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Sample records for dietary beta-carotene vitamin

  1. [Dietary sources of vitamin A, C, E and beta-carotene in a adult Mediterranean population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascón-Vila, P; Ribas, L; García-Closas, R; Farrán Codina, A; Serra-Majem, L

    1999-01-01

    Estimation of vitamin A, C, E and beta-carotene food sources, as well as its nutritional intake and density in adult Catalonian population. A cross-sectional study was conducted over 2,346 individuals obtained from the sample of Catalonian Survey of Nutritional Status aged 18 to 75 years old to estimate usual dietary intake of vitamins A, C, E and beta-carotene using two 24 hour dietary recalls administered in two periods (june-july and november-december of 1992). Replicated 24 hour Recalls allowed for estimation of usual intake. Calculation of food sources for vitamins encompassed three phases: foods transformation into nutrients, aggregation of foods in categories and sum of nutrients by food categories. Intake of vitamin A (equivalents of retinol of provitamin A and vitamin A), E, C were closely near or higher than RDA. Nutritional density of vitamin C, E and beta-carotene were higher in female group. Nutritional density was positively associated to age for vitamins C, E and beta-carotene. Addition fat was the first source of vitamin E and it reached 33.8% of total vitamin E intake. Vegetables contributed in 17.3 % to the total vitamin C, whereas fruits accounted for 57.9%. Fruits recached 40.6% of the total beta-carotene intake, whereas vegetables accounted for 34.8%. The major contributors of vitamin A were milk and dairy products. Nutritional intake of vitamin A, C and E are over the RDA parameters suggesting an healthy nutritional status that must be confirmed and ratify by biochemical assessment. Nutritional densities were higher in female gender than in males in vitamins C, E, and beta-carotene possibly due to a higher intake of total lipids in male gender than in females. Nutritional density was positively associated to age in the same group of vitamins, suggesting a higher intake of empty calories in younger group. Fruits and Vegetables accounted for more than 70% of vitamin C and beta-carotene and major contributors were citrics, carrots, tomatoes

  2. Simultant encapsulation of vitamin C and beta-carotene in sesame (Sesamum indicum l.) liposomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudiyanti, D.; Fawrin, H.; Siahaan, P.

    2018-04-01

    In this study sesame liposomes were used to encapsulate both vitamin C and beta-carotene simultaneously. Liposomes were prepared with addition of cholesterol. The encapsulation efficiency (EE) of sesame liposomes for vitamin C in the present of beta-carotene was 77%. The addition of cholesterol increased the encapsulation efficiency. The highest encapsulation efficiency was 89% obtained in liposomes with 10% and 20% cholesterol. Contrary to that, the highest beta-carotene encapsulation efficiency of 78%, was found in the sesame liposomes prepared without the added cholesterol. Results showed that sesame liposomes can be used to encapsulate beta-carotene and vitamin C simultaneously. When beta-carotene and vitamin C were encapsulated concurrently, cholesterol intensified the efficiency of vitamin C encapsulation on the contrary it diminished the efficiency of beta-carotene encapsulation.

  3. Vitamin A equivalency and apparent absorption of beta-carotene in ileostomy subjects using a dual-isotope dilution technique.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loo-Bouwman, C.A. Van; Naber, T.H.; Breemen, R.B. van; Zhu, D.; Dicke, H.; Siebelink, E.; Hulshof, P.J.; Russel, F.G.M.; Schaafsma, G.; West, C.E.

    2010-01-01

    The objective was to quantify the vitamin A equivalency of beta-carotene in two diets using a dual-isotope dilution technique and the apparent beta-carotene absorption as measured by the oral-faecal balance technique. Seventeen healthy adults with an ileostomy completed the 4-week diet-controlled,

  4. The effects of beta-carotene and vitamin E on erythrocytes lipid peroxidation in beta-thalassemia patients

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    Soleiman Mahjoub

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thalassemia is the most common hereditary disease in the world. Thalassemic erythrocytes are exposed to higher oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of beta-carotene and vitamin E on erythrocytes lipid peroxidation in beta-thalassemia patients.
    METHODS: A prospective double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the effect of beta-carotene and vitamin E on lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes membranes was performed on 120 beta-thalassemia major patients in four groups. The patients were supplemented for 4 weeks as follows: group 1 with beta-carotene (13 mg/day, group 2 with vitamin E (550 mg/day, group 3 with beta-carotene plus vitamin E and group 4 with placebo. We prepared all capsules for 4 roups in the same shape and color. Measurements of serum beta-carotene and vitamin E were performed by high performance
    liquid chromatography. After preparation of ghost cells from blood specimens, malondialdehyde (MDA was determined as index of lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes membranes before and after treatment. RESULTS: The levels of serum beta-carotene and vitamin E were significantly lower and MDA concentrations in erythrocytes membranes were significantly higher in beta-thalassemia patients compared to controls (P<0.001. In groups that treated with vitamin supplements for 4-weeks, lipid peroxidation rates were significantly reduced after treatment (P<0.001, but in placebo group there was not significant difference (P>0.05.
    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide evidence that an oral treatment with beta-carotene and vitamin E can significantly reduce lipid peroxidation of erythrocytes membranes and could be useful in management of beta-thalassemia major patients. KEYWORDS: Beta-thalassemia major, beta-carotene, vitamin E, malondialdehyde, lipid peroxidation.

  5. Vitamin A and beta-carotene concentrations in adults with HIV/AIDS on highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaio, Daniella Junko; Rondó, Patricia Helen Carvalho; Souza, José Maria Pacheco; Firmino, Aline Vale; Luzia, Liania Alves; Segurado, Aluisio Augusto

    2013-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiency is a common condition in HIV-infected individuals and may occur in all stages of the disease. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to compare the concentrations of vitamin A and beta-carotene, micronutrients related to immunity and oxidative stress, in 182 adults with HIV/AIDS, under different highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to their HAART regimen: combination of nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and non-NRTIs; combination of NRTIs, protease inhibitors, and ritonavir; combination of NRTIs and other classes. Multiple linear regression analysis determined the effect of the treatment regimen, time of use, and compliance with the regimen, on vitamin A and beta-carotene concentrations, controlling for the following variables: gender, age, educational level, smoking, physical activity, body mass index, time of infection with HIV, presence of comorbidities, CD4(+) T lymphocyte count, total cholesterol and fractions, and triglyceride levels. There was no significant difference in vitamin A or beta-carotene concentrations in patients under the different HAART regimens. However, approximately 4% of the patients had deficient/low concentrations of vitamin A (<0.70 μmol/L), and 98% showed concentrations of beta-carotene <1.0 μmol/L. In conclusion, HIV/AIDS patients in this region will not benefit from vitamin A supplementation, independently of the HAART regimen utilized, but beta-carotene may be of importance, considering its antioxidant effect.

  6. Vitamin A equivalency of beta-carotene in healthy adults: limitation of the extrinsic dual-isotope dilution technique to measure matrix effect.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loo-Bouwman, C.A. Van; West, C.E.; Breemen, R.B. van; Zhu, D.; Siebelink, E.; Versloot, P.; Hulshof, P.J.; Lieshout, M. van; Russel, F.G.M.; Schaafsma, G.; Naber, A.H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Data on the vitamin A equivalency of beta-carotene in food are inconsistent. We quantified the vitamin A equivalency (microg) of beta-carotene in two diets using the dual-isotope dilution technique and the oral-faecal balance technique. A diet-controlled, cross-over intervention study was conducted

  7. Effects of dietary alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene on lipid peroxidation induced by methyl mercuric chloride in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H R; Andersen, O

    1993-01-01

    -Tocopherol did not protect against CH3HgCl induced lipid peroxidation in the brain. Excess dietary beta-carotene further enhanced CH3HgCl induced lipid peroxidation in liver, kidney and brain. CH3HgCl significantly decreased the activity of total glutathione peroxidase (T-GSH-Px) and Se-dependent glutathione...

  8. Effects of dietary [alpha]-tocopherol and [beta]-carotene on lipid peroxidation induced by methyl mercuric chloride in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raun Andersen, H; Andersen, O [Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Odense, Odense (Denmark)

    1993-01-01

    Exposure of male CBA mice to methyl mercuric chloride, CH[sub 3]HgCl, (10-40 mg/l in drinking water) for 2 weeks resulted in dose-related Hg deposition and enhanced lipid peroxidation in liver, kidney and brain. Mice were fed well-defined semisynthetic diets containing different levels of [alpha]-tocopherol (10, 100 or 1000 mg/kg) or [beta]-carotene (1000, 10,000 or 100,000 IU/kg) for four weeks, two groups on each diet. The concentration of [alpha]-tocopherol and [beta]-carotene used corresponded to deficient, normal and high levels. During the last two weeks, one group on each diet was given 40 mg CH[sub 3]HgCl/l of drinking water. High dietary [alpha]-tocopherol protected against CH[sub 3]HgCl induced hepatic lipid peroxidation, whereas the [alpha]-tocopherol deficient diet further enhanced CH[sub 3]HgCl induced hepatic lipid peroxidation. Similar, though statistically non-significant effects occurred in the kidneys, [alpha]-tocopherol did not protect against CH[sub 3]HgCl induced lipid peroxidation in the brain. Excess dietary [beta]-carotene further enhanced CH[sub 3]HgCl induced lipid peroxidation in liver, kidney and brain. CH[sub 3]HgCl significantly decreased the activity of total glutathione peroxidase (T-GSH-Px) and Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase (Se-GSH-Px) in the kidneys in all dietary groups. High dietary [alpha]-tocopherol enhanced the activity of Se-GSH-Px in liver and kidney compared to the activity in mice fed the normal level of [alpha]-tocopherol. This occurred in mice exposed to CH[sub 3]-HgCl as well as in unexposed mice, and the difference between CH[sub 3]HgCl exposed and unexposed mice was not diminished. High dietary [alpha]-tocopherol increased the activity of both Se-GSH-Px and T-GSH-Px in the brain of CH[sub 3]HgCl-exposed mice. The dietary level of [beta]-carotene did not affect the activity of the two enzymes in the organs investigated. (au) (43 refs.).

  9. Meta-regression analyses, meta-analyses, and trial sequential analyses of the effects of supplementation with Beta-carotene, vitamin a, and vitamin e singly or in different combinations on all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Gluud, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Evidence shows that antioxidant supplements may increase mortality. Our aims were to assess whether different doses of beta-carotene, vitamin A, and vitamin E affect mortality in primary and secondary prevention randomized clinical trials with low risk of bias.......Evidence shows that antioxidant supplements may increase mortality. Our aims were to assess whether different doses of beta-carotene, vitamin A, and vitamin E affect mortality in primary and secondary prevention randomized clinical trials with low risk of bias....

  10. Effects of vitamin A or beta carotene supplementation on pregnancy-related mortality and infant mortality in rural Bangladesh: a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Keith P; Christian, Parul; Labrique, Alain B; Rashid, Mahbubur; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Klemm, Rolf D W; Massie, Allan B; Mehra, Sucheta; Schulze, Kerry J; Ali, Hasmot; Ullah, Barkat; Wu, Lee S F; Katz, Joanne; Banu, Hashina; Akhter, Halida H; Sommer, Alfred

    2011-05-18

    Maternal vitamin A deficiency is a public health concern in the developing world. Its prevention may improve maternal and infant survival. To assess efficacy of maternal vitamin A or beta carotene supplementation in reducing pregnancy-related and infant mortality. Cluster randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial among pregnant women 13 to 45 years of age and their live-born infants to 12 weeks (84 days) postpartum in rural northern Bangladesh between 2001 and 2007. Interventions Five hundred ninety-six community clusters (study sectors) were randomized for pregnant women to receive weekly, from the first trimester through 12 weeks postpartum, 7000 μg of retinol equivalents as retinyl palmitate, 42 mg of all-trans beta carotene, or placebo. Married women (n = 125,257) underwent 5-week surveillance for pregnancy, ascertained by a history of amenorrhea and confirmed by urine test. Blood samples were obtained from participants in 32 sectors (5%) for biochemical studies. All-cause mortality of women related to pregnancy, stillbirth, and infant mortality to 12 weeks (84 days) following pregnancy outcome. Groups were comparable across risk factors. For the mortality outcomes, neither of the supplement group outcomes was significantly different from the placebo group outcomes. The numbers of deaths and all-cause, pregnancy-related mortality rates (per 100,000 pregnancies) were 41 and 206 (95% confidence interval [CI], 140-273) in the placebo group, 47 and 237 (95% CI, 166-309) in the vitamin A group, and 50 and 250 (95% CI, 177-323) in the beta carotene group. Relative risks for mortality in the vitamin A and beta carotene groups were 1.15 (95% CI, 0.75-1.76) and 1.21 (95% CI, 0.81-1.81), respectively. In the placebo, vitamin A, and beta carotene groups the rates of stillbirth and infant mortality were 47.9 (95% CI, 44.3-51.5), 45.6 (95% CI, 42.1-49.2), and 51.8 (95% CI, 48.0-55.6) per 1000 births and 68.1 (95% CI, 63.7-72.5), 65.0 (95% CI, 60.7-69.4), and 69

  11. Silencing of beta-carotene hydroxylase increases total carotenoid and beta-carotene levels in potato tubers

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    Pizzichini Daniele

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Beta-carotene is the main dietary precursor of vitamin A. Potato tubers contain low levels of carotenoids, composed mainly of the xanthophylls lutein (in the beta-epsilon branch and violaxanthin (in the beta-beta branch. None of these carotenoids have provitamin A activity. We have previously shown that tuber-specific silencing of the first step in the epsilon-beta branch, LCY-e, redirects metabolic flux towards beta-beta carotenoids, increases total carotenoids up to 2.5-fold and beta-carotene up to 14-fold. Results In this work, we silenced the non-heme beta-carotene hydroxylases CHY1 and CHY2 in the tuber. Real Time RT-PCR measurements confirmed the tuber-specific silencing of both genes . CHY silenced tubers showed more dramatic changes in carotenoid content than LCY-e silenced tubers, with beta-carotene increasing up to 38-fold and total carotenoids up to 4.5-fold. These changes were accompanied by a decrease in the immediate product of beta-carotene hydroxylation, zeaxanthin, but not of the downstream xanthophylls, viola- and neoxanthin. Changes in endogenous gene expression were extensive and partially overlapping with those of LCY-e silenced tubers: CrtISO, LCY-b and ZEP were induced in both cases, indicating that they may respond to the balance between individual carotenoid species. Conclusion Together with epsilon-cyclization of lycopene, beta-carotene hydroxylation is another regulatory step in potato tuber carotenogenesis. The data are consistent with a prevalent role of CHY2, which is highly expressed in tubers, in the control of this step. Combination of different engineering strategies holds good promise for the manipulation of tuber carotenoid content.

  12. A cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled, maternal vitamin a or beta-carotene supplementation trial in bangladesh: design and methods

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    Schulze Kerry

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We present the design, methods and population characteristics of a large community trial that assessed the efficacy of a weekly supplement containing vitamin A or beta-carotene, at recommended dietary levels, in reducing maternal mortality from early gestation through 12 weeks postpartum. We identify challenges faced and report solutions in implementing an intervention trial under low-resource, rural conditions, including the importance of population choice in promoting generalizability, maintaining rigorous data quality control to reduce inter- and intra- worker variation, and optimizing efficiencies in information and resources flow from and to the field. Methods This trial was a double-masked, cluster-randomized, dual intervention, placebo-controlled trial in a contiguous rural area of ~435 sq km with a population of ~650,000 in Gaibandha and Rangpur Districts of Northwestern Bangladesh. Approximately 120,000 married women of reproductive age underwent 5-weekly home surveillance, of whom ~60,000 were detected as pregnant, enrolled into the trial and gave birth to ~44,000 live-born infants. Upon enrollment, at ~ 9 weeks' gestation, pregnant women received a weekly oral supplement containing vitamin A (7000 ug retinol equivalents (RE, beta-carotene (42 mg, or ~7000 ug RE or a placebo through 12 weeks postpartum, according to prior randomized allocation of their cluster of residence. Systems described include enlistment and 5-weekly home surveillance for pregnancy based on menstrual history and urine testing, weekly supervised supplementation, periodic risk factor interviews, maternal and infant vital outcome monitoring, birth defect surveillance and clinical/biochemical substudies. Results The primary outcome was pregnancy-related mortality assessed for 3 months following parturition. Secondary outcomes included fetal loss due to miscarriage or stillbirth, infant mortality under three months of age, maternal obstetric and

  13. A cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled, maternal vitamin A or beta-carotene supplementation trial in Bangladesh: design and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrique, Alain B; Christian, Parul; Klemm, Rolf D W; Rashid, Mahbubur; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Massie, Allan; Schulze, Kerry; Hackman, Andre; West, Keith P

    2011-04-21

    We present the design, methods and population characteristics of a large community trial that assessed the efficacy of a weekly supplement containing vitamin A or beta-carotene, at recommended dietary levels, in reducing maternal mortality from early gestation through 12 weeks postpartum. We identify challenges faced and report solutions in implementing an intervention trial under low-resource, rural conditions, including the importance of population choice in promoting generalizability, maintaining rigorous data quality control to reduce inter- and intra- worker variation, and optimizing efficiencies in information and resources flow from and to the field. This trial was a double-masked, cluster-randomized, dual intervention, placebo-controlled trial in a contiguous rural area of ~435 sq km with a population of ~650,000 in Gaibandha and Rangpur Districts of Northwestern Bangladesh. Approximately 120,000 married women of reproductive age underwent 5-weekly home surveillance, of whom ~60,000 were detected as pregnant, enrolled into the trial and gave birth to ~44,000 live-born infants. Upon enrollment, at ~ 9 weeks' gestation, pregnant women received a weekly oral supplement containing vitamin A (7000 ug retinol equivalents (RE)), beta-carotene (42 mg, or ~7000 ug RE) or a placebo through 12 weeks postpartum, according to prior randomized allocation of their cluster of residence. Systems described include enlistment and 5-weekly home surveillance for pregnancy based on menstrual history and urine testing, weekly supervised supplementation, periodic risk factor interviews, maternal and infant vital outcome monitoring, birth defect surveillance and clinical/biochemical substudies. The primary outcome was pregnancy-related mortality assessed for 3 months following parturition. Secondary outcomes included fetal loss due to miscarriage or stillbirth, infant mortality under three months of age, maternal obstetric and infectious morbidity, infant infectious morbidity

  14. Changes in levels of serum beta-carotene, vitamin A and cholesterol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty newly diagnosed breast cancer patients were assessed for serum vitamin A, β - carotene and total cholesterol levels with their matched control (n = 20). The mean age and standard deviation of pre-menopausal breast cancer patients was 34.75± 6.57 while the mean age and standard deviation for controls was ...

  15. Beta-Carotene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease (COPD). It is also used to improve memory and muscle strength. Some people use beta-carotene ... to reduce the chance of death and night blindness during pregnancy, as well as diarrhea and fever ...

  16. Serum levels of vitamins A, C, and E, beta-carotene, selenium, and zinc in patients with Behçet's disease: a controlled study.

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    Erel, A; Ozsoy, E; Biberoğlu, G; Bilgihan, A; Hasanoğlu, A; Yis, M O; Atahan, C; Oruk, S

    2003-11-01

    Behçet's disease is a multisystemic disease characterized by activation and remission periods. The etiopathogenesis is not exactly known; a genetic defect in the immunoregulatory system induced by infectious agents, like viruses and bacteria, is thought to cause the disease. In this study, we examine the serum levels of vitamins A, C, and E, beta-carotene, selenium, and zinc in Behçet's disease patients and investigate the relationship between these serum levels and the activation of the disease. We conclude that adding vitamin E to the treatment of Behçet's disease patients and its effects on the prognosis of the disease need to be further investigated by controlled studies.

  17. Carotenoid composition of human milk during the first month postpartum and the response to beta-carotene supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossage, Cynthia P; Deyhim, Mercedeh; Yamini, Sedigheh; Douglass, Larry W; Moser-Veillon, Phylis B

    2002-07-01

    Information is lacking regarding normal changes in milk carotenoid concentrations in healthy, well-nourished women during the first month of lactation. This study investigated milk carotenoid concentrations during days 4-32 postpartum and assessed the effects of maternal beta-carotene supplementation. Subjects (n = 21; aged 19-39 y) were randomly assigned to receive beta-carotene (30 mg/d) or placebo from days 4 to 32 postpartum. Each subject provided 8 diet records and 8 milk samples during the study. Diet records were analyzed for energy, macronutrients, vitamins A and E, and carotenoids. Milk samples were analyzed with HPLC for concentrations of carotenoids, retinol, and alpha-tocopherol. Data were analyzed by using repeated-measures analysis and orthogonal contrasts. No significant differences in average dietary intakes, body mass index, age, or parity were found between groups at baseline or after supplementation. Milk carotenoid concentrations decreased over time (P milk by day 32 postpartum. Milk lutein concentrations remained elevated throughout the study compared with values reported for mature milk, whereas plasma lutein concentrations decreased significantly over time. beta-carotene supplementation did not significantly change the milk concentrations of beta-carotene, the other carotenoids, retinol, or alpha-tocopherol. The lack of increase in milk beta-carotene despite supplementation suggests that transitional milk may be already nearly saturated with beta-carotene. The elevated milk lutein concentration and simultaneous decrease in plasma lutein suggest that lutein metabolism may be altered during early lactation.

  18. Monitoring Maternal Beta Carotene and Retinol Consumption May Decrease the Incidence of Neurodevelopmental Disorders in Offspring

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    Joel S. Goldberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinoic acids (13-cis and 13-trans are known teratogens, and their precursor is retinol, a form of vitamin A. In 1995, Rothman et al demonstrated an association between excessive vitamin A, > 10,000 IU/day, during the first trimester of pregnancy and teratogenic effects, particularly in the central nervous system. However, vitamin A deficiency has long been known to be deleterious to the mother and fetus. Therefore, there may be a narrow therapeutic ratio for vitamin A during pregnancy that has not previously been fully appreciated. Neurodevelopmental disorders may not be apparent by macroscopic brain examination or imaging, and proving the existence of a behavioral teratogen is not straightforward. However, an excess of retinoic acid and some neurodevelopmental disorders are both associated with abnormalities in cerebellar morphology. Physical and chemical evidence strongly supports the notion that beta carotene crosses the placenta and is metabolized to retinol. Only very limited amounts of beta carotene are stored in fetal fat cells as evidenced by the fact that maternal fat is yellow from beta carotene, whereas non-brown neonatal fat is white. Furthermore, newborns of carotenemic mothers do not share the yellow complexion of their mothers. The excess 13-trans retinoic acid derived from metabolized beta carotene in the fetus increases the concentration of the more teratogenic 13-cis retinoic acid since the isomerization equilibrium is shifted to the left. Therefore, this paper proposes that consideration be given to monitoring all potential sources of fetal 13-cis and 13-trans retinoic acid, including nutritional supplements, dietary retinol, and beta carotene, particularly in the first trimester of pregnancy.

  19. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to a combination of lycopene, proanthocyanidins, vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium and beta-carotene and contribution to normal collagen formation (ID 1669) and protection, of the skin from UV-induced damage (ID 1669) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to a combination of lycopene, proanthocyanidins, vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium and beta-carotene and contribution to normal collagen formation and protection of the skin from UV-induced damage. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States...... in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim is a combination of lycopene, proanthocyanidins, vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, and beta-carotene. The Panel...... considers that the combination of lycopene, proanthocyanidins, vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, and beta-carotene is sufficiently characterised....

  20. Effect of citric pectin on beta-carotene bioavailability in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanutto, Márcia E; Jordão Júnior, Alceu A; Meirelles, Mônica S S; Fávaro, Rosa M D; Vannucchi, Hélio

    2002-07-01

    The effect of citric pectin on the bioavailability of synthetic beta-carotene was studied. Thirty Wistar rats were used, ten animals were sacrificed at the beginning of the experiment and remaining animals were divided into two groups and received the following diets for 30 days: control group (CG)--24 micrograms beta-carotene/g diet + 0% citric pectin; experimental group (EG)--24 micrograms beta-carotene/g diet + 7% citric pectin. Plasma and liver beta-carotene, vitamin A, and retinyl palmitate concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Plasma retinol concentration was 1.42 +/- 0.36 mumol/L for CG and 1.10 +/- 0.24 mumol/L for EG (p = 0.1), and plasma beta-carotene concentration was 0.20 +/- 2.51 mumol/L for CG and 0.07 +/- 0.04 mumol/L for EG (p = 0.01). Only traces of retinyl palmitate were detected in CG and none in EG. Retinol did not differ significantly between groups CG and EG, while a significantly higher beta-carotene concentration was observed for CG. Liver concentrations of retinol (CG: 4.90 +/- 2.51 micrograms/g; EG: 2.68 +/- 1.12 micrograms/g), beta-carotene (CG: 0.98 +/- 0.28 microgram/g; EG: 0.11 +/- 0.06 microgram/g), and retinyl palmitate (CG: 95.47 +/- 45.13 micrograms/g, EG: 37.01 +/- 17.20 micrograms/g) differed significantly between groups (p < 0.05), with a lower concentration being observed for EG. We conclude that 7% citric pectin in the rat diet decreases the bioavailability of synthetic beta-carotene, reducing the liver reserves of vitamin A and beta-carotene.

  1. Radiation effects on vitamin A and {beta}-carotene contents in bovine liver and swine pate de foie; Efeito da radiacao gama sobre a vitamina A e o {beta}-caroteno de figado bovino e suino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taipina, Magda Sinigalia

    2001-07-01

    In this study, vitamin A and {beta}-carotene contents and the percent of activity retention were analyzed in 3 kGy and 30 kGy {sup 60}Co {gamma}-irradiated samples of bovine liver and swine liver pate. Six different lots of liver samples weighing 100 g obtained at the meat market were employed. Irradiation was performed with liver samples initially frozen (-15 deg C). Similarly, six different lots of swine liver pate samples weighing about 100 - 125 g , at temperature of 7 deg C were irradiated. Pre-treatments and analysis methods were those described in Instituto Adolfo Lutz Norms for food analyses. Two and five- gram samples in duplicates for bovine liver and five gram-samples for swine liver pate were used. The results showed that there were no losses of either vitamin A or provitamin A activities in the samples of bovine liver and swine liver pate irradiated with a dose of 3 kGy (retention about 100%). On the other hand, for swine liver pate samples of vitamin A were maintained after irradiation with 30 kGy. (author)

  2. Retention levels of vegetable extractable beta-carotene preserved in virgin coconut oil and unadulterated honey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mungai, Z. M.,

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Dark green leafy vegetables such as Amaranthus spp. are known to be good sources of beta-carotene, a pro-vitamin A carotenoid with highly potent antioxidant property. As an antioxidant, beta-carotene scavenges for electron and thus terminates chain reactions, prevents recurrence and formation of unstable oxygen which otherwise initiate a chain reaction leading to such cases as cancer. While beta-carotene is supplied from consuming vegetables to provide vitamin A, it is also given as a supplement in cases of deficiency. However, it is highly degraded in the presence of light, heat, and oxygen posing a challenge to the methods of its preservation. Coconut oil and honey are popularly consumed in many countries facing vitamin A deficiency as good antioxidants and yet their role in preservation is largely unknown. The study reports the retention of beta-carotene extracted from Amaranthus spp. and separately preserved in virgin coconut oil (VCO and unadulterated honey for up to six months. HPLC and DPPH assay were used to determine beta-carotene and antioxidant activity respectively. Virgin coconut oil and honey had significantly different (p<0.001 antioxidant activities of 65.12±0.70 and 81.51±1.39 % radical scavenging activity respectively that compared well with those of BHT and ascorbic acid. The concentration of beta-carotene preserved in VCO and unadulterated honey degraded by 90%, though the final retention provided higher than the recommended daily allowance of retinol (0.216±0.001 and 0.312±0.003 retinol activity equivalent respectively when 100 mg is consumed. Virgin coconut oil and unadulterated honey can preserve beta-carotene if high amounts are used.

  3. Determination of beta-carotene and vitamin A contents of serum and liver of sheep slaughtered in Ahvaz abattoir during different seasons of the year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Hedayat

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Because of the particular role of vitamin A in different tissues and organs, various clinical signs are seen in its deficiency. Additionally, marginal deficiency of vitamin A without the presence of clinical signs leads to performance defects such as infertility. In this study, the seasonal changes of β-carotene and vitamin A of serum and liver of slaughtered sheep in Ahvaz abattoir were investigated. A total of 360 sheep were sampled from October 2013 to June 2014. Spectrophotometry was used for measuring values. The results were analyzed statistically with student t-test. The mean ±SE concentration of β-carotene and vitamin A of serum and liver were 209/9±1/5, 98±0/9 (µg/dl, 19/8±0/4, 32/3±0/8(µg/g, respectively. Although there wasn't significant difference in levels of the measured parameters in two age groups(sheep only with immature teeth and sheep with a minimum mature tooth but there was a significant difference in vitamin A of serum and liver in the two sexes. The serumic levels of vitamin A in male sheep was more than the females while the concentration of vitamin A in the liver of female sheep was more than the males. The difference between seasons in vitamin A of serum was also statistically different with higher concentrations observed in warm seasons in comparison to milder seasons.

  4. Alterations in fruit and vegetable beta-carotene and vitamin C content caused by open-sun drying, visqueen-covered and polyethylene-covered solar-dryers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndawula, J; Kabasa, J D; Byaruhanga, Y B

    2004-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of three drying methods (open sun drying, visqueen-covered solar dryer and polyethylene-covered solar dryer) on b-carotene and vitamin C content of edible portions of mango fruit (Mangifera indica) and cowpea leaves (Vigna unguiculata). Commercial samples were analysed for vitamin C by titrimetry and b-carotene by spectrophotometry at 450 nm. Differences in vitamin retention and loss associated with the three drying methods were assessed by analysis of variance and least significant difference (LSD) at (pdrying. Open sun drying method caused the greatest b-carotene and vitamin C loss (58% and 84% respectively), while the visqueen-covered solar dryer caused the least loss (34.5% and 71% respectively). Blanching cowpea leaves improved b-carotene and vitamin C retention by 15% and 7.5% respectively. The b-carotene and vitamin C content of fresh ripe mango fruit was 5.9 and 164.3 mg/100g DM respectively. Similar to effects on cowpea leaves, the mango micronutrient content decreased (pdrying. The open sun drying method caused the greatest b-carotene (94.2%) and vitamin C (84.5%) loss, while the visqueen-covered solar dryer caused the least (73 and 53% respectively). These results show that the three solar drying methods cause significant loss of pro-vitamin A and vitamin C in dried fruits and vegetables. However, open sun drying causes the most loss and the visqueen-covered solar dryer the least, making the later a probable better drying technology for fruit and vegetable preservation. The drying technologies should be improved to enhance vitamin retention.

  5. Functional analysis of multiple carotenogenic genes from Lycium barbarum and Gentiana lutea L. for their effects on beta-carotene production in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jing; Wang, Gang; Wang, Jiehua; Wang, Ping

    2009-02-01

    Carotenoids are red, yellow and orange pigments, which are widely distributed in nature and are especially abundant in yellow-orange fruits and vegetables and dark green leafy vegetables. Carotenoids are essential for photosynthesis and photoprotection in plant life and also have different beneficial effects in humans and animals (van den Berg et al. 2000). For example, beta-carotene plays an essential role as the main dietary source of vitamin A. To obtain further insight into beta-carotene biosynthesis in two important economic plant species, Lycium barbarum and Gentiana lutea L., and to investigate and prioritize potential genetic engineering targets in the pathway, the effects of five carotenogenic genes from these two species, encoding proteins including geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase, phytoene synthase and delta-carotene desaturase gene, lycopene beta-cyclase, lycopene epsilon-cyclase were functionally analyzed in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants. All transgenic tobacco plants constitutively expressing these genes showed enhanced beta-carotene contents in their leaves and flowers to different extents. The addictive effects of co-ordinate expression of double transgenes have also been investigated.

  6. Diet, plasma levels of beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol, and risk of malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryker, W S; Stampfer, M J; Stein, E A; Kaplan, L; Louis, T A; Sober, A; Willett, W C

    1990-04-01

    Dietary intake and the plasma levels of retinol, alpha-tocopherol, lycopene, alpha-carotene, and beta-carotene for 204 cases with malignant melanoma were compared with those of 248 controls. Cases and controls were patients 18 years of age or older making their first visit to a dermatology subspecialty clinic for pigmented lesions from July 1, 1982 to September 1, 1985. Intakes of nutrients were estimated using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. No significant associations with malignant melanoma were observed for higher plasma levels of lycopene, retinol, or alpha-carotene in logistic regression analyses after controlling for age, sex, plasma lipids, and known constitutional risk factors (hair color and ability to tan). In similar models, the odds ratio comparing the highest with the lowest quintile was 0.9 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.5-1.5) for plasma beta-carotene, 0.7 (95% CI 0.5-1.3) for plasma alpha-tocopherol, 0.7 (95% CI 0.4-1.2) for carotene intake, and 0.7 (95% CI 0.4-1.3) for total vitamin E intake. A trend toward reduced risk of melanoma was observed for increasing intake of iron (not including supplements); this was related to the more frequent consumption of baked goods, such as cake, among controls. Alcohol consumption was positively associated with risk of melanoma (chi for trend = 2.1, p = 0.03); the odds ratio for consumption of over 10 g/day compared with persons with no alcohol intake was 1.8 (95% CI 1.0-3.3).

  7. beta-Carotene in breast milk and serum is increased after a single beta-carotene dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, L M; Giuliano, A R; Neilson, E M; Yap, H H; Graver, E J; Cui, H A; Blashill, B M

    1997-07-01

    Normal lactating mothers were administered a single dose of 60 or 210 mg beta-carotene and changes in serum and milk retinol, alpha-tocopherol, and carotenoids were monitored for 8 d. Average serum beta-carotene concentrations increased 4.1- and 4.0-fold after the 60- and 210-mg doses, respectively. Milk beta-carotene concentrations increased 4.1- and 3.0-fold after the 60- and 210-mg doses, respectively. Maximum serum concentrations were reached 24 h after both supplements, although concentrations of milk beta-carotene continued to rise for 2-3 d. After 8 d, both serum and milk beta-carotene continued to rise for 2-3 d. After 8 d, both serum and milk beta-carotene concentrations remained about twofold higher than baseline concentrations. Increases in serum or milk beta-carotene concentrations were not dose-dependent. Initial serum and milk concentrations of beta-carotene predicted increases after supplementation, and increases in serum beta-carotene concentrations predicted those in milk. Concentrations of milk carotenoids were less than one-tenth their respective concentrations in serum. Lutein, beta-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, alpha-carotene, retinol, and alpha-tocopherol concentrations in serum or milk did not change significantly after beta-carotene supplementation. Retinol esters account for most of the retinol equivalents in the milk of well-nourished mothers. Initial and maximum concentrations of beta-carotene in serum and milk were strongly correlated for individual mothers. Collectively, the data showed that a single 60-mg supplement of beta-carotene sustained elevated beta-carotene concentrations in serum and milk for > 1 wk in normal mothers but did not affect concentrations of other major carotenoids, retinol, or alpha-tocopherol.

  8. Spectral difference method applied in determination of beta-carotene, chlorophyll a and b from irradiated seeds of Calendula Officinalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cucu, Delia-Irina; Dorobantu, Ioan

    2002-01-01

    Beta-carotene is part of the class of the carotenoid pigments that have a special function in the pigmentation of flowers and fruits. These pigments are essential in photosynthesis where they are retaining energy and are photoprotectors by forming the redox system. They are also precursors of vitamin A, pigments involved in the process of seeing. Beta-carotene is responsible for the growth and development of organisms, for the protection and recovery of epithelial tissue, etc. Next to chlorophyll, carotenoids are the major components of the complex pigment-protein from the thylacoide membrane, and some of them, such as beta-carotene, were for a long time considered to be protecting the membrane against destructive events caused by the over excitement of the chlorophyll. This paper presents spectral difference method for physico-chemical characterisation of three components (beta-carotene, chlorophyll a and b) from Calendula officinalis leaves and stalks, after irradiation of germinated seeds. The germinated seeds of Calendula officinalis has been irradiated at 8 different doses ( 1 k Rad, 3 k Rad, 5 k Rad, 10 k Rad, 20 k Rad, 50 k Rad, 100 k Rad, 500 krad), one set of seeds remaining unirradiated for comparison. The plants had been grown in the same conditions of light, temperature and humidity. The identification of beta-carotene was performed through thin layer chromatography. The chemical concentrations of beta-carotene, chlorophyll a and b were determined by spectral difference method. (authors)

  9. Protection from sunburn with beta-Carotene--a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köpcke, Wolfgang; Krutmann, Jean

    2008-01-01

    Nutritional protection against skin damage from sunlight is increasingly advocated to the general public, but its effectiveness is controversial. In this meta-analysis, we have systematically reviewed the existing literature on human supplementation studies on dietary protection against sunburn by beta-carotene. A review of literature until June 2007 was performed in PubMed, ISI Web of Science and EBM Cochrane library and identified a total of seven studies which evaluated the effectiveness of beta-carotene in protection against sunburn. Data were abstracted from these studies by means of a standardized data collection protocol. The subsequent meta-analysis showed that (1) beta-carotene supplementation protects against sunburn and (2) the study duration had a significant influence on the effected size. Regression plot analysis revealed that protection required a minimum of 10 weeks of supplementation with a mean increase of the protective effect of 0.5 standard deviations with every additional month of supplementation. Thus, dietary supplementation of humans with beta-carotene provides protection against sunburn in a time-dependent manner.

  10. Dietary vitamin A intakes of Filipino elders with adequate or low liver vitamin A concentrations as assessed by the deuterated-retinol-dilution method: implications for dietary requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribaya-Mercado, Judy D; Solon, Florentino S; Fermin, Liza S; Perfecto, Christine S; Solon, Juan Antonio A; Dolnikowski, Gregory G; Russell, Robert M

    2004-04-01

    The vitamin A requirements of elderly humans have not been studied. In a cross-sectional study of 60-88-y-old men (n = 31) and women (n = 31) in rural Philippines, we assessed the dietary intakes of elders with adequate (> or = 0.07 micromol/g) or low (value for elders. The mean (+/- SD) vitamin A intakes of the men and women with adequate vitamin A in liver were 135 +/- 86 and 134 +/- 104 microg retinol activity equivalents (RAE)/d, respectively; intakes of the men and women with low vitamin A in liver were 75 +/- 53 and 60 +/- 27 microg RAE/d, respectively. Total-body vitamin A or liver vitamin A but not serum retinol correlated with dietary RAE, preformed vitamin A, beta-carotene, fat, and protein. An estimated acceptable or sufficient dietary vitamin A intake associated with adequate liver vitamin A concentrations in elders is 6.45 microg RAE/kg body wt; for a reference 76-kg man and a 61-kg woman, these values are approximately 500 and 400 microg RAE/d, respectively. The dietary vitamin A intakes of elders with adequate or low liver vitamin A concentrations as estimated by use of the deuterated-retinol-dilution technique are useful for assessing vitamin A requirements.

  11. Parallel multireference configuration interaction calculations on mini-beta-carotenes and beta-carotene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinschmidt, Martin; Marian, Christel M; Waletzke, Mirko; Grimme, Stefan

    2009-01-28

    We present a parallelized version of a direct selecting multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) code [S. Grimme and M. Waletzke, J. Chem. Phys. 111, 5645 (1999)]. The program can be run either in ab initio mode or as semiempirical procedure combined with density functional theory (DFT/MRCI). We have investigated the efficiency of the parallelization in case studies on carotenoids and porphyrins. The performance is found to depend heavily on the cluster architecture. While the speed-up on the older Intel Netburst technology is close to linear for up to 12-16 processes, our results indicate that it is not favorable to use all cores of modern Intel Dual Core or Quad Core processors simultaneously for memory intensive tasks. Due to saturation of the memory bandwidth, we recommend to run less demanding tasks on the latter architectures in parallel to two (Dual Core) or four (Quad Core) MRCI processes per node. The DFT/MRCI branch has been employed to study the low-lying singlet and triplet states of mini-n-beta-carotenes (n=3, 5, 7, 9) and beta-carotene (n=11) at the geometries of the ground state, the first excited triplet state, and the optically bright singlet state. The order of states depends heavily on the conjugation length and the nuclear geometry. The (1)B(u) (+) state constitutes the S(1) state in the vertical absorption spectrum of mini-3-beta-carotene but switches order with the 2 (1)A(g) (-) state upon excited state relaxation. In the longer carotenes, near degeneracy or even root flipping between the (1)B(u) (+) and (1)B(u) (-) states is observed whereas the 3 (1)A(g) (-) state is found to remain energetically above the optically bright (1)B(u) (+) state at all nuclear geometries investigated here. The DFT/MRCI method is seen to underestimate the absolute excitation energies of the longer mini-beta-carotenes but the energy gaps between the excited states are reproduced well. In addition to singlet data, triplet-triplet absorption energies are

  12. The genus Rhodosporidium: a potential source of beta-carotene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miguel, T; Calo, P; Díaz, A; Villa, T G

    1997-03-01

    Four wild-type species of the genus Rhodosporidium have been studied as as possible sources for the industrial production of beta-carotene. HPLC-based studies showed that their carotenoid composition consisted of almost pure beta-carotene at concentrations ranging from 226 to 685 micrograms/g of dried yeast biomass. These results are consistent with those obtained by spectrophotometry at 480 nm.

  13. The physicochemical stability and in vitro bioaccessibility of beta-carotene in oil-in- water sodium caseinate emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beta-carotene (BC), the most important dietary source of provitamin A, is necessary for optimum human health. BC is insoluble or only slightly soluble in most liquids but its bioavailability improves when ingested with fat. Therefore lipid emulsions are ideal matrices for BC delivery. BC (0.1%) in ...

  14. Effect of gamma-irradiation on the levels of total and cis/trans isomers of beta-carotene in dehydrated parsley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebastiao, K.I. E-mail: kisebas@net.ipen.br; Almeida-Muradian, L.B. E-mail: ligiabi@usp.br; Romanelli, Maria Fernanda; Koseki, Paula Massae; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H. E-mail: villavic@net.ipen.br

    2002-03-01

    Ionizing radiation is a method for preservation of foods that use the high energy of gamma rays or accelerated electrons, thereby ionizing molecules. The most important precursor of vitamin A is {beta}-carotene, a carotenoid with pro-vitamin A activity. The highly unsaturated chain confers the instability of {beta}-carotene, and some reactions, as isomerisation, can reduce the characteristics of pro-vitamin A. The present study investigated whether increasing doses of 0, 10 and 20 kGy lower the total {beta}-carotene level and if an enhancement of cis-isomers occurred on samples of dehydrated parsley. No differences were observed of either fractions analyzed at doses applied in this study, nor did it contribute to the decrease of vitamin A.

  15. High education is associated with low fat and high fibre, beta-carotene and vitamin C - Computation of nutrient intake based on a short food frequency questionnaire in 17,265 men and women in the Tromsø Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjarne Koster Jacobsen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available  ABSTRACTEducational level has been correlated to the intake of several nutrients. In a population-based studyincluding 17,265 men and women aged 25-69 years, the intake of nutrients were calculated based on 37questions about food habits. In this paper, we present results from the dietary survey with emphasis onthe relationships between dietary habits and educational level. Compared to subjects with low formaleducation, subjects with high educational level have less fat in their diet and more dietary fibre, betacarotene,vitamin C and alcohol (p-value for linear trend is associated with healthy food habits and relatively higher alcohol consumption. There is a need forefforts in order to change the food habits of the less educated.NORSK SAMMENDRAGPersoner med lang utdanning har ofte et bedre kosthold enn personer med kortere utdanning. I denneundersøkelsen har vi estimert inntaket av en rekke næringsstoffer basert på 37 spørsmål om kostvanersom ble stilt til personer som tok del i Tromsø-IV-undersøkelsen (1994/95. Vår studie inkluderer 17 265menn og kvinner i Tromsø i alderen 25-69 år. Vi presenterer resultater fra denne kostholdsundersøkelsenmed vekt på relasjoner mellom kostvaner og utdanningslengde. Sammenlignet med personer med kortformell utdanning, har personer med lang utdanning mindre fett i kosten og høyere inntak av fiber, betakaroten,vitamin C og alkohol (p helsemessig gunstigere kosthold, men et høyere alkoholinntak, enn personer med kort utdanning.Funnene understreker behovet for målrettede tiltak for å utjevne sosiale forskjeller i kostvaner i Norge.

  16. The potential contribution of bread buns fortified with beta-carotene-rich sweet potato in Central Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Jan W; van Jaarsveld, Paul J

    2008-06-01

    Orange-fleshed sweet potato is an efficacious source of vitamin A. Substituting wheat flour with orange-fleshed sweet potato in processed products could reduce foreign exchange outlays, create new markets for producers, and result in increased vitamin A consumption among consumers provided there is adequate retention of beta-carotene during processing. To explore whether substituting 38% of wheat flour (by weight) in bread buns ("golden bread") with boiled and mashed orange-fleshed sweet potato from fresh roots or rehydrated chips would produce economically viable beta-carotene-rich products acceptable to Mozambican rural consumers. Modified local recipes maximized sweet potato content within the limits of consumer acceptability. Sensitivity analysis determined parameters underlying economic viability. Two samples each of buns from five varieties of orange-fleshed sweet potato were analyzed for beta-carotene content. Processed products with at least 15 microg/g product of trans-beta-carotene were considered good sources of vitamin A. Golden bread made from fresh roots of medium-intensity orange-fleshed sweet potato varieties met the good source criterion, but bread from lighter-intensity sweet potato varieties did not. Bread from rehydrated dried chips was not economically viable. Consumers strongly preferred golden bread over pure wheat flour bread because of its heavier texture and attractive appearance. The ratio of the price of wheat flour to that of raw sweet potato root varied from 3.1 to 3.5 among the bakers, whose increase in profit margins ranged from 54% to 92%. Golden bread is a good source of beta-carotene and is economically viable when the price ratio of wheat flour to raw orange-fleshed sweet potato root is at least 1.5. Widespread adoption during sweet potato harvesting periods is feasible; year-round availability requires storage.

  17. Golden Rice is an effective source of vitamin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Guangwen; Qin, Jian; Dolnikowski, Gregory G; Russell, Robert M; Grusak, Michael A

    2009-06-01

    Genetically engineered "Golden Rice" contains up to 35 microg beta-carotene per gram of rice. It is important to determine the vitamin A equivalency of Golden Rice beta-carotene to project the potential effect of this biofortified grain in rice-consuming populations that commonly exhibit low vitamin A status. The objective was to determine the vitamin A value of intrinsically labeled dietary Golden Rice in humans. Golden Rice plants were grown hydroponically with heavy water (deuterium oxide) to generate deuterium-labeled [2H]beta-carotene in the rice grains. Golden Rice servings of 65-98 g (130-200 g cooked rice) containing 0.99-1.53 mg beta-carotene were fed to 5 healthy adult volunteers (3 women and 2 men) with 10 g butter. A reference dose of [13C10]retinyl acetate (0.4-1.0 mg) in oil was given to each volunteer 1 wk before ingestion of the Golden Rice dose. Blood samples were collected over 36 d. Our results showed that the mean (+/-SD) area under the curve for the total serum response to [2H]retinol was 39.9 +/- 20.7 microg x d after the Golden Rice dose. Compared with that of the [13C10]retinyl acetate reference dose (84.7 +/- 34.6 microg x d), Golden Rice beta-carotene provided 0.24-0.94 mg retinol. Thus, the conversion factor of Golden Rice beta-carotene to retinol is 3.8 +/- 1.7 to 1 with a range of 1.9-6.4 to 1 by weight, or 2.0 +/- 0.9 to 1 with a range of 1.0-3.4 to 1 by moles. Beta-carotene derived from Golden Rice is effectively converted to vitamin A in humans. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00680355.

  18. Correlations between Fruit, Vegetables, Fish, Vitamins, and Fatty Acids Estimated by Web-Based Nonconsecutive Dietary Records and Respective Biomarkers of Nutritional Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassale, Camille; Castetbon, Katia; Laporte, François; Deschamps, Valérie; Vernay, Michel; Camilleri, Géraldine M; Faure, Patrice; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2016-03-01

    It is of major importance to measure the validity of self-reported dietary intake using web-based instruments before applying them in large-scale studies. This study aimed to validate self-reported intake of fish, fruit and vegetables, and selected micronutrient intakes assessed by a web-based self-administered dietary record tool used in the NutriNet-Santé prospective cohort study, against the following concentration biomarkers: plasma beta carotene, vitamin C, and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. One hundred ninety-eight adult volunteers (103 men and 95 women, mean age=50.5 years) were included in the protocol: they completed 3 nonconsecutive-day dietary records and two blood samples were drawn 3 weeks apart. The study was conducted in the area of Paris, France, between October 2012 and May 2013. Reported fish, fruit and vegetables, and selected micronutrient intakes and plasma beta carotene, vitamin C, and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels were compared. Simple and adjusted Spearman's rank correlation coefficients were estimated after de-attenuation for intra-individual variation. Regarding food groups in men, adjusted correlations ranged from 0.20 for vegetables and plasma vitamin C to 0.49 for fruits and plasma vitamin C, and from 0.40 for fish and plasma c20:5 n-3 (eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA]) to 0.55 for fish and plasma c22:6 n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid). In women, correlations ranged from 0.13 (nonsignificant) for vegetables and plasma vitamin C to 0.41 for fruits and vegetables and plasma beta carotene, and from 0.27 for fatty fish and EPA to 0.54 for fish and EPA+docosahexaenoic acid. Regarding micronutrients, adjusted correlations ranged from 0.36 (EPA) to 0.58 (vitamin C) in men and from 0.32 (vitamin C) to 0.38 (EPA) in women. The findings suggest that three nonconsecutive web-based dietary records provide reasonable estimates of true intake of fruits, vegetables, fish, beta carotene, vitamin C, and n-3 fatty acids. Along with other validation

  19. Use of oral contraceptives and serum beta-carotene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Gabriele; Kohlmeier, L; Brenner, H

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Antioxidants, in particular carotenoids, may influence the risk for cardiovascular disease. This study investigates the influence of oral contraceptives (OC) on the serum concentration of beta-carotene, which may in turn affect the risk of cardiovascular diseases due to its antioxidative...

  20. Effect of Beta-Carotene on Oxidative Stress and Expression of Cardiac Connexin 43

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novo, Rosangela; Azevedo, Paula S.; Minicucci, Marcos F.; Zornoff, Leonardo A. M., E-mail: lzornoff@fmb.unesp.br; Paiva, Sergio A. R. [Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu - Universidade Estadual Paulista ' Júlio de Mesquita Filho' , Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2013-09-15

    Intervention studies have shown an increased mortality in patients who received beta-carotene. However, the mechanisms involved in this phenomenon are still unknown. Evaluate the influence of beta-carotene on oxidative stress and the expression of connexin 43 in rat hearts. Wistar rats, weighing approximately 100 g, were allocated in two groups: Control Group (n = 30), that received the diet routinely used in our laboratory, and Beta-Carotene Group (n = 28), which received beta-carotene (in crystal form, added and mixed to the diet) at a dose of 500 mg of beta carotene/kg of diet. The animals received the treatment until they reached 200-250g, when they were sacrificed. Samples of blood, liver and heart were collected to perform Western blotting and immunohistochemistry for connexin 43; morphometric studies, dosages of beta carotene by high performance liquid chromatography as well as reduced glutathione, oxidized glutathione and lipids hydroperoxides were performed by biochemical analysis. Beta-carotene was detected only in the liver of Beta-Carotene Group animals (288 ± 94.7 μg/kg). Levels of reduced/ oxidized glutathione were higher in the liver and heart of Beta-Carotene Group animals (liver - Control Group: 42.60 ± 1.62; liver - Beta-Carotene Group: 57.40 ± 5.90; p = 0.04; heart: - Control Group: 117.40 ± 1.01; heart - Beta-Carotene Group: 121.81 ± 1.32 nmol/mg protein; p = 0.03). The content of total connexin 43 was larger in Beta-Carotene Group. Beta-carotene demonstrated a positive effect, characterized by the increase of intercellular communication and improvement of anti-oxidizing defense system. In this model, mechanism does not explain the increased mortality rate observed with the beta-carotene supplementation in clinical studies.

  1. The radiomodifying efficacy of beta carotene rich plant extracts on neuroethology of Swiss albino mice: perception, perspectives and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, A.L.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: High utilization of O2 and rather poorly developed antioxidative defence mechanism makes the brain highly susceptible to oxidative damage. High enrichment with PUFA also renders it susceptible to radiation damage by free radicals. The pure form of beta carotene has proved quite effective against radiation but only at optimum dose level when tested for survivability and lipid peroxidation, protein, cholesterol, DNA content of brain. This induced us to extend our investigation on plants, Amaranthus and Spinach enriched with beta carotene, which could be recommended in the nutritional dietary course without causing psychological stress of availability and affordability unlike of tablets of medicines. Both Amaranthus paniculatus and Spinacea oleracea, commonly occurring weeds have good nutritive values due to their carotenoid, vitamin C, folate, folic acid contents; additionally Amaranthus with high level of lysine and methionine. Swiss albino male mice of 6-8 week(22±3 gm)selected from an inbred colony were administered with alcoholic extract at a dose of 600-mg/kg-body weight/day dissolved in distilled water with and without prior to irradiation (5 Gy of gamma radiation). The animals were studied on 1, 3, 7, 15, and 30 days after radiation exposure. On the basis of LD50/30 values the DRFs were computed as 1.43(AE) and 1.39(S.E). The plant extracts improved learning performance in mice in with and without rradiation. Male mice showed better learning performance as compared to females in all the groups. The brain showed that the radiation induced depletion of protein, glutathione and cholesterol and histopathology was significantly compensated/defied and was brought to near-normal level by the 15 days oral administration of crude extract of the plants. Radiation induced augmentation in glycogen, cholesterol and lipid peroxidation products were significantly checked. The protection appears to be afforded by combined or synergistic effects of plants leaves

  2. Optimized formation of detergent micelles of beta-carotene and retinal production using recombinant human beta,beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam-Hee; Kim, Yeong-Su; Kim, Hye-Jung; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2008-01-01

    The formation of beta-carotene detergent micelles and their conversion into retinal by recombinant human beta,beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase was optimized under aqueous conditions. Toluene was the most hydrophobic among the organic solvents tested; thus, it was used to dissolve beta-carotene, which is a hydrophobic compound. Tween 80 was selected as the detergent because it supported the highest level of retinal production among all of the detergents tested. The maximum production of retinal was achieved in detergent micelles containing 200 mg/L of beta-carotene and 2.4% (w/v) Tween 80. Under these conditions, the recombinant enzyme produced 97 mg/L of retinal after 16 h with a conversion yield of 48.5% (w/w). The amount of retinal produced, which is the highest ever reported, is a result of the ability of our system to dissolve large amounts of beta-carotene.

  3. A method of preserving and testing the acceptability of gac fruit oil, a good source of beta-carotene and essential fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, L T; King, J C

    2003-06-01

    Gac fruit (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng) is indigenous to Vietnam and other countries in Southeast Asia. Its seed pulp contains high concentrations of carotenoids, especially the provitamin A, beta-carotene. In northern Vietnam, gac fruits are seasonal and are mainly used in making a rice dish called xoi gac. The purpose of this study was to develop a method to collect and preserve gac fruit oil, to evaluate the nutritional composition of the oil, and to assess the acceptability of the gac oil by typical Vietnamese homemakers. One hundred women participated in training to learn how to prepare the fruits and operate the oil press. The women also participated in a survey of gac fruit use and their habitual use of animal fat and vegetable oil. Among all the participants in the training and surveys, 35 women actually produced oil from gac fruits grown in the village, using manual oil presses and locally available materials. The total carotene concentration in gac fruit oil was 5,700 micrograms/ml. The concentration of beta-carotene was 2,710 micrograms/ml. Sixty-nine percent of total fat was unsaturated, and 35% of that was polyunsaturated. The average daily consumption of gac fruit oil was estimated at 2 ml per person. The daily beta-carotene intake (from gac fruit oil) averaged approximately 5 mg per person. It was found that gac oil can be produced locally by village women using manual presses and locally available materials. The oil is a rich source of beta-carotene, vitamin E, and essential fatty acids. Although the beta-carotene concentration declines with time without a preservative or proper storage, it was still high after three months. The oil was readily accepted by the women and their children, and consumption of the oil increased the intake of beta-carotene and reduced the intake of lard.

  4. The beta-carotene and retinol efficacy trial (CARET) for chemoprevention of lung cancer in high risk populations: smokers and asbestos-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omenn, G S; Goodman, G; Thornquist, M; Grizzle, J; Rosenstock, L; Barnhart, S; Balmes, J; Cherniack, M G; Cullen, M R; Glass, A

    1994-04-01

    CARET is a multicenter, two-armed, double-masked randomized chemoprevention trial in Seattle, Portland, San Francisco, Baltimore, Connecticut, and Irvine, to test whether oral administration of beta-carotene (30 mg/day) plus retinyl palmitate (25,000 IU/day) can decrease the incidence of lung cancer in high risk populations, namely, heavy smokers and asbestos-exposed workers. The intervention combines the antioxidant action of beta-carotene and the tumor suppressor mechanism of vitamin A. As of April 30, 1993, CARET had randomized 1,845 participants in the 1985-1988 pilot phase plus 13,260 "efficacy" participants since 1989; of these, 4,000 are asbestos-exposed males and 11,105 are smokers and former smokers (44% female). Accrual is complete everywhere except Irvine, which was the last center added (1991), and the safety profile of the regimen to date has been excellent. With 14,420 smokers, 4,010 asbestos-exposed participants, and 114,100 person-years through February 1998, we expect CARET to be capable of detecting a 23% reduction in lung cancer incidence in the two populations combined and 27, 49, 32, and 35% reductions in the smokers, female smokers, male smokers, and asbestos-exposed subgroups, respectively. CARET is highly complementary to the alpha-tocopherol-beta-carotene study in Finland and the Harvard Physicians Health Study (beta-carotene alone) in the National Cancer Institute portfolio of major cancer chemoprevention trials.

  5. Effect of home processing and storage on ascorbic acid and beta-carotene content of Bathua (Chenopodium album) and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, S K; Sehgal, S

    1997-01-01

    The present investigation was conducted to study the effect of selected processing and storage methods on the concentration of ascorbic acid and beta-carotene in Bathua and fenugreek leaves. Methods included storage of leaves with or without polythene bags for 24 and 48 h in a refrigerator at 5 degrees C; at 30 degrees C in polythene bags; drying (sun and oven); blanching (5, 10, 15 min); open pan and pressure cooking. Ascorbic acid content of fresh leaves was 220.97 to 377.65 mg and beta-carotene content was 19.00 to 24.64 mg/100 g, DW. The percent loss of ascorbic acid ranged from 2.03 to 8.77 and 45.15 to 66.9 while lower losses (0.0 to 1.75 and 1.63 to 2.84) of beta-carotene were observed in leaves stored in the refrigerator and at 30 degrees C, respectively. A markedly greater reduction in ascorbic acid and beta-carotene was observed in dried, blanched and cooked leaves. The study data suggest that storage of leaves in refrigeration, drying in oven, blanching for a short time and cooking in a pressure cooker results in better retention of these two vitamins.

  6. Serum levels of lycopene, beta-carotene, and retinol and their correlation with sperm DNA damage in normospermic and infertile men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiebeh Ghyasvand

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress in reproductive system leads to sperm DNA damage and sperm membrane lipid peroxidation and may play an important role in the pathogenesis of male infertility, especially in idiopathic cases. Antioxidants such as carotenoids function against free radical damages. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the levels of lycopene, beta-carotene and retinol in serum and their relationship with sperm DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in infertile and normospermic males. Materials and Methods: Sixty two infertile men and 71 normospermic men participated in this study. Blood and semen samples were collected from all subjects. Sperm DNA damage was measured using TUNEL method. Carotenoids, retinol, and malonedildehyde in serum were also determined. Results: DNA fragmentation was higher in infertile group comparing to control group. Serum levels of lycopene, beta-carotene and, vitamin A in infertile men were significantly lower than normospermic men (p< 0.001, =0.005, and =0.003 respectively. While serum MDA was not significantly different between two groups, MDA in seminal plasma of infertile men was significantly higher than control group (p< 0.001. Conclusion: We concluded that lycopene, beta-carotene, and retinol can reduce sperm DNA fragmentation and lipid peroxidation through their antioxidant effect. Therefore the DNA fragmentation assay and determination of antioxidants factors such as lycopene, beta-carotene and retinol, along with sperm analysis can be useful in diagnosis and treatment of men with idiopathic infertility.

  7. Effect of mixing rate on Beta-carotene production and extraction by dunaliella salina in two-phase bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hejazi, M.; Andrysiewicz, E.; Tramper, J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2003-01-01

    beta-Carotene has many applications in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries; Dunaliella salina is currently the main source for natural beta-carotene. We have investigated the effect of mixing rate and whether it leads to the facilitated release of beta-carotene from the cells of

  8. Dietary intake of nitrate relative to antioxidant vitamin in relation to breast cancer risk: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yoon Jung; Hwang, Se Hee; Kim, Hyun Ja; Nam, Seok-Jin; Kong, Gu; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2010-01-01

    Nitrate is a precursor in the endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds, which are potent animal carcinogens, whereas antioxidant vitamins have been suggested to protect against carcinogenesis. Interestingly, nitrate and antioxidant vitamins stem from the same dietary sources. We investigated whether the intake of nitrate relative to antioxidant vitamins is associated with the risk of breast cancer. A total of 362 breast cancer cases were matched to the 362 controls by age and menopausal status. Dietary intake was assessed using a quantitative food frequency questionnaire with 121 food items by trained interviewers. The nitrate to antioxidant vitamin consumption ratio was then calculated. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to obtain odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). Mean intakes of nitrate for cases and controls were 421 mg/day and 424 mg/day, respectively. Intakes of nitrate, nitrate/beta-carotene, nitrate/vitamin C, and nitrate/vitamin E were not associated with breast cancer risk. However, higher breast cancer risk was observed with higher intake of nitrate/folate (OR = 2.03, 95% CI = 1.16-3.54, P for trend = 0.052). Our results suggest that lowering the ratio of nitrate to folate intake may be effective in reducing breast cancer risk.

  9. Influence of lifestyle on vitamin bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Henk; van der Gaag, Martijn; Hendriks, Henk

    2002-01-01

    In this review the effects of lifestyle factors, especially alcohol consumption, on vitamin bioavailability are summarized and discussed. Alcohol effects are clearly dose-dependent. Excessive chronic alcohol intake is generally associated with vitamin deficiency (especially folate, thiamine, and vitamin B6) due to malnutrition, malabsorption, and ethanol toxicity. Effects of moderate alcohol use are mainly explained by a lower vitamin intake. In the case of vitamin A and beta-carotene, effects on post-absorptive (lipoprotein) metabolism have been demonstrated. In one diet-controlled crossover study, alcohol consumption resulted in an increase in the plasma vitamin B6 (PLP) content, especially after beer consumption (containing vitamin B6), but also after wine and spirit consumption (not containing vitamin B6). Smoking is also associated with a lower dietary vitamin intake. In the case of vitamin C, B12, folate, and beta-carotene, evidence has been presented for effects on postabsorptive metabolism, due to smoke-induced oxidative stress and/or vitamin inactivation. For vitamin E a direct effect of smoking on absorption has been demonstrated. There is no convincing evidence that low-fat diets negatively affect fat-soluble vitamin absorption, but cholesterol-lowering compounds (diets), or unabsorbable fat substitutes, may do so. Vitamin bioavailability may be compromised from certain vegetables (particularly raw), and/or from high-fiber foods, because of limited digestion and inefficient release of vitamins from the food matrix.

  10. Time-temperature dependent variations in beta-carotene contents in carrot using different spectrophotometric techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Rahat; Khan, Saranjam; Shah, Attaullah; Ali, Hina; Bilal, Muhammad

    2018-05-01

    The current study presents time dependent variations in the concentration of beta-carotene in carrot under different storage-temperature conditions using UV–VIS and Raman spectrophotometric techniques. The UV–VIS absorption spectra of beta-carotene extracted from carrot shows three distinct absorption peaks at 442, 467, and 500 nm with maximum absorption at 467 nm. These absorption peaks are very much reproducible and are assigned to β-carotene. Similarly, Raman spectra of carrot samples also confirmed the three main Raman peaks of beta-carotene at shift positions 1003, 1150, and 1515 cm‑1. An overall decrease in beta-carotene content has been observed for time-temperature conditions. These results depict a decrease of about 40% in the content of beta-carotene when carrot samples were stored in a refrigerator (4 °C) for the first 20 d, whereas a decrease of about 25% was observed when carrot samples were stored in a freezer (‑16 °C) for the same period. The objective of this study is to investigate the possible use of Raman spectroscopy and UV–VIS spectroscopy for quick and detailed analysis of changes (degradation) in beta-carotene content associated with time and temperature in storage (frozen foods) in order to promote quality foods for consumers. Future study with a greater focus on the concentration/content of beta-carotene in other fruits/vegetables is also desirable.

  11. [Gradation in the level of vitamin consumption: possible risk of excessive consumption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodentsova, V M

    2014-01-01

    The ratio between the levels of consumption of certain vitamins and minerals [recommended daily allowance for labelling purposes Vitamin A and beta-carotene maximum supplement levels coincides with UL, and recommended daily allowance for these micronutrients coincides with the maximal level of consumption through dietary supplements and/or multivitamins. Except for vitamin A and beta-carotene recommended daily allowance for other vitamins adopted in Russia are considerably lower than the upper safe level of consumption. For vitamin A and beta-carotene there is a potential risk for excess consumption. According to the literature data (meta-analysis) prolonged intake of high doses of antioxidant vitamins (above the RDA) both alone and in combination with two other vitamins or vitamin C [> 800 microg (R.E.) of vitamin A, > 9.6 mg of beta-carotene, > 15 mg (T.E.) of vitamin E] do not possess preventive effects and may be harmful with unwanted consequences to health, especially in well-nourished populations, persons having risk of lung cancer (smokers, workers exposed to asbestos), in certain conditions (in the atmosphere with high oxygen content, hyperoxia, oxygen therapy). Proposed mechanisms of such action may be due to the manifestation of prooxidant action when taken in high doses, shifting balance with other important natural antioxidants, their displacement (substitution), interference with the natural defense mechanisms. Athletes are the population group that requires attention as used antioxidant vitamins A, C, E, both individually and in combination in extremely high doses. In summary, it should be noted that intake of physiological doses which are equivalent to the needs of the human organism, as well as diet inclusion of fortified foods not only pose no threat to health, but will bring undoubted benefits, filling the existing lack of vitamins in the ration.

  12. Vitamin E supplementation and pneumonia risk in males who initiated smoking at an early age: effect modification by body weight and dietary vitamin C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaprio Jaakko

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We had found a 14% higher incidence of pneumonia with vitamin E supplementation in a subgroup of the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC Study cohort: participants who had initiated smoking by the age of 20 years. In this study, we explored the modification of vitamin E effect by body weight, because the same dose could lead to a greater effect in participants with low body weight. Methods The ATBC Study recruited males aged 50–69 years who smoked at least 5 cigarettes per day at the baseline; it was conducted in southwestern Finland in 1985–1993. The current study was restricted to 21,657 ATBC Study participants who initiated smoking by the age of 20 years; the median follow-up time was 6.0 years. The hospital-diagnosed pneumonia cases were retrieved from the national hospital discharge register (701 cases. Results Vitamin E supplementation had no effect on the risk of pneumonia in participants with body weight in a range from 70 to 89 kg (n = 12,495, risk ratio (RR = 0.99 (95% CI: 0.81 to 1.22. Vitamin E increased the risk of pneumonia in participants with body weight less than 60 kg (n = 1054, RR = 1.61 (1.03 to 2.53, and in participants with body weight over 100 kg (n = 1328, RR = 2.34 (1.07 to 5.08. The harm of vitamin E supplementation was restricted to participants with dietary vitamin C intake above the median. Conclusion Vitamin E supplementation may cause harmful effects on health in certain groups of male smokers. The dose of vitamin E used in the ATBC Study, 50 mg/day, is substantially smaller than conventional vitamin E doses that are considered safe. Our findings should increase caution towards taking vitamin E supplements. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00342992.

  13. Intake of vitamin A and carotenoids from the Italian population--results of an Italian total diet study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucarini, Massimo; Lanzi, Sabina; D'Evoli, Laura; Aguzzi, Altero; Lombardi-Boccia, Ginevra

    2006-05-01

    The present study focused on vitamin A and carotenoids (alpha-and beta-carotene, lutein and zeaxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin, lycopene) daily intake from the Italian total diet. The input of some food groups (cereals, vegetables, fruits, milk and dairy, meat and meat products, fish) most responsible for major and minor contributions to the daily intake of these molecules was evaluated. Furthermore the contribution to the dietary intake of beta-carotene and lutein of the most consumed vegetables in the market basket of the Italian total diet (beets, brassica vegetables, carrots, chicory, courgette (zucchini), green beans, lettuce, peas, pepper, spinach, tomatoes) was also investigated. Vitamin A daily intake was 855 mg/person/day. The vegetables food group made the greatest contribution (37%), followed by the meat and meat products food group (23%). The Italian total diet provided 14.3 mg/person/day of carotenoids; lycopene was the highest (7.4 mg/day), followed by lutein + zeaxanthin (4 mg/day), beta-carotene (2.6 mg/day), alpha-carotene (0.15 mg/day), and beta-cryptoxanthin (0.17 mg/day). Carrots and tomatoes were the main sources of beta-carotene in the diet, otherwise the daily consumption of leafy vegetables (spinach, beets, lettuce) made the main contribution to lutein + zeaxanthin daily intake.

  14. Solubility of {beta}-carotene in ethanol- and triolein-modified CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araus, Karina A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Bioprocesos, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Avda. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Macul, Santiago (Chile); Canales, Roberto I. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Ambiental, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Avda. Espana 1680, Valparaiso (Chile); Valle, Jose M. del [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Bioprocesos, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Avda. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Macul, Santiago (Chile); Fuente, Juan C. de la, E-mail: juan.delafuente@usm.cl [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Ambiental, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Avda. Espana 1680, Valparaiso (Chile); Centro Regional de Estudios en Alimentos Saludables, Blanco 1623, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: > We measure solubility of {beta}-carotene in pure CO{sub 2}, and with ethanol and triolein as co-solvents. > We model the solubility of {beta}-carotene in pure CO{sub 2}, and with co-solvents. > The co-solvent effect of triolein over solubility of {beta}-carotene in CO{sub 2} was higher than ethanol. - Abstract: Modification of an experimental device and methodology improved speed and reproducibility of measurement of solubility of {beta}-carotene in pure and modified SuperCritical (SC) CO{sub 2} at (313 to 333) K. Solubilities of {beta}-carotene in pure CO{sub 2} at (17 to 34) MPa ranged (0.17 to 1.06) {mu}mol/mol and agreed with values reported in literature. The solubility of {beta}-carotene in CO{sub 2} modified with (1.2 to 1.6) % mol ethanol increased by a factor of 1.7 to 3.0 as compared to its solubility in pure CO{sub 2} under equivalent conditions. The concentration of triolein in equilibrated ternary (CO{sub 2} + {beta}-carotene + triolein) mixtures having excess triolein reached values (0.01 to 0.39) mmol/mol corresponding to its solubility in pure SC CO{sub 2} under equivalent conditions. Under these conditions, the solubility of {beta}-carotene in triolein-modified CO{sub 2} increased by a factor of up to 4.0 in relation with its solubility in pure CO{sub 2} at comparable system temperature and pressure, reaching an uppermost value of 3.3 {mu}mol/mol at 333 K and 32 MPa. Unlike in the case of ethanol, where enhancements in solubility where relatively independent on system conditions, solubility enhancements using triolein as co-solvent increased markedly with system pressure, being larger than using (1.2 to 1.6) % mol ethanol at about (24 to 28) MPa, depending on system temperature. The increase in the solubility {beta}-carotene in SC CO{sub 2} as a result of using ethanol or triolein as co-solvent apparently does not depend on the increase in density associated with the dissolution of the co-solvent in CO{sub 2}. Enhancements may be due

  15. Influence of food acidulants and antioxidant spices on the bioaccessibility of beta-carotene from selected vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veda, Supriya; Platel, Kalpana; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2008-09-24

    Four common food acidulants--amchur, lime, tamarind, and kokum--and two antioxidant spices--turmeric and onion--were examined for their influence on the bioaccessibility of beta-carotene from two fleshy and two leafy vegetables. Amchur and lime generally enhanced the bioaccessibility of beta-carotene from these test vegetables in many instances. Such an improved bioaccessibility was evident in both raw and heat-processed vegetables. The effect of lime juice was generally more pronounced than that of amchur. Turmeric significantly enhanced the bioaccessibility of beta-carotene from all of the vegetables tested, especially when heat-processed. Onion enhanced the bioaccessibility of beta-carotene from pressure-cooked carrot and amaranth leaf and from open-pan-boiled pumpkin and fenugreek leaf. Lime juice and the antioxidant spices turmeric and onion minimized the loss of beta-carotene during heat processing of the vegetables. In the case of antioxidant spices, improved bioaccessibility of beta-carotene from heat-processed vegetables is attributable to their role in minimizing the loss of this provitamin. Lime juice, which enhanced the bioaccessibility of this provitamin from both raw and heat-processed vegetables, probably exerted this effect by some other mechanism in addition to minimizing the loss of beta-carotene. Thus, the presence of food acidulants (lime juice/amchur) and antioxidant spices (turmeric/onion) proved to be advantageous in the context of deriving maximum beta-carotene from the vegetable sources.

  16. Beta-Carotene production enhancement by UV-A radiation in Dunaliella bardawil cultivated in laboratory reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogedas, B.; Casal, C.; Forjan, E.; Vilchez, C.

    2009-01-01

    beta-Carotene is an antioxidant molecule of commercial value that can be naturally produced by certain microalgae that mostly belong to the genus Dunaliella. So far, nitrogen starvation has been the most efficient condition for enhancing beta-carotene accumulation in Dunaliella. However, while nitrogen starvation promotes beta-carotene accumulation, the cells become non-viable; consequently under such conditions, continuous beta-carotene production is limited to less than 1 week. In this study, the use of UV-A radiation as a tool to enhance long-term beta-carotene production in Dunaliella bardawil cultures was investigated. The effect of UV-A radiation (320-400 nm) added to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) on growth and carotenoid accumulation of D. bardawil in a laboratory air-fluidized bed photobioreactor was studied. The results were compared with those from D. bardawil control cultures incubated with PAR only. The addition of 8.7 W/square m UV-A radiation to 250 W/square m PAR stimulated long-term growth of D. bardawil. Throughout the exponential growth period the UV-A irradiated cultures showed enhanced carotenoid accumulation, mostly as beta-carotene. After 24 days, the concentration of beta-carotene in UV-A irradiated cultures was approximately two times that of control cultures. Analysis revealed that UV-A clearly induced major accumulation of all-trans beta-carotene. In N-starved culture media, beta-carotene biosynthesis in UV-A irradiated cultures was stimulated. We conclude that the addition of UV-A to PAR enhances carotenoid production processes, specifically all-trans beta-carotene, in D. bardawil cells without negative effects on cell growth

  17. Design of microemulsion system suitable for the oral delivery of poorly aqueous soluble beta-carotene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Cheng; Svirskis, Darren; Lee, Sung Je; Oey, Indrawati; Kwak, Hae-Soo; Chen, Guanyu; Bunt, Craig; Wen, Jingyuan

    2017-02-14

    Beta-carotene is a potent antioxidant for maintaining human health. However, its oral absorption is low due to poor aqueous solubility of less than 1 μg/ml. A microemulsion delivery system was designed to solubilize beta-carotene toward enhancing its oral bioavailability. From seven pseudoternary diagrams constructed, three systems were selected with large microemulsion areas suitable for oral administration and dilution in the predominately aqueous gastrointestinal fluids. Conductivity and rheology characterization were conducted along four dilution lines within the selected systems. Three pseudoternary-phase diagrams were selected with large microemulsion regions, >60% of the total phase diagram area, which provide microemulsions with higher drug-loading capacity. A phenomenon was observed by which both propylene glycol and Capmul MCM EP stabilize the microstructure of the microemulsions has been proposed based on the characterization studies. An optimal bicontinuous microemulsion formulation was selected comprising 12% orange oil, 24% Capmul MCM, 18% Tween 20, 6% Labrasol, 20% propylene glycol and 20% water, with a high beta-carotene loading capacity of 140.8 μg/ml and droplet size of 117.4 nm. In conclusion, the developed novel microemulsion formulation allows solubilizing beta-carotene and is a promising basis for further development as a functional beverage.

  18. Solubility of beta-Carotene in Supercritical CO2 and the Effect of Entrainers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sovová, Helena; Stateva, R. S.; Galushko, A. A.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 3 (2001), s. 195-203 ISSN 0896-8446 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/98/1445 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : beta-carotene * supercritical carbon dioxide * solubility Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.975, year: 2001

  19. Qualitative Aspects of UV-Vis Spectrophotometry of Beta-Carotene and Lycopene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Barrie; Soderstrom, David N.

    1989-01-01

    Explores the structural behavior of polyenic pi systems such as isomerization and conjugation. Uses the simultaneous spectrophotometric analysis of a beta-carotene and lycopene mixture. Presents an empirical method to determine the number of double bonds in the polyenic carotenoid. (MVL)

  20. Beta-carotene encapsulated in food protein nanoparticles reduces peroxyl radical oxidation in Caco-2 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beta-carotene (BC) was encapsulated by sodium caseinate (SC), whey protein isolate (WPI), and soybean protein isolate (SPI) by the homogenization-evaporation method forming nanoparticles of 78, 90 and 370 nm diameter. Indices of the chemical antioxidant assays, the reducing power, DPPH radical scave...

  1. Vitamin profile of cooked foods: how healthy is the practice of ready-to-eat foods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agte, Vaishali; Tarwadi, Kirtan; Mengale, Sangeeta; Hinge, Ashwini; Chiplonkar, Shashi

    2002-05-01

    During recent years importance of B complex vitamins, beta-carotene and vitamin C has been realised in terms of their antioxidative and anticarcinogenic properties. Fruits and vegetables are the rich sources of these vitamins. However, there are considerable cooking losses of vitamins, and information on vitamin contents of cooked foods is essential for assessing the adequacy of vitamin intakes. Secondly, there is a growing trend to consume ready-to-eat foods such as stuffed pancakes (samosa, patties), pastries, French fries; replacing traditional foods for lunch or dinner like roti, vegetable curry, bread, non-vegetarian items. Ready-to-eat foods are considered to give empty calories rather than a balanced diet. A study was undertaken to estimate ascorbic acid, folic acid, riboflavin, thiamine and beta-carotene of 263 cooked food samples and 260 meals representing dietary patterns of Asia, Africa, Europe, USA and Latin America by spectrophotometry and photoflurometry. A broad range of beta-carotene (84-2038 mcg%), riboflavin (0.01-0.48 mg%), thiamine (0.04-0.36 mg%), vitamin C (1-28 mg%) and folate (26-111 mcg%) was observed in individual foods. Bakery products and sweets were found to be poor sources and green leafy vegetables and fruits were good sources of these five vitamins. The differences between ready-to-eat foods and meals consumed during lunch or dinner were prominent for beta-carotene, ascorbic acid, riboflavin and folic acid (P < 0.05). The cooking losses were 34.6, 30, 52.2, 45.9 and 32.2% in case of ascorbic acid, thiamine, riboflavin, beta-carotene and folic acid respectively. Irrespective of whether it is ready-to-eat or a lunch/dinner food item, the contribution of vegetables in the preparations was found to make a marked impact on the vitamin profile. While results justify the concept of a food pyramid, emphasis needs to be given to types of fruits and vegetables rich in vitamins; preferably in their uncooked form, rather than considering their

  2. A nonsense mutation in the beta-carotene oxygenase 2 (BCO2 gene is tightly associated with accumulation of carotenoids in adipose tissue in sheep (Ovis aries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boman Inger A

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sheep carcasses with yellow fat are sporadically observed at Norwegian slaughter houses. This phenomenon is known to be inherited as a recessive trait, and is caused by accumulation of carotenoids in adipose tissue. Two enzymes are known to be important in carotenoid degradation in mammals, and are therefore potential candidate genes for this trait. These are beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase 1 (BCMO1 and the beta-carotene oxygenase 2 (BCO2. Results In the present study the coding region of the BCMO1 and the BCO2 gene were sequenced in yellow fat individuals and compared to the corresponding sequences from control animals with white fat. In the yellow fat individuals a nonsense mutation was found in BCO2 nucleotide position 196 (c.196C>T, introducing a stop codon in amino acid position 66. The full length protein consists of 575 amino acids. In spite of a very low frequency of this mutation in the Norwegian AI-ram population, 16 out of 18 yellow fat lambs were found to be homozygous for this mutation. Conclusion In the present study a nonsense mutation (c.196C>T in the beta-carotene oxygenase 2 (BCO2 gene is found to strongly associate with the yellow fat phenotype in sheep. The existence of individuals lacking this mutation, but still demonstrating yellow fat, suggests that additional mutations may cause a similar phenotype in this population. The results demonstrate a quantitatively important role for BCO2 in carotenoid degradation, which might indicate a broad enzyme specificity for carotenoids. Animals homozygous for the mutation are not reported to suffer from any negative health or development traits, pointing towards a minor role of BCO2 in vitamin A formation. Genotyping AI rams for c.196C>T can now be actively used in selection against the yellow fat trait.

  3. Gamma irradiation effect and time of storage on the beta-carotene rate of dehydrated parsley; Efeito da irradiacao gama e tempo de estoque no teor de beta-caroteno de salsa desidratada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebastiao, K.I.; Romanelli, M.F.; Leite, Q.R.; Koseki, P.M.; Hamasaki, K.; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes. Lab. de Analise e Deteccao de Alimentos]. E-mail: villavic@net.ipen.br; Almeida-Muradian, L.B. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mail: ligiabi@usp.br

    2000-07-01

    The A vitamin is an essential nutrient for men. Therefore, this vitamin or one of its precursors must be ingested for a healthful diet. The carotenoids are also called pro-vitamin A. As any another carotenoid, the {beta}-carotene has a structure with many unsaturations, conferring certain instability. It can be modified and even destroyed for acid, light, heat, oxygen; the formation of cis-trans isomers, reduction of its color and its pro-vitacimin A activity reduction can happen. Those alterations can occur during the processing or storage of the food. The use of the ionizing radiation is a kind of food processing that consists of the use of the high energy of the gamma ray or accelerates electrons, capable to ionize molecules. The carotenoids are considered by literature little sensible to the irradiation. It is suggested doses of 1 to 10 kGy in the irradiation of spices, dehydrated condiments and vegetables. These doses are enough to eliminate or to reduce pathogenic microorganisms and insects, to magnify the time of useful life and still substitute the use of chemical fumigants. They also reveal adequate to the organoleptic aspect, not affecting its flavor and smell. This study had as objective to search the different {beta}-carotene levels in samples of dehydrated parsley submitted to the radiation of {sup 60}Co and stored by 6 months. The results gotten in first analysis had not indicated difference significant statistics in {beta}-carotene rate between the controlled sample and the radiated one. After 6 months of storage, were verified that the {beta}-carotene rate had fallen for the half in both samples.

  4. [Separation and identification of beta-carotene and its cis isomers by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo de Padilla, F

    1996-06-01

    The separation and identification by HPLC of the cis isomers of beta-carotene was studied. A 1.26 mg/ml beta-carotene solution previously isomerized with iodine as a catalyst, was eluted with 2% acetone in hexane, from a Ca(OH)2 chromatographic column in three bands. The fractions were identified by spectrophotometry and the retention times of 2.05, 2.4 and 2.8 min for the 13 cis, all-trans, and 9 cis beta-carotene isomers, determined by HPLC, with 1% acetone in hexane as movil phase. 22.13 mg % of all-trans beta-carotene were found in a sample of canned carrots. It is recommended the analyses of a greater number of samples, the determination of the method's sensitivity, reproductibility, and the use of a standard of reference of a response factor for calculations.

  5. Separation and identification of beta-carotene and its cis isomers by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrillo de Padilla, F.

    1996-01-01

    The separation and identification by HPLC of the cis isomers of beta-carotene was studied. A 1.26 mg/ml beta-carotene solution previously isomerized with iodine as a catalyst, was eluted with 2% acetone in hexane, from a Ca(OH)2 chromatographic column in three bands. The fractions were identified by spectrophotometry and the retention times of 2.05, 2.4 and 2.8 min for the 13 cis, all-trans, and 9 cis beta-carotene isomers, determined by HPLC, with 1% acetone in hexane as Mobil phase. 22.13 mg % of all-trans beta-carotene were found in a sample of canned carrots. It is recommended the analyses of a greater number of samples, the determination of the method's sensitivity, reproducibility, and the use of a standard of reference of a response factor for calculations

  6. beta-carotene does not change markers of enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant activity in human blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castenmiller, J.J.M.; Lauridsen, Søren T.; Dragsted, Lars O.

    1999-01-01

    and erythrocyte enzyme activities were assessed, and differences among experimental groups were tested. Consumption of spinach resulted in greater (P catalase activity and serum alpha-tocopherol concentration compared...... to an increased carotenoid (lutein and zeaxanthin) intake, but beta-carotene is unlikely to be a causative factor. Lower erythrocyte catalase activity after intervention with spinach products may be related to other constituents in spinach such as flavonoids....

  7. {beta}-Carotene to bacteriochlorophyll c energy transfer in self-assembled aggregates mimicking chlorosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alster, J. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Ke Karlovu 3, 121 16 Praha (Czech Republic); Polivka, T. [Institute of Physical Biology, University of South Bohemia, Zamek 136, 373 33 Nove Hrady (Czech Republic); Biology Centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Branisovska 31, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Arellano, J.B. [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia de Salamanca (IRNASA-CSIC), Apdo. 257, 37071 Salamanca (Spain); Chabera, P. [Institute of Physical Biology, University of South Bohemia, Zamek 136, 373 33 Nove Hrady (Czech Republic); Vacha, F. [Institute of Physical Biology, University of South Bohemia, Zamek 136, 373 33 Nove Hrady (Czech Republic); Biology Centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Branisovska 31, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Psencik, J., E-mail: psencik@karlov.mff.cuni.cz [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Ke Karlovu 3, 121 16 Praha (Czech Republic); Institute of Physical Biology, University of South Bohemia, Zamek 136, 373 33 Nove Hrady (Czech Republic)

    2010-07-19

    Carotenoids are together with bacteriochlorophylls important constituents of chlorosomes, the light-harvesting antennae of green photosynthetic bacteria. Majority of bacteriochlorophyll molecules form self-assembling aggregates inside the chlorosomes. Aggregates of bacteriochlorophylls with optical properties similar to those of chlorosomes can also be prepared in non-polar organic solvents or in aqueous environments when a suitable non-polar molecule is added. In this work, the ability of {beta}-carotene to induce aggregation of bacteriochlorophyll c in aqueous buffer was studied. Excitation relaxation and energy transfer in the carotenoid-bacteriochlorophyll assemblies were measured using femtosecond and nanosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. A fast, {approx}100-fs energy transfer from the S{sub 2} state of {beta}-carotene to bacteriochlorophyll c was revealed, while no evidence for significant energy transfer from the S{sub 1} state was found. Picosecond formation of the carotenoid triplet state (T{sub 1}) was observed, which was likely generated by singlet homo-fission from the S{sub 1} state of {beta}-carotene.

  8. Beta-carotene reduces oxidative stress, improves glutathione metabolism and modifies antioxidant defense systems in lead-exposed workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasperczyk, Sławomir; Dobrakowski, Michał; Kasperczyk, Janusz; Ostałowska, Alina; Zalejska-Fiolka, Jolanta; Birkner, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether beta-carotene administration reduces oxidative stress and influences antioxidant, mainly glutathione-related, defense systems in workers chronically exposed to lead. The population consisted of two randomly divided groups of healthy male volunteers exposed to lead. Workers in the first group (reference group) were not administered any antioxidants, while workers in the second group (CAR group) were treated orally with 10 mg of beta-carotene once a day for 12 weeks. Biochemical analysis included measuring markers of lead-exposure and oxidative stress in addition to the levels and activities of selected antioxidants. After treatment, levels of malondialdehyde, lipid hydroperoxides and lipofuscin significantly decreased compared with the reference group. However, the level of glutathione significantly increased compared with the baseline. Treatment with beta-carotene also resulted in significantly decreased glutathione peroxidase activity compared with the reference group, while the activities of other glutathione-related enzymes and of superoxide dismutase were not significantly changed. However, the activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and catalase, as well as the level of alpha-tocopherol, were significantly higher after treatment compared with the baseline. Despite controversy over the antioxidant properties of beta-carotene in vivo, our findings showed reduced oxidative stress after beta-carotene supplementation in chronic lead poisoning. - Highlights: • Beta-carotene reduces oxidative stress in lead-exposed workers. • Beta-carotene elevates glutathione level in lead-exposed workers. • Beta-carotene administration could be beneficial in lead poisoning

  9. Beta-carotene reduces oxidative stress, improves glutathione metabolism and modifies antioxidant defense systems in lead-exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasperczyk, Sławomir, E-mail: kaslav@mp.pl [Dept. of Biochemistry, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, ul. Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland); Dobrakowski, Michał [Dept. of Biochemistry, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, ul. Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland); Kasperczyk, Janusz [Dept. of Environmental Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, ul. Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland); Ostałowska, Alina; Zalejska-Fiolka, Jolanta; Birkner, Ewa [Dept. of Biochemistry, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, ul. Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland)

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether beta-carotene administration reduces oxidative stress and influences antioxidant, mainly glutathione-related, defense systems in workers chronically exposed to lead. The population consisted of two randomly divided groups of healthy male volunteers exposed to lead. Workers in the first group (reference group) were not administered any antioxidants, while workers in the second group (CAR group) were treated orally with 10 mg of beta-carotene once a day for 12 weeks. Biochemical analysis included measuring markers of lead-exposure and oxidative stress in addition to the levels and activities of selected antioxidants. After treatment, levels of malondialdehyde, lipid hydroperoxides and lipofuscin significantly decreased compared with the reference group. However, the level of glutathione significantly increased compared with the baseline. Treatment with beta-carotene also resulted in significantly decreased glutathione peroxidase activity compared with the reference group, while the activities of other glutathione-related enzymes and of superoxide dismutase were not significantly changed. However, the activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and catalase, as well as the level of alpha-tocopherol, were significantly higher after treatment compared with the baseline. Despite controversy over the antioxidant properties of beta-carotene in vivo, our findings showed reduced oxidative stress after beta-carotene supplementation in chronic lead poisoning. - Highlights: • Beta-carotene reduces oxidative stress in lead-exposed workers. • Beta-carotene elevates glutathione level in lead-exposed workers. • Beta-carotene administration could be beneficial in lead poisoning.

  10. Dietary Vitamin C in Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger, Matthew; Eck, Peter

    Vitamin C is essential to prevent scurvy in humans and is implicated in the primary prevention of common and complex diseases such as coronary heart disease, stroke, and cancer. This chapter reviews the latest knowledge about dietary vitamin C in human health with an emphasis on studies of the molecular mechanisms of vitamin C maintenance as well as gene-nutrient interactions modifying these relationships. Epidemiological evidence indicates 5% prevalence for vitamin C deficiency and 13% prevalence for suboptimal status even in industrialized countries. The daily intake (dose) and the corresponding systemic concentrations (response) are related in a saturable relationship, and low systemic vitamin C concentrations in observational studies are associated with negative health outcomes. However, there is no evidence that vitamin C supplementation impacts the risks for all-cause mortality, impaired cognitive performance, reduced quality of life, the development of eye diseases, infections, cardiovascular disease, and cancers. This might be related to the fact that prevention would not be realized by supplementation in populations already adequately supplied through dietary sources. Recent genetic association studies indicate that the dietary intake might not be the sole determinant of systemic concentrations, since variations in genes participating in redox homeostasis and vitamin C transport had been associated with lowered plasma concentrations. However, impact sizes are generally low and these phenomena might only affect individual of suboptimal dietary supply. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Improved simultaneous determination method of beta-carotene and retinol with saponification in human serum and rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosotani, Keisuke; Kitagawa, Masahiro

    2003-07-05

    Among the many simultaneous determination methods for carotenoid and retinoid, there are only a few reports including the saponification process. However, the yields of beta-carotene and retinol were higher when using this process. In this study, the analytical conditions, including saponification, were investigated. The extraction solvent was n-hexane and the sample solvent was HPLC mobile phase in the beta-carotene and retinol analysis. BHT as an antioxidant was added at concentrations of 0.125 and 0.025%, respectively, to ethanol and n-hexane phase in the extraction process for serum. The recovery rates were 99.7, 93.7 and 98.3% for beta-carotene, retinol and retinyl palmitate in serum, respectively, and 107.1, 92.8 and 98.8% for beta-carotene, retinol and retinyl palmitate in liver, respectively. The within-day coefficients of variation (C.V.) were 6.0% for serum and 4.7% for liver in the case of beta-carotene, 7.1% for serum, and 5.1% for liver in the case of retinol. The between-day coefficients of variation were 2.7% for serum and 2.7% for liver in the case of beta-carotene, and for retinol, 6.4% for serum and 2.7% for liver.

  12. Dietary reference values for vitamin K

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2017-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derives dietary reference values (DRVs) for vitamin K. In this Opinion, the Panel considers vitamin K to comprise both phylloquinone and menaquinones. The Panel considers that none...... of the biomarkers of vitamin K intake or status is suitable by itself to derive DRVs for vitamin K. Several health outcomes possibly associated with vitamin K intake were also considered but data could not be used to establish DRVs. The Panel considers that average requirements and population reference intakes...... for vitamin K cannot be derived for adults, infants and children, and therefore sets adequate intakes (AIs). The Panel considers that available evidence on occurrence, absorption, function and content in the body or organs of menaquinones is insufficient, and, therefore, sets AIs for phylloquinone only...

  13. [Vitamins and oxidative stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodentsova, V M; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Mazo, V K

    2013-01-01

    The central and local stress limiting systems, including the antioxidant defense system involved in defending the organism at the cellular and systemic levels from excess activation response to stress influence, leading to damaging effects. The development of stress, regardless of its nature [cold, increased physical activity, aging, the development of many pathologies (cardiovascular, neurodegenerative diseases, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, ischemia, the effects of burns), immobilization, hypobaric hypoxia, hyperoxia, radiation effects etc.] leads to a deterioration of the vitamin status (vitamins E, A, C). Damaging effect on the antioxidant defense system is more pronounced compared to the stress response in animals with an isolated deficiency of vitamins C, A, E, B1 or B6 and the combined vitamins deficiency in the diet. Addition missing vitamin or vitamins restores the performance of antioxidant system. Thus, the role of vitamins in adaptation to stressors is evident. However, vitamins C, E and beta-carotene in high doses, significantly higher than the physiological needs of the organism, may be not only antioxidants, but may have also prooxidant properties. Perhaps this explains the lack of positive effects of antioxidant vitamins used in extreme doses for a long time described in some publications. There is no doubt that to justify the current optimal doses of antioxidant vitamins and other dietary antioxidants specially-designed studies, including biochemical testing of initial vitamin and antioxidant status of the organism, as well as monitoring their change over time are required.

  14. Dietary reference values for vitamin D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2016-01-01

    synthesis and dietary sources, can be used as a biomarker of vitamin D status in adult and children populations. The Panel notes that the evidence on the relationship between serum 25(OH)D concentration and musculoskeletal health outcomes in adults, infants and children, and adverse pregnancy-related health...

  15. Beta-carotene Antioxidant Use During Radiation Therapy and Prostate Cancer Outcome in the Physicians' Health Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margalit, Danielle N.; Kasperzyk, Julie L.; Martin, Neil E.; Sesso, Howard D.; Gaziano, John Michael; Ma, Jing; Stampfer, Meir J.; Mucci, Lorelei A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The safety of antioxidant supplementation during radiation therapy (RT) for cancer is controversial. Antioxidants could potentially counteract the pro-oxidant effects of RT and compromise therapeutic efficacy. We performed a prospective study nested within the Physicians’ Health Study (PHS) randomized trial to determine if supplemental antioxidant use during RT for prostate cancer is associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer death or metastases. Methods and Materials: PHS participants (383) received RT for prostate cancer while randomized to receive beta-carotene (50 mg on alternate days) or placebo. The primary endpoint was time from RT to lethal prostate cancer, defined as prostate cancer death or bone metastases. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate survival probabilities and the log-rank test to compare groups. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the effect of beta-carotene compared with that of placebo during RT. Results: With a median follow-up of 10.5 years, there was no significant difference between risk of lethal prostate cancer with the use of beta-carotene during RT compared with that of placebo (hazard ratio = 0.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.42–1.24; p = 0.24). After we adjusted for age at RT, prostate-specific antigen serum level, Gleason score, and clinical stage, the difference remained nonsignificant. The 10-year freedom from lethal prostate cancer was 92% (95% CI, 87–95%) in the beta-carotene group and 89% (95% CI, 84–93%) in the placebo group. Conclusion: The use of supplemental antioxidant beta-carotene during RT was not associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer death or metastases. This study suggests a lack of harm from supplemental beta-carotene during RT for prostate cancer.

  16. Carotenoid status among preschool children with vitamin A deficiency in the Republic of the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Mary V; Palafox, Neal A; Dancheck, Barbara; Ricks, Michelle O; Briand, Kennar; Semba, Richard D

    2004-01-01

    Although carotenoids are known to be important dietary sources of vitamin A, there have been few epidemiological studies that have characterized the serum concentrations of major dietary carotenoids among preschool children with vitamin A deficiency. We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional study of serum pro-vitamin A carotenoids (alpha -carotene, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin), non-provitamin A carotenoids (lutein/zeaxanthin, and lycopene), and retinol among 278 children, aged 1-5 y, in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Vitamin A deficiency was defined as serum retinol Marshall Islands have extremely low serum concentrations of provitamin A carotenoids and interventions are needed to improve the dietary intake of provitamin A carotenoids among Marshallese children.

  17. Mutagenicity of food-derived carcinogens and the effect of antioxidant vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Beverly A; Murphy, Jessica; Chen, James J; Desai, Varsha G; McGarrity, Lynda; Morris, Suzanne M; Casciano, Daniel A; Aidoo, Anane

    2002-01-01

    The food-derived heterocyclic amines (HCAs) 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (MeIQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) are mutagenic in the Ames test and produce tumors in laboratory animals, including monkeys. These HCAs have also been shown to induce gene mutations in vivo. To assess the antimutagenic effects of dietary antioxidant vitamins, beta-carotene, ascorbic acid (vitamin C), and alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E), on food-borne mutagenes/carcinogens, we evaluated the mutagenic activity of the compounds alone or combined with antioxidant vitamins. We utilized the rat lymphocyte mutation assay at the hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (Hprt) locus. Female Fischer 344 rats treated with different doses (0, 2.5, 5.0, 25.0, and 50.0 mg/kg) of the carcinogens were sacrificed 5 wk after mutagen treatment. Although IQ and MeIQ slightly increased mutation frequency (MF) at some doses, a significant (P carcinogen metabolism would be affected by ingestion of vitamins. The activities of endogenous detoxification enzymes, glutathione S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), were thus examined. Intake of beta-carotene and vitamin C without the carcinogen resulted in an increase (P food or taken as supplements could, in part, counteract such mutagenic activities.

  18. Influence of fasting on circulating levels of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene. Effect of short-term supplementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, DAJ; Molin, F; van Beusekom, CM; van Doormaal, JJ; Muskiet, FAJ

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the influence of fasting on the levels of alpha-tocopherol in plasma, erythrocytes and platelets, and on plasma beta-carotene. Six apparently healthy adults were subjected to 17-h feed-fasting experiments at various days before, during and after supplementation with alpha-tocopherol

  19. Cellular uptake of beta-carotene from protein stabilized solid lipid nano-particles prepared by homogenization-evaporation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using a homogenization-evaporation method, beta-carotene (BC) loaded nano-particles were prepared with different ratios of food-grade sodium caseinate (SC), whey protein isolate (WPI), or soy protein isolate (SPI) to BC and evaluated for their physiochemical stability, in vitro cytotoxicity, and cel...

  20. Development of a tunable femtosecond stimulated raman apparatus and its application to beta-carotene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Sangdeok; Mathies, Richard A

    2008-04-17

    We have developed a tunable femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS) apparatus and used it to perform time-resolved resonance Raman experiments with Raman excitation, the resonant S1 state modes are enhanced by a factor of approximately 200 compared with 800 nm FSRS experiments. The improved signal-to-noise ratios facilitate the measurement of definitive time constants for beta-carotene dynamics including the 180 fs appearance of the S1 vibrational features due to direct internal conversion from S2 and their characteristic 9 ps decay to S0. By tuning the FSRS system to 590 nm Raman excitation, we are able to selectively enhance vibrational features of the hot ground state S hot 0 and monitor its approximately 5 ps cooling dynamics. This tunable FSRS system is valuable because it facilitates the direct observation of structural changes of selected resonantly enhanced states and intermediates during photochemical and photobiological reactions.

  1. High dietary antioxidant intakes are associated with decreased chromosome translocation frequency in airline pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Lee C; Petersen, Martin R; Sigurdson, Alice J; Sampson, Laura A; Ward, Elizabeth M

    2009-11-01

    Dietary antioxidants may protect against DNA damage induced by endogenous and exogenous sources, including ionizing radiation (IR), but data from IR-exposed human populations are limited. The objective was to examine the association between the frequency of chromosome translocations, as a biomarker of cumulative DNA damage, and intakes of vitamins C and E and carotenoids in 82 male airline pilots. Dietary intakes were estimated by using a self-administered semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Translocations were scored by using fluorescence in situ hybridization with whole chromosome paints. Negative binomial regression was used to estimate rate ratios and 95% CIs, adjusted for potential confounders. Significant and inverse associations were observed between translocation frequency and intakes of vitamin C, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, and lutein-zeaxanthin from food (P food; total vitamin C or E from food and supplements; or vitamin C or E or multivitamin supplements. The adjusted rate ratios (95% CI) for > or =median compared with or =median compared with food: 0.27 (0.14, 0.55). High combined intakes of vitamins C and E, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, and lutein-zeaxanthin from food, or a diet high in their food sources, may protect against cumulative DNA damage in IR-exposed persons.

  2. Lycopene and Beta-Carotene Induce Growth Inhibition and Proapoptotic Effects on ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite de Oliveira, Felipe; Soares, Nathália; de Mattos, Rômulo Medina; Hecht, Fábio; Dezonne, Rômulo Sperduto; Vairo, Leandro; Goldenberg, Regina Coeli dos Santos; Gomes, Flávia Carvalho Alcântara; de Carvalho, Denise Pires; Gadelha, Mônica R.; Nasciutti, Luiz Eurico; Miranda-Alves, Leandro

    2013-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas comprise approximately 10–15% of intracranial tumors and result in morbidity associated with altered hormonal patterns, therapy and compression of adjacent sella turcica structures. The use of functional foods containing carotenoids contributes to reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as cancer and vascular disorders. In this study, we evaluated the influence of different concentrations of beta-carotene and lycopene on cell viability, colony formation, cell cycle, apoptosis, hormone secretion, intercellular communication and expression of connexin 43, Skp2 and p27kip1 in ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma cells, the AtT20 cells, incubated for 48 and 96 h with these carotenoids. We observed a decrease in cell viability caused by the lycopene and beta-carotene treatments; in these conditions, the clonogenic ability of the cells was also significantly decreased. Cell cycle analysis revealed that beta-carotene induced an increase of the cells in S and G2/M phases; furthermore, lycopene increased the proportion of these cells in G0/G1 while decreasing the S and G2/M phases. Also, carotenoids induced apoptosis after 96 h. Lycopene and beta-carotene decreased the secretion of ACTH in AtT20 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Carotenoids blocked the gap junction intercellular communication. In addition, the treatments increased the expression of phosphorylated connexin43. Finally, we also demonstrate decreased expression of S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (Skp2) and increased expression of p27kip1 in carotenoid-treated cells. These results show that lycopene and beta-carotene were able to negatively modulate events related to the malignant phenotype of AtT-20 cells, through a mechanism that could involve changes in the expression of connexin 43, Skp2 and p27kip1; and suggest that these compounds might provide a novel pharmacological approach to the treatment of Cushing’s disease. PMID:23667519

  3. Lycopene and beta-carotene induce growth inhibition and proapoptotic effects on ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália F Haddad

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenomas comprise approximately 10-15% of intracranial tumors and result in morbidity associated with altered hormonal patterns, therapy and compression of adjacent sella turcica structures. The use of functional foods containing carotenoids contributes to reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as cancer and vascular disorders. In this study, we evaluated the influence of different concentrations of beta-carotene and lycopene on cell viability, colony formation, cell cycle, apoptosis, hormone secretion, intercellular communication and expression of connexin 43, Skp2 and p27(kip1 in ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma cells, the AtT20 cells, incubated for 48 and 96 h with these carotenoids. We observed a decrease in cell viability caused by the lycopene and beta-carotene treatments; in these conditions, the clonogenic ability of the cells was also significantly decreased. Cell cycle analysis revealed that beta-carotene induced an increase of the cells in S and G2/M phases; furthermore, lycopene increased the proportion of these cells in G0/G1 while decreasing the S and G2/M phases. Also, carotenoids induced apoptosis after 96 h. Lycopene and beta-carotene decreased the secretion of ACTH in AtT20 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Carotenoids blocked the gap junction intercellular communication. In addition, the treatments increased the expression of phosphorylated connexin43. Finally, we also demonstrate decreased expression of S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (Skp2 and increased expression of p27(kip1 in carotenoid-treated cells. These results show that lycopene and beta-carotene were able to negatively modulate events related to the malignant phenotype of AtT-20 cells, through a mechanism that could involve changes in the expression of connexin 43, Skp2 and p27(kip1; and suggest that these compounds might provide a novel pharmacological approach to the treatment of Cushing's disease.

  4. Evaluation of vitamins A, C and E content in diets of adolescents living in Warsaw, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybkowska, Ewa; Waszkiewicz-Robak, Bozena; Piekot, Edyta

    2014-01-01

    Antioxidant vitamins such as alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E), ascorbic acid (vitamin C), and beta-carotene (provitamin A), play a significant role in protecting the body from an excess of free radicals. The vitamin content of the diet is thus very important. To assess whether the dietary intake of vitamins A, C and E is adequate in a selected group of adolescents living in Warsaw. The mean vitamin consumption was estimated using three-day dietary records whilst vitamin contents of selected foodstuffs were obtained from Food Composition Tables. Both were related to Polish nutrition standards applied to adolescents; i.e. EAR (Estimated Average Requirement) for vitamins A and C and AI (Adequate Intake) for vitamin E. Dietary vitamin C in adolescents and vitamin E in girls were around 18-25% lower than that recommended. Diets that were deficient in vitamins C and E were recorded in 47% to 67% adolescents. It is therefore necessary to increase the consumption of vegetables and fruit which provide a valuable dietary source for these vitamins.

  5. Bioavailability and bioefficacy of [beta]-carotene measured using 13C-labeled [beta]-carotene and retinol: studies in Indonesian children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieshout, van M.

    2001-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency is a serious health problem in many developing countries. Improved vitamin A status can reduce morbidity and mortality by one-third in developing countries. Vitamin A occurs in food as preformed vitamin A (retinol), present in animal foods and breastmilk, and as

  6. Effect of gamma radiation on the content {beta}-carotene and volatile compounds of cantaloupe melon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Stefania P. de; Cardozo, Monique; Lima, Keila dos S.C.; Lima, Antonio L. dos S., E-mail: keila@ime.eb.br, E-mail: santoslima@ime.eb.br [Departamento de Quimica - IME - Instituto Militar de Engenharia, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The Japanese melon or cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L.) is characterized by fruits with almost 1.0 Kg, pulp usually salmon and musky scent. The fruits when ripe are sensitive to post harvest handling. This low transport resistance and reduced shelf-life makes it necessary to delay the ripening of fruit. In this way the use of irradiation technique is a good choice. Irradiation is the process of exposing food to high doses of gamma rays. The processing of fruits and vegetables with ionizing radiation has as main purpose to ensure its preservation. However, like other forms of food processing, irradiation may cause changes in chemical composition and nutritional value. This study aims to assess possible changes in carotene content and volatile compounds caused by exposure of cantaloupe melon fruit to gamma irradiation. Irradiation of the samples occurred in Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (Guaratiba-RJ), using Gamma irradiator (Cs{sub 137} source, dose rate 1.8 kGy/h), being applied 0.5 and 1.0 kGy doses and separated a control group not irradiated. Carotenoids were extracted with acetone and then suffered partition to petroleum ether, solvent was removed under nitrogen flow and the remainder dissolved in acetone again. The chromatographic analysis was performed using a Shimadzu gas chromatograph, with C30 column. For volatile compounds, we used gas chromatography (GC) associated with mass (MS). As a result, it was verified in analysis of carotenoids that cantaloupe melon is rich in {beta}-carotene. Both total content of carotenoids and specific {beta}-carotene amount wasn't suffer significant reduction in irradiated fruits at two doses, demonstrating that the irradiation process under these conditions implies a small loss of nutrients. The major volatile compounds were: 2-methyl-1-butyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, n-hexyl acetate, benzyl acetate, 6-nonenyl acetate and {alpha} -terpinyl acetate. For all compounds we observed an increase in the volatile content in 0.5 k

  7. [Vitamin deficiencies in breastfed children due to maternal dietary deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kollee, L.A.A.

    2006-01-01

    Dietary deficiencies of vitamin B12 and vitamin D during pregnancy and lactation may result in health problems in exclusively breastfed infants. Vitamin-B12 deficiency in these infants results in irritability, anorexia and failure to thrive during the first 4-8 months of life. Severe and permanent

  8. Dietary Intake of Vitamin D in the Moroccan Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    El-Houcine Sebbar; Hicham Sam; Ennouamane Saalaoui; Mohammed Choukri

    2018-01-01

    Aim: Vitamin D deficiency is common in the elderly. The aim of our work is to evaluate the dietary intake of vitamin D in the Moroccan elderly. Methods: This study included 159 subjects aged over 60 years who performed a vitamin D questionnaire (VDQ), covering the consumption of four foods with high vitamin D content (fish, milk, margarine and yoghurt). Results: The average dietary vitamin D intake was 2.7 μg/day. This observational study in Moroccan elderly indicates a high prevalence of ins...

  9. Bakery products enriched with phytosterol esters, alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene decrease plasma LDL-cholesterol and maintain plasma beta-carotene concentrations in normocholesterolemic men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quílez, Joan; Rafecas, Magda; Brufau, Gemma; García-Lorda, Pilar; Megías, Isabel; Bulló, Mònica; Ruiz, Joan A; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2003-10-01

    The hypocholesterolemic effects of phytosterols have not been evaluated in bakery products, and the addition of liposoluble antioxidants to the carrier has never been tested. We investigated the effects of consuming croissants and magdalenas (Spanish muffins) enriched with sterol esters, alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene on plasma lipid and fat-soluble antioxidant concentrations in normocholesterolemic, habitual consumers of bakery products following their usual diet and lifestyle. Using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design, the control (C) group (n = 29) received two pieces daily (standard croissant and muffin) and the sterol ester (SE) group (n = 28), the same products with sterol esters added (3.2 g/d) for 8 wk. Total and LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) decreased in the SE group by 0.24 mmol/L (P bakery products are excellent carriers for phytosterols, and their consumption is associated with a decrease in total and LDL-C concentrations, with no changes in alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene. The ability of bakery products to include sufficient quantities of beta-carotene to compensate for a potential deficiency, and the fact that their efficacy was not associated with the time of day at which they were consumed, are interesting findings.

  10. Impact of dietary vitamin A interventions on total body stores in Thai lactating women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasanwisut, E.; West, K.P.

    1997-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is increasingly being recognized as a public health problem among pregnant and lactating women in developing countries. This proposed study will be a randomized trial to evaluate the efficacy of consuming provitamin A-rich foods in one prepared, on-site meal per weekday for 3 months on total body vitamin A stores and other aspects of vitamin A status in marginally nourished lactating women in rural Northeast Thailand. Approximately 400 lactating women, 2-18 months post-partum, will be screened in the population for marginal vitamin A status by a tier of indicators beginning from low intake or history of night blindness or impaired dark adaptability followed by low serum retinol. Assuming a prevalence of low serum retinol of ∼20%, 90 women will be identified and recruited, matched by serum retinol and month post-partum and randomized in a block fashion into three groups to receive daily cooked (fat-added) meal and snack with (1) dark green leafy and yellow/orange vegetables and fruits, (2) beta-carotene- enriched rice chips and (3) non-enriched rice chips. Groups 1 and 2 will receive ∼3.6 mg of beta-carotene per day. Prior to and following the intervention hepatic vitamin A reserves will be estimated by isotopic dilution techniques and other indicators of vitamin A status. In addition, serum C-reactive protein and maternal anthropometry will be measured. Food consumption data based on 24-hour recall for 3 randomized days will be collected every 2 weeks to assess routine intakes of vitamin A, fat and other nutrients. Morbidity will be monitored on a weekly basis throughout the study. Between-group comparisons will provide a basis for (1) estimating the adequacy of local diets to improve or maintain total body stores of vitamin A in women during lactation and (2) assessing the validity and responsiveness of widely used measures of vitamin A status in this high-risk group

  11. [Serum retinol and carotenoid of rural infants and young children in Linyi of Shangdong Province and analysis on their related influencing dietary factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ping; Shen, Yao; Li, Yonghua; Ma, Aiqin; Sun, Zhongqing; Wang, Zhixu

    2012-05-01

    The study was carried out to determine serum retinol and carotenoid of infants and young children in rural areas, and to explore their related dietary factors. A total of 254 rural healthy infants and young children aged 6-24 month-old were recruited from a program for health examination and feeding survey conducted in villages in Meibu of Linyi of Shandong Province by cluster sampling method. Serum retinol, beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin and lutein + zeaxanthin were detected with HPLC. The frequency of food intake of babies during the past month was inquired from their mothers or baby-sitters. The relationship between serum retinol and carotenoid level with some factors related to feeding pattern was analyzed. The average serum retinol was (0.96 +/- 0.55) micromol/L with little variation by age (P > 0.05). The prevalence of serum vitamin A deficiency and marginal deficiency were 40.6% and 32.6%. The average serum beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin and lutein + zeaxanthin were (0.056 +/- 0.088) micromol/L, (3.3 +/- 12.1) nmol/L, (27.0 +/- 45.2) nmol/L and (0.22 +/- 0.22) micromol/L, respectively, and no significant difference between age groups on serum beta-carotene, alpha-carotene and beta-cryptoxanthin (all were P > 0.05) except lutein + zeaxanthin (P milk, formula, or fruits and vegetables.

  12. HPLC Analysis of Chlorophyll a, Chlorophyll b, and Beta-Carotene in Collard Greens: A Project for a Problem-Oriented Laboratory Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Augustine, Jr.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is used to separate and quantitate beta-carotene, chlorophyll a, and chlorophyll b originating from collard greens. Experimental procedures used and typical results obtained are discussed. (JN)

  13. Ultrafast optical responses of {beta}-carotene and lycopene probed by sub-20-fs time-resolved coherent spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, M.; Sugisaki, M. [CREST-JST and Department of Physics, Osaka City University, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Gall, A.; Robert, B. [CEA, Institut de Biologie et Technologies de Saclay, and CNRS, Gif-sur-Yvette F-91191 (France); Cogdell, R.J. [IBLS, Glasgow Biomedical Research Centre, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Hashimoto, H., E-mail: hassy@sci.osaka-cu.ac.j [CREST-JST and Department of Physics, Osaka City University, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan)

    2009-12-15

    We investigate how structural distortions in carotenoid cause decoherences of its high-frequency vibrational modes by applying the sub-20-fs time-resolved transient grating spectroscopy to {beta}-carotene and lycopene. The results indicate that the C=C central stretching mode shows significant loss of coherence under the effects of the steric hindrance between {beta}-ionone ring and polyene backbone, whereas the other high-frequency modes do not show such dependency on the structural distortions.

  14. Dietary Intake of Vitamin D in the Moroccan Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Houcine Sebbar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Vitamin D deficiency is common in the elderly. The aim of our work is to evaluate the dietary intake of vitamin D in the Moroccan elderly. Methods: This study included 159 subjects aged over 60 years who performed a vitamin D questionnaire (VDQ, covering the consumption of four foods with high vitamin D content (fish, milk, margarine and yoghurt. Results: The average dietary vitamin D intake was 2.7 μg/day. This observational study in Moroccan elderly indicates a high prevalence of insufficient vitamin D intake, and below the recommended consumption values, particularly in those aged over 70 years. Conclusion: Inadequate vitamin D intake is common among the Moroccan elderly. To fight against this situation, initiatives must be implemented, including improved population education, lifestyle, and vitamin D supplementation, in order to avoid serious adverse health consequences of bone.

  15. Rapid and simultaneous determination of lycopene and beta-carotene contents in tomato juice by infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nardo, Thais; Shiroma-Kian, Cecilia; Halim, Yuwana; Francis, David; Rodriguez-Saona, Luis E

    2009-02-25

    The rapid quantification of lycopene and beta-carotene in tomato juices by attenuated total reflectance (ATR) infrared spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis was evaluated. Two sample preparation methods were compared: a direct measurement of the tomato paste and an extraction method using hexane to isolate carotenoids. HPLC was used as the reference method. Cross-validated (leave-one-out) partial least-squares regression (PLSR) was used to create calibration models to predict these phytonutrient concentrations in blind test samples. The infrared spectra showed unique marker bands at 957 and 968 cm(-1) for lycopene and beta-carotene, respectively. Multivariate analysis of the infrared spectral data gave correlation coefficients (r values) of >0.9 between the ATR-IR predicted and HPLC reference values, and standard errors of cross-validation (SECV) of 0.5 and 0.04 mg/100 g of juice for lycopene and beta-carotene, respectively. ATR-IR could provide the tomato industry with a simple, rapid, and high-throughput technique for the determination of tomato quality.

  16. Non-invasive in vivo determination of the carotenoids beta-carotene and lycopene concentrations in the human skin using the Raman spectroscopic method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darvin, M E [Center of Experimental and Applied Cutaneous Physiology (CCP), Department of Dermatology, Charite University Hospital, Berlin (Germany); Gersonde, I [Institute of Medical Physics and Laser Medicine, Charite University Hospital, Berlin (Germany); Meinke, M [Institute of Medical Physics and Laser Medicine, Charite University Hospital, Berlin (Germany); Sterry, W [Center of Experimental and Applied Cutaneous Physiology (CCP), Department of Dermatology, Charite University Hospital, Berlin (Germany); Lademann, J [Center of Experimental and Applied Cutaneous Physiology (CCP), Department of Dermatology, Charite University Hospital, Berlin (Germany)

    2005-08-07

    Resonance Raman spectroscopy was used as a fast and non-invasive optical method of measuring the absolute concentrations of beta-carotene and lycopene in living human skin. Beta-carotene and lycopene have different absorption values at 488 and 514.5 nm and, consequently, the Raman lines for beta-carotene and lycopene have different scattering efficiencies at 488 and 514.5 nm excitations. These differences were used for the determination of the concentrations of beta-carotene and lycopene. Using multiline Ar{sup +} laser excitation, clearly distinguishable carotenoid Raman spectra can be obtained which are superimposed on a large fluorescence background. The Raman signals are characterized by two prominent Stokes lines at 1160 and 1525 cm{sup -1}, which have nearly identical relative intensities. Both substances were detected simultaneously. The Raman spectra are obtained rapidly, i.e. within about 10 s, and the required laser light exposure level is well within safety standards. The disturbance of the measurements by non-homogeneous skin pigmentation was avoided by using a relatively large measuring area of 35 mm{sup 2}. It was shown that beta-carotene and lycopene distribution in human skin strongly depends upon the skin region studied and drastically changed inter-individually. Skin beta-carotene and lycopene concentrations are lower in smokers than in non-smokers and higher in the vegetarian group.

  17. Non-invasive in vivo determination of the carotenoids beta-carotene and lycopene concentrations in the human skin using the Raman spectroscopic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darvin, M E; Gersonde, I; Meinke, M; Sterry, W; Lademann, J

    2005-01-01

    Resonance Raman spectroscopy was used as a fast and non-invasive optical method of measuring the absolute concentrations of beta-carotene and lycopene in living human skin. Beta-carotene and lycopene have different absorption values at 488 and 514.5 nm and, consequently, the Raman lines for beta-carotene and lycopene have different scattering efficiencies at 488 and 514.5 nm excitations. These differences were used for the determination of the concentrations of beta-carotene and lycopene. Using multiline Ar + laser excitation, clearly distinguishable carotenoid Raman spectra can be obtained which are superimposed on a large fluorescence background. The Raman signals are characterized by two prominent Stokes lines at 1160 and 1525 cm -1 , which have nearly identical relative intensities. Both substances were detected simultaneously. The Raman spectra are obtained rapidly, i.e. within about 10 s, and the required laser light exposure level is well within safety standards. The disturbance of the measurements by non-homogeneous skin pigmentation was avoided by using a relatively large measuring area of 35 mm 2 . It was shown that beta-carotene and lycopene distribution in human skin strongly depends upon the skin region studied and drastically changed inter-individually. Skin beta-carotene and lycopene concentrations are lower in smokers than in non-smokers and higher in the vegetarian group

  18. A population-based case-control study of carotenoid and vitamin A intake and ovarian cancer (United States).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertone, E R; Hankinson, S E; Newcomb, P A; Rosner, B; Willet, W C; Stampfer, M J; Egan, K M

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the association between dietary intake of carotenoids and vitamin A and the incidence of ovarian cancer. We conducted a population-based case-control study of ovarian cancer in Massachusetts and Wisconsin. Incident cases diagnosed between 1991 and 1994 were identified through statewide tumor registries. We selected community controls at random from lists of licensed drivers and Medicare recipients; 327 cases and 3129 controls were included in the analysis. Data were collected by telephone interview, which included an abbreviated food and supplement list to quantify typical consumption of carotenoids (lutein/zeaxanthin, alpha-carotene, beta-carotene), retinol and total vitamin A at 5 years prior to diagnosis in cases, or to a comparable reference date in controls. Results were adjusted for age, state, and other risk factors. Participants with the highest dietary intake of lutein/zeaxanthin (> or =24,000 microg/week) experienced a 40% lower risk of ovarian cancer (95% CI = 0.36-0.99) compared to those with the lowest intake. Intake of alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, retinol and total vitamin A was unrelated to risk. Among foods, we observed non-significantly lower risks with high consumption of spinach, carrots, skim/lowfat milk and liver. These results support previous findings suggesting an inverse relationship between carotenoid intake and ovarian cancer risk.

  19. The monoterpene terpinolene from the oil of Pinus mugo L. in concert with alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene effectively prevents oxidation of LDL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassmann, J; Hippeli, S; Spitzenberger, R; Elstner, E F

    2005-06-01

    Antioxidants from several nutrients, e.g. vitamin E, beta-carotene, or flavonoids, inhibit the oxidative modification of low-density lipoproteins. This protective effect could possibly retard atherogenesis and in consequence avoid coronary heart diseases. Some studies have shown a positive effect of those antioxidants on cardiovascular disease. Another class of naturally occurring antioxidants are terpenoids, which are found in essential oils. The essential oil of Pinus mugo and the contained monoterpene terpinolene effectively prevent low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-oxidation. In order to test the mechanism by which terpinolene protects LDL from oxidation, LDL from human blood plasma enriched in terpinolene was isolated. In this preparation not only the lipid part of LDL is protected against copper-induced oxidation--as proven by following the formation of conjugated dienes, but also the oxidation of the protein part is inhibited, since loss of tryptophan fluorescence is strongly delayed. This inhibition is due to a retarded oxidation of intrinsic carotenoids of LDL, and not, as in the case of some flavonoids, attributable to a protection of intrinsic alpha-tocopherol. These results are in agreement with our previous results, which showed the same effects for a monoterpene from lemon oil, i.e. gamma-terpinene.

  20. Vitamins, carotenoids, dietary fiber, and the risk of gastric carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botterweck, A.A.M.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Numerous components of fruit and vegetables are considered to decrease the risk of gastric carcinoma. In the current prospective study, the authors examined the association between the intake of vitamins, carotenoids, and dietary fiber and vitamin supplement use and the incidence rate of

  1. Effect of beta-carotene-rich tomato lycopene beta-cyclase ( tlcy-b) on cell growth inhibition in HT-29 colon adenocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palozza, Paola; Bellovino, Diana; Simone, Rossella; Boninsegna, Alma; Cellini, Francesco; Monastra, Giovanni; Gaetani, Sancia

    2009-07-01

    Lycopene beta-cyclase (tlcy-b) tomatoes, obtained by modulating carotenogenesis via genetic engineering, contain a large amount of beta-carotene, as clearly visible by their intense orange colour. In the present study we have subjected tlcy-b tomatoes to an in vitro simulated digestion and analysed the effects of digestate on cell proliferation. To this aim we used HT-29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells, grown in monolayers, as a model. Digested tomatoes were diluted (20 ml, 50 ml and 100 ml/l) in culture medium and added to the cells for different incubation times (24 h, 48 h and 72 h). Inhibition of cell growth by tomato digestate was dose-dependent and resulted from an arrest of cell cycle progression at the G0/G1 and G2/M phase and by apoptosis induction. A down-regulation of cyclin D1, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl expression was observed. We also found that heat treatment of samples before digestion enhanced beta-carotene release and therefore cell growth inhibition. To induce with purified beta-carotene solubilised in tetrahydrofuran the same cell growth inhibition obtained with the tomato digestate, a higher amount of the carotenoid was necessary, suggesting that beta-carotene micellarised during digestion is utilised more efficiently by the cells, but also that other tomato molecules, reasonably made available during digestion, may be present and cooperate with beta-carotene in promoting cell growth arrest.

  2. Teores de retinol, beta-caroteno e alfa-tocoferol em leites bovinos comercializados na cidade de São Paulo Amounts of retinol, beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol in cow milk comercialized in the city of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rute BIANCHINI

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Os teores de retinol, beta-caroteno e alfa-tocoferol foram determinados por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência em leites em pó, pasteurizados e esterilizados, comercializados na Cidade de São Paulo. Após a saponificação e extração, os compostos foram determinados simultaneamente utilizando-se coluna de sílica, fase móvel constituída por hexano:isopropanol (99:1 e fluxo de 2,0mL/min. O retinol e o beta-caroteno foram determinados no detector UV/visível e o alfa-tocoferol no detector de fluorescência, ligado em série com o anterior. Os valores de vitamina A dos leites foram calculados com e sem a consideração do beta-caroteno. A maior contribuição deste nutriente no valor de vitamina A esteve entre os leites em pó, cerca de 17% em uma das marcas. Os altos teores das vitamina A e E encontrados em alguns leites, indicam que os mesmos provavelmente receberam adição destas vitaminas, não trazendo, entretanto, tal informação no rótulo. A análise de vitaminas nestes produtos indica a necessidade de maior controle de qualidade dos mesmos.The amount of retinol, beta-carotene, alpha -tocopherol in powder, pasteurized and sterilized milk, comercialized in the city of São Paulo, were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. After saponification and extraction, compounds were determined simultaneously through a normal-phase column, mobile phase composed by hexan:2-propanol (99:1 and 2 mL/min flow. The retinol and beta-carotene were analysed by a UV/visible detector and the alpha-tocopherol by a fluorescence detector, both linked in series. The milk vitamin A values were calculated with and without beta-carotene. The major contribution of beta-carotene in the vitamin A value was in powder milks, around 17% in one of the brands. The high amounts of vitamin A and E found in some milks indicate that they probably were enriched with these vitamins but nothing is mentioned about this in their labels. The analysis of

  3. Characterization and evaluation of sensory acceptability of ice creams incorporated with beta-carotene encapsulated in solid lipid microparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Gobbi de LIMA

    Full Text Available Abstract The feasibility of incorporating beta-carotene-loaded solid lipid microparticles (BCSLM into vanilla ice creams was investigated, through the physico-chemical characterization and evaluation of sensory acceptability of the products products. The BCSLM were produced with palm stearin as the lipid phase, hydrolyzed soy protein isolate as the surfactant, and xanthan gum as the thickener. The results showed similar values of proximate composition, total soluble solids, pH, and overrun for all formulations. On the other hand, colorimetric evaluations showed that the ice cream produced with partial substitution of artificial additives by BCSLM containing alpha-tocopherol presented a more intense color, while in the product with non-encapsulated beta-carotene, a fast degradation of carotenoid was confirmed, highlighting the importance of the encapsulation techniques. The results of the sensorial analysis of the products were highly satisfactory and showed that the panelists preferred the ice creams produced with BCSLM containing alpha-tocopherol and with partial substitution of artificial additives by BCSLM containing alpha-tocopherol, confirming the feasibility of incorporating BCSLM into ice creams to reduce the application of artificial dyes to the product.

  4. Antioxidant profiling of native Andean potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.) reveals cultivars with high levels of beta-carotene, alpha-tocopherol, chlorogenic acid, and petanin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Christelle M; Oufir, Mouhssin; Guignard, Cédric; Hoffmann, Lucien; Hausman, Jean-François; Evers, Danièle; Larondelle, Yvan

    2007-12-26

    The antioxidant profile of 23 native Andean potato cultivars has been investigated from a human nutrition perspective. The main carotenoid and tocopherol compounds were studied using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) and a fluorescence detector, respectively, whereas polyphenols (including anthocyanins in colored tubers) were identified by means of both HPLC-mass spectrometry and HPLC-DAD. Antioxidant profiling revealed significant genotypic variations as well as cultivars of particular interest from a nutritional point of view. Concentrations of the health-promoting carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin, ranged from 1.12 to 17.69 microg g(-1) of dry weight (DW) and from 0 to 17.7 microg g(-1) of DW, with cultivars 704353 and 702472 showing the highest levels in lutein and zeaxanthin, respectively. Whereas beta-carotene is rarely reported in potato tubers, remarkable levels of this dietary provitamin A carotenoid were detected in 16 native varieties, ranging from 0.42 to 2.19 microg g(-1) of DW. The amounts of alpha-tocopherol found in Andean potato tubers, extending from 2.73 to 20.80 microg g(-1) of DW, were clearly above the quantities generally reported for commercial varieties. Chlorogenic acid and its isomers dominated the polyphenolic profile of each cultivar. Dark purple-fleshed tubers from the cultivar 704429 contained exceptionally high levels of total anthocyanins (16.33 mg g(-1) of DW). The main anthocyanin was identified as petanin (petunidin-3-p-coumaroyl-rutinoside-5-glucoside). The results suggest that Andean potato cultivars should be exploited in screening and breeding programs for the development of potato varieties with enhanced health and nutritional benefits.

  5. Xanthophylls are preferentially taken up compared with beta-carotene by retinal cells via a SRBI-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    During, Alexandrine; Doraiswamy, Sundari; Harrison, Earl H

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanisms by which carotenoids [xanthophylls vs. beta-carotene(beta-C)] are taken up by retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. The human RPE cell line, ARPE-19, was used. When ARPE-19 cells were fully differentiated (7-9 weeks), the xanthophylls lutein (LUT) and zeaxanthin (ZEA) were taken up by cells to an extent 2-fold higher than beta-C (P xanthophylls versus the carotene by a process that appears to be entirely SR-BI-dependent for ZEA and partly so for beta-C. This mechanism may explain, in part, the preferential accumulation of xanthophylls in the macula of the retina.

  6. Effects of dietary supplementation of Vitamin A on fertility and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We decided to study the effects of dietary vitamin A supplementation on the fertility and the characteristics of the oviductal and uterine flushing's of gilts because in our thermally harsh environment pigs tend to consume less feeds than needed and so expose themselves to some nutritional stress. The experimental diets ...

  7. Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for vitamin A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2015-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies derived Dietary Reference Values for vitamin A. The Panel considered that a concentration of 20 µg retinol/g liver can be used as a target for establishing the Average Requirement (AR...

  8. Vitamin C supplement intake and postmenopausal breast cancer risk: interaction with dietary vitamin C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadeau, Claire; Fournier, Agnès; Mesrine, Sylvie; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Fagherazzi, Guy; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine

    2016-07-01

    Experimental and epidemiologic studies have yielded conflicting results on the relation between vitamin C intake and breast cancer risk. We investigated the relation between vitamin C supplement intake and breast cancer risk while considering dietary vitamin C intake. Between 1995 and 2008, 2482 invasive breast cancer cases occurred in 57,403 postmenopausal women from the Etude Epidémiologique auprès de femmes de la Mutuelle Générale de l'Education Nationale (E3N) prospective cohort during 581,085 person-years. We estimated vitamin C intake from foods with the use of a validated food-frequency questionnaire that was sent to subjects in 1993-1995 and vitamin C supplement use via questionnaires sent in 1995, 2000, 2002, and 2005. Multivariable HRs (95% CIs) for primary invasive breast cancer were estimated with the use of Cox regression models. All statistical tests were 2-sided. Vitamin C supplement use (ever compared with never) was not associated with breast cancer risk overall; it was associated with higher breast cancer risk in women in the fourth quartile of vitamin C intake from foods (HR: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.67) but not in other quartiles of dietary vitamin C intake (P-interaction = 0.03). We observed that vitamin C supplement use was associated with increased postmenopausal breast cancer risk in women with high vitamin C intake from foods. Our data suggest a potential U- or J-shaped relation between total vitamin C intake and postmenopausal breast cancer risk that deserves further investigation. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. [Relationship between dietary vitamin C and Type 2 diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Xinliang; Wei, Jie; Yang, Tubao

    2015-10-01

    To examine the correlation between dietary vitamin C intake and Type 2 diabetes.
 A total of 5 168 participants from Xiangya Hospital, Central South University were randomly selected. According to the vitamin C intake, the participants were divided into 5 groups: a Q1 group (n=1 033), a Q2 group (n=1 034), a Q3 group (n=1 034), a Q4 group (n=1 034) and a Q5 group (n=1 033). They were also divided into a Type 2 diabetes group (n=502) and a non-diabetes group (n=4 666). The height, weight, and blood pressure were measured, and vitamin C intake and other dairy consumption were evaluated using a food frequency questionnaire and fasting plasma glucose (FPG). The analysis of variance (ANOVA), Chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U test and logistic regression model were used to analyze the relationship between dietary vitamin C and Type 2 diabetes.
 The univariate analysis showed that there were significant differences in the vitamin C consumption in energy intake, activity level, dietary fiber intake, nutritional supplementation status, drinking or not drinking, education level among the different vitamin C intake groups (all Pvitamin C intake between the Type 2 diabetes group and the non-diabetes group (all Pvitamin C intake (>154.78 mg/d) in comparison with the lowest level (≤ 63.26 mg/d). The results suggested that the vitamin C intake was inversely associated with the Type 2 diabetes (r=-0.029, Pvitamin C intake and the risk of Type 2 diabetes.

  10. Validation of the FSA nutrient profiling system dietary index in French adults-findings from SUVIMAX study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julia, Chantal; Méjean, Caroline; Touvier, Mathilde; Péneau, Sandrine; Lassale, Camille; Ducrot, Pauline; Hercberg, Serge; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2016-08-01

    Population-wide nutritional recommendations give guidance on food groups' consumption, though a wide variability in nutritional quality within groups may subsist. Nutrient profiling systems may help capturing such variability. We aimed to apply and validate a dietary index based on the British Food Standards Agency nutrient profiling system (FSA-NPS DI) in French middle-aged adults. Dietary data were collected through repeated 24-h dietary records in participants of the Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydants study (N = 5882). An aggregated dietary index at the individual level was computed using the FSA-NPS for each food consumed as well as compliance to the French nutritional guidelines using the Programme National Nutrition Santé-Guideline Score (PNNS-GS). Cross-sectional associations between FSA-NPS DI and nutrient intake, PNNS-GS, socio-demographic factors, lifestyle and nutritional biomarkers were computed using ANOVAs. The FSA-NPS DI was able to characterize the quality of the diets at the individual level in terms of nutrient intake and of adherence to nutritional recommendations: +37.6 % in beta-carotene intakes between subjects with a healthier diet versus subjects with a poorer diet, +42.8 % in vitamin C intakes; +17 % in PNNS-GS, all P < 0.001. FSA-NPS-DI was also associated with nutritional status at the biological level: +21.4 % in beta-carotene levels between subjects with a healthier diet versus subjects with a poorer diet, +12.8 % in vitamin C levels, all P < 0.001. The FSA-NPS DI is a useful and validated tool to discriminate individuals according to the quality of the diet, accounting for nutritional quality within food groups. Taking into account nutritional quality of individual foods allows monitoring change in dietary patterns beyond food groups.

  11. Improved dietary guidelines for vitamin D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cashman, Kevin D; Ritz, Christian; Kiely, Mairead

    2017-01-01

    analysis. Modelling strategies for pooling of individual subject data from cognate vitamin D randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are likely to provide the most appropriate DRV estimates. Thus, the objective of the present work was to undertake the first-ever individual participant data (IPD)-level meta...

  12. Effect of beta-Carotene from Yellow Ambon Banana Peel on Rat Serum Retinol Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparmi Suparmi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A Deficiency (VAD is associated with significant morbidity and mortality from common childhood infections and is the world’s leading preventable cause of childhood blindness. Studies showed that carotenoid is one of the promissed vitamin A source. However the studies  on  carotenoid from yellow  banana peel and its potential as a natural source of vitamin A has not been widely reported. This study was conducted to measure the blood serum retinol levels of rats after administration of β-carotene from yellow ambon banana peel. This was an experimental study with post test only control group design, with sample size of 18 rats with age 1 month, devided into 3 groups. β-carotene dose administered based on the dose of red capsules vitamin A are (200,000 doses SI for toddlers aged 12-59 months. Serum retinol levels were measured using a spectrophotometer according metide. This present study showed that the blood serum  level in group treated with  of β - carotene from yellow ambon banana peel (28.35 ± 1.61 mg/ dL , was significantly different (p < 0.05 from that of   control group ( 22.08 ± 1.35 mg /dL . β-carotene from yellow ambon banana peel are potential as provitamin A.

  13. Dietary intake in head and neck irradiated patients with permanent dry mouth symptoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeckstroem, I.; Funegard, U.; Andersson, I.; Franzen, L.; Johansson, I. [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Oncology

    1995-07-01

    Radiotherapy of the head and neck region, which includes the major and minor salivary glands in the radiation field, usually leads to temporary or permanent xerostomia. This may affect eating and increase the risk of inadequate intake of energy and nutrients. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of radiotherapy-induced xerostomia on energy and nutrient intake in individuals treated for malignancies in the head and neck region. The dietary intake of 24 patients with a low chewing stimulated whole saliva flow rate (< 0.5 ml/min) and in age and sex matched controls with normal flow rate (>1.0 ml/min) was recorded for 7 days. The average daily energy intake was nearly 300 kcal lower in the irradiated patients with dry mouth symptoms than in the control group. The mean intake in the former group was 1925 kcal per day whereas the control group had an intake of 2219 kcal per day. Irradiated patients with dry mouth symptoms had significantly lower mean intakes of vitamin A, {beta}-carotene, vitamin E, vitamin B{sub 6}, folacine, iron and zinc than those in the control group. There was also a lower intake of vitamin C, but this was not statistically significant. The intake of vitamins A and C exceeded or reached the levels recommended in the Swedish Nutritional recommendations, but the average intakes of fibre, iron, {beta}-carotene, vitamin E, zinc, selenium, and iron did not reach recommended levels, in neither the experimental nor the control group. (Author).

  14. ROLE OF DIETARY SUPPLEMENTATION IN PREVENTING PROGRESSION OF AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Ermakova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is a chronic, progressive, degenerative eye disease affecting the central retina. It is the leading cause of blindness among individuals of 65 years and older. In the early stage patients have drusen and/or alterations of pigmentation in the macular region. This disease can progress to geographic atrophy and/or choroidal neovascularization. It has been shown that oxidative stress and hypoxia are important in the pathogenesis of AMD. Patients may gain some visual improvement with inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor, but complete restoration of visual function is achieved only in small cases. No effective therapies are known for atrophic AMD. Many large observational studies have shown that dietary antioxidant supplementation is beneficial in preventing the progression of AMD from early to late stages. The Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS demonstrated that daily oral supplementation with vitamins C (500 mg and E (400 IU, beta carotene (15 mg, zinc (80 mg and copper (2 mg reduced the risk of progression to advanced AMD by 25% at 5 years. In primary analyses AREDS II failed to show further reduce of this risk by addition of lutein (10 mg and zeaxanthin (2mg, or/and omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids [docosahexaenoic acid (350 mg DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid 650 mg (EPA] to the AREDS formulation. But there was no true placebo group. The simultaneous administration of beta carotene, lutein and zeaxanthin may suppress tissue level of the both laters because of competitive absorption of carotenoids. Subgroup analyses revealed that dietary supplementation with lutein, zeaxanthin and AREDS formulation without beta carotene may reduce the risk of progression to advanced AMD.The LUNA (Lutein nutrition effects measured by autofluorescence study demonstrated that supplementation with lutein (12 mg, zeaxanthin (1 mg, vitamin C (120 mg, vitamin E (17,6 mg, zinc (10 mg, selenium (40 mg resulted

  15. Degradation of vitamin B12 in dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Keiko; Shimodaira, Michiko; Chida, Seiko; Yamada, Noriko; Matsushima, Norio; Fukuda, Morimichi; Yamada, Shoji

    2008-01-01

    Beverages and solid dietary supplements rich in various added vitamins and minerals have recently become available. It seems reasonable to consider that the intake of these foods is convenient for easy ingestion of nutrients, but problems caused by blending different nutrients in high concentrations have arisen. We focused on vitamin B12 (B12) among vitamins and determined the B12 contents of beverages and solid dietary supplements purchased from a retail shop. The B12 contents of three of five beverages were less than stated on the labels. On the other hand, certain beverages unexpectedly contained much more B12 than stated on the labels. In these beverages the amount of B12 decreased rapidly with time, whereas B12 content was lower than stated on the label in only one of four solid dietary supplements. The content of B12 was affected by storage time, light exposure, temperature and vitamin C. From experimental analysis with a competitive binding assay method employing a ACS Chemiluminescent B12 kit, examining differential binding by intrinsic factors and spectral analysis of B12, it was determined that some of the B12 might have been converted into B12 analogues or small degradation products by multinutrient interaction during storage.

  16. Mechanisms of digestion and absorption of dietary vitamin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Earl H

    2005-01-01

    Mechanisms involved in the digestion and absorption of dietary vitamin A require the participation of several proteins. Dietary retinyl esters are hydrolyzed in the intestine by the pancreatic enzyme, pancreatic triglyceride lipase, and intestinal brush border enzyme, phospholipase B. Unesterified retinol taken up by the enterocyte is complexed with cellular retinol-binding protein type 2 and the complex serves as a substrate for reesterification of the retinol by the enzyme lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT). The retinyl esters are then incorporated into chylomicrons, intestinal lipoproteins containing other dietary lipids, such as triglycerides, phospholipids, and free and esterified cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B. Chylomicrons containing newly absorbed retinyl esters are then secreted into the lymph. Although under normal dietary conditions much of the dietary vitamin A is absorbed via the chylomicron/lymphatic route, it is also clear that under some circumstances there is substantial absorption of unesterified retinol via the portal route. Evidence supports the idea that the cellular uptake and efflux of unesterified retinol by enterocytes is mediated by lipid transporters, but the exact number, identity, and role of these proteins is not known and is an active area of research.

  17. Gamma irradiation effect and time of storage on the beta-carotene rate of dehydrated parsley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebastiao, K.I.; Romanelli, M.F.; Leite, Q.R.; Koseki, P.M.; Hamasaki, K.; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.; Almeida-Muradian, L.B.

    2000-01-01

    The A vitamin is an essential nutrient for men. Therefore, this vitamin or one of its precursors must be ingested for a healthful diet. The carotenoids are also called pro-vitamin A. As any another carotenoid, the β-carotene has a structure with many unsaturations, conferring certain instability. It can be modified and even destroyed for acid, light, heat, oxygen; the formation of cis-trans isomers, reduction of its color and its pro-vitacimin A activity reduction can happen. Those alterations can occur during the processing or storage of the food. The use of the ionizing radiation is a kind of food processing that consists of the use of the high energy of the gamma ray or accelerates electrons, capable to ionize molecules. The carotenoids are considered by literature little sensible to the irradiation. It is suggested doses of 1 to 10 kGy in the irradiation of spices, dehydrated condiments and vegetables. These doses are enough to eliminate or to reduce pathogenic microorganisms and insects, to magnify the time of useful life and still substitute the use of chemical fumigants. They also reveal adequate to the organoleptic aspect, not affecting its flavor and smell. This study had as objective to search the different β-carotene levels in samples of dehydrated parsley submitted to the radiation of 60 Co and stored by 6 months. The results gotten in first analysis had not indicated difference significant statistics in β-carotene rate between the controlled sample and the radiated one. After 6 months of storage, were verified that the β-carotene rate had fallen for the half in both samples

  18. Engineering the provitamin A (beta-carotene) biosynthetic pathway into (carotenoid-free) rice endosperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, X; Al-Babili, S; Klöti, A; Zhang, J; Lucca, P; Beyer, P; Potrykus, I

    2000-01-14

    Rice (Oryza sativa), a major staple food, is usually milled to remove the oil-rich aleurone layer that turns rancid upon storage, especially in tropical areas. The remaining edible part of rice grains, the endosperm, lacks several essential nutrients, such as provitamin A. Thus, predominant rice consumption promotes vitamin A deficiency, a serious public health problem in at least 26 countries, including highly populated areas of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Recombinant DNA technology was used to improve its nutritional value in this respect. A combination of transgenes enabled biosynthesis of provitamin A in the endosperm.

  19. Simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of lycopene beta-carotene concentrations in carotenoid mixtures of the extracts from tomatoes, papaya and orange juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammed, M.A.; Bello, I.A.; Oladoye, S.O.

    2013-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive spectrophotometric equation model for the simultaneous determination of lycopene and Beta-carotene concentrations in a mixture of carotenoids is proposed. Lycopene could be exclusively determined (with the relative accuracy of more than 95%) using the absorbance data at 502 nm. Because quantifying the Beta-carotene concentration in a carotenoid minture using the sole absorbance at 450 nm is prone to error, an equation to determine the concentration of this compound from the absorbances data at two wavelengths was modeled. Using the modeled equations to re-check the molar absorptivity of lycopene at 472 nm, the value obtained was about 98% close to the value reported in literature. The relative accuracy of the predicted concentrations of two carotenoids using the modeled equations is a function of the ratio of these carotenoids in the samples. (author)

  20. Estimating rapidly and precisely the concentration of beta carotene in mango homogenates by measuring the amplitude of optothermal signals, values of chromaticity indices and the intensities of Raman peaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bicanic, D.D.; Dimitrovski, D.; Luterotti, S.; Tiwisk, van C.; Buijnsters, J.G.; Doka, O.

    2010-01-01

    Rapid, quantitative information about the micronutrients (including beta carotene) in mango fruit is often desired. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and spectrophotometry (SP), the two widely used methods in practice to quantify carotenoids, both require a time consuming and expensive

  1. Separation and identification of beta-carotene and its cis isomers by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC); Separacion e identificacion del beta-caroteno y sus isomeros cis por cromatografia liquida de alta resolucion (HPLC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrillo de Padilla, F [Universidad Central de Venezuela (UCV), Facultad de Farmacia, Catedra de Analisis de Alimentos, Caracas (Venezuela)

    1996-07-01

    The separation and identification by HPLC of the cis isomers of beta-carotene was studied. A 1.26 mg/ml beta-carotene solution previously isomerized with iodine as a catalyst, was eluted with 2% acetone in hexane, from a Ca(OH)2 chromatographic column in three bands. The fractions were identified by spectrophotometry and the retention times of 2.05, 2.4 and 2.8 min for the 13 cis, all-trans, and 9 cis beta-carotene isomers, determined by HPLC, with 1% acetone in hexane as Mobil phase. 22.13 mg % of all-trans beta-carotene were found in a sample of canned carrots. It is recommended the analyses of a greater number of samples, the determination of the method's sensitivity, reproducibility, and the use of a standard of reference of a response factor for calculations.

  2. Alfa-tocopherol and beta-carotene in roughages and milk in organic dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Lisbeth; Kristensen, Troels; Søegaard, Karen

    2012-01-01

    as stored silage. As an average of several sampling times, roughage α-tocopherol and β-carotene contents (mg per kg DM) during the period when the roughage was fed were, respectively, 30 and 21 in grass–clover silage, 13 and 8 in maize wholecrop silage and 28 and 9 in cereal wholecrop silage. Daily intake...... of α-tocopherol was 876 mg per cow–431 mg from roughages, 89 mg from concentrates and 356 mg from a vitamin supplement. Milk yield was 25.9 kg energy-corrected milk (ECM) per cow per day with α-tocopherol and β-carotene contents (μg/ml) of 0.82 and 0.17. The study additionally showed the following...

  3. The Effect of Phytosterol on Serum Beta-Carotene Concentration of Hypercholesterolaemic Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Dina-Keumala

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Treatment of optic neuritic as recommended by the Optic Neuritic Treatment Trial (ONTT was intravenous methylprednisolon followed by oral prednisone. This study aims to describe characteristics and response to intravenous methylprednisolone followed by oral prednisone treatment of optic neuritic patient in Sanglah General Hospital Denpasar. Method: The study was a parallel clinical trial, forty subjects with hipercholesterolaemia were selected using certain criteria. The subjects were divided into two groups using block randomization. Twenty subjects in phytosterol group received phytosterol 2x0.6 g/day and dietary counseling (P, while twenty subjects in counseling group received only dietary counseling (C. Serum total cholesterol and β-carotene concentration were assessed on day 0 and 42. Before and after treatment, dietary intake were assessed with 2x24 hour recall methods. Results: Seventeen subjects in P group and fourteen subjects in C group completed the study. There was no significant differences in baseline data both groups. After 42 days treatment, there was no significant differences in nutrients intakes in two groups except for β-carotene and phytosterol intakes in P group. There was a 9.17% significant reduction in serum total cholesterol concentration in P group while no change was observed in the C group (p<0.05. Serum β-carotene concentration was increased significantly in P group, 0.44±0.376 μmol/L to 0.536(0.21–1.95 μmol/L, while there was no significant increased in C group, 0.493±0.349 μmol/L to 0.56±0.33 μmol/L. There was a significant difference in serum β-carotene concentration after adjusted with serum total cholesterol concentration between two groups (p<0.05. Conclusions: Dietary advice to consume an additionally of high β-carotene sources when consuming phytosterol 2x0.6 g/day for 42 consecutive days maintains serum β-carotene concentration while lowering serum total cholesterol concentration

  4. Antioxidant vitamin intake and mortality in three Central and Eastern European urban populations: the HAPIEE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepaniak, Urszula; Micek, Agnieszka; Grosso, Giuseppe; Stefler, Denes; Topor-Madry, Roman; Kubinova, Ruzena; Malyutina, Sofia; Peasey, Anne; Pikhart, Hynek; Nikitin, Yuri; Bobak, Martin; Pająk, Andrzej

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the relationships between individual-level dietary intakes of antioxidant vitamins C, E and beta-carotene with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in three Central and Eastern European (CEE) populations. Data from the Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors in Eastern Europe cohort study were used. At the baseline survey, between 2002 and 2005, 28,945 men and women aged 45-69 years were examined in Novosibirsk (Russia), Krakow (Poland) and seven Czech towns. Deaths in the cohorts were identified through mortality registers. Cox regression was used to estimate the association between vitamin consumption and all-cause, cardiovascular (CVD) disease and cancer mortality. In multivariable-adjusted analyses, there were no clear inverse associations between antioxidant vitamin intakes and mortality, although in some groups, several hazard ratios (HRs) were significant. For example, in men, compared with the lowest quintile of vitamin C intake, all-cause mortality in the third and fourth quintiles was lower by 28 % (HR 0.72; 95 % CI 0.61-0.85) and by 20 % (HR 0.80; 95 % CI 0.68-0.95), respectively. CVD mortality was lower by 35 % (HR 0.65; 95 % CI 0.50-0.84) and by 23 % (HR 0.77; 95 % CI 0.59-0.99) in third and fourth quintile of vitamin C intake, respectively. In women, the third and fourth quintiles of dietary intake of vitamin E were associated with reduced risk of all-cause death by 33 % (HR 0.67; 95 % CI 0.53-0.84) and by 23 % (HR 0.77; 95 % CI 0.61-0.97), respectively. Consumption of vitamin C, vitamin E and beta-carotene was not related to CVD mortality in women and to cancer mortality in either gender. This large prospective cohort study in CEE populations with low prevalence of vitamin supplementation did not find a strong, dose-response evidence for protective effects of antioxidant vitamin intake.

  5. Skin bioavailability of dietary vitamin E, carotenoids, polyphenols, vitamin C, zinc and selenium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richelle, Myriam; Sabatier, Magalie; Steiling, Heike; Williamson, Gary

    2006-08-01

    Dietary bioactive compounds (vitamin E, carotenoids, polyphenols, vitamin C, Se and Zn) have beneficial effects on skin health. The classical route of administration of active compounds is by topical application direct to the skin, and manufacturers have substantial experience of formulating ingredients in this field. However, the use of functional foods and oral supplements for improving skin condition is increasing. For oral consumption, some dietary components could have an indirect effect on the skin via, for example, secondary messengers. However, in the case of the dietary bioactive compounds considered here, we assume that they must pass down the gastrointestinal tract, cross the intestinal barrier, reach the blood circulation, and then be distributed to the different tissues of the body including the skin. The advantages of this route of administration are that the dietary bioactive compounds are metabolized and then presented to the entire tissue, potentially in an active form. Also, the blood continuously replenishes the skin with these bioactive compounds, which can then be distributed to all skin compartments (i.e. epidermis, dermis, subcutaneous fat and also to sebum). Where known, the distribution and mechanisms of transport of dietary bioactive compounds in skin are presented. Even for compounds that have been studied well in other organs, information on skin is relatively sparse. Gaps in knowledge are identified and suggestions made for future research.

  6. Effects of vitamin A and [beta]-carotene on respiratory tract carcinogenesis in hamsters : in vivo and in vitro studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolterbeek, A.P.M.

    1995-01-01

    Summary
    Respiratory tract cancer is the leading cause of death by cancer in 'Western' countries. The greater part of lung cancers are caused by smoking. Furthermore, environmental air pollution and occupational exposure contribute to the high incidence of lung

  7. Population dietary habits and physical activity modification with age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, H; Marrugat, J; Covas, M; Elosua, R; Pena, A; Weinbrenner, T; Fito, M; Vidal, M A; Masia, R

    2004-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse the relation between age and both dietary habits and leisure-time physical activity, and to determine nutrient inadequacy of aged groups in our population. Cross-sectional study. A random sample of the 25-74-y-old population of Gerona, Spain. A total of 838 men and 910 women were selected from among the general population according to the 1991 census. Analysis of dietary habits, including amount and type of alcohol consumption, and detailed evaluation of leisure-time physical activity. Nutrient densities of carbohydrates, vitamin B(1), vitamin B(12), vitamin C, vitamin E, folate, potassium, iron, magnesium, copper, and dietary fiber increased significantly (Phabits, characterized through a composite dietary score, with age after adjusting for several confounders both in men and women (P<0.001). This score was composed of folate, vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene, dietary fibre, cholesterol, saturated fatty acids, and sodium. In all, 29 and 10% of male and female subjects aged 65-74 y, respectively, reported inadequate intakes of six or more of 16 nutrients. Total leisure-time physical activity increased with age in men (P<0.002), and was not different among female age groups. Dietary behaviours and levels of physical activity spent during leisure time indicate a healthy lifestyle of the aged men and women in the present population. Nutrient inadequacy observed in some aged men and women, however, deserves particular intervention of health-care programmes for this growing part of our society.

  8. Deficiencies of vitamins in CAPD patients: the effect of supplementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeschoten, E. W.; Schrijver, J.; Krediet, R. T.; Schreurs, W. H.; Arisz, L.

    1988-01-01

    Concentrations of the vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12, C, folic acid, A, E and beta-carotene were determined in blood and 24-h dialysate in 44 CAPD patients. Twenty-five of these patients were studied during chronic treatment (mean 313 days, range 60-1034 days). Nineteen patients were studied during

  9. Vitamin D/dietary calcium deficiency rickets and pseudo-vitamin D deficiency rickets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glorieux, Francis H; Pettifor, John M

    2014-01-01

    This review describes the pathogenesis, clinical presentation and biochemical perturbations found in privational (nutritional) rickets and pseudo-vitamin D deficiency rickets (PDDR), an autosomal recessive condition with loss of function mutations in CYP27B1. It may seem strange to combine a discussion on privational rickets and PDDR as a single topic, but privational rickets and PDDR present with similar clinical signs and symptoms and with similar perturbations in bone and mineral metabolism. Of interest is the characteristic lack of features of rickets at birth in infants with PDDR, a finding which has also been reported in infants born to vitamin D-deficient mothers. This highlights the independence of the fetus and neonate from the need for vitamin D to maintain calcium homeostasis during this period. The variable roles of vitamin D deficiency and dietary calcium deficiency in the pathogenesis of privational rickets are discussed and the associated alterations in vitamin D metabolism highlighted. Although PDDR is a rare autosomal recessive disorder, results of long-term follow-up are now available on the effect of treatment with calcitriol, and these are discussed. Areas of uncertainty, such as should affected mothers breastfeed their infants, are emphasized. PMID:24818008

  10. Orange-fleshed sweet potato-based infant food is a better source of dietary vitamin A than a maize-legume blend as complementary food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amagloh, Francis Kweku; Coad, Jane

    2014-03-01

    White maize, which is widely used for complementary feeding and is seldom fortified at the household level, may be associated with the high prevalence of vitamin A deficiency among infants in low-income countries. The nutrient composition of complementary foods based on orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) and cream-fleshed sweet potato (CFSP), maize-soybean-groundnut (Weanimix), and a proprietary wheat-based infant cereal (Nestlé Cerelac) were assessed using the Codex Standard (CODEX STAN 074-1981, Rev. 1-2006) specification as a reference. Additionally, the costs of OFSP complementary food, CFSP complementary food, and Weanimix production at the household level were estimated. Phytate and polyphenols, which limit the bioavailability of micronutrients, were assessed. Energy, macronutrients, and micronutrients listed as essential composition in the Codex Standard were determined and expressed as energy or nutrient density. All the formulations met the stipulated energy and nutrient densities as specified in the Codex Standard. The beta-carotene content of OFSP complementary food exceeded the vitamin A specification (60 to 180 microg retinol activity equivalents/100 kcal). All the formulations except Weanimix contained measurable amounts of ascorbic acid (> or = 32.0 mg/100 g). The level of phytate in Weanimix was highest, about twice that of OFSP complementary food. The sweet potato-based foods contained about twice as much total polyphenols as the cereal-based products. The estimated production cost of OFSP complementary food was slightly higher (1.5 times) than that of Weanimix. OFSP complementary food is a good source of beta-carotene and would therefore contribute to the vitamin A requirements of infants. Both OFSP complementary food and Weanimix may inhibit iron absorption because of their high levels of polyphenols and phytate, respectively, compared with those of Nestlé Cerelac.

  11. Estimation of the dietary requirement for vitamin D in healthy adolescent white girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cashman, Kevin D.; FitzGerald, A. P.; Viljakainen, H. T.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Knowledge gaps have contributed to considerable variation (between 0 and 15 μg/d) in international dietary recommendations for vitamin D in adolescents. Objective: We aimed to establish the distribution of dietary vitamin D required to maintain serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) conc...

  12. the effect of cooking time on the vitamin c, dietary fiber and mineral

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    (Sandra, 1995). Several methods of processing the vegetables are being use without considering the effect on the vitamin C, dietary fiber and minerals components. This study is designed to determine the effect of cooking time on the Vitamin C, dietary fiber. & mineral constituents of T. occidentalis (FP), V. amygdalina (BL),.

  13. Vitaminen in rantsoenen voor biologisch melkvee = Fat soluble vitamins in rations for organic dairy cows en goat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smolders, G.; Eekeren, van N.J.M.; Neijenhuis, F.

    2005-01-01

    On five organic dairy cow farms during the period spring 2004/2005 feedstuffs and blood samples were taken 3 times to analyse beta carotene, vitamin D and vitamin E (tocopherols). On 3 organic dairy goat farms feeds and blood samples were taken only in spring 2005. Within types of feeds there are

  14. Estimation of the dietary requirement for vitamin D in adolescents aged 14-18 y

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Taryn J; Tripkovic, Laura; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adolescents are a population group at high risk of low vitamin D status, yet the evidence base for establishing dietary vitamin D requirements remains weak. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to establish the distribution of vitamin D intakes required to maintain serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)...

  15. Estimation of the dietary requirement for vitamin D in white children aged 4-8 y

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Charlotte; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Hauger, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Children in northern latitudes are at high risk of vitamin D deficiency during winter because of negligible dermal vitamin D3 production. However, to our knowledge, the dietary requirement for maintaining the nutritional adequacy of vitamin D in young children has not been investigate...

  16. [Effect of vitamin beverages on vitamin sufficiency of the workers of Pskov Hydroelectric Power-Plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiricheva, T V; Vrezhesinskaia, O A; Beketova, N A; Pereverzeva, O G; Kosheleva, O V; Kharitonchik, L A; Kodentsova, V M; Iudina, A V; Spirichev, V B

    2010-01-01

    The research of influence of vitamin complexes in the form of a drink or kissel on vitamin sufficiency of working persons has been carried out. Long inclusion (6,5 months) in a diet of vitamin drinks containing about 80% from recommended daily consumption of vitamins, was accompanied by trustworthy improvement of vitamins C and B6 sufficiency and prevention of seasonal deterioration of beta-carotene status. As initially surveyed have been well provided with vitamins A and E, their blood serum level increase had not occurred.

  17. Total, Dietary, and Supplemental Vitamin C Intake and Risk of Incident Kidney Stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Pietro Manuel; Curhan, Gary C; Gambaro, Giovanni; Taylor, Eric N

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies of vitamin C and kidney stones were conducted mostly in men and either reported disparate results for supplemental and dietary vitamin C or did not examine dietary vitamin C. Prospective cohort analysis. 156,735 women in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) I and II and 40,536 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS). Total, dietary, and supplemental vitamin C intake, adjusted for age, body mass index, thiazide use, and dietary factors. Incident kidney stones. During a median follow-up of 11.3 to 11.7 years, 6,245 incident kidney stones were identified. After multivariable adjustment, total vitamin C intake (vitamin C intake for the 500- to 999-mg/d category was ∼700mg/d. Supplemental vitamin C intake (no use [reference], vitamin C intake was not associated with stones among men or women, although few participants had dietary intakes > 700mg/d. Nutrient intakes derived from food-frequency questionnaires, lack of data on stone composition for all cases. Total and supplemental vitamin C intake was significantly associated with higher risk for incident kidney stones in men, but not in women. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The effects of dietary phosphorus and vitamin D3 on the cadmium accumulation in the tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuruki, Fukiko; Wung, Houi-Ling; Moriuchi, Sachiko; Hosoya, Norimasa

    1979-01-01

    The effects of dietary Ca and vitamin D 3 on the Cd accumulation in the liver and the kidney were observed and discussed in relation with the responses to the intestinal Ca transport and vitamin D dependent calcium binding protein (CaBP). 1. Ca transport in rat duodenum was significantly increased by vitamin D 3 , especially in rats raised on low P diet. However, this effect was reduced in Cd-exposed rats. 2. 45 Ca binding activity of the smaller CaBP (PIII), which was found predominantly in the duodenum and jejunum was increased by low P diet. However, in Cd-exposed rats, 45 Ca binding activity was suppressed significantly. On the other hand, the larger CaBP (PII) found mainly in jejunum and ileum showed a good response to vitamin D 3 , too, but not influenced by dietary P and Cd levels as the smaller CaBP. 3. Renal Cd accumulation was influenced by neither dietary P nor vitamin D 3 . However, hepatic Cd accumulation was significantly decreased in vitamin D 3 repleted rat, although it was not influenced by dietary P. These results suggest that dietary P modulates the inhibitory effect of Cd on intestinal vitamin D-stimulated Ca transport, presumably through the inhibition of Ca binding to the smaller CaBP (PIII). But Cd accumulation in the liver was decreased in vitamin D repleted groups, presumably, vitamin D dependent CaBP acts as the barrier in the Cd-exposed rats. (author)

  19. Total lymphocyte count and subpopulation lymphocyte counts in relation to dietary intake and nutritional status of peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzegorzewska, Alicja E; Leander, Magdalena

    2005-01-01

    Dietary deficiency causes abnormalities in circulating lymphocyte counts. For the present paper, we evaluated correlations between total and subpopulation lymphocyte counts (TLC, SLCs) and parameters of nutrition in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Studies were carried out in 55 patients treated with PD for 22.2 +/- 11.4 months. Parameters of nutritional status included total body mass, lean body mass (LBM), body mass index (BMI), and laboratory indices [total protein, albumin, iron, ferritin, and total iron binding capacity (TIBC)]. The SLCs were evaluated using flow cytometry. Positive correlations were seen between TLC and dietary intake of niacin; TLC and CD8 and CD16+56 counts and energy delivered from protein; CD4 count and beta-carotene and monounsaturated fatty acids 17:1 intake; and CD19 count and potassium, copper, vitamin A, and beta-carotene intake. Anorexia negatively influenced CD19 count. Serum albumin showed correlations with CD4 and CD19 counts, and LBM with CD19 count. A higher CD19 count was connected with a higher red blood cell count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit. Correlations were observed between TIBC and TLC and CD3 and CD8 counts, and between serum Fe and TLC and CD3 and CD4 counts. Patients with a higher CD19 count showed a better clinical-laboratory score, especially less weakness. Patients with a higher CD4 count had less expressed insomnia. Quantities of ingested vitamins and minerals influence lymphocyte counts in the peripheral blood of PD patients. Evaluation of TLC and SLCs is helpful in monitoring the effectiveness of nutrition in these patients.

  20. Dietary levels of vitamin E and polyunsaturated fatty acids and plasma vitamin E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witting, L A; Lee, L

    1975-06-01

    Seventeen daily diets (breakfast, lunch, and dinner) were analyzed from a 35-day menu cycle fed to students, under contract in the University dining halls. This 35-day menu cycle was repeated 6.6 times over the course of two 15-week semesters and registration and final examination periods. The average 2, 500 kcal diet collected during the sixth and seventh menu cycles contained 96 plus or minus 26 g fat of which 19.5 plus or minus 1.8% was linoleate and 28.7 plus or minus 14.2 mg total tocopherol of which 7.5 plus or minus 3.5 mg was RRR-alpha-tocopherol. Blood samples obtained from 26 female undergraduate student volunteers contained adequate levels of plasma total vitamin E, 1.09 plus or minus 0.25 mg/100 ml, despite the observation that 71% and 65% of the diets analyzed did not meet the value tabluated in the eighth edition of "Recommended Dietary Allowances" for adult females in terms of RRR-alpha-tocopherol or total vitamin E activity, respectively. These data emphasize the importance of the average long-term consumption of this fat-soluble vitamin rather than daily intake.

  1. Dual role of beta-carotene in combination with cigarette smoke aqueous extract on the formation of mutagenic lipid peroxidation products in lung membranes: dependence on pO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palozza, P; Serini, S; Trombino, S; Lauriola, L; Ranelletti, F O; Calviello, G

    2006-12-01

    Results from some intervention trials indicated that supplemental beta-carotene enhanced lung cancer incidence and mortality in chronic smokers. The aim of this study was to verify the hypothesis that high concentrations of the carotenoid, under the pO2 present in lung (100-150 mmHg), may exert deleterious effects through a prooxidant mechanism. To test this hypothesis, we examined the interactions of beta-carotene and cigarette smoke condensate (tar) on the formation of lipid peroxidation products in rat lung microsomal membranes enriched in vitro with varying beta-carotene concentrations (from 1 to 10 nmol/mg prot) and then incubated with tar (6-25 microg/ml) under different pO2. As markers of lipid peroxidation, we evaluated the levels of conjugated dienes and malondialdehyde, possessing mutagenic and pro-carcinogenic activity. The exposure of microsomal membranes to tar induced a dose-dependent enhancement of lipid peroxidation, which progressively increased as a function of pO2. Under a low pO2 (15 mmHg), beta-carotene acted clearly as an antioxidant, inhibiting tar-induced lipid peroxidation. However, the carotenoid progressively lost its antioxidant efficiency by increasing pO2 (50-100 mmHg) and acted as a prooxidant at pO2 ranging from 100 to 760 mmHg in a dose-dependent manner. Consistent with this finding, the addition of alpha-tocopherol (25 microM) prevented the prooxidant effects of the carotenoid. beta-Carotene auto-oxidation, measured as formation of 5,6-epoxy-beta,beta-carotene, was faster at high than at low pO2 and the carotenoid was more rapidly consumed in the presence of tar. These data point out that the carotenoid may enhance cigarette smoke-induced oxidative stress and exert potential deleterious effects at the pO2 normally present in lung tissue.

  2. Suboptimal Vitamin B Intakes of Zambian Preschool Children: Evaluation of 24-Hour Dietary Recalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titcomb, Tyler J; Schmaelzle, Samantha T; Nuss, Emily T; Gregory, Jesse F; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2018-06-01

    Hidden hunger affects individuals who chronically consume an inadequate intake of at least 1 micronutrient and is associated with low dietary diversity. Little data are available on dietary intake or status assessment of B vitamins among preschool children in Zambia. The aim of this study was to assess 24-hour dietary recall records obtained from Zambian children aged 3 to 7 years for B vitamin intake in relation to adequacy and change over time in the same community. Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls were collected from 2 studies that were 2 years apart in the same district of Zambia. Data were retrospectively analyzed for B vitamin intake, that is, biotin, vitamin B 12 , folate, niacin, pantothenic acid, vitamin B 6 , riboflavin, and thiamin. The estimated average requirement (EAR) cut point method was used to assess inadequacy prevalence for EARs established by the Institute of Medicine in the United States. For all B vitamins, mean values were below the EARs established for children 4 to 8 years old. Relative to the EAR, children had the highest intakes of vitamin B 6 with inadequacies of 77.9% and 60.1% in 2010 and 2012, respectively. The highest prevalence of inadequate intake was associated with folate, where ≥95% of the children had intakes below the EAR in both studies. All median vitamin B intakes were inadequate among these young children in rural Zambia. Future researchers and policy makers may need to consider B vitamin status in resource-poor areas of the country.

  3. Vitamin D: dietary requirements and food fortification as a means of helping achieve adequate vitamin D status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, Kevin D

    2015-04-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is evident in many parts of the globe, even in the sunnier regions, for a variety of reasons. Such deficiency contributes to risk of metabolic bone disease as well as potentially other non-skeletal chronic diseases in both early-life and later-life, and thus strategies for its prevention are of major public health importance. Dietary Reference Intervals (called Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) and Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) in North America and Europe, respectively) for vitamin D have a key role in protecting against vitamin D deficiency in the population, and these have been re-evaluated in recent years on both sides of the Atlantic. The current DRI and DRVs for vitamin D and their basis will be overviewed in this review as well as some limitations that existed within the evidence-base and which contribute some degree of uncertainty to these new requirement estimates for vitamin D. The review will also compare current population intake estimates for children and adults in North America and Europe against the estimated average requirement (EAR) for vitamin D, as a benchmark of nutritional adequacy. While vitamin D supplementation has been suggested as a method of bridging the gap between current vitamin D intakes and new recommendations, the level of usage of vitamin D supplements in many countries as well as the vitamin D content of available supplements in these countries, appears to be low. The fortification of food with vitamin D has been suggested as a strategy for increasing intake with potentially the widest reach and impact in the population. The present review will highlight the need to re-evaluate current food fortification practices as well as consider new additional food-based approaches, such as biofortification of food with vitamin D, as a means of collectively tackling the low intakes of vitamin D within populations and the consequent high prevalence of low vitamin D status that are observed. This article is part of a Special

  4. Estimation of the effect of food irradiation on total dietary vitamin availability as compared with dietary allowances: study for Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narvaiz, P.; Ladomery, L.G.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate whether irradiation treatment of all foods, for which this treatment is of recognised technological usefulness, would have any detrimental effect on total dietary vitamin availability for consumption by the Argentinian population. Per capita availability of foods produced in or imported into Argentina that could be usefully irradiated and which are usually consumed in the country was recorded from FAO food balance sheets. The vitamin content of the foods and the vitamin losses occurring under good irradiation practices were gathered from the literature. The nutritional impact of vitamin losses due to irradiation was estimated by comparing results to the Recommended Dietary Allowances of the US National Research Council. The vitamins studied were: A, D, E, K, ascorbic acid, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pyridoxine, biotin, cyanocobalamin, folacin and pantothenic acid. Results showed that, even if irradiation was applied to every food which could be usefully treated, vitamin availabilities would exceed 100% of the respective RDA and so no adverse nutritional impact would be expected, except for folacin and vitamin D. However, typical availabilities of folate and vitamin D are less than the RDA. Synthesis of vitamin D in the skin from 7-dehydrocholesterol would suggest no nutritional problem. Available data on folic acid losses due to food irradiation are incomplete and suggest the need for further experimental research

  5. Examination of vitamin intakes among US adults by dietary supplement use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Regan Lucas; Fulgoni, Victor L; Keast, Debra R; Dwyer, Johanna T

    2012-05-01

    More than half of US adults use dietary supplements. Some reports suggest that supplement users have higher vitamin intakes from foods than nonusers, but this observation has not been examined using nationally representative survey data. The purpose of this analysis was to examine vitamin intakes from foods by supplement use and how dietary supplements contribute to meeting or exceeding the Dietary Reference Intakes for selected vitamins using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey among adults (aged ≥19 years) in 2003-2006 (n=8,860). Among male users, mean intakes of folate and vitamins A, E, and K from food sources were significantly higher than among nonusers. Among women, mean intakes of folate and vitamins A, C, D, and E from foods were higher among users than nonusers. Total intakes (food and supplements) were higher for every vitamin we examined among users than the dietary vitamin intakes of nonusers. Supplement use helped lower the prevalence of intakes below the Estimated Average Requirement for every vitamin we examined, but for folic acid and vitamins A, B-6, and C, supplement use increased the likelihood of intakes above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level. Supplement use was associated with higher mean intakes of some vitamins from foods among users than nonusers, but it was not associated with the prevalence of intakes less than the Estimated Average Requirement from foods. Those who do not use vitamin supplements had significantly higher prevalence of inadequate vitamin intakes; however, the use of supplements can contribute to excess intake for some vitamins. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Examination of Vitamin Intakes among US Adults by Dietary Supplement Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Regan Lucas; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Keast, Debra R.; Dwyer, Johanna T.

    2013-01-01

    Background More than half of US adults use dietary supplements. Some reports suggest that supplement users have higher vitamin intakes from foods than nonusers, but this observation has not been examined using nationally representative survey data. Objective The purpose of this analysis was to examine vitamin intakes from foods by supplement use and how dietary supplements contribute to meeting or exceeding the Dietary Reference Intakes for selected vitamins using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey among adults (aged ≥19 years) in 2003–2006 (n=8,860). Results Among male users, mean intakes of folate and vitamins A, E, and K from food sources were significantly higher than among nonusers. Among women, mean intakes of folate and vitamins A, C, D, and E from foods were higher among users than nonusers. Total intakes (food and supplements) were higher for every vitamin we examined among users than the dietary vitamin intakes of nonusers. Supplement use helped lower the prevalence of intakes below the Estimated Average Requirement for every vitamin we examined, but for folic acid and vitamins A, B-6, and C, supplement use increased the likelihood of intakes above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level. Conclusions Supplement use was associated with higher mean intakes of some vitamins from foods among users than nonusers, but it was not associated with the prevalence of intakes less than the Estimated Average Requirement from foods. Those who do not use vitamin supplements had significantly higher prevalence of inadequate vitamin intakes; however, the use of supplements can contribute to excess intake for some vitamins. PMID:22709770

  7. The effect of different dietary vitamin and mineral levels on certain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of different dietary vitamin and mineral levels on certain production parameters, including egg shell characteristics of breeding ostriches. TS Brand, GA Tesselaar, LC Hoffman, Z Brand ...

  8. Dietary folate, methionine, riboflavin, and vitamin B-6 and risk of sporadic colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, S. de; Dindore, V.; Engeland, M. van; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Weijenberg, M.P.

    2008-01-01

    Adequate intake of folate, methionine, riboflavin, and vitamin B-6 may prevent aberrant DNA methylation and thereby protect against colorectal cancer (CRC). However, previous epidemiological studies investigating associations between dietary intakes of these nutrients and CRC have been inconsistent.

  9. Vitamin K: dietary intake and requirements in different clinical conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose of review: Vitamin K is an enzyme cofactor for the carboxylation of vitamin K dependent proteins (VKDP). Functions include coagulation and regulation of calcification. Different clinical conditions may alter vitamin K requirements by affecting vitamin K status and VKDP carboxylation, which a...

  10. The relations between dietary antioxidant vitamins intake and oxidative stress in follicular fluid and ART outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Kazemi, Ashraf; Ramezanzadeh, Fatemeh; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad Hosein

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oxidative stress (OS) in the follicular environment may affect on oocyte competence and antioxidant vitamins may modify its effects. Objective: This study was conducted to examine the effect of dietary intake of vitamin A, C and E on OS in follicular environment and assisted reproduction technology (ART) outcomes. Materials and Methods: In this obsevationalprospective study, the intake levels of vitamin A, C, and E were matured by validated food frequency questionnaire and ...

  11. Dietary intake and main food sources of vitamin D as a function of age, sex, vitamin D status, body composition, and income in an elderly German cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Jungert

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Elderly subjects are at risk of insufficient vitamin D status mainly because of diminished capacity for cutaneous vitamin D synthesis. In cases of insufficient endogenous production, vitamin D status depends on vitamin D intake. Objective: The purpose of this study is to identify the main food sources of vitamin D in elderly subjects and to analyse whether contributing food sources differ by sex, age, vitamin D status, body mass index (BMI, or household income. In addition, we analysed the factors that influence dietary vitamin D intake in the elderly. Design and subjects: This is a cross-sectional study in 235 independently living German elderly aged 66–96 years (BMI=27±4 kg/m2. Vitamin D intake was assessed by a 3-day estimated dietary record. Results: The main sources of dietary vitamin D were fish/fish products followed by eggs, fats/oils, bread/bakery products, and milk/dairy products. Differences in contributing food groups by sex, age, vitamin D status, and BMI were not found. Fish contributed more to vitamin D intake in subjects with a household income of <1,500 €/month compared to subjects with higher income. In multiple regression analysis, fat intake and frequency of fish consumption were positive determinants of dietary vitamin D intake, whereas household income and percentage total body fat negatively affected vitamin D intake. Other parameters, including age, sex, physical activity, smoking, intake of energy, milk, eggs and alcohol, showed no significant association with vitamin D intake. Conclusion: Low habitual dietary vitamin D intake does not affect vitamin D status in summer, and fish is the major contributor to vitamin D intake independent of sex, age, vitamin D status, BMI, and the income of subjects.

  12. Dietary phosphorus burden increases cariogenesis independent of vitamin D uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, J Max; Shi, Ping; Mumena, Chrispinus H; Haq, Afrozul; Razzaque, Mohammed S

    2017-03-01

    An association between excessive sugar consumption and dental decay, particularly in children, has been well-established. In this study we have analyzed whether consumption of phosphorus, an important ingredient of sugary drinks, has any association with the evolvement of dental decay. Food consumption, gingival redness and dental decay were evaluated in a total of 8,317 children with the mean age of 9.99+0.68 years with a strong gender bias (pdiet, low in sugar but high in phosphorus (6.58%, n=661), compared to those who consumed a low sugar and low phosphorus containing diet (5.02%, n=413). Finally, we did not find any significant association between vitamin D uptake and the genesis of dental decay. From these results, we concluded that both high sugar and high phosphate consumption can influence evolvement of dental decay, and that, a healthier diet could be achieved by reducing consumption of dental cariogenic dietary factors, sugar and phosphate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Levels of the Antioxidant Nutrients Vitamin C, Vitamin E, and Selenium in the Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database: NHANES Data Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory evidence indicates that antioxidants may slow or possibly prevent the development of certain cancers by protecting cells from damage caused by free radicals or other mechanisms. Many dietary supplements containing antioxidant constituents (e.g., vitamin C) are available to consumers. Th...

  14. Dietary B vitamin needs of strains of pigs with high and moderate lean growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahly, T S; Williams, N H; Lutz, T R; Ewan, R C; Swenson, S G

    2007-01-01

    Ten sets of 5 littermate pigs from each of 2 genetic strains were utilized to determine the impact of the dietary concentration of 5 B vitamins (riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, cobalamin, and folacin) on growth from 9 to 28 kg of BW in pigs with high or moderate capacity for lean growth. All pigs (penned individually) were reared via a segregated, early weaning scheme, so that the lean growth potential of each strain could be expressed. The basal diet provided the 5 test vitamins at concentrations of total and estimated bioavailability equivalent to a minimum of 100 and 70%, respectively, of their estimated requirements (NRC, 1998) for 5- to 10-kg pigs. At a BW of 9 +/- 0.9 kg, pigs within each litter were allotted to the basal diet supplemented with sources of the 5 test vitamins equivalent to an additional 0, 100, 200, 300, or 400% (bioavailable) of the NRC requirements. Pigs from the high lean strain consumed less feed (P vitamin concentrations were increased. However, the dietary B vitamin concentrations needed to optimize G:F were greater (P 470% of NRC, 1998) vs. moderate (270%) lean strain. Based on these data, the dietary needs for 1 or more of the 5 B vitamins are greater than current NRC (1998) estimates, particularly in pigs expressing a high rate of lean tissue growth. The greater need for these vitamins is not associated with greater dietary energy intake or body energy accretion rate but is potentially due to shifts in the predominant metabolic pathways.

  15. Age group and sex do not influence responses of vitamin K biomarkers to changes in dietary vitamin K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Jennifer T; Fu, Xueyan; Saltzman, Edward; Al Rajabi, Ala; Dallal, Gerard E; Gundberg, Caren M; Booth, Sarah L

    2012-05-01

    Inadequate vitamin K intake has been associated with abnormal soft tissue calcification. Older adults may have insufficient intakes of vitamin K and respond less to vitamin K supplementation compared with younger adults. However, little is known about the determinants that influence the response to vitamin K supplementation. Our primary objective was to assess dietary and nondietary determinants of vitamin K status in healthy younger and older adults. In a nonrandomized, nonmasked study, 21 younger (18-40 y) and 21 older (55-80 y) men and women consumed a baseline diet (200 μg phylloquinone/d) for 5 d, a phylloquinone-restricted diet (10 μg phylloquinone/d) for 28 d, and a phylloquinone-supplemented diet (500 μg phylloquinone/d) for 28 d. Changes in vitamin K status markers in response to vitamin K depletion and repletion were studied and the influences of BMI, body fat, and circulating TG were assessed by including them as covariates in the model. Despite baseline differences in measures of vitamin K status, plasma phylloquinone tended to increase (P = 0.07) and the percentage of uncarboxylated osteocalcin and uncarboxylated prothrombin both improved with phylloquinone supplementation (P vitamin K metabolite, was greater among younger adults in response to depletion than in older adults (P = 0.012), regardless of sex. Adiposity measures and circulating TG did not predict response of any measures. In conclusion, poor vitamin K status can be similarly improved with vitamin K supplementation, regardless of age group or sex.

  16. FATSOLUBLE VITAMINS AND SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novica Bojanić

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Vitamins are the cell biocatalysts, indispensable factors in performing the basic body functions. Fat-soluble vitamins are not involved in processes related to musscle contractions and energy expenditure, but they can affect physical performance indirectly because they are important for immune function (vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, antioxidant function (vitamin A, vitamin E or bone methabolism (vitamin D, vitamin K. Currently there are no clear recommendations for increase of fat-solubile vitamins intake in athletes, as well as evidence that athletic performance may be improved due to fat-solubile vitamins supplementation. In a small number of studies, it was shown that an antioxidant effect of beta carotene and vitamin E can prevent muscle damage and facilitate recovery after exercise. Also, athletes who perform the exercises in the halls should be informed about the necessity of sun exposure, as vitamin D is synthesised in the skin. Most athletes are not familiar with their needs for vitamins and trace elements, and take these compounds as supplements without consulting a nutritionist. It is important to emphasize that liposulubile vitamins are deposited in the body and can cause hypervitaminosis and toxic effects if taken in excess. It is indisputable that the lack of any fat-soluble vitamin cause problems in normal physiological processes, but supplementation is generally not required in athlets who have a well-balanced diet.

  17. Dietary Fat and Vitamin E in Prostate Cancer Risk Among African Americans and Africans: A Case-Control Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ukoli, Flora A; Smith, Ernest; Malin, Alecia; Zhao, Barbara; Osime, Usifo; Stain, Steven

    2006-01-01

    The role of dietary fat and vitamin E in prostate cancer risk among African-Americans, African migrants and Africans is being investigated using a dietary assessment tool and by measuring plasma fatty...

  18. Dietary Fat and Vitamin E in Prostate Cancer Risk Among African Americans and West Africans: A Case-Control Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ukoli, Flora A; Smith, Ernest; Malin, Alecia; Zhao, Barbara; Osime, Usifo; Stain, Steven

    2005-01-01

    The role of dietary fat and vitamin E in prostate cancer risk among African-Americans, African migrants and Africans is being investigated using a dietary assessment tool and by measuring plasma fatty...

  19. Dietary intake of trace elements, minerals, and vitamins of patients on chronic hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossola, Maurizio; Di Stasio, Enrico; Viola, Antonella; Leo, Alessandra; Carlomagno, Giusy; Monteburini, Tania; Cenerelli, Stefano; Santarelli, Stefano; Boggi, Rolando; Miggiano, Giacinto; Vulpio, Carlo; Mele, Cristina; Tazza, Luigi

    2014-04-01

    We aimed to estimate dietary intakes of trace elements, minerals, and vitamins in hemodialysis patients (HDP) of three centers in one metropolitan and two urban areas of Italy. Daily dietary intake was assessed using a 3-day diet diary in 128 HDP. Mean daily intakes of trace elements were as follows: zinc, 7.6 ± 5.4 mg; copper, 14.3 ± 11.8 mg; selenium, 28.3 ± 18.1 μg; and iron, 7.2 ± 4.1 mg (7.8 ± 2.6 mg in women, 6.9 ± 2.4 mg in men). The distribution of patients by daily intakes of trace elements showed most were under the recommended values, with the exception of copper intake, which was much higher. Mean daily intakes of minerals were as follows: magnesium, 174.4 ± 94.3 mg; phosphorus, 842.6 ± 576.8 mg; calcium, 371.8 ± 363.7 mg; potassium, 1,616.2 ± 897.3 mg; and sodium, 1,350 ± 1,281 mg. Mean daily intakes of vitamins were as follows: vitamin A, 486.1 ± 544.6 μg; vitamin B1, 0.86 ± 0.7 mg; vitamin B2, 1.1 ± 0.7 mg; vitamin B3, 13.3 ± 8.1 mg; vitamin C, 47.8 ± 50.3 mg; and vitamin E, 9.5 ± 3.6 mg. The distribution of patients by daily intakes of vitamins showed most were under the recommended values. Daily intakes of trace elements and vitamins were similar among the three centers and did not differ between dialysis and non-dialysis days. Many HDP have daily dietary intakes of trace elements and vitamins below the recommended values, whereas the intake of copper is much higher.

  20. Evidence of dietary calcium and vitamin D inadequacies in a population of dental patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehowich, Daniel J; Pehowich, Enid D

    2016-12-01

    To determine the dietary calcium and vitamin D intake of a cohort of dental patients identified as being at risk of inadequacy based on a 24-hour food recall. A retrospective chart analysis was carried out on 5-day food record and nutrient analyses of 670 dental patients aged 18 to 82 years obtained over a 10-year period. All patients had scored poorly on a 24-hour food recall survey during their initial examination. The overall mean and median calcium and vitamin D intakes of the patients were significantly lower than the current estimated needs for the general population. Although calcium intake did not change over the 10-year period, vitamin D consumption decreased. The greatest dietary intake inadequacies for both calcium and vitamin D were seen in both male and female patients over age 50 years. A 24-Hour Food Recall Questionnaire may be an effective means for the oral health professional to screen patients for calcium and vitamin D and other nutrient inadequacies. Screening for potential dietary inadequacies of calcium and vitamin D may identify patients potentially at risk for poor bone health. Our results indicate that the dental health professional can obtain evidence necessary to change patient dietary behavior and thus contribute to successful treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Inverse association between dietary vitamin D and risk of cutaneous melanoma in a northern Italy population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinceti, Marco; Malagoli, Carlotta; Fiorentini, Chiara; Longo, Caterina; Crespi, Catherine M.; Albertini, Giuseppe; Ricci, Cinzia; Lanzoni, Anna; Reggiani, Maurizio; Virgili, Annarosa; Osti, Federica; Lombardi, Mara; Santini, Marcello; Fanti, Pier Alessandro; Dika, Emi; Sieri, Sabina; Krogh, Vittorio; Seidenari, Stefania; Pellacani, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    The possibility of an inverse association between vitamin D and risk of cancer and, in particular, of cutaneous malignant melanoma has been suggested, but results of epidemiologic studies are still conflicting. We examined the relation between dietary vitamin D intake and melanoma risk through a population-based case-control study (380 cases, 719 controls) in a northern region of Italy, a country with average vitamin D intake lower than in northern Europe or the US. We assessed average daily intake of vitamin D from foodstuffs using the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. In this population, levels of vitamin D intake were considerably lower than those observed in recent US studies. We found an inverse relation between dietary vitamin D and melanoma risk in the sample as a whole, in both crude and adjusted analyses. In sex and age-specific analyses, this association appeared to be stronger among males and among older subjects. These findings suggest that, at the relatively low levels of intake observed in this sample, an inverse relation between dietary vitamin D and risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma may exist. PMID:21541899

  2. {beta} -carotene effect the induction of the sister chromatid exchanges (ICH) by gamma radiation in mouse radiosensibilized osseous marrow cells In vivo; Efecto del {beta}- caroteno la induccion de intercambios en las cromatidas hermanas (ICH) por radiacion gamma en celulas radiosensibilizadas de la medula osea de raton In vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales R, P.; Cruz V, V.L. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico). Dept. de Biologia

    1997-07-01

    The effect of {beta}- carotene over the ICH radioinduction in radiosensibilized with BrdU osseous marrow cells of mouse was determined In vivo. The treatment with 50 {mu}g {beta} carotene per se induces a significant increment in the ICH frequency and the pre or post-treatment with the same dose causes an additive effect in the ICH frequency produced by 0.62 Gy of gamma radiation. This implies that {beta}- carotene does not have radioprotective activity, under conditions which was developed this experiment. (Author)

  3. Effects of Dietary Vitamin E on Fertility Functions in Poultry Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deivendran Rengaraj

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin E is found in high quantities in vegetable oils. Although vitamin E has multiple functions in humans and animals, its key function is protecting cells from oxidative damage. Since its discovery, several studies have demonstrated that vitamin E deficiency causes impaired fertility in humans and lab animals. However, the effects of vitamin E deficiency or of its supplementation on the fertility of farm animals, particularly on poultry, are less well studied. Therefore, a comprehensive review of the effects of dietary vitamin E on the fertility of poultry species is needed in order to understand the beneficial role of vitamin E in the maintenance of sperm and egg qualities. Based on the observations reviewed here, we found that a moderate amount of vitamin E in poultry diet significantly protects semen/sperm qualities in male birds and egg qualities in female birds via decreasing the lipid peroxidation in semen/sperms and eggs. This review provides an overall understanding of the effects of dietary vitamin E on fertility functions in poultry species.

  4. Effect of vitamin C supplementation on stroke recovery: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabadi, Meheroz H; Kristal, Bruce S

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have associated increased dietary intake of antioxidants (vitamin C, E, and beta-carotene) in preventing and decreasing the extent of ischemic brain injury. The effect of vitamin C supplementation on functional recovery after stroke has not been studied. In this retrospective, case-control study of 23 patients with ischemic stroke taking vitamin C were identified and matched for age, sex, onset to admission, and admission total functional independence measure (TFIM) with 23 patients with ischemic stroke not taking Vitamin C supplementation. Vitamin C 1000 mg daily was prescribed on admission to our unit mainly to patients who were undernourished (defined as significant weight loss and/or 90% or less ideal body weight for age and sex) and those with pressure sores. The outcome measures were: change in the TFIM, FIM-Cognition (FIM-Cog), and FIM-Motor sub-scores, discharge disposition, and length of stay (LOS). The change in TFIM (20 +/- 13 standard deviation [SD] vs. 26 +/- 6, p = 0.20), FIM-Cog (3 +/- 3 SD vs. 4 +/- 5, p = 0.41), FIM-Motor (15 +/- 11 SD vs. 20 +/- 13, p = 0.21) sub-scores were less in the vitamin C treated group, but these differences did not reach statistical significance. Similarly, no significant differences were found in LOS (21 +/- 9 SD vs. 23 +/- 9, p = 0.59), and discharge disposition (home/institution) (9/10 vs. 13/9, p = 0.60) between the vitamin C and the control groups. This study suggests vitamin C supplementation did not enhance functional recovery in undernourished ischemic stroke patients.

  5. Vitamines en visvetzuren ter preventie van hart- en vaatziekten: Gezondmakers uit potjes en flesjes T2 = Health from jars and bottles. Vitamins and fish oil fatty acids for prevention of cardiovascular diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Severs, A.H.; Bouterse-van Haaren, M.R.T.

    2000-01-01

    A high dietary intake of antioxidants ascorbic acid, tocopherol and beta-carotene and 1 or 2 servings of fish per week is associated with a lower risk of coronary heart diseases, but the 'evidence' for a preventive effect still has not been produced. A raised homocysteine level can be lowered with

  6. The crtS gene of Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous encodes a novel cytochrome-P450 hydroxylase involved in the conversion of beta-carotene into astaxanthin and other xanthophylls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Vanessa; Rodríguez-Sáiz, Marta; de la Fuente, Juan Luis; Gudiña, Eduardo J; Godio, Ramiro P; Martín, Juan F; Barredo, José Luis

    2006-04-01

    The conversion of beta-carotene into xanthophylls is a subject of great scientific and industrial interest. We cloned the crtS gene involved in astaxanthin biosynthesis from two astaxanthin producing strains of Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous: VKPM Y2410, an astaxanthin overproducing strain, and the wild type ATCC 24203. In both cases, the ORF has a length of 3166 bp, including 17 introns, and codes for a protein of 62.6 kDa with similarity to cytochrome-P450 hydroxylases. crtS gene sequences from strains VKPM Y2410, ATCC 24203, ATCC 96594, and ATCC 96815 show several nucleotide changes, but none of them causes any amino acid substitution, except a G2268 insertion in the 13th exon of ATCC 96815 which causes a change in the reading frame. A G1470 --> A change in the 5' splicing region of intron 8 was also found in ATCC 96815. Both point mutations explain astaxanthin idiotrophy and beta-carotene accumulation in ATCC 96815. Mutants accumulating precursors of the astaxanthin biosynthetic pathway were selected from the parental strain VKPM Y2410 (red) showing different colors depending on the compound accumulated. Two of them were blocked in the biosynthesis of astaxanthin, M6 (orange; 1% astaxanthin, 71 times more beta-carotene) and M7 (orange; 1% astaxanthin, 58 times more beta-carotene, 135% canthaxanthin), whereas the rest produced lower levels of astaxanthin (5-66%) than the parental strain. When the crtS gene was expressed in M7, canthaxanthin accumulation disappeared and astaxanthin production was partially restored. Moreover, astaxanthin biosynthesis was restored when X. dendrorhous ATCC 96815 was transformed with the crtS gene. The crtS gene was heterologously expressed in Mucor circinelloides conferring to this fungus an improved capacity to synthesize beta-cryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin, two hydroxylated compounds from beta-carotene. These results show that the crtS gene is involved in the conversion of beta-carotene into xanthophylls, being potentially useful to

  7. Dietary Sources of Vitamin B-12 and Their Association with Vitamin B-12 Status Markers in Healthy Older Adults in the B-PROOF Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elske M. Brouwer-Brolsma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Low vitamin B-12 concentrations are frequently observed among older adults. Malabsorption is hypothesized to be an important cause of vitamin B-12 inadequacy, but serum vitamin B-12 may also be differently affected by vitamin B-12 intake depending on food source. We examined associations between dietary sources of vitamin B-12 (meat, fish and shellfish, eggs, dairy and serum vitamin B-12, using cross-sectional data of 600 Dutch community-dwelling adults (≥65 years. Dietary intake was assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire. Vitamin B-12 concentrations were measured in serum. Associations were studied over tertiles of vitamin B-12 intake using P for trend, by calculating prevalence ratios (PRs, and splines. Whereas men had significantly higher vitamin B-12 intakes than women (median (25th–75th percentile: 4.18 (3.29–5.38 versus 3.47 (2.64–4.40 μg/day, serum vitamin B-12 did not differ between the two sexes (mean ± standard deviation (SD: 275 ± 104 pmol/L versus 290 ± 113 pmol/L. Higher intakes of dairy, meat, and fish and shellfish were significantly associated with higher serum vitamin B-12 concentrations, where meat and dairy—predominantly milk were the most potent sources. Egg intake did not significantly contribute to higher serum vitamin B-12 concentrations. Thus, dairy and meat were the most important contributors to serum vitamin B-12, followed by fish and shellfish.

  8. Photochemical reactions in dehydrated photosynthetic organisms, leaves, chloroplasts and photosystem II particles: reversible reduction of pheophytin and chlorophyll and oxidation of {beta}-carotene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuvalov, Vladimir A.; Heber, Ulrich

    2003-11-01

    Photoreactions of dehydrated leaves, isolated broken chloroplasts and PSII membrane fragments of spinach (Spinacia oleracea) were studied at different air humidities and compared with photoreactions of dry fronds of a fern, Polypodium vulgare, and a dry lichen, Parmelia sulcata, which in contrast to spinach are insensitive to photoinactivation in the dry state. Even in very dry air, P700 in the reaction center of photosystem I of dry leaves was oxidized, and the primary quinone acceptor Q{sub A} in the reaction center of photosystem II was photoreduced by low light. These reactions were only very slowly reversed in the dark and saturated under low light intensity. Light-minus-dark difference absorption spectra of the dry leaves, isolated chloroplasts and PSII membrane fragments measured at higher light intensities revealed absorbance changes of {beta}-carotene at 500 nm (light-dependent bleaching) and 980 nm (light-dependent band formation) and bleaching of chlorophyll at 436 and 680 nm with appearance of bands at 450 and 800 nm. Decrease of chlorophyll fluorescence upon strong illumination indicated photoaccumulation of a quencher. All these changes were kinetically related and readily reversible. They are interpreted to show light-induced oxidation of {beta}-carotene (Car) and reduction of chlorophyll-680 (Chl-680) in the reaction center of photosystem II of the dried leaves, chloroplasts and photosystem II particles. The fluorescence quencher was suggested to be Chl-680{sup -} or Car{sup +} in close proximity to P680, the primary electron donor. Appreciable photoaccumulation of reduced pheophytin was only observed in dry leaves after Q{sub A} reduction had been lost during heat treatment of hydrated leaves prior to dehydration. The observations are interpreted to show light-dependent cyclic electron flow within the reaction center of photosystem II in which Chl-680 (or Pheo) is reduced by P680* and Car is oxidized by P680{sup +} with consequent recombination of

  9. Serum concentrations of lipids, vitamin d metabolites, retinol, retinyl esters, tocopherols and selected carotenoids in twelve captive wild felid species at four zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crissey, Susan D; Ange, Kimberly D; Jacobsen, Krista L; Slifka, Kerri A; Bowen, Phyllis E; Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis, Maria; Langman, Craig B; Sadler, William; Kahn, Stephen; Ward, Ann

    2003-01-01

    Serum concentrations of several nutrients were measured in 12 captive wild felid species including caracal (Felis caracal), cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), cougar (Felis concolor), fishing cat (Felis viverrinus), leopard (Panthera pardus), lion (Panthera leo), ocelot (Felis pardalis), pallas cat (Felis manul), sand cat (Felis margarita), serval (Felis serval), snow leopard (Panthera uncia) and tiger (Panthera tigris). Diet information was collected for these animals from each participating zoo (Brookfield Zoo, Fort Worth Zoo, Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens and North Carolina Zoological Park). The nutritional composition of the diets at each institution met the probable dietary requirements for each species except for the pallas cat. Blood samples were collected from each animal (n = 69) and analyzed for lipids (total cholesterol, triacylglycerides, HDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol), vitamin D metabolites [25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D) and 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25(OH)(2)D)], vitamin A (retinol, retinyl stearate and retinyl palmitate), vitamin E (alpha- and gamma-tocopherol) and selected carotenoids. Species differences were found for all except triacylglycerides and 1,25(OH)(2)D. Genus differences were found for retinol, retinyl palmitate, retinyl stearate, gamma-tocopherol and beta-carotene. Circulating nutrient concentrations for many of the species in this study have not been reported previously and most have not been compared with the animals' dietary intakes. The large number of animals analyzed provides a substantial base for comparing the serum nutrient concentrations of healthy animals, for both wild and captive exotic species.

  10. Effect of dietary vitamin E supplementation on lipid and colour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-04-12

    Apr 12, 2010 ... Key words: Chicken, diet supplementation, vitamin E, lipid oxidation, meat colour. INTRODUCTION ... the α-tocopherol content of muscle membranes in many animals .... condition, eijk is the error, and k = 3 number of analysis.

  11. Effect of dietary vitamin E supplementation on lipid and colour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-04-12

    Apr 12, 2010 ... Lipid and myoglobin oxidation are major causes of meat quality deterioration during storage of fresh ... Peroxide value (PV) and oxidation products specific extinctions ... of vitamin E for animals' food supplementation is the.

  12. PEMANFAATAN MINYAK SAWIT MERAH DALAM PEMBUATANBISKUIT KACANG KAYA BETA KAROTEN [Utilization of Red Palm Oil To Produce BetaCarotene-Rich Nuts Biscuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robiyansyah Robiyansyah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to get formulation of red palm oil and cooking oil to produce nuts biscuits with the best organoleptic properties. The formula consisted of red palm oil and cooking oil mixture with 6 comparisons: (0:100, (20:80, (40:60, (60:40, (80:20 and (100:0. These formula were then used as basis to produce nuts biscuits. Observation was done on the organoleptic properties (aroma, texture, taste and color for all biscuits for all samples, while  proximates test (water, fat,protein,ash content and betacarotene content were done only for the best formulation. The data were descriptively analyzed and presented in tables and graphs. The best organoleptic properties of these betacarotene rich nuts biscuits was formulation of 20:80. This biscuits had water content 1,42%, ash content 1,21%, fat content 32,60%, protein content 12,59%, and the total of beta carotene 347,15 ppm, with the less normal for aroma (4,55, less crunchy for the texture (4,40, distinctive flavor beans for the taste (4,28, and yellowish for the color (4,50. Keywords: β-carotene, nuts biscuits,red palm oil.

  13. Predictors of Sustained Smoking Cessation: A Prospective Analysis of Chronic Smokers From the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustson, Erik M.; Wanke, Kay L.; Rogers, Scott; Bergen, Andrew W.; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Synder, Kirk; Albanes, Demetrius; Taylor, Phil R.; Caporaso, Neil E.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. Because US smoking rates have not declined during the past decade, there is a renewed need to identify factors associated with smoking cessation. Using a nested case–control design, we explored the association between ability to sustain cessation over an extended period and demographic, smoking, medical, and behavioral variables. Methods. We selected a sample of 1379 sustained quitters (abstinent from smoking for at least 40 months) and 1388 relapsers (abstinent for more than 8 months before relapse) from participants in the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study, a nutritional intervention study involving Finnish men aged 50 to 69 years at baseline. Contingency table and multiple regression analyses were used to evaluate potential differences between the 2 groups on baseline variables. Results. Compared with sustained quitters, relapsers were more likely to report symptoms of emotional distress and higher levels of nicotine dependence, to drink more alcohol, and to report more medical conditions. Conclusions. Factors associated with both tobacco use and comorbid conditions impact an individual’s ability to maintain long-term smoking cessation. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of action and potential common pathways among these factors may help to improve smoking cessation therapies. PMID:17600267

  14. Convenient solvatochromic probes for the determination of solvent properties: {beta}-carotene and 2-chloro-7-nitro-9H-fluorene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seoud, Omar A. El; Pires, Paulo A.R.; Loffredo, Carina; Imran, Muhammad; Pulcini, Paolo D.; Correa, Michelle F.; Mustafa, Rizwana, E-mail: elseoud@iq.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica

    2013-07-15

    Solvent dipolarity/polarizability (SDP) has been previously calculated from the UV-Vis spectra of 2-(N,N-dimethylamino)-7-nitro-9H-fluorene and 2-fluoro-7-nitro-9H- fluorene. Based on theoretical calculations (23 solvents) and experimental data (56 solvents), it is shown that 2-chloro-7-nitro-9H-fluorene (commercially available) can be conveniently employed for the calculation of this property, instead of its 2-fluoro-7-nitro counterpart. The splitting of SDP into its components (solvent dipolarity (SD) and polarizability (SP)) requires the use of a synthetic polyene compound whose synthesis is laborious, involving 15 steps. Our research group has recently shown that the natural dye {beta}-carotene can be conveniently employed for the determination of SP, allowing the calculation of SD. Using these solvatochromic probes, SDP, SP and SD for a series of 1-bromo alkanes were calculated. For several homologous series, the dependence of solvent SDP (SD and SP for one series) on the number of carbon atoms in the 1-alkyl- or acyl-group was calculated and discussed. (author)

  15. Broilers fed dietary vitamins harbor higher diversity of cecal bacteria and higher ratio of Clostridium, Faecalibacterium, and Lactobacillus than broilers with no dietary vitamins revealed by 16S rRNA gene clone libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yu-heng; Peng, Huan-wei; Wright, André-Denis G; Bai, Shi-ping; Ding, Xue-mei; Zeng, Qiu-feng; Li, Hua; Zheng, Ping; Su, Zhuo-wei; Cui, Ren-yong; Zhang, Ke-ying

    2013-09-01

    Research on the interaction between dietary vitamins and intestinal bacteria is poorly understood. To investigate the effect of dietary vitamins on the cecal bacterial communities, 2 bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were constructed from pooled PCR products obtained from the cecal digesta of 28-d broilers fed diets with vitamins (V) at the NRC level or with no vitamins (NV). The results showed that BW gain and average feed intake of V broilers was significantly higher (P vitamins can increase the ratio of facultative pathogenic bacteria and decrease the diversity of bacteria in the cecum of broilers. Our results provide new leads for further investigations on the interaction between dietary vitamin additives and the gut health of broilers.

  16. Vitamin D Dietary Intake Questionnaire Validation Conducted among Young Polish Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Głąbska, Dominika; Guzek, Dominika; Sidor, Patrycja; Włodarek, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    Due to inadequate intake of Vitamin D, identification of individuals characterised by the highest risk of deficiencies is one of the more crucial tasks for public health. The aim of the presented study was to assess the validity and reproducibility of the designed Vitamin D dietary intake questionnaire based on food frequency assessment—VIDEO-FFQ (VItamin D Estimation Only—Food Frequency Questionnaire) in a group of Polish women aged 20–30 years. Seventy-five participants kept a three-day dietary record and filled out the VIDEO-FFQ twice (immediately after the three-day dietary record and after six weeks). The assessment of validity and reproducibility was conducted by verifying standard errors of estimation, median differences, and percentages of individuals classified into tertiles, correlations and Bland-Altman plots. The Vitamin D intake for the majority of the surveyed women was inadequate as over 85% of them were characterised by values of intake lower than 5.0 μg per day. The results allowed concluding that a high accuracy of the VIDEO-FFQ was achieved. The required Bland-Altman index values lower than 5.0% were obtained, confirming satisfactory validity and reproducibility. The VIDEO-FFQ may be deemed a convenient practical tool for the estimation of Vitamin D intake in young women. PMID:26742070

  17. Moving from efficacy to effectiveness: red palm oil's role in preventing vitamin A deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Amy L; Burns, Jennifer B

    2010-06-01

    Vitamin A deficiency is one of the most widespread nutritional deficiencies worldwide. Hundreds of millions of children and tens of millions of women living in Sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia are at particularly high risk of the adverse health consequences associated with this largely preventable condition. Red palm oil comes from oil palms that are traditionally grown in tropical regions of West Africa and are now cultivated on a large-scale commercial basis in Southeast Asia. Red palm oil is the richest naturally occurring source of beta-carotene, a carotenoid that the human body can convert into usable vitamin A (retinol). This paper reviews a series of key intervention studies designed to investigate the impact of using red palm oil-based interventions to improve vitamin A status. These included studies from Africa, Asia, and Latin America in which red palm oil was used (or proposed for use) (1) as a dietary supplement, (2) as an in-home fortificant, (3) to fortify foods used for distribution in targeted supplementary feeding programs, and (4) to fortify staple food products. Overall, the results suggest that red palm oil is highly efficacious in improving vitamin A status among populations at risk of vitamin A deficiency. The time has come to move beyond trials of biological efficacy and focus on conducting operational research projects, effectiveness trials, and cost-benefit analyses that will help expand the use of red palm oil in areas where it is likely to be well accepted but remains underutilized as a dietary source of provitamin A.

  18. Dietary Vitamin K Intake Is Associated with Cognition and Behaviour among Geriatric Patients: The CLIP Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine Chouet

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to determine whether dietary vitamin K intake was associated with cognition and behavior among older adults. 192 consecutive participants ≥65 years, recruited in the cross-sectional CLIP (Cognition and LIPophilic vitamins study, were separated into two groups according to the tertiles of dietary phylloquinone intake (i.e., lowest third below 207 µg/day versus the other two thirds combined. Daily dietary phylloquinone intake was estimated from 50-item interviewer-administered food frequency questionnaire. Cognition was assessed with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE; behaviour with Frontotemporal Behavioral Rating Scale (FBRS. Age, gender, social problems, education, body mass index (BMI, comorbidities, history of stroke, use vitamin K antagonists, inadequate fatty fish intake, serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, vitamin B12, albumin, and estimated glomerular filtration rate were used as confounders. Compared to participants in the lowest third of dietary phylloquinone intake (n = 64, those with higher intake had higher (i.e., better mean MMSE score (22.0 ± 5.7 versus 19.9 ± 6.2, p = 0.024 and lower (i.e., better FBRS score (1.5 ± 1.2 versus 1.9 ± 1.3, p = 0.042. In multivariate linear regressions, log dietary phylloquinone intake was positively associated with MMSE score (adjusted β = 1.66, p = 0.013 and inversely associated with FBRS score (adjusted β = −0.33, p = 0.037. Specifically, log dietary phylloquinone intake correlated negatively with FBRS subscore of physical neglect (r = −0.24, p = 0.001. Higher dietary phylloquinone intake was associated with better cognition and behavior among older adults.

  19. Dietary Vitamin K Intake Is Associated with Cognition and Behaviour among Geriatric Patients: The CLIP Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouet, Justine; Ferland, Guylaine; Féart, Catherine; Rolland, Yves; Presse, Nancy; Boucher, Kariane; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale; Beauchet, Olivier; Annweiler, Cedric

    2015-08-12

    Our objective was to determine whether dietary vitamin K intake was associated with cognition and behavior among older adults. 192 consecutive participants ≥65 years, recruited in the cross-sectional CLIP (Cognition and LIPophilic vitamins) study, were separated into two groups according to the tertiles of dietary phylloquinone intake (i.e., lowest third below 207 µg/day versus the other two thirds combined). Daily dietary phylloquinone intake was estimated from 50-item interviewer-administered food frequency questionnaire. Cognition was assessed with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE); behaviour with Frontotemporal Behavioral Rating Scale (FBRS). Age, gender, social problems, education, body mass index (BMI), comorbidities, history of stroke, use vitamin K antagonists, inadequate fatty fish intake, serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), vitamin B12, albumin, and estimated glomerular filtration rate were used as confounders. Compared to participants in the lowest third of dietary phylloquinone intake (n = 64), those with higher intake had higher (i.e., better) mean MMSE score (22.0 ± 5.7 versus 19.9 ± 6.2, p = 0.024) and lower (i.e., better) FBRS score (1.5 ± 1.2 versus 1.9 ± 1.3, p = 0.042). In multivariate linear regressions, log dietary phylloquinone intake was positively associated with MMSE score (adjusted β = 1.66, p = 0.013) and inversely associated with FBRS score (adjusted β = -0.33, p = 0.037). Specifically, log dietary phylloquinone intake correlated negatively with FBRS subscore of physical neglect (r = -0.24, p = 0.001). Higher dietary phylloquinone intake was associated with better cognition and behavior among older adults.

  20. Effect of dietary vitamin E on Eimeria tenella-induced oxidative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ramezanali

    2012-05-10

    May 10, 2012 ... Full Length Research Paper. Effect of dietary ... vitamin E (p<0.05). A significant rise of plasma and erythrocyte MDA was ... biological membranes, thereby making them stable. This prevents free ... Vegetable oil. 2.00. 2.00 ..... tenella: a review of the type strain selected for genome sequencing. Avian Pathol.

  1. Dietary intake of B-vitamins in mothers born a child with a congenital heart defect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkleij-Hagoort, A.C.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Ursem, N.T.C.; Jonge, de R.; Hop, W.C.J.; Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.M.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Periconceptional use of multivitamins reduces the risk of a child with a congenital heart defect (CHD). Data on the impact of maternal diet, however, are lacking. AIM OF THE STUDY: We investigated the association between the maternal dietary intake of B-vitamins and having a child with a

  2. Inadequate dietary calcium and vitamin D intakes in renal-transplant recipients in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lynch, Irene T

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify the dietary calcium and vitamin D intake in adult renal-transplant recipients attending at a large teaching hospital in Ireland for follow-up. SETTING: Outpatient renal-transplant follow-up clinic. SUBJECTS: Fifty-nine adult renal transplant recipients (58% male) with a mean age of 46 years, a median transplant duration of 6 years, and a mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 50 mL\\/min per 1.73 m2. Fifty-three percent were at National Kidney Foundation stage 3 chronic kidney disease, and 14% had stage 4 chronic kidney disease. INTERVENTION: This cross-sectional, observational study used a tailored food frequency questionnaire specific for calcium and vitamin D intake in Irish adults, which was completed during a face-to-face interview with each subject. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The main outcome measure was the average daily dietary and supplemented calcium and vitamin D intake. RESULTS: The median interquartile range (IQR) dietary calcium intake was 820 mg\\/day (range, 576-1,177 mg\\/day), and was similar in men and women (recommended intake > or = 1,000 mg\\/day in adult men and nonmenopausal adult women, > or = 1,500 mg\\/day in menopausal women). Five participants received calcium supplementation. Overall, 59% of men and 64% of women had total calcium intakes below the recommended amounts. The median IQR estimated dietary vitamin D intake was 5.2 microg\\/day (range, 2.4-6.4 microg\\/day) in women, and 4.6 microg\\/day (range, 2.2-6.6 microg\\/day) in men (recommended intake, > or = 10 microg\\/day). Six subjects received vitamin D supplementation. Total vitamin D intakes were suboptimal in 91% of men and 87% of women. Dietary calcium and vitamin D intakes significantly correlated with each other, but neither was significantly related to eGFR category, and was similarly low in both presumed menopausal women and in the initial year posttransplantation. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that dietary and total calcium and

  3. Effects of dietary vitamin E on male reproductive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zubair

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin E is known as important antioxidant to protect the reproductive system. The free radicals are continuously produced in last few years due to metabolic and nutritional deficiencies. These free radicals are responsible for the production of oxidative stress in animal bodies. This production of extensive amount of oxidative stress caused the detrimental effects on the sperm and various other male parameters. This imbalance between the antioxidants and oxidative stress, leads to the condition of infertility in male. Antioxidants play an important role for eliminating of these free radicals. Vitamin E is one of the best antioxidants for the removal of oxidative stress in male reproductive system. Its use increases the reproductive functions and efficiency of male reproductive system. The deficiency of this vitamin leads to degeneration of germinal epithelium and Leydig cells in seminiferous tubules. The use of selenium and vitamin E has the synergistic effects on the male reproductive system. The objective of this review was to collect the beneficial roles of this vitamin along selenium on reproductive system of birds and different animals. This review will also collect the different doses along the beneficial roles on different parameters of male reproductive system.

  4. Better Knowledge on Vitamin D and Calcium in Older People Is Associated with a Higher Serum Vitamin D Level and a Higher Daily Dietary Calcium Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudshoorn, Christian; Hartholt, Klaas A.; van Leeuwen, Johannes P. T. M.; Colin, Edgar M.; van der Velde, Nathalie; van der Cammen, Tischa J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to examine knowledge on vitamin D and calcium in a cohort of older adults and to test the association between health knowledge, vitamin D status and dietary calcium intake. Methods: The participants of this cross-sectional survey consisted of 426 individuals (greater than or equal to 65 years),…

  5. Low dietary intake of n-3 fatty acids, niacin, folate, and vitamin C in Korean patients with schizophrenia and the development of dietary guidelines for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Jin; Lim, So Young; Lee, Hee Jae; Lee, Ju-Yeon; Choi, Seunggi; Kim, Seon-Young; Kim, Jae-Min; Shin, Il-Seon; Yoon, Jin-Sang; Yang, Soo Jin; Kim, Sung-Wan

    2017-09-01

    Inappropriate dietary intake and poor nutritional status are reported to be associated with metabolic syndrome and psychopathology in patients with schizophrenia. We hypothesized that inappropriate dietary habits and insufficient dietary intake of specific nutrients are associated with schizophrenia. To test the hypothesis, we assessed the dietary habits and nutritional intake of patients with schizophrenia and then developed suitable dietary guidelines. In total, 140 subjects (73 controls and 67 patients with schizophrenia from community mental health centers) were included, and dietary intakes were analyzed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. As a result, the proportion of overweight or obese patients was significantly higher in schizophrenia subjects (64.2%) compared with control subjects (39.7%) (P=.004). The male schizophrenia patients had significantly lower dietary intakes of protein, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), vitamin K, niacin, folate, and vitamin C than the male control subjects. In all multiple logistic regression models, subjects with the "low" dietary intake of protein, n-3 PUFAs, niacin, folate, and vitamin C had a significantly higher odds ratios for schizophrenia compared with those with the "high" dietary intake category of each nutrient. Therefore, maintenance of a healthy body weight and sufficient dietary intake of protein, PUFAs, niacin, folate, and vitamin C are recommended for Korean patients with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of Dietary Intake of Various Vitamins in Menopausal Women with Hot Flashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aytekin Tokmak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Menopausal hot flashes affect the majority of women. Hormone replacement therapy to reduce the severity of hot flashes is the most effective method. Today, however, due to a number of side effects of hormone therapy more women are seeking alternative treatments such as vitamin pills and herbal products. Previously, various vitamins, minerals and trace elements were studied for this purpose. In this study, our aim was to determine the level of dietary intake of various vitamins in women with hot flashes and to compare them with women who had no complaints. Material and Method: One hundred and seven consecutive women who attended the menopause clinic of our hospital for routine follow up were included in this study. All of the participants were asked about the occurrence of specific menopausal symptoms and completed 92-itm antioxidant nutrient questionnaire developed by Satia. The main parameters recorded for each woman were; age, obstetrical characteristics, body mass index, smoking status, educational level, type of menopause (surgical or natural, duration of menopause, menopausal symptoms, and number and duration of hot flashes. According to the computerized analysis of questionnaire, dietary intake of water-soluble vitamins; B complex and vitamin C, and fat-soluble vitamins; vitamin, A D, E, K were calculated. Results: Patients were divided into two groups with regard to presence of hot flashes, those with hot flashes constituted the study groups (n:75, and others without hot flashes constituted the control group (n:32. The mean age of patients was statistically significantly lower in the study group (p<0,001. The mean duration of menopause was also lower in this group (p<0,001. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in terms of obstetrical characteristics, body mass index, smoking status, educational level, type of menopause (p>0,05. Night sweats and sleep disorders were more common in women with hot flashes

  7. Evaluation of Dietary Intake of Various Vitamins in Menopausal Women with Hot Flashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aytekin Tokmak

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Menopausal hot flashes affect the majority of women. Hormone replacement therapy to reduce the severity of hot flashes is the most effective method. Today, however, due to a number of side effects of hormone therapy more women are seeking alternative treatments such as vitamin pills and herbal products. Previously, various vitamins, minerals and trace elements were studied for this purpose. In this study, our aim was to determine the level of dietary intake of various vitamins in women with hot flashes and to compare them with women who had no complaints. Material and Method: One hundred and seven consecutive women who attended the menopause clinic of our hospital for routine follow up were included in this study. All of the participants were asked about the occurrence of specific menopausal symptoms and completed 92-itm antioxidant nutrient questionnaire developed by Satia. The main parameters recorded for each woman were; age, obstetrical characteristics, body mass index, smoking status, educational level, type of menopause (surgical or natural, duration of menopause, menopausal symptoms, and number and duration of hot flashes. According to the computerized analysis of questionnaire, dietary intake of water-soluble vitamins; B complex and vitamin C, and fat-soluble vitamins; vitamin, A D, E, K were calculated. Results: Patients were divided into two groups with regard to presence of hot flashes, those with hot flashes constituted the study groups (n:75, and others without hot flashes constituted the control group (n:32. The mean age of patients was statistically significantly lower in the study group (p<0,001. The mean duration of menopause was also lower in this group (p<0,001. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in terms of obstetrical characteristics, body mass index, smoking status, educational level, type of menopause (p>0,05. Night sweats and sleep disorders were more common in women with hot flashes

  8. Effect of dietary calcium and phosphorus on intestinal calcium absorption and vitamin D metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribovich, M.L.; DeLuca, H.F.

    1978-01-01

    To understand better dietary regulation of intestinal calcium absorption, a quantitative assessment of the metabolites in plasma and duodenum of rats given daily doses of radioactive vitamin D 3 and diets differing in calcium and phosphorus content was made. All known vitamin D metabolites were ultimately identified by high-pressure liquid chromatography. In addition to the known metabolites (25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 , 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 , 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 , 25,26-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 , and 1,24,25-trihydroxyvitamin D 3 ), several new and unidentified metabolites were found. In addition to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 and 1,24,25-trihydroxyvitamin D 3 , the levels of some of the unknown metabolites could be correlated with intestinal calcium transport. However, whether or not any of these metabolites plays a role in the stimulation of intestinal calcium absorption by low dietary calcium or low dietary phosphorus remains unknown

  9. Vitamin and water requirements of dairy sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulvia Bovera

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors review the physiological role and the daily requirement of fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E and K, vitamin C  and water in dairy sheep. Regarding the vitamins, classical clinical symptoms and/or non-specific parameters, such as  lowered production and reproduction rates are associated with their deficiencies or excesses. Until the last decade,  these compounds were considered important only for the prevention of such alterations; currently, there is more  emphasis on their function as the vitamins can play a key role in optimising animal health. In this respect, of particu-  lar interest is the action of the antioxidant vitamins (especially vitamin C, vitamin E and beta-carotene in improving  the efficiency of the immune system. 

  10. Dietary vitamin E (α-tocopheryl acetate) and organic selenium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enriched yeast) and vitamin E (α-tocopheryl acetate) supplementation, alone or together, on the performance and antioxidant status of broilers fed diets enriched in n-3 PUFAs using fish oil. Day-old Hubbard-JV strain broiler chicks allocated to one ...

  11. thermal degradation and estimation of dietary intakes of vitamin c

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IBRAHIM GARBA

    ABSTRACT. Thermal degradation of vitamin C in eight different vegetables were determined. These comprised Onion,. Tomato, Red Pepper, Spinach, Okra, Green Beans, Cauliflower, and Cabbage. Maximum degradation was observed in Tomato with 83% loss while minimum loss of 37% was in Red Pepper. An estimate ...

  12. Investigation of dietary fiber, protein, vitamin E and other nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    The contents of vitamin E, total saponin and flavonoids were 0.87-1.07, 0.12 and 5.27–5.90 .... method. The content of ash was measured by gravimetric measure- ment of the ... Liquid Chromatography (HPLC, Shimadzu Co., Kyoto, Japan) as.

  13. Lipid oxidation in buffalo meat from animals with dietary supplementation of vitamin E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Chianese

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis meat is not widely used in the diet, but it is recently reconsidered due to its valuable nutritional qualities. New strategies aiming to improve the quality of buffalo meat have to be applied particularly to face the problem of lipid peroxidation, one of the most important causes of meat food deterioration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the lipid oxidation of buffalo meat (muscles Caput longum tricipitis brachii, Longissimus dorsi and Semimembranosus, coming from animals fed with two different amount of vitamin E (600 IU/die and 1500 IU/die for 102 -123 days considering, as markers for lipid oxidation, the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA by HPLC-UV and TBA test. Moreover it was evaluated, by HPLC-DAD, vitamin E concentration in the meat samples. Muscles coming from animals with vitamin E supplementation were in mean 2 times more enriched of vitamin E than control (p < 0.05. Meat from buffalo fed with 600 IU/die vitamin E had significant lower MDA concentration in comparison with control (in mean -53%, n= 4. Both for MDA and vitamin E concentrations not significant differences were found between the supplementation of 600 IU/die and 1500 IU/die. It is concluded that dietary supplementation with Vitamin E is a promising strategy to prevent lipid oxidation of buffalo meat and to prolong its shelf-life.

  14. Content and in-vitro accessibility of pro-vitamin A carotenoids from Sri Lankan cooked non-leafy vegetables and their estimated contribution to vitamin A requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadarshani, A M B; Chandrika, U G

    2007-12-01

    Vitamin A deficiency is a public health problem in Sri Lanka, which affects especially pre-school children. Carrots (Daucus carota), pumpkins (Cucurbita maxima), squashes (Cucurbita moschata) and sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) of orange, yellow-fleshed varieties are good sources of provitamin A carotenoids, but have not been studied in Sri Lanka in terms of the food as eaten. The content of carotenoids in each preparation method and the in-vitro accessibility of beta-carotene and alpha-carotene were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The in-vitro method simulates the conditions in the human intestinal tract. The mean contents in dry weight (DW) in different carrot preparations ranged from 406.7 to 456.3, from 183.7 to 213.5 and from 29.0 to 39.6 microg/g for beta-carotene, alpha-carotene and lutein, respectively. The content of carotenoids in different pumpkin preparations varied from 282.1 to 294.4 microg/g DW for beta-carotene, from 155.6 to 157.7 microg/g DW for alpha-carotene and from 218.0 to 228.2 microg/g DW for lutein. The squashes preparation had 44.6 and 40.0 microg/g DW for beta-carotene and alpha-carotene, respectively, and in sweet potatoes beta-carotene ranged from 204.3 to 210.3 microg/g DW. The results showed that the contribution to the recommended daily allowance is greater when these vegetables are prepared as a curry with coconut milk. The percentage contribution to recommended daily allowance from each vegetable cooked with coconut milk was 46.7, 21.8, 1.2 and 10.8 for carrots, pumpkins, squashes and sweet potatoes, respectively.

  15. Prevalence of dietary supplement use and associated factors among female college students in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfawaz, Hanan; Khan, Nasiruddin; Alfaifi, Aziza; Shahrani, Fatima M; Al Tameem, Huda M; Al Otaibi, Seetah F; Abudigin, Weaam I; Al-Shayaa, Mohammad S; Al-Ghanim, Saad A; Al-Daghri, Nasser M

    2017-11-22

    The economic boom in Saudi Arabia indirectly prompted the use of dietary supplements in the last two decades. Our aim is to investigate the prevalence of dietary supplement use and its association with sociodemographic/lifestyle characteristics among Saudi female students. In this cross-sectional study, 534 female participants (≥19 years of age) completed a self-administered questionnaire that include sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics, perceived health status, dietary supplement use, general awareness, attitudes and behavior. In all participants, the prevalence of dietary supplement use was 76.6% (n = 409). High level of education (p = 0.002) and more physical activity (p = 0.008) exhibited a significant positive association with users than to non-users. The frequency showed that beta-carotene (54.2%), chamomile (54.2%), and glucosamine (53.8%) were the most preferred diet supplements under the category "when needed". Cod liver oil (71.3%), omega 3 (68.3%), multi-vitamins (61.5%), ginseng (60%), and vitamin A (60%), were mostly used "from time to time". Multi-minerals (34.4%) were the preferred choice when it comes to daily use. The main reasons for supplement use were to "maintain healthy hair" and "injury and illness" (both 26.2%). About 38.4% were not aware and 30.3% disagree on differences taking supplements with or without consulting a medical professional. About 36.7% lack information about side effects while, 35.0% were unaware about any health effect of dietary supplements. The prevalence of dietary supplement use was high in Saudi female students and was significantly associated with sociodemographic and lifestyle factors.

  16. Effects of administration of beta-carotene, ascorbic acid, persimmons, and pods on antioxidative ability in UV-irradiated ODS rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosotani, Keisuke; Yoshida, Minoru; Kitagawa, Masahiro

    2005-07-01

    To evaluate the effects of supplementing diets with carotenoid and ascorbic acid (AsA) on the antioxidative ability of Osteogenic Disorder-Shionogi (ODS) rats, we added synthetic beta-carotene (betaC), AsA, and powders of persimmon (Ka) and pods (Po) containing betaC and AsA to the diet and obtained the following results. The urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) concentration was low in the -betaC.AsA and +AsA groups but high in the +betaC.AsA, +Ka, and +Po groups. The thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) in both the liver and skin were higher in the -betaC.AsA group than in the +betaC.AsA group and were low in the +Ka and +Po groups. As antioxidant enzymes, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity was high in the +betaC.AsA group, low in the -beta3C.AsA group in both the skin and liver, and also high in the + Ka and +Po group in the liver. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was high in the -betaC.AsA group and low in the +betaC.AsA and +Ka groups in both the skin and liver. Catalase (CAT) activity in the liver was low in the -betaC.AsA, +AsA, and +betaC groups and high in the +betaC.AsA and +Po groups. These results confirmed that the administration of betaC, AsA, and persimmons and pods increases antioxidative ability in the skin and liver of ultraviolet-b(UV-B)-irradiated ODS rats.

  17. Synaptic Membrane Synthesis in Rats Depends on Dietary Sufficiency of Vitamin C, Vitamin E, and Selenium: Relevance for Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cansev, Mehmet; Turkyilmaz, Mesut; Sijben, John W C; Sevinc, Cansu; Broersen, Laus M; van Wijk, Nick

    2017-01-01

    Chronic consumption of a diet enriched with nutritional precursors of phospholipids, including uridine and the polyunsaturated fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), was shown previously to enhance levels of brain phospholipids and synaptic proteins in rodents. Vitamin C, vitamin E, and selenium may directly affect the breakdown or synthesis of membrane phospholipids. The present study investigated the necessity of antioxidants for the effectiveness of supplementation with uridine plus DHA and EPA (as fish oil) in rats. Rats were randomized to four treatment groups and received, for 6 weeks, one of four experimental diets, i.e., a diet low in antioxidants, a diet high in antioxidants, a diet low in antioxidants supplemented with DHA+EPA+uridine, or a diet high in antioxidants supplemented with DHA+EPA+uridine. On completion of dietary treatment, rats were sacrificed, and brain levels of phospholipids, synaptic proteins, and two enzymes involved in phospholipid synthesis (choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase, PCYT1A, and choline/ethanolamine phosphotransferase, CEPT1) were analyzed. Levels of phospholipids, the pre- and post-synaptic proteins Synapsin-1 and PSD95, and the enzymes PCYT1A and CEPT1 were significantly enhanced by combined supplementation of DHA+EPA+uridine and antioxidants and not enhanced by supplementation of DHA+EPA+uridine with insufficient antioxidant levels. Our data suggest that dietary vitamin C, vitamin E, and selenium are essential for the phospholipid precursors' effects on increasing levels of membrane phospholipids and synaptic proteins, the indirect indicators of synaptogenesis. Their concomitant supply may be relevant in Alzheimer's disease patients, because the disease is characterized by synapse loss and lower plasma and brain levels of phospholipid precursors and antioxidants.

  18. Dietary vitamin E on the reproductive performance of the fantail goldfish Carassius auratus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harton Arfah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This research was conducted to examine the different dose of vitamin E in the diet on female broodstock reproduction performance of the fantail goldfish Carassius auratus auratus. This research consisted of four treatments with three replications. The use of vitamin E doses was 0, 125, 250, and 375 mg/kg. The vitamin E was dissolved in vegetable oil and mixed with albumen as a binder in feed. The vitamin E was sprayed at feed and was air dried. Female broodstock of the fantail goldfishes were reared for 40 days. The result showed that 375 mg/kg treatment performed the highest quality of reproduction. Egg diameter, gonadosomatic index, fecundity, and germinal vesicle breakdown of fish which are treated by 375 mg/kg vitamin E were respectively 0.92±0.05 mm, 8.86±4.62%, 56.00±29.18%, and 67.35±17.67% higher than control. Thus, 375 mg/kg of dietary vitamin E suplementating was a best dose to improve female broodstock productivity of the fantail goldfish Keywords: female broodstock, fantail goldfish, vitamin E, reproduction quality  ABSTRAK Penelitian dilakukan untuk menguji suplementasi vitamin E dengan dosis berbeda dicampur ke dalam pakan komersial terhadap produktivitas induk betina ikan komet Carassius auratus auratus. Penelitian ini menggunakan empat perlakuan dengan tiga ulangan. Dosis vitamin E yang diberikan, yaitu 0, 125, 250, dan 375 mg/kg pakan. Vitamin E dilarutkan dalam minyak nabati dan dicampur dengan putih telur sebagai perekat pada pakan. Vitamin E disemprotkan ke pakan dan dikeringanginkan. Induk betina ikan komet pascasalin dengan bobot 72,78±19,47 g diberi perlakuan selama 40 hari. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa induk betina ikan komet yang diberi suplementasi vitamin E sebanyak 375 mg/kg dalam pakan memiliki diameter telur 0,92±0,05 mm, gonadosomatic index 8,86±4,62%, fekunditas 56,00±29,18 butir/g ikan, dan germinal vesicle breakdown 67,35±17,67% yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan kontrol. Dengan demikian

  19. Serum vitamin A and vitamin E in Japanese black fattening cattle in Miyazaki prefecture as determined by automatic column-switching high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, K; Katsura, N; Nomura, Y; Arikawa, A; Hidaka, M; Onimaru, T

    1996-05-01

    Japanese Black fattening cattle in Miyazaki prefecture, Japan were examined for serum vitamin A (V. A) and vitamin E (V. E) by automatic column-switching high performance liquid chromatography with automated deproteinization. Results indicated that most Japanese Black fattening cattle in Miyazaki prefecture may be provided with V. A supplement and diets including little V. E, moderate beta-carotene and V. A during the early fattening stage, and diets including little beta-carotene, V. A and V. E during the middle and later fattening stages. Therefore, monitoring serum V. A and V. E in Japanese Black fattening cattle throughout the fattening period seems necessary for farmers in Miyazaki prefecture to avoid economic loss attributable to these deficiencies.

  20. Effects of dietary vitamin E on male reproductive system

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Zubair

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin E is known as important antioxidant to protect the reproductive system. The free radicals are continuously produced in last few years due to metabolic and nutritional deficiencies. These free radicals are responsible for the production of oxidative stress in animal bodies. This production of extensive amount of oxidative stress caused the detrimental effects on the sperm and various other male parameters. This imbalance between the antioxidants and oxidative stress, leads to the condi...

  1. Dietary vitamin K2 supplement improves bone status after lung and heart transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forli, Liv; Bollerslev, Jens; Simonsen, Svein; Isaksen, Gunhild A; Kvamsdal, Kari E; Godang, Kristin; Gadeholt, Gaut; Pripp, Are H; Bjortuft, Oystein

    2010-02-27

    Osteoporosis is a problem after transplantation. Studies since the last year indicate that vitamin K plays a role in optimal bone health. The aim of this randomized, double blind, prospective longitudinal study was to investigate the effect of a dietary supplement with vitamin K2 (180 microg menakinon-7) on bone mass, the first year after lung and heart transplantation. After preoperative baseline investigation of bone mass and bone-related biochemistry, 35 lung and 59 heart recipients were postoperatively randomized to vitamin K2 or placebo and reinvestigated the following year. In all recipients, 1 year after solid organ transplantation, the difference between vitamin K2 and placebo for the lumbar spine (L2-L4) bone mineral density (BMD) was 0.028 (SE 0.014) g/cm(2), P=0.055 and for L2 to L4 bone mineral content was 1.33 (SE 1.91) g/cm(2) (P=0.5). In lung recipients separately, the difference for bone mineral content was 3.39 g (SE 1.65), P=0.048 and in heart recipients 0.45 (SE 0.02) g, P=0.9 after controlling for baseline measures. In a forward stepwise linear regression analysis fitted to model differences in the L2 to L4 BMD, controlled for possible confounding variables (including use of bisphosphonate), and the only significant predictors were organ (B=-0.065 g/cm(2), P<0.001) and vitamin K2 (B=0.034 g/cm(2), P=0.019). Insufficient vitamin D status was common, and the parathyroid hormone was highest in the K2 group indicating a higher need for vitamin D. One year of vitamin K2 supplement suggest a favorable effect on lumbar spine BMD with different response in lung and heart recipients. Vitamin D status should receive more attention.

  2. Antioxidant Vitamin Status in the Serum and Amniotic Fluid of Women with Premature Rupture of the Fetal Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Bridget M.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the status of antioxidant vitamins in women with premature rupture of the fetal membranes. Specimens of blood and amniotic fluid were obtained from 80 pregnant subjects included both smokers and non-smokers during the third trimester. The concentrations of ascorbic acid (ASA), beta -carotene, retinol and alpha -tocopherol in serum and amniotic fluid were determined. The experimental group consisted of those subjects with PROM while the control subjects were those with normal pregnancy. No statistical differences were found between the PROM and control groups in retinol and vitamin E concentrations in amniotic fluid and serum. Serum ASA concentrations of PROM subjects were not different from controls, but the PROM subjects had significantly lower amniotic fluid ASA concentrations. However, in a study with fewer subjects a lower serum ASA concentration in the PROM subjects was observed. The ratio of amniotic fluid ASA concentration to ASA serum concentration was significantly lower in PROM patients than in controls in both studies. This suggests that low levels of ASA in the amniotic fluid, but not in serum is better associated with PROM. A low amniotic fluid concentration of ASA may reflect an inefficient transfer and/or increased fetal utilization. Alterations in ASA concentration in the amniotic fluid may affect the integrity of the chorioamnion leading to PROM. beta -Carotene was not found in the amniotic fluid. Serum beta-carotene levels were significantly lower in the PROM group compared to the control group. Low concentrations of beta-carotene in maternal serum in smokers not only associated with poor maternal outcome (PROM) but also compromised the fetal outcome (decreased birth weight). Maintenance of adequate serum beta-carotene concentration and amniotic fluid ASA in smokers may result in better maternal and fetal outcome. This study demonstrated that nutrition is an important factor in the prevention of PROM.

  3. The effect of dietary calcium and vitamin D3 on the duodenal cadmium transport in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriuchi, Sachiko; Otawara, Yoko; Hosoya, Norimasa; Noda, Setsuko.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of dietary Ca and vitamin D 3 on the duodenal Cd transport was observed in the rat using everted gut sac technique in vitro, 1. Duodenal Cd transport was significantly increased in vitamin D deficient rat, however, it was not influenced by dietary Ca. The duodenal tissue binding and/or uptake of Cd from mucosal incubation medium was neither influenced by vitamin D 3 nor dietary Ca. 2. The transported Cd to serosal medium was very little compared to the Cd binding and/or uptake of duodenal tissue, suggesting two steps mechanism for intestinal Cd transport. The first step is the transfer from mucosal medium to duodenal mucosa and the second step is from duodenal mucosa to serosal medium. The second step was influenced by vitamin D. These results suggested that a significant increase in hepatic Cd accumulation of vitamin D deficient rat could be ascribed to the increase in the intestinal Cd absorption. (author)

  4. Chapter 29: historical aspects of the major neurological vitamin deficiency disorders: overview and fat-soluble vitamin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanska, Douglas J

    2010-01-01

    that protects against xerophthalmia. Early retinal photochemistry: In the 1870s, Boll found that light causes bleaching of the retinal pigment, and suggested that the outer segments of the rods contain a substance that conveys an impression of light to the brain by a photochemical process. Shortly thereafter, Kühne demonstrated that the bleaching process depends upon light, and was reversible if the retinal pigment epithelium was intact. Kühne proposed an "optochemical hypothesis," a prescient concept of photochemical transduction, attributing vision to a photochemical change in visual purple (rhodopsin) with resulting chemical products stimulating the visual cells and thereby conveying a visual image. Vitamin A: In 1913, Ishihara proposed that a "fatty substance" in blood is necessary for synthesis of both rhodopsin and the surface layer of the cornea, and that night blindness and keratomalacia develop when this substance is deficient. That year McCollum and Davis (and almost simultaneously Mendel and Osborne) discovered a fat-soluble accessory food factor (later called "fat-soluble A") distinct from the water-soluble anti-beriberi factor (later called "fat-soluble B"). By 1922 McCollum and colleagues distinguished two vitamins within the fat-soluble fraction, later named vitamins A and D. In 1925 Fridericia and Holm directly linked vitamin A to night blindness in animal experiments using rats, and in 1929 Holm demonstrated the presence of vitamin A in retinal tissue. In the 1930s, Moore, Karrer, Wald, and others established the provitamin role of beta-carotene. Karrer and colleagues isolated beta-carotene (the main dietary precursor of vitamin A) and retinol (vitamin A), and determined their chemical structures. In 1947, Isler and colleagues completed the full chemical synthesis of vitamin A. Modern retinal photochemistry: Beginning in the 1930s, Wald and colleagues greatly elaborated the photochemistry of vision, with the discovery of the visual cycle of vitamin A

  5. Lower dietary vitamin E intake during the second trimester is associated with insulin resistance and hyperglycemia later in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, S H; Hanley, A J; Sermer, M; Zinman, B; O'Connor, D L

    2013-11-01

    Beneficial effects of vitamin E on insulin sensitivity have been reported in observational and short-term intervention studies in non-pregnant populations. We aimed to investigate whether dietary vitamin E intake during the second trimester would be associated with glucose metabolism later in pregnancy and whether this association would be influenced by an insulin-sensitizing hormone adiponectin. Women with singleton pregnancies (n=205) underwent a 3-h oral glucose tolerance test at 30 weeks gestation and were asked to recall second trimester dietary intake. Higher dietary vitamin E intake was associated with lower fasting glucose, lower HOMA insulin resistance, and higher Matsuda insulin sensitivity index after covariate adjustment including serum adiponectin among women consuming daily multivitamin supplements (all P≤0.03). Lower dietary vitamin E intake during the second trimester is associated with hyperglycemia and insulin resistance later in pregnancy among women consuming daily multivitamin supplementations. Further, these associations are not influenced by adiponectin.

  6. Effect of dietary vitamin C on the growth performance and innate immunity of juvenile cobia (Rachycentron canadum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qicun; Wang, Ligai; Wang, Hualang; Xie, Fengjun; Wang, Tuo

    2012-06-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary vitamin C on growth performance, hematologic parameters and innate immune responses in juvenile cobia, Rachycentron canadum. Seven practical diets were formulated to contain 0.0 (as the basal diet), 13.6, 27.2, 54.4, 96.6, 193.4 and 386.5 mg ascorbic acid equivalent kg(-1) diet. Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of juvenile cobia with initial body weight of 5.5 g in 500-L cylindrical fiberglass tank. The results of 8 weeks feeding trial showed that typical vitamin C-deficient signs such as spinal deformation and body nigrescence were observed in the fish fed the basal diet. Fish fed the basal diet had significantly lower weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and feed efficiency (FE) than those fed the diets supplemented with vitamin C, but no significant differences were observed among diets supplemented with vitamin C. However, survival rate was significantly affected by the dietary vitamin C levels, fish fed the basal diet had lower survival rate than those fed the diets supplemented with vitamin C. The ascorbic acid concentration in liver was correlated positively with the dietary vitamin C levels, however, the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) concentrations in liver was not significantly affected by the dietary vitamin C levels, although, fish fed the basal diet had the highest TBARS values among all treatments. The activities of serum lysozyme, superoxide dismutase (SOD), alkaline phophatase (AKP) and total immunoglobulin (Ig) were significantly influenced by the dietary vitamin C levels, fish fed the basal diet had lower lysozyme, SOD, AKP and total Ig than those fed diets supplemented with vitamin C. The serum glucose and triglyceride concentrations were significantly affected by the dietary vitamin C levels. Fish fed the basal diet had lower red blood cell and hemoglobin values than those fed the vitamin C supplemented diets. The challenge

  7. The effect of dietary vitamin A on NO2 exposure on the hamster lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of dietary vitamin A and NO2 exposure on the hamster lung was evaluated by histopathology, electron microscopy, and thymidine uptake studies. Hamsters were maintained on deficient (0 micrograms), adequate (100 micrograms), and high (200 micrograms) dose levels of vitamin A while being exposed repeatedly to 10 ppm of NO2 for 5 hours once a week over an 8-week period. Hamsters of the deficient group exhibited clinical and morphologic changes characteristic of vitamin A deficiency. Animals maintained on adequate and high dose levels of vitamin A were not affected by vitamin A deficiency. Hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the epithelial cells of the terminal bronchiolar alveolar region of lungs of adequately and highly dosed animals were greater than those observed in the deficient animals, when NO2 exposure was given. However, the extent of the lesions observed in all three groups was less than that seen in normal hamsters given a single, 5-hour NO2 exposure. Ultrastructural changes observed in vitamin A-deficient hamsters exposed to NO2 were hypertrophy and hyperplasia of bronchiolar epithelial cells, diffuse loss of cilia, membrane damage, and mitochondrial damage manifested by calcium deposition. Tritiated thymidine uptake studies of lungs of animals exposed repeatedly revealed a rather erratic cell renewal pattern following NO2 exposure in comparison to the group of animals exposed singly

  8. Vitamin D levels, dietary intake, and photoprotective behaviors among patients with skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLong, Laura K; Wetherington, Sarah; Hill, Nikki; Kumari, Meena; Gammon, Bryan; Dunbar, Scott; Tangpricha, Vin; Chen, Suephy C

    2010-09-01

    Photoprotection against ultraviolet light is an important part of our armamentarium against actinically derived skin cancers. However, there has been concern that adherence to photoprotection may lead to low vitamin D status, leading to negative effects on patients' health. In this work we discuss previous findings in this area, which do not give a clear picture as to the relationship between vitamin D levels and photoprotection measures, as well as research performed by the authors, who did not detect a relationship between serum 25(OH)D levels and adherence to photoprotection measures in subjects with skin cancer, as assessed by the use of sunscreen, clothing, hats, sunglasses, and umbrellas/shade through the Sun Protection Habits Index. Subjects who took vitamin D oral supplementation had greater serum 25(OH)D levels than those who did not, whereas dietary intake through foods did not predict 25(OH)D levels in the authors' study. However, there was a high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in the authors' study population, highlighting the importance of assessing vitamin D status and recommending oral vitamin D supplementation when indicated. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Dietary vitamin A and lung cancer: results of a case-control study among chemical workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, G G; Thompson, F E; Cook, R R

    1987-01-01

    A nested case-control study conducted among a cohort of chemical manufacturing employees provided an opportunity to test the hypothesis that lung cancer risk is inversely related to dietary intake of vitamin A. Eligible for study were 308 former male employees who had died of lung cancer between 1940 and 1980. Two control groups, one a decedent and the other a "living" series, were individually matched to the cases one-for-one. Interviews were completed with 734 subjects or their next-of-kin and included a food frequency list. A vitamin A index was developed for each subject based on the frequency of consumption of 29 food items. After adjustment for a number of potentially confounding variables (e.g., smoking, educational level, and use of vitamin supplements), there was evidence that vitamin A intake was inversely associated with lung cancer risk. The effect was most pronounced in the comparisons with the "living" controls and appeared strongest among cigarette smokers. Subjects in the lowest tertile of vitamin A intake had approximately twice the risk of lung cancer as those in the highest. Analyses of an index of carotenoids and of individual food items suggested that plant sources of vitamin A may play a more important role in producing the effect than do animal sources.

  10. Dietary patterns of adolescents in Germany - Associations with nutrient intake and other health related lifestyle characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to identify dietary patterns among a representative sample of German adolescents and their associations with energy and nutrient intake, socioeconomic and lifestyle characteristics, and overweight status. Methods In the analysis, data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents were used. The survey included a comprehensive dietary history interview conducted among 1272 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years. Dietary patterns were determined with principal component analysis (PCA) based on 48 food groups, for boys and girls separately. Results Three dietary patterns among boys and two among girls were identified. Among boys, high adherence to the 'western' pattern was associated with higher age, lower socioeconomic status (SES), and lower physical activity level (PA). High adherence to the 'healthy' pattern among boys, but not among girls, was associated with higher SES, and higher PA. Among boys, high adherence to the 'traditional' pattern was associated with higher age. Among girls, high adherence to the 'traditional and western' pattern was associated with lower age, lower SES and more hours watching TV per day. The nutrient density of several vitamins and minerals, particularly of B-vitamins and calcium, increased with increasing scores of the 'healthy' pattern among both sexes. Conversely, with increasing scores of the 'western' pattern among boys, most nutrient densities decreased, particularly of fibre, beta-carotene, vitamin D, biotin and calcium. Among girls with higher scores of the 'traditional and western' pattern, nutrient densities of vitamin A, C, E, K and folate decreased. Among boys, high adherence to the 'traditional' pattern was correlated with higher densities of vitamin B12 and vitamin D and lower densities of fibre, magnesium and iron. No significant associations between dietary patterns and overweight were found. Conclusions Higher scores for dietary patterns characterized

  11. Dietary Supplements and Sports Performance: Introduction and Vitamins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Melvin H

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sports success is dependent primarily on genetic endowment in athletes with morphologic, psychologic, physiologic and metabolic traits specific to performance characteristics vital to their sport. Such genetically-endowed athletes must also receive optimal training to increase physical power, enhance mental strength, and provide a mechanical advantage. However, athletes often attempt to go beyond training and use substances and techniques, often referred to as ergogenics, in attempts to gain a competitive advantage. Pharmacological agents, such as anabolic steroids and amphetamines, have been used in the past, but such practices by athletes have led to the establishment of anti-doping legislation and effective testing protocols to help deter their use. Thus, many athletes have turned to various dietary strategies, including the use of various dietary supplements (sports supplements, which they presume to be effective, safe and legal.

  12. Dietary factors and the risk of glioma in adults: results of a case-control study in Melbourne, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, G G; McNeil, J J; Donnan, G; Webley, C; Staples, M P; Ireland, P D; Hurley, S F; Salzberg, M

    1994-11-01

    In a population-based case-control study of 416 incident gliomas in adults carried out in Melbourne, Australia, between 1987 and 1991, 409 age-sex-matched case-control pairs (243 male and 166 female) had adequate data available to examine associations between the dietary intake of N-nitroso compounds, N-nitroso precursors, other nutrients including N-nitroso inhibitors, and the risk of glioma. Dietary intakes were based on the reported frequency of consumption of 59 food items. Increased odds ratio (OR) were observed in males who consumed high levels of bacon, corned meats, apples, melons and oil. OR less than unity were observed in men consuming cabbage and cola drinks, and in women who consumed wholegrain bread, pasta, corned meat, bananas, cauliflower, brocoli, cola drinks and nuts. Generally, N-nitroso associations were greater in men and micronutrient associations were greater in women. Elevated OR in men, but not women, were associated with the intake of N-nitroso dimethylamine (NDMA), retinol and vitamin E. The intake of nitrate (largely of vegetable origin) was protective in women but not in men. When analyzed using multiple logistic regression, the association with NDMA intake in males was not modified by dietary micronutrient intakes. In females, beta carotene alone, though not directly associated with risk, modified the effect of NDMA. On balance, this study added only limited support to the N-nitroso hypothesis of glial carcinogenesis.

  13. Evaluation of total carotenoids, alpha- and beta-carotene in carrots (Daucus carota L. during home processing Avaliação de carotenóides totais, alfa e beta-caroteno em cenoura (Daucus carota L. durante processamento a nível doméstico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Maria PINHEIRO-SANT’ANA

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the influence of dehydration and different preparation methods during home processing related toalpha-carotene, beta-carotene and total carotenoids stability in carrots. Vitamin A values were evaluated after different treatments. Thus, carrots were submitted to steam cooking, water cooking with and without pressure, moist/dry cooking and conventional dehydration. Determination of alpha- and beta-carotenes was made by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC (conditions were developed by us using spectrophotometric detection visible-UV at 470 nm; a RP-18 column and methanol: acetonitrile: ethyl acetate (80: 10: 10 as mobile phase. Total carotenoids quantification was made by 449 nm spectrophotometer. The retention of the analyzed carotenoids ranged from 60.13 to 85.64%. Water cooking without pressure promoted higher retention levels of alpha- and beta-carotene and vitamin A values, while water cooking with pressure promoted higher retention levels of total carotenoids. Dehydration promoted the highest carotenoid losses. The results showed that, among the routinely utilized methods under domestic condition, cooking without pressure, if performed under controlled time and temperature, is the best method as it reduces losses in the amount of alpha- and beta-carotene, the main carotenoids present in the carrots. Despite the significant carotenoid losses, carrots prepared through domestic methods, remain a rich source of provitamin A.O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar a influência da desidratação e de diferentes métodos de preparo a nível doméstico sobre a estabilidade de alfa-caroteno, beta-caroteno e carotenóides totais em cenouras. Os valores de vitamina A foram avaliados após os diferentes tratamentos. Para tanto, amostras de cenoura foram submetidas à cocção a vapor, cocção em água com e sem pressão, cocção úmida/seca e à desidratação convencional. Para a determinação de alfa e beta

  14. Cor, betacaroteno e colesterol em gema de ovos obtidos de poedeiras que receberam diferentes dietas Color, beta-caroten and cholesterol in yolks of eggs by different diets of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Marino e Biscaro

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O ovo é um alimento considerado nutricionalmente completo, e contém quantidade significativa de nutrientes. Para os consumidores, a qualidade deste alimento está relacionada com o prazo de validade do produto e com as características sensoriais, como cor da gema e da casca. Poucos estudos foram efetuados no Brasil sobre a utilização de agentes pigmentantes e seus efeitos sobre a coloração das gemas e proporção e qualidade química dos componentes do ovo. Com base nisso, objetivou-se com este trabalho relacionar diferentes dietas com cor, quantidade de betacaroteno e teor colesterol das gemas dos ovos. Foram coletados ovos de poedeiras que receberam 4 diferentes tipos de ração. A cor foi medida em colorímetro Minolta, o beta-caroteno separado em coluna e medido em espectrofotômetro e o colesterol extraído com clorofórmio e quantificado por método colorimétrico. Os resultados mostraram que não há relação entre a cor e aumento do teor de betacaroteno das gemas dos ovos, mas a alimentação alterou a cor da gema. O teor de colesterol foi diferente (pEgg is a nutritional complete food, and content significant quantity of nutrients. For the consumers, the food quality is related with validity date of product and with sensorial characteristics, like yolk color and hull. Few studies were done in Brazil about utilization of colorfull agents and theirs effects in yolk color and chemical quality of egg compounds. The objective of this research was related different feeds with the color, beta-carotene and cholesterol amount of egg yolk. Eggs were caught of laying hens that received 4 feed types. The color measure was done by Minolta colorimeter, beta-carotene separated by column and spectrophotometer and cholesterol separated with chloroform and measured by colorimetric method. The results showed that there is not a relation between the color an increase of beta-carotene amount in the yolks, but feed altered the yolk color. Cholesterol

  15. Beta-carotene blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    The normal range is 50 to 300 mcg/dL or 0.93 to 5.59 micromol/L. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or test different samples. Talk to your provider about ...

  16. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D but not dietary vitamin D intake is associated with hemoglobin in women of reproductive age in rural northern Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen S. Michalski

    2017-06-01

    Conclusions: Low vitamin D status may be linked to reduced hemoglobin concentrations, but the role of diet in this association was not evident in this population of WRA in Vietnam where dietary vitamin D intake was very low.

  17. Vitamin B2, vitamin B12 and total homocysteine status in children and their associations with dietary intake of B-vitamins from different food groups: the Healthy Growth Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manios, Yannis; Moschonis, George; Dekkers, Renske; Mavrogianni, Christina; Grammatikaki, Eva; van den Heuvel, Ellen

    2017-02-01

    To examine the associations between the dietary intakes of certain B-vitamins from different food sources with the relevant plasma status indices in children. A representative subsample of 600 children aged 9-13 years from the Healthy Growth Study was selected. Dietary intakes of vitamins B 2 , B 12 , B 6 and folate derived from different food sources were estimated. Plasma levels of vitamin B 2 (or riboflavin), methylmalonic acid (MMA) and total homocysteine (tHcy) were also measured. Plasma concentrations of vitamin B 2 below 3 μg/L were found in 22.8 % of the children. Children in the lower quartile of dietary vitamin B 2 intake were found to have the lowest plasma vitamin B 2 levels compared to children in the upper three quartiles (5.06 ± 7.63 vs. 6.48 ± 7.88, 6.34 ± 7.63 and 6.05 ± 4.94 μg/L respectively; P = 0.003). Regarding vitamin B 12 children in the lower quartile of dietary intake had higher mean plasma tHcy levels compared to children in the upper two quartiles, respectively (6.00 ± 1.79 vs. 5.41 ± 1.43 and 5.46 ± 1.64 μmol/L; P = 0.012). Positive linear associations were observed between plasma vitamin B 2 levels and dietary vitamin B 2 derived from milk and fruits (β = 0.133; P = 0.001 and β = 0.086; P = 0.037). Additionally, nonlinear associations were also observed between plasma vitamin B 2 levels and vitamin B 2 derived from red meat, as well as between tHcy levels and vitamins B 12 and B 6 derived from milk; vitamins B 12 , B 6 and folate derived from cereal products and folate derived from fruits. A considerably high prevalence of poor plasma vitamin B 2 status was observed in children. The intake of milk, fruits and cereals was associated with more favorable tHcy levels, while the intake of milk and fruits with more favorable plasma B2 levels. However, these findings need to be further confirmed from controlled dietary intervention studies examining the modulation of biomarkers of B-vitamins.

  18. Effect of Dietary Vitamin C on Orthodontic Tooth Movement in Rats

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    Amirfarhang Miresmaeili

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Bone remodeling occurs during orthodontic treatment; this process enables tooth movement. Many factors can affect bone remodeling at the cellular level, such as nutritional supplements that can affect tooth movement. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of dietary vitamin C on orthodontic tooth movement in rats. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out on 36 six-week male Wistar rats with a mean weight of 225+32 g, which were randomly allocated to two equal groups. Rats in the case group received 1wt% vitamin C in their daily water. Opening springs were placed on the incisor teeth of both case and control groups. After 17 days, rats were sacrificed; the distance between the mesio-incisal angles of these teeth was measured with a digital caliper. Histological sections were made containing incisor teeth and alveolar bone and stained by hematoxylin-eosin. The number of resorption lacunae was evaluated using light microscopy.Results: Our findings showed that the amount of tooth movement in the vitamin C group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.001. The osteoclast counts were significantly higher in vitamin C group (P=0.036.Conclusion: Oral vitamin C can increase orthodontic tooth movement in rats with more osteoclast lacunae around root in the pressure area. 

  19. Dietary Intake of Vitamins in Different Options of Treatment in Chronic Kidney Disease: Is There a Deficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowska, M; Szupryczyńska, N; Dębska-Ślizień, A; Borek, P; Kaczkan, M; Rutkowski, B; Małgorzewicz, S

    2016-06-01

    The importance of diet in the management of kidney transplantation (KT), as well as other treatment options of chronic kidney disease (CKD), is generally acknowledged. However, data regarding vitamin intake are very limited. Vitamins are essential in maintaining good nutritional status and preventing many chronic complications. It is still not clear which treatment modality imposes the highest risk of dietary vitamin deficiency and whether successful KT reverses such a threat. We performed this observational study to assess dietary intake of vitamins in CKD patients: after successful KT, not yet dialyzed (ND), treated with hemodialysis (HD), and with peritoneal dialysis (PD). A total of 202 patients were recruited (45 KT, 50 ND, 45 HD, and 62 PD). Vitamin intakes were evaluated through the use of a 24-hour dietary recall and processed with the use of a computerized database. Each record was evaluated by a skilled dietitian. In general, vitamin intakes in all study groups were comparable, with KT and ND groups manifesting lower risk of deficiency than HD and PD groups. The content of fat-soluble vitamins in diet was insufficient, with remarkably high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency. Mean intakes of water-soluble vitamins were close to recommended, with the exception of folic acid, which was profoundly deficient in all groups. CKD patients are at risk of inadequate vitamin intake. Vitamin D and folic acid are universally deficient in diet. KT patients have the most satisfactory content of vitamins in their diet, whereas HD individuals are at highest risk of deficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Broadband quantitative NQR for authentication of vitamins and dietary supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng; Zhang, Fengchao; Bhunia, Swarup; Mandal, Soumyajit

    2017-05-01

    We describe hardware, pulse sequences, and algorithms for nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spectroscopy of medicines and dietary supplements. Medicine and food safety is a pressing problem that has drawn more and more attention. NQR is an ideal technique for authenticating these substances because it is a non-invasive method for chemical identification. We have recently developed a broadband NQR front-end that can excite and detect 14N NQR signals over a wide frequency range; its operating frequency can be rapidly set by software, while sensitivity is comparable to conventional narrowband front-ends over the entire range. This front-end improves the accuracy of authentication by enabling multiple-frequency experiments. We have also developed calibration and signal processing techniques to convert measured NQR signal amplitudes into nuclear spin densities, thus enabling its use as a quantitative technique. Experimental results from several samples are used to illustrate the proposed methods.

  1. Orange‐fleshed sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) composite bread as a significant source of dietary vitamin A

    OpenAIRE

    Awuni, Victoria; Alhassan, Martha Wunnam; Amagloh, Francis Kweku

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Refining food recipes with orange‐fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) has the potential to improve dietary intake of vitamin A. The objectives of this study were to utilize OFSP in the development of two composite bread types and to assess their contribution to dietary intake of vitamin A using the dietary reference intake of lactating mothers. Two composite OFSP–wheat flour bread recipes—vita butter bread and vita tea bread—were developed by incorporating 46% OFSP puree in existing 100% whe...

  2. Antioxidant vitamin and mineral supplements for slowing the progression of age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jennifer R; Lawrenson, John G

    2012-11-14

    half the participants (3640) were randomised in one trial (AREDS in the USA), which found a beneficial effect of antioxidant (beta-carotene, vitamin C and vitamin E) and zinc supplementation on progression to advanced AMD (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.68, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.53 to 0.87) over an average of 6.3 years. People taking supplements were less likely to lose 15 or more letters of visual acuity (adjusted OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.62 to 0.96). The other trials, in general, had shorter follow-up (less than two years). No evidence for an effect of supplementation was seen in these smaller trials of shorter duration. Overall we considered the strength of the evidence to be moderate. We did not consider included trials, in general, to be at risk of bias, although we found it difficult to assess reporting biases. The main reason for downgrading the strength of the evidence was because, for several analyses, only one trial was included and therefore consistency of the findings could not be assessed. The included trials reported the following adverse effects: hospitalisation for genito-urinary problems was more common in people taking zinc and yellowing of skin was more common in people taking antioxidants. Systematic searching of the literature identified other potential harms of vitamin supplementation, in particular an increased risk of lung cancer in smokers associated with beta-carotene supplements, but we were unable to identify a good systematic review of the evidence for harms of nutritional supplementation. People with AMD may experience delay in progression of the disease with antioxidant vitamin and mineral supplementation. This finding is drawn from one large trial conducted in a relatively well-nourished American population. The generalisability of these findings to other populations is not known. Although generally regarded as safe, vitamin supplements may have harmful effects. A systematic review of the evidence on harms of vitamin supplements is needed.

  3. Vitamin D intoxication due to an erroneously manufactured dietary supplement in seven children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Cengiz; Gunindi, Figen; Ustyol, Ala; Aydin, Murat

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric cases of vitamin D intoxication (VDI) with dietary supplements have not been previously reported. We report on 7 children with VDI caused by consumption of a fish oil supplement containing an excessively high dose of vitamin D due to a manufacturing error. Seven children aged between 0.7 and 4.2 years were admitted with symptoms of hypercalcemia. Initial median (range) serum concentrations of calcium and 25-hydroxyvitamin D were 16.5 (13.4-18.8) mg/dL and 620 (340-962) ng/mL, respectively. Repeated questioning of the parents revealed use of a fish oil that was produced recently by a local manufacturer. Analysis of the fish oil by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry revealed that the vitamin D3 content was ~4000 times the labeled concentration. Estimated daily amounts of vitamin D3 intake varied between 266,000 and 800,000 IU. Patients were successfully treated with intravenous hydration, furosemide, and pamidronate infusions. With treatment, serum calcium returned to the normal range within 3 days (range: 2-7 days). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels normalized within 2 to 3 months. Complications, including nephrocalcinosis, were not observed throughout the 1-year follow-up. In conclusion, errors in manufacturing of dietary supplements may be a cause of VDI in children. Physicians should be aware of this possibility in unexplained VDI cases and repeatedly question the families about dietary supplement use. To prevent the occurrence of such unintentional incidents, manufacturers must always monitor the levels of ingredients of their products and should be rigorously overseen by governmental regulatory agencies, as is done in the pharmaceutical industry.

  4. Effects of vitamins, fatty acids, minerals, and other dietary supplements on schizophrenic symptoms in people with schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Smedslund, Geir; Berg, Rigmor C.

    2011-01-01

    ENGLISH: There is considerable scientific disagreement about the possible effects of dietary supplements on mental health and illness. Do dietary supplements (possibly in megadoses) have an effect on symptoms and consequences of schizophrenia? We critically appraised randomized controlled trials about supplemental vitamins, fatty acids and other dietary supplements given to people diagnosed with schizophrenia. The primary outcome was symptoms of schizophrenia. We evaluated the evidence to be ...

  5. Dietary reference intakes for vitamin D based on the revised 2010 dietary guidelines are not being met by children in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munasinghe, Lalani L; Willows, Noreen; Yuan, Yan; Veugelers, Paul J

    2015-11-01

    Canadian children have been shown to be not meeting the revised (2010) dietary recommended intake (DRI) for vitamin D through diet alone. However, no study has evaluated whether diet and supplementation together are supporting Canadian children in meeting the DRIs for vitamin D intake. This study assessed the adequacy of vitamin D intake through diet and supplements among Albertan children and the determinants of meeting dietary guidelines. 2686 grade 5 students aged 10 to 11 years in Alberta, Canada were surveyed. We hypothesized that less than 50% of children would meet the DRI. Vitamin D intake from diet and supplements was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. The adequacy of vitamin D intake was estimated using the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) of 400 IU (International Units) and Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of 600 IU. Random effect multiple logistic regression was used to identify correlates of meeting DRIs. Forty five percent of children met the EAR and 22% met the RDA for vitamin D. When vitamin D intake from diet alone was considered, only 16% and 2% met the EAR and RDA, respectively. Parental education, household income and physical activity were positively correlated with meeting DRIs, and students attending metropolitan area schools were more likely to meet the EAR than students attending rural area schools (OR = 1.28; P = .043). The majority of children did not meet the DRI for vitamin D. Health promotion strategies aiming to improve the vitamin D status of Albertan children are necessary given the importance of vitamin D for children's health and development. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Suppression of [sup 125]I-uptake in mouse thyroid by seaweed feeding; Possible preventative effect of dietary seaweed on internal radiation injury of the thyroid by radioactive iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, Hiroko; Yamamoto, Ichiro (Kitasato Univ., Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Hygienic Sciences)

    1992-12-01

    We conducted an animal experiment to determine how dietary seaweeds rich in iodine and dietary fibers suppress radioactive iodine uptake by the thyroid, using mice and four kinds of experimental diets, three with 1% or 2% powdered fronds of the kelp Laminaria religiosa and 2% powdered laver Porphyra yezoensis, and one with cellulose. Iodine content of a hot-water extract of the kelp was 0.530[+-]0.001%, and its dietary fiber (DF) values were 52.8[+-]1.2%. Iodine in an extract of the laver was 0.008[+-]0.001%, and its DF values were 41.4%[+-]0.7%. A statistically significant reduction of [sup 125]I uptake by the thyroid, 3 hours after intragastric administration of the radionuclide at a dosage of 18.5 kBq or 185 kBq in 0.3 ml aqueous solution per mouse, was observed in mice previously fed the experimental diets containing 1% and 2% kelp during periods varying from 24 hours to 7 days. The degree of the suppression was observed to depend on the amount of iodine in the diet or in the injected sample, no matter whether organic or inorganic, judging from the results of an additional experiment. Thus, we conclude that previously fed iodine-rich material, especially dietary seaweeds rich in iodine and other minerals, vitamins, and [beta]-carotene, such as kelps or laver supplemented with inorganic iodine, may be effective in prevention of internal radiation injury of the thyroid. (author).

  7. Dietary Intake of Minerals, Vitamins, and Trace Elements Among Geriatric Population in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aakriti; Khenduja, Preetika; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan; Sati, Hem Chandra; Sofi, Nighat Yaseen; Kapil, Umesh

    2017-11-01

    The geriatric population is at a high risk of developing deficiencies of essential micronutrients such as minerals, vitamins, and trace elements and their related deficiency signs and symptoms. Scarce data is available on the dietary intake of essential micronutrients among geriatric subjects in India. Hence, to fill the gap in the existing knowledge, a community-based cross-sectional study was conducted during 2015-2016 in District Nainital, Uttarakhand State, India. A total of 255 geriatric subjects were enrolled from 30 clusters (villages) identified by using population proportionate to size sampling methodology. Data were collected on sociodemographic profile and dietary intake of essential micronutrients (24-h dietary recall, food frequency questionnaire) from all the geriatric subjects. A high percentage of geriatric subjects did not consume the recommended daily intake for essential micronutrients such as energy (78%), protein (78%), calcium (51%), thiamine (33%), riboflavin (64%), niacin (88%), vitamin C (42%), iron (72%), folic acid (72%), magnesium (48%), zinc (98%), copper (81%) and chromium (89%) adequately. Food groups rich in essential micronutrients such as pulses, green leafy vegetables, roots and tubers, other vegetables, fruits, nonvegetarian food items, and milk and milk products were consumed irregularly by the subjects. The overall intake of energy and essential micronutrients was inadequate among the geriatric population in India, possibly due to poor quality and quantity of the diet consumed.

  8. Effect of dietary vitamin E on the sperm quality of turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Houguo; Huang, Lina; Liang, Mengqing; Zheng, Keke; Wang, Xinxing

    2015-08-01

    A 3-month feeding experiment was conducted in an in-door seawater system to investigate the effect of dietary vitamin E (Ve) on the sperm quality of turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus). D-α-tocopherol acetate was supplemented to the basal (control) diet (65.14 mg kg-1 Ve) to obtain low and high levels of dietary Ve (244.60 mg kg-1, LVe; 721.60 mg kg-1, HVe). Compared with the control, sperm concentration was significantly increased in Ve-supplemented groups (LVe and HVe); while relative sperm volume and testis-somatic index were significantly increased in group HVe only. Sperm motility duration was significantly longer in group HVe than in the control, but no significant difference was observed in percent motility among groups. Sperm size, the uniformity of mitochondrial size, and the integrity of mitochondria cristae and plasma membrane were improved by dietary Ve, especially in HVe. The content of Ve in testis and liver as well as polyunsaturated fatty acids in sperm increased with dietary Ve. These results suggested that dietary Ve, especially at the high level (721.60 mg kg-1), significantly improved sperm concentration and motility duration and maintained normal sperm morphology of turbot.

  9. Vitamin D toxicity of dietary origin in cats fed a natural complementary kitten food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria J Crossley

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Case series summary This case series describes two young sibling cats and an additional unrelated cat, from two separate households, that developed hypercalcaemia associated with hypervitaminosis D. Excessive vitamin D concentrations were identified in a natural complementary tinned kitten food that was fed to all three cats as part of their diet. In one of the cases, there was clinical evidence of soft tissue mineralisation. The hypercalcaemia and soft tissue mineralisation resolved following withdrawal of the affected food and medical management of the hypercalcaemia. Relevance and novel information This case series demonstrates the importance of obtaining a thorough dietary history in patients presenting with hypercalcaemia and the measurement of vitamin D metabolites when investigating such cases. Complementary foods may have the potential to induce nutritional toxicity even when fed with complete, nutritionally balanced diets.

  10. Vitamins, metabolomics, and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondul, Alison M; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Albanes, Demetrius

    2017-06-01

    How micronutrients might influence risk of developing adenocarcinoma of the prostate has been the focus of a large body of research (especially regarding vitamins E, A, and D). Metabolomic profiling has the potential to discover molecular species relevant to prostate cancer etiology, early detection, and prevention, and may help elucidate the biologic mechanisms through which vitamins influence prostate cancer risk. Prostate cancer risk data related to vitamins E, A, and D and metabolomic profiling from clinical, cohort, and nested case-control studies, along with randomized controlled trials, are examined and summarized, along with recent metabolomic data of the vitamin phenotypes. Higher vitamin E serologic status is associated with lower prostate cancer risk, and vitamin E genetic variant data support this. By contrast, controlled vitamin E supplementation trials have had mixed results based on differing designs and dosages. Beta-carotene supplementation (in smokers) and higher circulating retinol and 25-hydroxy-vitamin D concentrations appear related to elevated prostate cancer risk. Our prospective metabolomic profiling of fasting serum collected 1-20 years prior to clinical diagnoses found reduced lipid and energy/TCA cycle metabolites, including inositol-1-phosphate, lysolipids, alpha-ketoglutarate, and citrate, significantly associated with lower risk of aggressive disease. Several active leads exist regarding the role of micronutrients and metabolites in prostate cancer carcinogenesis and risk. How vitamins D and A may adversely impact risk, and whether low-dose vitamin E supplementation remains a viable preventive approach, require further study.

  11. Dietary modification of human macular pigment density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, B R; Johnson, E J; Russell, R M; Krinsky, N I; Yeum, K J; Edwards, R B; Snodderly, D M

    1997-08-01

    The retinal carotenoids lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) that form the macular pigment (MP) may help to prevent neovascular age-related macular degeneration. The purpose of this study was to determine whether MP density in the retina could be raised by increasing dietary intake of L and Z from foods. Macular pigment was measured psychophysically for 13 subjects. Serum concentrations of L, Z, and beta-carotene were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Eleven subjects modified their usual daily diets by adding 60 g of spinach (10.8 mg L, 0.3 mg Z, 5 mg beta-carotene) and ten also added 150 g of corn (0.3 mg Z, 0.4 mg L); two other subjects were given only corn. Dietary modification lasted up to 15 weeks. For the subjects fed spinach or spinach and corn, three types of responses to dietary modification were identified: Eight "retinal responders" had increases in serum L (mean, 33%; SD, 22%) and in MP density (mean, 19%; SD, 11%); two "retinal nonresponders" showed substantial increases in serum L (mean, 31%) but not in MP density (mean, -11%); one "serum and retinal nonresponder" showed no changes in serum L, Z, or beta-carotene and no change in MP density. For the two subjects given only corn, serum L changed little (+11%, -6%), but in one subject serum Z increased (70%) and MP density increased (25%). Increases in MP density were obtained within 4 weeks of dietary modification for most, but not all, subjects. When MP density increased with dietary modification, it remained elevated for at least several months after resuming an unmodified diet. Augmentation of MP for both experimental and clinical investigation appears to be feasible for many persons.

  12. Improved Dietary Guidelines for Vitamin D: Application of Individual Participant Data (IPD-Level Meta-Regression Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin D. Cashman

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Dietary Reference Values (DRVs for vitamin D have a key role in the prevention of vitamin D deficiency. However, despite adopting similar risk assessment protocols, estimates from authoritative agencies over the last 6 years have been diverse. This may have arisen from diverse approaches to data analysis. Modelling strategies for pooling of individual subject data from cognate vitamin D randomized controlled trials (RCTs are likely to provide the most appropriate DRV estimates. Thus, the objective of the present work was to undertake the first-ever individual participant data (IPD-level meta-regression, which is increasingly recognized as best practice, from seven winter-based RCTs (with 882 participants ranging in age from 4 to 90 years of the vitamin D intake–serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD dose-response. Our IPD-derived estimates of vitamin D intakes required to maintain 97.5% of 25(OHD concentrations >25, 30, and 50 nmol/L across the population are 10, 13, and 26 µg/day, respectively. In contrast, standard meta-regression analyses with aggregate data (as used by several agencies in recent years from the same RCTs estimated that a vitamin D intake requirement of 14 µg/day would maintain 97.5% of 25(OHD >50 nmol/L. These first IPD-derived estimates offer improved dietary recommendations for vitamin D because the underpinning modeling captures the between-person variability in response of serum 25(OHD to vitamin D intake.

  13. [Actual vitamin and main foodstuffs consumption by recovered patients suffered from hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasanova, G M; Tutel'ian, A V

    2011-01-01

    Actual consumption of vitamins A, E, beta-carotene, ascorbic acid, thiamin, pyridoxine and main foodstuffs by recovered patients suffered from hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome has been given. Frequency analysis of foodstuffs consumption was used to study actual nourishment of recovered patients. Surplus consumption of fat mainly due to the use of saturated fatty acids, deficiency of poly unsaturated fatty acids, surplus sugar consumption and predominance of proteins of animal origin over proteins of vegetable origin in ration has been revealed. Deficiency of water soluble vitamins equals to 41,6-78,7% of all examined patients, deficiency of fat water soluble vitamins is lower (21,4-38,3%).

  14. Carotenoid composition and vitamin A value of a squash and a pumpkin from northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arima, H K; Rodríguez-Amaya, D B

    1990-06-01

    The carotenoid composition of a squash and a pumpkin from Northeastern Brazil was determined. Nineteen carotenoids were detected in Cucurbita moschata variety "Baianinha"; beta-carotene was the principal carotenoid, contributing about 74% of an average total carotenoid content of 317.8 micrograms/g. In C. maxima variety "Jerimum Caboclo", 11 carotenoids were found with lutein, and beta-carotene as the major pigments accounting for about 60% and 27%, respectively, of an average total carotenoid content of 78.4 micrograms/g. The abundance of beta-carotene in the C. moschata variety "Baianinha" makes this squash one of the richest sources of provitamin A. The average vitamin A value was 43,175 IU (International Units) per 100 g or 4,317 RE (retinol equivalents) per 100 g. Its vitamin A values is more than 11 times that of C. maxima variety "Jerimum Caboclo" and five times that of C. moschata cultivar "Menina Verde", the squash found previously to be highest in provitamin A among the Cucurbita vegetables most commercialized in São Paulo (Southeastern Brazil).

  15. Vitamin-Fortified Snack Food May Lead Consumers to Make Poor Dietary Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrill, Linda; Wood, Dallas; Cates, Sheryl; Lando, Amy; Zhang, Yuanting

    2017-03-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) fortification policy discourages the fortification of certain foods, including sugars and snack foods such as cookies, candies, cakes, chips, and carbonated beverages, yet manufacturers sometimes add vitamins and minerals to snack foods. To assess whether vitamin-fortified snack foods affect consumers' information-seeking, purchase decisions, and product-related health perceptions. For this experimental study, participants were randomly assigned to study conditions to compare products that varied in product type, nutrition profile, and fortification and nutrient claim status. Data were collected via an online consumer panel. US adults aged 18 years and older were randomly selected from Research Now's e-panel online household panel. Data were collected during fall 2014 (N=5,076). Participants were randomly assigned to one of 24 conditions: two products (vegetable chip/potato chip), two nutrition profiles (healthier/less healthy), two fortification scenarios (not fortified/fortified), and three nutrient claim conditions (two no claim/one with claim). The design was not balanced; claims were not shown on products that were not vitamin fortified. Outcome measures were information-seeking (viewed the Nutrition Facts label), purchase decisions, perception of product healthfulness, and correct selection of product with the healthier nutrient profile. Logistic regression was used to test all models. Analyses was adjusted for general label use, consumes product, health status, age, sex, level of education, presence of children in the household, and race/ethnicity. When the snack food carried a nutrient claim for vitamin fortification, participants were 1) less likely to look for nutrition information on the Nutrition Facts label, 2) more likely to select the product for purchase, 3) more likely to perceive the product as healthier, and 4) less likely to correctly choose the healthier product. Snack foods that have been vitamin

  16. Shift of graft-versus-host-disease target organ tropism by dietary vitamin A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Koenecke

    Full Text Available Gut-homing of donor T cells is causative for the development of intestinal GvHD in recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT. Expression of the gut-specific homing receptors integrin-α4β7 and chemokine receptor CCR9 on T cells is imprinted in gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT under the influence of the vitamin A metabolite retinoic acid. Here we addressed the role of vitamin A deficiency in HSCT-recipients for donor T cell migration in the course of experimental GvHD. Vitamin A-deficient (VAD mice were prepared by feeding them a vitamin A-depleted diet. Experiments were performed in a C57BL/6 into BALB/c model of acute GvHD. We found that expression of integrin-α4β7 and CCR9 in GALT was reduced in VAD recipients after HSCT. Competitive in vivo homing assays showed that allogeneic T cells primed in VAD mice did not home as efficiently to the intestine as T cells primed in mice fed with standard diet (STD. The course of GvHD was ameliorated in VAD HSCT-recipients and, consequently, their survival was prolonged compared to recipients receiving STD. However, VAD-recipients were not protected and died of clinical GvHD. We found reduced numbers of donor T cells in the intestine but increased cell counts and tissue damage in other organs of VAD-recipients. Furthermore, we observed high IFN-γ(+CD4(+ and low FoxP3(+CD4(+ frequencies of total donor CD4(+ T cells in VAD as compared to STD recipients. Taken together, these results indicate that dietary vitamin A deficiency in HSCT-recipients changed target organ tropism in GvHD but also resulted in fatal inflammation after HSCT.

  17. Simultaneous determination of water-soluble vitamins in beverages and dietary supplements by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakitani, Ayano; Inoue, Tomonori; Matsumoto, Keiko; Watanabe, Jun; Nagatomi, Yasushi; Mochizuki, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    An LC-MS/MS method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 15 water-soluble vitamins that are widely used as additives in beverages and dietary supplements. This combined method involves the following simple pre-treatment procedures: dietary supplement samples were prepared by centrifugation and filtration after an extraction step, whereas beverage samples were diluted prior to injection. Chromatographic analysis in this method utilised a multi-mode ODS column, which provided reverse-phase, anion- and cation-exchange capacities, and therefore improved the retention of highly polar analytes such as water-soluble vitamins. Additionally, the multi-mode ODS column did not require adding ion pair reagents to the mobile phase. We optimised the chromatographic separation of 15 water-soluble vitamins by adjusting the mobile phase pH and the organic solvent. We also conducted an analysis of a NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM 3280 Multi-vitamin/Multi-element tablets) using this method to verify its accuracy. In addition, the method was applied to identify the vitamins in commercial beverages and dietary supplements. By comparing results with the label values and results obtained by official methods, it was concluded that the method could be used for quality control and to compose nutrition labels for vitamin-enriched products.

  18. Effect of dietary vanadium and vitamin C on egg quality and antioxidant status in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J P; He, K R; Ding, X M; Luo, Y H; Bai, S P; Zeng, Q F; Su, Z W; Xuan, Y; Zhang, K Y

    2016-06-01

    This study assessed the effect of dietary vanadium (V) and vitamin C (VC) on production performance, egg quality and antioxidant status in laying hens. A total of 360 laying hens (31-week-old) were randomly allotted into a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement treatments (four replicates and 10 chicks per replicate) with three levels of dietary V (0, 5 and 10 mg/kg) and three levels of vitamin C (0, 50 and 100 mg/kg) for 12 weeks. The effect of V and VC did not alter egg production, egg weight, average daily feed intake and feed conversion ratio during 1-12 week. Albumen height and Haugh unit value were linearly decreased (p effect of 100 mg/kg VC was observed to counteract (p effect in V-containing treatments during 1-12 week. Hens fed V-containing diet laid lighter (linear effect, p effect of V during 4, 8 and 12 week. The effect of VC alone and the interactive effect between VC and V were shown to increase serum (p effect and can mitigate the oxidative stress to some extent. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Association between dietary vitamin C intake and risk of esophageal cancer: A dose-response meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Yacong; Lu, Yan; Zhao, Yan; Zhao, Erjiang; Yuan, Ling; Lu, Weiquan; Cui, Lingling; Lu, Quanjun

    2016-04-15

    While several epidemiological studies have investigated the association between vitamin C and risk of esophageal cancer, the results remain inconsistent. In the present study, a meta-analysis was conducted to assess the impact of dietary vitamin C intake on esophageal cancer risk. Online databases were searched up to March 29, 2015, for studies on the association between dietary vitamin C intake and esophageal cancer risk. Pooled risk ratios (RRs) or odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random-effects model. Dose-response analyses were performed using the method of restricted cubic splines with four knots at percentiles of 5, 35, 65 and 95% of the distribution. Publication bias was estimated using Egger's tests and funnel plots. In all, 15 articles were included in this meta-analysis, including 20 studies, containing 7063 controls and 3955 cases of esophageal cancer. By comparing the highest vs. the lowest categories of vitamin C intake, we found that vitamin C was inversely associated with the risk of esophageal cancer [overall OR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.49-0.68, I(2) = 56%]. A linear dose-response relationship was found. With an increase in dietary vitamin C intake of 50 mg/day, the risk of esophageal cancer statistically decreased by 13% (OR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.80-0.93, p(linearity) = 0.0002). In conclusion, our analysis suggested that the higher intake of dietary vitamin C might have a protective effect against esophageal cancer. © 2015 UICC.

  20. Changes in nutrient intake and dietary quality among participants with type 2 diabetes following a low-fat vegan diet or a conventional diabetes diet for 22 weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Barnard, Neal D; Cohen, Joshua; Jenkins, David J A; Gloede, Lise; Green, Amber A

    2008-10-01

    Although vegan diets improve diabetes management, little is known about the nutrient profiles or diet quality of individuals with type 2 diabetes who adopt a vegan diet. To assess the changes in nutrient intake and dietary quality among participants following a low-fat vegan diet or the 2003 American Diabetes Association dietary recommendations. A 22-week randomized, controlled clinical trial examining changes in nutrient intake and diet quality. Participants with type 2 diabetes (n=99) in a free-living setting. Participants were randomly assigned to a low-fat vegan diet or a 2003 American Diabetes Association recommended diet. Nutrient intake and Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI) scores were collected at baseline and 22 weeks. Between-group t tests were calculated for changes between groups and paired comparison t tests were calculated for changes within-group. Pearson's correlation assessed relationship of AHEI score to hemoglobin A1c and body weight changes. Both groups reported significant decreases in energy, protein, fat, cholesterol, vitamin D, selenium, and sodium intakes. The vegan group also significantly reduced reported intakes of vitamin B-12 and calcium, and significantly increased carbohydrate, fiber, total vitamin A activity, beta carotene, vitamins K and C, folate, magnesium, and potassium. The American Diabetes Association recommended diet group also reported significant decreases in carbohydrate and iron, but reported no significant increases. The vegan group significantly improved its AHEI score (PVegan diets increase intakes of carbohydrate, fiber, and several micronutrients, in contrast with the American Diabetes Association recommended diet. The vegan group improved its AHEI score whereas the American Diabetes Association recommended diet group's AHEI score remained unchanged.

  1. Effect of gamma-irradiation on the levels of total and cis/trans isomers of beta-carotene in dehydrated parsley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastião, Kátia I.; Almeida-Muradian, Lígia B.; Romanelli, Maria Fernanda; Koseki, Paula Massae; Villavicencio, Anna Lúcia C. H.

    2002-03-01

    Ionizing radiation is a method for preservation of foods that use the high energy of gamma rays or accelerated electrons, thereby ionizing molecules. The most important precursor of vitamin A is β-carotene, a carotenoid with pro-vitamin A activity. The highly unsaturated chain confers the instability of β-carotene, and some reactions, as isomerisation, can reduce the characteristics of pro-vitamin A. The present study investigated whether increasing doses of 0, 10 and 20 kGy lower the total β-carotene level and if an enhancement of cis-isomers occurred on samples of dehydrated parsley. No differences were observed of either fractions analyzed at doses applied in this study, nor did it contribute to the decrease of vitamin A.

  2. Effect of gamma-irradiation on the levels of total and cis/trans isomers of beta-carotene in dehydrated parsley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebastiao, K.I.; Almeida-Muradian, L.B.; Romanelli, Maria Fernanda; Koseki, Paula Massae; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.

    2002-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is a method for preservation of foods that use the high energy of gamma rays or accelerated electrons, thereby ionizing molecules. The most important precursor of vitamin A is β-carotene, a carotenoid with pro-vitamin A activity. The highly unsaturated chain confers the instability of β-carotene, and some reactions, as isomerisation, can reduce the characteristics of pro-vitamin A. The present study investigated whether increasing doses of 0, 10 and 20 kGy lower the total β-carotene level and if an enhancement of cis-isomers occurred on samples of dehydrated parsley. No differences were observed of either fractions analyzed at doses applied in this study, nor did it contribute to the decrease of vitamin A

  3. Opposing effects of low versus high concentrations of water soluble vitamins/dietary ingredients Vitamin C and niacin on colon cancer stem cells (CSCs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Utsav; Shenoy P, Sudheer; Bose, Bipasha

    2017-10-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the global causes of cancer deaths. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) inside the tumour niche responsible for metastasis and relapses, and hence need to be targeted for cancer therapeutics. Although dietary fibre and lifestyle changes have been recommended as measures for colorectal cancer prevention, no such recommendations are available for using water soluble vitamins as prophylaxis measure for colorectal cancers. High dose of Vitamin C has been proven to selectively kill colon cancer cells having BRAF and KRAS mutations by inducing oxidative stress. In this study, we show for the first time the opposing effects of the low and high dose of Vitamin C and vitamin B3 on colon CSCs isolated from HT-29 and HCT-15 colorectal carcinoma cell lines. At small doses, both of these vitamins exerted a cell proliferative effect only on CSCs, while there was no change in the proliferation status of non-stem cancer cells and wild-type (WT) populations. On the other hand, the death effects induced by high doses of Vitamin C and B3 were of the order of 50-60% and ∼30% on CSCs from HT-29 and HCT15, respectively. Interestingly, the control fibroblast cell line (NIH3T3) was highly refractory all the tested concentrations of Vitamin C and B3, except for the highest dose - 10,000 μg of Vitamin C that induced only 15% of cell death. Hence, these results indicate the future scope of use of therapeutic doses of Vitamin C and B3 especially in patients with advanced colorectal cancer. © 2017 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  4. Effect of dietary canthaxanthin and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol supplementation on the performance of duck breeders under two different vitamin regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhouzheng; Jiang, Shizhen; Zeng, Qiufeng; Ding, Xuemei; Bai, Shiping; Wang, Jianping; Luo, Yuheng; Su, Zhuowei; Xuan, Yue; Yao, Bing; Cisneros, Fernando; Zhang, Keying

    2016-01-01

    Dietary canthaxanthin (CX), 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH-D 3 ) and vitamins have been widely reported to be involved in productive and reproductive performance of broiler breeders. However, limited information is available for duck breeders. In this study, a total of 1,560 Cherry Valley SM3 duck breeder females and 312 males were used to assess if the addition of CX and 25-OH-D3 could increase the performance of duck breeders under two different dietary vitamin regimens. Four diets were used under a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with 2 kinds of vitamin premixes (REGULAR and HIGH; HIGH premix had higher levels of all vitamins except K3 than REGULAR premix), and with or without the supplementation of the mixture of CX (6 mg/kg) and 25-OH-D3 (0.069 mg/kg). The ducks were fed ad libitum with pelleted diets based on corn-soybean meal from 38 to 77 wk of age. HIGH vitamin premix decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) level (P vitamin premix together with the mixture of CX and 25-OH-D3 decreased cracked egg rate and increased shell thickness of duck breeders. Serum phosphorus was decreased in duck breeder females fed REGULAR vitamin premix without the addition of the CX and 25-OH-D3 mixture. Dietary HIGH vitamin premix increased antioxidant status of eggs and breeder males, and increased hatchability. The mixture of CX and 25-OH-D3 enhanced egg shell quality, and promoted pigmentation and antioxidant status of eggs and breeder males.

  5. Dietary B Vitamins and Depression in Persons with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: The Positive Living with HIV (POLH) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudel-Tandukar, Kalpana

    2016-01-01

    B vitamins have beneficial roles in mental health functional impairments; however, research on the role of B vitamins in depression among HIV-infected persons is limited. This study assessed the association between dietary B vitamin intake and depressive symptoms in a cohort of HIV-infected persons. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 314 HIV-infected persons (180 men and 134 women) aged 18 to 60 y residing in the Kathmandu, Nepal. The Beck Depression Inventory-I was used to measure depression, with a cutoff score of 20 or higher. Dietary intake was assessed using two nonconsecutive 24-h dietary recalls. The relationships between B vitamins and depressive symptoms were assessed using multiple logistic regression analysis. Twenty-six percent participants (men: 23%; women: 29%) were depressed. More than two thirds of participants' B vitamins intake were below the estimated average requirements (EAR) level. Low intake of riboflavin was associated with an increased risk of depression in women but not in men. Multivariate OR (95% CI) for depression in the first, second, and third tertiles of riboflavin in total participants were 1 (reference), 0.87 (0.46-1.64), and 0.49 (0.24-0.98), respectively (p for trend=0.048) and in women were 1 (reference), 0.94 (0.36-2.40), and 0.23 (0.07-0.77), respectively (p for trend=0.020). No clear associations were seen between other B vitamins and depressive symptoms in either sex. Low intake of riboflavin was independently associated with an increased risk of depressive symptoms in all participants and in HIV-infected women. Further prospective studies are warranted to confirm the role of vitamin B vitamins in depressive symptoms among HIV-infected persons.

  6. Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms, dietary promotion of insulin resistance, and colon and rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtaugh, Maureen A; Sweeney, Carol; Ma, Khe-Ni; Potter, John D; Caan, Bette J; Wolff, Roger K; Slattery, Martha L

    2006-01-01

    Modifiable risk factors in colorectal cancer etiology and their interactions with genetic susceptibility are of particular interest. Functional vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms may influence carcinogenesis through modification of cell growth, protection from oxidative stress, cell-cell matrix effects, or insulin and insulin-like growth factor pathways. We investigated interactions between foods (dairy products, red and processed meat, and whole and refined grains) and dietary patterns (sucrose-to-fiber ratio and glycemic index) associated with insulin resistance with the FokI polymorphism of the VDR gene and colon and rectal cancer risk. Data (diet, anthropometrics, and lifestyle) and DNA came from case-control studies of colon (1,698 cases and 1,861 controls) and rectal cancer (752 cases and 960 controls) in northern California, Utah, and the Twin Cities metropolitan area, Minnesota (colon cancer study only). Unconditional logistic regression models were adjusted for smoking, race, sex, age, body mass index, physical activity, energy intake, dietary fiber, and calcium. The lowest colon cancer risk was observed with the Ff/ff FokI genotypes and a low sucrose-to-fiber ratio. Rectal cancer risk decreased with greater consumption of dairy products and increased with red or processed meat consumption and the FF genotype. Modifiable dietary risk factors may be differentially important among individuals by VDR genotype and may act through the insulin pathway to affect colon cancer risk and through fat, calcium, or other means to influence rectal cancer risk.

  7. DIETARY VITAMIN E DEFICIENCY AS A MODIFIER OF THE ASSOCIATIONS OF RESPIRATORY OUTCOMES WITH AIR POLLUTION IN ADOLESCENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: We investigated whether low dietary intake of the lipophilic antioxidant vitamin E may act as a modifier of chronic air pollution's associations with respiratory outcomes among adolescents due to an increased respiratory response to the oxidative effects of air pol...

  8. Dietary Vitamin K intake and anticoagulation control during the initiation phase of warfarin therapy: A prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of varying levels of dietary vitamin K intake on therapeutic International Normalized Ratio (INR) values among patients starting warfarin therapy has not been well studied. We performed a prospective cohort study among 282 patients to explore the independent associations between usual in...

  9. Orange-fleshed sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) composite bread as a significant source of dietary vitamin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awuni, Victoria; Alhassan, Martha Wunnam; Amagloh, Francis Kweku

    2018-01-01

    Refining food recipes with orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) has the potential to improve dietary intake of vitamin A. The objectives of this study were to utilize OFSP in the development of two composite bread types and to assess their contribution to dietary intake of vitamin A using the dietary reference intake of lactating mothers. Two composite OFSP-wheat flour bread recipes-vita butter bread and vita tea bread-were developed by incorporating 46% OFSP puree in existing 100% wheat flour bread recipes consumed by Ghanaians. A paired-preference test was used to profile the appearance, aroma, sweetness, and overall degree of liking of the vita butter bread and vita tea bread and their respective 100% wheat flour bread types. Weighed bread intake by lactating mothers ( n  =   50) was used to estimate the contribution to dietary vitamin A based on the trans β-carotene content. The developed vita butter bread and vita tea bread were most preferred by at least 77% ( p  bread was 247 g, and for vita tea bread was 196 g. The trans β-carotene content of vita butter bread and vita tea bread were found to be 1.333 mg/100 g and 0.985 mg/100 g, respectively. The estimated trans-β-carotene intake was 3,293 μg/day (vita butter) and 1,931 μg/day (vita tea) based on the weighed bread intake, respectively, meeting 21% and 12% of the daily requirement (1,300 μg RAE/day) for lactating mothers, the life stage group with the highest vitamin A requirement. OFSP therefore could composite wheat flour to bake butter and tea bread, and will contribute to significant amount of dietary intake of vitamin A.

  10. [Vitamin-antioxidant sufficiency of winter sports athletes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beketova, N A; Kosheleva, O V; Pereverzeva, O G; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Kodentsova, V M; Solntseva, T N; Khanfer'ian, R A

    2013-01-01

    The sufficiency of 169 athletes (six disciplines: bullet shooting, biathlon, bobsleigh, skeleton, freestyle skiing, snowboarding) with vitamins A, E, C, B2, and beta-carotene has been investigated in April-September 2013. All athletes (102 juniors, mean age--18.5 +/- 0.3 years, and 67 adult high-performance athletes, mean age--26.8 +/- 0.7 years) were sufficiently supplied with vitamin A (70.7 +/- 1.7 mcg/dl). Mean blood serum retinol level was 15% higher the upper limit of the norm (80 mcg/dl) in biathletes while median reached 90.9 mcg/dl. Blood serum level of tocopherols (1.22 +/- 0.03 mg/dl), ascorbic acid (1.06 +/- 0.03 mg/dl), riboflavin (7.1 +/- 0.4 ng/ml), and beta-carotene (25.1 +/- 1.7 mcg/dl) was in within normal range, but the incidence of insufficiency of vitamins E, C, B2, and carotenoid among athletes varied in the range of 0-25, 0-17, 15-67 and 42-75%, respectively. 95% of adults and 80% of younger athletes were sufficiently provided with vitamin E. Vitamin E level in blood serum of juniors involved in skeleton and biathlon was lower by 51 and 72% (p antioxidants (beta-carotene and vitamins E and C). In other sports, the relative quantity of athletes sufficiently supplied with these essential nutrients did not exceed 56%. The quota of supplied with all antioxidants among bullet shooters (31.1%) and bobsledders (23.5%) was significantly (p antioxidant (mainly beta-carotene) was most often recorded among persons engaged in bullet shooting (67%). The simultaneous lack of all three antioxidants was found only in freestylers and bobsledders (about 5%). Decreased level of antioxidants in blood serum in 40% of athletes was combined with vitamin B2 deficiency. The data obtained suggest the necessity to optimize diet vitamin content of all athletes, taking into account the age and gender differences. Contrary to prevailing stereotypes the optimization must involve not only an increase in the consumption of vitamins (vitamins E, B group) and carotenoids, but

  11. Vitamins

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it's time for them to be used, special carriers in your body take them to where they're needed. Vitamins A, D, E, and K are all fat-soluble vitamins. Water-soluble vitamins are different. When you eat foods ...

  12. Improved Dietary Guidelines for Vitamin D: Application of Individual Participant Data (IPD)-Level Meta-Regression Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, Kevin D.; Ritz, Christian; Kiely, Mairead

    2017-01-01

    Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for vitamin D have a key role in the prevention of vitamin D deficiency. However, despite adopting similar risk assessment protocols, estimates from authoritative agencies over the last 6 years have been diverse. This may have arisen from diverse approaches to data analysis. Modelling strategies for pooling of individual subject data from cognate vitamin D randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are likely to provide the most appropriate DRV estimates. Thus, the objective of the present work was to undertake the first-ever individual participant data (IPD)-level meta-regression, which is increasingly recognized as best practice, from seven winter-based RCTs (with 882 participants ranging in age from 4 to 90 years) of the vitamin D intake–serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) dose-response. Our IPD-derived estimates of vitamin D intakes required to maintain 97.5% of 25(OH)D concentrations >25, 30, and 50 nmol/L across the population are 10, 13, and 26 µg/day, respectively. In contrast, standard meta-regression analyses with aggregate data (as used by several agencies in recent years) from the same RCTs estimated that a vitamin D intake requirement of 14 µg/day would maintain 97.5% of 25(OH)D >50 nmol/L. These first IPD-derived estimates offer improved dietary recommendations for vitamin D because the underpinning modeling captures the between-person variability in response of serum 25(OH)D to vitamin D intake. PMID:28481259

  13. Dietary amino acid and vitamin complex protects honey bee from immunosuppression caused by Nosema ceranae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavinic, Uros; Stankovic, Biljana; Draskovic, Vladimir; Stevanovic, Jevrosima; Petrovic, Tamas; Lakic, Nada; Stanimirovic, Zoran

    2017-01-01

    Microsporidium Nosema ceranae is well known for exerting a negative impact on honey bee health, including down-regulation of immunoregulatory genes. Protein nutrition has been proven to have beneficial effects on bee immunity and other aspects of bee health. Bearing this in mind, the aim of our study was to evaluate the potential of a dietary amino acid and vitamin complex "BEEWELL AminoPlus" to protect honey bees from immunosuppression induced by N. ceranae. In a laboratory experiment bees were infected with N. ceranae and treated with supplement on first, third, sixth and ninth day after emergence. The expression of genes for immune-related peptides (abaecin, apidaecin, hymenoptaecin, defensin and vitellogenin) was compared between groups. The results revealed significantly lower (pbees that received the supplement. It was supposed that N. ceranae had a negative impact on bee immunity and that the tested amino acid and vitamin complex modified the expression of immune-related genes in honey bees compromised by infection, suggesting immune-stimulation that reflects in the increase in resistance to diseases and reduced bee mortality. The supplement exerted best efficacy when applied simultaneously with Nosema infection, which can help us to assume the most suitable period for its application in the hive.

  14. What are carotenoids signaling? Immunostimulatory effects of dietary vitamin E, but not of carotenoids, in Iberian green lizards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopena, Renata; López, Pilar; Martín, José

    2014-12-01

    In spite that carotenoid-based sexual ornaments are one of the most popular research topics in sexual selection of animals, the antioxidant and immunostimulatory role of carotenoids, presumably signaled by these colorful ornaments, is still controversial. It has been suggested that the function of carotenoids might not be as an antioxidant per se, but that colorful carotenoids may indirectly reflect the levels of nonpigmentary antioxidants, such as melatonin or vitamin E. We experimentally fed male Iberian green lizards ( Lacerta schreiberi) additional carotenoids or vitamin E alone, or a combination of carotenoids and vitamin E dissolved in soybean oil, whereas a control group only received soybean oil. We examined the effects of the dietary supplementations on phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-induced skin-swelling immune response and body condition. Lizards that were supplemented with vitamin E alone or a combination of vitamin E and carotenoids had greater immune responses than control lizards, but animals supplemented with carotenoids alone had lower immune responses than lizards supplemented with vitamin E and did not differ from control lizards. These results support the hypothesis that carotenoids in green lizards are not effective as immunostimulants, but that they may be visually signaling the immunostimulatory effects of non-pigmentary vitamin E. In contrast, lizards supplemented with carotenoids alone have higher body condition gains than lizards in the other experimental groups, suggesting that carotenoids may be still important to improve condition.

  15. Equivalent anticancer activities of dietary vitamin D and calcitriol in an animal model of breast cancer: importance of mammary CYP27B1 for treatment and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Aruna V; Swami, Srilatha; Feldman, David

    2013-07-01

    Calcitriol [1,25(OH)2D3], the hormonally active form of vitamin D exerts anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory effects and other anticancer actions in breast cancer (BCa) cell cultures and animal models of BCa. Our research is focused on investigating the potential beneficial effects of dietary vitamin D3 compared to calcitriol and the underlying mechanisms in BCa treatment and chemoprevention. We recently found that dietary vitamin D3 exhibits significant tumor inhibitory effects in xenograft models of BCa that are equivalent to those elicited by the administration of the active hormone calcitriol. At the easily achievable dose tested in our studies, dietary vitamin D3 exhibited substantial tumor inhibitory activity and, unlike calcitriol, did not cause hypercalcemia demonstrating its relative safety. We found elevations in circulating calcitriol as well as increased CYP27B1 expression in the tumor and the intestine in tumor-bearing mice ingesting a vitamin D3-supplemented diet. We hypothesize that the elevation in circulating 25(OH)D induced by dietary vitamin D3 supplements stimulates local synthesis of calcitriol in the mammary tumor microenvironment and the ensuing paracrine/autocrine actions play a major role in the anticancer activity of dietary vitamin D3. Our findings suggest that the endocrine activity of calcitriol derived from tumor and other extra-renal sources such as the intestine, probably also plays a role in mediating the anticancer effects of dietary vitamin D3. Thus it appears that multiple sites of 1α-hydroxylation contribute to the anticancer effects of dietary vitamin D3. Our data strongly suggest that dietary vitamin D will be useful in the chemoprevention and treatment of BCa since it is a safe, economical and easily available nutritional agent that is equivalent to calcitriol in exerting anticancer effects, at least in mouse models. Furthermore, adequate vitamin D nutrition and avoidance of vitamin D deficiency appear to be

  16. Education and exercise program improves osteoporosis knowledge and changes calcium and vitamin D dietary intake in community dwelling elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ki-Soo; Yoo, Jun-Il; Kim, Ha-Young; Jang, Sunmee; Park, Yongsoon; Ha, Yong-Chan

    2017-12-19

    Several educational intervention programs have been designed and developed to improve osteoporosis diagnosis and treatment. However, most of the prior studies focused on how educational intervention programs affected diagnosis and treatment of condition of osteoporosis. The purpose of this prospective and educational intervention study was to evaluate the changes in osteoporosis knowledge, osteoporosis self-efficacy, fall self-efficacy, physical exercise and changes in dietary pattern of calcium and vitamin D intake after osteoporosis education. From November 1, 2015 to August 31, 2016, 271 eligible candidates (who were over 50 years old and from 23 different community centers) were recruited through an announcement made by the public office, by two health care providers. The intervention involved an individualized education program to allow for differences in antecedent educational levels regarding several aspects of osteoporosis, including osteoporosis knowledge, osteoporosis self-efficacy, awareness of self-efficacy risk factors relating to an accidental fall and nutritional education (including the importance of sufficient calcium and vitamin D intake). The researchers revisited the community centers three months after the initial visit. Of the 271 potential participants, 199 (73.4%; 43 men and 156 women) completed the education program and the second questionnaire. After education intervention, parameters including osteoporosis knowledge, osteoporosis self-efficacy and fall self-efficacy were improved (P vitamin D intake below recommended cut-offs, inadequate dietary calcium and vitamin D intake were decreased (P vitamin D intake.

  17. Dietary green tea polyphenols do not affect vitamin E status, antioxidant capacity and meat quality of growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, K; Blank, R; Boesch-Saadatmandi, C; Frank, J; Wolffram, S; Rimbach, G

    2008-12-01

    Supplementation of pigs with vitamin E, the most important lipid-soluble antioxidant, has been shown to improve meat quality and animal health. Previous studies in cultured cells and laboratory animals indicate synergistic effects between polyphenols and vitamin E. The present feeding trial was undertaken to investigate the effects of dietary green tea polyphenols (GTP) on vitamin E status, antioxidative capacity and parameters of meat quality in growing pigs. Eighteen castrated, crossbred, male pigs received a flavonoid-poor diet based on corn starch, caseinate and rapeseed oil with a total vitamin E content of 17 IU/kg diet over a period of 5 weeks. This basal diet was supplemented with green tea extract to provide daily doses of 0 (control), 10 and 100 mg GTP/kg body weight. Dietary supplementation of growing pigs with GTP did not affect serum, liver, lung and muscle vitamin E (alpha- and gamma-tocopherol) concentrations, plasma antioxidant capacity (ferric reducing ability of plasma, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) or parameters of meat quality including meat temperature, pH, conductivity, colour and drip loss. In conclusion, supplementation of pig diets with green tea catechins is not associated with improved antioxidant status and meat quality under practice-oriented conditions.

  18. The influence of dietary vitamin C and E supplementation on the physiological response of pirarucu, Arapaima gigas, in net culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Menezes, Glauber Cruz; Tavares-Dias, Marcos; Ono, Eduardo Akifumi; de Andrade, Jaqueline Inês Alves; Brasil, Elenice Martins; Roubach, Rodrigo; Urbinati, Elisabeth Criscuolo; Marcon, Jaydione Luiz; Affonso, Elizabeth Gusmão

    2006-10-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of dietary vitamin C (ascorbic acid or AA), vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol or alpha-T), and C+E supplementation on the blood parameters of Arapaima gigas grown in net cages for 45 days. Four treatments were tested: control (commercial feed); C800; E500 and C+E (800+500) with supplementation of 800 mg AA kg(-1), 500 mg alpha-T kg(-1) and 800+500 mg AA+alpha-T kg(-1), respectively. Hematocrit (Ht), red blood cells (RBC), and hemoglobin concentration (Hb) (oxidative status indicators), thrombocytes and leukocytes (immunological indicators), plasma protein and glucose were evaluated. Fish fed vitamin C and C+E supplemented diets showed greater weight gain and survival. Dietary vitamin C and C+E diet supplementation resulted in increased Ht, Hb, RBC, MCHC, total leukocytes, total proteins, thrombocytes and eosinophils compared to the control and alpha-T. The alpha-tocopherol-supplemented diet reduced the number of total thrombocytes, lymphocytes and neutrophils and increased glucose and eosinophils relatively to the control. In general, leukocytes and thrombocytes were good indicators of the efficiency of vitamin on the defense mechanism of the A. gigas reared in cages. Results indicate that high alpha-T diet supplementation provides no benefit for the maintenance of the oxidative or the immunological status of A. gigas. However, it was demonstrated that high dietary AA improves A. gigas immunological status. Red blood cell indices and immune system indicators showed no synergistic effect between the vitamins after supplementing the A. gigas diet with alpha-T+AA.

  19. Higher dietary intake of vitamin D may influence total cholesterol and carbohydrate profile independent of body composition in men with Chronic Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, Christopher; Gorgey, Ashraf; Moore, Pamela; Wong, Nathan; Adler, Robert A; Gater, David

    2018-07-01

    A case-control design. To determine the effects of dietary vitamin D intake on insulin sensitivity (Si), glucose effectiveness (Sg), and lipid profile in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). 20 male, paraplegic (T3-L1) with chronic (> one year) motor complete SCI (AIS A or B) were recruited. Three-day dietary records were analyzed for dietary vitamin D (calciferol), and participants were assigned to one of two groups, a high vitamin D intake group and a low vitamin D intake group based on the mid-point of vitamin D frequency distribution. Individuals in both groups were matched based on age, weight, time since injury and level of injury. Sg, Si and lipid profiles were measured of the two groups. The high vitamin D group had an average intake of 5.33 ± 4.14 mcg compared to low vitamin D group, 0.74 ± 0.24 mcg. None of the 20 participants met the recommended guidelines for daily vitamin D intake. The higher vitamin D group had a significantly lower (P = 0.035) total cholesterol (148.00 ± 14.12 mg/dl) than the lower vitamin D group (171.80 ± 36.22 mg/dl). Vitamin D adjusted to total dietary intake was positively correlated to improvement in Si and Sg (PD intake. However, a higher dietary intake of vitamin D may influence total cholesterol and carbohydrate profile as demonstrated by a significant decrease in total cholesterol and improvement in glucose homeostasis independent of body composition changes after SCI.

  20. Associations of vitamin D status with dietary intakes and physical activity levels among adults from seven European countries: the Food4Me study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manios, Yannis; Moschonis, George; Lambrinou, Christina P; Mavrogianni, Christina; Tsirigoti, Lydia; Hoeller, Ulrich; Roos, Franz F; Bendik, Igor; Eggersdorfer, Manfred; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Livingstone, Katherine M; Marsaux, Cyril F M; Macready, Anna L; Fallaize, Rosalind; O'Donovan, Clare B; Woolhead, Clara; Forster, Hannah; Walsh, Marianne C; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; San-Cristobal, Rodrigo; Kolossa, Silvia; Hallmann, Jacqueline; Jarosz, Mirosław; Surwiłło, Agnieszka; Traczyk, Iwona; Drevon, Christian A; van Ommen, Ben; Grimaldi, Keith; Matthews, John N S; Daniel, Hannelore; Martinez, J Alfredo; Lovegrove, Julie A; Gibney, Eileen R; Brennan, Lorraine; Saris, Wim H M; Gibney, Mike; Mathers, John C

    2018-06-01

    To report the vitamin D status in adults from seven European countries and to identify behavioural correlates. In total, 1075 eligible adult men and women from Ireland, Netherlands, Spain, Greece, UK, Poland and Germany, were included in the study. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency, defined as 25-hydroxy vitamin D 3 (25-OHD 3 ) concentration of European adults. Dietary intakes of ≥10 μg/day of vitamin D from foods and/or supplements and at least 30 min/day of moderate- and vigorous-intensity PA were the minimum thresholds associated with vitamin D sufficiency.

  1. Antioxidant vitamin supplementation for preventing and slowing the progression of age-related cataract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Milan C; Ervin, Ann-Margret; Tao, Jeremiah; Davis, Richard M

    2012-06-13

    Age-related cataract is a major cause of visual impairment in the elderly. Oxidative stress has been implicated in its formation and progression. Antioxidant vitamin supplementation has been investigated in this context. To assess the effectiveness of antioxidant vitamin supplementation in preventing and slowing the progression of age-related cataract. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 2), MEDLINE (January 1950 to March 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to March 2012), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to March 2012), Open Grey (System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe) (www.opengrey.eu/), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). There were no date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. The electronic databases were last searched on 2 March 2012. We also checked the reference lists of included studies and ongoing trials and contacted investigators to identify eligible randomized trials. We included only randomized controlled trials in which supplementation with one or more antioxidant vitamins (beta-carotene, vitamin C and vitamin E) in any form, dosage or combination for at least one year was compared to another antioxidant vitamin or to placebo. Two authors extracted data and assessed trial quality independently. We pooled results for the primary outcomes, i.e., incidence of cataract and incidence of cataract extraction. We did not pool results of the secondary outcomes - progression of cataract and loss of visual acuity, because of differences in definitions of outcomes and data presentation. We pooled results by type of cataract when data were available. We did not perform a sensitivity analysis. Nine trials involving 117

  2. Vitamins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz-Roso, Baltasar

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available A thermal treatment is an intrinsic part of most food processing procedures and may be employed to inactive enzimes and toxic '• factors, to change texture and flavour or to preserve. The vitamin degree of transformation or destruction in cooking methods depends on the temperature and on the time of exposure to this temperature. Oxigen, light and transition metals frequently play an active role in accelerating or promoting vitamin losses. Both chemical change and difussion proceed more rapidly as the temperature is raised. An advantage of deep frying consists of the fact that the temperature within the food does not exceed the temperature of the steam under the crust, and that frying times are in general very short compared to other cooking procedures. Another advantages may be the low content of dissolved oxygen in frying fats, and also in its high tocopherol content. There is no leaching of water-soluble vitamins in deep-frying. Speaking of vitamin stability we have to keep in mind that the concept of vitamins is a more physiological concept than a chemical one. The stability itself is not a property of the various vitamins but rather of the various chemical compounds sometimes called vitamers, of which a certain vitamin group consists. For practical purposes, vitamin losses should be considered only in foods wich substantially contribute to the vitamin supply of single people or population groups. There is little data in the literature about vitamin changes in deep-frying of food. However published experimental data on vitamin loses show that deep-frying is one of the most protective cooking procedures. For example, in ours results the vitamin C losses of stewed vegetable foods were twice higher than that of fried ones, (raw potatoes containing 19 mg/100g fresh weight, 13 mg/100 fried in olive oil, and 5 mg/100g stewed in the same oil.

  3. Antioxidant activity of dietary fruits, vegetables, and commercial frozen fruit pulps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassimotto, Neuza Mariko Aymoto; Genovese, Maria Inés; Lajolo, Franco Maria

    2005-04-20

    Fruits, vegetables, and commercial frozen pulps (FP) consumed in the Brazilian diet were analyzed for antioxidant activities using two different methods, one that determines the inhibition of copper-induced peroxidation of liposome and another based on the inhibition of the co-oxidation of linoleic acid and beta-carotene. The anthocyanin-rich samples showed the highest, concentration-dependent, antioxidant activities in both systems. In the liposome system, at both 10 and 50 microM gallic acid equivalent (GAE) addition levels, the neutral and acidic flavonoids of red cabbage, red lettuce, black bean, mulberry, Gala apple peel, jambolao, acai FP, mulberry FP, and the acidic flavonoids of acerola FP showed the highest antioxidant activities (>85% inhibition). In the beta-carotene bleaching system, the samples cited above plus red guava gave inhibition values >70%. On the other hand, some samples showed pro-oxidant activity in the liposome system coincident with a low antioxidant activity in the beta-carotene system. There was no relationship between total phenolics content, vitamin C, and antioxidant activity, suggesting that the antioxidant activity is a result of a combination of different compounds having synergic and antagonistic effects.

  4. No association between dietary vitamin K intake and fracture risk in chinese community-dwelling older men and women: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, R; Leung, J; Woo, J

    2012-05-01

    Data on the association between dietary vitamin K intake and fracture risk are limited among Chinese. This study examined such an association in community-dwelling elderly in Hong Kong. We present data from 2,944 subjects (1,605 men, 1,339 women) who participated in a prospective cohort study. Baseline dietary intakes of energy, protein, calcium, vitamin D, and vitamin K were assessed using a food-frequency questionnaire. Data on incident hip fracture and nonvertebral fracture during a median of 6.9 follow-up years were collected from a hospital database. Cox regression analyses were performed with adjustments for age, education attainment, smoking status, alcohol use, body mass index, hip bone mineral density, physical activity, use of calcium supplement, and energy-adjusted nutrient intakes. There were 29 (1.8 %) men and 19 (1.4 %) women with incident hip fractures and 97 (6.0 %) men and 88 (6.6 %) women with nonvertebral fractures. The median (interquartile range) of dietary vitamin K intake was 241.8 (157.5-360.8) and 238.9 (162.4-343.6) μg/day in men and women, respectively. Similar dietary vitamin K intakes were observed between subjects with hip or nonvertebral fractures and subjects without hip or nonvertebral fractures. In both men and women, dietary vitamin K intake was not associated with fracture risks at all measured sites in either crude or adjusted models. In Chinese community-dwelling elderly, hip or nonvertebral fracture risk was not associated with dietary vitamin K intake. The high dietary vitamin K intake of the studied group may have limited the ability to detect the association between vitamin K intake and fracture risk.

  5. Specialized food composition dataset for vitamin D content in foods based on European standards: Application to dietary intake assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milešević, Jelena; Samaniego, Lourdes; Kiely, Mairead; Glibetić, Maria; Roe, Mark; Finglas, Paul

    2018-02-01

    A review of national nutrition surveys from 2000 to date, demonstrated high prevalence of vitamin D intakes below the EFSA Adequate Intake (AI) (d vitamin D) in adults across Europe. Dietary assessment and modelling are required to monitor efficacy and safety of ongoing strategic vitamin D fortification. To support these studies, a specialized vitamin D food composition dataset, based on EuroFIR standards, was compiled. The FoodEXplorer™ tool was used to retrieve well documented analytical data for vitamin D and arrange the data into two datasets - European (8 European countries, 981 data values) and US (1836 data values). Data were classified, using the LanguaL™, FoodEX2 and ODIN classification systems and ranked according to quality criteria. Significant differences in the content, quality of data values, missing data on vitamin D 2 and 25(OH)D 3 and documentation of analytical methods were observed. The dataset is available through the EuroFIR platform. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Supplementation of Carrot (Daucus carrota as Natural Source of Beta-carotene prepared by Several Methods in Feed to Increase Blue Colour of Freshwater Crayfish Red Claw (Cherax quadricarinatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woro H. Satyantini

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Red claw (Cherax quadricarinatus is one kind of freshwater crayfish that can cultured as consumption or ornamental fish commodities.  The colour of body was important character for performance of red claw as ornamental fish commodity.  Red claw with blue body colour is more expensive than brown.  The purpose of  this experiment was to know the influence addition of carrot with several methods in feed on blue colour  of freshwater crayfish red claw and which was the best preparation method to increase blue colour of freshwater crayfish red claw. The experiment used Completely Randomized Design with four treatments: A (control, B (extract, C (juice and D (shreeded of carrot with 45 ppm dose and five time replicates.  Data was analysed with Kruskal-Wallis and continued with Z test. Result of the experiment was showed that addition of carrot as natural source of beta-carotene with several preparation in feed increase significantly (P Keywords: freshwater crayfish, colour of red claw, carrot, beta-carotene   ABSTRAK Red claw (Cherax quadricarinatus adalah salah satu jenis lobster air tawar yang dapat dibudidayakan sebagai komoditas konsumsi maupun hias.  Sebagai komoditas ikan hias, warna tubuh merupakan karakter penting untuk menunjang penampilan red claw.  Red claw ukuran konsumsi yang memiliki warna biru akan memiliki nilai jual yang lebih tinggi daripada red claw berwarna coklat.  Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pengaruh penambahan wortel sebagai sumber beta karoten alami dengan beberapa metoda pengolahan pada pakan terhadap peningkatan warna biru lobster red claw. Penelitian menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap dengan 4 perlakuan : A (kontrol, B (ekstrak, C (jus dan D (serutan wortel dengan menggunakan dosis 45 ppm beta karoten dan ulangan 5 kali.  Data dianalisis dengan uji Kruskal-Wallis dan dilanjutkan dengan uji Z.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penambahan wortel sebagai sumber beta karoten alami dengan beberapa metode

  7. Influence of dietary vitamin E supplementation on meat quality traits and gene expression related to lipid metabolism in the Beijing-you chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W J; Zhao, G P; Chen, J L; Zheng, M Q; Wen, J

    2009-03-01

    1. The effects of dietary vitamin E (DL-alpha-tocopheryl acetate) on carcase and meat quality, oxidative stability, fatty acid composition of muscle lipids, and gene expression related to lipid metabolism were studied in Beijing-you chickens. 2. A total of 360 female birds were distributed among 6 treatments, containing 6 replicates, each of 10 birds. The feed for each treatment was supplemented with vitamin E (0, 10, 50, 100, 150, or 200 mg/kg feed). At 120 d, 30 birds from each treatment were slaughtered to examine the effect of dietary vitamin E supplementation on evaluated traits. 3. The results showed that supplemental vitamin E in diet significantly increased alpha-tocopherol contents of breast and thigh muscles, reduced the drip loss and improved tenderness but did not influence carcase yield, meat colour or pH value 24 h after slaughter. 4. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values decreased with increase in dietary vitamin E, and the addition of 100 mg/kg or more vitamin E had a beneficial effect on oxidative stability as indicated by TBARS values during storage up to 7 d. 5. Dietary vitamin E supplementation significantly altered fatty acid composition of breast muscle. Supplementing with 200 mg/kg vitamin E led to lower saturated fatty acids and greater polyunsaturated fatty acids proportions in breast muscle than control and 10 mg/kg vitamin E treatments. 6. Vitamin E supplementation significantly inhibited expression of the cytosolic phospholipase A(2) gene (cPLA(2)) in breast muscle, while enhancing that of the peroxisome proliterator-activated receptor beta (PPAP-beta) and heart fatty acid binding protein genes (H-FABP). The results indicate that dietary supplementation with vitamin E increased lipid stability in muscle and improved meat quality and fatty acid composition, probably by its influence on the expression of genes related to lipid metabolism.

  8. Plasma and dietary carotenoids and vitamins A, C and e and risk of colon and rectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenders, Max; Leufkens, Anke M.; Siersema, Peter D.; Van Duijnhoven, Fränzel J B; Vrieling, Alina; Hulshof, Paul J M; Van Gils, Carla H.; Overvad, Kim; Roswall, Nina; Kyrø, Cecilie; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Fagerhazzi, Guy; Cadeau, Claire; Kühn, Tilman; Johnson, Theron; Boeing, Heiner; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Klinaki, Eleni; Androulidaki, Anna; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Bakker, Marije F.; Skeie, Guri; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Jakszyn, Paula; Barricarte, Aurelio; Huerta, José María; Molina-Montes, Esther; Argüelles, Marcial; Johansson, Ingegerd; Ljuslinder, Ingrid; Key, Timothy J.; Bradbury, Kathryn E.; Khaw, Kay Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Ferrari, Pietro; Duarte-Salles, Talita; Jenab, Mazda; Gunter, Marc J.; Vergnaud, Anne Claire; Wark, Petra A.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B.

    2014-01-01

    Carotenoids and vitamins A, C and E are possibly associated with a reduced colorectal cancer (CRC) risk through antioxidative properties. The association of prediagnostic plasma concentrations and dietary consumption of carotenoids and vitamins A, C and E with the risk of colon and rectal cancer was

  9. Dietary Vitamin D Increases Percentages and Function of Regulatory T Cells in the Skin-Draining Lymph Nodes and Suppresses Dermal Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley Gorman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin inflammatory responses in individuals with allergic dermatitis may be suppressed by dietary vitamin D through induction and upregulation of the suppressive activity of regulatory T (TReg cells. Vitamin D may also promote TReg cell tropism to dermal sites. In the current study, we examined the capacity of dietary vitamin D3 to modulate skin inflammation and the numbers and activity of TReg cells in skin and other sites including lungs, spleen, and blood. In female BALB/c mice, dietary vitamin D3 suppressed the effector phase of a biphasic ear swelling response induced by dinitrofluorobenzene in comparison vitamin D3-deficient female BALB/c mice. Vitamin D3 increased the percentage of TReg (CD3+CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells in the skin-draining lymph nodes (SDLN. The suppressive activity of TReg cells in the SDLN, mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, and blood was upregulated by vitamin D3. However, there was no difference in the expression of the naturally occurring TReg cell marker, neuropilin, nor the expression of CCR4 or CCR10 (skin-tropic chemokine receptors on TReg cells in skin, SDLN, lungs, and airway-draining lymph nodes. These data suggest that dietary vitamin D3 increased the percentages and suppressive activity of TReg cells in the SDLN, which are poised to suppress dermal inflammation.

  10. Plasma and dietary carotenoids and vitamins A, C and E and risk of colon and rectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenders, M.; Leufkens, A.M.; Siersema, P.D.; Duijnhoven, F.J.B. van; Vrieling, A.; Hulshof, P.J.; Gils, C.H. van; Overvad, K.; Roswall, N.; Kyro, C.; Boutron-Ruault, M.C.; Fagerhazzi, G.; Cadeau, C.; Kuhn, T.; Johnson, T.; Boeing, H.; Aleksandrova, K.; Trichopoulou, A.; Klinaki, E.; Androulidaki, A.; Palli, D.; Grioni, S.; Sacerdote, C.; Tumino, R.; Panico, S.; Bakker, M.F.; Skeie, G.; Weiderpass, E.; Jakszyn, P.; Barricarte, A.; Huerta, J. Maria; Molina-Montes, E.; Arguelles, M.; Johansson, I.; Ljuslinder, I.; Key, T.J.; Bradbury, K.E.; Khaw, K.T.; Wareham, N.J.; Ferrari, P.; Duarte-Salles, T.; Jenab, M.; Gunter, M.J.; Vergnaud, A.C.; Wark, P.A.; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H.B.

    2014-01-01

    Carotenoids and vitamins A, C and E are possibly associated with a reduced colorectal cancer (CRC) risk through antioxidative properties. The association of prediagnostic plasma concentrations and dietary consumption of carotenoids and vitamins A, C and E with the risk of colon and rectal cancer was

  11. Effect of dietary fat supplementation during late pregnancy and first six months of lactation on maternal and infant vitamin A status in rural Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alam, D.S.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.; Yunus, M.; Wahed, M.A.; Fuchs, G.J.

    2010-01-01

    Dietary fat intake is extremely low in most communities with vitamin A deficiency. However, its role in vitamin A status of pregnant and lactating women is poorly understood. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of supplementing women with fat from mid-/late pregnancy until six months

  12. Dietary B vitamin and methionine intake and MTHFR C677T genotype on risk of colorectal tumors in Lynch syndrome: the GEOLynch cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jung, A.Y.; van Duijnhoven, F.J.B.; Nagengast, F.M.; Botma, A.; Heine-Broring, R.C.; Kleibeuker, J.H.; Vasen, H.F.A.; Harryvan, J.L.; Winkels, R.M.; Kampman, E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Dietary intake of B vitamins and methionine, essential components of DNA synthesis and methylation pathways, may influence colorectal tumor (CRT) development. The impact of B vitamins on colorectal carcinogenesis in individuals with Lynch syndrome (LS) is unknown but is important given

  13. Dietary amino acid and vitamin complex protects honey bee from immunosuppression caused by Nosema ceranae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uros Glavinic

    Full Text Available Microsporidium Nosema ceranae is well known for exerting a negative impact on honey bee health, including down-regulation of immunoregulatory genes. Protein nutrition has been proven to have beneficial effects on bee immunity and other aspects of bee health. Bearing this in mind, the aim of our study was to evaluate the potential of a dietary amino acid and vitamin complex "BEEWELL AminoPlus" to protect honey bees from immunosuppression induced by N. ceranae. In a laboratory experiment bees were infected with N. ceranae and treated with supplement on first, third, sixth and ninth day after emergence. The expression of genes for immune-related peptides (abaecin, apidaecin, hymenoptaecin, defensin and vitellogenin was compared between groups. The results revealed significantly lower (p<0.01 or p<0.001 numbers of Nosema spores in supplemented groups than in the control especially on day 12 post infection. With the exception of abacein, the expression levels of immune-related peptides were significantly suppressed (p<0.01 or p<0.001 in control group on the 12th day post infection, compared to bees that received the supplement. It was supposed that N. ceranae had a negative impact on bee immunity and that the tested amino acid and vitamin complex modified the expression of immune-related genes in honey bees compromised by infection, suggesting immune-stimulation that reflects in the increase in resistance to diseases and reduced bee mortality. The supplement exerted best efficacy when applied simultaneously with Nosema infection, which can help us to assume the most suitable period for its application in the hive.

  14. Estimating the impact of vitamin A-fortified vegetable oil in Bangladesh in the absence of dietary assessment data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, John L; Lividini, Keith; Bermudez, Odilia I

    2015-02-01

    Vitamin A deficiency is a serious health problem in Bangladesh. The 2011-12 Bangladesh Micronutrient Survey found 76·8% of children of pre-school age were vitamin A deficient. In the absence of nationally representative, individual dietary assessment data, we use an alternative--household income and expenditure survey data--to estimate the potential impact of the introduction of vitamin A-fortified vegetable oil in Bangladesh. Items in the household income and expenditure survey were matched to food composition tables to estimate households' usual vitamin A intakes. Then, assuming (i) the intra-household distribution of food is in direct proportion to household members' share of the household's total adult male consumption equivalents, (ii) all vegetable oil that is made from other-than mustard seed and that is purchased is fortifiable and (iii) oil fortification standards are implemented, we modelled the additional vitamin A intake due to the new fortification initiative. Nationwide in Bangladesh. A weighted sample of 12,240 households comprised of 55,580 individuals. Ninety-nine per cent of the Bangladesh population consumes vegetable oil. The quantities consumed are sufficiently large and, varying little by socio-economic status, are able to provide an important, large-scale impact. At full implementation, vegetable oil fortification will reduce the number of persons with inadequate vitamin A intake from 115 million to 86 million and decrease the prevalence of inadequate vitamin A intake from 80% to 60%. Vegetable oil is an ideal fortification vehicle in Bangladesh. Its fortification with vitamin A is an important public health intervention.

  15. Cost-effectiveness of "golden mustard" for treating vitamin A deficiency in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Chow

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vitamin A deficiency (VAD is an important nutritional problem in India, resulting in an increased risk of severe morbidity and mortality. Periodic, high-dose vitamin A supplementation is the WHO-recommended method to prevent VAD, since a single dose can compensate for reduced dietary intake or increased need over a period of several months. However, in India only 34 percent of targeted children currently receive the two doses per year, and new strategies are urgently needed. METHODOLOGY: Recent advancements in biotechnology permit alternative strategies for increasing the vitamin A content of common foods. Mustard (Brassica juncea, which is consumed widely in the form of oil by VAD populations, can be genetically modified to express high levels of beta-carotene, a precursor to vitamin A. Using estimates for consumption, we compare predicted costs and benefits of genetically modified (GM fortification of mustard seed with high-dose vitamin A supplementation and industrial fortification of mustard oil during processing to alleviate VAD by calculating the avertable health burden in terms of disability-adjusted life years (DALY. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that all three interventions potentially avert significant numbers of DALYs and deaths. Expanding vitamin A supplementation to all areas was the least costly intervention, at $23-$50 per DALY averted and $1,000-$6,100 per death averted, though cost-effectiveness varied with prevailing health subcenter coverage. GM fortification could avert 5 million-6 million more DALYs and 8,000-46,000 more deaths, mainly because it would benefit the entire population and not just children. However, the costs associated with GM fortification were nearly five times those of supplementation. Industrial fortification was dominated by both GM fortification and supplementation. The cost-effectiveness ratio of each intervention decreased with the prevalence of VAD and was sensitive to the efficacy rate of

  16. Modification of the health-promoting value of potato tubers field grown under drought stress: emphasis on dietary antioxidant and glycoalkaloid contents in five native andean cultivars (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Christelle M; Schafleitner, Roland; Guignard, Cédric; Oufir, Mouhssin; Aliaga, Carlos Alberto Alvarado; Nomberto, Giannina; Hoffmann, Lucien; Hausman, Jean-François; Evers, Danièle; Larondelle, Yvan

    2009-01-28

    The effects of drought stress on dietary antioxidant and glycoalkaloid contents in potato tubers were investigated using a selection of five native Andean cultivars. Both freshly harvested and 4 month-stored tubers were analyzed. Responses to drought stress were highly cultivar-specific. The antioxidant contents of the yellow tuber-bearing cultivars (Sipancachi and SS-2613) were weakly affected by the drought treatment, whereas the pigmented cultivars demonstrated highly cultivar-dependent variations. A drastic reduction of anthocyanins and other polyphenols was revealed in the red- (Sullu) and purple-fleshed (Guincho Negra) cultivars, whereas an increase was shown in the purple-skinned and yellow-fleshed cultivar (Huata Colorada). The hydrophilic antioxidant capacity (evaluated by Folin-Ciocalteu and H-oxygen radical absorbance capacity assays) was highly correlated with the polyphenol content and followed, therefore, the same behavior upon drought. Carotenoid contents, including beta-carotene, as well as vitamin E, tended to increase or remain stable following drought exposure, except for the cultivar Sullu, in which the level of these lipophilic antioxidants was decreased. Vitamin C contents were not affected by drought with the exception of Guincho Negra, in which the level was increased. These variations of health-promoting compounds were associated with increased or stable levels of the toxic glycoalkaloids, alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine. Storage at 10 degrees C for 4 months tended to decrease the concentrations of all dietary antioxidants, except those of vitamin E. This storage also reduced the drought-induced variations observed in freshly harvested tubers. These results were discussed in terms of their implications for human diet and health as well as in plant stress defense mechanisms.

  17. Validation of Dietary Vitamin D Intake from Two Food Frequency Questionnaires, Using Food Records and the Biomarker 25-Hydroxyvitamin D among Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linnea Bärebring

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to validate vitamin D intake from a short vitamin D questionnaire (VDQ and a longer online food frequency questionnaire (FFQ against a food record and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD as a biomarker of vitamin D status, among pregnant women in Sweden. The number of women included was 1125 with VDQ, FFQ and 25OHD, and of those, 64 also completed the food record. Median vitamin D intakes were 3.9 µg by VDQ (p < 0.001, and 5.3 µg by FFQ (p = 0.89, compared to 5.0 µg by food record. Correlations between vitamin D intake from food record and VDQ (rho = 0.51, p < 0.001 or FFQ (rho = 0.49, p < 0.001 were similar. The VDQ and FFQ also had a similar ability to rank the individuals according to vitamin D intake. However, only vitamin D intake from the VDQ was significantly associated with vitamin D status as assessed by 25OHD. The validation coefficient for the VDQ was 0.68 and 0.75 for the FFQ. In conclusion, assessing dietary vitamin D intake is challenging, regardless of the dietary assessment method. The VDQ, that includes only four food items, is a valid, simple and useful tool in assessing vitamin D intake of pregnant women in Sweden, while imposing a minimal burden on women and researchers.

  18. Vitamin D status, dietary intake, and bone turnover in female Soldiers during military training: a longitudinal study

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    Lutz Laura J

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin D is an essential nutrient for maintaining bone health, to include protecting against stress fracture during periods of rapid bone turnover. The objective of this longitudinal, observational study was to assess vitamin D status, biomarkers of bone turnover, and vitamin D and calcium intake in female Soldiers (n = 91 during US Army basic combat training (BCT. Methods Anthropometric, biological and dietary intake data were collected at wk 0, 3, 6, and 9 of the 10 wk BCT course. Mixed models repeated measures ANOVAs were used to assess main effects of time, race, and time-by-race interactions. Results White volunteers experienced a decrease in serum 25(OHD levels, whereas non-white volunteers experienced an increase during BCT. However, serum 25(OHD levels were lower in non-whites than whites at all timepoints (P-interaction  Conclusions These findings demonstrate that female Soldiers experience dynamic changes in vitamin D status coupled with increased bone turnover and potentially inadequate vitamin D and calcium intake during military training.

  19. Consumption of 100% Pure Fruit Juice and Dietary Quality in French Adults: Analysis of a Nationally Representative Survey in the Context of the WHO Recommended Limitation of Free Sugars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    France Bellisle

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Sugar-containing beverages are often seen as a negative influence on diet quality and body weight control. The present study examines the consumption of 100% fruit juice (FJ based on a seven-day dietary survey in a representative sample of French adults (n = 1607. About a half of the participants (44% consumed FJ, most often at breakfast time (60%. Average intake in FJ consumers was 115.6 ± 4.0 mL/day (46.3 ± 1.7 kcal/day. Prevalence of consumption increased with education and income and decreased with age, but no association was observed with body mass index (BMI, physical activity, or smoking. In consumers, FJ brought 2% daily energy and contributed larger proportions of vitamins (B1 7%, B2 3%, B5 5%, B6 6%, B9 10%, C 32%, E 9%, beta-carotene 5%, minerals (magnesium 4%, potassium 7%, and free sugars (19%. FJ consumers ingested more whole fruits, vegetables, and many other foods than non-consumers did. Free sugars represented 11.2% of the daily energy in FJ consumers versus 8.6% in non-consumers. This cross-sectional survey reveals that FJ contributes to diet quality without association with excess body weight. These observations should be confirmed in longitudinal studies. They support the view that contribution to diet quality should be specifically recognized in the context of the World Health Organization (WHO recommended decrease of free sugar intake.

  20. USE OF DIETARY CAMELINA (CAMELINA SATIVA SEEDS DURING THE FINISHING PERIOD; EFFECTS ON BROILER PERFORMANCE AND ON THE ORGANOLEPTIC TRAITS OF BROILER MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEORGETA CIURESCU

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The study quantified the effects of Camelina seeds and buckthorn meal on broiler carcass production and quality. Camelina seeds and buckthorn meal were incorporated in the compound feeds for finishing broilers as natural source of vitamins (beta- carotene, vitamins C, B1, B2, E, F, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, sodium, and iron. The experiment was conducted on 600 Hybro PN broilers during the age period 7 – 42 days. The broilers were assigned to 3 groups, a control group © and two experimental groups (E1 and E2, each with 200 broilers (3 groups  3 replicates  100 broilers. Three (phase-feeding compound feeds formulations were used. The control diet consisted mainly of corn, full fat soybean, soybean meal and corn gluten. Camelina seeds (10% replaced full fat soybean in the experimental groups, while additionally, in E2 the classical premix with synthetic vitamins and minerals was replaced by buckthorn meal. The partial results show that the use of Camelina seeds reduced significantly (P<0.05 the final live weight, but the liveability percentage was not influenced by the type of dietary compound feed throughout the experimental period. Carcass fat decreased by 61.44% and 30.72% in the experimental groups compared to the control group. Total proteins increased in average by 3-10% concomitantly with the increase of the water content, fat decreased in average by 1.5-4%, the energy value also decreased proportionally with the fat in the experimental groups compared to the control group. Water retention capacity increased by 1% in E2.

  1. Vitamin C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... values to calculate your total daily recommended amount. What foods provide vitamin C? Fruits and vegetables are the ... lessen cooking losses. Fortunately, many of the best food sources of vitamin C, ... raw. What kinds of vitamin C dietary supplements are available? ...

  2. UVB exposure of farm animals: study on a food-based strategy to bridge the gap between current vitamin D intakes and dietary targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Schutkowski

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency is a global health problem. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of ultraviolet (UV B radiation for improving vitamin D3 content of eggs and meat. In a two-factorial design hens that received diets with 0 (-D3 or 3,000 IU (+D3 vitamin D3/kg were non-exposed (-UVB or exposed to UVB radiation (+UVB for 3 h daily over 4 weeks. Data show that UVB radiation was very effective in raising the vitamin D3 content of egg yolk and meat. Egg yolk from +UVB/-D3 hens had a higher vitamin D3 content (17.5±7.2 µg/100 g dry matter (DM than those from the -UVB/+D3 group (5.2±2.4 µg/100 g DM, p<0.01. Vitamin D3 content in egg yolk of vitamin D3-supplemented hens could be further increased by UVB radiation (32.4±10.9 µg/100 g DM. The content of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OHD3 in the egg yolk also increased in response to UVB, although less pronounced than vitamin D3. Meat revealed about 4-fold higher vitamin D3 contents in response to UVB than to dietary vitamin D3 (p<0.001. In conclusion, exposure of hens to UVB is an efficient approach to provide consumers with vitamin D3-enriched foods from animal sources.

  3. Biokinetics of dietary RRR-alpha-tocopherol in the male guinea pig at three dietary levels of vitamin C and two levels of vitamin E. Evidence that vitamin C does not spare vitamin E in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, G.W.; Wronska, U.; Stone, L.; Foster, D.O.; Ingold, K.U.

    1990-01-01

    The net rates of uptake of new and loss of old 2R,4'R,8'R-alpha-tocopherol (RRR-alpha-TOH) have been measured in the blood and in nine tissues of male guinea pigs over an eight week period by feeding diets containing deuterium-labelled alpha-tocopheryl acetate (d6-RRR-alpha-TOAc). There was an initial two week lead-in period during which 24 animals [the high vitamin E (HE) group] received diets containing 36 mg of unlabelled (d0) RRR-alpha-TOAc and 250 mg of ascorbic acid per kg diet, while another 24 animals [the low vitamin E (LE) group] received diets containing 5 mg d0-RRR-alpha-TOAc and 250 mg ascorbic acid per kg diet. The HE group was then divided into three equal subgroups, which were fed diets containing 36 mg d6-RRR-alpha-TOAc and 5000 mg [the high vitamin C (HEHC) subgroup], 250 mg [the normal vitamin C (HENC) subgroup] and 50 mg [the low vitamin C (HELC) subgroup] ascorbic acid per kg diet. One animal from each group was sacrificed each week and the blood and tissues were analyzed for d0- and d6-RRR-alpha-TOH by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The LE group was similarly divided into three equal subgroups with animals receiving diets containing 5 mg d6-RRR-alpha-TOAc and 5,000 mg (LEHC), 250 mg (LENC) and 50 mg (LELC) ascorbic acid per kg diet with a similar protocol being followed for sacrifice and analyses. In the HE group the total (d0(-) + d6-) RRR-alpha-TOH concentrations in blood and tissues remained essentially constant over the eight week experiment, whereas in the LE group the total RRR-alpha-TOH concentrations declined noticeably. There were no significant differences in the concentrations of old d0-RRR-alpha-TOH nor in the concentrations of new d6-RRR-alpha-TOH found in any tissue at a particular time between the HEHC, HENC and HELC subgroups, nor between the LEHC, LENC and LELC subgroups

  4. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for vitamin C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derived Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for vitamin C. The Panel concludes that an Average Requirement (AR) can be derived from indicators of vitamin C status, as well as a Population...... Reference Intake (PRI) assuming a coefficient of variation (CV) of 10 %. Several health outcomes possibly associated with vitamin C intake were also considered but data were found to be insufficient to establish DRVs. For healthy adults, the AR is determined from the quantity of vitamin C that balances...... metabolic vitamin C losses and allows the maintenance of an adequate body pool characterised by fasting plasma ascorbate concentrations at around 50 µmol/L. In men, an AR of 90 mg/day of vitamin C and a PRI of 110 mg/day are proposed. As no value for metabolic losses is available in women, the AR for women...

  5. Association between Dietary Vitamin C Intake and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study among Middle-Aged and Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jie; Lei, Guang-Hua; Fu, Lei; Zeng, Chao; Yang, Tuo; Peng, Shi-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become one of the most prevalent chronic liver disease all over the world. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between dietary vitamin C intake and NAFLD. Subjects were diagnosed with NAFLD by abdominal ultrasound examination and the consumption of alcohol was less than 40g/day for men or less than 20g/day for women. Vitamin C intake was classified into four categories according to the quartile distribution in the study population: ≤74.80 mg/day, 74.81-110.15 mg/day, 110.16-146.06 mg/day, and ≥146.07 mg/day. The energy and multi-variable adjusted odds ratio (OR), as well as their corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI), were used to determine the relationship between dietary vitamin C intake and NAFLD through logistic regression. The present cross-sectional study included 3471 subjects. A significant inverse association between dietary vitamin C intake and NAFLD was observed in the energy-adjusted and the multivariable model. The multivariable adjusted ORs (95%CI) for NAFLD were 0.69 (95%CI: 0.54-0.89), 0.93 (95%CI: 0.72-1.20), and 0.71 (95%CI: 0.53-0.95) in the second, third and fourth dietary vitamin C intake quartiles, respectively, compared with the lowest (first) quartile. The relative odds of NAFLD was decreased by 0.71 times in the fourth quartile of dietary vitamin C intake compared with the lowest quartile. After stratifying data by sex or the status of obesity, the inverse association remained valid in the male population or non-obesity population, but not in the female population or obesity population. There might be a moderate inverse association between dietary vitamin C intake and NAFLD in middle-aged and older adults, especially for the male population and non-obesity population.

  6. Effects of dietary cadmium on growth, antioxidants and bioaccumulation of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) and influence of dietary vitamin C supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Ren, Tongjun; Wang, Fuqiang; Han, Yuzhe; Liao, Mingling; Jiang, Zhiqiang; Liu, Haiying

    2016-07-01

    The effects of dietary cadmium (Cd) supplementation on growth, antioxidant capacity and accumulation of Cd in tissues (body wall, digestive tracts, and respiratory tree) of sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, exposed to sub-chronic concentrations (0, 10, 50, 100, and 500mg Cd/kg dry weight) of Cd were investigated. In addition, the potential protective effects of vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid, AsA) against the effects of Cd on sea cucumbers were investigated. Sea cucumbers were exposed to dietary Cd for 30 days, after which another group of healthy sea cucumbers was supplied diet supplemented with mixed Cd and AsA for another 30 days. Cd exposure for 30 days resulted in increased Cd accumulation in tissues of sea cucumbers with exposure time and concentration. The order of Cd accumulation in organs was digestive tracts>respiratory tree>body wall. On day 30, the body weight gain (BWG) and specific growth rate (SGR) decreased significantly (Psea cucumbers decreased with increasing dietary Cd concentration, but malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the coelomic fluid increased. Providing diet supplemented with Cd and AsA indicated that although sea cucumbers exhibited signs of Cd toxicity, no death occurred in response to 50mg Cd/kg for 30 days. Based on these findings, five treatments were provided: 50mg Cd/kg+0mg AsA/kg, 50mg Cd/kg+ 3000mg AsA/kg, 50mg Cd/kg+ 5000mg AsA/kg, 50mg Cd/kg+10,000mg AsA/kg, and 50mg Cd/kg+15,000mg AsA/kg. The BWG and SGR of sea cucumbers fed the AsA supplemented diet mixed with Cd increased. Additionally, MDA levels in coelomic fluid were negatively correlated with dietary AsA levels, while antioxidant capacities (SOD, GSH-Px and CAT) were positively correlated with dietary AsA levels. Moreover, Cd accumulation in tissues decreased in response to dietary AsA supplementation of treatments. Overall, antioxidant capacity and bioaccumulation in sea cucumber was found to decrease and be induced in response to Cd, but vitamin C mitigated these

  7. Analytical procedures for water-soluble vitamins in foods and dietary supplements: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Christopher J

    2007-09-01

    Water-soluble vitamins include the B-group vitamins and vitamin C. In order to correctly monitor water-soluble vitamin content in fortified foods for compliance monitoring as well as to establish accurate data banks, an accurate and precise analytical method is a prerequisite. For many years microbiological assays have been used for analysis of B vitamins. However they are no longer considered to be the gold standard in vitamins analysis as many studies have shown up their deficiencies. This review describes the current status of analytical methods, including microbiological assays and spectrophotometric, biosensor and chromatographic techniques. In particular it describes the current status of the official methods and highlights some new developments in chromatographic procedures and detection methods. An overview is made of multivitamin extractions and analyses for foods and supplements.

  8. Conventional foods, followed by dietary supplements and fortified foods, are the key sources of vitamin D, vitamin B6, and selenium intake in Dutch participants of the NU-AGE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendsen, Agnes A M; van Lieshout, Lilou E L M; van den Heuvel, Ellen G H M; Matthys, Christophe; Péter, Szabolcs; de Groot, Lisette C P G M

    2016-10-01

    With aging, energy needs decrease, necessitating a more nutrient-dense diet to meet nutritional needs. To bridge this gap, the use of nutrient-dense foods, fortified foods, and dietary supplements can be important. This observational study aims to describe current micronutrient intakes of Dutch elderly and to identify the contribution of nutrient-dense foods, fortified foods, and dietary supplements to the intake of micronutrients that are often inadequately consumed in Dutch elderly. Data of 245 Dutch volunteers from the NU-AGE study aged 65 to 80 years were used. Dietary intake was assessed by means of 7-day food records, and dietary supplement use was recorded with an additional questionnaire. Information on fortified foods was obtained from the Dutch Food Composition Table 2011. Nutrient density of foods was evaluated using the Nutrient Rich Food 9.3 score. The percentages of participants not meeting their average requirement were high for vitamin D (99%), selenium (41%), and vitamin B6 (54%) based on conventional foods and also when taking into account fortified foods (98%, 41%, and 27%, respectively) and vitamin and mineral supplements (87%, 36%, and 20%, respectively). Conventional foods were the main source of vitamin D, vitamin B6, and selenium intake (42%, 45%, and 82%, respectively), followed by vitamin and mineral supplements (41%, 44%, and 18%) and fortified foods (17%, 11%, and 1%). Foods with the highest nutrient density contributed most to total vitamin B6 intake only. To optimize nutrient intakes of elderly, combinations of natural food sources, fortified foods, and dietary supplements should be considered. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Dietary fat and antioxidant vitamin intake in patients of neurodegenerative disease in a rural region of Jalisco, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Meza, Mónica; Gabriel-Ortiz, Genaro; Pacheco-Moisés, Fermín P.; Cruz-Ramos, José A.; López-Espinoza, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate and compare the intake of lipids and (A, E, and C) vitamins in patients with and without possible neurodegenerative diseases. Methods Twenty adults with possible Alzheimer's disease or Parkinson's disease and 41 control subjects (50–89 years old) from a rural region were studied. Dietary intake was evaluated with the analysis of macronutrients and micronutrients conducted by a food frequency questionnaire and 24 hours dietary record. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, and energy intake. Through interrogation and use of medical record form of health secretary we obtained information about the sociodemographic characteristics. Multivariate analysis of variance to allow for covariated adjustment was used. Results Patients had a lower energy intake, vitamin C (P = 0.016), fruits (P < 0.001), vegetables (P = 0.037), and oils and fat (P = 0.002), than the controls. Interestingly, the C vitamin intake in patients was still higher than the recommended. Patients had a higher consumption of cereals (P = 0.017), high-animal fat diet (P = 0.024), and whole milk (P < 0.001); 2.4% of the controls smoke and 5% are alcohol consumers. Eighty-five percent of patients and 78% of the controls do not have physical activity. Family history of subjects in this study indicated chronic diseases. Conclusion The subjects included in this study had a high intake of C vitamin, this is due to the consumption of fruits and vegetables. However, patients with possible Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease had a lower intake of fruits and vegetables, which could be due to type of food to which they have access. PMID:24257159

  10. Effect of different levels dietary vitamin C on growth performance, muscle composition, antioxidant and enzyme activity of freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium malcolmsonii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamalai Asaikkutti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study was conducted to examine the effects and interactions of dietary vitamin C levels on the growth performance, antioxidant ability, muscle composition and enzyme activity in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium malcolmsonii (M. malcolmsonii. Additional, the vitamins C was dietary supplemented for freshwater prawn M. malcolmsonii. The experimental basal diets were supplemented with M. malcolmsonii at the rates of 0 (control, 25, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg dry feed weight. The as-supplemented vitamin C was fed in M. malcolmsonii for a period of 90 days. In the present investigation revealed that prawns fed with diet supplemented with 25–100 mg/kg of vitamins C shows enhanced (P  0.05 in feed conversion ratio (FCR were observed in prawn fed different diets. Addition, prawns fed with 25–100 mg/kg of vitamins C supplemented diets achieved significant (P  0.05 alterations in prawns fed with 25–100 mg/kg of vitamin C supplemented diets. Therefore, the present study proposed that 100 mg/kg of vitamin C could be supplemented for flexible enhanced survival; growth, antioxidant defense system and production of M. malcolmsonii. Keywords: Macrobrachium malcolmsonii, Vitamin, Growth performance, Biochemical compositions, Antioxidant enzyme

  11. The role of vitamin D in reducing gastrointestinal disease risk and assessment of individual dietary intake needs: Focus on genetic and genomic technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Lynnette R; Laing, Bobbi; Marlow, Gareth; Bishop, Karen

    2016-01-01

    With the endogenous formation of vitamin D being significantly curtailed because of public awareness of skin cancer dangers, attention is turning to dietary sources. Cumulative evidence has implicated vitamin D deficiency in increasing susceptibility to various gastrointestinal disorders, including colorectal cancer, inflammatory bowel diseases, diverticulitis, and irritable bowel syndrome. There is also reason to suggest adjunct vitamin D therapy for such diseases. Although there is justification for increasing vitamin D intake overall, optimal intakes will vary among individuals. Genomic technologies have revealed several hundreds of genes associated with vitamin D actions. The nature of these genes emphasizes the potentially negative implications of modulating vitamin D intakes in the absence of complementary human genetic and genomic data, including information on the gut microbiome. However, we are not yet in a position to apply this information. Genomic data (transcriptomics, metabolomics, proteomics, and metagenomics) could provide evidence that vitamin D sufficiency has been achieved. We suggest that there is an increasingly strong case for considering the more widespread use of vitamin D fortified foods and/or dietary supplements to benefit gastrointestinal health. However, intake levels might beneficially be informed by personalized genetic and genomic information, for optimal disease prevention and maintenance of remission. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Validation of Dietary Vitamin D Intake from Two Food Frequency Questionnaires, Using Food Records and the Biomarker 25-Hydroxyvitamin D among Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bärebring, Linnea; Amberntsson, Anna; Winkvist, Anna; Augustin, Hanna

    2018-06-08

    Our objective was to validate vitamin D intake from a short vitamin D questionnaire (VDQ) and a longer online food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) against a food record and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) as a biomarker of vitamin D status, among pregnant women in Sweden. The number of women included was 1125 with VDQ, FFQ and 25OHD, and of those, 64 also completed the food record. Median vitamin D intakes were 3.9 µg by VDQ ( p D intake from food record and VDQ (rho = 0.51, p D intake. However, only vitamin D intake from the VDQ was significantly associated with vitamin D status as assessed by 25OHD. The validation coefficient for the VDQ was 0.68 and 0.75 for the FFQ. In conclusion, assessing dietary vitamin D intake is challenging, regardless of the dietary assessment method. The VDQ, that includes only four food items, is a valid, simple and useful tool in assessing vitamin D intake of pregnant women in Sweden, while imposing a minimal burden on women and researchers.

  13. Dietary vitamin C intake protects against COPD: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park HJ

    2016-10-01

    , and vitamin C, was significantly associated with COPD. The prevalence of COPD in heavy smokers with the lowest quartile (Q1, <48.50 mg; 63.0% and low-middle quartile (Q2, 48.50-84.38 mg; 56.4% of vitamin C intake was significantly higher than that in subjects with the high-middle quartile (Q3, 84.38-141.63 mg; 29.5% and highest quartile (Q4, >141.63 mg; 32.6% of vitamin C intake (P=0.015. In multivariate analysis, male gender, old age, heavy smoking, and a low intake of vitamin C were significant independent risk factors for COPD. A significant reduction of 76.7% in COPD risk was observed with a Q3 vitamin C intake compared to Q1 vitamin C intake (odds ratio, 0.233; 95% confidence interval, 0.094-0.576 in heavy smokers. Conclusion: This large-scale national study suggests that dietary vitamin C provides protection against COPD, independent of smoking history, in the general Korean population. Keywords: chronic obstructive lung disease, vitamin C, nutrition, risk factor, smoking 

  14. Seminal quality and sperm production in beef bulls with chronic dietary vitamin A deficiency and subsequent re-alimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, L M; Coulter, G H; Kastelic, J P; Bailey, D R

    1995-05-01

    Sixteen Hereford bulls (16 mo of age, 462 kg average body weight) were used in each of 2 yr to evaluate the effects of hypovitaminosis A on seminal quality and sperm production. Bulls were fed a high-concentrate diet with (+VIT) or without (-VIT) supplemental Vitamin A until the apparent onset of hypovitaminosis A (28 and 32 wk in Year 1 and 2, respectively). Half of the bulls on each treatment were then slaughtered and those remaining were re-alimented with Vitamin A. Plasma retinol concentration in -VIT bulls reached a nadir at approximately 25 wk. In Year 1, the proportion of progressively motile spermatozoa was lower in -VIT bulls after 17 wk but returned to that of the +VIT group after re-alimentation. The proportion of spermatozoa with primary morphological defects appeared to be greater in -VIT bulls compared to +VIT bulls by 26 and 24 wk in Year 1 and 2, respectively. The incidence of these defects declined in -VIT bulls upon re-alimentation, and approached the incidence observed in +VIT bulls by 8 to 12 wk of re-alimentation. Hypovitaminosis A decreased paired testes weight, daily sperm production, and epididymal sperm reserves but did not affect daily gain. Prolonged dietary Vitamin A deficiency impaired semen quality and sperm production in the absence of other clinical symptoms. However, under practical feeding conditions, diets that result in long-term, marginal Vitamin A deficiency or a relatively short-term absence of Vitamin A intake probably would have minimal effects on spermatogenesis.

  15. Effect of dietary vitamin D 3 supplementation on meat quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consumers' interest of indigenous chicken meat is increasing. An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on meat quality of indigenous male naked neck chickens. Different supplementation levels of 0, 2000, 4000, 6000 and 8000 IU of vitamin D3 per kg DM of feed were used.

  16. The effect of dietary intake of vitamin B6 on sleep quality and insomnia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, L.; Fernstrand, A.M.; Garssen, J.; Verster, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: There is increased notion that daily diet has an important impact on health and disease. In this context, the relationship between nutrition and sleep is gaining increased research interest, particularly focusing on tryptophan, niacin and Vitamin B6. Vitamin B6 has an important role in the

  17. Association between dietary intake of vitamin A, C, and E as antioxidants and cognitive function in the elderly at a nursing home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jowy Tani

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available As oxidative stress is considered one of the major mechanisms underlying degenerative changes, antioxidants from dietary sources, such as vitamin A, C, and E, may have protective effects against oxidative stress and thus be able to prevent or delay cognitive impairment in the elderly. This cross sectional study was designed to determine the association between dietary intake of vitamin A, C, and E and the presence of cognitive impairment in the elderly, along with other factors. Subjects included 36 residents from a nursing home in Jakarta, Indonesia. The data obtained including daily nutrition intake values one week prior to sampling converted from semi- quantitative food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ results, Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE scores, and anthropometrical measurement results. This study showed that while sex, age, education, nutritional status, and macronutrients intake were not significantly associated with presence of cognitive impairment, significant positive correlation existed between education and MMSE score (p=0.036, r=0.351. Higher vitamin A and vitamin C intake were shown to be significantly associated with lower incidence of cognitive impairment (p=0.022 and p=0.045, respectively. Moreover, vitamin C was shown to have significant positive correlation with MMSE score (p=0.031, r=0.359. However, the association between vitamin E and the presence of impairment was not significant (p=0.129. Higher intake of vitamin A and C may delay or prevent cognitive impairment in the elderly. Higher intake of vitamin C may contribute to better cognitive functioning. The findings may be explained by the two antioxidant vitamins’ protective effects against neurode generative processes cause by oxidative stress. (Med J Indones 2007; 16:261-6Keywords: antioxidant, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, cognitive impairment, the elderly

  18. Effects of dietary lead exposure on vitamin levels in great tit nestlings – An experimental manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, Sandra; Espín, Silvia; Rainio, Miia; Ruuskanen, Suvi; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Lilley, Thomas M.; Eeva, Tapio

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to metal pollution negatively affects animal physiology, including nutrient metabolism, but in the wild an effect can seldom be attributed to a single metal. Moreover, little is known about how the metabolism of vitamins, essential micronutrients for developing juveniles, is affected by toxic metals. Therefore we experimentally investigated the effects of lead (Pb), a widespread toxic metal, on four fat-soluble vitamins A (total and retinol), D 3 , E (total and α-tocopherol) and K and carotenoids (lutein, zeaxanthin and unidentified) in great tit (Parus major) nestlings. In addition to a control group where no Pb was provided, two Pb-dosed groups were compared to a metal exposed group in the vicinity of a Ni–Cu smelter. We examined whether Pb treatment affects vitamin homeostasis and how the response of Pb-treated birds relates to that of a population under industrial exposure of Pb and other metals. For this purpose, vitamin and carotenoid levels were quantified with UPLC-MS from plasma of 7 days-old nestlings. All metal exposed groups showed increased vitamin A and retinol levels. However, vitamin levels were not directly associated with fecal Pb levels, with the exception of retinol, which was positively correlated with fecal Pb. Alpha-tocopherol, lutein and zeaxanthin levels were positively associated with body mass and wing growth rate. To conclude, Pb exposure increased plasma vitamin A and retinol levels while the levels of other vitamins and carotenoids rather reflected secondary pollution effects via differences in habitat and diet quality at the smelter site. Our findings suggest Pb exposed nestlings may allocate the vitamins needed for growth and development to fight the physiological stress thus compromising their fitness. - Highlights: • Pb effects on vitamins A, D 3 , E and K in wild great tit nestlings were investigated. • Four treatment groups were established: Control, Low-Pb, High-Pb and Smelter. • Pb concentrations measured in

  19. Vitamins, Minerals, and Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Crawford, Susan G.; Field, Catherine J.; Simpson, J. Steven A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the breadth and depth of published research linking dietary vitamins and minerals (micronutrients) to mood. Since the 1920s, there have been many studies on individual vitamins (especially B vitamins and Vitamins C, D, and E), minerals (calcium, chromium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and selenium), and vitamin-like…

  20. Dietary vitamin E dosage and source affects meat quality parameters in light weight lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Leonel N; Beltrán, José A; Alonso, Verónica; Bello, José M; den Hartog, Leo A; Hendriks, Wouter H; Martín-Tereso, Javier

    2018-03-01

    Supra-nutritional vitamin E supplementation is a commonly used approach to delay lipid oxidation and colour deterioration in lamb and beef meat marketed under modified atmosphere packaging. However, these applications lack a precise calibration of dose for the desired effect and, in addition, limited information is available regarding the use of natural vitamin E for this purpose. Three hundred and sixty Rasa Aragonesa lambs were fed diets supplemented with all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate (250, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg kg -1 compound feed), RRR-α-tocopheryl acetate (125, 250, 500 and 1000 mg kg -1 compound feed) and a basal diet without vitamin E supplementation for 14 days before slaughter at 25.8 ± 1.67 kg body weight. Vitamin E supplementation had no effect (P > 0.05) on average daily weight gain, feed intake and feed efficiency. Display time had larger effects on lipid oxidation, colour stability, myoglobin forms and meat discolouration parameters compared to vitamin E supplementation. However, vitamin E source and dosage significantly extended meat shelf-life as indicated by lipid oxidation, redness, hue angle, metmyoglobin formation, deoxymyoglobin formation, A 580-630 and I SO2 . The quantification of these effects demonstrated that the biological activity value of 1.36 used to distinguish both vitamin E sources is not appropriate for meat quality enhancing properties. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Effects of prepartum dietary cation-anion difference and source of vitamin D in dairy cows: Vitamin D, mineral, and bone metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney, R M; Martinez, N; Block, E; Hernandez, L L; Celi, P; Nelson, C D; Santos, J E P; Lean, I J

    2018-03-01

    Pregnant Holstein cows, 28 nulliparous and 51 parous, were blocked by parity and milk yield and randomly allocated to receive diets that differed in dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD), +130 or -130 mEq/kg, and supplemented with either calcidiol or cholecalciferol at 3 mg/11 kg of dry matter from 255 d of gestation until parturition. Blood was sampled thrice weekly prepartum, and on d 0, 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, and 30 postpartum to evaluate effects of the diets on vitamin D, mineral and bone metabolism, and acid-base status. Blood pH and concentrations of minerals, vitamin D metabolites, and bone-related hormones were determined, as were mineral concentrations and losses in urine and colostrum. Supplementing with calcidiol increased plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 , 3-epi 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 , 25-hydroxyvitamin D 2 , 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 , and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 compared with supplementing with cholecalciferol. Cows fed the diet with negative DCAD had lesser concentrations of vitamin D metabolites before and after calving than cows fed the diet with positive DCAD, except for 25-hydroxyvitamin D 2 . Feeding the diet with negative DCAD induced a compensated metabolic acidosis that attenuated the decline in blood ionized Ca (iCa) and serum total Ca (tCa) around calving, particularly in parous cows, whereas cows fed the diet with positive DCAD and supplemented with calcidiol had the greatest 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 concentrations and the lowest iCa and tCa concentrations on d 1 and 2 postpartum. The acidogenic diet or calcidiol markedly increased urinary losses of tCa and tMg, and feeding calcidiol tended to increase colostrum yield and increased losses of tCa and tMg in colostrum. Cows fed the diet with negative DCAD had increased concentrations of serotonin and C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen prepartum compared with cows fed the diet with positive DCAD. Concentrations of undercarboxylated and carboxylated

  2. Freshwater fish as a dietary source of vitamin A in Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos, Nanna; Chamnan, Chhoun; Loeung, Deap

    2007-01-01

    determined by high-performance liquid chromatography in samples of raw, whole fish from 29 fish species and in raw, edible parts from 24 species. Replicate samples were analysed in seven selected species. Two species, Parachela siamensis and Rasbora tornieri had very high vitamin A contents >1500 RAE/100 g...... raw, whole fish, and six species (Barbodes altus, Barbodes gonionatus, Dermogenys pusilla, Puntioplites proctozysron and Thynnichthys thynnoides) had high contents of 500-1500RAE/100 g raw, whole fish. Two species, Puntioplites proctozysron and Thynnichthys thynnoides had high vitamin A contents...... of carotenoid bioefficacy for the control of vitamin A deficiency in developing countries. Journal of Nutrition, 132, 2920S-2926S]. Dehydroretinoids (vitamin A(2)) are not converted to all-trans-retinol but have similar metabolic functions. In this paper, RAE refers to the functional bioefficacy as defined...

  3. Dietary adequacy of vitamin D and calcium among Inuit and Inuvialuit women of child-bearing age in Arctic Canada: a growing concern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Kolahdooz

    Full Text Available Arctic populations are at an increased risk of vitamin D inadequacy due to geographic latitude and a nutrition transition. This study aimed to assess the adequacy of dietary vitamin D and calcium among women of child-bearing age in Arctic Canada.This study collected data from 203 randomly selected women of child-bearing age (19-44 years in Nunavut and the Northwest Territories of Arctic Canada. Cross-sectional surveys using a validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire were analysed to determine the dietary adequacy of vitamin D and calcium and summarize the top foods contributing to vitamin D and calcium intake among traditional food eaters (TFE and non-traditional food eaters (NTFE.The response rate was between 69-93% depending on the community sampled. Mean BMIs for both TFE and NTFE were above the normal range. Traditional food eaters had a significantly higher median vitamin D intake compared with non-traditional eaters (TFE=5.13 ± 5.34 µg/day; NTFE=3.5 ± 3.22 µg/day, p=0·004. The majority of women (87% were below the Estimated Average Requirements (EAR for vitamin D. Despite adequate median daily calcium intake in both TFE (1,299 ± 798 mg/day and NTFE (992 ± 704 mg/day; p=0.0005, 27% of the study population fell below the EAR for calcium. Dairy products contributed the most to intake of vitamin D (TFE=30.7%; NTFE=39.1% and calcium (TFE=25.5%; NTFE=34.5%.Inadequate dietary vitamin D intake is evident among Inuit and Inuvialuit women of child-bearing age in Arctic Canada. Promotion of nutrient-rich sources of traditional foods, supplementation protocols and/or expanded food fortification should be considered to address this nutrition concern.

  4. Can vitamin A modify the activity of docetaxel in MCF-7 breast cancer cells?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Lemancewicz

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Docetaxel is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of breast cancer. On the other hand, the vitamin A family compounds play the essential roles in many biological processes in mammary gland. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of all-trans retinol, carotenoids (beta-carotene, lycopene and retinoids (9-cis, 13-cis and all-trans retinoic acid on the activity of docetaxel and to compare these effects with the estradiol and tamoxifen actions on human ER(+ MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. The evaluation was based on [3H] thymidine incorporation and the proliferative activity of PCNA and Ki 67 positive cells. In our study, the incorporation of [3H] thymidine into cancer cells was inhibited to 50% by 0.2, 0.5 and 1 microM of docetaxel in the 24-hour culture and addition of estradiol (0.001 microM didn't influence the results. However, addition of tamoxifen caused a statistically significant decrease of the percentage of the proliferating cells in the culture medium with 0.2 and 0.5 microM of docetaxel (38.99 +/- 2.84%, p<0.01 and 40.67 +/- 5.62%, p<0.01 in comparison to the docetaxel only group. The above-mentioned observations were also confirmed with the use of the immunohistochemical investigations. Among the examined vitamin A family compounds, the simultaneous application of beta-carotene (0.1 microM and docetaxel (0.2 microM resulted in a statistically significant reduction in the percentage of proliferating cells (40.25 +/- 14.62%, p<0.01. Lycopene (0.1 microM, which stimulates the growth of breast cancer cells in a 24-hour culture, had an inhibitory effect (42.97 +/- 9.58%, p<0.01 when combined with docetaxel (0.2 microM. Although, beta-carotene and lycopene belong to the different chemical groups, they surprisingly had a similar inhibitory influence on both growth and proliferation of MCF-7 breast cancer cells when combined with docetaxel. The application of docetaxel either with beta-carotene or

  5. Hypolipidaemic effect of vegetable and cereal dietary mixtures from Egyptian sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashed, M. M.; Shallan, M.; Mohamed, D. A.; Fouda, K.; Hanna, L. M.

    2010-07-01

    Hyperlipidaemia is a predominant risk factor for atherosclerosis and associated cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The international guidelines issued by the World Health Organization recommend a reduction in dietary saturated fat and cholesterol intake as a means to prevent hypercholesterolemia and CVD; however, only limited data are available on the benefits of vegetable consumption on CVD risk factors. The aim of this study was to prepare two powder mixtures containing vegetables and cereals and to evaluate their effect in hyperlipidaemic rats. The first mixture was prepared from whole wheat, cabbage, parsley and pepper, while the second mixture was prepared from whole wheat, red beet root, parsley and pepper. Whole wheat was used as a source of dietary fiber, while cabbage and beetroot were used as sources of glucosinolates (GLS) and betalains respectively as well as dietary fiber. The chemical compositions of these mixtures were determined. The safety of these mixtures was also evaluated by examining liver and kidney functions. The chemical compositions of the powder mixtures revealed that mixtures (1) and (2) contain 19.1% and 13.3% protein, 2.1% and 2.5 % fat, 69.6% and 77.5% carbohydrates, 1.8% and 1.2% crude fibers, 7.4% and 5.5% ash and 18.3% and 16.8% dietary fibers respectively. Vitamin E was 7.4 and 4.5 mg/100g in mixtures (1) and (2) respectively. {beta}-carotene was 830 and 786{mu}g/100g in mixtures (1) and (2) respectively. Total phenolic compounds were 1910 and 1710 mg as gallic acid equivalents/100g in mixtures (1) and (2) respectively. The results of the animal experiment showed a non-significant reduction in final body weight and body weight gain in rats fed the control diet containing mixture (1) or (2) when compared with different groups. Rats fed the control diet containing mixture (1) or (2) showed a significant reduction in plasma total lipids, T-Ch, LDL-Ch, TG and the ratio of T-Ch /HDLCh in different degrees, while HDL-Ch increased

  6. Food patterns and dietary quality associated with organic food consumption during pregnancy; data from a large cohort of pregnant women in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torjusen, Hanne; Lieblein, Geir; Næs, Tormod; Haugen, Margaretha; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Brantsæter, Anne Lise

    2012-08-06

    Little is known about the consumption of organic food during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to describe dietary characteristics associated with frequent consumption of organic food among pregnant women participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). The present study includes 63 808 women who during the years 2002-2007 answered two questionnaires, a general health questionnaire at gestational weeks 15 and a food frequency questionnaire at weeks 17-22. The exploration of food patterns by Principal component analyses (PCA) was followed by ANOVA analyses investigating how these food patterns as well as intake of selected food groups were associated with consumption of organic food. The first principal component (PC1) identified by PCA, accounting for 12% of the variation, was interpreted as a 'health and sustainability component', with high positive loadings for vegetables, fruit and berries, cooking oil, whole grain bread and cereal products and negative loadings for meat, including processed meat, white bread, and cakes and sweets. Frequent consumption of organic food, which was reported among 9.1% of participants (n = 5786), was associated with increased scores on the 'health and sustainability component' (p organic food had a diet with higher density of fiber and most nutrients such as folate, beta-carotene and vitamin C, and lower density of sodium compared to participants with no or low organic consumption. The present study showed that pregnant Norwegian women reporting frequent consumption of organically produced food had dietary pattern and quality more in line with public advice for healthy and sustainable diets. A methodological implication is that the overall diet needs to be included in future studies of potential health outcomes related to consumption of organic food during pregnancy.

  7. Food patterns and dietary quality associated with organic food consumption during pregnancy; data from a large cohort of pregnant women in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Little is known about the consumption of organic food during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to describe dietary characteristics associated with frequent consumption of organic food among pregnant women participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Methods The present study includes 63 808 women who during the years 2002–2007 answered two questionnaires, a general health questionnaire at gestational weeks 15 and a food frequency questionnaire at weeks 17-22. The exploration of food patterns by Principal component analyses (PCA) was followed by ANOVA analyses investigating how these food patterns as well as intake of selected food groups were associated with consumption of organic food. Results The first principal component (PC1) identified by PCA, accounting for 12% of the variation, was interpreted as a ‘health and sustainability component’, with high positive loadings for vegetables, fruit and berries, cooking oil, whole grain bread and cereal products and negative loadings for meat, including processed meat, white bread, and cakes and sweets. Frequent consumption of organic food, which was reported among 9.1% of participants (n = 5786), was associated with increased scores on the ‘health and sustainability component’ (p food had a diet with higher density of fiber and most nutrients such as folate, beta-carotene and vitamin C, and lower density of sodium compared to participants with no or low organic consumption. Conclusion The present study showed that pregnant Norwegian women reporting frequent consumption of organically produced food had dietary pattern and quality more in line with public advice for healthy and sustainable diets. A methodological implication is that the overall diet needs to be included in future studies of potential health outcomes related to consumption of organic food during pregnancy. PMID:22862737

  8. In vivo and in vitro evidences that carotenoids could modulate the neutrophil respiratory burst during dietary manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walrand, Stéphane; Farges, Marie-Chantal; Dehaese, Olivier; Cardinault, Nicolas; Minet-Quinard, Régine; Grolier, Pascal; Bouteloup-Demange, Corinne; Ribalta, Josep; Winklhofer-Roob, Brigitte M; Rock, Edmond; Vasson, Marie-Paule

    2005-03-01

    The primary role of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) is to destroy pathogenic microorganisms after phagocytosis by producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and toxic molecules. However, PMNs produce sufficient amounts of ROS during an oxidative burst to be autotoxic and detrimental to their own functions and to possibly cause DNA damage, protein and lipid oxidation and cell membrane destructuration. The aim of this study was to investigate in vivo the role of the antioxidant capacities of carotenoids in modulating ROS content in PMNs during oxidative burst. Moreover to investigate the direct or indirect effect of carotenoids, the modification of PMN ROS content was explored after in vitro supplementation with beta-carotene or lycopene, chosen taking account of their vitamin A and no vitamin A precursor effect, respectively. In vivo study: Venous blood was collected from 10 healthy male volunteers and ROS production from phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-stimulated PMNs was determined, by flow cytometry using the fluorescent dye dihydrorhodamine 123, at baseline, after 3 weeks of carotenoid depletion (carotenoid intake limited to 25% of usual intake) and after 5 weeks of carotenoid repletion (30 mg beta-carotene, 15 mg lycopene and 9 mg lutein per day). In vitro study: ROS content in PMA-stimulated PMNs isolated from carotenoid depleted subjects and controls was quantified after an in vitro enrichment with beta-carotene (1 micromol/L) or lycopene (0.3 micromol/L). In vivo carotenoid depletion increased PMN H2O2 content after PMA activation by 38% (p burst. Moreover, these effects appear independent from the metabolic conversion of carotenoids to vitamin A.

  9. Effect of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and Vitamin E on serum oxidative status in horses performing very light exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviana Prola

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In sporting horses the use of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs could enhance performance because these fatty acids are very important in membrane permeability, and in particular they seem to increase the possibility of long chain fatty acids entering mythochondria to be burnt. The composition of cellular membranes and lipoprotein fatty acids com- position is strictly related to dietary fat quality; percentages of polyunsaturated fatty acids and amount of antioxidants also affect tissue susceptibility to lipid peroxidation. Six horses were used in a latin square design in which three homogeneous groups were subsequently assigned three dif- ferent dietary treatments for one month each: Control group (C: basic diet; Oil group (O: Basic diet + 200g/day oil rich in PUFAs (Crossential GLA TG20, Croda ®; Vitamin E group (O+E: basic diet + 200 g/day oil rich in PUFAs (Crossential GLA TG20, Croda ® + 5 g/day α-toco- pheryl-acetate (Egon-E, Acme ®. At the end of each experimental period blood samples were taken by jugular vein puncture. Serum oxidative status was evaluated by TBARs and d-ROMs assessment. Oxidative markers showed the high- est mean values for the oil group, even if no statistically significant differences were found.

  10. Selenium, Chromium, and Vitamin D: What Dietitians Need to Know Regarding Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurate nutrient data for dietary supplement composition are essential for determining supplements’ contribution to total dietary intake. To plan a nationwide adult multivitamin/mineral (MVM) study, the USDA Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL) obtained prevalence information for the most common labeled...

  11. Inhibition of the development of metastases by dietary vitamin C:K3 combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taper, Henryk S; Jamison, James M; Gilloteaux, Jacques; Summers, Jack L; Calderon, Pedro Buc

    2004-07-09

    The tumor growth-inhibiting and chemo-potentiating effects of vitamin C and K(3)combinations have been demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of orally administered vitamin C and K(3) on the metastasis of mouse liver tumor (T.L.T.) cells implanted in C3H mice. Adult male C3H mice were given water containing vitamin C and K3 (15 g/0.15 g dissolved in 1000 ml) beginning 2 weeks before tumor transplantation until the end of the experiment. T.L.T. cells (106) were implanted intramuscularly in the right thigh of mice. All mice were sacrificed 42 days after tumor transplantation. Primary tumor, lungs, lymph nodes and other organs or tissues suspected of harboring metastases were macroscopically examined. Samples of primary tumors, their local lymph nodes, lungs and main organs such as liver, kidneys, spleen were taken for histological examination. Forty-two percent of control mice exhibited lung metastases and 27% possessed metastases in local lymph nodes whereas 24% of vitamin-treated mice exhibited lung metastases and 10% possessed local lymph nodes metastases. The total number of lung metastases was 19 in control group and 10 in vitamin C and K(3)-treated mice. Histopathological examination of the metastatic tumors from the vitamin-treated mice revealed the presence of many tumor cells undergoing autoschizic cell death. These results demonstrate that oral vitamin C and K(3) significantly inhibited the metastases of T.L.T. tumors in C3H mice. At least a portion of this inhibition was due to tumor cell death by autoschizis.

  12. Dietary sources of vitamin B-12 and their association with vitamin B-12 status markers in healthy older adults in the B-PROOF study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer-Brolsma, E.M.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Wijngaarden, van J.P.; Zwaluw, van der N.L.; Velde, van der N.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Low vitamin B-12 concentrations are frequently observed among older adults. Malabsorption is hypothesized to be an important cause of vitamin B-12 inadequacy, but serum vitamin B-12 may also be differently affected by vitamin B-12 intake depending on food source. We examined associations between

  13. Dietary Sources of Vitamin B-12 and Their Association with Vitamin B-12 Status Markers in Healthy Older Adults in the B-PROOF Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer-Brolsma, Elske M.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A. M.; van Wijngaarden, Janneke P.; Zwaluw, Nikita L. van der; Velde, Nathalie van der; de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.

    2015-01-01

    Low vitamin B-12 concentrations are frequently observed among older adults. Malabsorption is hypothesized to be an important cause of vitamin B-12 inadequacy, but serum vitamin B-12 may also be differently affected by vitamin B-12 intake depending on food source. We examined associations between

  14. Dietary sources of vitamin B-12 and their association with vitamin B-12 status markers in healthy older adults in the B-PROOF study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Brouwer-Brolsma (Elske); R.A.M. Dhonukshe-Rutten (Rosalie); J.P. van Wijngaarden (Janneke); N.L. van der Zwaluw (N.); N. van der Velde (Nathalie); L.C.P.G.M. de Groot (Lisette)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractLow vitamin B-12 concentrations are frequently observed among older adults. Malabsorption is hypothesized to be an important cause of vitamin B-12 inadequacy, but serum vitamin B-12 may also be differently affected by vitamin B-12 intake depending on food source. We examined associations

  15. Influence of supplemental vitamin C on postmortem protein degradation and fatty acid profiles of the longissimus thoracis of steers fed varying concentrations of dietary sulfur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogge, Danielle J; Lonergan, Steven M; Hansen, Stephanie L

    2014-02-01

    The objective was to examine the effects of supplemental vitamin C (VC) on postmortem protein degradation and fatty acid profiles of cattle receiving varying concentrations of dietary sulfur (S). A longissimus muscle was collected from 120 Angus-cross steers assigned to a 3 × 2 factorial, evaluating three concentrations of dietary S (0.22, 0.34, and 0.55%) and two concentrations of supplemental VC (0 or 10 g h(-1)d(-1)). Increasing dietary S and VC supplementation (Pdegradation (P = 0.07) and protein carbonylation (Pdegradation. © 2013.

  16. Influence on bone metabolism of dietary trace elements, protein, fat, carbohydrates, and vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarazin, M; Alexandre, C; Thomas, T

    2000-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a multifactorial disease driven primarily by the genetic factors that control bone metabolism. Among environmental factors, diet may play a key role, affording a target for low-cost intervention. Calcium and vitamin D are well known to affect bone metabolism. Other nutrients may influence bone mass changes; for instance, a number of trace elements and vitamins other than vitamin D are essential to many of the steps of bone metabolism. A wide variety of foods provide these nutrients, and in industrialized countries deficiencies are more often due to idiosyncratic eating habits than to cultural influences. Both culture and vogue influence the amount of carbohydrate, fat, and protein in the typical diet. In children, the current trend is to reduce protein and to increase carbohydrate and fat. Data from epidemiological and animal studies suggest that this may adversely affect bone mass and the fracture risk.

  17. Effect of dietary vitamin A and Nigella sativa on the performance of broiler chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sideeg, Rasha Mohamed

    2000-02-01

    A study was conducted to assess the effect of feeding different added levels of vitamin A and Nigella sativa seeds on broiler performance, blood chemistry and carcass characteristics. One- hundred forty four, one-day old unsexed (Lohman) broiler chicks were divided randomly into eight groups, each represented a treatment (18 birds/treatment), with 2 replicates for each treatment 2x4 factorial arrangement in a completely randomised design was used. The experimental basal rations were formulated to meet requirement for essential nutrients for broiler chicks according to NCR (1984) recommendation. Four graded levels of added vitamin A (0,3000,4500 and 9000 IU/kg) and two levels of Nigella sativa (0, 0.25%) were used. The experiment lasted for eight weeks. Body weight, weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were determined. In addition blood chemistry, absolute weight of internal organs and carcass characteristics were measured. The added level 3000 IU of vitamin A significantly increased weight gain (P≤ 0.01) decreased feed conversion ratio (P≤ 0.01) and increased muscle: bone ratio (P≤ 0.05). The level 0.25% of Nigella sativa with no added vitamin A significantly (P ≤ 0.01) increased body weight and weight gain. High level of added vitamin A decreased absolute weight of liver (P≤ 0.01), and increased fat content of muscles (P≤ 0.01) and abdominal fat (P≤ 0.01). Vitamin A and Nigella sativa significantly affect serum Ca (which was determined according to the calorimetric method), P, Zn , and alkaline phosphates(alk.ase) and cholesterol (P≤ 0.05) which was determined according to the Enzymatic Calometric Test . Addition of 0.25% Nigella sativa significantly affect serum cholestrol (P ≤0.01). The treatments had no significant affect on serum glucose and ash content of meat. Significant interaction between vitamin A and Nigella sativa were observed on body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, feed intake (P≤ 0.01, P≤0.05, and P≤0

  18. Effect of dietary vitamin A and Nigella sativa on the performance of broiler chicks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sideeg, Rasha Mohamed [Faculty of Animal Production, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan)

    2000-02-01

    A study was conducted to assess the effect of feeding different added levels of vitamin A and Nigella sativa seeds on broiler performance, blood chemistry and carcass characteristics. One- hundred forty four, one-day old unsexed (Lohman) broiler chicks were divided randomly into eight groups, each represented a treatment (18 birds/treatment), with 2 replicates for each treatment 2x4 factorial arrangement in a completely randomised design was used. The experimental basal rations were formulated to meet requirement for essential nutrients for broiler chicks according to NCR (1984) recommendation. Four graded levels of added vitamin A (0,3000,4500 and 9000 IU/kg) and two levels of Nigella sativa (0, 0.25%) were used. The experiment lasted for eight weeks. Body weight, weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were determined. In addition blood chemistry, absolute weight of internal organs and carcass characteristics were measured. The added level 3000 IU of vitamin A significantly increased weight gain (P{<=} 0.01) decreased feed conversion ratio (P{<=} 0.01) and increased muscle: bone ratio (P{<=} 0.05). The level 0.25% of Nigella sativa with no added vitamin A significantly (P {<=} 0.01) increased body weight and weight gain. High level of added vitamin A decreased absolute weight of liver (P{<=} 0.01), and increased fat content of muscles (P{<=} 0.01) and abdominal fat (P{<=} 0.01). Vitamin A and Nigella sativa significantly affect serum Ca (which was determined according to the calorimetric method), P, Zn , and alkaline phosphates(alk.ase) and cholesterol (P{<=} 0.05) which was determined according to the Enzymatic Calometric Test . Addition of 0.25% Nigella sativa significantly affect serum cholestrol (P {<=}0.01). The treatments had no significant affect on serum glucose and ash content of meat. Significant interaction between vitamin A and Nigella sativa were observed on body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, feed intake (P{<=} 0.01, P{<=}0.05, and P

  19. Dietary Protein and Vitamin D Intake and Risk of Falls: A Secondary Analysis of Postmenopausal Women from the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larocque, Sarah C; Kerstetter, Jane E; Cauley, Jane A; Insogna, Karl L; Ensrud, Kristine; Lui, Li-Yung; Allore, Heather G

    2015-01-01

    More than 90% of hip fractures in older Americans result from a fall. Inadequate intake of dietary protein and vitamin D are common in older adults, and diets in low these could contribute to loss of muscle mass and strength or coordination, in turn increasing the risk of falling. The objective of the study was to evaluate the relationship between protein and vitamin D intake with the occurrence of falls in older women in the Study of Osteoporotic Fracture, a prospective cohort of more than 4000 postmenopausal women participating from January 1997 to September 1998. Incident falls were ascertained for one year. Protein and vitamin D intake was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire; associations with a reported fall were estimated with logistic regression, adjusted for fall-related covariates and energy. Protein and vitamin D were modeled separately because of high correlation (rho = 0.55, P women reported a fall within one year. In separate, unadjusted models dietary protein (per 1 g/kg increase) and vitamin D (per 100 International Unit (IU) increase) significantly increased the odds ratio (OR) of falling (OR 1.35 95% CI 1.15-1.59, OR 1.11 95% CI 1.03-1.19, respectively). Once fall-related covariates were added to each model, dietary protein and vitamin D were noncontributory to falls. While we could find no direct association between vitamin D and protein intake and fall prevention, adequate intake of these two nutrients are critical for musculoskeletal health in older adults.

  20. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Today's dietary supplements are not only vitamins and minerals. "They also include other less familiar substances such ... dietary ingredient" category are not only vitamins, but minerals, botanicals products, amino acids, and substances such as ...

  1. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that the body absolutely needs: vitamins A, C, D, E, K, and the B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, ... comes to purchasing dietary supplements, Vasilios Frankos, Ph.D., Director of FDA's Division of Dietary Supplement Programs, ...

  2. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... millions of people worldwide take supplemental vitamins as part of their health regimen. Why Buy Vitamins? There ... Dietary Supplements." The law defines dietary supplements, in part, as products taken by mouth that contain a " ...

  3. Excited-state kinetics of the carotenoid S//1 state in LHC II and two-photon excitation spectra of lutein and beta-carotene in solution Efficient Car S//1 yields Chl electronic energy transfer via hot S//1 states?

    CERN Document Server

    Walla, P J; Linden, Patricia A; Ohta, Kaoru

    2002-01-01

    The excited-state dynamics of the carotenoids (Car) in light- harvesting complex II (LHC II) of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were studied by transient absorption measurements. The decay of the Car S //1 population ranges from similar to 200 fs to over 7 ps, depending on the excitation and detection wavelengths. In contrast, a 200 fs Car S//1 yields Chlorophyll (Chl) energy transfer component was the dominant time constant for our earlier two-photon fluorescence up- conversion measurements (Walla, P.J. ; et al. J. Phys. Chem. B 2000, 104, 4799-4806). We also present the two-photon excitation (TPE) spectra of lutein and beta-carotene in solution and compare them with the TPE spectrum of LHC II. The TPE-spectrum of LHC II has an onset much further to the blue and a width that is narrower than expected from comparison to the S//1 fluorescence of lutein and beta-carotene in solution. Different environments may affect the shape of the S//1 spectrum significantly. To explain the blue shift of the TPE spectrum and the d...

  4. Dietary contaminant exposure affects plasma testosterone, but not thyroid hormones, vitamin A, and vitamin E, in male juvenile arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallanger, Ingeborg G; Jørgensen, Even H; Fuglei, Eva; Ahlstrøm, Øystein; Muir, Derek C G; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro

    2012-01-01

    Levels of persistent organic pollutants (POP), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), are high in many Arctic top predators, including the Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus). The aim of this study was to examine possible endocrine-disruptive effects of dietary POP exposure in male juvenile Arctic foxes in a controlled exposure experiment. The study was conducted using domesticated farmed blue foxes (Vulpes lagopus) as a model species. Two groups of newly weaned male foxes received a diet supplemented with either minke whale (Baleneoptera acutorostrata) blubber that was naturally contaminated with POP (exposed group, n = 5 or 21), or pork (Sus scrofa) fat (control group, n = 5 or 21). When the foxes were 6 mo old and had received the 2 diets for approximately 4 mo (147 d), effects of the dietary exposure to POP on plasma concentrations of testosterone (T), thyroid hormones (TH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), retinol (vitamin A), and tocopherol (viramin E) were examined. At sampling, the total body concentrations of 104 PCB congeners were 0.1 ± 0.03 μg/g lipid weight (l.w.; n = 5 [mean ± standard deviation]) and 1.5 ± 0.17 μg/g l.w. (n = 5) in the control and exposed groups, respectively. Plasma testosterone concentrations in the exposed male foxes were significantly lower than in the control males, being approximately 25% of that in the exposed foxes. There were no between-treatment differences for TH, TSH, retinol, or tocopherol. The results suggest that the high POP levels experienced by costal populations of Arctic foxes, such as in Svalbard and Iceland, may result in delayed masculine maturation during adolescence. Sex hormone disruption during puberty may thus have lifetime consequences on all aspects of reproductive function in adult male foxes.

  5. No influence of increased intake of orange and blackcurrant juices and dietary amounts of vitamin E on paraoxonase-1 activity in patients with peripheral arterial disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgård, Christine; Christiansen, Lene; Jonung, Torbjörn

    2007-01-01

    by dietary factors like the antioxidants. AIM OF THE STUDY: We examined the effect of antioxidant-rich orange and blackcurrant juices and vitamin E supplement on PON1 activity in patients with peripheral arterial disease. Furthermore, we studied whether genetic polymorphisms in the PON1 gene predicted...... the change in PON1 activity. METHODS: The study was designed as a cross-over trial with 48 participants who received two of the four possible treatments: (1) 250 ml orange juice and 250 ml blackcurrant juice; (2) 15 mg vitamin E; (3) 250 ml orange juice and 250 ml blackcurrant juice and 15 mg vitamin E......; or (4) control/placebo (energy-equivalent sugar-containing beverage). The treatments were given for 28 days, separated by a 4-week wash-out period. RESULTS: The PON1 activity was not affected by juice or vitamin E supplement neither was there evidence of synergetic effects. However, a statistically...

  6. Dietary Calcium Intake May Contribute to the HOMA-IR Score in Korean Females with Vitamin D Deficiency (2008–2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Ho Kim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background : Vitamin D and calcium are important factors involved in the regulation of blood glucose and insulin secretion. The Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR score is a useful variable for evaluating insulin resistance, and therefore we cross-sectionally compared HOMA-IR scores according to serum vitamin D levels and dietary calcium intake. Methods : We selected data from healthy males (n=5,163 and females (n=7,506 analyzed over 5 years (2008–2012 via the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES. We calculated HOMA-IR scores and compared them according to serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD concentration classification (30 ng/mL and dietary calcium quintile after adjustment for relevant variables using complex sample analysis. Comparisons were done after data weighting. Results : The mean dietary calcium intake in males and females was 558.1 mg/day and 445.9 mg/day, respectively. The mean serum 25(OHD concentration in males and females was 19.4 ng/mL and 16.8 ng/mL, respectively. After adjustment for relevant variables, HOMA-IR score was significantly correlated with serum 25(OHD concentration and dietary calcium intake in females, whereas it was only correlated with serum 25(OHD concentration in males. HOMA-IR was significantly lower in the top quintile of dietary calcium intake (mean, 866 mg/day within females with vitamin D deficiency (P=0.047. Conclusion : Adequate dietary calcium intake may be important for normal HOMA-IR in females with vitamin D deficiency.

  7. Influence of dietary selenium and vitamin E on quality of veal.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skřivanová, E.; Marounek, Milan; De Smet, S.; Raes, K.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 76, 3 (2007), s. 495-500 ISSN 0309-1740 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : calves * meat * selenium * vitamin E * oxidative stability Subject RIV: GH - Livestock Nutrition Impact factor: 2.006, year: 2007

  8. Effect of dietary vitamin D3 supplementation on meat quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    student

    Karges K, Brooks JC, Gill DR, Breazile JE, Owens FN and Morgan JB. (2001). Effect of ... Vitamin D3 and papaya leaf on meat quality of spent laying hens. Agric. J. 6(4): 197-200 ... Edn. SAS Institute, Inc., North Caroline, USA. Savell JW, Smith ...

  9. Effect of Dietary Thyme Oil and Vitamin E on the Performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ziraat2

    LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol in broilers. ... total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) on an .... and feed conversion ratio of broilers compared to those fed the control diet (without vitamin E) ...

  10. Effect of dietary vitamin E on the performance of broilers and quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    Keywords: broiler meat, Vitamin E, TBA, fatty acids, shelf life, refrigeration, frozen .... Antioxidant (125 g), Choline (300 g), Cobalt (0.5 g), Copper (6 g), Iron (20 g), ... Eclairage, 1976), with L* indicating brightness, a* the red-green range and b* ...

  11. Dietary vitamin K and therapeutic warfarin alter susceptibility to vascular calcification in experimental chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    The leading cause of death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is cardiovascular disease (CVD), with vascular calcification (VC) being a key modifier of disease progression. A local regulator of vascular calcification is vitamin K. This gamma-glutamyl carboxylase substrate is an essential ...

  12. Association between Dietary Vitamin C Intake and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study among Middle-Aged and Older Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wei

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD has become one of the most prevalent chronic liver disease all over the world. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between dietary vitamin C intake and NAFLD.Subjects were diagnosed with NAFLD by abdominal ultrasound examination and the consumption of alcohol was less than 40g/day for men or less than 20g/day for women. Vitamin C intake was classified into four categories according to the quartile distribution in the study population: ≤74.80 mg/day, 74.81-110.15 mg/day, 110.16-146.06 mg/day, and ≥146.07 mg/day. The energy and multi-variable adjusted odds ratio (OR, as well as their corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI, were used to determine the relationship between dietary vitamin C intake and NAFLD through logistic regression.The present cross-sectional study included 3471 subjects. A significant inverse association between dietary vitamin C intake and NAFLD was observed in the energy-adjusted and the multivariable model. The multivariable adjusted ORs (95%CI for NAFLD were 0.69 (95%CI: 0.54-0.89, 0.93 (95%CI: 0.72-1.20, and 0.71 (95%CI: 0.53-0.95 in the second, third and fourth dietary vitamin C intake quartiles, respectively, compared with the lowest (first quartile. The relative odds of NAFLD was decreased by 0.71 times in the fourth quartile of dietary vitamin C intake compared with the lowest quartile. After stratifying data by sex or the status of obesity, the inverse association remained valid in the male population or non-obesity population, but not in the female population or obesity population.There might be a moderate inverse association between dietary vitamin C intake and NAFLD in middle-aged and older adults, especially for the male population and non-obesity population.

  13. Net flux of nutrients across splanchnic tissues of lactating dairy cows as influenced by dietary supplements of biotin and vitamin B12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, C L; Desrochers, A

    2010-04-01

    Biotin and vitamin B(12) are coenzymes in reactions that are essential to propionate metabolism in dairy cows. The objective of the present studies was to determine whether an increased dietary supply of these vitamins would change the net flux of nutrients through the rumen, the portal-drained viscera (PDV), the total splanchnic tissues (TSP), and the liver. Four lactating cows equipped with ultrasonic flow probes around the right ruminal artery and the portal vein and catheters in the right ruminal vein, the portal vein, one hepatic vein, and one mesenteric artery were fed 12 times per day a mixed ration at 95% of ad libitum dry matter intake. Daily supplements of 500 mg of vitamin B(12)+20mg of biotin or no vitamin supplement (study 1) or 500 mg of vitamin B(12) alone or with 20mg of biotin (study 2) were fed according to a crossover design with two 4-wk periods in each study. On the last day of each period, blood flow was recorded and blood samples were collected every 30 min for 4h. In study 1, biotin and vitamin B(12) given together increased milk production and milk protein yields compared with the control diet. The supplement increased appearance of the 2 vitamins across the PDV and TSP. It also reduced the net portal appearance of ammonia and total volatile fatty acids across the PDV. In study 2, compared with the 2 vitamins together, vitamin B(12) alone increased glucose flux across PDV and TSP as well as its arterial concentration and PDV flux of ammonia. With the diet used in the present experiment, the major effects of the vitamin supplements seem to be mediated through changes in ruminal fermentation and gastrointestinal tract metabolism rather than by effects on hepatic metabolism. Copyright (c) 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Dietary benzo(a)pyrene intake during pregnancy and birth weight: associations modified by vitamin C intakes in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte-Salles, Talita; Mendez, Michelle A; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Alexander, Jan; Haugen, Margaretha

    2013-10-01

    Maternal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) during pregnancy has been associated with reduced fetal growth. However, the role of diet, the main source of PAH exposure among non-smokers, remains uncertain. To assess associations between maternal exposure to dietary intake of the genotoxic PAH benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] during pregnancy and birth weight, exploring potential effect modification by dietary intakes of vitamins C, E and A, hypothesized to influence PAH metabolism. This study included 50,651 women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Dietary B(a)P and nutrient intakes were estimated based on total consumption obtained from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and estimated based on food composition data. Data on infant birth weight were obtained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway (MBRN). Multivariate regression was used to assess associations between dietary B(a)P and birth weight, evaluating potential interactions with candidate nutrients. The multivariate-adjusted coefficient (95%CI) for birth weight associated with maternal energy-adjusted B(a)P intake was -20.5g (-31.1, -10.0) in women in the third compared with the first tertile of B(a)P intake. Results were similar after excluding smokers. Significant interactions were found between elevated intakes of vitamin C (>85mg/day) and dietary B(a)P during pregnancy for birth weight (P<0.05), but no interactions were found with other vitamins. The multivariate-adjusted coefficients (95%CI) for birth weight in women in the third compared with the first tertile of B(a)P intake were -44.4g (-76.5, -12.3) in the group with low vitamin C intakes vs. -17.6g (-29.0, -6.1) in the high vitamin C intake group. The results suggest that higher prenatal exposure to dietary B(a)P may reduce birth weight. Lowering maternal intake of B(a)P and increasing dietary vitamin C intake during pregnancy may help to reduce any adverse effects of B(a)P on birth weight. © 2013.

  15. Association of serum vitamin D concentrations with dietary patterns in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganji, Vijay; Martineau, Bernadette; Van Fleit, William Edmund

    2018-06-04

    Because children have been advised on the dangers of sun exposure, diet is an important contributor of serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations. Aim of this study was to determine whether serum 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with any specific dietary patterns in US children. Data from 2 cycles of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2004 and 2005-2006 for individuals aged 2 to ≤19 y, were used to study relation between dietary patterns and serum 25(OH)D. We derived 2 major dietary patterns based on the food frequency questionnaire data. These were labeled as High-Fat-Low-Vegetable Dietary (HFLVD) pattern and Prudent Dietary (PD) pattern. In multivariate adjusted analysis, there was no significant relationship between serum 25(OH)D concentrations and tertiles of HFLVD and PD dietary pattern scores in all subjects, boys, and girls. When dietary patterns scores were used as a continuous variable in adjusted analysis, children (all) with higher PD contribution scores to overall diet showed a significant positive relation with serum 25(OH)D (β = 59.1, P = 0.017). When data were stratified by sex, a significant positive relation was observed in girls between serum 25(OH)D concentration and PD pattern scores (β = 82.1, P = 0.015). A significant negative relation was observed in girls between serum 25(OH)D and HFLVD pattern scores (β = - 88.5, P = 0.016). Overall, serum 25(OH)D were associated with PD pattern but not with HFLVD pattern in US children. In public health perspective, it is important to encourage children, especially girls who are consuming HFLVD pattern to shift to healthier diet.

  16. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... consume extra vitamin D from vitamin D-fortified foods and/or supplements. How Vitamins are Regulated Vitamin products are regulated by FDA as "Dietary Supplements." The law defines dietary supplements, in part, as products taken by ...

  17. Dietary Vitamin C, E and β-Carotene Intake Does Not Significantly Affect Plasma or Salivary Antioxidant Indices and Salivary C-Reactive Protein in Older Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawron-Skarbek, Anna; Guligowska, Agnieszka; Prymont-Przymińska, Anna; Godala, Małgorzata; Kolmaga, Agnieszka; Nowak, Dariusz; Szatko, Franciszek; Kostka, Tomasz

    2017-07-09

    It is not clear whether habitual dietary intake influences the antioxidant or inflammatory status. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of antioxidative vitamins C, E, and β-carotene obtained from daily food rations on plasma and salivary Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC), uric acid and salivary C-reactive protein (CRP). The study involved 80 older subjects (66.9 ± 4.3 years), divided into two groups: group 1 ( n = 43) with lower and group 2 ( n = 37) with higher combined vitamins C, E and β-carotene intake. A 24-h dietary recall was obtained from each individual. TAC was assessed simultaneously with two methods in plasma (Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma-FRAP, 2.2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-DPPH) and in saliva (FRAS and DPPHS test). Lower vitamin C intake corresponded to higher FRAS. There were no other correlations between vitamins C, E or β-carotene intake and antioxidant indices. Salivary CRP was not related to any antioxidant indices. FRAS was decreased in group 2 ( p < 0.01) but no other group differences for salivary or for plasma antioxidant parameters and salivary CRP were found. Habitual, not extra supplemented dietary intake does not significantly affect plasma or salivary TAC and salivary CRP.

  18. Dietary Intake of Antioxidant Vitamins and Carotenoids and Risk of Developing Active Tuberculosis in a Prospective Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, Avril Z; Chee, Cynthia B E; Wang, Yee-Tang; Yuan, Jian-Min; Koh, Woon-Puay

    2017-08-15

    Antioxidants may protect against oxidative stress, which is associated with tuberculosis (TB) disease. However, direct evidence for a protective association between dietary antioxidants and TB incidence in humans has been lacking. The relationship between intake of antioxidant vitamins (vitamins A, C, D, and E) and individual carotenoids (α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, and lutein) and TB incidence was examined in the Singapore Chinese Health Study, a prospective cohort study of 63,257 adults aged 45-74 years enrolled during 1993-1998. Baseline intake of these antioxidants was estimated using a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire including questions on use of dietary supplements. After an average of 16.9 years of follow-up, 1,186 incident active TB cases were identified among cohort participants. Compared with the lowest quartile, reduced risk of active TB was observed for the highest quartile of vitamin A intake (hazard ratio = 0.71, 95% confidence interval: 0.59, 0.85; P-trend carotenoids were not associated with TB risk. These results suggest that vitamin C may reduce TB risk among current smokers by ameliorating oxidative stress, while vitamin A and β-carotene may have additional antimycobacterial properties. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Dietary vitamin E affects lipid oxidation and total volatiles of irradiated raw turkey meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, D.U.; Sell, J.L.; Jeffery, M.; Jo, C.; Chen, X.; Lee, J.I.

    1997-01-01

    Breast and leg meat patties, prepared from turkeys fed diets containing 25, 200, 400 or 600 IU of dl-alpha-tocopheryl acetate (TA) per kg diet, were irradiated at 0 or 2.5 kGy with vacuum or loose packaging. The effects of dietary TA on storage stability and production of volatiles in irradiated raw turkey meat were determined. Dietary TA at 200 IU/kg decreased lipid oxidation and reduced total volatiles of raw turkey patties after 7-days of storage. However, the antioxidant effects of dietary TA were more notable when the patties were loosely packaged than when vacuum-packaged. Irradiation increased lipid oxidation of raw turkey meats only when loosely packaged but had limited effects on formation of total volatiles after storage at 4 degrees C for 7 days or longer

  20. Determination of water-soluble vitamins in infant milk and dietary supplement using a liquid chromatography on-line coupled to a corona-charged aerosol detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez-Sillero, Isabel; Cárdenas, Soledad; Valcárcel, Miguel

    2013-10-25

    A simple and rapid method for the simultaneous determination of seven water-soluble vitamins (thiamine, folic acid, nicotinic acid, ascorbic acid, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine and biotin) was developed by high performance liquid chromatographic separation and corona-charged aerosol detection. The water-soluble vitamins were separated on a Lichrosorb RP-C18 column under isocratic conditions with a mobile phase consisting of 0.05 M ammonium acetate:methanol 90:10 (v/v) at the flow rate 0.5 mL min(-1). The vitamins were extracted from the infant milk (liquid and powder format) using a precipitation step with 2.5 M acetic acid remaining the analyte in the supernatant. As far as dietary supplements are concerned, only a dilution with distilled water was required. The detection limits ranged from 0.17 to 0.62 mg L(-1) for dietary supplements and 1.7 to 6.5 mg L(-1) for milk samples. The precision of the method was evaluated in terms of relative standard deviation (%, RSD) under repeatability and reproducibility conditions, being the average values for each parameter 2.6 and 2.7 for dietary supplements and 4.3 and 4.6 for milk samples. The optimized method was applied to different infant milk samples and dietary supplements. The results of the analysis were in good agreement with the declared values. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Consumption of whole-grain cereals during weight loss: effects on dietary quality, dietary fiber, magnesium, vitamin B-6, and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanson, Kathleen J; Angelopoulos, Theodore J; Nguyen, Von T; Martini, Margaret; Zukley, Linda; Lowndes, Joshua; Dube, Thomas J; Fiutem, Justin J; Yount, Byron W; Rippe, James M

    2006-09-01

    While various weight-management approaches produce weight loss, they may differ in dietary quality. We monitored changes in nutrient intakes in overweight and obese subjects on three different weight-management programs. Randomized clinical trial (pilot study) with two 12-week phases: phase 1, weekly counseling; phase 2, monitoring only. One hundred eighty nonsmoking, sedentary overweight and obese adults began this outpatient study; 134 (body mass index [calculated as kg/m(2)]=30.9+/-2.4; age=42.3+/-1.2 years) were used in analyses. Twenty-four weeks of exercise only (control group), hypocaloric diet plus exercise, or hypocaloric diet with fiber-rich whole-grain cereals plus exercise. At weeks 0, 12, and 24, diet quality was assessed by 3-day food records and body weight was measured. Three-way analysis of variance with repeated measures. The hypocaloric diet with fiber-rich whole-grain cereals plus exercise decreased energy intake more than exercise only (P=0.032). By week 12, the hypocaloric diet with fiber-rich whole-grain cereals plus exercise and the hypocaloric diet plus exercise decreased total fat more than exercise only, which was sustained in the hypocaloric diet with fiber-rich whole-grain cereals plus exercise at 24 weeks (Pcereals plus exercise reduced saturated fat intake more than exercise only. The hypocaloric diet with fiber-rich whole-grain cereals plus exercise increased total fiber, insoluble fiber (both Pcereals plus exercise and the hypocaloric diet plus exercise. Weight-reduction strategies may be associated with reduced intake of micronutrients, such as calcium and vitamin E. However, a hypocaloric diet with fiber-rich whole-grain cereal is effective for improving or maintaining other aspects of dietary quality during weight loss.

  2. Oxidative stability of chilled broiler breast meat as affected by?dietary supplementation with rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) powder and vitamin E

    OpenAIRE

    Rostami, Hossein; Seidavi, Alireza; Dadashbeiki, Mohammad; Asadpour, Yadollah; Sim?es, Jo?o; Laudadio, Vito; Milis, Chrysostomos; Tufarelli, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) powder and vitamin E, as feed additives combined at different levels, on oxidative stability of broiler meat up to 14th day after chilling. A total of 270 1?day?old male chicks of Ross 308 strain were randomly assigned to nine dietary groups with three replicates having 10 birds each. Diets were supplemented with 0, 0.5, or 1.0% of rosemary (R) powder and 0, 100, or 200?mg/kg of vitamin E ...

  3. Vitamin B12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. National Academies Press. Washington, DC, 1998. PMID: 23193625 ...

  4. Evaluation of dietary intake of vitamins and minerals in 13-15-years-old boys from a sport school in Warsaw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepańska, Beata; Malczewska-Lenczowska, Jadwiga; Wajszczyk, Bożena

    2016-01-01

    Insufficient intake of vitamins and minerals, in teenagers engaged in physical activity increases the risk of health disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate selected vitamins and minerals intake in 13-15-year-old boys from sport school. The study of dietary intake was conducted among 44 boys from the School of Sport Championship (SSC). Nutritional data was collected using 24-hour recall for 3 days of week. Daily intake of minerals: sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, zinc, copper, iodine and vitamins: A, E, D, B1, B2, B6, B12, C, folate and niacin was estimated. The probability of insufficient intake of nutrients in relation to the standard levels: Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) or Adequate Intake (AI) as well as excessive intake of them in relation to the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) were assessed. The highest percentage of insufficient intake concerned vitamin D (100%), potassium (69%), folate (53%), and calcium (50%), slightly lower of magnesium (27%), vitamins C (24%) and E (15%). The risk of inadequate intake of other minerals: sodium, copper, iron, zinc, phosphorus, iodine and vitamins: B6, B1, B2, A, B12, niacin, was relatively lower and amounted from 0.3% to 5.4%. The disturbingly high probability of exceeding the UL for sodium (99.5%) was observed. A significant disproportion between the mean intake and the percentage of inadequate diets indicates a large diversity in the intake of vitamins and minerals in the group of studied boys, what was the reason of unbalanced diet. The insufficient intake concerns especially vitamin D, potassium, folate, calcium and a lesser extent magnesium, vitamins C and E. Sodium intake was disturbingly high. In order to avoid nutritional mistakes in the future education on the rational nutrition among students, their parents, and teachers is necessary.

  5. Red palm oil in the maternal diet increases provitamin A carotenoids in breastmilk and serum of the mother-infant dyad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, L M; Kaminsky, R G; Taren, D L; Shaw, E; Sander, J K

    2001-02-01

    Despite vitamin A supplementation programs, vitamin A deficiency in children remains a public health concern in Honduras. We investigated the effectiveness of short-term dietary supplementation of mothers with red palm oil as a strategy for improving the vitamin A status of the mother-infant dyad. Lactating mothers in Colonia Los Pinos, a barrio of Tegucigalpa, Honduras, consumed a total of 90-mg beta-carotene as red palm oil (n = 32) supplements (n = 36) or placebo (n = 18) in six equal doses over 10 days. Carotenoids and retinol in maternal and infant serum, and breastmilk carotenoids and retinol were measured before and after supplementation. Maternal diet was evaluated by 24-hour recall. Maternal serum alpha-carotene and beta-carotene concentrations were increased 2 fold by palm oil compared with 1.2 fold by beta-carotene supplements. Changes were significantly different in infant serum alpha-carotene but not beta-carotene among the three experimental groups. Increases in breastmilk beta-carotene were greater for the palm oil group (2.5 fold) than for the beta-carotene supplement group (1.6 fold) and increases in milk alpha-carotene concentrations (3.2 fold) were slightly greater than those of beta-carotene. There were also small but significant changes among groups in breastmilk lutein and lycopene. Breastmilk retinol was not significantly different among the groups over the treatment period. Red palm oil in the maternal diet increases provitamin A carotenoids in breastmilk and serum of the mother-infant dyad. The use of dietary red palm oil to improve the vitamin A status of this population should be further investigated.

  6. Effect of dietary vitamin E and selenium supplementation on semen quality in Cairn Terriers with normospermia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchhoff, K. T.; Failing, K.; Goericke-Pesch, S.

    2017-01-01

    Among others, selenium (Se) and vitamin E (VitE) have been provided to dogs to improve semen quality. However, scientific evidence documenting an effect in dogs is lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of supplementation of these antioxidants on various ejaculate parameters......). Although some effects could be identified for selected parameters, we failed to identify a clear trend about how a 3 months VitE and/or Se supplementation affects semen parameters in normospermic Cairn Terriers....

  7. Dietary vitamin D dose-response in healthy children 2 to 8 y of age: a 12-wk randomized controlled trial using fortified foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Neil R; Lavery, Paula; Agellon, Sherry; Vanstone, Catherine A; Maguire, Jonathon L; Rauch, Frank; Weiler, Hope A

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D is fundamental for bone health. A high proportion of Canadian 2- to 8-y-olds do not meet the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) of 400 IU/d. The objective was to determine whether vitamin D intakes consistent with the EAR or Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), through fortification of additional dairy products, would result in higher vitamin D status in young children. Participants aged 2-8 y (n = 77; Montreal, Canada) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 dietary vitamin D targets (control; EAR: 400 IU/d; or RDA: 600 IU/d) for 12 wk (January to April 2014). Anthropometric measurements, demographic characteristics, dietary intakes, fasting serum parathyroid hormone, 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], and ionized calcium were compared by using mixed-model ANOVA. Participants' mean ± SD age was 5.1 ± 1.9 y; 54.5% were boys with body mass index z scores of 0.50 ± 0.85. Compliance was 85% overall. No differences were observed in baseline dietary vitamin D intakes or serum 25(OH)D. At 12 wk, the EAR and RDA groups had significantly higher vitamin D intakes [median (IQR): control, 227 (184-305) IU/d; EAR, 410 (363-516) IU/d; and RDA, 554 (493-653) IU/d; P D concentrations (control: 55.8 ± 12.3 nmol/L; EAR: 64.1 ± 10.0 nmol/L; and RDA: 63.7 ± 12.4 nmol/L; P D concentrations ≥50 nmol/L. Increasing the vitamin D intakes of young children through fortification of alternative dairy products results in significantly higher serum concentrations of 25(OH)D and a significantly greater proportion of children with serum 25(OH)D ≥50 nmol/L during periods of minimal ultraviolet B radiation exposure. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02097160 and had Health Canada Temporary Marketing Authorization Letters for both products (TM-13-0432 and TM-13-0433). © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. Definitions of Health Terms: Vitamins

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements Water-Soluble Vitamins Water-soluble vitamins include all the B vitamins and vitamin C. The body does not easily store water-soluble vitamins and flushes out the extra in the urine. ...

  9. Dietary B Vitamin Intake Is Associated with Lower Urinary Monomethyl Arsenic and Oxidative Stress Marker 15-F2t-Isoprostane among New Hampshire Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Caitlin G; Li, Zhigang; Zens, Michael S; Palys, Thomas; Chen, Yu; Channon, Jacqueline Y; Karagas, Margaret R; Farzan, Shohreh F

    2017-12-01

    Background: Arsenic exposure has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Growing evidence suggests that B vitamins facilitate arsenic metabolism and may protect against arsenic toxicity. However, to our knowledge, few studies have evaluated this in US populations. Objective: Our objective was to examine whether higher B vitamin intake is associated with enhanced arsenic metabolism and lower concentrations of preclinical markers of CVD among New Hampshire adults. Methods: We used weighted quantile sum (WQS) regression to evaluate the collective impact of 6 dietary B vitamins (thiamin, riboflavin, folate, niacin, and vitamins B-6 and B-12) on 1 ) the proportion of arsenic metabolites in urine and 2 ) 6 CVD-related markers [including urinary 15-F 2t -isoprostane (15-F 2t -IsoP)] among 418 participants (26-75 y of age) from the New Hampshire Health Study. Contributions of arsenic metabolites to B vitamin-CVD marker associations were also explored in structural equation models. Results: In WQS models, the weighted sum of B vitamin intakes from food sources was inversely associated with the proportion of monomethyl arsenic species in urine (uMMA) (β: -1.03; 95% CI: -1.91, -0.15; P = 0.02). Thiamin and vitamins B-6 and B-12 contributed the most to this association, whereas riboflavin had a negligible effect. Higher overall B vitamin intake was also inversely associated with 15-F 2t -IsoP (β: -0.21; 95% CI: -0.32, -0.11; P B vitamins, which was partially explained by differences in the proportion of uMMA (indirect effect β: -0.01; 95% CI: -0.04, -0.00). Conclusions: Among New Hampshire adults, higher intakes of certain B vitamins (particularly thiamin and vitamins B-6 and B-12 from food sources) may reduce the proportion of uMMA, an intermediate of arsenic metabolism that has been associated with an increased risk of CVD. Higher overall B vitamin intake may also reduce urinary 15-F 2t -IsoP, a marker of oxidative stress and potential risk

  10. Mechanisms involved in the intestinal digestion and absorption of dietary vitamin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, E H; Hussain, M M

    2001-05-01

    Dietary retinyl esters are hydrolyzed in the intestine by the pancreatic enzyme, pancreatic triglyceride lipase (PTL), and intestinal brush border enzyme, phospholipase B. Recent work on the carboxylester lipase (CEL) knockout mouse suggests that CEL may not be involved in dietary retinyl ester digestion. The possible roles of the pancreatic lipase-related proteins (PLRP) 1 and 2 and other enzymes require further investigation. Unesterified retinol is taken up by the enterocytes, perhaps involving both diffusion and protein-mediated facilitated transport. Once in the cell, retinol is complexed with cellular retinol-binding protein type 2 (CRBP2) and the complex serves as a substrate for reesterification of the retinol by the enzyme lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT). Retinol not bound to CRBP2 is esterified by acyl-CoA acyltransferase (ARAT). The retinyl esters are incorporated into chylomicrons, intestinal lipoproteins that transport other dietary lipids such as triglycerides, phospholipids, and cholesterol. Chylomicrons containing newly absorbed retinyl esters are then secreted into the lymph.

  11. Synergistic effects of dietary nano selenium and vitamin C on growth, feeding, and physiological parameters of mahseer fish (Tor putitora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kifayat Ullah Khan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The current study was conducted to determine the synergistic effects of dietary nano selenium (Nano Se and vitamin C on growth, feeding, and physiological parameters of juvenile mahseer, Tor putitora. L-ascorbyl-2-polyphosphate (APP was used as a source of vitamin C. Four semi-purified experimental diets were prepared. A basal diet kept without the supplementation of any micronutrient and the other three diets were formulated such that three different levels of APP (100, 200, and 300 mg kg−1 were used in combination with a pre-determined dose of Nano Se (0.68 mg kg−1. The results showed that both the micronutrients positively synergized the effects of each other. APP at the rate of 300 mg kg−1 showed strong interaction with Nano Se. The APP300 + Nano Se0.68 mg kg−1 diet supplemented diet significantly decreased (P< 0.05 the feed conversion ratio (FCR while significantly increased (P< 0.05 the weight gain percentage (WG%, feed conversion efficiency (FCE%, specific growth rate (SGR, and serum growth hormone (GH concentration. Similarly, the physiological parameters such as red blood cells count (RBCs, hemoglobin level (Hb, hematocrit value (Hct, and serum lysozyme activity were also significantly increased in group of fish fed diet supplemented with APP100 mg kg−1 in combination with Nano Se0.68 mg kg−1 as compared to the control group. The present results clearly indicated the beneficent synergistic effects of Nano Se and APP in mahseer fish. Moreover, the current finding also supported our hypothesis that Nano Se and APP potentiate positively the effect of each other when both the micronutrients are supplemented together in the same fish feed.

  12. Interlaboratory Trial for Measurement of Vitamin D and 25-Hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in Foods and a Dietary Supplement Using Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roseland, Janet Maxwell; Patterson, Kristine Y; Andrews, Karen W

    2016-01-01

    performance has been needed. The primary goal of this study was to evaluate whether vitamin D3 and 25(OH)D3 concentrations in food and DS materials could be measured with acceptable reproducibility. Five experienced laboratories from the United States and other countries participated, all using liquid......Assessment of total vitamin D intake from foods and dietary supplements (DSs) may be incomplete if 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] intake is not included. However, 25(OH)D data for such intake assessments are lacking, no food or DS reference materials (RMs) are available, and comparison of laboratory...... chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry but no common analytical protocol; however, various methods were used for determining vitamin D3 in the DS. Five animal-based materials (including three commercially available RMs) and one DS were analyzed. Reproducibility results for the materials were acceptable. Thus...

  13. Fluid Intake and Beverage Consumption Description and Their Association with Dietary Vitamins and Antioxidant Compounds in Italian Adults from the Mediterranean Healthy Eating, Aging and Lifestyles (MEAL Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Platania

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the total water intake (TWI from drinks and foods and to evaluate the correlation between the different types of drinks on energy and antioxidant intake. The cohort comprised 1602 individuals from the city of Catania in Southern Italy. A food frequency questionnaire was administered to assess dietary and water intake. The mean total water intake was 2.7 L; more than about two thirds of the sample met the European recommendations for water intake. Water and espresso coffee were the most consumed drinks. Alcohol beverages contributed about 3.0% of total energy intake, and sugar sweetened beverages contributed about 1.4%. All antioxidant vitamins were significantly correlated with TWI. However, a higher correlation was found for water from food rather than water from beverages, suggesting that major food contributors to antioxidant vitamin intake might be fruits and vegetables, rather than beverages other than water. A mild correlation was found between fruit juices and vitamin C; coffee, tea and alcohol, and niacin and polyphenols; and milk and vitamin B12. The findings from the present study show that our sample population has an adequate intake of TWI and that there is a healthy association between beverages and dietary antioxidants.

  14. Efficacy of the dietary histone deacetylase inhibitor butyrate alone or in combination with vitamin A against proliferation of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, F.O.; Nagamine, M.K.; De Conti, A.; Chaible, L.M.; Fontelles, C.C.; Jordão Junior, A.A.; Vannucchi, H.; Dagli, M.L.Z.; Bassoli, B.K.; Moreno, F.S.; Ong, T.P.

    2012-01-01

    The combined treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) and retinoids has been suggested as a potential epigenetic strategy for the control of cancer. In the present study, we investigated the effects of treatment with butyrate, a dietary HDACi, combined with vitamin A on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Cell proliferation was evaluated by the crystal violet staining method. MCF-7 cells were plated at 5 x 10 4 cells/mL and treated with butyrate (1 mM) alone or combined with vitamin A (10 µM) for 24 to 120 h. Cell proliferation inhibition was 34, 10 and 46% following treatment with butyrate, vitamin A and their combination, respectively, suggesting that vitamin A potentiated the inhibitory activities of butyrate. Furthermore, exposure to this short-chain fatty acid increased the level of histone H3K9 acetylation by 9.5-fold (Western blot), but not of H4K16, and increased the expression levels of p21 WAF1 by 2.7-fold (Western blot) and of RARβ by 2.0-fold (quantitative real-time PCR). Our data show that RARβ may represent a molecular target for butyrate in breast cancer cells. Due to its effectiveness as a dietary HDACi, butyrate should be considered for use in combinatorial strategies with more active retinoids, especially in breast cancers in which RARβ is epigenetically altered

  15. Efficacy of the dietary histone deacetylase inhibitor butyrate alone or in combination with vitamin A against proliferation of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, F.O. [Laboratório de Dieta, Nutrição e Câncer, Departamento de Alimentos e Nutrição Experimental, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Nagamine, M.K. [Laboratório de Oncologia Experimental, Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); De Conti, A. [Laboratório de Dieta, Nutrição e Câncer, Departamento de Alimentos e Nutrição Experimental, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Chaible, L.M. [Laboratório de Oncologia Experimental, Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fontelles, C.C. [Laboratório de Dieta, Nutrição e Câncer, Departamento de Alimentos e Nutrição Experimental, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Jordão Junior, A.A.; Vannucchi, H. [Divisão de Nutrição, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Dagli, M.L.Z. [Laboratório de Oncologia Experimental, Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Bassoli, B.K.; Moreno, F.S.; Ong, T.P. [Laboratório de Dieta, Nutrição e Câncer, Departamento de Alimentos e Nutrição Experimental, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-06-22

    The combined treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) and retinoids has been suggested as a potential epigenetic strategy for the control of cancer. In the present study, we investigated the effects of treatment with butyrate, a dietary HDACi, combined with vitamin A on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Cell proliferation was evaluated by the crystal violet staining method. MCF-7 cells were plated at 5 x 10{sup 4} cells/mL and treated with butyrate (1 mM) alone or combined with vitamin A (10 µM) for 24 to 120 h. Cell proliferation inhibition was 34, 10 and 46% following treatment with butyrate, vitamin A and their combination, respectively, suggesting that vitamin A potentiated the inhibitory activities of butyrate. Furthermore, exposure to this short-chain fatty acid increased the level of histone H3K9 acetylation by 9.5-fold (Western blot), but not of H4K16, and increased the expression levels of p21{sup WAF1} by 2.7-fold (Western blot) and of RARβ by 2.0-fold (quantitative real-time PCR). Our data show that RARβ may represent a molecular target for butyrate in breast cancer cells. Due to its effectiveness as a dietary HDACi, butyrate should be considered for use in combinatorial strategies with more active retinoids, especially in breast cancers in which RARβ is epigenetically altered.

  16. Effects of dietary selenium and vitamin E on immune response and biological blood parameters of broilers reared under thermoneutral or heat stress conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibian, Mahmood; Ghazi, Shahab; Moeini, Mohammad Mehdi; Abdolmohammadi, Alireza

    2014-07-01

    A study was conducted using 360 broiler chickens to evaluate the effects of dietary vitamin E (0, 125 and 250 mg/kg), selenium (Se, 0, 0.5 and 1 mg/kg), or their different combinations on immune response and blood biological parameters of broilers raised under either thermoneutral (TN, 23.9 °C constant) or heat stress (HS, 23.9 to 37 °C cycling) conditions. Humoral immunity was assessed by intravenous injection of 7 % sheep red blood cell (SRBC) followed by evaluation of serum for antibody titers in primary and secondary responses. Heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratio also determined as an indicator of stress. Furthermore, at the end of the experiment, birds were bled for determination of some biological parameters. There was a significant reduction in body weight and feed intake, but the feed conversion ratio increased when the birds were exposed to HS ( P vitamin E and Se ( P > 0.05), whereas feed conversion was improved significantly by 125 mg/kg vitamin E ( P vitamin E resulted in improvement of primary and secondary antibody responses both in TN and HS broilers ( P Vitamin E and Se had interactive effects on anti-SRBC titers; however, no consistent differences were found between dietary levels during the study. The H/L ratio decreased by feeding vitamin E at both levels either under HS or TN conditions ( P < 0.05). The serum concentrations of glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol were increased but serum HDL-cholesterol decreased in HS broilers ( P < 0.05).

  17. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are Regulated Vitamin products are regulated by FDA as "Dietary Supplements." The law defines dietary supplements, in part, as products taken by mouth that contain a "dietary ...

  18. Dietary Effect of Selenium-enriched Radish Sprouts, Vitamin E, and Rhodobacter capsulatus on Hypocholesterolemia and Immunity of Broiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsujii H

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to investigate the effects of dietary Selenium-enriched radish sprouts (Se-RS, Vitamin E (Vit E, and Rhodobacter capsulatus (RC on immunity, cholesterol concentration, and fatty acid composition in broiler meat. A total of 100 two-week-old male broiler chicks were randomly assigned into five dietary groups: I Control; II Se-RS (5 μg/kg Se-RS; III Se-RS+RC (5 μg/kg Se-RS + 0.2 g/kg RC; IV Se-RS+Vit E (5 μg/kg Se-RS + 50 mg/kg Vit E and V Se-RS+RC+Vit E (5 μg/kg Se-RS + 0.2 g/kg RC + 50 mg/kg Vit E. Diets and clean drinking water were offered ad libitum. After the end of 3-wk of feeding period, serum cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations were lower (P < 0.05 in broilers fed Se-RS + RC + Vit E supplemented diet compared to the control diet. At the end of the 6-wk feeding period, birds fed the Se-RS+RC+Vit E diet significantly (P < 0.05 reduced cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations and improved the ratio of unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids in broiler meat. The highest (P < 0.05 number of leukocytes was observed in broilers fed Se-RS+RC+Vit E supplemented diet. Foot web index and weights of spleen, bursa, and thymus were significantly (P < 0.05 higher in birds fed Se-RS+RC+Vit E compared to the control diet. Our findings suggest that there are dual benefits of supplementing broiler diets with Se-RS+RC+Vit E because of improvements in the bird’s immunity and meat quality that is important for health conscious consumers.

  19. Vitamin D: How to Translate the Science of the New Dietary Reference Intakes for This Complex Vitamin--More Is Not Always Better!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Kathleen T.

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin D has long been known for its role in bone health. Before the recent Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines, there were conflicting messages about its other benefits. The IOM experts' exhaustive review of the evidence maintained the importance of calcium and vitamin D in promoting bone growth and maintenance. New Daily Reference…

  20. Effects of Dietary Supplemental Vitamins and Periods of Administration on Growth Performance and Antibody Titre of Broiler Chickens Vaccinated against Newcastle Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odutayo, O. J.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of supplemental vitamins and varying administration periods on growth performance and antibody titre of broiler chickens vaccinated against Newcastle Disease (ND. A total of 300 unvaccinated against ND Arbor Acre day-old chicks were used for the study for 8 wk. Birds were brooded together on day 1 of age, and 30 chicks were selected randomly for evaluating the maternally derived antibody titre against ND. At 2 days of age, the remaining 270 chicks were divided based on weight equalization into 9 treatment groups and replicated thrice. The 9 treatments consisted of a factorial arrangement of 4 supplemental vitamins (A, C, E and combination of A, C, E and 2 periods of administration (3 days pre- and post-ND vaccinations with a control. The birds were managed intensively throughout the experimental period, ND vaccines were administered on the 5th (i/o and 24th (Lasota day of age, respectively. Supplemental combined vitamins A, C and E at 0.15, 16.67 and 3.03 mg/kg, respectively, resulted in higher (P < 0.05 final body weight of 1785.00 g/bird and better feed conversion ratio (FCR of 2.89. Also, birds fed vitamin A supplemented diet 3 d pre-i/o vaccine had higher (p<0.05 serum antibody titre (75.20 against ND while higher (p<0.05 serum antibody titre (741.33 was also obtained in birds fed diet supplemented with vitamin E 3 d post-Lasota vaccination. Conclusively, broiler chickens diets can be supplemented with combined vitamins A, C, and E for better growth performance measured as final body weight and FCR, in addition, vitamins A (0.45mg/kg and E (9.1mg/kg dietary supplementation at 3 d pre-i/o and 3 d post-Lasota vaccines, respectively, can be adopted for improved antibody production.

  1. A Validation Study of an Interviewer-Administered Short Food Frequency Questionnaire in Assessing Dietary Vitamin D and Calcium Intake in Swedish Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderberg, Lotta; Lind, Torbjörn; Karlsland Åkeson, Pia; Sandström, Ann-Kristin; Hernell, Olle; Öhlund, Inger

    2017-06-30

    Vitamin D and calcium are essential nutrients with a range of biological effects of public health relevance. This study aimed to validate a short food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) against a three-day food record (3D record), assessing the intake of vitamin D and calcium in Swedish children during wintertime. In a double-blinded, randomized food-based intervention study on the effect of feeding different daily doses of vitamin D supplement to 5-7-year-old children ( n = 85), 79 (93%) participants completed SFFQ1 at baseline and SFFQ2 after the intervention, and 72 were informed to fill in a 3D record. The 28 (39%) children who completed the 3D record were included in this validation study. The baseline level of serum-25 hydroxy vitamin D [S-25(OH)D] was used as a biomarker. The correlation between all three instruments were moderate to strong. SFFQ2 and the 3D record correlated moderately to S-25(OH)D. Bland-Altman analysis showed that SFFQ2 overestimated vitamin D intake by on average 0.6 μg/day, (limits of agreement (LOA) 5.7 and -4.6 μg/day), whereas the intake of calcium was underestimated by on average 29 mg/day, (LOA 808 and -865 mg/day). Finally, the validity coefficient calculated for vitamin D using the method of triad was high (0.75). In conclusion, this SFFQ, assessed by a dietician, is a valid tool to assess dietary vitamin D and calcium intake in groups of young children.

  2. Post-irradiation dietary vitamin E does not affect the development of radiation-induced lung damage in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegman, EA; van Gameren, MA; Kampinga, HH; Szabo, BG; Coppes, RP

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether application of post-irradiation vitamin E, an anti-oxidant, could prevent the development of radiation induced lung damage. Wistar rats were given vitamin E enriched or vitamin E deprived food starting from 4 weeks after 18 Gy single dose

  3. Vitamin A supplementation for postpartum women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Menegozzo, Julicristie M; Bergamaschi, Denise P; Middleton, Philippa; East, Christine E

    2010-10-06

    In vitamin A deficient populations, the amount of vitamin A may be insufficient for maintenance of maternal health and levels in breast milk may be insufficient for breastfeeding infants' needs. To assess the effects of postpartum maternal vitamin A supplementation on maternal and infant health. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 July 2010), LILACS (1982 to July 2010), Web of Science (1945 to July 2010) and Biological Abstracts (1998 to July 2010). Randomised controlled trials evaluating the effects of postpartum maternal vitamin A supplementation. Two review authors assessed the studies independently. We included 12 trials at moderate risk of bias, enrolling 25,465 mother-baby pairs and comparing several postpartum doses (200,000-400,000 IU) of vitamin A or 7.8 mg daily beta-carotene, with placebo, iron or no supplement; or higher (400,000 IU) versus lower dose (200,000 IU). The majority of infants in all studies were at least partially breastfed for six months.Maternal: we observed no impact of vitamin A on maternal mortality (two trials of 9,126 women), morbidity (one trial of 50 women) or adverse effects (subset of 786 women in one trial). Vitamin A enhanced serum and breast milk retinol at three months in five trials, but these improvements were generally not sustained.Infant: we observed no significant differences for infant mortality RR 1.14 95% CI 0.84 to 1.57 (five trials (6,170 infants) or morbidity (three trials) except for fewer episodes of fever with vitamin A in one small trial. No significant differences in infant vitamin A status were seen with maternal vitamin A supplementation (five trials).No beneficial effects for maternal or infant health were associated with higher compared to lower doses of vitamin A in two trials. The lack of effect on maternal and infant mortality and morbidity, with exception of some improved infant morbidity in one small study, and the improvement in maternal vitamin A status

  4. Effect of replacing dietary vitamin E by sage on performance and meatiness of spent hens, and the oxidative stability of sausages produced from their meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loetscher, Y; Kreuzer, M; Albiker, D; Stephan, R; Messikommer, R E

    2014-01-01

    A total of 3960 hens (half ISA Warren and half Dekalb White) were housed in 18 compartments with 220 hens each. The effect of replacing dietary vitamin E by sage on productivity, meat yield and oxidative stability of sausages was studied. One third of all animals received either a vitamin E deficient diet (negative control) or diets supplemented with 30 mg/kg α-tocopherylacetate (positive control) or 25 g sage leaves/kg. At slaughter, meat yield was assessed and sausages were produced (n = 12 per treatment). The omission of vitamin E did not impair the oxidative stability of the raw sausage material or the spiced sausages in comparison to the positive control. Sage supplementation improved oxidative stability after 7 m of frozen storage, but not after 1, 4 and 10 m. Spice addition during meat processing had an antioxidant effect regardless of dietary treatment. Diet supplementation of any type did not affect laying performance and sausage meat yield. Feeding antioxidants to spent hens seemed to be not as efficient as in growing chickens, while seasoning with spices during sausage production proved to be a feasible way to delay lipid oxidation.

  5. Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... website Submit Search NIH Office of Dietary Supplements Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets Search the list ... Supplements: Background Information Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information Vitamin and Mineral Fact Sheets Botanical Supplement Fact Sheets ...

  6. Dietary Vitamin C Intake Reduces the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Chinese Adults: HOMA-IR and T-AOC as Potential Mediators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunling Zhou

    Full Text Available Despite growing interest in the protective role that dietary antioxidant vitamins may have in the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D, little epidemiological evidence is available in non-Western populations especially about the possible mediators underlying in this role. The present study aimed to investigate the association of vitamin C and vitamin E intakes with T2D risk in Chinese adults and examine the potential mediators. 178 incident T2D cases among 3483 participants in the Harbin People Health Study (HPHS, and 522 newly diagnosed T2D among 7595 participants in the Harbin Cohort Study on Diet, Nutrition and Chronic Non-communicable Diseases (HDNNCDS were studied. In the multivariable-adjusted logistics regression model, the relative risks (RRs were 1.00, 0.75, and 0.76 (Ptrend = 0.003 across tertiles of vitamin C intake in the HDNNCDS, and this association was validated in the HPHS with RRs of 1.00, 0.47, and 0.46 (Ptrend = 0.002. The RRs were 1.00, 0.72, and 0.76 (Ptrend = 0.039 when T2D diagnosed by haemoglobin A1c in the HDNNCDS. The mediation analysis discovered that insulin resistance (indicated by homeostasis model assessment and oxidative stress (indicated by plasma total antioxidative capacity partly mediated this association. But no association was evident between vitamin E intake and T2D. In conclusion, our research adds further support to the role of vitamin C intake in reducing the development of T2D in the broader population studied. The results also suggested that this association was partly mediated by inhibiting or ameliorating oxidative stress and insulin resistance.

  7. Rice flakes produced from commercial wild rice: Chemical compositions, vitamin B compounds, mineral and trace element contents and their dietary intake evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumczynski, Daniela; Koubová, Eva; Šenkárová, Lenka; Orsavová, Jana

    2018-10-30

    Non-traditional wild rice flakes were analysed for chemical composition, vitamin B compounds, α-tocopherol, mineral and trace elements. Dietary intakes of vitamins, minerals and trace elements were evaluated using FAO/WHO and Institute of Medicine regulations. Wild rice flakes proved to be significant contributors of pyridoxine, pantothenic and folic acids, niacin, thiamine, chromium, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, zinc, copper, molybdenum and iron to essential dietary intakes values. Toxic dietary intake values for aluminium, cadmium, tin and mercury were less than 33%, which complies the limits for adults set by FAO/WHO for toxic elements intake related to the body weight of 65 kg for females and 80 kg for males taking 100 g of flakes as a portion. However, concentrations of Hg reaching between 3.67 and 12.20 µg/100 g in flakes exceeded the average Hg value of 0.27-1.90 μg/100 g in cereals consumed in the EU. It has to be respected in the future. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of Dietary Zinc and Vitamin C Supplementation on Some Blood Biochemical Parameters and Egg Production in Free-Range Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasko GERZILOV

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to follow out the effect of antistress dietary supplements Zinteral 35 and vitamin C on the levels of some blood biochemical parameters (corticosterone, total cholesterol, glucose, total protein and creatinine and egg production in laying hens during cold (7o C, thermoneutral (19o C and hot (31o C periods. The fowls were divided in three groups (26 females and 3 males in each group. They were reared in a free-range management system with elements of organic production. The experimental treatments were as followed: first (control group without dietary supplement, second group with 100 mg Zinteral 35 per kg diet containing 35 mg/kg zinc oxide, third group with the same amount of Zinteral 35 together with 250 mg vitamin C per kg diet. During the three periods with different ambient temperature, the hens supplemented either with zinc alone (second group or co-administered zinc + vitamin C (third group had significantly lower levels of plasma corticosterone (P<0.001, serum cholesterol (P<0.05 and glucose (P<0.05 than those from the first (control group. The differences between the third and the first groups were bigger versus those between the second and the first groups. For the entire period (March 1 and June 21, egg production was higher by 2.22 % and 4.60 % in the second and third groups respectively in comparison to the first group. The combination of 100 mg Zinteral 35 and 250 mg vitamin C per 1 kg diet exhibited a synergistic effect in reducing cold and heat stress in laying hens and increased their egg production.

  9. Post-irradiation dietary vitamin E does not affect the development of radiation-induced lung damage in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiegman, Erwin M.; Gameren, Mieke M. van; Kampinga, Harm H.; Szabo, Ben G.; Coppes, Rob P.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether application of post-irradiation vitamin E, an anti-oxidant, could prevent the development of radiation induced lung damage. Wistar rats were given vitamin E enriched or vitamin E deprived food starting from 4 weeks after 18 Gy single dose irradiation of the right thorax. Neither breathing frequencies nor CT density measurements revealed differences between the groups. It is concluded that post-irradiation vitamin E does not influence radiation-induced fibrosis to the lung

  10. Contents of vitamin C, carotenoids, tocopherols, and tocotrienols in the subtropical plant species Cyphostemma digitatum as affected by processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Duais, Mohammed; Hohbein, Juliane; Werner, Susanne; Böhm, Volker; Jetschke, Gottfried

    2009-06-24

    The subtropical plant species Cyphostemma digitatum, Vitaceae, is used in central Yemen in traditional medicine, as a culinary herb, and as a source of food flavoring. The contents of vitamin C, vitamin E, and carotenoids and changes caused by common processing were investigated. Carotenoids were determined by reversed phase C30-high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array detection at 470 nm, while tocopherols and tocotrienols were analyzed by using normal phase HPLC with fluorescence detection (excitation, 292 nm; emission, 330 nm). Ascorbic acid was determined spectrophotometrically after reaction with DNP by measuring the absorbance at 520 nm. For the raw material and for the processed commercial food product, both in dried form, reasonable quantities of carotenoids were found in the raw material as follows: lutein, 18.89 +/- 0.73 mg/100 g; zeaxanthin, 9.46 +/- 0.30 mg/100 g; canthaxanthin, 0.21 +/- 0.01 mg/100 g; beta-cryptoxanthin, 0.67 +/- 0.03 mg/100 g; and beta-carotene, 14.60 +/- 0.46 mg/100 g. Household processing reduced the carotenoid contents dramatically; only beta-carotene sustained the processing. Likewise, vitamin C, 49.50 +/- 0.01 mg/100 g in the raw material and 20.30 +/- 0.02 mg/100 g in the processed material, was affected negatively by processing; only 41% was retained after processing. In contrast, the outstanding high content of vitamin E, 82.74 +/- 0.63 mg/100 g in the raw material, was increased by processing to 101.20 +/- 1.38 mg/100 g; it was found in different forms, some of which were rare in other sources.

  11. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... low dietary intake may be a cause of concern. These nutrients are: calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamins A (as carotenoids), C, and E (for adults) calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamin E (for children and adolescents) vitamin B-12, iron, folic acid, and vitamins ...

  12. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... If you are an older adult, have dark skin, or are exposed to insufficient ultraviolet band radiation (such as sunlight), consume extra vitamin D from vitamin D-fortified foods and/or supplements. How Vitamins are Regulated Vitamin products are regulated by FDA as "Dietary Supplements." The ...

  13. Antioxidants

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    Antioxidants are man-made or natural substances that may prevent or delay some types of cell damage. Antioxidants are found in many foods, including fruits and ... are also available as dietary supplements. Examples of antioxidants include Beta-carotene Lutein Lycopene Selenium Vitamin A ...

  14. Micronutrient intake and risk of prostate cancer in a cohort of middle-aged, Danish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roswall, Nina; Larsen, Signe B.; Friis, Søren

    2013-01-01

    intake of vitamin C, E, folate, and beta-carotene and prostate cancer risk, focusing on possible different effects of dietary, supplemental, or total intake and on potential effect modification by alcohol intake and BMI. Methods: Danish prospective cohort study of 26,856 men aged 50-64 years...

  15. Dietary intake of the water-soluble vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12 and C in 10 countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, A; Halkjaer, J; van Gils, C H; Buijsse, B; Verhagen, H; Jenab, M; Boutron-Ruault, M C; Ericson, U; Ocké, M C; Peeters, P H M; Touvier, M; Niravong, M; Waaseth, M; Skeie, G; Khaw, K T; Travis, R; Ferrari, P; Sanchez, M J; Agudo, A; Overvad, K; Linseisen, J; Weikert, C; Sacerdote, C; Evangelista, A; Zylis, D; Tsiotas, K; Manjer, J; van Guelpen, B; Riboli, E; Slimani, N; Bingham, S

    2009-11-01

    To describe the intake of vitamins thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), B6 (pyridoxine), B12 (cobalamine) and C (ascorbic acid) and their food sources among 27 centres in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Between 1995 and 2000, 36 034 persons aged between 35 and 74 years were administered a standardized 24-h dietary recall using a computerized interview software programme (EPIC-SOFT). Intakes of the four B vitamins and vitamin C were estimated using the standardized EPIC Nutrient Database (ENDB). Mean intakes were adjusted for age and weighted by season and day of recall. Intake of B vitamins did not vary considerably between centres, except in the UK health-conscious cohort, in which substantially higher intakes of thiamine and lower intakes of vitamin B12 were reported compared with other centres. Overall, meat was the most important contributor to the B vitamins in all centres except in the UK health-conscious group. Vitamin C showed a clear geographical gradient, with higher intakes in the southern centres as compared with the northern ones; this was more pronounced in men than in women. Vegetables and fruits were major contributors to vitamin C in all centres, but juices and potatoes were also important sources in the northern centres. This study showed no major differences across centres in the mean intakes of B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, B6, B12), whereas a tendency towards a north-south gradient was observed for vitamin C.

  16. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2015. Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for cobalamin (vitamin B12)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2015-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derived Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for cobalamin (vitamin B12). The Panel considers that the approach based on a combination of biomarkers of cobalamin status, i.e. serum....... For pregnancy and lactation, additional cobalamin intakes related to the accumulation of cobalamin in fetal tissues and transfer of cobalamin into breast milk are considered and AIs of 4.5 and 5 μg/day, respectively, are proposed....

  17. Composition of α-tocopherol and fatty acids in porcine tissues after dietary supplementation with vitamin E and different fat sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Charlotte; Theil, Peter Kappel; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2013-01-01

    in transfer of α-tocopherol, and oxidation and metabolism of fatty acids. From day 28 to 56 of age, pigs were provided 5% of tallow, fish oil or sunflower oil and 85, 150, or 300 mg/kg of all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate. Samples of liver, heart, and adipose tissue were obtained from littermates at day 56. Tissue...... fatty acid composition was highly influenced by dietary fat sources. Dietary fatty acid composition (Pfish oil...... lower in pigs fed fish oil compared to other treatments, whereas the fatty acid oxidation, as indicated by the expression of PPAR-α, was higher when sunflower and fish oil was provided (P=0.03). Expression of α-TTP in liver was higher in pigs fed fish oil (P=0.01). Vitamin E supplementation did...

  18. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... Vitamin Facts Your body uses vitamins for a variety of biological processes, including growth, digestion, and nerve ... the Dietary guidelines include the following: Consume a variety of nutrient-dense foods and beverages within and ...

  19. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... Buy Vitamins? There are many good reasons to consider taking vitamin supplements, such as over-the-counter ... to determine how best to achieve optimal health." Consider the following tips before buying a dietary supplement: ...

  20. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... and vitamins E and D (for specific population groups). Regarding the use of vitamin supplements, the Dietary ... and beverages within and among the basic food groups. At the same time, choose foods that limit ...

  1. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the following tips before buying a dietary supplement: Think twice about chasing the latest headline. Sound health ... For example, excessive amounts of water-soluble vitamins, like vitamins C and B, are not used by ...

  2. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamin E (for children and adolescents) vitamin B-12, iron, folic acid, ... Older Adults More in Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices ...

  3. Energy intake, growth rate and body composition of young Labrador Retrievers and Miniature Schnauzers fed different dietary levels of vitamin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenten, Thomas; Morris, Penelope J; Salt, Carina; Raila, Jens; Kohn, Barbara; Brunnberg, Leo; Schweigert, Florian J; Zentek, Jürgen

    2014-06-28

    Research in rodents has shown that dietary vitamin A reduces body fat by enhancing fat mobilisation and energy utilisation; however, their effects in growing dogs remain unclear. In the present study, we evaluated the development of body weight and body composition and compared observed energy intake with predicted energy intake in forty-nine puppies from two breeds (twenty-four Labrador Retriever (LAB) and twenty-five Miniature Schnauzer (MS)). A total of four different diets with increasing vitamin A content between 5·24 and 104·80 μmol retinol (5000-100 000 IU vitamin A)/4184 kJ (1000 kcal) metabolisable energy were fed from the age of 8 weeks up to 52 (MS) and 78 weeks (LAB). The daily energy intake was recorded throughout the experimental period. The body condition score was evaluated weekly using a seven-category system, and food allowances were adjusted to maintain optimal body condition. Body composition was assessed at the age of 26 and 52 weeks for both breeds and at the age of 78 weeks for the LAB breed only using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The growth curves of the dogs followed a breed-specific pattern. However, data on energy intake showed considerable variability between the two breeds as well as when compared with predicted energy intake. In conclusion, the data show that energy intakes of puppies particularly during early growth are highly variable; however, the growth pattern and body composition of the LAB and MS breeds are not affected by the intake of vitamin A at levels up to 104·80 μmol retinol (100 000 IU vitamin A)/4184 kJ (1000 kcal).

  4. Multinutrient-fortified juices improve vitamin D and vitamin E status in children: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economos, Christina D; Moore, Carolyn E; Hyatt, Raymond R; Kuder, Julia; Chen, Tai; Meydani, Simin Nikbin; Meydani, Mohsen; Klein, Ellen; Biancuzzo, Rachael M; Holick, Michael F

    2014-05-01

    Provision of fortified juices may provide a convenient method to maintain and increase blood fat-soluble vitamins. To determine whether children consuming orange juice fortified with calcium and combinations of vitamins D, E, and A could increase serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], α-tocopherol, and retinol levels. A 12-week randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. One hundred eighty participants (aged 8.04±1.42 years) were recruited at Tufts (n=70) and Boston University (n=110) during 2005-2006. Of those recruited, 176 children were randomized into three groups: CaD (700 mg calcium+200 IU vitamin D), CaDEA (700 mg calcium+200 IU vitamin D+12 IU vitamin E+2,000 IU vitamin A as beta carotene), or Ca (700 mg calcium). Children consumed two 240-mL glasses of CaD, CaDEA, or Ca fortified orange juice daily for 12 weeks. Serum 25(OH)D, α-tocopherol, and retinol concentrations. Changes in 25(OH)D, α-tocopherol, retinol, and parathyroid hormone concentrations were examined. Covariates included sex, age, race/ethnicity, body mass index, and baseline 25(OH)D, α-tocopherol, retinol, or parathyroid hormone levels. Multivariate models and repeated measures analysis of variance tested for group differences with pre-post measures (n=141). Baseline 25(OH)D was 68.4±27.7 nmol/L (27.4±11.10 ng/mL) ), with 21.7% of participants having inadequate 25(OH)D (vitamin D and 12 IU vitamin E increased 25(OH)D and α-tocopherol concentrations in young children within 12 weeks. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Assessment of the impact of vitamin and dietary fiber content in the diet on the characteristics of protective colon microbiota populations of rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markova, Yu M; Sheveleva, S A

    2015-01-01

    The content of lactobacilli and enterobacteria in the experiment in rats with varying levels of vitamins and dietary fiber was studied. The study was performed on 48 male weanling Wistar rats randomized into 8 groups, with the creation of vitamin deficiency (30 d.) and its further compensation (5 d.). Vitamin content in the semisynthetic diet in rats of the control group N 1 corresponded to 100% of a daily adequate intake. In the similar composition of the diet of the control group N 2 wheat bran was added in amount of 5% of the weight of the diet. In groups N 3–8 rats received a diet with the reduced amount of vitamin mixture by 5 times (20% of the adequate intake) and the total exclusion of tocopherol, thiamine and riboflavin from the mixture. The wheat bran (5% of diet mass) was added to the diets in Groups N 4, 6, 8. At the stage of compensation of deficiency rats were fed with the diets with increased content of vitamin mixture: Group 5–6 to 80% 7–8 to 200% (100 and 220% of the adequate intake, respectively), and the groups N 3–4 continued to receive deficient diet with or without wheat bran until the end of the experiment. After 35 days rats were anesthetized with ether, decapitated, necropsied and the cecum segments were selected for quantitative microbiological analysis of its contents. It has been shown that the addition of wheat bran to vitamin deficient diet lead to the reduction of the manifestation of physical sign of hypovitaminosis. It also eliminated the differences in the integrated index of growth and development of rats in comparison with the group without vitamin deficiency. It was found that the vitamin deficiency in the diet, regardless of the presence or absence of wheat bran, led to a significant reduction of the number of lactobacilli in the intestinal contents, but almost did not affect the number of normal and opportunistic pathogenic enterobacteria. The compensation of deficiency during 5 days lead to the increased number of

  6. L-dehydroascorbic acid can substitute l-ascorbic acid as dietary vitamin C source in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frikke-Schmidt, Henriette; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2016-04-01

    Vitamin C deficiency globally affects several hundred million people and has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality in numerous studies. In this study, bioavailability of the oxidized form of vitamin C (l-dehydroascorbic acid or DHA)-commonly found in vitamin C containing food products prone to oxidation-was studied. Our aim was to compare tissue accumulation of vitamin C in guinea pigs receiving different oral doses of either ascorbate or DHA. In all tissues tested (plasma, liver, spleen, lung, adrenal glands, kidney, muscle, heart, and brain), only sporadic differences in vitamin C accumulation from ascorbate or DHA were observed except for the lowest dose of DHA (0.25mg/ml in the drinking water), where approximately half of the tissues had slightly yet significantly less vitamin C accumulation than from the ascorbate source. As these results contradicted data from rats, we continued to explore the ability to recycle DHA in blood, liver and intestine in guinea pigs, rats and mice. These investigations revealed that guinea pigs have similar recycling capacity in red blood cells as observed in humans, while rats and mice do not have near the same ability to reduce DHA in erythrocytes. In liver and intestinal homogenates, guinea pigs also showed a significantly higher ability to recycle DHA compared to rats and mice. These data demonstrate that DHA in guinea pigs-as in humans-is almost as effective as ascorbate as vitamin C source when it comes to taking up and storing vitamin C and further suggest that the guinea pig is superior to other rodents in modeling human vitamin C homeostasis. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Dietary plant food and socioeconomic determinants of vitamin A status : study in rural lactating woman during crisis in Central Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sulchan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available For the Longer term food-based approaches for controlling vitamin A deficiency and its consequences, become increasingly important. A nutrition survailance system in Central-Java, Indonesia assessed vitamin A intake and serum retinol concentration of lactating women with a child ≤36 mo old during crisis. Median vitamin A intake was 319 RE/d and night blindness 0,34%. Serum retinol concentration (mean : 1,23 µmol/L was related to vitamin A intake in a dose-concentration manner. The multiple logistic regression model for predicting the chance for a serum retinol concentration > observed median of the population (≥1,27 µ mol/L included determinant factors, vitamin A intake from plant foods (OR [95% CI] per quartile, 1st : 1.00, 2nd: 1,63 [0,99-2,80], 3rd: 1,99 [1,58-2,99], and 4th: 2,62 [1,68-4,04], from, animal foods (1st and 2nd: 1,00. 3rd: 1,37 [0,89-2,09] and 4th: 2,86 [1,59-3,98] . Homegardening (no 1,00, yes 1,88 [1,08-2,68] and woman’s education level (≤ primary school : 1,00 ≥ secondary school : 1,46 [1,00-2,16] . Thus, although contributing 16 times more to total vitamin A intake plant foods were as important for vitamin A status as animal foods. Homegardening and woman’s education level seem to reflect longer-term consumption of plant and animal foods respectively. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:259-66Keywords: Vitamin A intake, plant foods, animal foods, vitamin A status, homegardening, socio-economic status, crisis, Indonesia

  8. Contribution of meat to vitamin B₁₂, iron and zinc intakes in five ethnic groups in the USA: implications for developing food-based dietary guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S; Sheehy, T; Kolonel, L N

    2013-04-01

    To describe the sources of meat and their contributions to vitamin B₁₂, iron and zinc in five ethnic groups in the USA. Dietary data for the Multiethnic Cohort, established in Hawaii and Los Angeles, were collected using a quantitative food frequency questionnaire from more than 215,000 subjects, aged 45-75 years at baseline (1993-1996). Participants included African American, Latino, Japanese American, Native Hawaiian and Caucasian men and women. Servings of meat items were calculated based on the US Department of Agriculture recommendations and their contributions to intakes of total meat, red meat, vitamin B₁₂, iron and zinc were determined. Of all types of meat, poultry contributed the most to meat consumption, followed by red meat and fish among all ethnicities, except for Latino (born in Mexico and Central/South America) men who consumed more beef. Lean beef was the most commonly consumed red meat for all ethnic-sex groups (9.3-14.3%), except for Native Hawaiian and Japanese American men, and Japanese American women whose top contributor was stew/curry with beef/lamb and stir-fried beef/pork with vegetables, respectively. The contribution of meat was most substantial for zinc (11.1-29.3%) and vitamin B₁₂ (19.7-40%) and, to a lesser extent, for iron (4.3-14.2%). This is the first large multiethnic cohort study to describe meat sources and their contributions to selected nutrients among ethnic minorities in the USA. These findings may be used to develop ethnic-specific recommendations for meat consumption aiming to improve dietary quality among these groups. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  9. Contribution of meat to vitamin B-12, iron, and zinc intakes in five ethnic groups in the U.S.: Implications for developing food-based dietary guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sangita; Sheehy, Tony; Kolonel, Laurence N

    2016-01-01

    Background To describe the sources of meat and their contributions to vitamin B-12, iron, and zinc in five ethnic groups in the USA. Methods Dietary data for the Multiethnic Cohort, established in Hawaii and Los Angeles, were collected using a quantitative food frequency questionnaire from more than 215,000 subjects aged 45–75 years at baseline (1993–1996). Participants included African American, Latino, Japanese American (JpAm), Native Hawaiian (NH) and Caucasian men and women. Servings of meat items were calculated based on the USDA recommendations and their contributions to intakes of total meat, red meat, vitamin B-12, iron, and zinc were determined. Results Of all types of meat, poultry contributed the most to meat consumption, followed by red meat and fish among all ethnicities, except for Latino (born in Mexico and Central/South America) men who consumed more beef. Lean beef was the most commonly consumed red meat for all ethnic-sex groups (9.3–14.3%), except for NH and JpAm men, and JpAm women whose top contributor was stew/curry with beef/lamb and stir-fried beef/pork with vegetables respectively. The contribution of meat was most substantial for zinc (11.1–29.3%) and vitamin B-12 (19.7–40%), and to a lesser extent for iron (4.3–14.2%). Conclusions This is the first large multiethnic cohort study to describe meat sources and their contributions to selected nutrients among ethnic minorities in the U.S. These findings may be used to develop ethnic-specific recommendations for meat consumption to improve dietary quality among these groups. PMID:23398393

  10. Influence of selected dietary components on the functioning of the human nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendołowicz, Agnieszka; Stefańska, Ewa; Ostrowska, Lucyna

    The diet is directly connected not only with the physical status but also with the functioning of the brain and the mental status. The potentially beneficial nutrients with a protective effect on the nervous system function include amino acids (tryptophan, phenylalanine, tyrosine, taurine), glucose and vitamins C, E, D and beta-carotene, B group vitamins (vitamin B12, vitamin B6, vitamin B4, vitamin B1) and minerals (selenium, zinc, magnesium, sodium, iron, copper, manganese, iodine). The presence of antioxidants in the diet protects against oxidative damage to nervous system cells. Biochemical data indicate that polyunsaturated fatty acids such as arachidonic acid (AA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) as structural components of the nervous system play a key role in its function. The nutrition of the entire body also influences the production of neurotransmitters in the brain. A diet without an appropriate supply of protein, mineral nutrients or vitamins may result in a failure to form appropriately balanced numbers of neurotransmitters, which, as a result, may lead to neurotransmission dysfunction. This is the reason why proper nutrition is based on vegetables, fruits, whole-grain cereal products supplemented with products providing full-value protein (dairy products, fish, lean meat) and high-quality fat products (vegetable oils, fish fats).

  11. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... If you believe that you are experiencing an adverse response to taking a vitamin or a dietary ... MedWatch program . Starting December 22, 2007, any serious adverse events reported to a dietary supplement manufacturer must ...

  12. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... Health's Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) eating plan. If you're over age 50, consume vitamin ... in many forms. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 requires that all such products ...

  13. A method comparison of a food frequency questionnaire to measure folate, choline, betaine, vitamin C and carotenoids with 24-h dietary recalls in women of reproductive age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coathup, V; Wheeler, S; Smith, L

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to conduct a method comparison of a modified food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), designed to estimate usual dietary intake of selected micronutrients and antioxidants including folate, choline, betaine, vitamin C and carotenoids (α-carotene, β-carotene, lutein, lycopene and β-cryptoxanthin) with 24-h dietary recalls (24-HR) in women of reproductive age. Sixty-four British women of reproductive age (18-40 years) were recruited in Oxford, UK and provided complete dietary data for analysis. We compared micronutrient estimates from the FFQ against estimates derived from three multiple-pass, 24-HR interviews, by evaluating Pearson's correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plots. Median intakes of most nutrients were higher when measured by FFQ compared with 24-HR. Strong correlation coefficients were observed for folate (r=0.80) and choline (r=0.68), whereas moderate correlation coefficients were observed for vitamin C (0.50) and lycopene (0.43). Weak correlation coefficients were observed for betaine (0.39) and other carotenoids (r=0.26-0.38). Bland-Altman plots indicated that there was a large amount of variability in the FFQ estimates of nutrient intakes compared to those using 24-HR, particularly for carotenoids. The findings indicate that this FFQ estimated higher mean intakes for most nutrients. Pearson's correlation coefficients were comparable with previous research; however, the Bland-Altman plots suggest a high variability in mean nutrient estimates between the FFQ and 24-h. We recommend further investigation of the validity of this FFQ before use.

  14. [Changes in vitamin A intake following the social marketing of red palm oil among children and women in Burkina Faso].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagré, No l-Marie; Delisle, Hélène; Tarini, Ann; Delpeuch, Francis

    2002-01-01

    This paper focuses on changes in vitamin A (VA) intakes as part of the evaluation of a pilot project on social marketing of red palm oil (RPO) as a VA supplement for mothers and children in central-north Burkina Faso. The objectives of the 30-month project are to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of introducing RPO in non-consuming areas. RPO is collected from women in the South-West region and it is sold in project sites by village volunteers. RPO is promoted by community workers trained in persuasive communication and social marketing. The target population is free to buy and consume RPO. Evaluation design includes data collected at onset, then 12 and 24 months later, from the same sample of 210 mothers and their children randomly selected in seven project sites. Children were 1 to 3 years old at onset. Blood samples were collected at baseline from mothers and children for serum retinol determination by HPLC. VA intakes are estimated by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, using the conventional beta-carotene to retinol conversion factors and the newly revised lower factors. VA deficiency is a major public health problem in the area: 64% of mothers and 85% of children had serum retinol concentrations One year later, one third of respondents had consumed RPO in the previous week, and it supplied around 56% of the VA intake of children and 67% of mothers (36% and 46% respectively for the whole group). VA intakes were significantly increased at 510 +/- 493 microg ER and 801 +/- 913 microg ER for the children and their mothers respectively (347 +/- 443 microg ER and 568 +/- 803 microg ER respectively, with the revised factors). Analyzing serum retinol and dietary data collected at baseline, it was found that VA intakes one year later. The results show that promoting RPO (and other VA rich foods) was effective in improving VA intakes. This improvement will hopefully be sustained and even further enhanced during the remaining 12 months of the

  15. High Levels of Dietary Supplement Vitamins A, C and E are Absorbed in the Small Intestine and Protect Nutrient Transport Against Chronic Gamma Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, Edouard I.; Ferraris, Ronaldo P.; Howell, Roger W.

    2015-01-01

    We examined nutrient transport in the intestines of mice exposed to chronic low-LET 137Cs gamma rays. The mice were whole-body irradiated for 3 days at dose rates of 0, 0.13 and 0.20 Gy/h, for total dose delivery of 0, 9.6 or 14.4 Gy, respectively. The mice were fed either a control diet or a diet supplemented with high levels of vitamins A, C and E. Our results showed that nutrient transport was perturbed by the chronic irradiation conditions. However, no apparent alteration of the macroscopic intestinal structures of the small intestine were observed up to day 10 after initiating irradiation. Jejunal fructose uptake measured in vitro was strongly affected by the chronic irradiation, whereas uptake of proline, carnosine and the bile acid taurocholate in the ileum was less affected. D-glucose transport did not appear to be inhibited significantly by either 9.6 or 14.4 Gy exposure. In the 14.4 Gy irradiated groups, the diet supplemented with high levels of vitamins A, C and E increased intestinal transport of fructose compared to the control diet (day 10; t test, P = 0.032), which correlated with elevated levels of vitamins A, C and E in the plasma and jejunal enterocytes. Our earlier studies with mice exposed acutely to 137Cs gamma rays demonstrated significant protection for transport of fructose, glucose, proline and carnosine. Taken together, these results suggest that high levels of vitamins A, C and E dietary supplements help preserve intestinal nutrient transport when intestines are irradiated chronically or acutely with low-LET gamma rays. PMID:26484399

  16. Triennial Growth Symposium--Effects of dietary 25-hydroxycholecalciferol and cholecalciferol on blood vitamin D and mineral status, bone turnover, milk composition, and reproductive performance of sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, G M; Witschi, A-K M; Wenk, C; Martens, H

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the role of vitamin D3 during gestation and lactation of sows, 2 independent experiments were performed with the aim of investigating sow reproductive performance, milk composition (study 1 only), and changes in blood status of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH-D3), 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25-(OH)2-D3; study 2 only), minerals, and bone markers of sows during gestation and lactation. Study 1 comprised 39 primi- and multiparous crossbred sows fed 1 of 3 barley meal-based diets fortified with 200 IU/kg vitamin D3 (NRC, 1998; treatment DL), 2,000 IU/kg vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol; treatment DN), or 50 μg 25-OH-D3 (calcidiol; treatment HD)/kg feed. This study was conducted over a 4-parity period under controlled conditions. Study 2, running over 1 parity only, was performed in a commercial farm with 227 primi- and multiparous sows allocated to 2 dietary treatments: control (CON), receiving 2,000 IU vitamin D3/kg (equivalent to 50 μg/kg) feed (114 sows), and test (HYD), supplemented with 50 μg 25-OH-D3/kg feed (113 sows). Blood samples of sows were collected at 84 and 110d postcoitum and 1, 5, and 33 d postpartum (study 1) and at insemination and 28 and 80 d postinsemination as well as d 5 and 28 postpartum (study 2). Colostrum and milk samples in study 1 were obtained at 1, 9, and 33 d of lactation after oxytocin administration. Plasma 25-OH-D3 concentrations were increased (P < 0.05) in sows receiving 25-OH-D3 (HD and HYD) at any time of sampling whereas circulating plasma concentrations of 1,25-(OH)2-D3, Ca, and P were not affected by treatment. Milk concentrations of Ca and P were similar, but 25-OH-D3 content (except in colostrum) was clearly increased (P< 0.05) when 25-OH-D3 was fed. Most characteristics of sow reproductive performance responded similarly to the 2 sources and levels of vitamin D3, but weight gain of piglets between birth and weaning was decreased (P< 0.05) in offspring of DL and HD sows compared with animals of treatment DN

  17. Effects of dietary vitamin B6 supplementation on fillet fatty acid composition and fatty acid metabolism of rainbow trout fed vegetable oil based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senadheera, Shyamalie D; Turchini, Giovanni M; Thanuthong, Thanongsak; Francis, David S

    2012-03-07

    Fish oil replacement in aquaculture feeds results in major modifications to the fatty acid makeup of cultured fish. Therefore, in vivo fatty acid biosynthesis has been a topic of considerable research interest. Evidence suggests that pyridoxine (vitamin B(6)) plays a role in fatty acid metabolism, and in particular, the biosynthesis of LC-PUFA has been demonstrated in mammals. However, there is little information on the effects of dietary pyridoxine availability in fish fed diets lacking LC-PUFA. This study demonstrates a relationship between dietary pyridoxine supplementation and fatty acid metabolism in rainbow trout. In particular, the dietary pyridoxine level was shown to modulate and positively stimulate the activity of the fatty acid elongase and Δ-6 and Δ-5 desaturase enzymes, deduced by the whole-body fatty acid balance method. This activity was insufficient to compensate for a diet lacking in LC-PUFA but does highlight potential strategies to maximize this activity in cultured fish, especially when fish oil is replaced with vegetable oils.

  18. Variations in carotenoids, vitamins A and E, and color in cow's plasma and milk during late pregnancy and the first three months of lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, F; Chauveau-Duriot, B; Martin, B; Graulet, B; Doreau, M; Nozière, P

    2007-05-01

    The main aim of this work was to assess the effect of lactation period on the secretion of carotenoids in cow's milk. Our objective was to determine the variations in carotenoids in the plasma and milk of dairy cows from drying off to wk 12 of lactation, and to specify whether these variations depend on body stores of these micronutrients at calving. We also investigated the relationship between beta-carotene (BC) and color in plasma and milk to evaluate the methods based on direct or indirect characterization of these micronutrients for traceability of feeding management. The experiment was carried out on 18 dairy cows, which were dried off 8 wk before their expected date of parturition. They were then divided into 2 homogeneous groups and fed diets contrasting in carotenoid content, high (grass silage) vs. low (corn silage), from wk -7 until parturition. From parturition through wk 12 of lactation, both groups received a grass silage-based diet. Variations in concentrations of carotenoids and the color index (CI) in plasma and milk were monitored from drying off to wk 12 of lactation. Other components of nutritional interest (i.e., vitamins A and E) were also measured. Lutein, all-trans BC and cis-13 BC were the carotenoids found in plasma and milk. Plasma concentrations of carotenoids, vitamin A, and vitamin E decreased throughout the dry period and in the first week of lactation, then increased through the first 3 mo of lactation, parallel to grass silage intake. For both groups, carotenoid and vitamin concentrations in milk drastically decreased during the first week of lactation, then did not vary significantly throughout the remainder to the experiment (wk 12). Plasma concentrations of carotenoids and vitamins were higher in the high-carotenoid group than in the low-carotenoid group during the dry period. Those differences were also observed in colostrum and disappeared in both plasma and milk during the first 10 d of the lactation period. This work allowed

  19. Effects of dietary vitamin C and soybean lecithin in the nutrition of brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus L. fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Aničić

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different forms of vitamin C and soybean lecithin on growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus, Lesuer 1819 were evaluated during a 9-week growth trial. A special interest was to investigate a possible combine effect of these nutritional components. The diets used contained three forms of vitamin C (crystallized ascorbic acid, encapsulated L-ascorbic acid and Ca-L-threonate (100 mg/kg with and without the combination of soybean lecithin. Besides control diet (K, one more diet was supplemented with soybean lecithin (L only. One-hundred-ninety-two brown bullhead of about 45 g initial body weight was randomly divided in 24 tanks (115 L each. Testing conditions included 8 fish per tank, with triplicate tanks for treatment. All diets with supplemented components had higher final weight. Specific growth rate, feed conversion rate and condition factor were significantly higher with encapsulated vitamin C diets (CC, CCL, followed by the results of enriched ascorbic acid diets. Vitamin C and lecithin supplementation showed positive influence on significantly higher number of erythrocytes, haematocrit, triglycerides and total protein. Vitamin C content of muscle and liver tissue was not uniform and was significantly higher in AAL, CCL, CC and AA feeding groups. The fatty acids profile of muscle and liver tissue showed that phospholipids from soybean lecithin and vitamin C diets enhanced the quality of usable part of the fish body. Combine supplementation of vitamin C and soy lecithin indicated positive production effects, but did not cause a statistically significant difference.

  20. Community assessment of availability, consumption, and cultural acceptability of food sources of (pro)vitamin A: Toward the development of a dietary intervention among preschool children in rural Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nana, C.P.; Brouwer, I.D.; Zagré, N.M.; Kok, F.J.; Traoré, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency remains a public health problem in Burkina Faso and elsewhere in the developing world. Dietary diversification is a promising strategy that needs to be explored to strengthen the country's ongoing supplementation program. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to identify

  1. Letter to Veugelers, P.J. and Ekwaru, J.P., A Statistical Error in the Estimation of the Recommended Dietary Allowance for Vitamin D. Nutrients 2014, 6, 4472–4475; doi:10.3390/nu6104472

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Heaney

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently Veugelers and Ekwaru published data [1] indicating that, in its dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D, the Institute of Medicine (IOM had made a serious calculation error [2]. Using the same data set as had the IOM panel, these investigators showed that the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA for vitamin D had been underestimated by an order of magnitude. Veugelers and Ekwaru, using the IOM’s data, calculated an RDA of 8895 IU per day. They noted that there was some uncertainty in that estimate, inasmuch as this value required an extrapolation from the available data, which did not include individuals receiving daily vitamin D inputs above 2400 IU/day.[...

  2. L-dehydroascorbic acid can substitute L-ascorbic acid as dietary vitamin C source in guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frikke-Schmidt, Henriette Rønne; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2016-01-01

    products prone to oxidation-was studied. Our aim was to compare tissue accumulation of vitamin C in guinea pigs receiving different oral doses of either ascorbate or DHA. In all tissues tested (plasma, liver, spleen, lung, adrenal glands, kidney, muscle, heart, and brain), only sporadic differences......, we continued to explore the ability to recycle DHA in blood, liver and intestine in guinea pigs, rats and mice. These investigations revealed that guinea pigs have similar recycling capacity in red blood cells as observed in humans, while rats and mice do not have near the same ability to reduce DHA...... in erythrocytes. In liver and intestinal homogenates, guinea pigs also showed a significantly higher ability to recycle DHA compared to rats and mice. These data demonstrate that DHA in guinea pigs-as in humans-is almost as effective as ascorbate as vitamin C source when it comes to taking up and storing vitamin...

  3. Effects of dietary nitrogen levels and carbohydrate sources on apparent ruminal synthesis of some B vitamins in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudet, V; Gervais, R; Graulet, B; Nozière, P; Doreau, M; Fanchone, A; Castagnino, D D S; Girard, C L

    2016-04-01

    Effects of nitrogen level and carbohydrate source on apparent ruminal synthesis (ARS) of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folates, and vitamin B12 were evaluated using 4 lactating Holstein cows distributed in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with treatments following a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Cows were fitted with cannulas in the rumen and proximal duodenum. The treatments were 2 N levels and 2 carbohydrate sources. The diet with the high N level provided 14% crude protein, calculated to meet 110% of the protein requirements and an adequate supply in rumen-degradable protein, whereas the diet with the low N level contained 11% crude protein, calculated to meet 80% of the protein requirements with a shortage in rumen-degradable protein. Carbohydrate source treatments differed by their nature (i.e., high in starch from barley, corn, and wheat, or high in fiber from soybean hulls and dehydrated beet pulp). All 4 diets were isoenergetic, based on corn silage, and had the same forage-to-concentrate ratio (60:40, dry matter basis). Duodenal flow was determined using YbCl3 as a marker. Each B-vitamin ARS was calculated as duodenal flow minus daily intake. The intake of several B vitamins varied among treatments, but because the animals consumed a similar amount of feed every day (average of 20 kg of dry matter/d) the difference was mostly due to vitamin content of each ingredient and their relative proportion in the diets. Decreasing N concentration in the diet reduced vitamin B6 duodenal flow and increased its apparent ruminal degradation. It also decreased duodenal flow and ARS of folates. The high-starch diets increased duodenal flow and ruminal balance of riboflavin, vitamin B6, and folates, whereas the high-fiber diets increased vitamin B12 ARS and duodenal flow. These effects on apparent synthesis are possibly due to changes in ruminal fermentation. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Co-ordinated research programme on development and application of isotopic techniques in studies of vitamin A nutrition. Report of the first research co-ordination meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    In Vitamin A nutrition, evaluations to ascertain the efficacy of intervention strategies are becoming increasingly important. However, state-of-the-art methods for evaluating vitamin A status often do not provide enough quantitative information on vitamin A status and the bioconversion of carotenoids, particularly in people with subclinical vitamin A deficiency. These limitations have had programmatic consequences. The principal reason the new Coordinated Research programme (CRP) was formulated was to improve techniques for measuring vitamin A status and the bioconversion of carotenoids to vitamin A with the expectation that the new methods could contribute meaningfully to field-based evaluations of the efficacy of intervention strategies. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is sponsoring programmes to develop and transfer isotopic techniques to improve nutrition monitoring in developing countries. The New CRP ``Development and Application of Isotopic Techniques in Studies of Vitamin A Nutrition`` has seven teams, six of which are working to develop methods based on orally administered isotopically labelled retinol which will be a valid measure of whole body retinol (mostly hepatic reserves) and useful under typical field conditions, particularly in women and children with marginal vitamin A deficiency. The seventh team is biosynthesizing uniformly deuterated {beta}-carotene by growing foods in deuterated water. This report summarizes the research to be undertaken, as presented at the first Research Co-ordination Meeting. Refs, figs, tabs.

  5. Antioxidant vitamin and mineral supplements for preventing age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jennifer R; Lawrenson, John G

    2017-07-30

    There is inconclusive evidence from observational studies to suggest that people who eat a diet rich in antioxidant vitamins (carotenoids, vitamins C, and E) or minerals (selenium and zinc) may be less likely to develop age-related macular degeneration (AMD). To determine whether or not taking antioxidant vitamin or mineral supplements, or both, prevent the development of AMD. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2017, Issue 2), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 29 March 2017), Embase Ovid (1947 to 29 March 2017), AMED (Allied and Complementary Medicine Database) (1985 to 29 March 2017), OpenGrey (System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe) (www.opengrey.eu/); searched 29 March 2017, the ISRCTN registry (www.isrctn.com/editAdvancedSearch); searched 29 March 2017, ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov); searched 29 March 2017 and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en); searched 29 March 2017. We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing an antioxidant vitamin or mineral supplement (alone or in combination) to control. Both review authors independently assessed risk of bias in the included studies and extracted data. One author entered data into RevMan 5; the other author checked the data entry. We pooled data using a fixed-effect model. We graded the certainty of the evidence using GRADE. We included a total of five RCTs in this review with data available for 76,756 people. The trials were conducted in Australia, Finland, and the USA, and investigated vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene, and multivitamin supplements. All trials were judged to be at low risk of bias.Four studies reported the comparison of vitamin E with placebo. Average treatment and follow-up duration ranged from 4 to 10 years. Data were

  6. Dietary Fat and Vitamin E in Prostate Cancer Risk Among African Americans and Africans: A Case-Control Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ukoli, Flora A. M

    2007-01-01

    .... In 2002 the scope of the study was expanded to include African-Americans and African migrants in the United States so as to investigate the role of dietary nutrients associated with increased prostate cancer risk (fatty acids...

  7. Effect of dietary supplementation of spirulina (Arthrospira platensis and thyme (Thymus vulgaris on carcass composition, meat physical traits, and vitamin B12 content on growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Dalle Zotte

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effect and duration of dietary inclusion of 5% spirulina (Arthrospira platensis and/or 3% thyme (Thymus vulgaris on growing rabbit carcass composition, meat and bone rheological traits, and the vitamin B12 content of Longissimus dorsi (LD meat. The study involved 294 maternal line growing rabbits from the Pannon breeding programme. At weaning (5 wk, animals were randomly divided by dietary treatment into 7 groups of 42 rabbits each. A control group (C-C received a pellet with no supplementation throughout the trial (5-11 wk of age, whereas the other groups were fed diets supplemented with 5% spirulina (S, 3% thyme (T or with both ingredients (ST for either the entire growing period (5-11 wk of age; groups: S-S, T-T, ST-ST, respectively, or its final part only (8-11 wk of age; groups: C-S, C-T, C-ST, respectively. Results showed that regardless of the duration of supplementation, spirulina and thyme provided no effect on the traits examined, except for scapular fat content, whose value was higher in the S-S group than in the C-T group (P<0.05. Spirulina was confirmed as a rich source of vitamin B12 that was successfully transferred into LD meat, thus demonstrating its value as an effective natural supplement in producing food fortified with this vital element. Further studies are necessary to clarify the effect of spirulina on carcass fat deposition, bone development, and mineralisation.

  8. Drumstick tree (Moringa oleifera) leaves as a source of dietary selenium, sulphur, and pro-vitamin A

    Science.gov (United States)

    The “drumstick tree” or “miracle tree” (Moringa oleifera) is well known for its high nutritional value. It grows well in tropical and sub-tropical regions, even on poor soils, is drought tolerant and produces abundant leaves high in protein (with a favorable amino acid balance), vitamins, minerals, ...

  9. Dietary Supplementation with Vitamin K Affects Transcriptome and Proteome of Senegalese Sole, Improving Larval Performance and Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richard, Nadege; Fernandez, Ignacio; Wulff, Tune

    2014-01-01

    Nutritional factors strongly influence fish larval development and skeletogenesis, and may induce skeletal deformities. Vitamin K (VK) has been largely disregarded in aquaculture nutrition, despite its important roles in bone metabolism, in gamma-carboxylation of Gla proteins, and in regulating...

  10. Effects of dietary particulate limestone, vitamin K3 and fluoride and photostimulation on skeletal morphology and osteoporosis in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, R H; McCormack, H A; McTeir, L; Whitehead, C C

    2003-12-01

    1. Female chicks of a White Leghorn strain were fed three different diets from one day old: control, additional vitamin K3 (10 mg/kg), and a diet containing a combination of additional vitamin K3, sodium fluoride (10 mg/kg) and limestone in particulate rather than powdered form. At 16 weeks photoperiod was increased for half the birds from 8:16 L:D to 16:8 L:D immediately or by one hour per week to the same ultimate photoperiod for the other half. 2. Age at first egg was lower by 4.0 d for birds on the fast lighting regime but there were no overall effects of lighting on bone quality at either 25 or 70 weeks. 3. Additional vitamin K3 resulted in higher proximal tarsometatarsus cancellous bone volumes at 15 weeks and throughout the laying period compared with controls. Plasma osteocalcin concentrations were unaffected by vitamin K3 supplementation during growth. 4. The combination diet resulted in beneficial responses of 12 to 20% in most bone characteristics in hens at 70 weeks. The magnitude of these effects was similar to a previous study involving a particulate calcium source alone (Fleming et al., Poultry Science, 39: 434-440, 1998b). We conclude that the beneficial effects of the combined treatment over the lifetime of the hens were attributable mainly to the presence in the diet of a calcium source in particulate form.

  11. Consequences of revised estimates of carotenoid bioefficacy for dietary control of vitamin A deficiency in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    West, C.E.; Eilander, A.; Lieshout, van M.

    2002-01-01

    According to existing recommendations of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)/World Health Organization (WHO), the amount of provitamin A in a mixed diet having the same vitamin A activity as 1 ?g of retinol is 6 ?g of ß-carotene or 12 ?g of other provitamin A carotenoids. The efficiency of

  12. Beef tenderness improvement by dietary vitamin D3 supplementation in the last stage of fattening of cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Półtorak Andrzej

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Tenderness is the most important characteristic of meat, determining consumer approval. There are numerous methods of its improvement, although of diverse effectiveness. addition of vitamin D3 to the feed for a short period before slaughter (7–10 days is one of the natural ways to enhance the tenderness. Vitamin D3 is responsible for Ca2+ mobilisation in serum and increase in activity of proteolytic enzymes belonging to calpains, which results in significant improvement of beef tenderness and reduction of ageing time. The use of vitamin D3 is an application tool determining tenderness improvement of beef with substantial reduction in processing costs. Moreover, shorter post mortem ageing process will exceed the retail display time, which will consequently reduce losses due to unsold meat being returned from shops to the manufacturers. Based on the results of studies conducted over the last 15 years, this paper presents the possibility and the effects of the use of vitamin D3 to improve beef tenderness.

  13. [Vitamins in pediatrics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneller, K

    2012-09-01

    Vitamins are organic substances essential to the maintenance of many physiological functions, and necessary for growth. They are subdivided into two groups: the fat soluble vitamins which include vitamins A, D, E and K and the water-soluble vitamins which include Group B vitamins and vitamin C. The recommendations for vitamins intake must be evaluated at regular intervals, and vary according to the different methods used and the different environments assessed. The shortcomings, but equally the measures of prevention must be taken into account. In industrialized countries, provided that the diet is balanced and in the absence of chronic disease, the majority of needs are covered. Vitamin requirements vary depending on age, sex, state of pregnancy, chronic disease or a specific diet. In industrialized countries, chronic alcoholics and malabsorption cases represent groups at risk of vitamin deficiency. Dietary anamnesis remains the best tool to assess needs and nutritional deficiencies. In infants fed exclusively on milk, the required intake is easy to deduce; on the other hand, the needs assessment becomes more difficult with dietary diversification. In industrialized countries, vitamin D should be administered throughout one's life, and vitamin K during the first three months of life for breast-fed new-borns. In developing countries, nutritional status is precarious and supplementation needs to be adapted accordingly.

  14. beta-caroteno, ácido ascórbico e antocianinas totais em polpa de frutos de aceroleira conservada por congelamento durante 12 meses beta-carotene, ascorbic acid and total antocyanins in fruit pulp of the acerola tree conserved by the cold for 12 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Germanno Lima de Araújo

    2007-03-01

    Processamento de Frutos da Embrapa Agroindústria Tropical, unpulped, the pulp was storaged in polietilin bags (100 g, frozen, kept in a freezer at -20 °C, and evaluated every 30 days for 12 months. The experiment was carried out with experimental delineament totally casualized in a factorial scheme 6 x 13 (clones x time, with 3 repetitions. The concentration of beta-carotene in the Cereja clone was stable, while the other ones were decreased during the whole time of the experiment. There was a small decrease in the ascorbic acid level in all the clones in the study during the storage, probably due to the high acidity of the pulp, which helps maintain its nutrient. The total anthocyanins level were stable in the Frutacor and Sertaneja clones, however, it decreased in the other ones. The II 47/1 clone was, among all the studied clones, the one that presented the highest levels of ascorbic acid C and total anthocyanins, keeping these characteristics during the whole storage. In conclusion, the clones that presented the lowest level of beta-carotene, showed the highest concentrations of total anthocyanins.

  15. Vitamins, Are They Safe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Hamishehkar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of a daily multivitamin among people all over the world is dramatically increasing in recent years. Most of the people believe that if vitamins are not effective, at least they are safe. However, the long term health consequences of vitamins consumption are unknown. This study aimed to assess the side effects and possible harmful and detrimental properties of vitamins and to discuss whether vitamins can be used as safe health products or dietary supplements. We performed a MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus and Google Scholar search and assessed reference lists of the included studies which were published from 1993 through 2015. The studies, with an emphasis on RCTs (randomized controlled clinical trials, were reviewed. As some vitamins such as fat-soluble vitamins (vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, and also some of the water-soluble vitamins like folic acid may cause adverse events and some like vitamin C is widely taken assuming that it has so many benefits and no harm, we included relevant studies with negative or undesired results regarding the effect of these vitamins on health. Our recommendation is that taking high-dose supplements of vitamins A, E, D, C, and folic acid is not always effective for prevention of disease, and it can even be harmful to the health.

  16. High dietary level of synthetic vitamin E on lipid peroxidation, membrane fatty acid composition and cytotoxicity in breast cancer xenograft and in mouse host tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnes Christopher J

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background d-α-tocopherol is a naturally occurring form of vitamin E not previously known to have antitumor activity. Synthetic vitamin E (sE is a commonly used dietary supplement consisting of a mixture of d-α-tocopherol and 7 equimolar stereoisomers. To test for antilipid peroxidation and for antitumor activity of sE supplementation, two groups of nude mice bearing a MDA-MB 231 human breast cancer tumor were fed an AIN-76 diet, one with and one without an additional 2000 IU/kg dry food (equivalent to 900 mg of all-rac-α-tocopherol or sE. This provided an intake of about 200 mg/kg body weight per day. The mice were killed at either 2 or 6 weeks after the start of dietary intervention. During necropsy, tumor and host tissues were excised for histology and for biochemical analyses. Results Tumor growth was significantly reduced by 6 weeks of sE supplementation. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, an indicator of lipid peroxidation, were suppressed in tumor and in host tissues in sE supplemented mice. In the sE treated mice, the fatty acid composition of microsomal and mitochondrial membranes of tumor and host tissues had proportionately less linoleic acid (n-6 C 18-2, similar levels of arachidonic acid (n-6 C 20-4, but more docosahexanoic acid (n-3 C 22-6. The sE supplementation had no significant effect on blood counts or on intestinal histology but gave some evidence of cardiac toxicity as judged by myocyte vacuoles and by an indicator of oxidative stress (increased ratio of Mn SOD mRNA over GPX1 mRNA. Conclusions At least one of the stereoisomers in sE has antitumor activity. Synthetic vitamin E appears to preferentially stabilize membrane fatty acids with more double bonds in the acyl chain. Although sE suppressed tumor growth and lipid peroxidation, it may have side-effects in the heart.

  17. Determination of water-soluble vitamins in multivitamin dietary supplements and in artichokes by micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serni, Enrico; Audino, Valeria; Del Carlo, Sara; Manera, Clementina; Saccomanni, Giuseppe; Macchia, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Several procedures of extraction with solvents for the simultaneous determination of vitamin C and some vitamins belonging to the B group (thiamine, riboflavine, nicotinic acid and nicotinamide) in multivitamin preparations and in artichokes (Cynara cardunculus subsp. scolymus [L.] Hegi) were developed. Different experimental conditions were used, in terms of heat treatment, composition and pH of the extraction mixture, with particular attention to high-temperature steps; purification of the extracts with solid phase extraction and stabilisation through lyophilisation were discussed. Analyses of the extracts were conducted by capillary electrophoresis in micellar electrokinetic chromatography modality. Borate buffer at pH 8.2 was used, and sodium dodecyl sulphate was added to the background electrolyte as surfactant. A range of linearity was determined and calibration curves were plotted for all the analytes.

  18. Dietary imbalances in a large breed puppy, leading to compression fractures, vitamin D deficiency, and suspected nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Moran; Parr, Jacqueline M; MacKenzie, Shawn; Verbrugghe, Adronie

    2018-01-01

    A 6-month-old intact female giant schnauzer dog fed a nutritionally unbalanced homemade diet was evaluated because of a 1-month history of lameness and difficulty walking. Abnormalities identified on ancillary tests, in conjunction with the dog's clinical improvement following diet change, suggested a diagnosis of vitamin D deficiency and nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism. This report underlines the importance of appropriate feeding management, especially during the vulnerable growth phase.

  19. The Effect of Dietary Vitamin C on Carbohydrate Concentrations and Hydrolase Activity, During the Development of Honey Bee Worker Brood

    OpenAIRE

    Farjan Marek; Żółtowska Krystyna; Lipiński Zbigniew; Łopieńska-Biernat Elżbieta; Dmitryjuk Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    The colony collapse disorder is a growing problem world-wide. For this reason, we were prompted to search for natural and harmless agents that could improve the living conditions of honey bees. This group of agents includes exogenous antioxidants, such as ascorbic acid, which boost natural immunity. We analysed the effect of vitamin C supplementation on carbohydrate metabolism in the developing honey bee worker brood. The total carbohydrate content and the concentrations of glycogen, trehalos...

  20. Variations in carotenoids, vitamins A and E, and color in cow's plasma and milk following a shift from hay diet to diets containing increasing levels of carotenoids and vitamin E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, F; Chauveau-Duriot, B; Pradel, P; Martin, B; Graulet, B; Doreau, M; Nozière, P

    2007-12-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the variations in carotenoid, vitamins A and E concentrations, and color in the plasma and milk of dairy cows following a shift from a hay diet to diets containing increasing levels of carotenoids and vitamin E. This study was performed on 32 multiparous Montbéliarde dairy cows in midlactation. After a 6-wk preexperimental period on a diet based on hay and concentrates, the cows were allocated to 4 homogeneous groups, and thereafter fed for 6 wk on isoenergetic experimental diets where the hay was replaced by an experimental feed rich in carotenoids and vitamin E, consisting in 75% grass silage and 25% alfalfa protein concentrate (PX Agro Super Desialis, Châlons en Champagne, France). The hay-to-experimental feed ratios were 100/0 in group 1, 67/33 in group 2, 33/67 in group 3, and 0/100 in group 4, providing 1.6, 3.6, 5.4, and 7.4 g/d of total carotenoids, respectively. Variations in carotenoid, vitamins A and E concentrations as well as variations in color index (CI) were monitored from d -7 through to d 42 on the experimental diets. Zeaxanthin, lutein, 13-cis-beta-carotene, and all-trans-beta-carotene accounted for an average 3, 10, 9, and 78%, respectively, of total carotenoids in plasma and 0, 17, 12, and 71%, respectively, of total carotenoids in milk. The switch from preexperimental to experimental diets only slightly affected zeaxanthin, lutein, and vitamin A concentrations in plasma and milk. A rapid increase in vitamin E and beta-carotene (BC) was observed during the first week in both plasma and milk. For vitamin E, the time to reach a plateau was from 8 d (group 2) to 28 d (group 4) in plasma, and 5 d (groups 2-4) in milk. Plasma concentrations of BC had stabilized after 28 d in group 2 but were not stabilized after 42 d in groups 3 and 4, whereas milk concentrations of BC plateaued from d 21 in group 2 and d 28 in groups 3 and 4. At the end of the experimental period, BC and vitamin E concentrations in

  1. Effects of dietary organic chromium and vitamin C supplementation on performance, immune responses, blood metabolites, and stress status of laying hens subjected to high stocking density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirfendereski, E; Jahanian, R

    2015-02-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of chromium-methionine (CrMet) and vitamin C (VC) on performance, immune response, and stress status of laying hens subjected to high stocking density. A total of 360 Hy-Line W-36 leghorn hens (at 26 wk old) were used in a 2×3×2 factorial arrangement that had 2 cage densities (5 and 7 hens per cage), 3 Cr levels (0, 500, and 1,000 ppb as CrMet), and 2 dietary VC levels (0 and 500 ppm as L-ascorbic acid). The trial lasted for 12 wk. The first 2 wk were for adaptation (26 to 28 wk of age), and the remaining 10 wk served as the main recording period. In addition to performance, immune response to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was assessed at d 7 and 14 postvaccination. Also, the birds' stress status was evaluated by analyzing appropriate plasma metabolites. The results showed that hens in cages with higher stocking density had lower hen-day egg production, egg mass, and feed intake compared with those in normal density cages (Pfeed conversion efficiency (Pfeed conversion ratio in VC-unsupplemented diets. Although plasma concentrations of triglycerides and high-density lipoproteins were not influenced by dietary treatments, supplemental CrMet decreased plasma cholesterol levels (Phens kept at a density of 7 hens/cage were significantly higher than those of hens in normal cage density (Phens. While high stocking density caused a marked increase in plasma corticosterone (Phens. The high stocking density challenge suppressed NDV antibody response (Phens kept at a density of 7 hens/cage (P<0.01). From the present observations, it can be concluded that CrMet can improve laying performance largely because it alleviates harmful responses to stressful conditions. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  2. Tanker milk variability according to farm feeding practices: vitamins A and E, carotenoids, color, and terpenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agabriel, C; Cornu, A; Journal, C; Sibra, C; Grolier, P; Martin, B

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this work was to study the variability in the composition of bulk milk mixtures of fat-soluble compounds (vitamins A and E, carotenoids, and terpenoids) and assess the links with milk production conditions. Milk from 10 collection trips in the French department of the Haute-Loire (10 to 36 herds per trip) was sampled in the tanker twice during the winter period and 3 times during the grazing season. The collection trips differed in their altitude (440 to 1,150 m) and the forage system (grass or based on corn silage). Vitamins A and E, carotenoids, and terpenoids of the 50 tanker loads of milk were analyzed. Data of milk production conditions in the 204 farms made it possible to constitute indicators for the collection trip and to define 50 mean herds. The relationships between mean herd characteristics (breed, stage of lactation, and feed) and milk characteristics were investigated. The constituents of tanker loads of milk were comparable to those observed in milk produced by groups of animals receiving contrasting diets (rich in concentrate or corn silage vs. pasture). The characteristics of the milk differed according to the period; those produced at grazing were more yellow (1.02 +/- 0.4; mean of difference) and richer in beta-carotene, lutein, vitamin E (2.0 +/- 1.2, 0.23 +/- 0.12, and 6.1 +/- 5.0 mug/g of fat, respectively), and sesquiterpenes (2.7 +/- 2.5) than winter. The variations observed for beta-carotene, lutein, and vitamin E were linked to the proportion of grazed grass or grass silage in the forage (r = 0.66, 0.69, and 0.51, respectively), unlike the vitamin A content. During grazing, 20 of the 32 terpenoids identified were associated with the proportion of permanent grassland available for grazing or cut. These results show that feeding is an effective way to modify the quality of dairy products, even in the case of bulk tank milk mixtures. Dairy plants could market different milks, which would contain specific compositions.

  3. Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Food Home Food Resources for You Consumers Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know Share Tweet Linkedin ... and nutrients you personally need. What are dietary supplements? Dietary supplements include such ingredients as vitamins, minerals, ...

  4. A dietary mixture containing fish oil, resveratrol, lycopene, catechins, and vitamins E and C reduces atherosclerosis in transgenic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuren, L.; Wielinga, P.Y.; Duyvenvoorde, W. van; Tijani, S.; Toet, K.; Ommen, B. van; Kooistra, T.; Kleemann, R.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic inflammation and proatherogenic lipids are important risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Specific dietary constituents such as polyphenols and fish oils may improve cardiovascular risk factors and may have a beneficial effect on disease outcomes. We hypothesized that the intake of

  5. Insufficient vitamin D intakes among pregnant women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGowan, C A

    2011-09-01

    Vitamin D has an important role in pregnancy in promoting fetal skeletal health. Maternal dietary intake is a key factor influencing both maternal and fetal status. There are limited data available on food groups contributing to vitamin D intake in pregnancy. The aim of this study was to determine dietary intakes of vitamin D throughout pregnancy in 64 women and to determine the main food groups contributing to vitamin D intake. Results showed that median dietary intakes of vitamin D ranged from 1.9-2.1 μg\\/d during pregnancy, and were 80% below the current recommendation. The principal food groups contributing to vitamin D intake were meat, egg and breakfast cereal groups. Oily fish, the best dietary source of vitamin D, was consumed by <25% of women. These data call for more education; they question the role of vitamin D supplementation and highlight the contribution of other food groups more frequently consumed, namely, breakfast cereals, meat and eggs.

  6. Long-Term Use of Supplemental Vitamins and Minerals Does Not Reduce the Risk of Urothelial Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder in the VITamins And Lifestyle Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotaling, James M.; Wright, Jonathan L.; Pocobelli, Gaia; Bhatti, Parveen; Porter, Michael P.; White, Emily

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Urothelial Carcinoma (UC) has the highest lifetime treatment cost of any cancer making it an ideal target for preventative therapies. Previous work has suggested that certain vitamin and mineral supplements may reduce the risk of UC. We sought to use the prospective VITamins And Lifestyle (VITAL) cohort to examine the association of all commonly taken vitamin and mineral supplements as well as 6 common anti-inflammatory supplements with incident UC in a United States population. Materials&Methods 77,050 eligible VITAL participants completed a detailed questionnaire at baseline on supplement use and cancer risk factors. . After 6 years of follow-up, 330 incident UC cases occurring in the cohort were identified via linkage to the Seattle-Puget Sound Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) cancer registry. We analyzed use of supplemental vitamins (multivitamins, beta-carotene, retinol, folic acid, vitamins B1, B3, B6, B12, C, D and E), minerals (calcium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and selenium), and anti-inflammatory supplements (glucosamine, chondroitin, saw-palmetto, ginko-biloba, fish oil and garlic). For each supplement, the hazard ratios (risk ratios) for UC comparing each category of users to nonusers, and 95% confidence intervals, were determined using Cox proportional hazards regression., adjusted for potential confounders. Results None of the vitamin, mineral or anti-inflammatory supplements was significantly associated with UC risk in either age-adjusted or multivariate models. Conclusions The results of this study do not support the use of commonly taken vitamin or mineral supplements or 6 common anti-inflammatory supplements for chemoprevention of UC. PMID:21334017

  7. Cognitive effects of a dietary supplement made from extract of Bacopa monnieri, astaxanthin, phosphatidylserine, and vitamin E in subjects with mild cognitive impairment: a noncomparative, exploratory clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanotta D

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Danilo Zanotta, Silvana Puricelli, Guido Bonoldi Unità Operativa di Medicina 2, Ospedale di Circolo di Busto Arsizio, Varese, Italy Abstract: A prospective cohort, noncomparative, multicenter trial was conducted to explore the potential of a phytotherapeutic compound, available as a dietary supplement and containing extracts of Bacopa monnieri and Haematococcus pluvialis (astaxanthin plus phosphatidylserine and vitamin E, in improving cognition in subjects diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment. Enrolled subjects (n=104 were aged 71.2±9.9 years and had a mini-mental state examination score of 26.0±2.0 (mean ± standard deviation. They underwent the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog test and the clock drawing test at baseline and upon completion of a 60-day period of dietary supplementation with one tablet daily of the tested compound. In 102 assessable subjects, total ADAS-cog scores improved from 13.7±5.8 at baseline to 9.7±4.9 on day 60, and the clock drawing test scores improved from 8.5±2.3 to 9.1±1.9. Both changes were statistically significant (P<0.001. Memory tasks were the individual components of ADAS-cog showing the largest improvements. In a multivariate analysis, larger improvements in total ADAS-cog score were associated with less compromised baseline mini-mental state examination scores. Perceived efficacy was rated as excellent or good by 62% of study subjects. The tested compound was well tolerated; one nonserious adverse event was reported in the overall study population, and perceived tolerability was rated excellent or good by 99% of the subjects. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with the tested compound shows potential for counteracting cognitive impairment in subjects with mild cognitive impairment and warrants further investigation in adequately controlled, longer-term studies. Keywords: mild cognitive impairment, Bacopa monnieri, astaxanthin, ADAS-cog test, clock drawing

  8. Effects of Dietary Brazilian Palm Oil (Mauritia flexuosa L. on Cholesterol Profile and Vitamin A and E Status of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jailane de Souza Aquino

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In vitro studies have been carried out to establish the nutritional differences between crude and refined vegetable oils; however, the impact of the consumption of these foods on metabolism, in particular the effect of buriti oil, needs to be further evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biochemical and murine parameters and the vitamin A and E status in young rats fed with diets supplemented with crude or refined buriti oil. The animals (n = 30 were randomized into three groups receiving diet added of soybean oil (control, crude buriti oil (CBO and refined buriti oil (RBO for 28 days. Rats fed with diet added of refined buriti oil (RBO showed reduced total cholesterol (up to 60.27%, LDL (64.75%, triglycerides (55.47% and enzyme aspartate transaminase (21.57% compared to those fed with diet added of crude oil. Serum and hepatic retinol and tocopherol were higher by two to three times in CBO and RBO groups compared to the control group, but no differences were observed for murine parameters. The results indicate that buriti oil is an important source of the antioxidant vitamins A and E, and refined buriti oil is suggested as alternative to improve the lipid profile of healthy rats.

  9. Effect of Dietary Selenium and Vitamin E on Slaughter Yield and Carcass Composition of Commercial White Koluda Geese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Łukaszewicz*, A Jerysz and A Kowalczyk

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Taking into consideration the role of selenium and vitamin E in metabolic processes of living organisms, the effect of these oxidants on slaughter value and carcass quality of commercial goose was investigated. The experiment was carried out on 200 one-day-old White Koluda geese that were randomly divided into two groups: 50 males and 50 females each. From first day until 13th wk of age the control group was maintained on commercial basic feeds, the experimental group received feed enriched with organic selenium (0.3 mg kg-1 and vitamin E (100 mg kg-1. Later on, for three wks all birds were feed with oat grain and cereals ground. At 112 day of live all birds were weighted individually and from each group 20 birds (10 males and 10 females were chosen randomly, slaughtered and after 24 hours chilling at +4°C the following parameter were evaluated (in grams, exact to 0.1 g and % in relation to live body weight and eviscerated carcass with neck: eviscerated carcass with neck, neck without skin, wings with skin, breast and leg muscles, edible giblets (heart, liver, gizzard, skin with subcutaneous fat, abdomen fat and remainder of carcass. Feed supplementation with tested antioxidants had non-significant (P≥0.05 effect on evaluated female traits, but significantly increased (P≤0.05 the male live body weight and eviscerated carcass with neck. Irrespective of feeding group, significant sex differences were stated in majority of evaluated carcass elements.

  10. The role of vitamins in the diet of the elderly II. Water-soluble vitamins

    OpenAIRE

    Csapó J.; Albert Cs.; Prokisch J.

    2017-01-01

    Following a presentation of humans’ water-soluble vitamin requirements, the authors will discuss in detail the role these vitamins play in human organism and outline those major biochemical processes that are negatively affected in the body in case of vitamin deficiency. They point out that in the elderly population of developed countries cases of water-soluble vitamin deficiency are extremely rare and they are due to the lack of dietary vitamin, but mostly to the vitamin being released from ...

  11. Vitamin D-biofortified beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duffy, Sarah K.; O'Doherty, John V.; Rajauria, Gaurav

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates dietary fortification of heifer feeds with cholecalciferol and ergocalciferol sources and effects on beef total vitamin D activity, vitamer, respective 25-hydroxymetabolite contents, and meat quality. Thirty heifers were allocated to one of three dietary treatments [(1......) basal diet + 4000 IU of vitamin D3 (Vit D3); (2) basal diet + 4000 IU of vitamin D2 (Vit D2); and (3) basal diet + 4000 IU of vitamin D2-enriched mushrooms (Mushroom D2)] for a 30 day pre-slaughter period. Supplementation of heifer diets with Vit D3 yielded higher (p ...) total vitamin D activity (by 38–56%; p vitamin D source, carcass characteristics, sensory and meat quality parameter were unaffected (p > 0.05) by the dietary...

  12. Plasma retinol, carotene and vitamin E concentrations and lung function in a crocidolite-exposed cohort from Wittenoom, Western Australia: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrosini Gina

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased rates of death from asbestos related diseases have been reported for people previously employed in the mining and milling operations at Wittenoom (Western Australia, and people who lived in the nearby town, where they were environmentally exposed to crocidolite. Methods Annual measurements of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FVC and plasma concentrations of retinol, carotene and vitamin E have been made since 1992. Mixed effects models were used to examine the associations between lung function and the plasma vitamin levels of retinol, carotene and vitamin E. Results After adjusting for potential confounders, higher plasma retinol and carotene concentrations were significantly associated with higher levels of lung function at entry into the study, while vitamin E concentrations were associated with lower entry lung function. Retinol was associated with a less steep decline of lung function over time, while carotene concentrations were associated with an increased decline of lung function over time and vitamin E levels were not associated with changes of lung function over time. Conclusion These results support a beneficial relationship between plasma concentrations of retinol on the levels and rates of change of lung function, while showing no such consistent beneficial effect for plasma levels of beta-carotene or vitamin E.

  13. Dietary sources and sociodemographic and lifestyle factors affecting vitamin D and calcium intakes in European adolescents: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julián, Cristina; Mouratidou, Theodora; Vicente-Rodriguez, Germán; Gracia-Marco, Luis; Valtueña, Jara; González-Gross, Marcela; Ferrari, Marika; Gottrand, Frederic; Manios, Yannis; de la O, Alejandro; Widhalm, Kurt; Molnár, Dénes; Kafatos, Antonios; Sjöström, Michael; Kersting, Mathilde; Gunter, Marc J; De Henauw, Stefaan; Moreno, Luis A; Huybrechts, Inge

    2017-06-01

    To investigate dietary sources of Ca and vitamin D (VitD) intakes, and the associated sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, among European adolescents. Linear regression mixed models were used to examine sex-specific associations of Ca and VitD intakes with parental education, family affluence (FAS), physical activity and television (TV) watching while controlling for age, Tanner stage, energy intake and diet quality. The Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA)Cross-Sectional Study. Adolescents aged 12·5-17·5 years (n 1804). Milk and cheese were the main sources of Ca (23 and 19 % contribution to overall Ca intake, respectively). Fish products were the main VitD source (30 % contribution to overall VitD intake). Ca intake was positively associated with maternal education (β=56·41; 95 % CI 1·98, 110·82) and negatively associated with TV viewing in boys (β=-0·43; 95 % CI -0·79, -0·07); however, the significance of these associations disappeared when adjusting for diet quality. In girls, Ca intake was positively associated with mother's (β=73·08; 95 % CI 34·41, 111·74) and father's education (β=43·29; 95 % CI 5·44, 81·14) and FAS (β=37·45; 95 % CI 2·25, 72·65). This association between Ca intake and mother's education remained significant after further adjustment for diet quality (β=41·66; 95 % CI 0·94, 82·38). Girls with high-educated mothers had higher Ca intake. Low-educated families with poor diet quality may be targeted when strategizing health promotion programmes to enhance dietary Ca.

  14. Raman microspectroscopy of algal lipid bodies: beta-carotene quantification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pilát, Zdeněk; Bernatová, Silvie; Ježek, Jan; Šerý, Mojmír; Samek, Ota; Zemánek, Pavel; Nedbal, Ladislav; Trtílek, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 3 (2012), s. 541-546 ISSN 0921-8971 R&D Projects: GA MPO FR-TI1/433; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 ; RVO:67179843 Keywords : Raman microspectroscopy * Microalgae * Trachydiscus minutus * Biotechnology * Carotenoids Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 2.326, year: 2012

  15. Papel da lipoperoxidação na intensificação da remodelação causada pelo betacaroteno após o infarto Rol de la lipoperoxidación en la intensificación de la remodelación ocasionada por el betacaroteno tras infarto Role of lipoperoxidation in the remodeling intensification induced by beta-carotene after infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula S. Azevedo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Os mecanismos envolvidos na maior remodelação causada pelo betacaroteno após o infarto são desconhecidos. OBJETIVO: Analisar o papel da lipoperoxidação na remodelação ventricular após o infarto do miocárdio, em ratos suplementados com betacaroteno. MÉTODOS: Ratos foram infartados e distribuídos em dois grupos: C (controle e BC (500mg/kg/dieta. Após seis meses, foram realizados ecocardiograma e avaliação bioquímica. Utilizamos o teste t, com significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: Os animais do grupo BC apresentaram maiores médias das áreas diastólicas (C = 1,57 ± 0,4 mm²/g, BC = 2,09 ± 0,3 mm²/g; p FUNDAMENTO: Los mecanismos implicados en la mayor remodelación ocasionada por betacaroteno tras el infarto son desconocidos. OBJETIVO: Analizar el rol que juega la lipoperoxidación en la remodelación ventricular tras el infarto de miocardio, en ratas suplementadas con betacaroteno. MÉTODOS: Se había inducido a un infarto a las ratas y se las distribuyó en grupos: C (control y BC (500mg/kg/dieta. Tras seis meses, se realizaron ecocardiograma y evaluación bioquímica. Utilizamos la prueba t, con significancia del 5%. RESULTADOS: Los animales del grupo BC presentaron mayores promedios de las áreas diastólicas (C = 1,57 ± 0,4 mm²/g, BC = 2,09 ± 0,3 mm²/g; p BACKGROUND: The mechanisms involved in the biggest remodeling caused by the post-infarct beta-carotene are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the role of lipoperoxidation in the ventricular remodeling after infarct of the myocardium in rats supplemented with beta-carotene. METHODS: Rats were infarcted and divided into two groups: C (control and BC (500mg/kg/regimen. After six months, echocardiogram and biochemical evaluation were performed. The t test was used, with 5% significance. RESULTS: The animals from BC group presented highest means of the diastolic (C = 1.57 ± 0.4 mm²/g, BC = 2.09 ± 0.3 mm²/g; p < 0.001 and systolic (C = 1.05 ± 0.3 mm²/g, BC = 1.61

  16. Peranan Vitamin D Pada Pencegahan Penyakit Degeneratif: Persfektif Baru

    OpenAIRE

    Siagian, Albiner

    2010-01-01

    Vitamin D is one of the fat soluble vitamins. This vitamin is usually known as vitamin that takes apart in bone health thorough its role in increasing efficiency of calcium absorption in small intestine. Without vitamin D, human small intestine can only absorb calcium up to 15%. Vitamin D can increase efficiency of dietary calcium absorption up to 30%. Until 1980s, vitamin D was primarily known by its role in bone and tooth formation However, recent epidemiologic studies have revealed...

  17. Inhibition of serum cholesterol oxidation by dietary vitamin C and selenium intake in high fat fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez-Carreño, M; Ansorena, D; Milagro, F I; Campión, J; Martínez, J A; Astiasarán, I

    2008-04-01

    Cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) have been considered as specific in vivo markers of oxidative stress. In this study, an increased oxidative status was induced in Wistar rats by feeding them a high-fat diet (cafeteria diet). Another group of animals received the same diet supplemented with a combination of two different antioxidants, ascorbic acid (100 mg/kg rat/day) and sodium selenite (200 microg/kg rat/day) and a third group fed on a control diet. Total and individual COPs analysis of the different diets showed no differences among them. At the end of the experimental trial, rats were sacrificed and serum cholesterol, triglycerides and COPs were measured. None of the diets induced changes in rats body weight, total cholesterol and triglycerides levels. Serum total COPs in rats fed on the high-fat diet were 1.01 microg/ml, two times the amount of the control rats (0.47 microg/ml). When dietary antioxidant supplementation was given, serum total COPs concentration (0.44 microg/ml) showed the same levels than those of the rats on control diet. 7beta-hydroxycholesterol, formed non-enzymatically via cholesterol peroxidation in the presence of reactive oxygen species, showed slightly lower values in the antioxidant-supplemented animals compared to the control ones. This study confirms the importance of dietary antioxidants as protective factors against the formation of oxysterols.

  18. PENGARUH PROSES FERMENTASI KOMBUCHA DAUN SIRSAK (Annona muricata L. TERHADAP KADAR VITAMIN C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ike Apriani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Kombucha is a fermented beverage of tea and sugar with a symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeast, consumed for its beneficial effect on human health.  Kombucha contains antioxidant activity compounds.Yet, many research studies have shown that Soursop leaves contain vitamin C, Vitamin E, beta carotene, and flavoloids.  The purpose of this study was to determine the activity levels of vitamin C kombucha tea leaves of the soursop, The research was conducted in September 2016 in Chemistry Laboratory of Biology Education Study Program, Teaching Training and  Ilmu Tarbiyah Faculty UIN Raden Fatah Palembang. The research method was an experimental laboratory using a Completly Randomized Design (CRD with 2 factors, the first factor was fermentation days (0 day (F1, 4 day (F2, 8 day (F3 and 12 day (F4, and the second factor was the levels of soursop leaf tea is used (0 gr (K1, 20 gr (K2, 40 gr (K3, and 60 gr (K4 with 3 replications. The results showed that there is a very real influence and interaction between fermentation days and content of soursop leaf tea is used to the levels of vitamin C. The highest levels of vitamin C present in the sample F4K4 (12 day / 60 gr of 343.79 mg / 100 mL, and lowest vitamin C levels in samples F4K1 (12 day / without leaves of the soursop amounted to 36.37 mg / 100 mL. The conclusion of this research is long fermentation and content of soursop leaves influence on the vitamin C activity.

  19. Effect of dietary vitamin E on broiler meat qualities, color, water-holding capacity and shear force value, under heat stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashizawa, Yoshinori; Kubota, Masatoshi; Kadowaki, Motoni; Fujimura, Shinobu

    2013-11-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary vitamin E (VE) on broiler meat quality, especially focused on PSE (pale color, soft and exudative), under chronic heat stress (HS) conditions. Twenty-eight-day-old female Ross broilers were kept in independent cages with a controlled temperature of 24°C (normal temperature: NT) or 30°C (high temperature: HT). The NT chickens were fed basal feed. The HT chickens were fed basal feed (HT) or VE (200 mg/kg) added feed (HT + E). Broilers were weighed and slaughtered at 38 days old. The breast muscle was removed immediately and then the samples were used for determination of meat color, pH, water holding capacity (WHC) and shear force value (SFV). Body weight gain and feed intake were significantly decreased in the HT and HT + E groups compared to the NT group. VE supplementation did not affect the growth performance. Chronic HS at 30°C for 10 days may cause deterioration of meat quality such as PSE. The effects of chronic HS on meat quality were most significant in the toughness of broiler breast meat. Supplementation of VE in broiler feed would be effective to prevent the extent of PSE on broiler meat by chronic HS. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  20. A study of effective atomic numbers and electron densities of some vitamins for electron, H, He and C ion interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyükyıldız, M.

    2017-09-01

    The radiological properties of some vitamins such as Retinol, Beta-carotene, Riboflavin, Niacin, Niacinamide, Pantothenic acid, Pyridoxine, Pyridoxamine, Pyridoxal, Biotin, Folic acid, Ascorbic acid, Cholecalciferol, Alpha-tocopherol, Gamma-tocopherol, Phylloquinone have been investigated with respect to total electron interaction and some heavy charged particle interaction as means of effective atomic numbers (Z_{eff}) and electron densities (N_{eff}) for the first time. Calculations were performed for total electron interaction and heavy ions such as H, He and C ion interactions in the energy region 10keV-10MeV by using a logarithmic interpolation method. Variations in Z_{eff}'s and N_{eff}'s of given vitamins have been studied according to the energy of electron or heavy charged particles, and significant variations have been observed for all types of interaction in the given energy region. The maximum values of Z_{eff} have been found in the different energy regions for different interactions remarkably and variations in N_{eff} seem approximately to be the same with variation in Z_{eff} for the given vitamins as expected. Z_{eff} values of some vitamins were plotted together and compared with each other for electron, H, He and C interactions and the ratios of Z_{eff}/ have been changed in the range of 0.25-0.36, 0.20-0.36, 0.22-0.35 and 0.20-0.35 for electron, H, He and C interactions, respectively.

  1. Vitamin requirements of juvenile penaeid shrimp

    OpenAIRE

    Conklin, D

    1989-01-01

    The results of supplementing crustacean feeds with vitamins are examined specifically from the standpoint of shrimp culture. Micro-nutrients selected for discussion include: water-soluble vitamins of the B-complex, choline and inositol, vitamin C and the fat-soluble group of vitamins: A, D, E and K. Ways in which utilization of vitamins and ultimately dietary demand are altered by physiological state, conditions of culture, as well as factors which impact on feed levels, are explored.

  2. Dietary Supplement Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Primary Mitochondrial Disorders Weight Loss A Acai Aloe Vera Anabolic Steroids Antioxidants (see Exercise and Athletic Performance ) ... Pills (see Weight Loss ) Dietary Supplements Vitamin D E Echinacea Ephedra Essiac/Flor-Essence European Elder Evening ...

  3. Effect of vitamin B1 and mixtures of B1 with other vitamins on cytostatic efficiency of sanazole under irradiation. A study in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinrich, Edith; Getoff, Nikola E-mail: nikola.getoff@univie.ac.at

    2003-06-01

    Experiments in vitro, using bacteria Escherichia coli (AB 1157) as a biological model, showed that the cytostatic efficiency of sanazole (AK-2123, a nitrotriazole-type radiosensitizer) in radiation treatment can be strongly influenced by the presence of various vitamins. In airfree media the sanazole action is increased by a factor of 2.5 in the presence of vitamin (vit.) B1, vit. C E-acetate and {beta}-carotene, whereas vit. B1 used individually possesses a 2.7-times higher cytostatic activity than sanazole itself. In media containing air the highest increase of sanazole action is observed in the presence of vit. B1 and C, whereas the individual use of vit. B1 shows a radiation protection effect. In media saturated with N{sub 2}O the addition of the vit. B1 and C causes a 1.8-times larger sanazole activity, but the application of vit. B1 alone brings about a very high radiation protection. >From studies of vit. B1-radiolysis it can be concluded that OH radicals are the major primary transients leading to substrate degradation. The results are of interest for the radiation therapy of cancer.

  4. Dietary Intake, Anthropometric Characteristics, and Iron and Vitamin D Status of Female Adolescent Ballet Dancers Living in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Kathryn L; Mitchell, Sarah; Foskett, Andrew; Conlon, Cathryn A; von Hurst, Pamela R

    2015-08-01

    Ballet dancing is a multifaceted activity requiring muscular power, strength, endurance, flexibility, and agility; necessitating demanding training schedules. Furthermore dancers may be under aesthetic pressure to maintain a lean physique, and adolescent dancers require extra nutrients for growth and development. This cross-sectional study investigated the nutritional status of 47 female adolescent ballet dancers (13-18 years) living in Auckland, New Zealand. Participants who danced at least 1 hr per day 5 days per week completed a 4-day estimated food record, anthropometric measurements (Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry) and hematological analysis (iron and vitamin D). Mean BMI was 19.7 ± 2.4 kg/m2 and percentage body fat, 23.5 ± 4.1%. The majority (89.4%) of dancers had a healthy weight (5th-85th percentile) using BMI-for-age growth charts. Food records showed a mean energy intake of 8097.3 ± 2155.6 kJ/day (48.9% carbohydrate, 16.9% protein, 33.8% fat, 14.0% saturated fat). Mean carbohydrate and protein intakes were 4.8 ± 1.4 and 1.6 ± 0.5 g/kg/day respectively. Over half (54.8%) of dancers consumed less than 5 g carbohydrate/kg/day, and 10 (23.8%) less than 1.2 g protein/kg/day. Over 60% consumed less than the estimated average requirement for calcium, folate, magnesium and selenium. Thirteen (28.3%) dancers had suboptimal iron status (serum ferritin (SF) ballet dancers are at risk for iron deficiency, and possibly inadequate nutrient intakes.

  5. [Carotenoids: 2. Diseases and supplementation studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, H; Fayol, V; Galabert, C; Grolier, P; Moël, G L; Stephens, J; Nabet, F

    1999-05-01

    Inverse correlations have been found in most studies on the relationship between dietary intake and plasma concentrations of carotenoids on one side and degenerative diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases on the other side. Protective effects of carotenoids have been found for pathologies of the retina and the skin. Concentrations of these molecules in blood are lower in digestive pathologies and HIV. Short- and long-term toxicity of carotenoids was found to be low. In combination with the beneficial effects found for diets rich in carotenoids, this has initiated trials with relatively high doses of carotenoid supplements. In the study in Linxian (China) in a rural population with poor nutritional status, supplementation with beta-carotene, zinc, selenium and vitamin E lowered total mortality and mortality from stomach cancer. Other studies (ATBC, Caret.) on well-fed subjects did not show beneficial effects on mortality from cancer and cardiovascular diseases. On the contrary, higher mortality and lung cancer incidence was found in supplemented subjects that were also exposed to asbestos and cigarette smoke. In these studies, doses of supplemental beta-carotene were high and varied from 20 to 50 mg/day. One still ongoing study, called Suvimax, doses subjects for eight years with a cocktail of vitamins and minerals including 6 mg per day of beta-carotene. This supplementation with physiologically seen more "normal" doses might give clarity on the question if beta-carotene is the protective factor in fruits and vegetables.

  6. Vitamin E and Hippophea rhamnoides L. extract reduce nicotine-induced oxidative stress in rat heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumustekin, Kenan; Taysi, Seyithan; Alp, Hamit Hakan; Aktas, Omer; Oztasan, Nuray; Akcay, Fatih; Suleyman, Halis; Akar, Sedat; Dane, Senol; Gul, Mustafa

    2010-06-01

    The effects of vitamin E and Hippophea rhamnoides L. extract (HRe-1) on nicotine-induced oxidative stress in rat heart were investigated. There were eight rats per group and supplementation period was 3 weeks. The groups were: nicotine [0.5 mg kg(-1)day(-1), intraperitoneal (i.p.)]; nicotine plus vitamin E [75 mg kg(-1)day(-1), intragastric (i.g.)]; nicotine plus HRe-1 (250 mg kg(-1)day(-1), i.g.); and the control group (receiving only vehicles). Nicotine increased the malondialdehyde level, which was prevented by both vitamin E and HRe-1. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in nicotine plus vitamin E supplemented group was higher than the others. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity in nicotine plus HRe-1 supplemented group was increased compared with the control group. Catalase activity was higher in nicotine group compared with others. GPx activity in nicotine plus vitamin E supplemented group was elevated compared with the others. Total and non-enzymatic superoxide scavenger activities in nicotine plus vitamin E supplemented group were lower than nicotine plus HRe-1 supplemented group. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was higher in nicotine plus HRe-1 supplemented group compared with others. Glutathione reductase activity and nitric oxide level were not affected. Increased SOD and GST activities might have taken part in the prevention of nicotine-induced oxidative stress in HRe-1 supplemented group in rat heart. Flavonols such as quercetin, and isorahmnetin, tocopherols such as alpha-tocopherol and beta-tocopherol and carotenoids such as alpha-carotene and beta-carotene, reported to be present in H. rhamnoides L. extracts may be responsible for the antioxidant effects of this plant extract. 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your body uses vitamins for a variety of biological processes, including growth, digestion, and nerve function. There ... WebMD resource Dietary Reference Intakes: A Risk Assessment Model for Establishing Upper Intake Levels for Nutrients Related ...

  8. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... body stores these for use as needed. Practice Safety with Dietary Supplements When it comes to purchasing ... Overdose Risk With Liquid Vitamin D 4 Medication Safety Tips for Older Adults More in Consumer Updates ...

  9. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... will achieve adequate vitamin intakes. The 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans advises that nutrient needs be met ... with supplementation suggested for certain sensitive populations. These guidelines, published by the Department of Health and Human ...

  10. Vitamin D and Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by the body when skin is exposed to ultraviolet radiation in sunlight. Both forms are converted to 25- ... through sunlight exposure. Dietary sources include a few foods that naturally contain vitamin D, such as fatty ...

  11. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Joint FDA/WebMD resource Dietary Reference Intakes: A Risk Assessment Model for Establishing Upper Intake Levels for Nutrients Related Consumer Updates Infant Overdose Risk With Liquid Vitamin D 4 Medication Safety Tips ...

  12. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... no-risk, money-back guarantees," and requirements for advance payment. "Also ask yourself, "Is the product worth ... to have an overall strategy for how they will achieve adequate vitamin intakes. The 2005 Dietary Guidelines ...

  13. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Overdose Risk With Liquid Vitamin D 4 Medication Safety Tips for Older Adults More in Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products ...

  14. Effect of freezing and canning on the content of selected vitamins and pigments in seeds of two grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) cultivars at the not fully mature stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korus, Anna; Lisiewska, Zofia; Kmiecik, Waldemar

    2002-08-01

    Seeds of the grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) cultivars Derek and Krab, with a dry matter content of about 33%, were used for freezing and for canning. The content of vitamins C, B1, and B2 and of carotenoids, beta-carotene, and chlorophylls was determined in raw and blanched material, in frozen products after 6-month storage before and after cooking to consumption consistency, and in canned products after 6-month storage. In comparison with the cultivar Krab, raw seeds of Derek contained 45% more vitamin C, 14% more total chlorophylls, 13% less thiamine (vitamin B1), and 7% less riboflavin (vitamin B2). The level of carotenoids was similar. Blanching of seeds led to a statistically significant decrease only in the content of vitamin C. Freezing and frozen storage significantly lowered the level of vitamin C and chlorophylls. The cooking of frozen seeds and the production of canned products and their storage resulted in a statistically verified reduction in the content of components analysed in all the samples. Greater losses were found in products prepared from seeds of the cv. Krab. After cooking, frozen seeds contained more of all the analysed components than the canned products.

  15. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... There are 13 vitamins that the body absolutely needs: vitamins A, C, D, E, K, and the B ... Americans, many people consume more calories than they need without taking in ... nutrients—including vitamins—for which low dietary intake may be a ...

  16. Food fortification improves the intake of all fortified nutrients, but fails to meet the estimated dietary requirements for vitamins A and B6, riboflavin and zinc, in lactating South African women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papathakis, Peggy C; Pearson, Kerry E

    2012-10-01

    To investigate the impact of fortification by comparing food records and selected biochemical indicators of nutritional status pre- and post-fortification. Mean intake from 24 h recalls (n 142) was compared with the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) to determine the proportion with inadequate intake. In a subsample (n 34), diet and serum retinol, folate, ferritin and Zn were compared pre- and post-fortification for fortified nutrients vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folic acid, Fe and Zn. South Africa. Breast-feeding women (ninety-four HIV-infected, forty eight HIV-uninfected) measured at ~6, 14, 24 weeks, and 9 and 12 months postpartum. Pre-fortification, >80 % of women did not meet the EAR for vitamins A, C, D, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, B6, B12 and folate and minerals Zn, iodine and Ca. Dietary intake post-fortification increased for all fortified nutrients. In post-fortification food records, >70 % did not meet the EAR for Zn and vitamins A, riboflavin and B6. Serum folate and Zn increased significantly post-fortification (P 93 % were retinol replete. There was no change in Fe deficiency (16.7 % pre v. 19.4 % post; P = 0.728). Micronutrient intake improved with fortification, but >70 % of lactating women did not meet the EAR for Zn, vitamins A, riboflavin and B6. Although 100 % exceeded the EAR for Fe after fortification, Fe status did not improve.

  17. Vitamins in the prevention of human diseases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Herrmann, Wolfgang, Prof; Obeid, Rima

    2011-01-01

    ... in ancient Egypt. One-sided nutrition, smoking, alcohol, genetic factors, and even geographical origin interfere with our dietary intake of the vitamins. Insufficient vitamin intake can impact our health and contribute significantly to the development of diseases. This book offers expert reviews and judgements on the role of vitamins in health and ...

  18. Increased lipid peroxidation in pregnant women after iron and vitamin C supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachili, B; Hininger, I; Faure, H; Arnaud, J; Richard, M J; Favier, A; Roussel, A M

    2001-11-01

    Iron overload could promote the generation of free radicals and result in deleterious cellular damages. A physiological increase of oxidative stress has been observed in pregnancy. A routine iron supplement, especially a combined iron and vitamin C supplementation, without biological justifications (low hemoglobin [Hb] and iron stores) could therefore aggravate this oxidative risk. We investigated the effect of a daily combined iron supplementation (100 mg/d as fumarate) and vitamin C (500 mg/d as ascorbate) for the third trimester of pregnancy on lipid peroxidation (plasma TBARS), antioxidant micronutriments (Zn, Se, retinol, vitamin E, (beta-carotene) and antioxidant metalloenzymes (RBC Cu-Zn SOD and Se-GPX). The iron-supplemented group (n = 27) was compared to a control group (n = 27), age and number of pregnancies matched. At delivery, all the women exhibited normal Hb and ferritin values. In the supplemented group, plasma iron level was higher than in the control group (26.90 +/- 5.52 mmol/L) and TBARs plasma levels were significantly enhanced (p cell antioxidant metalloenzymes. Furthermore, the alpha-tocopherol plasma level was lowered in the iron-supplemented groups, suggesting an increased utilization of vitamin E. These data show that pharmalogical doses of iron, associated with high vitamin C intakes, can result in uncontrolled lipid peroxidation. This is predictive of adverse effects for the mother and the fetus. This study illustrates the potential harmful effects of iron supplementation when prescribed only on the assumption of anemia and not on the bases of biological criteria.

  19. Vitamin D and respiratory disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Hushmand

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The active form of vitamin D is synthesized in some body organs following sun exposure and dietary intake. Vitamin D exhibits its major and critical effects not only through regulation of calcium and phosphate metabolism but also by influencing on respiratory and immune system. Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D below the optimum limit lead to vitamin D insufficiency or maybe deficiency. These inappropriate concentrations of vitamin D lead to different types of pulmonary diseases such as viral and bacterial respiratory infection, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cancer. In this review we described the association between vitamin D deficiency and severe therapy resistant asthma. We also reviewed the underlying molecular mechanism of vitamin D deficiency in children with severe- therapy resistant asthma. Based on current information, future clinical trial are needed to study the role of vitamin D supplementation on different groups of patients with severe asthma including infants, children of school age, and ethnic minorities.

  20. Reported Dietary Intake, Disparity between the Reported Consumption and the Level Needed for Adequacy and Food Sources of Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium and Vitamin D in the Spanish Population: Findings from the ANIBES Study †

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josune Olza

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and vitamin D have important biological roles in the body, especially in bone metabolism. We aimed to study the reported intake, the disparity between the reported consumption and the level needed for adequacy and food sources of these four nutrients in the Spanish population. We assessed the reported intake for both, general population and plausible reporters. Results were extracted from the ANIBES survey, n = 2009. Three-day dietary reported intake data were obtained and misreporting was assessed according to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA. Mean ± SEM (range total reported consumption of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and vitamin D for the whole population were 698 ± 7 mg/day (71–2551 mg/day, 1176 ± 8 mg/day, (331–4429 mg/day, 222 ± 2 mg/day (73–782 mg/day, and 4.4 ± 0.1 µg/day (0.0–74.2 µg/day, respectively. In the whole group, 76% and 66%; 79% and 72%; and 94% and 93% of the population had reported intakes below 80% of the national and European recommended daily intakes for calcium, magnesium and vitamin D, respectively; these percentages were over 40% when the plausible reporters were analysed separately. The main food sources were milk and dairy products for calcium and phosphorus, cereals and grains for magnesium and fish for vitamin D. In conclusion, there is an important percentage of the Spanish ANIBES population not meeting the recommended intakes for calcium, magnesium and vitamin D.

  1. Effects of the type of dietary fat at two levels of vitamin E in Wistar male rats during development and aging. III. Biochemical and morphometric parameters of the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porta, E A; Keopuhiwa, L; Joun, N S; Nitta, R T

    1981-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore in rats the possible influence of the type of dietary fat at two extreme levels of vitamin E on several biochemically determined hepatic changes and on a number of quantitatively analyzed structural and ultrastructural variations with age in hepatic cells. Six groups of weanling Wistar male rats were fed ad libitum isoenergetic diets containing similar amounts (15 g per 100 g diet) of saturated fat (coconut oil), unsaturated fat (safflower oil) or a combination of both at two levels of dl-alpha-tocopherol (2 or 200 mg per 100 g of diet). Determinations were performed in rats killed at 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months. Although in relation to age and irrespective of the type of diet, several of the biochemical parameters fluctuated with time, comparisons of the results between the youngest and oldest rats showed no changes in the levels of hepatic RNA, phospholipids, cholesterol, total tocopherols and total collagens, significant increases in DNA and triglycerides and a significant decrease in total protein. While the type of diet did not have in general significant influences on the levels of DNA, RNA, total protein and collagens, either the type of dietary fat and/or the levels of vitamin E had some definite effects on the levels of triglycerides, cholesterol, phospholipids and total tocopherols, as well as on the in vitro formation of malonaldehyde and on the eventual occurrence of in vivo lipoperoxidation (diene conjugation). These effects, however, varied in relation to the duration of the diverse dietary treatments. The morphologic studies indicated that all the livers had variable but generally moderate degrees of fatty changes (mainly due to triglyceride accumulation) which were attributed to the moderate obesity found in the rats. The mean nuclear and cell dimensions of hepatocytes, the number of binucleated hepatocytes, surface density of rough endoplasmic reticulum, numerical density of mitochondria and the fractional

  2. Dietary Intake of Folate, but not Vitamin B(2) or B (12), Is Associated with Increased Bone Mineral Density 5 Years after the Menopause

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rejnmark, L; Vestergaard, P; Hermann, A P

    2008-01-01

    Folate, vitamin B(2) (riboflavin), and vitamin B(12 )may affect bone directly or through an effect on plasma homocysteine levels. Previously, a positive association has been found between plasma levels and bone mineral density (BMD) as well as risk of fracture. However, there are limited data on ...

  3. Altered vitamin D status in liver tissue and blood plasma from Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) dietary exposed to organohalogen contaminated minke whale (Balaenoptera acuterostrata) blubber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Kirkegaard, Maja; Jakobsen, Jette

    2014-01-01

    This study compared vitamin D3 (vitD3) and 25-OH vitamin D3 (25OHD3) status in Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) given either minke whale (Balaenoptera acuterostrata) blubber high in organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) or clean porcine (Suis scrofa) fat for up to 636 days. A group of six...

  4. Associations between B Vitamins and Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Liang

    2015-08-27

    B vitamins may correlate with Parkinson's disease (PD) through regulating homocysteine level. However, there is no comprehensive assessment on the associations between PD and B vitamins. The present study was designed to perform a meta-analytic assessment of the associations between folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 and PD, including the status of B vitamins in PD patients compared with controls, and associations of dietary intakes of B vitamins and risk of PD. A literature search using Medline database obtained 10 eligible studies included in the meta-analyses. Stata 12.0 statistical software was used to perform the meta-analysis. Pooled data revealed that there was no obvious difference in folate level between PD patients and healthy controls, and PD patients had lower level of vitamin B12 than controls. Available data suggested that higher dietary intake of vitamin B6 was associated with a decreased risk of PD (odds ratio (OR) = 0.65, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = (0.30, 1.01)), while no significant association was observed for dietary intake of folate and vitamin B12 and risk of PD. PD patients had lower level of vitamin B12 and similar level of folate compared with controls. Dietary intake of vitamin B6 exhibited preventive effect of developing PD based on the available data. As the number of included studies is limited, more studies are needed to confirm the findings and elucidate the underpinning underlying these associations.

  5. Vitamin E Nicotinate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimbell R. Duncan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin E refers to a family of compounds that function as lipid-soluble antioxidants capable of preventing lipid peroxidation. Naturally occurring forms of vitamin E include tocopherols and tocotrienols. Vitamin E in dietary supplements and fortified foods is often an esterified form of α-tocopherol, the most common esters being acetate and succinate. The vitamin E esters are hydrolyzed and converted into free α-tocopherol prior to absorption in the intestinal tract. Because its functions are relevant to many chronic diseases, vitamin E has been extensively studied in respect to a variety of diseases as well as cosmetic applications. The forms of vitamin E most studied are natural α-tocopherol and the esters α-tocopheryl acetate and α-tocopheryl succinate. A small number of studies include or focus on another ester form, α-tocopheryl nicotinate, an ester of vitamin E and niacin. Some of these studies raise the possibility of differences in metabolism and in efficacy between vitamin E nicotinate and other forms of vitamin E. Recently, through metabolomics studies, we identified that α-tocopheryl nicotinate occurs endogenously in the heart and that its level is dramatically decreased in heart failure, indicating the possible biological importance of this vitamin E ester. Since knowledge about vitamin E nicotinate is not readily available in the literature, the purpose of this review is to summarize and evaluate published reports, specifically with respect to α-tocopheryl nicotinate with an emphasis on the differences from natural α-tocopherol or α-tocopheryl acetate.

  6. VITAMINS IN RABBIT NUTRITION : LITERATURE REVIEW AND RECOMMENDATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Lebas, F.

    2000-01-01

    [EN] Vitamins are classified in a total of 13 substances or groups of substances. Four vitamins are fat-soluble (vitamin A, O E, and K) and the nine others (vitamins of the B-complex and vitamin C) are water-soluble. The water-soluble vitamins and vitamin K are normally synthesised by the rabbit's digestive flora; but in cases of high risk of digestive disorders (e.g. just after weaning), dietary supplementation may be advisable. In addition, a vitamin C supplementation (...

  7. Vitamin D supplementation guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pludowski, Pawel; Holick, Michael F; Grant, William B; Konstantynowicz, Jerzy; Mascarenhas, Mario R; Haq, Afrozul; Povoroznyuk, Vladyslav; Balatska, Nataliya; Barbosa, Ana Paula; Karonova, Tatiana; Rudenka, Ema; Misiorowski, Waldemar; Zakharova, Irina; Rudenka, Alena; Łukaszkiewicz, Jacek; Marcinowska-Suchowierska, Ewa; Łaszcz, Natalia; Abramowicz, Pawel; Bhattoa, Harjit P; Wimalawansa, Sunil J

    2018-01-01

    Research carried out during the past two-decades extended the understanding of actions of vitamin D, from regulating calcium and phosphate absorption and bone metabolism to many pleiotropic actions in organs and tissues in the body. Most observational and ecological studies report association of higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations with improved outcomes for several chronic, communicable and non-communicable diseases. Consequently, numerous agencies and scientific organizations have developed recommendations for vitamin D supplementation and guidance on optimal serum 25(OH)D concentrations. The bone-centric guidelines recommend a target 25(OH)D concentration of 20ng/mL (50nmol/L), and age-dependent daily vitamin D doses of 400-800IU. The guidelines focused on pleiotropic effects of vitamin D recommend a target 25(OH)D concentration of 30ng/mL (75nmol/L), and age-, body weight-, disease-status, and ethnicity dependent vitamin D doses ranging between 400 and 2000IU/day. The wise and balanced choice of the recommendations to follow depends on one's individual health outcome concerns, age, body weight, latitude of residence, dietary and cultural habits, making the regional or nationwide guidelines more applicable in clinical practice. While natural sources of vitamin D can raise 25(OH)D concentrations, relative to dietary preferences and latitude of residence, in the context of general population, these sources are regarded ineffective to maintain the year-round 25(OH)D concentrations in the range of 30-50ng/mL (75-125nmol/L). Vitamin D self-administration related adverse effects, such as hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria are rare, and usually result from taking extremely high doses of vitamin D for a prolonged time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Natural Versus Synthetic Vitamin B Complexes in Human

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-12

    Healthy; Thiamine and Niacin Deficiency States; Pyridoxine Deficiency; Folic Acid Deficiency Anemia, Dietary; Vitamin B 12 Deficiency; Peroxidase; Defect; Polyphenols; Oxidative Stress; Homocystine; Metabolic Disorder

  9. Vitamin K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamins are substances that your body needs to grow and develop normally. Vitamin K helps your body by making proteins for ... blood clotting. If you don't have enough vitamin K, you may bleed too much. Newborns have ...

  10. Vitamin A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamins are substances that your body needs to grow and develop normally. Vitamin A plays a role in your Vision Bone growth Reproduction Cell functions Immune system Vitamin A is an antioxidant. It can come from ...

  11. Vitamin E

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ultraviolet light from the sun. The body also needs vitamin E to boost its immune system so that ... important functions. How much vitamin E do I need? The amount of vitamin E you need each day depends on your ...

  12. A food-based approach introducing orange-fleshed sweet potatoes increased vitamin A intake and serum retinol concentrations in young children in rural Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Jan W; Arimond, Mary; Osman, Nadia; Cunguara, Benedito; Zano, Filipe; Tschirley, David

    2007-05-01

    Vitamin A deficiency is widespread and has severe consequences for young children in the developing world. Food-based approaches may be an appropriate and sustainable complement to supplementation programs. Orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) is rich in beta-carotene and is well accepted by young children. In an extremely resource poor area in Mozambique, the effectiveness of introduction of OFSP was assessed in an integrated agriculture and nutrition intervention, which aimed to increase vitamin A intake and serum retinol concentrations in young children. The 2-y quasi-experimental intervention study followed households and children (n = 741; mean age 13 mo at baseline) through 2 agricultural cycles. In y 2, 90% of intervention households produced OFSP, and mean OFSP plot size in intervention areas increased from 33 to 359 m(2). Intervention children (n = 498) were more likely than control children (n = 243) to eat OFSP 3 or more d in the last wk (55% vs. 8%, P children (median 426 vs. 56 microg retinol activity equivalent, P children and did not increase significantly in control subjects. Integrated promotion of OFSP can complement other approaches and contribute to increases in vitamin A intake and serum retinol concentrations in young children in rural Mozambique and similar areas in Sub-Saharan Africa.

  13. Effect of dietary selenium and vitamin E on the ultrastructure and ATP concentration of boar spermatozoa, and the efficacy of added sodium selenite in extended semen on sperm motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin-Guzman, J; Mahan, D C; Whitmoyer, R

    2000-06-01

    Three experiments evaluated the effects of dietary Se and vitamin E on the ultrastructure of spermatozoa, ATP concentration of spermatozoa, and the effects of adding sodium selenite to semen extenders on subsequent sperm motility. The experiment was a 2 x 2 arrangement of treatments in a randomized complete block design. A total of 10 mature boars were fed from weaning to 18 mo of age diets fortified with two levels of supplemental Se (0 or .5 ppm) or vitamin E (0 or 220 IU/kg diet). The nonfortified diets contained .06 ppm Se and 4.4 IU vitamin E/kg. In Exp. 1, the spermatozoa from all boars were examined by electron microscopy. Vitamin E had no effect on structural abnormalities in the spermatozoa. When the low-Se diet was fed the acrosome or nuclei of the spermatozoa was unaffected, but the mitochondria in the tail midpiece were more oval with wider gaps between organelles. The plasma membrane connection to the tail midpiece was not tightly bound as when boars were fed Se. Immature spermatozoa with cytoplasmic droplets were more numerous when boars were fed the low-Se diet, but the occurrence of midpiece abnormalities occurred in boars fed diets with or without Se or vitamin E. Our results suggest that Se may enhance spermatozoa maturation in the epididymis and may reduce the number of sperm with cytoplasmic droplets. In Exp. 2, the concentration of ATP in the spermatozoa was evaluated in the semen of all treatment boars. When the low-Se diet was fed, ATP concentration was lower (P boar semen with a semen extender with sodium selenite added at 0, .3, .6, or .9 ppm Se. Three ejaculates from each boar were used to evaluate these effects on sperm motility to 48 h after dilution. Sperm motility declined (P extender, and this decline was exacerbated as the concentration of added Se increased (P boars resulted in abnormal spermatozoal mitochondria, a lower ATP concentration in the spermatozoa, and a loose apposition of the plasma membrane to the helical coil of the

  14. Should You Take Dietary Supplements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2013 Print this issue Should You Take Dietary Supplements? A Look at Vitamins, Minerals, Botanicals and More ... Gut in Check Wise Choices Safe Use of Supplements Tell all of your health care providers about ...

  15. [Evaluation of the dietary intake of vitamins and minerals in the daily food rations by the students of the Rzeszów University].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Marian; Głodek, Elzbieta; Rudy, Mariusz

    2012-01-01

    To function properly the human body needs, from a nutritional point of view, the supply of a wide variety of nutrients. In this respect, in addition to essential nutrients, vitamins and minerals play an important role. Particular attention should be paid to the nutrition of studying youth as in their diet there are observed many irregularities arising from the specific nature of student life. The aim of the study was to identify and assess the level of intake of selected vitamins and minerals in a group of students with consideration of gender. The study included the group of 200 persons studying at the Faculty of Biology and Agriculture at the University of Rzeszów. The assessment of intake was made using the method of immediate recording of products and beverages consumed by students within three successive days. Using the Tables of Nutritional Value of Foods and Dishes there was calculated the average daily intake of minerals (sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, zinc, copper, manganese) and vitamins (A, D, E, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folates and vitamin B12). It was found that the nutrition of women had seriously deficient intake of vitamin D (49%), folates (54%), thiamine and niacin. In terms of mineral intake in women there was diagnosed insufficient contribution of iron (46%), potassium (51.4%), calcium (55.4%) and magnesium (71.6%) in the diet. In the group of men deficiencies were found in the case of vitamin D (79.4%), foliates (71.6%) and vitamin C (76.0%). The excess of manganese (210.0%), phosphorus (198.9%), sodium (170.2%) in the diet and deficiency of potassium (65.5%), calcium (67.0%) and magnesium (73.9%) were found. The diet of men to a greater extent fulfils the need for vitamins and minerals. The results of the study show the necessity of education in order to foster healthy nutritional habits and to increase the share of natural sources of vitamins and minerals in the diet to prevent the occurrence of

  16. [Assessment of efficiency of dietotherapy with addition of a vitamin-mineral complex in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapik, I A; Sokol'nikov, A A; Sharafetdinov, Kh Kh; Sentsova, T B; Plotnikova, O A

    2014-01-01

    The influence of diet inclusion of vitamin and mineral complex (VMC), potassium and magnesium in the form of asparaginate on micronutrient status, body composition and biochemical parameters in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) has been investigated. 120 female patients with DM2 and obesity of I-III degree (mean age - 58 +/- 6 years) have been included in the study. The patients were divided into two groups: main group (n = 60) and control group (n = 60). For 3 weeks patients of both groups received a low-calorie diet (1600 kcal/day). Patients of the main group received VMC, providing an additional intake of vitamins C and E (100-120% RDA), beta-carotene (40% RDA), nicotinamide (38% RDA), pantothenic acid and biotin (60% RDA), vitamins B12, B2 and folic acid (75-83% RDA), vitamins B1 and B6 (160-300% RDA), zinc (100% RDA) and chromium (400% RDA), and also received magnesium (17.7% RDA) and potassium (9.4% RDA) in the form of asparaginate. Body composition, biochemical parameters and micronutrient status (blood serum level of vitamins C, D, B6, B12, folate, potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, phosphorus) were evaluated in all patients before and after the 3-week course of diet therapy. After the low-calorie diet therapy average body weight reduction was 4.2 +/- 0.2 kg in the main group, and 4.4 +/- 0.1 kg in the control group, without statistically significant differences between groups. Statistically significant decrease of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose concentration in blood serum was registered in both groups. It should be noted that in the control group glycemia decreased on 1.2 +/- 0.1 mmol/l, while the main group showed a decrease on 1.8 +/- 0.1 (p l). Initial assessment of vitamin and mineral status revealed that most patients were optimal supplied with vitamins and minerals. After the dietotherapy significant increase of vitamin C, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12, potassium, magnesium, calcium, zinc and

  17. Vitamin A family compounds, estradiol, and docetaxel in proliferation, apoptosis and immunocytochemical profile of human ovary endometrioid cancer cell line CRL-11731.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Lemancewicz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Endometrioid carcinoma represents approximately 10% of cases of the malignant ovarian epithelial tumors. According to literature, the vitamin A (carotenoids and retinoids plays an essential role in cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis in both normal and neoplastic ovarian tissues. Apart from that, the retinoids alter a cytotoxic effect of chemiotherapeutics, i.e. docetaxel, on ovarian cancer cell lines. Retinoids act on cancer cells throughout different mechanism than taxanes, so they may be the potential candidates for the new treatment strategies of ovarian cancer. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of vitamin A family compounds (retinol, beta-carotene, lycopene, all-trans -, 9-cis - and 13-cis retinoic acid on the growth and proliferation of CRL-11731 endometrioid ovary cancer cell line and on docetaxel and estradiol activity in this culture. The assay was based on [3H] thymidine incorporation and the proliferative activity of PCNA- and Ki 67-positive cells. The apoptotic index and expression of the Bcl-2 and p53 antigens in CRL-11731 cells were also studied. Among vitamin A family compounds retinol and carotenoids, but not retinoids, inhibited the growth of cancer cells in dose dependent manner. Only the concentration of 100 muM of docetaxel inhibited incorporation [3H] thymidine into CRL-11731 cancer cells. Retinol (33.4%+/-8.5, carotenoids (beta-carotene 20 muM 4.7%+/-2.9, 50 muM 2.2%+/-0.9; lycopene 10 muM 7.6%+/-0.8, 20 muM 5.2%+/-2.5, 50 muM 2.9%+/-1.2, and 13-cis retinoic acid (19.7%+/-2.2 combined with docetaxel (100 muM significantly decreased the percentage of proliferating cells (p<0.0001. The antiproliferative action of lycopene alone and in combination with docetaxel was also confirmed in immunohistochemical examination (decreased the percentage of PCNA and Ki67 positive cells. Also retinol (10 muM and lycopene (20 and 50 muM combined with estradiol (0.01 muM statistically decreased the percentage of

  18. Increased vitamin plasma levels in Swedish military personnel treated with nutrients prior to automatic weapon training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C G Le Prell

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL is a significant clinical, social, and economic issue. The development of novel therapeutic agents to reduce NIHL will potentially benefit multiple very large noise-exposed populations. Oxidative stress has been identified as a significant contributor to noise-induced sensory cell death and NIHL, and several antioxidant strategies have now been suggested for potential translation to human subjects. One such strategy is a combination of beta-carotene, vitamins C and E, and magnesium, which has shown promise for protection against NIHL in rodent models, and is being evaluated in a series of international human clinical trials using temporary (military gunfire, audio player use and permanent (stamping factory, military airbase threshold shift models (NCT00808470. The noise exposures used in the recently completed Swedish military gunfire study described in this report did not, on average, result in measurable changes in auditory function using conventional pure-tone thresholds and distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE amplitudes as metrics. However, analysis of the plasma samples confirmed significant elevations in the bloodstream 2 hours after oral consumption of active clinical supplies, indicating the dose is realistic. The plasma outcomes are encouraging, but clinical acceptance of any novel therapeutic critically depends on demonstration that the agent reduces noise-induced threshold shift in randomized, placebo-controlled, prospective human clinical trials. Although this noise insult did not induce hearing loss, the trial design and study protocol can be applied to other populations exposed to different noise insults.