai Lake basin in China and to assess the dietary risks associated with the upcoming vendible fish in the last month of the aquaculture season. Fluoroquinolones were detected in 95.69% of all fish samples, and the concentrations ranged from the limit of quantification (LOQ) to 47 108.00 μg · kg -1 . Enrofloxacin contributed the most among the 9 fluoroquinolone antibiotics tested. Of the 4 fish species studied, enrofloxacin was present in bream at significant (p < 0.05) concentrations in August, with an average value of 321.45 μg · kg -1 , while enrofloxacin concentrations peaked in crab and shrimp in September, with average values of 6949.60 and 460.82 μg · kg -1 , respectively. However, different patterns were observed in perch, suggesting that other categories of antibiotics may be used in the production of this fish. Dietary risk assessment showed that the residual levels and estimated daily intake in bream, perch, and shrimp were far below the maximum residual level and acceptable daily intake. However, the average residual level in crab exceeded the maximum residual level, and the estimated daily intake value accounted for 78.49% of the acceptable daily intake, indicating potential consumption risk. In summary, the present study aims to guide the production and consumption of aquatic products. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2899-2905. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  15. Coefficients of apparent absorption of the dietary nutrients from broiler feeds that include oil industry by-products (rapeseeds, grapes, buckthorn, flax and pumpkin meals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Dumitra PANAITE

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A 42-day feeding trial was conducted on 120, day-old ROSS 308 chicks assigned to 4 (C; E1; E2; E3 groups. The broilers were housed in three-tier digestibility cages (5 broilers/cage which allowed the daily recording of the feed intake and excreta located in an experimental hall with controlled environmental conditions (27.07±2.750 C; humidity 64,80±9,57%; light regimen 23h. During the starter stage (1-10 days all chicks received a conventional compound feed (C. During the grower and finisher stages, compared to C formulation, the experimental diets different proportions, varying with the stage of development, of rapeseeds and grape meals (E1, buckthorn and flax meals (E2, pumpkin meal (lot E3. The balance study was conducted for 5 days, during weeks 4 and 6. During this period, average weights from each two cages (6 samples/group of feed consumed and excreta voided (dry matter basis were recorded and sampled for: dry matter, nitrogen, fat, fibre, ash and gross energy analysis. The chicks from E1 group had a lower (P≤0.05 coefficient of dietary nitrogen absorption than E2 chicks. The coefficients of apparent absorption of the dietary fat varied with the period of development. During the finishing stage, E3 chicks had a higher (P≤0.05 coefficient of fibre absorption than groups C, E1 and E2.

  16. Generic Meal Patterns Identified by Latent Class Analysis: Insights from NANS (National Adult Nutrition Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Uzhova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional data reduction methods are widely applied in nutrition epidemiology in order to classify individuals into meaningful groups with similar dietary patterns. To date, none of the existing studies have applied latent class analysis to examine dietary patterns which include meal types consumed throughout a day. We investigated main meal patterns followed on weekend and weekdays, and evaluated their associations with cardio-metabolic biomarkers. The analyses were performed within the NANS (National Adult Nutrition Survey a cross-sectional national food consumption survey of 1500 nationally representative Irish adults. A total number of seven dietary patterns were identified using latent class analysis. The typical meal pattern followed by the majority of the population was characterized by consumption of cereal or toast for breakfast, skipping or consuming a sandwich for light meal, and meat or fish with potatoes, pasta or vegetables for the main meal. Eating patterns differed on weekends, and those participants who consumed meat and eggs for breakfast instead of breakfast cereal and skipped light meal were more likely to have an unhealthier dietary pattern, a higher diastolic blood pressure, and increased serum ferritin. The application of data reduction techniques to simplify the multifaceted nature of dietary data is a useful approach to derive patterns, which might shed further light on the typical dietary patterns followed by populations.

  17. Generic Meal Patterns Identified by Latent Class Analysis: Insights from NANS (National Adult Nutrition Survey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzhova, Irina; Woolhead, Clara; Timon, Claire M; O'Sullivan, Aifric; Brennan, Lorraine; Peñalvo, José L; Gibney, Eileen R

    2018-03-06

    Nutritional data reduction methods are widely applied in nutrition epidemiology in order to classify individuals into meaningful groups with similar dietary patterns. To date, none of the existing studies have applied latent class analysis to examine dietary patterns which include meal types consumed throughout a day. We investigated main meal patterns followed on weekend and weekdays, and evaluated their associations with cardio-metabolic biomarkers. The analyses were performed within the NANS (National Adult Nutrition Survey) a cross-sectional national food consumption survey of 1500 nationally representative Irish adults. A total number of seven dietary patterns were identified using latent class analysis. The typical meal pattern followed by the majority of the population was characterized by consumption of cereal or toast for breakfast, skipping or consuming a sandwich for light meal, and meat or fish with potatoes, pasta or vegetables for the main meal. Eating patterns differed on weekends, and those participants who consumed meat and eggs for breakfast instead of breakfast cereal and skipped light meal were more likely to have an unhealthier dietary pattern, a higher diastolic blood pressure, and increased serum ferritin. The application of data reduction techniques to simplify the multifaceted nature of dietary data is a useful approach to derive patterns, which might shed further light on the typical dietary patterns followed by populations.

  18. Effects of dietary fat source and supplemental lysophosphatidylcholine on performance, immune responses, and ileal nutrient digestibility in broilers fed corn/soybean meal- or corn/wheat/soybean meal-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahyari-Bake, S; Jahanian, R

    2017-05-01

    Two separate experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of different fat sources and a supplemental exogenous emulsifier (lysophosphatidylcholine, LPC) on growth performance, antibody production titers, and ileal nutrient digestibility in broiler chicks fed with different basal diets. A total of 288 one-day-old Ross 308 chicks were used for each trial (6 dietary treatments based on 3 × 2 factorial arrangements of treatments in both trials) with 4 replicates of 12 birds each. Dietary treatments consisted of 3 different fat sources (soy oil, SO; soy free fatty acids, SFFA; and palm fat powder, PFP) and 2 LPC levels (0 and 0.1% of diet), which were evaluated with 2 different basal diets (corn/soybean meal-based diets in Exp. 1, or corn/wheat/soybean meal-based diets in Exp. 2). In Exp. 1, average daily feed intake (ADFI) was increased (P Gumboro antibody titer, and the lowest antibody response was allotted to the birds fed PFP diets. The greatest (P < 0.05) EE digestibility was assigned to the birds fed SO and SFFA diets. The present findings showed that birds fed SFFA-containing diets had similar performance as SO birds, and supplemental LPC improved overall performance especially in SFFA-fed birds. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  19. Meal Distribution of Dietary Protein and Leucine Influences Long-Term Muscle Mass and Body Composition in Adult Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Layne E; Wilson, Gabriel J; Moulton, Christopher J; Layman, Donald K

    2017-02-01

    Protein quantity and quality at a meal affect muscle protein synthesis (MPS); however, long-term effects of protein distribution at individual meals on adult muscle mass remain unknown. We used a precise feeding protocol in adult rats to determine if optimizing postmeal MPS response by modifying the meal distribution of protein, and the amino acid leucine (Leu), would affect muscle mass. Two studies were conducted with the use of male Sprague-Dawley rats (∼300 g) trained to consume 3 meals/d, then assigned to diet treatments with identical macronutrient contents (16% of energy from protein, 54% from carbohydrates, and 30% from fat) but differing in protein quality or meal distribution. Study 1 provided 16% protein at each meal with the use of whey, egg white, soy, or wheat gluten, with Leu concentrations of 10.9%, 8.8%, 7.7%, and 6.8% (wt:wt), respectively. Study 2 used whey protein with 16% protein at each meal [balanced distribution (BD)] or meals with 8%, 8%, and 27% protein [unbalanced distribution (UD)]. MPS and translation factors 4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) and ribosomal protein p70S6 (S6K) were determined before and after breakfast meals at 2 and 11 wk. Muscle weights and body composition were measured at 11 wk. In study 1, the breakfast meal increased MPS and S6K in whey and egg treatments but not in wheat or soy treatments. Gastrocnemius weight was greater in the whey group (2.20 ± 0.03 g) than the soy group (1.95 ± 0.04 g) (P 20% more body fat than the soy, egg, or whey groups (P protein and Leu influences MPS and long-term changes in adult muscle mass. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. Effects of dietary protein levels on growth performance and body composition of juvenile parrot fish, Oplegnathus fasciatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang-Woong Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary protein levels on growth, biometrics, hematology and body composition in juvenile parrot fish Oplegnathus fasciatus. Fish averaging 7.1 ± 0.06 g (mean ± SD was randomly distributed into 15 net cages (each size: 60 × 40 × 90 cm, W × L × H as groups of 20 fish. Five isocaloric diets (16.7 kJ/g energy were formulated to contain crude protein levels (CP as 35 (CP35, 40 (CP40, 45 (CP45, 50 (CP50 and 60 % (CP60 in the diets. Fish were fed one of the experimental diets at apparent satiation twice a day in triplicate groups. At the end of 8-week feeding trial, weight gain (WG of fish fed with CP50 and CP60 diets were significantly higher than those of fish fed with CP35, CP40 and CP45 diets. Fish fed with CP45, CP50 and CP60 diets had higher feed efficiency (FE and specific growth rate (SGR than those of fish fed with CP35 and CP40 diets. Protein retention efficiency (PRE decreased with increase of dietary protein levels among fish fed with the experimental diets. Whole-body crude protein and lipid contents increased with the dietary protein level up to CP50 diet. In conclusion, analysis of variance (ANOVA revealed that the optimum dietary protein level could be 50 % for maximum growth of juvenile parrot fish, while the broken-line analysis of WG suggested that the level could be 48.5 %, in a diet containing 16.7 kJ/g energy.

  1. Thermodynamic analysis questions claims of improved cardiac efficiency by dietary fish oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goo, Eden; Chapman, Brian; Hickey, Anthony J.R.

    2016-01-01

    Studies in the literature describe the ability of dietary supplementation by omega-3 fish oil to increase the pumping efficiency of the left ventricle. Here we attempt to reconcile such studies with our own null results. We undertake a quantitative analysis of the improvement that could be expected theoretically, subject to physiological constraints, by posing the following question: By how much could efficiency be expected to increase if inefficiencies could be eliminated? Our approach utilizes thermodynamic analyses to investigate the contributions, both singly and collectively, of the major components of cardiac energetics to total cardiac efficiency. We conclude that it is unlikely that fish oils could achieve the required diminution of inefficiencies without greatly compromising cardiac performance. PMID:27574288

  2. Amelioration of ischemic acute renal failure by dietary fish oil administration in conscious dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumayer, H H; Heinrich, M; Schmissas, M; Haller, H; Wagner, K; Luft, F C

    1992-12-01

    The hypothesis that dietary fish oil would protect dogs from ischemic acute renal failure was tested. Fish oil (eicosapentaenoic acid, 55 mg/kg per day, and docosahexaenoic acid, 40 mg/kg per day was given to eight instrumented, female, beagle dogs for 6 wk, while seven control dogs received vehicle. After 3 wk, unilateral nephrectomy was performed and a pneumatic cuff with flow probe was placed around the remaining renal artery of each dog. Three weeks thereafter, the cuff was inflated for 120 min. Renal function, RBF, and prostanoid excretion were measured 24 and 72 h after ischemia. In dogs receiving fish oil, blood pressure, GFR, RBF, renal vascular resistance (RVR), cholesterol, triglycerides, and prostanoid excretion were measured weekly for 6 wk. Further, cytosolic calcium was measured before and five times after fish oil. Blood pressure decreased, serum cholesterol and triglycerides decreased, and the cytosolic calcium within platelets decreased. The urinary excretion (expressed as picograms per milligram of creatinine) of the thromboxane (TX) metabolite TXB2 and the excretion of prostaglandin (PG)E2, as well as the excretion of the PGI2 metabolite 6-keto PGF1 alpha were decreased. GFR, RBF (Cl inulin and Cl para-aminohippuric acid), and RVR were not influenced by fish oil. Unilateral nephrectomy decreased GFR and RBF and increased RVR as expected, whereas it further decreased prostanoid excretion. Acute renal ischemia caused a significant, reversible decrease in GFR and urine volume in vehicle-treated animals, whereas no significant effect on renal function or urine volume was observed in animals pretreated with fish oil.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Restoring piscivorous fish populations in the Laurentian Great Lakes causes seabird dietary change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, C.E.; Weseloh, D.V.C.; Idrissi, A.; Arts, M.T.; O'Gorman, R.; Gorman, O.T.; Locke, B.; Madenjian, C.P.; Roseman, E.F.

    2008-01-01

    Ecosystem change often affects the structure of aquatic communities thereby regulating how much and by what pathways energy and critical nutrients flow through food webs. The availability of energy and essential nutrients to top predators such as seabirds that rely on resources near the water's surface will be affected by changes in pelagic prey abundance. Here, we present results from analysis of a 25-year data set documenting dietary change in a predatory seabird from the Laurentian Great Lakes. We reveal significant declines in trophic position and alterations in energy and nutrient flow over time. Temporal changes in seabird diet tracked decreases in pelagic prey fish abundance. As pelagic prey abundance declined, birds consumed less aquatic prey and more terrestrial food. This pattern was consistent across all five large lake ecosystems. Declines in prey fish abundance may have primarily been the result of predation by stocked piscivorous fishes, but other lake-specific factors were likely also important. Natural resource management activities can have unintended consequences for nontarget ecosystem components. Reductions in pelagic prey abundance have reduced the capacity of the Great Lakes to support the energetic requirements of surface-feeding seabirds. In an environment characterized by increasingly limited pelagic fish resources, they are being offered a Hobsonian choice: switch to less nutritious terrestrial prey or go hungry. ?? 2008 by the Ecological Society of America.

  4. Meal frequency and dietary diversity feeding practices among children 6-23 months of age in Wolaita Sodo town, Southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Tefera Chane; Workie, Shimelash Bitew; Yimer, Tesfa Mekonen; Mersha, Wubalem Fekadu

    2017-05-19

    Child feeding practices are multidimensional, and they change rapidly within short age intervals. Suboptimal complementary feeding practices contribute to a rapid increase in the prevalence of undernutrition in children in the age of 6-23 months. Information on child feeding practices among urban resident is limited in Ethiopia. The aim was to measure minimum meal frequency and dietary diversity and associated factors among children 6-23 months of age in Wolaita Sodo, Ethiopia. A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out to select 623 mothers/caregivers with 6-23 months of children reside in Wolaita Sodo town using systematic sampling from March 02 to 20, 2015. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to gather information on socio-demographic, child feeding practices and health-related characteristics. Data were entered to Epi-Data version 3.02 and transported to SPSS version 21 for further analysis. Binary logistic regression was used to see the association between the outcome variables and explanatory variables, and multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify independent predictors of minimum dietary diversity and meal frequency. The study revealed that the percentage of 6-23 months of children who meet the recommended level of minimum dietary diversity and meal frequency were 27.3 and 68.9%, respectively. Mothers/caregivers who were housewives and government employees feed their children more diversified foods as compared to mothers who were private workers. As compared to children 17-23 months of age, children in the age group of 6-8 and 9-11 months had better probability to meet minimum dietary diversity. Government-employed and illiterate mothers were less likely to feed their children to fulfil the minimum requirement of meal frequency. Children in the age of 9-11 months were also less likely to be fed frequently. Even though the study showed better progress as compared to the national prevalence of complementary

  5. Association between Dietary Patterns of Meat and Fish Consumption with Bone Mineral Density or Fracture Risk: A Systematic Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Simone; Avanzato, Ilaria; Nichetti, Mara; D'Antona, Giuseppe; Negro, Massimo; Rondanelli, Mariangela

    2017-09-18

    This systematic review aimed to investigate the association of fish and sea fish dietary patterns (FishDiet) and meat or processed meat dietary patterns (MeatDiet) with bone mineral density (BMD) and/or risk of fractures (RF). This review includes 37 studies with a total of 432,924 subjects. The results suggest that MeatDiet and FishDiet did not affect BMD or RF in 48.2% of the subjects with MeatDiet and in 86.5% of the subjects with FishDiet. Positive effects on bone were found in 3% of subjects with MeatDiet and in 12% with FishDiet. Negative effects on bone were observed in 2.7% of FishDiet and in 47.9% of MeatDiet. Major negative effects of MeatDiet were found in subjects located in the Netherlands, Greece, Germany, Italy, Norway, UK and Spain who do not sustain a Mediterranean diet (92.7%); in Korea (27.1%); in Brazil and Mexico (96.4%); and in Australia (62.5%). This study suggests that protein intake from fish or meat is not harmful to bone. Negative effects on bone linked to FishDiet are almost null. Negative effects on bone were associated to MeatDiet in the setting of a Western Diet but not in Mediterranean or Asian Diets.

  6. The dietary effect of serving school meals based on the new Nordic diet – A randomised controlled trial in Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Christensen, Tue

    2013-01-01

    Background and objectives: The OPUS study is a school-based intervention study testing selected health effects of New Nordic Diet (NND). Children are served lunch and snacks based on NND. The hypothesis is that Danish school children eat a healthier diet when receiving NND school meals as compared....... Results: 834 children from 9 schools were included and 96%, 89% and 80% filled out the first, second and third dietary assessment sufficiently (4-7 days), respectively. The preliminary results showed that the effect of serving NND resulted in a reduction in fat E% (P... and household education. Conclusions: Danish school children’s dietary intake of total and saturated fat decreased, fat E% decreased and protein E% increased when eating NND lunch and snacks compared to packed lunch brought from home. The OPUS project (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish...

  7. Energy and nutrient intake and acceptability of nutritionally balanced school meals in Filipino students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeles-Agdeppa, Imelda; Neufingerl, Nicole; Magsadia, Clarita; Hiemstra, Harry; Patalen, Chona; Eilander, Ans

    2014-09-01

    School meals provide an excellent opportunity to improve children's diet. To investigate dietary intakes and acceptance of nutritionally balanced school meals ("nutrimeals") as compared with regular ("baseline") school meals among Filipino students. The study employed a before-after intervention design with one group. Students 13 to 16 years of age from a public school in Metro Manila (n = 112) consumed baseline school meals for 2 weeks followed by consumption of nutri-meals for 7 weeks. Served meals and plate waste were weighed to calculate food and nutrient intakes. Acceptability of meals was assessed daily in a random subsample using a seven-point hedonic scale. Analysis of covariance corrected for age and sex was conducted to test for differences in nutrient intakes and acceptability between nutri-meals and baseline meals. Feeding nutri-meals resulted in a higher intake of vegetables (95.3 ± 13.8 g), fruit (76.5 ± 6.3 g), and fish (19.1 ± 3.3 g) than baseline meals. Energy and protein intakes significantly increased by 140.7 ± 2.8 kcal and 3.2 ± 0.1 g, respectively. The quality of fat intake improved compared with baseline meals (p 90%) liked both baseline and nutrimeals; however, the mean acceptability score for baseline meals was slightly higher (0.2 ± 0.07 points, p = .004). Nutritionally balanced nutri-meals may be a healthier and acceptable alternative to regular Filipino school meals. Further optimization of nutri-meals is required to meet the nutritional needs of adolescents and reduce sodium content.

  8. Influence of dietary inclusion of untreated or heat-treated Jatropha meal on productive and reproductive performances and biochemical blood parameters of laying Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Hack, M E; Alagawany, M; El-Sayed, S A A; Fowler, J

    2017-08-01

    Jatropha meal (JM) has been characterized as a potential animal feedstuff due to its high crude protein content and high levels of essential amino acids. However, it contains anti-nutritive and toxic compounds that may hinder its use. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a dietary inclusion of raw Jatropha meal (RJM) and heat-treated Jatropha meal on the growth and production of laying Japanese quail using productive, reproductive, and biochemical blood parameters. A total number of 180 mature Japanese quail at 2 months of age (120 females and 60 males) was randomly divided into 4 treatment groups: control (0% JM); 3.5% RJM; 3.5% JM heated in an oven at 100°C for 24 h (JM24); and 3.5% JM heated in oven at 100°C for 48 h (JM48). After 8 wk on treatment diets, the inclusion of RJM to quail diets reduced (P quail diets led to significant decrease (P Japanese quail diets without detrimental effects on production, reproductive performance, and health status. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  9. Feeding soy or fish meal to Alaskan reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus – effects on animal performance and meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Finstad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen reindeer (8 steers and 6 females were used to compare the effects of two different reindeer diets (a feed mix based on barley, brome hay and soybean meal (SBM or fishmeal (WFM as protein source on animal growth performance, feed conversion efficiency and ultimate meat quality. Samples from free-ranging reindeer (n=4; 2 steers and 2 females on the Seward Peninsula were included to provide comparisons with the traditional reindeer meat produced in Alaska. No significant difference was observed in overall weight gain between the WFM and SBM animals or between females and steers; however, the feed conversion efficiency was significantly higher for the reindeer fed the WFM mix. Carcass dressing percentage from the SBM group was higher compared with the WFM animals. No differences were found in live weight, carcass characteristics, meat pH, temperature decline, shear force, meat color or cooking loss when comparing the treatment groups. The meat samples (M. longissimus from the free-range group had the highest amount of omega-3 fatty acids and also the highest amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. Meat from the animals fed SBM was significantly higher in triglyceride content and lower in phospholipid content compared with the two other groups. No significant differences were found when the trained panel compared the sensory attributes of the meat. Off-flavor attributes related to “wild’ or “gamey” flavor was reported by consumers for samples from the WFM and free-range reindeer (15 and 24 per cent of the consumers, respectively. No “fish-related” flavor was reported. In conclusion, no negative effects in either animal performance or meat quality characteristics by using fish meal as opposed to soybean meal as a protein supplement in a milled reindeer diet were found.Abstract in Swedish / Sammandrag:Utfordring av ren med soja- eller fiskmjøl – effekter på tillväxt, foderutnyttjande och köttkvalitet I vår unders

  10. Evaluation of chitinolytic activities and membrane integrity in gut tissues of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) fed fish meal and zygomycete biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abro, Rani; Sundell, Kristina; Sandblom, Erik; Sundh, Henrik; Brännäs, Eva; Kiessling, Anders; Lindberg, Jan Erik; Lundh, Torbjörn

    2014-09-01

    Chitinolytic activity, nutrient uptake and intestinal barrier functions were investigated in gut tissues of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) fed iso-nitrogenous diets based on fish meal, with or without inclusion of zygomycetes (Rhizopus oryzae). We found that gut tissue of Arctic charr had significant chitinase activity, of both endo- and exo-chitinase iso-forms. Moreover, the distribution pattern along the GI tract of Arctic charr differed between endo-chitinase and exo-chitinase. The endo-chitinase activity in stomach tissue and in the distal intestine was several hundred-fold higher than the exo-chitinase activity in stomach tissue. The greatest exo-chitinase activity was found in the distal intestine. The zygomycete-based diet resulted in higher chitinolytic activity in gut tissue compared to the fish meal-based diet. Disturbed intestinal integrity and increased uptake rate of the amino acid lysine were observed in the distal, but not proximal, intestine of fish fed the zygomycete-based feed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Passage and absorption of dietary and endogenous nitrogen in different regions of the digestive tract of rats given a single meal of 15N-labelled barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partridge, I.G.; Simon, O.; Bergner, H.

    1985-01-01

    Young male Wistar rats (86.9 +- 0.96 g) were fasted for 24 hours and then offered a single meal (intake of 1 to 2.5 g) of 15 N-labelled barley (5.34 atom% 15 N excess). The test meal also contained Cr 2 O 3 (20 mg/g). Groups of five animals were killed 0.5; 1; 1.5; 2; 2.5; 4; 6 and 8 hours after removal of food. The contents of different regions of the digestive tract (stomach, proximal, middle and distal third of small intestine, large intestine) and feces were analyzed for Cr 2 O 3 and for N and 15 N abundance in both a TCA soluble and a TCA precipitable fraction. The distribution patterns of Cr 2 O 3 and 15 N along the digestive tract were very similar. If the disappearance of 15 N from the contents of the small and of the large intestines was expressed as a proportion of the gastric outflow of 15 N, a disappearance rate of 90% was found. On the basis of isotopic dilution the proportion of dietary nitrogen in digesta was calculated. The results illustrated the intensive dilution of dietary nitrogen by endogenous secretions in all regions of the digestive tract. In the distal small intestine endogenous nitrogen accounted for 70% of total nitrogen. 17 mg endogenous N were produced by the stomach within 8 hours after the single meal. The results show the value of the method in determining the true digestibility of nitrogen in 15 N-labelled feedstuffs more accurately than with classical methods and in providing an insight into the dynamics of nitrogen absorption and secretion in the digestive tract. (author)

  12. Effect of dietary energy density and meal size on growth performance, eating pattern, and carcass and meat quality in Holstein steers fed high-concentrate diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, S; Pérez, M; Aris, A; Bach, A; Devant, M

    2014-08-01

    A total of 121 steers (162 ± 3.0 kg BW and 148 ± 2.7 d old) were used to study the effect of dietary energy density and meal size (limiting the amount of concentrate delivered at each feeder visit) on performance, hormones associated with the regulation of intake, and carcass and meat quality. Steers were allocated by BW to 6 pens. Each pen had the same BW mean and CV, and pens were randomly assigned to 3 treatments (2 pens/treatment): a concentrate of moderate energy density (3.23 Mcal ME/kg, 6.2% ether extract) fed for ad libitum intake with no control on meal size (CTR), a concentrate of high-energy density (3.43 Mcal ME/kg, 8.3% ether extract) fed for ad libitum intake with no control on meal size (HE), and the same high-energy concentrate offered for ad libitum intake but with meal size limited to a maximum concentrate delivery of 0.6 kg DM/visit (HELM). Body weight was recorded every 14 d; concentrate consumption and eating pattern were recorded daily. On d 163, blood samples were collected to determine serum concentrations of leptin, ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), cholecystokinin (CCK), glucose, and insulin. After slaughter (on d 166 to 170), the 9-10-11 rib section was removed to estimate separable bone, lean, and fat. Meat quality of LM was analyzed. Data were analyzed using a mixed-effects model with repeated measures. Steers in the HELM treatment had a lower (P hormones related to intake compared with CTR and HE, but no effect on rib fat distribution and meat quality was observed.

  13. Nutrient adequacy during weight loss interventions: a randomized study in women comparing the dietary intake in a meal replacement group with a traditional food group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bovee Vicki

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Safe and effective weight control strategies are needed to stem the current obesity epidemic. The objective of this one-year study was to document and compare the macronutrient and micronutrient levels in the foods chosen by women following two different weight reduction interventions. Methods Ninety-six generally healthy overweight or obese women (ages 25–50 years; BMI 25–35 kg/m2 were randomized into a Traditional Food group (TFG or a Meal Replacement Group (MRG incorporating 1–2 meal replacement drinks or bars per day. Both groups had an energy-restricted goal of 5400 kJ/day. Dietary intake data was obtained using 3-Day Food records kept by the subjects at baseline, 6 months and one-year. For more uniform comparisons between groups, each diet intervention consisted of 18 small group sessions led by the same Registered Dietitian. Results Weight loss for the 73% (n = 70 completing this one-year study was not significantly different between the groups, but was significantly different (p ≤ .05 within each group with a mean (± standard deviation weight loss of -6.1 ± 6.7 kg (TFG, n = 35 vs -5.0 ± 4.9 kg (MRG, n = 35. Both groups had macronutrient (Carbohydrate:Protein:Fat ratios that were within the ranges recommended (50:19:31, TFG vs 55:16:29, MRG. Their reported reduced energy intake was similar (5729 ± 1424 kJ, TFG vs 5993 ± 2016 kJ, MRG. There was an improved dietary intake pattern in both groups as indicated by decreased intake of saturated fat (≤ 10%, cholesterol ( Conclusion In this one-year university-based intervention, both dietitian-led groups successfully lost weight while improving overall dietary adequacy. The group incorporating fortified meal replacements tended to have a more adequate essential nutrient intake compared to the group following a more traditional food group diet. This study supports the need to incorporate fortified foods and/or dietary supplements while following an energy

  14. Development of monoclonal antibodies bearing the internal image of the gizzerosine epitope and application in a competitive ELISA for fish meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manosalva, Headdy; De Ioannes, Alfredo E; Becker, María Inés

    2004-02-01

    Gizzerosine (GZ), a derivative of histamine, is a biogenic amine found in fish meal, and one of the causative agents of black vomit, a poultry disease. We describe here the preparation of anti-idiotype antibodies to the anti-GZ monoclonal antibody (anti-GZ 3H4) and their possible application to an immunoassay. BALB-c mice were immunized with anti-GZ 3H4 antibody coupled to hemocyanin from Concholepas concholepas. Using somatic cell fusion between NSO/2 cells and splenic lymphocytes from the immunized mice, we obtained 34 potential anti-idiotype antibodies. They were characterized by passive agglutination with supernatants from hybridoma cultures and latex particles conjugated to the idiotype. Anti-idiotype antibodies were analyzed by a competitive RIA, to determine their ability to dissociate the interaction between (125)I-GZ and the anti-GZ 3H4-idiotype antibody. They were also characterized by GZ inhibition of latex passive agglutination assay. Three anti-idiotypes named 2D11, 2H6, and 3A12, all of the IgG isotype, were obtained. They were evaluated by a competitive ELISA, in which GZ competes with the tracer (HRP-idiotype). All presented sensitivity in the range of 0.1-10 microg/mL of GZ; and the 3A12 anti-idiotype antibody showed the best performance. An ELISA was developed using the idiotype bound to the solid phase and the anti-idiotype 3A12-HRP as the tracer. The assay showed a similar sensitivity and cross-reactivity with histamine was only observed at concentrations over 10 microg/mL. Lysine and histidine did not interfere with the assay up to 500 microg/mL. An experiment was conducted with fish meal contaminated with synthetic GZ. The results are promising, and showed that no other compounds of the fish meal interfere with the ELISA system; however the extraction procedure of the sample needs to be improved. From the results presented here, we conclude that the idiotype anti-idiotype ELISA would be an appropriate method to determine GZ in fish meal.

  15. Urinary calcium and oxalate excretion in healthy adult cats are not affected by increasing dietary levels of bone meal in a canned diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Passlack

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the impact of dietary calcium (Ca and phosphorus (P, derived from bone meal, on the feline urine composition and the urinary pH, allowing a risk assessment for the formation of calcium oxalate (CaOx uroliths in cats. Eight healthy adult cats received 3 canned diets, containing 12.2 (A, 18.5 (B and 27.0 g Ca/kg dry matter (C and 16.1 (A, 17.6 (B and 21.1 g P/kg dry matter (C. Each diet was fed over 17 days. After a 7 dayś adaptation period, urine and faeces were collected over 2×4 days (with a two-day rest between, and blood samples were taken. Urinary and faecal minerals, urinary oxalate (Ox, the urinary pH and the concentrations of serum Ca, phosphate and parathyroid hormone (PTH were analyzed. Moreover, the urine was microscopically examined for CaOx uroliths. The results demonstrated that increasing levels of dietary Ca led to decreased serum PTH and Ca and increased faecal Ca and P concentrations, but did not affect the urinary Ca or Ox concentrations or the urinary fasting pH. The urinary postprandial pH slightly increased when the diet C was compared to the diet B. No CaOx crystals were detected in the urine of the cats. In conclusion, urinary Ca excretion in cats seems to be widely independent of the dietary Ca levels when Ca is added as bone meal to a typical canned diet, implicating that raw materials with higher contents of bones are of subordinate importance as risk factors for the formation of urinary CaOx crystals.

  16. Effect of dietary fish supplementation on lipoprotein levels in patients with hyperlipoproteinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucić, M; Katica, D; Kovacević, V

    1998-06-01

    Effect of dietary fish was investigated in 51 study group patients and 50 age- and sex-matched control group patients, all with type II-b hyperlipoproteinemia. In the study and control group, 21 and 22 patients, respectively, had well regulated non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Neither the study group nor control group patients smoked or consumed alcohol beverages. Blood pressure was within normal limits (16/11-20/12 kPa) in both groups. During a six-month study period, the study group took 0.5-1 kg breaded pilchard per week, whereas the control group patients were on their standard hypolipoproteinemic diet. The following parameters were determined in both study and control group patients before the study, every 3 months during the study, and 3 months after the completion of the study, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol (HDL2 and HDL3), LDL cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol, triglycerides, blood glucose and uric acid. Fish intake was found to statistically significantly decrease the levels of total cholesterol (-10.7%), LDL cholesterol (-11.7%), VLDL cholesterol (-14.8%) and triglycerides (-12.3%) (p < 0.05), whereas a statistically significant increase was observed in the levels of HDL cholesterol (+5.3%) and HDL3 (+7.4%) (p < 0.05). Three months after the completion of the study, when the study group patients had resumed their standard hypolipoproteinemic diet without extra fish intake, the levels of lipoprotein fractions returned to those recorded before the study. There were no statistically significant changes in the levels of blood glucose, uric acid and HDL2. In the control group, no statistically significant changes in lipoprotein fractions were recorded. Our findings suggested that dietary intake of 0.5-1 kg fish containing a small amount of omega-3 fatty acids, along with the standard hypolipoproteinemic diet, may decrease the level of atherogenic lipoprotein fractions, and increase the level of lipoprotein protective fractions, thus reducing or at

  17. A dietary mixture containing fish oil, resveratrol, lycopene, catechins, and vitamins E and C reduces atherosclerosis in transgenic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuren, L.; Wielinga, P.Y.; Duyvenvoorde, W. van; Tijani, S.; Toet, K.; Ommen, B. van; Kooistra, T.; Kleemann, R.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic inflammation and proatherogenic lipids are important risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Specific dietary constituents such as polyphenols and fish oils may improve cardiovascular risk factors and may have a beneficial effect on disease outcomes. We hypothesized that the intake of

  18. Effects of dietary fish oil on serum lipids and VLDL kinetics in hyperlipidemic apolipoprotein E*3-Leiden transgenic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlijmen, B.J.M. van; Mensink, R.P.; Hof, H.B. van 't; Offermans, R.F.G.; Hofker, M.H.; Havekes, L.M.

    1998-01-01

    Studying the effects of dietary fish oil on VLDL metabolism in humans is subject to both large intra- and interindividual variability. In the present study we therefore used hyperlipidentic apolipoprotein (APO) E*3-Leiden mice, which have impaired chylomicron and very low density lipoprotein (VDL)

  19. Iron absorption from adequate Filipino meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinidad, T.P.; Madriaga, J.R.; Valdez, D.H.; Cruz, E.M.; Mallillin, A.C.; Sison, C.C.; Kuizon, M.D.

    1991-01-01

    Iron absorption from adequate Filipino meals representing the three major island groups of the Philippines (Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao) was studied using double isotope extrinsic tag method. Mean iron absorption of the one-day meal for Metro Manila was 6.6 ± 1.26%, Central Visayas, 6.3 ± 1.15% and Southern Mindanao, 6.4 ± 1.19%. Comparison between meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner) for each region as well as one-day meal for the three regions showed no significant differences (P > .01). Correlation tests done between iron absorption and the following iron enhancers: ascorbic acid, amount of fish, meat or poultry and inhibitors: phytic acid and tannic acid did not give significant results. The overall bar x of 6.4 ± 1.20% may be used as the non-heme iron absorption level from an adequate Filipino meal. This value can be considered as one of the bases for arriving at recommended dietary allowances for iron among Filipinos instead of the 10% iron absorption assumed in 1976

  20. Iron absorption from adequate Filipinos meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinidad, T.P.; Madriaga, J.R.; Valdez, D.H.; Cruz, E.M.; Mallillin, A.C.; Sison, C.C.; Kuizon, M.D.

    1989-01-01

    Iron absorption from adequate Filipino meals representing the three major island groups of the Philippines (Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao) was studied using double isotope extrinsic tag method. Mean iron absorption of the one-day meal for Metro Manila was 6.6 +- 1.26%. Central Visayas, 6.3 +- 1.15% and Southern Mindanao, 6.4 +- 1.19%. Comparison between meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner) for each region as well as one-day meal for the three regions showed no significant differences (P>0.01). Correlation tests done between iron absorption and the following iron enhancers: ascorbic acid, amount of fish, meat or poultry; and inhibitors: phytic acid and tannic acid, did not give significant results. The overall average of 6.4 +- 1.20% may be used as the iron absorption level from an adequate Filipino meal. This value can be considered as one of the bases for arriving at recommended dietary allowances for iron among Filipinos instead of the 10% iron absorption assumed in 1976. (Auth.). 21 refs.; 3 tabs.; 3 annexes

  1. Effects of increasing dietary concentrations of fish oil on lamb performance, ruminal fermentation, and leptin gene expression in perirenal fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Abel Hernández-García

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of four levels of fish oil on lamb performance, carcass yield, ruminal fermentation, and leptin gene expression in perirenal fat. Thirty-two lambs (24.10±2.15 kg, Katahdin × Pelibuey were used in a completely randomized experimental design. The lambs were assigned to one of four dietary treatments (n = 8 lambs/treatment, expressed as g/kg DM basis: 0 fish oil and 300 corn; 10 fish oil and 250 corn; 20 fish oil and 205 corn; and 30 fish oil and 170 corn. The lambs were weighed on consecutive days at the beginning (days 0 and 1 and at the end (days 55 and 56 of the trial. Ruminal fluid samples were collected on day 56 to evaluate the ruminal fermentation pattern. The lambs were slaughtered on day 56; perirenal adipose tissue samples were collected and the carcass yields were recorded. Volatile fatty acids, ammonia N, and leptin mRNA expression were not affected by the dietary treatments. However, the dry matter intake, average daily gain, final body weight, and the hot carcass yield showed either increased linear or quadratic responses as the proportion of fish oil increased in the ration; the estimated optimal level obtained of fish oil levels for average daily gain was 11.2±0.21 g/kg and 12.8±4.67 g/kg for feed conversion. Additionally, feed efficiency and backfat thickness had an increment, showing quadratic response as the proportion of fish oil increased in the diet. Increasing the fish oil concentration in the diet does not affect leptin messenger ribonucleic acid expression. The lamb performance can be improved with 12 g/kg fish oil in diets of finishing lambs.

  2. Effects of dietary amino acid balance on the response of dairy cows to an increase of milking frequency from twice to three times daily

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yeo, J M; Knight, Christopher Harold; Chamberlain, D G

    2003-01-01

    treatments were: grass silage and a cereal-based supplement containing feather meal as the sole protein supplement; the same silage-cereal diet supplying similar amounts of metabolizable and rumen-undegradable protein but with additional amounts of His, Met, and Lys in the form of fish meal; and the fish...... meal diet with additional metabolizable energy in the form of an additional 2 kg/d of sugar beet pulp. Within each of these dietary treatments, the cows were milked twice and three times daily, making a total of six treatments. When cows were given the feather meal diet, even though dietary...... of rumen-undegradable protein for which the protein was of better amino acid balance (fish meal), the increased frequency of milking led to increased yield of milk and milk protein....

  3. Meeting the Dietary Goals for School Meals by the Year 2000: The CATCH Eat Smart School Nutrition Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklas, Theresa A.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Provides an overview of the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH) Eat Smart School Nutrition Program, an elementary school health promotion program. The article examines components of the CATCH kitchen visits and intervention materials, including the School Meal Program Guide, Fat and Sodium Criteria, Recipe File Box, Vendor…

  4. Trace elements in Antarctic fish species and the influence of foraging habitats and dietary habits on mercury levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goutte, Aurélie; Cherel, Yves; Churlaud, Carine; Ponthus, Jean-Pierre; Massé, Guillaume; Bustamante, Paco

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at describing and interpreting concentration profiles of trace elements in seven Antarctic fish species (N = 132 specimens) off Adélie Land. Ichthyofauna plays a key role in the Antarctic ecosystem, as they occupy various ecological niches, including cryopelagic (ice-associated), pelagic, and benthic habitats. Firstly, trace element levels in the studied specimens were similar to those previously observed in fish from the Southern Ocean. Apart from manganese and zinc, concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, iron, mercury (Hg), nickel, selenium and silver differed among fish species. Muscle δ 13 C and δ 15 N values were determined to investigate whether the fish foraging habitats and dietary habits could explain Hg levels. Species and foraging habitat (δ 13 C) were strong predictors for variations of Hg concentrations in muscle tissues. The highest Hg contamination was found in shallow benthic fish compared to cryopelagic and pelagic fish. This pattern was likely due to the methylation of Hg in the coastal sediment and the photodemethylation by ultraviolet radiation in surface waters. - Highlights: • Trace elements and stable isotopes were analyzed in seven Antarctic fish species. • Levels of trace elements in liver and in muscle differed among species. • Hg load was higher in benthic fish than in cryopelagic and pelagic fish. • These findings could be due to the high methylation rate of Hg in the sediment.

  5. Trace elements in Antarctic fish species and the influence of foraging habitats and dietary habits on mercury levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goutte, Aurélie, E-mail: aurelie.goutte@ephe.sorbonne.fr [École Pratique des Hautes Études (EPHE), SPL, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7619 METIS, F-75005, 4 place Jussieu, Paris (France); Cherel, Yves [Centre d' Etudes Biologiques de Chizé, UMR 7372, CNRS-Université de La Rochelle, 79360 Villiers-en-Bois (France); Churlaud, Carine [Littoral Environnement et Sociétés (LIENSs), UMR 7266, CNRS-Université de la Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, 17000 La Rochelle (France); Ponthus, Jean-Pierre [École Pratique des Hautes Études (EPHE), SPL, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7619 METIS, F-75005, 4 place Jussieu, Paris (France); Massé, Guillaume [Unité Mixte Internationale Takuvik, Pavillon Alexandre-Vachon, Université Laval, QC, Québec (Canada); Bustamante, Paco [Littoral Environnement et Sociétés (LIENSs), UMR 7266, CNRS-Université de la Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, 17000 La Rochelle (France)

    2015-12-15

    This study aims at describing and interpreting concentration profiles of trace elements in seven Antarctic fish species (N = 132 specimens) off Adélie Land. Ichthyofauna plays a key role in the Antarctic ecosystem, as they occupy various ecological niches, including cryopelagic (ice-associated), pelagic, and benthic habitats. Firstly, trace element levels in the studied specimens were similar to those previously observed in fish from the Southern Ocean. Apart from manganese and zinc, concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, iron, mercury (Hg), nickel, selenium and silver differed among fish species. Muscle δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N values were determined to investigate whether the fish foraging habitats and dietary habits could explain Hg levels. Species and foraging habitat (δ{sup 13}C) were strong predictors for variations of Hg concentrations in muscle tissues. The highest Hg contamination was found in shallow benthic fish compared to cryopelagic and pelagic fish. This pattern was likely due to the methylation of Hg in the coastal sediment and the photodemethylation by ultraviolet radiation in surface waters. - Highlights: • Trace elements and stable isotopes were analyzed in seven Antarctic fish species. • Levels of trace elements in liver and in muscle differed among species. • Hg load was higher in benthic fish than in cryopelagic and pelagic fish. • These findings could be due to the high methylation rate of Hg in the sediment.

  6. Dietary fish oil does not protect rats exposed to restraint or sleep deprivation stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakonstantinou, Emilia; Ryan, Donna H; Harris, Ruth B S

    2003-04-01

    It has been suggested that fish oil (FO) prevents weight loss caused by physiological stress such as cancer, injury, or cardiovascular disorders. Previously, we observed that a high-fat diet containing corn and coconut oil exaggerated weight loss caused by the mixed physiological and psychological stress of repeated restraint (RR). This experiment tested the effects of a high-fat diet containing FO as the predominant lipid source in rats exposed to the mixed physiological and psychological stress of either RR or sleep deprivation (SD). FO did not prevent stress-induced hypophagia or weight loss in RR or SD rats but exaggerated the negative effects of stress on body weight in SD rats by promoting loss of lean body mass. RR caused a reduction in body fat content irrespective of dietary treatment. In SD rats, both stress and FO independently reduced body fat mass. FO did not have any effect on adrenal and thymus weights during RR or SD and did not influence corticosterone levels after 1 h of RR or after 48 or 96 h of SD. In conclusion, our results suggest that high levels of dietary FO do not improve the response to stress in rats exposed to mixed stressors.

  7. Accumulation of dietary and aqueous cadmium into the epidermal mucus of the discus fish Symphysodon sp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maunder, Richard J., E-mail: richard.maunder@astrazeneca.com [School of Marine Science and Engineering, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth, PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Buckley, Jonathan, E-mail: jonathan.buckley@plymouth.ac.uk [School of Marine Science and Engineering, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth, PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Val, Adalberto L., E-mail: dalval@inpa.gov.br [Department of Ecology, Laboratory of Ecophysiology and Molecular Evolution, INPA, Manaus (Brazil); Sloman, Katherine A., E-mail: katherine.sloman@uws.ac.uk [School of Science, University of the West of Scotland, Paisley, PA1 2BE, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-15

    The discus fish Symphysodon sp. is an Amazonian cichlid with a unusual form of parental care where fry obligately feed from parental mucus for the first few weeks of life. Here, we investigated the possible impact of environmental cadmium on this species, particularly with respect to mucus contamination. We exposed groups of fish to cadmium either through their food (400 mg kg{sup -1}) or through the water (3 {mu}g l{sup -1}) for 4 weeks, and measured tissue concentrations and ATPase activities at weekly intervals. Cadmium significantly accumulated in all tissues (except for muscle) after 7 days, and tissue concentrations increased until the end of the experiment. Significant alterations in ATPase activities of intestine and kidney were observed at day 7 and 14, but no alterations in gill ATPase activities occurred. The epidermal mucus showed a high accumulation of cadmium from both exposures, but particularly from the diet, indicating that dietary cadmium can be transferred from gut to mucus. Combining this data with approximations of fry bite volumes and bite frequencies, we constructed daily estimates of the cadmium that could potentially be consumed by newly hatched fry feeding on this mucus. These calculations suggest that feeding fry might consume up to 11 {mu}g g{sup -1} day{sup -1}, and hence indicate that this species' dependency on parental mucus feeding of fry could make them particularly susceptible to cadmium contamination of their native habitat.

  8. The Possibility of Using Irradiated Khishni (Liza abu) Fish Meal Instead of the Imported Protein Sources in The Diet of Common Carp (Cprinus carpio L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AL shammaa, A.A; Abu Tabigh, S.M; Al Fadily, M.K.

    2005-01-01

    Two experiments were done,the first for ten week,in which fish meal (FM) were used instead of animal protein (AP). A total of (12) group of young common carps Cyprinus carpio L.(25.98±0.27 gm.) were fed on four experimental diets. The first three diets were with 4%, 8% and 12% of (FM) (total replacement),specific growth rate, final fish weight and protein efficiency ratio. Whereas, in the second experiment, a total of (15) groups of C.carpio (36,44±0.23 gm)were fed on five experimental diets in which (FM) were used by 12% and 15% instead of (AP) as well as by 10% and 15% instead of Soyabean meal . The fifth diets was with 0% (F M). Statistical analysis (CRD and Dun cans test ) showed no significant differences (P>0.05) between the experimental diet according to food conversion ratio. According to these results dried irradiated Khishni can be used as a (FM). and to be a good replacer for all (AP) and 50% of Soyabean (c.p. 44%) in the diet of common carp.) (author)

  9. Dietary cadmium and benzo(a)pyrene increased intestinal metallothionein expression in the fish Fundulus heteroclitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roesijadi, Guritno; Rezvankhah, Saeid; Perez-Matus, Alejandro; Mitelberg, A.; Torruellas, K.; Van Veld, P. A.

    2008-10-17

    To test the effect of dietary exposure to cadmium and benzo(a)pyrene on induction of metallothionein mRNA in the Fundulus heteroclitus, fish were individually fed a pelletized gel food containing cadmium, benzo(a)pyrene, or a combination of the two over a period of seven days, then analyzed for relative levels of metallothionein mRNA in the intestine, liver, and gill using real-time RT-qPCR. An initial experiment with only cadmium exposure showed an apparent 10-fold induction in the intestine, but no induction in liver or gill. Ingestion of contaminated pellets varied in individual fish, and because it was possible to monitor individual ingestion rates with our method, individual cadmium doses were estimated from the amount of ingested cadmium. When the levels of metallothionein mRNA were related to the dose to each fish, a linear dose-response relationship was observed for the intestine, but not the other organs, which showed no induction. In a second experiment, dose was controlled by placing the entire daily cadmium dose into a single contaminated pellet that was fed first (thereby, effectively controlling the effect of variable ingestion rates), and the interaction between cadmium and benzo(a)pyrene was also investigated. The intestine was again the primary organ for metallothionein induction by cadmium, with a 20-fold increase in metallothionein mRNA over control levels. When benzo(a)pyrene was administered together with cadmium, induction of metallothionein was potentiated by the presence of benzo(a)pyrene, with the main effect seen in the intestine, where already high levels of induction by cadmium alone increased by 1.74-fold when benzo(a)pyrene was present.

  10. Linseed, microalgae or fish oil dietary supplementation affects performance and quality characteristics of light lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus de la Fuente-Vazquez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to improve the fatty acid profile of meat from light lamb, frequently reared in Spain and in other Mediterranean countries. A total of 44 light lambs fed different n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids sources were studied: control (C (palm oil, extruded linseed (L, extruded linseed mixed with microalgae (LM and fish oil (FO. The productive performance from 14.7 to 26.2 kg of live weights and meat quality characteristics during refrigerated storage were assessed. Lambs fed FO showed lower feed intake (p <0.001, average daily gain (p <0.001 and higher feed conversion ratio (p <0.001 than lambs from the other treatments. Fish oil meat had the lowest (p <0.01 protein proportion and the highest (p <0.001 C20:5n-3, C22:5n-3 and C22:6n-3 proportions, while L or LM produced the highest (p <0.001 C18:3n-3 deposition. Fish oil meat had higher (p <0.05 L* and lower (p <0.001 a* than meats from the other treatments. After 7 days of storage, FO meat showed the highest TBARS (p <0.001, while C meat showed similar value to 0 days of storage. Additionally, FO underwent higher microbial growth after 7 days of storage as compared to the other treatments. Dietary supplementation with L and LM leads to C18:3n-3 meat enrichment and to a microbial load and colour characteristics similar to those of C, without adverse effect on lamb performance. However the use of FO improves the fatty acid profile of meat, but negatively affects lamb performance and meat quality.

  11. Lipid-soluble nutrient status of healthy Omani school children before and after intervention with oily fish meal or re-esterified triglyceride fish oil

    OpenAIRE

    Al Ghannami, Samia; Sedlak, E.; Hussein, I. S.; Min, Yoeju; Al-Shmmkhi, S. M.; Al-Oufi, H. S.; Al-Mazroui A, A.; Ghebremeskel, Kebreab

    2016-01-01

    Objectives\\ud Over the last two decades, the Omani diet has changed considerably to resemble a high calorie and a low nutrient density Western diet. We investigated fat soluble nutrient status of children before and after intervention with fish diet or fish oil.\\ud \\ud Methods\\ud Children aged 9 and 10 years (n=314) were recruited from a randomly selected three schools. The schools were assigned to fish, fish oil or control group and the children given a lightly grilled oily fish, a re-esteri...

  12. Changes in oxygen content and acid-base balance in arterial and portal blood in response to the dietary electrolyte balance in pigs during a 9-h period after a meal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dersjant-Li, Y.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Jansman, A.; Schulze, H.; Schrama, J.W.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of two dietary electrolyte balance (dEB, Na K - Cl-) levels on arterial and portal blood oxygen content, blood pH, and acid-base status in pigs was studied during a 9-h period after a meal, using a crossover experimental design. The dEB levels were established by changing the Cl- level in

  13. Effects of dietary oxidized fish oil supplementation on oxidative stress and antioxidant defense system in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontagné-Dicharry, Stéphanie; Larroquet, Laurence; Dias, Karine; Cluzeaud, Marianne; Heraud, Cécile; Corlay, Dominique

    2018-03-01

    The objective of the study was to characterize the response of the antioxidant defense system against dietary prooxidant conditions in rainbow trout juveniles. Fish (initial mean weight: 62 ± 1 g) were fed three fishmeal and plant-derived protein-based diets supplemented with 15% fresh fish oil (CTL diet), 15% fresh fish oil from tuna by-products (BYP diet) or 15% autooxidized fish oil (OX diet) over a 12-week growth trial at 17.5 ± 0.5 °C. No significant differences in growth performance were recorded between dietary groups. Muscle lipid content was reduced and n-6 PUFA levels were increased in rainbow trout fed diets BYP and OX compared to CTL. After 12 weeks of feeding, the level of lipid peroxidation products in muscle was not affected whereas the 8-isoprostane content in liver was increased in fish fed diet OX as well as plasma total and oxidized glutathione contents. The hepatic and muscle contents for α-tocopherol were decreased in fish fed BYP and OX. Hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities and mRNA levels were not affected after 12 weeks of feeding, except for catalase and glutathione peroxidase 1b2 mRNA levels that were decreased in trout fed diet OX. Fish fed diet OX and BYP displayed also reduced cytosolic Nrf2 and both cytosolic and nuclear NF-κB protein levels in liver. The present work indicates that feeding rainbow trout juveniles with fresh fish oil from by-products or moderately oxidized lipid appears not to be detrimental to the growth performance of fish. The mechanisms beyond the control of the antioxidant defense system by moderately oxidized lipid require further investigations in rainbow trout juveniles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of dietary supplementation of sea buckthorn and giloe leaf meal on the body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, biochemical attributes, and meat composition of turkey poults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Sharma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In the recent past, few studies have been carried out about sea buckthorn (SBT and giloe in chicken as a part of the quest for suitable alternatives to antibiotics. However, studies in turkeys are lacking. Hence, the present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of SBT and giloe leaf meal by dietary feed supplementation in turkey poults. Materials and Methods: A total of 1-day-old turkey poults (n=84 of small white variety were distributed into four dietary treatments having three replicates each with seven birds. The study was conducted in turkey poults during 0-8 weeks of age. During the experiment, the poults were fed basal ration (28% crude protein [CP], 2800 Kcal/kg ME T1, T2-basal ration was supplemented with SBT leaf meal powder at 0.5%, T3-basal ration was supplemented with giloe leaf meal powder at 0.5%, and T4-basal ration was fed along with supplementation of both SBT at 0.5% and giloe leaf meal powder at 0.5%. Results: T2 turkey poults had a significantly higher (p<0.01 body weight gain than T3 and T4 at 7th week of age. Weekly body weight gain was significantly higher (p<0.05 in T2 than T3 during 5th-8th week and 0-8th week of the growth phase. Feed conversion ratio (FCR was significantly better (p<0.01 in T2 than other treatment groups during 4th-8th week phase of growth (2.09 vs. 2.36, 2.29 and 2.31. Further, FCR was significantly better (p<0.01 in T2 group as compared to other treatment groups during 0-8th week of growth phase (1.95 vs. 2.21, 2.21 and 2.12. Plasma uric acid was found significantly increased (p<0.05 in T1 than T3 and T4, and alkaline phosphatase value was significantly higher (p<0.05 in T1 and T3 than T2. Zinc content of breast (pectoralis major muscles was significantly higher (p<0.05 in T2 and T4 as compared to T1, while ether extract (EE in thigh (ilio tibialis muscles was significantly higher (p<0.05 in T2 as compared to the other treatment groups. Conclusion: It may be concluded that

  15. No difference in acute effects of supplemental v. dietary calcium on blood pressure and microvascular function in obese women challenged with a high-fat meal: a cross-over randomised study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Thaís da Silva; Leal, Priscila Mansur; Antunes, Vanessa Parada; Sanjuliani, Antonio Felipe; Klein, Márcia Regina Simas Torres

    2016-11-01

    Recent studies suggest that supplemental Ca (SC) increases the risk of cardiovascular events, whereas dietary Ca (DC) decreases the risk of cardiovascular events. Although frequently consumed with meals, it remains unclear whether Ca can mitigate or aggravate the deleterious effects of a high-fat meal on cardiovascular risk factors. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of SC or DC on blood pressure (BP) and microvascular function (MVF) in the postprandial period in obese women challenged with a high-fat meal. In this cross-over controlled trial, sixteen obese women aged 20-50 years were randomly assigned to receive three test meals (2908 kJ (695 kcal); 48 % fat): high DC (HDCM; 547 mg DC), high SC (HSCM; 500 mg SC-calcium carbonate) and low Ca (LCM; 42 mg DC). BP was continuously evaluated from 15 min before to 120 min after meals by digital photoplethysmography. Before and 120 min after meals, participants underwent evaluation of serum Ca and microvascular flow after postocclusive reactive hyperaemia (PORH) by laser speckle contrast imaging. Ionised serum Ca rose significantly only after HSCM. Systolic BP increased after the three meals, whereas diastolic BP increased after LCM and HDCM. Hyperaemia peak, hyperaemia amplitude and AUC evaluated after PORH decreased with LCM. After HDCM, there was a reduction in hyperaemia peak and hyperaemia amplitude, whereas HSCM decreased only hyperaemia peak. However, comparative analyses of the effects of three test meals on serum Ca, BP and MVF revealed no significant meal×time interaction. This study suggests that in obese women SC and DC do not interfere with the effects of a high-fat meal on BP and MVF.

  16. Fatty acid profile and oxidative stability of pork as influenced by duration and time of dietary linseed or fish oil supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haak, L; De Smet, S; Fremaut, D; Van Walleghem, K; Raes, K

    2008-06-01

    In this experiment, the effect of duration and time of feeding n-3 PUFA sources on the fatty acid composition and oxidative stability of the longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle was investigated. Linseed (L) and fish oil (F), rich in alpha-linolenic acid and eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid (EPA and DHA), respectively, were supplied equivalent to a level of 1.2% oil (as fed), either during the whole fattening period or only during the first (P1; 8 wk) or second (P2; 6 to 9 wk until slaughter) fattening phase. All diets were based on barley, wheat, and soybean meal and were fed ad libitum. Crossbred pigs (n = 154; Topigs 40 x Piétrain) were randomly allotted to the 7 feeding groups. In the basal diet (B), only animal fat was used as the supplementary fat source. Three dietary groups were supplied the same fatty acid source during both fattening phases (i.e., group BB, LL, and FF). For the other 4 dietary groups, the fatty acid source was switched after the first phase (groups BL, BF, LF, and FL; the first and second letter indicating the diet in P1 and P2, respectively). Twelve animals per feeding group were selected based on average live BW. The LT was analyzed for fatty acid composition; lipid stability (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances) and color stability (a* value, % of myoglobin pigments) were determined on the LT after illuminated chill storage for up to 8 d. The alpha-linolenic acid, EPA, and docosapentaenoic acid incorporation was independent of the duration of linseed feeding (1.24, 0.54, and 0.75% of total fatty acids, respectively, for group LL). Supplying fish oil during both phases resulted in the greatest EPA and DHA proportions (1.37 and 1.02% of total fatty acids; P fish oil was administered during P2 compared with P1 (P < 0.05). There was no effect of diet on meat ultimate pH and drip loss or on lipid or color oxidation.

  17. Grains, vegetables, and fish dietary pattern is inversely associated with the risk of metabolic syndrome in South korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihye; Jo, Inho

    2011-08-01

    Dietary patterns are critical in the prevention and management of chronic diseases. We examined the association between habitual dietary patterns and the risk of metabolic syndrome in South Korean adults. The study sample was composed of 9,850 Korean adults (aged ≥19 years) who participated in the second and third Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Dietary data were assessed by the 24-hour recall method. Metabolic syndrome was defined by the joint of interim statement of the International Diabetes Federation and the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Four dietary patterns were derived using factor analysis (white rice and kimchi pattern; meat and alcohol pattern; high fat, sweets, and coffee pattern; and grains, vegetables, and fish pattern). Each dietary pattern explained 8.6%, 6.7%, 5.7%, and 5.7% of the variation in food intakes, respectively. The meat and alcohol pattern was adversely associated with hypertriglyceridemia (P for trend 0.01) and elevated blood pressure (P for trend 0.01) after adjustments for potential risk factors of metabolic syndrome such as age, sex, body mass index, energy intake, alcohol intake, smoking status, and physical activity. In contrast, the grains, vegetables, and fish pattern was associated with lower risk of hypertriglyceridemia (P for trend 0.0002) and was also inversely associated with the risk of metabolic syndrome after adjusting for risk factors of the metabolic syndrome (P for trend 0.02). Our study suggests that a specific Korean dietary pattern that includes grains, vegetables, and fish may be associated with lower risk of metabolic syndrome in South Korean adults. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Dietary exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans via fish consumption and dioxin-like activity in fish determined by H4IIE-luc bioassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Janet Kit Yan [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China); School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Kadoorie Biological Sciences Building, Pokfulam, Hong Kong (China); Man, Yu Bon [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China); Xing, Guan Hua [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China); China National Environmental Monitoring Center, 100012, Beijing (China); Wu, Sheng Chun [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China); State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Murphy, Margaret B. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Xu, Ying [State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 430072, Wuhan, Hubei Province (China); Wong, Ming H., E-mail: mhwong@hkbu.edu.hk [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China)

    2013-10-01

    Dietary exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) via fish consumption in two major electronic (e) waste sites: Guiyu (GY), Guangdong Province and Taizhou (TZ), Zhejiang Province, and dioxin-like activity in fish determined by H4IIE-luc bioassay. In the present study, all fish were below EU's maximum allowable concentration in muscle of fish (4 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt), except crucian (4.28 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) and silver carps (7.49 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) collected from GY rivers. Moreover, the residual concentration in bighead carp collected from GY (2.15 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) was close to the EU's action level (3 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) which gives “early warning” to the competent authorities and operators to take measures to eliminate contamination. In addition, results indicated that the maximum human intake of PCDD/Fs via freshwater fish consumption in GY was 4.31 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day, which exceeds the higher end of the tolerable daily intake recommended by the WHO, EC-SCF and JECFA (1–4, 2 and 2.3 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day respectively). Furthermore, H4IIE-luc cell bioassay provides a very sensitive and cost-efficient screening tool for assessing the overall dioxin-like toxicity in the study, and is therefore valuable for high-throughput environmental monitoring studies. - Highlights: ► Freshwater fish are contaminated by PCDD/F at 2 e-waste sites in China. ► Guiyu residents are exposed to unsafe levels of PCDD/Fs through dietary exposure. ► H4IIE-luc cell bioassay provides a very sensitive screening tool for PCDD/Fs.

  19. Dietary exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans via fish consumption and dioxin-like activity in fish determined by H4IIE-luc bioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Janet Kit Yan; Man, Yu Bon; Xing, Guan Hua; Wu, Sheng Chun; Murphy, Margaret B.; Xu, Ying; Wong, Ming H.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) via fish consumption in two major electronic (e) waste sites: Guiyu (GY), Guangdong Province and Taizhou (TZ), Zhejiang Province, and dioxin-like activity in fish determined by H4IIE-luc bioassay. In the present study, all fish were below EU's maximum allowable concentration in muscle of fish (4 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt), except crucian (4.28 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) and silver carps (7.49 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) collected from GY rivers. Moreover, the residual concentration in bighead carp collected from GY (2.15 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) was close to the EU's action level (3 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) which gives “early warning” to the competent authorities and operators to take measures to eliminate contamination. In addition, results indicated that the maximum human intake of PCDD/Fs via freshwater fish consumption in GY was 4.31 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day, which exceeds the higher end of the tolerable daily intake recommended by the WHO, EC-SCF and JECFA (1–4, 2 and 2.3 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day respectively). Furthermore, H4IIE-luc cell bioassay provides a very sensitive and cost-efficient screening tool for assessing the overall dioxin-like toxicity in the study, and is therefore valuable for high-throughput environmental monitoring studies. - Highlights: ► Freshwater fish are contaminated by PCDD/F at 2 e-waste sites in China. ► Guiyu residents are exposed to unsafe levels of PCDD/Fs through dietary exposure. ► H4IIE-luc cell bioassay provides a very sensitive screening tool for PCDD/Fs

  20. Determination of underivatized amino acid delta(13)C by liquid chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry for nutritional studies: the effect of dietary non-essential amino acid profile on the isotopic signature of individual amino acids in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullagh, James; Gaye-Siessegger, Julia; Focken, Ulfert

    2008-06-01

    This study provides data for the effect of dietary non-essential amino acid composition on the delta(13)C values of individual amino acids in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) using liquid chromatography coupled to isotope ratio mass spectrometry (LC/IRMS). In this experiment, trout were reared either on a control diet or on three experimental diets, differing in the composition of non-essential/conditionally essential amino acids, for a period of 6 weeks. The control diet was a commercial trout starter feed with fish meal as the main protein source. The experimental diets contained no protein, only synthetic amino acids. Diet 1 resembled the composition of fish meal in both essential and non-essential amino acids, Diet 2 had all essential amino acids, but cysteine, glycine, proline and tyrosine were replaced by the corresponding amounts of their precursors, and in Diet 3 all non-essential amino acids were replaced by glutamate. LC/IRMS was used for the determination of delta(13)C values of individual amino acids from diets and tissues without derivatization. Diet affected the delta(13)C of individual amino acids in fish. For fish on Diets 1-3 amino acid delta(13)C values showed a similar trend: phenylalanine showed very little change from diet to body tissue. Arginine, lysine, tyrosine and proline showed strong depletion from diet to body tissue and glycine, alanine, aspartate and serine all showed variable but strong enrichment in (13)C. Improvements are necessary before all amino acid delta(13)C values can be determined; however, this study demonstrates that measuring amino acid isotopic signatures by LC/IRMS is a promising new technique for nutritional physiologists.

  1. Dietary fish oil intake: effects on glomerular prostanoid formation, hemodynamics, and proteinuria in nephrotoxic serum nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaiss, F; Schoeppe, W; Germann, P; Stahl, R A

    1990-08-01

    Dietary fish oil intake improves glomerular pathology and proteinuria in murine models of autoimmune disease. We evaluated glomerular prostanoid formation, glomerular hemodynamics, and proteinuria in rats with nephrotoxic serum nephritis (NSN) to test whether this beneficial effect of marine lipids also applies to other animal models of glomerular immune injury. Rats were fed diets (8 weeks) containing either cod liver oil or sunflower oil. NSN was induced with a rabbit anti-rat glomerular basement membrane antiserum. Antibody injection significantly stimulated glomerular thromboxane B2 (TxB2) formation in animals fed cod liver oil and sunflower oil at 2 hours, 24 hours, and 7 days. TxB2 production in glomeruli of sunflower oil rats, however, was five to seven times higher when compared with that in rats fed cod liver oil. The dietary regimen led to a significant decrease of glomerular TxB2 and prostaglandin E2 formation in the animals receiving cod liver oil when compared with those fed sunflower oil. Induction of NSN resulted in a significant fall of inulin clearance (Cin) and paraaminohippurate clearance at 2 hours, 24 hours, and 7 days in both groups. The decrease in Cin at 2 hours was greater in rats fed cod liver oil when compared with animals receiving sunflower oil (p less than 0.02); it was not different, however, at 24 hours and 7 days. Animals with NSN developed proteinuria. There was no difference in protein excretion between rats fed cod liver oil or those fed sunflower oil (days 2 and 7).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. [School meals: state of the art and recommendations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranceta Bartrina, J; Pérez Rodrigo, C; Dalmau Serra, J; Gil Hernández, A; Lama More, R; Martín Mateos, M A; Martínez Suárez, V; Pavón Belinchón, P; Suárez Cortina, L

    2008-07-01

    School meals contribute substantially to overall energy and nutrient intake adequacy of children, but also play an important role in the development of child food habits and the socialisation process. Evidence shows that school based environmental actions, which include changes in school meals and school food policies related to increased availability and access to healthy foods and drinks while in the school are effective to foster healthy eating practices among children. A growing number of children engage in school meals. Available information to date shows that the quality of the food on offer is not always consistent with dietary guidelines. Vegetables and fish are served less often than desirable and excess added fats are used in food preparations. Norms and regulations are very detailed regarding food safety issues and administrative management of the service, including subcontracting of catering providers and care staff. Nutrition and health promotion issues should also be included in regulations by means of nutrition recommendations for school meals along with information on food based dietary guidelines and portion sizes. School meals should be part of the educational project using a whole school approach.

  3. Gut-bone axis response to dietary replacement of soybean meal with raw low-tannin faba bean seeds in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewska, Ewa; Dobrowolski, Piotr; Klebaniuk, Renata; Kwiecień, Małgorzata; Tomczyk-Warunek, Agnieszka; Szymańczyk, Sylwia; Kowalik, Sylwester; Milczarek, Anna; Blicharski, Tomasz; Muszyński, Siemowit

    2018-01-01

    It seems that faba bean (FB) seeds could be a good protein-energy component in animal feed, but the presence of anti-nutritional substances limits their use as a substitute of soybean meal. The aim of the study was to examine the influence of different concentrations of raw, low-tannin, FB seeds on the gut-bone axis in Ross 308 broilers. One-day old chickens were randomly subjected to one of the 3 dietary treatments: the control group was fed standard diet based on soybean meal and without FB seeds, and two groups were fed 8%/15% and 16%/22% of raw low-tannin FB seeds in the starter and grower, respectively. On the 35th day, hematological and serum biochemical analyses as well histomorphometry of the small intestine and liver tissue and bone mechanical tests were performed. The diet type had no effect on the body weight gain and feed conversion ratio. However, the basal intestinal structures were significantly reduced in birds fed the lower concentration of FB. The enlargement of nerve plexuses was dependent on the concentration used in the diet and, additionally, on the kind of plexus and location in the intestinal tract. The liver was characterized by an increase in non-hepatocytes. There was no influence of the low-tannin FB seeds on most of the analyzed serum parameters in the 35-day-old broiler chickens, except the decreased concentration of total cholesterol and Ca in both experimental groups, triglycerides in group I, and P and uric acid in group II. Furthermore, the increasing concentration of the dietary low-tannin FB did not influence the activities of AspAT (except the group fed the higher amount of FB), ALAT, and LDH. The broiler chickens had no visible leg lesions and no problem in the locomotor function, but the tibiae were lighter mainly in birds fed the higher concentration of FB seeds. Geometric analysis revealed reduction of the cross section area and wall thickness, indicating a decline in the bone midshaft, which influenced the densitometric

  4. Contribution of lead in wine to the total dietary intake of lead in humans with and without a meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulson, B.L.; Gray, B.; Mizon, K.J.; Patison, N.

    2000-01-01

    We have undertaken a case-control study using high precision lead isotopes to evaluate the contribution to blood lead when a normal quantity of wine is consumed with a meal and compared this with consumption under fasting conditions. White wine dosed with a 207 Pb tracer was consumed with a meal by a male subject and blood, urine and faeces monitored for up to four months. In addition to the spiked wine, the male subject and a female control subject residing in the same household consumed approximately equal proportions of unspiked red and white wine from the same vintage and vineyard over the four months. On a succeeding occasion, the male subject consumed 207 Pb-spiked wine under fasting conditions. As the 207 Pb/ 204 Pb ratio in blood and urine prior to the experiment was 15.48 compared with a value of 355 in the doped wine, changes in the 207 Pb/ 204 Pb ratio would be easily discernible. Over the four months of the trial, the results confirmed that there is a minimal uptake of lead from vine when consumed with food

  5. Effects of the Replacement of Soybean Meal with Pea as Dietary Protein Source on the Serum Protein Fractions of Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NT Bingol

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the replacement of different levels of protein derived from soybean meal with that from peas in broiler diets on serum protein fractions. A corn-soybean meal basal diet was formulated as the control diet (Control=C (NRC, 1994, and then pea was added to the control diet to replace 20% (P20 or 40% (P40 of the crude protein of the control diet. The diets were randomly fed to 12 pens per treatment, each housing five birds, for 42 days. Blood samples were collected from 36 birds (3 birds x 4 pens x3 treatments and the serum protein fractions were separated. Gamma-globulin percentage was higher in group P20 compared with C and P40 groups. Total protein, beta-globulin, and gamma-globulin concentrations were significantly higher in group P20 compared with those of both control and P40 group (p<0.05.

  6. Feed intake, body weight changes and haematology of West African dwarf goats fed dietary levels of Moringa oleifera leaf meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiwuba Peter-Damian Chukwunomso

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A 90-day study was carried out with 36 West African Dwarf goats to determine the effect of Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM on feed intake, body weight changes and haematology of WAD does. Four diets were formulated such that diets T1, T2, T3 and T4 contained MOLM at 0%, 5%, 10% and 15%, respectively. The diets were offered to the goats, which were randomly divided into four groups of nine goats each in a completely randomized design. Average daily feed intake (ADFI, average daily weight gain (ADWG, feed conversion ratio (FCR and heamatology of the animals were determined and statistically analyzed. Results showed that ADFI, ADWG differed significantly (P<0.05 with T4 goats having better values. FCR was however best for does fed T4 diet. PCV, RBC, MCV and WBC differed (P<0.05 significantly among the treatments. Packed cell volume (29.50-32.75% was improved (p<0.05 by MOLM supplementation at 15% inclusion level. White blood cell counts for goats in treatment groups were significantly (p<0.05 higher and better than the control. Incorporation of 15% MOLM in diets of WAD does enhanced their performance and heamatological profile. Moringa oleifera leaf meal supplementation level at 15% was recommended for optimum West African Dwarf goat production.

  7. Lipid-soluble nutrient status of healthy Omani school children before and after intervention with oily fish meal or re-esterified triacylglycerol fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghannami, Samia S; Sedlak, Eva; Hussein, Izzeldin S; Min, Yoeju; Al-Shmmkhi, Saleh M; Al-Oufi, Hamed S; Al-Mazroui, Ahmed; Ghebremeskel, Kebreab

    2016-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the Omani diet has changed considerably to resemble a high calorie and a low nutrient density Western diet. We investigated the fat soluble nutrient status of children before and after intervention with fish diet or fish oil. Children ages 9 and 10 y (n = 314) were recruited from three randomly selected schools. The schools were assigned to a fish, fish oil, or control group and the children were given a lightly grilled oily fish, a re-esterified triacylglycerol fish oil capsule, or no fish for 12 wk. Plasma vitamin A, beta carotene, vitamin E concentrations, and vitamin E/total lipid ratio at baseline were 2.7 ± 0.85 μmol/L, 0.68 ± 0.48 μmol/L, 21.1 ± 4.8 μmol/L, and 5.0 ± 0.81 μmol/mmol, respectively, and none of the children were deficient. They were severely deficient (alkaline phosphatase (225.2 ± 66.6 versus 247.8 ± 73.7 U/L; P < 0.01) levels were lower in boys. Postintervention, the fish oil (54.1 ± 17.5 nmol/L; P < 0.001) and fish (49.2 ± 17.4 nmol/L; P < 0.05) groups had elevated levels of vitamin D compared with the controls (42.3 ± 17.5 nmol/L). Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in Omani school children, but it can be mitigated with omega-3 fatty acid supplementation. Vitamin D plays a crucial role in skeletal and extraskeletal systems. Hence, there is a need for a child-focused program of food fortification and outdoor activities to alleviate the problem. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Apparent digestibility of Asian carp and common carp-derived fish meals in feeds for hybrid striped bass Morone saxatilis female x M. chrysops male and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) of nutrients (crude protein, amino acids, crude lipid, fatty acids, and minerals) were determined for fish meals derived from menhaden, Asian carp (combination of silver and bighead carps), and common carp in feeds for hybrid striped bass and rainbow trout....

  9. Radiation-sensitivities and DNA homology of radiation-resistant. Acinetobacter strains isolated from ingredient of animal feeds such as fish meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi

    2008-01-01

    Seven typical strains belonging to genus Acinetobacter were isolated from fish meals and bone meals. Guanin + cytosine contents of DNA of these strains were ranged to be 41 to 45%. Many taxonomic characteristics of strains of F1, F14, F50, B4 and J5 were similar to A. radioresistens FO-1, and DNA homology values were obtained to be 71 to 92% compared with 100% of A. radioresistens FO-1. On the contrary, strains of J16 and J22 had similar characteristics with A. calcoaceticus ATCC23055 and also each DNA homology values were obtained to be 37% compared with A. radioresistens FO-1. Their D 10 values of strains F1, F14, F50, B4 and J5 in gamma-rays under air-equilibrium were also obtained to be 0.60 to 1.70 kGy as similar radiation-resistance with 1.70 kGy of A. radioresistens FO-1. However, D 10 values of J16 and J22 were obtained to be 0.35 kGy as similar to 0.12 kGy of A. calcoaceticus ATCC23055. (author)

  10. Digestibilidade aparente das farinhas de peixe nacional e importada e das farinhas de sangue tostada e spray-dried, pela tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus (L. Apparent digestibility by Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L. of Brazilian-made meal, imported fish meal and toasted and spray-dried blood meals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Edivaldo Pezzato

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a digestibilidade aparente das farinhas de peixe importada e nacional e, das farinhas de sangue spray-dried e tostada. Confeccionaram-se cinco rações marcadas com 0,10% de óxido de crômio, sendo uma referência (semi-purificada e as demais contendo os ingredientes teste. Os peixes (peso médio de 100±10g foram mantidos em cinco tanques-rede de 250 L, em uma densidade de 15 peixes/aquário onde, receberam ração à vontade das 8:00 às 17:00 horas. Posteriormente, foram transferidos para cinco tanques de 300L para coleta de fezes, onde permaneciam até a manhã do dia seguinte. Obtiveram-se os seguintes CDA, respectivamente, para as farinhas de peixe importada e nacional e para as farinhas de sangue spray-dried e tostada: 50,19%; 52,10%; 82,47% e 53,36% para a matéria seca; 80,57%; 71,44%; 97,33% e 50,69% para a proteína bruta; 90,68%; 92,80%; 52,22% e 89,36% para o extrato etéreo e 58,09%; 40,20%; 74,97% e 57,97% para a energia bruta. Concluiu-se que a farinha de sangue spray-dried e ambas as farinhas de peixe podem ser recomendadas como fonte protéica de origem animal e que a farinha de sangue tostada não deve ser utilizada em rações para tilápia do Nilo.Apparent digestibility in Nile tilapia juveniles (100±10g of imported fish meal, Brazilian-made fish meal, spray-dried blood meal and toasted blood meal was evaluated. While a semi-purified diet was prepared as control, four other diets containing about 35% of control diet and 65% of assay ingredients were prepared, using 0.10% of chromic oxide as indicator. Juveniles of Nile tilapia were randomly stocked in groups of fifty in circular cages. They were maintained for 8:00 to 17:00 p.m. in 250L-tanks and fed all day long. Later they were transferred to tanks 300L-tanks, appropriated for feces collection, in which they spent all night. Apparent digestibility coefficient of the ingredient was based on percentage of chromic oxide found in diets and feces and on nutrient

  11. Chemical Composition of Vermicompost Made from Organic Wastes through the Vermicomposting and Composting with the Addition of Fish Meal and Egg Shells Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhidayati

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition of compost is an important indicator that determines the quality of compost. This study compared the chemical composition of vermicompost resulting from the process of vermicomposting alone with combined vermicomposting and composting with addition of egg shells flour and fish meal. Organic wastes used were the mixture of spent mushrooms waste, coconut husks, cow dung, vegetables residue, and leaf litter. Lumbricus rubellus was the species of earthworm used in the vermicomposting process. In the composting process, egg shells flour and fish meal are added into the vermicompost as additives materials. The results indicate that the combined vermicomposting and composting process with addition the additives materials improves the chemical composition of vermicompost compared to using vermicomposting process alone. The change of chemical composition was indicated by a decrease in C-organic content and C/N ratio by 29% and 99%, respectively, while the content of N, P, K and S increased by 52%, 67.5%, 29% and 25%, respectively due to the addition of additives material in the composting process. The largest increase of vermicompost nutrient content occurred in the Ca content by an average of up to 7-fold. While polyphenols, lignin and cellulose content of vermicompost decreased slightly. The treatment of two mixture (a spent mushrooms waste, cow dung and vegetables residue, and (b spent mushroom waste, cow dung, vegetables residue, and leaf litter gave the best chemical composition. However, to determine the quality, we need to test the product in a plant growth bioassay as a follow-up study.

  12. Effects of dietary soyabean meal, inulin and oxytetracycline on intestinal microbiota and epithelial cell stress, apoptosis and proliferation in the teleost Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakke-McKellep, Anne Marie; Penn, Michael H; Salas, Patricia Mora; Refstie, Ståle; Sperstad, Sigmund; Landsverk, Thor; Ringø, Einar; Krogdahl, Ashild

    2007-04-01

    Soyabean meal (SBM)-induced enteritis in the distal intestine of the teleost Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) and other salmonids may be considered a model for diet-related mucosal disorders in other animals and man. The role of the intestinal microbiota in its pathogenesis was explored. Compared to diets containing fishmeal (FM) as the sole protein source, responses to extracted SBM or the prebiotic inulin, with or without oxytetracycline (OTC) inclusion, were studied following a 3-week feeding trial. Intestinal microbiota, organosomatic indices and histology, as well as immunohistochemical detection of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and caspase-3-positive cells in the distal intestine, were studied. Distal intestine somatic indices (DISI) were higher in inulin and lower in SBM compared to FM-fed fish. The low DISI caused by SBM corresponded with histological changes, neither of which was affected by OTC, despite a significant decrease in adherent bacteria count. Image analysis of PCNA-stained sections showed a significant increase in the proliferative compartment length in SBM-fed fish, accompanied by apparent increases in reactivity to HSP70 and caspase-3 along the mucosal folds, indicating induction of cellular repair and apoptosis, respectively. Fish fed the SBM diet had higher total number as well as a more diverse population composition of adherent bacteria in the distal intestine. Thus SBM-induced enteritis is accompanied by induction of distal intestinal epithelial cell protective responses and changes in microbiota. Putative involvement of bacteria in the inflammatory response merits further investigation.

  13. Short-Term and Mid-Term Effects of Fasting and Downset Meal Pattern on Dietary Intakes, Anthropometric Parameters, and Glycemic and Lipid Profile in Fasting Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narsis Afghari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: This study assessed the mid-term changes in anthropometrical and biochemical factors as well as nutritional status and physical activity level with regard to nocturnal eating during Ramadan, for the first time.Materials and Methods: Via an easy sampling, the cohort study was conducted in 49 women aged between 20 and 45 years who were recruited from Shahid Motahari Hospital in Isfahan. The subjects were divided into two groups based on their nocturnal eating pattern. Anthropometrical and biochemical parameters were measured three days before Ramadan, on the third day of Ramadan, and thirty days after the end of Ramadan. A 147 food items frequency questionnaire was used for the assessment of nutritional status t. Repeated measure test was employed to determine changes over time, and the interaction effects between times and nocturnal eating status. Results: The body weight and body mass index of the women who consumed the nocturnal meal was significantly different from those of the subjects who did not consume the downset meal (p value =0.006. There were significant differences in energy, carbohydrate, and fat intake as well as serum triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, and physical activity levels between the three time periods. Serum glucose, cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol were not significantly different between the two groups.Conclusion: Ramadan fasting has beneficial effects on the body weight and body mass index. Fasting causes some changes in the lipid profile; these changes can be attributed to changes in dietary habits and physical activity level during Ramadan, rather than nocturnal eating status.

  14. Effect of dietary Ximenia caffra kernel meal on blood and liver metabolic substrate content and the general clinical biochemistry of Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivandi, E; Moyo, D; Dangarembizi, R; Erlwanger, K

    2016-06-01

    We investigated (at the University of the Witwatersrand: GPS coordinates 26°10' 52.96″S; 28°2' 33.61″E) the effects of substituting soya bean meal (SBM) with Ximenia caffra kernel meal (XCKM) as a dietary protein source on blood and liver metabolic substrates content, serum markers of liver and kidney function and the general clinical biochemistry of Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Five diets with similar energy and protein content were formulated (D1-D5) where XCKM replaced SBM on a crude protein basis at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%. Forty weanling male SD rats were randomly assigned to diets D1-D5, fed for 37 days and weighed twice weekly. The rats were then fasted overnight, and fasting blood glucose and triglyceride concentrations were determined from tail-vein-drawn blood. Immediately thereafter, the rats were euthanised and blood was collected via cardiac puncture. Serum was used to assay for markers of the general health profile. Livers were removed and weighed, and samples were used to determine lipid and glycogen content. Rats fed D4 (75% substitution level) had significantly lower (p  0.05) fasting blood glucose and cholesterol concentrations, liver glycogen and lipid content. Additionally, it had no effect (p > 0.05) on serum activity/concentration of surrogate markers of liver (alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activity and urea, total bilirubin, globulin and albumin concentrations) and kidney (phosphorus, calcium and creatinine concentrations) function and the general clinical biochemistry of the rats. Defatted XCKM could substitute SBM in rat diets without compromising blood glucose and cholesterol homeostasis, liver and kidney function and the general clinical biochemistry of growing male Sprague Dawley rats. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. The influence of Blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) and Starfish (Asterias rubens) meals on production performance, egg quality and apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients of laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afrose, Sadia; Hammershøj, Marianne; Nørgaard, Jan Værum

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate mussel meal and starfish meals as protein sources for organic layers by studying the effect on production performance, nutrient digestibility and egg quality. A total of 300 Hisex white laying hens (20-week old) were distributed randomly to 6 dietary treatment...... groups, each with five replicates, including a control diet providing fish meal, 3 diets providing mussel meal (4, 8 and 12 g/100 g) and 2 diets providing starfish meal (4 and 8 g/100 g). Laying rate, egg mass, feed conversion ratio, mortality and live weight of the hens did not differ among treatments....... The egg weight was not different from the egg weights of control diets, but the inclusion of 4 g mussel meal resulted in a lower (P egg weight than 8 g and 12 g mussel meal per 100 g feed. The egg shell strength was not affected by any of the diets. The egg yolk colour was lower (P

  16. Effects of simultaneous dietary fish oil ingestion and sulfur amino acid supplementation on the lipid metabolism in hepatoma-bearing rats with hyperlipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Masashi; Miura, Yutaka; Funabiki, Ryuhei; Yagasaki, Kazumi

    2010-01-01

    The effects of simultaneous dietary fish oil ingestion and sulfur amino acid (L-methionine and L-cystine) supplementation on serum lipid concentrations and various parameters related to the lipid metabolism were studied in Donryu rats subcutaneously implanted with an ascites hepatoma cell line, AH109A. A diet containing 10% fish oil was found to reduce serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, (very-low-density lipoprotein plus low-density lipoprotein)-cholesterol, phospholipid and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations in these animals, and dietary supplementation of 1.2% L-methionine and L-cystine also suppressed these serum lipid concentrations. Hepatic fatty acid synthesis and the availability of serum NEFA were decreased, and epididymal adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity was elevated by dietary fish oil, while LPL activity in various tissues and hepatic fatty acid oxidation were increased by dietary sulfur amino acids, resulting in a reduction in the serum triglyceride concentration by dietary fish oil and sulfur amino acids, respectively. Dietary fish oil suppressed the hepatoma-induced increase in cholesterogenesis in the host liver, and dietary methionine and cystine enhanced bile acid excretion into feces, which were the causes of the hypocholesterolemic effect. In these serum lipid concentrations, there were significant effects of fish oil ingestion and sulfur amino acid supplementation, but no significant interaction between these two factors was seen. These results indicate that dietary fish oil and sulfur amino acid, L-methionine and L-cystine, have hypolipidemic effects in cancer-related hyperlipidemia, and that the effects of these two factors on the decrease in these serum lipid concentrations are additive; these two factors may affect the lipid metabolism via different pathways and mechanisms.

  17. Effect of dietary fish-oil on renal-function and rejection in cyclosporine-treated recipients of renal-transplants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, Jaap J. Homan; Bilo, Henk J. G.; Donker, J. M.; Wilmink, J. M.; Tegzess, Adam M.

    1993-01-01

    Background. Dietary fish oil exerts effects on renal hemodynamics and the immune response that may benefit renal-transplant recipients treated with cyclosporine. To evaluate this possibility, we studied the effect of fish oil on renal function, blood pressure, and the incidence of acute rejection

  18. The quality of meal elements for professional prepared meals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løje, Hanne; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    Meal elements are convenience products which are partially prepared meal components to be used in professional kitchens. Examples are meat, vegetables or fish which are preprepared for example by heat-treatment before distribution to the professional kitchens. The pre-fried vegetables and meat can...

  19. Effect of elevated dietary amino acid levels in high canola meal diets on productive traits and cecal microbiota population of broiler chickens in a pair-feeding study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toghyani, M; Girish, C K; Wu, S B; Iji, P A; Swick, R A

    2017-05-01

    A pair-feeding study was conducted to determine if reduced feed intake (FI) in broiler chickens fed high canola meal (CM) diets per se accounts for reduced growth performance and whether this lower growth rate can be mitigated by increasing dietary amino acid (AA) levels. Five experimental wheat-based diets were formulated as follows: soybean meal (SBM) diet, high CM diet with normal AA concentration, and high CM diets with 3, 6, or 9% additional AA concentration (Lys, Met+Cys, Thr, Ile, Arg, and Val). Another group of birds was pair-fed with SBM diet to the consumption levels of birds fed CM diet with normal AA. There were 6 replicates of 17 male 10-day-old Ross 308 chicks per treatment over grower and finisher periods. Birds fed the CM diets had reduced FI and BWG, but improved FCR (P < 0.01) compared to SBM ad libitum fed birds. The SBM pair-fed birds gained the same weight and exhibited similar FCR compared to CM fed birds. Additional 9% AA improved FCR (P < 0.01) compared to SBM and CM diets with normal AA. No significant differences were observed in ileal digestibility of DM, energy, crude protein, and AA between CM with normal AA and SBM diets. The additional 6 and 9% AA in CM diets increased digestibility of crude protein and some AA (P < 0.05). SBM ad libitum and CM + 6 and 9% AA fed birds had the highest and lowest relative weight of abdominal fat, respectively (P < 0.05). Addition of 6 and 9% AA in CM diets increased relative carcass and breast yields (P < 0.01). Serum triglyceride level was higher in SBM ad libitum fed birds (P < 0.05). The composition of microbiota in the ceca was not affected by treatments. This study showed that reduced growth of birds fed high CM diets is primarily mediated through reduced FI. This growth depression could partially be ameliorated by increasing dietary AA levels. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  20. Plasma and dietary omega-3 fatty acids, fish intake, and heart failure risk in the Physicians' Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, Jemma B; Tsai, Michael Y; Hanson, Naomi Q; Gaziano, J Michael; Djoussé, Luc

    2012-10-01

    Data on the relation of plasma and dietary omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FAs) with heart failure (HF) risk have been inconsistent. We evaluated the relation of n-3 FAs with HF in US male physicians. We used nested case-control (n = 1572) and prospective cohort study designs (n = 19,097). Plasma phospholipid n-3 FAs were measured by using gas chromatography, and food-frequency questionnaires were used to assess dietary n-3 FAs and fish intake. Incident HF was ascertained via annual follow-up questionnaires and validated in a subsample. The mean age was 58.7 y at blood collection. In a multivariable model, plasma α-linolenic acid (ALA) was associated with a lower risk of HF in a nonlinear fashion (P-quadratic trend = 0.02), and the lowest OR was observed in quintile 4 (0.66; 95% CI: 0.47, 0.94). Plasma EPA and DHA were not associated with HF, whereas plasma docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) showed a nonlinear inverse relation with HF for quintile 2 (OR: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.39, 0.79). Dietary marine n-3 FAs showed a trend toward a lower risk of HF in quintile 4 (HR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.64, 1.02) and a nonlinear pattern across quintiles. Fish intake was associated with a lower risk of HF, with RRs of ~0.70 for all categories of fish consumption greater than one serving per month. Our data are consistent with an inverse and nonlinear relation of plasma phospholipid ALA and DPA, but not EPA or DHA, with HF risk. Fish consumption greater than once per month was associated with a lower HF risk.

  1. Plasma and dietary omega-3 fatty acids, fish intake, and heart failure risk in the Physicians’ Health Study123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, Jemma B; Tsai, Michael Y; Hanson, Naomi Q; Gaziano, J Michael; Djoussé, Luc

    2012-01-01

    Background: Data on the relation of plasma and dietary omega-3 (n–3) fatty acids (FAs) with heart failure (HF) risk have been inconsistent. Objective: We evaluated the relation of n−3 FAs with HF in US male physicians. Design: We used nested case-control (n = 1572) and prospective cohort study designs (n = 19,097). Plasma phospholipid n−3 FAs were measured by using gas chromatography, and food-frequency questionnaires were used to assess dietary n−3 FAs and fish intake. Incident HF was ascertained via annual follow-up questionnaires and validated in a subsample. Results: The mean age was 58.7 y at blood collection. In a multivariable model, plasma α-linolenic acid (ALA) was associated with a lower risk of HF in a nonlinear fashion (P-quadratic trend = 0.02), and the lowest OR was observed in quintile 4 (0.66; 95% CI: 0.47, 0.94). Plasma EPA and DHA were not associated with HF, whereas plasma docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) showed a nonlinear inverse relation with HF for quintile 2 (OR: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.39, 0.79). Dietary marine n−3 FAs showed a trend toward a lower risk of HF in quintile 4 (HR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.64, 1.02) and a nonlinear pattern across quintiles. Fish intake was associated with a lower risk of HF, with RRs of ∼0.70 for all categories of fish consumption greater than one serving per month. Conclusions: Our data are consistent with an inverse and nonlinear relation of plasma phospholipid ALA and DPA, but not EPA or DHA, with HF risk. Fish consumption greater than once per month was associated with a lower HF risk. PMID:22952185

  2. Dietary mercury exposure in a population with a wide range of fish consumption--self-capture of fish and regional differences are important determinants of mercury in blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenssen, M T S; Brantsæter, A L; Haugen, M; Meltzer, H M; Larssen, T; Kvalem, H E; Birgisdottir, B E; Thomassen, Y; Ellingsen, D; Alexander, J; Knutsen, H K

    2012-11-15

    Human, low level, chronic exposure to mercury (Hg) from fish is of concern because of potential neurodevelopmental and cardiovascular toxicity. The purpose of the study was to 1) measure total mercury (THg) in blood and estimate dietary exposure in a population group with a wide range of seafood consumption, 2) assess the intake and blood concentration in relation to tolerable intake values, 3) characterise dietary sources, and 4) to investigate the relationship between dietary THg with THg in blood (BTHg), including factors that can explain the variance in BTHg concentrations. The participants (n=184) filled in an extensive food frequency questionnaire which was combined with a database on THg concentrations in Norwegian food, and donated blood and urine. Median consumption of seafood was 65 g/day (range 4 to 341 g/day). The calculated mean dietary THg exposure was 0.35 (median 0.30) μg/kg body weight/week. Seafood contributed on average 95% to the exposure. The JECFA Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) of 1.6 μg MeHg/kg bw/week was not exceeded by any of the participants. BTHg ranged from 0.6 to 30 μg/L, with a mean of 5.3 (median 4.0 μg/L). There was a strong relationship between total seafood consumption and BTHg concentrations (r=0.58 95%CI: 0.48, 0.67) and between estimated THg dietary exposure and BTHg (r=0.46 95%CI: 0.35, 0.57). Fish consumption, sex, catching >50% of their seafood themselves, and living in coastal municipalities were significant factors in linear regression models with lnBTHg. Including urinary Hg in the regression model increased the explained variance from 54% to 65%. In a toxicokinetic model, the calculated dietary intake appeared to moderately underestimate the measured BTHg among the participants with the highest BTHg. Only two of the participants had BTHg slightly above a value equivalent to the JECFA PTWI, but none of them were women in fertile age. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The effectiveness of healthy meals at work on reaction time, mood and dietary intake: a randomised cross-over study in daytime and shift workers at an university hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leedo, Eva; Beck, Anne Marie; Astrup, Arne

    2017-01-01

    Our dietary habits affect both cognitive performance and mood. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of increased availability of healthy meals and water at work on healthcare staff. The study used an 8-week randomised cross-over design. A total of sixty physicians, nurses and nursing...... assistants, including sixteen working on shifts, were recruited. The participants received a self-selected keyhole-labelled (Nordic nutrition label) lunch, snack and bottled water during each shift throughout the intervention period. Reaction time (Go/No-Go test), mood-related scores (POMS) and dietary...

  4. Effects of dietary 2,2', 4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) exposure in growing medaka fish (Oryzias latipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Doncel, Miguel; Carbonell, Gregoria; García-Mauriño, José Enrique; Sastre, Salvador; Beltrán, Eulalia María; Fernàndez Torija, Carlos

    2016-09-01

    In this research work, we addressed the effects of a diet fortified with BDE-47 (0, 10, 100, 1000ng/g) dosed to 4-7 day-old post-hatch medaka fish for 40 days, followed by an 80-day depuration period. BDE-47 accumulation and overall growth were evaluated throughout the dosing period, and its elimination was quantified over the following 60 days. The histological condition of the thyroid gland, liver and gonads from the 1000ng BDE-47-treated fish were assessed 5 and 70days after exposures finished. The phenotypic males to females ratio was also quantified 70days after treatments finished. Sixty days after the BDE-47 exposures, reproductive capacity (i.e. fecundity, fertility and hatchability) was evaluated in mating groups for a 20-day period. BDE-47 exposure via food from larval through juvenile life stages of medaka fish resulted in steady accumulation with time dose-dependently. This accumulation tendency rapidly decreased after dosing ended. The growth rates showed a significant increase only at the highest concentration 70days after exposures finished. The histological survey did not reveal BDE-47-related alterations in the condition of the potential target organs. However, a morphometrical approach suggested BDE-47-related differences in the thickness of the epithelium that lines thyroid follicles. The reproduction studies showed comparable values for the fecundity, fertility and hatching rates. Dietary BDE-47 dosed for 40days to growing medaka fish did not alter the phenotypic sex ratios at maturity. The dietary approach used herein could not provide conclusive evidence of effects on medaka development and thriving despite the fact that BDE-47 underwent rapid accumulation in whole fish during the 40-day treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of the safety of a genetically modified DAS-444Ø6-6 soybean meal and hulls in a 90-day dietary toxicity study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papineni, Sabitha; Murray, Jennifer A; Ricardo, Ekmay; Dunville, Christina M; Sura, Radha Krishna; Thomas, Johnson

    2017-11-01

    A 90-day sub chronic toxicity study was conducted in rats to evaluate the safety of genetically modified DAS-444Ø6-6 soybeans expressing herbicide tolerant proteins when compared with its conventional comparators (non-transgenic near isoline control soybean and three commercially available non-transgenic line control soybeans). Rats were given diets formulated with either 10% or 20% w/w of soybean meal and 1% or 2% hulls of DAS-444Ø6-6 soybean with an equivalent amount of hulls from an isoline non-transgenic control soybean for at least 90 days. In addition, three separate 20% w/w non-transgenic commercially available soybean varieties were also given to groups of rats to serve as reference controls. Animals were evaluated by cage-side and hand-held detailed clinical observations, ophthalmic examinations, body weights/body weight gains, feed consumption, hematology, prothrombin time, urinalysis, clinical chemistry, selected organ weights, and gross and histopathologic examinations. Under the conditions of this study, the genetically modified DAS-444Ø6-6 diets did not cause any treatment-related effects in rats following 90 days of dietary administration as compared with rats fed diets with soybean of isoline control or commercial reference controls and are considered equivalent to the diets prepared from conventional comparators. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Dietary inclusion of raw faba bean instead of soybean meal and enzyme supplementation in laying hens: Effect on performance and egg quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Abd El-Hack

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted with 160 Hisex Brown laying hens to evaluate the effect of different inclusion levels of faba bean (FB and enzyme supplementation on productive performance and egg quality parameters. The experimental diets consisted of five levels of FB: 0% (control, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%, substituting soybean meal (SBM, and two levels of enzyme supplementation (0 or 250 mg/kg. Each dietary treatment was assigned to four replicate groups and the experiment lasted 22 weeks. A positive relationship (P  0.05. The main effect of FB levels replacing for SBM affected (P < 0.05 yolk and shell percentages, yolk index, yolk to albumen ratio, shell thickness and egg shape index. It can be concluded that FB and enzyme supplementation could be included in hens diet at less than 50% instead of SBM to support egg productive performance, however higher raw FB levels negatively affected egg production indices and quality.

  7. Quantitative three-dimensional microtextural analyses of tooth wear as a tool for dietary discrimination in fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnell, Mark; Seehausen, Ole; Galis, Frietson

    2012-01-01

    Resource polymorphisms and competition for resources are significant factors in speciation. Many examples come from fishes, and cichlids are of particular importance because of their role as model organisms at the interface of ecology, development, genetics and evolution. However, analysis of trophic resource use in fishes can be difficult and time-consuming, and for fossil fish species it is particularly problematic. Here, we present evidence from cichlids that analysis of tooth microwear based on high-resolution (sub-micrometre scale) three-dimensional data and new ISO standards for quantification of surface textures provides a powerful tool for dietary discrimination and investigation of trophic resource exploitation. Our results suggest that three-dimensional approaches to analysis offer significant advantages over two-dimensional operator-scored methods of microwear analysis, including applicability to rough tooth surfaces that lack distinct scratches and pits. Tooth microwear textures develop over a longer period of time than is represented by stomach contents, and analyses based on textures are less prone to biases introduced by opportunistic feeding. They are more sensitive to subtle dietary differences than isotopic analysis. Quantitative textural analysis of tooth microwear has a useful role to play, complementing existing approaches, in trophic analysis of fishes—both extant and extinct. PMID:22491979

  8. Changes in concentrations of trace minerals in lambs fed sericea lespedeza leaf meal pellets with or without dietary sodium molybdate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, M; Burke, J M; Coffey, K P; Kegley, E B; Miller, J E; Smyth, E; Welborn, M G; Terrill, T H; Mosjidis, J A; Rosenkrans, C

    2016-04-01

    Prolonged feeding of sericea lespedeza (SL) previously led to reduced serum concentrations of Mo, a cofactor in an enzyme complex that may be involved in weight gain. The current objective was to determine the effect of Mo supplementation on changes in serum, fecal, urine, and liver concentrations of trace minerals in lambs fed SL leaf meal pellets. Thirty ram lambs weaned in May (84 ± 1.5 d of age and 27 ± 1.1 kg; D 0) were blocked by BW, breed type (full or three-fourths Katahdin), and EBV of parasite resistance and randomly assigned to be fed 900 g/d of an alfalfa-based supplement (CON; = 10) or a SL-based supplement ( = 20) for 103 d. Supplements were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric and to meet trace mineral requirements. Within the SL group, individual lambs were administered either 5 mL water or 5 mL of water with 163.3 mg of sodium molybdate (SLMO). Serum was collected on d 28, 56, and 104; a liver sample was collected by biopsy on d 104 to determine concentrations of trace minerals. Data were analyzed using a mixed model and orthogonal contrasts. Serum concentrations of Mo increased in response to the drench and were greatest in SLMO lambs and then CON lambs and lowest in SL lambs ( trace minerals associated with metalloproteins-Mo, copper, selenium, and zinc-were reduced in the liver of SL- and/or SLMO-fed lambs. These reductions could be associated with the lower weight gains previously observed after prolonged feeding of SL.

  9. Dietary exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans via fish consumption and dioxin-like activity in fish determined by H4IIE-luc bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Janet Kit Yan; Man, Yu Bon; Xing, Guan Hua; Wu, Sheng Chun; Murphy, Margaret B; Xu, Ying; Wong, Ming H

    2013-10-01

    Dietary exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) via fish consumption in two major electronic (e) waste sites: Guiyu (GY), Guangdong Province and Taizhou (TZ), Zhejiang Province, and dioxin-like activity in fish determined by H4IIE-luc bioassay. In the present study, all fish were below EU's maximum allowable concentration in muscle of fish (4 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt), except crucian (4.28 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) and silver carps (7.49 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) collected from GY rivers. Moreover, the residual concentration in bighead carp collected from GY (2.15 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) was close to the EU's action level (3 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) which gives "early warning" to the competent authorities and operators to take measures to eliminate contamination. In addition, results indicated that the maximum human intake of PCDD/Fs via freshwater fish consumption in GY was 4.31 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day, which exceeds the higher end of the tolerable daily intake recommended by the WHO, EC-SCF and JECFA (1-4, 2 and 2.3 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day respectively). Furthermore, H4IIE-luc cell bioassay provides a very sensitive and cost-efficient screening tool for assessing the overall dioxin-like toxicity in the study, and is therefore valuable for high-throughput environmental monitoring studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Nutritional evaluation of soybean meal after fermentation with two fish gut bacterial strains, Bacillus cereus LRF5 and Staphylococcus caprae CCF2 in for-mulated diets for Labeo rohita fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhas Kumar Dan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Twelve isonitrogenous (35 % crude protein and isocaloric (18.0 kJ/g diets were formulated incorporating raw and fermented soybean meal (SBM at 15%, 30%, 45% and 60% levels by weight. Two phytase-producing bacterial strains, Bacillus cereus LRF5 and Staphylococcus caprae CCF2 isolated from the gut of adult Labeo rohita and Catla catla, respectively were used for fermentation of SBM. Fermentation of SBM was effective in reducing the anti-nutritional factors, trypsin inhibitor and phytic acid and enhancing protein, lipid and mineral concentration. The response of L. rohita, fingerlings (initial weight 3.33±0.07 g fed the experimental diets for 100 days was compared with fish fed a fish meal based diet. In terms of growth, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio, diet S7 containing 45% SBM fermented with B. cereus LRF5 resulted in a significantly (P<0.05 better performance of fish. The overall performance of L. rohita fed fermented SBM incorporated diets was better in comparison to those fed raw SBM incorporated diets. The apparent digestibility of nutrients and minerals was significantly (P<0.05 higher in fish fed diet S7. The maximum deposition of protein in the carcass was recorded in fish fed diet S7. Diets containing fermented SBM reduced fecal P levels. The use of this fermented feed will definitely increase the production in fish farm. Furthermore, it will also reduce the production cost, as fish meal protein is costly in the market.

  11. Consumption of the Soluble Dietary Fibre Complex PolyGlycopleX® Reduces Glycaemia and Increases Satiety of a Standard Meal Postprandially

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicky A. Solah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of consumption of PolyGlycopleX® (PGX® was compared to wheat dextrin (WD in combination with a standard meal, on postprandial satiety and glycaemia in a double-blind, randomised crossover trial, of 14 healthy subjects trained as a satiety panel. At each of six two-hour satiety sessions, subjects consumed one of three different test meals on two separate occasions. The test meals were: a standard meal plus 5 g PGX; a standard meal plus 4.5 g of PGX as softgels; and a standard meal plus 5 g of WD. Subjects recorded fullness using a labelled magnitude scale at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min and the total area under the curve (AUC, mean fullness vs. time was calculated. The meals with PGX (in granular and softgel form gave higher satiety (AUC (477 ± 121 and 454 ± 242 cm·min, than the meal with WD (215 ± 261 cm·min (p < 0.001. Subjects had blood glucose levels measured after the meals with PGX (granules and WD. Glucose response (AUC was significantly lower (p < 0.001 after the PGX meal than for the WD meal.  The high viscosity reported for PGX is a likely mechanism behind the significant satiety and blood glucose modulating effects observed in this study.

  12. Replacing fish meal by food waste in feed pellets to culture lower trophic level fish containing acceptable levels of organochlorine pesticides: health risk assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhang; Mo, Wing-Yin; Man, Yu-Bon; Nie, Xiang-Ping; Li, Kai-Bing; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2014-12-01

    The present study used food waste (collected from local hotels and restaurants) feed pellets in polyculture of low-trophic level fish [bighead (Aristichtys nobilis), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), and mud carp (Cirrhina molitorella)] aiming at producing safe and quality products for local consumption. The results indicated that grass carp (hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) waste feed pellets were relatively free of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). The experimental ponds (water and sediment) were relatively free of OCPs, lowering the possibility of biomagnification of OCPs in the food chains within the ponds. The raw concentrations of OCPs extracted from the fish were not in the bioavailable form, which would ultimately reach bloodstream and exert adverse effects on human body. Health risk assessments based on digestible concentrations are commonly regarded as a more accurate method. The results of health risk assessments based on raw and digestible concentrations showed that the fish fed with food waste feed pellets were safe for consumption from the OCP perspective. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Dietary phosphorus restriction in dialysis patients: potential impact of processed meat, poultry, and fish products as protein sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Richard A; Mehta, Ojas

    2009-07-01

    Dietary intake of phosphorus is derived largely from protein sources and is a critical determinant of phosphorus balance in patients with chronic kidney disease. Information about the phosphorus content of prepared foods generally is unavailable, but it is believed to contribute significantly to the phosphorus burden of patients with chronic kidney disease. Analysis of dietary components. We measured the phosphorus content of 44 food products, including 30 refrigerated or frozen precooked meat, poultry, and fish items, generally national brands. Measured and reported phosphorus content of foods. Phosphorus by using Association of Analytical Communities official method 984.27; protein by using Association of Analytical Communities official method 990.03. We found that the ratio of phosphorus to protein content in these items ranged from 6.1 to 21.5 mg of phosphorus per 1 g of protein. The mean ratio in the 19 food products with a label listing phosphorus as an additive was 14.6 mg/g compared with 9.0 mg/g in the 11 items without listed phosphorus. The phosphorus content of only 1 precooked food product was available in a widely used dietary database. Results cannot be extrapolated to other products. Manufacturers also may alter the phosphorus content of foods at any time. Protein content was not directly measured for all foods. Better reporting of phosphorus content of foods by manufacturers could result in improved dietary phosphorus control without risk of protein malnutrition.

  14. Growth and feed efficiency of juvenile shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei fed formulated diets containing different levels of poultry by-product meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Shuyan; Tan, Beiping; Mai, Kangsen; Zheng, Shixuan

    2009-12-01

    This feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the potential of poultry by-product meal (PBM) as a protein source in the culture of Litopenaeus vannamei. Seven isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated to near to commercial diet with about 40% protein and 7.5% lipid. Fish meal was replaced by 0, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70% and 100% of PBM (diets 1-7). The diet with 100% fish meal was used as a control (diet 1). Post-larvae were reared in an indoor semi-closed re-circulating system. Each dietary treatment was tested in 4 replicate tanks (260 L) of 40 shrimp, arranged in a completely randomized design. The shrimps were hand-fed for three times a day to near-satiation (0700, 1200 and 1800) for 60 d. Percentage weight gain, survival, feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and body composition of shrimps were measured. There were no significant differences ( P>0.05) in growth performance among shrimps fed diets 1-5 (0-60% fish meal replacement). However, shrimps fed diet 7 (100% fish meal replacement) had significantly lower ( P0.05) among different experimental diets. No differences in body composition were found among shrimps fed different diets. These results showed that up to 70% of fish meal protein can be replaced by PBM without adversely affecting the growth, survival, FCR, PER and body composition of Litop enaeus vannamei.

  15. Validation of a digital photographic method for assessment of dietary quality of school lunch sandwiches brought from home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne S. Sabinsky

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is a challenge to assess children's dietary intake. The digital photographic method (DPM may be an objective method that can overcome some of these challenges. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of a DPM to assess the quality of dietary intake from school lunch sandwiches brought from home among children aged 7–13 years. Design: School lunch sandwiches (n=191 were prepared to represent randomly selected school lunch sandwiches from a large database. All components were weighed to provide an objective measure of the composition. The lunches were photographed using a standardised DPM. From the digital images, the dietary components were estimated by a trained image analyst using weights or household measures and the dietary quality was assessed using a validated Meal Index of Dietary Quality (Meal IQ. The dietary components and the Meal IQ obtained from the digital images were validated against the objective weighed foods of the school lunch sandwiches. To determine interrater reliability, the digital images were evaluated by a second image analyst. Results: Correlation coefficients between the DPM and the weighed foods ranged from 0.89 to 0.97. The proportion of meals classified in the same or an adjacent quartile ranged from 98% (starch to 100% (fruits, vegetables, fish, whole grain, and Meal IQ. There was no statistical difference between fish, fat, starch, whole grains, and Meal IQ using the two methods. Differences were found for fruits and vegetables; Bland–Altman analyses showed a tendency to underestimate high amounts of these variables using the DPM. For interrater reliability, kappa statistics ranged from 0.59 to 0.82 across the dietary components and Meal IQ. Conclusions: The standardised DPM is a valid and reliable method for assessing the dietary quality of school lunch sandwiches brought from home.

  16. Dietary greenhouse gas emissions of meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarborough, Peter; Appleby, Paul N; Mizdrak, Anja; Briggs, Adam D M; Travis, Ruth C; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Key, Timothy J

    The production of animal-based foods is associated with higher greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions than plant-based foods. The objective of this study was to estimate the difference in dietary GHG emissions between self-selected meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans in the UK. Subjects were participants in the EPIC-Oxford cohort study. The diets of 2,041 vegans, 15,751 vegetarians, 8,123 fish-eaters and 29,589 meat-eaters aged 20-79 were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Comparable GHG emissions parameters were developed for the underlying food codes using a dataset of GHG emissions for 94 food commodities in the UK, with a weighting for the global warming potential of each component gas. The average GHG emissions associated with a standard 2,000 kcal diet were estimated for all subjects. ANOVA was used to estimate average dietary GHG emissions by diet group adjusted for sex and age. The age-and-sex-adjusted mean (95 % confidence interval) GHG emissions in kilograms of carbon dioxide equivalents per day (kgCO 2 e/day) were 7.19 (7.16, 7.22) for high meat-eaters ( > = 100 g/d), 5.63 (5.61, 5.65) for medium meat-eaters (50-99 g/d), 4.67 (4.65, 4.70) for low meat-eaters ( vegans. In conclusion, dietary GHG emissions in self-selected meat-eaters are approximately twice as high as those in vegans. It is likely that reductions in meat consumption would lead to reductions in dietary GHG emissions.

  17. Effect of substituting soybean meal and canola cake with dried distillers grains with solubles at 2 dietary crude protein levels on feed intake, milk production, and milk quality in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Sørensen, Martin Tang; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2017-01-01

    Dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS) is an alternative source of feed protein for dairy cows. Previous studies found that DDGS, based on grains other than corn, can substitute for soybean meal and canola cake as a dietary protein source without reducing milk production or quality. As socie......Dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS) is an alternative source of feed protein for dairy cows. Previous studies found that DDGS, based on grains other than corn, can substitute for soybean meal and canola cake as a dietary protein source without reducing milk production or quality....... As societal concerns exist, and in many areas strict regulation, regarding nitrogen excretion from dairy cows, the dairy industry has focused on reducing dietary protein level and nitrogen excretion. In the present study, we investigated the use of DDGS as a protein source, at a marginally low dietary crude...... protein (CP) levels, in a grass-clover and corn silage-based ration. The experiment involved 24 Holstein cows and 2 protein sources (DDGS or soybean-canola mixture) fed at 2 levels of CP (14 or 16%) in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of both protein source...

  18. A solid dietary fat containing fish oil redistributes lipoprotein subclasses without increasing oxidative stress in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tholstrup, T.; Hellgren, Lars; Petersen, M.

    2004-01-01

    There is a demand and need for healthy solid dietary fats. However, synthetic fats can be tailored to contain specific physiologic properties. Our goal was to design dietary solid test fats that would be both beneficial to the atherogenic lipid profile and stable against lipid peroxidation. Sixteen...

  19. Impact of dietary cation anion difference in fish and pigs: a comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dersjant-Li, Y.

    2000-01-01

    Dietary cation anion difference (CAD, Na + K - Cl, mEq kg -1 ) determines the pH and acid base status of a diet, consequently affecting the acid base balance in the body compartments of animals. After feeding, a low dietary CAD will contribute more acids to the

  20. Effect of microalgae on intestinal inflammation triggered by soybean meal and bacterial infection in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Bravo-Tello

    Full Text Available Soybean meal has been used in many commercial diets for farm fish; despite this component inducing intestinal inflammation. On the other hand, microalgae have increasingly been used as dietary supplements in fish feed. Nevertheless, the vast quantity of microalgae species means that many remain under- or unstudied, thus limiting wide scale commercial application. In this work, we evaluated the effects to zebrafish (Danio rerio of including Tetraselmis sp (Ts; Phaeodactylum tricornutum (Pt; Chlorella sp (Ch; Nannochloropsis oculata (No; or Nannochloropsis gaditana (Ng as additives in a soybean meal-based diet on intestinal inflammation and survival after Edwardsiella tarda infection. In larvae fed a soybean meal diet supplemented with Ts, Pt, Ch, or Ng, the quantity of neutrophils present in the intestine drastically decreased as compared to larvae fed only the soybean meal diet. Likewise, Ts or Ch supplements in soybean meal or fishmeal increased zebrafish survival by more than 20% after being challenged. In the case of Ts, the observed effect correlated with an increased number of neutrophils present at the infection site. These results suggest that the inclusion of Ts or Ch in fish diets could allow the use of SBM and at the same time improve performance against pathogen.

  1. Effect of microalgae on intestinal inflammation triggered by soybean meal and bacterial infection in zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solís, Camila J.; Ulloa, Pilar E.; Hedrera, Manuel; Pizarro-Guajardo, Marjorie; Paredes-Sabja, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Soybean meal has been used in many commercial diets for farm fish; despite this component inducing intestinal inflammation. On the other hand, microalgae have increasingly been used as dietary supplements in fish feed. Nevertheless, the vast quantity of microalgae species means that many remain under- or unstudied, thus limiting wide scale commercial application. In this work, we evaluated the effects to zebrafish (Danio rerio) of including Tetraselmis sp (Ts); Phaeodactylum tricornutum (Pt); Chlorella sp (Ch); Nannochloropsis oculata (No); or Nannochloropsis gaditana (Ng) as additives in a soybean meal-based diet on intestinal inflammation and survival after Edwardsiella tarda infection. In larvae fed a soybean meal diet supplemented with Ts, Pt, Ch, or Ng, the quantity of neutrophils present in the intestine drastically decreased as compared to larvae fed only the soybean meal diet. Likewise, Ts or Ch supplements in soybean meal or fishmeal increased zebrafish survival by more than 20% after being challenged. In the case of Ts, the observed effect correlated with an increased number of neutrophils present at the infection site. These results suggest that the inclusion of Ts or Ch in fish diets could allow the use of SBM and at the same time improve performance against pathogen. PMID:29117213

  2. DETERMINAÇÃO DA COMPOSIÇÃO EM AMINOÁCIDOS DAS PROTEÍNAS DA LEVEDURA DE ÁLCOOL (Saccharomyces cerevisiae SECA E DA FARINHA DE PEIXE COMO INGREDIENTES PARA RAÇÕES DE PEIXES DE ÁGUA DOCE DETERMINATION OF AMINO ACIDS COMPOSITION IN MOLASSES YEAST (Saccharomyces cerevisiae AND FISH MEAL PROTEIN AS INGREDIENTS FOR FRESHWATER FISH RATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalton José Carneiro

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Determinaram-se a composição e a qualidade protéica da levedura seca de destilaria alcoólica (S. cerevisiae, comparando-a com a farinha de peixe (FP. Utilizaram-se o escore químico (EQ e o índice de aminoácidos essenciais (IAAE. Estes quocientes indicam, em relação à proteína do ovo, a ordem dos aminoácidos limitantes, estimando assim o valor biológico protéico. Observaram-se elevados índices de lisina (EQ = 120, treonina (EQ = 110 e triptofano (EQ = 100 na levedura, recomendando-se seu balanceamento com cereais deficientes nestes aminoácidos. A proteína da levedura superou a da FP nestes índices de qualidade e satisfez o padrão internacional de qualidade e as exigências em aminoácidos estimados para a carpa e o pacu. Posteriores ensaios acerca de desempenho produtivo, de digestibilidade e de efeitos metabólicos com peixes fornecerão importantes resultados para o balanceamento de rações, necessitando serem testados atrativos mais palatáveis e aglutinantes para o meio aquático, quando se incorpora levedura à ração.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Levedura alcoólica; proteína; peixe; rações.

    The possible use of microbial biomass to replace part of the fishmeal in fish diets could be considered an innovate solution. A quantitative determination of the content of aminoacids was made in two protein sources: molasses yeast (S. cerevisiae and fish meal. The chemical score and essential aminoacid index were calculated as a parameter correlated to biological value. The high lysine, threonine and tryptophan content of the protein in the molasses yeast must be emphasized. It reaches an order of magnitude superior to that in fish meal. Further researches, especially in relation to protein digestibility and possible toxicity or antinutritional

  3. Fishing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, G.

    1984-09-01

    Two classifications of fishing jobs are discussed: open hole and cased hole. When there is no casing in the area of the fish, it is called open hole fishing. When the fish is inside the casing, it is called cased hole fishing. The article lists various things that can become a fish-stuck drill pipe, including: broken drill pipe, drill collars, bit, bit cones, hand tools dropped in the well, sanded up or mud stuck tubing, packers become stuck, and much more. It is suggested that on a fishing job, all parties involved should cooperate with each other, and that fishing tool people obtain all the information concerning the well. That way they can select the right tools and methods to clean out the well as quickly as possible.

  4. Effects of dietary peppermint (Mentha piperita) on growth performance, chemical body composition and hematological and immune parameters of fry Caspian white fish (Rutilus frisii kutum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adel, Milad; Abedian Amiri, Armin; Zorriehzahra, Jalil; Nematolahi, Amin; Esteban, Maria Ángeles

    2015-08-01

    Peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) is a very popular herb. While numerous effects have been described in mammals, its effects on fish have received so far limited attention. The effects of dietary administration of peppermint on fry Caspian white fish (Rutilus frisii kutum) were studied. Fish were divided into 4 groups before being fed diets supplemented with 0% (control), 1%, 2% and 3% of peppermint extracts for 8 weeks. Dose-dependent increases of growth parameters (WG and SGR), mucus skin (protein concentration, alkaline phosphatase and antimicrobial activity) and seric (lysozyme and IgM) and blood leucocyte respiratory burst activities and different hematological parameters (number of red and white cells, seric hemoglobin and hematocrit content) were recorded in fry fish fed supplemented diets. However, the dietary peppermint supplements have different effects on the number of blood leucocytes depending on the leucocyte cell type. While no significant differences were observed in the number of blood monocytes and eosinophils, the number of neutrophils and lymphocytes was increased and decreased, respectively, on fish fed peppermint enriched diets, respect to the values found in control fish. Present results corroborate that dietary administration of peppermint promotes growth performance and increases the main hematological and immune humoral (both mucosal and systemic) parameters of fry Caspian white fish. This study may provide new applications of peppermint and, at the same time, promote rational development and utilization of peppermint resources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The effect of dietary flaxseed meal on liver and egg yolk fatty acid profiles, immune response and antioxidant status of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek M. Shafey

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of supplementing laying hen diets with 0, 50, or 100 g flaxseed meal (FSM/kg over a 12-week period on liver and egg yolk fatty acids (FA composition, liver and serum lipid peroxidation [thiobarbituric acid reactant substances (TBARS, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx], serum lipids (triglyerides, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, proteins (total protein, globulin and albumin, and immune response [serum antibody titres to sheep red blood cells (SRBC and white blood cell count (WBC and differential (heterophils (H, lymphocytes (L, monocytes (M, eosinophils (E and basophils (B] of laying hens were studied. The FSM diets increased total polyunsaturated FA (PUFA and omega-3 FA of α-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3, docosapentanoic (C22:5n-3 and docosahexaenoic (C22:6n-3, and they reduced total monounsaturated FA (MUFA and total omega- 3/total omega-6 FA (Σn-6:Σn-3 ratio in the liver and egg yolk. Hens fed the FSM diets had a higher serum anti-SRBC and a lower blood H:L ratio. The 100 g FSM/kg diet increased liver TBARS level when compared with the control diet. Dietary FSM did not influence levels of TBARS, SOD, lipids and proteins in the serum, SOD and GPx in the liver, and blood count of M, E, B and total WBC. It was concluded that the addition of FSM to the diet of laying hens enhanced immune response of birds, increased omeg-3 FA and PUFA, and reduced MUFA and Σn-6:Σn-3 ratio in the liver and egg yolk, and that of 100 g FSM/kg diet increased hepatic lipid peroxidation.

  6. Effects of dietary inclusion of macaúba seed cake meal on performance, caecotrophy traits and in vitro evaluations for growing rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Walter Motta; Ferreira, Felipe Norberto Alves; Inácio, Diogo Felipe da Silva; Mota, Katiuscia Cristina das Neves; Costa Júnior, Martolino Barbosa da; Silva Neta, Clarice Speridião; Rocha, Leonardo Francisco da; Miranda, Estêvão Ribeiro de

    2018-04-01

    The objective was to evaluate the inclusion of macaúba seed cake (MSC) meal in diets for growing rabbits by assessing their growth and slaughtering performance, haematological traits, nutritional contribution of caecotrophs, in vitro digestibility, degradability and fermentation parameters. A total of 88 rabbits were distributed to four groups with 22 animals each and fed diets containing 0, 50, 100 and 150 g/kg of MSC, respectively. The in vitro assays were conducted employing cecum inoculum on the same dietary treatments. The inclusion of MSC yielded a quadratic effect on in vitro dry matter digestibility (p protein (p = 0.014), live weight at 51 d (p = 0.024), body weight gain (p = 0.039), average daily feed intake (ADFI) (p = 0.001) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) (p = 0.007) in the first period evaluated (30-50 d); furthermore the ADFI and FCR the second (51-72 d) and whole period (30-72 d) (p < 0.001). MSC addition caused a quadratic effect on white blood cells count (p = 0.026) and a linear decrease of eosinophils (p = 0.045). In conclusion, the inclusion of up to 150 g/kg of MSC improves the in vitro digestibility and fermentation potential of the diets, reflecting on the ADFI and FCR of the animals, although adverse effects are observed on the weight of the commercial carcass and nutritive contribution of the caecotrophs.

  7. Distinct effects of dietary flax compared to fish oil, soy protein compared to casein, and sex on the renal oxylipin profile in models of polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devassy, Jessay G; Yamaguchi, Tamio; Monirujjaman, Md; Gabbs, Melissa; Ravandi, Amir; Zhou, Jing; Aukema, Harold M

    2017-08-01

    Oxylipins are bioactive lipids derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) that are important regulators of kidney function and health. Targeted lipidomic analyses of renal oxylipins from four studies of rodent models of renal disease were performed to investigate the differential effects of dietary flax compared to fish oil, soy protein compared to casein, and sex. Across all studies, dietary fish oil was more effective than flax oil in reducing n-6 PUFA derived oxylipins and elevating eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) derived oxylipins, whereas dietary flax oil resulted in higher α-linolenic acid (ALA) oxylipins. Dietary soy protein compared to casein resulted in higher linoleic acid (LA) derived oxylipins. Kidneys from females had higher levels of arachidonic acid (AA) oxylipins, but similar or lower levels of oxylipins from other PUFA. Modulation of the oxylipin profile by diet and sex may help elucidate their effects on renal physiology and health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessment of cotton-seed ( Gossypium species) meal as ingredient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of feeding graded levels of cotton GossypiumSpp. seed meal as an inclusion in the diet of Clariasgariepinus juveniles for growth performance was analysed in comparison with the conventional commercial fish feed. Six experimental rations formulated were cotton-seed Gossypium spp. meal replaced fish meal at ...

  9. Dietary fish intake and sleep quality: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Brutto, Oscar H; Mera, Robertino M; Ha, Jung-Eun; Gillman, Jennifer; Zambrano, Mauricio; Castillo, Pablo R

    2016-01-01

    Due to the content of omega-3 and vitamin D, fish consumption is likely to be associated with better sleep. However, current data are limited to a single study that is not representative of the population at large. The present study aimed to assess the effects of oily fish consumption on sleep quality in community dwelling adults living in rural coastal Ecuador. Atahualpa residents aged ≥40 years and who were identified during a door-to-door survey were interviewed with field instruments directed at assessing cardiovascular risk factors, sleep quality, and fish consumption. Using parametric regression and generalized linear models adjusted for demographics and cardiovascular risk factors, the study evaluated whether oily fish consumption is associated with a lower Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI). Out of 721 eligible people, 677 (94%) were enrolled. Mean oily fish consumption was 9 ± 6 servings per week (one serving = 140 grams). Poor sleep quality was noticed in 187 (28%) individuals. Oily fish intake was higher in individuals with good sleep quality (p = 0.013). There was an inverse association between the PSQI score and oily fish servings per week in both parametric regression (β = -0.040; 95% CI -0.690 to -0.011, p = 0.007) and the adjusted generalized linear model (β = -0.032; 95% CI -0.605 to -0.004, p = 0.025). Oily fish consumption is associated with better sleep quality. Even in people who ingest more than the recommended amount of fish, an increase in fish intake is associated with further improvement in the quality of sleep. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Prebiotic Supplementation Has Only Minimal Effects on Growth Efficiency, Intestinal Health and Disease Resistance of Westslope Cutthroat Trout Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi Fed 30% Soybean Meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy M. Sealey

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Prebiotics have successfully been used to prevent infectious diseases in aquaculture and there is an increasing amount of literature that suggests that these products can also improve alternative protein utilization and digestion. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine whether prebiotic supplementation increased the growth efficiency, intestinal health and disease resistance of cutthroat trout fed a high level of dietary soybean meal. To achieve this objective, juvenile Westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi were fed a practical type formulation with 0 or 30% dietary soybean meal with or without the commercial prebiotic (Grobiotic-A prior to experimental exposure to Flavobacterium psychrophilum. Juvenile Westslope cutthroat trout (initial weight 7.8 g/fish ± standard deviation of 0.5 g were stocked at 30 fish/tank in 75 L tanks with six replicate tanks per diet and fed their respective diets for 20 weeks. Final weights of Westslope cutthroat trout were affected by neither dietary soybean meal inclusion level (P=0.9582 nor prebiotic inclusion (P=0.9348 and no interaction was observed (P=0.1242. Feed conversion ratios were similarly not affected by soybean meal level (P=0.4895, prebiotic inclusion (P=0.3258 or their interaction (P=0.1478. Histological examination of the distal intestine of Westslope cutthroat trout demonstrated increases in inflammation due to both increased soybean meal inclusion level (P=0.0038 and prebiotic inclusion (P=0.0327 without significant interaction (P=0.3370. Feeding dietary soybean meal level at 30% increased mortality of F.psychrophilum cohabitation challenged Westslope cutthroat trout (P=0.0345 while prebiotic inclusion tended to decrease mortality (P=0.0671. These results indicate that subclinical alterations in intestinal inflammation levels due to high dietary inclusion levels of soybean meal could predispose Westslope cutthroat trout to F.psychrophilum infection.

  11. Quality Attributes of Tapioca Meal Fortified With Defatted Soy Flour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nutritional quality of tapioca meal and thus a complete meal was obtained from this fortification. Such meal can be ... industrial use, mostly as starch(6%) or animal feed (19%) and 10% lost as waste (Fish and Trim, 1993). ... be processed to a variety of products such as soy flour, soy milk, soy yoghurt, soy cake, soy meal, etc.

  12. Four Models Including Fish, Seafood, Red Meat and Enriched Foods to Achieve Australian Dietary Recommendations for n-3 LCPUFA for All Life-Stages

    OpenAIRE

    Fayet-Moore, Flavia; Baghurst, Katrine; Meyer, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Populations are not meeting recommended intakes of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA). The aim was (i) to develop a database on n-3 LCPUFA enriched products; (ii) to undertake dietary modelling exercise using four dietary approaches to meet the recommendations and (iii) to determine the cost of the models. Six n-3 LCPUFA enriched foods were identified. Fish was categorised by n-3 LCPUFA content (mg/100 g categories as ?excellent? ?good? and ?moderate?). The four model...

  13. No effect of dietary fish oil on renal hemodynamics, tubular function, and renal functional reserve in long-term renal transplant recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J M; Løkkegaard, H; Høy, Carl-Erik

    1995-01-01

    Dietary supplementation with fish oil rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids has been suggested to protect the kidney against cyclosporin A (CsA) toxicity. This study investigated the effects of a 10-wk dietary supplementation with fish oil on renal function and renal functional reserve in healthy...... and effective RPF were measured as the renal clearances of (99mTc)DTPA and (131I)hippuran, respectively. Renal tubular function was evaluated by use of the renal clearance of lithium and the urinary excretion of beta 2-microglobulin. Fish oil did not change baseline values of effective RPF, GFR, lithium...... clearance, and urinary excretion of beta 2-microglobulin in any of the groups. The infusion of amino acids induced a comparable increase in GFR, lithium clearance, and the urinary excretion rate of beta 2-microglobulin in all three groups with no additional effect of fish oil. Thus, long-term renal...

  14. No effect of dietary fish oil on renal hemodynamics, tubular function, and renal functional reserve in long-term renal transplant recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J M; Løkkegaard, H; Høy, Carl-Erik

    1995-01-01

    clearance, and urinary excretion of beta 2-microglobulin in any of the groups. The infusion of amino acids induced a comparable increase in GFR, lithium clearance, and the urinary excretion rate of beta 2-microglobulin in all three groups with no additional effect of fish oil. Thus, long-term renal......Dietary supplementation with fish oil rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids has been suggested to protect the kidney against cyclosporin A (CsA) toxicity. This study investigated the effects of a 10-wk dietary supplementation with fish oil on renal function and renal functional reserve in healthy...... and effective RPF were measured as the renal clearances of (99mTc)DTPA and (131I)hippuran, respectively. Renal tubular function was evaluated by use of the renal clearance of lithium and the urinary excretion of beta 2-microglobulin. Fish oil did not change baseline values of effective RPF, GFR, lithium...

  15. Avaliação química e sensorial da farinha de resíduo de tilápias na forma de sopa Chemical and sensorial evaluation of fish meal in soup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Braidotti Stevanato

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available As cabeças de tilápias são resíduos do processamento de peixes comumente descartados e não aproveitadas como alimento. Desta forma realizou-se um estudo sobre a composição química e de ácidos graxos na farinha obtida a partir de cabeças de tilápias. Ainda foram realizadas avaliações sensorial (caldo e sopa e química e de ácidos graxos na sopa elaborada com a farinha. Os objetivos foram avaliar a composição e aceitação dos produtos elaborados com farinha, visando o aproveitamento na alimentação humana, especialmente para a merenda escolar. Os resultados obtidos foram de elevados teores de proteína (38,4%, cinzas (19,4% e lipídios (35,5% na farinha. A sopa apresentou elevada aceitação pelas crianças do ensino fundamental e a composição de ácidos graxos do conteúdo lipídico indicou a presença de diversos ácidos ômega-3, especialmente os ácidos alfa-linolênico (LNA, eicosapentaenóico (EPA, docosahexaenócio (DHA e excelente razão AGPI/AGS. Todos estes parâmetros evidenciam que a inclusão de cabeça de tilápia na forma de farinha é aceitável como alimento e constitui uma fonte nutritiva e benéfica para a saúde humana.Fish heads are normally discarded during fish processing and are not used as food. This study therefore investigated the chemical and fatty acids composition of fish meal produced from tilapia heads. An evaluation was made of the sensorial, chemical and fatty acids characteristics of broth and soup containing this fish meal. The purpose of the study was to analyze the composition and acceptance of products containing fish meal, aiming at its use in human food, especially in school meals. The results indicated that the fish meal contained contents of protein (38.4%, ashes (19.4% and lipids (35.5%. The soup containing fish meal was well accepted by elementary schoolchildren. Moreover, the fatty acids composition of the lipid content indicated the presence of several omega-3 acids, especially

  16. Revised dietary guidelines for Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Young Ai; Lee, Haeng Shin; Kim, Bok Hee; Lee, Yoonna; Lee, Hae Jeung; Moon, Jae Jin; Kim, Cho-il

    2008-01-01

    With rapidly changing dietary environment, dietary guidelines for Koreans were revised and relevant action guides were developed. First, the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee was established with experts and government officials from the fields of nutrition, preventive medicine, health promotion, agriculture, education and environment. The Committee set dietary goals for Koreans aiming for a better nutrition state of all after a thorough review and analysis of recent information related to nutritional status and/or problems of Korean population, changes in food production/supply, disease pattern, health policy and agricultural policy. Then, the revised dietary guidelines were proposed to accomplish these goals in addition to 6 different sets of dietary action guides to accommodate specific nutrition and health problems of respective age groups. Subsequently, these guidelines and guides were subjected to the focus group review, consumer perception surveys, and a public hearing for general and professional comments. Lastly, the language was clarified in terms of public understanding and phraseology. The revised Dietary guidelines for Koreans are as follows: eat a variety of grains, vegetables, fruits, fish, meat, poultry and dairy products; choose salt-preserved foods less, and use less salt when you prepare foods; increase physical activity for a healthy weight, and balance what you eat with your activity; enjoy every meal, and do not skip breakfast; if you drink alcoholic beverages, do so in moderation; prepare foods properly, and order sensible amounts; enjoy our rice-based diet.

  17. Design of the OPUS School Meal Study: A randomised controlled trial assessing the impact of serving school meals based on the New Nordic Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla T.; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Petersen, Rikke A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Danish children consume too much sugar and not enough whole grain, fish, fruit, and vegetables. The Nordic region is rich in such foods with a strong health-promoting potential. We lack randomised controlled trials that investigate the developmental and health impact of serving school...... meals based on Nordic foods. Aim: This paper describes the rationale, design, study population, and potential implications of the Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet (OPUS) School Meal Study. Methods: In a cluster-randomised cross-over design......, 1021 children from 3rd and 4th grades (8–11 years old) at nine Danish municipal schools were invited to participate. Classes were assigned to two 3-month periods with free school meals based on the New Nordic Diet (NND) or their usual packed lunch (control). Dietary intake, nutrient status, physical...

  18. Nannochloropsis oceania-derived defatted meal as an alternative to fishmeal in Atlantic salmon feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Mette; Gong, Yangyang; Bjarnason, Fridrik; Vasanth, Ghana K; Dahle, Dalia; Huntley, Mark; Kiron, Viswanath

    2017-01-01

    Defatted microalgal biomass derived from biorefinery can be potential feed ingredients for carnivorous fish. The present study investigated the growth, feed intake:gain and health parameters in Atlantic salmon fed for 84 days with defatted Nannochloropsis oceania as a fishmeal replacer. Fish fed feeds containing the algal biomass (at 10 and 20% inclusion, alga groups) were compared with groups that consumed alga-devoid feeds (control group). The fish that received 20% alga tended to have reduced weight gain and specific growth rate. Condition factor, feed conversion ratio and feed intake of this fish group were significantly different when compared with the control group. Hepatosomatic and viscerosomatic indices, whole body and fillet proximate composition were not affected by the dietary treatments. Digestibility of dry matter, protein, lipid, ash and energy, as well as retention of lipid and energy of the fish that received feed with 20% alga meal were also significantly different from those of the control group. Serum superoxide dismutase activity of the 10% alga-fed fish was significantly higher compared with the control fish. Although alga feeding did not cause any distal intestinal inflammation, the intestinal proteins that were altered upon feeding 20% algal meal might be pointing to systemic physiological disturbances. In conclusion, feeds with 20% alga had a negative effect on feed intake, FCR, lipid and energy retention and health of the fish. The defatted Nannochloropsis oceania can be used at modest inclusion levels, around 10%, without negative effects on the performance of Atlantic salmon.

  19. Nannochloropsis oceania-derived defatted meal as an alternative to fishmeal in Atlantic salmon feeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Sørensen

    Full Text Available Defatted microalgal biomass derived from biorefinery can be potential feed ingredients for carnivorous fish. The present study investigated the growth, feed intake:gain and health parameters in Atlantic salmon fed for 84 days with defatted Nannochloropsis oceania as a fishmeal replacer. Fish fed feeds containing the algal biomass (at 10 and 20% inclusion, alga groups were compared with groups that consumed alga-devoid feeds (control group. The fish that received 20% alga tended to have reduced weight gain and specific growth rate. Condition factor, feed conversion ratio and feed intake of this fish group were significantly different when compared with the control group. Hepatosomatic and viscerosomatic indices, whole body and fillet proximate composition were not affected by the dietary treatments. Digestibility of dry matter, protein, lipid, ash and energy, as well as retention of lipid and energy of the fish that received feed with 20% alga meal were also significantly different from those of the control group. Serum superoxide dismutase activity of the 10% alga-fed fish was significantly higher compared with the control fish. Although alga feeding did not cause any distal intestinal inflammation, the intestinal proteins that were altered upon feeding 20% algal meal might be pointing to systemic physiological disturbances. In conclusion, feeds with 20% alga had a negative effect on feed intake, FCR, lipid and energy retention and health of the fish. The defatted Nannochloropsis oceania can be used at modest inclusion levels, around 10%, without negative effects on the performance of Atlantic salmon.

  20. Dietary fish oil (4 g daily) and cardiovascular risk markers in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marckmann, P; Bladbjerg, E-M; Jespersen, J

    1997-01-01

    Some epidemiological observations indicate that 1 to 2 weekly servings of fish prevent ischemic heart disease (IHD). This might be explained by an effect of the very-long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 VLCPUFA) of fish oil on lipid metabolism and/or the hemostatic system, both involved...... oil was used as placebo. The fish oil had no significant effect on plasma lipids, apolipoproteins, lipoprotein(a), blood coagulation FVII, fibrinogen, endogenous fibrinolysis, beta-thromboglobulin, von Willebrand factor, glucose, or insulin in fasting blood samples. In nonfasting samples (n = 19......), fish oil was associated with an approximately 30% decline in plasma triglycerides (P postprandial triglycerides is the only n-3...

  1. Behavior Data - The effect of dietary taurine on feed attraction and physiology of carnivorous marine fish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — As the global population continues to rise, so does the demand for sustainable sources of protein. The worldwide harvest of wild fish has remained flat for three...

  2. Dietary fish oil (4 g daily) and cardiovascular risk markers in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marckmann, P; Bladbjerg, E-M; Jespersen, J

    1997-01-01

    Some epidemiological observations indicate that 1 to 2 weekly servings of fish prevent ischemic heart disease (IHD). This might be explained by an effect of the very-long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 VLCPUFA) of fish oil on lipid metabolism and/or the hemostatic system, both involved...... VLCPUFA effect that could contribute to primary prevention of IHD in healthy middle-aged men as assessed by currently measurable lipid and hemostatic risk markers. Udgivelsesdato: 1997-Dec...

  3. The effectiveness of healthy meals at work on reaction time, mood and dietary intake: a randomised cross-over study in daytime and shift workers at an university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leedo, Eva; Beck, Anne Marie; Astrup, Arne; Lassen, Anne D

    2017-07-01

    Our dietary habits affect both cognitive performance and mood. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of increased availability of healthy meals and water at work on healthcare staff. The study used an 8-week randomised cross-over design. A total of sixty physicians, nurses and nursing assistants, including sixteen working on shifts, were recruited. The participants received a self-selected keyhole-labelled (Nordic nutrition label) lunch, snack and bottled water during each shift throughout the intervention period. Reaction time (Go/No-Go test), mood-related scores (POMS) and dietary intake were assessed at run-in, and at the end of the intervention and the control periods. The intake of fat (P=0·030) and PUFA (P=0·003) was lower, and the intake of carbohydrate (P=0·008), dietary fibre (P=0·031) and water (Pmood-related scores in the group as a whole. In shift-working participants, the intervention period resulted in a 31·1 % lower Fatigue-Inertia Score (P=0·003), a 15·3 % higher Vigour-Activity Score (P=0·041) and a 42·7 % lower Total Mood Disturbance Score (P=0·017), whereas the only dietary component that significantly improved was water intake (P=0·034), when compared with the control period. Providing healthy meals, snacks and water during working hours seems to be an effective way of improving employees' dietary intake. Moreover, increased intake of water may be associated with beneficial effects on fatigue, vigour and total mood in shift-working healthcare staff.

  4. Nutrient quality of fast food kids meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Sharon I; Hoerr, Sharon L; Mendoza, Jason A; Tsuei Goh, Eugenia

    2008-11-01

    Exposure of children to kids meals at fast food restaurants is high; however, the nutrient quality of such meals has not been systematically assessed. We assessed the nutrient quality of fast food meals marketed to young children, ie, "kids meals." The nutrient quality of kids meals was assessed primarily by using criteria from the National School Lunch Program (NSLP). Analysis compared the nutrient values of meals offered by major fast food companies with restaurants in Houston, TX, with complete publicly available data. Data described every combination of meals offered in the target market. For each meal combination, the following were analyzed: total energy, percentage of energy from fat, total fat, saturated fat, sodium, total carbohydrates, dietary fiber, added sugars, protein, vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium, iron, energy density (food only), and the number of NSLP nutrient criteria met. Three percent of kids meals met all NSLP criteria. Those that met all criteria offered a side of fruit plus milk. Most were deli-sandwich-based meals. Meals that met the criteria had about one-third the fat, one-sixth the added sugars, twice the iron, and 3 times the amount of vitamin A and calcium as did kids meals that did not meet the criteria (P Kids meals that met the NSLP criteria are uncommon and are lower in energy density. These meals may contribute to the nutritional status of children.

  5. Evaluating the safety and efficacy of sodium-restricted/Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet after acute decompensated heart failure hospitalization: design and rationale for the Geriatric OUt of hospital Randomized MEal Trial in Heart Failure (GOURMET-HF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessler, Jeffrey D; Maurer, Mathew S; Hummel, Scott L

    2015-03-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a major public health problem affecting predominantly older adults. Nonadherence to diet remains a significant contributor to acute decompensated HF (ADHF). The sodium-restricted Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH/SRD) eating plan reduces cardiovascular dysfunction that can lead to ADHF and is consistent with current HF guidelines. We propose that an intervention that promotes adherence to the DASH/SRD by home-delivering meals will be safe and improve health-related quality of life (QOL) in older adults after hospitalization for ADHF. This is a 3-center, randomized, single-blind, controlled trial of 12-week duration designed to determine the safety and efficacy of home-delivered DASH/SRD-compliant meals in older adults after discharge from ADHF hospitalization. Sixty-six subjects will be randomized in a 1:1 stratified fashion by gender and left ventricular ejection fraction (DASH/SRD-compliant meals or usual dietary advice for 4weeks after hospital discharge. Investigators will be blinded to group assignment, food diaries, and urinary electrolyte measurements until study completion. The primary efficacy end point is the change in the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire summary scores for health-related QOL from study enrollment to 4weeks postdischarge. Safety evaluation will focus on hypotension, renal insufficiency, and hyperkalemia. Exploratory end points include echocardiography, noninvasive vascular testing, markers of oxidative stress, and salt taste sensitivity. This randomized controlled trial will test the efficacy, feasibility, and safety of 4weeks of DASH/SRD after ADHF hospitalization. By testing a novel dietary intervention supported by multiple levels of evidence including preliminary data in outpatients with stable HF, we will address a critical evidence gap in the care of older patients with ADHF. If effective and safe, this intervention could be scaled to assess effects on readmission and healthcare costs in

  6. The Small Rice Bowl-Based Meal Plan was Effective at Reducing Dietary Energy Intake, Body Weight, and Blood Glucose Levels in Korean Women with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hee Jung; Han, Kyung Ah; Kwon, Hwi Ryun

    2010-01-01

    Background The typical Korean diet includes rice, which is usually served in a rice bowl. We investigated the effects of a meal plan using rice bowls of varying sizes on dietary energy intake (EI), body weight (BW), and blood glucose levels. Methods Forty-two obese women with type 2 diabetes mellitus were randomly assigned to use either a 200 mL small rice bowl (SB), a 380 mL regular rice bowl (RB), or to a control group (C). Both intervention groups were asked to reduce their EI by 500 kcal/day for 12 weeks and simple instructions for using the assigned bowl were provided. Dietary EI and proportion of macronutrients (PMN) were estimated from 3-day dietary records. Results Reduction of EI was more prominent in the SB group compared to the RB and C group, although EI decreased significantly from baseline in all groups. Carbohydrate and fat intakes of the SB group were decreased greater than those of the RB and C group. However, changes in PMN were not significant across the 3 groups. Reduction of BW and HbA1c levels in the SB group was more prominent compared to the C group. Although, BW and HbA1c were decreased significantly from baseline in both bowl groups. There was no statistical difference between the two groups. Conclusion The small rice bowl-based meal plan was effective at reducing EI, BW, and blood glucose levels, and the observed reductions in EI, carbohydrate, and fat intake were greater than those of the regular rice bowl-based meal plan. PMID:21246007

  7. Casein Compared with Whey Proteins Affects the Organization of Dietary Fat during Digestion and Attenuates the Postprandial Triglyceride Response to a Mixed High-Fat Meal in Healthy, Overweight Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariotti, François; Valette, Marion; Lopez, Christelle; Fouillet, Hélène; Famelart, Marie-Hélène; Mathé, Véronique; Airinei, Gheorghe; Benamouzig, Robert; Gaudichon, Claire; Tomé, Daniel; Tsikas, Dimitrios; Huneau, Jean François

    2015-12-01

    Postprandial lipemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The potential impacts of the type/nature of dietary protein on postprandial lipemia and associated dysregulations have been insufficiently investigated. We investigated the postprandial effect of including in a high-fat meal some milk protein fractions that markedly differ in their physicochemical properties and composition [either casein (CAS), whey protein (WHE), or α-lactalbumin-enriched whey protein (LAC)]. The protein fractions were incorporated as 15% energy in a high-fat meal in a 3-period, crossover postprandial study of 10 healthy overweight men with an elevated waist circumference (>94 cm). We measured postprandial changes in plasma lipids, amino acids, glucose, and oxidative stress markers, vascular function (using pulse contour analysis), and low-grade inflammation (using plasma markers). We also characterized in vitro the meal structures, including the size of the fat globule, and possible changes during digestion. The type of protein did not affect postprandial plasma glucose, amino acids, insulin, or nonesterified fatty acids, but, compared with WHE and LAC, which did not differ, CAS markedly reduced postprandial triglycerides (TGs), achieving a 22 ± 10% reduction in the 6-h area under the curve (P postprandial oxidative stress (plasma hydroperoxides and malondialdehyde), endothelial dysfunction (salbutamol-induced changes in pulse contour analysis), or low-grade inflammation. In vitro studies showed that when the pH of the meal decreased to stomach pH values, the reduction in the solubility of casein resulted in a phase separation between fat and protein, whereas the proteins in the other meals remained suspended with fat globules. In healthy overweight men, casein has specific physical interactions with fat that affect postprandial TGs, leading to the formation of fewer chylomicrons or an increase in chylomicron clearance. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT

  8. Four Models Including Fish, Seafood, Red Meat and Enriched Foods to Achieve Australian Dietary Recommendations for n-3 LCPUFA for All Life-Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayet-Moore, Flavia; Baghurst, Katrine; Meyer, Barbara J

    2015-10-19

    Populations are not meeting recommended intakes of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA). The aim was (i) to develop a database on n-3 LCPUFA enriched products; (ii) to undertake dietary modelling exercise using four dietary approaches to meet the recommendations and (iii) to determine the cost of the models. Six n-3 LCPUFA enriched foods were identified. Fish was categorised by n-3 LCPUFA content (mg/100 g categories as "excellent" "good" and "moderate"). The four models to meet recommended n-3 LCPUFA intakes were (i) fish only; (ii) moderate fish (with red meat and enriched foods); (iii) fish avoiders (red meat and enriched foods only); and (iv) lacto-ovo vegetarian diet (enriched foods only). Diets were modelled using the NUTTAB2010 database and n-3 LCPUFA were calculated and compared to the Suggested Dietary Targets (SDT). The cost of meeting these recommendations was calculated per 100 mg n-3 LCPUFA. The SDT were achieved for all life-stages with all four models. The weekly food intake in number of serves to meet the n-3 LCPUFA SDT for all life-stages for each dietary model were: (i) 2 "excellent" fish; (ii) 1 "excellent" and 1 "good" fish, and depending on life-stage, 3-4 lean red meat, 0-2 eggs and 3-26 enriched foods; (iii) 4 lean red meat, and 20-59 enriched foods; (iv) 37-66 enriched foods. Recommended intakes of n-3 LCPUFA were easily met by the consumption of fish, which was the cheapest source of n-3 LCPUFA. Other strategies may be required to achieve the recommendations including modifying the current food supply through feeding practices, novel plant sources and more enriched foods.

  9. Four Models Including Fish, Seafood, Red Meat and Enriched Foods to Achieve Australian Dietary Recommendations for n-3 LCPUFA for All Life-Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Fayet-Moore

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Populations are not meeting recommended intakes of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA. The aim was (i to develop a database on n-3 LCPUFA enriched products; (ii to undertake dietary modelling exercise using four dietary approaches to meet the recommendations and (iii to determine the cost of the models. Six n-3 LCPUFA enriched foods were identified. Fish was categorised by n-3 LCPUFA content (mg/100 g categories as “excellent” “good” and “moderate”. The four models to meet recommended n-3 LCPUFA intakes were (i fish only; (ii moderate fish (with red meat and enriched foods; (iii fish avoiders (red meat and enriched foods only; and (iv lacto-ovo vegetarian diet (enriched foods only. Diets were modelled using the NUTTAB2010 database and n-3 LCPUFA were calculated and compared to the Suggested Dietary Targets (SDT. The cost of meeting these recommendations was calculated per 100 mg n-3 LCPUFA. The SDT were achieved for all life-stages with all four models. The weekly food intake in number of serves to meet the n-3 LCPUFA SDT for all life-stages for each dietary model were: (i 2 “excellent” fish; (ii 1 “excellent” and 1 “good” fish, and depending on life-stage, 3–4 lean red meat, 0–2 eggs and 3–26 enriched foods; (iii 4 lean red meat, and 20–59 enriched foods; (iv 37–66 enriched foods. Recommended intakes of n-3 LCPUFA were easily met by the consumption of fish, which was the cheapest source of n-3 LCPUFA. Other strategies may be required to achieve the recommendations including modifying the current food supply through feeding practices, novel plant sources and more enriched foods.

  10. Design of the FINS-TEENS study: A randomized controlled trial assessing the impact of fatty fish on cognitive performance in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotheim, Siv; Dahl, Lisbeth; Handeland, Katina; Frøyland, Livar; Lie, Øyvind; Øyen, Jannike; Kjellevold, Marian; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Graff, Ingvild Eide

    2017-08-01

    To describe the rationale, study design, population and dietary compliance in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) investigating the effect of fatty fish on cognitive performance and mental health in adolescents. In the Fish Intervention Studies-TEENS (FINS-TEENS) study we individually randomized 478 adolescents (14-15-year-olds) from eight secondary schools in Norway to receive school meal lunches with fatty fish or meat or n-3 supplements three times a week for 12 weeks. Demographic factors, psychological tests and biological measures were collected pre-and post-intervention. Duplicate portions of lunch meals were collected and individual intake recorded throughout the study. In total, 481 out of 785 adolescents (61%) agreed to participate and 34 (7%) dropped out. Breakfast consumption was the only group difference in background characteristics. Analyses of selected nutrients in the lunch meals showed higher levels of n-3 fatty acids, vitamin D and n-6 fatty acids in the fish compared to the meat meals. Dietary compliance (score 0-144) revealed that the intake in the Fish group (mean = 59, standard deviation (SD) = 35) were lower than in the Meat group (mean = 83, SD = 31, p school-based setting. The results also emphasize the importance of collecting detailed records of dietary compliance, as this information is important when interpreting and analysing the outcome of dietary interventions.

  11. Effect of dietary starch concentration and fish oil supplementation on milk yield and composition, diet digestibility, and methane emissions in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirondini, M; Colombini, S; Mele, M; Malagutti, L; Rapetti, L; Galassi, G; Crovetto, G M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of diets with different starch concentrations and fish oil (FO) supplementation on lactation performance, in vivo total-tract nutrient digestibility, N balance, and methane (CH4) emissions in lactating dairy cows. The experiment was conducted as a 4×4 Latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement: 2 concentrations of dietary starch [low vs. high: 23.7 and 27.7% on a dry matter (DM) basis; neutral detergent fiber/starch ratios: 1.47 and 1.12], the presence or absence of FO supplement (0.80% on a DM basis), and their interaction were evaluated. Four Italian Friesian cows were fed 1 of the following 4 diets in 4 consecutive 26-d periods: (1) low starch (LS), (2) low starch plus FO (LSO), (3) high starch (HS), and (4) high starch plus FO (HSO). The diets contained the same amount of forages (corn silage, alfalfa and meadow hays). The starch concentration was balanced using different proportions of corn meal and soybean hulls. The cows were housed in metabolic stalls inside open-circuit respiration chambers to allow measurement of CH4 emission and the collection of separate urine and feces. No differences among treatments were observed for DM intake. We observed a trend for FO to increase milk yield: 29.2 and 27.5kg/d, on average, for diets with and without FO, respectively. Milk fat was affected by the interaction between dietary starch and FO: milk fat decreased only in the HSO diet. Energy-corrected milk (ECM) was affected by the interaction between starch and FO, with a positive effect of FO on the LS diet. Fish oil supplementation decreased the n-6:n-3 ratio of milk polyunsaturated fatty acids. High-starch diets negatively influenced all digestibility parameters measured except starch, whereas FO improved neutral detergent fiber digestibility (41.9 vs. 46.1% for diets without and with FO, respectively, and ether extract digestibility (53.7 vs. 67.1% for diets without and with FO, respectively). We observed

  12. Dietary Fish Oil Inhibits Pro-Inflammatory and ER Stress Signalling Pathways in the Liver of Sows during Lactation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise K Gessner

    Full Text Available Lactating sows have been shown to develop typical signs of an inflammatory condition in the liver during the transition from pregnancy to lactation. Hepatic inflammation is considered critical due to the induction of an acute phase response and the activation of stress signaling pathways like the endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress-induced unfolded protein response (UPR, both of which impair animal's health and performance. Whether ER stress-induced UPR is also activated in the liver of lactating sows and whether dietary fish oil as a source of anti-inflammatory effects n-3 PUFA is able to attenuate hepatic inflammation and ER stress-induced UPR in the liver of sows is currently unknown. Based on this, two experiments with lactating sows were performed. The first experiment revealed that ER stress-induced UPR occurs also in the liver of sows during lactation. This was evident from the up-regulation of a set of genes regulated by the UPR and numerically increased phosphorylation of the ER stress-transducer PERK and PERK-mediated phosphorylation of eIF2α and IκB. The second experiment showed that fish oil inhibits ER stress-induced UPR in the liver of lactating sows. This was demonstrated by decreased mRNA levels of a number of UPR-regulated genes and reduced phosphorylation of PERK and PERK-mediated phosphorylation of eIF2α and IκB in the liver of the fish oil group. The mRNA levels of various nuclear factor-κB-regulated genes encoding inflammatory mediators and acute phase proteins in the liver of lactating sows were also reduced in the fish oil group. In line with this, the plasma levels of acute phase proteins were reduced in the fish oil group, although differences to the control group were not significant. In conclusion, ER stress-induced UPR is present in the liver of lactating sows and fish oil is able to inhibit inflammatory signaling pathways and ER stress-induced UPR in the liver.

  13. Effects of therapeutic lifestyle change diets high and low in dietary fish-derived fatty acids on lipoprotein metabolism in middle-aged and elderly subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of Therapeutic Lifestyle Change (TLC) diets, low and high in dietary fish on apolipoprotein metabolism were examined. Subjects were provided with a Western diet for 6-weeks followed by 24-weeks of either of two TLC diets (10/group). Apolipoprotein kinetics were determined in the fed stat...

  14. Effects of school meals based on the New Nordic Diet on intake of signature foods: a randomised controlled trial. The OPUS School Meal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Rikke; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja; Andersen, Elisabeth W; Ege, Majken; Christensen, Tue; Ygil, Karin H; Thorsen, Anne V; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Astrup, Arne; Michaelsen, Kim F; Tetens, Inge

    2015-09-14

    A New Nordic Diet (NND) was developed in the context of the Danish OPUS Study (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet). Health, gastronomic potential, sustainability and Nordic identity were crucial principles of the NND. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of serving NND school meals compared with the usual packed lunches on the dietary intake of NND signature foods. For two 3-month periods, 834 Danish children aged 8-11 years received NND school meals or their usual packed lunches brought from home (control) in random order. The entire diet was recorded over 7 consecutive days using a validated Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children. The NND resulted in higher intakes during the entire week (% increase) of root vegetables (116 (95 % CI 1·93, 2·42)), cabbage (26 (95 % CI 1·08, 1·47)), legumes (22 (95 % CI 1·06, 1·40)), herbs (175 (95 % CI 2·36, 3·20)), fresh berries (48 (95 % CI 1·13, 1·94)), nuts and seeds (18 (95 % CI 1·02, 1·38)), lean fish and fish products (47 (95 % CI 1·31, 1·66)), fat fish and fish products (18 (95 % CI 1·02, 1·37)) and potatoes (129 (95 % CI 2·05, 2·56)). Furthermore, there was a decrease in the number of children with zero intakes when their habitual packed lunches were replaced by NND school meals. In conclusion, this study showed that the children increased their intake of NND signature foods, and, furthermore, there was a decrease in the number of children with zero intakes of NND signature foods when their habitual packed lunches were replaced by school meals following the NND principles.

  15. Effect of the dietary inclusion of soybean components on the innate immune system in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Appelgren, Pamela; Opazo, Rafael; Barros, Luis; Feijoó, Carmen G; Urzúa, Victoria; Romero, Jaime

    2014-02-01

    Some components of plant-based meals, such as saponins and vegetal proteins, have been proposed as inducers of intestinal inflammation in some fish. However, the molecular and cellular bases for this phenomenon have not been reported. In this work, zebrafish were used as a model to evaluate the effects of individual soybean meal components, such as saponins and soy proteins. Zebrafish larvae fed a fish meal feed containing soy components were assessed according to low and high inclusion levels. The granulocytes associated with the digestive tract and the induction of genes related to the immune system were quantitated as markers of the effects of the dietary components. A significant increase in the number of granulocytes was observed after feeding fish diets containing high saponin or soy protein contents. These dietary components also induced the expression of genes related to the innate immune system, including myeloid-specific peroxidase, as well as the complement protein and cytokines. These results reveal the influence of dietary components on the stimulation of the immune system. These observations could be significant to understanding the contributions of saponin and soy protein to the onset of enteritis in aqua-cultured fish, and this knowledge may aid in defining the role of the innate immune system in other inflammatory diseases involving dietary components in mammals.

  16. Dietary habits of obese patients qualified for bariatric procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrzebska-Mierzyńska, Marta; Ostrowska, Lucyna; Hady, Hady Razak; Dadan, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    Patients with obesity, including morbid obesity, commit numerous dietary mistakes. They prefer high-energy diets, but of poor nutritional value. Patients qualified for bariatric procedures show deficiencies in vitamins and minerals due to insufficient intake of vegetables, fruit and whole grain products. Analysis of dietary habits in morbidly obese patients prepared for bariatric surgery, including assessment of eating style and frequency of consumption of certain products. The study group contained 39 people aged 18 - 65 years, who were surveyed with a questionnaire elaborated in the Department of Clinical Dietetics and Nutrition, Medical University of Bialystok. The following factors were assessed: number of meals, snacking between meals and eating at night, types of snacks eaten, and frequency of consumption of certain foods. Results were analyzed using Statistica 9.0. The majority of surveyed men (41.7%) ate three meals a day, whereas most women (40.7%) had at least 4 meals a day. Nearly 85% of the respondents admitted snacking between meals, mainly eating fruit, sweets and sandwiches. Whole grain cereal, milk and dairy products, fish, fruit, vegetables and pulses appeared in diet of patients qualified for treatment of obesity very rarely. Dietary habits of obese patients qualified for bariatric procedures are not consistent with recommendations. Therefore, these patients should receive nutritional education in order to foster proper eating habits that will help in the postoperative nutrition.

  17. Effects of dietary inclusions of oilseed meals on physical characteristics and feed intake of diets for the Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obirikorang, Kwasi Adu; Amisah, Stephen; Fialor, Simon Cudjoe

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of the inclusion of three oilseed by-products (soybean, copra and palm kernel meals) on some physical characteristics of pelletized feeds as well as on voluntary feed intake and faecal matter production by the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. The die......The present study investigated the effects of the inclusion of three oilseed by-products (soybean, copra and palm kernel meals) on some physical characteristics of pelletized feeds as well as on voluntary feed intake and faecal matter production by the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus......) was significantly higher in the tilapia groups fed the copra and palm kernel meals. The results obtained from this study show that 30% inclusions of unrefined forms of copra and palm kernel meal in Nile tilapia diets is possible, without adversely affecting feed intake or pellet nutrient losses prior to ingestion....

  18. The Effect on Selenium Concentrations of a Randomized Intervention with Fish and Mussels in a Population with Relatively Low Habitual Dietary Selenium Intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Outzen, Malene; Tjønneland, Anne; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt

    2015-01-01

    /week for 26 weeks (similar to 50 mu g selenium/day). Controls received no intervention. Non-fasting blood samples were taken and whole blood selenium was determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and plasma selenoprotein P (SelP) was determined by high performance liquid......Selenium status of the Danish population is below that assumed optimal for the suggested protective effects against chronic diseases, including certain cancers. Fish and shellfish are important dietary sources of selenium in Denmark. We investigated the effect of increased fish and mussel intake...... on selenium blood concentrations in a population with relatively low habitual dietary selenium intake. We randomly assigned 102 healthy men and women (all non-smokers) aged 48-76 years to an intervention group (n = 51) or a control group (n = 51). Intervention participants received 1000 g fish and mussels...

  19. Effects of dietary fish oil and flax seed on cholesterol and fatty acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of the supplementation of different levels of fish oil (FO) and flax seed (FS) in the diets of layers on the content of egg yolk fatty acid, cholesterol, blood parameters, egg production and egg quality criteria. In the experiment, a total of 120 Isa-White laying hens of 34 weeks of ...

  20. Freshwater fish as a dietary source of vitamin A in Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos, Nanna; Chamnan, Chhoun; Loeung, Deap

    2007-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency is a public health problem among children and women. Common Cambodian fish species were sampled and screened for vitamin A content. Contents of vitamin A-active compounds (all-trans retinol, all-trans dehydroretinol, 13-cis retinol, 13-cis dehydroretinol and P-carotene) were ...

  1. Stable isotope analysis indicates a lack of inter- and intra-specific dietary redundancy among ecologically important coral reef fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plass-Johnson, J. G.; McQuaid, C. D.; Hill, J. M.

    2013-06-01

    Parrotfish are critical consumers on coral reefs, mediating the balance between algae and corals, and are often categorised into three functional groups based on adult morphology and feeding behaviour. We used stable isotope analysis (δ13C, δ15N) to investigate size-related ontogenetic dietary changes in multiple species of parrotfish on coral reefs around Zanzibar. We compared signatures among species and functional groups (scrapers, excavators and browsers) as well as ontogenetic stages (immature, initial and terminal phase) within species. Stable isotope analysis suggests that ontogenetic dietary shifts occurred in seven of the nine species examined; larger individuals had enriched δ13C values, with no relationship between size and δ15N. The relationship between fish length and δ13C signature was maintained when species were categorised as scrapers and excavators, but was more pronounced for scrapers than excavators, indicating stronger ontogenetic changes. Isotopic mixing models classified the initial phase of both the most abundant excavator ( Chlorurus sordidus) as a scraper and the immature stage of the scraper Scarus ghobban (the largest species) as an excavator, indicating that diet relates to size rather than taxonomy. The results indicate that parrotfish may show similar intra-group changes in diet with length, but that their trophic ecology is more complex than suggested by morphology alone. Stable isotope analyses indicate that feeding ecology may differ among species within functional groups, and according to ontogenetic stage within a species.

  2. Dietary fish oil modulates the effect of dimethylhydrazine-induced colon cancer in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmy, G. E.; Khalil, W. K. B.; Moharib, S. A.; Kawab, A. A.; Jwanny, E. W.

    2011-07-01

    This study was conducted to examine the efficacy of fish oil supplementation in male wistar rat colon carcinogenesis. In order to induce colon cancer, the rats were given a weekly subcutaneous injection of 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine (DMH) at a dose of 20 mg/kg b.w. for five weeks. Afterwards, some of the rats ingested fish oil for either 4 weeks (DMH-FO4 group), or 17 weeks (DMH-FO17 group). The remaining rats continued without any supplementation for the same 4 weeks (DMH4 group), or 17 weeks (DMH17 group). Another two groups of rats did not receive the DMH and were given fish oil (FO17 group) or a normal diet only and considered as the control group (CN group). At the end of the experiment, the rats were sacrificed; and were subsequently subjected to biochemical and molecular biological analyses as well as histopathological examinations. The results showed increased levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), malondialdehyde (MDA) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities in the DMH rats compared to the control. The liver and colonic changes that were induced by DMH were significantly improved through fish oil supplementation in the DMH-FO17 group. The molecular analysis revealed that DMH treatment induced the expression alterations of genes p53, p27 and p21 and increased DNA band patterns related to cancer, while both FO17 and DMH-FO17 groups showed much better results. A histopathological examination of the DMH17 group revealed colon adenocarcinoma and several lesions in rat liver tissues. An improvement in the histopathological picture was seen in the livers and colons of groups DMHFO17. In conclusion, the present results demonstrated the anti-carciongenic effect of herring fish oil against DMH induced colon carcinogenesis in rats. The inhibitory effect of FO was due to the modulation of elevated biochemical parameters, DNA damage, gene expression and histopathological lesions caused by DMH. (Author) 70 refs.

  3. Screening of leaf meals as feed supplements in the culture of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    protein content (26.3%) followed by Gliricidia leaf meal (22.9%) and Stylosanthes leaf meal (19.5%). All the four diets (A – D) were formulated with maize flour, soybean, fish meal, blood meal and the respective leaf meals and crude protein content ranged from 30.57 – 36.42 %. The diets were distributed randomly to twelve ...

  4. Comparative Effect of Dietary Soybean Oil, Fish Oil, and Coconut Oil on Performance, Egg Quality and Some Blood Parameters in Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, X F; Liu, S; Tong, J M

    2018-04-14

    Two hundred and sixteen 28-wk-old Hy-line laying hens were randomly distributed to three dietary treatments and fed 1of 3 diets containing 8% soybean oil, fish oil, or coconut oil from 28 to 47 wk of age to investigate comparative effect of dietary soybean oil, fish oil, and coconut oil on the performance, egg quality and blood malondialdehyde (MDA), aspartate transaminase (AST) and uric acid (UA). Hens fed fish oil showed poor performance compared with soybean oil or coconut oil, and especially egg weight throughout the trial was significantly and consistently decreased (P oil. Unexpectedly, shell reflectivity throughout the majority of the trial was consistently and significantly higher (P oil than that when fed soybean oil or coconut oil. Dietary treatments affected (P oil treatment was higher (P coconut oil group. Albumen height, Haugh unit and yolk color were influenced by dietary treatments only at 1 or 2 time points. However, average albumen height and Haugh unit in fish oil treatment were higher (P oil or coconut oil treatments and average yolk color in coconut oil treatment was higher (P oil group. Serum MDA, AST and UA concentrations were increased (P oil during the majority of the first 2 mo of the trial. These data suggested that the inclusion of fish oil into feed may reduce the performance of laying hens, especially the egg weight, decrease the intensity of egg brown color and increase blood MDA, AST and UA levels compared with soybean oil or coconut oil. As a result, hens fed fish oil may lay smaller, longer and lighter-brown eggs whereas those fed coconut oil produce blunter and darker-brown eggs relative to soybean oil.

  5. Diet and dietary habits of the fish Schilbe mystus (Siluriformes: Schilbeidae in two artificial lakes in Southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adedolapo Ayoade

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Diet and dietary habits of African Butter Catfish Schilbe mystus (Linne, 1766, an economically important fish in Oyan and Asejire lakes (Southwest Nigeria were examined between July 2000 and December 2001. Stomach contents were analysed using the numerical, frequency of occurrence and points methods. The fish is predatory but the diet differs among lakes and seasons. Insects were more important in the diet of small (La dieta y los hábitos alimenticios de Schilbe mystus (Linne, 1766, un pez de importancia comercial en los lagos de Oyan y Asejire (Nigeria, fueron examinados desde diciembre del 2000 a diciembre del 2001. Se realizaron análisis de contenido estomacal utilizando métodos numéricos, de frecuencia de presencia y puntuales. Existe variación estacional en los organismos seleccionados para alimento y los insectos son más importantes para peces pequeños (<18 cm. También hay diferencias en la cantidad de alimento encontrado en los estómagos de machos con respecto a las hembras de S. mystus en ambos hábitats. El patrón de selección y consumo de alimento en estas especies es distinto en los dos lagos.

  6. Análise sensorial de caldos e canjas elaborados com farinha de carcaças de peixe defumadas: aplicação na merenda escolar Sensorial analysis of soups and broths made by smoked fish carcasses meal: its utilization to supplement school meals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Cesar de Godoy

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho avaliou a aceitação de caldos e canjas elaborados com farinhas aromatizadas desenvolvidas a partir de carcaças de peixes defumadas. As carcaças de tilápia do Nilo, carpa e pacu foram lavadas, identificadas, pesadas, imersas em salmoura com ervas aromáticas e defumadas. O produto defumado foi submetido à moagem para obtenção das farinhas, a partir das quais foram elaborados o caldo e a canja. Porções das farinhas, dos caldos e das canjas foram avaliadas por um painel de 40 provadores utilizando-se um método de estímulo simples, sendo avaliados os atributos: aroma, sabor, cor, textura, aparência e aceitação geral. Não houve diferença significativa (P > 0,05 na aceitação geral dos produtos. Os caldos elaborados com estas farinhas tiveram uma excelente aceitação, não diferindo significativamente entre si no que se refere aos atributos avaliados. A canja elaborada a partir da farinha de carcaça de pacu apresentou as menores notas quando comparada às demais canjas. Portanto, as farinhas aromatizadas podem ser empregadas no enriquecimento de produtos para o consumo humano. Esses produtos podem ser aplicados na merenda escolar, melhorando a qualidade nutricional das refeições. Além disso, tal uso daria um destino nobre aos resíduos que podem causar sérios impactos se descartados no meio ambiente.This work evaluated the acceptance of soups and broths prepared with aromatized meals made from smoked fish carcasses. The species of fish used for smoking were Nile Tilapia , carp, and pacu. The carcasses were washed, labeled, weighted, immersed in a solution of brine with aromatic herbs, and smoked. The smoked product was crushed to obtain the meal, which was used to cook the soups and the broths . Portions of meals, broths and soups were sampled by 40 tasters based on a simple stimulus method, which evaluated characteristics such as aroma, flavor, color, texture, aspect, and general acceptance. Considering the three

  7. Synergistic effects of dietary nano selenium and vitamin C on growth, feeding, and physiological parameters of mahseer fish (Tor putitora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kifayat Ullah Khan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The current study was conducted to determine the synergistic effects of dietary nano selenium (Nano Se and vitamin C on growth, feeding, and physiological parameters of juvenile mahseer, Tor putitora. L-ascorbyl-2-polyphosphate (APP was used as a source of vitamin C. Four semi-purified experimental diets were prepared. A basal diet kept without the supplementation of any micronutrient and the other three diets were formulated such that three different levels of APP (100, 200, and 300 mg kg−1 were used in combination with a pre-determined dose of Nano Se (0.68 mg kg−1. The results showed that both the micronutrients positively synergized the effects of each other. APP at the rate of 300 mg kg−1 showed strong interaction with Nano Se. The APP300 + Nano Se0.68 mg kg−1 diet supplemented diet significantly decreased (P< 0.05 the feed conversion ratio (FCR while significantly increased (P< 0.05 the weight gain percentage (WG%, feed conversion efficiency (FCE%, specific growth rate (SGR, and serum growth hormone (GH concentration. Similarly, the physiological parameters such as red blood cells count (RBCs, hemoglobin level (Hb, hematocrit value (Hct, and serum lysozyme activity were also significantly increased in group of fish fed diet supplemented with APP100 mg kg−1 in combination with Nano Se0.68 mg kg−1 as compared to the control group. The present results clearly indicated the beneficent synergistic effects of Nano Se and APP in mahseer fish. Moreover, the current finding also supported our hypothesis that Nano Se and APP potentiate positively the effect of each other when both the micronutrients are supplemented together in the same fish feed.

  8. Altering physiological conditions and semen acidity by manipulating dietary cation-anion difference and fish oil supplemenation of Garut breed rams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmat Hidayat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Contribution of Garut breed sheep as protein resources is not optimal yet. Acceleration of population growth such as increasing of female offspring is neccesary. This study was carried out to obtain information regarding the effect of dietary cation-anion difference (PKAR: meq [(Na + K – (Cl+S/100 g of dry matter] and fish oil supplementation on acidity of blood and semen, blood gas and plasma and semen mineral. The dietary treatmens were as follows: RN0= basal ration (PKAR +14 without fish oil, RNI= basal ration (PKAR +14 with 3% fish oil, RB0= base ration (PKAR +40 without fish oil, RBI= base ration (PKAR +40 with 3% fish oil, RA0= acid ration (PKAR -40 without fish oil, and RAI= acid ration (PKAR -40 with 3% fish oil. The rations contained 150 ppm of zinc and were offered to 18 of Garut rams. The result indicated that blood pH, pCO2, and pO2 were not affected by PKAR and fish oil supplementation, but cHCO3 and cBase were affected (P<0.05. PKAR and fish oil supplementation affected (P<0.01 plasma Mg and S, but did not affect K, Na, Zn and Cl. Semen pH after day 28 of experimental period were highly significant different and that followed PKAR pattern. In conclution, PKAR affected cBase, cHCO3, concentration of Mg and S plasma and semen pH of Garut rams. The result suggested that PKAR could be applied to manipulate physiological condition and semen pH.

  9. In vivo regulation of colonic cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and P27Kip1 by dietary fish oil and butyrate in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Mee Young; Turner, Nancy D; Murphy, Mary E; Carroll, Raymond J; Chapkin, Robert S; Lupton, Joanne R

    2015-11-01

    We have shown that dietary fish oil is protective against experimentally induced colon cancer, and the protective effect is enhanced by coadministration of pectin. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. We hypothesized that fish oil with butyrate, a pectin fermentation product, protects against colon cancer initiation by decreasing cell proliferation and increasing differentiation and apoptosis through a p27(Kip1)-mediated mechanism. Rats were provided diets of corn or fish oil, with/without butyrate, and terminated 12, 24, or 48 hours after azoxymethane (AOM) injection. Proliferation (Ki-67), differentiation (Dolichos Biflorus Agglutinin), apoptosis (TUNEL), and p27(Kip1) (cell-cycle mediator) were measured in the same cell within crypts in order to examine the coordination of cell cycle as a function of diet. DNA damage (N(7)-methylguanine) was determined by quantitative IHC analysis. Dietary fish oil decreased DNA damage by 19% (P = 0.001) and proliferation by 50% (P = 0.003) and increased differentiation by 56% (P = 0.039) compared with corn oil. When combined with butyrate, fish oil enhanced apoptosis 24 hours after AOM injection compared with a corn oil/butyrate diet (P = 0.039). There was an inverse relationship between crypt height and apoptosis in the fish oil/butyrate group (r = -0.53, P = 0.040). The corn oil/butyrate group showed a positive correlation between p27(Kip1) expression and proliferation (r = 0.61, P = 0.035). These results indicate the in vivo effect of butyrate on apoptosis and proliferation is dependent on dietary lipid source. These results demonstrate the presence of an early coordinated colonocyte response by which fish oil and butyrate protects against colon tumorigenesis. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  10. Organochlorine insecticides (DDT and heptachlor in dry fish: Traditional washing and cooking effect on dietary intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matiur Rahim

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of organochlorine insecticides (DDT and heptachlor were investigated to estimate the effect of various washing and boiling/cooking to elucidate the concentration level we intake actually. For this study five most popular dry fish samples namely bombay duck (loittya, ribbon fish (chhuri, shrimp (chingri, chinese pomfret (rupchanda and Indian salmon (lakhua were analyzed. The highest concentrations of DDT and heptachlor were found 737.238 ppb (Indian salmon, normal and 44.806 ppb (shrimp, normal respectively; after boiling treatment a big amount was washed out and remained only 135.516 ppb and 16.868 ppb respectively. Boiling treatment was found more effective than the others.

  11. Fish Movement and Dietary History Derived from Otolith (delta)13C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, P K; Finlay, J C; Power, M E; Phillis, C C; Ramon, C E; Eaton, G F; Ingram, B L

    2005-09-08

    Habitat use and food web linkages are critical data for fish conservation and habitat restoration efforts, particularly for threatened salmonids species. Otolith microchemistry has been shown to be a powerful tool for reconstructing fish movement, but over small distances (kilometers), geology-derived differences in otolith chemistry are rare. Here, we demonstrate that otolith {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C ratio (i.e. {delta}{sup 13}C) of anadromous steelhead trout can be used to distinguish residence in small streams from residence in larger streams and rivers. While previous research has shown that water dissolved inorganic carbon {delta}{sup 13}C is the primary source of carbon in otoliths, the downstream change in food {delta}{sup 13}C in this watershed appears to be the primary control on otolith {delta}{sup 13}C. As a result, this method can also be applied to the problem of reconstructing feeding history at a location.

  12. HISTOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND CELL PROLIFERATION IN GASTROINTESTINAL MUCOSA OF ATLANTIC SALMON (SALMO SALAR). A HISTOLOGICAL STUDY OF EFFECTS OF DIETARY INCLUSION OF SOYA, INULIN AND OXYTETRACYCLINE.

    OpenAIRE

    MORA SALAS, PATRICIA; MORA SALAS, PATRICIA

    2004-01-01

    The main goal of this work was to improve the understanding of the intestinal pathophysiology induced by soya bean meal (SBM) in diets for Atlantic salmon. The effects brought about by dietary SBM, Inulin and oxytetracycline (OTC) were compared with fish 72p.

  13. Effect of dietary fish oil and corn oil on blood biochemical factors in diabetic Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Shariati

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The potential role of omega – 3 (ω-3 and omega-6 (ω-6 fatty acids on blood biochemical factors are in interest and controversy. Some experiences showed that omega – 3 (ω-3 and omega-6 (ω-6 fatty acids have a potential effect on triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol levels in diabetes mellitus. Methods: Male rats were divided into four groups (one normal group and three diabetic groups. Induction of diabetes was done by streptozotocin [50mg/kg, s.c. (STZ]. In diabetic groups, one group was Control, received STZ alone, and the other diabetic groups were fed with fish oil or corn oil for 8 weeks after 4 weeks of induction of diabetes. Plasma glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL- choleserol and HDL-cholesterol were measured at 4 and 8 weeks after intervention. Results: Fish oil and corn oil diets had an inhibitory effect on increased plasma glucose in diabetic rat by 46.8% and 40.7%, respectively. Diabetic rats in the control group demonstrated increased plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol levels, but plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol levels were significantly decreased and HDL-cholesterol level was increased by both diets in interventional groups. Conclusion: Corn oil and fish oil supplementation have a role on plasma glucose and lipid profile in diabetic rats. To understand the functional mechanisms of these diets, further studies remain to be accomplished.

  14. Association between fish consumption, dietary omega-3 fatty acids and persistent organic pollutants intake, and type 2 diabetes in 18 First Nations in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marushka, Lesya; Batal, Malek; David, William; Schwartz, Harold; Ing, Amy; Fediuk, Karen; Sharp, Donald; Black, Andrew; Tikhonov, Constantine; Chan, Hing Man

    2017-07-01

    First Nations (FNs) populations in Canada experience a disproportionally higher rate of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) compared to the general population. Recent data suggest that a high consumption of fish may help prevent T2D. On the other hand, fish might also be a potential source of environmental contaminants which could potentially be a risk factor for T2D. To investigate the potential associations between self-reported T2D and consumption of locally-harvested fish, dietary long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (n-3FAs) and persistent organic pollutants intake among adult FNs living on reserve in Ontario. Data from the First Nations Food Nutrition and Environment Study, which included a cross-sectional study of 1429 Ontario FNs adults living in 18 communities across 4 ecozones in 2012 were analyzed. Social and lifestyle data were collected using household interviews. The consumption of locally-harvested fish was estimated using a traditional food frequency questionnaire along with portion size information obtained from 24hr recalls. Fish samples were analyzed for the presence of contaminants including dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Dietary intakes of DDE and PCBs were estimated using community-specific levels of DDE/PCBs in fish species. Multiple logistic regression models adjusted for potential covariates including age, gender, body mass index, physical activity, total energy intake, smoking, and education were developed. The prevalence of T2D in Ontario FNs was 24.4%. A significant positive association between fish consumption of one portion per week and more and T2D compared to no fish consumption was found (OR=2.5 (95% CI: 1.38-4.58). Dietary DDE and PCBs intake was positively associated with T2D (OR=1.09 (95%CI: 1.05-1.75) for DDE and OR=1.07 (95%CI: 1.004-1.27) for PCBs) per unit increase in DDE/PCBs while n-3-FAs intake, adjusted for DDE/PCBs intake, showed an inverse effect against T2D among older individuals

  15. Dietary pattern and mortality in Japanese elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: does a vegetable- and fish-rich diet improve mortality? An explanatory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iimuro, Satoshi; Yoshimura, Yukio; Umegaki, Hiroyuki; Sakurai, Takashi; Araki, Atsushi; Ohashi, Yasuo; Iijima, Katsuya; Ito, Hideki

    2012-04-01

    To assess the effect of dietary patterns on all deaths and diabetes-related deaths in the Japanese Elderly Diabetes Intervention Trial (J-EDIT). We investigated relationships between that of overall mortality and dietary pattern, and diabetes-related deaths and dietary pattern as observed among 912 registered cases of the J-EDIT study, which is a prospective follow-up study of elderly Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. Factor analysis with the factor number 3 led to deriving three dietary patterns (healthy type, snack type and greasy type). The relationship between these patterns and overall mortality or diabetes-related death was investigated. Although not statistically significant, there was a lower tendency of overall mortality and diabetes-related deaths for the healthy type dietary pattern. When the tendencies of overall mortality were analyzed for "young-old," who are younger than 75 years-of age, and "old-old" of over 75 years-of-age, the mortality rate for the greasy type and healthy type dietary patterns were nearly the same and higher than the snack type dietary pattern in young-old. In contrast, in old-old, a higher mortality rate was reported for the greasy type dietary pattern and a lower mortality rate was reported for the healthy type dietary pattern. The hazard ratio by Cox regression analysis for greasy type to healthy type in old-old was 3.03 (P = 0.04, CI 1.07-8.57). Furthermore, in old-old, as vegetable consumption increased, the lower the tendency foroverall mortality, and the more fish that was consumed, the overall mortality significantly decreased (P = 0.020) in the tertile. The greasy type dietary pattern with an increased amount of sugar, fat and meat led to poor life prognosis for elderly Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. The healthy type dietary pattern rich in vegetable and fish, which is similar to the Mediterranean diet and Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension diet, was suggested to improve life prognosis. © 2012 Japan Geriatrics

  16. Effect of replacing marine fish meal with catfish (Pangasius hypophthalmus) by-product protein hydrolyzate on the growth performance and diarrhoea incidence in weaned piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuy, Nguyen Thi; Ha, Nguyen Cong

    2016-10-01

    The present study consists of two experiments. In experiment 1, a total of 120 weaned piglets (Yorkshire × Landrace) (7.3 ± 1.9 kg) were allocated to five treatments, and four replications (pens) with six piglets/pen. In experiment 2, 40 male pigs (23.0 ± 2.2 kg) were allocated to five treatments and eight replications (individual pens). In both experiments, the control diet contained fish meal (FM) as the sole protein supplement (CPH0), while the experimental diets consisted of four different diets in which crude protein (CP) from FM in CPH0 was replaced by the CP from catfish (Pangasius hypophthalmus) by-product protein hydrolyzate (CPH) at four different levels: 100 % (CPH100), 75 % (CPH75), 50 % (CPH50) and 25 % (CPH25). The results in experiment 1 showed that the highest average daily gain (ADG) over the 5-week period after weaning was recorded for piglets on CPH100 (307 g/day), and the lowest for piglets fed CPH0 (287 g/day) (P < 0.01). Feed conversion ratio (FCR) was lower in CPH100 (1.43 kg feed/kg gain) than in CPH0 (1.51 kg feed/kg gain) (P < 0.01). The piglets fed CPH100 were less affected by diarrhoea (6.55 %) than piglets fed the control diet CPH0 (17.3 %) after weaning, and faecal scores were also lower. In experiment 2, ADG was lowest in CPH0, and the cost/gain in pigs fed CPH100 was lowest in both weaning and growing pigs. In conclusion, it is possible to replace up to 100 % of the FM by CPH in diets for weaning and growing pigs, resulting in improved ADG and FCR, lower feed cost/gain as well as reduced diarrhoea incidence and improved faecal score.

  17. Cafeteria Staff Perceptions of the New USDA School Meal Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaraz, Brenda; Cullen, Karen Weber

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The new nutrition standards for the school meal programs implemented in 2012 align the school meal patterns with the US Dietary Guidelines for Americans, including more fruit, vegetable and whole grain offerings and minimum and maximum amount of calories per meal averaged over a week. The purpose of this study was to assess…

  18. Evaluation of Microdesmis puberula leaf meal as feed ingredient in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The material was milled using a hammer mill to produce the leaf meal. Microdesmis puberula leaf meal contain 17.32% crude protein, 6.52% ether extract, 12.25% total ash, 24.84% crude fibre, 24.06% NFE and an appreciable percent of minerals. Three broiler starter diets were formulated to contain the meal at dietary ...

  19. Níveis de farinha de peixe em rações para juvenis de tilápia Levels of fish meal in diets for Nile tilapia juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvânia da Conceição Pontes

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a influência do uso na ração de farinha de peixe suplementada com aminoácidos sobre o desempenho, as características de carcaça e a análise hematológica de juvenis de tilápia-do-nilo. Utilizaram-se 140 juvenis com peso médio de 14,0 ± 0,14 g, distribuídos aleatoriamente em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco níveis de farinha de peixe (0; 1,5; 3,0; 4,5 e 6,0% na ração, cada um com quatro repetições. As rações foram isoenergéticas (3.000 kcal de energia digestível e isocálcicas, e os peixes foram alimentados três vezes ao dia, até saciedade aparente, durante 60 dias. Foram avaliados o ganho de peso, o consumo de ração, a conversão alimentar aparente, a taxa de eficiência protéica, o índice hepatossomático, o peso da carcaça, o rendimento de carcaça, a retenção de nitrogênio e as taxas de hematócrito e hemoglobina. Os níveis de farinha de peixe não influenciaram o ganho de peso, a conversão alimentar, o consumo de ração, o índice hepatossomático, o rendimento de carcaça, o peso da carcaça e a taxa de hemoglobina, mas tiveram efeito quadrático sobre a retenção de nitrogênio, o teor de umidade e de gordura na carcaça e a taxa de hematócrito. Quanto maiores os níveis de farinha de peixe, menor a taxa de eficiência proteica e mais altos os teores de proteína e cinzas na carcaça. O nível de 3% de farinha de peixe não afeta o desempenho nem as características de carcaça de juvenis de tilápia-do-nilo.This study was conducted to evaluate, in the ration, the use of fish meal supplement with amino acids on performance, carcass characteristics, and on hematological analysis in Nile tilapia juvenils. It was used 140 juveniles with an average weight of 14.0 ± 0.14 g, randomly distributed in a complete random design with five levels of fish meal (0; 1.5; 3.0; 4.5; and 6.0% in the ration, each one with four replicates. The rations were isoenergetic (3,000 kcal of digestible

  20. Studies on lantern fish (Benthosema pterotum) 2. Nutritional evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Lekshmy Nair, A.; James, M.A.; Mathew, P.T.; Gopakumar, K.

    1983-01-01

    Various methods for processing and utilization of lantern fish (Benthosema pterotum) are reported. Nutritional evaluation of fish meal and fish hydrolysate from lantern fish has been carried out. Growth rate and PER of lantern fish meal are similar and better than that of the reference protein, casein. Lantern fish meal can therefore be extensively used for the formulation of poultry, fish and other animal feeds as a good protein supplement with beneficial effects.

  1. A solid dietary fat containing fish oil redistributes lipoprotein subclasses without increasing oxidative stress in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tholstrup, T.; Hellgren, Lars; Petersen, M.

    2004-01-01

    , a solid dietary fat containing (n-3) PUFA decreased plasma TAG, VLDL, and IDL cholesterol, and redistributed lipoprotein subclasses in LDL and HDL, with a higher concentration of the larger and less atherogenic subfractions. These changes took place without an increase in oxidative stress as measured...... by oleic acid in test fat "O." Plasma total triacylglycerol (TAG), VLDL TAG, cholesterol in VLDL, and intermediate density lipoproteins (IDL) were lower (P ... of F than O fat (P oxidation measured as the ratio of plasma isoprostanes F-2 to arachidonic acid and urinary isoprostanes, whereas the vitamin E activity/plasma total lipids ratio was higher after intake of F than O (P = 0.008). In conclusion...

  2. Replacement Value of Palm Kernel Meal for Maize on Carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing maize with palm kernel meal on nutrient composition, fatty acid profile and sensory qualities of the meat of turkeys fed the dietary treatments. Six dietary treatments were formulated using palm kernel meal to replace maize at 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 percent.

  3. Dietary intake in infants with complex congenital heart disease: a case-control study on macro- and micronutrient intake, meal frequency and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, L; Öhlund, I; Lind, T; Stecksén-Blicks, C; Rydberg, A

    2016-02-01

    Children with severe congenital heart disease (CHD) need considerable nutritional support to reach normal growth. The actual intake of macro- and micronutrients in outpatient CHD infants over a 6-month period in infancy is not described in the literature. The present study aimed to prospectively investigate the distribution between macro- and micronutrient intake, meal frequency and growth in children with CHD. At 6, 9 and 12 months of age, a 3-day food diary and anthropometric data were collected in 11 infants with severe CHD and 22 healthy age- and feeding-matched controls. Macro- and micronutrient intake, meal frequency and growth were calculated. Compared to the healthy controls, CHD infants had a statistically significantly higher intake of fat at 9 months of age (4.8 versus 3.6 g kg(-1) day(-1) ), a higher percentage energy (E%) from fat, (40.6% versus 34.5%) and a lower E% from carbohydrates (46.1% versus 39.6%) at 12 months of age, and a lower intake of iron (7.22 versus 9.28 mg day(-1) ) at 6 months of age. Meal frequency was significantly higher at 6 and 9 months of age (P meal frequency, the intake does not meet the needs for growth, and the results may indicate a low intake of micronutrients in CHD infants. © 2014 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  4. Hazelnut meal in diets for seawater farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss: effects on growth performance and body composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soner Bilen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A 77-day feeding trial was designed in order to assess the effect of partial or total replacement of soybean meal by hazelnut meal (HNM on feed intake, growth performance, nutrient utilization and body composition of rainbow trout (initial mean body weight: 80.0±3.5 g in seawater conditions. A control and three experimental diets were formulated in which soybean meal level (25.5% in the control diet was replaced by hazelnut meal at 39.2 (HN 39, 78.4 (HN 78 and 100% (HN 100 to provide 44% crude protein and 20% crude lipid diets. Diets were fed to 125 rainbow trout to apparent satiation by hand twice daily at 09.00 and 16.00 hours under natural photoperiod conditions. At the end of the feeding trial, fish of all groups almost tripled their body weight and no significant difference (P>0.05 was revealed in final weight or specific growth rate between treatments. However, feed conversion ratio (FCR of the HN100 group was significantly higher than other treatments (P<0.05. There was a slightly decreasing trend in protein efficiency ratio (PER and net protein utilization (NPU with increasing level of dietary hazelnut meal, but it was only significant in groups of fish fed HN100. All groups of fish displayed similar carcass and muscle compositions. According to the results of the present study, it can be stated that hazelnut meal can replace soybean meal at up to 200 g kg-1 in grow-out diets of rainbow trout without any detrimental effects on growth performance.

  5. The effects of dietary supplementation with fish oil on renal function and the course of early postoperative rejection episodes in cyclosporine-treated renal transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homan van der Heide, J. J.; Bilo, H. J.; Donker, A. J.; Wilmink, J. M.; Sluiter, W. J.; Tegzess, A. M.

    1992-01-01

    In a randomized prospective coconut oil (daily 6g[63% C8:0 and 36% C10:0] [EPA-] [n = 48])-controlled trial, we investigated the effect of a one-month dietary supplementation with daily 6 g fish oil (30% C20:5 omega-3 and 20% C22:6 omega-3 as their methyl esthers [EPA+] [n = 40]) on the incidence

  6. The effects of dietary supplementation with fish oil on renal-function and the course of early postoperative rejection episodes in cyclosporine-treated renal-transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, J. J. Homan; Bilo, H. J. G.; Donker, A. J. M.; Wilmink, J. M.; Sluiter, W. J.; Tegzess, A. M.

    In a randomized prospective coconut oil (daily 6g [63% C8:0 and 36% C10:0] [EPA-] [n=48])-controlled trial, we investigated the effect of a one-month dietary supplementation with daily 6 g fish oil (30% C20:5 omega-3 and 20% C22:6 omega-3 as their methyl esthers [EPA+] [n=40]) on the incidence and

  7. Requested meals versus scheduled meals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciampolini M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Mario CiampoliniPreventive Gastroenterology Unit, Department of Paediatrics, Università di Firenze, Florence, ItalyBackground: Scheduled meals are considered to be equivalent to those requested by the infant (null hypothesis. In adults, we have found high blood glucose before scheduled meals and low blood glucose after recognition of validated initial hunger. Low preprandial blood glucose is associated with a decrease in energy intake and body weight both in adults who are overtly overweight and in those who are of normal weight with insulin resistance (hidden overweight. In this study, we investigated the validity of the null hypothesis between scheduled and requested meals in 2-year-old infants with chronic nonspecific diarrhea.Methods: We trained a "recognizing request" meal pattern in 70 mother-infant pairs. The trained meal pattern consisted of administering food after a first request that we validated by blood glucose measurement in the hospital laboratory. Using a 7-day food diary, mothers reported preprandial blood glucose measurements for their infants three times a day. We assessed mean preprandial blood glucose, daily energy intake, days with diarrhea, blood parameters, and anthropometry before training and 4 months after training, and compared the results with measurements in 73 randomly selected untrained controls.Results: In the trained group, there was a decrease in mean blood glucose from 86.9 ± 9.4 mg/dL to 76.4 ± 6.7 mg/dL (P < 0.0001, as well as a decrease in energy intake and days with diarrhea in comparison with control infants who maintained scheduled meals. Only two of 21 infants who had a mean blood glucose lower than 81.2 mg/dL at recruitment showed a statistically significant decrease in mean blood glucose, whereas 36 of 49 infants above this cutoff level showed a statistically significant decrease after training (Chi-square test, P < 0.0001.Conclusion: Requested meals are associated with low preprandial blood

  8. Lack of Benefit of Early Intervention with Dietary Flax and Fish Oil and Soy Protein in Orthologous Rodent Models of Human Hereditary Polycystic Kidney Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamio Yamaguchi

    Full Text Available Rationale for dietary advice in polycystic kidney disease (PKD is based in part on animal studies that have examined non-orthologous models with progressive development of cystic disease. Since no model completely mimics human PKD, the purpose of the current studies was to examine the effects of dietary soy protein (compared to casein or oils enriched in omega-3 fatty acids (fish or flax oil compared to soy oil on early disease progression in two orthologous models of PKD. The models studied were Pkd2WS25/- mice as a model of autosomal dominant PKD, and PCK rats as a model of autosomal recessive PKD. After 13 weeks of feeding, dietary fish (but not flax oil resulted in larger kidneys and greater kidney water content in female Pkd2WS25/- compared to control mice. After 12 weeks of feeding male PCK compared to control rats, both fish and flax compared to soy oil resulted in enlarged kidneys and livers, greater kidney water content and higher kidney cyst area in diseased rats. Dietary soy protein compared to casein had no effects in Pkd2WS25/- compared to control mice. In PCK rats, kidney and liver histology were not improved, but lower proteinuria and higher urine pH suggest that soy protein could be beneficial in the long term. Therefore, in contrast to studies in non-orthologous models during the progressive development phase, these studies in orthologous PKD models do not support dietary advice to increase soy protein or oils enriched in omega-3 oils in early PKD.

  9. Dietary fish oil modulates the effect of dimethylhydrazine- induced colon cancer in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmy, G. E.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to examine the efficacy of fish oil supplementation in male wistar rat colon carcinogenesis. In order to induce colon cancer, the rats were given a weekly subcutaneous injection of 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine (DMH at a dose of 20 mg/kg b.w. for five weeks. Afterwards, some of the rats ingested fish oil for either 4 weeks (DMH-FO4 group, or 17 weeks (DMH-FO17 group. The remaining rats continued without any supplementation for the same 4 weeks (DMH4 group, or 17 weeks (DMH17 group. Another two groups of rats did not receive the DMH and were given fish oil (FO17 group or a normal diet only and considered as the control group (CN group. At the end of the experiment, the rats were sacrificed; and were subsequently subjected to biochemical and molecular biological analyses as well as histopathological examinations. The results showed increased levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, malondialdehyde (MDA and alkaline phoshatase (ALP activities in the DMH rats compared to the control. The liver and colonic changes that were induced by DMH were significantly improved through fish oil supplementation in the DMH-FO17 group. The molecular analysis revealed that DMH treatment induced the expression alterations of genes p53, p27 and p21 and increased DNA band patterns related to cancer, while both FO17 and DMH-FO17 groups showed much better results. A histopathological examination of the DMH17 group revealed colon adenocarcinoma and several lesions in rat liver tissues. An improvement in the histopathological picture was seen in the livers and colons of groups DMHFO17. In conclusion, the present results demonstrated the anti-carciongenic effect of herring fish oil against DMH induced colon carcinogenesis in rats. The inhibitory effect of FO was due to the modulation of elevated biochemical parameters, DNA damage, gene expression and histopathological lesions caused by DMH.

    Este estudio fue realizado para examinar la eficacia de la

  10. Performance of Clarias gariepinus Fed Poultry Offal Meal As A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Juvenile of Clarias gariepinus (average initial weight 32.89g ± 0.36) were stocked at a density of 56/m2 in concrete tank and fed diets containing varying levels of poultry offal meal as partial/total replacement for fish meal. The poultry offal meal was included at (0%, 10%, 20% and 40% levels of inclusion representing, 0%, ...

  11. Antacid medication inhibits digestion of dietary proteins and causes food allergy: a fish allergy model in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Untersmayr, Eva; Schöll, Isabella; Swoboda, Ines; Beil, Waltraud J; Förster-Waldl, Elisabeth; Walter, Franziska; Riemer, Angelika; Kraml, Georg; Kinaciyan, Tamar; Spitzauer, Susanne; Boltz-Nitulescu, George; Scheiner, Otto; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika

    2003-09-01

    Digestible proteins were supposed to be irrelevant for oral sensitization and induction of food allergy. Approximately 10% of the adult population uses antacids for the treatment of dyspeptic disorders, drugs that hinder peptic digestion. In these patients, proteins that are normally degradable might act as food allergens. We aimed to study the influence of antacid intake on the allergenicity of dietary proteins, taking sturgeon caviar and parvalbumin, the major fish allergen, as examples. Caviar proteins and recombinant parvalbumin from carp, rCyp c 1, were applied for intragastric feedings with or without the antacids sucralfate, ranitidine or omeprazole, using a Balb/c mouse model. Both caviar proteins and parvalbumin were rapidly degraded in an in vitro digestion assay at pH 2.0, but not at pH 5.0, imitating the effect of antacids. The groups fed with caviar in combination with ranitidine hydrochloride intramuscularly or sucralfate orally had significant levels of caviar-specific IgE antibodies (P allergy in these groups was further evidenced by oral provocation tests and positive immediate-type skin reactivity. In contrast, feedings with caviar alone led to antigen-specific T-cell tolerance. None of the groups showed immune reactivity against the daily mouse diet. As a proof of the principle, feeding mice with parvalbumin in combination with ranitidine or omeprazole intramuscularly induced allergen-specific IgE antibodies (P allergy.

  12. Specific PCR assays to determine bovine, porcine, fish and plant origin of gelatin capsules of dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Hwang; Kim, Mi-Ra; Jo, Cheon-Ho; Jung, Yoo-Kyung; Kwon, Kisung; Kang, Tae Sun

    2016-11-15

    Gelatin, a purified protein derived mostly from pig skin and bovine tissue, is used widely in both food and pharmaceutical industries. Here, to determine the species of origin of capsule gelatin, we developed a sensitive and reliable test using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, which included 1) species-specific or universal primer sets, designed to detect short 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences from cow, pig, and fish (tilapia) as well as genes encoding the large subunit of plant ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase and 2) species-specific PCR coupled with whole-genome amplification. This method was used to verify manufacturing label claims of 28 gelatin capsule samples sold as dietary supplements. The results from 27 samples were consistent with gelatin-related information on the manufacturer label, while one sample that mentioned tilapia gelatin was found to contain only bovine DNA. This rapid method can therefore be used to verify the authenticity of gelatin capsules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Quality changes during storage of minced fish products containing dietary fiber and fortified with ω3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, C; Mendes, R; Pedro, S; Vaz-Pires, P; Nunes, M L

    2010-02-01

    Two ready-to-eat minced fish products from hake were developed, their proximate composition and fatty acid profiles determined and their quality changes followed during 3.5 months under refrigeration at 2 ± 1 °C and 10 ± 1 °C. These products contain dietary fiber and are innovative and healthy. The formulation was identical, except vegetable oil (VO), 5.6% (w/w) in one group and 2.7% (w/w) plus 2.9% (w/w) cod liver oil (CLO) in the other. CLO products had a higher ω3/ω6 ratio (0.54 ± 0.02 versus 0.08 ± 0.02) and ensured, per 100 g serving, the 500 mg recommended daily intake of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. CLO products showed lower gel strength (p ≤ 0.05), however, other textural properties were similar to those of the VO group. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values were higher in CLO products. All groups presented acceptable sensory scores and no microbiological growth. During storage products became redder and less yellow, while seafood aroma and flavor declined and saltiness perception augmented. Temperature had a negative effect on sensory elasticity and instrumental texture.

  14. Correlations between Fruit, Vegetables, Fish, Vitamins, and Fatty Acids Estimated by Web-Based Nonconsecutive Dietary Records and Respective Biomarkers of Nutritional Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassale, Camille; Castetbon, Katia; Laporte, François; Deschamps, Valérie; Vernay, Michel; Camilleri, Géraldine M; Faure, Patrice; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2016-03-01

    It is of major importance to measure the validity of self-reported dietary intake using web-based instruments before applying them in large-scale studies. This study aimed to validate self-reported intake of fish, fruit and vegetables, and selected micronutrient intakes assessed by a web-based self-administered dietary record tool used in the NutriNet-Santé prospective cohort study, against the following concentration biomarkers: plasma beta carotene, vitamin C, and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. One hundred ninety-eight adult volunteers (103 men and 95 women, mean age=50.5 years) were included in the protocol: they completed 3 nonconsecutive-day dietary records and two blood samples were drawn 3 weeks apart. The study was conducted in the area of Paris, France, between October 2012 and May 2013. Reported fish, fruit and vegetables, and selected micronutrient intakes and plasma beta carotene, vitamin C, and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels were compared. Simple and adjusted Spearman's rank correlation coefficients were estimated after de-attenuation for intra-individual variation. Regarding food groups in men, adjusted correlations ranged from 0.20 for vegetables and plasma vitamin C to 0.49 for fruits and plasma vitamin C, and from 0.40 for fish and plasma c20:5 n-3 (eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA]) to 0.55 for fish and plasma c22:6 n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid). In women, correlations ranged from 0.13 (nonsignificant) for vegetables and plasma vitamin C to 0.41 for fruits and vegetables and plasma beta carotene, and from 0.27 for fatty fish and EPA to 0.54 for fish and EPA+docosahexaenoic acid. Regarding micronutrients, adjusted correlations ranged from 0.36 (EPA) to 0.58 (vitamin C) in men and from 0.32 (vitamin C) to 0.38 (EPA) in women. The findings suggest that three nonconsecutive web-based dietary records provide reasonable estimates of true intake of fruits, vegetables, fish, beta carotene, vitamin C, and n-3 fatty acids. Along with other validation

  15. Dietary back-calculation using stable isotopes: can activities of enzymes involved in amino acid metabolism be used to improve estimates of trophic shifts in fish?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaye-Siessegger, Julia; Focken, Ulfert; Abel, Hansjörg; Becker, Klaus

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this study was (1) to assess the effects of dietary protein content and feeding level on trophic shifts of C and N isotopes (Delta delta(13)C(tissue-diet) and Delta delta(15)N(tissue-diet)) and (2) to test whether the measurement of the activities of two enzymes involved in the metabolism of amino acids could improve the accuracy of estimation of the trophic shifts of C and N isotopes. For this, 36 Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were kept under controlled conditions for 8 weeks and fed at three different levels (2, 4 and 8 g kg(-0.8) d(-1)) with three diets differing in their protein content only (20, 29 and 39 %). For each fish, food to fish body trophic shifts of C and N isotopes were measured as well as the hepatic activities of aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH). The feeding level affected the activities of ASAT and GDH as well as the trophic shifts of C and N isotopes significantly but the dietary protein content had no significant effect except on the specific activity of ASAT. Fish fed at the lowest level had significantly higher trophic shifts of C and N isotopes than fish fed at higher levels. The trophic shifts were significantly lower in fish with a high protein utilisation. Values of the 'goodness-of-fit' for linear regressions between enzyme activities and trophic shifts were low. Thus, activities of ASAT and GDH are not suitable for predicting estimates of trophic shifts in situations where the amount of food consumed or the dietary protein content is not known. In further studies, activities of enzymes involved in the metabolism of amino acids combined with measurements of the activities of other enzymes should be used to try and improve the accuracy of estimates of trophic shifts.

  16. Associations of family meal frequency with family meal habits and meal preparation characteristics among families of youth with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornides, M L; Nansel, T R; Quick, V; Haynie, D L; Lipsky, L M; Laffel, L M B; Mehta, S N

    2014-05-01

    While benefits of family mealtimes, such as improved dietary quality and increased family communication, have been well-documented in the general population, less is known about family meal habits that contribute to more frequent family meals in youth with type 1 diabetes. This cross-sectional study surveyed 282 youth ages 8-18 years with type 1 diabetes and their parents on measures regarding diabetes-related and dietary behaviours. T-tests determined significant differences in youth's diet quality, adherence to diabetes management and glycaemic control between those with and without regular family meals (defined as ≥ 5 meals per week). Logistic regression analyses determined unadjusted and adjusted associations of age, socio-demographics, family meal habits, and family meal preparation characteristics with regular family meals. 57% of parents reported having regular family meals. Families with regular family meals had significantly better diet quality as measured by the Healthy Eating Index (P family meals were each associated with regular family meals (P family meals, while convenience and fast foods were negatively associated (P Families in which at least one parent worked part-time or stayed at home were significantly more likely to have regular family meals than families in which both parents worked full-time (P family mealtimes (P family meals; adjusting for parent work status and other family meal habits. Strategies for promoting families meals should not only highlight the benefits of family meals, but also facilitate parents' skills for and barriers to home-prepared meals. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Effect of substituting soybean meal and canola cake with dried distillers grains with solubles at 2 dietary crude protein levels on feed intake, milk production, and milk quality in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Sørensen, Martin Tang; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2017-01-01

    Dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS) is an alternative source of feed protein for dairy cows. Previous studies found that DDGS, based on grains other than corn, can substitute for soybean meal and canola cake as a dietary protein source without reducing milk production or quality...... protein (CP) levels, in a grass-clover and corn silage-based ration. The experiment involved 24 Holstein cows and 2 protein sources (DDGS or soybean-canola mixture) fed at 2 levels of CP (14 or 16%) in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of both protein source...... of this experiment, feeding 16% CP compared with 14% CP in the ration can increase feed intake and milk production....

  18. Effects of dietary soybean meal, inulin and oxytetracycline on gastrointestinal histological characteristics, distal intestine cell proliferation and intestinal microbiota in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Bakke-Mckellep, AM; Sperstad, Sigmund; Penn, MH; Salas, PM; Refstie, Ståle; Landsverk, Tor; Ringø, Einar; Krogdahl, Åshild

    2007-01-01

    This is the publishers version/PDF (institutional repository or PubMed Central can publish publishers version after 12 month embargo) Soyabean meal (SBM)-induced enteritis in the distal intestine of the teleost Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) and other salmonids may be considered a model for diet-related mucosal disorders in other animals and man. The role of the intestinal microbiota in its pathogenesis was explored. Compared to diets containing fishmeal (FM) as the sole protein so...

  19. Meal mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Kügler, Jens; Olsen, Nina Veflen

    2013-01-01

    probabilities are subjected to multiple correspondence analysis and mapped into low-dimensional space. In a third step, the principal coordinates representing meal centres and side components in the correspondence analysis solution are subjected to cluster analysis to identify distinct groups of compatible...

  20. Fish pelleting

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    lion tonnes (Punch 2014). The increasing growth in .... CAS = critical stress (Pa) particulate density ..... Design and fabrication of fish meal pellet processing machine ... 59. T a b le 1. : W eig h t, efficien cy a n d d ry n ess o. f p ro cessed fish m ea. l p ellets. S a m p le. Tested. W eig h. t o f. In g red ien ts. (K g. ) W eig h. t o.

  1. Dietary pre-exposure of rats to fish oil does not enhance myocardial efficiency of isolated working hearts or their left ventricular trabeculae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goo, Soyeon; Han, June-Chiew; Nisbet, Linley A; LeGrice, Ian J; Taberner, Andrew J; Loiselle, Denis S

    2014-01-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies, supported by clinical and experimental findings, have suggested beneficial effects of dietary fish or fish oil supplementation on cardiovascular health. One such experimental study showed a profound (100%) increase in myocardial efficiency (i.e. the ratio of work output to metabolic energy input) of the isolated whole heart, achieved by a corresponding decrease in the rate of myocardial oxygen consumption. However, a number of other investigations have returned null results on the latter energetic index. Such conflicting findings have motivated us to undertake a re-examination. To that effect, we investigated the effects of dietary fatty acid supplementation on myocardial mechano–energetics, with our primary focus on cardiac efficiency. We used both isolated hearts and isolated left ventricular trabeculae of rats fed with one of three distinct diets: reference (REF), fish oil-supplemented (FO) or saturated fat-supplemented (SFA). For all three groups, and at both spatial levels, we supplied 10 mm glucose as the exogenous metabolic substrate. In the working heart experiments, we found no difference in the average mechanical efficiency among the three dietary groups: 14.8 ± 1.1% (REF), 13.9 ± 0.6% (FO) and 13.6 ± 0.7% (SFA). Likewise, we observed no difference in peak mechanical efficiency of left ventricular trabeculae among the REF, FO and SFA groups: 13.3 ± 1.4, 11.2 ± 2.2 and 12.5 ± 1.5%, respectively. We conclude that there is no effect of a period of pre-exposure to a diet supplemented with either fish oil or saturated fatty acids on the efficiency of the myocardium at either spatial level: tissue or whole heart. PMID:24535444

  2. High compliance with dietary recommendations in a cohort of meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians, and vegans: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition–Oxford study☆☆☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobiecki, Jakub G.; Appleby, Paul N.; Bradbury, Kathryn E.; Key, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate differences in dietary intakes between 30 251 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition–Oxford study, comprising 18 244 meat eaters, 4 531 fish eaters, 6 673 vegetarians, and 803 vegans aged 30 to 90 years who completed semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires. We hypothesized that these groups characterized by varying degrees of animal product exclusion have significantly different intakes of many nutrients, with possible implications for dietary adequacy and compliance with population dietary goals. Nutrient intakes were estimated including fortification in foods, but excluding dietary supplements. Dietary supplementation practices were also evaluated. Highly significant differences were found in estimated nutrient intakes between meat eaters and vegans, with fish eaters and vegetarians usually having intermediate values. Meat eaters had the highest energy intakes, followed by fish eaters and vegetarians, whereas vegans had the lowest intakes. Vegans had the highest intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids, dietary fiber, vitamins C and E, folate, magnesium, iron, and copper. Meat eaters had the highest intake of saturated fatty acids, protein, vitamin B2, vitamin B12, vitamin D, zinc, and iodine. Fish eaters had the highest intakes of calcium and selenium. There were no statistically significant differences in sodium and potassium intakes between dietary groups. With the exception of sodium intake, compliance with population dietary goals was high across diet groups. The results suggested a high prevalence of inadequacy for dietary vitamin B12 and iodine in vegans. The diet groups under study showed striking differences in dietary intakes, with possible implications for compliance with dietary recommendations, as well as cardiometabolic diseases risk. PMID:27101764

  3. High compliance with dietary recommendations in a cohort of meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians, and vegans: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Oxford study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobiecki, Jakub G; Appleby, Paul N; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Key, Timothy J

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate differences in dietary intakes between 30251 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Oxford study, comprising 18 244 meat eaters, 4 531 fish eaters, 6 673 vegetarians, and 803 vegans aged 30 to 90 years who completed semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires. We hypothesized that these groups characterized by varying degrees of animal product exclusion have significantly different intakes of many nutrients, with possible implications for dietary adequacy and compliance with population dietary goals. Nutrient intakes were estimated including fortification in foods, but excluding dietary supplements. Dietary supplementation practices were also evaluated. Highly significant differences were found in estimated nutrient intakes between meat eaters and vegans, with fish eaters and vegetarians usually having intermediate values. Meat eaters had the highest energy intakes, followed by fish eaters and vegetarians, whereas vegans had the lowest intakes. Vegans had the highest intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids, dietary fiber, vitamins C and E, folate, magnesium, iron, and copper. Meat eaters had the highest intake of saturated fatty acids, protein, vitamin B2, vitamin B12, vitamin D, zinc, and iodine. Fish eaters had the highest intakes of calcium and selenium. There were no statistically significant differences in sodium and potassium intakes between dietary groups. With the exception of sodium intake, compliance with population dietary goals was high across diet groups. The results suggested a high prevalence of inadequacy for dietary vitamin B12 and iodine in vegans. The diet groups under study showed striking differences in dietary intakes, with possible implications for compliance with dietary recommendations, as well as cardiometabolic diseases risk. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A generic coding approach for the examination of meal patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolhead, Clara; Gibney, Michael J; Walsh, Marianne C; Brennan, Lorraine; Gibney, Eileen R

    2015-08-01

    Meal pattern analysis can be complex because of the large variability in meal consumption. The use of aggregated, generic meal data may address some of these issues. The objective was to develop a meal coding system and use it to explore meal patterns. Dietary data were used from the National Adult Nutrition Survey (2008-2010), which collected 4-d food diary information from 1500 healthy adults. Self-recorded meal types were listed for each food item. Common food group combinations were identified to generate a number of generic meals for each meal type: breakfast, light meals, main meals, snacks, and beverages. Mean nutritional compositions of the generic meals were determined and substituted into the data set to produce a generic meal data set. Statistical comparisons were performed against the original National Adult Nutrition Survey data. Principal component analysis was carried out by using these generic meals to identify meal patterns. A total of 21,948 individual meals were reduced to 63 generic meals. Good agreement was seen for nutritional comparisons (original compared with generic data sets mean ± SD), such as fat (75.7 ± 29.4 and 71.7 ± 12.9 g, respectively, P = 0.243) and protein (83.3 ± 26.9 and 80.1 ± 13.4 g, respectively, P = 0.525). Similarly, Bland-Altman plots demonstrated good agreement (<5% outside limits of agreement) for many nutrients, including protein, saturated fat, and polyunsaturated fat. Twelve meal types were identified from the principal component analysis ranging in meal-type inclusion/exclusion, varying in energy-dense meals, and differing in the constituents of the meals. A novel meal coding system was developed; dietary intake data were recoded by using generic meal consumption data. Analysis revealed that the generic meal coding system may be appropriate when examining nutrient intakes in the population. Furthermore, such a coding system was shown to be suitable for use in determining meal-based dietary patterns. © 2015

  5. Meta-analysis of phosphorus utilisation by broilers receiving corn-soyabean meal diets: influence of dietary calcium and microbial phytase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Létourneau-Montminy, M P; Narcy, A; Lescoat, P; Bernier, J F; Magnin, M; Pomar, C; Nys, Y; Sauvant, D; Jondreville, C

    2010-11-01

    Pollution relative to phosphorus excretion in poultry manure as well as the soaring prices of phosphate, a non-renewable resource, remain of major importance. Thus, a good understanding of bird response regarding dietary phosphorus (P) is a prerequisite to optimise the utilisation of this essential element in broiler diets. A database built from 15 experiments with 203 treatments was used to predict the response of 21-day-old broilers to dietary non-phytate P (NPP), taking into account the main factors of variation, calcium (Ca) and microbial phytase derived from Aspergillus niger, in terms of average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), gain to feed (G:F) and tibia ash concentration. All criteria evolve linearly (P < 0.001) and quadratically (P < 0.001) with dietary NPP concentration. Dietary Ca affected the intercept and linear component for ADG (P < 0.01), G:F (P < 0.05) and tibia ash concentration (P < 0.001), whereas for ADFI, it affected only the intercept (P < 0.01). Microbial phytase addition impacted on the intercept, the linear and the quadratic coefficient for ADFI (P < 0.01), ADG (P < 0.001) and G:F (P < 0.05), and on the intercept and the linear component (P < 0.001) for tibia ash concentration. An evaluation of these models was then performed on a database built from 28 experiments and 255 treatments that were not used to perform the models. Results showed that ADFI, ADG and Tibia ash concentration were predicted fairly well (slope and intercept did not deviate from 0 to 1, respectively), whereas this was not the case for G:F. The increase in dietary Ca concentration aggravated P deficiency for all criteria while phytase addition had a positive effect. The more P deficiency was marked, the more the bird response to ADFI, ADG, G:F and tibia ash concentration was exacerbated. It must also be considered that even if the decrease in dietary Ca may improve P utilisation, it could in turn become limiting for bone mineralisation. In conclusion

  6. Distinct physiological, plasma amino acid, and liver transcriptome responses to purified dietary beef, chicken, fish, and pork proteins in young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shangxin; Hooiveld, Guido J E J; Li, Mengjie; Zhao, Fan; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Xinglian; Müller, Michael; Li, Chunbao; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-05-01

    We report on the impact of purified dietary meat proteins from four species on plasma insulin, lipid and amino acid (AA) concentrations, and hepatic transcriptome (RNA-sequencing). Young rats received semi-synthetic diets for 1 wk that differed only regarding protein source; casein (reference) was replaced by beef, chicken, fish, or pork proteins. Compared to casein, all proteins, except pork, increased total plasma AA concentrations. Pork protein reduced adipose tissue mass and liver triacylglycerol, which was accompanied by increased plasma triacylglycerol concentrations. Plasma cholesterol was reduced by fish protein. The number of differentially expressed genes ranged between 609 (pork) and 1258 (chicken); on average one-third of the changes were specific for each meat protein. Pathway responses were most similar for beef and chicken, followed by pork and fish. Although the extent varied, all meat proteins induced mRNA translation, antigen processing/presentation, intracellular vesicular trafficking, and oxidoreductive-transformation pathways, and suppressed signal-transduction (Notch, TGFB/SMAD, insulin) and mitochondrial biogenesis pathways. Lipid- and AA-metabolic pathways were repressed, except by pork. AA-transport pathways were induced by beef and fish only, and complement/coagulation-pathways were suppressed by chicken and beef. Fish suppressed nuclear-transport and cofactor metabolism. To conclude, short-term feeding of different meat proteins resulted in distinct physiological and transcriptome changes in young rats. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Dietary fish oil, and to a lesser extent the fat-1 transgene, increases astrocyte activation in response to intracerebroventricular amyloid-β 1-40 in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopperton, Kathryn E; James, Nicholas C E; Mohammad, Dana; Irfan, Maha; Bazinet, Richard P

    2017-11-07

    Increases in astrocytes and one of their markers, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) have been reported in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) modulate neuroinflammation in animal models; however, their effect on astrocytes is unclear. Fat-1 mice and their wildtype littermates were fed either a fish oil diet or a safflower oil diet deprived of n-3 PUFA. At 12 weeks, mice underwent intracerebroventricular infusion of amyloid-β 1-40. Astrocyte phenotype in the hippocampus was assessed at baseline and 10 days post-surgery using immunohistochemistry with various microscopy and image analysis techniques. GFAP increased in all groups in response to amyloid-β, with a greater increase in fish oil-fed mice than either fat-1 or wildtype safflower oil-fed mice. Astrocytes in this group were also more hypertrophic, suggesting increased activation. Both fat-1- and fish oil-fed mice had greater increases in branch number and length in response to amyloid-β infusion than wildtype safflower animals. Fish oil feeding, and to a lesser extent the fat-1 transgene, enhances the astrocyte activation phenotype in response to amyloid-β 1-40. Astrocytes in mice fed fish oil were more activated in response to amyloid-β than in fat-1 mice despite similar levels of hippocampal n-3 PUFA, which suggests that other fatty acids or dietary factors contribute to this effect.

  8. Effect of dietary fish oil supplementation on the exploratory activity, emotional status and spatial memory of the aged mouse lemur, a non-human primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Languille, Solène; Aujard, Fabienne; Pifferi, Fabien

    2012-12-01

    The data are inconsistent about the ability of dietary omega-3 fatty acids to prevent age-associated cognitive decline. Indeed, most clinical trials have failed to demonstrate a protective effect of omega-3 fatty acids against cognitive decline, and methodological issues are still under debate. In contrast to human studies, experiments performed in adult rodents clearly indicate that omega-3 fatty acids supplement can improve behavioural and cognitive functions. The inconsistent observations between human and rodent studies highlight the importance of the use of non-human primate models. The aim of the present study was to address the impact of omega-3 fatty acids (given in the form of dietary fish oil) on exploratory activity, emotional status and spatial reference memory in the aged mouse lemur, a non-human primate. Aged animals fed fish oil exhibited decreased exploratory activity, as manifested by an increase in the latency to move and a reduced distance travelled in an open-field. The fish oil-supplemented animals exhibited no change in the anxiety level, but they were more reactive to go into the dark arms of a light/dark plus-maze. In addition, we found that fish oil supplementation did not significantly improve the spatial memory performance in the Barnes maze task. This study demonstrated for the first time that a fish oil diet initiated late in life specifically modifies the exploratory behaviour without improving the spatial memory of aged non-human primates. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation may be effective when started early in life but less effective when started at later ages. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Replacing dietary fish oil by vegetable oils has little effect on lipogenesis, lipid transport and tissue lipid uptake in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Nadège; Kaushik, Sadasivam; Larroquet, Laurence; Panserat, Stéphane; Corraze, Geneviève

    2006-08-01

    In order to investigate the effects of dietary lipid sources on mechanisms involved in lipid deposition, two groups of rainbow trout were fed from first-feeding to the commercial size of 1 kg (for 62 weeks) with two diets differing only by lipid source: 100% fish oil or 100% blend of vegetable oils (55% rapeseed oil, 30% palm oil, 15% linseed oil). The activities and levels of gene expression of lipogenic enzymes (fatty acid synthetase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme) in liver and of lipoprotein lipase in perivisceral adipose tissue, white muscle and liver were determined. Transport of lipid was studied by determining lipid composition of plasma and lipoprotein classes. We also examined the clearance of LDL by assaying the level of LDL receptor gene expression in several tissues. Total replacement of dietary fish oil by the blend of vegetable oils did not affect growth of rainbow trout and did not modify muscle lipid content. Hepatic lipogenesis and lipid uptake in perivisceral adipose tissue, white muscle and liver were also not modified by dietary treatments. Diets containing the blend of vegetable oils induced a decrease in plasma cholesterol and LDL. In trout fed the vegetable oils diet, expression of LDL receptor gene in the liver was down-regulated.

  10. Nutritional value of raw Canavalia ensiformis and its utilization as partial replacement for soybean meal in the diet of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) fingerlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Shola G; Okomoda, Victor T; Oguche, Obekpa

    2018-01-01

    The nutritional value of raw Jack bean meal ( Canavalia ensiformis ) as a partial substitute for soybeans meal was investigated in this study. Preliminary investigation on nutrient composition revealed that lysine, histidine, and phenylalanine were significantly higher in C .  ensiformis seed meal compared to soybean meal. However, crude protein and other essential amino acids were significantly lower. Feeding trial was then conducted to investigate the effect of replacing about 40% soybeans meal (at 58.8% inclusion) with C .  ensiformis in the diet of Clarias gariepinus . The result obtained after 56 days revealed that fingerlings could tolerate up to 20% replacement without significant effect on growth and nutrient utilization. Beyond this, growth was significantly reduced. Survivals of the fish also follow a similar trend as stated above. It was concluded that dietary inclusion of raw C .  ensiform meal should not be beyond 11% (or 20% replacement for soybeans meal included at 58.8%) in the diet of C .  gariepinus .

  11. Use of advanced cluster analysis to characterize fish consumption patterns and methylmercury dietary exposures from fish and other sea foods among pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouzaud, Francois; Ibbou, Assia; Blanchemanche, Sandrine

    2010-01-01

    Hg) exposure in a sample of 161 French pregnant women consuming sea food, including fish, molluscs and crustaceans, and to explore the use of unsupervised statistical learning as an advanced type of cluster analysis to identify patterns of fish consumption that could predict exposure to MeHg and the coverage...

  12. Associations between meal and snack frequency and diet quality and adiposity measures in British adults: findings from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kentaro; Livingstone, M Barbara E

    2016-06-01

    To examine how different definitions of meals and snacks can affect the associations of meal frequency (MF) and snack frequency (SF) with dietary intake and adiposity measures. Based on 7 d weighed dietary record data, all eating occasions providing ≥210 kJ of energy were divided into meals or snacks based on contribution to energy intake (≥15 % or meals and sex.

  13. GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND FEED CONVERSION RATIO (FCR OF HYBRID FINGERLINGS (CATLA CATLA X LABEO ROHITA FED ON COTTONSEED MEAL, SUNFLOWER MEAL AND BONE MEAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. SAHZADI, M. SALIM, UM-E-KALSOOM AND K. SHAHZAD

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted in six glass aquaria to study the growth performance and feed conversion ratio (FCR of hybrid fingerlings (Catla catla x Labeo rohita fed on sunflower meal, cottonseed meal and bone meal. Two replicates for each ingredient were followed. The feed was supplied at the rate of 4% of wet body weight of fingerlings twice a day. The hybrid (Catla catla x Labeo rohita fingerlings gained highest body weight (1.62 ± 0.0 g on sunflower meal, followed by cottonseed meal (1.61 ± 0.01 g and bone meal (1.52 ± 0.0 g. The total length obtained by hybrid fish was 6.35 ± 0.05 cm on sunflower meal, 6.12 ± 0.05 cm on cottonseed meal and 5.85 ± 0.05 cm on bone meal. The overall mean values of FCR were lower (better on sunflower meal (1.78 ± 0.05, followed by cottonseed meal (2.17 ± 0.01 and bone meal (2.46 ± 0.01. Thus, The sunflower meal and cottonseed meal, on the basis of growth performance and better FCR, can be included in the feed formulation for hybrid fingerlings.

  14. Effect of dietary olaquindox on the growth of large yellow croaker ( Pseudosciaena crocea R.) and the distribution of its residues in fish tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huitao; Wang, Weifang; Mai, Kangsen; Ai, Qinghui; Zhang, Chunxiao; Zhang, Lu

    2014-10-01

    Olaquindox (OLA), one of quinoxaline-N, N-dioxides, has been put under ban. However it was used as a medicinal feed additive early; it promotes the growth of livestock and prevents them from dysentery and bacterial enteritis. In this study, we evaluated the effect of dietary OLA on the growth of large yellow croaker ( Pseudosciaena crocea R.) and the histological distribution of OLA and its metabolite 3-methyl-quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid (MQCA) in fish tissues. Four diets containing 0 (control), 42.5, 89.5 and 277.2 mg kg-1 OLA, respectively, were formulated and tested, 3 cages (1.0 m × 1.0 m × 1.5 m) each diet and 100 juveniles (9.75 ± 0.35 g) each cage. The fish were fed to satiation twice a day at 05:00 am and 17:00 pm for 8 weeks. The survival rate of fish fed the diet containing 42.5 and 89.5 mg kg-1 OLA was significantly higher than that of fish fed the diet containing 0 and 277.2 mg kg-1 OLA ( P diet containing 42.5 and 89.5 mg·kg-1 OLA was significantly higher than that of fish fed the diet without OLA (control) ( Pdiet with 277.2 mg kg-1 OLA. Fish fed the diet with 277.2 mg kg-1 OLA had the highest content of OLA and MQCA in liver (3.44 and 0.39 mg kg-1, respectively), skin (0.46 and 0.09 mg kg-1, respectively) and muscle (0.24 and 0.06 mg kg-1, respectively). In average, fish fed the diet containing OLA had the highest content of OLA and MQCA in liver which was followed by skin and muscle ( P diet containing OLA, thus imposing a potential safety risk to human health.

  15. Effects of dietary true digestible calcium to phosphorus ratio on growth performance and efficiency of calcium and phosphorus use in growing pigs fed corn and soybean meal-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, M Z; Archbold, T

    2012-12-01

    Objectives of this study were to determine effects of dietary true fecal digestible Ca to true digestible P ratio on growth performance and efficiency of Ca and P use in growing pigs fed corn (Triticum aestivum)-soybean (Glycine max) meal (SBM)-based diets. Experiment 1 was carried out to measure true fecal digestibility of Ca and P as well as the fecal endogenous outputs of these nutrients associated with a corn and SBM-based diet in 12 Yorkshire growing pigs with an average initial BW of 23.2 ± 0.6 kg by the substitution method. True fecal digestibility values (%; n = 6) of Ca (53.6 ± 12.7) and P (43.8 ± 16.7) as well as the fecal endogenous outputs (g/kg DMI; n = 12) of Ca (0.91 ± 0.20) and P (1.31 ± 0.15) associated with the diets were determined. Experiment 2 was conducted with 36 Yorkshire barrows of an average initial BW of 24.2 ± 0.6 kg and the pigs were fed 6 diets according to a completely randomized block design. The 6 diets were corn and SBM based with diet 1 containing 0.2% true digestible Ca and 0.3% true digestible P and were formulated to contain 6 total Ca to total P ratios based on analyzed dietary Ca and P contents (diet 1, 0.6:1; diet 2, 0.7:1; diet 3, 0.8:1; diet 4, 1.3:1; diet 5, 1.0:1; and diet 6, 1.3:1) by supplementing gradient levels of limestone with a constant dietary P content for meeting the recommended requirement. Changes in the dietary Ca to P ratio had no effects (P > 0.05) on ADG. No differences (P > 0.05) in ADFI were observed between the other diets except the lower ADFI (P < 0.05) in diet 3 compared with diet 2. However, G:F was higher (P < 0.05) in diet 2 compared with diets 5 and 6. Changes in the dietary Ca to P ratio had consistent effects on true fecal P digestibility and retention with much lower values (P < 0.05) observed in diet 5 in comparison with the other diets. In summary, true fecal digestible Ca to P ratios of 0.9:1 to 1.0:1 were associated with optimal responses in both G:F as well as true fecal P

  16. Effects of dietary supplementation of potential probiotic Pseudomonas aeruginosa VSG-2 on the innate immunity and disease resistance of tropical freshwater fish, Labeo rohita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Sib Sankar; Sen, Shib Sankar; Sukumaran, V

    2012-06-01

    The effects of dietary Pseudomonas aeruginosa VSG-2 supplementation on innate immunity and protection against Aeromonas hydrophila infection were evaluated in Labeo rohita. Fish were fed for 60 days with control diet or 3 experimental diets containing P. aeruginosa VSG-2 at 10(5), 10(7), and 10(9) cfu g(-l), respectively. Various innate immune parameters were examined at 30 and 60 days post-feeding. Fish were challenged with A. hydrophila 60 days post-feeding and mortalities were recorded over 10 days post-infection. Dietary supplementation of P. aeruginosa VSG-2 significantly increased serum lysozyme and alternative complement pathway (ACP) activities, phagocytosis, and respiratory burst activity in head kidney macrophages of L. rohita throughout the experimental period. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity significantly increased after 60 days in the groups fed diets containing 10(7) and 10(9) cfu g(-1) P aeruginosa. Serum IgM levels were significantly higher in the treatment groups than in the control group after 30 days of feeding; however, the opposite result was observed at 60 days. Moreover, fish fed diets containing 10(7) and 10(9) cfu g(-1)P. aeruginosa had significantly higher post-challenge survival rates against A. hydrophila infection. Further, P. aeruginosa VSG-2 was found to be safe for mammals. These results indicate that dietary P. aeruginosa VSG-2 supplementation at 10(7) cfu g(-1) can effectively improve innate immunity and disease resistance in L. rohita. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Hospitable Meal Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Lise; Overgaard, Svend Skafte

    2017-01-01

    -ended approach towards meal experiences. The underlying purpose of The Hospitable Meal Model is to provide the basis for creating value for the individuals involved in institutional meal services. The Hospitable Meal Model was developed on the basis of an empirical study on hospital meal experiences explored......This article presents an analytical model that aims to conceptualize how meal experiences are framed when taking into account a dynamic understanding of hospitality: the meal model is named The Hospitable Meal Model. The idea behind The Hospitable Meal Model is to present a conceptual model...... that can serve as a frame for developing hospitable meal competencies among professionals working within the area of institutional foodservices as well as a conceptual model for analysing meal experiences. The Hospitable Meal Model transcends and transforms existing meal models by presenting a more open...

  18. The Hospitable Meal Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Lise; Overgaard, Svend Skafte

    2017-01-01

    This article presents an analytical model that aims to conceptualize how meal experiences are framed when taking into account a dynamic understanding of hospitality: the meal model is named The Hospitable Meal Model. The idea behind The Hospitable Meal Model is to present a conceptual model...... that can serve as a frame for developing hospitable meal competencies among professionals working within the area of institutional foodservices as well as a conceptual model for analysing meal experiences. The Hospitable Meal Model transcends and transforms existing meal models by presenting a more open......-ended approach towards meal experiences. The underlying purpose of The Hospitable Meal Model is to provide the basis for creating value for the individuals involved in institutional meal services. The Hospitable Meal Model was developed on the basis of an empirical study on hospital meal experiences explored...

  19. Dietary exposure of mink (Mustela vison) to fish from the upper Hudson River, New York, USA: effects on organ mass and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursian, Steven J; Kern, John; Remington, Richard E; Link, Jane E; Fitzgerald, Scott D

    2013-04-01

    The authors evaluated effects of feeding ranch mink (Mustela vison) diets containing polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated fish from the upper Hudson River (New York, USA) on adult and offspring organ mass and pathology. Diets contained 2.5 to 20% Hudson River fish, providing 0.72 to 6.1 µg ΣPCBs/g feed (4.8-38 pg toxic equivalents [TEQWHO 2005 ]/g feed). Absolute thyroid and adrenal gland masses were increased in adult females and 31-week-old juveniles, respectively, and absolute liver and heart masses were decreased in six-week-old kits exposed to dietary PCBs. Dietary concentrations of 0.72 µg ΣPCBs/g feed (4.8 pg TEQWHO 2005 /g feed) and greater induced mandibular and maxillary squamous epithelial proliferation in adult animals. The dietary concentration of ΣPCBs predicted to result in 20% incidence of the jaw lesion (EC20) was 2.3 µg ΣPCBs/g feed (15 pg TEQWHO 2005 /g feed), and the hepatic concentration was 2.8 µg ΣPCBs/g liver (89 pg TEQWHO 2005 /g liver). The EC20 values were greater than the dietary and hepatic concentrations predicted to result in a 20% increase in kit mortality (LC20) at six weeks of age (0.34 µg ΣPCBs/g feed or 2.6 pg TEQWHO 2005 /g feed and 0.80 µg ΣPCBs/g liver or 13 pg TEQWHO 2005 /g liver). However, the EC20 values reflect exposure of adults to PCBs for approximately six months, and the LC20 values reflect exposure of offspring from conception onward. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  20. Dietary exposure of mink (Mustela vison) to fish from the upper Hudson River, New York, USA: effects on reproduction and offspring growth and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursian, Steven J; Kern, John; Remington, Richard E; Link, Jane E; Fitzgerald, Scott D

    2013-04-01

    The effects of feeding farm-raised mink (Mustela vison) diets containing polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated fish from the upper Hudson River (New York, USA) on adult reproductive performance and kit growth and mortality were evaluated. Diets contained 2.5 to 20% Hudson River fish, providing 0.72 to 6.1 µg ∑PCBs/g feed (4.8-38 pg toxic equivalents [TEQWHO 2005 ]/g feed). The percentage of stillborn kits per litter was significantly increased by dietary concentrations of 4.5 µg ∑PCBs/g feed (28 pg TEQWHO 2005 /g feed) and greater. All offspring exposed to dietary concentrations of 4.5 and 6.1 µg ∑PCBs/g feed (28 and 38 pg TEQWHO 2005 /g feed) died by 10 weeks of age, and all offspring exposed to 1.5 and 2.8 µg ∑PCBs/g feed (10 and 18 pg TEQWHO 2005 /g feed) died by 31 weeks of age, leaving juveniles in the control and 0.72 µg ∑PCBs/g feed (0.41- and 4.8 pg TEQWHO 2005 /g feed) groups only. The dietary concentration predicted to result in 20% kit mortality (LC20) at six weeks of age was 0.34 µg ∑PCBs/g feed (2.6 pg TEQWHO 2005 /g feed). The corresponding maternal hepatic concentration was 0.80 µg ∑PCBs/g liver, wet weight (13 pg TEQWHO 2005 /g liver, wet wt). Mink residing in the upper Hudson River would be expected to consume species of fish that contain an average of 4.0 µg ∑PCBs/g tissue. Thus, a daily diet composed of less than 10% Hudson River fish could provide a dietary concentration of ∑PCBs that resulted in 20% kit mortality in the present study. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  1. Molecular characterization of AMP-activated protein kinase α2 from herbivorous fish Megalobrama amblycephala and responsiveness to glucose loading and dietary carbohydrate levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chao; Liu, Wen-Bin; Zhang, Ding-Dong; Wang, Kai-Zhou; Xia, Si-Lei; Li, Xiang-Fei

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to characterize the full-length cDNA of AMPKα2 in Megalobrama amblycephala, and evaluate its potential role in glucose homeostasis and carbohydrate metabolism. The cDNA obtained covered 1942bp with an open reading frame of 1635bp encoding 545 amino acids. Multiple alignments and phylogenetic analysis revealed a high homology (91-100%) among most fish and higher vertebrates. This AMPKα2 mRNA predominantly expressed in muscle, liver and brain, while little in gill and intestine. Then, the AMPKα2 expressions were determined in the muscle, liver and brain of fish subjected to a glucose load (injected intraperitoneally with 0, 1.67 and 3.34g glucose per kg body weight) and after a 12-week feeding trial (fed two dietary carbohydrate levels: 30% and 43%), respectively. After the glucose load, plasma glycemia peaked at 1h in fish. Thereafter, it decreased significantly to the basal level at 8h. However, AMPKα2 expression in muscle, liver and brain all decreased significantly during the first 2h, then returned to the basal value at 24h. Unlikely, tissue AMPKα2 expression of fish receiving saline solution increased significantly during the whole sampling period. Additionally, high-carbohydrate diet enhanced its expression in liver and muscle, but not that in brain. These findings indicated that the AMPKα2 gene shared a high degree of conservation with that of the other vertebrates. Muscle, liver and brain AMPKα2 expressions were highly induced by glucose administration. Furthermore, high dietary carbohydrate modified its expressions in these tissues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Dietary Intake of High-Protein Foods and Other Major Foods in Meat-Eaters, Poultry-Eaters, Fish-Eaters, Vegetarians, and Vegans in UK Biobank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn E. Bradbury

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Vegetarian diets are defined by the absence of meat and fish, but differences in the intake of other foods between meat-eaters and low or non-meat eaters are also important to document. We examined intakes of high-protein foods (meat, poultry, fish, legumes, nuts, vegetarian protein alternatives, dairy products, and eggs and other major food groups (fruit, vegetables, bread, pasta, rice, snack foods, and beverages in regular meat-eaters, low meat-eaters, poultry-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians, and vegans of white ethnicity participating in UK Biobank who had completed at least one web-based 24-h dietary assessment (n = 199,944. In regular meat-eaters, around 25% of total energy came from meat, fish, dairy and plant milk, cheese, yogurt, and eggs. In vegetarians, around 20% of energy came from dairy and plant milk, cheese, yoghurt, eggs, legumes, nuts, and vegetarian protein alternatives, and in vegans around 15% came from plant milk, legumes, vegetarian alternatives, and nuts. Low and non-meat eaters had higher intakes of fruit and vegetables and lower intakes of roast or fried potatoes compared to regular meat-eaters. The differences in the intakes of meat, plant-based high-protein foods, and other foods between meat-eaters and low and non-meat eaters in UK Biobank may contribute to differences in health outcomes.

  3. Dietary exposure of mink (Mustela vison) to fish from the Housatonic River, Berkshire County, Massachusetts, USA: Effects on reproduction, kit growth, and survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursian, S.J.; Sharma, C.; Aulerich, R.J.; Yamini, B.; Mitchell, R.R.; Orazio, C.E.; Moore, D.R.J.; Svirsky, S.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of feeding farm-raised mink (Mustela vison) diets containing polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated fish from the Housatonic River (HR; Berkshire County, MA, USA) on adult reproductive performance and kit growth and survival. Diets contained 0.22-3.54% HR fish, providing 0.34-3.7 ??g total PCBs (TPCB)/g feed wet wt (3.5-68.5 pg toxic equivalence [TEQ]/g). Female mink were fed diets before breeding through weaning of kits. Twelve kits from each treatment were maintained on their respective diets for an additional 180 d. Dietary PCBs had no effect on the number of offspring produced, gestation period, or other measures of adult reproductive performance. Mink kits exposed to 3.7 ??g TPCB/g feed (68.5 pg TEQ/g) in utero and during lactation had reduced survivability between three and six weeks of age. The lethal concentrations to 10 and 20% of the population (LC10 and LC20, respectively) were estimated to be 0.231 and 0.984 ??g TPCB/g feed, respectively. Because inclusion of PCB-contaminated fish that composed approximately 1% of the diet would reduce mink kit survival by 20% or more, it is likely that consumption of up to 30-fold that quantity of HR fish, as could be expected for wild mink, would have an adverse effect on wild mink populations. ?? 2006 SETAC.

  4. Dietary Intake of High-Protein Foods and Other Major Foods in Meat-Eaters, Poultry-Eaters, Fish-Eaters, Vegetarians, and Vegans in UK Biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Kathryn E; Tong, Tammy Y N; Key, Timothy J

    2017-12-02

    Vegetarian diets are defined by the absence of meat and fish, but differences in the intake of other foods between meat-eaters and low or non-meat eaters are also important to document. We examined intakes of high-protein foods (meat, poultry, fish, legumes, nuts, vegetarian protein alternatives, dairy products, and eggs) and other major food groups (fruit, vegetables, bread, pasta, rice, snack foods, and beverages) in regular meat-eaters, low meat-eaters, poultry-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians, and vegans of white ethnicity participating in UK Biobank who had completed at least one web-based 24-h dietary assessment ( n = 199,944). In regular meat-eaters, around 25% of total energy came from meat, fish, dairy and plant milk, cheese, yogurt, and eggs. In vegetarians, around 20% of energy came from dairy and plant milk, cheese, yoghurt, eggs, legumes, nuts, and vegetarian protein alternatives, and in vegans around 15% came from plant milk, legumes, vegetarian alternatives, and nuts. Low and non-meat eaters had higher intakes of fruit and vegetables and lower intakes of roast or fried potatoes compared to regular meat-eaters. The differences in the intakes of meat, plant-based high-protein foods, and other foods between meat-eaters and low and non-meat eaters in UK Biobank may contribute to differences in health outcomes.

  5. Dietary Patterns in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise Beltoft Borup

    single food. People consume meals and these meals vary during a day, over a year and during a life time. To comprehend some of this complexity it could be advantageous to investigate dietary patterns representing the whole diet as patterns might be better markers of growth and health than single...... nutrients. However, little is known about the development of dietary patterns in childhood both in relation to possible indicators and to obesity related outcomes. Therefore, the aim of this PhD thesis was to make exploratory analyses of dietary patterns in childhood using the method principal component...... of the complexity in child nutrition both in observational and intervention designs as well as for investigating development of dietary patterns over time. Explorative analyses of indicators for dietary patterns showed that parental, household and child characteristics are associated with dietary patterns in early...

  6. Potencial de inserção de empanados de pescado na merenda escolar mediante determinantes individuais Potential inclusion of breaded fish products in school meal by individual determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Leite Mitterer-Daltoé

    2012-11-01

    ão entre consumir empanado de uma vez ao mês a mais de uma vez na semana. Estes resultados indicaram um potencial de consumo de empanado de pescado por adolescentes, associado à necessidade de educação alimentar.Fish products are an important source of animal protein and being perishable product, a strategic solution to overcome the short life represented by the fresh fish is the development of the breaded fish, a product of quality, convenient and better suited to the modern consumer demand. In Brazil, government programs for school meals have brought support for research to develop new products based on fish that are easily accepted by school children. In this sense, the objective was to detect individual determinants of fish consumption in adolescents aged 12-17 years, aiming the inclusion of breaded fish in school meal. Data was obtained from 92 students in a school located in Rio Grande - RS, by applying a questionnaire with questions about their attitudes and preferences, health consciousness, convenience and socio-demographic factors. The analysis was performed based on the technique of multivariate discriminant analysis, where one seeks to discriminate groups formed according to the frequency of fish consumption (never consumed fish; once a month, twice a month, once a week and more than once a week. The results led to the best discriminating variables in the frequency of fish consumption defined by the Partial Lambda Wilks' mean difference test which were "likes fish" (0.55 and "educational level of parents" (0.88. The first two discriminant models obtained explained 75% of the variance for the frequency of fish consumption. Most individuals presented the idea that breaded products are not healthy, but they had the habit of consuming them at least once or twice a month. The group that never consumed fish said to dislike fish and 50% of the observations are recorded between consuming breaded once a month to more than once a week. These results indicate a

  7. Absorption from iron tablets given with different types of meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallberg, L.; Bjoern-Rasmussen, E.; Ekenved, G.; Garby, L.; Rossander, L.; Pleehachinda, R.; Suwanik, R.; Arvidsson, B.

    1978-01-01

    The absorption from iron tablets given with 5 types of meals was studied in 153 subjects. The meals were: a hamburger meal with beans and potatoes, a simple breakfast meal, a Latin American meal composed of black beans, rice and maize and two Southeast Asian meals composed of rice, vegetables, and spices served with and without fish. The groups were directly compared by relating the absorption from the iron tablets to the absorption from a standardized reference dose of iron given on an empty stomach. The composition of meals with respect to content of meat or fish or the presence of large amounts of phytates seemed to have no influence on the absorption of iron from tablets. The absorption from iron tablets was about 40% higher when they were given with rice meals than when they were given with the other meals studied. The average decrease in absorption by meals was about 50-60% based on a comparison when tablets were given on an empty stomach. When tablets from which the iron was released more slowly were used, the absorption increased by about 30% except when they were given with rice meals, where the absorption was unchanged. The differences among the meals in their effect on the absorption of iron from tablets thus disappeared when the slow-release tablets were given. (author)

  8. The Healthy Meal Index: A tool for measuring the healthfulness of meals served to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Nicole; Mandell, Cami; Ball, Sarah; Miller, Alison L; Lumeng, Julie; Peterson, Karen E

    2016-08-01

    Family meals have been associated with higher diet quality and reduced risk of obesity in children. Observational studies of the family meal have been employed with increasing frequency, yet there is currently no tool available for measuring the healthfulness of food served during the meal. Here we present the development and validation of the Healthy Meal Index (HMI), a novel tool for scoring the healthfulness of foods served to children during a meal, as well as sociodemographic predictors of meal scores. Parents of 233 children, aged 4-8 years, self-recorded three home dinners. A research assistant obtained a list of foods available during the meal (meal report) via phone call on the night of each video-recorded meal. This meal report was coded into component food groups. Subsequently, meals were scored based on the availability of more healthy "Adequacy foods" and the absence of "Moderation foods", (of which reduced consumption is recommended, according to pediatric dietary guidelines). Adjusted linear regression tested the association of sociodemographic characteristics with HMI scores. A validation study was conducted in a separate sample of 133 children with detailed meal data. In adjusted models, female children had higher HMI Moderation scores (p = 0.02), but did not differ in HMI Adequacy or Total scores. Parents with more education served meals with higher HMI Adequacy (p = 0.001) and Total scores (p = 0.001), though no significant difference was seen in HMI Moderation score (p = 0.21). The validation study demonstrated that the HMI was highly correlated with servings of foods and nutrients estimated from observations conducted by research staff. The HMI is a valuable tool for measuring the quality of meals served to children. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Single-run determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) di- to deca-brominated in fish meal, fish oil and fish feed by isotope dilution: Application of automated sample purification and gas chromatography/ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (GC/ITMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, Sonia Lucia; Vieites, Juan M.

    2010-01-01

    The present paper describes the application of automated cleanup and fractionation procedures of the Power Prep system (Fluid Management Systems) for the determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in feeding stuffs and fish meal and oil. Gas chromatography (GC) separation followed by ion trap tandem mass spectrometry detection in EI mode (ITMS) allowed the analysis of di- to deca-BDEs in the samples matrices used in fish aquaculture. The method developed enabled the determination of 26 native PBDE congeners and 11 13 C 12 -labelled congeners, including deca-BDE 209, in a single-run analysis, using isotope dilution. The automated cleanup, consisting of a succession of multilayer silica and basic alumina columns previously applied by Wyrzykowska et al. (2009) in combustion flue gas, was succesfully applied in our complex matrices. The method allowed an increase in productivity, i.e. lower time was required to process samples, and simultaneous purification of several samples was achieved at a time, reducing analyst dedication and human error input. Average recoveries of 43-96% were obtained. GC/ITMS can overcome the complexity originating from the sample matrix, eliminating matrix effects by tandem MS, to enable the detection of congeners penta- to nona-BDEs where interferent masses were present. The provisional detection limits, estimated in the samples, were 5-30 pg for di-, tri-, tetra-, and penta-BDEs, 20-65 pg for hexa-, hepta-, octa- and nona-BDEs, and 105 pg for deca-BDE. Reduction of deca-BDE 209 blank values is of concern to ongoing research. Good accuracy was obtained by application of the whole procedure, representing an efficient, low-cost and fast alternative for routine analyses.

  10. A review of dietary influences on cardiovascular health: part 2: dietary patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stradling, Clare; Hamid, Mash; Taheri, Shahrad; Thomas, G Neil

    2014-01-01

    Dietary recommendations are key to cardiovascular disease (CVD) management. The underpinning evidence is generally based on data generated from single nutrient or food types. However, food is not consumed in such a manner, and components may interact synergistically or antagonistically depending on the dietary composition. Analyses of dietary patterns have attempted to address these important issues. The aim of this review is to present the current evidence on three major dietary patterns and their relationship with CVD. The most widely reported is the Mediterranean diet, which is characterised by abundant use of olive oil, and plant-based foods, moderate consumption of fish, dairy products, alcohol with meals, and a relatively low intake of red meat. The strongest evidence of causality has been established for the Mediterranean diet and unlike other dietary patterns has been shown to significantly reduce major CVD events. The Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH), emphasising fruit, vegetables and low fat dairy products, has successfully been shown to lower blood pressure and cholesterol levels. However, its true effects on CVD under freeliving conditions have yet to be fully explored. The available evidence is encouraging for CVD prevention, but long-term effectiveness is unclear. Very low-carbohydrate diets appear to exert their favourable effect on CVD risk factors via weight loss. However, longterm effectiveness and safety remains unclear. The available evidence supports the role of the DASH and Mediterranean diets in the prevention of CVD.

  11. DAILY MEAL FREQUENCY OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS FROM LJUBLJANA IN RELATION TO SOME OF THEIR OTHER NUTRITIONAL AND LIFE-STYLE CHARACTERISTICS AND BODY MASS INDEX – PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Gabrijelčič-Blenkuš

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. The recommended number of daily meals is three to five. The aim of this study was to establish the number of meals, daily consumed by secondary school students from Ljubljana, and the relationship with nutritional and other habits, including bad habits, demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the secondary school students and their body mass index.Methods. In 1999, an cross-section epidemiological study was performed on a proportional sample of 296 pupils attending the third class of Ljubljana secondary schools. The applied dietary data collection methods were the survey and the 24-hour dietary recall. The body mass index was calculated on the basis of the measured body height and body mass values. The Chi-square test, t-test, variance analysis and the multivariant linear regression method were used for the analysis.Results. The students consume 3.16 meals per day on average (boys 3.44, girls 2.87. The students who reported a smaller number of meals per day consume statistically significantly less fruit, vegetables, milk, milk products and fish. They take hot meals less frequently, consume less often all daily meals, their daily meals are of a poorer quality in respect to their composition, they eat less often their meals in a sitting position, they feel a greater difference in diet between working week days and weekends, their regular nourishment is more influenced by school obligations, they have poorer knowledge of healthy dietary practices, smoke more often, are less satisfied with their weight, are less physically active and girls sleep less at nights. The inverse proportional relationship between the number of daily meals and the body mass index was not statistically significant. The multivariant linear regression model explained the low variance percentage (R2 = 0.28.Conclusions. The average number of daily meals consumed by schoolboys is at the lower border of recommendations, while the average number of daily meals

  12. Fluid Intake and Beverage Consumption Description and Their Association with Dietary Vitamins and Antioxidant Compounds in Italian Adults from the Mediterranean Healthy Eating, Aging and Lifestyles (MEAL Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Platania

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the total water intake (TWI from drinks and foods and to evaluate the correlation between the different types of drinks on energy and antioxidant intake. The cohort comprised 1602 individuals from the city of Catania in Southern Italy. A food frequency questionnaire was administered to assess dietary and water intake. The mean total water intake was 2.7 L; more than about two thirds of the sample met the European recommendations for water intake. Water and espresso coffee were the most consumed drinks. Alcohol beverages contributed about 3.0% of total energy intake, and sugar sweetened beverages contributed about 1.4%. All antioxidant vitamins were significantly correlated with TWI. However, a higher correlation was found for water from food rather than water from beverages, suggesting that major food contributors to antioxidant vitamin intake might be fruits and vegetables, rather than beverages other than water. A mild correlation was found between fruit juices and vitamin C; coffee, tea and alcohol, and niacin and polyphenols; and milk and vitamin B12. The findings from the present study show that our sample population has an adequate intake of TWI and that there is a healthy association between beverages and dietary antioxidants.

  13. Expanding perceptions of subsistence fish consumption: evidence of high commercial fish consumption and dietary mercury exposure in an urban coastal community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloman, Erica L; Newman, Michael C

    2012-02-01

    Through collaborative partnerships established between current researchers and The Moton Community House (a local community center), African American women (ages 16-49yrs) from the Southeast Community of Newport News, Virginia, USA were surveyed to assess the reproducibility and consistency of fish consumption patterns (ingestion rates, exposure frequencies, weight, and fish consumption rates) derived from a community-specific fish consumption survey. Women were also surveyed to assess the reliability of the survey responses, and to estimate daily mercury intake. Fish consumption patterns were reproducible and the survey responses were reliable. Comparison between years revealed that fish consumption patterns remained consistent over time. In addition, the high fish consumption rate estimated in 2008 (147.8g/day; 95% CI: 117.6-185.8g/day) was confirmed with a rate (134.9g/day; 95% CI: 88-207g/day) not materially different and still considerably higher than mean fish consumption rates reported for U.S. women. Daily mercury intake rates were estimated using consumption data from 2008 and three consumption scenarios (canned white, canned light, and no tuna) due to confirmed differences in mercury concentration between canned white and light tuna. Arithmetic mean daily mercury intake rates were 0.284μg/kg bw/day (95% CI: 0.229-0.340μg/kg bw/day) using canned white tuna, 0.212μg/kg bw/day (95% CI: 0.165-0.259μg/kg bw/day) using light tuna, and 0.197μg/kg bw/day (95% CI: 0.151-0.243μg/kg bw/day) using no tuna. Approximately 58%-73% of the daily mercury intake rates for African American women in the Southeast Community exceeded US EPA's oral reference dose (RfD) of 0.10μg/kg bw/day for mercury. In addition, 2% of the rates exceeded a level (1.00μg/kg bw/day) documented to produce adverse health effects. Past and current investigations confirmed that even though women in this community were not subsistence fishers, they are subsistence fish consumers. Copyright

  14. Nutritional policies and dietary guidelines in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Teiji

    2011-01-01

    The national government settled on "Healthy Japan 21" as the premier preventive policy of lifestyle related diseases in 2000. In 2005, the effectiveness of the campaign was conducted, but the results did not turn out as expected. The Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare made the "Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top (JFG-ST)" as a practical and easy way to improve eating habits for all of the people. The JFG-ST falls down when the balance of the diets worsens and expresses a stable thing in what a turn (exercise) does. Eyes down quantity to take out of each group per day is shown in the basic form by the 5 distinction from grain dishes, vegetable dishes, fish and meat dishes, milk, and fruits. In 2005, the Basic Law on Dietary Education was enacted to promote the dietary education about the importance of eating proper meals in order to solve problems such as inappropriate eating habits and nutrition intake, disturbances in diets, increases in lifestyle-related diseases, a fall in the rate of food self-sufficiency and so forth. The Ministry of Education and Science started a program to train people to become "diet and nutrition teacher" in primary school. JFG- ST is developed in a dietary education campaign as a standard method of the dietary education. In May, 2011, the government has announced the second dietary education promotional basic plan to assume five years.

  15. Fatty fish intake and cognitive function: FINS-KIDS, a randomized controlled trial in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øyen, Jannike; Kvestad, Ingrid; Midtbø, Lisa Kolden; Graff, Ingvild Eide; Hysing, Mari; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Markhus, Maria Wik; Baste, Valborg; Frøyland, Livar; Koletzko, Berthold; Demmelmair, Hans; Dahl, Lisbeth; Lie, Øyvind; Kjellevold, Marian

    2018-03-12

    Marine resources including fatty fish are important sources of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFAs), which are important for brain development. To our knowledge, this is the first randomized controlled trial (RCT) investigating the impact of fatty fish on cognition in preschool children. The purpose of the trial was to investigate whether an increased intake of fatty fish compared to meat improves cognitive function in children 4-6 years old. The children (n = 232) in this two-armed RCT, Fish Intervention Studies-KIDS (FINS-KIDS) were recruited from 13 kindergartens in Bergen, Norway. They were randomly assigned to lunch meals with fatty fish (herring/mackerel) or meat (chicken/lamb/beef) three times a week for 16 weeks. The fish and meat were weighed before and after the meals to record the exact consumption (dietary compliance). The primary outcome was cognitive function measured by the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, 3rd edition (WPPSI-III) and fine-motor coordination measured by the 9-Hole Peg Test (9-HPT) at pre- and post-intervention. Biological samples (blood, urine, hair), and questionnaires to the caregivers were included at both time points. Linear mixed effect models with a random intercept for kindergarten were used to analyze changes from pre- to post-intervention in the primary outcome variables. There were 218 children included in the trial (105 in the fish, and 113 in the meat group). The children consumed a mean (standard deviation) of 2070 (978) g fish or 2675 (850) g meat from the study meals (p < 0.0001). The fish group had a significant increase of red blood cell n-3 LC-PUFAs. The intervention had no effect on the WPPSI-III scores (mean change total raw score; fish group 17.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 14.8-20.7 vs meat group 17.8, 95% CI 15.0-20.6, p = 0.97) in the main analyses. In the sub-analyses, adjusting for dietary compliance, the fish group showed a higher improvement on total raw score (20

  16. Dietary exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids of specific French adult sub-populations: High seafood consumers, high freshwater fish consumers and pregnant women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, A., E-mail: ami.s.yamada@gmail.com [Risk Assessment Directorate, French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES), 27-31 avenue du Général Leclerc, Maisons-Alfort 94701 (France); Bemrah, N., E-mail: nawel.bemrah@anses.fr [Risk Assessment Directorate, French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES), 27-31 avenue du Général Leclerc, Maisons-Alfort 94701 (France); Veyrand, B., E-mail: bruno.veyrand@oniris-nantes.fr [LUNAM Université, Oniris, Laboratoire d' Etude des Résidus et Contaminants dans les Aliments (LABERCA), USC INRA 1329, Nantes 44307 (France); Pollono, C., E-mail: charles.pollono@oniris-nantes.fr [LUNAM Université, Oniris, Laboratoire d' Etude des Résidus et Contaminants dans les Aliments (LABERCA), USC INRA 1329, Nantes 44307 (France); Merlo, M., E-mail: mathilde.merlo@anses.fr [Risk Assessment Directorate, French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES), 27-31 avenue du Général Leclerc, Maisons-Alfort 94701 (France); Desvignes, V., E-mail: virginie.desvignes@anses.fr [Risk Assessment Directorate, French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES), 27-31 avenue du Général Leclerc, Maisons-Alfort 94701 (France); Sirot, V., E-mail: sirotv@gmail.com [Risk Assessment Directorate, French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES), 27-31 avenue du Général Leclerc, Maisons-Alfort 94701 (France); and others

    2014-09-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are globally found in various media, including food and especially fishery products. In the present study, the dietary exposure to 15 perfluoroalkyl acids was assessed for 3 French adult populations, namely high seafood consumers, high freshwater fish consumers, and pregnant women. Purified food extracts were analysed by LC–MS/MS and PFBA, PFPA, PFHxA, PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnA, PFTrDA, PFTeDA, PFBS, PFHxS, PFHpS, PFOS and PFDS were monitored and quantified according to the isotope dilution principle. Under lower bound (LB) hypothesis (i.e. contamination values < LOD considered as 0), high freshwater fish consumers appear as the most exposed to PFOS (7.5 ng.kg{sup −1} bw.d{sup −1}), PFUnA (1.3 ng.kg{sup −1} bw.d{sup −1}), PFDA (0.4 ng.kg{sup −1} bw.d{sup −1}) and PFHpS (0.03 ng.kg{sup −1} bw.d{sup −1}) while high seafood consumers appear as the most exposed to PFOA (1.2 ng.kg{sup −1} bw.d{sup −1}), PFNA (0.2 ng.kg{sup −1} bw.d{sup −1}) and PFHxS (0.06 ng.kg{sup −1} bw.d{sup −1}). For all considered populations, the major exposure contributors are fish, seafood and water under LB hypothesis, while dairy products, bread and crispbread are the main contributors under upper bound (UB) hypothesis. Besides this food exposure assessment, further studies are needed to assess the more global PFAA exposure, taking into account indoor and outdoor air, dust and cutaneous contact, which could be other important contributors for this particular class of chemicals. - Highlights: • The dietary exposure was estimated for 15 perfluoroalkyl acids. • Despite the overestimation, the FFQ remains useful to evaluate the whole diet. • The high fish consumers are the most dietary exposed population. • Fishery products are the main exposure contributors under LB hypothesis.

  17. Dietary exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids of specific French adult sub-populations: High seafood consumers, high freshwater fish consumers and pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, A.; Bemrah, N.; Veyrand, B.; Pollono, C.; Merlo, M.; Desvignes, V.; Sirot, V.

    2014-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are globally found in various media, including food and especially fishery products. In the present study, the dietary exposure to 15 perfluoroalkyl acids was assessed for 3 French adult populations, namely high seafood consumers, high freshwater fish consumers, and pregnant women. Purified food extracts were analysed by LC–MS/MS and PFBA, PFPA, PFHxA, PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnA, PFTrDA, PFTeDA, PFBS, PFHxS, PFHpS, PFOS and PFDS were monitored and quantified according to the isotope dilution principle. Under lower bound (LB) hypothesis (i.e. contamination values < LOD considered as 0), high freshwater fish consumers appear as the most exposed to PFOS (7.5 ng.kg −1 bw.d −1 ), PFUnA (1.3 ng.kg −1 bw.d −1 ), PFDA (0.4 ng.kg −1 bw.d −1 ) and PFHpS (0.03 ng.kg −1 bw.d −1 ) while high seafood consumers appear as the most exposed to PFOA (1.2 ng.kg −1 bw.d −1 ), PFNA (0.2 ng.kg −1 bw.d −1 ) and PFHxS (0.06 ng.kg −1 bw.d −1 ). For all considered populations, the major exposure contributors are fish, seafood and water under LB hypothesis, while dairy products, bread and crispbread are the main contributors under upper bound (UB) hypothesis. Besides this food exposure assessment, further studies are needed to assess the more global PFAA exposure, taking into account indoor and outdoor air, dust and cutaneous contact, which could be other important contributors for this particular class of chemicals. - Highlights: • The dietary exposure was estimated for 15 perfluoroalkyl acids. • Despite the overestimation, the FFQ remains useful to evaluate the whole diet. • The high fish consumers are the most dietary exposed population. • Fishery products are the main exposure contributors under LB hypothesis

  18. Dietary Supplementation with a Combination of Lactoferrin, Fish Oil, and Enterococcus faecium WB2000 for Treating Dry Eye: A Rat Model and Human Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Motoko; Nakamura, Shigeru; Izuta, Yusuke; Inoue, Sachiko; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2016-04-01

    To examine the effect of a combined dietary supplement containing fish oil, lactoferrin, zinc, vitamin C, lutein, vitamin E, γ-aminobutanoic acid, and Enterococcus faecium WB2000 on dry eye. A preliminary study in a rat model and a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in humans were conducted. Forty Japanese volunteers aged 22 to 59 years were randomized into combined dietary supplement (2 capsules/day; 20 participants) and placebo (vehicle; 19 participants) groups and treated once daily for 8 weeks. Rats received the combined dietary supplement components (10 or 50 mg/kg orally) or vehicle (2% DMSO), and dry eye was mechanically induced for 2 days. Tear production was measured in rats after dry eye was induced. Humans were assessed at baseline and weeks 4 and 8 post-supplementation based on keratoconjunctival epithelial damage; fluorescein tear film breakup time; tear production; biochemical data; information regarding subjective dry eye symptoms by answering a questionnaire; and information regarding adverse events via medical interviews. Supplementation dose-dependently mitigated the decrease in tear production in rats. Among subjects with confirmed dry eye, clinical symptoms improved at weeks 4 and 8 more significantly in the supplementation group than in the placebo group (Peye symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Recent advances in canola meal utilization in swine nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Mejicanos, G.; Sanjayan, N.; Kim, I. H.; Nyachoti, C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Canola meal is derived from the crushing of canola seed for oil extraction. Although it has been used in swine diets for a long time, its inclusion levels have been limited due to concerns regarding its nutritive value primarily arising from results of early studies showing negative effects of dietary canola meal inclusion in swine diets. Such effects were attributable to the presence of anti-nutritional factors (ANF; notably glucosinolates) in canola meal. However, due to advances i...

  20. Dietary protein derived from dried bonito fish improves type-2 diabetes mellitus-induced bone frailty in Goto-Kakizaki rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Masaru; Kuroda, Takashi; Gohtani, Shoichi; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro

    2015-04-01

    Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) induces bone frailty. Protein and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) contained in fish can be effective in enhancing bone quality, but the bone developing effect of fish protein containing less PUFA has not been evaluated in young animals with T2DM. We prepared a bonito fish (BF) and defatted BF (DBF) and hypothesized that protein contained in BF and DBF would be effective for mitigating the effects of T2DM-induced bone frailty. We mainly evaluated the effect of dietary BF and DBF on bone and apparent calcium absorption in young Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats with T2DM. GK rats were divided into 3 groups based on diets (casein, BF, and DBF) and fed with each diet for 6 wk. Wistar rats were fed with the casein diet as a non-T2DM control. Bone mass, bone strength, apparent calcium absorption, and serum biochemical parameters were determined. The dry weight and strength of the femurs were lower in the GK rats than in the Wistar rats fed with the casein diet. Dietary intake of the BF and DBF diets enhanced the maximum load and dry weight of the femurs and suppressed the serum alkaline phosphatase activity although the apparent calcium absorption was lower in the GK rats fed with the BF and DBF diets than in those fed with the casein diet. These parameters were not different between the rats fed with the BF and DBF diets. Our data suggest that protein contained in the BF and DBF diets improved T2DM-induced bone frailty. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Effects of sweet potato meal on performance and carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three hundred and five (305) five weeks old broilers (Anak strain) were used in a four-week experiment to determine the effect of dietary substitution of processed sweet potato meal for maize grain on the carcass quality of broilers at the finisher phase. Graded levels of processed sweet potato meal (0, 12.5, 25, 37.5 and ...

  2. Biochemical evaluation of Gmelina arborea fruit meal as a swine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of Gmelina arborea fruits (GAF) meal on haematology and certain biochemical parameters including blood ... regards to blood urea nitrogen, creatinine in blood and urine and uric acids) though not significantly as the dietary inclusion level of raw GAF meal increased.

  3. Healthy Meals, Healthier Kids. Cutting the Fat from School Menus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FioRito, Kathy

    1994-01-01

    Recent research revealed that most school lunches exceed the dietary guidelines for fat content. After explaining the resulting Healthy Kids School Meals Initiative which will overhaul the National School Lunch Program meal pattern, the article makes suggestions of how parents can help their school food service sell more nutritious food. (SM)

  4. Lunch habits of German children and adolescents: composition and dietary quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexy, U; Freese, J; Kersting, M; Clausen, K

    2013-01-01

    Data from the ongoing, open-cohort Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) study were used to describe warm family lunch meals and the association of the lunch composition with total diet quality. 2,095 three-day weighed dietary records, collected between 2004 and 2009, from a 4- to 18-year-old DONALD study subgroup were used. Warm lunch (eating occasions between 11.30 a.m. and 2.29 p.m. including at least one course that is typically consumed warm) was eaten on 68.8% of all record days. Meat lunch (>50%) was predominant, followed by vegetarian (25%), fish (13%) and sweet lunch meals (3%). The prevalence of desserts at lunch was high and beverages were drunk at 80% of lunch meals. A meat lunch was associated with a higher protein (+1.4% energy intake, %E) and fat intake (+1.7%E) than a sweet lunch; also densities of vitamin A, folate and iron were higher. A dessert at lunch decreased protein intake slightly (-0.2%E), but increased carbohydrate (+0.7%E) and added sugar intake (+1.4%E) as well as density of calcium (+18 mg/MJ). Our study proves the impact of lunch on daily dietary quality and yields valuable insights on the development of food and meal-based dietary guidelines. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Dietary Supplementation with Olive Oil or Fish Oil and Vascular Effects of Concentrated Ambient Particulate Matter Exposure in Human Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) induces endothelial dysfunction, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Olive oil (OO) and fish oil (FO) supplements have beneficial effects on endothelial function. Objective: In this study we evaluated the efficacy of...

  6. Effects of replacing soybean meal with rubber seed meal on growth, antioxidant capacity, non-specific immune response, and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × O. aureus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Junming; Mai, Kangsen; Chen, Liqiao; Mi, Haifeng; Zhang, Lu

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluated the effects of replacing soybean meal (SBM) with rubber seed meal (RSM) on growth, antioxidant capacity, non-specific immune response and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × Oreochromis aureus). Five experimental diets were formulated with 0 (control), 10, 20, 30, and 40% RSM replacing graded levels of SBM, respectively. Fish were fed one of the five experimental diets for eight weeks, and then challenged by A. hydrophila via intraperitoneal injection and kept for seven days. Dietary RSM inclusion level up to 30% did not affect the weight gain and daily growth coefficient, whereas these were depressed by a further inclusion. Fish fed diet with 40% RSM showed the lowest serum total antioxidant capacity, lysozyme, alternative complement pathway, respiratory burst and phagocytic activities. Dietary RSM inclusion gradually depressed the post-challenge survival rate, and that was significantly lower in fish fed diet with 40% RSM compared to fish fed the control diet. Conversely, the inclusion of RSM generally increased the serum total cholesterol level, the plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, and these were significantly higher in fish fed diet with 40% RSM compared to fish fed the control diet. The results indicated that RSM can be included at level up to 30% in diet for tilapia without obvious adverse effects on the growth, antioxidant capacity, non-specific immune response and resistance to A. hydrophila infection, whereas these were depressed by a further inclusion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Pilot Survey of Food Frequencies, Meal Frequencies and Meal Patterns of Preschool Children in East Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jane S.; And Others

    The food frequency, meal frequency, and meal patterns of a group of Mexican American children attending Head Start in East Los Angeles and their siblings were studied. Fifty dietary questionnaires in English and in Spanish with written instructions were distributed to parents. Parents were asked to record for a 3 day period the eating time, type…

  8. Dietary soya saponins increase gut permeability and play a key role in the onset of soyabean-induced enteritis in Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, David; Jutfelt, Fredrik; Sundh, Henrik; Sundell, Kristina; Koppe, Wolfgang; Frøkiaer, Hanne

    2008-07-01

    Saponins are naturally occurring amphiphilic molecules and have been associated with many biological activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether soya saponins trigger the onset of soyabean-induced enteritis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), and to examine if dietary soya saponins increase the epithelial permeability of the distal intestine in Atlantic salmon. Seven experimental diets containing different levels of soya saponins were fed to seawater-adapted Atlantic salmon for 53 d. The diets included a fishmeal-based control diet, two fishmeal-based diets with different levels of added soya saponins, one diet containing 25% lupin kernel meal, two diets based on 25% lupin kernel meal with different levels of added soya saponins, and one diet containing 25% defatted soyabean meal. The effect on intestinal morphology, intestinal epithelial permeability and faecal DM content was examined. Fish fed 25% defatted soyabean meal displayed severe enteritis, whereas fish fed 25% lupin kernel meal had normal intestinal morphology. The combination of soya saponins and fishmeal did not induce morphological changes but fish fed soya saponins in combination with lupin kernel meal displayed significant enteritis. Increased epithelial permeability was observed in fish fed 25% defatted soyabean meal and in fish fed soya saponin concentrate independent of the protein source in the feed. The study demonstrates that soya saponins, in combination with one or several unidentified components present in legumes, induce an inflammatory reaction in the distal intestine of Atlantic salmon. Soya saponins increase the intestinal epithelial permeability but do not, per se, induce enteritis.

  9. Economics of production of broiler chickens fed maggot meal as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The economics of production of broiler chickens considered for 0-35 days, 35-56 days, and 0-56 days was compared for fishmeal (FM) and maggot meal (MM) diets. The maggot meal diet had a replacement of the fish meal at 75%> on protein basis. Replacing FM at 75% with MM resulted in reduced cost of feed as well as ...

  10. Earthworm and maggots meals as potential fishmeal replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Yaqub, H.B.

    1997-01-01

    Three meals were formulated from the earthworm (Endrilus eugineae) and maggot (Musca domestica) and fish (Engraulis encrosicolus). These meals were evaluated as a potential replacement for fishmeal. This is because fishmeal could be very expensive at times. The three meals were used in feeding the catfish (Heterobranchus isopterus) fry for 30 days. The study was conducted in 1991 at the Institute of Renewable Natural Resources Farm, University of Science and Technology. Two replicate...

  11. Types and Characteristics of Fish and Seafood Provisioning Scripts Used by Rural Midlife Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostic, Stephanie M; Sobal, Jeffery; Bisogni, Carole A; Monclova, Juliet M

    To examine rural New York State consumers' cognitive scripts for fish and seafood provisioning. A cross-sectional design with in-depth, semistructured interviews. Three rural New York State counties. Adults (n = 31) with diverse fish-related experiences were purposefully recruited. Scripts describing fish and seafood acquisition, preparation, and eating out. Interview transcripts were coded for emergent themes using Atlas.ti. Diagrams of scripts for each participant were constructed. Five types of acquisition scripts included quality-oriented, price-oriented, routine, special occasion, and fresh catch. Frequently used preparation scripts included everyday cooking, fast meal, entertaining, and grilling. Scripts for eating out included fish as first choice, Friday outing, convenient meals, special event, and travel meals. Personal values and resources influenced script development. Individuals drew on a repertoire of scripts based on their goals and resources at that time and in that place. Script characteristics of scope, flexibility, and complexity varied widely. Scripts incorporated goals, values, and resources into routine food behaviors. Understanding the characteristics of scripts provided insights about fish provisioning and opportunities to reduce the gap between current intake and dietary guidelines in this rural setting. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Occurrence of halogenated contaminants in inland and coastal fish from Ghana: levels, dietary exposure assessment and human health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asante, Kwadwo Ansong; Takahashi, Shin; Itai, Takaaki; Isobe, Tomohiko; Devanathan, Gnanasekaran; Muto, Mamoru; Agyakwah, Seth Koranteng; Adu-Kumi, Sam; Subramanian, Annamalai; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2013-08-01

    Fish consumption is known to have several health benefits for humans. However, the accumulation of toxic contaminants, such as PCBs, PBDEs and HBCDs in fish could pose health hazards. These contaminants were measured in tilapia fish species collected from Ghana. Mean levels were PCBs (62 ng/g lw), PBDEs (7.3 ng/g lw) and HBCDs (1.2 ng/g lw) and the predominance of CB-153, CB-138, CB-180, BDE-47 and α-HBCD is in concordance with scientific literature. The congener profiles of PBDEs and PCBs in the fish suggest that sources of Penta- and Deca-BDE technical mixtures as well as technical PCB mixture (Clophen A60) exist in Ghana, while textile operations and associated release of untreated wastewater are likely to be significant sources of HBCDs. Comparison of the results with some reported studies showed moderate contamination in Ghana although Ghana is a developing country in Africa. Concentrations of PCBs measured in all the specimens in this study were below the food safety guidelines issued by the Food and Drug Administration, USA and the European Commission. The calculated hazard index levels of the target contaminants were below the threshold value of one, indicating that the levels of the target contaminants do not seem to constitute a health risk via fish consumption, with regard to PCBs, PBDEs and HBCDs, based on the limited number of samples that was accounted for in this study. However, due to the continuous discharge of untreated effluents, follow up studies are warranted as the consumption of fish is the primary route of human exposure to PCBs. This maiden report on the status of PBDEs and HBCDs in fish from Ghana will contribute to the knowledge about environmental contamination by POPs in a less industrialized region of the world so far sparsely covered in the literature. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Dietary potentials of the edible larvae of Cirina forda (westwood) as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to determine the performance of broiler chicks to the replacement of fishmeal with the larvae of Cirina forda. Three diets, namely Diet A (100% C. forda larvae and 0% Fish meal); Diet B (50% C. forda larvae and 50% Fish meal); and Diet C, which was the control (100% Fish meal and 0% C.

  14. Metabarcoding dietary analysis of coral dwelling predatory fish demonstrates the minor contribution of coral mutualists to their highly partitioned, generalist diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Leray

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the role of predators in food webs can be challenging in highly diverse predator/prey systems composed of small cryptic species. DNA based dietary analysis can supplement predator removal experiments and provide high resolution for prey identification. Here we use a metabarcoding approach to provide initial insights into the diet and functional role of coral-dwelling predatory fish feeding on small invertebrates. Fish were collected in Moorea (French Polynesia where the BIOCODE project has generated DNA barcodes for numerous coral associated invertebrate species. Pyrosequencing data revealed a total of 292 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTU in the gut contents of the arc-eye hawkfish (Paracirrhites arcatus, the flame hawkfish (Neocirrhites armatus and the coral croucher (Caracanthus maculatus. One hundred forty-nine (51% of them had species-level matches in reference libraries (>98% similarity while 76 additional OTUs (26% could be identified to higher taxonomic levels. Decapods that have a mutualistic relationship with Pocillopora and are typically dominant among coral branches, represent a minor contribution of the predators’ diets. Instead, predators mainly consumed transient species including pelagic taxa such as copepods, chaetognaths and siphonophores suggesting non random feeding behavior. We also identified prey species known to have direct negative interactions with stony corals, such as Hapalocarcinus sp, a gall crab considered a coral parasite, as well as species of vermetid snails known for their deleterious effects on coral growth. Pocillopora DNA accounted for 20.8% and 20.1% of total number of sequences in the guts of the flame hawkfish and coral croucher but it was not detected in the guts of the arc-eye hawkfish. Comparison of diets among the three fishes demonstrates remarkable partitioning with nearly 80% of prey items consumed by only one predator. Overall, the taxonomic resolution provided by the metabarcoding

  15. Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet retains effectiveness to reduce blood pressure when lean pork is substituted for chicken and fish as the predominant source of protein123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayer, R Drew; Wright, Amy J; Chen, Ningning; Campbell, Wayne W

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hypertension is a major, modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular and kidney disease and premature mortality that is improved by the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) diet. The DASH diet emphasizes increased consumption of fruit and vegetables, whole grains, low-fat dairy, nuts, and poultry and fish and reduced intakes of fats, red meats (including pork), sodium, and added sugars. Objective: We sought to evaluate whether the consumption of lean pork compared with the consumption of chicken and fish as the predominant protein source in a DASH-style diet affected blood pressure (BP) control in men and women with elevated BP. Design: In a randomized crossover study, 13 women and 6 men [mean ± SEM age: 61 ± 2 y; BMI (in kg/m2): 31.2 ± 1.4] with elevated BP [systolic blood pressure (SBP)/diastolic blood pressure (DBP): 130 ± 2/85 ± 2 mm Hg] consumed a DASH-style diet for two 6-wk controlled dietary interventions (with a 4-wk diet washout between interventions) with either lean pork [DASH diet with pork (DASH-P)] or chicken and fish [DASH diet with chicken and fish (DASH-CF), the control diet] as the major protein source (55% of total protein intake). SBP and DBP were measured manually and with a 24-h BP monitoring system on 3 d before and 3 d at the end of each diet intervention. Results: Preintervention manual BP (DASH-P: 130/84 ± 2/1 mm Hg; DASH-CF: 129/84 ± 2/1 mg Hg) and postintervention manual BP (DASH-P: 122/79 ± 2/1 mm Hg; DASH-CF: 123/78 ± 3/1) were not different between the DASH-P and DASH-CF. Consumption of these DASH-style diets for 6 wk reduced all measures of BP (P DASH-CF and DASH-P. Conclusion: The results indicate that adults with elevated BP may effectively incorporate lean pork into a DASH-style diet for BP reduction. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01696097. PMID:26063693

  16. Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet retains effectiveness to reduce blood pressure when lean pork is substituted for chicken and fish as the predominant source of protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayer, R Drew; Wright, Amy J; Chen, Ningning; Campbell, Wayne W

    2015-08-01

    Hypertension is a major, modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular and kidney disease and premature mortality that is improved by the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) diet. The DASH diet emphasizes increased consumption of fruit and vegetables, whole grains, low-fat dairy, nuts, and poultry and fish and reduced intakes of fats, red meats (including pork), sodium, and added sugars. We sought to evaluate whether the consumption of lean pork compared with the consumption of chicken and fish as the predominant protein source in a DASH-style diet affected blood pressure (BP) control in men and women with elevated BP. In a randomized crossover study, 13 women and 6 men [mean ± SEM age: 61 ± 2 y; BMI (in kg/m²): 31.2 ± 1.4] with elevated BP [systolic blood pressure (SBP)/diastolic blood pressure (DBP): 130 ± 2/85 ± 2 mm Hg] consumed a DASH-style diet for two 6-wk controlled dietary interventions (with a 4-wk diet washout between interventions) with either lean pork [DASH diet with pork (DASH-P)] or chicken and fish [DASH diet with chicken and fish (DASH-CF), the control diet] as the major protein source (55% of total protein intake). SBP and DBP were measured manually and with a 24-h BP monitoring system on 3 d before and 3 d at the end of each diet intervention. Preintervention manual BP (DASH-P: 130/84 ± 2/1 mm Hg; DASH-CF: 129/84 ± 2/1 mg Hg) and postintervention manual BP (DASH-P: 122/79 ± 2/1 mm Hg; DASH-CF: 123/78 ± 3/1) were not different between the DASH-P and DASH-CF. Consumption of these DASH-style diets for 6 wk reduced all measures of BP (P DASH-CF and DASH-P. The results indicate that adults with elevated BP may effectively incorporate lean pork into a DASH-style diet for BP reduction. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. The effect of dietary fish oil-supplementation to healthy young men on oxidative burst measured by whole blood chemiluminescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartelt, Stine; Timm, Michael; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab

    2008-01-01

    a randomised 2 £ 2-factorial design in which subjects were randomly assigned to 8-week supplementation with capsules containing fish oil (about 29 g n-3 LCPUFA/d) or olive oil (control). Subjects were also randomly assigned to household use of oils and fat spreads with a high or a low 18 : 2n-6 content...... by the fish oil-supplementation (P,0001, compared to the olive oil groups). No effect of the intervention was observed on neutrophil count, but one measure of the zymosan-induced oxidative burst was higher in the fish oil groups (P¼003) compared to the olive oil groups. The fat intervention did not in itself...

  18. Plasma triacylglycerol and coagulation factor concentrations predict the anticoagulant effect of dietary fish oil in overweight subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanschoonbeek, Kristof; Feijge, Marion A H; Saris, Wim H M

    2007-01-01

    fish-oil effects. In study 1, 54 overweight subjects consumed 3.1 g (n-3) PUFA daily. In study 2, which involved 42 overweight patients with type 2 diabetes, 20 subjects consumed (n-3) PUFA, whereas 22 others ingested a preparation rich in (n-6) PUFA. Tissue factor-induced thrombin generation (thrombin...... determined partly the interindividual variation in thrombin generation, of which prothrombin and triacylglycerol concentrations were the main determinants. In both healthy subjects and diabetes patients, high triacylglycerol concentrations (>1.69 mmol/L) at baseline were closely linked to a strong fish oil...

  19. Effect of dietary calcium and phosphorus levels on the total tract digestibility of innate and supplemental organic and inorganic microminerals in a corn-soybean meal based diet of grower pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolliff, J S; Mahan, D C

    2013-06-01

    The effects of Ca and P (CaP) levels and micromineral sources on mineral digestibility were evaluated in growing pigs. Treatments consisted of 2 levels of CaP and 3 trace mineral (TM) treatments arranged as a 2 × 3 factorial in a randomized complete block design with 8 replicates. The CaP levels evaluated were: 1) 0.65% Ca and 0.55% P [standard CaP (Std CaP)], and 2) 1.00% Ca and 0.85% P (High CaP). The TM treatments were: 1) Basal, without supplemental TM, 2) Basal supplemented with organic TM, and 3) Basal supplemented with inorganic TM. Both organic and inorganic TM premixes added 15 mg Cu, 150 mg Fe, 10 mg Mn, 0.3 mg Se, and 140 mg Zn/kg diet. Diets were formulated using corn soybean meal with a Ca to P ratio of 1.18 in both CaP treatments. Barrows with an initial BW of 45 kg were acclimated to stainless steel metabolism crates where diets were fed for 14 d before a 10-d collection period. Pigs within replicates were fed equivalent amounts of feed at 0800 and 1600 h each day with water provided free choice. Total feces, urine, and feed orts were collected daily. Essential macro- and microminerals were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma analysis. Increasing dietary CaP decreased the digestibility of Ca and Zn. Phosphorus digestibility did not change when the P inclusion level increased from 0.55 to 0.85% Ptotal. The High CaP level resulted in a lower urinary excretion of most minerals, particularly Cu (P < 0.05) and Mn (P < 0.05), as dietary CaP level increased but the others were not statistically significant. A summary of the ATTD for each of the experimental variables was statistically analyzed and averaged for the experiment. Although there were few statistical differences with individual minerals, they generally demonstrated a decline in digestibility when the High CaP was fed, averaging a 3% lower digestibility consistently than when the Std CaP level was fed. Organic TM averaged an approximately 5% greater digestibility than the average inorganic

  20. Effect of dietary protein level (as substitution of maize with soybean meal on growth rate and feed efficiency of the Cinta Senese pig in the growing-fattening period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oreste Franci

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to provide first indications on the protein requirement of Cinta Senese pigs. The effect of various dietary protein contents on in vita performance was tested. Sixty Cinta Senese pigs were equally distributed in four dietary groups, balanced for sex (barrow and gilt and live weight. At the start of the trial, pigs were approximately 130 d old and weighed an average 46.6 kg. Groups were fed four diets with different protein content (approximately 8, 10, 13 and 16%, named 8% P, 10% P, 13% P, 16% P, respectively, obtained by using different maize/soybean meal ratios. Diets were administered to pigs during the entire growing-fattening period in a controlled dose of 90 g/kg W0.75, until a maximum of 2.5 kg/d pro capite. Feed distributed per pen was recorded daily and individual weight and ultrasonic backfat thickness were periodically recorded. The trial lasted approximately 250 d and finished when animals reached the target slaughter weight of 145 kg. The 8% P diet determined a lower growth rate than the other diets; after 250 d, pigs receiving this diet were 20 kg lighter than those receiving the other diets. The 10% P diet determined body weights always lower than the 13% P and 16% P diets, but the difference decreased in the middle of the trial period. The pigs fed 13% P and 16% P diets showed the same growth rate. Moreover, through the whole growth period, the 8% P diet produced higher fat thickness than the other three diets, which showed similar results. The 8% P diet determined the highest FCIs. The 16% P diet showed the best feed conversion until approximately 70 kg of l.w., but after this weight it became progressively less efficient than the 10% P and 13% P diets. Consequently, the cumulative intake of that diet was the lowest only for the first 60 kg of gain. The 10% P diet gave the best FCI starting from 80 kg of l.w. In consideration of the cost of protein feed and the need to reduce N pollution, the 10% P diet could be

  1. What Is the Most Effective Way of Increasing the Bioavailability of Dietary Long Chain Omega-3 Fatty Acids—Daily vs. Weekly Administration of Fish Oil?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Ghasemifard

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The recommendations on the intake of long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA vary from eating oily fish (“once to twice per week” to consuming specified daily amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA (“250–500 mg per day”. It is not known if there is a difference in the uptake/bioavailability between regular daily consumption of supplementsvs. consuming fish once or twice per week. In this study, the bioavailability of a daily dose of n-3 LC-PUFA (Constant treatment, representing supplements, vs. a large weekly dose of n-3 LC-PUFA (Spike treatment, representing consuming once or twice per week, was assessed. Six-week old healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a Constant treatment, a Spike treatment or Control treatment (no n-3 LC-PUFA, for six weeks. The whole body, tissues and faeces were analysed for fatty acid content. The results showed that the major metabolic fate of the n-3 LC-PUFA (EPA+docosapentaenoic acid (DPA + DHA was towards catabolism (β-oxidation accounting for over 70% of total dietary intake, whereas deposition accounted less than 25% of total dietary intake. It was found that significantly more n-3 LC-PUFA were β-oxidised when originating from the Constant treatment (84% of dose, compared with the Spike treatment (75% of dose. Conversely, it was found that significantly more n-3 LC-PUFA were deposited when originating from the Spike treatment (23% of dose, than from the Constant treatment (15% of dose. These unexpected findings show that a large dose of n-3 LC-PUFA once per week is more effective in increasing whole body n-3 LC-PUFA content in rats compared with a smaller dose delivered daily.

  2. Incorporation of eicosapentaenioic and docosahexaenoic acids into breast adipose tissue of women at high risk of breast cancer: a randomized clinical trial of dietary fish and n-3 fatty acid capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straka, Shana; Lester, Joanne L; Cole, Rachel M; Andridge, Rebecca R; Puchala, Sarah; Rose, Angela M; Clinton, Steven K; Belury, Martha A; Yee, Lisa D

    2015-09-01

    The fatty acid profile of dietary lipids is reflected in mammary adipose tissue and may influence mammary gland biology and cancer risk. To determine the effects of fish consumption on breast adipose tissue fatty acids, we conducted a study of fish versus n-3 PUFA supplements in women at increased risk of breast cancer. High risk women were randomized to comparable doses of marine n-3 PUFAs as canned salmon + albacore or capsules for 3 months. Pre- and posttreatment fatty acid profiles were obtained by GC. Dietary fish (n = 12) and n-3 PUFA capsules (n = 13) yielded increased eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in plasma (p breast fat (p Women taking capsules had higher plasma and erythrocyte membrane EPA changes (∼four versus twofold, p = 0.002), without significant differences in DHA. Increases in breast adipose EPA, DHA were similar for both groups. Higher BMI correlated with smaller changes in plasma, erythrocyte membrane EPA, and breast adipose EPA, DHA. Adherence was excellent at 93.9% overall and higher in the fish arm (p = 0.01). Fish provides an excellent source of n-3 PUFAs that increases breast adipose EPA, DHA similar to supplements and represents a well-tolerated intervention for future studies of the impact of n-3 PUFAs and dietary patterns on breast cancer. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Various Species of Fishes from Mumbai Harbour, India, and Their Dietary Intake Concentration to Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dhananjayan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are ubiquitous environmental contaminants which have caused worldwide concerns as toxic pollutant. This study reports the concentrations of 15 PAHs in 5 species of fish samples collected along the harbour line, Mumbai, between 2006 and 2008. Among 5 species of fish investigated, Mandeli, Coilia dussimieri, detected the maximum concentration of PAHs (P<0.05 followed by Doma, Otolithes ruber. The concentration of total and carcinogenic PAHs ranged from 17.43 to 70.44 ng/g wet wt. and 9.49 to 31.23 ng/g wet wt, respectively, among the species tested. The lower-molecular-weight PAHs were detected at highest levels. Estimated intakes of PAHs by fish consumption for the general population were ranged between 1.77 and 10.70 ng/kg body weight/day. Mandeli contributed to the highest intakes of PAHs. The toxic equivalents (TEQs of PAHs were calculated using a TEQ proposed in literature, and the intake ranged from 8.39 to 15.78 pg TEQ/kg body weight/d. The estimated excess cancer risk value (2.37×10−7–1.43×10−6 from fish consumption for the general population exceeded the guideline value (1.0 × 10−6 for potential cancer risk.

  4. DIETARY FISH OIL-INDUCED CHANGES IN INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTEROL TRANSPORT AND BILE-ACID SYNTHESIS IN RATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SMIT, MJ; TEMMERMAN, AM; WOLTERS, H; KUIPERS, F; BEYNEN, AC; VONK, RJ

    Hepatic cholesterol metabolism was studied in rats fed purified diets supplemented (9% wt/wt) with either fish oil (FO) (n-3 fatty acids) or corn oil (CO) (n-6 fatty acids) for 4 wk. Rats were equipped with permanent catheters in heart, bile duct, and duodenum to allow studies under normal feeding

  5. Hematological findings in neotropical fish Hoplias malabaricus exposed to subchronic and dietary doses of methylmercury, inorganic lead, and tributyltin chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira Ribeiro, C.A.; Filipak Neto, F.; Mela, M.; Silva, P.H.; Randi, M.A.F.; Rabitto, I.S.; Alves Costa, J.R.M.; Pelletier, E.

    2006-01-01

    Hematological indices are gaining general acceptance as valuable tools in monitoring various aspects the health of fish exposed to contaminants. In this work some effects of methyl mercury (MeHg), inorganic lead (Pb 2+ ), and tributyltin (TBT) in a tropical fish species were evaluated by hematological methods after a trophic exposition at a subchronic level. Forty-two mature individuals of the freshwater top predator fish Hoplias malabaricus were exposed to trophic doses (each 5 days) of MeHg (0.075 μg g -1 ), Pb 2+ (21 μg g -1 ), and TBT (0.3 μg g -1 ) using young fish Astyanax sp. as prey vehicle. After 14 successive doses over 70 days, blood was sampled from exposed and control groups to evaluate hematological effects of metals on erythrocytes, total leukocytes and differential leukocytes counts, hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, and red blood cell indices mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). Transmission electron microscopy and image analysis of erythrocytes were also used to investigate some morphometric parameters. Results show no significant effects in MCH and MCHC for all tested metals, but differences were found in erythrocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit, MCV, and white blood cells counts. The number of leukocytes was increased in the presence of MeHg, suggesting effects on the immune system. Also the MCV increased in individuals exposed to MeHg. No ultrastructural damages were observed in red blood cells but the image analysis using light microscopy revealed differences in area, elongation, and roundness of erythrocytes from individuals exposed to Pb 2+ and TBT but not in the group exposed to MeHg. The present work shows that changes in hematological and blood indices could highlight some barely detectable metal effects in fish after laboratory exposure to contaminated food, but their application in field biomonitoring using H. malabaricus will need more detailed

  6. Genotype-specific responses in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar subject to dietary fish oil replacement by vegetable oil: a liver transcriptomic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Derrick R

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expansion of aquaculture is seriously limited by reductions in fish oil (FO supply for aquafeeds. Terrestrial alternatives such as vegetable oils (VO have been investigated and recently a strategy combining genetic selection with changes in diet formulations has been proposed to meet growing demands for aquaculture products. This study investigates the influence of genotype on transcriptomic responses to sustainable feeds in Atlantic salmon. Results A microarray analysis was performed to investigate the liver transcriptome of two family groups selected according to their estimated breeding values (EBVs for flesh lipid content, 'Lean' or 'Fat', fed diets containing either FO or a VO blend. Diet principally affected metabolism genes, mainly of lipid and carbohydrate, followed by immune response genes. Genotype had a much lower impact on metabolism-related genes and affected mostly signalling pathways. Replacement of dietary FO by VO caused an up-regulation of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis, but there was a clear genotype effect as fatty acyl elongase (elovl2 was only up-regulated and desaturases (Δ5 fad and Δ6 fad showed a higher magnitude of response in Lean fish, which was reflected in liver fatty acid composition. Fatty acid synthase (FAS was also up-regulated by VO and the effect was independent of genotype. Genetic background of the fish clearly affected regulation of lipid metabolism, as PPARα and PPARβ were down-regulated by the VO diet only in Lean fish, while in Fat salmon SREBP-1 expression was up-regulated by VO. In addition, all three genes had a lower expression in the Lean family group than in the Fat, when fed VO. Differences in muscle adiposity between family groups may have been caused by higher levels of hepatic fatty acid and glycerophospholipid synthesis in the Fat fish, as indicated by the expression of FAS, 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase and lipid phosphate

  7. Genotype-specific responses in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) subject to dietary fish oil replacement by vegetable oil: a liver transcriptomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Sofia; Pratoomyot, Jarunan; Taggart, John B; Bron, James E; Guy, Derrick R; Bell, J Gordon; Tocher, Douglas R

    2011-05-20

    Expansion of aquaculture is seriously limited by reductions in fish oil (FO) supply for aquafeeds. Terrestrial alternatives such as vegetable oils (VO) have been investigated and recently a strategy combining genetic selection with changes in diet formulations has been proposed to meet growing demands for aquaculture products. This study investigates the influence of genotype on transcriptomic responses to sustainable feeds in Atlantic salmon. A microarray analysis was performed to investigate the liver transcriptome of two family groups selected according to their estimated breeding values (EBVs) for flesh lipid content, 'Lean' or 'Fat', fed diets containing either FO or a VO blend. Diet principally affected metabolism genes, mainly of lipid and carbohydrate, followed by immune response genes. Genotype had a much lower impact on metabolism-related genes and affected mostly signalling pathways. Replacement of dietary FO by VO caused an up-regulation of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis, but there was a clear genotype effect as fatty acyl elongase (elovl2) was only up-regulated and desaturases (Δ5 fad and Δ6 fad) showed a higher magnitude of response in Lean fish, which was reflected in liver fatty acid composition. Fatty acid synthase (FAS) was also up-regulated by VO and the effect was independent of genotype. Genetic background of the fish clearly affected regulation of lipid metabolism, as PPARα and PPARβ were down-regulated by the VO diet only in Lean fish, while in Fat salmon SREBP-1 expression was up-regulated by VO. In addition, all three genes had a lower expression in the Lean family group than in the Fat, when fed VO. Differences in muscle adiposity between family groups may have been caused by higher levels of hepatic fatty acid and glycerophospholipid synthesis in the Fat fish, as indicated by the expression of FAS, 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase and lipid phosphate phosphohydrolase 2. This study has identified

  8. Effect of meal environment on diet quality rating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Sarah J; Hanning, Rhona M

    2009-01-01

    Family meals have been associated with improved dietary quality in children and adolescents, and yet very little is known about family meals beyond their frequency. Specific aspects of the breakfast, lunch, and dinner meal environments were described and compared, and the associations with overall diet quality were investigated. Data on food intake and meal environments were obtained in northern Ontario, southern Ontario, and Nova Scotia grades six, seven, and eight classrooms over the 2005 to 2006 school year. Specific aspects of the meal environments described were where the meal was consumed, with whom participants consumed each meal, who prepared the meal, and where the food was originally purchased. Diet quality was assessed using the Canadian version of the Healthy Eating Index. Cluster K-means procedures were used to classify into groups observations about the four meal environment variables. Three, eight, and six clusters of meal environments were identified for breakfast, lunch, and dinner, respectively. Diet quality was negatively associated with consuming/ purchasing meals outside the home, and with skipping breakfast, lunch, and/or dinner. Results have immediate relevance for family-based and/or school programs and policies aimed at educating and feeding children and adolescents.

  9. Risk of postpartum depression in relation to dietary fish and fat intake in Japan: the Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Tanaka, Keiko; Ohya, Yukihiro; Fukushima, Wakaba; Saito, Kyoko; Ohfuji, Satoko; Kiyohara, Chikako; Hirota, Yoshio

    2006-12-01

    An ecological analysis found that the docosahexaenoic acid content in mother's milk and seafood intake were inversely correlated with postpartum depression. This prospective study investigated the relationship of consumption of selected high-fat foods and specific types of fatty acids with the risk of postpartum depression. The subjects were 865 Japanese women. Dietary data were obtained from a self-administered diet history questionnaire during pregnancy. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was used for the evaluation of postpartum depression. Adjustment was made for age, gestation, parity, cigarette smoking, family structure, family income, education, changes in diet in the previous month, season when data at baseline were collected, body mass index, time of delivery before the second survey, medical problems in pregnancy, baby's sex and baby's birthweight. The percentage of women with high depression scores was 14.0%. No evident dose-response associations were observed between intake of fish, meat, eggs, dairy products, total fat, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, linoleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid or docosahexaenoic acid and the ratio of n-3 to n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and the risk of postpartum depression. However, there was an inverted J-shaped relationship between intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and docosahexaenoic acid and the risk of postpartum depression. This study failed to substantiate a clear inverse relationship between fish and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake and postpartum depression. Further investigations are needed to determine whether fish and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid consumption is preventive against postpartum depression.

  10. Substitution of fishmeal with soybean meal in humpback Grouper, Cromileptes altivelis juvenile diets supplemented with phytase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachman Syah

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Feeding experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of replacing fishmeal with soybean meal in diet on growth of humpback grouper. Fifteen cages of 1 x 1 x 1.2 m3 each stocked with 16 humpback grouper juveniles (61.3 ± 0.4 g/pc were set up randomly in seawater. Fish were fed to satiation twice daily for 112 days. The control diet contained 61.9% fishmeal (63.34% crude protein. Four isonitrogenous (48% crude protein and isocaloric (4.7 kcal/g feed diets supplemented with commercial phytase “Rhonozyme-P” at 0.075% were formulated to contain different levels (8%, 16%, 24%, and 32% soybean meal (43.65% crude protein as a partial replacement for fishmeal. These diets contained total phosphorus levels between 3.6—4.5 (±0.4 % and 0.7—1.5 (±0.04 % available phosphorus. Replacement of fishmeal with soybean meal (8 to 32% replacement was not significantly different (P>0.05 to the control diet on daily growth rate (DGR, food conversion ratio (FCR, protein efficiency ratio (PER, and daily food consumption (DFC. However, the dietary levels of soybean meal significantly affected (P<0.05 whole body protein and phosphorus retention (Table 1. These data suggest that addition of phytase in diets could improve protein and phosphorus availability and reduce nitrogen and phosphorus loading in the environment. Phytase can therefore play an important role in formulating eco-friendly feed for humpback grouper. Based on P loading, supplementation of phytase enable up to 24% fishmeal replacement with soybean meal.

  11. Lead in clams and fish of dietary importance from Coatzacoalcos estuary (Gulf of Mexico), an industrialized tropical region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruelas-Inzunza, J; Gárate-Viera, Y; Páez-Osuna, F

    2007-11-01

    With the aim of knowing seasonal variability of lead in fish and bivalve species from Coatzacoalcos estuary, biota collected during three seasons was examined. In muscle tissue of fish, the highest level (5.4 microg g(-1)) was found in the longnose gar Lepisosteus osseus from San Francisco stream (a highly impacted site); the lowest value (0.2 microg g(-1)) was registered in yellowfin mojarra Gerres cinereus from Ostión lagoon (control site). In bivalves, concentrations in soft tissue ranged from 1.5 microg g(-1) in Polymesoda caroliniana from Calzadas river, to 0.1 microg g(-1) in Corbicula fluminea from Hidalgotitlán (control site).

  12. Dietary protein requirement of juvenile turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus Linnaeus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingwang; Mai, Kangsen; Liufu, Zhiguo; Ai, Qinghui

    2015-04-01

    The dietary protein requirement of juvenile turbot (initial average weight, 38.2 g ± 0.1 g) reared indoor in aerated aquaria was determined in this study. Five energy equal experimental diets were formulated with fish meal as protein source, which contained different concentrations of protein (47.2%, 51.0%, 54.6%, 59.3% and 63.6% of dry diet). Three groups of fish with 18 individuals in each, were cultured in 300-L tanks and fed twice a day for 8 weeks. During culture, temperature was controlled between 15.0 and 18.0°C, salinity was controlled between 28.5 and 32.0, acidity was controlled between pH7.8 and pH8.5, and ammonia nitrogen was maintained below 0.03 mg L-1 and dissolved oxygen was maintained about 7 mg L-1. Results showed that the growth of fish was significantly affected by dietary protein content ( P 0.05). Broken-line regression analysis of SGR showed that the optimal dietary protein requirement of turbot was about 57.0%.

  13. Effect of dietary amino acid composition from proteins alternative to fishmeal on the growth of juveniles of the common snook, Centropomus undecimalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Freire Silvão

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study investigated the effect of dietary amino acid composition from proteins alternative to fishmeal on the growth performance of the common snook, Centropomus undecimalis. Fish of 10.79±0.71 g (n = 150 were stocked in 15 shaded outdoor tanks of 1 m3. The basal diet contained 643.4 g kg−1 salmon byproduct meal (SML and 200.0 g kg−1 soy protein concentrate (SPC. Two other diets replaced 39 and 29% of the SML with poultry byproduct meal (PBM, 170.1 g kg−1 and SPC (334.9 g kg−1, respectively. Fish were fed twice daily for 84 days under 32±1 g L−1 water salinity and 27.3±0.9 °C temperature. Final survival (99.5±2.6% was unaffected by dietary treatment. Snook grew slower (0.24±0.03 and 0.27±0.04 vs 0.35±0.06 g day−1 and achieved the lowest body weight (31.1±6.62 and 33.3±10.20 vs 40.4±13.18 g and the highest feed conversion ratio (3.69±0.29 and 3.11±0.51 vs 2.33±0.34 when fed SPC and basal diets compared with PBM, respectively. Retention of dietary crude protein varied from 36 to 38% for fish fed the basal and SPC diets, but exceeded 51% in fish fed PBM. Results indicate a greater ability of the common snook to gain weight and increase retention of nutrients when dietary protein is of terrestrial animal origin. Dietary protein from PBM yields a more balanced dietary amino acid composition relative to fish muscle, but possibly in excess of the species requirements.

  14. THE PSYCHOBIOLOGY OF MEALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WOODS, SC; STRUBBE, JH; Woods, Stephen C.

    Meals are considered as bouts of behavior that, although necessary for supplying nutrients to the body, result in undesirable perturbations of homeostatically controlled parameters. If the environment dictates that an animal mainly eat very large meals, these meal-associated perturbations become

  15. Time trend investigation of PCBs, PBDEs, and organochlorine pesticides in selected n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid rich dietary fish oil and vegetable oil supplements; nutritional relevance for human essential n-3 fatty acid requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Miriam N; Covaci, Adrian; Gheorghe, Adriana; Schepens, Paul

    2004-03-24

    In addition to being used in the food and animal feed industry, fish oils have also been used traditionally as dietary supplements. Due to the presence of long-chain n-3 fatty acids, fish oils have therapeutic benefits in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular, immunological, and arthritic diseases, as well as childhood deficiency diseases such as rickets, because of a high content of vitamin D. However, fish oils are also susceptible to contamination with lipophilic organic chemicals that are now ubiquitous contaminants of marine ecosystems. Many vegetable oils are sources of the shorter chain precursor forms of n-3 fatty acids, and in recent years the specialist dietary supplement market has expanded to include these oils in a variety of different formulations. This paper reports analytical results of selected contaminants, including polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers, for a range of commercially available n-3 fatty acid rich fish and vegetable oil dietary supplements. Using principal component analysis, the values are compared with historic samples to elucidate time trends in contamination profiles. Levels of contaminants are discussed in relation to the nutritional benefits to the consumer of long- and short-chain forms of n-3 fatty acids.

  16. Replacement of Soybean Meal with Animal Origin Protein Meals Improved Ramoplanin A2 Production by Actinoplanes sp. ATCC 33076.