WorldWideScience

Sample records for dietary canitine maintains

  1. Dietary canitine maintains energy reserves and delays fatigue of exercised african catfish (Clarias gariepinus fed high fat diets Carnitina dietética mantem reservas energéticas e evita a fatiga de bagre-africano durante exercício

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ozório

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Lipids, together with proteins, are traditionally considered as primary fuels during aerobic swimming. The effects of dietary fat and carnitine supplements and exercise on the energy metabolism of juvenile fish were investigated. One hundred African catfish (Clarias gariepinus were fed four isonitrogenous diets containing a fat level of 100 or 190 g kg-1 diet and one of the two levels of carnitine (15 and 1000 mg kg-1. Fish grew from 61 to 162 g in 10 wk. Thereafter, 6 fish per group swam vigorously for 3 h and the results were compared with unexercised groups. Fish receiving 1,000 mg carnitine accumulated 2- to 3-fold more carnitine than fish receiving 15 mg carnitine. Plasma acyl-carnitine level was affected by an interaction between dietary treatment and exercise (P Lipídios e proteínas são tradicionalmente considerados combustíveis primários durante natação aeróbica. Nesse ensaio foi investigado o efeito da suplementação de vários níveis de gordura e carnitina no metabolismo de 100 bagres africanos juvenis (Clarias gariepinus. Os peixes foram arraçoados com quatro dietas isoprotéicas, cada uma contendo 100 ou 190 g gordura kg-1 dieta, e um dos dois níveis de carnitina (15 e 1000 mg kg-1. Os peixes cresceram de 61 a 162 g em 10 semanas. No final do ensaio de alimentação, grupos de seis peixes por tratamento foram induzidos a nadar vigorosamente por 3 h e em seguida vários parâmetros foram determinados no tecido muscular e plasma, e os resultados observados nos grupos exercitados foram comparados com grupos controles (não exercitados. Os peixes arraçoados com 1,000 mg carnitina acumularam de duas a três vezes mais carnitina que os peixes arraçoados com 15 mg carnitina. O nível de acyl-carnitina no plasma foi influenciado pela interação entre os tratamentos dietéticos e exercício físico (P < 0.05. As concentrações de adenosina trifosfato (ATP e fosfocreatina no tecido muscular branco (WM foram mais elevadas em

  2. Low income Russian families adopt effective behavioral strategies to maintain dietary stability in times of economic crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dore, Anna R; Adair, Linda S; Popkin, Barry M

    2003-11-01

    The social, political and economic reforms of 1992 in Russia led to a decade of rising income inequality, unemployment and economic crises, the most severe of which occurred in 1998. This study assesses dietary trends for children in low and high income households during this politically and economically unstable period from 1994 to 2000. Several possible food-related behaviors were also assessed to evaluate coping strategies adopted in the face of decreasing economic stability. Low income children maintained a steady energy intake per kilogram weight throughout the study period (251.0-259.4 kJ/kg), whereas intake for high income children increased significantly to a per capital average of 297.1 kJ/kg by 2000. At the food group level, the trend in per capita intake for all food groups was maintained for low income children except for a 22% decrease in meat and poultry consumption (P economic crisis.

  3. Dietary Carnitine maintains energy reserves and delays fatigue of exercised African catfish (Clarias Gariepinus) fed high fat diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozorio, R.; Ginneken, van V.J.T.; Thillart, van den G.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2005-01-01

    Lipids, together with proteins, are traditionally considered as primary fuels during aerobic swimming. The effects of dietary fat and carnitine supplements and exercise on the energy metabolism of juvenile fish were investigated. One hundred African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) were fed four

  4. Age and body weight effects on glucose and insulin tolerance in colony cats maintained since weaning on high dietary carbohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backus, R C; Cave, N J; Ganjam, V K; Turner, J B M; Biourge, V C

    2010-12-01

    High dietary carbohydrate is suggested to promote development of diabetes mellitus in cats. Glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion were assessed in young [0.8-2.3 (median = 1.1) years, n = 13] and mature [4.0-7.0 (median 5.8) years, n = 12] sexually intact females of a large (n ≅ 700) feline colony in which only dry-type diets (35% metabolizable energy as carbohydrate) were fed from weaning. Insulin sensitivity was assessed from the 'late-phase' (60-120 min) plasma insulin response of intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTTs) and from fractional change in glycaemia from baseline 15 min after an insulin bolus (0.1 U/kg, i.v.). Insulin secretion was assessed from the 'early-phase' (0-15 min) plasma insulin response of IVGTTs. Compared to the young cats, the mature cats had greater body weights [2.3-3.8 (median = 2.9) vs. 3.0-6.3 (median = 4.0) kg, p < 0.01], greater late-phase insulin responses (p < 0.05), lower insulin-induced glycaemic changes (p = 0.06), lower early-phase insulin responses (p < 0.05), and non-significantly different rates of glucose disposal. The late-phase insulin response was correlated with body weight and age (p < 0.05). When group assignments were balanced for body weight, the age-group differences and correlations became non-significant. The findings indicate that body weight gain is more likely than dry-type diets to induce the pre-diabetic conditions of insulin resistance and secretion dysfunction. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Comparison of two theory-based, fully automated telephone interventions designed to maintain dietary change in healthy adults: study protocol of a three-arm randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Julie A; Quintiliani, Lisa M; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Migneault, Jeffrey P; Heeren, Timothy; Friedman, Robert H

    2014-11-10

    Health behavior change interventions have focused on obtaining short-term intervention effects; few studies have evaluated mid-term and long-term outcomes, and even fewer have evaluated interventions that are designed to maintain and enhance initial intervention effects. Moreover, behavior theory has not been developed for maintenance or applied to maintenance intervention design to the degree that it has for behavior change initiation. The objective of this paper is to describe a study that compared two theory-based interventions (social cognitive theory [SCT] vs goal systems theory [GST]) designed to maintain previously achieved improvements in fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption. The interventions used tailored, interactive conversations delivered by a fully automated telephony system (Telephone-Linked Care [TLC]) over a 6-month period. TLC maintenance intervention based on SCT used a skills-based approach to build self-efficacy. It assessed confidence in and barriers to eating F&V, provided feedback on how to overcome barriers, plan ahead, and set goals. The TLC maintenance intervention based on GST used a cognitive-based approach. Conversations trained participants in goal management to help them integrate their newly acquired dietary behavior into their hierarchical system of goals. Content included goal facilitation, conflict, shielding, and redundancy, and reflection on personal goals and priorities. To evaluate and compare the two approaches, a sample of adults whose F&V consumption was below public health goal levels were recruited from a large urban area to participate in a fully automated telephony intervention (TLC-EAT) for 3-6 months. Participants who increase their daily intake of F&V by ≥1 serving/day will be eligible for the three-arm randomized controlled trial. A sample of 405 participants will be randomized to one of three arms: (1) an assessment-only control, (2) TLC-SCT, and (3) TLC-GST. The maintenance interventions are 6 months. All 405

  6. Relative apportioning of resources to the body and regenerating tail in juvenile leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) maintained on different dietary rations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Sabrina E; Borkovic, Benjamin P; Russell, Anthony P

    2013-01-01

    Caudal autotomy is a widespread phenomenon among lizards, and similar processes occur in other groups of vertebrates and invertebrates. Many costs have been associated with autotomy, including the regeneration of lost biomass. For lizards, it is not known whether resources are preferentially directed toward caudal regeneration or whether regeneration occurs only when resources are abundant. Conflicting information is present in the literature, and an absence of controlled experiments prevents determination of what pattern of regeneration may occur under a given set of circumstances. We employed the leopard gecko, a fat-tailed species, to examine whether tail regeneration is a priority and, if so, whether it remains so when resources become limiting. We explored this through caudal autotomy and dietary manipulation under conditions that ensured that differences in diet were sufficient to permit differential growth. We examined juvenile leopard geckos because these animals are rapidly growing and allocation of energy is not compromised by reproductive investment. The effects of dietary resource availability and the demands of caudal regeneration were compared in intact and regenerating animals. Our evidence indicates that caudal regeneration is a priority, even when resources are limiting. We conclude that tail regrowth is a priority that is associated with long-term survival and possibly reproductive success.

  7. Maintainability allocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guyot, Christian.

    1980-06-01

    The author gives the general lines of a method for the allocation and for the evaluation of maintainability of complex systems which is to be developed during the conference. The maintainability objective is supposed to be formulated under the form of a mean time to repair (M.T.T.R.) [fr

  8. Maintaining positive

    OpenAIRE

    Gheorghe Gh. IONESCU; Adina Letitia NEGRUSA

    2004-01-01

    Maintaining positive work-force relationships includes in effective labor-management relations and making appropriate responses to current employee issues. Among the major current employee issues are protection from arbitrary dismissal, drug and alcohol abuse, privacy rights and family maters and they impact work. In our paper we discus two problems: first, the meanings of industrial democracy; second, the three principal operational concepts of industrial democracy (1) industrial democracy t...

  9. Maintaining evolvability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, James F

    2008-12-01

    Although molecular methods, such as QTL mapping, have revealed a number of loci with large effects, it is still likely that the bulk of quantitative variability is due to multiple factors, each with small effect. Typically, these have a large additive component. Conventional wisdom argues that selection, natural or artificial, uses up additive variance and thus depletes its supply. Over time, the variance should be reduced, and at equilibrium be near zero. This is especially expected for fitness and traits highly correlated with it. Yet, populations typically have a great deal of additive variance, and do not seem to run out of genetic variability even after many generations of directional selection. Long-term selection experiments show that populations continue to retain seemingly undiminished additive variance despite large changes in the mean value. I propose that there are several reasons for this. (i) The environment is continually changing so that what was formerly most fit no longer is. (ii) There is an input of genetic variance from mutation, and sometimes from migration. (iii) As intermediate-frequency alleles increase in frequency towards one, producing less variance (as p --> 1, p(1 - p) --> 0), others that were originally near zero become more common and increase the variance. Thus, a roughly constant variance is maintained. (iv) There is always selection for fitness and for characters closely related to it. To the extent that the trait is heritable, later generations inherit a disproportionate number of genes acting additively on the trait, thus increasing genetic variance. For these reasons a selected population retains its ability to evolve. Of course, genes with large effect are also important. Conspicuous examples are the small number of loci that changed teosinte to maize, and major phylogenetic changes in the animal kingdom. The relative importance of these along with duplications, chromosome rearrangements, horizontal transmission and polyploidy

  10. Redução do nível de proteína bruta em rações para frangos de corte em ambiente de termoneutralidade Dietary crude protein level reduction for broilers maintained in thermoneutral environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will Pereira de Oliveira

    2011-08-01

    design, with five treatments (21.6; 20.6; 19.6; 18.6 and 17.6% CP and eight replications with seven birds per experimental unit. Temperatures inside the rooms were maintained at 21.6 ± 0.7°C, relative humidity at 74.4.0% and black globe temperature of 22.5 ± 0.7°C. Black globe temperature and humidity index (BGHTI calculated for a period of 70 ± 0.9. There was no effect of the reduction of the levels of CP on weight gain and on feed intake but feed conversion was influenced by the reduction of the CP levels, and the birds fed diet with 22.0% of CP presented a better result. The reduction of the levels of CP did not influence absolute carcass weight and absolute and relative weights of breast, thigh and drumstick. Reduction of the level of dietary CP from 21.6 to 17.6% and formulated according to ideal protein concept worsens feed conversion of broilers kept in thermoneutral environment, not influencing the other studied variables.

  11. Ergonomics Contribution in Maintainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teymourian, Kiumars; Seneviratne, Dammika; Galar, Diego

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe an ergonomics contribution in maintainability. The economical designs, inputs and training helps to increase the maintainability indicators for industrial devices. This analysis can be helpful, among other cases, to compare systems, to achieve a better design regarding maintainability requirements, to improve this maintainability under specific industrial environment and to foresee maintainability problems due to eventual changes in a device operation conditions. With this purpose, this work first introduces the notion of ergonomics and human factors, maintainability and the implementation of assessment of human postures, including some important postures to perform maintenance activities. A simulation approach is used to identify the critical posture of the maintenance personnel and implements the defined postures with minimal loads on the personnel who use the equipment in a practical scenario. The simulation inputs are given to the designers to improve the workplace/equipment in order to high level of maintainability. Finally, the work concludes summarizing the more significant aspects and suggesting future research.

  12. Maintaining dignity in vulnerability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høy, Bente

    2016-01-01

    to understand the meaning of the narrated text. Results. The meaning of maintaining dignity was constituted in a sense of vulnerability to the self, and elucidated in three major interrelated themes: Being involved as a human being, being involved as the person one is and strives to become, and being involved...

  13. Constructability and maintainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, R.S.

    1985-01-01

    A set of principles for minimizing the construction schedule was established at the outset of the CANDU 300 programme. Consideration of these principles and other factors led to the development of the unique CANDU 300 station layout. The paper discusses the CANDU 300 station layout and construction methods. In summary, the station layout provides 360 deg. construction access to all buildings, separation of nuclear and non-nuclear systems, precise and minimal physical interfaces between buildings, accommodation of many contractors and construction activities without interference, and maximum flexibility in terms of constructional, financial and supply arrangements. The CANDU 300 further employs modularization, shop fabrication and advanced instrumentation (multiplexers, remote processors, data highways) to minimize construction time. Many of the CANDU 300 features that enhance constructability also contribute to maintainability. These include the 360 deg. access to all principal buildings, the uncluttered and spacious building layouts, the simplification of systems and the high level of modularization. The CANDU 300 has also been designed to facilitate the replacement of all key components, thereby offering an essentially unlimited station life. A prime example is a reduction in the fuel channel inlet end-fitting diameter such that the fuel channels can be shop assembled and easily replaced after the initial 40 years of operation, without an extended unit outage. Maintainability within the reactor building has been given particular attention in the CANDU 300 design; key features of other CANDU reactors (the ability to replace a heat transport system pump motor at power, for example) have been incorporated, while accessibility and maintainability of all systems and components have been enhanced. These and other aspects of maintainability are discussed. (author)

  14. Reliability and maintainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Several communications in this conference are concerned with nuclear plant reliability and maintainability; their titles are: maintenance optimization of stand-by Diesels of 900 MW nuclear power plants; CLAIRE: an event-based simulation tool for software testing; reliability as one important issue within the periodic safety review of nuclear power plants; design of nuclear building ventilation by the means of functional analysis; operation characteristic analysis for a power industry plant park, as a function of influence parameters

  15. Seamless service: maintaining momentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinstead, N; Timoney, R

    1994-01-01

    Describes the process used by the Mater Infirmorum Hospital in Belfast in 1992-1994 to achieve high quality care (Seamless Service), motivate staff to deliver and measure performance. Aims of the project include focusing the organization on the customer, improving teamwork and motivation at all levels. After comprehensive data collection from GPs, patients and staff management forums developed a full TQM strategy to gain support and maintain momentum including innovative staff events (every staff member was given the opportunity to attend) where multilevel, multidisciplinary workshops enabled staff to design customer care standards, develop teams and lead customer-driven change.

  16. Gestures maintain spatial imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesp, R; Hesse, J; Keutmann, D; Wheaton, K

    2001-01-01

    Recent theories suggest alternatives to the commonly held belief that the sole role of gestures is to communicate meaning directly to listeners. Evidence suggests that gestures may serve a cognitive function for speakers, possibly acting as lexical primes. We observed that participants gestured more often when describing a picture from memory than when the picture was present and that gestures were not influenced by manipulating eye contact of a listener. We argue that spatial imagery serves a short-term memory function during lexical search and that gestures may help maintain spatial images. When spatial imagery is not necessary, as in conditions of direct visual stimulation, reliance on gestures is reduced or eliminated.

  17. Maintainability design guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pack, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    The Human Factors Design Guide for Maintainability provides guidance for systematically incorporating good human factors techniques into the design of power plants. The guide describes a means of developing a comprehensive program plan to ensure compliance with the human factors approaches specified by the utility. The guide also provides specific recommendations for design practices, with examples, bases, and references. The recommendations are formatted for easy use by nuclear power plant design teams and by utility personnel involved in specification and design review. The guide was developed under EPRI research project RP2166-4 and is currently being published

  18. Dietary sodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The 2013 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence" did not support the current recommendations of the IOM and the American Heart Association (AHA) to reduce daily dietary sodium intake to below 2,300 mg. The report concluded that the population...

  19. Maintaining women's oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, A L; Bonci, L

    2001-07-01

    Women must adopt health-promoting strategies for both general health and the oral cavity, because the health of a woman's body and oral cavity are bidirectional. For general health-maintenance strategies, dental practitioners should actively advise women to minimize alcohol use, abstain from or cease smoking, stay physically active, and choose the right foods to nourish both the body and mind. For oral health-maintenance strategies, dental practitioners should advise women on how to prevent or control oral infections, particularly dental caries and periodontal diseases. Specifically, women need to know how to remove plaque from the teeth mechanically, use appropriate chemotherapeutic agents and dentifrices, use oral irrigation, and control halitosis. Dental practitioners also need to stress the importance of regular maintenance visits for disease prevention. Adolescent women are more prone to gingivitis and aphthous ulcers when they begin their menstrual cycles and need advice about cessation of tobacco use, mouth protection during athletic activities, cleaning orthodontic appliances, developing good dietary habits, and avoiding eating disorders. Women in early to middle adulthood may be pregnant or using oral contraceptives with concomitant changes in oral tissues. Dental practitioners need to advise them how to take care of the oral cavity during these changes and how to promote the health of their infants, including good nutrition. Older women experience the onset of menopause and increased vulnerability to osteoporosis. They may also experience xerostomia and burning mouth syndrome. Dental practitioners need to help women alleviate these symptoms and encourage them to continue good infection control and diet practices.

  20. Maintaining Relationship Based Procurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Davis

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Alliance and relationship projects are increasingin number and represent a large pool of work. Tobe successful relationship style contracts dependon soft-dollar factors, particularly the participants'ability to work together within an agreedframework, generally they are not based on lowbid tendering. Participants should be prepared todo business in an open environment based ontrust and mutually agreed governance. Theresearch evaluates relationship maintenance inthe implementation phase of constructionalliances - a particular derivative of relationshipstyle contracts. To determine the factors thatcontribute to relationship maintenance forty-nineexperienced Australian alliance projectmanagers were interviewed. The main findingswere; the development of relationships early inthe project form building blocks of success fromwhich relationships are maintained and projectvalue added; quality facilitation plays animportant part in relationship maintenance and ahybrid organisation created as a result of alliancedevelopment overcomes destructiveorganisational boundaries. Relationshipmaintenance is integral to alliance project controland failure to formalise it and pay attention toprocess and past outcomes will undermine analliance project's potential for success.

  1. Maintaining Web Cache Coherency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Document coherency is a challenging problem for Web caching. Once the documents are cached throughout the Internet, it is often difficult to keep them coherent with the origin document without generating a new traffic that could increase the traffic on the international backbone and overload the popular servers. Several solutions have been proposed to solve this problem, among them two categories have been widely discussed: the strong document coherency and the weak document coherency. The cost and the efficiency of the two categories are still a controversial issue, while in some studies the strong coherency is far too expensive to be used in the Web context, in other studies it could be maintained at a low cost. The accuracy of these analysis is depending very much on how the document updating process is approximated. In this study, we compare some of the coherence methods proposed for Web caching. Among other points, we study the side effects of these methods on the Internet traffic. The ultimate goal is to study the cache behavior under several conditions, which will cover some of the factors that play an important role in the Web cache performance evaluation and quantify their impact on the simulation accuracy. The results presented in this study show indeed some differences in the outcome of the simulation of a Web cache depending on the workload being used, and the probability distribution used to approximate updates on the cached documents. Each experiment shows two case studies that outline the impact of the considered parameter on the performance of the cache.

  2. ADAS Update and Maintainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Leela R.

    2010-01-01

    Since 2000, both the National Weather Service Melbourne (NWS MLB) and the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have used a local data integration system (LOIS) as part of their forecast and warning operations. The original LOIS was developed by the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) in 1998 (Manobianco and Case 1998) and has undergone subsequent improvements. Each has benefited from three-dimensional (3-D) analyses that are delivered to forecasters every 15 minutes across the peninsula of Florida. The intent is to generate products that enhance short-range weather forecasts issued in support of NWS MLB and SMG operational requirements within East Central Florida. The current LDIS uses the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (AD AS) package as its core, which integrates a wide variety of national, regional, and local observational data sets. It assimilates all available real-time data within its domain and is run at a finer spatial and temporal resolution than current national or regional-scale analysis packages. As such, it provides local forecasters with a more comprehensive understanding of evolving fine-scale weather features. Over the years, the LDIS has become problematic to maintain since it depends on AMU-developed shell scripts that were written for an earlier version of the ADAS software. The goals of this task were to update the NWS MLB/SMG LDIS with the latest version of ADAS, incorporate new sources of observational data, and upgrade and modify the AMU-developed shell scripts written to govern the system. In addition, the previously developed ADAS graphical user interface (GUI) was updated. Operationally, these upgrades will result in more accurate depictions of the current local environment to help with short-range weather forecasting applications, while also offering an improved initialization for local versions of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model used by both groups.

  3. Calcium binding by dietary fibre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, W.P.T.; Branch, W.J.; Southgate, D.A.T.

    1978-01-01

    Dietary fibre from plants low in phytate bound calcium in proportion to its uronic-acid content. This binding by the non-cellulosic fraction of fibre reduces the availability of calcium for small-intestinal absorption, but the colonic microbial digestion of uronic acids liberates the calcium. Thus the ability to maintain calcium balance on high-fibre diets may depend on the adaptive capacity on the colon for calcium. (author)

  4. Dietary Guidelines should reflect new understandings about adult protein needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layman Donald K

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dietary Guidelines for Americans provide nutrition advice aimed at promoting healthy dietary choices for life-long health and reducing risk of chronic diseases. With the advancing age of the population, the 2010 Dietary Guidelines confront increasing risks for age-related problems of obesity, osteoporosis, type 2 diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome, heart disease, and sarcopenia. New research demonstrates that the meal distribution and amount of protein are important in maintaining body composition, bone health and glucose homeostasis. This editorial reviews the benefits of dietary protein for adult health, addresses omissions in current nutrition guidelines, and offers concepts for improving the Dietary Guidelines.

  5. Maintaining Healthy Skin -- Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and SCI • Depression and SCI • Taking Care of Pressure Sores • Maintaining Healthy Skin (Part I) • Maintaining Healthy Skin ( ... For information on establishing skin tolerance, see our “Pressure Sores” pamphlet.) Pressure releases in a wheelchair can be ...

  6. AECL's reliability and maintainability program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, W.A.; Nieuwhof, G.W.E.

    1976-05-01

    AECL's reliability and maintainability program for nuclear generating stations is described. How the various resources of the company are organized to design and construct stations that operate reliably and safely is shown. Reliability and maintainability includes not only special mathematically oriented techniques, but also the technical skills and organizational abilities of the company. (author)

  7. Daily dietary intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, H.S.

    1998-01-01

    As part of study on ''Reference Asian Man'' to strengthen radiation protection, the data on the dietary consumption patterns of the Asian region were collected. Eight provided dietary data - Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Pakistan, Philippines, and Viet Nam. Whereas the dietary information from Bangladesh, Indonesia, Pakistan and Viet Nam are preliminary in nature, the dietary information from China, India, Japan and Philippines, on the other hand, is quite substantial. The population of the countries from which sufficient dietary data are available represents more than 2/3 of the population of the Asian region. The details of the individual data available on dietary parameters from different Asian countries are listed below

  8. Children and Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Digest for health professionals Children and Dietary Supplements Share: September 2012 © Matthew Lester Research has shown that many children use herbs and other dietary supplements. However, there are little data available on their ...

  9. Maintainability effectiveness evaluations and enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seminara, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    In the mid-seventies EPRI initiated a research project to review the human factors aspects of nuclear power plant control rooms. In the course of investigating operator-control room interfaces in five operational control rooms, it became evident that many plant outages had either been caused or prolonged by human factors problems associated with maintenance activities. Consequently, as one of several follow-on projects, EPRI sponsored a review of nine power plants (five nuclear and four fossil) to examine the human factors aspects of plant maintainability. This survey revealed a wide variety of generic human factors problems that could negatively impact the effectiveness of plant maintenance personnel. It was clear that plant maintainability features deserved no less attention to human factors concerns than the operational features of the control room. This paper describes subsequent EPRI-initiated efforts to assist the utilities in conducting self-reviews of maintainability effectiveness and effect needed enhancements

  10. Dietary protein considerations to support active aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Benjamin T; Cermak, Naomi M; van Loon, Luc J C

    2014-11-01

    Given our rapidly aging world-wide population, the loss of skeletal muscle mass with healthy aging (sarcopenia) represents an important societal and public health concern. Maintaining or adopting an active lifestyle alleviates age-related muscle loss to a certain extent. Over time, even small losses of muscle tissue can hinder the ability to maintain an active lifestyle and, as such, contribute to the development of frailty and metabolic disease. Considerable research focus has addressed the application of dietary protein supplementation to support exercise-induced gains in muscle mass in younger individuals. In contrast, the role of dietary protein in supporting the maintenance (or gain) of skeletal muscle mass in active older persons has received less attention. Older individuals display a blunted muscle protein synthetic response to dietary protein ingestion. However, this reduced anabolic response can largely be overcome when physical activity is performed in close temporal proximity to protein consumption. Moreover, recent evidence has helped elucidate the optimal type and amount of dietary protein that should be ingested by the older adult throughout the day in order to maximize the skeletal muscle adaptive response to physical activity. Evidence demonstrates that when these principles are adhered to, muscle maintenance or hypertrophy over prolonged periods can be further augmented in active older persons. The present review outlines the current understanding of the role that dietary protein occupies in the lifestyle of active older adults as a means to increase skeletal muscle mass, strength and function, and thus support healthier aging.

  11. Developing and maintaining nuclear competencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gobert, C.

    2004-01-01

    The paper discusses the following aspects on the nuclear knowledge management: assimilation of knowledge management, recognition of the nuclear specificity, attracting young talents. Another feature which, possibly, differentiates nuclear from other high-tech industries is that time constraints in some nuclear development may very well exceed the duration of a generation of professionals. That means, not only maintaining scientific and technical knowledge, which, as a minimum, leads to maintain: a rigorous supervision of human resources in quality and quantity; anticipatory planning of human resources, with a special focus on succession planning concerning expertise positions; a steady and continuous effort in training and retraining programs. Maintaining the safety culture is also one of the major managerial duties. Taking full account of the nuclear specificity in knowledge maintenance and development in the AREVA group, requests a multifunctional approach, which combines efforts of Research and Innovation, and Human Resources departments, plus the group Nuclear inspectorate. It is acknowledged that the industry, basically, would readily rely on the capabilities of the academic world and research centers in ensuring that training and education in nuclear science and technologies are attuned to the evolving needs of the industry, in maintaining the proper educational programs and in fostering fruitful cooperations between them

  12. [Maintaining patients' autonomy at home].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niang, Bénédicte; Coudre, Jean Pierre

    2015-01-01

    To maintain the flow of hospital discharges, the patient's return home with support from a home nursing service is important. If any difficulties are identified, there are various programmes or good practices which can be put into place. The future law on adapting society to ageing also comprises a scheme combining home assistance and nursing care.

  13. Maintaining steam/condensate lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russum, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    Steam and condensate systems must be maintained with the same diligence as the boiler itself. Unfortunately, they often are not. The water treatment program, critical to keeping the boiler at peak efficiency and optimizing operating life, should not stop with the boiler. The program must encompass the steam and condensate system as well. A properly maintained condensate system maximizes condensate recovery, which is a cost-free energy source. The fuel needed to turn the boiler feedwater into steam has already been provided. Returning the condensate allows a significant portion of that fuel cost to be recouped. Condensate has a high heat content. Condensate is a readily available, economical feedwater source. Properly treated, it is very pure. Condensate improves feedwater quality and reduces makeup water demand and pretreatment costs. Higher quality feedwater means more reliable boiler operation

  14. Disturbance maintains alternative biome states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Vinícius de L; Hirota, Marina; Oliveira, Rafael S; Pausas, Juli G

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms controlling the distribution of biomes remains a challenge. Although tropical biome distribution has traditionally been explained by climate and soil, contrasting vegetation types often occur as mosaics with sharp boundaries under very similar environmental conditions. While evidence suggests that these biomes are alternative states, empirical broad-scale support to this hypothesis is still lacking. Using community-level field data and a novel resource-niche overlap approach, we show that, for a wide range of environmental conditions, fire feedbacks maintain savannas and forests as alternative biome states in both the Neotropics and the Afrotropics. In addition, wooded grasslands and savannas occurred as alternative grassy states in the Afrotropics, depending on the relative importance of fire and herbivory feedbacks. These results are consistent with landscape scale evidence and suggest that disturbance is a general factor driving and maintaining alternative biome states and vegetation mosaics in the tropics. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  15. Maintaining protein composition in cilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Louise A; Elmaghloob, Yasmin; Ismail, Shehab

    2017-12-20

    The primary cilium is a sensory organelle that is vital in regulating several signalling pathways. Unlike most organelles cilia are open to the rest of the cell, not enclosed by membranes. The distinct protein composition is crucial to the function of cilia and many signalling proteins and receptors are specifically concentrated within distinct compartments. To maintain this composition, a mechanism is required to deliver proteins to the cilium whilst another must counter the entropic tendency of proteins to distribute throughout the cell. The combination of the two mechanisms should result in the concentration of ciliary proteins to the cilium. In this review we will look at different cellular mechanisms that play a role in maintaining the distinct composition of cilia, including regulation of ciliary access and trafficking of ciliary proteins to, from and within the cilium.

  16. Improving versus maintaining nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The concept of improving nuclear safety versus maintaining it has been discussed at a number of nuclear regulators meetings in recent years. National reports have indicated that there are philosophical differences between NEA member countries about whether their regulatory approaches require licensees to continuously improve nuclear safety or to continuously maintain it. It has been concluded that, while the actual level of safety achieved in all member countries is probably much the same, this is difficult to prove in a quantitative way. In practice, all regulatory approaches require improvements to be made to correct deficiencies and when otherwise warranted. Based on contributions from members of the NEA Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA), this publication provides an overview of current nuclear regulatory philosophies and approaches, as well as insights into a selection of public perception issues. This publication's intended audience is primarily nuclear safety regulators, but government authorities, nuclear power plant operators and the general public may also be interested. (author)

  17. Developing and maintaining instructor capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, W.P.; Smith, G.

    1985-01-01

    The New York Power Authority, after surveying available courses, decided to develop an in-house instructor training program. Following the principles of the Systems Approach to Training the course embodied the results of a job analysis resulting in a program containing instruction in Educational Philosophy, the Systems Approach to Training, Methods and Media, and Testing. The course content is covered through classroom instruction, on-the-job training, instructor evaluations, and assignments. Instructors completing the program continue to maintain skills with inservice training

  18. Normal range of human dietary sodium intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarron, David A; Kazaks, Alexandra G; Geerling, Joel C

    2013-01-01

    The recommendation to restrict dietary sodium for management of hypertensive cardiovascular disease assumes that sodium intake exceeds physiologic need, that it can be significantly reduced, and that the reduction can be maintained over time. In contrast, neuroscientists have identified neural...... circuits in vertebrate animals that regulate sodium appetite within a narrow physiologic range. This study further validates our previous report that sodium intake, consistent with the neuroscience, tracks within a narrow range, consistent over time and across cultures....

  19. Narrative Dietary Counseling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard Jakobsen, Nina; Kaufmann, Lisbeth; Hennesser, Yvonne

    2017-01-01

    Using cases and empirical data from a research and development project at a Danish prevention center, this study explores whether and how the use of narrative dietary counseling can strengthen dietitians' relationships and collaboration with clients who are chronically ill. The results of the study...... dietary counseling empowered clients and improved relationship building and collaboration between client and dietitian....

  20. Dietary determinants of obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huaidong, D.U.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity has become a serious public health problem worldwide, and dietary composition can play a role in its prevention and treatment. However, available literature on the impacts of different dietary factors on weight change is inconsistent, or even conflicting. In this review, we briefly

  1. Dietary intake of phytoestrogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker MI; SIR

    2004-01-01

    The dietary intake of phytoestrogens supposedly influences a variety of diseases, both in terms of beneficial and adverse effects. This report describes current knowledge on dietary intakes of phytoestrogens in Western countries, and briefly summarizes the evidence for health effects. The

  2. Maintaining consistency in distributed systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birman, Kenneth P.

    1991-01-01

    In systems designed as assemblies of independently developed components, concurrent access to data or data structures normally arises within individual programs, and is controlled using mutual exclusion constructs, such as semaphores and monitors. Where data is persistent and/or sets of operation are related to one another, transactions or linearizability may be more appropriate. Systems that incorporate cooperative styles of distributed execution often replicate or distribute data within groups of components. In these cases, group oriented consistency properties must be maintained, and tools based on the virtual synchrony execution model greatly simplify the task confronting an application developer. All three styles of distributed computing are likely to be seen in future systems - often, within the same application. This leads us to propose an integrated approach that permits applications that use virtual synchrony with concurrent objects that respect a linearizability constraint, and vice versa. Transactional subsystems are treated as a special case of linearizability.

  3. Lessons from the war on dietary fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Thomas B; Parker, Mary Jo

    2014-01-01

    Conventional dietary guidelines put forth by health care institutions and providers for the past 40 years have stressed the importance of reducing the amount of dietary fat consumed. Such a diet is purported to mitigate metabolic risk factors and optimize the ability to achieve or maintain a healthy body weight. However, over the past 35 years obesity rates in the United States have risen dramatically though the level of dietary fat consumed by U.S. adults has fallen. This review examines the potential reasons for this paradox. Various meta-analyses, controlled trials, and cohort studies have demonstrated that reducing dietary fat intake provides for very little weight loss unless accompanied by equal or greater reductions in total energy intake. Due to both psychological (e.g., the tendency for people to eat more of what they consider low fat) and physiological (e.g., the low satiety that accompanies carbohydrate intake) factors, reducing total caloric intake while simultaneously reducing fat intake is a difficult challenge. Further, reductions in total carbohydrate intake, increases in protein intake, and adoption of a Mediterranean diet seem to be more effective in inducing weight loss than reductions in fat intake. Traditional claims that simply reducing dietary fat will improve metabolic risk factors are also not borne out by research. There is some evidence that replacing dietary saturated fat with unsaturated fat may improve metabolic risk factors, but that research is not conclusive. • Over the past 40 years, Americans have decreased the percentage of calories they get from dietary fat while rates of overweight and obesity have risen dramatically. • It appears that a decrease in total dietary fat in ad libitum diets may induce a very small decrease in body weight. • Evidence suggests that reductions in total dietary fat intake often occur in conjunction with an increase in total caloric intake. • It seems reasonable to conclude that guiding the

  4. Dietary macronutrient recommendations for optimal Dietary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both resistance and endurance-trained athletes have a higher dietary protein requirement of between 1.2 and 1.8 g protein/kg body weight (BW)/day, with an upper limit of 2 g protein/kg BW/day. To increase the rate of protein synthesis during the recovery period, immediate ingestion of protein postexercise is recommended ...

  5. Building and maintaining media contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenton, Bob

    2000-01-01

    This presentation is answering the question: 'how does British Energy build and maintain its relationships with journalists in so many areas', not only the basic industrial correspondents that you would expect to have to deal with an industry British Energy, but those dealing with science and technology, the environment, personnel and training, city and financial, political, and on and on, and that is just the national press. Then add the local and regional media around power station sites - literally hundreds of contacts and you start to get an idea about the size of our media contact database. But it is managed it rather well. Every six months British Energy takes part in a survey run by one of the UK's leading market research companies who conducts a poll among journalists and then rate each company's performance. In the last three years British Energy has not been outside the top five in most categories, and in the top two in several. The answer is a lot of work over a long period of time. You cannot expect to build trusting relationships with a journalist overnight. At British Energy the key is being open and honest, and always available. Of course good media relations is not a one-way street, and there has to be some element of compromise if you are to achieve a relationship based on mutual trust

  6. Meal consumption is ineffective at maintaining or correcting water balance in a desert lizard, Heloderma suspectum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Christian D; Jackson, Marin L; DeNardo, Dale F

    2013-04-15

    Many xeric organisms maintain water balance by relying on dietary and metabolic water rather than free water, even when free water may be available. For such organisms, hydric state may influence foraging decisions, since meal consumption is meeting both energy and water demands. To understand foraging decisions it is vital to understand the role of dietary water in maintaining water balance. We investigated whether meal consumption was sufficient to maintain water balance in captive Gila monsters (Heloderma suspectum) at varying levels of dehydration. Gila monsters could not maintain water balance over long time scales through meal consumption alone. Animals fed a single meal took no longer to dehydrate than controls when both groups were deprived of free water. Additionally, meal consumption imparts an acute short-term hydric cost regardless of hydration state. Meal consumption typically resulted in a significant elevation in osmolality at 6 h post-feeding, and plasma osmolality never fell below pre-feeding levels despite high water content (~70%) of meals. These results failed to support our hypothesis that dietary water is valuable to Gila monsters during seasonal drought. When considered in conjunction with previous research, these results demonstrate that Gila monsters, unlike many xeric species, are heavily reliant on seasonal rainfall and the resulting free-standing water to maintain water balance.

  7. Dietary folate deficiency blocks prostate cancer progression in the TRAMP model

    OpenAIRE

    Bistulfi, Gaia; Foster, Barbara A; Karasik, Ellen; Gillard, Bryan; Miecznikowski, Jeff; Dhiman, Vineet K; Smiraglia, Dominic J

    2011-01-01

    Dietary folate is essential in all tissues to maintain several metabolite pools and cellular proliferation. Prostate cells, due to specific metabolic characteristics, have increased folate demand to support proliferation and prevent genetic and epigenetic damage. Although several studies found that dietary folate interventions can affect colon cancer biology in rodent models, impact on prostate is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine if dietary folate manipulation, possibly bei...

  8. Maintaining quality in blood banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, E; Hewison, C; Nevalainen, D E; Lloyd, H L

    1995-03-01

    component will warrant redress. The degree of fault attributed to the producer will in part depend on whether they have met the best available standards at all stages in the preparation of the product. If a Transfusion Service can show that it's operation has external accreditation, particularly to an internationally recognised standard such as ISO 9000 and they can show that staff have been properly trained, that equipment is properly supplied and maintained and that the facility is appropriate to the work being carried out, then the liability that exists when something goes wrong will be reduced.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  9. Incontinence Treatment: Dietary Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... helpful, please consider supporting IFFGD with a small tax-deductible donation. Lifestyle Changes Dietary Tips Medication Bowel ... arises requiring an expert’s care. © Copyright 1998-2018 International Foundation for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders, Inc. (IFFGD). All ...

  10. Dietary Supplement Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Primary Mitochondrial Disorders Weight Loss A Acai Aloe Vera Anabolic Steroids Antioxidants (see Exercise and Athletic Performance ) ... Pills (see Weight Loss ) Dietary Supplements Vitamin D E Echinacea Ephedra Essiac/Flor-Essence European Elder Evening ...

  11. Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and US Department of Agriculture Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database Toggle navigation Menu Home About DSID Mission Current ... values can be saved to build a small database or add to an existing database for national, ...

  12. Building and maintaining media relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oesterberg, Anders

    2000-01-01

    Full text: In my opinion good media relations are among the most valuable investments regarding the communications and Public Relations operations within an Organisation. This means, that all the work you put up in building and maintaining media relations, is worth all the efforts. It can mean the difference between success or failure. Although a reporter never would admit that he or she is easily influenced, the fact is that you would get better press in an emergency case if you have a positive personal relation to the reporter. So, in my opinion there is nothing more important, in building and maintaining media relations, than the face-to-face-contact. My experience of good personal relations to reporters is also that you're not only getting better press in emergency cases. You are more successful in getting published when you have something positive to say, too. Honesty and openness are two key-words in this context. I have never tried to manipulate and delude a reporter, since that definitely would ruin the relationship. I always try to be as straight forward as possible and underline what I can say and what I can't. That instead of presenting some forced lies. For me, it is also very important to create some kind of mid-field ground, where the reporter and I can meet unprejudiced. Sense of humour and distance, both to yourself and your organisation, are two main characteristics that are invaluable in order to create a good personal relationship with a reporter. But, I'm very accurate in emphasizing when I enter my role as a company representative. All in order to be regarded as correct, yet obliging. To be quick when it comes to returning calls is another vital component that gives the reporter a feeling that he or she is important enough to be contacted as soon as possible. This service-minded attitude is of course good for the relationship. Besides the more personal relation it's important to have a business-like relation, where you show a great deal of

  13. Selenium status in adult cats and dogs fed high levels of dietary inorganic and organic selenium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Todd, S.E.; Thomas, D.G.; Bosch, G.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    Cats maintain higher blood Se concentrations compared to dogs and, unlike dogs, show no signs of chronic Se toxicity (selenosis) when fed dietary organic Se (selenomethionine) concentrations of 10 µg/g DM. This study investigated the response of cats and dogs to high dietary concentrations of sodium

  14. Estimation of the dietary requirement for vitamin D in healthy adolescent white girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cashman, Kevin D.; FitzGerald, A. P.; Viljakainen, H. T.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Knowledge gaps have contributed to considerable variation (between 0 and 15 μg/d) in international dietary recommendations for vitamin D in adolescents. Objective: We aimed to establish the distribution of dietary vitamin D required to maintain serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) conc...

  15. Why US children use dietary supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Regan L.; Gahche, Jaime J.; Thomas, Paul R.; Dwyer, Johanna T.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Dietary supplements are used by one-third of children. We examined motivations for supplement use in children, the types of products used by motivations, and the role of physicians and health care practitioners in guiding choices about supplements. Methods: We examined motivations for dietary supplement use reported for children (from birth to 19 y of age; n = 8,245) using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2010. Results: Dietary supplements were used by 31% of children; many different reasons were given as follows: to “improve overall health” (41%), to “maintain health” (37%), for “supplementing the diet” (23%), to “prevent health problems” (20%), and to “boost immunity” (14%). Most children (~90%) who use dietary supplements use a multivitamin–mineral or multivitamin product. Supplement users tend to be non-Hispanic white, have higher family incomes, report more physical activity, and have health insurance. Only a small group of supplements used by children (15%) were based on the recommendation of a physician or other health care provider. Conclusion: Most supplements used by children are not under the recommendation of a health care provider. The most common reasons for use of supplements in children are for health promotion, yet little scientific data support this notion in nutrient-replete children. PMID:24002333

  16. Dietary supplements for football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespel, P; Maughan, R J; Greenhaff, P L

    2006-07-01

    Physical training and competition in football markedly increase the need for macro- and micronutrient intake. This requirement can generally be met by dietary management without the need for dietary supplements. In fact, the efficacy of most supplements available on the market is unproven. In addition, players must be cautious of inadequate product labelling and supplement impurities that may cause a positive drug test. Nonetheless, a number of dietary supplements may beneficially affect football performance. A high endurance capacity is a prerequisite for optimal match performance, particularly if extra time is played. In this context, the potential of low-dose caffeine ingestion (2 - 5 mg . kg body mass(-1)) to enhance endurance performance is well established. However, in the case of football, care must be taken not to overdose because visual information processing might be impaired. Scoring and preventing goals as a rule requires production of high power output. Dietary creatine supplementation (loading dose: 15 - 20 g . day(-1), 4 - 5 days; maintenance dose: 2 - 5 g g . day(-1)) has been found to increase muscle power output, especially during intermittent sprint exercises. Furthermore, creatine intake can augment muscle adaptations to resistance training. Team success and performance also depend on player availability, and thus injury prevention and health maintenance. Glucosamine or chondroitin may be useful in the treatment of joint pain and osteoarthritis, but there is no evidence to support the view that the administration of these supplements will be preventative. Ephedra-containing weight-loss cocktails should certainly be avoided due to reported adverse health effects and positive doping outcomes. Finally, the efficacy of antioxidant or vitamin C intake in excess of the normal recommended dietary dose is equivocal. Responses to dietary supplements can vary substantially between individuals, and therefore the ingestion of any supplement must be assessed

  17. The Association between Dietary Quality and Dietary Guideline Adherence with Mental Health Outcomes in Adults: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy P. Meegan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of adverse mental health outcomes in adults is increasing. Although beneficial effects of selected micronutrients and foods on mental health have been reported, they do not reflect the impact of the habitual diet on mental health. Therefore, our objective is to examine potential associations between dietary quality, dietary composition and compliance with food pyramid recommendations with depressive symptoms, anxiety and well-being (assessed using CES-D, HADS-A and WHO-5 screening tools in a cross-sectional sample of 2047 middle-aged adults. Diet was assessed using a self-completed FFQ. Chi-square tests, t-tests and logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the associations between dietary components and mental health outcomes. Dietary quality, but not dietary composition or guideline adherence, was associated with well-being. Those with high dietary quality were more likely to report well-being (OR =1.67, 95% CI 1.15–2.44, p = 0.007 relative to those with low dietary quality. This remained significant among females (OR = 1.92, (95% CI 1.14–3.23, p = 0.014 and non-obese individuals (OR = 2.03, 95% CI 1.28–3.20, p = 0.003. No associations between any dietary measures with anxiety or depressive symptoms were observed. These novel results highlight the importance of dietary quality in maintaining optimal psychological well-being. Better understanding of the relationship between dietary quality and mental health may provide insight into potential therapeutic or intervention strategies to improve mental health and well-being.

  18. Dietary ecology of human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minagawa, Masao

    1990-01-01

    The dietary life of humans varies with the environment where they live and has been changing with time. It has become possible to examine such changes by using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition as a chemical tool. The present report outlines recent developments in the application of this tool and compares the dietary ecologies of various human groups from the viewpoint of isotope geochemistry. The history of the application of this tool to dietary analysis is summarized first, and features of the carbon and nitrogen isotope composition in animals and their relations with the food chain are outlined. The dietary ecology of the current people is then discussed in relation to the isotope composition in food, the isotope composition in hair of the current people, and determination of food habit of specific groups of people from such isotope compositions. For prediction of dietary composition, the report presents a flow chart for an algorism which is based on the Monte Carlo method. It also outlines processes for analyzing food habits of people in the prehistoric age, focusing on distribution of isotope composition in humans over the world. (N.K.)

  19. Dietary antioxidants and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Scott K; DeRuisseau, Keith C; Quindry, John; Hamilton, Karyn L

    2004-01-01

    Muscular exercise promotes the production of radicals and other reactive oxygen species in the working muscle. Growing evidence indicates that reactive oxygen species are responsible for exercise-induced protein oxidation and contribute to muscle fatigue. To protect against exercise-induced oxidative injury, muscle cells contain complex endogenous cellular defence mechanisms (enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants) to eliminate reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, exogenous dietary antioxidants interact with endogenous antioxidants to form a cooperative network of cellular antioxidants. Knowledge that exercise-induced oxidant formation can contribute to muscle fatigue has resulted in numerous investigations examining the effects of antioxidant supplementation on human exercise performance. To date, there is limited evidence that dietary supplementation with antioxidants will improve human performance. Furthermore, it is currently unclear whether regular vigorous exercise increases the need for dietary intake of antioxidants. Clearly, additional research that analyses the antioxidant requirements of individual athletes is needed.

  20. Dietary Patterns in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise Beltoft Borup

    A healthy diet is essential for healthy growth and development during childhood and may prevent obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases throughout life. Traditionally, diet has been investigated as single nutrients. However, people do not eat one single nutrient and they do not even eat one...... single food. People consume meals and these meals vary during a day, over a year and during a life time. To comprehend some of this complexity it could be advantageous to investigate dietary patterns representing the whole diet as patterns might be better markers of growth and health than single...... childhood. These associations might contribute to the identification of families, who would benefit from guidance to help them establish healthy dietary patterns for their infants. Finding tracking for some infants and changes in adherence to dietary patterns for others as well as the association between...

  1. Dietary hyperthyroidism in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, B; Stengel, C; Neiger, R

    2012-03-01

    Evaluation of dogs with elevated plasma thyroxine concentration fed raw food before and after changing the diet. Between 2006 and 2011 all dogs presented with an elevated plasma thyroxine concentration and a dietary history of feeding raw food were included. Thyroxine (reference interval: 19·3 to 51·5 nmol/L) and in many cases also thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations (reference interval: weight loss, aggressiveness, tachycardia, panting and restlessness while six dogs had no clinical signs. After changing the diet eight dogs were examined: thyroxine concentration normalised in all dogs and clinical signs resolved. Dietary hyperthyroidism can be seen in dogs on a raw meat diet or fed fresh or dried gullets. Increased plasma thyroxine concentration in a dog, either with or without signs of hyperthyroidism, should prompt the veterinarian to obtain a thorough dietary history. © 2012 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  2. Refeeding hypertension in dietary obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernsberger, P.; Nelson, D.O.

    1988-01-01

    A novel model of nutritionally induced hypertension in the rat is described. Dietary obesity was produced by providing sweet milk in addition to regular chow, which elicited a 52% increase in caloric intake. Despite 54% greater body weight gain and 139% heavier retroperitoneal fat pads, 120 days of overfeeding failed to increase systolic pressure in the conscious state or mean arterial pressure under urethan anesthesia. In contrast, mild hypertension developed in intermittantly fasted obese animals. The first 4-day supplemented fast was initiated 4 wk after the introduction of sweet milk, when the animals were 47 g overweight relative to chow-fed controls. Thereafter, 4 days of starvation were alternated with 2 wk of refeeding for a total of 4 cycles. A rapid fall in systolic blood pressure accompanied the onset of supplemented fasting and was maintained thereafter. With refeeding, blood pressure rose precipitously, despite poststarvation anorexia. Blood pressure tended to rise slightly over the remainder of the realimentation period. After the 4th supplemented fast, hypertension was sustained during 30 days of refeeding. Cumulative caloric intake in starved-refed rats fell within 2% of that in chow-fed controls. Refeeding hypertension appeared to be due to increased sympathetic nervous activity, since (1) cardiac β-adrenergic receptors were downregulated, as indicated by a 40% decrease in the maximum binding of [ 3 H]dihydroalpranolol; and (2) the decrease in heart rate as a result of β-blockade was enhanced. Refeeding hypertension in the dietary obese rat may be a potential animal model for some forms of human obesity-related hypertension

  3. Dietary Reference Values for choline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derives Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for choline. In this Opinion, the Panel considers dietary choline including choline compounds (e.g. glycerophosphocholine, phosphocholine...

  4. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Tayyem, Reema F.; Bawadi, Hiba A.; Shehadah, Ihab; Agraib, Lana M.; AbuMweis, Suhad S.; Al-Jaberi, Tareq; Al-Nusairr, Majed; Bani-Hani, Kamal E.; Heath, Dennis D.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background & aimsDietary pattern and lifestyle have been reported to be important risk factors in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the mechanism of action of dietary factors in CRC disease is unclear. The aim of this study is the examination of several dietary choices and their potential association with the risk of developing CRC. MethodsDietary data was collected from 220 subjects who were previously diagnosed with CRC, and 281 control subjects (matched by age, g...

  5. Evolution of maintainability in France since 1971

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guyot, Christian.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to make the point of maintainability in France since 1971. The importance of maintainability is recalled. Publications in France from 1971 to 1975 show the interest arose by maintainability; their analysis permits to make clear the general plan followed by the studies and gives indications on the directions of actual efforts. Conclusion is drawn on the orientation of work at short, medium and long term [fr

  6. Space maintainers in dentistry: past to present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Vikas; Pandit, Inder Kumar; Srivastava, Nikhil; Gugnani, Neeraj; Sekhon, Harveen Kaur

    2013-10-01

    Early orthodontic interventions are often initiated in the developing dentition to promote favourable developmental changes. Interceptive orthodontic can eliminate or reduce the severity of a developing malocclusion, the complexity of orthodontic treatment, overall treatment time and cost. The safest way to prevent future malocclusions from tooth loss is to place a space maintainer that is effective and durable. An appropriate use of space maintainer is advocated to hold the space until the eruption of permanent teeth. This case report describes the various changing trends in use of space maintainers: conventional band and loop, prefabricated band with custom made loop and glass fibre reinforced composite resins as space maintainers.

  7. Dietary fat and carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woutersen, R.A.; Appel, M.J.; Garderen-Hoetmer, A. van; Wijnands, M.V.W.

    1999-01-01

    Epidemiologic investigations have suggested a relationship between dietary fat intake and various types of cancer incidences. Furthermore, epidemiologic studies as well as studies with animal models have demonstrated that not only the amount but also the type of fat consumed is important. At

  8. Desirable factors for maintaining normal BMI of urban affluent women of Delhi

    OpenAIRE

    Anu Taneja Gupta; Anupa Siddhu

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to identify desirable social, familial, reproductive, dietary, and lifestyle factors for maintaining normal body mass index (BMI) of urban affluent women (25-45 years) in Delhi, India. A total of 387 urban affluent women with at least one living child participated in this cross-sectional study conducted from March 2008 to April 2010. Women were classified into four BMI categories on the basis of World Health Organization (WHO; 2004) classification for Asians. Significant facto...

  9. The Cost of Maintaining Educational Communications Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, David A.

    Tentative formulas for calculating the cost of maintaining educational communications equipment are proposed. The formulas are based on a survey of campuses of the State University of New York. The survey analyzed the types of equipment to be maintained, types of maintenance, who uses the equipment, who services the equipment, and the cost…

  10. Dietary Acculturation among Filipino Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Persephone; Jurado, Leo-Felix

    2015-12-22

    Acculturation, the subsequent changes that occur in one culture after continuous first hand contact with another culture, impacts the dietary habits and health risks of individuals. This study examines the acculturation, dietary habits and anthropometric measurements in a sample of 210 first generation Filipino American immigrants in New Jersey (NJ). Acculturation was measured using the Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans (ASASFA). Dietary acculturation was measured using the Dietary Acculturation Questionnaire for Filipino Americans (DAQFA) and dietary intake was determined using the Block's Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire (BFFQ). Anthropometric measurements were obtained including weight, height and waist circumference. Acculturation had a significant negative relationship with Filipino Dietary acculturation. Western dietary acculturation was significantly correlated with caloric intake (r(208) = 0.193, p Filipino dietary acculturation, dietary intake and anthropometric measurements. The results showed that Filipino American immigrants have increased risks including increased BMI, waist circumference and increased fat intake. Over all, this research highlighted some dietary changes and their effects on dietary intake and health status.

  11. Dietary Acculturation among Filipino Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persephone Vargas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acculturation, the subsequent changes that occur in one culture after continuous first hand contact with another culture, impacts the dietary habits and health risks of individuals. This study examines the acculturation, dietary habits and anthropometric measurements in a sample of 210 first generation Filipino American immigrants in New Jersey (NJ. Acculturation was measured using the Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans (ASASFA. Dietary acculturation was measured using the Dietary Acculturation Questionnaire for Filipino Americans (DAQFA and dietary intake was determined using the Block’s Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire (BFFQ. Anthropometric measurements were obtained including weight, height and waist circumference. Acculturation had a significant negative relationship with Filipino Dietary acculturation. Western dietary acculturation was significantly correlated with caloric intake (r(208 = 0.193, p < 0.01, percentage fat intake (r(208 = 0.154, p < 0.05, percentage carbohydrate intake (r(208 = −0.172, p < 0.05, Body Mass Index (BMI (r(208 = 0.216, p < 0.01 and waist circumference (r(208 = 0.161, p < 0.01. There was no significant correlation between Filipino dietary acculturation, dietary intake and anthropometric measurements. The results showed that Filipino American immigrants have increased risks including increased BMI, waist circumference and increased fat intake. Over all, this research highlighted some dietary changes and their effects on dietary intake and health status.

  12. Dietary sodium in chronic kidney disease: a comprehensive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Julie A; Cavanaugh, Kerri L

    2010-01-01

    Despite existing guidelines, dietary sodium intake among people worldwide often exceeds recommended limits. Research evidence is growing in both animal and human studies showing indirect and direct adverse consequences of high dietary sodium on the kidney. In patients with kidney disease, dietary sodium may have important effects on proteinuria, efficacy of antiproteinuric pharmacologic therapy, hypertension control, maintaining an optimal volume status, and immunosuppressant therapy. Dietary sodium intake is an important consideration in patients with all stages of chronic kidney disease, including those receiving dialysis therapy or those who have received a kidney transplant. We review in detail the dietary sodium recommendations suggested by various organizations for patients with kidney disease. Potential barriers to successfully translating current sodium intake guidelines into practice include poor knowledge about the sodium content of food among both patients and providers, complex labeling information, patient preferences related to taste, and limited support for modifications in public policy. Finally, we offer existing and potential solutions that may assist providers in educating and empowering patients to effectively manage their dietary sodium intake.

  13. Dietary Guidelines for Breast Cancer Patients: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limon-Miro, Ana Teresa; Lopez-Teros, Veronica; Astiazaran-Garcia, Humberto

    2017-07-01

    Current dietary guidelines for breast cancer patients (BCPs) fail to address adequate dietary intakes of macro- and micronutrients that may improve patients' nutritional status. This review includes information from the PubMed and Biomed Central databases over the last 15 y concerning dietary guidelines for BCPs and the potential impact of a personalized, nutrient-specific diet on patients' nutritional status during and after antineoplastic treatment. Results indicated that BCPs should receive a nutritional assessment immediately after diagnosis. In addition, they should be encouraged to pursue and maintain a healthy body weight [body mass index (BMI; in kg/m 2 ) 20-24.9], preserving their lean mass and avoiding an increase in fat mass. Therefore, after nutritional status diagnosis, a conservative energy restriction of 500-1000 kcal/d could be considered in the dietary intervention when appropriate. Based on the reviewed information, we propose a personalized nutrition intervention for BCPs during and after antineoplastic treatment. Specifications in the nutritional therapy should be based on the patients' nutritional status, dietary habits, schedule, activities, and cultural preferences. BCPs' daily energy intake should be distributed as follows: vegetables (∼75 g/serving) should be encouraged. Garlic and cruciferous vegetables must also be part of the nutrition therapy. Adequate dietary intakes of food-based macro- and micronutrients rich in β-carotene and vitamins A, E, and C can both prevent deterioration in BCPs' nutritional status and improve their overall health and prognosis. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Dietary protection during radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bounous, G.; Le Bel, E.; Shuster, J.; Gold, P.; Tahan, W.T.; Bastin, E.; Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Sherbrooke; Montreal General Hospital, Quebec

    1975-01-01

    Eighteen patients receiving Cobalt 60 irradiation for abdominal or pelvic malignancies were assigned at random to eat either a semi-hydrolyzed diet (Flexical: 10 g% casein hydrolsate; 14 g% triglycerides, 20% of which medium chain; 66% disaccharides) or a normal diet. There are no significant differences between these two groups with respect to age and the ratio of ideal to actual caloric intake. The patients in the control group received on the average a total of 3,900 rd and those in the Flexical group 4,040 rd. Generally, Flexical appeared to have a significant positive effect on body weight. In addition, radiation-induced diarrhea was not a problem in the Flexical group. In the latter-group, serum proteins including immunoglobulins remained essentially unchanged during therapy while a moderate but significant fall was observed in all control patients. No significant difference between the two groups was observed with respect to peripheral blood hematocrit, red and white cell counts. However, the drop in blood lymphocytes following irradiation was significantly less in the Flexical group. The mechanisms of radioprotection are discussed. These preliminary data indicate that the nutritional and perhaps the immunological status of cancer patients receiving intensive irradiation can be maintained by dietary measures. (orig.) [de

  15. Dietary Proteins and Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Medina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Both defective and persistent angiogenesis are linked to pathological situations in the adult. Compounds able to modulate angiogenesis have a potential value for the treatment of such pathologies. Several small molecules present in the diet have been shown to have modulatory effects on angiogenesis. This review presents the current state of knowledge on the potential modulatory roles of dietary proteins on angiogenesis. There is currently limited available information on the topic. Milk contains at least three proteins for which modulatory effects on angiogenesis have been previously demonstrated. On the other hand, there is some scarce information on the potential of dietary lectins, edible plant proteins and high protein diets to modulate angiogenesis.

  16. [Dietary counseling in obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Nathalie; Haslebacher, Yvonne; Teuscher-Sick, Patricia; Fischer, Beatrice

    2013-02-01

    Information on weight management and a healthy eating is accessible to anyone. However, recommendations are inconsistent. This often leads to confusion rather than to real changes in eating behavior. The principle of a long-term weight reduction is based on the idea of achieving negative energy balance with a healthy, balanced and slightly hypocaloric diet. The regimen is neither supposed to be rigid nor should it ban any food products or food products. Changes in eating patterns come about step by step and the counseling approach should be based on the patient's habits and capabilities. The basic requirement to successfully treat obese patients is their own motivation Therefore, the timing of launching the therapy needs to be well chosen. Apart from goals directly concerning weight loss, goals related to well-being, general health and exercise should be set and pursued. However, the main focus should be on changes of dietary behavior. Dietary counseling is preferably embedded in a multidisciplinary treatment concept.

  17. Effecting dietary change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Ashley J; Mathers, John C

    2004-11-01

    A world epidemic of diet-related chronic disease is currently being faced. In the UK incidence of obesity alone has tripled in the last 20 years and this trend is predicted to continue. Consensus exists for the urgent need for a change in diet and other lifestyle factors and for the direction and targets for this change. The evidence for how this change can be achieved is less certain. It has been established that disease processes begin in childhood. Recent evidence indicates that dietary habits too are established in childhood but that these habits are amenable to change. While establishing a healthy lifestyle in childhood is paramount, interventions have the potential to promote positive change throughout the life course. Success in reversing current trends in diet-related disease will depend on commitment from legislators, health professionals, industry and individuals, and this collaboration must seek to address not only the food choices of the individual but also the environment that influences such choices. Recent public health policy development in England, if fully supported and implemented, is a positive move towards this goal. Evidence for effective strategies to promote dietary change at the individual level is emerging and three reviews of this evidence are discussed. In addition, three recent dietary intervention studies, in three different settings and with different methods and aims, are presented to illustrate methods of effecting dietary change. Further work is required on what factors influence the eating behaviour and physical activity of individuals. There is a need for further theory-based research on which to develop more effective strategies to enable individuals to adopt healthier lifestyles.

  18. Dietary treatment of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Pita Lottenberg

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The fast global increased prevalence of obesity has been classifiedas an epidemics by the World Health Organization. The etiology ofobesity is very complex and involves genetic and environmentalfactors. One of the main factors that trigger obesity is sedentarylife, as well as the great availability of fat-rich foods that present ahigh energy density. According to the NHANES II, although thepopulation has decreased the ingestion of fat, the total consumptionof food has increased. The main factors that influence in choice offood are flavor, followed by cost, convenience and, finally, itsnutritional value. The dietary treatment of obesity should haverealistic goals concerning weight loss rate and amount. It issuggested to prescribe a balanced low-calorie diet, emphasizingmostly the quality of foods by using the food pyramid. Therefore,patients may learn the appropriate criteria to select food and makehealthy choices. The dietary treatment of obesity also includesthe use of behavioral techniques directed at dietary education,thus resulting in choice of healthy foods with adequate energyvalue.

  19. Natural Dietary Phytosterols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racette, Susan B; Lin, Xiaobo; Ma, Lina; Ostlund, Richard E

    2015-01-01

    Most clinical phytosterol studies are performed by adding purified supplements to smaller phytosterol amounts present in the natural diet. However, natural dietary phytosterols themselves may also have important effects on cholesterol metabolism. Epidemiological work using food frequency questionnaires to estimate dietary intake suggest that extremes of normal consumption may be associated with 3-14% changes in LDL cholesterol. Standardized food databases do not have enough phytosterol values to allow calculation of phytosterol intake for individuals outside of specialized studies. Natural diets contain phytosterol amounts ranging from less than 60 mg/2000 kcal to over 500 mg/2000 kcal. Physiological studies in which whole body cholesterol metabolism is investigated show large effects of natural dietary phytosterols on cholesterol absorption efficiency, cholesterol biosynthesis and cholesterol excretion which exceed the magnitude of changes in LDL cholesterol. The dual effects of natural phytosterols on both LDL-C and whole body cholesterol metabolism need to be considered in relating them to potential protection from coronary heart disease risk.

  20. Dietary methanol and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Ralph G; Monte, Woodrow C

    2015-10-01

    The authors sought to establish whether maternal dietary methanol during pregnancy was a factor in the etiology of autism spectrum disorders. A seven item questionnaire was given to women who had given birth to at least one child after 1984. The subjects were solicited from a large primary care practice and several internet sites and separated into two groups - mothers who had given birth to a child with autism and those who had not. Average weekly methanol consumption was calculated based on questionnaire responses. 550 questionnaires were completed by women who gave birth to a non-autistic child. On average these women consumed 66.71mg. of methanol weekly. 161 questionnaires were completed by women who had given birth to an autistic child. The average estimated weekly methanol consumption for this group was 142.31mg. Based on the results of the Wilcoxon rank sum-test, we see a significant difference between the reported methanol consumption rates of the two groups. This study suggests that women who have given birth to an autistic child are likely to have had higher intake of dietary sources of methanol than women who have not. Further investigation of a possible link of dietary methanol to autism is clearly warranted. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Determinants of dietary supplement use - healthy individuals use dietary supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Christina L F; Christensen, Jane; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2015-01-01

    influence the use of dietary supplements. Only few studies investigating the use of dietary supplements have been conducted in the Danish population. The present cross-sectional study is based on 54 948 Danes, aged 50-64 years, who completed self-administrated questionnaires on diet, dietary supplements...... and lifestyle between 1993 and 1997. A health index including smoking, physical activity, alcohol and diet, and a metabolic risk index including waist circumference, urinary glucose and measured hypertension were constructed. Logistic regression was used to investigate these determinants in relation...... to the intake of dietary supplements. We found that 71 % of the participants were dietary supplement users; female sex, older age groups and higher educated participants were more likely to be users of any dietary supplements. One additional point in the health index was associated with 19, 16 and 9 % higher...

  2. Coastal Maintained Channels in US waters

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This layer shows coastal channels and waterways that are maintained and surveyed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). These channels are necessary...

  3. Marshal: Maintaining Evolving Models, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SIFT proposes to design and develop the Marshal system, a mixed-initiative tool for maintaining task models over the course of evolving missions. Marshal-enabled...

  4. A Review of Dietary Fiber in the Diabetic Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mogoş Tiberius

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fibers are a type of carbohydrates that are found in plant-based foods. They are not absorbed or digested by the body, but play an important role in maintaining good health. There are two types of dietary fiber - soluble and insoluble. Most foods contain both types, but are usually richer in one type than the other. Current evidence suggests that high-fiber diets, especially of the soluble variety, may offer some improvement in weight management, in carbohydrate metabolism, lower total and LDL cholesterol, and have other positive effects in patients diagnosed with diabetes (improvement of insulin sensitivity, modulation of the secretion of certain gut hormones, improvement of various metabolic and inflammatory markers associated with the metabolic syndrome, thus reducing the risk of cardio-metabolic diseases. The aim of our review is to reinforce the role of dietary fiber in the improvement of diabetes management

  5. Dietary Determinants of Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chu, Lisa W

    2005-01-01

    .... Epidemiologic studies suggest that dietary factors may be important in the etiology of PCa. The objective of our research is to determine how nutritional compounds genistein, betasitosterol (STT...

  6. Long-term dietary intervention trials: critical issues and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crichton Georgina E

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are many challenges involved in running randomised controlled dietary intervention trials that investigate health outcomes. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the recruitment process, retention of participants and challenges faced in our dairy intervention trial, and to provide strategies to combat the difficulties of running long-term dietary intervention trials. Methods A 12-month, randomised, two-way crossover study was conducted in overweight adults with habitually low dairy food consumption to assess the effects of a high dairy intake (4 servings of reduced-fat dairy per day compared with a low dairy intake (1 serving of reduced-fat dairy per day on measures of cardiometabolic and cognitive health. On completion of the high dairy intake phase, each participant was interviewed about their experience in the trial and responses were used to evaluate the key issues for study participants. Results Although the recruitment target was achieved, high rates of attrition (49.3% and difficulties maintaining participant compliance (reported by 37.8% of participants were major threats to the viability of the study. Factors that contributed to the high attrition included inability to comply with the dietary requirements of the study protocol (27.0%, health problems or medication changes (24.3% and time commitment (10.8%. Conclusion Attrition and adherence to study requirements present challenges to trials requiring longer-term dietary change. Including a run-in period to further assess the motivation, commitment and availability of participants, maintaining regular contact with participants during control phases, minimising time commitment, providing flexibility with dietary requirements, facilitating positive experiences, and stringent monitoring of diet are some key recommendations for future dietary intervention trials. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN 12608000538347

  7. The clinical content of preconception care: nutrition and dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Paula M; Nelson, Lauren; Shellhaas, Cynthia S; Dunlop, Anne L; Long, Richard; Andrist, Sara; Jack, Brian W

    2008-12-01

    Women of child-bearing age should achieve and maintain good nutritional status prior to conception to help minimize health risks to both mothers and infants. Many women may not be aware of the importance of preconception nutrition and supplementation or have access to nutrition information. Health care providers should be knowledgeable about preconception/pregnancy-related nutrition and take the initiative to discuss this information during preconception counseling. Women of reproductive age should be counseled to consume a well-balanced diet including fruits and vegetables, iron and calcium-rich foods, and protein-containing foods as well as 400 microg of folic acid daily. More research is critically needed on the efficacy and safety of dietary supplements and the role of obesity in birth outcomes. Preconception counseling is the perfect opportunity for the health care provider to discuss a healthy eating guideline, dietary supplement intake, and maintaining a healthy weight status.

  8. National Children's Study Dietary Assessment Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Children's Study dietary assessment workshop was an opportunity for experts in dietary assessment methodology to gather and discuss the current state of knowledge about methodologies used to assess dietary intake during pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence.

  9. Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Food Home Food Resources for You Consumers Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know Share Tweet Linkedin ... and nutrients you personally need. What are dietary supplements? Dietary supplements include such ingredients as vitamins, minerals, ...

  10. Nutritional support to maintain proper immune status during intense training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Prolonged exercise and heavy training are associated with depressed immune function which can increase the risk of picking up minor infections. To maintain robust immunity, athletes should eat a well-balanced diet sufficient to meet their energy, carbohydrate, protein, and micronutrient requirements. Dietary deficiencies of protein and specific micronutrients have long been associated with immune dysfunction and an adequate intake of iron, zinc, and vitamins A, D, E, B6 and B12 is particularly important in the maintenance of immune function. Consuming carbohydrate during prolonged strenuous exercise attenuates rises in stress hormones and appears to limit the degree of exercise-induced immune depression. Similar effects can be seen with daily ingestion of high-dose antioxidant vitamin supplements, though concerns have been expressed that excessive antioxidant intake may impair exercise training adaptations. It is safe to say with reasonable confidence that individual amino acids, colostrum, Echinacea, and zinc are unlikely to boost immunity or reduce infection risk in athletes. The ingestion of carbohydrate during exercise and daily consumption of probiotic and plant polyphenol (e.g. quercetin)-containing supplements or foodstuffs (e.g. non-alcoholic beer) currently offer the best chance of success. This approach is likely to be most effective for individuals who are particularly prone to illness. Copyright © 2013 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Dietary Therapies for Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric H Kossoff

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Since their introduction in 1921, high-fat, low-carbohydrate "ketogenic" diets have been used worldwide for refractory childhood epilepsy. Approximately half of the children have at least half their seizures reduced, including 15% who are seizure free. The mechanisms of action of dietary therapies are under active investigation and appear to involve mitochondria. Once perceived as a last resort, modifications to initiation and maintenance, as well as the widespread use of pre-made ketogenic formulas have allowed dietary treatment to be used earlier in the course of epilepsy. For infantile spasms (West syndrome specifically, the ketogenic diet is successful about 50% of the time as a first-line treatment. New "alternative" diets such as the modified Atkins diet were created in 2003 and can be started more easily and are less restrictive. They may have particular value for countries in Asia. Side effects include constipation, dyslipidemia, growth slowing, acidosis, and kidney stones. Additionally, neurologists are studying ketogenic diets for conditions other than epilepsy, including Alzheimer's disease, autism, and brain tumors.

  12. Dietary iron controls circadian hepatic glucose metabolism through heme synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simcox, Judith A; Mitchell, Thomas Creighton; Gao, Yan; Just, Steven F; Cooksey, Robert; Cox, James; Ajioka, Richard; Jones, Deborah; Lee, Soh-Hyun; King, Daniel; Huang, Jingyu; McClain, Donald A

    2015-04-01

    The circadian rhythm of the liver maintains glucose homeostasis, and disruption of this rhythm is associated with type 2 diabetes. Feeding is one factor that sets the circadian clock in peripheral tissues, but relatively little is known about the role of specific dietary components in that regard. We assessed the effects of dietary iron on circadian gluconeogenesis. Dietary iron affects circadian glucose metabolism through heme-mediated regulation of the interaction of nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group d member 1 (Rev-Erbα) with its cosuppressor nuclear receptor corepressor 1 (NCOR). Loss of regulated heme synthesis was achieved by aminolevulinic acid (ALA) treatment of mice or cultured cells to bypass the rate-limiting enzyme in hepatic heme synthesis, ALA synthase 1 (ALAS1). ALA treatment abolishes differences in hepatic glucose production and in the expression of gluconeogenic enzymes seen with variation of dietary iron. The differences among diets are also lost with inhibition of heme synthesis with isonicotinylhydrazine. Dietary iron modulates levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), a transcriptional activator of ALAS1, to affect hepatic heme. Treatment of mice with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine diminishes PGC-1α variation observed among the iron diets, suggesting that iron is acting through reactive oxygen species signaling. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  13. Strong dietary restrictions protect Drosophila against anoxia/reoxygenation injuries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Vigne

    Full Text Available Reoxygenation of ischemic tissues is a major factor that determines the severity of cardiovascular diseases. This paper describes the consequences of anoxia/reoxygenation (A/R stresses on Drosophila, a useful, anoxia tolerant, model organism.Newly emerged adult male flies were exposed to anoxic conditions (<1% O2 for 1 to 6 hours, reoxygenated and their survival was monitored.A/R stresses induced a transient increase in mortality which peaked at the time of reoxygenation. Then flies recovered low mortality rates similar to those of control flies. A/R induced mortality was strongly dependent on dietary conditions during the 48 h that preceded anoxia. Well fed flies were anoxia sensitive. Strong dietary restrictions and starvation conditions protected flies against A/R injuries. The tolerance to anoxia was associated to large decreases in glycogen, protein, and ATP contents. During anoxia, anoxia tolerant flies produced more lactate, less phosphate and they maintained more stable ATP levels than anoxia sensitive flies. Moderate dietary restrictions, which increased the longevity of normoxic flies, did not promote resistance to A/R stresses. Diet dependent A/R injuries were still observed in sigma loss of function mutants and they were insensitive to dietary rapamycin or resveratrol. AICAR (5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribose-furanoside, an activator AMP kinase decreased A/R injuries. Mutants in the insulin signalling pathway were more anoxia tolerant in a fed state.Long A/R stresses induce a transient increase in mortality in Drosophila. This mortality is highly dependent on dietary conditions prior to the stress. Strong dietary restrictions and starvation conditions protect flies against A/R injuries, probably by inducing a major remodelling of energy metabolism. The results also indicate that mechanistically different responses develop in response to dietary restrictions of different strengths. AMP kinase and the insulin signalling

  14. PATIENT SATISFACTION AND DIETARY OUTCOMES FROM ATTENDING A MULTIDISCIPLINARY CYSTINURIA CLINIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Doherty

    2012-06-01

    Patients had varying degrees of success with making changes to each dietary parameter. Multi-source diet analysis allowed us to develop tailored consultations. All patients made some positive dietary changes which may help prevent stone formation. The areas of least change were fluid (due to changes made prior to clinic attendance and vegetable protein. Our results support the need for continued dietetic input. These results should be re-audited to check that patients are maintaining the changes made.

  15. Histone Deacetylase Inhibition and Dietary Short-Chain Fatty Acids

    OpenAIRE

    Licciardi, Paul V.; Ververis, Katherine; Karagiannis, Tom C.

    2011-01-01

    Changes in diet can also have dramatic effects on the composition of gut microbiota. Commensal bacteria of the gastrointestinal tract are critical regulators of health and disease by protecting against pathogen encounter whilst also maintaining immune tolerance to certain allergens. Moreover, consumption of fibre and vegetables typical of a non-Western diet generates substantial quantities of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) which have potent anti-inflammatory properties. Dietary interventions...

  16. How Do Positive Views Maintain Life Satisfaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Huei; Tsai, Ying-Mei; Chen, Lung Hung

    2009-01-01

    This study proposes three mediation pathways to explain how the positive views (perceived control, optimism and self-enhancement) proposed by Cummins and Nistico (Journal of Happiness Studies 3:37-69 2002) maintain life satisfaction. The three pathways were enhancing self-esteem, reducing have-want discrepancy and changing importance perceptions.…

  17. Maintaining Contour Trees of Dynamic Terrains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Mølhave, Thomas; Revsbæk, Morten

    2015-01-01

    We study the problem of maintaining the contour tree T of a terrain Sigma, represented as a triangulated xy-monotone surface, as the heights of its vertices vary continuously with time. We characterize the combinatorial changes in T and how they relate to topological changes in Sigma. We present ...

  18. Maintaining Contour Trees of Dynamic Terrains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Arge, Lars; Mølhave, Thomas

    We consider maintaining the contour tree T of a piecewise-linear triangulation M that is the graph of a time varying height function h:R2→R. We carefully describe the combinatorial change in T that happen as h varies over time and how these changes relate to topological changes in M. We present a...

  19. Maintainability of manpower system with restricted recruitment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The maintainability of a manpower system is studied under a Markov framework. The classical method of controlling only one factor of flow is extended to highlight the case in which two factors are under control simultaneously. One special case of this extension, where recruitment of units faces partial embargo, is given, ...

  20. Competence in radiation protection - acquisition, maintaining, extending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breckow, J.; Geringer, T.; Radiation Protection Academy Seibersdorf; Haug, T.

    2007-01-01

    A survey is given on current initiatives, supranational in the EU and national in Germany and Switzerland, for education and training in radiation protection with the aim of maintaining and enlarging professional competence. Successively, individual studying possibilities and courses as well as some experiences with guidelines for professional knowledge in Germany are described. (orig.)

  1. Dietary intervention in acne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Bodo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to highlight the endocrine signaling of Western diet, a fundamental environmental factor involved in the pathogenesis of epidemic acne. Western nutrition is characterized by high calorie uptake, high glycemic load, high fat and meat intake, as well as increased consumption of insulin- and IGF-1-level elevating dairy proteins. Metabolic signals of Western diet are sensed by the nutrient-sensitive kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), which integrates signals of cellular energy, growth factors (insulin, IGF-1) and protein-derived signals, predominantly leucine, provided in high amounts by milk proteins and meat. mTORC1 activates SREBP, the master transcription factor of lipogenesis. Leucine stimulates mTORC1-SREBP signaling and leucine is directly converted by sebocytes into fatty acids and sterols for sebaceous lipid synthesis. Over-activated mTORC1 increases androgen hormone secretion and most likely amplifies androgen-driven mTORC1 signaling of sebaceous follicles. Testosterone directly activates mTORC1. Future research should investigate the effects of isotretinoin on sebocyte mTORC1 activity. It is conceivable that isotretinoin may downregulate mTORC1 in sebocytes by upregulation of nuclear levels of FoxO1. The role of Western diet in acne can only be fully appreciated when all stimulatory inputs for maximal mTORC1 activation, i.e., glucose, insulin, IGF-1 and leucine, are adequately considered. Epidemic acne has to be recognized as an mTORC1-driven disease of civilization like obesity, type 2 diabetes, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. These new insights into Western diet-mediated mTORC1-hyperactivity provide a rational basis for dietary intervention in acne by attenuating mTORC1 signaling by reducing (1) total energy intake, (2) hyperglycemic carbohydrates, (3) insulinotropic dairy proteins and (4) leucine-rich meat and dairy proteins. The necessary dietary changes are opposed to the evolution of

  2. Dietary Advice on Prescription: A novel approach to dietary counseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Johansson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a novel approach to giving dietary advice, which is called “Dietary Advice on Prescription” (DAP; Matordning på Recept [MoR] in Swedish. It is the same principle as prescription on medicine and “Physical Activity on Prescription” (PAP; Fysisk aktivitet på Recept [FaR] in Swedish. The main idea is that a written prescription will strengthen the oral advice and emphasize certain aspects of the dietary recommendation. The DAP is on the brink of being tested in a planned study.

  3. Metabolic Phenotyping of Diet and Dietary Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignardello, J; Holmes, E; Garcia-Perez, I

    Nutrition provides the building blocks for growth, repair, and maintenance of the body and is key to maintaining health. Exposure to fast foods, mass production of dietary components, and wider importation of goods have challenged the balance between diet and health in recent decades, and both scientists and clinicians struggle to characterize the relationship between this changing dietary landscape and human metabolism with its consequent impact on health. Metabolic phenotyping of foods, using high-density data-generating technologies to profile the biochemical composition of foods, meals, and human samples (pre- and postfood intake), can be used to map the complex interaction between the diet and human metabolism and also to assess food quality and safety. Here, we outline some of the techniques currently used for metabolic phenotyping and describe key applications in the food sciences, ending with a broad outlook at some of the newer technologies in the field with a view to exploring their potential to address some of the critical challenges in nutritional science. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Breeding and maintaining high-quality insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim; Kristensen, Torsten Nygård; Heckmann, Lars-Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Insects have a large potential for sustainably enhancing global food and feed production, and commercial insect production is a rising industry of high economic value. Insects suitable for production typically have fast growth, short generation time, efficient nutrient utilization, high...... reproductive potential, and thrive at high density. Insects may cost-efficiently convert agricultural and industrial food by-products into valuable protein once the technology is finetuned. However, since insect mass production is a new industry, the technology needed to efficiently farm these animals is still...... in a starting phase. Here, we discuss the challenges and precautions that need to be considered when breeding and maintaining high-quality insect populations for food and feed. This involves techniques typically used in domestic animal breeding programs including maintaining genetically healthy populations...

  5. Maintaining Respiratory Health in Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Modaresi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis (CF is an inherited disease that primarily affects the lungs and the digestive system, however, it also affects a number of other organs and systems. More than 90% of mortality of  CF patients is due to lung complications.  Healthy lungs are important for a long life for people with CF, We will discuss two important topics for maintaining respiratory health. Chronic use of drugs for maintaining respiratory health There are a number of drugs available to keep CF lungs healthy. We will discuss the science behind the recommendations for use of: Inhaled antibiotics Dornase alfa Azithromycin Hypertonic saline High-dose ibuprofen Ivacaftor CF Airway Clearance Therapies Airway Clearance therapy is very important to keeping CF lungs healthy. Our discussions cover the following topics such as the: Daily airway clearance Different techniques of airway clearance Effect of aerobic exercise on airway clearance  

  6. Changing dietary habits among Akwen Xerente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Evangelista da Silva Rocha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to identify the current feed of Xerente people in Indian villages Porteira and Funil in the city of Tocantinia / TO. It was used a qualitative ethnographic approach. Conducted from September 2013 to August 2014. The data were presented in a diary, through participant observation of food practices with the guidance of a script. A process of dietary change that permeates the culture of this people is taking place. Factors such as the deficit in the planting gardens, the recent arrival of energy, and therefore the technology has allowed access to processed foods. But some families still maintain the farming of cassava, yam, and beans. The main animals that are hunted in the village are peccary, deer and armadillo. It was possible to point which foods are inserted in the Xerente feed and factors related to this situation.

  7. Dietary assessment and counseling for dental erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Teresa A

    2018-02-01

    Dental erosion occurs after exposure to intrinsic or extrinsic acids. Exposure to intrinsic gastrointestinal acids is associated with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, rumination syndrome, or gastroesophageal reflux. Extrinsic dietary acids from foods or beverages also can cause erosion, particularly when exposure is prolonged by holding or swishing behaviors. Clinicians should screen patients exhibiting dental erosion for anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, rumination syndrome, and gastroesophageal reflux disease. Clinicians should screen patients without a medical explanation for their erosion for exposure to acidic foods and beverages, particularly for habits that prolong exposure. Identification of intrinsic and extrinsic acid exposures and recommendations to minimize exposures are important to prevent erosion and maintain oral health. Copyright © 2018 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Maintaining the Identify of Dynamically Embodied Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Alan; O'Hare, Gregory; Duffy, Brian; Schoen-Phelan, Bianca; Bradley, John

    2005-01-01

    Virtual agents are traditionally constrained in their embod- iment, as they are restricted to one form of body. We propose allowing them to change their embodiment in order to expand their capabili- ties. This presents users with a number of di±culties in maintaining the identity of the agents, but these can be overcome by using identity cues, certain features that remain constant across embodiment forms. This pa- per outlines an experiment that examines these identity cues, and shows that th...

  9. Revised dietary guidelines for Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Young Ai; Lee, Haeng Shin; Kim, Bok Hee; Lee, Yoonna; Lee, Hae Jeung; Moon, Jae Jin; Kim, Cho-il

    2008-01-01

    With rapidly changing dietary environment, dietary guidelines for Koreans were revised and relevant action guides were developed. First, the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee was established with experts and government officials from the fields of nutrition, preventive medicine, health promotion, agriculture, education and environment. The Committee set dietary goals for Koreans aiming for a better nutrition state of all after a thorough review and analysis of recent information related to nutritional status and/or problems of Korean population, changes in food production/supply, disease pattern, health policy and agricultural policy. Then, the revised dietary guidelines were proposed to accomplish these goals in addition to 6 different sets of dietary action guides to accommodate specific nutrition and health problems of respective age groups. Subsequently, these guidelines and guides were subjected to the focus group review, consumer perception surveys, and a public hearing for general and professional comments. Lastly, the language was clarified in terms of public understanding and phraseology. The revised Dietary guidelines for Koreans are as follows: eat a variety of grains, vegetables, fruits, fish, meat, poultry and dairy products; choose salt-preserved foods less, and use less salt when you prepare foods; increase physical activity for a healthy weight, and balance what you eat with your activity; enjoy every meal, and do not skip breakfast; if you drink alcoholic beverages, do so in moderation; prepare foods properly, and order sensible amounts; enjoy our rice-based diet.

  10. Water quality maintaining device of power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Minoru; Inami, Ichiro.

    1994-01-01

    The device of the present invention reduces the amount of leaching materials of ion exchange resins from a water processing system of a BWR tyep plant, improves the water quality of reactor water to maintain the water at high purity. That is, steams used for power generation are condensated in a condensate system. A condensate filter and a condensate desalter for cleaning the condensates are disposed. A resin storage hopper is disposed for supplying the ion exchange resins to the water processing system. A device for supplying a nitrogen gas or an inert gas is disposed in the hopper. With such a constitution, the ion exchange resins in the water processing system are maintained in a nitrogen gas or inert gas atmosphere or at a low dissolved oxygen level in an operation stage in the power plant. Accordingly, degradation of the ion exchange resins in the water processing system is suppressed and the amount of the leaching material from the resins is reduced. As a result, the amount of the resins leached into the reactor is reduced, so that the reactor water quality can be maintained at high purity. (I.S.)

  11. Dietary Intake of Competitive Bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spendlove, Jessica; Mitchell, Lachlan; Gifford, Janelle; Hackett, Daniel; Slater, Gary; Cobley, Stephen; O'Connor, Helen

    2015-07-01

    Competitive bodybuilders are well known for extreme physique traits and extremes in diet and training manipulation to optimize lean mass and achieve a low body fat. Although many of the dietary dogmas in bodybuilding lack scientific scrutiny, a number, including timing and dosing of high biological value proteins across the day, have more recently been confirmed as effective by empirical research studies. A more comprehensive understanding of the dietary intakes of bodybuilders has the potential to uncover other dietary approaches, deserving of scientific investigation, with application to the wider sporting, and potential health contexts, where manipulation of physique traits is desired. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review of dietary intake practices of competitive bodybuilders, evaluate the quality and currency of the existing literature, and identify research gaps to inform future studies. A systematic search of electronic databases was conducted from the earliest record until March 2014. The search combined permutations of the terms 'bodybuilding', 'dietary intake', and 'dietary supplement'. Included studies needed to report quantitative data (energy and macronutrients at a minimum) on habitual dietary intake of competitive bodybuilders. The 18 manuscripts meeting eligibility criteria reported on 385 participants (n = 62 women). Most studies were published in the 1980-1990s, with three published in the past 5 years. Study methodological quality was evaluated as poor. Energy intake ranged from 10 to 24 MJ/day for men and from 4 to 14 MJ/day for women. Protein intake ranged from 1.9 to 4.3 g/kg for men and from 0.8 to 2.8 g/kg for women. Intake of carbohydrate and fat was 6 months from competition) or immediate post-competition period and lowest during competition preparation (≤6 months from competition) or competition week. The most commonly reported dietary supplements were protein powders/liquids and amino acids. The studies failed to provide

  12. Dietary Supplement Intake and Associated Factors Among Gym Users in a University Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attlee, Amita; Haider, Amina; Hassan, Asma; Alzamil, Noura; Hashim, Mona; Obaid, Reyad Shaker

    2018-01-02

    Dietary supplement intake and associated factors among gym users in a university community in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates (UAE), were assessed using a structured, self-administered questionnaire in this cross-sectional study. Adults (N = 320) from five gyms in the University City of Sharjah participated in this cross-sectional study. The prevalence of dietary supplement intake was 43.8%. Statistically significant associations were found between the use of dietary supplements and sex (47.7% males, 28.1% females; p = .006), as well as weight lifting (88.6% taking supplements vs. 11.4% not taking supplements; p power and to boost exercise recovery. Females mainly used dietary supplements to increase energy, maintain their health, and prevent nutrition deficiency. Overall, protein supplements (whey proteins [48.6%] and protein powder [45.7%]) were among the most-consumed dietary supplements, followed by multivitamins (38.6%), branched-chain amino acids (36.4%), caffeine (35.0%), and creatine (29.3%). A widespread use of Internet-driven, self-prescribed dietary supplement intake was reported among gym users (60.7%). Only 12.8% of dietary supplement users sought information from dietitians. Practical implications suggest that gym instructors and coaches should be sufficiently trained to be able to provide accurate and scientifically sound information on dietary supplements to the exercisers in gyms in the university environment.

  13. Dietary adherence in the Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-01

    This article describes adherence to a low-fat dietary pattern (less than 20% energy from fat, five or more fruit/vegetable and six or more grain servings daily) in Years 1 and 5 of the Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification Trial, which was designed to examine the effects of a low-fat dietary pattern on risk of breast and colorectal cancers and other chronic diseases in postmenopausal women. Participants were randomly assigned to a low-fat dietary intervention arm (40%, n=19,542) or a usual diet control arm (60%, n=29,294). Women in the intervention arm completed 18 group sessions during the first year, followed by quarterly annual maintenance sessions. Adherence was assessed as control minus intervention (C-I) group differences in percent total energy from fat as estimated by a food frequency questionnaire. Based on these self-reported dietary data, mean C-I was 10.9 percentage points of energy from fat at Year 1, decreasing to 9.0 at Year 5. Factors associated with poorer adherence were being older, being African American or Hispanic (compared with white), having low income, and being obese. Group session attendance was strongly associated with better dietary adherence. There are many limitations of self-reported dietary data, particularly related to social desirability and intervention-associated bias. Nonetheless, these data indicate that long-term dietary change was achieved in this clinical trial setting and reinforce the potential of the ongoing trial to answer questions of public health importance.

  14. Dietary supplements containing prohibited substances

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with information regarding dietary supplements and be advised to minimise risks for ... to promote strength and muscle mass, ... selective oestrogen receptor modulators or .... It has also come to the attention of the WADA that another sub-.

  15. Dietary polyphenol intake in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Knaze, Viktoria; Rothwell, Joseph A

    2016-01-01

    were collected using a standardized 24-h dietary recall software administered to 36,037 adult subjects. Dietary data were linked with Phenol-Explorer, a database with data on 502 individual polyphenols in 452 foods and data on polyphenol losses due to cooking and food processing. RESULTS: Mean total....... The current cross-sectional analysis aimed at estimating dietary intakes of all currently known individual polyphenols and total intake per class and subclass, and to identify their main food sources in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. METHODS: Dietary data at baseline...... polyphenol intake was the highest in Aarhus-Denmark (1786 mg/day in men and 1626 mg/day in women) and the lowest in Greece (744 mg/day in men and 584 mg/day in women). When dividing the subjects into three regions, the highest intake of total polyphenols was observed in the UK health-conscious group...

  16. Evolutionary adaptations to dietary changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, F; Perry, G H; Di Rienzo, A

    2010-08-21

    Through cultural innovation and changes in habitat and ecology, there have been a number of major dietary shifts in human evolution, including meat eating, cooking, and those associated with plant and animal domestication. The identification of signatures of adaptations to such dietary changes in the genome of extant primates (including humans) may shed light not only on the evolutionary history of our species, but also on the mechanisms that underlie common metabolic diseases in modern human populations. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the major dietary shifts that occurred during hominin evolution, and we discuss the methods and approaches used to identify signals of natural selection in patterns of sequence variation. We then review the results of studies aimed at detecting the genetic loci that played a major role in dietary adaptations and conclude by outlining the potential of future studies in this area.

  17. Should You Take Dietary Supplements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2013 Print this issue Should You Take Dietary Supplements? A Look at Vitamins, Minerals, Botanicals and More ... Gut in Check Wise Choices Safe Use of Supplements Tell all of your health care providers about ...

  18. Identifying crucial parameter correlations maintaining bursting activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Doloc-Mihu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent experimental and computational studies suggest that linearly correlated sets of parameters (intrinsic and synaptic properties of neurons allow central pattern-generating networks to produce and maintain their rhythmic activity regardless of changing internal and external conditions. To determine the role of correlated conductances in the robust maintenance of functional bursting activity, we used our existing database of half-center oscillator (HCO model instances of the leech heartbeat CPG. From the database, we identified functional activity groups of burster (isolated neuron and half-center oscillator model instances and realistic subgroups of each that showed burst characteristics (principally period and spike frequency similar to the animal. To find linear correlations among the conductance parameters maintaining functional leech bursting activity, we applied Principal Component Analysis (PCA to each of these four groups. PCA identified a set of three maximal conductances (leak current, [Formula: see text]Leak; a persistent K current, [Formula: see text]K2; and of a persistent Na+ current, [Formula: see text]P that correlate linearly for the two groups of burster instances but not for the HCO groups. Visualizations of HCO instances in a reduced space suggested that there might be non-linear relationships between these parameters for these instances. Experimental studies have shown that period is a key attribute influenced by modulatory inputs and temperature variations in heart interneurons. Thus, we explored the sensitivity of period to changes in maximal conductances of [Formula: see text]Leak, [Formula: see text]K2, and [Formula: see text]P, and we found that for our realistic bursters the effect of these parameters on period could not be assessed because when varied individually bursting activity was not maintained.

  19. Store operations to maintain cache coherence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evangelinos, Constantinos; Nair, Ravi; Ohmacht, Martin

    2017-08-01

    In one embodiment, a computer-implemented method includes encountering a store operation during a compile-time of a program, where the store operation is applicable to a memory line. It is determined, by a computer processor, that no cache coherence action is necessary for the store operation. A store-without-coherence-action instruction is generated for the store operation, responsive to determining that no cache coherence action is necessary. The store-without-coherence-action instruction specifies that the store operation is to be performed without a cache coherence action, and cache coherence is maintained upon execution of the store-without-coherence-action instruction.

  20. Store operations to maintain cache coherence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evangelinos, Constantinos; Nair, Ravi; Ohmacht, Martin

    2017-09-12

    In one embodiment, a computer-implemented method includes encountering a store operation during a compile-time of a program, where the store operation is applicable to a memory line. It is determined, by a computer processor, that no cache coherence action is necessary for the store operation. A store-without-coherence-action instruction is generated for the store operation, responsive to determining that no cache coherence action is necessary. The store-without-coherence-action instruction specifies that the store operation is to be performed without a cache coherence action, and cache coherence is maintained upon execution of the store-without-coherence-action instruction.

  1. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayyem, Reema F; Bawadi, Hiba A; Shehadah, Ihab; Agraib, Lana M; AbuMweis, Suhad S; Al-Jaberi, Tareq; Al-Nusairr, Majed; Bani-Hani, Kamal E; Heath, Dennis D

    2017-06-01

    Dietary pattern and lifestyle have been reported to be important risk factors in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the mechanism of action of dietary factors in CRC disease is unclear. The aim of this study is the examination of several dietary choices and their potential association with the risk of developing CRC. Dietary data was collected from 220 subjects who were previously diagnosed with CRC, and 281 control subjects (matched by age, gender, occupation and marital status). The data was collected between January 2010 and December 2012, using interview-based questionnaires. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the relationship between dietary choices and risk of developing colorectal cancer. Factor analysis revealed three major dietary patterns. The first pattern we identified as the "Healthy Pattern", the second was identified as "High Sugar/High Tea Pattern" and the third as "Western Pattern". In the Healthy Pattern group we found a 10.54% variation in food intake, while the intake variation was 11.64% in the Western Pattern. After adjusting for confounding factors, the Western Pattern food choice was found to be significantly associated with an increased risk of developing CRC (OR = 1.88; 95% CI = 1.12-3.16). The results for the Healthy and High-Sugar/High Tea Patterns showed a decrease, but the statistic was not significant for the risk of CRC development. The Western Pattern of dietary choice was directly associated with CRC. The association between the dietary food choice in the Healthy and High-Sugar/High Tea Patterns and colorectal cancer needs further study in our Jordanian population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  2. Experience of maintaining laboratory educational website's sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimenstein, Izak B

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory methodology websites are specialized niche websites. The visibility of a niche website transforms it into an authority site on a particular "niche of knowledge." This article presents some ways in which a laboratory methodology website can maintain its sustainability. The optimal composition of the website includes a basic content, a blog, and an ancillary part. This article discusses experimenting with the search engine optimization query results page. Strategic placement of keywords and even phrases, as well as fragmentation of the post's material, can improve the website's visibility to search engines. Hyperlinks open a chain reaction of additional links and draw attention to the previous posts. Publications in printed periodicals are a substantial part of a niche website presence on the Internet. Although this article explores a laboratory website on the basis of our hands-on expertise maintaining "Grossing Technology in Surgical Pathology" (www.grossing-technology.com) website with a high volume of traffic for more than a decade, the recommendations presented here for developing an authority website can be applied to other professional specialized websites. The authority websites visibility and sustainability are preconditions for aggregating them in a specialized educational laboratory portal.

  3. Maintaining ancient organelles: mitochondrial biogenesis and maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Rick B; Horton, Julie L; Kelly, Daniel P

    2015-05-22

    The ultrastructure of the cardiac myocyte is remarkable for the high density of mitochondria tightly packed between sarcomeres. This structural organization is designed to provide energy in the form of ATP to fuel normal pump function of the heart. A complex system comprised of regulatory factors and energy metabolic machinery, encoded by both mitochondrial and nuclear genomes, is required for the coordinate control of cardiac mitochondrial biogenesis, maturation, and high-capacity function. This process involves the action of a transcriptional regulatory network that builds and maintains the mitochondrial genome and drives the expression of the energy transduction machinery. This finely tuned system is responsive to developmental and physiological cues, as well as changes in fuel substrate availability. Deficiency of components critical for mitochondrial energy production frequently manifests as a cardiomyopathic phenotype, underscoring the requirement to maintain high respiration rates in the heart. Although a precise causative role is not clear, there is increasing evidence that perturbations in this regulatory system occur in the hypertrophied and failing heart. This review summarizes current knowledge and highlights recent advances in our understanding of the transcriptional regulatory factors and signaling networks that serve to regulate mitochondrial biogenesis and function in the mammalian heart. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Chewing Maintains Hippocampus-Dependent Cognitive Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huayue; Iinuma, Mitsuo; Onozuka, Minoru; Kubo, Kin-Ya

    2015-01-01

    Mastication (chewing) is important not only for food intake, but also for preserving and promoting the general health. Recent studies have showed that mastication helps to maintain cognitive functions in the hippocampus, a central nervous system region vital for spatial memory and learning. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent progress of the association between mastication and the hippocampus-dependent cognitive function. There are multiple neural circuits connecting the masticatory organs and the hippocampus. Both animal and human studies indicated that cognitive functioning is influenced by mastication. Masticatory dysfunction is associated with the hippocampal morphological impairments and the hippocampus-dependent spatial memory deficits, especially in elderly. Mastication is an effective behavior for maintaining the hippocampus-dependent cognitive performance, which deteriorates with aging. Therefore, chewing may represent a useful approach in preserving and promoting the hippocampus-dependent cognitive function in older people. We also discussed several possible mechanisms involved in the interaction between mastication and the hippocampal neurogenesis and the future directions for this unique fascinating research.

  5. Maintaining heterokaryosis in pseudo-homothallic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grognet, Pierre; Silar, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Among all the strategies displayed by fungi to reproduce and propagate, some species have adopted a peculiar behavior called pseudo-homothallism. Pseudo-homothallic fungi are true heterothallics, i.e., they need 2 genetically-compatible partners to mate, but they produce self-fertile mycelium in which the 2 different nuclei carrying the compatible mating types are present. This lifestyle not only enables the fungus to reproduce without finding a compatible partner, but also to cross with any mate it may encounter. However, to be fully functional, pseudo-homothallism requires maintaining heterokaryosis at every stage of the life cycle. We recently showed that neither the structure of the mating-type locus nor hybrid-enhancing effect due to the presence of the 2 mating types accounts for the maintenance of heterokaryosis in the pseudo-homothallic fungus P. anserina. In this addendum, we summarize the mechanisms creating heterokaryosis in P. anserina and 2 other well-known pseudo-homothallic fungi, Neurospora tetrasperma and Agaricus bisporus. We also discuss mechanisms potentially involved in maintaining heterokaryosis in these 3 species.

  6. Detection of antibiotic resistance in probiotics of dietary supplements

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Aloysius Tze

    2015-09-14

    Background Probiotics are live microorganisms that confer nutrition- and health-promoting benefits if consumed in adequate amounts. Concomitant with the demand for natural approaches to maintaining health is an increase in inclusion of probiotics in food and health products. Since probiotic bacteria act as reservoir for antibiotic resistant determinants, the transfer of these genes to pathogens sharing the same intestinal habitat is thus conceivable considering the fact that dietary supplements contain high amounts of often heterogeneous populations of probiotics. Such events can confer pathogens protection against commonly-used drugs. Despite numerous reports of antibiotic resistant probiotics in food and biological sources, the antibiogram of probiotics from dietary supplements remained elusive. Findings Here, we screened five commercially available dietary supplements for resistance towards antibiotics of different classes. Probiotics of all batches of products were resistant towards vancomycin while batch-dependent resistance towards streptomycin, aztreonam, gentamycin and/or ciprofloxacin antibiotics was detected for probiotics of brands Bi and Bn, Bg, and L. Isolates of brand Cn was also resistant towards gentamycin, streptomycin and ciprofloxacin antibiotics. Additionally, we also report a discrepancy between the enumerated viable bacteria amounts and the claims of the manufacturers. Conclusions This short report has highlighted the present of antibiotic resistance in probiotic bacteria from dietary supplements and therefore serves as a platform for further screenings and for in-depth characterization of the resistant determinants and the molecular machinery that confers the resistance.

  7. [Maintaining solidarity: is mutuality the solution?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevers, J K M; Ploem, M C

    2013-01-01

    Solidarity is essentially the willingness to contribute to the community and its demands, which may even involve contributing more than one is expecting to receive. Another principle is mutuality: this refers to a balance between rights and obligations or between mutual obligations. In its advisory document 'The importance of mutuality......solidarity takes work!', The Dutch Council for Public Health and Health Care underlines the importance of ensuring solidarity within the Dutch health care system, e.g. by encouraging patients to take responsibility for their own health, possibly by introducing elements of mutuality. In our contribution, we comment on the Council's advice. Although we fully agree with the overall conclusion that solidarity should be maintained within the system, we do not see how the introduction of increased mutuality will contribute to this goal.

  8. Maintaining human productivity during Mars transit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statler, Irving C.; Billings, Charles E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper addresses the special nature of the human-machine relationship during a trip to Mars. In particular, the potential for monotony and boredom during a long-duration space voyage and the effect on motivation and productivity can be important considerations to the health and welfare of the crew. For the voyage to Mars, a design may be considered that will purposefully maintain some level of workload for the crew as a preventive measure for the deterioration of productivity that comes with boredom. This paper speculates on these considerations, on the appropriate level of workload for maximum productivity, and on what might be done during the mission to alleviate the problems caused by monotony and boredom.

  9. Heartwarming memories: Nostalgia maintains physiological comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xinyue; Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine; Chen, Xiaoxi; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M

    2012-08-01

    Nostalgia, a sentimental longing or wistful affection for the past, is a predominantly positive and social emotion. Recent evidence suggests that nostalgia maintains psychological comfort. Here, we propose, and document in five methodologically diverse studies, a broader homeostatic function for nostalgia that also encompasses the maintenance of physiological comfort. We show that nostalgia--an emotion with a strong connotation of warmth--is triggered by coldness. Participants reported stronger nostalgia on colder (vs. warmer) days and in a cold (vs. neutral or warm) room. Nostalgia, in turn, modulates the interoceptive feeling of temperature. Higher levels of music-evoked nostalgia predicted increased physical warmth, and participants who recalled a nostalgic (vs. ordinary autobiographical) event perceived ambient temperature as higher. Finally, and consistent with the close central nervous system integration of temperature and pain sensations, participants who recalled a nostalgic (vs. ordinary autobiographical) event evinced greater tolerance to noxious cold.

  10. Human factors review of power plant maintainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seminara, J.L.; Parsons, S.O.; Schmidt, W.J.; Gonzalez, W.R.; Dove, L.E.

    1980-10-01

    Human factors engineering is an interdisciplinary science and technology concerned with shaping the design of machines, facilities, and operational environments to promote safe, efficient, and reliable performance on the part of operators and maintainers of equipment systems. The human factors aspects of five nuclear power plants and four fossil fuel plants were evaluated using such methods as a checklist guided observation system, structured interviews with maintenance personnel, direct observations of maintenance tasks, reviews of procedures, and analyses of maintenance errors or accidents by means of the critical incident technique. The study revealed a wide variety of human factors problem areas, most of which are extensively photodocumented. The study recommends that a more systematic and formal approach be adopted to ensure that future power plants are human engineered to the needs of maintenance personnel

  11. Maintaining and troubleshooting your 3D printer

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining and Troubleshooting Your 3D Printer by Charles Bell is your guide to keeping your 3D printer running through preventive maintenance, repair, and diagnosing and solving problems in 3D printing. If you've bought or built a 3D printer such as a MakerBot only to be confounded by jagged edges, corner lift, top layers that aren't solid, or any of a myriad of other problems that plague 3D printer enthusiasts, then here is the book to help you get past all that and recapture the joy of creative fabrication. The book also includes valuable tips for builders and those who want to modify the

  12. Balancing selection maintains cryptic colour morphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellenreuther, Maren

    2017-11-01

    Animals display incredibly diverse colour patterns, a testament to evolution's endless innovation in shaping life. In many species, the interplay between males and females in the pursuit of mates has driven the evolution of a myriad of colour forms, from the flashy peacock tail feathers to the tiniest colour markings in damselflies. In others, colour provides crypsis by allowing to blend into the background and to escape the eyes of predators. While the obvious benefits of this dazzling diversity for reproduction and survival seem straightforward, its maintenance is not. Theory predicts that genetic drift and various forms of selection reduce variation over time, making the persistence of colour variants over generations a puzzle. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Lindtke et al. () study the cryptic colour morphs of Timema cristinae walking sticks to shed light on the genetic architecture and mechanisms that allow colour polymorphism maintenance over long timescales. By combining genome-wide data with phenotyping information from natural populations, they were able to map the green and melanistic colour to one genomic region with highly reduced effective recombination rate between two main chromosomal variants, consistent with an inversion polymorphism. These two main chromosomal variants showed geographically widespread heterozygote excess, and genomic signatures consistent with long-term balancing selection. A younger chromosomal variant was detected for the third morph, the green-striped colour morphs, in the same genomic regions as the melanistic and the green-unstriped morphs. Together, these results suggest that the genetic architecture of cryptic T. cristinae morphs is caused by nonrecombining genomic blocks that have been maintained over extended time periods by balancing selection making this study one of the few available empirical examples documenting that balancing selection of various forms may play an important role in maintaining adaptive genetic

  13. Antigenotoxicity of Dietary Coconut Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Lim-Sylianco

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Benzo(apyrene, dimethylnitrosamine, methylmethanesulfonate and tetracycline induced formation of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes indicating that these substances are genotoxic to bone marrow cells of the experimental mice.Genotoxicity of these substances to germ cells was also observed when low fertility index and high percentage dead implants were induced in experimental mice.When each genotoxin was administered to mice fed with diets containing 18 % coconut oil for 23 days, the formation of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes was greatly reduced. Antigenotoxic activity of dietary coconut oil was very much greater than dietary soybean oil.Germ cell genotoxicity of each genotoxin was also reduced when male mice fed the 18 % coconut oil diet were used. When male mice treated with the genotoxin was mated with virgin females, fertility index was increased in the group fed with coconut oil diet. Percentage dead implants was reduced. The antigenotoxic activity of dietary coconut oil on germ cells far exceeds that of dietary soybean oil.Dietary restriction of coconut oil diets enhanced the antigenotoxic activity of coconut oil in bone marrow cells and germs cells.Among the triacylglycerols of coconut oil, trilaurin gave the best antigenotoxic activity in bone marrow cells. Trilaurin is the major triacylglycerol in coconut oil.

  14. Prevalence, Knowledge and Attitudes Concerning Dietary Supplements among a Student Population in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Pavičić Žeželj

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of usage and the knowledge and attitudes towards dietary supplements among medical sciences and nonmedical sciences students from Croatia. The study was conducted based on a questionnaire about dietary supplement usage, knowledge and attitudes. The prevalence of dietary supplement use, among 910 university students was 30.5%. The most-used dietary supplements were vitamins (18.0% in medical sciences students and 9.8% in non-medical sciences students. For all students, the internet (66.1% was the most common source of information, followed by healthcare professionals (33.2%. The most common reason for taking dietary supplements was to maintain good health (26.4%. Use of the internet rather than health professionals as a trusted information source should be revised among this young population. Supplement intake was significantly associated with body mass index (BMI (p = 0.016 and physical activity (p = 0.050. Students with normal BMI (61.5% and the most physically active students (37.7% took significantly more dietary supplements. Results of this study could help medicine faculties to improve their curriculum and support the development of public health messages aimed at wise and safe use of dietary supplements.

  15. Effect of dietary fibre type on physical activity and behaviour in kennelled dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, G.; Beerda, B.; Hoek, van de E.; Hesta, M.; Poel, van der A.F.B.; Janssens, G.P.J.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    Dog diets may differ in their effectiveness of maintaining satiety after a meal. Consequently, sensations of hunger, feeding motivation, physical activity, and sensitivity to environmental stressors may be increased. Dietary fibre may be effective in prolonging postprandial satiety depending on type

  16. Dietary fish oil (MaxEPA) enhances pancreatic carcinogenesis in azaserine-treated rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appel, M.J.; Woutersen, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    In the present study the putative chemopreventive effect of dietary fish oil (MaxEPA) on azaserine-induced pancreatic carcinogenesis in rats was investigated. Groups of rats were maintained on a semipurified low-fat (LF; 5 wt%) diet or on semipurified high-fat (HF; 25 wt%) diets containing 5 wt%

  17. Selenium status in adult cats and dogs fed high levels of dietary inorganic and organic selenium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Todd, S.E.; Ugarte, S.E.; Thomas, D.G.; Bosch, Guido; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    Cats (Felis catus) maintain greater blood Se concentrations compared with dogs (Canis familiaris) and, unlike dogs, show no signs of chronic Se toxicity (selenosis) when fed dietary organic Se (selenomethionine) concentrations of 10 μg/g DM. This study investigated the response of cats and dogs to

  18. Estimation of the dietary requirement for vitamin D in adolescents aged 14-18 y

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Taryn J; Tripkovic, Laura; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adolescents are a population group at high risk of low vitamin D status, yet the evidence base for establishing dietary vitamin D requirements remains weak. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to establish the distribution of vitamin D intakes required to maintain serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)...

  19. Estimation of the dietary requirement for vitamin D in white children aged 4-8 y

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Charlotte; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Hauger, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Children in northern latitudes are at high risk of vitamin D deficiency during winter because of negligible dermal vitamin D3 production. However, to our knowledge, the dietary requirement for maintaining the nutritional adequacy of vitamin D in young children has not been investigate...

  20. Effect of dietary oils on peripheral neuropathy-related endpoints in dietary obese rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coppey L

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Lawrence Coppey,1 Eric Davidson,1 Hanna Shevalye,1 Michael E Torres,1 Mark A Yorek1–4 1Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA; 2Department of Veterans Affairs Iowa City Health Care System, Iowa City, IA, USA; 3Department of Veterans Affairs, Veterans Affairs Center for the Prevention and Treatment of Visual Loss, Iowa City, IA, USA; 4Fraternal Order of Eagles Diabetes Research Center, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA Purpose: This study aimed to determine the effect of dietary oils (olive, safflower, evening primrose, flaxseed, or menhaden enriched in different mono unsaturated fatty acids or polyunsaturated fatty acids on peripheral neuropathies in diet-induced obese Sprague-Dawley rats.Materials and methods: Rats at 12 weeks of age were fed a high-fat diet (45% kcal for 16 weeks. Afterward, the rats were fed diets with 50% of the kilocalories of fat derived from lard replaced by the different dietary oils. In addition, a control group fed a standard diet (4% kcal fat and a high fat fed group (45% kcal were maintained. The treatment period was 32 weeks. The endpoints evaluated included motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity, thermal sensitivity, innervation of sensory nerves in the cornea and skin, and vascular relaxation by epineurial arterioles.Results: Menhaden oil provided the greatest benefit for improving peripheral nerve damage caused by dietary obesity. Similar results were obtained when we examined acetylcholine-mediated vascular relaxation of epineurial arterioles of the sciatic nerve. Enriching the diets with fatty acids derived from the other oils provided minimal to partial improvements.Conclusion: These studies suggest that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from fish oil could be an effective treatment for neural and vascular complications associated with obesity. Keywords: peripheral neuropathy, fish oil, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty

  1. Maintaining nuclear competence and expertise in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Y.

    2004-01-01

    The fundamental law of atomic energy, which strictly restricts the application of atomic energy to the peaceful use, was established in 1955 in Japan. Since then, during the past five decades, great efforts were made to develop atomic energy. So far 52 units of light water reactors, 29 BWRs and 23 PWRs, have been built and in operation, 5 units are under construction and 6 units are planed to be built. Total capacity of presently operated NPPs amounts to 45.7 Gwe and the nuclear energy shares 30 % of the total electricity generation in Japan. During the past 10 years, several accidents occur in the nuclear facilities of electric power companies, and JNC ( previously PNC ). In spite of these accidents, including the accident of Kansai Electric Power Co. this year, the important role of nuclear energy to sustain the lives of people in Japan is intact. In the nuclear energy projection, the construction of NPPs continues till 2010. Thereafter reconstructions of NPPs are foreseen in the decade 2030's for the replacement of present NPPs in operation after 60 years services. Attention has been directed to the technology preservation: how competence and expertise of nuclear engineering can be maintained till the next period of replacement construction, in particular, the period between years 2010 and 2030. The present paper reviews the status of nuclear engineering programs in universities in Japan. The nuclear education programs started in graduate schools in 1957 and expanded to undergraduate schools of major national universities. Presently nine universities are providing systematic nuclear education programs in their graduate schools, although the corresponding department have been changed their names from 'nuclear' to more broaden terms of 'quantum', 'energy' and 'system' in several universities. Under the conditions of shrinking nuclear industries, how to maintain the present education system is seriously concerned matter in the universities. The present paper

  2. Desirable factors for maintaining normal BMI of urban affluent women of Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anu Taneja; Siddhu, Anupa

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to identify desirable social, familial, reproductive, dietary, and lifestyle factors for maintaining normal body mass index (BMI) of urban affluent women (25-45 years) in Delhi, India. A total of 387 urban affluent women with at least one living child participated in this cross-sectional study conducted from March 2008 to April 2010. Women were classified into four BMI categories on the basis of World Health Organization (WHO; 2004) classification for Asians. Significant factors for maintaining normal BMI were: Younger age, less parity, nuclear family, normal weight status of parents, postpartum weight gain between 2 and 3 kg, regularity in taking meals, fixed meal size, self-perceived normal weight, and shorter sitting time and television viewing time. Multivariate regression analysis identified five determining factors for maintaining BMI, which are normal weight of father, self-perceived normal weight, fixed meal size, sitting time less than 6 h/day, and television viewing time less than 1 h/day. By small lifestyle modifications, normal BMI can be maintained.

  3. Maintaining Gamma Spectrometer and its challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazlipah Mohd Ramlan; Ramzah Mohamed; Saipo Bahari Abdul Ratan

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the activities of the Group Maintenance of Instrumentation and Automation Center. Maintenance of group activities is to provide maintenance service on equipment at the Malaysian Nuclear Agency. Category of equipment is maintained instrumentation / nuclear electronics, scientific, analytical, security, communications, audio visual and other related. Maintenance services is to support research and development and scientific services at Nuclear Malaysia. Equipment maintenance services including repair service (CM), periodic maintenance (PM), technical testing and calibration of new devices. The objective is to ensure that maintenance activities can be the hope of an equipment, extend the life of the operation of the equipment, reducing 'down time' and reduce maintenance costs. Among the challenges in managing the maintenance of equipment in Nuclear Malaysia is the lack of expertise in specific areas such as nuclear instrumentation, analytical instruments, the problem of the inability of local suppliers to provide after-sales service, lack of spares, maintenance and nothing less emphasis on preventive maintenance schedule is perfect. (author)

  4. Sociable Robots Through Self-Maintained Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trung Dung Ngo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Research of autonomous mobile robots has mostly emphasized interaction and coordination that are natually inspired from biological behavior of birds, insects, and fish: flocking, foraging, collecting, and sharing. However, most research has been only focused on autonomous behaviors in order to perform robots like animals, whereas it is lacked of determinant to those behaviours: energy. Approaching to clusted amimal and the higher, collective and sharing food among individuals are major activity to keep society being. This paper issues an approach to sociable robots using self-maintained energy in cooperative mobile robots, which is dominantly inspired from swarm behavior of collecting and sharing food of honey-bee and ant. Autonomous mobile robots are usually equipped with a finite energy, thus they can operate in a finite time. To overcome the finitude, we describe practical deployment of mobile robots that are capable of carrying and exchanging fuel to other robots. Mechanism implementation including modular hardware and control architecture to demonstrate the capabicities of the approach is presented. Subsequently, the battery exchange algorithm basically based on probabilistic modeling of total energy on each robot located in its local vicinity is described. The paper is concluded with challenging works of chain of mobile robots, rescue, repair, and relation of heterogeneous robots.

  5. Sociable Robots through Self-maintained Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Schioler

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Research of autonomous mobile robots has mostly emphasized interaction and coordination that are natually inspired from biological behavior of birds, insects, and fish: flocking, foraging, collecting, and sharing. However, most research has been only focused on autonomous behaviors in order to perform robots like animals, whereas it is lacked of determinant to those behaviours: energy. Approaching to clusted amimal and the higher, collective and sharing food among individuals are major activity to keep society being. This paper issues an approach to sociable robots using self-maintained energy in cooperative mobile robots, which is dominantly inspired from swarm behavior of collecting and sharing food of honey-bee and ant. Autonomous mobile robots are usually equipped with a finite energy, thus they can operate in a finite time. To overcome the finitude, we describe practical deployment of mobile robots that are capable of carrying and exchanging fuel to other robots. Mechanism implementation including modular hardware and control architecture to demonstrate the capabicities of the approach is presented. Subsequently, the battery exchange algorithm basically based on probabilistic modeling of total energy on each robot located in its local vicinity is described. The paper is concluded with challenging works of chain of mobile robots, rescue, repair, and relation of heterogeneous robots.

  6. Dietary changes among breast cancer patients in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaharudin, Soraya Hanie; Sulaiman, Suhaina; Shahril, Mohd Razif; Emran, Nor Aina; Akmal, Sharifah Noor

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer patients often show an interest in making dietary changes after diagnosis of breast cancer to improve their health condition and prevent cancer recurrence. The objective of the study was to determine changes in dietary intake 2 years after diagnosis among breast cancer patients. One hundred sixteen subjects were asked to complete a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, diet recalls, and dietary changes questionnaire to assess dietary intake before and after diagnosis. The information on sociodemographic background, cancer treatment history, and anthropometric indices was also collected. Seventy-two subjects considered diet as a contributing factor to breast cancer, and 67 subjects changed their dietary habits after breast cancer diagnosis. The reasons for changes in diet were physician and dietitian advice and desire to cure cancer. The sources of information were derived from their physician, mass media, and family members. Total energy, protein, total fat, fatty acids, and vitamin E intake were significantly decreased after diagnosis. Meanwhile, the intake of β-carotene and vitamin C increased significantly after diagnosis. The changes included reduction in red meat, seafood, noodles, and poultry intake. An increased consumption of fruits, vegetables, fish, low-fat milk, and soy products was observed. The subjects tended to lower high-fat foods intake and started to eat more fruits and vegetables. Breast cancer patients had changed to a healthier diet after breast cancer diagnosis, although the changes made were small. This will be helpful to dietitians in providing a better understanding of good eating habits that will maintain patients' health after breast cancer diagnosis.

  7. Dietary reference values for thiamin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derived dietary reference values (DRVs) for thiamin (vitamin B1). The Panel considers that data from depletion–repletion studies in adults on the amount of dietary thiamin intake...... were measured. Results from other depletion–repletion studies are in agreement with this value. The Panel agrees on the coefficient of variation of 20% used by the SCF to cover uncertainties related to distribution of thiamin requirements in the general population, and endorses the population reference...

  8. Dietary patterns in weight loss maintenance: results from the MedWeight study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karfopoulou, Eleni; Brikou, Dora; Mamalaki, Eirini; Bersimis, Fragiskos; Anastasiou, Costas A; Hill, James O; Yannakoulia, Mary

    2017-04-01

    The dietary habits contributing to weight loss maintenance are not sufficiently understood. We studied weight loss maintainers in comparison with regainers, to identify the differentiating behaviors. The MedWeight study is a Greek registry of weight loss maintainers and regainers. Participants had intentionally lost ≥10 % of their weight and either had maintained this loss for over a year, or had regained weight. Questionnaires on demographics and lifestyle habits were completed online. Dietary assessment was carried out by two telephone 24-h recalls. Present analysis focused on 361 participants (32 years old, 39 % men): 264 maintainers and 97 regainers. Energy and macronutrient intake did not differ by maintenance status (1770 ± 651 kcal in maintainers vs. 1845 ± 678 kcal in regainers, p = 0.338), although protein intake per kg of body weight was higher in maintainers (1.02 ± 0.39 vs. 0.83 ± 0.28 g/kg in regainers, p meal preparation and eating at home for men, and a higher eating frequency and slower eating rate for women. Men maintaining weight loss were much more likely to adhere to a healthy eating pattern. Eating at home, involvement in meal preparation, higher eating frequency and slower eating rate were also associated with maintenance. These lifestyle habits of successful maintainers provide target behaviors to improve obesity treatment.

  9. Maintaining homeostasis by decision-making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph W Korn

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Living organisms need to maintain energetic homeostasis. For many species, this implies taking actions with delayed consequences. For example, humans may have to decide between foraging for high-calorie but hard-to-get, and low-calorie but easy-to-get food, under threat of starvation. Homeostatic principles prescribe decisions that maximize the probability of sustaining appropriate energy levels across the entire foraging trajectory. Here, predictions from biological principles contrast with predictions from economic decision-making models based on maximizing the utility of the endpoint outcome of a choice. To empirically arbitrate between the predictions of biological and economic models for individual human decision-making, we devised a virtual foraging task in which players chose repeatedly between two foraging environments, lost energy by the passage of time, and gained energy probabilistically according to the statistics of the environment they chose. Reaching zero energy was framed as starvation. We used the mathematics of random walks to derive endpoint outcome distributions of the choices. This also furnished equivalent lotteries, presented in a purely economic, casino-like frame, in which starvation corresponded to winning nothing. Bayesian model comparison showed that--in both the foraging and the casino frames--participants' choices depended jointly on the probability of starvation and the expected endpoint value of the outcome, but could not be explained by economic models based on combinations of statistical moments or on rank-dependent utility. This implies that under precisely defined constraints biological principles are better suited to explain human decision-making than economic models based on endpoint utility maximization.

  10. Inuit dietary patterns in modern Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Jeppesen, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to apply two different approaches of dietary pattern definition to data from Greenland and to analyse the contemporary dietary patterns of the Inuit in Greenland in relation to urbanization and socio-economic positions.......The purpose of the study was to apply two different approaches of dietary pattern definition to data from Greenland and to analyse the contemporary dietary patterns of the Inuit in Greenland in relation to urbanization and socio-economic positions....

  11. Worldwide trends in dietary sugars intake.

    OpenAIRE

    Wittekind, Anna; Walton, Janette

    2014-01-01

    Estimating trends in dietary intake data is integral to informing national nutrition policy and monitoring progress towards dietary guidelines. Dietary intake of sugars is a controversial public health issue and guidance in relation to recommended intakes is particularly inconsistent. Published data relating to trends in sugars intake are relatively sparse. The purpose of the present review was to collate and review data from national nutrition surveys to examine changes and trends in dietary...

  12. Optimal dietary patterns designed from local foods to achieve maternal nutritional goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Jofrey; Kassim, Neema; Rose, Jerman W; Agaba, Morris

    2018-04-04

    Achieving nutritional requirements for pregnant and lactating mothers in rural households while maintaining the intake of local and culture-specific foods can be a difficult task. Deploying a linear goal programming approach can effectively generate optimal dietary patterns that incorporate local and culturally acceptable diets. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether a realistic and affordable diet that achieves nutritional goals for rural pregnant and lactating women can be formulated from locally available foods in Tanzania. A cross sectional study was conducted to assess dietary intakes of 150 pregnant and lactating women using a weighed dietary record (WDR), 24 h dietary recalls and a 7-days food record. A market survey was also carried out to estimate the cost per 100 g of edible portion of foods that are frequently consumed in the study population. Dietary survey and market data were then used to define linear programming (LP) model parameters for diet optimisation. All LP analyses were done using linear program solver to generate optimal dietary patterns. Our findings showed that optimal dietary patterns designed from locally available foods would improve dietary adequacy for 15 and 19 selected nutrients in pregnant and lactating women, respectively, but inadequacies remained for iron, zinc, folate, pantothenic acid, and vitamin E, indicating that these are problem nutrients (nutrients that did not achieve 100% of their RNIs in optimised diets) in the study population. These findings suggest that optimal use of local foods can improve dietary adequacy for rural pregnant and lactating women aged 19-50 years. However, additional cost-effective interventions are needed to ensure adequate intakes for the identified problem nutrients.

  13. Defining the role of dietary intake in determining weight change in patients with cancer cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrah, R; Kanbalian, M; Van Der Borch, C; Swinton, N; Wing, S; Jagoe, R T

    2018-02-01

    Weight loss is a cardinal feature of cachexia and is frequently associated with reduced food intake and anorexia. It is still unclear how much reduced food intake contributes to cancer-related weight loss and how effective increasing dietary energy and protein is in combating this weight loss. The relationship between weight change and both diet and change in dietary intake, was examined in patients with advanced stage cancer referred to a multidisciplinary clinic for management of cancer cachexia. A retrospective study of data for each of the first three clinic visits for patients seen between 2009 and 2015. Data on weight change, dietary intake and change in dietary intake were compared. Regression analysis was used to determine independent explanatory factors for weight change, including the impact of appetite level and a marker of systemic inflammation. Of 405 eligible patients, 320 had data on dietary intake available. Dietary intake varied widely at baseline: 26.9% reported very poor diet and only 17% were consuming recommended levels of energy and protein. A highly significant positive correlation was found between dietary energy or protein intake and weight change, both before and after being seen in the clinic. Anorexia was also significantly correlated with weight loss at each clinic visit. However, there was no similar overall correlation between change in dietary intake and change in weight. Many patients with advanced cancer and weight loss are consuming diets that would likely be insufficient to maintain weight even in healthy individuals. Higher consumption of protein and energy correlates with greater weight gain, but it is impossible to predict the response to increased nutritional intake when patients are first assessed. There is a pressing need to improve understanding of factors that modulate metabolic responses to dietary intake in patients with cancer cachexia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and

  14. Dietary fibre as an important constituent of the diet

    OpenAIRE

    Kalina Maćkowiak; Natalia Torlińska-Walkowiak; Barbara Torlińska

    2016-01-01

    The intake of fibre in the diet of a child or an adult, through various foods (such as wholegrain foods, nuts, fruits and vegetables), plays an important role in reducing the risk and lowering the incidence of numerous diseases. The interest of researchers and consumers in the role of diet in the prevention or treatment of many illnesses, and maintaining the general and oral health, has been growing lately. The aim of our study was to underline the role of dietary fibre through its effects on...

  15. Estimating the Distribution of Dietary Consumption Patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Carroll, Raymond J.

    2014-01-01

    In the United States the preferred method of obtaining dietary intake data is the 24-hour dietary recall, yet the measure of most interest is usual or long-term average daily intake, which is impossible to measure. Thus, usual dietary intake

  16. 22 CFR 71.12 - Dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dietary supplements. 71.12 Section 71.12... Incarcerated Abroad § 71.12 Dietary supplements. (a) Eligibility criteria. A prisoner is considered eligible for the dietary supplement program under the following general criteria: (1) An evaluation by a...

  17. Dietary Patterns and Human Reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Vujkovic (Marijana)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractPart 1 of the thesis focuses on dietary patterns and fatty acid intake in couples undergoing IVF/ICSI fertility treatment. The studies described in Chapter 2, 3 and 4 are based on the FOod Lifestyle and Fertility Outcome study (FOLFO), a prospective cohort study examining the influence

  18. Dietary reference values for riboflavin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2017-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derives dietary reference values (DRVs) for riboflavin. The Panel considers that the inflection point in the urinary riboflavin excretion curve in relation to riboflavin intake...

  19. Dietary reference values for potassium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derives dietary reference values (DRVs) for potassium. The Panel decides to set DRVs on the basis of the relationships between potassium intake and blood pressure and stroke...

  20. 9691 KNOWLEDGE OF RECOMMENDED DIETARY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mimi

    and obese body weight categories. Thus, this investigation indicated an ... understand the role of dietary cholesterol in disease progression or prevention. In addition, some consumers may regard all fats ... frequency of consumption of food rich in cholesterol, and medical check-up was used as an instrument for this study.

  1. Prohibited Contaminants in Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Neilson M

    With the increasing use of unregulated dietary supplements, athletes are at continued risk from adverse medical events and inadvertent doping. A review of Clinical Key, MEDLINE, and PubMed databases from 2012 to 2017 was performed using search terms, including dietary supplement, contamination, doping in athletes, inadvertent doping, and prohibited substances. The references of pertinent articles were reviewed for other relevant sources. Clinical review. Level 3. Poor manufacturing processes and intentional contamination with many banned substances continue to occur in dietary supplements sold in the United States. Certain sectors, such as weight loss and muscle-building supplements, pose a greater threat because they are more likely to be contaminated. Athletes will continue to be at risk for adverse events and failed doping tests due to contaminated dietary supplements until legislation changes how they are regulated. In the interim, there are several steps that can be taken to mitigate this risk, including improved education of medical staff and athletes and use of third party-certified products.

  2. Dietary nutraceuticals as novel radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagetia, Ganesh Chandra

    2012-01-01

    There is long standing need to protect humans from the deleterious effects of ionizing radiation in the event of radiation related calamities or otherwise. Various dietary ingredients have formed an integral part of daily human diets. Most of the ingredients used in the Indian diet possess medicinal properties. However, little attention has been paid to screen the radioprotective ability of dietary ingredients. It is possible that use of dietary agents could protect against the deleterious effects of ionizing radiations more effectively than other exotic synthetic agents simply because they are from natural biological sources, and may be more biocompatible than any other synthetic counterparts. Their acceptance for therapeutic purpose will be acceptable as they are part of daily human diets and do not have any known toxicity. This has been a stimulation to investigate the radioprotective ability of certain dietary ingredients including naringin and mangiferin in vivo and in vitro using micronuclei or survival assays. Treatment of mice with various doses of naringin or mangiferin reduced the symptoms of radiation-induced sickness including listlessness, irritability, lethargy, reduction in food and water intake, diarrhea, lacrimation, facial edema weight loss, emaciation, and epilation. Mice receiving various doses of naringin reduced the radiation-induced micronuclei formation and chromosome aberrations in bone marrow. Likewise, treatment of human peripheral blood lymphocytes with various concentrations of mangiferin reduced the radiation-induced DNA damage. The putative mechanisms of radioprotection are free radical scavenging, increased GSH accompanied by reduced lipid peroxidation. The use of dietary ingredients for radioprotection shall be encouraged as they are consumed daily and toxic implications are negligible. (author)

  3. Development of Family-Based Dietary Self-Management Support Program on Dietary Behaviors in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Indonesia: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aklima Aklima

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: WHO statistics show that Indonesia has the fourth highest number of diabetes sufferers. The International Diabetes Federation‟s 5th estimated that in 2011 there were 71.4 million people in South East Asia region were suffering with DM Purpose: To develop a family-based dietary self-management support program to improve dietary behaviors in patients with T2DM. Method: A literature review was conducted by reviewing articles related evidence-based practices. Only articles in the English and Indonesian languages were reviewed. The search found eleven published experimental studies related to the topic. Result: Even though dietary self-management has benefits for patients with diabetes, many studies have found that these patients often have difficulty in establishing or maintaining an effective program to self-manage their dietary behaviors. Lack of family support is one factor that often seems to be related to such failures. Family participation in a diabetes education program also had positive psychosocial impacts. Otherwise, another study found that family might not always have a positive impact on self-management. Therefore, this review recommends that development of a family-based support program could be a positive factor in helping to improve dietary self-management behaviors in patients with T2DM. Self-management theory by Funnell and Anderson‟s work (2004 can guide the development of a program with the goal of empowering individuals and families in improving the patient‟s dietary behaviors. The program consists of: (1 reflecting on current and/or past self-management experiences by listening to the patient about their dietary behaviors, (2 discussing the emotions and feelings of the patients, (3 engaging the patient in improving their situation by active listening and helping the patient reflect on their problems and identifying effective strategies, (4 providing information about dietary management and problem

  4. Assessing patients' attitudes towards dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzejska, Regina; Jarosz, Mirosław; Siuba, Magdalena; Rambuszek, Michał

    2014-01-01

    There is currently many over the counter products on the market that exert nutritional or physiological effects on the human body. The differences between dietary supplements and non-prescription drugs are however poorly understood by the average consumer and may thus affect their expectations as to the desired effect produced on the body. To evaluate patients' knowledge and attitudes towards dietary supplements as compared to non-prescription drugs. Subjects were 335 patients of the Mazowiecki Voivodeship Hospital in Warsaw, Poland. The data were collected from a face-to-face interview using a single and multiple choice questionnaire with 10 questions on dietary supplements. Statistical analysis used the Chi-square (χ2) test. The majority of respondents were found to be familiar with the term 'dietary supplements', but had difficulties in classifying these products into appropriate categories. Over 55% do not consider dietary supplements to be foodstuffs and more than 40% considered such products to be drugs. Most respondents thought that the main purpose of taking dietary supplements is to improve nutrition, but over one third expected them to also treat disease. Over 70% declared taking notice to which category the non-prescription products they bought belongs to ie. whether non-prescription drugs (medicinal products) or dietary supplements. Many patients mistakenly believe that dietary supplements are drugs and can be used to treat disease and health disorders. dietary supplements, opinion on dietary supplements, nutrition, dietary supplement vs. medicinal product.

  5. Biodegradation of nickel and chromium from space maintainers: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhaskar V

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Band materials are often used in the practice of pediatric dentistry. Nickel and Chromium are the main ingredients of these materials. The potential health hazards of nickel and chromium and their compounds have been the focus of attention for more than 100 years. It has established that these metals could cause hypersensitivity. The study was undertaken to analyze in vitro biodegradation of space maintainers made out of stainless steel band materials from manufacturers Dentaurum and Unitek. The leaching effect simulating the use of one, two, three, and four space maintainers in clinical practice was studied by keeping the respective number of space maintainers in the artificial saliva incubating at 37°C and analyzing for nickel and chromium release after 1,7,14,21 and 28 days using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results showed that there was measurable release of both nickel and chromium which reached maximum level at the end of 7 days which was statistically significant (P < 0.05 and was very much below the dietary average intake even for four bands used and was not capable of causing any toxicity.

  6. Histone deacetylase inhibition and dietary short-chain Fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licciardi, Paul V; Ververis, Katherine; Karagiannis, Tom C

    2011-01-01

    Changes in diet can also have dramatic effects on the composition of gut microbiota. Commensal bacteria of the gastrointestinal tract are critical regulators of health and disease by protecting against pathogen encounter whilst also maintaining immune tolerance to certain allergens. Moreover, consumption of fibre and vegetables typical of a non-Western diet generates substantial quantities of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) which have potent anti-inflammatory properties. Dietary interventions such as probiotic supplementation have been investigated for their pleiotropic effects on microbiota composition and immune function. Probiotics may restore intestinal dysbiosis and improve clinical disease through elevated SCFA levels in the intestine. Although the precise mechanisms by which such dietary factors mediate these effects, SCFA metabolites such as butyrate also function as histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi), that can act on the epigenome through chromatin remodeling changes. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of HDAC enzymes and to discuss the biological effects of HDACi. Further, we discuss the important relationship between diet and the balance between health and disease and how novel dietary interventions such as probiotics could be alternative approach for the prevention and/or treatment of chronic inflammatory disease through modulation of the intestinal microbiome.

  7. Bioactive dietary peptides and amino acids in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Hu, Chien-An A; Kovacs-Nolan, Jennifer; Mine, Yoshinori

    2015-10-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), most commonly ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), is a chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. Patients affected with IBD experience symptoms including abdominal pain, persistent diarrhea, rectal bleeding, and weight loss. There is no cure for IBD; thus treatments typically focus on preventing complications, inducing and maintaining remission, and improving quality of life. During IBD, dysregulation of the intestinal immune system leads to increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α and IL-6, and recruitment of activated immune cells to the intestine, causing tissue damage and perpetuating the inflammatory response. Recent biological therapies targeting specific inflammatory cytokines or pathways, in particular TNF-α, have shown promise, but not all patients respond to treatment, and some individuals become intolerant to treatment over time. Dietary peptides and amino acids (AAs) have been shown to modulate intestinal immune functions and influence inflammatory responses, and may be useful as alternative or ancillary treatments in IBD. This review focuses on dietary interventions for IBD treatment, in particular the role of dietary peptides and AAs in reducing inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis in the gut, as well as recent advances in the cellular mechanisms responsible for their anti-inflammatory activity.

  8. Effect of Different Extrusion Parameters on Dietary Fiber in Wheat Bran and Rye Bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Annica A M; Andersson, R; Jonsäll, Anette; Andersson, Jörgen; Fredriksson, Helena

    2017-06-01

    Wheat bran and rye bran are mostly used as animal feed today, but their high content of dietary fiber and bioactive components are beneficial to human health. Increased use of bran as food raw material could therefore be desirable. However, bran mainly contains unextractable dietary fiber and deteriorates the sensory properties of products. Processing by extrusion could increase the extractability of dietary fiber and increase the sensory qualities of bran products. Wheat bran and rye bran were therefore extruded at different levels of moisture content, screw speed and temperature, in order to find the optimal setting for increased extractability of dietary fiber and positive sensory properties. A water content of 24% for wheat bran and 30% for rye bran, a screw speed of 400 rpm, and a temperature of 130 °C resulted in the highest extractability of total dietary fiber and arabinoxylan. Arabinoxylan extractability increased from 5.8% in wheat bran to 9.0% in extruded wheat bran at those settings, and from 14.6% to 19.2% for rye bran. Total contents of dietary fiber and arabinoxylan were not affected by extrusion. Content of β-glucan was also maintained during extrusion, while its molecular weight decreased slightly and extractability increased slightly. Extrusion at these settings is therefore a suitable process for increasing the use of wheat bran and rye bran as a food raw material. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  9. Status of Dietary Intake of Calcium in Women of Reproductive Age in Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nighat Yaseen Sofi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium (Ca plays an important role in bone formation. Attaining optimal bone mass and peak bone densities is essential to prevent osteoporotic fractures in future life. In conditions of Ca deficiency, Ca from the bones maintains the blood levels of Ca leading to its depletion in bones. Calcium depletion leads to poor bone density and a higher risk of osteoporosis particularly in women who have repeated episodes of pregnancy and lactation.Aim & Objective: To assess the dietary intake of calcium.Material Methods: the study was conducted among 200 healthy women of reproductive age group of 20-49 years.Result: The dietary intake of calcium was less than the Recommended Dietary Allowances of 600mg/day. Women from upper socioeconomic class had a higher intake of dietary calcium 435±268 mg/day as compared to women from low socioeconomic class with a dietary intake of 295±163 mg/day.Conclusion: The dietary intake of calcium improved with an increase in socioeconomic class.

  10. Vegetables as a Source of Dietary Fiber to Prevent Degenerative Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deddy Muchtadi

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available For long time vegetables were thought only as sources of several vitamins; however, it has been shown that vegetables contain other component, which is also important for maintaining body's health, i.e., dietary fiber. Dietary fiber is a group of polysaccharides oan other polymers, which cannot be digested by upper gastro-intestinal system of human. Dietary fiber can be grouped as soluble and insoluble dietary fiber, showing in different physiological effect. Soluble dietary fiber (SDF is effective in preventing cardiovascular disease, while insoluble dietary fiber (IDF can prevent the development of colon cancer, diverticulosis as well as obesity.Local vegetables found to contain high SDF (higher than 3,06% db are: watercress, green bean, carrot, eggplant, lettuce, broccoli, spinach, string bean, and aubergine; while which contain high IDF (higher than 40,60% db are: winged bean, watercress, chinese leaves, katuk leaves, lettuce, green bean, broccoli, carrot and spinach. Cooking (i.e. boiling, steaming and pan frying decrease the IDF content of vegetables, while their SDF content is not affected by cooking treatments.

  11. Dietary quality and encephalization in platyrrhine primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kari L.; Kay, Richard F.

    2012-01-01

    The high energetic costs of building and maintaining large brains are thought to constrain encephalization. The ‘expensive-tissue hypothesis’ (ETH) proposes that primates (especially humans) overcame this constraint through reduction of another metabolically expensive tissue, the gastrointestinal tract. Small guts characterize animals specializing on easily digestible diets. Thus, the hypothesis may be tested via the relationship between brain size and diet quality. Platyrrhine primates present an interesting test case, as they are more variably encephalized than other extant primate clades (excluding Hominoidea). We find a high degree of phylogenetic signal in the data for diet quality, endocranial volume and body size. Controlling for phylogenetic effects, we find no significant correlation between relative diet quality and relative endocranial volume. Thus, diet quality fails to account for differences in platyrrhine encephalization. One taxon, in particular, Brachyteles, violates predictions made by ETH in having a large brain and low-quality diet. Dietary reconstructions of stem platyrrhines further indicate that a relatively high-quality diet was probably in place prior to increases in encephalization. Therefore, it is unlikely that a shift in diet quality was a primary constraint release for encephalization in platyrrhines and, by extrapolation, humans. PMID:21831898

  12. Dietary Fatty Acids and Predementia Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Solfrizzi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An increasing body of epidemiological evidence suggests that elevated saturated fatty acids (SFA could have negative effects on age-related cognitive decline (ARCD. Furthermore, a reduction of risk for cognitive decline and mild cognitive impairment (MCI has been found in population samples with elevated fish consumption, and high intake of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, particularly n-3 PUFA. However, recent findings from clinical trials with n-3 PUFA supplementation showed efficacy on depressive symptoms in non–Vapolipoprotein E (APOE ε4 carriers, and on cognitive symptoms only in very mild Alzheimer's disease (AD subgroups, MCI patients, and cognitively unimpaired non-APOE ε4 carriers. These data, together with epidemiological evidence, support the idea that n-3 PUFA may play a role in maintaining adequate cognitive functioning in predementia syndromes, but not when the AD process has already taken over. Therefore, at present, no definitive dietary recommendations on fish and unsaturated fatty acids consumption, or lower intake of saturated fat, in relation to the risk for dementia and cognitive decline are possible.

  13. Dietary quality and encephalization in platyrrhine primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kari L; Kay, Richard F

    2012-02-22

    The high energetic costs of building and maintaining large brains are thought to constrain encephalization. The 'expensive-tissue hypothesis' (ETH) proposes that primates (especially humans) overcame this constraint through reduction of another metabolically expensive tissue, the gastrointestinal tract. Small guts characterize animals specializing on easily digestible diets. Thus, the hypothesis may be tested via the relationship between brain size and diet quality. Platyrrhine primates present an interesting test case, as they are more variably encephalized than other extant primate clades (excluding Hominoidea). We find a high degree of phylogenetic signal in the data for diet quality, endocranial volume and body size. Controlling for phylogenetic effects, we find no significant correlation between relative diet quality and relative endocranial volume. Thus, diet quality fails to account for differences in platyrrhine encephalization. One taxon, in particular, Brachyteles, violates predictions made by ETH in having a large brain and low-quality diet. Dietary reconstructions of stem platyrrhines further indicate that a relatively high-quality diet was probably in place prior to increases in encephalization. Therefore, it is unlikely that a shift in diet quality was a primary constraint release for encephalization in platyrrhines and, by extrapolation, humans.

  14. Dietary Metabolites and Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sho Hasegawa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Dietary contents and their metabolites are closely related to chronic kidney disease (CKD progression. Advanced glycated end products (AGEs are a type of uremic toxin produced by glycation. AGE accumulation is not only the result of elevated glucose levels or reduced renal clearance capacity, but it also promotes CKD progression. Indoxyl sulfate, another uremic toxin derived from amino acid metabolism, accumulates as CKD progresses and induces tubulointerstitial fibrosis and glomerular sclerosis. Specific types of amino acids (d-serine or fatty acids (palmitate are reported to be closely associated with CKD progression. Promising therapeutic targets associated with nutrition include uremic toxin absorbents and inhibitors of AGEs or the receptor for AGEs (RAGE. Probiotics and prebiotics maintain gut flora balance and also prevent CKD progression by enhancing gut barriers and reducing uremic toxin formation. Nrf2 signaling not only ameliorates oxidative stress but also reduces elevated AGE levels. Bardoxolone methyl, an Nrf2 activator and NF-κB suppressor, has been tested as a therapeutic agent, but the phase 3 clinical trial was terminated owing to the high rate of cardiovascular events. However, a phase 2 trial has been initiated in Japan, and the preliminary analysis reveals promising results without an increase in cardiovascular events.

  15. 33 CFR 150.555 - How must cranes be maintained?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How must cranes be maintained? 150.555 Section 150.555 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Operations § 150.555 How must cranes be maintained? Cranes must be operated, maintained, and tested in...

  16. Valve maintainability in CANDU-PHW nuclear generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pothier, N.E.; Crago, W.A.

    1977-09-01

    Design, application, layout and administrative factors which affect valve maintainability in CANDU-PHW power reactors are identified and discussed. Some of these are illustrated by examples based on prototype reactor operation experience. Valve maintainability improvements resulting from laboratory development and maintainability analysis, have been incorporated in commercial CANDU-PHW nuclear generating stations. These, also, are discussed and illustrated. (author)

  17. Dietary inadequacy in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marroquin, C G; Hernandez, M I; Hernandez, B M; Mancia, I Y

    1992-01-01

    Researchers conducted a dietary survey of 59 households selected at random in the marginal community of Peralta in San Salvador, El Salvador to ascertain nutritional needs of the families and identify factors which affect intrafamilial distribution and consumption of food. A nutritionist weighed all the food consumed by each family member in 1 day. 50% of the family members consumed just grain, sugar, oil, and/or beans. 93% of the people ate 90% of the required quantity of vitamin A. 88% ate inadequate amounts of riboflavin, 77% iron, and 40% protein. Moreover 58% of the households spent 61-100% of their income on food. No association occurred between caloric sufficiency and family size and between age and dietary adequacy. Therefore each family evenly distributed food among family members. Further poorer families consumed less food than the families of the higher socioeconomic group.

  18. The digestion of dietary triacylglycerols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2004-01-01

    Dietary triacylglycerols (TAGs) are the major lipid components in the human diet and they are carriers of energy as well as important fatty acids. Many factors affect the digestion and absorption of TAGs. Evidence is accumulating that, in addition to the overall fatty acid profile, the TAG......, or one may speculate additionally on the possibilities of modifying the structure of fats to affect their absorption and the distribution of the fatty acids in the body after digestion and uptake. In this review we will summarize diverse aspects of TAG digestion and absorption, as well as the influences...... of the fatty acid composition and the intramolecular structure of dietary TAGs on their digestion and absorption....

  19. Weight control behaviors of highly successful weight loss maintainers: the Portuguese Weight Control Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Inês; Vieira, Paulo N; Silva, Marlene N; Sardinha, Luís B; Teixeira, Pedro J

    2017-04-01

    To describe key behaviors reported by participants in the Portuguese Weight Control Registry and to determine associations between these behaviors and weight loss maintenance. A total of 388 adults participated in this cross-sectional study. Assessments included demographic information, weight history, weight loss and weight maintenance strategies, dietary intake, and physical activity. Participants lost on average 18 kg, which they had maintained for ~28 months. Their average dietary intake was 2199 kcal/day, with 33 % of energy coming from fat. About 78 % of participants engaged in levels of moderate-plus-vigorous physical activity exceeding 150 min/week (51 % above 250 min/week), with men accumulating 82 more minutes than women (p breakfast. Greater weight loss maintenance was associated with higher levels of physical activity, walking, weight self-monitoring, establishing specific goals, and with reduced portion size use, reduced consumption of carbohydrates, and increased consumption of protein, (p < 0.05). Results indicate that weight loss maintenance is possible through the adoption of a nutritionally-balanced diet and regular participation in physical activity, but also suggest that adopting different (and, to a degree, individualized) set of behavioral strategies is key for achieving success.

  20. Dietary Carcinogens and Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-07-01

    detected by autoradiography on X-ray film with intensifying screens at - 70 0C. Using this TLC separation system, we have observed one abundant adduct...report in Science, published earlier this year, showed that resveratrol (a phytochemical found in many plant species) inhibited both cyclooxygenase I...the dietary phytochemical resveratrol significantly inhibits PhIP-DNA adduct formation in primary cultures of human mammary epithelial cells. From

  1. Issues in Nutrition: Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Margaret E; Noel, Mary Barth

    2017-01-01

    The majority of American adults report use of one or more dietary supplements every day or occasionally. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 defines dietary supplements and regulates their manufacture and distribution. One of the most commonly used supplements is vitamin D. Measurement of serum levels of vitamin D must be undertaken with the caveats that different laboratories define normal levels differently, and that there is rarely a clinical correlation with the actual level. Patients should understand that supplements should not be used to excess, as there are toxicities and other adverse effects associated with most of them. There currently is considerable research being performed on probiotics and how the gut microbiome affects health and disease states. Protein supplements may be useful in reducing mortality rates in elderly patients but they do not appear to increase quality of life. If used, protein supplements should contain essential amino acids. Casein and whey supplements, derived from dairy sources, help transport essential amino acids to tissues. Although there have been many studies investigating the role of vitamin supplements in disease prevention, there have been few conclusive positive results. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  2. Marketing dietary supplements in the United States: A review of the requirements for new dietary ingredients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noonan, Chris; Patrick Noonan, W.

    2006-01-01

    Since the passage of the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act in 1994, the marketplace for dietary supplements has experienced dramatic growth. New products have redefined the entire marketplace, and new ingredients are introduced to consumers at lightning speed. As part of this act, laws were passed to ensure the safety of new dietary ingredients introduced into the United States marketplace. But more than 11 years later, these laws are frequently misunderstood, and more frequently ignored. This article reviews the regulatory landscape of new dietary ingredients and defines the issues manufacturers must contend with to legally market dietary supplements with new dietary ingredients in the U.S

  3. Effects of dietary lipid levels on growth, body composition and antioxidants of clamworm (Perinereis aibuhitensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Lv

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available To determine the effects of dietary lipid levels on growth performance, body composition and antioxidant parameters of clamworm (Perinereis aibuhitensis, 1050 clamworms were fed diets with seven lipid levels (2.37%, 4.35%, 6.29%, 8.41%, 10.31%, 12.29% and 14.33%, named L2.37, L4.35, L6.29, L8.41, L10.31, L12.29 and L14.33, respectively for 10 weeks. Each diet was randomly assigned to triplicate groups of 50 clamworms. The results showed that the growth performance and protein efficiency ratio were significantly affected by the lipid levels. Clamworms fed L8.41 diet exhibited higher growth performance than others and the maximum specific growth rate can be possibly obtained when the diets were supplemented with 7.54% lipid level. The dietary lipid levels had significant influences on the whole body crude protein, crude lipid, moisture contents and ash profile of P. aibuhitensis. The eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA were also enhanced with increasing dietary lipid levels in whole body analyses. The contents of malonaldehyde (MDA and lipid peroxidation (LPO in clamworms increased significantly with increasing dietary lipid levels. Meanwhile, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPX and total autioxidative capacity (T-AOC tended to strengthen with dietary lipid levels increasing from 2.37% to 10.31% (except the GPX with 12.29% dietary lipid levels, and weaken with dietary lipid levels increasing from 10.31% to 14.33%. These results demonstrated that a proper dietary lipid level of 7.54%–10.31% could maintain solid growth performance and antioxidant capacity of juvenile P. aibuhitensis.

  4. Dietary pattern and lifestyle factors in asthma control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Noufal Poongadan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of asthma in adults varied from 0.96% to 11.03% while in children ranged from 2.3% to 11.9% in India. A number of factors including genetic predisposition, environment, and lifestyle factors including dietary habits influence the development and expression of asthma. The goal of asthma treatment is to achieve and maintain clinical control, which can be achieved in a majority of patients with pharmacologic intervention strategy. Objective: To assess the role of diet and lifestyle factors in asthma control in Indian population. Materials and Methods: Diagnosed asthma patients (aged 12-40 years were enrolled from the outpatient clinics. All patients were followed up and reassessed after 4 weeks with asthma control test (ACT and dietary and lifestyle questionnaire. The assessment of dietary pattern was performed by food frequency questionnaire (Nordic Nutrition Recommendations-Danish Physical Activity Questionnaire. The lifestyle factor included body mass index, smoking status, tobacco chewing, alcohol consumption, duration of travel (h/week, mental stress (visual analog scale: 0-10, sports activity - h/day, television (TV watching/video games - h/day, duration of sleep - h/day. Results: Seventy-five asthma patients (43 males and 32 females were divided into three groups according to ACT, 18 (24% patients in poorly-controlled asthma, 35 (46.7% in well-controlled asthma, and 22 (29.3% patients with totally-controlled asthma. Increased consumption of vegetables and cereals in patients with total-controlled asthma while increased consumption of sugar, nonvegetarian, fast food, salted and fried snacks in patients with poorly-controlled asthma. Poorly-controlled asthma had the highest duration of watching TV and sleep and least duration of travel and sports, though the results failed to reach statistical significance. Conclusion: The dietary and lifestyle factors too contribute to degree of control of asthma in India.

  5. Worldwide trends in dietary sugars intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittekind, Anna; Walton, Janette

    2014-12-01

    Estimating trends in dietary intake data is integral to informing national nutrition policy and monitoring progress towards dietary guidelines. Dietary intake of sugars is a controversial public health issue and guidance in relation to recommended intakes is particularly inconsistent. Published data relating to trends in sugars intake are relatively sparse. The purpose of the present review was to collate and review data from national nutrition surveys to examine changes and trends in dietary sugars intake. Only thirteen countries (all in the developed world) appear to report estimates of sugars intake from national nutrition surveys at more than one point in time. Definitions of dietary sugars that were used include 'total sugars', 'non-milk extrinsic sugars', 'added sugars', sucrose' and 'mono- and disaccharides'. This variability in terminology across countries meant that comparisons were limited to within countries. Hence trends in dietary sugars intake were examined by country for the whole population (where data permitted), and for specific or combined age and sex subpopulations. Findings indicate that in the majority of population comparisons, estimated dietary sugars intake is either stable or decreasing in both absolute (g/d) and relative (% energy) terms. An increase in sugars intake was observed in few countries and only in specific subpopulations. In conclusion, the findings from the present review suggest that, in the main, dietary sugars intake are decreasing or stable. A consistent approach to estimation of dietary sugars intake from national nutrition surveys is required if more valid estimates of changes in dietary sugars intakes are required in the future.

  6. Low-fat dietary pattern and risk of colorectal cancer: the Women's Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Dietary Modification Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresford, Shirley A A; Johnson, Karen C; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl; Lasser, Norman L; Snetselaar, Linda G; Black, Henry R; Anderson, Garnet L; Assaf, Annlouise R; Bassford, Tamsen; Bowen, Deborah; Brunner, Robert L; Brzyski, Robert G; Caan, Bette; Chlebowski, Rowan T; Gass, Margery; Harrigan, Rosanne C; Hays, Jennifer; Heber, David; Heiss, Gerardo; Hendrix, Susan L; Howard, Barbara V; Hsia, Judith; Hubbell, F Allan; Jackson, Rebecca D; Kotchen, Jane Morley; Kuller, Lewis H; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Lane, Dorothy S; Langer, Robert D; Lewis, Cora E; Manson, JoAnn E; Margolis, Karen L; Mossavar-Rahmani, Yasmin; Ockene, Judith K; Parker, Linda M; Perri, Michael G; Phillips, Lawrence; Prentice, Ross L; Robbins, John; Rossouw, Jacques E; Sarto, Gloria E; Stefanick, Marcia L; Van Horn, Linda; Vitolins, Mara Z; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Wallace, Robert B; Whitlock, Evelyn

    2006-02-08

    Observational studies and polyp recurrence trials are not conclusive regarding the effects of a low-fat dietary pattern on risk of colorectal cancer, necessitating a primary prevention trial. To evaluate the effects of a low-fat eating pattern on risk of colorectal cancer in postmenopausal women. The Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification Trial, a randomized controlled trial conducted in 48,835 postmenopausal women aged 50 to 79 years recruited between 1993 and 1998 from 40 clinical centers throughout the United States. Participants were randomly assigned to the dietary modification intervention (n = 19,541; 40%) or the comparison group (n = 29,294; 60%). The intensive behavioral modification program aimed to motivate and support reductions in dietary fat, to increase consumption of vegetables and fruits, and to increase grain servings by using group sessions, self-monitoring techniques, and other tailored and targeted strategies. Women in the comparison group continued their usual eating pattern. Invasive colorectal cancer incidence. A total of 480 incident cases of invasive colorectal cancer occurred during a mean follow-up of 8.1 (SD, 1.7) years. Intervention group participants significantly reduced their percentage of energy from fat by 10.7% more than did the comparison group at 1 year, and this difference between groups was mostly maintained (8.1% at year 6). Statistically significant increases in vegetable, fruit, and grain servings were also made. Despite these dietary changes, there was no evidence that the intervention reduced the risk of invasive colorectal cancer during the follow-up period. There were 201 women with invasive colorectal cancer (0.13% per year) in the intervention group and 279 (0.12% per year) in the comparison group (hazard ratio, 1.08; 95% confidence interval, 0.90-1.29). Secondary analyses suggested potential interactions with baseline aspirin use and combined estrogen-progestin use status (P = .01 for each). Colorectal

  7. Effects of dietary manganese contents on 54Mn metabolism in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, I.; Matsusaka, N.; Kobayashi, H.; Nishimura, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Several parameters of 54 Mn metabolism were noted in mice maintained on diets with manganese contents of 80 to 8000 mg/kg. Excretion of 54 Mn was promoted as the dietary manganese contents increased. Clearance of 54 Mn from the liver, kidneys, pancreas, and spleen was markedly accelerated by feeding mice a high-manganese diet, but clearance from the muscles, femurs, and brain was relatively insensitive to the dietary manganese. Manganese concentrations in the tissue were regulated homoestatically upto the dietary manganese content of 2400 mg/kg, but marked accumulations of manganese occurred when mice were given 8000 mg/kg diet. No toxic symptoms were found up to the 2400 mg/kg diet, but consumption of the 8000 mg/kg diet was less than for other diets. These results suggest that an oral intake of excess manganese is effective for promoting the excretion of 54 Mn from a body contaminated with this isotope. (author)

  8. Higher Dietary Choline and Betaine Intakes Are Associated with Better Body Composition in the Adult Population of Newfoundland, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Gao

    Full Text Available Choline is an essential nutrient and betaine is an osmolyte and methyl donor. Both are important to maintain health including adequate lipid metabolism. Supplementation of dietary choline and betaine increase muscle mass and reduce body fat in animals. However, little data is available regarding the role of dietary choline and betaine on body composition in humans.To investigate the association between dietary choline and betaine intakes with body composition in a large population based cross-sectional study.A total of 3214 subjects from the CODING (Complex Disease in Newfoundland population: Environment and Genetics study were assessed. Dietary choline and betaine intakes were computed from the Willett Food Frequency questionnaire. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry following a 12-hour fast. Major confounding factors including age, sex, total calorie intake and physical activity level were controlled in all analyses.Significantly inverse correlations were found between dietary choline and betaine intakes, with all obesity measurements: total percent body fat (%BF, percent trunk fat (%TF, percent android fat (%AF, percent gynoid fat (%GF and anthropometrics: weight, body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio in both women and men (r range from -0.13 to -0.47 for choline and -0.09 to -0.26 for betaine, p<0.001 for all. Dietary choline intake had stronger association than betaine. Moreover, obese subjects had the lowest dietary choline and betaine intakes, with overweight subjects in the middle, and normal weight subjects consumed the highest dietary choline and betaine (p<0.001. Vice versa, when subjects were ranked according to dietary choline and betaine intakes, subjects with the highest intake of both had the lowest %TF, %AF, %GF, %BF and highest %LM among the groups in both sexes.Our findings indicate that high dietary choline and betaine intakes are significantly associated with favorable body

  9. Social determinants of dietary habits in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Margit Velsing; Fagt, Sisse; Brøndsted, L.

    2001-01-01

    significantly associated with the intake of fruit and vegetables. Conclusions: Education seems to be the most important social variable to explain social differences in dietary habits. Additional variables are needed to explain dietary habits of women. Differences are seen for both foods and nutrients....... Sponsorship: The data analysis was financially supported by the Health Insurance Fund. Descriptors: socioeconomic status; education; dietary habits; diet surveys, E%; fat, fruit and vegetables....

  10. Increasing the biological value of dietary cutlets

    OpenAIRE

    SYZDYKOVA L.S.; DIKHANBAYEVA F.T.; BAZYLHANOVA E.CH

    2015-01-01

    Relevance of work: meat products are the main source of the proteins, necessary for activity of the person. In this article is determined the biological value of the cutlets with dietary properties. The purpose of this work is development of the production technology of dietary cutlets in branches of public catering and determination of their biological value. As a result of work dietary cutlets with the increased biological value due to addition of oatmeal are received.

  11. Improving dietary intake to prevent anemia in adolescent girls through community kitchens in a periurban population of Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creed-Kanashiro, H M; Uribe, T G; Bartolini, R M; Fukumoto, M N; López, T T; Zavaleta, N M; Bentley, M E

    2000-02-01

    Peru has high rates of iron deficiency anemia. The prevalence is 35% in nonpregnant women of fertile age and 24.7% in adolescent girls in slums of periurban Lima. The major cause of anemia is low intake of dietary iron. A community-based, randomized behavioral and dietary intervention trial was conducted to improve dietary iron intake and iron bioavailability of adolescent girls living in periurban areas of Lima, Peru. Results show that there was a change in knowledge about anemia and improved dietary iron intake in the 71 girls who completed the study compared with the 66 girls in the control group. Although the 9-mo. intervention was not sufficient to improve hemoglobin levels significantly, there appeared to be a protective effect in maintaining the iron status of girls in comparison with the control group.

  12. The role of dietary creatine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Margaret E; Brosnan, John T

    2016-08-01

    The daily requirement of a 70-kg male for creatine is about 2 g; up to half of this may be obtained from a typical omnivorous diet, with the remainder being synthesized in the body Creatine is a carninutrient, which means that it is only available to adults via animal foodstuffs, principally skeletal muscle, or via supplements. Infants receive creatine in mother's milk or in milk-based formulas. Vegans and infants fed on soy-based formulas receive no dietary creatine. Plasma and muscle creatine levels are usually somewhat lower in vegetarians than in omnivores. Human intake of creatine was probably much higher in Paleolithic times than today; some groups with extreme diets, such as Greenland and Alaskan Inuit, ingest much more than is currently typical. Creatine is synthesized from three amino acids: arginine, glycine and methionine (as S-adenosylmethionine). Humans can synthesize sufficient creatine for normal function unless they have an inborn error in a creatine-synthetic enzyme or a problem with the supply of substrate amino acids. Carnivorous animals, such as lions and wolves, ingest much larger amounts of creatine than humans would. The gastrointestinal tract and the liver are exposed to dietary creatine in higher concentrations before it is assimilated by other tissues. In this regard, our observations that creatine supplementation can prevent hepatic steatosis (Deminice et al. J Nutr 141:1799-1804, 2011) in a rodent model may be a function of the route of dietary assimilation. Creatine supplementation has also been reported to improve the intestinal barrier function of the rodent suffering from inflammatory bowel disease.

  13. Maintainability design and evaluation of mechanical systems based on tribology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wani, M.F.; Gandhi, O.P.

    2002-01-01

    Maintainability of mechanical systems based on tribology is suggested and evaluated in this paper. Tribo-features of mechanical systems, which characterise maintainability are identified and are modelled in terms of tribo-maintainability digraph. The nodes in the digraph represent the tribo-features and edges represent the degree of influence among the features. A matrix, one to one representation of the digraph, is defined to develop system maintainability expression (SPF-t) based on the tribology. It is also useful in comparing the various design alternatives from tribo-maintainability point of view. Maintainability is evaluated from the tribo-maintainability index, obtained from SPF-t (i.e. permanent of the matrix) by substituting the numerical values of the features and their interdependence. A higher value of the index implies better maintainability of the systems. The proposed methodology also guides designers in enhancing the maintainability of a system by appropriately incorporating tribo-features. An example to illustrate the methodology is also presented

  14. The effects of dietary fibre type on satiety-related hormones and voluntary food intake in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, G.; Verbrugghe, A.; Hesta, M.; Holst, J.J.; Poel, van der A.F.B.; Janssens, G.P.J.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    Depending on type and inclusion level, dietary fibre may increase and maintain satiety and postpone the onset of hunger. This 7-week study evaluated the effect of fibre fermentability on physiological satiety-related metabolites and voluntary food intake (VFI) in dogs. Sixteen healthy adult dogs

  15. An Evaluation of Inner-City Youth Garden Program Participants' Dietary Behavior and Garden and Nutrition Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, Lauren Lautenschlager; Smith, Chery

    2008-01-01

    Unhealthful eating patterns established early in life tend to be maintained into adulthood, and as a result, chronic diseases such as heart disease, cancer, and obesity may develop. These nutrition-related problems could be reduced through dietary changes; and to facilitate these changes, nutrition education for youth that is delivered…

  16. Information and support from dietary consultation for mothers of children with food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Heather; Grundy, Jane; Glasbey, Gillian; Dean, Taraneh; Venter, Carina

    2015-01-01

    Professional dietetic input is essential to ensure that children with diagnosed food allergies have an individualized avoidance plan and nutritionally adequate diet. However, it is not clear what dietary information and support parents require. To explore what information and support parents of children with food allergies require from a dietary consultation. Focus groups were conducted with 17 mothers who attend an allergy center for dietary advice for their food allergic child. A number of issues around food allergy dietary advice needs were explored and analyzed using thematic analysis. Six themes were identified. The mothers described how they sought to protect their child from harm, to maintain normality for their child, and to promote child independence. They described needing to become an expert in their child's food allergy and fight their corner when needed. The dietitian supported their needs by ensuring their child's diet was safe and nutritionally adequate and giving information and support to help them provide a normal life for their child. Dietitians also taught mothers about food allergy and provided advocacy and emotional support. Mothers of children with food allergies want to understand how to provide a nutritionally adequate, allergen-safe diet while maintaining a normal life. Hence, mothers value a range of support from dietitians, including monitoring their child's health and providing information, practical advice and support, and emotional support. Copyright © 2015 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Hepatitis C and Dietary Supplements: What the Science Says

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Integrative Health NCCIH Clinical Digest for health professionals Hepatitis C and Dietary Supplements: What the Science Says ... Thinkstock Clinical Guidelines, Scientific Literature, Info for Patients: Hepatitis C and Dietary Supplements Dietary Supplements Milk Thistle ...

  18. Dietary supplement good manufacturing practices: preparing for compliance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mead, William J

    2012-01-01

    "Dietary Supplement GMP is a one-stop "how-to" road map to the final dietary supplement GMP regulations recently issued by the FDA covering the manufacture, packaging, and holding of dietary supplement...

  19. Dietary pattern and colonic diverticulosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tursi, Antonio

    2017-09-01

    To assess the role of dietary pattern on the occurrence of colonic diverticulosis, diverticular disease and acute diverticulitis. High-fiber diet does not prevent diverticulosis occurrence, and results about prevention/treatment of diverticular disease and acute diverticulitis are still conflicting.No association was seen between nut, corn or popcorn consumption and occurrence of diverticulosis, diverticular disease and acute diverticulitis.It seems to be a mild association between high alcohol intake and diverticulosis occurrence, whereas alcohol dependence seems to show lower risk of in-hospital mortality due to acute diverticulitis.Higher red-meat consumption shows mild increased risk of acute diverticulitis, especially when consumed as unprocessed red meat (defined as consumption of 'beef or lamb as main dish', 'pork as main dish', 'hamburger' and 'beef, pork or lamb as a sandwich or mixed dish'); higher consumption of poultry (viz. white meat) was not associated with risk of acute diverticulitis.Finally, higher fish intake was associated with reduced risk of diverticulitis in age-adjusted model, but not after further adjustment for other potential confounders. Current literature data about the role of dietary pattern on the occurrence of colonic diverticulosis, diverticular disease and acute diverticulitis are still too conflicting.

  20. Dietary Amelioration of Helicobacter Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, Jed W.; Stephenson, Katherine K.; Wallace, Alison J.

    2015-01-01

    We review herein the basis for using dietary components to treat and/or prevent Helicobacter pylori infection, with emphasis on: (a) work reported in the last decade, (b) dietary components for which there is mechanism-based plausibility, and (c) components for which clinical results on H. pylori amelioration are available. There is evidence that a diet-based treatment may reduce the levels and/or the virulence of H. pylori colonization without completely eradicating the organism in treated individuals. This concept was endorsed a decade ago by the participants in a small international consensus conference held in Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, and interest in such a diet-based approach has increased dramatically since then. This approach is attractive in terms of cost, treatment, tolerability and cultural acceptability. This review therefore highlights specific foods, food components, and food products, grouped as follows: bee products (e.g. honey and propolis), probiotics, dairy products, vegetables, fruits, oils, essential oils, and herbs, spices and other plants. A discussion of the small number of clinical studies that are available is supplemented by supportive in vitro and animal studies. This very large body of in vitro and pre-clinical evidence must now be followed up with rationally designed, unambiguous human trials. PMID:25799054

  1. Dietary intake of Senegalese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coomes Margerie

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this work is to identify major food sources and dietary constituents of Senegalese adults. We conducted a cross-sectional study, using a single 24-hour dietary recall interview. Foods were classified into food groups based on similarities in nutrient content or use. Food groups included foods consumed individually, or as part of food mixtures such as stews, soups, or sandwiches. Median consumption (amount/day of each food was determined and examined by relevant subgroups. Participants were 50 healthy Senegalese men, aged 20-62 years recruited at the Hôpital Général de Grand Yoff in Dakar, Senegal and from Sendou village, a rural area outside Dakar. A total of 90 foods and beverages were identified and classified into 11 groups. Sixty-five percent of foods identified could be classified as meats, grains, or fruits/vegetables. Fruits and vegetables comprised 42% (38/90 of all foods; meats 12% (11/90; and grains 11% (10/90. Sauces (6%, 5/90, sweets (4%, 4/90, and desserts (4%, 4/90 were also reported. The most common fruits/vegetables reported were potato, carrot, mango, and lettuce; commonly reported grains were bread and rice; and commonly reported meats were fish, beef, and ox. There were no differences in reported daily intake of each food by age, ethnicity, education, or residence. Most foods reported were traditional to the Senegalese diet, despite the increasing availability of Western foods in Senegal.

  2. Effect of dietary vitamin E on the sperm quality of turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Houguo; Huang, Lina; Liang, Mengqing; Zheng, Keke; Wang, Xinxing

    2015-08-01

    A 3-month feeding experiment was conducted in an in-door seawater system to investigate the effect of dietary vitamin E (Ve) on the sperm quality of turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus). D-α-tocopherol acetate was supplemented to the basal (control) diet (65.14 mg kg-1 Ve) to obtain low and high levels of dietary Ve (244.60 mg kg-1, LVe; 721.60 mg kg-1, HVe). Compared with the control, sperm concentration was significantly increased in Ve-supplemented groups (LVe and HVe); while relative sperm volume and testis-somatic index were significantly increased in group HVe only. Sperm motility duration was significantly longer in group HVe than in the control, but no significant difference was observed in percent motility among groups. Sperm size, the uniformity of mitochondrial size, and the integrity of mitochondria cristae and plasma membrane were improved by dietary Ve, especially in HVe. The content of Ve in testis and liver as well as polyunsaturated fatty acids in sperm increased with dietary Ve. These results suggested that dietary Ve, especially at the high level (721.60 mg kg-1), significantly improved sperm concentration and motility duration and maintained normal sperm morphology of turbot.

  3. A naturalistic examination of body checking and dietary restriction in women with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender, Jason M; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Crosby, Ross D; Engel, Scott G; Mitchell, James E; Crow, Scott; Peterson, Carol B; Le Grange, Daniel

    2013-08-01

    Body checking has been conceptualized as a behavioral manifestation of the core overvaluation of eating, shape, and weight concerns underlying eating disorder psychopathology. Cognitive-behavioral theories suggest that body checking behaviors may function to maintain dietary restriction. The current study examined the association between body checking frequency and dietary restriction among women with anorexia nervosa (AN) in the natural environment. Women (N = 118) with full or partial AN completed baseline clinical interviews and a two-week ecological momentary assessment protocol, during which they reported on body checking behaviors (i.e., checking whether one's thighs touch; checking joints/bones for fat) and dietary restriction (i.e., 8 waking hours without eating; consuming less than 1200 calories per day). Average daily body checking frequency was positively associated with baseline eating disorder symptoms and body mass index. Daily body checking frequency was associated with both forms of dietary restriction on the same day, as well as the following day. Results support the theorized association between body checking and overvaluation of shape and weight, and suggest that targeting such behaviors in treatment may have utility in reducing dietary restriction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Does Dietary Fiber Affect the Levels of Nutritional Components after Feed Formulation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seidu Adams

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies on dietary fiber and nutrient bioavailability have gained an increasing interest in both human and animal nutrition. Questions are increasingly being asked regarding the faith of nutrient components such as proteins, minerals, vitamins, and lipids after feed formulation. The aim of this review is to evaluate the evidence with the perspective of fiber usage in feed formulation. The consumption of dietary fiber may affect the absorption of nutrients in different ways. The physicochemical factors of dietary fiber, such as fermentation, bulking ability, binding ability, viscosity and gel formation, water-holding capacity and solubility affect nutrient absorption. The dietary fiber intake influences the different methods in which nutrients are absorbed. The increase in the total fiber content of the diet may delay the glycemic response. Soluble fiber decreased blood glucose content whereas purified insoluble fiber has a little or no effect on the blood glucose levels after a meal. Dietary fiber and prebiotics influence the host animal well-being by regulating blood glucose or insulin levels, stool bulking effects, increasing the acidity of the gut, constructive synthesis of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs, decreasing intestinal transit time, stimulating the growth of intestinal microbes, and increasing blood parameters. Previous studies suggest that fiber affects the bioavailability of nutrients, and maintains the host wellness.

  5. Dietary controlled carcinogenicity study of chloral hydrate in male B6C3F1 mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leakey, Julian E.A.; Seng, John E.; Latendresse, John R.; Hussain, Nursreen; Allen, Laura J.; Allaben, William T.

    2003-01-01

    Chloral hydrate, which is used as a sedative in pediatric medicine and is a by-product of water chlorination, is hepatocarcinogenic in B6C3F 1 mice, a strain that can exhibit high rates of background liver tumor incidence, which are associated with increased body weight. In this study, dietary control was used to manipulate body growth in male B6C3F 1 mice in a 2-year bioassay of chloral hydrate. Male B6C3F 1 mice were treated with water or 25, 50, or 100 mg/kg chloral hydrate by gavage. The study compared ad libitum-fed mice with dietary controlled mice. The latter received variably restricted feed allocations to maintain their body weights on a predetermined 'idealized' weight curve predictive of a terminal background liver tumor incidence of 15-20%. These mice exhibited less individual body weight variation than did their ad libitum-fed counterparts. This was associated with a decreased variation in liver to body weight ratios, which allowed the demonstration of a statistically significant dose response to chloral hydrate in the dietary controlled, but not the ad libitum-fed, test groups. Chloral hydrate increased terminally adjusted liver tumor incidence in both dietary controlled (23.4, 23.9, 29.7, and 38.6% for the four dose groups, respectively) and ad libitum-fed mice (33.4, 52.6, 50.6, and 46.2%), but a statistically significant dose response was observed only in the dietary controlled mice. This dose response positively correlated with markers of peroxisomal proliferation in the dietary controlled mice only. The study suggests that dietary control not only improves terminal survival and decreases interassay variation, but also can increase assay sensitivity by decreasing intra-assay variation

  6. 33 CFR 118.5 - Penalty for failure to maintain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... States who fails or refuses to maintain such lights and other signals, or to obey any of the lawful rules... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Penalty for failure to maintain. 118.5 Section 118.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...

  7. Maintaining patients' dignity during clinical care: a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yea-Pyng; Tsai, Yun-Fang

    2011-02-01

    This article is a report of a study undertaken to understand how nurses maintain patients' dignity in clinical practice. Dignity is a core concept in nursing care and maintaining patients' dignity is critical to their recovery. In Western countries, measures to maintain dignity in patients' care include maintaining privacy of the body, providing spatial privacy, giving sufficient time, treating patients as a whole person and allowing patients to have autonomy. However, this is an under-studied topic in Asian countries. For this qualitative descriptive study, data were collected in Taiwan in 2009 using in-depth interviews with a purposive sample of 30 nurses from a teaching hospital in eastern Taiwan. The audiotaped interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using content analysis. Nurses' measures to maintain dignity in patient care were captured in five themes: respect, protecting privacy, emotional support, treating all patients alike and maintaining body image. Participants did not mention beneficence, a crucial element achieved through the professional care of nurses that can enhance the recovery of patients. In-service education to help nurses enhance dignity in patient care should emphasize emotional support, maintaining body image and treating all patients alike. Our model for maintaining dignity in patient care could be used to develop a clinical care protocol for nurses to use in clinical practice. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. A Methodology for Integrating Maintainability Using Software Metrics

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, John A.; Henry, Sallie M.

    1989-01-01

    Maintainability must be integrated into software early in the development process. But for practical use, the techniques used must be as unobtrusive to the existing software development process as possible. This paper defines a methodology for integrating maintainability into large-scale software and describes an experiment which implemented the methodology into a major commercial software development environment.

  9. Meta-analysis of the effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy on the core eating disorder maintaining mechanisms: implications for mechanisms of therapeutic change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linardon, Jake

    2018-03-01

    The original and enhanced cognitive model of eating disorders proposes that cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) "works" through modifying dietary restraint and dysfunctional attitudes towards shape and weight. However, evidence supporting the validity of this model is limited. This meta-analysis examined whether CBT can effectively modify these proposed maintaining mechanisms. Randomized controlled trials that compared CBT to control conditions or non-CBT interventions, and reported dietary restraint and shape and weight concern outcomes were searched. Twenty-nine trials were included. CBT was superior to control conditions in reducing shape (g=0.53) and weight (g=0.63) concerns, and dietary restraint (g=0.36). These effects occurred across all diagnoses and treatment formats. Improvements in shape and weight concerns and restraint were also greater in CBT than non-CBT interventions (g's=0.25, 0.24, 0.31, respectively) at post-treatment and follow-up. The magnitude of improvement in binge/purge symptoms was related to the magnitude of improvement in these maintaining mechanisms. Findings demonstrate that CBT has a specific effect in targeting the eating disorder maintaining mechanisms, and offers support to the underlying cognitive model. If changes in these variables during treatment are shown to be causal mechanisms, then these findings show that CBT, relative to non-CBT interventions, is better able to modify these mechanisms.

  10. Diabetes and diet : managing dietary barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friele, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis reports on the barriers diabetic patients experience with their diet, and the ways they cope with these barriers. A dietary barrier is a hinderance to a person's well-being, induced by being advised a diet. First inventories were made of possible dietary barriers and ways of

  11. Dietary control of equine plasma triacylglycerols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hallebeek, Johanna Maria

    2002-01-01

    The study of this thesis concerns the dietary influence on lipid metabolism in horses. The main issue is the effect of dietary medium chain triacylglycerols (MCT) on triacylglycerol metabolism. In certain conditions high-fat diets can be beneficial for horses. Diets rich in long-chain

  12. Usability Test of an Interactive Dietary Recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Louisa Ming Yan; Chung, Joanne Wai Yee; Wong, Thomas Kwok Shing

    2009-01-01

    Dietary intake methods are used to collect one's diet habit which is essential in nutrition assessment. Food diary, food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and 24-hour recalls are the most common dietary intake methods. However, they are not welcomed by most clients. Digital handheld devices are now readily available, and the cost of digital…

  13. Evolving Reliability and Maintainability Allocations for NASA Ground Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Gisela; Toon, T.; Toon, J.; Conner, A.; Adams, T.; Miranda, D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology and value of modifying allocations to reliability and maintainability requirements for the NASA Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) programs subsystems. As systems progressed through their design life cycle and hardware data became available, it became necessary to reexamine the previously derived allocations. This iterative process provided an opportunity for the reliability engineering team to reevaluate allocations as systems moved beyond their conceptual and preliminary design phases. These new allocations are based on updated designs and maintainability characteristics of the components. It was found that trade-offs in reliability and maintainability were essential to ensuring the integrity of the reliability and maintainability analysis. This paper discusses the results of reliability and maintainability reallocations made for the GSDO subsystems as the program nears the end of its design phase.

  14. Maintaining dignity. The perspective of nursing home residents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høy, Bente

    2016-01-01

    body image; feeling recognised and valued as a person of worth; Abilities and opportunities for changing of lifevalues; to exert control; to form and maintain meaningful relationships and to participation in meaningful activity. Conclusion. Although there is no one way to maintain dignity, the themes...... dignity is maintained. Background. Elderly living in nursing homes are vulnerable which appeal to nursing care ethics and emphasise the importance of care for human dignity. There have been several attempts to define dignity as a theoretical concept, but few studies on how dignity is maintained from...... was used to understand the meaning of the narrated text. Findings. The residents’ experiences revealed one main theme and seven sub-themes contributing to maintain dignity. The overall theme was: Coping with vulnerability and the subthemes were: Attention and care for basic needs; preserving a positive...

  15. Dietary fibre in foods: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingra, Devinder; Michael, Mona; Rajput, Hradesh; Patil, R T

    2012-06-01

    Dietary fibre is that part of plant material in the diet which is resistant to enzymatic digestion which includes cellulose, noncellulosic polysaccharides such as hemicellulose, pectic substances, gums, mucilages and a non-carbohydrate component lignin. The diets rich in fibre such as cereals, nuts, fruits and vegetables have a positive effect on health since their consumption has been related to decreased incidence of several diseases. Dietary fibre can be used in various functional foods like bakery, drinks, beverages and meat products. Influence of different processing treatments (like extrusion-cooking, canning, grinding, boiling, frying) alters the physico- chemical properties of dietary fibre and improves their functionality. Dietary fibre can be determined by different methods, mainly by: enzymic gravimetric and enzymic-chemical methods. This paper presents the recent developments in the extraction, applications and functions of dietary fibre in different food products.

  16. Dietary nitrates, nitrites, and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hord, Norman G

    2011-12-01

    Dietary nitrate (NO(3)), nitrite (NO(2)), and arginine can serve as sources for production of NO(x) (a diverse group of metabolites including nitric oxide, nitrosothiols, and nitroalkenes) via ultraviolet light exposure to skin, mammalian nitrate/nitrite reductases in tissues, and nitric oxide synthase enzymes, respectively. NO(x) are responsible for the hypotensive, antiplatelet, and cytoprotective effects of dietary nitrates and nitrites. Current regulatory limits on nitrate intakes, based on concerns regarding potential risk of carcinogenicity and methemoglobinemia, are exceeded by normal daily intakes of single foods, such as soya milk and spinach, as well as by some recommended dietary patterns such as the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet. This review includes a call for regulatory bodies to consider all available data on the beneficial physiologic roles of nitrate and nitrite in order to derive rational bases for dietary recommendations.

  17. Maternal Dietary Patterns and Pregnancy Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuyang; Zhao, Diqi; Mao, Xun; Xia, Yinyin; Baker, Philip N.; Zhang, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Maternal nutritional status during pregnancy will affect the outcomes for the mother and the baby. Many analyses of the relationship between diet and outcome are often based on a single or a few food items or nutrients. However, foods are not consumed in isolation and dietary patterns can be used to assess the whole diet consumed. The use of dietary pattern analysis to understand nutritional intake and pregnancy outcome is becoming more and more popular. Many published studies have showed the association between maternal dietary patterns and pregnancy outcome. This review examined articles about the relationship between maternal dietary patterns and pregnancy outcome. As a modifiable factor, dietary patterns may be more applicable to clinical and pregnant health interventions. PMID:27338455

  18. Comparing Effective Treatments for Attention-Maintained and Escape- Maintained Behaviors in Children with Behavior Disorders: Brief Review and Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lauren Worcester; T. F. McLaughlin

    2013-01-01

    This literature review compares treatment for attention-maintainedversus escape maintained aberrant behavior in children with behavior disorders. Specifically, studies utilizing time out procedures, differential reinforcement procedures, noncontingent reinforcement, and functional communication training are discussed. It was found that these are effective treatments for attention-maintained behaviors; while escape extinction, positive and negative reinforcement, functional communication trai...

  19. Food-based dietary guide

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chantel

    the benefits of which have been demon- strated in several large-scale studies.3-5 ... vent the risk of diabetic complications, together with ... adjusting energy intake to achieve rea- ... maintaining quality of life .... assessment and treatment goals and outcomes. Distribution of calories. Year ..... Drink lots of clean, safe water.

  20. Utilization of dietary glucose in the metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alemany Marià

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review is focused on the fate of dietary glucose under conditions of chronically high energy (largely fat intake, evolving into the metabolic syndrome. We are adapted to carbohydrate-rich diets similar to those of our ancestors. Glucose is the main energy staple, but fats are our main energy reserves. Starvation drastically reduces glucose availability, forcing the body to shift to fatty acids as main energy substrate, sparing glucose and amino acids. We are not prepared for excess dietary energy, our main defenses being decreased food intake and increased energy expenditure, largely enhanced metabolic activity and thermogenesis. High lipid availability is a powerful factor decreasing glucose and amino acid oxidation. Present-day diets are often hyperenergetic, high on lipids, with abundant protein and limited amounts of starchy carbohydrates. Dietary lipids favor their metabolic processing, saving glucose, which additionally spares amino acids. The glucose excess elicits hyperinsulinemia, which may derive, in the end, into insulin resistance. The available systems of energy disposal could not cope with the excess of substrates, since they are geared for saving not for spendthrift, which results in an unbearable overload of the storage mechanisms. Adipose tissue is the last energy sink, it has to store the energy that cannot be used otherwise. However, adipose tissue growth also has limits, and the excess of energy induces inflammation, helped by the ineffective intervention of the immune system. However, even under this acute situation, the excess of glucose remains, favoring its final conversion to fat. The sum of inflammatory signals and deranged substrate handling induce most of the metabolic syndrome traits: insulin resistance, obesity, diabetes, liver steatosis, hyperlipidemia and their compounded combined effects. Thus, a maintained excess of energy in the diet may result in difficulties in the disposal of glucose, eliciting

  1. Dietary components in the development of leptin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasselli, Joseph R; Scarpace, Philip J; Harris, Ruth B S; Banks, William A

    2013-03-01

    Classically, leptin resistance has been associated with increased body fat and circulating leptin levels, and the condition is believed to contribute to the onset and/or maintenance of obesity. Although a great deal is known about the central nervous system mechanisms mediating leptin resistance, considerably less is known about the role of diet in establishing and maintaining this altered hormonal state. An exciting new finding has recently been published demonstrating the existence of leptin resistance in normal-weight rats with lean leptin levels by feeding them a high-concentration-fructose diet. This finding has opened the possibility that specific macronutrients may be capable of inducing leptin resistance, independently of the amount of body fat or circulating leptin present in the treated animals. This review describes several lines of research that have recently emerged indicating that specific types of dietary sugars and fats are capable of inducing leptin resistance in experimental rodent models. The results further show that diet-induced leptin resistance is capable of increasing energy intake and elevating body weight gain under appropriate dietary challenges. It appears that biological mechanisms on multiple levels may underlie the dietary induction of leptin resistance, including alterations in the leptin blood-to-brain transport system, in peripheral glucose metabolism, and in central leptin receptor signaling pathways. What is clear from the findings reviewed here is that diet-induced leptin resistance can occur in the absence of elevated circulating leptin levels and body weight, rendering it a potential cause and/or predisposing factor to excess body weight gain and obesity.

  2. Dietary Components in the Development of Leptin Resistance123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasselli, Joseph R.; Scarpace, Philip J.; Harris, Ruth B. S.; Banks, William A.

    2013-01-01

    Classically, leptin resistance has been associated with increased body fat and circulating leptin levels, and the condition is believed to contribute to the onset and/or maintenance of obesity. Although a great deal is known about the central nervous system mechanisms mediating leptin resistance, considerably less is known about the role of diet in establishing and maintaining this altered hormonal state. An exciting new finding has recently been published demonstrating the existence of leptin resistance in normal-weight rats with lean leptin levels by feeding them a high-concentration-fructose diet. This finding has opened the possibility that specific macronutrients may be capable of inducing leptin resistance, independently of the amount of body fat or circulating leptin present in the treated animals. This review describes several lines of research that have recently emerged indicating that specific types of dietary sugars and fats are capable of inducing leptin resistance in experimental rodent models. The results further show that diet-induced leptin resistance is capable of increasing energy intake and elevating body weight gain under appropriate dietary challenges. It appears that biological mechanisms on multiple levels may underlie the dietary induction of leptin resistance, including alterations in the leptin blood-to-brain transport system, in peripheral glucose metabolism, and in central leptin receptor signaling pathways. What is clear from the findings reviewed here is that diet-induced leptin resistance can occur in the absence of elevated circulating leptin levels and body weight, rendering it a potential cause and/or predisposing factor to excess body weight gain and obesity. PMID:23493533

  3. Dietary arginine and linear growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Vught, Anneke J A H; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Arts, Ilja C W

    2013-01-01

    Child Intervention Study during 2001-2 (baseline), and at 3-year and 7-year follow-up, were used. Arginine intake was estimated via a 7 d precoded food diary at baseline and 3-year follow-up. Data were analysed in a multilevel structure in which children were embedded within schools. Random intercept......The amino acid arginine is a well-known growth hormone (GH) stimulator and GH is an important modulator of linear growth. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of dietary arginine on growth velocity in children between 7 and 13 years of age. Data from the Copenhagen School...... and slopes were defined to estimate the association between arginine intake and growth velocity, including the following covariates: sex; age; baseline height; energy intake; puberty stage at 7-year follow-up and intervention/control group. The association between arginine intake and growth velocity...

  4. Medicines, excipients and dietary intolerances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Medicinal products contain not only active drugs but also other ingredients included for a variety of purposes and collectively known as excipients.(1) People who wish to avoid a specific substance because of an allergy or intolerance may ask a healthcare professional about the constituents of a medicine and whether an alternative is available. In a previous article we discussed the issues facing people who wish to avoid certain substances for religious or cultural reasons.(2) Here, we provide an overview of several dietary conditions and the pharmaceutical issues that need to be considered by healthcare professionals advising on the suitability of a medicine. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. Dietary management and genetic predisposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hanne Holbæk; Larsen, Lesli Hingstrup

    2013-01-01

    variation, and epigenetics might identify additional genetic contributions to obesity, and the use of omics data with integration of nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics will identify genetic subgroups who will benefit from specific dietary advice to optimize health and prevent disease. Keywords: Diet . Mutation...... epidemically worldwide, the investigation of genetic predisposition might help to prevent and treat obesity. Predisposition to obesity includes syndromes, such as Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS), severe early-onset obesity, such as mutations in the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R), and common forms of obesity......, such as genetic variation in the fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO). Several studies have explored gene-diet interactions in obesity, weight loss, and regain, but there is a lack of consistency in the identified interactions. This inconsistency is most probably due to a low-moderate effect size...

  6. Evaluation of a Theory-Based Intervention Aimed at Reducing Intention to Use Restrictive Dietary Behaviors Among Adolescent Female Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laramée, Catherine; Drapeau, Vicky; Valois, Pierre; Goulet, Claude; Jacob, Raphaëlle; Provencher, Véronique; Lamarche, Benoît

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a theory-based intervention to reduce the intention to use restrictive dietary behaviors for losing weight among adolescent female athletes involved in aesthetic sports. Cluster-randomized controlled trial. Aesthetic sport teams of adolescent female athletes aged 12-17 years. Two teams (n = 37 athletes) in the intervention group and 3 teams (n = 33) in the comparison group. The 2 groups received nutrition education during 3 weekly 60-minute sessions. The intervention group was further exposed to a theory-based intervention targeting the specific determinant of intention to use restrictive dietary behaviors for losing weight, namely attitude. Difference over time between groups in intention to use restrictive dietary behaviors for losing weight and in nutrition knowledge. Mixed models for repeated measures. The theory-based intervention contributed to maintaining a low intention of using restrictive dietary behaviors for losing weight over time in the intervention group compared with the comparison group (P theory-based behavior change intervention may help maintain a low intention of using restrictive dietary behaviors for losing weight among female high school athletes involved in aesthetic sports. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Dietary fibre as an important constituent of the diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalina Maćkowiak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The intake of fibre in the diet of a child or an adult, through various foods (such as wholegrain foods, nuts, fruits and vegetables, plays an important role in reducing the risk and lowering the incidence of numerous diseases. The interest of researchers and consumers in the role of diet in the prevention or treatment of many illnesses, and maintaining the general and oral health, has been growing lately. The aim of our study was to underline the role of dietary fibre through its effects on many aspects of the human body and metabolism. Evidence has been found that dietary fibre from whole foods or supplements may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease by improving serum lipids and reducing serum total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol concentrations in adults and children. Increased fibre content decreases the glycaemic index of foods, which leads to a significant improvement in glycaemic response. High fibre intake is associated with reduced risk of colorectal and breast cancer. In contemporary children, the reluctance to chew raw, hard plant foods may result in a risk of malocclusion and a lack of tooth wear, which cause the need for orthodontic intervention. Fibre consumption is associated with high nutritional value and antioxidant status of the diet, enhancing the effects on human health.

  8. Dietary fibre as an important constituent of the diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalina Maćkowiak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The intake of fibre in the diet of a child or an adult, through various foods (such as wholegrain foods, nuts, fruits and vegetables, plays an important role in reducing the risk and lowering the incidence of numerous diseases. The interest of researchers and consumers in the role of diet in the prevention or treatment of many illnesses, and maintaining the general and oral health, has been growing lately. The aim of our study was to underline the role of dietary fibre through its effects on many aspects of the human body and metabolism. Evidence has been found that dietary fibre from whole foods or supplements may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease by improving serum lipids and reducing serum total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol concentrations in adults and children. Increased fibre content decreases the glycaemic index of foods, which leads to a significant improvement in glycaemic response. High fibre intake is associated with reduced risk of colorectal and breast cancer. In contemporary children, the reluctance to chew raw, hard plant foods may result in a risk of malocclusion and a lack of tooth wear, which cause the need for orthodontic intervention. Fibre consumption is associated with high nutritional value and antioxidant status of the diet, enhancingthe effects on human health.

  9. On Your Own: Older Adults’ Food Choice and Dietary Habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Whitelock

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The United Kingdom, in common with many countries, has an ageing demographic. Changes accompanying ageing can influence food choice and dietary habits. This study explored older adults’ perceptions and practices related to dietary behaviour and the factors influencing their food choice in later life. Semi-structured focus-group discussions were conducted with 30 individuals (aged 63–90 years in a UK city. An inductive thematic approach was adopted for data analysis, and 4 themes and 12 sub-themes emerged: age-related changes (lower appetite, food changes, declining physical function; food access (food cost, support with food, maintaining independence; on your own (cooking for one, eating alone, shopping for one; and relationship with food (food variety, eating what you want, dieting. These influenced participants’ food acquisition, food preparation and cooking, as well as eating habits. Living alone and its substantial influence, as well as associated social isolation and loneliness, were highlighted in many of the discussions. Given the possible implications for nutritional intake, further work is recommended in this area. Likewise, steps should be taken to improve food access, increase opportunities for commensal eating and, fundamentally, address social isolation and loneliness in the older population.

  10. On Your Own: Older Adults’ Food Choice and Dietary Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelock, Emily; Ensaff, Hannah

    2018-01-01

    The United Kingdom, in common with many countries, has an ageing demographic. Changes accompanying ageing can influence food choice and dietary habits. This study explored older adults’ perceptions and practices related to dietary behaviour and the factors influencing their food choice in later life. Semi-structured focus-group discussions were conducted with 30 individuals (aged 63–90 years) in a UK city. An inductive thematic approach was adopted for data analysis, and 4 themes and 12 sub-themes emerged: age-related changes (lower appetite, food changes, declining physical function); food access (food cost, support with food, maintaining independence); on your own (cooking for one, eating alone, shopping for one); and relationship with food (food variety, eating what you want, dieting). These influenced participants’ food acquisition, food preparation and cooking, as well as eating habits. Living alone and its substantial influence, as well as associated social isolation and loneliness, were highlighted in many of the discussions. Given the possible implications for nutritional intake, further work is recommended in this area. Likewise, steps should be taken to improve food access, increase opportunities for commensal eating and, fundamentally, address social isolation and loneliness in the older population. PMID:29584644

  11. On Your Own: Older Adults' Food Choice and Dietary Habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelock, Emily; Ensaff, Hannah

    2018-03-27

    The United Kingdom, in common with many countries, has an ageing demographic. Changes accompanying ageing can influence food choice and dietary habits. This study explored older adults' perceptions and practices related to dietary behaviour and the factors influencing their food choice in later life. Semi-structured focus-group discussions were conducted with 30 individuals (aged 63-90 years) in a UK city. An inductive thematic approach was adopted for data analysis, and 4 themes and 12 sub-themes emerged: age-related changes (lower appetite, food changes, declining physical function); food access (food cost, support with food, maintaining independence); on your own (cooking for one, eating alone, shopping for one); and relationship with food (food variety, eating what you want, dieting). These influenced participants' food acquisition, food preparation and cooking, as well as eating habits. Living alone and its substantial influence, as well as associated social isolation and loneliness, were highlighted in many of the discussions. Given the possible implications for nutritional intake, further work is recommended in this area. Likewise, steps should be taken to improve food access, increase opportunities for commensal eating and, fundamentally, address social isolation and loneliness in the older population.

  12. Quantitative food frequency questionnaire and assessment of dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, S; Goyle, A; Gupta, R

    1998-01-01

    India is a land of varied foods and food habits. This makes the task of collecting dietary and nutrient intake data difficult. Methods need to be devised to improve the accuracy in reporting intakes by various population subgroups. There is an urgent need to develop a questionnaire that is simple enough to be administered on a large sample and whose validity and reproducibility has been quantified. Regional differences in food habits and availability will have to be taken into account in the questionnaire design. Packaging of food items with definite portion sizes is not a common practice in Indian markets and labels on food products are neither very informative nor descriptive. Epidemiologists addressing the effects of diet have generally used questionnaires that inquire about the frequency of specified foods consumed and sometimes also attempt to quantify usual portion sizes. A number of investigators have conveyed, apparently independently, that the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) as a method of dietary assessment is best suited for most epidemiological applications. A food frequency list can form the basis for nutrition education and allows the dietician and the patient to relate individual eating patterns to specific foods. Other advantages of the FFQ are that it is independent of the ability or inclination of an individual to maintain a diary and also provides immediate feedback to patients, physicians and counsellors.

  13. Dietary Crude Lecithin Increases Systemic Availability of Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid with Combined Intake in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Nick; Balvers, Martin; Cansev, Mehmet; Maher, Timothy J; Sijben, John W C; Broersen, Laus M

    2016-07-01

    Crude lecithin, a mixture of mainly phospholipids, potentially helps to increase the systemic availability of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Nevertheless, no clear data exist on the effects of prolonged combined dietary supplementation of DHA and lecithin on RBC and plasma PUFA levels. In the current experiments, levels of DHA and choline, two dietary ingredients that enhance neuronal membrane formation and function, were determined in plasma and red blood cells (RBC) from rats after dietary supplementation of DHA-containing oils with and without concomitant dietary supplementation of crude lecithin for 2-3 weeks. The aim was to provide experimental evidence for the hypothesized additive effects of dietary lecithin (not containing any DHA) on top of dietary DHA on PUFA levels in plasma and RBC. Dietary supplementation of DHA-containing oils, either as vegetable algae oil or as fish oil, increased DHA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and total n-3 PUFA, and decreased total omega-6 PUFA levels in plasma and RBC, while dietary lecithin supplementation alone did not affect these levels. However, combined dietary supplementation of DHA and lecithin increased the changes induced by DHA supplementation alone. Animals receiving a lecithin-containing diet also had a higher plasma free choline concentration as compared to controls. In conclusion, dietary DHA-containing oils and crude lecithin have synergistic effects on increasing plasma and RBC n-3 PUFA levels, including DHA and EPA. By increasing the systemic availability of dietary DHA, dietary lecithin may increase the efficacy of DHA supplementation when their intake is combined.

  14. Modulatory Effects of Dietary Amino Acids on Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, Senthilkumar; Sangam, Supraj Raja; Singh, Shubham; Joginapally, Venkateswara Rao

    2016-01-01

    Proteins are playing a vital role in maintaining the cellular integrity and function, as well as for brain cells. Protein intake and supplementation of individual amino acids can affect the brain functioning and mental health, and many of the neurotransmitters in the brain are made from amino acids. The amino acid supplementation has been found to reduce symptoms, as they are converted into neurotransmitters which in turn extenuate the mental disorders. The biosynthesis of amino acids in the brain is regulated by the concentration of amino acids in plasma. The brain diseases such as depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and Alzheimer's (AD), Parkinson's (PD), and Huntington's diseases (HD) are the most common mental disorders that are currently widespread in numerous countries. The intricate biochemical and molecular machinery contributing to the neurological disorders is still unknown, and in this chapter, we revealed the involvement of dietary amino acids on neurological diseases.

  15. Developing maintainability for fusion power systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahn, H.S.; Mantz, H.C.; Curtis, C.T.; Buchheit, R.J.; Green, W.M.; Zuckerman, D.S.

    1979-11-01

    The overall purpose of the study is to identify design features of fusion power reactors which contribute to the achievement of high levels of maintainability. Previous phases evaluated several commercial tokamak reactor design concepts. This final phase compares the maintainability of a tandem mirror reactor (TMR) commercial conceptual design with the most maintainable tokamak concept selected from earlier work. A series of maintainability design guidelines and desirable TMR design features are defined. The effects of scheduled and unscheduled maintenance for most of the reactor subsystems are defined. The comparison of the TMR and tokamak reactor maintenance costs and availabilities show that both reactors have similar costs for scheduled maintenance at 19.4 and 20.8 million dollars annually and similar scheduled downtime availability impacts, achieving approximate availabilities of 79% at optimized maintenance intervals and cost of electricity.

  16. Reliability and maintainability data acquisition in equipment development tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, M.J.; Gift, E.H.

    1983-10-01

    The need for collection of reliability, maintainability, and availability data adds a new dimension to the data acquisition requirements of equipment development tests. This report describes the reliability and maintainability data that are considered necessary to ensure that sufficient and high quality data exist for a comprehensive, quantitative evaluation of equipment and system availability. These necessary data are presented as a set of data collection forms. Three data acquisition forms are discussed: an inventory and technical data form, which is filed by the design engineer when the design is finished or the equipment is received; an event report form, which is completed by the senior test operator at each shutdown; and a maintainability report, which is a collaborative effort between senior operators and lead engineers and is completed on restart. In addition, elements of a reliability, maintainability evaluation program are described. Emphasis is placed on the role of data, its storage, and use in such a program

  17. 399 Maintaining Discipline and Orderliness in Secondary Education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2010-10-17

    Oct 17, 2010 ... complicated that most teachers find it difficult to maintain and keep their ... gang fighting, drug abuse, unrest, smoking, armed robbery, students/ ... instance, both the principals' and teachers' leadership styles can affect the.

  18. A cryogenic optical feedthrough using polarization maintaining fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M J; Collins, C J; Speake, C C

    2016-03-01

    Polarization maintaining optical fibers can be used to transmit linearly polarized light over long distances but their use in cryogenic environments has been limited by their sensitivity to temperature changes and associated mechanical stress. We investigate experimentally how thermal stresses affect the polarization maintaining fibers and model the observations with Jones matrices. We describe the design, construction, and testing of a feedthrough and fiber termination assembly that uses polarization maintaining fiber to transmit light from a 633 nm HeNe laser at room temperature to a homodyne polarization-based interferometer in a cryogenic vacuum. We report on the efficiency of the polarization maintaining properties of the feedthrough assembly. We also report that, at cryogenic temperatures, the interferometer can achieve a sensitivity of 8 × 10(-10) rad/√Hz at 0.05 Hz using this feedthrough.

  19. The Costs and Benefits of Maintaining the Buy American Act

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hirschman, Keith

    1998-01-01

    .... The thesis uses accepted economic analysis on the gains from international trade to show that the costs of maintaining such protectionist legislation are potentially high relative to the uncertain...

  20. Developing maintainability for fusion power systems. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahn, H.S.; Mantz, H.C.; Curtis, C.T.; Buchheit, R.J.; Green, W.M.; Zuckerman, D.S.

    1979-11-01

    The overall purpose of the study is to identify design features of fusion power reactors which contribute to the achievement of high levels of maintainability. Previous phases evaluated several commercial tokamak reactor design concepts. This final phase compares the maintainability of a tandem mirror reactor (TMR) commercial conceptual design with the most maintainable tokamak concept selected from earlier work. A series of maintainability design guidelines and desirable TMR design features are defined. The effects of scheduled and unscheduled maintenance for most of the reactor subsystems are defined. The comparison of the TMR and tokamak reactor maintenance costs and availabilities show that both reactors have similar costs for scheduled maintenance at 19.4 and 20.8 million dollars annually and similar scheduled downtime availability impacts, achieving approximate availabilities of 79% at optimized maintenance intervals and cost of electricity

  1. Genetic and Epigenetic Mechanisms That Maintain Hematopoietic Stem Cell Function

    OpenAIRE

    Kosan, Christian; Godmann, Maren

    2015-01-01

    All hematopoiesis cells develop from multipotent progenitor cells. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) have the ability to develop into all blood lineages but also maintain their stemness. Different molecular mechanisms have been identified that are crucial for regulating quiescence and self-renewal to maintain the stem cell pool and for inducing proliferation and lineage differentiation. The stem cell niche provides the microenvironment to keep HSC in a quiescent state. Furthermore, several trans...

  2. Quantitative determination of vinpocetine in dietary supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, John M. T.; King, Matthew D.

    2017-01-01

    Current United States regulatory policies allow for the addition of pharmacologically active substances in dietary supplements if derived from a botanical source. The inclusion of certain nootropic drugs, such as vinpocetine, in dietary supplements has recently come under scrutiny due to the lack of defined dosage parameters and yet unproven short- and long-term benefits and risks to human health. This study quantified the concentration of vinpocetine in several commercially available dietary supplements and found that a highly variable range of 0.6–5.1 mg/serving was present across the tested products, with most products providing no specification of vinpocetine concentrations. PMID:27319129

  3. Dietary education must fit into everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folmann Hempler, Nana; Nicic, Sara; Ewers, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    explores perspectives on dietary diabetes education and healthy food choices of people living in Denmark who have a Pakistani background and type 2 diabetes. METHODS: In-depth interviews were conducted between October 2012 and December 2013 with 12 participants with type 2 diabetes who had received dietary...... that is sensitive to the attitudes, wishes, and preferences of the participants and that aims at establishing a connection to the everyday life of the participants might facilitate successful changes in dietary practices among people with a Pakistani background and type 2 diabetes. The findings suggest that more...

  4. Effects of dietary calcium levels and limestone particicle size on the performance, tibia and blood of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Pelicia

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 405 23-week-old ISA® Brown layers were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design in a factorial arrangement with nine treatments consisting of three dietary calcium levels (3.5, 3.75, and 4.5% and three limestone particle sizes (100% fine limestone (FL, 70% FL + 30% coarse limestone (CL and 50% (FL + 50% (CL, with nine replicates of five birds per cage. The following parameters were evaluated: percentage of lay, defective eggs, egg weight, egg mass, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (per kg eggs and per dozen eggs, and mortality. Dietary Ca levels significantly affected lay, with birds fed diets containing 4.5% calcium producing less eggs as compared to those fed 3.0 and 3.75% Ca. Egg production linearly decreased as dietary Ca levels increased, but blood Ca levels (mg/L increased in 28-week-old birds. The interaction of dietary Ca levels and limestone particle sizes resulted in a reduction in tibial ash Ca content as dietary Ca levels increased and as fine limestone was replaced by coarse limestone. It is concluded that a dietary Ca level of 3.75% and 100% fine particle limestone are required to maintain adequate egg production and available Ca blood level.

  5. Level of acculturation, food intake, dietary changes, and health status of first-generation Filipino Americans in Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dela Cruz, Felicitas A; Lao, Brigette T; Heinlein, Catherine

    2013-11-01

    This exploratory descriptive study investigates the acculturation level, food intake, dietary changes and practices, health status perceptions, and diet-related health indicators-body mass index (BMI), waist and hip circumferences, and waist-to-hip ratio-of first-generation Filipino Americans (FAs) in Southern California. Healthy FA adults-20 women and 10 men-were interviewed. Acculturation level was obtained using A Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans. A 24-h dietary recall elicited their food intake. Survey questions revealed dietary changes and practices, health status perceptions, and sociodemographic characteristics. Height, weight, waist and hip circumferences were measured. FAs consider themselves more Filipino than American, but their acculturation level reflects transitioning into biculturalism. FAs relinquish, maintain, and adapt elements of both Philippine and U.S. cultures in food intake, dietary changes, and practices. Although FAs perceive their health status as very good to excellent, many exceed the cut-off points for BMI, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio. This study underscores the importance of nurse practitioners and other healthcare givers conducting cultural dietary assessment as a basis for culturally appropriate dietary counseling. The inclusion of waist measurement to regularly monitor abdominal obesity-a predictor of cardiovascular disease and diabetes-is highly recommended. ©2013 The Author(s) ©2013 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  6. Dietary patterns and prevalence of wasting among street children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a cross-sectional study of 36 street children in Lilongwe, Malawi, dietary practices and the prevalence of wasting were assessed to provide information on the risk of poor dietary intake and malnutrition in this population. A food frequency questionnaire and 24-hour dietary recalls were used to determine dietary practices, ...

  7. Dietary diversity and nutrient intake adequacy among women in Iwo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dietary diversity and nutrient intake adequacy among women in Iwo Local Government Area, Osun State Nigeria. ... A 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire was used to assess the food intake of the respondents, which was converted into nutrient intake using adapted Total Dietary Assessment (TDA) software. Dietary ...

  8. Effect of reducing dietary forage in lower starch diets on performance, ruminal characteristics, and nutrient digestibility in lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, E R; Tucker, H A; Dann, H M; Cotanch, K W; Mooney, C S; Lock, A L; Yagi, K; Grant, R J

    2014-09-01

    This experiment evaluated the effect of feeding a lower starch diet (21% of dry matter) with different amounts of forage (52, 47, 43, and 39% of dry matter) on lactational performance, chewing activity, ruminal fermentation and turnover, microbial N yield, and total-tract nutrient digestibility. Dietary forage consisted of a mixture of corn and haycrop silages, and as dietary forage content was reduced, chopped wheat straw (0-10% of dry matter) was added in an effort to maintain chewing activity. Dietary concentrate was adjusted (corn meal, nonforage fiber sources, and protein sources) to maintain similar amounts of starch and other carbohydrate and protein fractions among the diets. Sixteen lactating Holstein cows were used in replicated 4×4 Latin squares with 21-d periods. Dry matter intake increased while physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF1.18) intake was reduced as forage content decreased from 52 to 39%. However, reducing dietary forage did not influence milk yield or composition, although we observed changes in dry matter intake. Time spent chewing, eating, and ruminating (expressed as minutes per day or as minutes per kilogram of NDF intake) were not affected by reducing dietary forage. However, addition of chopped wheat straw to the diets resulted in greater time spent chewing and eating per kilogram of peNDF1.18 consumed. Reducing dietary forage from 52 to 39% did not affect ruminal pH, ruminal digesta volume and mass, ruminal pool size of NDF or starch, ruminal digesta mat consistency, or microbial N yield. Ruminal acetate-to-propionate ratio was reduced, ruminal turnover rates of NDF and starch were greater, and total-tract digestibility of fiber diminished as dietary forage content decreased. Reducing the dietary forage content from 52 to 39% of dry matter, while increasing wheat straw inclusion to maintain chewing and rumen function, resulted in similar milk yield and composition although feed intake increased. With the lower starch

  9. Development of dietary pattern evaluation tool for adults and correlation with Dietary Quality Index

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Yeo Do; Kim, Kyung Won; Choi, Kyung-Suk; Kim, Misung; Cho, Yeo Jin; Sohn, Cheongmin

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES As the prevalence of chronic diseases has risen, the need for straightforward diagnostic tools for monitoring nutrition status to improve nutrition counseling and disease prevention has likewise increased. This study developed an easily usable dietary behavior pattern diagnosis checklist and investigated its correlation with dietary quality index. SUBJECTS/METHODS A draft dietary pattern evaluation tool was generated by analyzing previous studies. The draft questionnaire...

  10. Prevalence of dietary supplement use and associated factors among female college students in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfawaz, Hanan; Khan, Nasiruddin; Alfaifi, Aziza; Shahrani, Fatima M; Al Tameem, Huda M; Al Otaibi, Seetah F; Abudigin, Weaam I; Al-Shayaa, Mohammad S; Al-Ghanim, Saad A; Al-Daghri, Nasser M

    2017-11-22

    The economic boom in Saudi Arabia indirectly prompted the use of dietary supplements in the last two decades. Our aim is to investigate the prevalence of dietary supplement use and its association with sociodemographic/lifestyle characteristics among Saudi female students. In this cross-sectional study, 534 female participants (≥19 years of age) completed a self-administered questionnaire that include sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics, perceived health status, dietary supplement use, general awareness, attitudes and behavior. In all participants, the prevalence of dietary supplement use was 76.6% (n = 409). High level of education (p = 0.002) and more physical activity (p = 0.008) exhibited a significant positive association with users than to non-users. The frequency showed that beta-carotene (54.2%), chamomile (54.2%), and glucosamine (53.8%) were the most preferred diet supplements under the category "when needed". Cod liver oil (71.3%), omega 3 (68.3%), multi-vitamins (61.5%), ginseng (60%), and vitamin A (60%), were mostly used "from time to time". Multi-minerals (34.4%) were the preferred choice when it comes to daily use. The main reasons for supplement use were to "maintain healthy hair" and "injury and illness" (both 26.2%). About 38.4% were not aware and 30.3% disagree on differences taking supplements with or without consulting a medical professional. About 36.7% lack information about side effects while, 35.0% were unaware about any health effect of dietary supplements. The prevalence of dietary supplement use was high in Saudi female students and was significantly associated with sociodemographic and lifestyle factors.

  11. Dietary Approach to Recurrent or Chronic Hyperkalaemia in Patients with Decreased Kidney Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamasco Cupisti

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Whereas the adequate intake of potassium is relatively high in healthy adults, i.e., 4.7 g per day, a dietary potassium restriction of usually less than 3 g per day is recommended in the management of patients with reduced kidney function, especially those who tend to develop hyperkalaemia including patients who are treated with angiotensin pathway modulators. Most potassium-rich foods are considered heart-healthy nutrients with high fibre, high anti-oxidant vitamins and high alkali content such as fresh fruits and vegetables; hence, the main challenge of dietary potassium management is to maintain high fibre intake and a low net fixed-acid load, because constipation and metabolic acidosis are per se major risk factors for hyperkalaemia. To achieve a careful reduction of dietary potassium load without a decrease in alkali or fibre intake, we recommend the implementation of certain pragmatic dietary interventions as follows: Improving knowledge and education about the type of foods with excess potassium (per serving or per unit of weight; identifying foods that are needed for healthy nutrition in renal patients; classification of foods based on their potassium content normalized per unit of dietary fibre; education about the use of cooking procedures (such as boiling in order to achieve effective potassium reduction before eating; and attention to hidden sources of potassium, in particular additives in preserved foods and low-sodium salt substitutes. The present paper aims to review dietary potassium handling and gives information about practical approaches to limit potassium load in chronic kidney disease patients at risk of hyperkalaemia.

  12. Dietary Quality and Adherence to Dietary Recommendations in Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis, Desiree; Zlatkis, Karyn; Comenge, Beatriz; García, Zoraida; Navarro, Juan F; Lorenzo, Victor; Carrero, Juan Jesús

    2016-05-01

    The multiple dietary restrictions recommended to hemodialysis patients may be difficult to achieve and, at the same time, may result in nutritional deficiencies rendering a poor dietary quality. We here assess the dietary quality and adherence to renal-specific guideline recommendations among hemodialysis patients from a single center in Canary Islands, Spain. Cross-sectional study, including 91 patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. Clinical data and 3-day dietary records were collected. We compared patient's reported nutrients intake with guideline recommendations. We also evaluated their alignment with current American Heart Association dietary guidelines for cardiovascular prevention. Seventy-seven percent and 50% of patients consumed less than the recommended daily energy and protein, respectively. Although half of the patients met the recommendations for dietary fat intake, this was accounted by an excess of saturated fat in 92% of them. Only 22% consumed sufficient fiber. A very small proportion of patients (less than 50%) met the requirements for vitamins and other micronutrients. Insufficient dietary intake was observed in most patients for all vitamins except for cobalamin. Similarly, inadequate dietary intake was observed for many minerals, by both excess (phosphorus, calcium, sodium, and potassium) and defect (magnesium). Most patients met the recommendations for iron and zinc in their diets. A large proportion of hemodialysis patients at our center did not meet current renal-specific dietary recommendations. The quality of the diet was considered poor and proatherogenic according to American Heart Association guidelines. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Dietary factors that affect carotenoid bioavailability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, van het K.H.

    1999-01-01

    Carotenoids are thought to contribute to the beneficial effects of increased vegetable consumption. To better understand the potential benefits of carotenoids, we investigated the bioavailability of carotenoids from vegetables and dietary factors which might influence carotenoid

  14. Rationale for dietary antioxidant treatment of ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlaet, Annelies A.J.; Maasakkers, Carlijn M.; Hermans, Nina; Savelkoul, Huub F.J.

    2018-01-01

    Increasing understanding arises regarding disadvantages of stimulant medication in children with ADHD (Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder). This review presents scientific findings supporting dietary antioxidant treatment of ADHD and describes substantial alterations in the immune system,

  15. Prebiotics, Fermentable Dietary Fiber, and Health Claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcour, Jan A; Aman, Per; Courtin, Christophe M; Hamaker, Bruce R; Verbeke, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1970s, the positive effects of dietary fiber on health have increasingly been recognized. The collective term "dietary fiber" groups structures that have different physiologic effects. Since 1995, some dietary fibers have been denoted as prebiotics, implying a beneficial physiologic effect related to increasing numbers or activity of the gastrointestinal microbiota. Given the complex composition of the microbiota, the demonstration of such beneficial effects is difficult. In contrast, an exploration of the metabolites of dietary fiber formed as a result of its fermentation in the colon offers better perspectives for providing mechanistic links between fiber intake and health benefits. Positive outcomes of such studies hold the promise that claims describing specific health benefits can be granted. This would help bridge the "fiber gap"-that is, the considerable difference between recommended and actual fiber intakes by the average consumer. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Dietary determinants of plasma homocysteine concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, P.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2005-01-01

    Severe hyperhomocysteinemia is typically caused by rare enzymatic defects or by renal failure. In contrast, mild to moderate hyperhomocysteinemia chiefly results from suboptimal status of nutritional factors involved in homocysteine metabolism. Low dietary intake of folate is the most important

  17. Urolithiasis: evaluation, dietary factors, and medical management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Helene; Andonian, Sero; Assimos, Dean

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this review was to provide current best evidence for evaluation, dietary, and medical management of patients with urolithiasis. METHODS: Literature addressing evaluation, dietary, and medical management of urolithiasis was searched. Papers were analyzed and rated according...... the life of stone-forming individuals very differently, and that evaluation and medical management should be personalized according to risk of recurrence, severity of stone disease, presence of associated medical conditions, and patient's motivation. With regard to evaluation, dietary and medical...... management of patients with urolithiasis evidence from the literature suggest that selective metabolic evaluation may lead to rational dietary and medical management. Statements based on LOE and GOR are provided to guide clinical practice. CONCLUSION: The provided evidence for evaluation of patients...

  18. Anthocyanin analyses of Vaccinium fruit dietary supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccinium fruit ingredients within dietary supplements were identified by comparisons with anthocyanin analyses of known Vaccinium profiles (demonstration of anthocyanin fingerprinting). Available Vaccinium supplements were purchased and analyzed; their anthocyanin profiles (based on HPLC separation...

  19. Dietary supplements containing prohibited substances: A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    circumstances, especially where food intake or choice is restricted. For this reason, dietary ... health hazard to all consumers.[4,12] While ... physician experienced in the treatment of obesity and familiar with this agent, on a regular basis.

  20. Introduction - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    To assist in the planning of the National Children's Study, investigators at the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements, NCI and Johns Hopkins University contracted with Westat to conduct a comprehensive review of the scientific literature.

  1. Tips for Older Dietary Supplement Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information for Consumers Tips for Older Dietary Supplement Users Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... site are provided as a service to our users and do not represent FDA endorsement of these ...

  2. Chinese dietary composition and element ingestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Hongda

    1990-01-01

    Based on the dietary composition and results of some nutrients obtained from the second Nationwide Nutrition Survey in 1982, as well as recently published element contents in various Chinese food, the resultant dietary intake of 19 kinds of elements and 17 radionuclides for Chinese public (mainly for male adults) were estimated. This estimation might be used as basis for development of Chinese Reference Man and estimation of the public background exposure

  3. Dietary fibre in foods: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Dhingra, Devinder; Michael, Mona; Rajput, Hradesh; Patil, R. T.

    2011-01-01

    Dietary fibre is that part of plant material in the diet which is resistant to enzymatic digestion which includes cellulose, noncellulosic polysaccharides such as hemicellulose, pectic substances, gums, mucilages and a non-carbohydrate component lignin. The diets rich in fibre such as cereals, nuts, fruits and vegetables have a positive effect on health since their consumption has been related to decreased incidence of several diseases. Dietary fibre can be used in various functional foods li...

  4. Dietary Supplements: Regulatory Challenges and Research Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Johanna T. Dwyer; Paul M. Coates; Michael J. Smith

    2018-01-01

    Many of the scientific and regulatory challenges that exist in research on the safety, quality and efficacy of dietary supplements are common to all countries as the marketplace for them becomes increasingly global. This article summarizes some of the challenges in supplement science and provides a case study of research at the Office of Dietary Supplements at the National Institutes of Health, USA, along with some resources it has developed that are available to all scientists. It includes e...

  5. Compliance evaluation of removable space maintainer or space regainer usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revanti Ramadhani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Premature loss could cause a problem with the tooth arrangement or the dental arch size. A space left by the primary tooth loss could cause migration of the adjacent teeth. As a result, space will be narrowed and undermined the eruption of the permanent teeth. The success of the space maintainer or space regainer usage due to the premature loss marked by space for the replacement of the permanent teeth. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the compliance of children in wearing a space maintainer or space regainer after insertion at Pedodontics Installation of Faculty of Dentistry Universitas Padjadjaran Dental Hospital, Bandung, Indonesia. The research method was descriptive survey technique. The sample consisted of 30 patients selected using the total sampling technique. Data were obtained with a questionnaire and statistically analyzed. The results showed that majority of the children uses the removable space maintainer or the space regainer daily was only about 23,3% overall. Most of the children only use the removable space maintainer or the space regainer for sometimes. The research concluded that the low rate of pedodontic patients compliance at Pedodontics Installation of Faculty of Dentistry Universitas Padjadjaran Dental Hospital in the usage of the removable space maintainer or the space regainer was usually caused by pain or discomfort. This fact was evidence of a low awareness of parents in preventing malocclusion to their children.

  6. STRATEGIES OF MAINTAINING PROFICIENCY BY TEACHERS OF ENGLISH IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaidi Mistar, Alfan Zuhairini

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study are four-fold: (1 to identify the types of strategies to maintain proficiency used by teachers of English in Indonesia, (2 to know the intensity of use of the obtained strategy types, (3 to measure the inter-correlation in the use of the obtained strategy types, and (4 to investigate the effect of proficiency level on the use of maintaining strategies. The subjects were 93 teachers applying for S2 degree in 2010/2011 at the postgraduate program of the Islamic University of Malang. They were given two sets of instrument, a Likert-scale questionnaire of English proficiency maintaining strategies and a TOEFL test. Then, a factor analysis identified nine strategy categories, including language focusing, metacognitive and affective developing, reading and writing activating, language resource utilizing, cognitive processing, culture learning, social communicating, text analyzing, and radio listening strategies. These strategy types explained 63.84% of variances of maintaining strategies and they were used at high level of intensity. Moreover, the use of the nine strategy types were found to be inter-correlated with one another. Finally, no significant effect of proficiency level on strategy use was found, indicating that teachers with different level of proficiency reported using the same strategies of maintaining their proficiency.

  7. Changing dietary habits among Akwen Xerente.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Tatiana Evangelista da Silva; Silva, Reijane Pinheiro da; Nascimento, Maira Messias do

    2016-06-01

    The research aimed to identify the current feed of Xerente people in Indian villages Porteira and Funil in the city of Tocantinia / TO. It was used a qualitative ethnographic approach. Conducted from September 2013 to August 2014. The data were presented in a diary, through participant observation of food practices with the guidance of a script. A process of dietary change that permeates the culture of this people is taking place. Factors such as the deficit in the planting gardens, the recent arrival of energy, and therefore the technology has allowed access to processed foods. But some families still maintain the farming of cassava, yam, and beans. The main animals that are hunted in the village are peccary, deer and armadillo. It was possible to point which foods are inserted in the Xerente feed and factors related to this situation. A pesquisa objetivou identificar a alimentação atual do povo Xerente, nas aldeias indígenas Porteira e Funil, no município de Tocantínia / TO. Utilizou-se uma abordagem etnográfica qualitativa. Realizada entre setembro de 2013 a agosto de 2014. Os dados foram descritos através de um diário de campo, por meio da observação das práticas alimentares com a orientação de um roteiro. Está ocorrendo um processo de mudança alimentar na cultura deste povo. Fatores como o déficit no plantio das roças, a chegada da energia, e consequentemente a tecnologia, permitiu o acesso a alimentos industrializados. Mas algumas famílias ainda mantem o cultivo de mandioca, inhame, feijão andu. Os principais animais que são caçados na aldeia são caititu, veado e tatu. Foi possível encontrar a presença de alimentos industrializados inseridos na alimentação do Xerente e isso tem provocado alterações nos hábitos desse povo.

  8. Merging dietary assessment with the adolescent lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schap, T E; Zhu, F; Delp, E J; Boushey, C J

    2014-01-01

    The use of image-based dietary assessment methods shows promise for improving dietary self-report among children. The Technology Assisted Dietary Assessment (TADA) food record application is a self-administered food record specifically designed to address the burden and human error associated with conventional methods of dietary assessment. Users would take images of foods and beverages at all eating occasions using a mobile telephone or mobile device with an integrated camera [e.g. Apple iPhone, Apple iPod Touch (Apple Inc., Cupertino, CA, USA); Nexus One (Google, Mountain View, CA, USA)]. Once the images are taken, the images are transferred to a back-end server for automated analysis. The first step in this process is image analysis (i.e. segmentation, feature extraction and classification), which allows for automated food identification. Portion size estimation is also automated via segmentation and geometric shape template modeling. The results of the automated food identification and volume estimation can be indexed with the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies to provide a detailed diet analysis for use in epidemiological or intervention studies. Data collected during controlled feeding studies in a camp-like setting have allowed for formative evaluation and validation of the TADA food record application. This review summarises the system design and the evidence-based development of image-based methods for dietary assessment among children. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  9. Dietary characterization of terrestrial mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda-Munoz, Silvia; Alroy, John

    2014-08-22

    Understanding the feeding behaviour of the species that make up any ecosystem is essential for designing further research. Mammals have been studied intensively, but the criteria used for classifying their diets are far from being standardized. We built a database summarizing the dietary preferences of terrestrial mammals using published data regarding their stomach contents. We performed multivariate analyses in order to set up a standardized classification scheme. Ideally, food consumption percentages should be used instead of qualitative classifications. However, when highly detailed information is not available we propose classifying animals based on their main feeding resources. They should be classified as generalists when none of the feeding resources constitute over 50% of the diet. The term 'omnivore' should be avoided because it does not communicate all the complexity inherent to food choice. Moreover, the so-called omnivore diets actually involve several distinctive adaptations. Our dataset shows that terrestrial mammals are generally highly specialized and that some degree of food mixing may even be required for most species.

  10. Neuroprotective Actions of Dietary Choline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Krzysztof Blusztajn

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Choline is an essential nutrient for humans. It is a precursor of membrane phospholipids (e.g., phosphatidylcholine (PC, the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, and via betaine, the methyl group donor S-adenosylmethionine. High choline intake during gestation and early postnatal development in rat and mouse models improves cognitive function in adulthood, prevents age-related memory decline, and protects the brain from the neuropathological changes associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD, and neurological damage associated with epilepsy, fetal alcohol syndrome, and inherited conditions such as Down and Rett syndromes. These effects of choline are correlated with modifications in histone and DNA methylation in brain, and with alterations in the expression of genes that encode proteins important for learning and memory processing, suggesting a possible epigenomic mechanism of action. Dietary choline intake in the adult may also influence cognitive function via an effect on PC containing eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids; polyunsaturated species of PC whose levels are reduced in brains from AD patients, and is associated with higher memory performance, and resistance to cognitive decline.

  11. Dietary fat and cardiovascular disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lie T. Merijanti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dietary saturated fat (SF intake has been shown to increase low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol and therefore has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD. This evidence coupled with inferences from epidemiologic studies and clinical trials, had led to longstanding public health recommendations for limiting SF intake as a means of preventing CVD. However the relationship between SF and CVD risk remains controversial, due at least in part to the intrinsic limitations of clinical studies that have evaluated this relationship. A recent meta analysis showed that current evidence does not clearly support cardiovascular guidelines that encourage high consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and low consumption of total SF. They found weak positive associations between circulating palmitic and stearic acids (found largely in palm oil and animal fats, respectively and CVD, whereas circulating margaric acid (a dairy fat significantly reduced the risk of CVD.(2,3 Saturated fat are not associated with all cause mortality, CVD, CHD, ischemic stroke or type 2 diabetes, but the evidence is heterogenous with methodological limitations.

  12. Dietary polyphenols and chromatin remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Gian Luigi; Vastolo, Viviana; Ciccarelli, Marco; Albano, Luigi; Macchia, Paolo Emidio; Ungaro, Paola

    2017-08-13

    Polyphenols are the most abundant phytochemicals in fruits, vegetables, and plant-derived beverages. Recent findings suggest that polyphenols display the ability to reverse adverse epigenetic regulation involved in pathological conditions, such as obesity, metabolic disorder, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, and various forms of cancer. Epigenetics, defined as heritable changes to the transcriptome, independent from those occurring in the genome, includes DNA methylation, histone modifications, and posttranscriptional gene regulation by noncoding RNAs. Sinergistically and cooperatively, these processes regulate gene expression by changing chromatin organization and DNA accessibility. Such induced epigenetic changes can be inherited during cell division, resulting in permanent maintenance of the acquired phenotype, but they may also occur throughout an individual life-course and may ultimately influence phenotypic outcomes (health and disease risk). In the last decade, a number of studies have shown that nutrients can affect metabolic traits by altering the structure of chromatin and directly regulate both transcription and translational processes. In this context, dietary polyphenol-targeted epigenetics becomes an attractive approach for disease prevention and intervention. Here, we will review how polyphenols, including flavonoids, curcuminoids, and stilbenes, modulate the establishment and maintenance of key epigenetic marks, thereby influencing gene expression and, hence, disease risk and health.

  13. Challenges of designing fusion reactors for remote maintainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, L.S.

    1981-01-01

    One of the major problems faced by the fusion community is the development of the high level of reliability required to assure that fusion will be a viable commercial power source. Much of the responsibility for solving this problem falls directly on the designer in developing concepts that have a high level of maintainability. The problems are both near-term, in developing maintainability for next generation engineering oriented reactors; and long range, in developing full maintainability for the more commercial concepts with their required high level of on-line time. The near-time challenge will include development of unqiue design concepts to perform inspection, maintenance, replacement, and testing under the stringent conditions imposed by the next generation engineering oriented machines. The long range challenge will focus on basic design concepts that will enable the full mainatability required by commerical fusion

  14. Advanced remotely maintainable force-reflecting servomanipulator concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuban, D.P.; Martin, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    A remotely maintainable force-reflecting servomanipulator concept is being developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory as part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program. This new manipulator addresses requirements of advanced nuclear fuel reprocessing with emphasis on force reflection, remote maintainability, reliability, radiation tolerance, and corrosion resistance. The advanced servomanipulator is uniquely subdivided into remotely replaceable modules which will permit in situ manipulator repair by spare module replacement. Manipulator modularization and increased reliability are accomplished through a force transmission system that uses gears and torque tubes. Digital control algorithms and mechanical precision are used to offset the increased backlash, friction, and inertia resulting from the gear drives. This results in the first remotely maintainable force-reflecting servomanipulator in the world. 10 references, 4 figures, 1 table

  15. Genetic and Epigenetic Mechanisms That Maintain Hematopoietic Stem Cell Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosan, Christian; Godmann, Maren

    2016-01-01

    All hematopoiesis cells develop from multipotent progenitor cells. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) have the ability to develop into all blood lineages but also maintain their stemness. Different molecular mechanisms have been identified that are crucial for regulating quiescence and self-renewal to maintain the stem cell pool and for inducing proliferation and lineage differentiation. The stem cell niche provides the microenvironment to keep HSC in a quiescent state. Furthermore, several transcription factors and epigenetic modifiers are involved in this process. These create modifications that regulate the cell fate in a more or less reversible and dynamic way and contribute to HSC homeostasis. In addition, HSC respond in a unique way to DNA damage. These mechanisms also contribute to the regulation of HSC function and are essential to ensure viability after DNA damage. How HSC maintain their quiescent stage during the entire life is still matter of ongoing research. Here we will focus on the molecular mechanisms that regulate HSC function. PMID:26798358

  16. Maintainability design criteria for packaging of spacecraft replaceable electronic equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappler, J. R.; Folsom, A. B.

    1972-01-01

    Maintainability must be designed into long-duration spacecraft and equipment to provide the required high probability of mission success with the least cost and weight. The ability to perform repairs quickly and easily in a space environment can be achieved by imposing specific maintainability design criteria on spacecraft equipment design and installation. A study was funded to investigate and define design criteria for electronic equipment that would permit rapid removal and replacement in a space environment. The results of the study are discussed together with subsequent simulated zero-g demonstration tests of a mockup with new concepts for packaging.

  17. Dietary folate deficiency blocks prostate cancer progression in the TRAMP model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bistulfi, Gaia; Foster, Barbara A; Karasik, Ellen; Gillard, Bryan; Miecznikowski, Jeff; Dhiman, Vineet K; Smiraglia, Dominic J

    2011-11-01

    Dietary folate is essential in all tissues to maintain several metabolite pools and cellular proliferation. Prostate cells, due to specific metabolic characteristics, have increased folate demand to support proliferation and prevent genetic and epigenetic damage. Although several studies have found that dietary folate interventions can affect colon cancer biology in rodent models, its impact on prostate is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine whether dietary folate manipulation, possibly being of primary importance for prostate epithelial cell metabolism, could significantly affect prostate cancer progression. Strikingly, mild dietary folate depletion arrested prostate cancer progression in 25 of 26 transgenic adenoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice, in which tumorigenesis is prostate-specific and characteristically aggressive. The significant effect on prostate cancer growth was characterized by size, grade, proliferation, and apoptosis analyses. Folate supplementation had a mild, nonsignificant, beneficial effect on grade. In addition, characterization of folate pools (correlated with serum), metabolite pools (polyamines and nucleotides), genetic and epigenetic damage, and expression of key biosynthetic enzymes in prostate tissue revealed interesting correlations with tumor progression. These findings indicate that prostate cancer is highly sensitive to folate manipulation and suggest that antifolates, paired with current therapeutic strategies, might significantly improve treatment of prostate cancer, the most commonly diagnosed cancer in American men.

  18. [Effect of dietary fiber in the quantitative expression of butyrate receptor GPR43 in rats colon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corte Osorio, L Y; Martínez Flores, H E; Ortiz Alvarado, R

    2011-01-01

    Short chain fatty acids (SCFA) acetate, propionate and butyrate are the major anions produced by the bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber (DF) in colon. Recently, butyrate has been recently studied because is important to maintain colonic functions and because it has been related with a protective effect in colorectal cancer, which is mainly, explained by its potential to regulate gene expression by inhibiting enzyme histonedeacetylase (HDAC). Several investigationsshown that SCFAreceptor GPR43 is involved insignal transduction mechanisms once they bind to ligands such as butyrate to generate different physiological effects in colonocytes. Determine if dietary fiber consumption from nopal (Opuntia ficus I.) containing a ratio of soluble-insoluble fiber 40/60, has a direct influence on the quantitative expression of butyrate-specific receptor GPR43. Wistar rats were fed with four different diets formulated at different concentrations of dietary fiber of 0, 5, 15 and 25% of dietary fiber from opuntia, respectively. The results shown an increase in the expression of GPR43 (93.1%) when rats was fed with a 5% fiber diet, using β-actin as a reference gene. The results of this investigation will contribute to determinate the relation of diet with intestinal health for the purpose of expanding the knowledge of butyric acid on colonic functions.

  19. Dietary restriction of choline reduces hippocampal acetylcholine release in rats: in vivo microdialysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, A; Suzuki, Y; Umegaki, H; Ikari, H; Tajima, T; Endo, H; Iguchi, A

    2001-12-01

    We fed rats with a diet deficient in choline for 12 weeks and studied how dietary choline deficiency affected their behavior and their ability to release acetylcholine in discrete regions of rat brain using step-through passive avoidance task and in vivo microdialysis. In comparison with the control, rats fed the choline-deficient diet showed poorer retention of nociceptive memory in the passive avoidance task. Average choline level in cerebrospinal fluid in the choline-deficient group was significantly less (33.1%) than that of control rats. In vivo microdialysis showed no difference in the pattern of acetylcholine release enhanced by intraperitoneal administration of scopolamine hydrochloride (2 mg/kg) in the striatum between the two groups, whereas in the hippocampus, the maximum and subsequent increase of acetylcholine from the baseline by scopolamine injection was significantly lower in the choline-deficient group than in the control. From the results of our study, we speculate that long-term dietary restriction of choline can affect extra- and intracellular sources of substrates required for acetylcholine synthesis, and eventually limit the ability to release acetylcholine in the hippocampus. Reduced capacity to release acetylcholine in the hippocampus implies that the mechanism, maintaining acetylcholine synthesis on increased neuronal demand, may vary in discrete regions of the brain in response to dietary manipulation. The vulnerability of the mechanism in the hippocampus to dietary choline restriction is indicated by impaired mnemonic performance we observed.

  20. Supplementary Material for: Detection of antibiotic resistance in probiotics of dietary supplements

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Aloysius Tze

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Probiotics are live microorganisms that confer nutrition- and health-promoting benefits if consumed in adequate amounts. Concomitant with the demand for natural approaches to maintaining health is an increase in inclusion of probiotics in food and health products. Since probiotic bacteria act as reservoir for antibiotic resistant determinants, the transfer of these genes to pathogens sharing the same intestinal habitat is thus conceivable considering the fact that dietary supplements contain high amounts of often heterogeneous populations of probiotics. Such events can confer pathogens protection against commonly-used drugs. Despite numerous reports of antibiotic resistant probiotics in food and biological sources, the antibiogram of probiotics from dietary supplements remained elusive. Findings Here, we screened five commercially available dietary supplements for resistance towards antibiotics of different classes. Probiotics of all batches of products were resistant towards vancomycin while batch-dependent resistance towards streptomycin, aztreonam, gentamycin and/or ciprofloxacin antibiotics was detected for probiotics of brands Bi and Bn, Bg, and L. Isolates of brand Cn was also resistant towards gentamycin, streptomycin and ciprofloxacin antibiotics. Additionally, we also report a discrepancy between the enumerated viable bacteria amounts and the claims of the manufacturers. Conclusions This short report has highlighted the present of antibiotic resistance in probiotic bacteria from dietary supplements and therefore serves as a platform for further screenings and for in-depth characterization of the resistant determinants and the molecular machinery that confers the resistance.

  1. Dietary modifications to improve micronutrient status of Indian children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, Lavanya S; Chiplonkar, Shashi A; Khadilkar, Anuradha V; Khadilkar, Vaman V

    2015-01-01

    Diet plays a crucial role for maintaining normal growth and development while optimizing glycemic control in children with diabetes. Dietary restrictions, in a diabetic child's diet may lead to micronutrient deficiencies. To examine dietary nutritional deficiencies of Asian Indian children with Type 1 diabetes mellitus and develop micronutrient-rich recipes suitable for them. Anthropometry, diet (3-day recall) of 70 children with diabetes (24 boys) was recorded. Daily nutrient intakes and nutrient content of recipes were estimated using CDIET version 2.0. Mean intake amongst children for energy was 79% of Indian Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), protein was 105% RDA, but fat intakes were high (143% RDA). Mean intakes of riboflavin, β carotene, zinc, iron were less than 50%, and thiamin and calcium were around 60% RDA suggesting a possible multiple micronutrient deficiency. Based on popularly consumed snacks, 20 healthy recipes were devised that can be incorporated in children's diet. Mean energy content of new recipes was similar to routine snacks (281±28 kcal/100 g vs 306±27 kcal/100 g cooked weight). However, the mean vitamin and mineral content of new recipes was significantly higher (pcontent (zinc, calcium and iron) and twofold increase in total vitamin content (β carotene, vitamin C, vitamin B-1, B-2, and B-3) in new recipes compared with the routine snacks. Multiple dietary micronutrient deficiencies are observed in diabetic children. Addition of newly developed recipes in their everyday diet may help to enhance micronutrient intakes without increasing their energy load.

  2. Sustainability in the Qatar national dietary guidelines, among the first to incorporate sustainability principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed, Barbara

    2015-09-01

    To present one of the first national dietary guidelines that incorporates food sustainability principles into its public health recommendations. The paper outlines recommendations and utilizes an ecological framework of policy analysis to examine context, drivers, consequences and future suggestions in establishing and maintaining sustainability principles within the Qatar Dietary Guidelines. Qatar. Population of Qatar. Qatar has produced one of the first national dietary guidelines to integrate principles of food sustainability. National interest in environmental sustainability and food security, population concern over food waste (reinforced by Islamic religious law), strong authority of the Supreme Council of Health (supported by an Emirate government), a small domestic food industry and a lack of food industry influence on the guidelines have contributed to the inclusion of sustainability principles within the document. Whether these principles will be embraced or rejected by the population in the long term will likely be determined by the Dietary Guidelines Task Force and the Supreme Council of Health's commitment to educating the population about the relevance and importance of these principles and establishing champions to advocate for them.

  3. Iron enriched Saccharomyces cerevisiae maintains its fermenting power and bakery properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Gaensly

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Iron is an essential micronutrient in the metabolism of almost all living organisms; however, its deficiency is well documented especially in pregnant women and in children. Iron salts as a dietary supplement have low bioavailability and can cause gastrointestinal discomforts. Iron enriched yeasts can provide a supplementation of this micronutrient to the diet because this mineral has a better bioavailability when bonded to yeast cell macromolecules. These yeasts can be used as feed supplement for human and animals and also as baker's yeast. Baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was cultivated in a reactor employing yeast media supplemented with 497 mg ferrous sulfate.L-1, and the resultant biomass incorporated 8 mg Fe.g-1 dry matter. This biomass maintained its fermenting power regarding both water displace measurement through carbonic dioxide production and bakery characteristics. The bread produced using the yeast obtained by cultivation in yeast media supplemented with iron presented six times more iron than the bread produced using the yeast obtained by cultivation without iron supplementation.

  4. Exploring dietary guidelines based on ecological and nutritional values: A comparison of six dietary patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dooren, C.; Marinussen, M.; Blonk, B.; Aiking, H.; Vellinga, P.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the synergies between nutritionally healthy and ecologically sustainable diets. The aim was to explore the possibilities for future integrated dietary guidelines that support consumers to make informed dietary choices based on both ecological and

  5. How parental dietary behavior and food parenting practices affect children's dietary behavior. Interacting sources of influence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, J.K.; Hermans, R.C.J.; Sleddens, E.F.C.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Fisher, J.O.; Kremers, S.P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Until now, the literatures on the effects of food parenting practices and parents' own dietary behavior on children's dietary behavior have largely been independent from one another. Integrating findings across these areas could provide insight on simultaneous and interacting influences on

  6. Dietary carbohydrates and triacylglycerol metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, H M

    1999-02-01

    There is a growing body of scientific evidence which demonstrates that plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) concentration, especially in the postprandial state, is an important risk factor in relation to the development of CHD. Postprandial hypertriacylglycerolaemia is associated with a number of adverse metabolic risk factors, including the preponderance of small dense LDL, low HDL-cholesterol concentrations and elevated factor VII activity. Traditionally, a low-fat high-carbohydrate diet was used to prevent CHD because it effectively reduces plasma cholesterol concentrations, but this dietary regimen increases plasma TAG concentrations and reduces HDL-cholesterol concentrations. There is substantial epidemiological evidence which demonstrates that high plasma TAG and low plasma HDL concentrations are associated with an increased risk of CHD. Thus, there is reason for concern that the adverse effects of low-fat high-carbohydrate diets on TAG and HDL may counteract or negate the beneficial effect of reducing LDL-cholesterol concentrations. Although there have been no prospective studies to investigate whether reduced fat intake has an adverse effect on CHD, there is strong epidemiological evidence that reducing total fat intake is not protective against CHD. On the other hand, high-fat diets predispose to obesity, and central obesity adversely affects TAG metabolism. There is substantial evidence that in free-living situations low-fat high-carbohydrate diets lead to weight loss, which in turn will correct insulin resistance and plasma TAG metabolism. Clearly there is a need for prospective studies to resolve the issue as to whether low-fat high-carbohydrate diets play an adverse or beneficial role in relation to the development of CHD.

  7. Dietary fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds and garlic (Allium sativum alleviates oxidative stress in experimental myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mukthamba

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Soluble fiber-rich fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum-graecum and garlic (Allium sativum are understood to exert cholesterol-lowering and antioxidant effects. The cardioprotective influence of a combination of fenugreek seeds and garlic by their antioxidant influence was evaluated in hypercholesterolemic rats administered isoproterenol. Wistar rats were maintained on high-cholesterol diet for 8 weeks along with dietary interventions of fenugreek (10%, garlic (2% and their combination. Myocardial infarction was induced with isoproterenol injection. Increased circulatory troponin, disturbed activities of cardiac ATPases, increased serum iron and decreased ceruloplasmin confirmed myocardial infarction. Elevated lipid peroxides accompanied with reduced antioxidant molecules caused by isoproterenol and altered activities of antioxidant enzymes in serum and heart in induced myocardial necrosis were countered by dietary fenugreek, garlic, and fenugreek + garlic. Dietary fenugreek seeds and garlic ameliorated isoproterenol-induced compromised antioxidant status, the cardioprotective effect being higher by the combination of fenugreek seeds and garlic.

  8. Smoke considerations for using fire in maintaining healthy forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger D. Ottmar; Mark D. Schaaf; Ernesto Alvarado

    1996-01-01

    Fire is the single most important ecological disturbance process throughout the interior Pacific Northwest (Mutch and others 1993; Agee 1994). It is also a natural process that helps maintain a diverse ecological landscape. Fire suppression and timber harvesting have drastically altered this process during the past 50 to 90 years. Natural resource specialists generally...

  9. JWIG: Yet Another Framework for Maintainable and Secure Web Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Anders; Schwarz, Mathias Romme

    2009-01-01

    Although numerous frameworks for web application programming have been developed in recent years, writing web applications remains a challenging task. Guided by a collection of classical design principles, we propose yet another framework. It is based on a simple but flexible server-oriented arch...... services.The resulting framework provides a novel foundation for developing maintainable and secure web applications....

  10. 44 CFR 321.3 - Maintaining the mobilization base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... base. 321.3 Section 321.3 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS MAINTENANCE OF THE MOBILIZATION BASE (DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, MARITIME ADMINISTRATION) § 321.3 Maintaining the mobilization base. (a) Facilities...

  11. Maintaining connections in children's grief narratives in popular film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedney, Mary Anne

    2002-04-01

    Children's grief narratives in popular films were examined for their portrayal of connection-maintaining strategies with the deceased. Comparisons were made between strategies found in actual parentally bereaved children and in child characters in films. Implications of these filmed grief narratives for models of grieving and for practice are discussed.

  12. Maintaining a Cybersecurity Curriculum: Professional Certifications as Valuable Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Kenneth J.; Maurer, Christopher; Plachkinova, Miloslava

    2017-01-01

    Much has been published about developing a cybersecurity curriculum for institutes of higher learning (IHL). Now that a growing number of IHLs globally offer such programs, a need exists on how to guide, maintain, and improve the relevancy of existing curricula. Just as cybersecurity professionals must be hone their skills continually to keep with…

  13. Declarative versus imperative process modeling languages : the issue of maintainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fahland, D.; Mendling, J.; Reijers, H.A.; Weber, B.; Weidlich, M.; Zugal, S.; Rinderle-Ma, S.; Sadiq, S.; Leymann, F.

    2010-01-01

    The rise of interest in declarative languages for process modeling both justifies and demands empirical investigations into their presumed advantages over more traditional, imperative alternatives. Our concern in this paper is with the ease of maintaining business process models, for example due to

  14. Maintaining public confidence in UK nuclear safety regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, L.

    2001-01-01

    The key to maintaining stake holder confidence is competence and having the resources necessary to not only carry out regulatory functions effectively, but also to keep the public informed and respond to their questions. This does not come cheap but it is a price well worth paying. (N.C.)

  15. Genetic and somatic effects in animals maintained on tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carsten, A.L.; Brooks, A.; Commerford, S.L.; Cronkite, E.P.

    1981-01-01

    The possible genetic (dominant lethal mutations (DLM) and cytogenetic changes in the regenerating liver) and somatic (hematopoietic stem cell changes, growth and nonspecific life time shortening) effects in mice maintained on tritiated water (HTO) over two generations was investigated. Results to date are summarized

  16. 4 CFR 200.11 - Maintaining records of disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the Freedom of Information Act (5 U.S.C. 552). (b) An accounting of each disclosure shall be retained..., whichever is longer. (c) The Board shall make the accounting of disclosure of a record pertaining to an... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintaining records of disclosure. 200.11 Section 200.11...

  17. Maintaining the power balance in an "empty network"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reza, M.; Dominguez, A.O.; Schavemaker, P.H.; Kling, W.L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the concept of an empty network and shows how the power balance can be maintained in such a system. In this study, an empty network is defined as a power system in which no rotating mass is present; all generators are grid-connected via power electronic interfaces. One generator

  18. Maintaining of the demineralized water quality in storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochmueller, K.; Wandelt, E.

    1981-03-01

    Two processes for maintaining the quality of the mineralized water in storage tanks are considered. A slight overpressure of nitrogen can be created above the water, or the air flowing in the tank can be cleaned by passing it through a soda-containing lime filter [fr

  19. Sponsored Grant-maintained Schools: Extending the Franchise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walford, Geoffrey

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the introduction and implementation of the 1988 Education Reform Act for England and Wales. Traces the attempts of several existing private schools to become grant maintained (eligible for various forms of government support). Most private and faith-based schools have not been successful in this endeavor. Discusses the reasons for this.…

  20. Maintaining and restoring sustainable ecosystems in southern Nevada [Chapter 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanne C. Chambers; Burton K. Pendleton; Donald W. Sada; Steven M. Ostoja; Matthew L. Brooks

    2013-01-01

    Managers in southern Nevada are challenged with determining appropriate goals and objectives and developing viable approaches for maintaining and restoring sustainable ecosystems in a time of rapid socio-ecological and environmental change. Sustainable or “healthy” ecosystems supply clean air, water and habitat for a diverse array of plants and animals. As described in...

  1. Impact of Agile Software Development Model on Software Maintainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawali, Ajay R.

    2012-01-01

    Software maintenance and support costs account for up to 60% of the overall software life cycle cost and often burdens tightly budgeted information technology (IT) organizations. Agile software development approach delivers business value early, but implications on software maintainability are still unknown. The purpose of this quantitative study…

  2. The evaluation of kikuyu foggage for maintaining dry ewes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DeVilliersJ

    flow programme to maintain dry ewes during the winter in a system where their lambs were weaned onto .... IVDOM of the combined values of the January and February oesophageal and hand-cut foggage samples and ... The ability of the grazing animal to select material of higher quality than hand-cut samples of the.

  3. 19 CFR 115.12 - Records maintained by Certifying Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Records maintained by Certifying Authority. 115.12 Section 115.12 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CARGO CONTAINER AND ROAD VEHICLE CERTIFICATION PURSUANT TO INTERNATIONAL CUSTOMS...

  4. Oct-4 expression maintained stem cell properties in prostate cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Keywords: Prostate cancer, Cancer stem-like cells, Oct-4, CD133, Multi-drug resistance1 (MDR1). Received: 7 ... mechanisms in maintaining the self-renewal and drug resistant ... (platelet-derived growth factor α receptor). This suggests that ...

  5. Banded vs Bonded Space Maintainers: Finding Better Way Out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Vikas; Kumar Pandit, Inder; Srivastava, Nikhil; Gugnani, Neeraj; Gupta, Monika

    2014-05-01

    Of this in vivo study was to evaluate various space maintainers in terms of survival rate, gingival health and presence of caries. A total of 60 extraction sites in the age group of 4 to 9 years were divided into four groups and different space maintainers were placed in them viz (conventional band and loop, prefabricated band with custom made loop, Ribbond, Super splint). Prefabricated bands with custom made loop showed maximum success rates (84.6%), while super splint (33.33%) was found to be least successful. In terms of gingival health, prefabricated band with custom made loop reported minimum cases with poor gingival health (27.2%), while maximum cases with poor gingival health (50%) were reported with Super splint. None of the space maintainers developed caries at the end of 9 months. How to cite this article: Setia v, Pandit IK, Srivastava N, Gugnani N, Gupta M. Banded vs Bonded Space Maintainers: Finding Better Way Out. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(2):97-104.

  6. A Platform for Developing and Maintaining Competences in PBL Supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnaur, Dorina; Huttel, Hans

    2017-01-01

    One of the emerging challenges in academia is that of developing and maintaining teaching qualifications in a setting where teaching staff is often temporary and with diverse backgrounds. At Aalborg University, project-organized problem-based learning is at the heart of all degree programmes...

  7. Maintaining Continuity of Knowledge of Spent Fuel Pools: Tool Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benz, Jacob M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smartt, Heidi A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tanner, Jennifer E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); MacDougall, Matthew R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-08-30

    This report examines supplemental tools that can be used in addition to optical surveillance cameras to maintain CoK in low-to-no light conditions, and increase the efficiency and effectiveness of spent fuel CoK, including item counting and ID verification, in challenging conditions.

  8. Contribution of maintainability and maintenance to problems of safety evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adnot, Serge; Meriaux, Pierre.

    1977-10-01

    A method has been developed for defining the contribution of Maintainability and the Maintenance Studies to Safety evaluation problems. The efficiency of this method is shown and results obtained are given for two theoretical examples approximating reality. For repairable systems, the risk defined according to such given safety criterion, becomes a characteristic of the systems in operation [fr

  9. Maintaining excellence in teaching of human anatomy: University of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measures to address these challenges have resulted in wide disparities in curriculum design teaching methods, number and composition of instructors. Inspite of the challenges, the Department of Human Anatomy of the University of Nairobi (UON) maintained excellence of teaching for over 40yrs. This article describes the ...

  10. Mechanical properties of different types of space maintainers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldiman, M.-A.; Mârţu, I.; Leiţoiu, B.; Luchian, I.; Lupescu, O.; Bârcă, E. S.

    2015-11-01

    Currently, inside the oral cavity, the dental space maintainers are subjected to forces exerted on them when performing various functions; therefore, it is important to know how each of these mechanisms behave and respond to forces that are applied directly to them. The mechanical properties of the materials used in dentistry are defined by a set of characteristics representing the behaviour of their particular working conditions and it is qualitatively expressed by a number of parameters.The study aimed to determine the pressing force that can be taken by four 4 types of space maintainers frequently used in practice - fixed and removable, applied on four samples realized with human teeth extracted for orthodontic purposes. Static tests were carried out on a machine type short WDW-5 EC with a maximum force of 5 kN and a loading speed of 5 mm/min by a special testing machine, with an innovative appliance; data recording was automatically performed, using a computer with a special program that present the specific diagrams. Experimental determinations included the following aspects: to determine the maximum force that can be supported by each sample, and to observe the deformations. The values obtained indicate that the best option in terms of behavior under the conditions specified is the removable appliance, and the less functional version is the fixed space maintainer using brackets. According to tests conducted, the fracture strength was found to be more important for fixed space maintainers (band and loop, for example) so, in practice is using more frequent these types of space maintainers.

  11. Dicer maintains the identity and function of proprioceptive sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Sean M; Ferrer, Monica M; Mekonnen, Jennifer; Zhang, Haihan; Shima, Yasuyuki; Ladle, David R; Nelson, Sacha B

    2017-03-01

    Neuronal cell identity is established during development and must be maintained throughout an animal's life (Fishell G, Heintz N. Neuron 80: 602-612, 2013). Transcription factors critical for establishing neuronal identity can be required for maintaining it (Deneris ES, Hobert O. Nat Neurosci 17: 899-907, 2014). Posttranscriptional regulation also plays an important role in neuronal differentiation (Bian S, Sun T. Mol Neurobiol 44: 359-373, 2011), but its role in maintaining cell identity is less established. To better understand how posttranscriptional regulation might contribute to cell identity, we examined the proprioceptive neurons in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG), a highly specialized sensory neuron class, with well-established properties that distinguish them from other neurons in the ganglion. By conditionally ablating Dicer in mice, using parvalbumin (Pvalb)-driven Cre recombinase, we impaired posttranscriptional regulation in the proprioceptive sensory neuron population. Knockout (KO) animals display a progressive form of ataxia at the beginning of the fourth postnatal week that is accompanied by a cell death within the DRG. Before cell loss, expression profiling shows a reduction of proprioceptor specific genes and an increased expression of nonproprioceptive genes normally enriched in other ganglion neurons. Furthermore, although central connections of these neurons are intact, the peripheral connections to the muscle are functionally impaired. Posttranscriptional regulation is therefore necessary to retain the transcriptional identity and support functional specialization of the proprioceptive sensory neurons. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We have demonstrated that selectively impairing Dicer in parvalbumin-positive neurons, which include the proprioceptors, triggers behavioral changes, a lack of muscle connectivity, and a loss of transcriptional identity as observed through RNA sequencing. These results suggest that Dicer and, most likely by extension, micro

  12. Role of fruits, nuts, and vegetables in maintaining cognitive health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Marshall G; Thangthaeng, Nopporn; Poulose, Shibu M; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2017-08-01

    Population aging is leading to an increase in the incidence of age-related cognitive dysfunction and, with it, the health care burden of caring for older adults. Epidemiological studies have shown that consumption of fruits, nuts, and vegetables is positively associated with cognitive ability; however, these foods, which contain a variety of neuroprotective phytochemicals, are widely under-consumed. Surprisingly few studies have investigated the effects of individual plant foods on cognitive health but recent clinical trials have shown that dietary supplementation with individual foods, or switching to a diet rich in several of these foods, can improve cognitive ability. While additional research is needed, increasing fruit, nut, and vegetable intake may be an effective strategy to prevent or delay the onset of cognitive dysfunction during aging. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Dietary fibre: The scientific search for an ideal definition and methodology of analysis, and its physiological importance as a carrier of bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macagnan, Fernanda Teixeira; da Silva, Leila Picolli; Hecktheuer, Luisa Helena

    2016-07-01

    There is a growing need for a global consensus on the definition of dietary fibre and the use of appropriate methodologies for its determination in different food matrices. Oligosaccharides (prebiotic effect) and bioactive compounds (antioxidant effect) are important constituents of dietary fibre, which enhance its beneficial effects in the body, such as those related to maintaining intestinal health. These dietary components need to be quantified and addressed in conjunction with fibre in nutritional studies due to the close relationship between them and their common destiny in the human body. This review discusses updates to the concept of dietary fibre, with an emphasis on biological and methodological aspects, and highlights the physiological importance of fibre as a carrier of bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of a dietary targets monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lean, M E J; Anderson, A S; Morrison, C; Currall, J

    2003-05-01

    To evaluate a two-page food frequency list for use as a Dietary Targets Monitor in large scale surveys to quantify consumptions of the key foods groups targeted in health promotion. Intakes of fruit and vegetables, starchy foods and fish estimated from a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) were compared with a short food frequency list (the Dietary Targets Monitor) specifically designed to assess habitual frequency of consumption of foods in relation to dietary targets which form the basis of a National (Scottish) Food and Health Policy. A total of 1085 adults aged 25-64 y from the Glasgow MONICA Study. : The two questionnaires both collected data on frequencies of food consumption for fruit and vegetables, starchy foods and fish. Comparing the two questionnaires, there were consistent biases, best expressed as ratios (FFQ:Dietary Targets Monitor) between the methods for fruit and vegetables (1.33, 95% CI 1.29, 1.38) and 'starchy foods' (1.08, 95% CI 1.05, 1.12), the DTM showing systematic under-reporting by men. For fish consumption, there was essentially no bias between the methods (0.99, 95% CI 0.94, 1.03). Using calibration factors to adjust for biases, the Dietary Targets Monitor indicated that 16% of the subjects were achieving the Scottish Diet food target (400 g/day) for fruit and vegetable consumption. Nearly one-third (32%) of the subjects were eating the recommended intakes of fish (three portions per week). The Dietary Targets Monitor measure of starchy foods consumption was calibrated using FFQ data to be able to make quantitative estimates: 20% of subjects were eating six or more portions of starchy food daily. A similar estimation of total fat intake and saturated fat intake (g/day) allowed the categorization of subjects as low, moderate or high fat consumers, with broad agreement between the methods. The levels of agreement demonstrated by Bland-Altman analysis, were insufficient to permit use of the adjusted DTM to estimate quantitative

  15. Dietary fat and insulin resistance: a connection through leptin and PPARγ activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doaa Nader Al-Jada

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance refers to reduced insulin action in peripheral tissues and impaired suppression of endogenous glucose production, a state which is critical for maintaining normal glucose homeostasis. Insulin resistance is partly explained by genetic factors and is strongly influenced by the individual's habitual lifestyle. Investigating factors that may influence the development of insulin resistance and their mechanisms of action is highly significant; one of these factors include dietary fat. Both quantitative and qualitative terms of dietary fat have been known to play an important role in the development of insulin resistance, although the mechanism underlying this effect is not fully understood. In this regard, the classical view has been that dietary fat quality mainly affects cell membrane fatty acid composition and consequently the membrane function. Recently, the relationship between dietary fat and insulin resistance has entered an advanced level due to the discovery that different fatty acids can regulate gene expression, transcriptional activity and adipocytokines secretion. In essence, this provides new mechanisms by which fatty acids exert their cellular effects. The present review critically assesses the effect of dietary fat quality on the development of insulin resistance in relation to the adipocytokine, leptin and the activation of the transcription factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ. It is evident that fat quality influences the development of insulin resistance and has a more important role than quantity. Leptin and PPARγ prove to be potential candidates linking dietary fat with insulin resistance. However, the exact role or mechanism of action of various types of dietary fat in the development of insulin resistance is still uncertain. Further well-controlled studies in humans are necessary to establish better evidence-based dietary fat recommendations for diabetes prevention and its

  16. Use of dietary supplements among Brazilian athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellen Clair Garcez NABUCO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the prevalence and establish the profile of the consumption of dietary supplements among Brazilian athletes. Methods: A total of 182 athletes of both genders from 20 different sports participated in this study. The athletes answered a questionnaire containing sociodemographic and sports-related questions and were interviewed about the consumption of dietary supplements. Results: Forty seven percent of athletes reported having consumed at least one type of dietary supplement and 38% said they use more than three different types of supplements concurrently. Whey protein was the most commonly consumed supplement, and the most frequently mentioned reason for its consumption was performance improvement. The main source of information was coaches, and individual sport athletes were the greatest consumers and the most likely to seek dietary supplement. Conclusion: Approximately half of the participants used dietary supplements, which on most occasions were recommended by coaches. The consumption profile also revealed multiple supplementation practice and showed that nutrition education is essential for this specific population.

  17. Estimating the Distribution of Dietary Consumption Patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Carroll, Raymond J.

    2014-02-01

    In the United States the preferred method of obtaining dietary intake data is the 24-hour dietary recall, yet the measure of most interest is usual or long-term average daily intake, which is impossible to measure. Thus, usual dietary intake is assessed with considerable measurement error. We were interested in estimating the population distribution of the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005), a multi-component dietary quality index involving ratios of interrelated dietary components to energy, among children aged 2-8 in the United States, using a national survey and incorporating survey weights. We developed a highly nonlinear, multivariate zero-inflated data model with measurement error to address this question. Standard nonlinear mixed model software such as SAS NLMIXED cannot handle this problem. We found that taking a Bayesian approach, and using MCMC, resolved the computational issues and doing so enabled us to provide a realistic distribution estimate for the HEI-2005 total score. While our computation and thinking in solving this problem was Bayesian, we relied on the well-known close relationship between Bayesian posterior means and maximum likelihood, the latter not computationally feasible, and thus were able to develop standard errors using balanced repeated replication, a survey-sampling approach.

  18. Usefulness of herbal and dietary supplement references.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Burgunda V; Gay, Wendy E; Leady, Michelle A; Stumpf, Janice L

    2003-04-01

    To describe the usefulness of some of the most common tertiary references that healthcare professionals employ to answer requests about herbal and dietary supplements. All requests for information on herbal and dietary supplements received by the drug information service between April and September 2000 were evaluated. Each question was independently reviewed by 4 clinicians using a 4-point scale; 14 references were searched for appropriate answers. The percent of responses for each of the possible scores for each reference overall and by category of question was reported to determine the most helpful references for answering the broadest range of questions. Fifty questions regarding herbal and dietary supplements were analyzed. The electronic databases (Natural Medicine Comprehensive Database, Micromedex) and the Internet site (The Natural Pharmacist) were determined to be overall the most helpful references for providing information on herbal and dietary supplements. The Natural Therapeutics Pocket Guide was the most helpful book reference. These results will facilitate the retrieval of useful information on herbal and dietary supplements and enable healthcare professionals to determine appropriate allocation of resources as they build a drug information library for handling requests about these products.

  19. Water-insoluble fractions of botanical foods lower blood ethanol levels in rats by physically maintaining the ethanol solution after ethanol administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunji Oshima

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies have analyzed the functions of foods and dietary constituents in the dynamics of alcohol metabolism. However, few studies have reported the function of dietary fibers in the dynamics of alcohol metabolism. Objective: We assessed the effects of botanical foods that contain dietary fibers on alcohol metabolism. Methods: The ability of the water-insoluble fraction (WIF of 18 kinds of botanical foods to maintain 15% (v/v ethanol solution was examined using easily handled filtration. A simple linear regression analysis was performed to examine the correlation between the filtered volumes and blood ethanol concentration (BEC in F344 rats 4 h after the ingestion of 4.0 g/kg of ethanol following dosage of 2.5% (w/v WIF of the experimental botanical foods. Furthermore, the supernatant (6.3 Brix; water-soluble fraction and precipitate (WIF of tomato, with a strong ethanol-maintaining ability, were obtained and BEC and the residual gastric ethanol in rats were determined 2 h after the administration of 4.0 g/kg of ethanol and the individuals fractions. Results: The filtered volumes of dropped ethanol solutions containing all the botanical foods tested except green peas were decreased compared with the ethanol solution without WIF (control. There was a significant correlation between the filtered volumes and blood ethanol concentration (BEC. There was no significant difference in the residual gastric ethanol between controls and the supernatant group; however, it was increased significantly in the WIF group than in controls or the supernatant group. Consistent with this, BEC reached a similar level in controls and the supernatant group but significantly decreased in the WIF group compared with controls or the supernatant group. Conclusions: These findings suggest that WIFs of botanical foods, which are mostly water-insoluble dietary fibers, possess the ability to absorb ethanol-containing solutions, and this ability correlates

  20. The contribution of lifestyle coaching of overweight patients in primary care to more autonomous motivation for physical activity and healthy dietary behaviour: results of a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, G.M.; Meis, J.J.M.; Hendriks, M.R.C.; Hamers, F.J.M.; Veenhof, C.; Kremers, S.P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Combined lifestyle interventions (CLIs) have been advocated as an effective instrument in efforts to reduce overweight and obesity. The odds of maintaining higher levels of physical activity (PA) and healthier dietary behaviour improve when people are more intrinsically motivated to

  1. The contribution of lifestyle coaching of overweight patients in primary care to more autonomous motivation for physical activity and healthy dietary behaviour: results of a longitudinal study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, G.M.; Meis, J.J.M.; Hendriks, M.R.C.; Hamers, F.J.M.; Veenhof, C.; Kremers, S.P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Combined lifestyle interventions (CLIs) have been advocated as an effective instrument in efforts to reduce overweight and obesity. The odds of maintaining higher levels of physical activity (PA) and healthier dietary behaviour improve when people are more intrinsically motivated to

  2. Dietary supplementation with apple juice concentrate alleviates the compensatory increase in glutathione synthase transcription and activity that accompanies dietary- and genetically-induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchantchou, F; Graves, M; Ortiz, D; Rogers, E; Shea, T B

    2004-01-01

    Increased oxidative stress, which can arise from dietary, environmental and/or genetic sources, contributes to the decline in cognitive performance during normal aging and in neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease. Supplementation with fruits and vegetables that are high in antioxidant potential can compensate for dietary and/or genetic deficiencies that promote increased oxidative stress. We have recently demonstrated that apple juice concentrate (AJC) prevents the increase in oxidative damage to brain tissue and decline in cognitive performance observed when transgenic mice lacking apolipoprotein E (ApoE-/-) are maintained on a vitamin-deficient diet and challenged with excess iron (included in the diet as a pro-oxidant). However, the mechanism by which AJC provided neuroprotection was not conclusively determined. Herein, we demonstrate that supplementation with AJC also prevents the compensatory increases in glutathione synthase transcription and activity that otherwise accompany maintenance of ApoE-/- mice on this vitamin-free diet in the presence of iron. Inclusion of the equivalent composition and concentration of sugars of AJC did not prevent these increases. These findings provide further evidence that the antioxidant potential of AJC can compensate for dietary and genetic deficiencies that otherwise promote neurodegeneration.

  3. Diet quality: associations with health messages included in the Danish Dietary Guidelines 2005, personal attitudes and social factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Groth, Margit Velsing; Matthiessen, Jeppe

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To Study the association between diet quality and the new health messages in the Danish Dietary Guidelines 2005, i.e. 'Eat a varied diet', 'Engage in regular physical activity' and 'Maintain a healthy body weight'. Design/setting/subjects: The study was cross-sectional, comprising a ra...... with healthy eating. The dietary habits reported were strongly influenced by personal intentions. Thus, the biggest challenge for public health nutritionists will be to reach non-compliers who seldom have intentions to eat healthily.......Objective: To Study the association between diet quality and the new health messages in the Danish Dietary Guidelines 2005, i.e. 'Eat a varied diet', 'Engage in regular physical activity' and 'Maintain a healthy body weight'. Design/setting/subjects: The study was cross-sectional, comprising...... a random sample of 3151 Danish adults aged 18-75 years. Dietary intake was estimated using a 7 d pre-coded food diary. information on social background, leisure-time physical activity, height, body weight and intention to eat healthily was Obtained by in-person interviews. Logistic regression models Were...

  4. Intermittent fasting dissociates beneficial effects of dietary restriction on glucose metabolism and neuronal resistance to injury from calorie intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anson, R. Michael; Guo, Zhihong; de Cabo, Rafael; Iyun, Titilola; Rios, Michelle; Hagepanos, Adrienne; Ingram, Donald K.; Lane, Mark A.; Mattson, Mark P.

    2003-01-01

    Dietary restriction has been shown to have several health benefits including increased insulin sensitivity, stress resistance, reduced morbidity, and increased life span. The mechanism remains unknown, but the need for a long-term reduction in caloric intake to achieve these benefits has been assumed. We report that when C57BL/6 mice are maintained on an intermittent fasting (alternate-day fasting) dietary-restriction regimen their overall food intake is not decreased and their body weight is maintained. Nevertheless, intermittent fasting resulted in beneficial effects that met or exceeded those of caloric restriction including reduced serum glucose and insulin levels and increased resistance of neurons in the brain to excitotoxic stress. Intermittent fasting therefore has beneficial effects on glucose regulation and neuronal resistance to injury in these mice that are independent of caloric intake. PMID:12724520

  5. Dietary fructose intolerance, fructan intolerance and FODMAPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedewa, Amy; Rao, Satish S. C.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary intolerances to fructose, fructans and FODMAPs (Fermentable Oligosaccharides, Disaccharides, Monosaccharides And Polyols) are common, yet poorly recognized and managed. Over the last decade, they have come to the forefront because of new knowledge on the mechanisms and treatment of these conditions. Patients with these problems often present with unexplained bloating, belching, distension, gas, abdominal pain or diarrhea. Here, we have examined the most up-to-date research on these food-related intolerances, discussed controversies, and have provided some guidelines for the dietary management of these conditions. Breath testing for carbohydrate intolerance appears to be standardized and essential for the diagnosis and management of these conditions, especially in the Western population. While current research shows that the FODMAP diet may be effective in treating irritable bowel syndrome, additional research is needed to identify more foods items that are high in FODMAPs, and to assess the long-term efficacy and safety of dietary interventions. PMID:24357350

  6. Dietary fiber and blood pressure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleixandre, A; Miguel, M

    2016-04-01

    In the past few years, new strategies to control blood pressure levels are emerging by developing new bioactive components of foods. Fiber has been linked to the prevention of a number of cardiovascular diseases and disorders. β-Glucan, the main soluble fiber component in oat grains, was initially linked to a reduction in plasma cholesterol. Several studies have shown afterward that dietary fiber may also improve glycaemia, insulin resistance and weight loss. The effect of dietary fiber on arterial blood pressure has been the subject of far fewer studies than its effect on the above-mentioned variables, but research has already shown that fiber intake can decrease arterial blood pressure in hypertensive rats. Moreover, certain fibers can improve arterial blood pressure when administered to hypertensive and pre-hypertensive subjects. The present review summarizes all those studies which attempt to establish the antihypertensive effects of dietary fiber, as well as its effect on other cardiovascular risk factors.

  7. Care and management of a stoma: maintaining peristomal skin health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyles, Anna; Hunt, Sharon

    2016-09-22

    It is estimated that around one in 500 people in the UK are living with a stoma, with approximately 21 000 operations that result in stoma formation being performed each year ( Colostomy Association, 2016 ). These people face a unique set of challenges in maintaining the integrity of their peristomal skin. This article explores the normal structure and function of skin and how the care and management of a stoma presents challenges for maintaining peristomal skin health. Particular focus is paid to the incidence of skin problems for those living with a stoma, whether it is temporary or permanent, and the factors that contribute to skin breakdown in this population. Wider factors such as the central role of the clinical nurse specialist and the impact of product usage on positive outcomes and health economics are also considered.

  8. Application of Ultrasonic Waves on Maintaining Freshness of Tilapia Fillet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruddy Suwandi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ish fillet is one of fisheries products that easily deteriorated; hence handling techniques are needed to maintain the freshness. Ultrasonic wave have been widely applied to some of food products for maintaining freshness through microbial inactivation, however the ultrasonic application to fisheries products has not been reported. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of ultrasonic wave on fish freshness. The stages of the study were sample preparation, sonication, freshness parameters examination and histology observation. Ultrasonic wave did not affectthe organoleptic value and the TVB, but affected the pH value and the TPC. The sample in which the TPC value was found significantly different, were further observed after 48 and 96 hours storage. The result showed that the TPC value of sonicated sample for 9 minutes was lower to that of without sonication. Histology analysis showed, however, sonication made the structure of muscle fiber less compact and deformation of myomer was found.

  9. Understanding how to maintain compliance in the current regulatory climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bignell, D.T.; Burns, R.

    1995-01-01

    High level radioactive waste facilities must maintain compliance with all regulatory requirements, even those requirements that have been promulgated after the facility was placed into operation. Facilities must aggressively pursue compliance because environmental laws often impose strict liability for violations; therefore, an honest mistake is no defense. Radioactive waste management is constantly under the public microscope, particularly those facilities that handle high-level radioactive waste. The Savannah River Site has effectively met the challenges of regulatory compliance in its HLRW facilities and plans are being formulated to meet future regulatory requirements as well. Understanding, aggressively achieving, and clearly demonstrating compliance is essential for the continued operations of radioactive waste management facilities. This paper examines how HLRW facilities are impacted by regulatory requirements and how compliance in this difficult area is achieved and maintained

  10. Maintaining students’ Speaking Fluency through Exhibition Examination in Sociolinguistic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khusnul Qhotimah Yuliatuty

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Using exhibition for the final project in Sociolinguistic study is really interesting for Universitas Siswa Bangsa Internasional students, especially for 2011 English Department students. Exhibition becomes interesting because this is the new thing to conduct the final project for English Department students’ cohort 2011 at Universitas Siswa Bangsa Internasional. The lecturer divides the students into pairs and each pairs should master one content or topic in Sociolinguistic study.  The students will do the exhibition about the topic that they get in a pairs. The lecturer also gives the students rubric sheet to fill by the visitors. The exhibition will make the students prepare themselves well because they will face many questions about the content which will be delivered by them. Beside, this exhibition also maintains students’ fluency in speaking English because they will explain and answer the questions from visitors with English. This paper tries to focus on how exhibition examination can maintain students’ fluency in speaking English.

  11. The Role of Leptin in Maintaining Plasma Glucose During Starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Rachel J; Shulman, Gerald I

    2018-03-01

    For 20 years it has been known that concentrations of leptin, a hormone produced by the white adipose tissue (WAT) largely in proportion to body fat, drops precipitously with starvation, particularly in lean humans and animals. The role of leptin to suppress the thyroid and reproductive axes during a prolonged fast has been well defined; however, the impact of leptin on metabolic regulation has been incompletely understood. However emerging evidence suggests that, in starvation, hypoleptinemia increases activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, promoting WAT lipolysis, increasing hepatic acetyl-CoA concentrations, and maintaining euglycemia. In addition, leptin may be largely responsible for mediating a shift from a reliance upon glucose metabolism (absorption and glycogenolysis) to fat metabolism (lipolysis increasing gluconeogenesis) which preserves substrates for the brain, heart, and other critical organs. In this way a leptin-mediated glucose-fatty acid cycle appears to maintain glycemia and permit survival in starvation.

  12. Reciprocity and the Tragedies of Maintaining and Providing the Commons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gächter, Simon; Kölle, Felix; Quercia, Simone

    2017-09-01

    Social cooperation often requires collectively beneficial but individually costly restraint to maintain a public good1-4, or it needs costly generosity to create one1,5. Status quo effects6 predict that maintaining a public good is easier than providing a new one. Here we show experimentally and with simulations that even under identical incentives, low levels of cooperation (the 'tragedy of the commons'2) are systematically more likely in Maintenance than Provision. Across three series of experiments, we find that strong and weak positive reciprocity, known to be fundamental tendencies underpinning human cooperation7-10, are substantially diminished under Maintenance compared to Provision. As we show in a fourth experiment, the opposite holds for negative reciprocity ('punishment'). Our findings suggest that incentives to avoid the 'tragedy of the commons' need to contend with dilemma-specific reciprocity.

  13. Creating and maintaining chemical artificial life by robotic symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanczyc, Martin M.; Parrilla, Juan M.; Nicholson, Arwen

    2015-01-01

    We present a robotic platform based on the open source RepRap 3D printer that can print and maintain chemical artificial life in the form of a dynamic, chemical droplet. The robot uses computer vision, a self-organizing map, and a learning program to automatically categorize the behavior of the d......We present a robotic platform based on the open source RepRap 3D printer that can print and maintain chemical artificial life in the form of a dynamic, chemical droplet. The robot uses computer vision, a self-organizing map, and a learning program to automatically categorize the behavior...... confluence of chemical, artificial intelligence, and robotic approaches to artificial life....

  14. Creating and Maintaining Chemical Artificial Life by Robotic Symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanczyc, Martin; Parrilla, Juan M.; Nicholson, Arwen

    2015-01-01

    We present a robotic platform based on the open source RepRap 3D printer that can print and maintain chemical artificial life in the form of a dynamic, chemical droplet. The robot uses computer vision, a self-organizing map, and a learning program to automatically categorize the behavior of the d......We present a robotic platform based on the open source RepRap 3D printer that can print and maintain chemical artificial life in the form of a dynamic, chemical droplet. The robot uses computer vision, a self-organizing map, and a learning program to automatically categorize the behavior...... confluence of chemical, artificial intelligence, and robotic approaches to artificial life....

  15. The importance of university research in maintaining the nuclear option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruschi, H.J.; Hochreiter, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    The role of the university in maintaining and revitalizing the nuclear option should have four goals. First, it must attract highly skilled students who have an interest in math and science and help foster their interest in nuclear science and engineering. Next, it must present a state-of-the-art educational program that contains meaningful research to maintain these students. The third goal of nuclear engineering departments is to provide the nontechnical student a fair assessment of benefits and risks associated with commercial nuclear power relative to other sources of electricity. Lastly, it must effectively communicate to all students a compelling vision of nuclear power as a vital energy resource that will grow. The most difficult role for the university is to successfully convey a future for those in the nuclear science and engineering program

  16. Estimate of dietary phosphorus intake using 24-h urine collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Yuuka; Sakuma, Masae; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Akitsu; Matsushita, Asami; Umeda, Minako; Ishikawa, Makoto; Taketani, Yutaka; Takeda, Eiji; Arai, Hidekazu

    2014-01-01

    Increases in serum phosphorus levels and dietary phosphorus intake induces vascular calcification, arterial sclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Limiting phosphorus intake is advisable, however, no assessment methods are capable of estimating dietary phosphorus intake. We hypothesized that urinary phosphorus excretion can be translated into estimation of dietary phosphorus intake, and we evaluated whether a 24-h urine collection method could estimate dietary phosphorus intake. Thirty two healthy subjects were recruited for this study. Subjects collected urine samples over 24 h and weighed dietary records. We calculated dietary protein intake and phosphorus intake from dietary records and urine collection, and investigated associations between the two methods in estimating protein and phosphorus intake. Significant positive correlations were observed between dietary records and UC for protein and phosphorus intake. The average intakes determined from dietary records were significantly higher than from urine collection for both protein and phosphorus. There was a significant positive correlation between both the phosphorus and protein difference in dietary records and urine collection. The phosphorus-protein ratio in urine collection was significantly higher than in dietary records. Our data indicated that the 24-h urine collection method can estimate the amount of dietary phosphorus intake, and the results were superior to estimation by weighed dietary record. PMID:25120281

  17. Maintaining Genome Stability: The Role of Helicases and Deaminases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Errors in duplicating DNA can result in genomic instability, leading to various human diseases, such as cancer, immune system disorder, muscle dystrophy ...as cancer, immune system disorder, muscle dystrophy , and neurodegenerations. Thus, maintaining genomic integrity is vital to the normal growth of...31–38. Eberharter, A., R. Ferreira and P. Becker , 2005 Dynamic chro- matin: concerted nucleosome remodelling and acetylation. Biol. Chem. 386: 745

  18. Maintaining Customer Loyalty : Case company: Industrail Securities Ltd (China)

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Wenqing

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate how customer relationship management can be applied in maintaining customer loyalty. The study will assist the case company to find the way to develop a long-term relationship with existing customers. The better relationship with customers, the higher customer loyalty will be obtained. The theoretical background of the thesis begins with general view of customer relationship management, which embodies the concept of managing customer relations...

  19. Prefrontal Neuronal Excitability Maintains Cocaine-Associated Memory During Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. Otis

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Presentation of drug-associated cues provokes craving and drug seeking, and elimination of these associative memories would facilitate recovery from addiction. Emotionally salient memories are maintained during retrieval, as particular pharmacologic or optogenetic perturbations of memory circuits during retrieval, but not after, can induce long-lasting memory impairments. For example, in rats, inhibition of noradrenergic beta-receptors, which control intrinsic neuronal excitability, in the prelimbic medial prefrontal cortex (PL-mPFC can cause long-term memory impairments that prevent subsequent cocaine-induced reinstatement. The physiologic mechanisms that allow noradrenergic signaling to maintain drug-associated memories during retrieval, however, are unclear. Here we combine patch-clamp electrophysiology ex vivo and behavioral neuropharmacology in vivo to evaluate the mechanisms that maintain drug-associated memory during retrieval in rats. Consistent with previous studies, we find that cocaine experience increases the intrinsic excitability of pyramidal neurons in PL-mPFC. In addition, we now find that this intrinsic plasticity positively predicts the retrieval of a cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP memory, suggesting that such plasticity may contribute to drug-associated memory retrieval. In further support of this, we find that pharmacological blockade of a cAMP-dependent signaling cascade, which allows noradrenergic signaling to elevate neuronal excitability, is required for memory maintenance during retrieval. Thus, inhibition of PL-mPFC neuronal excitability during memory retrieval not only leads to long-term deficits in the memory, but this memory deficit provides protection against subsequent cocaine-induced reinstatement. These data reveal that PL-mPFC intrinsic neuronal excitability maintains a cocaine-associated memory during retrieval and suggest a unique mechanism whereby drug-associated memories could be targeted

  20. Incisional abdominal hernia repair with concomitant abdominoplasty: Maintaining umbilical viability

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Phan; Elan Kaplan; Jemma K. Porrett; Yik-Hong Ho; Warren M. Rozen

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Abdominoplasty and abdominal hernia repair are often carried out in two-stage procedures, and those describing single-stage surgery require careful dissection to preserve often only partial blood supply to the umbilicus to maintain its viability. This paper aims to describe the surgical method of laparoscopic umbilical hernia repair in association with abdominoplasty. Case presentation: A patient presents with an incisional hernia at a previous periumbilical port site of size 14...

  1. Ballast system for maintaining constant pressure in a glove box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlichta, Paul J.

    1989-09-01

    A ballast system is disclosed for a glove box including a fixed platform on which is mounted an inflatable bag on top of which resides a cover and a weight. The variable gas volume of the inflatable bag communicates with that of the glove box via a valved tube. The weight and the gas volume are selected to maintain a relatively constant pressure in the glove box despite variations in the glove box volume while avoiding the use of complicated valving apparatus.

  2. Maintaining Limited-Range Connectivity Among Second-Order Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-07

    we consider ad-hoc networks of robotic agents with double integrator dynamics. For such networks, the connectivity maintenance problems are: (i) do...connectivity-maintaining controls in a distributed fashion? The proposed solution is based on three contributions. First, we define and characterize...hoc networks of mobile autonomous agents. This loose ter- minology refers to groups of robotic agents with limited mobility and communica- tion

  3. Effect of high dietary calcium on weight management in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad, M.T.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to find out a suitable dietary regime to maintain a lower prevalence of overweight or obesity by adjusting the diet components. Therefore, male Swiss albino rats were selected according to their ages and divided into two main groups, i.e., premature and mature groups. Each rat group was divided into 4 subgroups and each subgroup was fed on a diet of varied composition. Serum levels of lipids, calcium, phosphorous and testosterone were determined in addition to body weight measurement. The results indicate non-significant decrease of percentage of body weight gain in premature rats fed on high-calcium diets while significant decrease of percentage of body weight gain in mature rats fed on the same diet composition. The levels of serum HDL-C, LDL-C, triglycerides and testosterone were significantly decreased in premature rats fed high- calcium diets. In premature rats, only rat subgroup fed on high calcium from milk, showed a significant decrease in serum cholesterol levels. Calcium and phosphorus levels exhibited non- significant change between premature rats. In mature rats, LDL-C data demonstrate nonsignificant changes while cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly decreased in rats fed high -calcium diet compared to control. HDL-C level revealed a significant decrease in sera of mature rats fed on high calcium from milk. Serum testosterone levels were significantly decreased in mature rats fed low- fat diets or low fat diets supplemented with high- calcium level. In general, one would suggest to consume low fat diet (4%) supplemented with high calcium from dry skimmed milk fortified with hydroxyapatite as suitable dietary program to avoid overweight or obesity.

  4. Improved reliability, maintainability and safety through elastomer upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wensel, R.; Wittich, K.C.

    1995-01-01

    Equipment in nuclear plants has historically contained whatever elastomer each component supplier traditionally used for corresponding non-nuclear service. The resulting proliferation of elastomer compounds, many of which are far from optimal for the service conditions (e.g., pressure, temperature, radiation, etc.), has multiplied the costs to provide station reliability, maintainability and safety. Cost-effective improvements are being achieved in CANDU plants by upgrading and standardizing on a handful of high performing elastomer compounds. These upgraded materials offer significant gains in service life over the materials they replace (often by factors of 2 or more). This rationalization of elastomer compounds also facilitates the EQ process for safety-related equipment. Detailed test data on aging is currently being generated for these specific elastomers, encompassing the conditions and media (air, water, oil) common in CANDU service. Two key elements characterize this testing. First, each result is specific to the compound used in the test, and second, it is specific to the tested failure mode (e.g., compression set, extrusion, fracture, etc.). Having fewer, but more thoroughly tested compounds, avoids the penalty (associated with poorly characterized materials) of having to replace parts prematurely because of conservatism, while maintaining safe, reliable service. This paper provides an overview of this approach covering: the benefits of compound rationalization; and the how and why of establishing relevant failure criteria; appropriate quality assurance to maintain EQ; procurement, storage and handling guidelines; and monitoring and predicting in-service degradation. (author)

  5. Challenges of designing fusion reactors for remote maintainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masson, L.S.

    1981-01-01

    One of the major problems faced by the fusion community is the development of the high level of reliability required to assure that fusion will be a viable commercial power source. Much of the responsibility for solving this problem falls directly on the designer in developing concepts that have a high level of maintainability for the next generation engineering oriented reactors; and long range, in developing full maintainability for the more complicated commercial concepts with their required high level of on-line time. The near-term challenge will include development of unique design concepts to perform inspection, maintenance, replacement, and testing under the stringent conditions imposed by the next generation engineering oriented machines. The long range challenge will focus on basic design concepts that will enable the full maintainability required by commercial fusion. In addition to the purely technical challenges, the fusion community is also faced with the problem of developing programmatic means to assure that reactor maintenance issues are given proper and timely emphasis as the nuclear phase of fusion is approached

  6. The importance of maintainability in maintenance cost management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, R.R.

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides specific examples and results from ongoing projects at Power Plants, and for offshore oil platforms. The paper describes the vital role maintainability has on plant availability. How the application of equipment maintainability principles, if addressed using state of the art computer tools and advanced business processes can bring annual return on investment results as high as 15 to 1. The maintenance process of today and for the future must provide for high plant availability at the lowest possible cost. The high cost of obtaining equipment reliability levels necessary to meet required availability demands has not proved to be sustainable. Therefore new business decision processes that address equipment failures as part of the maintenance process have been developed. Repair costs require that equipment failures be selective and controlled so that a high level of safety and plant availability is assurance. This can only be accomplished by the use of advanced computer tools in the hands of well trained maintenance-engineering specialist. The relationship between Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM), Condition Directed Planned Maintenance (CDPM), and maintainability is also presented

  7. Genetic and Epigenetic Mechanisms That Maintain Hematopoietic Stem Cell Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Kosan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available All hematopoiesis cells develop from multipotent progenitor cells. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC have the ability to develop into all blood lineages but also maintain their stemness. Different molecular mechanisms have been identified that are crucial for regulating quiescence and self-renewal to maintain the stem cell pool and for inducing proliferation and lineage differentiation. The stem cell niche provides the microenvironment to keep HSC in a quiescent state. Furthermore, several transcription factors and epigenetic modifiers are involved in this process. These create modifications that regulate the cell fate in a more or less reversible and dynamic way and contribute to HSC homeostasis. In addition, HSC respond in a unique way to DNA damage. These mechanisms also contribute to the regulation of HSC function and are essential to ensure viability after DNA damage. How HSC maintain their quiescent stage during the entire life is still matter of ongoing research. Here we will focus on the molecular mechanisms that regulate HSC function.

  8. Establishing and maintaining international collaborative research teams: an autobiographical insight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T J Carr

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite the growing impetus for international collaborative research teams (ICRT, there are relatively few resources available to guide and support researchers through the processes of establishing and maintaining ICRTs. In particular, no articles were found that provided researchers’ firsthand accounts of being a member of such a team. Having access to such personal accounts can help both experienced and novice researchers learn more directly about what to expect, as well as the benefits, challenges, pitfalls, and success strategies for establishing and maintaining ICRTs. The authors used phenomenological autobiographical reflective journaling to capture their experiences as members of ICRTs. In this article we provide an overview of key themes that emerged from the analysis of our reflections as members of ICRTs. These themes include: benefits, challenges, and strategies for success. Our aim is to share our first-hand experiences of what it is like to establish and participate in ICRT. It is not our intention to provide readers with prescriptive guidelines on how to set up and maintain ICRTs. Every ICRT is unique and some of these ideas may or may not apply in every case. Instead, we are describing what worked for us, hoping that others may benefit from our experience. Consequently, we suggest that the focus of ICRT should be on the benefits thereof which promote and encourage interaction between disciplines, transfer of knowledge and techniques and personal and professional development. Keywords: international, collaborative, research, teams, interdisciplinary

  9. Dietary acid load and bone turnover during long-duration spaceflight and bed rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, Sara R; Rice, Barbara L; Dlouhy, Holly; Shackelford, Linda C; Heer, Martina; Koslovsky, Matthew D; Smith, Scott M

    2018-05-01

    Bed rest studies document that a lower dietary acid load is associated with lower bone resorption. We tested the effect of dietary acid load on bone metabolism during spaceflight. Controlled 4-d diets with a high or low animal protein-to-potassium (APro:K) ratio (High and Low diets, respectively) were given to 17 astronauts before and during spaceflight. Each astronaut had 1 High and 1 Low diet session before flight and 2 High and 2 Low sessions during flight, in addition to a 4-d session around flight day 30 (FD30), when crew members were to consume their typical in-flight intake. At the end of each session, blood and urine samples were collected. Calcium, total protein, energy, and sodium were maintained in each crew member's preflight and in-flight controlled diets. Relative to preflight values, N-telopeptide (NTX) and urinary calcium were higher during flight, and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP) was higher toward the end of flight. The High and Low diets did not affect NTX, BSAP, or urinary calcium. Dietary sulfur and age were significantly associated with changes in NTX. Dietary sodium and flight day were significantly associated with urinary calcium during flight. The net endogenous acid production (NEAP) estimated from the typical dietary intake at FD30 was associated with loss of bone mineral content in the lumbar spine after the mission. The results were compared with data from a 70-d bed rest study, in which control (but not exercising) subjects' APro:K was associated with higher NTX during bed rest. Long-term lowering of NEAP by increasing vegetable and fruit intake may protect against changes in loss of bone mineral content during spaceflight when adequate calcium is consumed, particularly if resistive exercise is not being performed. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01713634.

  10. Seasonal Changes in Soccer Players' Body Composition and Dietary Intake Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Brooke L; Kingsley, Michael; Leveritt, Michael D; Belski, Regina

    2017-12-01

    Devlin, BL, Kingsley, M, Leveritt, MD, and Belski, R. Seasonal changes in soccer players' body composition and dietary intake practices. J Strength Cond Res 31(12): 3319-3326, 2017-The aims of this study were 2-fold: to determine seasonal changes in dietary intake and body composition in elite soccer players and to evaluate the influence of self-determined individual body composition goals on dietary intake and body composition. This longitudinal, observational study assessed body composition (total mass, fat-free soft tissue mass, and fat mass) using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and dietary intake (energy and macronutrients) via multiple-pass 24-hour recalls, at 4 time points over a competitive season in elite soccer players from one professional club in the Australian A-League competition. Self-reported body composition goals were also recorded. Eighteen elite male soccer players took part (25 ± 5 years, 180.5 ± 7.4 cm, 75.6 ± 6.5 kg). Majority (≥67%) reported the goal to maintain weight. Fat-free soft tissue mass increased from the start of preseason (55,278 ± 5,475 g) to the start of competitive season (56,784 ± 5,168 g; p nutrition recommendations. The self-reported body composition goals did not strongly influence dietary intake practices or changes in body composition. This study has demonstrated that body composition changes over the course of a soccer season are subtle in elite soccer players despite relatively low self-reported intake of energy and carbohydrate.

  11. Dietary factors and fibroblast growth factor-23 levels in young adults with African ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosk, Dominique; Kramer, Holly; Luke, Amy; Camacho, Pauline; Bovet, Pascal; Rhule, Jacob Plange; Forrester, Terrence; Wolf, Myles; Sempos, Chris; Melamed, Michal L; Dugas, Lara R; Cooper, Richard; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon

    2017-11-01

    Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23), a phosphaturic hormone secreted mainly by osteocytes, maintains serum phosphate levels within a tight range by promoting phosphaturia. Previous studies have mainly focused on the link between FGF23 levels and dietary intake of phosphate, but other dietary factors may also influence FGF23 levels. This cross-sectional study pooled three populations of young adults with African ancestry (452 in Chicago, IL, USA; 477 in Victoria, Seychelles; and 482 in Kumasi, Ghana) with estimated glomerular filtration rate >80 ml/min/1.73 m 2 to examine the association of dietary factors based on two 24-h recalls with FGF23 levels measured using a C-terminal assay. Linear regression was used to examine the association between log-transformed FGF23 levels and quartiles of calorie-adjusted dietary factors with adjustment for covariates. In the pooled sample of 1411 study participants, the mean age was 35.2 (6.2) years and 45.3% were male. Median plasma C-terminal FGF23 values in relative units (RU)/ml were 59.5 [interquartile range (IQR) 44.1, 85.3] in the USA, 43.2 (IQR 33.1, 57.9) in Seychelles, and 34.0 (IQR 25.2, 50.4) in Ghana. With adjustment for covariates, increasing quartiles of calcium and animal protein and decreasing quartiles of vegetable protein, fiber, and magnesium intake were associated with significantly higher FGF23 levels compared to the lowest quartile. After further adjustment for dietary factors, significant trends in FGF23 levels were noted only for quartiles of calcium, fiber, and magnesium intake (P young adults.

  12. Food pattern modeling shows that the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for sodium and potassium cannot be met simultaneously

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillot, Matthieu; Monsivais, Pablo; Drewnowski, Adam

    2013-01-01

    The 2010 US Dietary Guidelines recommended limiting intake of sodium to 1500 mg/d for people older than 50 years, African Americans, and those suffering from chronic disease. The guidelines recommended that all other people consume less than 2300 mg sodium and 4700 mg of potassium per day. The theoretical feasibility of meeting the sodium and potassium guidelines while simultaneously maintaining nutritional adequacy of the diet was tested using food pattern modeling based on linear programming. Dietary data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2002 were used to create optimized food patterns for 6 age-sex groups. Linear programming models determined the boundary conditions for the potassium and sodium content of the modeled food patterns that would also be compatible with other nutrient goals. Linear programming models also sought to determine the amounts of sodium and potassium that both would be consistent with the ratio of Na to K of 0.49 and would cause the least deviation from the existing food habits. The 6 sets of food patterns were created before and after an across-the-board 10% reduction in sodium content of all foods in the Food and Nutrition Database for Dietary Studies. Modeling analyses showed that the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for sodium were incompatible with potassium guidelines and with nutritionally adequate diets, even after reducing the sodium content of all US foods by 10%. Feasibility studies should precede or accompany the issuing of dietary guidelines to the public. PMID:23507224

  13. The interaction between dietary and life goals: using goal systems theory to explore healthy diet and life goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Wright, Julie A; Migneault, Jeffrey P; Quintiliani, Lisa; Friedman, Robert H

    2014-01-01

    Objective : To examine the types of life and dietary goals individuals report and how these goal domains interact as framed by goal systems theory. Methods : This work is a cross-sectional survey study. Measures included the incidence of common life and dietary goals and how these goals interact with and facilitate each other. Results : The results of a quantitative survey ( n  = 46 participants), which was informed by two focus groups ( n  = 17 participants), showed that participants are trying to achieve several different life (e.g. achieving financial success) and dietary goals (e.g. eating more fruits and vegetables, drinking more water, and losing weight) and that these two types of goals interact to both facilitate and conflict with each other. Having a life goal of exercising was significantly associated with healthy eating goals when compared with other life goals ( p 's goals may be linked and help to facilitate one another. Being in the maintenance phase with the goal of healthy eating was associated with participants feeling like they were more successful in their other non-diet-related health goals ( p  goals can facilitate success in achieving other goals. Conclusions : Life goals can have an impact on a person's ability to achieve and maintain dietary and other health goals. Health educators may help to facilitate long-term behavior change by examining a person's life goals as well as dietary goals.

  14. Engagement in New Dietary Habits-Obese Women's Experiences from Participating in a 2-Year Diet Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlgren, Christina; Hammarström, Anne; Sandberg, Susanne; Lindahl, Bernt; Olsson, Tommy; Larsson, Christel; Fjellman-Wiklund, Anncristine

    2016-02-01

    Dietary weight loss interventions most often result in weight loss, but weight maintenance on a long-term basis is the main problem in obesity treatment. There is a need for an increased understanding of the behaviour patterns involved in adopting a new dietary behavior and to maintain the behaviour over time. The purpose of this paper is to explore overweight and obese middle-aged women's experiences of the dietary change processes when participating in a 2-year-long diet intervention. Qualitative semi-structured interviews with 12 overweight and obese women (54-71 years) were made after their participation in a diet intervention programme. The programme was designed as a RCT study comparing a diet according to the Nordic nutrition recommendations (NNR diet) and a Palaeolithic diet (PD). Interviews were analysed according to Grounded Theory principles. A core category "Engagement phases in the process of a diet intervention" concluded the analysis. Four categories included the informants' experiences during different stages of the process of dietary change: "Honeymoon phase", "Everyday life phase", "It's up to you phase" and "Crossroads phase". The early part of the intervention period was called "Honeymoon phase" and was characterised by positive experiences, including perceived weight loss and extensive support. The next phases, the "Everyday life phase" and "It's up to you phase", contained the largest obstacles to change. The home environment appeared as a crucial factor, which could be decisive for maintenance of the new dietary habits or relapse into old habits in the last phase called "Crossroads phase". We identified various phases of engagement in the process of a long-term dietary intervention among middle-aged women. A clear personal goal and support from family and friends seem to be of major importance for long-term maintenance of new dietary habits. Gender relations within the household must be considered as a possible obstacle for women engaging in

  15. Dietary trends and management of hyperphosphatemia among patients with chronic kidney disease: an international survey of renal care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouque, Denis; Cruz Casal, Maria; Lindley, Elizabeth; Rogers, Susan; Pancířová, Jitka; Kernc, Jennifer; Copley, J Brian

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to review the opinions and experiences of renal care professionals to examine dietary trends among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and problems associated with the clinical management of hyperphosphatemia. This was an online survey comprising open and closed questions requesting information on patient dietary trends and the clinical management of hyperphosphatemia. The study was conducted in 4 European countries (the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom). Participants were 84 renal care professionals. This was an online survey. Responder-reported experiences and perceptions of patient dietary trends and hyperphosphatemia management were assessed. Most survey responders (56%) observed an increase in the consumption of processed convenience food, 48% noticed an increase in the consumption of foods rich in phosphorus-containing additives, and 60% believed that there has been a trend of increasing patient awareness of the phosphorus content of food. Patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD) were most likely to experience difficulties in following advice on dietary phosphorus restriction (38% of responders estimated that 25-50% of their patients experienced difficulties, and 29% estimated that 51-75% experienced difficulties). Maintaining protein intake and restricting dietary phosphorus were perceived as being equally important by at least half of responders for predialysis patients (56%) and for those undergoing peritoneal dialysis and HD (54% and 50%, respectively). There were international variations in dietary trends and hyperphosphatemia management. Although most responders have observed a trend of increasing awareness of the phosphorus content of food among patients with CKD, the survey results indicate that many patients continue to experience difficulties when attempting to restrict dietary phosphorus. The survey responses reflect the global trend of increasing consumption of processed convenience foods and

  16. Dietary protein is associated with musculoskeletal health independently of dietary pattern: the Framingham Third Generation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangano, Kelsey M; Sahni, Shivani; Kiel, Douglas P; Tucker, Katherine L; Dufour, Alyssa B; Hannan, Marian T

    2017-03-01

    Background: Above-average dietary protein, as a single nutrient, improves musculoskeletal health. Evaluating the link between dietary protein and musculoskeletal health from a whole-diet perspective is important, as dietary guidelines focus on dietary patterns. Objective: We examined the prospective association of novel dietary protein food clusters (derived from established dietary pattern techniques) with appendicular lean mass (ALM), quadriceps strength (QS), and bone mineral density (BMD) in 2986 men and women, aged 19-72 y, from the Framingham Third Generation Study. Design: Total protein intake was estimated by food-frequency questionnaire in 2002-2005. A cluster analysis was used to classify participants into mutually exclusive groups, which were determined by using the percentage of contribution of food intake to overall protein intake. General linear modeling was used to 1 ) estimate the association between protein intake (grams per day) and BMD, ALM, appendicular lean mass normalized for height (ALM/ht 2 ), and QS (2008-2011) and to 2 ) calculate adjusted least-squares mean outcomes across quartiles of protein (grams per day) and protein food clusters. Results: The mean ± SD age of subjects was 40 ± 9 y; 82% of participants met the Recommended Daily Allowance (0.8 g · kg body weight -1 · d -1 ). The following 6 dietary protein food clusters were identified: fast food and full-fat dairy, fish, red meat, chicken, low-fat milk, and legumes. BMD was not different across quartiles of protein intake ( P -trend range = 0.32-0.82); but significant positive trends were observed for ALM, ALM/ht 2 ( P dietary protein is associated with ALM and QS but not with BMD. In this study, dietary protein food patterns do not provide further insight into beneficial protein effects on muscle outcomes. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. Determinants of dietary supplement use--healthy individuals use dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofoed, Christina L F; Christensen, Jane; Dragsted, Lars O; Tjønneland, Anne; Roswall, Nina

    2015-06-28

    The prevalence of dietary supplement use varies largely among populations, and previous studies have indicated that it is high in the Danish population compared with other European countries. The diversity in supplement use across countries indicates that cultural and environmental factors could influence the use of dietary supplements. Only few studies investigating the use of dietary supplements have been conducted in the Danish population. The present cross-sectional study is based on 54,948 Danes, aged 50-64 years, who completed self-administrated questionnaires on diet, dietary supplements and lifestyle between 1993 and 1997. A health index including smoking, physical activity, alcohol and diet, and a metabolic risk index including waist circumference, urinary glucose and measured hypertension were constructed. Logistic regression was used to investigate these determinants in relation to the intake of dietary supplements. We found that 71 % of the participants were dietary supplement users; female sex, older age groups and higher educated participants were more likely to be users of any dietary supplements. One additional point in the health index was associated with 19, 16 and 9 % higher likelihood of being user of any, more common and less common supplements, respectively. In the metabolic risk index, one additional point was associated with 17 and 16 % lower likelihood of being user of any supplement and more common supplements, respectively. No significant association was found for less common supplement use. In conclusion, those with the healthiest lifestyle were more likely to use dietary supplements. Thus, lifestyle and dietary composition should be considered as confounders on supplement use and health outcomes.

  18. Dietary patterns and trace elements intake evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, A.; Waheed, S.; Zaidi, J.H.; Ahmad, S.

    1998-01-01

    The dietary patterns and trace element contents of the integrated diets of middle income population in Gujranwala and of Islamabad have been studied and dietary intake of winter and summer are given. An overview of the elemental concentration in the two sets of integrated diets reveals similar zinc and manganese concentrations; comparatively higher nickel, selenium and potassium concentrations in Gujranwala and higher chromium, cesium, scandium, sodium and chlorine concentrations in Islamabad. These results undoubtedly reflect the difference in food selection and habits of the two populations, the influence of soil content and industrial pollution

  19. Overcoming consumer inertia to dietary guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Densie; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2015-07-01

    Despite 35 y of dietary guidance, there has been no substantial shift in consumer compliance. Consumers report that they seek information on nutrition and healthy eating, but most are not paying attention to dietary recommendations. For guidance to be effective, it must be realistic. Even with increasingly detailed nutrition information and evidence that diet affects health outcomes, convenience and taste remain the strongest determinants of food choices. It is up to health educators to clear up confusion and give consumers control with nutrition messages that are realistic, positive, easy to understand, and actionable without an expectation that consumers will surrender foods they love. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. Overcoming Consumer Inertia to Dietary Guidance12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Densie; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Despite 35 y of dietary guidance, there has been no substantial shift in consumer compliance. Consumers report that they seek information on nutrition and healthy eating, but most are not paying attention to dietary recommendations. For guidance to be effective, it must be realistic. Even with increasingly detailed nutrition information and evidence that diet affects health outcomes, convenience and taste remain the strongest determinants of food choices. It is up to health educators to clear up confusion and give consumers control with nutrition messages that are realistic, positive, easy to understand, and actionable without an expectation that consumers will surrender foods they love. PMID:26178023

  1. Dietary Supplements: Regulatory Challenges and Research Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Johanna T; Coates, Paul M; Smith, Michael J

    2018-01-04

    Many of the scientific and regulatory challenges that exist in research on the safety, quality and efficacy of dietary supplements are common to all countries as the marketplace for them becomes increasingly global. This article summarizes some of the challenges in supplement science and provides a case study of research at the Office of Dietary Supplements at the National Institutes of Health, USA, along with some resources it has developed that are available to all scientists. It includes examples of some of the regulatory challenges faced and some resources for those who wish to learn more about them.

  2. Dietary shifts and implications for US agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, P

    1995-06-01

    Changes to healthier dietary patterns similar to those of traditional Mediterranean diets or those of the US government's dietary guidelines and food guide pyramid would require significant changes in American agricultural practices. The volume, mix, production, and marketing of agricultural commodities would need to be modified. Because differences between actual and recommended intakes for major food groups are quite large and affect a broad range of products, adjustments in supply and demand could overshadow past experience in dealing with such changes. New food and agriculture policies may well be needed to ease and accelerate agricultural adjustments, to improve nutritional characteristics of popular foods, and to promote desirable changes in consumers' food choices.

  3. Vestibular feedback maintains reaching accuracy during body movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Raymond F.

    2016-01-01

    Key points Reaching movements can be perturbed by vestibular input, but the function of this response is unclear.Here, we applied galvanic vestibular stimulation concurrently with real body movement while subjects maintained arm position either fixed in space or fixed with respect to their body.During the fixed‐in‐space conditions, galvanic vestibular stimulation caused large changes in arm trajectory consistent with a compensatory response to maintain upper‐limb accuracy in the face of body movement.Galvanic vestibular stimulation responses were absent during the body‐fixed task, demonstrating task dependency in vestibular control of the upper limb.The results suggest that the function of vestibular‐evoked arm movements is to maintain the accuracy of the upper limb during unpredictable body movement, but only when reaching in an earth‐fixed reference frame. Abstract When using our arms to interact with the world, unintended body motion can introduce movement error. A mechanism that could detect and compensate for such motion would be beneficial. Observations of arm movements evoked by vestibular stimulation provide some support for this mechanism. However, the physiological function underlying these artificially evoked movements is unclear from previous research. For such a mechanism to be functional, it should operate only when the arm is being controlled in an earth‐fixed rather than a body‐fixed reference frame. In the latter case, compensation would be unnecessary and even deleterious. To test this hypothesis, subjects were gently rotated in a chair while being asked to maintain their outstretched arm pointing towards either earth‐fixed or body‐fixed memorized targets. Galvanic vestibular stimulation was applied concurrently during rotation to isolate the influence of vestibular input, uncontaminated by inertial factors. During the earth‐fixed task, galvanic vestibular stimulation produced large polarity‐dependent corrections in arm

  4. Nutritional knowledge and dietary diversity of cancer patients at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This increase is possibly attributed to change in behavior and adoption of ... factors such as increase in environmental carcinogens and unhealthy lifestyles. ... during dietary counseling of patients to enable them improve their dietary practice.

  5. Dietary quality, lifestile factors and healthy ageing in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveman-Nies, A.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords: dietary quality, dietary patterns, lifestyle factors, smoking, physical activity, elderly, mortality, Mediterranean Diet Score, Healthy Diet Indicator, healthy ageing, self-rated health, functional status


    The contribution

  6. Dietary assessment in Africa: Integration with innovative technology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adequate dietary intake is the basis of good health. ... clinics and hospitals, measuring dietary intake and nutritional status is one of the most efficient ... on respondents to recall types and amounts of foods consumed by populations of interest.

  7. Influence of dietary lipid sources on sensory characteristics of broiler

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of dietary lipid sources on sensory characteristics of broiler meat ... fatty acid profile of poultry products such as eggs and meat by means of dietary inclusion of ..... Designer eggs: From improvement of egg composition to functional.

  8. Effects of dietary supplement of turmeric powder (Curcuma longa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ross 308) to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with various levels of turmeric powder on blood constituents and antioxidant activity. The chicks were randomly assigned to eight dietary groups, which were given turmeric powder ...

  9. 5 Things To Know About Dietary Supplements and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... advertised as dietary supplements for weight loss or bodybuilding. Increasingly, products sold as dietary supplements, particularly for weight loss and bodybuilding, contain ingredients that could be harmful, including prescription ...

  10. Dietary Formulas Fortify Antioxidant Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The astronaut's life and work is so different from our own daily experiences that it s easy to forget that astronauts are people, too. Just like everyone else, astronauts have basic nutritional needs, such as five to nine servings of fruit and vegetables per day, in order to maintain optimal health. Here on Earth, it can be a challenge to incorporate the recommended amount of fruit and veggies into our diets, despite easy access to fresh produce. In space, it becomes even more difficult, as astronauts must take everything they need with them. And in the harsh conditions of space, many miles from medical assistance, proper nutrition takes on added importance. As NASA makes plans to send astronauts on missions that could take months and even years, the Agency explores new ways to provide astronauts with a daily dose of nutrition equivalent to that provided by fresh produce. These foods are critically important because they provide the essential vitamins, minerals, pigments, and other micronutrients (substances required in small amounts for human health) that promote everything from healthy skin to a strong heart.

  11. Dietary supplements and team-sport performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, David

    2010-12-01

    A well designed diet is the foundation upon which optimal training and performance can be developed. However, as long as competitive sports have existed, athletes have attempted to improve their performance by ingesting a variety of substances. This practice has given rise to a multi-billion-dollar industry that aggressively markets its products as performance enhancing, often without objective, scientific evidence to support such claims. While a number of excellent reviews have evaluated the performance-enhancing effects of most dietary supplements, less attention has been paid to the performance-enhancing claims of dietary supplements in the context of team-sport performance. Dietary supplements that enhance some types of athletic performance may not necessarily enhance team-sport performance (and vice versa). Thus, the first aim of this review is to critically evaluate the ergogenic value of the most common dietary supplements used by team-sport athletes. The term dietary supplements will be used in this review and is defined as any product taken by the mouth, in addition to common foods, that has been proposed to have a performance-enhancing effect; this review will only discuss substances that are not currently banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency. Evidence is emerging to support the performance-enhancing claims of some, but not all, dietary supplements that have been proposed to improve team-sport-related performance. For example, there is good evidence that caffeine can improve single-sprint performance, while caffeine, creatine and sodium bicarbonate ingestion have all been demonstrated to improve multiple-sprint performance. The evidence is not so strong for the performance-enhancing benefits of β-alanine or colostrum. Current evidence does not support the ingestion of ribose, branched-chain amino acids or β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate, especially in well trained athletes. More research on the performance-enhancing effects of the dietary supplements

  12. Threshold changes in rat brain docosahexaenoic acid incorporation and concentration following graded reductions in dietary alpha-linolenic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Ameer Y.; Chang, Lisa; Chen, Mei

    2016-01-01

    Background This study tested the dietary level of alpha-linolenic acid (α-LNA, 18:3n-3) sufficient to maintain brain 14C-Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) metabolism and concentration following graded α-LNA reduction. Methods 18–21 day male Fischer-344 (CDF) rats were randomized to the AIN-93G diet containing as a % of total fatty acids, 4.6% (“n-3 adequate”), 3.6%, 2.7%, 0.9% or 0.2% (“n-3 deficient”) α-LNA for 15 weeks. Rats were intravenously infused with 14C-DHA to steady state for 5 minutes, serial blood samples collected to obtain plasma and brains excised following microwave fixation. Labeled and unlabeled DHA concentrations were measured in plasma and brain to calculate the incorporation coefficient, k*, and incorporation rate, Jin. Results Compared to 4.6% α-LNA controls, k* was significantly increased in ethanolamine glycerophospholipids in the 0.2% α-LNA group. Circulating unesterified DHA and brain incorporation rates (Jin) were significantly reduced at 0.2% α-LNA. Brain total lipid and phospholipid DHA concentrations were reduced at or below 0.9% α-LNA. Conclusion Threshold changes for brain DHA metabolism and concentration were maintained at or below 0.9% dietary α-LNA, suggesting the presence of homeostatic mechanisms to maintain brain DHA metabolism when dietary α-LNA intake is low. PMID:26869088

  13. Women's dietary changes before and during pregnancy: A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Hillier, S.E.; Olander, E. K.

    2017-01-01

    Background\\ud \\ud dietary intake before and during pregnancy has significant health outcomes for both mother and child, including a healthy gestational weight gain. To ensure effective interventions are successfully developed to improve dietary intake during pregnancy, it is important to understand what dietary changes pregnant women make without intervention.\\ud Aims\\ud \\ud to systematically identify and review studies examining women's dietary changes before and during pregnancy and to iden...

  14. Research on Rationalization of Basketball Player Nutrition Dietary Pattern

    OpenAIRE

    Junsheng Zuo; Jia Li

    2015-01-01

    Reasonable nutritional dietary pattern is the good protection which can promote hoopster fatigue restoring, enhance exercise training effect and promote sport performance. This study analyzes necessity and significance of rationalizing research of hoopster nutritional dietary pattern by the summary of hoopster nutritional dietary pattern. And it concludes insufficient and drawback which current our country hoopster nutritional dietary pattern existing. And then it generalizes the unreasonable...

  15. Effects of dietary changes and yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on rumen microbial fermentation of Holstein heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, D; Calsamiglia, S; Ferret, A; Blanch, M; Fandiño, J I; Castillejos, L; Yoon, I

    2009-09-01

    The effects of a dietary challenge to induce digestive upsets and supplementation with yeast culture on rumen microbial fermentation were studied using 12 Holstein heifers (277 +/- 28 kg of BW) fitted with a ruminal cannula, in a crossover design with 2 periods of 5 wk. In each period, after 3 wk of adaptation to a 100% forage diet, the dietary challenge consisted of increasing the amount of grain at a rate of 2.5 kg/d (as-fed basis) over a period of 4 d, until a 10:90 forage:concentrate diet was reached, and then it was maintained for 10 d. Between periods, animals were fed again the 100% forage diet without any treatment for 1 wk as a wash-out period. Treatments started the first day of each period, and they were a control diet (CL) or the same diet with addition of yeast culture (YC, Diamond V XPCLS). Digestive upsets were determined by visual observation of bloat or by a reduction in feed intake (as-fed basis) of 50% or more compared with intake on the previous day. Feed intake was determined daily at 24-h intervals during the adaptation period and daily at 2, 6, and 12 h postfeeding during the dietary challenge. Ruminal liquid samples were collected daily during the dietary challenge to determine ruminal pH at 0, 3, 6, and 12 h postfeeding, and total and individual VFA, lactic acid, ammonia-N, and rumen fluid viscosity at 0 and 6 h postfeeding. The 16s rRNA gene copies of Streptococcus bovis and Megasphaera elsdenii were determined by quantitative PCR. Foam height and strength of the rumen fluid were also determined the day after the digestive upset to evaluate potential foam production. A total of 20 cases (83.3%) of digestive upsets were recorded in both periods during the dietary challenge, all diagnosed due to a reduction in feed intake. Rumen fermentation profile at 0 h on the digestive upset day was characterized by low ruminal pH, which remained under 6.0 for 18 h, accompanied by elevated total VFA concentration and, in some cases, by elevated lactate

  16. A REVIEW ON ACID BASE STATUS IN DAIRY COWS: IMPLICATIONS OF DIETARY CATION-ANION BALANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Afzaal, M. Nisa, M. A. Khan and M. Sarwar

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The acid base status of a dairy cow is maintained within a narrow range. The key mechanisms involving blood, cells and lungs, perform this function. Although other minerals have an impact on acid base metabolism, the minerals used in dietary cation-anion balance (DCAB namely sodium (Na, potassium (K and chloride (Cl have the greatest effect. Hence, acid base status implicates other biological functions of dairy cows. Low DCAB prepartum reduces the incidence of milk fever and increases the productivity by simmering down the severity of hypocalcaemia. High DCAB diets have proved to increase dry mater and water intake and production and to mitigate the effects of heat stress.

  17. Evaluating Nutrition Education Programming by Using a Dietary Screener

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Jennifer; Litchfield, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Short dietary assessment instruments known as screeners have potential for use in evaluating nutrition education programming because detecting change in dietary intake can demonstrate movement toward program goals. Using screeners results in objective dietary intake data but involves less administrative time, training, and cost than other…

  18. The history and future of dietary guidance in America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evidence-based dietary guidance in the US has progressed substantially since its inception over 100 years ago. This review describes the historical development and significance of dietary guidance in the US, including the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, and emphasizes the foundations upon which th...

  19. Dietary quality as a non-medical health input

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burggraf, Christine; Teuber, Ramona; Glauben, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this inquiry is to provide a comprehensive theoretical framework, which describes the demand for dietary quality. In our dietary health investment model, we consider the health investment character of dietary choices as well as the intertemporal health-taste trade-off. Additionally, a ...

  20. Glycaemic and insulinemic response to dietary carbohydrates in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøkner, Christine; Austbø, Dag; Næsset, Jon A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dietary sugar and starch affect plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. Little information is available about the effect of dietary fibre on plasma glucose and insulin concentration. It is hypothesized that different dietary fibre compositions will alter post-prandial glycaemic- an...

  1. Dietary practices in isovaleric acidemia: A European survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pinto

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: This survey demonstrates wide differences in dietary practice in the management of IVA across European centres. It provides unique dietary data collectively representing European practices in IVA which can be used as a foundation to compare dietary management changes as a consequence of the first E-IMD IVA guidelines availability.

  2. Dietary Advanced Glycation End Products and Cardiometabolic Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luévano-Contreras, Claudia; Gómez-Ojeda, Armando; Macías-Cervantes, Maciste Habacuc; Garay-Sevilla, Ma Eugenia

    2017-08-01

    This report analyzes emerging evidence about the role of dietary advanced glycation end products (AGEs) as a cardiometabolic risk factor. Two important aspects are discussed: First, the modulation of AGE load by dietary AGEs; second, if the evidence of clinical and observational studies is enough to make dietary recommendations towards lowering AGE intake. Clinical studies in subjects with diabetes mellitus have shown that high intake of dietary AGEs increases inflammation markers, oxidative stress, and could impair endothelial function. In subjects at risk for cardiometabolic diseases (with overweight, obesity, or prediabetes), dietary AGE restriction decreases some inflammatory molecules and improves insulin sensitivity. However, studies in healthy subjects are limited, and not all of the studies have shown a decrease in circulating AGEs. Therefore, it is still unclear if dietary AGEs represent a health concern for people potentially at risk for cardiometabolic diseases. The evidence shows that dietary AGEs are bioavailable and absorbed, and the rate of excretion depends on dietary intake. The metabolic fate of most dietary AGEs remains unknown. Regardless, most studies have shown that by diminishing AGE intake, circulating levels will also decrease. Thus, dietary AGEs can modulate the AGE load at least in patients with DM, overweight, or obesity. Studies with specific clinical outcomes and large-scale observational studies are needed for a better risk assessment of dietary AGEs and to establish dietary recommendations accordingly.

  3. ADHD Is Associated with a "Western" Dietary Pattern in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Amber L.; Robinson, Monique; Smith, Grant J.; Ambrosini, Gina L.; Piek, Jan P.; Oddy, Wendy H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between dietary patterns and ADHD in a population-based cohort of adolescents. Method: The Raine Study is a prospective study following 2,868 live births. At the 14-year follow-up, the authors collected detailed adolescent dietary data, allowing for the determination of major dietary patterns using factor…

  4. Dietary and health biomarkers-time for an update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dragsted, L.O.; Gao Qizian,; Praticò, G.; Manach, Claudine; Wishart, D.S.; Scalbert, A.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    In the dietary and health research area, biomarkers are extensively used for multiple purposes. These include biomarkers of dietary intake and nutrient status, biomarkers used to measure the biological effects of specific dietary components, and biomarkers to assess the effects of diet on health.

  5. Dietary fibre: new frontiers for food and health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kamp, J. W. van der

    2010-01-01

    ... papers of the Dietary fibre analysis workshop and the HEALTHGRAIN Symposium Cereal grain fibre and health , both held in conjunction with DF09. This book is titled Dietary fibre- new frontiers for food and health . With the adoption - after decades of debate - of almost identical definitions of dietary fibre by Codex Alimentarius and the European Un...

  6. Possible interactions between dietary fibres and 5-aminosalicylic acid [corrected

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Camilla; Hansen, Steen Honoré; Nordgaard-Lassen, Inge

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Potentially, a binding of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) to dietary fibres could reduce the systemic absorption and increase the intraluminal amount [corrected]. The purposes of the study were to investigate if: (1) dietary fibres can bind 5-ASA in vitro, and (2) consumption of dietary......H. The effect might be clinically relevant in patients with UC treated with 5-ASA....

  7. South African dietary total antioxidant capacity based on secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: In this exploratory study, the average adult South African dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was estimated using secondary data and was evaluated against that determined for dietary intake recommendations. Design: The average adult South African dietary TAC was estimated using a report published by ...

  8. Dietary Fibre in Health and Disease | Kolawole | Nigerian Endocrine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mechanism by which dietary fibre exerts its various effects have been the subject several studies. Its ability to slow food digestion and nutrient absorption is well known. This review summarises the broader literature on what constitutes dietary fibre, mechanisms of action of dietary fibre, and its impact on some disease ...

  9. AOAC SMPR 2014.007: Authentication of selected Vaccinium species (Anthocyanins) in dietary ingredients and dietary supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    This AOAC Standard Method Performance Requirements (SMPR) is for authentication of selected Vaccinium species in dietary ingredients and dietary supplements containing a single Vaccinium species using anthocyanin profiles. SMPRs describe the minimum recommended performance characteristics to be used...

  10. Maintaining experiences of nature as a city grows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica R. Sushinsky

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Experiences of nature contribute to human health and well-being, yet as the world's population continues to concentrate in towns and cities there is mounting concern that these experiences are diminishing. Despite this, little is known about how we can maintain experiences of nature as cities grow. Here, we quantify how people's opportunities to experience nature might change with future urban growth in the city of Brisbane, Australia. We simulated the addition of 84,642 houses under compact and sprawling growth scenarios and modeled changes in people's opportunities to experience nature by estimating changes in backyard size, public green space provision, and bird species richness close to households. We discovered that the form of urban growth could strongly influence people's opportunities to experience nature in a way that is highly nonrandom across the socioeconomic gradient. Under a sprawling pattern of development, with low residential densities and few interstitial green spaces, our models suggest severe declines in access to public green space and bird species richness around people's homes. These declines are predicted to be concentrated in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas of the city. Compact development leads to greater reductions in backyard size, but smaller declines in access to public green space and bird species richness. Our results point to a difficult trade-off; residential infill will maintain larger green spaces and higher overall bird diversity but reduce backyard sizes, impacting people's opportunities to experience nature in a different way. Careful planning is needed to balance the availability of public and private urban green spaces to ensure that the opportunities for people to experience nature are maintained as urbanization continues.

  11. Maintaining Students’ Involvement in a Math Lecture Using Countdown Timers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Krizzel A. Aban

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Involving students in a lecture is an important but not an easy task that every lecturer must encourage. This task becomes even greater in a math class that is composed of eighty to a hundred sixty students. In 2007, the University of the Philippines Los Baños (UPLB started offering some of its basic math courses in lecture-recitation set-up. This shift and many other factors drove most math instructors of UPLB to widely use presentation software, such as the PowerPoint (PPT, to deliver their lectures. The non-stop use of these softwares, however, seems to have negative effects on the students when it comes to maintaining their involvement in a lecture discussion for they tend to be more passive spectators. On the other hand, adding countdown timers strategically on some parts of the discussion seems to lessen such negative effects. This study determined the effectiveness of using countdown timers in maintaining students’ involvement in a lecture of MATH 27 (Analytic Geometry and Calculus II, a course in UPLB commonly taken by sophomore students. Results show that the effectiveness of countdown timers, as perceived by the students, is independent to students’ genders and degree programs, but is dependent to the colleges where the students belong to. Also, some effects of countdown timers are significantly correlated to various data from students’ profiles. It was concluded in the study that the use of countdown timers is effective in maintaining student’s involvement in MATH 27 lectures and might also be useful in other math lecture classes

  12. Research Trends on Benefits of Implementing Constructability, Operability, and Maintainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kordestani Ghaleenoe, N.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite allocating huge budgets to civil engineering projects, detailed planning, and employing human resources, project managers still face time, cost, and quality constraints. Most of these challenges are due to a lack of integration of different project phases and the limitations of the presence of construction and maintenance contractors in the initial stages of the project. Considering the benefits of applying constructability, operability, and maintainability (COM concepts, many problems caused by lack of coordination, or duplications and weakness in management, and also time and extra costs due to lack of presence of construction and maintenance contractors in the early stages of the project are resolvable. In this regard, various studies have investigated the benefits of applying these concepts; however, there has been no comprehensive analysis of the benefits of COM. As a result of focus on the benefits of implementation of these concepts and evaluating the effect of each of these strategies and benefits, from different perspectives during various time periods, managers can increase project efficiency and productivity, and improve their performance, through using concepts and strategies of their implementation. This research aims to evaluate the trend of studies on the benefits of implementing constructability, operability, and maintainability in the construction industry. For that, the in-depth literature review method is applied. For qualitative analysis of the obtained information, descriptive analysis has been used. Then, the data was coded, and classified using Excel Software for quantitative data analysis. Finally, the charts presented were evaluated according to the classified fields of study. The necessity of performing such a study is significant because of the fact that a large share of a project’s problems, such as lack of plans’ integration and weakness of administrative system, and increasing time and cost, are due to

  13. Dietary and fluid adherence among haemodialysis patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    comparison with major infectious diseases such as AIDS, tuberculosis ... dietary and fluid adherence is of crucial importance to the quality of life and survival of ... behaviours such as medication adherence among psychiatric ... or nursing sister and introduced to one of the study personnel who .... Children per household. 61.

  14. Dietary Vitamin C in Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger, Matthew; Eck, Peter

    Vitamin C is essential to prevent scurvy in humans and is implicated in the primary prevention of common and complex diseases such as coronary heart disease, stroke, and cancer. This chapter reviews the latest knowledge about dietary vitamin C in human health with an emphasis on studies of the molecular mechanisms of vitamin C maintenance as well as gene-nutrient interactions modifying these relationships. Epidemiological evidence indicates 5% prevalence for vitamin C deficiency and 13% prevalence for suboptimal status even in industrialized countries. The daily intake (dose) and the corresponding systemic concentrations (response) are related in a saturable relationship, and low systemic vitamin C concentrations in observational studies are associated with negative health outcomes. However, there is no evidence that vitamin C supplementation impacts the risks for all-cause mortality, impaired cognitive performance, reduced quality of life, the development of eye diseases, infections, cardiovascular disease, and cancers. This might be related to the fact that prevention would not be realized by supplementation in populations already adequately supplied through dietary sources. Recent genetic association studies indicate that the dietary intake might not be the sole determinant of systemic concentrations, since variations in genes participating in redox homeostasis and vitamin C transport had been associated with lowered plasma concentrations. However, impact sizes are generally low and these phenomena might only affect individual of suboptimal dietary supply. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Digital food photography: Dietary surveillance and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    The method used for creating a database of approximately 20,000 digital images of multiple portion sizes of foods linked to the USDA's Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS) is presented. The creation of this database began in 2002, and its development has spanned 10 years. Initially...

  16. Intolerance to dietary biogenic amines: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.C.; Dusseldorp, M. van; Bottema, K.C.; Dubois, A.E.J.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the scientific evidence for purported intolerance to dietary biogenic amines. Data Sources: MEDLINE was searched for articles in the English language published between January 1966 and August 2001. The keyword biogenic amin* was combined with hypersens*, allerg*, intoler*, and

  17. Intolerance to dietary biogenic amines : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, SC; van Dusseldorp, M; Bottema, KC; Dubois, AEJ

    Objective: To evaluate the scientific evidence for purported intolerance to dietary biogenic amines. Data Sources: MEDLINE was searched for articles in the English language published between January 1966 and August 2001. The keyword biogenic amin* was combined with hypersens*, allergen intoler*, and

  18. Comparison of dietary fiber methods for foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, M M; Lane, S A

    1981-11-01

    In order to evaluate several proposed dietary fiber methods, 12 food samples, representing different food classes, were analyzed by (1) neutral and acid detergent fiber methods (NDF, ADF); (2) NDF with enzyme modification (ENDF); (3) a 2-fraction enzyme method for soluble, insoluble, and total dietary fiber, proposed by Furda (SDF, IDF, TDF); (+) a 1-fraction enzyme method for total dietary fiber proposed by Hellendoorn (TDF). Foods included cereals, fruits, vegetables, pectin, locust bean gum, and soybean polysaccharides. Results show that TDF by Furda and Hellendoorn methods agree reasonably well with literature values by the Southgate method, but ENDF is consistently lower; that ENDF and IDF (Furda method) agree reasonably well; that except for corn corn bran fiber (insoluble) and pectin and locus bean fiber (soluble), all materials have significant fractions of both soluble and insoluble fiber. The Furda method was used on numerous food and ingredient samples and was found to be practical and informative and to have acceptable precision (RSD values of 2.65-7.05%). It is suggested that the Furda (or similar) method be given consideration for the analysis of foods for dietary fiber.

  19. 42 CFR 483.35 - Dietary services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the resident call system. (3) Resident selection criteria. (i) A facility must ensure that a feeding... person to serve as the director of food service who receives frequently scheduled consultation from a... nutritional needs of residents in accordance with the recommended dietary allowances of the Food and Nutrition...

  20. Pragmatic dietary advice for diabetes during Navratris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovely Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Navratri is one of the most common religious fasts observed among Hindus. A large number of people with diabetes follow Navratris fast irrespective of its health implications, often without proper education and medical advice. The quest for the scientific research on dietary advices for Hindu fasts including Navratris shows paucity of literature comparative to the dietary advices advocated during Ramadan. The eating and physical activity patterns during different fasts vary a lot depending up on social and cultural factors. Even eating pattern is not uniform among all persons following Navratris and is modified as per their region, local culture, and religious beliefs. Dietary advice during Navratris depends upon pattern of fasting, religious beliefs, and local sociocultural factors. In this review, efforts are made to provide pragmatic dietary advice for people with diabetes, modifications in the menus and cooking practices, and timings of the meals for successful blood glucose management during Navratris. This review will also help plan diet and physical activity advice for persons observing other fasts as well.

  1. Dietary fibers and associated phytochemicals in cereals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Nørskov, Natalja; Bolvig, Anne Katrine

    2017-01-01

    are unclear, but can most likely be assigned to a concerted action of dietary fiber (DF) and a wide variety of phytochemicals. Physiologically, it is important that soluble nonstarch polysaccharides contribute to higher viscosity in the small intestine as this may influence rate and extent of digestion...

  2. Analysis of chewing sounds for dietary monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amft, O.D.; Stäger, M.; Lukowicz, P.; Tröster, G.

    2005-01-01

    The paper reports the results of the first stage of our work on an automatic dietary monitoring system. The work is part of a large European project on using ubiquitous systems to support healthy lifestyle and cardiovascular disease prevention. We demonstrate that sound from the user's mouth can be

  3. Energetic utilization of dietary fiber in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnen, M.M.J.A.

    2003-01-01

    The energetic utilization of fermentable dietary fiber (fDF) of different fiber sources and its relation to physical activity and housing conditions was studied in three experiments. In all experiments the daily intake of digestible nutrients, nitrogen and energy balances, heat production, and

  4. Dietary fat and obesity : An epidemiologic perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidell, Jacob C.

    1998-01-01

    The observation that dietary fat has an effect on weight gain and the development of obesity that is larger than would be expected on the basis of fat's energy value is mainly experimental. Several methodologic problems limit the interpretation of epidemiologic studies of the association between

  5. Dietary fat and obesity : an epidemiologic perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidell, J C

    The observation that dietary fat has an effect on weight gain and the development of obesity that is larger than would be expected on the basis of fat's energy value is mainly experimental. Several methodologic problems limit the interpretation of epidemiologic studies of the association between

  6. Prehydrolyzed dietary protein reduces gastrocnemial DNA without ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prehydrolyzed dietary protein reduces gastrocnemial DNA without impairing physical capacity in the rat. Viviane Costa Silva Zaffani, Carolina Cauduro Bensabath Carneiro-Leão, Giovana Ermetice de Almeida Costa, Pablo Christiano Barboza Lollo, Emilianne Miguel Salomão, Maria Cristina Cintra Gomes-Marcondes, ...

  7. Eclampsia despite strict dietary sodium restriction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delemarre, F.M.C.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Berendes, J.N.

    2001-01-01

    The classic indication for prescribing dietary sodium restriction in pregnancy has been the prevention of eclampsia. We describe a case of intrapartum eclampsia in a 24-year-old nulliparous woman. A strongly sodium restricted diet was prescribed because of pre-eclampsia. Compliance to the diet was

  8. The potential health effects of dietary phytoestrogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.; Louisse, Jochem; Beekmann, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are plant-derived dietary compounds with structural similarity to 17-β-oestradiol (E2), the primary female sex hormone. This structural similarity to E2 enables phytoestrogens to cause (anti)oestrogenic effects by binding to the oestrogen receptors. The aim of the present review is to

  9. Effects of dietary probiotic supplementation on promoting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-10-25

    Oct 25, 2010 ... The birds in group A received control diet during the experiment but those in ... genera displayed a growth-promoting effect that was comparable to control diet and also decreased .... Table 3. Effects of dietary probiotics on evolution of broiler weekly BW in control, Enterococcus faecium, and Bifidobacterium.

  10. Metabolic Consequences of Changing Dietary Patterns

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    should be eaten well, lunch must be in one's fill, and food for dinner should be little', there has lately been a neglect of breakfast, whereas the use of fast foods and large dinners has become the trend. In the Australian Aboriginal population and in South Africa, the consequences of shifts from the hunter-gatherer dietary.

  11. Dietary sugars, not lipids, drive hypothalamic inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, Yuanqing; Bielohuby, Maximilian; Fleming, Thomas; Grabner, Gernot F; Foppen, Ewout; Bernhard, Wagner; Guzmán-Ruiz, Mara; Layritz, Clarita; Legutko, Beata; Zinser, Erwin; García-Cáceres, Cristina; Buijs, Ruud M; Woods, Stephen C; Kalsbeek, A.; Seeley, Randy J; Nawroth, Peter P; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Tschöp, Matthias H; Yi, Chun-Xia

    OBJECTIVE: The hypothalamus of hypercaloric diet-induced obese animals is featured by a significant increase of microglial reactivity and its associated cytokine production. However, the role of dietary components, in particular fat and carbohydrate, with respect to the hypothalamic inflammatory

  12. Dietary sugars, not lipids, drive hypothalamic inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, Yuanqing; Bielohuby, Maximilian; Fleming, Thomas; Grabner, Gernot F.; Foppen, Ewout; Bernhard, Wagner; Guzmán-Ruiz, Mara; Layritz, Clarita; Legutko, Beata; Zinser, Erwin; García-Cáceres, Cristina; Buijs, Ruud M.; Woods, Stephen C.; Kalsbeek, Andries; Seeley, Randy J.; Nawroth, Peter P.; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Tschöp, Matthias H.; Yi, Chun-Xia

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The hypothalamus of hypercaloric diet-induced obese animals is featured by a significant increase of microglial reactivity and its associated cytokine production. However, the role of dietary components, in particular fat and carbohydrate, with respect to the hypothalamic inflammatory

  13. Dietary protein and blood pressure : epidemiological studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altorf-van der Kuil, W.

    2012-01-01


    Background
    Elevated blood pressure is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Diet and lifestyle have a substantial impact on blood pressure, but the role of protein intake is not yet clear. This thesis focuses on total dietary protein, types of protein (i.e. plant and

  14. Physician-Patient Communication about Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarn, Derjung M.; Paterniti, Debora A.; Good, Jeffrey S.; Coulter, Ian D.; Galliher, James M.; Kravitz, Richard L.; Karlamangla, Arun; Wenger, Neil S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Describe the content and frequency of provider-patient dietary supplement discussions during primary care office visits. Methods Inductive content analysis of 1477 transcribed audio-recorded office visits to 102 primary care providers was combined with patient and provider surveys. Encounters were collected in Los Angeles, California (2009–2010), geographically-diverse practice settings across the United States (2004–2005), and Sacramento, CA (1998–1999). Results Providers discussed 738 dietary supplements during encounters with 357 patients (24.2% of all encounters in the data). They mentioned: 1) reason for taking the supplement for 46.5% of dietary supplements; 2) how to take the supplement for 28.2%; 3) potential risks for 17.3%; 4) supplement effectiveness for 16.7%; and 5) supplement cost or affordability for 4.2%. Of these five topics, a mean of 1.13 (SD=1.2) topics were discussed for each supplement. More topics were reviewed for non-vitamin non-mineral supplements (mean 1.47 (SD=1.2)) than for vitamin/mineral supplements (mean 0.99 (SD=1.1); psupplements are occurring, it is clear that more discussion might be needed to inform patient decisions about supplement use. Practice Implication Physicians could more frequently address topics that may influence patient dietary supplement use, such as the risks, effectiveness, and costs of supplements. PMID:23466249

  15. PALEOLITHIC HUNTER-GATHERERS' DIETARY PATTERNS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Al-Domi

    the main aspects of Paleolithic hunter-gatherers' dietary patterns and its main long-term ... Hence, people in developing countries have been exposed to certain ... as food habits, which prompted possible negative impacts on health status leading to ... costs [5, 7]. .... Agricultural revolution with efficient production of grains,.

  16. Plasma biomarker of dietary phytosterol intake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobo Lin

    Full Text Available Dietary phytosterols, plant sterols structurally similar to cholesterol, reduce intestinal cholesterol absorption and have many other potentially beneficial biological effects in humans. Due to limited information on phytosterol levels in foods, however, it is difficult to quantify habitual dietary phytosterol intake (DPI. Therefore, we sought to identify a plasma biomarker of DPI.Data were analyzed from two feeding studies with a total of 38 subjects during 94 dietary periods. DPI was carefully controlled at low, intermediate, and high levels. Plasma levels of phytosterols and cholesterol metabolites were assessed at the end of each diet period. Based on simple ordinary least squares regression analysis, the best biomarker for DPI was the ratio of plasma campesterol to the endogenous cholesterol metabolite 5-α-cholestanol (R2 = 0.785, P 0.600; P < 0.01.The ratio of plasma campesterol to the coordinately regulated endogenous cholesterol metabolite 5-α-cholestanol is a biomarker of dietary phytosterol intake. Conversely, plasma phytosterol levels alone are not ideal biomarkers of DPI because they are confounded by large inter-individual variation in absorption and turnover of non-cholesterol sterols. Further work is needed to assess the relation between non-cholesterol sterol metabolism and associated cholesterol transport in the genesis of coronary heart disease.

  17. Dietary reference values for vitamin D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2016-01-01

    synthesis and dietary sources, can be used as a biomarker of vitamin D status in adult and children populations. The Panel notes that the evidence on the relationship between serum 25(OH)D concentration and musculoskeletal health outcomes in adults, infants and children, and adverse pregnancy-related health...

  18. DIETS/DIETARY HABITS AND CERTAIN GASTROINTESTINAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physiology Department, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Abia State ... of diet and dietary habits including fibres, food additives and preservatives on the aetiology of gastric cancers ... beneficial effects on the G.I tract (Howe et al, ...... Food poisoning: Diseases due to .... Obakpite, P. O., Onuminya, J. E., Nwana, E. J..

  19. Dietary supplements containing prohibited substances: A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    many years to boost, even by small margins, their strength and per- formance. ... training or competition routine, even if the rationale for using these products is not .... Dietary supplements adulterated with sibutramine, an anti-obesity agent, which do .... for weight loss and athletic performance: A meta-analysis. JAMA 2003 ...

  20. DIETARY HABITS OF A MEDITERRANEAN POPULATION OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SWEET

    The nutrient intake of the studied population is not in line with that ... habitual cooking methods, to estimate the usual diet of individuals during the previous year. ... However, the mean intakes were below the RDA for dietary calcium, ... As shown in table 6, the population was also stratified by education level, and the intakes.

  1. Of piglets, dietary proteins, and pancreatic proteases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makkink, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    Newly weaned piglets often show digestive disorders, frequently resulting in diarrhoea. These disorders may be related to the dietary protein source, since young piglets are less capable of digesting proteins of vegetable origin than older pigs. This study was undertaken to investigate the

  2. Managers' duty to maintain good workplace communications skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmins, Fiona

    2011-06-01

    Communication is a fundamental element of care at every level of nursing practice. It is important, therefore, for nurse managers to create environments that promote and encourage good communication, and help nurses to develop their communication skills formally and informally. This article discusses the effects of communication on the quality of care. It examines nurses' professional duty to maintain good communication skills and how managers can help them do this. It also discusses nurse managers' communication skills in the context of leadership style, conflict resolution and self-awareness. Finally, it considers the notion of shared governance as good practice.

  3. Prepare to protect: Operating and maintaining a tornado safe room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herseth, Andrew; Goldsmith-Grinspoon, Jennifer; Scott, Pataya

    2017-06-01

    Operating and maintaining a tornado safe room can be critical to the effective continuity of business operations because a firm's most valuable asset is its people. This paper describes aspects of operations and maintenance (O&M) for existing tornado safe rooms as well as a few planning and design aspects that affect the ultimate operation of a safe room for situations where a safe room is planned, but not yet constructed. The information is based on several Federal Emergency Management Agency safe room publications that provide guidance on emergency management and operations, as well as the design and construction of tornado safe rooms.

  4. JWIG: Yet Another Framework for Maintainable and Secure Web Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Anders; Schwarz, Mathias Romme

    2009-01-01

    Although numerous frameworks for web application programming have been developed in recent years, writing web applications remains a challenging task. Guided by a collection of classical design principles, we propose yet another framework. It is based on a simple but flexible server......-oriented architecture that coherently supports general aspects of modern web applications, including dynamic XML construction, session management, data persistence, caching, and authentication, but it also simplifies programming of server-push communication and integration of XHTML-based applications and XML-based web...... services.The resulting framework provides a novel foundation for developing maintainable and secure web applications....

  5. Phase noise cancellation in polarisation-maintaining fibre links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauf, B.; Vélez López, M. C.; Thoumany, P.; Pizzocaro, M.; Calonico, D.

    2018-03-01

    The distribution of ultra-narrow linewidth laser radiation is an integral part of many challenging metrological applications. Changes in the optical pathlength induced by environmental disturbances compromise the stability and accuracy of optical fibre networks distributing the laser light and call for active phase noise cancellation. Here we present a laboratory scale optical (at 578 nm) fibre network featuring all polarisation maintaining fibres in a setup with low optical powers available and tracking voltage-controlled oscillators implemented. The stability and accuracy of this system reach performance levels below 1 × 10-19 after 10 000 s of averaging.

  6. Social Pharmacy Research in Copenhagen—Maintaining a Broad Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Kälvemark Sporrong

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Social Pharmacy (SP is a multidisciplinary field to promote the adequate use of medicine. The field of SP is increasingly important due to a numbers of new trends all posing challenges to society. The SP group at the University of Copenhagen has for several years used a broad approach to SP teaching and research, often illustrated by the four levels: individual, group, organizational, and societal. In this paper the relevance of maintaining a broad approach to SP research is argued for and examples of the importance of such type of research is presented.

  7. Maintaining Traceability in an Evolving Distributed Computing Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, I.; Wartel, R.

    2015-12-01

    The management of risk is fundamental to the operation of any distributed computing infrastructure. Identifying the cause of incidents is essential to prevent them from re-occurring. In addition, it is a goal to contain the impact of an incident while keeping services operational. For response to incidents to be acceptable this needs to be commensurate with the scale of the problem. The minimum level of traceability for distributed computing infrastructure usage is to be able to identify the source of all actions (executables, file transfers, pilot jobs, portal jobs, etc.) and the individual who initiated them. In addition, sufficiently fine-grained controls, such as blocking the originating user and monitoring to detect abnormal behaviour, are necessary for keeping services operational. It is essential to be able to understand the cause and to fix any problems before re-enabling access for the user. The aim is to be able to answer the basic questions who, what, where, and when concerning any incident. This requires retaining all relevant information, including timestamps and the digital identity of the user, sufficient to identify, for each service instance, and for every security event including at least the following: connect, authenticate, authorize (including identity changes) and disconnect. In traditional grid infrastructures (WLCG, EGI, OSG etc.) best practices and procedures for gathering and maintaining the information required to maintain traceability are well established. In particular, sites collect and store information required to ensure traceability of events at their sites. With the increased use of virtualisation and private and public clouds for HEP workloads established procedures, which are unable to see 'inside' running virtual machines no longer capture all the information required. Maintaining traceability will at least involve a shift of responsibility from sites to Virtual Organisations (VOs) bringing with it new requirements for their

  8. Experience with managing, operating and maintaining gas turbine powerplants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadman, B.

    1994-01-01

    Stewart ampersand Stevenson, a major supplier of gas turbine powered cogeneration systems to worldwide markets, established plant management, operations and maintenance capabilities in 1985 in order to provide complete service capability to the customer. As of the fall of 1993, twenty-two individual cogeneration facilities are now being operated and maintained by this company with a total capacity of 1100+ MW. More than 300 plant management and operating personnel are employed in this operation. To date, activities have been concentrated in North and South America. Negotiations are in process in a number of other areas including the Pacific Rim, China, and several Middle East countries. 7 figs

  9. One-to-one dietary interventions undertaken in a dental setting to change dietary behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Rebecca; Gamboa, Ana; Dailey, Yvonne; Ashcroft, Angela

    2012-03-14

    The dental care setting is an appropriate place to deliver dietary assessment and advice as part of patient management. However, we do not know whether this is effective in changing dietary behaviour. To assess the effectiveness of one-to-one dietary interventions for all ages carried out in a dental care setting in changing dietary behaviour. The effectiveness of these interventions in the subsequent changing of oral and general health is also assessed. The following electronic databases were searched: the Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register (to 24 January 2012), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 1), MEDLINE via OVID (1950 to 24 January 2012), EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 24 January 2012), CINAHL via EBSCO (1982 to 24 January 2012), PsycINFO via OVID (1967 to 24 January 2012), and Web of Science (1945 to 12 April 2011). We also undertook an electronic search of key conference proceedings (IADR and ORCA between 2000 and 13 July 2011). Reference lists of relevant articles, thesis publications (Dissertations Abstracts Online 1861 to 2011) were searched. The authors of eligible trials were contacted to identify any unpublished work. Randomised controlled trials assessing the effectiveness of one-to-one dietary interventions delivered in a dental care setting. Abstract screening, eligibility screening and data extraction decisions were all carried out independently and in duplicate by two review authors. Consensus between the two opinions was achieved by discussion, or involvement of a third review author. Five studies met the criteria for inclusion in the review. Two of these were multi-intervention studies where the dietary intervention was one component of a wider programme of prevention, but where data on dietary behaviour change were reported. One of the single intervention studies was concerned with dental caries prevention. The other two concerned general health outcomes. There were no studies

  10. Does dietary calcium interact with dietary fiber against colorectal cancer? A case?control study in Central Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Galas, Aleksander; Augustyniak, Malgorzata; Sochacka-Tatara, Elzbieta

    2013-01-01

    Background An unfavorable trend of increasing rates of colorectal cancer has been observed across modern societies. In general, dietary factors are understood to be responsible for up to 70% of the disease?s incidence, though there are still many inconsistencies regarding the impact of specific dietary items. Among the dietary minerals, calcium intake may play a crucial role in the prevention. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of intake of higher levels of dietary calcium on ...

  11. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for carbohydrates and dietary fibre

    OpenAIRE

    Tetens, Inge

    2011-01-01

    This Opinion of the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA) deals with the establishment of Dietary Reference Values for carbohydrates and dietary fibre. Nutritionally, two broad categories of carbohydrates can be differentiated: “glycaemic carbohydrates”, i.e. carbohydrates digested and absorbed in the human small intestine, and „dietary fibre‟, non-digestible carbohydrates passing to the large intestine. In this Opinion, dietary fibre is defined as non-digestible car...

  12. Foods, Nutrients, and Dietary Patterns: Interconnections and Implications for Dietary Guidelines12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satija, Ambika; Hu, Frank B

    2016-01-01

    Dietary guidelines provide evidence-based statements on food choices to meet nutritional requirements and reduce the risk of prevailing chronic disease. They involve a substantial amount of research translation, and their implementation has important health consequences. Foods, however, are complex combinations of nutrients and other compounds that act synergistically within the food and across food combinations. In addition, the evidence base underpinning dietary guidelines accesses research that reflects different study designs, with inherent strengths and limitations. We propose a systematic approach for the review of evidence that begins with research on dietary patterns. This research will identify the combinations of foods that best protect, or appear deleterious to, health. Next, we suggest that evidence be sought from research that focuses on the effects of individual foods. Finally, nutrient-based research should be considered to explain the mechanisms by which these foods and dietary patterns exert their effects, take into account the effects of ingredients added to the food supply, and enable assessments of dietary sufficiency. The consideration of individual nutrients and food components (e.g., upper limits for saturated fat, added sugar, and sodium) provides important benchmarks for evaluating overall diet quality. The concepts of core and discretionary foods (nutrient-rich and nutrient-poor foods, respectively) enable distinctions between foods, and this has implications for the relation between food policy and food manufacturing. In summary, evidence supporting healthy dietary patterns provides the foundation for the development of dietary guidelines. Further reference to individual foods and nutrients follows from the foundation of healthy dietary patterns. PMID:27184272

  13. Dietary modification of human macular pigment density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, B R; Johnson, E J; Russell, R M; Krinsky, N I; Yeum, K J; Edwards, R B; Snodderly, D M

    1997-08-01

    The retinal carotenoids lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) that form the macular pigment (MP) may help to prevent neovascular age-related macular degeneration. The purpose of this study was to determine whether MP density in the retina could be raised by increasing dietary intake of L and Z from foods. Macular pigment was measured psychophysically for 13 subjects. Serum concentrations of L, Z, and beta-carotene were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Eleven subjects modified their usual daily diets by adding 60 g of spinach (10.8 mg L, 0.3 mg Z, 5 mg beta-carotene) and ten also added 150 g of corn (0.3 mg Z, 0.4 mg L); two other subjects were given only corn. Dietary modification lasted up to 15 weeks. For the subjects fed spinach or spinach and corn, three types of responses to dietary modification were identified: Eight "retinal responders" had increases in serum L (mean, 33%; SD, 22%) and in MP density (mean, 19%; SD, 11%); two "retinal nonresponders" showed substantial increases in serum L (mean, 31%) but not in MP density (mean, -11%); one "serum and retinal nonresponder" showed no changes in serum L, Z, or beta-carotene and no change in MP density. For the two subjects given only corn, serum L changed little (+11%, -6%), but in one subject serum Z increased (70%) and MP density increased (25%). Increases in MP density were obtained within 4 weeks of dietary modification for most, but not all, subjects. When MP density increased with dietary modification, it remained elevated for at least several months after resuming an unmodified diet. Augmentation of MP for both experimental and clinical investigation appears to be feasible for many persons.

  14. Evaluation of methodologies for assessing the overall diet: dietary quality scores and dietary pattern analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocké, Marga C

    2013-05-01

    This paper aims to describe different approaches for studying the overall diet with advantages and limitations. Studies of the overall diet have emerged because the relationship between dietary intake and health is very complex with all kinds of interactions. These cannot be captured well by studying single dietary components. Three main approaches to study the overall diet can be distinguished. The first method is researcher-defined scores or indices of diet quality. These are usually based on guidelines for a healthy diet or on diets known to be healthy. The second approach, using principal component or cluster analysis, is driven by the underlying dietary data. In principal component analysis, scales are derived based on the underlying relationships between food groups, whereas in cluster analysis, subgroups of the population are created with people that cluster together based on their dietary intake. A third approach includes methods that are driven by a combination of biological pathways and the underlying dietary data. Reduced rank regression defines linear combinations of food intakes that maximally explain nutrient intakes or intermediate markers of disease. Decision tree analysis identifies subgroups of a population whose members share dietary characteristics that influence (intermediate markers of) disease. It is concluded that all approaches have advantages and limitations and essentially answer different questions. The third approach is still more in an exploration phase, but seems to have great potential with complementary value. More insight into the utility of conducting studies on the overall diet can be gained if more attention is given to methodological issues.

  15. [Comparison of 24 hour dietary recalls with a food frequency questionnaire in evaluating dietary fat intakes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Juan; Zhuo, Qin; He, Yu-na

    2016-05-01

    To compare the difference and correlation of dietary fat intakes measures from the food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) with measures from 24 hour dietary recalls (24HDRs), and provide evidence for the future research of dietary fat. A total of 511 participants, selected from Zhejiang province, were asked to complete an FFQ and 24HDRs. The consumption of energy, fat, fatty acids, the percentages of energy from fat were calculated with the FFQ and 24HDRs and the results were analyzed. There was no difference between FFQ and 24HDRs in energy, fat, fatty acids and the percentages of energy from fat. Sperman's rank correlation coefficient between the two methods were 0.51 in energy, 0.58 in fat and 0. 57 in the percentages of energy from fat. The proportion of subjects who were assigned to the same or adjacent quintile groups were 80.73% for energy, 84.81% for fat and 83. 38% for the percentages of energy from fat. An effective FFQ can evaluate dietary fat consumption and rank participants well. Selecting the simple and easy FFQ method to assess the dietary fat intake would he a good choice when research the relationship between dietary fat and chronic disease in the future.

  16. Short Tools to Assess Young Children's Dietary Intake: A Systematic Review Focusing on Application to Dietary Index Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinda K. Bell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary indices evaluate diet quality, usually based on current dietary guidelines. Indices can therefore contribute to our understanding of early-life obesity-risk dietary behaviours. Yet indices are commonly applied to dietary data collected by onerous methods (e.g., recalls or records. Short dietary assessment instruments are an attractive alternative to collect data from which to derive an index score. A systematic review of studies published before April 2013 was conducted to identify short (≤50 items tools that measure whole-of-diet intake of young children (birth-five years and are applicable to dietary indices, in particular screening obesogenic dietary behaviours. The search identified 3686 papers of which 16, reporting on 15 tools (n=7, infants and toddlers birth-24 months; n=8, preschoolers 2–5 years, met the inclusion criteria. Most tools were food frequency questionnaires (n=14, with one innovative dietary questionnaire identified. Seven were tested for validity or reliability, and one was tested for both. Six tools (n=2, infants and toddlers; n=4, preschoolers are applicable for use with current dietary indices, five of which screen obesogenic dietary behaviours. Given the limited number of brief, valid and reliable dietary assessment tools for young children to which an index can be applied, future short tool development is warranted, particularly for screening obesogenic dietary behaviours.

  17. Development and validation of a Meal Index of dietary Quality (Meal IQ) to assess the dietary quality of school lunches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabinsky, Marianne S; Toft, Ulla; Andersen, Klaus Kaae

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: School lunch programmes are one strategy to promote healthier dietary habits in children, but better evaluation tools for assessing the dietary quality of such programmes are needed. The aim of the present study was to develop and validate a simple index to assess the dietary quality...

  18. Experience of maintaining laboratory educational website′s sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izak B Dimenstein

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory methodology websites are specialized niche websites. The visibility of a niche website transforms it into an authority site on a particular "niche of knowledge." This article presents some ways in which a laboratory methodology website can maintain its sustainability. The optimal composition of the website includes a basic content, a blog, and an ancillary part. This article discusses experimenting with the search engine optimization query results page. Strategic placement of keywords and even phrases, as well as fragmentation of the post′s material, can improve the website′s visibility to search engines. Hyperlinks open a chain reaction of additional links and draw attention to the previous posts. Publications in printed periodicals are a substantial part of a niche website presence on the Internet. Although this article explores a laboratory website on the basis of our hands-on expertise maintaining "Grossing Technology in Surgical Pathology" (www.grossing-technology.com website with a high volume of traffic for more than a decade, the recommendations presented here for developing an authority website can be applied to other professional specialized websites. The authority websites visibility and sustainability are preconditions for aggregating them in a specialized educational laboratory portal.

  19. Maintaining operational excellence: building capability beyond knowledge transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramjist, S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the issues relating to human resources and maintaining capabilities in an organization. The sustaining elements are: vision and plan for excellence; invest in the plant; invest in human capital; find and fix problems. There is much discussion about knowledge transfer and retention that is mainly focused on technical attributes and proficiency. We are losing more people with the requisite managerial and leadership capability than we can develop and backfill at a Time when our industry is facing increased competition and decreased margins. We are vulnerable because this Increases our dependence on augmented staff for certain key leadership roles. Previous methods for developing people will take too long and does not appeal to current generation. A solution, not the only solution, but the one we have chosen is initial hiring of operators, maintainers and engineers, internal promotion for key roles (FLM, FSOS, Shift Supervisor, Section Manager, ANO) and focus on all three aspects of capability and looking for leadership traits. Look for ambition, drive, initiative and motivation. Identify, separate and stream. Take specific measures to accelerate growth.

  20. Multiple Relationships : Maintaining Professional Identity in Rural Social Work Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Brownlee

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Working in a rural community locates the professional in a wider social network as community members often expect more from their professionals; not only as service providers, but also as engaged members of the community. This can result in the rural social worker being highly visible both personally and professionally and it can also lead to overlapping relationships. These higher expectations can place stress on the worker in terms of maintaining accepted professional roles and a sense of professional identity. This qualitative study explores the first-hand experiences of a cross-section of service providers in more than a dozen communities within northwestern Ontario and northern Manitoba, Canada. The responses of the participants provide some insight into how rural practitioners maintain their professional identity when working within the unique demands of the rural and remote context. Recurring themes from the interviews suggest that these professionals craft their own informal decision-making processes to address intersecting roles, community gossip, and personal isolation, even while, in some cases, practicing in their home community. The findings provide greater understanding of the pressures and realities of working in small remote towns and the challenges of responding to the expectations and realities of relationships including the expectation of working with friends and family members of friends or colleagues: issues that have not been adequately studied in the literature to date.

  1. The human brain maintains contradictory and redundant auditory sensory predictions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marika Pieszek

    Full Text Available Computational and experimental research has revealed that auditory sensory predictions are derived from regularities of the current environment by using internal generative models. However, so far, what has not been addressed is how the auditory system handles situations giving rise to redundant or even contradictory predictions derived from different sources of information. To this end, we measured error signals in the event-related brain potentials (ERPs in response to violations of auditory predictions. Sounds could be predicted on the basis of overall probability, i.e., one sound was presented frequently and another sound rarely. Furthermore, each sound was predicted by an informative visual cue. Participants' task was to use the cue and to discriminate the two sounds as fast as possible. Violations of the probability based prediction (i.e., a rare sound as well as violations of the visual-auditory prediction (i.e., an incongruent sound elicited error signals in the ERPs (Mismatch Negativity [MMN] and Incongruency Response [IR]. Particular error signals were observed even in case the overall probability and the visual symbol predicted different sounds. That is, the auditory system concurrently maintains and tests contradictory predictions. Moreover, if the same sound was predicted, we observed an additive error signal (scalp potential and primary current density equaling the sum of the specific error signals. Thus, the auditory system maintains and tolerates functionally independently represented redundant and contradictory predictions. We argue that the auditory system exploits all currently active regularities in order to optimally prepare for future events.

  2. The Challenges of Maintaining Nuclear Cultures. US and UK Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, Linton; McKane, Tom

    2016-01-01

    After the world entered the nuclear age, civilian and military organizations have witnessed the slow emergence of nuclear cultures, defined as the set of values and knowledge, shared among the national security community, about the relative importance of nuclear weapons in the country's defense posture, the distinctive features of nuclear weapons in terms of security, safety and operational requirements, and the workings of deterrence. Nuclear cultures have helped to ensure some level of coherence in policy-making and, most importantly, to maintain safe and effective deterrents. At a national level, however, each nuclear culture is confronted with significant challenges, such as generational change, decreasing levels of understanding or attention among the political and military leadership, insufficient funding or a growing inability to meet manpower requirements in both the nuclear weapons complexes and the armed forces. This paper looks at the United States and United Kingdom's recent efforts to maintain their nuclear culture, and at the key challenges these two countries face while pursuing this aim. (authors)

  3. Maintaining families’ well-being in everyday life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Ziegert

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to discuss how everyday life changes for the family in the event of chronic illness or disability. It changes physically due to loss of body function and socially due to time and other constraints related to treatment or lack of mobility. Equally important, there is a psychological impact due to the uncertainty of the future. The article will explore how family participation can help to maintain well-being in everyday life. The family should therefore focus on their own needs as much as on the needs of the family members who are ill. In order to maintain well-being in everyday life, it is crucial for the family to create routines and spend time doing things that they enjoy. By doing this, the family will create a rhythm of well-being regardless of the critical family situation. Family members and professional caregivers also need to come together at the beginning and during the illness or disability event to discuss changes that could be made day-to-day for all those involved, thereby making for an easier transition into care giving.

  4. Acoustic waves in M dwarfs: Maintaining a corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullan, D. J.; Cheng, Q. Q.

    1994-01-01

    We use a time-dependent hydrodynamics code to follow the propagation of acoustic waves into the corona of an M dwarf star. An important qualitative difference between M dwarfs and stars such as the Sun is that the acoustic spectrum in M dwarfs is expected to peak at periods close to the acoustic cutoff P(sub A): this allows more effective penetration of waves into the corona. In our code, radiative losses in the photosphere, chromosphere, and corona are computed using Rosseland mean opacities, Mg II kappa and Ly alpha emission, and optically thin emissivities respectively. We find that acoustic heating can maintain a corona with a temperature of order 0.7-1 x 10(exp 6) K and a surface X-ray flux as large as 10(exp 5)ergs/sq cm/s. In a recent survey of X-rays from M dwarfs, some (20%-30%) of the stars lie at or below this limiting X-ray flux: we suggest that such stars may be candidates for acoustically maintained coronae.

  5. How to keep punishment to maintain cooperation: Introducing social vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Okada, Isamu

    2016-02-01

    Although there is much support for the punishment system as a sophisticated approach to resolving social dilemmas, more than a few researchers have also pointed out the limitations of such an approach. Second-order free riding is a serious issue facing the punishment system. Various pioneering works have suggested that an anti-social behavior or noise stemming from a mutation may, surprisingly, be helpful for avoiding second-order freeloaders. In this work, we show through mathematical analysis and an agent-based simulation of a model extending the meta-norms game that the coercive introduction of a small number of non-cooperators can maintain a cooperative regime robustly. This paradoxical idea was inspired by the effect of a vaccine, which is a weakened pathogen injected into a human body to create antibodies and ward off infection by that pathogen. Our expectation is that the coercive introduction of a few defectors, i.e., a social vaccine, will help maintain a highly cooperative regime because it will ensure that the punishment system works.

  6. Sister chromosome pairing maintains heterozygosity in parthenogenetic lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutes, Aracely A; Neaves, William B; Baumann, Diana P; Wiegraebe, Winfried; Baumann, Peter

    2010-03-11

    Although bisexual reproduction has proven to be highly successful, parthenogenetic all-female populations occur frequently in certain taxa, including the whiptail lizards of the genus Aspidoscelis. Allozyme analysis revealed a high degree of fixed heterozygosity in these parthenogenetic species, supporting the view that they originated from hybridization events between related sexual species. It has remained unclear how the meiotic program is altered to produce diploid eggs while maintaining heterozygosity. Here we show that meiosis commences with twice the number of chromosomes in parthenogenetic versus sexual species, a mechanism that provides the basis for generating gametes with unreduced chromosome content without fundamental deviation from the classic meiotic program. Our observation of synaptonemal complexes and chiasmata demonstrate that a typical meiotic program occurs and that heterozygosity is not maintained by bypassing recombination. Instead, fluorescent in situ hybridization probes that distinguish between homologues reveal that bivalents form between sister chromosomes, the genetically identical products of the first of two premeiotic replication cycles. Sister chromosome pairing provides a mechanism for the maintenance of heterozygosity, which is critical for offsetting the reduced fitness associated with the lack of genetic diversity in parthenogenetic species.

  7. Hamilton's inclusive fitness maintains heritable altruism polymorphism through rb = c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changcao; Lu, Xin

    2018-02-20

    How can altruism evolve or be maintained in a selfish world? Hamilton's rule shows that the former process will occur when rb > c -the benefits to the recipients of an altruistic act b , weighted by the relatedness between the social partners r , exceed the costs to the altruists c -drives altruistic genotypes spreading against nonaltruistic ones. From this rule, we infer that altruistic genotypes will persist in a population by forming a stable heritable polymorphism with nonaltruistic genotypes if rb = c makes inclusive fitness of the two morphs equal. We test this prediction using the data of 12 years of study on a cooperatively breeding bird, the Tibetan ground tit Pseudopodoces humilis , where helping is performed by males only and kin-directed. Individual variation in ever acting as a helper was heritable ( h 2 = 0.47), and the resultant altruism polymorphism remained stable as indicated by low-level annual fluctuation of the percentage of helpers among all adult males (24-28%). Helpers' indirect fitness gains from increased lifetime reproductive success of related breeders statistically fully compensated for their lifetime direct fitness losses, suggesting that rb = c holds. While our work provides a fundamental support for Hamilton's idea, it highlights the equivalent inclusive fitness returns to altruists and nonaltruists mediated by rb = c as a theoretically and realistically important mechanism to maintain social polymorphism.

  8. Local neutral networks help maintain inaccurately replicating ribozymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilágyi, András; Kun, Ádám; Szathmáry, Eörs

    2014-01-01

    The error threshold of replication limits the selectively maintainable genome size against recurrent deleterious mutations for most fitness landscapes. In the context of RNA replication a distinction between the genotypic and the phenotypic error threshold has been made; where the latter concerns the maintenance of secondary structure rather than sequence. RNA secondary structure is treated as a proxy for function. The phenotypic error threshold allows higher per digit mutation rates than its genotypic counterpart, and is known to increase with the frequency of neutral mutations in sequence space. Here we show that the degree of neutrality, i.e. the frequency of nearest-neighbour (one-step) neutral mutants is a remarkably accurate proxy for the overall frequency of such mutants in an experimentally verifiable formula for the phenotypic error threshold; this we achieve by the full numerical solution for the concentration of all sequences in mutation-selection balance up to length 16. We reinforce our previous result that currently known ribozymes could be selectively maintained by the accuracy known from the best available polymerase ribozymes. Furthermore, we show that in silico stabilizing selection can increase the mutational robustness of ribozymes due to the fact that they were produced by artificial directional selection in the first place. Our finding offers a better understanding of the error threshold and provides further insight into the plausibility of an ancient RNA world.

  9. Maintaining operational excellence: building capability beyond knowledge transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramjist, S. [Ontario Power Generation, Darlington Nuclear Generating Station, Bowmanville, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes the issues relating to human resources and maintaining capabilities in an organization. The sustaining elements are: vision and plan for excellence; invest in the plant; invest in human capital; find and fix problems. There is much discussion about knowledge transfer and retention that is mainly focused on technical attributes and proficiency. We are losing more people with the requisite managerial and leadership capability than we can develop and backfill at a Time when our industry is facing increased competition and decreased margins. We are vulnerable because this Increases our dependence on augmented staff for certain key leadership roles. Previous methods for developing people will take too long and does not appeal to current generation. A solution, not the only solution, but the one we have chosen is initial hiring of operators, maintainers and engineers, internal promotion for key roles (FLM, FSOS, Shift Supervisor, Section Manager, ANO) and focus on all three aspects of capability and looking for leadership traits. Look for ambition, drive, initiative and motivation. Identify, separate and stream. Take specific measures to accelerate growth.

  10. Maintaining Sibling Relationships for Children in Foster and Adoptive Placements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Sigrid; Monn, Amy R; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Leslie, Laurel K

    2008-01-01

    To better understand the nature of sibling relationships among children in foster or adoptive placement and the challenges and processes involved in maintaining these relationships, we conducted an exploratory analysis of data collected from semi-structured interviews with caregivers of 14 foster and adopted children in San Diego County. We identified three patterns of placement histories and living situations which appeared to impact the degree of contact maintained with siblings: (1) children who had never lived together and were not currently placed together; (2) children who at some point lived with or were placed together with their siblings, but were now separated from them; and (3) children who had lived with their siblings all their life and were placed together with at least some of their siblings at the time of the interview. Children's current living situations and placement histories, caregivers' experiences and perceptions of feasibility and desirability of sibling contact, and the sibling relationship itself are primary determinants in the development and maintenance of contact between siblings. Implications for child welfare policy and practice are discussed.

  11. The Effects of Dietary Factors on Blood Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Lawrence J

    2017-05-01

    Evidence supports that multiple dietary factors affect blood pressure (BP). Dietary changes that effectively lower BP are weight loss, reduced sodium intake, increased potassium intake, moderation of alcohol intake, and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension-style and vegetarian dietary patterns. In view of the increasing levels of BP in children and adults and the continuing epidemic of BP-related cardiovascular and renal diseases, efforts to reduce BP in both nonhypertensive and hypertensive individuals are warranted. The challenge to health care providers, researchers, government officials, and the general public is developing and implementing clinical and public health strategies that lead to sustained dietary changes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Dietary fibres in the regulation of appetite and food intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mette; Jensen, Morten Møller Georg

    2011-01-01

    of satiety. Particularly the ability of some dietary fibres to increase viscosity of intestinal contents offers numerous opportunities to affect appetite regulation. This may be linked to increased chyme viscosity, as linseed dietary fibre has water holding capacity and intrinsic viscosity which...... it is essential to have an understanding of individual dietary fibre viscosity characteristics. The goal of this paper is to provide a brief overview on the role of dietary fibres in appetite regulation highlighting the importance of viscosity and also include new findings on the role of linseed dietary fibre...... on appetite regulation....

  13. Guide to Operating and Maintaining EnergySmart Schools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-01-01

    Through a commitment to high performance, school districts are discovering that smart energy choices can create lasting benefits for students, communities, and the environment. For example, an energy efficient school district with 4,000 students can save as much as $160,000 a year in energy costs. Over 10 years, those savings can reach $1.6 million, translating into the ability to hire more teachers, purchase more textbooks and computers, or invest in additional high performance facilities. Beyond these bottomline benefits, schools can better foster student health, decrease absenteeism, and serve as centers of community life. The U.S. Department of Energy's EnergySmart Schools Program promotes a 30 percent improvement in existing school energy use. It also encourages the building of new schools that exceed code (ASHRAE 90.11999) by 50 percent or more. The program provides resources like this Guide to Operating and Maintaining EnergySmart Schools to assist school decisionmakers in planning, financing, operating, and maintaining energy efficient, high performance schools. It also offers education and training for building industry professionals. Operations and maintenance refer to all scheduled and unscheduled actions for preventing equipment failure or decline with the goal of increasing efficiency, reliability, and safety. A preventative maintenance program is the organized and planned performance of maintenance activities in order to prevent system or production problems or failures from occurring. In contrast, deferred maintenance or reactive maintenance (also called diagnostic or corrective maintenance) is conducted to address an existing problem. This guide is a primary resource for developing and implementing a districtor schoolwide operations and maintenance (O&M) program that focuses on energy efficiency. The EnergySmart Schools Solutions companion CD contains additional supporting information for design, renovation, and retrofit projects. The objective

  14. Discriminant analysis of maintaining a vertical position in the water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bratuša Zoran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Water polo is the only sports game that takes place in the water. During the outplay, a vertical body position with the two basic mechanisms of the leg work - a breaststroke leg kick and an eggbeater leg kick, prevails. Starting from the significance of a vertical position during the game play, the methods of assessing physical preparedness of the athletes of all the categories also include the evaluation of maintaining a vertical position and consequently the load of the leg muscles. The measurements are performed during the maintenance of a vertical position (swimming in place through one of the specified mechanisms of leg work, i.e. a vertical position technique. The aim of this paper was to determine the application of different mechanisms of the leg kicks in maintaining a vertical position with young water polo players in relation to their position. The study included 29 selected junior water polo players (age_15.8 ± 0.8 years; BH_185.2 ± 5.3cm and BW_81.7 ± 7.7kg. The measurements were performed during the tests of swimming in place at the maximum intensity lasting 10 seconds, by the breaststroke and eggbeater leg kicks. The isometric tensiometry tests were used for the measurements. The results were analysed by the application of descriptive statistics, and the kinetic selection characteristic was defined by the application of discriminant analysis. Higher average values were achieved with the breaststroke leg kick technique Fmax, ImpF and RFD (avgFmaxLEGGBK =157.46±19.93N; avgImpF_LEGGBK =45.43±10.64Ns; avgRFD_LEGGBK=337.85±80.73N/s; avgFmaxLBKICK=227.18±49.17N; avgImpF_LBKICK=55.99±14.59Ns; avgRFD_LBKICK=545.47±159.15N/s. After discriminant analysis, the results have shown that the eggbeater leg kick is a selection technique, whereas the force - Fmax is a kinetic selection variable. Based on the obtained results and the analyses performed it may be concluded that a training factor dominant for maintaining a vertical position by

  15. Healthy-eater self-schema and dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noureddine, Samar; Stein, Karen

    2009-03-01

    The types and amounts of foods consumed have been shown to influence the health risks of individuals. Empirical evidence has documented a link between high dietary fat and low fiber intake and the risks for cardiovascular disease, some types of cancer, and obesity. Dietary surveys of Americans show higher fat and lower fiber intake than stipulated in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, despite the noted increase in public awareness regarding the importance of adopting healthy eating habits. The lack of congruence between the availability of dietary knowledge and behavioral adherence to dietary recommendations suggests a need to further understand the predictors of dietary intake. In this study, the authors used the schema model of the self-concept to explore the role of self-beliefs in predicting dietary intake in community-dwelling, working-class, middle-aged adults.

  16. Dietary protein safety and resistance exercise: what do we really know?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lowery Lonnie M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Resistance trainers continue to receive mixed messages about the safety of purposely seeking ample dietary protein in their quest for stimulating protein synthesis, improving performance, or maintaining health. Despite protein's lay popularity and the routinely high intakes exhibited by strength athletes, liberal and purposeful protein consumption is often maligned by "experts". University textbooks, instructors, and various forms of literature from personal training groups and athletic organizations continue to use dissuasive language surrounding dietary protein. Due to the widely known health benefits of dietary protein and a growing body of evidence on its safety profile, this is unfortunate. In response, researchers have critiqued unfounded educational messages. As a recent summarizing example, the International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN Position Stand: Protein and Exercise reviewed general literature on renal and bone health. The concluding remark that "Concerns that protein intake within this range [1.4 – 2.0 g/kg body weight per day] is unhealthy are unfounded in healthy, exercising individuals." was based largely upon data from non-athletes due to "a lack of scientific evidence". Future studies were deemed necessary. This assessment is not unique in the scientific literature. Investigators continue to cite controversy, debate, and the lack of direct evidence that allows it. This review discusses the few existing safety studies done specific to athletes and calls for protein research specific to resistance trainers. Population-specific, long term data will be necessary for effective education in dietetics textbooks and from sports governing bodies.

  17. A Study on the Dietary Intake and the Nutritional Status among the Pancreatic Cancer Surgical Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jimin; Park, Joon Seong; Yoon, Dong Sup; Kim, Woo Jeong; Chung, Hae-Yun; Lee, Song Mi; Chang, Namsoo

    2016-10-01

    The adequate dietary intake is important to maintain the nutritional status of the patients after pancreatic cancer surgery. This prospective study was designed to investigate the dietary intake and the nutritional status of the patients who had pancreatic cancer surgery. Thirty-one patients (15 men, 16 women) were enrolled and measured body weight, body mass index (BMI), nutritional risk index (NRI), and Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST). Actual oral intake with nutritional impact symptoms recorded on the clinical research foam at every meal and medical information were collected from electronic medical charts. The rates of malnutrition at admission were 45.1% (14/31) and 28.9% (9/31) by NRI and MUST method, respectively, but those were increased to 87% (27/31) and 86.6% (26/31) after operation on discharge. The median values of daily intake of energy, carbohydrates, fat, and protein were 588.1 kcal, 96.0 g, 11.8 g, and 27.0 g, respectively. Most patients (n = 20, 64.5%) experienced two or more symptoms such as anorexia, abdominal bloating and early satiety. There were negative correlations between C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and the intake of total energy, protein, fat, and zinc. The rates of malnutrition were increased sharply after surgery and the dietary intake also influenced the inflammatory indicators. The results suggested that need of considering special therapeutic diets for the patients who received pancreatic surgery.

  18. Dietary habits and physical activity patterns among Slovenian elderly: cross-sectional survey with cluster analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joca Zurc

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Physical activity and a healthy diet are significant predictors of healthy ageing—they help the elderly maintain their physical and mental health, and prevent chronic diseases. Methods: The data for the empirical quantitative survey were collected on the sample of 218 elderly community-dwelling participants (aged 65 years or more, using a structured questionnaire for self-reporting. Data analyses were proceed with the bivariate statistics, and multivariate hierarchical cluster analysis. Results: Most respondents reported good dietary habits (83.1% and a satisfactory physical activity level (60.5%. On average, the elderly eat 3-4 meals per day (59.8% and engage in physical activity at least three times a week (58.6%, with interventions lasting 15 minutes or more (84.4 % and non-organized activity prevailing (96.2%. Ward’s method yielded three clusters with homogenous dietary and physical activity patterns: ‘Health Conscious’ (30.8%, ‘At Risk’ (42.7% and ‘Special Requirements’ (26.5%. Significant differences were identified between clusters and educational level (p = 0.001. Discussion and conclusions: In the future, special attention should be placed on the elderly group with a lower educational level and special dietary and physical activity requirements. Additional studies on representative samples are required for a comprehensive investigation into the lifestyle behaviours of elderly individuals.

  19. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and the Australian Diet—Comparing Dietary Recommendations with Average Intakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilly A. Hendrie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition guidelines now consider the environmental impact of food choices as well as maintaining health. In Australia there is insufficient data quantifying the environmental impact of diets, limiting our ability to make evidence-based recommendations. This paper used an environmentally extended input-output model of the economy to estimate greenhouse gas emissions (GHGe for different food sectors. These data were augmented with food intake estimates from the 1995 Australian National Nutrition Survey. The GHGe of the average Australian diet was 14.5 kg carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e per person per day. The recommended dietary patterns in the Australian Dietary Guidelines are nutrient rich and have the lowest GHGe (~25% lower than the average diet. Food groups that made the greatest contribution to diet-related GHGe were red meat (8.0 kg CO2e per person per day and energy-dense, nutrient poor “non-core” foods (3.9 kg CO2e. Non-core foods accounted for 27% of the diet-related emissions. A reduction in non-core foods and consuming the recommended serves of core foods are strategies which may achieve benefits for population health and the environment. These data will enable comparisons between changes in dietary intake and GHGe over time, and provide a reference point for diets which meet population nutrient requirements and have the lowest GHGe.

  20. DIETARY BLACK CUMIN (NIGELLA SATIVA SEED OIL AFFECTS SERUM LIPIDS IN CHICKEN BROILERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Hodžić

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The research was performed on 40 chicken broilers of Cobb provenience to investigate the effect of dietary black cumin seed oil on some blood biochemical parameters in chicken broilers. 40 chicken broilers who were included in the 42 days lasting experiment were divided into two groups, each one of 20 individuals. Group K was the control – with no added oil in feed mixture and the second group P was the experimental one – chickens were fed with 0,025 g of p.o. administered black cumin seed oil. Feed and water supplies were ad libitum. Microclimate conditions (light, temperature and airflow were maintained according to the technological procedure. Blood samples were taken from the wing vein of all animals from both groups at age of 25, 32 and 39 days. The following blood serum biochemical parameters were determined: total lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, albumen and calcium. Dietary black cumin seed oil significantly (P<0.05 affected serum lipid components, particularly total lipids, but not albumen and calcium in chicken broilers. Possible reason for these findings could be dietary fat component as well as fatty-acid composition of added black cumin seed oil. Key words: black cumin seed oil, chicken broilers, blood serum biochemical parameters, fatty acid composition of oil

  1. Influence of dietary casein or lactalbumin on incorporation of 14C leucine into protein of ethanol-perfused livers of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, K.A.C.; Treloar, B.P.; Hove, E.L.; Sedcole, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    Rats were fed diets containing casein or lactalbumin as the sole source of protein (c. 200 g protein/kg diet) for about 4 weeks. At 190-210 g live weight the rats were anaesthetised, and the livers were perfused with ethanol (0-3.7 mL/100 mL perfusate, i.e., 0-625 m ) and 30 minutes later with 14 C leucine (5 micro g Ci) for 60 minutes. The specific radioactivity (dpm/mg protein) of liver and perfusate protein was determined. The log specific radioactivity data of each dietary group were described by a 2-phase linear model: a constant or plateau level up to an ethanol concentration of c. 2 mL ethanol/100 mL perfusate (340 m ), and a linear decrease in log specific radioactivity above that level. For the liver protein the constant log specific radioactivity of the casein dietary group was significantly higher than that for the lactalbumin dietary group. The decreases in log specific radioactivity for both liver and perfusate in the casein dietary group were significantly greater than those in the lactalbumin dietary group. The dietary dependent difference in incorporation with varying ethanol concentrations may result from a combination of control over liver protein synthesis and protein secretion. Predisposing rats to 2 high-quality protein diets results in differences in liver protein metabolism which are maintained against a wide range of ethanol perfusate concentrations. (auths)

  2. Comparative Neuroprotective Effects of Dietary Curcumin and Solid Lipid Curcumin Particles in Cultured Mouse Neuroblastoma Cells after Exposure to Aβ42

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panchanan Maiti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aggregation of amyloid beta protein (Aβ and phosphorylated tau (p-Tau plays critical roles in pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. As an antiamyloid natural polyphenol, curcumin (Cur has a potential role in prevention of neurodegeneration in AD. However, due to limited absorption of the dietary Cur, the solid lipid Cur particles (SLCP have been suggested as being more effective for AD therapy. In the present study, we compared the role of dietary Cur and SLCP on oxidative stress, neuronal death, p-Tau level, and certain cell survival markers in vitro, after exposure to Aβ42. Mouse neuroblastoma cells were exposed to Aβ42 for 24 h and incubated with or without dietary Cur and/or SLCP. Reactive oxygen species (ROS, apoptotic cell death, p-Tau, and tau kinase (including GSK-3β and cell survival markers, such as total Akt, phosphorylated Akt, and PSD95 levels were investigated. SLCP showed greater permeability than dietary Cur in vitro, decreased ROS production, and prevented apoptotic death. In addition, SLCP also inhibited p-Tau formation and significantly decreased GSK-3β levels. Further, the cell survival markers, such as total Akt, p-Akt, and PSD95 levels, were more effectively maintained by SLCP than dietary Cur in Aβ42 exposed cells. Therefore, SLCP may provide greater neuroprotection than dietary Cur in Alzheimer’s disease.

  3. Dietary restriction alters fine motor function in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lori K; Metz, Gerlinde A

    2005-08-07

    A number of standard behavioral tasks in animal research utilize food rewards for positive reinforcement. In order to enhance the motivation to participate in these tasks, animals are usually placed on a restricted diet. While dietary restriction (DR) has been shown to have beneficial effects on recovery after brain injury, life span and aging processes, it might also represent a stressor. Since stress can influence a broad range of behaviors, the purpose of this study was to assess whether DR may have similar effects on skilled movement. Adult male Long-Evans rats were trained and tested in a skilled reaching task both prior to and during a mild food restriction regimen that maintained their body weights at 90-95% of baseline weight for eight days. The observations revealed that DR decreased reaching success and increased the number of attempts to grasp a single food pellet. The animals appeared to be more frantic when attempting to reach for food pellets, and the time taken to reach for 20 pellets decreased following the onset of DR. A second experiment investigating behaviors that do not require food rewards, including a ladder rung walking task and an open field test, confirmed that rats on DR display deficits in skilled movements and are hyperactive. These findings suggest that results obtained in motor tasks using food rewards need to be interpreted with caution. The findings are discussed with respect to stress associated with DR.

  4. Dietary habits among persons hired on shift work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzemecka, Joanna; Bojar, Iwona; Strzemecka, Ewa; Owoc, Alfred

    2014-01-01

    Shift-work determinates irregular nutrition habits. The quality as well as the quantity of meals consumed by shift-workers can significantly affects their health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dietary habits of people performing shift work in the Bogdanka mine. The study was carried out in the Bogdanka mine in Leczna. The questionnaire, which was designed by the author of this dissertation, was conducted among 700 shift-workers, working underground. The results were subjected to statistical analysis based on STATISTICA v. 7.1 (StatSoft, Poland) software. Nearly half of respondents reported regular consumption of meals (40.0%) Interviewees admitted having warm meals during the day (81.4%). The most frequently consumed meal during the day was the hot one (50.9%), three meals and more were consumed the least frequently (8.1%). Almost half of respondents considered their eating habits as inappropriate (46.3%). Among those, nearly half (68.2%) stated that shift - work is the reason for their nutrition habits. More than half of respondents (66.0%) admitted that shift work hampers regular consumption of meals. Shift work makes nourishment and regular consumption difficult. It contributes to the limited amount of warm meals eaten during the day. In order to maintain preventive health care and the improvement of quality of life, shift workers should be provided with an easier access to meals (including warm one) at specified times of the day.

  5. Weight loss maintenance: A review on dietary related strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Azizi Soeliman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Weight regain after weight loss is a common problem for all those obese or overweight who have had a recent weight loss. Different cures such as diet therapy, behavioral therapy, exercise or a mixture of them have been advised as solutions. The purpose of this review is to find the best diet or eating pattern to maintain a recent weight loss. Materials and Methods: We searched in PubMed and SCOPUS by using the following key words: Overweight, obesity, weight maintenance, weight regain, and diet therapy. Finally, we assessed 26 articles in the present article. Results: Meal replacement, low carbohydrate-low glycemic index (GI diet, high protein intake, and moderate fat consumption have shown some positive effects on weight maintenance. However, the results are controversial. A Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH-type diet seems helpful for weight maintenance although the need for more study has remained. Some special behaviors were associated with less weight regain, such as, not being awake late at night, drinking lower amount of sugar-sweetened beverages, and following a healthy pattern. Some special foods have been suggested for weight maintenance. However, the roles of specific foods are not confirmed. Conclusion: Healthy diets recommend low carbohydrate, low GI, and moderate fat foods, but it is not clear whether they are useful in preventing weight gain. It seems that consuming fewer calories helps people to keep weight loss. Further research to find strategies in obesity management focusing on successful maintenance of weight loss is needed.

  6. Microbiota-stimulated immune mechanisms to maintain gut homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hachung; Kasper, Dennis Lee

    2010-08-01

    In recent years there has been an explosion of interest to identify microbial inhabitants of human and understand their beneficial role in health. In the gut, a symbiotic host-microbial interaction has coevolved as bacteria make essential contributions to human metabolism and bacteria in turn benefits from the nutrient-rich niche in the intestine. To maintain host-microbe coexistence, the host must protect itself against microbial invasion, injury, and overreactions to foreign food antigens, and gut microbes need protection against competing microbes and the host immune system. Perturbation of this homeostatic coexistence has been strongly associated with human disease. This review discusses how gut bacteria regulate host innate and adaptive immunity, with emphasis on how this regulation contributes to host-microbe homeostasis in the gut. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Reliability And Maintainability Issues for the Next Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Zane J.; Gold, Saul L.; Koontz, Ron F.; Lavine, Ted L.

    2011-01-01

    Large accelerators for high energy physics research traditionally have been designed using informal best design, engineering, and management practices to achieve acceptable levels of operational availability. However, the Next Linear Collider(NLC) project presents a particular challenge for operational availability due to the unprecedented size and complexity of the accelerator systems required to achieve the physics goals of high center-of-mass energy and high luminosity. Formal reliability and maintainability analysis, design, and implementation will be required to achieve acceptable operational availability for the high energy physics research program. This paper introduces some of the basic concepts of reliability analysis and applies them to the 2.6-cm microwave power system of the two 10-km-long, 250-GeV linacs that are currently proposed for the NLC design.

  8. Maintaining consistency between planning hierarchies: Techniques and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoch, David R.

    1987-01-01

    In many planning and scheduling environments, it is desirable to be able to view and manipulate plans at different levels of abstraction, allowing the users the option of viewing and manipulating either a very detailed representation of the plan or a high-level more abstract version of the plan. Generating a detailed plan from a more abstract plan requires domain-specific planning/scheduling knowledge; the reverse process of generating a high-level plan from a detailed plan Reverse Plan Maintenance, or RPM) requires having the system remember the actions it took based on its domain-specific knowledge and its reasons for taking those actions. This reverse plan maintenance process is described as implemented in a specific planning and scheduling tool, The Mission Operations Planning Assistant (MOPA), as well as the applications of RPM to other planning and scheduling problems; emphasizing the knowledge that is needed to maintain the correspondence between the different hierarchical planning levels.

  9. Method for rudder roll stabilization control by maintaining ship speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Zhiquan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A ship navigating on the surface of the water may experience greater resistance, adversely affect-ing its speed and leading to energy loss. The added resistance of surface ships in both still water and waves are investigated, and the computation method of total speed loss is presented. An autopilot system is intro-duced to constrain the speed loss, and course keeping and rudder roll stabilization sliding mode control laws are proposed according to a compact control strategy. The two working conditions of "heading" and "heading plus anti-roll" are discussed, including roll stabilization, heading error, speed maintenance and rudder abrasion. The results show that the speed can be effectively maintained using this method, and from a commercial point of view, the fin-rudder roll stabilization control is not recommended for vessels equipped with both fins and rudders.

  10. Study on eliminating fire dampers to maintain process confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walling, R.C.; Patel, J.B.; Strunk, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    The DOE General Design Criteria for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site (WSRS) requires the NFPA National Fire Codes to be incorporated into the design and simultaneously maintain process confinement integrity to prevent the release of radioactivity. Although the NFPA Standard for the Installation of Air Conditioning and Ventilation Systems, NFPA 90, requires fire dampers (FD) in HVAC duct penetrations of two hour rated fire barriers, closure of fire dampers at DWPF may compromise the integrity of the process confinement system. This leads to the need for an overall risk assessment to determine the value of 39 fire dampers that are identified later in the study as capable of a confinement system upset

  11. NiTi bonded space regainer/maintainer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negi K

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Early orthodontic interventions are often initiated in the developing dentition to promote favorable developmental changes. Interceptive orthodontic can eliminate or reduce the severity of a developing malocclusion, the complexity of orthodontic treatment, overall treatment time and cost. Premature loss of deciduous tooth or teeth can often destroy the integrity of normal occlusion. There are many space regaining and maintaining devices mentioned in literature. In this article, I present a simple space regaining method by a piece of nickel titanium (NiTi wire bonded between the teeth in active loop form, and the unique shape memory property of NiTi wire will upright or move the teeth and the lost space can be regained easily.

  12. Maintaining bone health in prostate cancer throughout the disease continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Fred; Eastham, James

    2010-06-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the most prevalent malignancy in men, with 604,506 new cases diagnosed yearly worldwide. Maintaining bone health is important during all stages of PC, including patients who experience bone loss from androgen-deprivation therapy and patients who develop bone metastases. Patients with bone metastases often experience severe bone pain and are at increased risk for potentially debilitating skeletal-related events. Bisphosphonates are a well-established treatment option for patients with bone metastases from solid tumors and bone lesions from multiple myeloma. Zoledronic acid (ZOL) is the only bisphosphonate (BP) that has been extensively studied in patients with castration-recurrent PC and is indicated for treating patients with bone metastases from PC in conjunction with standard antineoplastic therapy. This review will examine the breadth of evidence supporting a role for ZOL and emerging therapies in managing patients with PC throughout the disease continuum. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Hepatobiliary scanning in cardiac transplant patients maintained on cyclosporine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhekne, R.D.; Long, S.E.; Moore, W.H.; Frazier, O.H.

    1987-01-01

    Many patients receiving cyclosporine (CSA) develop hepatic dysfunction or pancreatitis. The authors reviewed 106 records of cardiac transplant patients maintained on CSA. Eleven patients underwent 16 hepatobiliary scans (HBSs) for abdominal pain and/or abnormal liver function. Of 16 HBSs, ten demonstrated normal gallbladder visualization. Follow-up in all cases confirmed scan findings. Five patients had no gallbladder visualization; confirmation of acute cholecystitis was obtained by surgery in two and by autopsy in three. One patient had previous cholecystectomy. The authors found HPS useful for evaluating acute cholecystitis in patients receiving CSA with or without associated drug-related pancreatitis and hepatic insufficiency and suggest that HBS can assist in the selection of patients for CSA dose adjustment

  14. Gamma radiation combined with cinnamon oil to maintain fish quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Fei; Zhang, Jing; Wei, Qianqian; Gao, Fei; Ding, Yuting; Liu, Shulai

    2017-12-01

    Effects of gamma radiation combined with cinnamon oil on quality of Northern Snakehead fish fillets were observed during storage at 4 °C. Fish fillets were treated with 1-5 kGy gamma radiation, 0.05-0.5% cinnamon oil or the combination of radiation and cinnamon oil. The antimicrobial activity increased with radiation dose and cinnamon oil concentration. During storage, the combination of 1 kGy radiation and 0.5% cinnamon oil displayed better inhibiting activities on aerobic plate counts, total volatile basic nitrogen, thiobarbituric acid reaction substances than 1 kGy radiation or 0.5% cinnamon oil used alone. Moreover, the combination could arrive at the similar inhibiting activities of cinnamon oil with higher concentration of 0.5% or radiation with higher dose of 5 kGy. Thus, the combination could decrease the radiation dose and cinnamon oil concentration without decreasing the effect of them on maintaining fish quality.

  15. Human factors review of power plant maintainability. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seminara, J.L.; Parsons, S.O.

    1981-02-01

    Human factors engineering is an interdisciplinary science and technology concerned with shaping the design of machines, facilities, and operational environments to promote safe, efficient, and reliable performance on the part of operators and maintainers of equipment systems. The human factors aspects of five nuclear power plants and four fossil fuel plants were evaluated using such methods as a check list guided observation system, structured interviews with maintenance personnel, direct observation of maintenance tasks, reviews of procedures, and analyses of maintenance errors or accidents by means of the critical incident technique. The study revealed a wide variety of human factors problem areas, most of which are extensively photodocumented. The study recommends that a more systematic and formal approach to ensure that future power plants are human engineered to the needs of maintenance personnel

  16. Sociable mobile robots through self-maintained energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngo, Trung Dung; Schiøler, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    society, collecting and sharing are experimentally recognized as the highest property. This paper issues an approach to sociable robots using self-maintained energy in robot society, which is naturally inspired from swarm behavior of honey-bee and ant. Typically, autonomous mobile robots are usually......Research of sociable robots has emphasized interaction and coordination of mobile robots with inspiration from natural behavior of birds, insects, and fish: flocking, foraging, collecting, sharing and so forth. However, the animal behaviors are looking for food towards survival. In an animal...... equipped with a finite energy, thus they can operate in a finite time. To overcome the limitation, we describe practical deployment of a group of mobile robot with the possibility of carrying and exchanging fuel, e.g. battery to other robots. Early implementation that includes modular hardware and control...

  17. The role of lactobacilli and probiotics in maintaining vaginal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Sandra; Silva, Joana; Teixeira, Paula

    2014-03-01

    The vaginal microbiota of healthy women consists typically of a diversity of anaerobic and aerobic microorganisms. Lactobacilli are the most prevalent and often numerically dominant microorganisms and are relevant as a barrier to infection. The capacity of lactobacilli to adhere and compete for adhesion sites in the vaginal epithelium and the capacity to produce antimicrobial compounds (hydrogen peroxide, lactic acid, bacteriocin-like substances), are important in the impairment of colonization by pathogens. This review summarizes the role of lactic acid bacteria in preventing illness of the host, including bacterial vaginosis, yeast vaginitis, urinary tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases. The administration of probiotics that colonize the vaginal tract can be important in maintaining a normal urogenital health and also to prevent or treat infections.

  18. Optimal design of a maintainable cold-standby system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Haiyang [Universite de technologie de Troyes, ISTIT, Rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 TROYES (France)]. E-mail: Haiyang.YU@utt.fr; Yalaoui, Farouk [Universite de technologie de Troyes, ISTIT, Rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 TROYES (France); Chatelet, Eric [Universite de technologie de Troyes, ISTIT, Rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 TROYES (France); Chu Chengbin [Universite de technologie de Troyes, ISTIT, Rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 TROYES (France); Management School, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei (China)

    2007-01-15

    This paper considers a framework to optimally design a maintainable cold-standby system. Not only the maintenance policy is to be determined, but also the reliability character of the components will be taken into account. Hence, the mean time to failure of the components and the policy time of good-as-new maintenances are proposed as decision variables. Following probability analyses, the system cost rate and the system availability are formulated as the optimization object and the constraint, respectively. Then, this optimization problem is directly resolved by recognizing its underlying properties. Moreover, the resolving procedure is found to be independent of the failure distributions of the components and the forms of the system cost, which is illustrated through a numerical example. As a conclusion, an exact method is successfully established to minimize the cost rate of a cold-standby system with the given maintenance facility.

  19. Optimal design of a maintainable cold-standby system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Haiyang; Yalaoui, Farouk; Chatelet, Eric; Chu Chengbin

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers a framework to optimally design a maintainable cold-standby system. Not only the maintenance policy is to be determined, but also the reliability character of the components will be taken into account. Hence, the mean time to failure of the components and the policy time of good-as-new maintenances are proposed as decision variables. Following probability analyses, the system cost rate and the system availability are formulated as the optimization object and the constraint, respectively. Then, this optimization problem is directly resolved by recognizing its underlying properties. Moreover, the resolving procedure is found to be independent of the failure distributions of the components and the forms of the system cost, which is illustrated through a numerical example. As a conclusion, an exact method is successfully established to minimize the cost rate of a cold-standby system with the given maintenance facility

  20. The effects of irradiation on Babesia maintained in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irvin, A.D.; Young, E.R.; Adams, P.J.V.

    1979-01-01

    Blood infected with Babesia rodhaini, B major or B divergens was irradiated to different absorbed doses between 0 and 120 krad, and then maintained in vitro in the presence of 3 H hypoxanthine for 24 h. The effects of irradiation were measured by the ability of the parasites to incorporate 3 H hypoxanthine and, in the case of B rodhaini, by the ability of the parasite to infect mice. B major and B divergens were slightly more radioresistant than B rodhaini, but all showed a progressive fall in ability to incorporate 3 H hypoxanthine with increasing does of irradiation when there was increased uptake of 3 H hypoxanthine. In the case of B rodhaini there was close correlation between the ability of the parasites to incorporate 3 H hypoxanthine and their infectivity for mice. Both types of activity were abolished at doses of 40 krad and above. (author)

  1. Rewarding peer reviewers: maintaining the integrity of science communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Gerasimov, Alexey N; Voronov, Alexander A; Kitas, George D

    2015-04-01

    This article overviews currently available options for rewarding peer reviewers. Rewards and incentives may help maintain the quality and integrity of scholarly publications. Publishers around the world implemented a variety of financial and nonfinancial mechanisms for incentivizing their best reviewers. None of these is proved effective on its own. A strategy of combined rewards and credits for the reviewers1 creative contributions seems a workable solution. Opening access to reviews and assigning publication credits to the best reviews is one of the latest achievements of digitization. Reviews, posted on academic networking platforms, such as Publons, add to the transparency of the whole system of peer review. Reviewer credits, properly counted and displayed on individual digital profiles, help distinguish the best contributors, invite them to review and offer responsible editorial posts.

  2. Lipoprotein Lipase Maintains Microglial Innate Immunity in Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanqing Gao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of a hypercaloric diet upregulates microglial innate immune reactivity along with a higher expression of lipoprotein lipase (Lpl within the reactive microglia in the mouse brain. Here, we show that knockdown of the Lpl gene specifically in microglia resulted in deficient microglial uptake of lipid, mitochondrial fuel utilization shifting to glutamine, and significantly decreased immune reactivity. Mice with knockdown of the Lpl gene in microglia gained more body weight than control mice on a high-carbohydrate high-fat (HCHF diet. In these mice, microglial reactivity was significantly decreased in the mediobasal hypothalamus, accompanied by downregulation of phagocytic capacity and increased mitochondrial dysmorphologies. Furthermore, HCHF-diet-induced POMC neuronal loss was accelerated. These results show that LPL-governed microglial immunometabolism is essential to maintain microglial function upon exposure to an HCHF diet. In a hypercaloric environment, lack of such an adaptive immunometabolic response has detrimental effects on CNS regulation of energy metabolism.

  3. Methods of achieving and maintaining an appropriate caesarean section rate.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Robson, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Caesarean section rates continue to increase worldwide. The appropriate caesarean section rate remains a topic of debate among women and professionals. Evidence-based medicine has not provided an answer and depends on interpretation of the literature. Overall caesarean section rates are unhelpful, and caesarean section rates should not be judged in isolation from other outcomes and epidemiological characteristics. Better understanding of caesarean section rates, their consequences and their benefits will improve care, and enable learning between delivery units nationally and internationally. To achieve and maintain an appropriate caesarean section rate requires a Multidisciplinary Quality Assurance Programme in each delivery unit, recognising caesarean section rates as one of many factors that determine quality. Women will always choose the type of delivery that seems safest to them and their babies. Professionals need to monitor the quality of their practice continuously in a standardised way to ensure that women can make the right choice.

  4. Optimal fit of chairside-fabricated distal shoe space maintainer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, M R; Kennedy, D B

    2013-10-01

    Premature loss of a primary second molar may lead to space loss in the dental arch. This space loss tends to be more severe in unfavourable malocclusions. The distal shoe space maintainer (DSSM) may be beneficial in controlling the path of eruption of an unerupted permanent first molar from the primary into the early mixed dentition. This article describes the technique for achieving optimal fit of a chairside-fabricated band and DSSM in a single visit by contouring the distal shoe blade, and by extending it to the mesial surface of the permanent first molar. Upon the eruption of the permanent first molar DSSM may be modified to a reverse band-and-loop, or replaced by a lingual holding arch.

  5. Hindbrain ghrelin receptor signaling is sufficient to maintain fasting glucose.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael M Scott

    Full Text Available The neuronal coordination of metabolic homeostasis requires the integration of hormonal signals with multiple interrelated central neuronal circuits to produce appropriate levels of food intake, energy expenditure and fuel availability. Ghrelin, a peripherally produced peptide hormone, circulates at high concentrations during nutrient scarcity. Ghrelin promotes food intake, an action lost in ghrelin receptor null mice and also helps maintain fasting blood glucose levels, ensuring an adequate supply of nutrients to the central nervous system. To better understand mechanisms of ghrelin action, we have examined the roles of ghrelin receptor (GHSR expression in the mouse hindbrain. Notably, selective hindbrain ghrelin receptor expression was not sufficient to restore ghrelin-stimulated food intake. In contrast, the lowered fasting blood glucose levels observed in ghrelin receptor-deficient mice were returned to wild-type levels by selective re-expression of the ghrelin receptor in the hindbrain. Our results demonstrate the distributed nature of the neurons mediating ghrelin action.

  6. Ecuador to withdraw from OPEC; group to maintain present flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, which has agreed to maintain its present combined production of 24.2 million b/d of oil in the fourth quarter, will soon see the first pullout of a member. The 13 member group will shrink to 12, probably in November, when Ecuador withdraws. Ecuador President Sixto Duran Ballen issued notice of the pullout Sept. 17, a little more than 1 month after he took office. Ecuador, strapped for cash, wants to save OPEC membership dues reported to be $2-3 million/year. It plans to remain an associate member, although it wasn't immediately clear what that means. No other countries are regarded as associate members

  7. Variability of Plyometric and Ballistic Exercise Technique Maintains Jump Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Phillip T; Greig, Matthew; Comfort, Paul; McMahon, John J

    2018-06-01

    Chandler, PT, Greig, M, Comfort, P, and McMahon, JJ. Variability of plyometric and ballistic exercise technique maintains jump performance. J Strength Cond Res 32(6): 1571-1582, 2018-The aim of this study was to investigate changes in vertical jump technique over the course of a training session. Twelve plyometric and ballistic exercise-trained male athletes (age = 23.4 ± 4.6 years, body mass = 78.7 ± 18.8 kg, height = 177.1 ± 9.0 cm) performed 3 sets of 10 repetitions of drop jump (DJ), rebound jump (RJ) and squat jump (SJ). Each exercise was analyzed from touchdown to peak joint flexion and peak joint flexion to take-off. Squat jump was analyzed from peak joint flexion to take-off only. Jump height, flexion and extension time and range of motion, and instantaneous angles of the ankle, knee, and hip joints were measured. Separate 1-way repeated analyses of variance compared vertical jump technique across exercise sets and repetitions. Exercise set analysis found that SJ had lower results than DJ and RJ for the angle at peak joint flexion for the hip, knee, and ankle joints and take-off angle of the hip joint. Exercise repetition analysis found that the ankle joint had variable differences for the angle at take-off, flexion, and extension time for RJ. The knee joint had variable differences for flexion time for DJ and angle at take-off and touchdown for RJ. There was no difference in jump height. Variation in measured parameters across repetitions highlights variable technique across plyometric and ballistic exercises. This did not affect jump performance, but likely maintained jump performance by overcoming constraints (e.g., level of rate coding).

  8. Human sclera maintains common characteristics with cartilage throughout evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Seko

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The sclera maintains and protects the eye ball, which receives visual inputs. Although the sclera does not contribute significantly to visual perception, scleral diseases such as refractory scleritis, scleral perforation and pathological myopia are considered incurable or difficult to cure. The aim of this study is to identify characteristics of the human sclera as one of the connective tissues derived from the neural crest and mesoderm. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have demonstrated microarray data of cultured human infant scleral cells. Hierarchical clustering was performed to group scleral cells and other mesenchymal cells into subcategories. Hierarchical clustering analysis showed similarity between scleral cells and auricular cartilage-derived cells. Cultured micromasses of scleral cells exposed to TGF-betas and BMP2 produced an abundant matrix. The expression of cartilage-associated genes, such as Indian hedge hog, type X collagen, and MMP13, was up-regulated within 3 weeks in vitro. These results suggest that human 'sclera'-derived cells can be considered chondrocytes when cultured ex vivo. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our present study shows a chondrogenic potential of human sclera. Interestingly, the sclera of certain vertebrates, such as birds and fish, is composed of hyaline cartilage. Although the human sclera is not a cartilaginous tissue, the human sclera maintains chondrogenic potential throughout evolution. In addition, our findings directly explain an enigma that the sclera and the joint cartilage are common targets of inflammatory cells in rheumatic arthritis. The present global gene expression database will contribute to the clarification of the pathogenesis of developmental diseases such as high myopia.

  9. Interferometric sensor based on the polarization-maintaining fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubik, Jakub; Kepak, Stanislav; Doricak, Jan; Vašinek, Vladimir; Liner, Andrej; Papes, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The interferometers composed of optical fibers are due to its high sensitivity capable of to measure various influences affecting the fiber. These influences may be bending or different sorts of fiber deformations, vibration, temperature, etc. In this case the vibration is the measured quantity, which is evaluated by analyzing the interference fringes representing changes in the fiber. Was used a Mach-Zehnder interferometer composed of the polarization maintaining elements. The polarization maintaining elements were used because of high sensitivity to polarization state inside the interferometer. The light was splitted into the two optical paths, where the first one is the reference fiber and it is separated from the actual phenomenon, and the second one is measuring fiber, which is directly exposed to vibration transmission from the underlying surface. The light source was narrowband DFB laser serating at a wavelength of 1550nm and as a detector an InGaAs PIN photodiode were used in this measurement. The electrical signal from the photodiode was amplified and fed into the measuring card. On the incoming signal the FFT was applied, which performs the transformation into the frequency domain and the results were further evaluated by software. We were evaluating the characteristic frequencies and their amplitude ratios. The frequency responses are unique for a given phenomenon, thus it is possible to identify recurring events by the characteristic frequencies and their amplitude ratios. The frequency range was limited by the properties of the used speaker, by the frequency characteristics of the filter in the amplifier and used resonant element. For the experiment evaluation the repeated impact of the various spherical objects on the surface board was performed and measured. The stability of amplitude and frequency and also the frequency range was verified in this measurement.

  10. AMP-18 Targets p21 to Maintain Epithelial Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peili; Li, Yan Chun; Toback, F Gary

    2015-01-01

    Dysregulated homeostasis of epithelial cells resulting in disruption of mucosal barrier function is an important pathogenic mechanism in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). We have characterized a novel gastric protein, Antrum Mucosal Protein (AMP)-18, that has pleiotropic properties; it is mitogenic, anti-apoptotic and can stimulate formation of tight junctions. A 21-mer synthetic peptide derived from AMP-18 exhibits the same biological functions as the full-length protein and is an effective therapeutic agent in mouse models of IBD. In this study we set out to characterize therapeutic mechanisms and identify molecular targets by which AMP-18 maintains and restores disrupted epithelial homeostasis in cultured intestinal epithelial cells and a mouse model of IBD. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, a pro-inflammatory cytokine known to mediate gastrointestinal (GI) mucosal injury in IBD, was used to induce intestinal epithelial cell injury, and study the effects of AMP-18 on apoptosis and the cell cycle. An apoptosis array used to search for targets of AMP-18 in cells exposed to TNF-α identified the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 WAF1/CIP1. Treatment with AMP-18 blunted increases in p21 expression and apoptosis, while reversing disturbed cell cycle kinetics induced by TNF-α. AMP-18 appears to act through PI3K/AKT pathways to increase p21 phosphorylation, thereby reducing its nuclear accumulation to overcome the antiproliferative effects of TNF-α. In vitamin D receptor-deficient mice with TNBS-induced IBD, the observed increase in p21 expression in colonic epithelial cells was suppressed by treatment with AMP peptide. The results indicate that AMP-18 can maintain and/or restore the homeostatic balance between proliferation and apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells to protect and repair mucosal barrier homeostasis and function, suggesting a therapeutic role in IBD.

  11. AMP-18 Targets p21 to Maintain Epithelial Homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peili Chen

    Full Text Available Dysregulated homeostasis of epithelial cells resulting in disruption of mucosal barrier function is an important pathogenic mechanism in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD. We have characterized a novel gastric protein, Antrum Mucosal Protein (AMP-18, that has pleiotropic properties; it is mitogenic, anti-apoptotic and can stimulate formation of tight junctions. A 21-mer synthetic peptide derived from AMP-18 exhibits the same biological functions as the full-length protein and is an effective therapeutic agent in mouse models of IBD. In this study we set out to characterize therapeutic mechanisms and identify molecular targets by which AMP-18 maintains and restores disrupted epithelial homeostasis in cultured intestinal epithelial cells and a mouse model of IBD. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, a pro-inflammatory cytokine known to mediate gastrointestinal (GI mucosal injury in IBD, was used to induce intestinal epithelial cell injury, and study the effects of AMP-18 on apoptosis and the cell cycle. An apoptosis array used to search for targets of AMP-18 in cells exposed to TNF-α identified the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 WAF1/CIP1. Treatment with AMP-18 blunted increases in p21 expression and apoptosis, while reversing disturbed cell cycle kinetics induced by TNF-α. AMP-18 appears to act through PI3K/AKT pathways to increase p21 phosphorylation, thereby reducing its nuclear accumulation to overcome the antiproliferative effects of TNF-α. In vitamin D receptor-deficient mice with TNBS-induced IBD, the observed increase in p21 expression in colonic epithelial cells was suppressed by treatment with AMP peptide. The results indicate that AMP-18 can maintain and/or restore the homeostatic balance between proliferation and apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells to protect and repair mucosal barrier homeostasis and function, suggesting a therapeutic role in IBD.

  12. Neural stem cells achieve and maintain pluripotency without feeder cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Woo Choi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Differentiated cells can be reprogrammed into pluripotency by transduction of four defined transcription factors. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells are expected to be useful for regenerative medicine as well as basic research. Recently, the report showed that mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF cells are not essential for reprogramming. However, in using fibroblasts as donor cells for reprogramming, individual fibroblasts that had failed to reprogram could function as feeder cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Here, we show that adult mouse neural stem cells (NSCs, which are not functional feeder cells, can be reprogrammed into iPS cells using defined four factors (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc under feeder-free conditions. The iPS cells, generated from NSCs expressing the Oct4-GFP reporter gene, could proliferate for more than two months (passage 20. Generated and maintained without feeder cells, these iPS cells expressed pluripotency markers (Oct4 and Nanog, the promoter regions of Oct4 and Nanog were hypomethylated, could differentiated into to all three germ layers in vitro, and formed a germline chimera. These data indicate that NSCs can achieve and maintain pluripotency under feeder-free conditions. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study suggested that factors secreted by feeder cells are not essential in the initial/early stages of reprogramming and for pluripotency maintenance. This technology might be useful for a human system, as a feeder-free reprogramming system may help generate iPS cells of a clinical grade for tissue or organ regeneration.

  13. Cost-effective solutions to maintaining smart grid reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Qiu

    As the aging power systems are increasingly working closer to the capacity and thermal limits, maintaining an sufficient reliability has been of great concern to the government agency, utility companies and users. This dissertation focuses on improving the reliability of transmission and distribution systems. Based on the wide area measurements, multiple model algorithms are developed to diagnose transmission line three-phase short to ground faults in the presence of protection misoperations. The multiple model algorithms utilize the electric network dynamics to provide prompt and reliable diagnosis outcomes. Computational complexity of the diagnosis algorithm is reduced by using a two-step heuristic. The multiple model algorithm is incorporated into a hybrid simulation framework, which consist of both continuous state simulation and discrete event simulation, to study the operation of transmission systems. With hybrid simulation, line switching strategy for enhancing the tolerance to protection misoperations is studied based on the concept of security index, which involves the faulted mode probability and stability coverage. Local measurements are used to track the generator state and faulty mode probabilities are calculated in the multiple model algorithms. FACTS devices are considered as controllers for the transmission system. The placement of FACTS devices into power systems is investigated with a criterion of maintaining a prescribed level of control reconfigurability. Control reconfigurability measures the small signal combined controllability and observability of a power system with an additional requirement on fault tolerance. For the distribution systems, a hierarchical framework, including a high level recloser allocation scheme and a low level recloser placement scheme, is presented. The impacts of recloser placement on the reliability indices is analyzed. Evaluation of reliability indices in the placement process is carried out via discrete event

  14. The Dietary Patterns Methods Project: Synthesis of Findings across Cohorts and Relevance to Dietary Guidance1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liese, Angela D; Krebs-Smith, Susan M; Subar, Amy F; George, Stephanie M; Harmon, Brook E; Neuhouser, Marian L; Boushey, Carol J; Schap, TusaRebecca E; Reedy, Jill

    2015-01-01

    The Dietary Patterns Methods Project (DPMP) was initiated in 2012 to strengthen research evidence on dietary indices, dietary patterns, and health for upcoming revisions of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, given that the lack of consistent methodology has impeded development of consistent and reliable conclusions. DPMP investigators developed research questions and a standardized approach to index-based dietary analysis. This article presents a synthesis of findings across the cohorts. Standardized analyses were conducted in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, the Multiethnic Cohort, and the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study (WHI-OS). Healthy Eating Index 2010, Alternative Healthy Eating Index 2010 (AHEI-2010), alternate Mediterranean Diet, and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) scores were examined across cohorts for correlations between pairs of indices; concordant classifications into index score quintiles; associations with all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer mortality with the use of Cox proportional hazards models; and dietary intake of foods and nutrients corresponding to index quintiles. Across all cohorts in women and men, there was a high degree of correlation and consistent classifications between index pairs. Higher diet quality (top quintile) was significantly and consistently associated with an 11–28% reduced risk of death due to all causes, CVD, and cancer compared with the lowest quintile, independent of known confounders. This was true for all diet index–mortality associations, with the exception of AHEI-2010 and cancer mortality in WHI-OS women. In all cohorts, survival benefit was greater with a higher-quality diet, and relatively small intake differences distinguished the index quintiles. The reductions in mortality risk started at relatively lower levels of diet quality. Higher scores on each of the indices, signifying higher diet quality, were associated with marked reductions in mortality

  15. Progress in developing analytical and label-based dietary supplement databases at the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Johanna T.; Picciano, Mary Frances; Betz, Joseph M.; Fisher, Kenneth D.; Saldanha, Leila G.; Yetley, Elizabeth A.; Coates, Paul M.; Milner, John A.; Whitted, Jackie; Burt, Vicki; Radimer, Kathy; Wilger, Jaimie; Sharpless, Katherine E.; Holden, Joanne M.; Andrews, Karen; Roseland, Janet; Zhao, Cuiwei; Schweitzer, Amy; Harnly, James; Wolf, Wayne R.; Perry, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    Although an estimated 50% of adults in the United States consume dietary supplements, analytically substantiated data on their bioactive constituents are sparse. Several programs funded by the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) at the National Institutes of Health enhance dietary supplement database development and help to better describe the quantitative and qualitative contributions of dietary supplements to total dietary intakes. ODS, in collaboration with the United States Department of Agriculture, is developing a Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID) verified by chemical analysis. The products chosen initially for analytical verification are adult multivitamin-mineral supplements (MVMs). These products are widely used, analytical methods are available for determining key constituents, and a certified reference material is in development. Also MVMs have no standard scientific, regulatory, or marketplace definitions and have widely varying compositions, characteristics, and bioavailability. Furthermore, the extent to which actual amounts of vitamins and minerals in a product deviate from label values is not known. Ultimately, DSID will prove useful to professionals in permitting more accurate estimation of the contribution of dietary supplements to total dietary intakes of nutrients and better evaluation of the role of dietary supplements in promoting health and well-being. ODS is also collaborating with the National Center for Health Statistics to enhance the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey dietary supplement label database. The newest ODS effort explores the feasibility and practicality of developing a database of all dietary supplement labels marketed in the US. This article describes these and supporting projects. PMID:25346570

  16. Development and validation of a Meal Index of dietary Quality (Meal IQ) to assess the dietary quality of school lunches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabinsky, Marianne; Toft, Ulla; Andersen, Klaus K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective School lunch programmes are one strategy to promote healthier dietary habits in children, but better evaluation tools for assessing the dietary quality of such programmes are needed. The aim of the present study was to develop and validate a simple index to assess the dietary quality...... of school lunches for children aged 7–13 years. Design A Meal Index of dietary Quality (Meal IQ) was developed to consist of seven components (nutrients and food groups) based on dietary issues for children aged 7–13 years, which were identified in a national dietary survey. The Meal IQ was validated......, higher contents of fibre, various vitamins and minerals, and more fruits, vegetables and fish. Conclusions The Meal IQ is a valid and useful evaluation tool for assessing the dietary quality of lunches provided by schools or brought to school from home....

  17. Dietary salt reduction for control of hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Tjan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In developed as well as developing countries, the four main factors affecting blood pressure are high salt intake, low potassium intake, overweight, and low physical activity level. This is also true for the increase in blood pressure with advancing age, occurring in all societies. It is now accepted that excess dietary salt raises blood pressure levels, whereas dietary salt reduction reduces blood pressure and prevents vascular complications.(1 The effect of salt on blood pressure is presumably due to the inability of the kidneys to excrete large amounts of salt, as humans are evolutionary adapted to ingest and excrete less than 1 gram of salt per day.(2 In this connection it should be noted that the more important element in common salt (sodium chloride is the sodium ion, and any restrictions applying to common salt also apply to all food items that contain sodium ions, such as sodium glutamate and baking soda.

  18. Consumers' dietary patterns and desires for change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Land, Birgit

    of the results of a questionnaire survey (Jelsøe, Land & Lassen, 1994), so that their ways of life, age, number of children, distance to etc., were known in advance. Their dietary patterns, as revealed by the questionnaire survey, had no influence on the selection. 3. Not unexpectedly, the questionnaire survey...... living at home and where the children had left home. In order to illustrate how dietary patterns affect the various daily practices of different ways of life another important selection criterion was to choose four families within each way of life: the wage earner w life, the career way of life...... explain how Ziehe's work can be linked to changes in food consumption. 5. The in-depth interviews were analysed across the twelve families around eleven focus points: * division of labour in the family and the time available * economic resources * consumers' perception of quality * ecological products...

  19. Dietary diversity and child malnutrition in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Boadi Frempong

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The health of children in Ghana has improved in recent years. However, the current prevalence rates of malnutrition remain above internationally acceptable levels. This study, therefore, revisits the determinants of child health by using Ghana’s Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey to investigate the effect of infant feeding practices on child health. We used the World Health Organization’s Infant and Young Children Feeding guidelines to measure dietary quality. The econometric analyses show that dietary diversity may cause improvement in children’s health in Ghana. This suggests that educational campaigns on proper infant feeding and complementary dieting could be an effective means of improving the health of children in Ghana.

  20. Adverse Effects of Nutraceuticals and Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronis, Martin J J; Pedersen, Kim B; Watt, James

    2018-01-06

    Over 70% of Americans take some form of dietary supplement every day, and the supplement industry is currently big business, with a gross of over $28 billion. However, unlike either foods or drugs, supplements do not need to be registered or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) prior to production or sales. Under the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994, the FDA is restricted to adverse report monitoring postmarketing. Despite widespread consumption, there is limited evidence of health benefits related to nutraceutical or supplement use in well-nourished adults. In contrast, a small number of these products have the potential to produce significant toxicity. In addition, patients often do not disclose supplement use to their physicians. Therefore, the risk of adverse drug-supplement interactions is significant. An overview of the major supplement and nutraceutical classes is presented here, together with known toxic effects and the potential for drug interactions.