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Sample records for dietary behaviors snack

  1. Adolescent Snacking Behaviors Are Associated with Dietary Intake and Weight Status123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole I; Miller, Jonathan M; Watts, Allison W; Story, Mary T; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne R

    2016-01-01

    Background: Most adolescents consume ≥1 snack/d; exploring the relevance of snacking patterns for overall diet and weight status is important to guide dietary counseling and public health strategies for obesity prevention. Objective: This study examined intake of common energy-dense snack foods, total number of snacks consumed, frequency of consuming snacks prepared away from home, and frequency of snacking while watching television in adolescents and how these behaviors may be linked to diet and weight status. Relations were examined with attention to potential confounders that may help explain the mixed findings of previous research. Methods: Survey measures of snacking behavior, a food-frequency questionnaire, and anthropometric measurements were completed by 2793 adolescents (53.2% girls, mean age = 14.4 y) in Minneapolis–St. Paul school classrooms in 2009–2010. Linear regression was used to examine associations with adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics and other potential confounding factors, such as meal skipping, underreporting energy intake, dieting to lose weight, and physical activity. Results: Adolescents reported consuming a mean of 2.2 energy-dense snack food servings/d and 4.3 snacks/d and purchasing snacks prepared away from home on 3.2 occasions/wk. More than two-thirds of adolescents reported that they sometimes, usually, or always consumed a snack while watching television. The measures of snacking were directly associated (P snack food servings were not related to sugar-sweetened beverage intake. A direct relation between daily servings of energy-dense snack foods and body mass index (BMI) z score was found; however, the snacking behaviors were inversely related to BMI z score (P snack consumption is a risk factor for poor diet, but unless energy-dense foods are consumed, snacking does not consistently contribute to overweight in US adolescents. PMID:27281807

  2. Adolescent Snacking Behaviors Are Associated with Dietary Intake and Weight Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole I; Miller, Jonathan M; Watts, Allison W; Story, Mary T; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne R

    2016-07-01

    Most adolescents consume ≥1 snack/d; exploring the relevance of snacking patterns for overall diet and weight status is important to guide dietary counseling and public health strategies for obesity prevention. This study examined intake of common energy-dense snack foods, total number of snacks consumed, frequency of consuming snacks prepared away from home, and frequency of snacking while watching television in adolescents and how these behaviors may be linked to diet and weight status. Relations were examined with attention to potential confounders that may help explain the mixed findings of previous research. Survey measures of snacking behavior, a food-frequency questionnaire, and anthropometric measurements were completed by 2793 adolescents (53.2% girls, mean age = 14.4 y) in Minneapolis-St. Paul school classrooms in 2009-2010. Linear regression was used to examine associations with adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics and other potential confounding factors, such as meal skipping, underreporting energy intake, dieting to lose weight, and physical activity. Adolescents reported consuming a mean of 2.2 energy-dense snack food servings/d and 4.3 snacks/d and purchasing snacks prepared away from home on 3.2 occasions/wk. More than two-thirds of adolescents reported that they sometimes, usually, or always consumed a snack while watching television. The measures of snacking were directly associated (P snack food servings were not related to sugar-sweetened beverage intake. A direct relation between daily servings of energy-dense snack foods and body mass index (BMI) z score was found; however, the snacking behaviors were inversely related to BMI z score (P snack consumption is a risk factor for poor diet, but unless energy-dense foods are consumed, snacking does not consistently contribute to overweight in US adolescents. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Discrepancy between snack choice intentions and behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijzen, P.L.G.; Graaf, de C.; Dijksterhuis, G.B.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate dietary constructs that affect the discrepancy between intentioned and actual snack choice. Design Participants indicated their intentioned snack choice from a set of 4 snacks (2 healthful, 2 unhealthful). One week later, they actually chose a snack from the same set. Within

  4. Discrepancy between Snack Choice Intentions and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijzen, Pascalle L. G.; de Graaf, Cees; Dijksterhuis, Garmt B.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate dietary constructs that affect the discrepancy between intentioned and actual snack choice. Design: Participants indicated their intentioned snack choice from a set of 4 snacks (2 healthful, 2 unhealthful). One week later, they actually chose a snack from the same set. Within 1 week after the actual choice, they completed…

  5. Snacking Behavior and Obesity among Female Adolescents in Isfahan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadbakht, Leila; Hajishafiee, Maryam; Golshahi, Jafar; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2016-07-01

    The high prevalence of obesity in the pediatric age groups draws attention to lifestyle factors including diet and physical activity. Data on obesity in adolescents and their snacking behavior are conflicting. This study aimed to assess the association of snacking behavior and obesity among female adolescents in Isfahan, Iran. This cross-sectional study was carried out on 265 female Isfahanian students who were chosen by systematic cluster random sampling. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated self-administered semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire that included 53 food items. Snacking behavior was defined by healthy snack score in combination with the frequency of snack intake. Individuals who consumed more healthy snacks and those with snacking frequency of 4 times a day or more had significantly lower weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (p associated with a greater chance of being overweight, generally obese, and abdominally obese among adolescents (odds ratio [OR] = 1.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00-3.14, ptrend = 0.04 and OR = 2.10; 95% CI, 1.01-3.13, ptrend = 0.04, respectively). Frequency of snack intake was inversely related to overweight, general obesity, and abdominal obesity (OR = 3.23; 95% CI, 1.73-5.61, ptrend = 0.03 and OR = 1.84; 95% CI, 1.05-3.20, ptrend = 0.04, respectively). Healthy snack score in combination with frequency of snacking showed that those in the lowest tertile of snacking who consumed snacks less than 4 times/day had the highest risk of obesity compared to other categories (OR = 2.09, 95% CI, 1.11-3.20, p associated with decreased prevalence of overweight, general obesity, and abdominal obesity in adolescents. Further studies, in particular of a prospective nature, are required to examine this association in other populations.

  6. Reasons Low-Income Parents Offer Snacks to Children: How Feeding Rationale Influences Snack Frequency and Adherence to Dietary Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaine, Rachel E; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet; Taveras, Elsie M; Geller, Alan C; Rimm, Eric B; Land, Thomas; Perkins, Meghan; Davison, Kirsten K

    2015-07-21

    Although American children snack more than ever before, the parental role in promoting snacking is not well understood. In 2012-2013 at baseline in an intervention study to prevent childhood obesity in low-income Massachusetts communities, n = 271 parents of children aged 2-12 years completed surveys regarding nutritive and non-nutritive reasons they offered children snacks, demographics, and dietary factors. An analysis of variance demonstrated that parents reported offering snacks (mean/week; standard deviation (SD)) for nutritive reasons like promoting growth (x̄ = 2.5; SD 2.2) or satisfying hunger (x̄ = 2.4; SD 2.1) almost twice as often as non-nutritive reasons like keeping a child quiet (x̄ = 0.7; SD 1.5) or celebrating events/holidays (x̄ = 0.8; SD 1.1). Parents reported giving young children (2-5 years) more snacks to reward behavior (1.9 vs. 1.1, p snacks to reward behavior (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.83; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.70-0.99), celebrate events/holidays (OR = 0.72; 95% CI 0.52-0.99), or achievements (OR = 0.82; 95% CI 0.68-0.98). Parental intentions around child snacking are likely important targets for obesity prevention efforts.

  7. Reasons Low-Income Parents Offer Snacks to Children: How Feeding Rationale Influences Snack Frequency and Adherence to Dietary Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E. Blaine

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Although American children snack more than ever before, the parental role in promoting snacking is not well understood. In 2012–2013 at baseline in an intervention study to prevent childhood obesity in low-income Massachusetts communities, n = 271 parents of children aged 2–12 years completed surveys regarding nutritive and non-nutritive reasons they offered children snacks, demographics, and dietary factors. An analysis of variance demonstrated that parents reported offering snacks (mean/week; standard deviation (SD for nutritive reasons like promoting growth (x̄ = 2.5; SD 2.2 or satisfying hunger (x̄ = 2.4; SD 2.1 almost twice as often as non-nutritive reasons like keeping a child quiet (x̄ = 0.7; SD 1.5 or celebrating events/holidays (x̄ = 0.8; SD 1.1. Parents reported giving young children (2–5 years more snacks to reward behavior (1.9 vs. 1.1, p < 0.001, keep quiet (1.0 vs. 0.5, p < 0.001, and celebrate achievements (1.7 vs. 1.0, p < 0.001 than parents of older children (6–12 years. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to obtain adjusted odds ratios, which indicated reduced child adherence to dietary recommendations when parents offered snacks to reward behavior (Odds Ratio (OR = 0.83; 95% Confidence Interval (CI 0.70–0.99, celebrate events/holidays (OR = 0.72; 95% CI 0.52–0.99, or achievements (OR = 0.82; 95% CI 0.68–0.98. Parental intentions around child snacking are likely important targets for obesity prevention efforts.

  8. Reasons Low-Income Parents Offer Snacks to Children: How Feeding Rationale Influences Snack Frequency and Adherence to Dietary Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaine, Rachel E.; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet; Taveras, Elsie M.; Geller, Alan C.; Rimm, Eric B.; Land, Thomas; Perkins, Meghan; Davison, Kirsten K.

    2015-01-01

    Although American children snack more than ever before, the parental role in promoting snacking is not well understood. In 2012–2013 at baseline in an intervention study to prevent childhood obesity in low-income Massachusetts communities, n = 271 parents of children aged 2–12 years completed surveys regarding nutritive and non-nutritive reasons they offered children snacks, demographics, and dietary factors. An analysis of variance demonstrated that parents reported offering snacks (mean/week; standard deviation (SD)) for nutritive reasons like promoting growth (x̄ = 2.5; SD 2.2) or satisfying hunger (x̄ = 2.4; SD 2.1) almost twice as often as non-nutritive reasons like keeping a child quiet (x̄ = 0.7; SD 1.5) or celebrating events/holidays (x̄ = 0.8; SD 1.1). Parents reported giving young children (2–5 years) more snacks to reward behavior (1.9 vs. 1.1, p parents of older children (6–12 years). Multivariable logistic regression models were used to obtain adjusted odds ratios, which indicated reduced child adherence to dietary recommendations when parents offered snacks to reward behavior (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.83; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.70–0.99), celebrate events/holidays (OR = 0.72; 95% CI 0.52–0.99), or achievements (OR = 0.82; 95% CI 0.68–0.98). Parental intentions around child snacking are likely important targets for obesity prevention efforts. PMID:26197335

  9. Sex differences in snack food reinforcement in response to increasing dietary protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    BRACKGROUND: Protein is posited to play a dynamic role in energy balance and reward-driven eating behavior. However, little is known about the effect of increasing protein intake on snack food reinforcement. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the extent to which increasing dietary protein changes th...

  10. Dietary patterns of obese high school girls: snack consumption and energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jin-Sook; Lee, Nan-Jo

    2010-10-01

    In order to develop an obesity management program for teenagers, we compared obese and non-obese girls attending high schools in terms of their dietary practices related to snack consumption. Dietary records were collected for 7 days. No significant differences were found for the average daily energy intake between obese and non-obese girls. However, the highest energy intake was greater for obese girls while not much difference was found for the lowest amount of energy intake. Obese girls had significantly lower intakes in calcium (P snack (594.1 ± 312.1kcal) was significantly higher for obese girls than for non-obese girls (360.1 ± 173.1kcal) (P snack and total daily energy intake (r = 0.34 P obese girls. In case of dietary behaviors, obese adolescent girls consumed significantly greater number of items for snacks and fewer foods for regular meals compared to non-obese girls (P obesity management programs for adolescents should focus on providing strategies to reduce snack through enhancing balanced regular meals.

  11. 40-year trends in meal and snack eating behaviors of American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Ashima K; Graubard, Barry I

    2015-01-01

    Understanding changes in profiles of eating behaviors over time may provide insights into contributors to upward trajectories of obesity in the US population. Yet little is known about whether or not characteristics of meal and snack eating behaviors reported by adult Americans have changed over time. To examine time trends in the distribution of day's intake into individual meal and snack behaviors and related attributes in the US adult population. The study was observational with cross-sectional data from national surveys fielded over 40 years. Nationally representative dietary data from nine National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys conducted from 1971-1974 to 2009-2010 (N=62,298 participants aged 20-74 years) were used to describe eating behaviors. The respondent-labeled eating behaviors examined included main meals (breakfast, lunch, and dinner), and snacks (before breakfast, between breakfast and lunch, between lunch and dinner, after dinner, or other). For each eating behavior, percent of reporters, relative contribution to 24-hour energy intake, the clock time of report, and intermeal/snack intervals were examined. Multivariable logistic and linear regression methods for analysis of complex survey data adjusted for characteristics of respondents in each survey. Over the 40-year span examined reports of each individual named main meal (or all three main meals) declined, but reports of only two out of three meals or the same meal more than once increased; the percentage of 24-hour energy from snacks reported between lunch and dinner or snacks that displaced meals increased; clock times of breakfast and lunch were later, and intervals between dinner and after-dinner snack were shorter. Changes in several snack reporting behaviors (eg, report of any snack or ≥2 snacks), were significant in women only. Several meal and snack eating behaviors of American adults changed over time, with a greater change in snack behaviors of women relative to men

  12. What Is a Snack, Why Do We Snack, and How Can We Choose Better Snacks? A Review of the Definitions of Snacking, Motivations to Snack, Contributions to Dietary Intake, and Recommendations for Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Julie M; Jonnalagadda, Satya S; Slavin, Joanne L

    2016-05-01

    Around the world, adults consume energy outside of traditional meals such as breakfast, lunch, and dinner. However, because there is no consistent definition of a "snack," it is unclear whether those extra eating occasions represent additional meals or snacks. The manner in which an eating occasion is labeled (e.g., as a meal or a snack) may influence other food choices an individual makes on the same day and satiety after consumption. Therefore, a clear distinction between "meals" and "snacks" is important. This review aims to assess the definition of extra eating occasions, to understand why eating is initiated at these occasions, and to determine what food choices are common at these eating occasions in order to identify areas for dietary intervention and improvement. Part I of this review discusses how snacking is defined and the social, environmental, and individual influences on the desire to snack and choice of snack. The section concludes with a brief discussion of the associations of snacking with cardiometabolic health markers, especially lipid profiles and weight. Part II addresses popular snack choices, overall snacking frequencies, and the demographic characteristics of frequent snackers in several different countries. This review concludes with a recommendation for nutrition policymakers to encourage specific health-promoting snacks that address nutrient insufficiencies and excesses. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. What Is a Snack, Why Do We Snack, and How Can We Choose Better Snacks? A Review of the Definitions of Snacking, Motivations to Snack, Contributions to Dietary Intake, and Recommendations for Improvement12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Joanne L

    2016-01-01

    Around the world, adults consume energy outside of traditional meals such as breakfast, lunch, and dinner. However, because there is no consistent definition of a “snack,” it is unclear whether those extra eating occasions represent additional meals or snacks. The manner in which an eating occasion is labeled (e.g., as a meal or a snack) may influence other food choices an individual makes on the same day and satiety after consumption. Therefore, a clear distinction between “meals” and “snacks” is important. This review aims to assess the definition of extra eating occasions, to understand why eating is initiated at these occasions, and to determine what food choices are common at these eating occasions in order to identify areas for dietary intervention and improvement. Part I of this review discusses how snacking is defined and the social, environmental, and individual influences on the desire to snack and choice of snack. The section concludes with a brief discussion of the associations of snacking with cardiometabolic health markers, especially lipid profiles and weight. Part II addresses popular snack choices, overall snacking frequencies, and the demographic characteristics of frequent snackers in several different countries. This review concludes with a recommendation for nutrition policymakers to encourage specific health-promoting snacks that address nutrient insufficiencies and excesses. PMID:27184274

  14. Peer influence on snacking behavior in adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Wouters, E.J.M.; Geenen, Rinie; Kremers, Stef; Dagnelie, Pieter; Larsen, Junilla

    2010-01-01

    To examine the association of adolescents' snack and soft drink consumption with friendship group snack and soft drink consumption, availability of snacks and soft drinks at school, and personal characteristics, snack and soft drink consumption was assessed in 749 adolescents (398 girls, 351 boys, age 12.4 - 17.6 years), and their friends, and snack and soft drink availability at schools was measured. In regression analysis, consumption by friends, snack and soft drink availability within sch...

  15. Peer influence on snacking behavior in adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MD E.J.M. Wouters; Rinie Geenen; Stef Kremers; Pieter Dagnelie; Junilla Larsen

    2010-01-01

    To examine the association of adolescents' snack and soft drink consumption with friendship group snack and soft drink consumption, availability of snacks and soft drinks at school, and personal characteristics, snack and soft drink consumption was assessed in 749 adolescents (398 girls, 351 boys,

  16. Snacking behavior in adolescence: the influence of peer group members and school availability of snacks and soft drinks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MD E.J.M. Wouters

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Frequent high caloric intake (snacking) induces overweight. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of social and physical environmental factors on the snacking behavior of adolescents. Design: cross-sectional population based study Method: Snacking behavior of individuals and

  17. The benefits of defining "snacks".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Julie M; Slavin, Joanne L

    2018-04-18

    Whether eating a "snack" is considered a beneficial or detrimental behavior is largely based on how "snack" is defined. The term "snack food" tends to connote energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods high in nutrients to limit (sugar, sodium, and/or saturated fat) like cakes, cookies, chips and other salty snacks, and sugar-sweetened beverages. Eating a "snack food" is often conflated with eating a "snack," however, leading to an overall perception of snacks as a dietary negative. Yet the term "snack" can also refer simply to an eating occasion outside of breakfast, lunch, or dinner. With this definition, the evidence to support health benefits or detriments to eating a "snack" remains unclear, in part because relatively few well-designed studies that specifically focus on the impact of eating frequency on health have been conducted. Despite these inconsistencies and research gaps, in much of the nutrition literature, "snacking" is still referred to as detrimental to health. As discussed in this review, however, there are multiple factors that influence the health impacts of snacking, including the definition of "snack" itself, the motivation to snack, body mass index of snack eaters, and the food selected as a snack. Without a definition of "snack" and a body of research using methodologically rigorous protocols, determining the health impact of eating a "snack" will continue to elude the nutrition research community and prevent the development of evidence-based policies about snacking that support public health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Dietary restraint, anxiety, and the relative reinforcing value of snack food in non-obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfield, Gary S; Legg, Christine

    2006-11-01

    This study tested the independent and interactive effects of anxiety and dietary restraint on the relative reinforcing value of snack food. Thirty non-obese, female university students were assigned to one of four groups based on median split scores on measures of dietary restraint and state-anxiety: low-restraint/low-anxiety (n=7), low-restraint/high-anxiety (n=7), high-restraint/low-anxiety (n=9), and high-restraint/high-anxiety (n=7). Participants were provided the choice to earn points for palatable snack foods or fruits and vegetables using a computerized concurrent schedules choice task. The behavioural cost to gain access to snack foods increased across trials, whereas the cost to gain access to fruits and vegetables was held constant across trials. The relative reinforcing value of palatable snack food in relation to fruits and vegetables was defined as the total amount of points earned for snack food. Two-way analysis of covariance, with hunger and hedonic snack food ratings as covariates, showed that dietary restraint and anxiety had a significant interactive effect on the relative reinforcing value of snack food, indicating that the effect of anxiety on snack food reinforcement is moderated by dietary restraint. Specifically, the high-anxiety/low-restraint women found snack food significantly less reinforcing than low-anxiety/low-restraint women, but no differences emerged between high- and low-anxiety women with high-restraint. Neither restraint nor anxiety had an independent effect on the relative reinforcing value of snack food. These findings indicate that anxiety may have a suppressive effect on the relative reinforcing value of snack food in low-restrained eaters, but not an enhancing effect on snack food reinforcement in high-restrained eaters. Clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  19. Emerging Disparities in Dietary Sodium Intake from Snacking in the US Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunford, Elizabeth K; Poti, Jennifer M; Popkin, Barry M

    2017-06-17

    The US population consumes dietary sodium well in excess of recommended levels. It is unknown how the contribution of snack foods to sodium intake has changed over time, and whether disparities exist within specific subgroups of the US population. To examine short and long term trends in the contribution of snack food sources to dietary sodium intake for US adults and children over a 37-year period from 1977 to 2014. We used data collected from eight nationally representative surveys of food intake in 50,052 US children aged 2-18 years, and 73,179 adults aged 19+ years between 1977 and 2014. Overall, patterns of snack food consumption, trends in sodium intake from snack food sources and trends in food and beverage sources of sodium from snack foods across race-ethnic, age, gender, body mass index, household education and income groups were examined. In all socio-demographic subgroups there was a significant increase in both per capita sodium intake, and the proportion of sodium intake derived from snacks from 1977-1978 to 2011-2014 ( p sodium intake from snacks. While in 1977-1978 Non-Hispanic Blacks had a lower sodium intake from snacks compared to Non-Hispanic Whites ( p sodium intake from snack sources in Non-Hispanic Blacks. Our findings have implications for future policy interventions targeting specific US population subgroups.

  20. Development of protein, dietary fiber, and micronutrient enriched extruded corn snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Faiz-Ul-Hassan; Sharif, Mian Kamran; Butt, Masood Sadiq; Shahid, Muhammad

    2017-06-01

    The study was aimed to develop protein, dietary fiber, and micronutrient enriched corn snacks through extrusion processing. Corn snacks supplemented with chickpea, defatted soy flour (20-40/100 g) and guar gum (7/100 g) were prepared through extrusion processing. Micronutrients (iron, zinc, iodine, and vitamins A, C, and folic acid) at recommended daily values were added in all formulations. Extruded corn snacks were analyzed for physical, textural, and sensory attributes. Results showed that piece density (0.34-0.44 g/cm 3 ), moisture (3.40-5.25%), water activity (0.203-0.361), hardness (64.4-133.2 N), and cohesiveness (0.25-0.44) was increased Whereas, expansion ratio (3.72-2.64), springiness (0.82-0.69), chewiness (1.63-0.42), and resilience (1.37-0.14) was decreased as supplementation with soy and chickpea flour increased from 20 to 40/100 g. Overall corn snack supplemented with 15/100 g of soy and 15/100 g of chickpea flour got the highest acceptance from the sensory panelists. The article focuses on physical, textural, and sensory attributes of extruded corn snacks enriched with protein, dietary fiber, and micronutrients Awareness about the importance of healthy snacks has grown among the consumers during the last decade. Extruded snacks developed using nutrient rich ingredients with good textural and sensory properties has always remained a challenge for the snack industry. Texture of the extruded snacks varies a lot with high levels of protein and dietary fiber. This study is helpful for the development of healthy snacks especially in developing countries lacking storage infrastructure or tropical environment. Nutrient rich extruded snacks can also be used to alleviate malnutrition by incorporating in school lunch programs. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Dietary patterns of obese high school girls: snack consumption and energy intake

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Jin-Sook; Lee, Nan-Jo

    2010-01-01

    In order to develop an obesity management program for teenagers, we compared obese and non-obese girls attending high schools in terms of their dietary practices related to snack consumption. Dietary records were collected for 7 days. No significant differences were found for the average daily energy intake between obese and non-obese girls. However, the highest energy intake was greater for obese girls while not much difference was found for the lowest amount of energy intake. Obese girls ha...

  2. The contribution of snacks to dietary intake and their association with eating location among Norwegian adults - results from a cross-sectional dietary survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhre, Jannicke B; Løken, Elin B; Wandel, Margareta; Andersen, Lene F

    2015-04-12

    Snack consumption has been reported to increase over recent decades. Little is known about possible associations between snack composition and snack eating location. In the present study, we aimed to describe the contribution of snacks to dietary intake in Norwegian adults and to investigate whether the composition of snacks differed according to where they were eaten. Dietary data were collected in 2010 and 2011 using two telephone administered 24 h recalls about four weeks apart. In total, 1787 participants aged 18-70 years completed two recalls. The recorded eating locations were at home, other private household, work/school, restaurant/cafe/fast-food outlet and travel/meeting. Snacks contributed to 17% and 21% of the energy intake in men and women, respectively. Compared with main meals, snacks had a higher fiber density (g/MJ) and contained a higher percentage of energy from carbohydrates, added sugars and alcohol, while the percentages of energy from fat and protein were lower. The top five energy-contributing food groups from snacks were cakes, fruits, sugar/sweets, bread and alcoholic beverages. Snacks were mostly eaten at home (58% of all snacks) or at work/school (23% of all snacks). Snacks consumed at work/school contained less energy, had a higher percentage of energy from carbohydrates and had lower percentages of energy from added sugars, alcohol and fat than snacks consumed at home. Snacks consumed during visits to private households and at restaurants/cafe/fast-food outlets contained more energy, had a higher percentage of energy from fat and had a lower fiber density than snacks consumed at home. We conclude that snacks are an important part of the diet and involve the consumption of both favorable and less favorable foods. Snacks eaten at home or at work/school were generally healthier than snacks consumed during visits to other private households or at restaurants/cafe/fast-food outlets. Nutritional educators should recommend healthy snack

  3. Location influences snacking behavior of US infants, toddlers and preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquier, Emma F; Deming, Denise M; Eldridge, Alison L

    2018-06-13

    Compare at-home and away-from-home snacking patterns of US infants and young children. A secondary analysis was conducted using nationwide, cross-sectional dietary survey data from the US Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS) 2008. The sample included infants (6-11.9 months, n = 505), toddlers (12-23.9 months, n = 925), preschool children (24-47.9 months, n = 1461). Weighted population descriptive statistics (means and standard errors) were calculated using SAS. Significance was determined at P ≤ 0.05. The main outcome measures of the analyses were the percent of children consuming snacks by location (at home, away from home) and snacking period (morning, afternoon and evening), energy and food groups consumed during snacks. Snacking at home was more prevalent than snacking away from home (toddlers, 73% vs 27%; preschoolers, 67% vs 33%). Away-from-home snacks provided about 50 additional calories per day for toddlers (346 vs 298 kcal/day, P ≤ 0.05) and preschoolers (371 vs 326 kcal/day, P ≤ 0.05) versus snacks consumed at home. Caregivers made similar snack choices for toddlers and preschoolers (milk/milk products, fruit/juice, grains and sweets) but differed in frequency of consumption by location. Among toddlers, milk/milk products were the most frequently consumed snacks at home (66%), while sweets were the top snacks consumed away from home (69%). Among preschoolers, sweets were the top snacks both at home (60%) and away (83%). Location is an important factor influencing snacking patterns of young children and should be considered when developing feeding guidelines. This data may be of use in the upcoming development of dietary guidelines in the U.S. for the population aged 0-2 years.

  4. Action planning as predictor of health protective and health risk behavior: an investigation of fruit and snack consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candel Math

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large discrepancies between people's intention to eat a healthy diet and actual dietary behavior indicate that motivation is not a sufficient instigator for healthy behavior. Research efforts to decrease this 'intention - behavior gap' have centered on aspects of self-regulation, most importantly self-regulatory planning. Most studies on the impact of self-regulatory planning in health and dietary behavior focus on the promotion of health protective behaviors. This study investigates and compares the predictive value of action planning in health protective behavior and the restriction of health risk behavior. Methods Two longitudinal observational studies were performed simultaneously, one focusing on fruit consumption (N = 572 and one on high-caloric snack consumption (N = 585 in Dutch adults. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate and compare the predictive value of action planning in both behaviors, correcting for demographics and the influence of motivational factors and past behavior. The nature of the influence of action planning was investigated by testing mediating and moderating effects. Results Action planning was a significant predictor of fruit consumption and restricted snack consumption beyond the influence of motivational factors and past behavior. The strength of the predictive value of action planning did not differ between the two behaviors. Evidence for mediation of the intention - behavior relationship was found for both behaviors. Positive moderating effects of action planning were demonstrated for fruit consumption, indicating that individuals who report high levels of action planning are significantly more likely to translate their intentions into actual behavior. Conclusion The results indicate that the planning of specific preparatory actions predicts the performance of healthy dietary behavior and support the application of self-regulatory planning in both health protective and health

  5. Action planning as predictor of health protective and health risk behavior: an investigation of fruit and snack consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Osch, Liesbeth; Beenackers, Mariëlle; Reubsaet, Astrid; Lechner, Lilian; Candel, Math; de Vries, Hein

    2009-10-13

    Large discrepancies between people's intention to eat a healthy diet and actual dietary behavior indicate that motivation is not a sufficient instigator for healthy behavior. Research efforts to decrease this 'intention - behavior gap' have centered on aspects of self-regulation, most importantly self-regulatory planning. Most studies on the impact of self-regulatory planning in health and dietary behavior focus on the promotion of health protective behaviors. This study investigates and compares the predictive value of action planning in health protective behavior and the restriction of health risk behavior. Two longitudinal observational studies were performed simultaneously, one focusing on fruit consumption (N = 572) and one on high-caloric snack consumption (N = 585) in Dutch adults. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate and compare the predictive value of action planning in both behaviors, correcting for demographics and the influence of motivational factors and past behavior. The nature of the influence of action planning was investigated by testing mediating and moderating effects. Action planning was a significant predictor of fruit consumption and restricted snack consumption beyond the influence of motivational factors and past behavior. The strength of the predictive value of action planning did not differ between the two behaviors. Evidence for mediation of the intention - behavior relationship was found for both behaviors. Positive moderating effects of action planning were demonstrated for fruit consumption, indicating that individuals who report high levels of action planning are significantly more likely to translate their intentions into actual behavior. The results indicate that the planning of specific preparatory actions predicts the performance of healthy dietary behavior and support the application of self-regulatory planning in both health protective and health risk behaviors. Future interventions in dietary modification may

  6. Nutritional assessment for primary school children in tehran: an evaluation of dietary pattern with emphasis on snacks and meals consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Maryam; Dadkhah-Piraghaj, Monireh; Abtahi, Mitra; Abdollahi, Morteza; Houshiarrad, Anahita; Kimiagar, Masoud

    2014-05-01

    In order to provide better advice for prevention of obesity and eating disorders among children, there is a need to have more knowledge of their dietary patterns. This study examined meal and snacking patterns of primary school children in Tehran. A total of 761 male and female primary school children from all educational areas in Tehran were recruited in a cross-sectional survey. The data was collected by interviewing the students and their mothers or caregivers. Information on food consumption patterns was collected by one 24-h-recall and one snack-oriented food frequency questionnaire which covered a period of 1 month. Means, standard deviations, frequencies, percentages, energy and nutrient analyzes and nutrient densities were reported. All of the students snacked at least once on the day of the survey. Snacks provided 38% of total energy intake by the students. Fruits and sweet snacks were consumed by almost all of the students during a week. Energy and most nutrient intakes from meals were greater than those consumed from snacks. Snacks had a higher density of fiber, carbohydrate, calcium, iron, vitamin C, riboflavin and thiamin and had a lower density of protein, fat and niacin, compared with main meals. Salty snacks such as extruded cheese curls (Cheetos) and chips were not consumed so often. Results provide detailed information about dietary patterns, which in turn enable development of targeted messages and/or interventions to improve nutritional status of school children.

  7. Children's purchase behavior in the snack market: Can branding or lower prices motivate healthier choices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Monika; Cash, Sean B; Yeh, Ching-Hua; Landwehr, Stefanie C; McAlister, Anna R

    2017-10-01

    Children's dietary-related diseases and their associated costs have expanded dramatically in many countries, making children's food choice a policy issue of increasing relevance. As children spend a considerable amount of money on energy-dense, nutrient-poor (EDNP) products, a better understanding of the main drivers of children's independent food purchase decisions is crucial to move this behavior toward healthier options. The objective of the study is to investigate the role of branding and price in motivating children to choose healthier snack options. The study investigates snack choices of children ages 8 to 11, using a survey and a purchase experiment. The research took place in after-school programs of selected schools in the Boston area. Participants included 116 children. Products in the choice experiment differed on three factors: product type, brand, and price. Data were analyzed using aggregated and mixed logit models. Children's purchase decisions are primarily determined by product type (Importance Value (IV) 56.6%), while brand (IV 22.8%) and price (IV 20.6%) prove to be of less relevance. Only those children who state that they like the familiar brand reveal a preference for the branded product in their purchase decision. Price is a significant predictor of choice when controlling for whether or not children obtain an allowance. It is not simple brand awareness but a child's liking of the brand that determines whether a brand is successful in motivating a child to choose a product. The extent of children's experience with money influences their price responsiveness. To the extent that children who receive an allowance are primarily the ones buying food snacks, higher prices for EDNP snacks could be successful in motivating children to choose a healthier option. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Vitamin-Fortified Snack Food May Lead Consumers to Make Poor Dietary Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrill, Linda; Wood, Dallas; Cates, Sheryl; Lando, Amy; Zhang, Yuanting

    2017-03-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) fortification policy discourages the fortification of certain foods, including sugars and snack foods such as cookies, candies, cakes, chips, and carbonated beverages, yet manufacturers sometimes add vitamins and minerals to snack foods. To assess whether vitamin-fortified snack foods affect consumers' information-seeking, purchase decisions, and product-related health perceptions. For this experimental study, participants were randomly assigned to study conditions to compare products that varied in product type, nutrition profile, and fortification and nutrient claim status. Data were collected via an online consumer panel. US adults aged 18 years and older were randomly selected from Research Now's e-panel online household panel. Data were collected during fall 2014 (N=5,076). Participants were randomly assigned to one of 24 conditions: two products (vegetable chip/potato chip), two nutrition profiles (healthier/less healthy), two fortification scenarios (not fortified/fortified), and three nutrient claim conditions (two no claim/one with claim). The design was not balanced; claims were not shown on products that were not vitamin fortified. Outcome measures were information-seeking (viewed the Nutrition Facts label), purchase decisions, perception of product healthfulness, and correct selection of product with the healthier nutrient profile. Logistic regression was used to test all models. Analyses was adjusted for general label use, consumes product, health status, age, sex, level of education, presence of children in the household, and race/ethnicity. When the snack food carried a nutrient claim for vitamin fortification, participants were 1) less likely to look for nutrition information on the Nutrition Facts label, 2) more likely to select the product for purchase, 3) more likely to perceive the product as healthier, and 4) less likely to correctly choose the healthier product. Snack foods that have been vitamin

  9. Is an Iranian Health Promoting School status associated with improving school food environment and snacking behaviors in adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdi-Feyzabadi, Vahid; Omidvar, Nasrin; Keshavarz Mohammadi, Nastaran; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Karimi-Shahanjarini, Akram; Rashidian, Arash

    2017-08-29

    The Iranian Health Promoting Schools (IHPS) program was first piloted and then formally established in Iran in 2011 as a framework to promote healthy environment and behaviors such as proper dietary practice among adolescents. This study examined the role of IHPS in improving the school food environment and snacking behaviors among adolescents. In this cross-sectional study, 1320 eighth grade students from 40 middle schools with IHPS and non-IHPS program were selected using a proportional stratified random sampling method. A modified 55-item qualitative Food Frequency Questionnaire was used to assess the frequency of consumption of healthy and unhealthy snacks in the studied adolescents. Mixed effect negative binomial regression models were used to analyze the data. The association was also adjusted for individual variables, including gender, socio-economic status, pocket money, family structure and nutritional knowledge level. No significant difference was observed between the average of healthy and unhealthy snack items in IHPS and non-IHPS schools (p > 0.05). On the basis of adjusted analysis, being from/in IHPS was not associated with weekly frequency consumption of unhealthy [prevalence rate ratio (PRR) = 0.99; 95% CI: 0.85-1.16] and healthy (PRR = 1.08; 95% CI: 0.96-1.2) snacks among the adolescents. There was no difference regarding school food environment and snacking behaviors in IHPS and non-IHPS schools. This might indicate that there has been a weakness in institutionalizing the comprehensive concepts of the HPS approach in the studied schools. Addressing the proper understanding of HPS approach and the need for development of HPS through matching and adaptability with health promotion actions to reach defined standards, is necessary. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. A Snack Dietary Pattern Increases the Risk of Hypercholesterolemia in Northern Chinese Adults: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Lixin; Han, Tianshu; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Xiaoyan; Na, Guanqiong; Du, Shanshan; Li, Ying; Sun, Changhao

    2015-01-01

    The evidence about the effect of dietary patterns on blood cholesterol from cohort studies was very scarce. The study was to identify the association of dietary patterns with lipid profile, especially cholesterol, in a cohort in north China. Using a 1-year food frequency questionnaire, we assessed the dietary intake of 4515 adults from the Harbin People's Health Study in 2008, aged 20-74 years. Principle component analysis was used to identify dietary patterns. The follow-up was completed in 2012. Fasting blood samples were collected for the determination of blood lipid concentrations. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association of dietary patterns with the incidence of hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and low-HDL cholesterolemia. Five dietary patterns were identified ("staple food", "vegetable, fruit and milk", "potato, soybean and egg", "snack", and "meat"). The relative risk (RR) between the extreme tertiles of the snack dietary pattern scores was 1.72 (95% CI = 1.14, 2.59, P = 0.004) for hypercholesterolemia, 1.39 (1.13, 1.75, P = 0.036) for hypertriglyceridemia, after adjustment for age, sex, education, body mass index, smoking, alcohol consumption, energy intake, exercise and baseline lipid concentrations. There was a significant positive association between the snack dietary pattern scores and fasting serum total cholesterol (SRC (standardized regression coefficient) = 0.262, P = 0.025), LDL-c (SRC = 0.324, P = 0.002) and triglycerides (SRC = 0.253, P = 0.035), after adjustment for the multiple variables above. Moreover, the adjusted RR of hypertriglyceridemia between the extreme tertiles was 0.73 (0.56, 0.94, P = 0.025) for the vegetable, fruit and milk dietary pattern, and 1.86 (1.33, 2.41, P = 0.005) for the meat dietary pattern. The snack dietary pattern was a newly emerged dietary pattern in northern Chinese adults. It appears conceivable that the risk of hypercholesterolemia can be reduced by changing the snack dietary

  11. A Snack Dietary Pattern Increases the Risk of Hypercholesterolemia in Northern Chinese Adults: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixin Na

    Full Text Available The evidence about the effect of dietary patterns on blood cholesterol from cohort studies was very scarce. The study was to identify the association of dietary patterns with lipid profile, especially cholesterol, in a cohort in north China. Using a 1-year food frequency questionnaire, we assessed the dietary intake of 4515 adults from the Harbin People's Health Study in 2008, aged 20-74 years. Principle component analysis was used to identify dietary patterns. The follow-up was completed in 2012. Fasting blood samples were collected for the determination of blood lipid concentrations. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association of dietary patterns with the incidence of hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and low-HDL cholesterolemia. Five dietary patterns were identified ("staple food", "vegetable, fruit and milk", "potato, soybean and egg", "snack", and "meat". The relative risk (RR between the extreme tertiles of the snack dietary pattern scores was 1.72 (95% CI = 1.14, 2.59, P = 0.004 for hypercholesterolemia, 1.39 (1.13, 1.75, P = 0.036 for hypertriglyceridemia, after adjustment for age, sex, education, body mass index, smoking, alcohol consumption, energy intake, exercise and baseline lipid concentrations. There was a significant positive association between the snack dietary pattern scores and fasting serum total cholesterol (SRC (standardized regression coefficient = 0.262, P = 0.025, LDL-c (SRC = 0.324, P = 0.002 and triglycerides (SRC = 0.253, P = 0.035, after adjustment for the multiple variables above. Moreover, the adjusted RR of hypertriglyceridemia between the extreme tertiles was 0.73 (0.56, 0.94, P = 0.025 for the vegetable, fruit and milk dietary pattern, and 1.86 (1.33, 2.41, P = 0.005 for the meat dietary pattern. The snack dietary pattern was a newly emerged dietary pattern in northern Chinese adults. It appears conceivable that the risk of hypercholesterolemia can be reduced by changing the snack

  12. Food parenting practices and child dietary behavior. Prospective relations and the moderating role of general parenting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleddens, E.F.C.; Kremers, S.P.J.; Stafleu, A.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Vries, N.K. de; Thijs, C.

    2014-01-01

    Research on parenting practices has focused on individual behaviors while largely failing to consider the context of their use, i.e., general parenting. We examined the extent to which food parenting practices predict children's dietary behavior (classified as unhealthy: snacking, sugar-sweetened

  13. Television viewing and snacking behaviors of fourth- and eighth-grade schoolchildren in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vader, Amanda M; Walters, Scott T; Harris, T Robert; Hoelscher, Deanna M

    2009-07-01

    Child and adolescent overweight is a serious health issue. Both snacking and television watching have been associated with childhood overweight, but the relationships have not been well examined in a multiethnic population. The aim of this study was to examine relationships between weekday television viewing, snack consumption, consumption of foods advertised on television, and overweight status of a multiethnic sample of fourth- and eighth-grade schoolchildren in Texas. This study is a secondary analysis of data from the School Physical Activity and Nutrition monitoring system, a validated survey with objective measures of height and weight. The sample of 11,594 children in the fourth and eighth grades was weighted to provide data representative of children in Texas public schools. Children were categorized on the basis of self-reported daily television viewing, snack consumption, and consumption of foods advertised on television. Multiple logistic regression was used to analyze, by grade level, the differences in the prevalence of overweight by category. Television viewing, frequency of snack consumption, and consumption of foods advertised on television were all positively related to one another. In general, both consuming more snacks and foods advertised on television were associated with reduced odds of overweight regardless of the amount of television watched. The results suggest that the relationships between weekday snacking behaviors and television viewing in a multiethnic population are complicated. When these behaviors are clustered, overweight status may be related more to the number of snacks consumed than to the amount of television watched. To determine the exact relationship, additional research, especially among Hispanic children, is warranted.

  14. Television viewing and snacking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Stacy A; Foster, Jill A; DiLillo, Vicki G; Kirk, Kathy; Smith West, Delia

    2003-11-01

    With the rise in obesity in America, the search for potential causes for this epidemic has begun to include a focus on environmental factors. Television (TV) viewing is one such factor, partially due to its potential as a stimulus for eating. The current study investigated the relationship between food intake and self-reported TV viewing in an effort to identify the impact of TV viewing on specific eating behaviors. Seventy-four overweight women seeking obesity treatment completed questionnaires assessing dietary habits and TV viewing behaviors. Results suggest that snacking, but not necessarily eating meals, while watching TV is associated with increased overall caloric intake and calories from fat. Therefore, interventions targeting stimulus control techniques to reduce snacking behavior may have an impact on overall caloric intake.

  15. Sedentary leisure time behavior, snacking habits and cardiovascular biomarkers: the Inter99 Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydenlund, Gitte; Jørgensen, Torben; Toft, Ulla

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To explore the association between sedentary leisure time behavior (SLTB) and cardiovascular biomarkers, taking into account snacking habits, alcohol intake and physical activity level. Design: Cross-sectional. Methods: Study participants were recruited from the 5-year follow-up of a populat......Aim: To explore the association between sedentary leisure time behavior (SLTB) and cardiovascular biomarkers, taking into account snacking habits, alcohol intake and physical activity level. Design: Cross-sectional. Methods: Study participants were recruited from the 5-year follow...... non-significant in men (ß = 0.9924, [0.9839; 1.0011]) and women (ß = 0.9932, [0.8605; 1.0014]). Conclusion: SLTB appears to be an independent CVD risk factor, regardless of snacking habits and physical activity....

  16. [Study of the dietary preferences and the social-psychological factors that affect the dietary behaviors of high school and university students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasamaki, Junichi

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to elucidate the correlation among dietary intake, dietary preferences, and social-psychological factors in the youth and to examine the factors that affect such dietary behaviors as snacking, skipping breakfast, and taking a biased nutrition. A survey was carried out using a questionnaire with closed questions on multiple items such as dietary behaviors, psychosocial stress, dietary externalization, information and consciousness about health. The survey was conducted on 1,056 high school students and 1,323 university students in Japan. As a result of the factor analysis among the groups of male/female and high school/university students, relationships were found between the items of "preferences for snacking" and "snack food intakes" among all these groups. Those who like sweets and snacks tended to snack between lunch and dinner or after dinner by themselves more often than those who do not. In contrast to men, intermediate correlations were found between the item of "a meal as a diversion" and each of the items of "snack food intake," "preferences for fried foods/sautéed foods/meat dishes," and "preferences for snacking," among women who do not live alone, regardless of their being high school or university students. The item of "stress over human relationships/academic performance" was shown to have similarly weak correlations with the items of "reasons for skipping breakfast" and "nutrition intake" in the groups of male and female high school students. The less they value nutrition intake, the more they tend to be conscious of stress over human relationships/academic performance.

  17. Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Dietary Patterns among Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubbels, Jessica S; van Assema, Patricia; Kremers, Stef P J

    2013-06-01

    Energy balance-related behavioral patterns find their origin in early childhood. The current paper provides an overview of studies that have examined such behavioral patterns, i.e., the clustering of dietary behaviors, physical activity, and/or sedentary behavior. The paper discusses the importance of examining energy balance-related behavioral patterns in children, outlines methods to examine these patterns, and provides examples of patterns that have been found (e.g., the universal sedentary-snacking and healthy intake patterns, as well as more unique or local patterns), child and parental characteristics predicting such patterns (e.g., child gender and maternal educational level), and the relationship of these patterns with overweight and related measures.

  18. Impact of dietary fibre-enriched ready-to-eat extruded snacks on the postprandial glycaemic response of non-diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Margaret A; Derbyshire, Emma J; Brennan, Charles S; Tiwari, Brijesh K

    2012-05-01

    Food intervention is a financially sensible way for prevention and treatment of diabetes. Extruded snack foods are considered high glycaemic products. Our previous research illustrated that postprandial glycaemic responses to snacks are manipulated by altering dietary fibre and starch contents. The current research assessed the effect of psyllium and oat bran on postprandial glycaemia and in vitro digestibility. Addition of psyllium fibre to extruded snack products significantly reduced both the in vitro and in vivo glycaemic responses of products compared to a control snack product recipe. Oat bran inclusion reduced in vitro starch digestibility but not in vivo glycaemic response. The inclusion of oat bran into the snack products appeared to extend the glycaemic response of individuals compared to the control snack, suggesting a possibility of prolonging glucose release and potentially affecting satiety responses. The positive effect in attenuating glucose response means that psyllium fibre could be a target for inclusion by the snack food industry to effectively manipulate postprandial glucose response of individuals. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Does Motivation for Exercise Influence Post-Exercise Snacking Behavior?

    OpenAIRE

    James A. Dimmock; Kym J. Guelfi; Jessica S. West; Tasmiah Masih; Ben Jackson

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that regular exercise plays an important role in achieving a number of health and wellbeing outcomes. However, certain post-exercise behaviors, including the consumption of unhealthy high-calorie foods, can counteract some of the benefits of physical activity. There are at least three overlapping pathways through which exercise may increase the likelihood of consuming pleasurable but unhealthy foods: through impulsive cognitive processes, reflective cognitive processes...

  20. Predictors of the consistency between healthy snack choice intention and actual behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijzen, P.L.G.; Graaf, de C.; Dijksterhuis, G.B.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the factors that affect the intention¿behaviour consistency of healthy snack choices. Intended snack choice was assessed by asking participants (N = 538) to choose a snack on paper, out of 8 snacks (4 healthy, e.g. melon and gingerbread, and 4 unhealthy, e.g. crisps

  1. Does Motivation for Exercise Influence Post-Exercise Snacking Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmock, James A.; Guelfi, Kym J.; West, Jessica S.; Masih, Tasmiah; Jackson, Ben

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that regular exercise plays an important role in achieving a number of health and wellbeing outcomes. However, certain post-exercise behaviors, including the consumption of unhealthy high-calorie foods, can counteract some of the benefits of physical activity. There are at least three overlapping pathways through which exercise may increase the likelihood of consuming pleasurable but unhealthy foods: through impulsive cognitive processes, reflective cognitive processes, and/or physiological responses. It is argued in this paper that motivation toward exercise can influence each of these pathways. Drawing from literature from various domains, we postulate that controlled exercise motivation, as opposed to autonomous exercise motivation, is more likely to influence each of these pathways in a manner that leaves individuals susceptible to the post-exercise consumption of pleasurable but unhealthy foods. PMID:26083114

  2. Does Motivation for Exercise Influence Post-Exercise Snacking Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmock, James A; Guelfi, Kym J; West, Jessica S; Masih, Tasmiah; Jackson, Ben

    2015-06-15

    It is well established that regular exercise plays an important role in achieving a number of health and wellbeing outcomes. However, certain post-exercise behaviors, including the consumption of unhealthy high-calorie foods, can counteract some of the benefits of physical activity. There are at least three overlapping pathways through which exercise may increase the likelihood of consuming pleasurable but unhealthy foods: through impulsive cognitive processes, reflective cognitive processes, and/or physiological responses. It is argued in this paper that motivation toward exercise can influence each of these pathways. Drawing from literature from various domains, we postulate that controlled exercise motivation, as opposed to autonomous exercise motivation, is more likely to influence each of these pathways in a manner that leaves individuals susceptible to the post-exercise consumption of pleasurable but unhealthy foods.

  3. Does Motivation for Exercise Influence Post-Exercise Snacking Behavior?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Dimmock

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that regular exercise plays an important role in achieving a number of health and wellbeing outcomes. However, certain post-exercise behaviors, including the consumption of unhealthy high-calorie foods, can counteract some of the benefits of physical activity. There are at least three overlapping pathways through which exercise may increase the likelihood of consuming pleasurable but unhealthy foods: through impulsive cognitive processes, reflective cognitive processes, and/or physiological responses. It is argued in this paper that motivation toward exercise can influence each of these pathways. Drawing from literature from various domains, we postulate that controlled exercise motivation, as opposed to autonomous exercise motivation, is more likely to influence each of these pathways in a manner that leaves individuals susceptible to the post-exercise consumption of pleasurable but unhealthy foods.

  4. The longitudinal link between mothers' and adolescents' snacking: The moderating role of television viewing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, N. van den; Larsen, J.K.; Verhagen, M.; Eisinga, R.N.; Burk, W.J.; Vink, J.M.

    2018-01-01

    A large proportion of adolescents eats too many energy-dense snacks, which is detrimental for their current and future health. To understand how to promote healthy dietary behaviors in adolescents, we need to identify factors that affect their snacking. While previous cross-sectional work has shown

  5. Individual and Environmental Factors Influencing Adolescents' Dietary Behavior in Low- and Middle-Income Settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roosmarijn Verstraeten

    Full Text Available Given the public health importance of improving dietary behavior in chronic disease prevention in low- and middle-income countries it is crucial to understand the factors influencing dietary behavior in these settings. This study tested the validity of a conceptual framework linking individual and environmental factors to dietary behavior among Ecuadorian adolescents aged 10-16 years.A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 784 school-going Ecuadorian adolescents in urban and rural Southern Ecuador. Participants provided data on socio-economic status, anthropometry, dietary behavior and its determining factors. The relationships between individual (perceived benefits and barriers, self-efficacy, habit strength, and a better understanding of healthy food and environmental factors (physical environment: accessibility to healthy food; social environment: parental permissiveness and school support, and their association with key components of dietary behavior (fruit and vegetables, sugary drinks, breakfast, and unhealthy snack intake were assessed using structural equation modeling.The conceptual model performed well for each component of eating behavior, indicating acceptable goodness-of-fit for both the measurement and structural models. Models for vegetable intake and unhealthy snacking showed significant and direct effects of individual factors (perceived benefits. For breakfast and sugary drink consumption, there was a direct and positive association with socio-environmental factors (school support and parental permissiveness. Access to healthy food was associated indirectly with all eating behaviors (except for sugary drink intake and this effect operated through socio-environmental (parental permissiveness and school support and individual factors (perceived benefits.Our study demonstrated that key components of adolescents' dietary behaviors are influenced by a complex interplay of individual and environmental factors. The findings indicate

  6. Dietary intake and lifestyle behaviors of children in Mauritius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Digvijayini Bundhun

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to explore the dietary intake, fruit, vegetable and energy intake and lifestyle behaviors among Mauritian children. A validated questionnaire was used, assessing dietary intake, mean energy intake, mean body mass index (BMI, lifestyle behaviors as well as nutritional knowledge (NK among males and females. 336 children aged 6–12 years (165 males and 171 females from 8 public primary schools were recruited. Statistical analyses revealed that children consumed less nutritious foods such as fruits, vegetables and whole grains and more of refined and calorie-laden foods, with no significant differences across genders. Mean energy intake of children was 1522 ± 282.4 kcal per day while mean BMI was 17.5 ± 4.03 kg/m2. Majority of children had a low-to-moderate physical activity level (PAL, with males being more active than females on average (P = 0.021. 88.7% of children watched TV for more than an hour daily, with 84.8% of them reporting to be eating during the process. Females were more likely to be breakfast skippers (P = 0.003. Maximum frequency of snacking was twice daily (72.7% while consumption of fast food was once or twice weekly (44.0%. Results indicate the need for intervention with aim of improving the dietary and life quality of children in Mauritius.

  7. Comparing the utility of the theory of planned behavior between boys and girls for predicting snack food consumption: implications for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branscum, Paul; Sharma, Manoj

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use the theory of planned behavior to explain two types of snack food consumption among boys and girls (girls n = 98; boys n = 69), which may have implications for future theory-based health promotion interventions. Between genders, there was a significant difference for calorie-dense/nutrient-poor snacks (p = .002), but no difference for fruit and vegetable snacks. Using stepwise multiple regression, attitudes, perceived behavioral control, and subjective norms accounted for a large amount of the variance of intentions (girls = 43.3%; boys = 55.9%); however, for girls, subjective norms accounted for the most variance, whereas for boys, attitudes accounted for the most variance. Calories from calorie-dense/nutrient-poor snacks and fruit and vegetable snacks were also predicted by intentions. For boys, intentions predicted 6.4% of the variance for fruit and vegetable snacks (p = .03) but was not significant for calorie-dense/nutrient-poor snacks, whereas for girls, intentions predicted 6.0% of the variance for fruit and vegetable snacks (p = .007), and 7.2% of the variance for calorie-dense/nutrient-poor snacks (p = .004). Results suggest that the theory of planned behavior is a useful framework for predicting snack foods among children; however, there are important differences between genders that should be considered in future health promotion interventions.

  8. Scheduled meals and scheduled palatable snacks synchronize circadian rhythms: consequences for ingestive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Carolina; Salgado, Roberto; Rodriguez, Katia; Blancas Vázquez, Aurea Susana; Angeles-Castellanos, Manuel; Buijs, Ruud M

    2011-09-26

    Food is a potent time signal for the circadian system and has shown to entrain and override temporal signals transmitted by the biological clock, the suprachiasmatic nucleus, which adjusts mainly to the daily light/dark (LD) alternation. Organisms mostly ingest food in their active period and this permits a correct coordination between the LD and the food elicited time signals with the circadian system. Under conditions when feeding opportunities are shifted to the usual resting/sleep phase, the potent entraining force of food, shifts circadian fluctuations in several tissues, organs, and brain structures toward meal time, resulting a desynchrony within the body and between the organism and the external LD cycle. The daily scheduled access to a palatable snack exerts similar changes specifically to brain areas involved in motivation and reward responses. This review describes the phenomenology of food entrainment and entrainment by a palatable snack. It suggests how scheduled feeding can lead to food addiction and how shifted feeding schedules toward the sleep phase can result in altered ingestive behavior, obesity and disturbed metabolic responses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The impact of extrusion on the nutritional composition, dietary fiber and in vitro digestibility of gluten-free snacks based on rice, pea and carob flour blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arribas, C; Cabellos, B; Sánchez, C; Cuadrado, C; Guillamón, E; Pedrosa, M M

    2017-10-18

    Consumers and the food industry are demanding healthier products. Expanded snacks with a high nutritional value were developed from different rice, pea and carob flour blends. The proximate composition, starch (total and resistant), amylose and amylopectin, dietary fiber (soluble and insoluble) contents, and the in vitro protein digestibility of different rice-legume formulations, were evaluated before and after the extrusion process. Compared with the corresponding non-extruded blends (control), the extrusion treatment did not change the total protein content, however, it reduced the soluble protein (61-86%), the fat (69-92%) and the resistant starch contents (100%). The total starch content of all studied blends increased (2-19%) after extrusion. The processing increased the in vitro protein digestibility, reaching values around 88-95% after extrusion. Total dietary fiber was reduced around 30%, and the insoluble fraction was affected to a larger extent than the soluble fraction by the extrusion process. Because of its balanced nutritional composition, high dietary fiber content, as well as low energy density, these novel gluten-free snack-like foods could be considered as functional foods and a healthier alternative to commercially available gluten-containing or gluten-free and low nutritional value snacks.

  10. The effects of increased dietary protein yogurt snack in the afternoon on appetite control and eating initiation in healthy women

    OpenAIRE

    Ortinau, Laura C; Culp, Julie M; Hoertel, Heather A; Douglas, Steve M; Leidy, Heather J

    2013-01-01

    Background A large portion of daily intake comes from snacking. One of the increasingly common, healthier snacks includes Greek-style yogurt, which is typically higher in protein than regular yogurt. This study evaluated whether a 160?kcal higher-protein (HP) Greek-style yogurt snack improves appetite control, satiety, and delays subsequent eating compared to an isocaloric normal protein (NP) regular yogurt in healthy women. This study also identified the factors that predict the onset of eat...

  11. Dietary habits and sedentary behaviors among health science university students in Bahrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Awadhalla, Muyssar S; Al-Mannai, Mariam; AlSawad, Muneera; Asokan, G V

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the dietary patterns and sedentary behaviors among university students in Bahrain. A cross-sectional study was carried out with students of the College of Health Sciences in Bahrain using a self-reported questionnaire. All the students enrolled in this college were included in this study (642 students; 90 males and 552 females). The mean age of the sample was 20.1±2.0 years. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect information on the students' breakfast intake, snacking, food frequency intake, and sedentary habits. More than 50% of the students did not consume breakfast on a daily basis. A statistically significant difference (psleep; however, the only significant difference found was for Internet use (psleep for less time (students in Bahrain had unhealthy dietary habits and sedentary behaviors. Thus, an intervention program to promote healthy dietary patterns and lifestyle habits among university students is highly recommended.

  12. Food parenting practices and child dietary behavior. Prospective relations and the moderating role of general parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleddens, Ester F C; Kremers, Stef P J; Stafleu, Annette; Dagnelie, Pieter C; De Vries, Nanne K; Thijs, Carel

    2014-08-01

    Research on parenting practices has focused on individual behaviors while largely failing to consider the context of their use, i.e., general parenting. We examined the extent to which food parenting practices predict children's dietary behavior (classified as unhealthy: snacking, sugar-sweetened beverage; and healthy: water and fruit intake). Furthermore, we tested the moderating role of general parenting on this relationship. Within the KOALA Birth Cohort Study, in the Netherlands, questionnaire data were collected at 6 and 8 years (N = 1654). Correlations were computed to assess the association between food parenting practices and general parenting (i.e., nurturance, behavioral control, structure, coercive control, and overprotection). Linear regression models were fitted to assess whether food parenting practices predict dietary behavior. Instrumental and emotional feeding, and pressure to eat were found to have associations with undesirable child dietary behavior (increased unhealthy intake/decreased healthy intake), whereas associations were in the desirable direction for covert control, encouragement and restriction. Moderation analyses were performed by evaluating interactions with general parenting. The associations of encouragement and covert control with desirable child dietary behaviors were found to be stronger for children who were reared in a positive parenting context. Future research should assess the influence of contextual parenting factors moderating the relationships between food parenting and child dietary behavior as the basis for the development of more effective family-based interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. "Snacks" saludables (Smart Snacks)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-08-22

    En este podcast para niños, los chicos de Kidtastics presentan algunas buenas ideas de refrigerios o “snacks” que ayudan a mantener al cuerpo con energía.  Created: 8/22/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 12/29/2011.

  14. Cool snacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Brock, Steen; Brunsø, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Young people snack and their snacking habits are not always healthy. We address the questions whether it is possible to develop a new snack product that adolescents will find attractive, even though it is based on ingredients as healthy as fruits and vegetables, and we argue that developing...... such a product requires an interdisciplinary effort where researchers with backgrounds in psychology, anthropology, media science, philosophy, sensory science and food science join forces. We present the COOL SNACKS project, where such a blend of competences was used first to obtain thorough insight into young...... people's snacking behaviour and then to develop and test new, healthier snacking solutions. These new snacking solutions were tested and found to be favourably accepted by young people. The paper therefore provides a proof of principle that the development of snacks that are both healthy and attractive...

  15. How parental dietary behavior and food parenting practices affect children's dietary behavior. Interacting sources of influence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, J.K.; Hermans, R.C.J.; Sleddens, E.F.C.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Fisher, J.O.; Kremers, S.P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Until now, the literatures on the effects of food parenting practices and parents' own dietary behavior on children's dietary behavior have largely been independent from one another. Integrating findings across these areas could provide insight on simultaneous and interacting influences on

  16. Which Diet-Related Behaviors in Childhood Influence a Healthier Dietary Pattern? From the Ewha Birth and Growth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye Ah; Hwang, Hyo Jeong; Oh, Se Young; Park, Eun Ae; Cho, Su Jin; Kim, Hae Soon; Park, Hyesook

    2016-12-23

    This study was performed to examine how childhood dietary patterns change over the short term and which changes in diet-related behaviors influence later changes in individual dietary patterns. Using food frequency questionnaire data obtained from children at 7 and 9 years of age from the Ewha Birth and Growth Cohort, we examined dietary patterns by principal component analysis. We calculated the individual changes in dietary pattern scores. Changes in dietary habits such as eating a variety of food over two years were defined as "increased", "stable", or "decreased". The dietary patterns, termed "healthy intake", "animal food intake", and "snack intake", were similar at 7 and 9 years of age. These patterns explained 32.3% and 39.1% of total variation at the ages of 7 and 9 years, respectively. The tracking coefficient of snack intake had the highest coefficient (γ = 0.53) and that of animal food intake had the lowest (γ = 0.21). Intra-individual stability in dietary habits ranged from 0.23 to 0.47, based on the sex-adjusted weighted kappa values. Of the various behavioral factors, eating breakfast every day was most common in the "stable" group (83.1%), whereas consuming milk or dairy products every day was the least common (49.0%). Moreover, changes in behavior that improved the consumption of milk or dairy products or encouraged the consumption of vegetables with every meal had favorable effects on changes in healthy dietary pattern scores over two years. However, those with worsened habits, such as less food variety and more than two portions of fried or stir-fried food every week, had unfavorable effects on changes in healthy dietary pattern scores. Our results suggest that diet-related behaviors can change, even over a short period, and these changes can affect changes in dietary pattern.

  17. Snack Food, Satiety, and Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njike, Valentine Yanchou; Smith, Teresa M; Shuval, Omree; Shuval, Kerem; Edshteyn, Ingrid; Kalantari, Vahid; Yaroch, Amy L

    2016-09-01

    In today's society, snacking contributes close to one-third of daily energy intake, with many snacks consisting of energy-dense and nutrient-poor foods. Choices made with regard to snacking are affected by a multitude of factors on individual, social, and environmental levels. Social norms, for example, that emphasize healthful eating are likely to increase the intake of nutrient-rich snacks. In addition, satiety, the feeling of fullness that persists after eating, is an important factor in suppressing overconsumption, which can lead to overweight and obesity. Thus, eating snacks between meals has the potential to promote satiety and suppress overconsumption at the subsequent meal. Numerous studies have explored the relation between snack foods and satiety. These studies concluded that whole foods high in protein, fiber, and whole grains (e.g., nuts, yogurt, prunes, and popcorn) enhance satiety when consumed as snacks. Other foods that are processed to include protein, fiber, or complex carbohydrates might also facilitate satiety when consumed as snacks. However, studies that examined the effects of snack foods on obesity did not always account for satiety and the dietary quality and portion size of the snacks consumed. Thus, the evidence concerning the effects of snack foods on obesity has been mixed, with a number of interventional and observational studies not finding a link between snack foods and increased weight status. Although further prospective studies are warranted to conclusively determine the effects of snack foods on obesity risk, the consumption of healthful snacks likely affects satiety and promotes appetite control, which could reduce obesity. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Television Viewing and Snacking Behaviors of Fourth- and Eighth-Grade Schoolchildren in Texas

    OpenAIRE

    Hoelscher, Deanna M.; Vader, Amanda M.; Walters, Scott T.; Harris, T. Robert

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Child and adolescent overweight is a serious health issue. Both snacking and television watching have been associated with childhood overweight, but the relationships have not been well examined in a multiethnic population. The aim of this study was to examine relationships between weekday television viewing, snack consumption, consumption of foods advertised on television, and overweight status of a multiethnic sample of fourth- and eighth-grade schoolchildren in Texas. Methods ...

  19. Obesity Severity, Dietary Behaviors, and Lifestyle Risks Vary by Race/Ethnicity and Age in a Northern California Cohort of Children with Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Ford, Margaret C.; Gordon, Nancy P.; Howell, Amanda; Green, Cheryl E.; Greenspan, Louise C.; Chandra, Malini; Mellor, R. Grant; Lo, Joan C.

    2016-01-01

    Identification of modifiable behaviors is important for pediatric weight management and obesity prevention programs. This study examined obesogenic behaviors in children with obesity in a Northern California obesity intervention program using data from a parent/teen-completed intake questionnaire covering dietary and lifestyle behaviors (frequency of breakfast, family meals, unhealthy snacking and beverages, fruit/vegetable intake, sleep, screen time, and exercise). Among 7956 children with B...

  20. The effects of increased dietary protein yogurt snack in the afternoon on appetite control and eating initiation in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortinau, Laura C; Culp, Julie M; Hoertel, Heather A; Douglas, Steve M; Leidy, Heather J

    2013-06-06

    A large portion of daily intake comes from snacking. One of the increasingly common, healthier snacks includes Greek-style yogurt, which is typically higher in protein than regular yogurt. This study evaluated whether a 160 kcal higher-protein (HP) Greek-style yogurt snack improves appetite control, satiety, and delays subsequent eating compared to an isocaloric normal protein (NP) regular yogurt in healthy women. This study also identified the factors that predict the onset of eating. Thirty-two healthy women (age: 27 ± 2y; BMI: 23.0 ± 0.4 kg/m2) completed the acute, randomized crossover-design study. On separate days, participants came to our facility to consume a standardized lunch followed by the consumption of the NP (5.0 g protein) or HP (14.0 g protein) yogurt at 3 h post-lunch. Perceived hunger and fullness were assessed throughout the afternoon until dinner was voluntarily requested; ad libitum dinner was then provided. Snacking led to reductions in hunger and increases in fullness. No differences in post-snack perceived hunger or fullness were observed between the NP and HP yogurt snacks. Dinner was voluntarily requested at approximately 2:40 ± 0:05 h post-snack with no differences between the HP vs. NP yogurts. Ad libitum dinner intake was not different between the snacks (NP: 686 ± 33 kcal vs. HP: 709 ± 34 kcal; p = 0.324). In identifying key factors that predict eating initiation, perceived hunger, fullness, and habitual dinner time accounted for 30% of the variability of time to dinner request (r = 0.55; p < 0.001). The additional 9 g of protein contained in the high protein Greek yogurt was insufficient to elicit protein-related improvements in markers of energy intake regulation.

  1. The effects of increased dietary protein yogurt snack in the afternoon on appetite control and eating initiation in healthy women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background A large portion of daily intake comes from snacking. One of the increasingly common, healthier snacks includes Greek-style yogurt, which is typically higher in protein than regular yogurt. This study evaluated whether a 160 kcal higher-protein (HP) Greek-style yogurt snack improves appetite control, satiety, and delays subsequent eating compared to an isocaloric normal protein (NP) regular yogurt in healthy women. This study also identified the factors that predict the onset of eating. Findings Thirty-two healthy women (age: 27 ± 2y; BMI: 23.0 ± 0.4 kg/m2) completed the acute, randomized crossover-design study. On separate days, participants came to our facility to consume a standardized lunch followed by the consumption of the NP (5.0 g protein) or HP (14.0 g protein) yogurt at 3 h post-lunch. Perceived hunger and fullness were assessed throughout the afternoon until dinner was voluntarily requested; ad libitum dinner was then provided. Snacking led to reductions in hunger and increases in fullness. No differences in post-snack perceived hunger or fullness were observed between the NP and HP yogurt snacks. Dinner was voluntarily requested at approximately 2:40 ± 0:05 h post-snack with no differences between the HP vs. NP yogurts. Ad libitum dinner intake was not different between the snacks (NP: 686 ± 33 kcal vs. HP: 709 ± 34 kcal; p = 0.324). In identifying key factors that predict eating initiation, perceived hunger, fullness, and habitual dinner time accounted for 30% of the variability of time to dinner request (r = 0.55; p < 0.001). Conclusions The additional 9 g of protein contained in the high protein Greek yogurt was insufficient to elicit protein-related improvements in markers of energy intake regulation. PMID:23742659

  2. Quantitative estimates of dietary intake with special emphasis on snacking pattern and nutritional status of free living adults in urban slums of Delhi: impact of nutrition transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Archna; Gupta, Vidhu; Ghosh, Arpita; Lock, Karen; Ghosh-Jerath, Suparna

    2015-10-14

    The nutritional landscape of India is experiencing the fallout of urbanization and globalization. The changes are manifest in dietary patterns as well as health outcomes. The study aimed at assessing household dietary intake pattern with special emphasis on snacking pattern, anthropometric and lipid profiles in low socio-economic status households in an urban slum of Delhi. Community based cross-sectional study in 260 households of a purposively selected urban slum in North-East district of Delhi, India. Family dietary surveys including consumption pattern of commercial food products rich in Partially Hydrogenated Vegetable Oils (PHVOs), 24 h dietary recall and assessment of dietary diversity using Household Diet Diversity Scores (HDDS) were done. Assessment of nutritional status using anthropometric and lipid profile on a subsample ( n =130) were also conducted. Median energy and fat intake were adequate. Micronutrient intake was found to be inadequate for vitamin A, riboflavin, calcium and folate. PHVO usage was low (healthy diet and lifestyle practices with emphasis on quantity and quality of nutrient intake. This must be considered as an integral part of chronic disease prevention strategy for underprivileged communities in urban India.

  3. Food-specific response inhibition, dietary restraint and snack intake in lean and overweight/obese adults: a moderated-mediation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, M; Lee, M; Higgs, S

    2016-05-01

    The relationship between response inhibition and obesity is currently unclear. This may be because of inconsistencies in methodology, design limitations and the use of narrow samples. In addition, dietary restraint has not been considered, yet restraint has been reported to moderate performance on behavioural tasks of response inhibition. The aim of this study was to investigate performance on both a food-based and a neutral stimuli go/no-go task, which addresses current design limitations, in lean and overweight/obese adults. The moderating role of dietary restraint in the relationship between body composition, response inhibition and snack intake was also measured. Lean and overweight/obese, males and females (N=116) completed both a food-based and neutral category control go/no-go task, in a fully counterbalanced repeated-measures design. A bogus taste-test was then completed, followed by a self-report measure of dietary restraint. PROCESS moderated-mediation analysis showed that overweight/obese, compared with lean, participants made more errors on the food-based (but not the neutral) go/no-go task, but only when they were low in dietary restraint. Performance on the food-based go/no-go task predicted snack intake across the sample. Increased intake in the overweight, low restrainers was fully mediated by increased errors on the food-based (but not the neutral) go/no-go task. Distinguishing between high and low restrained eaters in the overweight/obese population is crucial in future obesity research incorporating food-based go/no-go tasks. Poor response inhibition to food cues predicts overeating across weight groups, suggesting weight loss interventions and obesity prevention programmes should target behavioural inhibition training in such individuals.

  4. Clustering of dietary intake and sedentary behavior in 2-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubbels, Jessica S; Kremers, Stef P J; Stafleu, Annette; Dagnelie, Pieter C; de Vries, Sanne I; de Vries, Nanne K; Thijs, Carel

    2009-08-01

    To examine clustering of energy balance-related behaviors (EBRBs) in young children. This is crucial because lifestyle habits are formed at an early age and track in later life. This study is the first to examine EBRB clustering in children as young as 2 years. Cross-sectional data originated from the Child, Parent and Health: Lifestyle and Genetic Constitution (KOALA) Birth Cohort Study. Parents of 2578 2-year-old children completed a questionnaire. Correlation analyses, principal component analyses, and linear regression analyses were performed to examine clustering of EBRBs. We found modest but consistent correlations in EBRBs. Two clusters emerged: a "sedentary-snacking cluster" and a "fiber cluster." Television viewing clustered with computer use and unhealthy dietary behaviors. Children who frequently consumed vegetables also consumed fruit and brown bread more often and white bread less often. Lower maternal education and maternal obesity were associated with high scores on the sedentary-snacking cluster, whereas higher educational level was associated with high fiber cluster scores. Obesity-prone behavioral clusters are already visible in 2-year-old children and are related to maternal characteristics. The findings suggest that obesity prevention should apply an integrated approach to physical activity and dietary intake in early childhood.

  5. A qualitative study of parents' perceptions and use of portion size strategies for preschool children's snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Christine E; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet; Ganter, Claudia; Younginer, Nicholas; Orloski, Alexandria; Blaine, Rachel E; Bruton, Yasmeen; Davison, Kirsten K

    2015-05-01

    Increases in childhood obesity correspond with shifts in children's snacking behaviors and food portion sizes. This study examined parents' conceptualizations of portion size and the strategies they use to portion snacks in the context of preschool-aged children's snacking. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with non-Hispanic white (W), African American (AA), and Hispanic (H) low-income parents (n = 60) of preschool-aged children living in Philadelphia and Boston. The interview examined parents' child snacking definitions, purposes, contexts, and frequency. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Coding matrices compared responses by race/ethnicity, parent education, and household food security status. Parents' commonly referenced portion sizes when describing children's snacks with phrases like "something small." Snack portion sizes were guided by considerations including healthfulness, location, hunger, and timing. Six strategies for portioning snacks were presented including use of small containers, subdividing large portions, buying prepackaged snacks, use of hand measurement, measuring cups, scales, and letting children determine portion size. Differences in considerations and strategies were seen between race/ethnic groups and by household food security status. Low-income parents of preschool-aged children described a diverse set of considerations and strategies related to portion sizes of snack foods offered to their children. Future studies should examine how these considerations and strategies influence child dietary quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Interrelationships of child appetite, weight and snacking among Hispanic preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snacking among US preschoolers has increased in recent decades, raising questions about whether snacking contributes to dietary excess. This research aimed to characterize snacking contributions to dietary excess and to evaluate associations with appetite and weight among preschool-aged children. Th...

  7. Food cravings in everyday life: An EMA study on snack-related thoughts, cravings, and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Anna; Meule, Adrian; Reichenberger, Julia; Blechert, Jens

    2017-06-01

    Food craving refers to an intense desire to consume a specific food and is regularly experienced by the majority of individuals. Yet, there are interindividual differences in the frequency and intensity of food craving experiences, which is often referred to as trait food craving. The characteristics and consequences of trait and state food craving have mainly been investigated in questionnaire-based and laboratory studies, which may not reflect individuals' behavior in daily life. In the present study, sixty-one participants completed the Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait-reduced (FCQ-T-r) as measure of trait food craving, followed by seven days of Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA), during which they reported snack-related thoughts, craving intensity, and snack consumption at five times per day. Results showed that 86 percent of reported snacks were high-caloric, with chocolate-containing foods being the most often reported snacks. Individuals with high FCQ-T-r scores (high trait food cravers, HCs) thought more often about high-calorie than low-calorie snacks whereas no differences were found in individuals with low FCQ-T-r scores (low trait food cravers, LCs). Further, the relationship between craving intensity and snack-related thoughts was stronger in HCs than in LCs. Higher craving intensity was associated with more consumption of snacks and again this relationship was stronger in HCs than in LCs. Finally, more snack-related thoughts were related to more frequent consumption of snacks, independent of trait food craving. Thus, HCs are more prone to think about high-calorie snacks in their daily lives and to consume more snack foods when they experience intense cravings, which might be indicative of a heightened responding towards high-calorie foods. Thus, trait-level differences as well as snack-related thoughts should be targeted in dietary interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. What factors influence mothers' behavior regarding control of their children's sugary snack intake?: An application of the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vichayanrat, Tippanart; Sudha, Kantaphon; Kumthanom, Komsun; Apisuttisin, Jomjak; Uawatanasakul, Nuttanun; Ariyakieatsakul, Yuttakit

    2018-04-16

    The aim of this study was to examine the factors influencing mothers' behavior regarding control of their children's sugary snack intake based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. We used a self-administered questionnaire to collect data from the mothers of preschool children on the factors related to their behaviours influencing control of their children's sugary snack intake, namely attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control, self-efficacy, age, income and educational level. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient and multiple regression were used to analyse the relationships between the mother's behaviours and the predicting variables. In total, 293 mothers from the Pediatric Dental Clinic, Mahidol University, participated. The factors significantly related to controlling sugary snack intake were self-efficacy (r = 0.425, P < 0.01), perceived behavioural control (r = 0.361, P < 0.01), attitude (r = 0.302, P < 0.01) and subjective norms (r = 0.211, P < 0.01). For belief-based measures, control beliefs were the most significant factors related to behaviour, followed by normative beliefs but not behavioural beliefs. Having time and the child's willingness were perceived as important control factors, while family and other mothers were significant referents for mothers in controlling sugary snack behaviour. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that self-efficacy (β = 0.339, P < 0.001), attitude (β = 0.190, P = 0.002) and mother's age (β = 0.110, P = 0.043) were significant predictors in controlling the child's sugary snack intake. The factors influencing mothers regarding control of their children's sugary snack intake were self-efficacy, attitude and age of the mother. Oral health education on controlling children's sugary snack intake should focus on developing the mother's self-efficacy and perception of control. The results may not be generalisable to mothers in different cultures or socio-economic status.

  9. Snacking Is Prevalent in Mexico123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffey, Kiyah J.; Rivera, Juan A.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Snacking has increased globally, but little is known about how Mexicans consume foods outside meals. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and patterns of snacking behavior among Mexicans. Methods: We used data from children and adults (aged ≥2 y; n = 9937) from the Mexican National Nutrition Survey 1999 and the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHNS) 2012 to examine the prevalence of snacking as well as amount (kcal) and contribution of snacks to total energy intake per day. Snacking was defined as eating outside of the 3 main meals. We calculated per capita (among the total population) and per consumer (“snackers”) estimates of the number of snacks per day, kilocalories per snack, kilocalories per day from snacks, and the percentage of energy from snacks. Top foods consumed during snack occasions were also examined for the NHNS 2012. All results were weighted to account for survey design and to be nationally representative. Results: In 2012, an estimated 73% of the population consumed snacks on a given day, with estimates ranging from 70% among ≥59 y olds to 77% among 2–11 y olds. An average of 1.6 snacks/d were consumed by the population. This value was slightly higher (2.1 snacks/d) among snackers. Snacks provided an average of 343 kcal/d per snacker (17% of total energy/d). Fruit was the most commonly consumed snack food by all ages except for 12–18 y olds. Salty snacks, sweet snacks, sugar-sweetened beverages, and milk were frequently in the top 5 categories across age groups. Differences were observed between age groups. Conclusions: Snacking is prevalent in the Mexican population. Many, but not all, of the foods consumed during snack occasions are foods considered “foods to limit” in the United States. PMID:25332484

  10. The Nutrient Density of Snacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Hess BA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although Americans receive almost a quarter of their daily energy from snacks, snacking remains a poorly defined and understood eating occasion. However, there is little dietary guidance about choosing snacks. Families, clinicians, and researchers need a comprehensive approach to assessing their nutritional value. Objective: To quantify and compare the nutrient density of commonly consumed snacks by their overall nutrient profiles using the Nutrient-Rich Foods (NRF Index 10.3. Methods: NRF Index scores were calculated for the top 3 selling products (based on 2014 market research data in different snack categories. These NRF scores were averaged to provide an overall nutrient-density score for each category. Results: Based on NRF scores, yogurt (55.3, milk (52.5, and fruit (30.1 emerged as the most nutrient-dense snacks. Ice cream (−4.4, pies and cakes (−11.1, and carbonated soft drinks (−17.2 emerged as the most nutrient-poor snacks. Conclusions: The NRF Index is a useful tool for assessing the overall nutritional value of snacks based on nutrients to limit and nutrients to encourage.

  11. Longitudinal associations of away-from-home eating, snacking, screen time, and physical activity behaviors with cardiometabolic risk factors among Chinese children and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Fei; Howard, Annie Green; Herring, Amy H; Thompson, Amanda L; Adair, Linda S; Popkin, Barry M; Aiello, Allison E; Zhang, Bing; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2017-07-01

    Background: Little is known about intergenerational differences in associations of urbanization-related lifestyle behaviors with cardiometabolic risk factors in children and their parents in rapidly urbanizing China. Objective: We tested the intergenerational differences in longitudinal associations of away-from-home eating, snacking, screen time, and leisure-time sports with high waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), elevated blood pressure (BP), elevated glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) among Chinese children and their parents. Design: We studied children enrolled in the longitudinal China Health and Nutrition Survey (1991-2009, 7 surveys) aged 7-17 y in ≥2 surveys (average follow-up: 2.3 surveys out of a possible 4 surveys with the age restriction; n = 3875, including 1175 siblings) and their parents (2947 mothers, 2632 fathers) living in the same household. We used 3 consecutive interviewer-administered 24-h dietary recalls to derive a 3-d average for away-from-home eating (nonconsumer, >0 and 1 and ≤2, or >2 h/d) and leisure-time sports (any or none). Random-effects logistic regression was used to examine the associations of lagged (average: 3 y) behaviors with cardiometabolic risk factors (WHtR, BP, HbA1c, and CRP). Results: We detected intergenerational differences in associations between lagged behaviors and risk factors ( P- interaction parents' high WHtR (OR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.53, 0.88) but positively associated with children's high WHtR (OR: 1.46; 95% CI: 1.01, 2.12). Lagged fruit and vegetable snack consumption was negatively related to parents' (OR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.59, 0.97) and children's (OR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.33, 1.00) high WHtR. Lagged screen time (>2 compared with ≤1 h/d) was positively associated with parents' (OR: 2.58; 95% CI: 1.56, 4.28) and children's high WHtR (OR: 2.26; 95% CI: 1.06, 4.83). Conclusion: Parent-offspring differences in associations between lifestyle behaviors and cardiometabolic risk factors

  12. Assessing and comparing the short-term effects of TPB only and TPB plus implementation intentions interventions on snacking behavior in Iranian adolescent girls: a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi-Shahanjarini, Akram; Rashidian, Arash; Omidvar, Nasrin; Majdzadeh, Reza

    2013-01-01

    The evidence for the effectiveness of theory of planned behavior (TPB)-based interventions is mixed. There is also mixed evidence on the effectiveness of adding implementation intentions to TPB-based interventions. In this study we assessed and compared the short-term effects of TPB-only intervention and TPB plus implementation intentions intervention on snacking behavior and intention to consume unhealthy snacks in Iranian adolescent girls. Three-arm cluster randomized controlled trial. Ten middle schools in Tehran (Iran). A total of 29 classes included 739 female adolescents (age range: 12-15 years). Intervention. Two brief interventions including TPB-only intervention and TPB plus implementation intentions intervention. Food frequency questionnaire and intentions at baseline, 10 days, and 3 months measuring snacking behavior and cognitions about unhealthy snack consumption, respectively. Hierarchical linear modeling to assess the interventions' effects. Both interventions successfully decreased intention to consume and consumption of unhealthy snacks at postintervention. Calculation of the effect sizes revealed that the TPB plus implementation intentions intervention was more effective than the TPB-only intervention. The effects remained significant at 3-month follow-up in the TPB plus implementation intentions intervention group only, although the effect size decreased. Overall, the study suggests that adding implementation intentions on top of TPB-based persuasive messages improves effectiveness and sustainability of desirable changes.

  13. Snacks for Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Snacks for Toddlers KidsHealth / For Parents / Snacks for Toddlers ... overdoing it at snack time. Stick to a Snack Schedule Kids do better with a routine, so ...

  14. A qualitative study of parents’ perceptions and use of portion size strategies for preschool children’s snacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Christine E.; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet; Ganter, Claudia; Younginer, Nicholas; Orloski, Alexandria; Blaine, Rachel E.; Bruton, Yasmeen; Davison, Kirsten K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Increases in childhood obesity correspond with shifts in children’s snacking behaviors and food portion sizes. This study examined parents’ conceptualizations of portion size and the strategies they use to portion snacks in the context of preschool-aged children’s snacking. Methods Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with non-Hispanic white (W), African American (AA), and Hispanic (H) low-income parents (n=60) of preschool-aged children living in Philadelphia and Boston. The interview examined parents’ child snacking definitions, purposes, contexts, and frequency. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Coding matrices compared responses by race/ethnicity, parent education, and household food security status. Results Parents’ commonly referenced portion sizes when describing children’s snacks with phrases like “something small.” Snack portion sizes were guided by considerations including healthfulness, location, hunger, and timing. Six strategies for portioning snacks were presented including use of small containers, subdividing large portions, buying prepackaged snacks, use of hand measurement, measuring cups, scales, and letting children determine portion size. Differences in considerations and strategies were seen between race/ ethnic groups and by household food security status. Conclusions Low-income parents of preschool-aged children described a diverse set of considerations and strategies related to portion sizes of snack foods offered to their children. Future studies should examine how these considerations and strategies influence child dietary quality. PMID:25447008

  15. Correlates of fruit, vegetable, soft drink, and snack intake among adolescents: the ESSENS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mekdes K. Gebremariam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Identifying modifiable correlates of dietary behaviors is of utmost importance for the promotion of healthy dietary behaviors. Objective: This study explores individual, home, and school/neighborhood environmental correlates of dietary behaviors (intake of fruits, vegetables, soft drinks, and unhealthy snacks among adolescents. Methods: In total, 742 adolescents with a mean age of 13.6 (SD=0.3 were included in this cross-sectional study conducted in 11 secondary schools located in the eastern part of Norway. A web-based questionnaire was used to collect data. Univariable and multivariable linear regression analyses were used to explore factors associated with the dietary behaviors included. Results: A higher frequency of food/drink purchase in the school canteen was related to a higher consumption of soft drinks and snacks. A higher frequency of food/drink purchase in shops around schools during break or recess was related to a higher consumption of snacks. A higher frequency of food/drink purchase in shops around the neighborhood on the way to and from school was related to a higher consumption of soft drinks. Perceived parental modeling and perceived accessibility at home were found to be positively associated with all dietary behaviors. Perceived parental rules were inversely associated with soft drink and snack consumption; self-efficacy related to healthy eating was positively associated with fruit and vegetable consumption. Other included school and neighborhood environmental correlates were not associated with the dietary behaviors. Conclusions: There is a need to address the food purchasing behavior of the adolescents using different approaches. The findings also highlight the important role of parents and the home environment for healthy and unhealthy dietary behaviors of adolescents.

  16. How parental dietary behavior and food parenting practices affect children's dietary behavior. Interacting sources of influence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Junilla K; Hermans, Roel C J; Sleddens, Ester F C; Engels, Rutger C M E; Fisher, Jennifer O; Kremers, Stef P J

    2015-06-01

    Until now, the literatures on the effects of food parenting practices and parents' own dietary behavior on children's dietary behavior have largely been independent from one another. Integrating findings across these areas could provide insight on simultaneous and interacting influences on children's food intake. In this narrative review, we provide a conceptual model that bridges the gap between both literatures and consists of three main hypotheses. First, parental dietary behavior and food parenting practices are important interactive sources of influence on children's dietary behavior and Body Mass Index (BMI). Second, parental influences are importantly mediated by changes in the child's home food environment. Third, parenting context (i.e., parenting styles and differential parental treatment) moderates effects of food parenting practices, whereas child characteristics (i.e., temperament and appetitive traits) mainly moderate effects of the home food environment. Future studies testing (parts of) this conceptual model are needed to inform effective parent-child overweight preventive interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sedentary behavior and dietary intake in children, adolescents, and adults. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Natalie; Biddle, Stuart J H

    2011-08-01

    Sedentary behavior is implicated in youth and adult overweight and obesity. However, the relationship between sedentary behavior and weight status is often small or inconsistent, with few studies controlling for confounding factors such as diet and physical activity. Diet has been hypothesized to covary with some sedentary behaviors. It is opportune, therefore, to review whether dietary intake is associated with sedentary behavior in young people and adults. This may allow for better interpretation of the diversity of findings concerning sedentary behavior and weight status. Published English-language studies were located from computerized and manual searches in early 2010. Included studies were observational studies assessing an association between at least one sedentary behavior and at least one aspect of dietary intake in children (aged 18 years). Fifty-three studies, totaling 111 independent samples, were eligible for this review. Sedentary behavior in children (n=19, independent samples=24), adolescents (n=26, independent samples=72), and adults (n=11, independent samples=14) appears to be clearly associated with elements of a less healthy diet including lower fruit and vegetable consumption; higher consumption of energy-dense snacks, drinks, and fast foods; and higher total energy intake. Strengths of association were mainly in the small-to-moderate range. The association drawn mainly from cross-sectional studies is that sedentary behavior, usually assessed as screen time and predominantly TV viewing, is associated with unhealthy dietary behaviors in children, adolescents, and adults. Interventions need to be developed that target reductions in sedentary time to test whether diet also changes. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Smart Snacks

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-08-22

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about some great snacks to munch on that will keep your body moving!  Created: 8/22/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/22/2011.

  19. Snack Food, Satiety, and Weight123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njike, Valentine Yanchou; Smith, Teresa M; Shuval, Omree; Shuval, Kerem; Edshteyn, Ingrid; Kalantari, Vahid; Yaroch, Amy L

    2016-01-01

    In today’s society, snacking contributes close to one-third of daily energy intake, with many snacks consisting of energy-dense and nutrient-poor foods. Choices made with regard to snacking are affected by a multitude of factors on individual, social, and environmental levels. Social norms, for example, that emphasize healthful eating are likely to increase the intake of nutrient-rich snacks. In addition, satiety, the feeling of fullness that persists after eating, is an important factor in suppressing overconsumption, which can lead to overweight and obesity. Thus, eating snacks between meals has the potential to promote satiety and suppress overconsumption at the subsequent meal. Numerous studies have explored the relation between snack foods and satiety. These studies concluded that whole foods high in protein, fiber, and whole grains (e.g., nuts, yogurt, prunes, and popcorn) enhance satiety when consumed as snacks. Other foods that are processed to include protein, fiber, or complex carbohydrates might also facilitate satiety when consumed as snacks. However, studies that examined the effects of snack foods on obesity did not always account for satiety and the dietary quality and portion size of the snacks consumed. Thus, the evidence concerning the effects of snack foods on obesity has been mixed, with a number of interventional and observational studies not finding a link between snack foods and increased weight status. Although further prospective studies are warranted to conclusively determine the effects of snack foods on obesity risk, the consumption of healthful snacks likely affects satiety and promotes appetite control, which could reduce obesity. PMID:27633103

  20. The Evaluation of Effects of Educational Intervention Based on Planned Behavior Theory on Reduction of Unhealthy Snack Consumption among Kermanshah Elementary School Students, 2015- 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Nazari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sedentary lifestyle and great advertising of high calorie junk foodstuffs cause the change of the nutritional pattern of children and adolescents. This study has been carried out with this objective: determining the effect of educational intervention based on the theory of planned behavior on reducing consumption of unhealthy snacks in the elementary students in Kermanshah City in 2015-2016. This research is a quasi-experimental study. Research setting was the primary schools in Kermanshah city. Sampling was conducted in multi-stage random method. Three hundred and fourteen female and male students were selected randomly. They were divided into two groups of Case and Control. The data collection tool in this study was a questionnaire. Status of snacks consumption among students in both study groups was examined after four weeks. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics were used in order to analyze data. Before intervention, there were no significant differences between two groups of case and control. The average grades of the theory of planned behavior structures have increased in case group after intervention and it shows a significant difference (P < 0.05. No significant differences were observed in each structure in control group after intervention. The results indicate the positive effect of educational intervention based on the theory of planned behavior on reducing consumption of unhealthy snacks in elementary students. Theory-based educational intervention has also increased students’ willingness to consume healthy snacks.

  1. Weight loss strategies: Association with consumption of sugary beverages, snacks and values about food purchases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Sara N.; Wolfson, Julia A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine whether weight loss strategies are associated with consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), snacks or food values. Design and Methods Cross-sectional analysis of 24-hour dietary recall data obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2010 (N=9,440). Results Adults trying to lose weight consumed roughly 2000 total calories, 250 calories from SSBs, 225 calories from salty snacks, and 350 calories from sweet snacks. Adults not trying to lose weight consumed roughly 2300 total calories, 300 calories from SSBs, 250 calories from salty snacks, and 380 calories from sweet snacks. While overweight and obese adults trying to lose weight consumed fewer calories than those who were not, heavier adults trying to lose weight using dietary strategies or a combination of diet and physical activity consumed more calories than healthy weight adults using that same weight loss strategy (p Price (>70%) and nutrition (>50%) were most when making food choices (p snack consumption in the clinical setting may be important for weight loss, particularly among heavier individuals. Clinicians should consider values related to food purchasing to identify concrete behavioral targets. PMID:24801411

  2. Meals and snacks from the child's perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husby, Ida; Heitmann, Berit L; O'Doherty Jensen, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the everyday consumption of meals and snacks from the child's perspective, among those with healthier v. less healthy dietary habits. DESIGN: The sample in this qualitative study comprised two groups of Danish schoolchildren aged 10 to 11 years, one with a healthier diet (n 9......) and the other with a less healthy diet (n 8). Both groups were recruited from respondents to a dietary survey. Semi-structured interviews took their starting point in photographs of their meals and snacks taken by the children themselves. RESULTS: Both subgroups of children had a meal pattern with three main...... meals and two to four snacks. We found a connection between the nutritional quality of the diet and the social contexts of consumption, especially with regard to snacks. Among children with healthier eating habits, both snacks and meals tended to be shared social events and items of poor nutritional...

  3. Clarifying concepts of food parenting practices. A Delphi study with an application to snacking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevers, D W M; Kremers, S P J; de Vries, N K; van Assema, P

    2014-08-01

    Inconsistencies in measurements of food parenting practices continue to exist. Fundamental to this problem is the lack of clarity about what is understood by different concepts of food parenting practices. The purpose of this study was to clarify food parenting practice concepts related to snacking. A three round Delphi study among an international group of experts (n = 63) was conducted. In the first round, an open-ended survey was used to collect food parenting practice descriptions and concept labels associated with those practices. In the second round, participants were asked to match up descriptions with the appropriate concept labels. The third and final round allowed participants to reconsider how descriptions and concept labels were matched, taking into account the opinions expressed in round two. Round one produced 408 descriptions of food parenting practices and 110 different concept names. Round two started with 116 descriptions of food parenting practices and 20 concept names. On 40 descriptions, consensus regarding the underlying concept name was reached in round two. Of the remaining 76 descriptions, consensus on 47 descriptions regarding the underlying concept name was reached in round three. The present study supports the essential process of consensus development with respect to food parenting practices concepts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of a diet intervention during pregnancy on dietary behavior in the randomized controlled Norwegian Fit for Delivery study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillesund, E R; Bere, E; Sagedal, L R; Vistad, I; Øverby, N C

    2016-10-01

    A mother's diet during pregnancy has the potential to influence both her own and her child's short- and long-term health. This paper reports the effects of a randomized controlled diet intervention during pregnancy on dietary behavior post-intervention as reported in late pregnancy. The diet intervention was part of a lifestyle intervention targeting both diet and physical activity behaviors among nulliparous women participating in the randomized controlled Norwegian Fit for Delivery study (NFFD). Eligible women were enrolled in early pregnancy from eight healthcare clinics in southern Norway between 2009 and 2013. The diet intervention was based on 10 dietary recommendations that were conveyed during two counseling sessions by phone and in a pamphlet describing the recommendations and their simplified rationale. A diet score was constructed from a 43-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and used to assess intervention effect on dietary behavior (score range 0-10). Between-group dietary differences post-intervention were estimated with analysis of covariance, with adjustment for baseline diet. A total of 508 women completed the FFQ both at baseline and post-intervention. There were no between-group differences in diet score and subscales at baseline. Post-intervention, the intervention group had higher overall diet score (control: 4.61, intervention: 5.04, P=0.013) and favorable dietary behavior in seven of the 10 dietary domains: 'consumption of water relative to total beverage consumption' (P=0.002), 'having vegetables with dinner' (P=0.027), 'choosing fruits and vegetables for between-meal snacks' (P=0.023), 'buying small portion sizes of unhealthy foods' (P=0.010), 'limiting sugar intake' (P=0.005), 'avoiding eating beyond satiety' (P=0.009) and 'reading food labels' (P=0.011). The NFFD diet intervention improved dietary behavior. Potential long-term clinical influence in mother and child will be investigated in further studies.

  5. Smarter snack ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tips for healthy eating Smarter snack ideas Smarter snack ideas Healthier eating doesn’t mean that you ... to cut out fun foods. Here are some snacks to keep your body and your mouth happy: ...

  6. Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Dietary Patterns among Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbels, J.S.; van Assema, P.; Kremers, S.P.

    2013-01-01

    Energy balance-related behavioral patterns find their origin in early The current paper provides an overview of studies that have examined behavioral patterns, i.e., the clustering of dietary behaviors, physical activity, and/or sedentary behavior. The paper discusses the importance examining energy

  7. Are screen-based sedentary behaviors longitudinally associated with dietary behaviors and leisure-time physical activity in the transition into adolescence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebremariam, Mekdes K; Bergh, Ingunn H; Andersen, Lene F; Ommundsen, Yngvar; Totland, Torunn H; Bjelland, Mona; Grydeland, May; Lien, Nanna

    2013-01-25

    There is a need for more longitudinal studies investigating the associations between screen-based sedentary behaviors (SB), dietary behaviors and leisure-time physical activity (PA). In the HEIA cohort study, 908 children were followed from age 11 to age 13 (September 2007-May 2009). The children self-reported their intake of fruits, vegetables, soft drinks with sugar and snacks. TV/DVD use, computer/game use and leisure-time PA were also self-reported. Multilevel generalized linear mixed model analysis was used to assess longitudinal associations between the screen-based SB and each of the two other behaviors. Twenty-month changes in TV/DVD use and computer/game use were positively associated with changes in the consumption of soft drinks with sugar and unhealthy snacks in the same period; and inversely associated with change in vegetable consumption. Change in computer/game use was also inversely related to change in fruit consumption. An inverse but non-substantive association was found between change in TV/DVD use and change in leisure-time PA. Change in computer/game use was not significantly associated with change in leisure-time PA. Changes in screen-based SB were associated with multiple unfavorable changes in dietary habits, although the associations were weak. These associations need to be further investigated in intervention/experimental studies, to assess whether changing screen-based SB will result in clinically relevant changes in dietary behaviors. However, the findings of this study suggest that screen-based SB and leisure-time PA are largely independent behaviors which should be addressed separately in health promotion activities.

  8. Snacking Patterns of Preschool-Aged Children: Opportunity for Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Joy M; Watterworth, Jessica C; Haines, Jess; Duncan, Alison M; Mirotta, Julia A; Ma, David W L; Buchholz, Andrea C

    2018-03-01

    Dietary patterns established in childhood track into adulthood. Despite this, little research has explored preschoolers' snacking. This study examined snacking patterns (frequency, quality, quantity) of preschool-aged boys and girls. Cross-sectional data were collected on 52 children (23 males; 3.4 ± 1.1 years of age; BMI 16.1 ± 1.4 kg/m 2 ) enrolled in the Guelph Family Health Study pilot. Parent-reported 3-day food records were analyzed for children's snacking patterns including frequency (number of snacking occasions per day), quantity (percent energy from snacks) and quality (inclusion of food groups from Eating Well with Canada's Food Guide, macronutrient distribution, sugary and salty snacks). Mann-Whitney U tests examined sex differences in snacking patterns. Ninety-six percent of children snacked daily, consuming a mean of 2.3 ± 0.7 snacks per day. Snacks accounted for one-third of daily energy. 78% of boys' versus 63% of girls' snacks contained a food group (P = 0.016). Boys consumed significantly fewer sugary snacks (0.5 ± 0.4 vs 0.9 ± 0.6 snacks per day, P = 0.016), although the percent of snack calories from sugar for both boys and girls was high (group mean 37.2 ± 6.7%). Nearly all preschoolers in this study snacked daily, and consumed a variety of snack foods. Boys' and girls' snacking preferences begin to diverge early in life. Preschool children should be encouraged to consume healthful snacks.

  9. Multicontextual correlates of energy-dense, nutrient-poor snack food consumption by adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; Miller, Jonathan M; Eisenberg, Marla E; Watts, Allison W; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2017-05-01

    Frequent consumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor snack foods is an eating behavior of public health concern. This study was designed to inform strategies for reducing adolescent intake of energy-dense snack foods by identifying individual and environmental influences. Surveys were completed in 2009-2010 by 2540 adolescents (54% females, mean age = 14.5 ± 2.0, 80% nonwhite) in Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota schools. Daily servings of energy-dense snack food was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire that asked about consumption of 21 common snack food items, such as potato chips, cookies, and candy. Data representing characteristics of adolescents' environments were collected from parents/caregivers, friends, school personnel, Geographic Information System sources, and a content analysis of favorite television shows. Linear regression was used to examine relationships between each individual or environmental characteristic and snack food consumption in separate models and also to examine relationships in a model including all of the characteristics simultaneously. The factors found to be significantly associated with higher energy-dense snack food intake represented individual attitudes/behaviors (e.g., snacking while watching television) and characteristics of home/family (e.g., home unhealthy food availability), peer (friends' energy-dense snack food consumption), and school (e.g., student snack consumption norms) environments. In total, 25.5% of the variance in adolescents' energy-dense snack food consumption was explained when factors from within each context were examined together. The results suggest that the design of interventions targeting improvement in the dietary quality of adolescents' snack food choices should address relevant individual factors (e.g., eating while watching television) along with characteristics of their home/family (e.g., limiting the availability of unhealthy foods), peer (e.g., guiding the efforts of a peer leader in

  10. Inhibitory control effects in adolescent binge eating and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and snacks

    OpenAIRE

    Ames, Susan L.; Kisbu-Sakarya, Yasemin; Reynolds, Kim D.; Boyle, Sarah; Cappelli, Christopher; Cox, Matthew G.; Dust, Mark; Grenard, Jerry L.; Mackinnon, David P.; Stacy, Alan W.

    2014-01-01

    Inhibitory control and sensitivity to reward are relevant to the food choices individuals make frequently. An imbalance of these systems can lead to deficits in decision-making that are relevant to food ingestion. This study evaluated the relationship between dietary behaviors – binge eating and consumption of sweetened beverages and snacks - and behavioral control processes, among 198 ethnically diverse adolescents, ranging in age from 14 to 17, in Southern California. Neurocognitive control...

  11. Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Dietary Patterns among Children

    OpenAIRE

    Gubbels, Jessica S.; van Assema, Patricia; Kremers, Stef P. J.

    2013-01-01

    Energy balance-related behavioral patterns find their origin in early childhood. The current paper provides an overview of studies that have examined such behavioral patterns, i.e., the clustering of dietary behaviors, physical activity, and/or sedentary behavior. The paper discusses the importance of examining energy balance-related behavioral patterns in children, outlines methods to examine these patterns, and provides examples of patterns that have been found (e.g., the universal sedentar...

  12. Weight loss strategies: association with consumption of sugary beverages, snacks and values about food purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Sara N; Wolfson, Julia A

    2014-07-01

    To examine whether weight loss strategies are associated with consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), snacks or food values. Cross-sectional analysis of 24-h dietary recall data obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010 (N=9440). Adults trying to lose weight consumed roughly 2000 total calories, 250 calories from SSBs, 225 calories from salty snacks, and 350 calories from sweet snacks. Adults not trying to lose weight consumed roughly 2300 total calories, 300 calories from SSBs, 250 calories from salty snacks, and 380 calories from sweet snacks. While overweight and obese adults trying to lose weight consumed fewer calories than those who were not, heavier adults trying to lose weight using dietary strategies or a combination of diet and physical activity consumed more calories than healthy weight adults using that same weight loss strategy (pPrice (>70%) and nutrition (>50%) were most when making food choices (psnack consumption in the clinical setting may be important for weight loss, particularly among heavier individuals. Clinicians should consider values related to food purchasing to identify concrete behavioral targets. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Enrichment of extruded snack products with coproducts from chestnut mushroom (Agrocybe aegerita) production: interactions between dietary fiber, physicochemical characteristics, and glycemic load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Margaret A; Derbyshire, Emma; Tiwari, Brijesh K; Brennan, Charles S

    2012-05-02

    Mushrooms are a common vegetable product that have also been linked to pharmaceutical and medicinal uses. However, the production of the fruiting bodies of mushrooms results in a large quantity of food waste in the form of spent compost. Hyphae and the base of fruit bodies from Agrocybe aegerita were retrieved from spent mushroom compost and refined as a freeze-dried powder. This fiber-rich ingredient was used in the manufacture of ready-to-eat extruded cereal snack products. Inclusions rates were 0, 5, 10, and 15% w/w replacement levels for wheat flour from a control recipe. Inclusion of mushroom coproduct material (MCM) was significantly correlated to increased product expansion (r = 0.848) and density (r = 0.949) but negatively correlated to water absorption index (WAI; r = -0.928) and water solubility index (WSI; r = -0.729). Fiber content could not be correlated to differences in pasting properties of extruded snacks even though snack products with MCM showed significantly lower final viscosity values compared to the control. The potential glycemic response of foods was significantly lowered by including MCM (p extruded snacks (r = 0.916, 0.851, and 0.878. respectively). The results illustrate a reduction in the potential glycemic response from including 5% (w/w) of MCM in extruded snacks exceeds 20%. Thus, the incorporation of MCM in ready-to-eat snack foods may be of considerable interest to the food industry in trying to regulate the glycemic response of foods.

  14. Eating Behaviors and Dietary Changes in Patients With Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriani, Gabriele; Carlesi, Cecilia; Lucetti, Claudio; Danti, Sabrina; Nuti, Angelo

    2016-12-01

    Eating problems and dietary changes have been reported in patients with dementia. The aim of this article is to explore the generalized problems with nutrition, diet, feeding, and eating reported among patients with dementia. Medline and Google Scholar searches were conducted for relevant articles, chapters, and books published before 2016. Search terms used included behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, dementia, dietary changes, eating behavior. Publications found through this indexed search were reviewed for further relevant references. Abnormal eating behaviors, eating problems, and dietary changes are present in most people with dementia, especially in the later stages of the condition. Individuals with dementia frequently develop serious feeding difficulties and changes in eating and dietary habits. The changes may be secondary to cognitive impairment or apraxia, or the result of insufficient caregiving, or the consequence of metabolic or neurochemical abnormalities occurring as part of the dementing process.

  15. Dietary patterns in obese pregnant women; influence of a behavioral intervention of diet and physical activity in the UPBEAT randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Angela C; Seed, Paul T; Patel, Nashita; Barr, Suzanne; Bell, Ruth; Briley, Annette L; Godfrey, Keith M; Nelson, Scott M; Oteng-Ntim, Eugene; Robinson, Sian M; Sanders, Thomas A; Sattar, Naveed; Wardle, Jane; Poston, Lucilla; Goff, Louise M

    2016-11-29

    Understanding dietary patterns in obese pregnant women will inform future intervention strategies to improve pregnancy outcomes and the health of the child. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a behavioral intervention of diet and physical activity advice on dietary patterns in obese pregnant woman participating in the UPBEAT study, and to explore associations of dietary patterns with pregnancy outcomes. In the UPBEAT randomized controlled trial, pregnant obese women from eight UK multi-ethnic, inner-city populations were randomly assigned to receive a diet/physical activity intervention or standard antenatal care. The dietary intervention aimed to reduce glycemic load and saturated fat intake. Diet was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) at baseline (15 +0 -18 +6 weeks' gestation), post intervention (27 +0 -28 +6 weeks) and in late pregnancy (34 +0 -36 +0 weeks). Dietary patterns were characterized using factor analysis of the baseline FFQ data, and changes compared in the control and intervention arms. Patterns were related to pregnancy outcomes in the combined control/intervention cohort (n = 1023). Four distinct baseline dietary patterns were defined; Fruit and vegetables, African/Caribbean, Processed, and Snacks, which were differently associated with social and demographic factors. The UPBEAT intervention significantly reduced the Processed (-0.14; 95% CI -0.19, -0.08, P obese pregnant women an intensive dietary intervention improved Processed and Snack dietary pattern scores. African/Caribbean and Processed patterns were associated with an increased risk of gestational diabetes, and provide potential targets for future interventions. Current controlled trials; ISRCTN89971375.

  16. Shape of snack foods does not predict snack intake in a sample of preschoolers: a cross-over study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyer Lauren E

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past decade, the proportion snacking has increased. Snack foods consumed are predominantly not nutritious foods. One potential venue to increase children’s diet quality is to offer healthy snack foods and we explored if shaped snack foods would lead to increased consumption. Methods We investigated the consumption of high-fiber snacks (banana bread, pancakes, and sandwiches served either in normal (round, square or shaped (heart, hands, animals form to preschoolers 2–5 years old attending a local child care center (n = 21. The 9 weeks long, prospective, cross-over intervention study was designed to expose each child repeatedly to each snack in each shape (4 times per snack. Snacks were served as morning or afternoon snack and caretakers’ reports were used to account for the child’s consumption of a meal preceding the study snack (breakfast or lunch. Results There was no significant difference in snack consumption between the shaped and normal snacks. However, the mean energy intake from snacks was significantly greater for Caucasian children compared with Asian children. Further, Asian children consumed much less banana bread than the other two snacks. Overall, children who had not eaten breakfast or lunch prior to the morning or afternoon snack ate significantly more calories from the snacks (84.1 kcal, p-value  Conclusion Findings of this study confirm previous research that the shape of the foods does not affect snack consumption in children. However, we also report two unexpected findings: a the strong interaction between ethnicity and snack consumption and b that Asian children consumed much less banana bread than Caucasian children. The role of children’s ethnic background profoundly affects snack preference and must be considered in the study of children’s eating behaviors and in interventions to promote healthy eating habits.

  17. Snacking patterns, diet quality, and cardiovascular risk factors in adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The relationship of snacking patterns on nutrient intake and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in adults is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of snacking patterns with nutrient intake, diet quality, and a selection of CVRF in adults participating in the 2001-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Methods 24-hour dietary recalls were used to determine intake and cluster analysis was used to identify the snacking patterns. Height and weight were obtained and the health indices that were evaluated included diastolic and systolic blood pressure, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, triacylglycerides, blood glucose, and insulin. Results The sample was participants (n = 18,988) 19+ years (50% males; 11% African-Americans; 72% white, 12% Hispanic-Americans, and 5% other). Cluster analyses generated 12 distinct snacking patterns, explaining 61% of the variance in snacking. Comparisons of snacking patterns were made to the no snack pattern. It was found that miscellaneous snacks constituted the most common snacking pattern (17%) followed by cakes/cookies/pastries (12%) and sweets (9%). Most snacking patterns were associated with higher energy intakes. Snacking patterns cakes/cookies/pastries, vegetables/legumes, crackers/salty snacks, other grains and whole fruit were associated with lower intakes of saturated fatty acids. Added sugars intakes were higher in the cakes/cookies/pastries, sweets, milk desserts, and soft drinks patterns. Five snack patterns (cakes/cookies/pastries, sweets, vegetable/legumes, milk desserts, soft drinks) were associated with lower sodium intakes. Several snack patterns were associated with higher intakes of potassium, calcium, fiber, vitamin A, and magnesium. Five snacking patterns (miscellaneous snacks; vegetables/legumes; crackers/salty snacks; other grains; and whole fruit) were associated with better diet quality scores. Alcohol was associated with

  18. Taxing Snack Foods: Manipulating Diet Quality or Financing Information Programs?

    OpenAIRE

    Fred Kuchler; Abebayehu Tegene; J. Michael Harris

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates consumers' likely response to a proposed tax on snack foods that addresses public health issues generated by rising U.S. obesity rates. We estimate demands for particular snack foods and show they are price inelastic after accounting for quality variation. We calculate impacts of a range of ad valorem taxes on the demand for salty snack food. The impacts on dietary quality are small, and negligible at the lower tax rates. If taxes were earmarked for funding information...

  19. Protein supplementation in strength and conditioning adepts: knowledge, dietary behavior and practice in Palermo, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianco Antonino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is known that supplement use is a widespread and accepted practice by athletes and people who attend commercial gyms. Little is known about protein supplement amongst people undertaking strength training in commercial gyms in Italy when compared to the US. Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the use of protein supplementation, alone or in association with other supplements, and dietary behavior amongst regular fitness center attendees in Palermo, Italy. Design Resistance training information have been collected from 800 regular fitness center attendees for the initial analysis. A specific questionnaire was generated for the experimentation. Data were collected using a face-to-face interview method. Supplement users were then compared to the non users and analyzed using a one-way ANOVA, Kruskall-Wallis, chi-square test or exact test of Fisher when appropriate. Results 30.1% of the respondents use dietary supplements during their training as a believe it is the "way to gain muscles and strength". Whey protein shakes (50.0% mixed with creatine and amino-acids (48.3% were the most frequent choices amongst the users. A majority of the subjects (34.0% appeared to rely on their gym instructors' advice for their intake; a lower proportion (13.0% consulted physicians, while none of them consulted nutritionists. A high consumption of milk has been noticed in both users (67,7% and non-users (52,8%; supplement non-users consumed significantly more snacks and bakery products than users per week (P Conclusions A considerable number of regular strength training adepts consume protein supplements mixed with other products (mainly creatine and amino-acids. Limited numbers consult "dietary specialists" and rely mainly on their instructors. We emphasize on the importance of the dissemination of scientifically based information about supplementation in this environment and the promotion of updated educational programs for the

  20. Parental role modeling of fruits and vegetables at meals and snacks is associated with children's adequate consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draxten, Michelle; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Friend, Sarah; Flattum, Colleen F; Schow, Robin

    2014-07-01

    Research has shown that parental role modeling of healthful eating behaviors is positively correlated to children's dietary intake and fruit and vegetable (F&V) preferences. The purpose of this study is to (1) examine associations between parent and child report of parental role modeling of F&V consumption at snacks and dinner and (2) determine whether parental role modeling is associated with children meeting daily F&V recommendations. Parent-child dyads (N = 160) participating in the HOME Plus study completed baseline surveys on parental role modeling of F&V at snacks and dinner. Children also completed 24-hour dietary recalls. Spearman correlations and chi-square/Fisher's exact tests were used to examine relationships between parent and child report of parental role modeling of F&V at snacks and dinner and whether children met daily recommendations. On average, children consumed less than three daily servings of F&V with only 23% consuming the recommended servings. Statistically significant correlations were seen between parent and child report of parental role modeling fruit at dinner and green salad at dinner. Children who reported parental role modeling of vegetables at snack and salad at dinner were significantly more likely, than those who did not, to meet daily F&V recommendations. Parents who reported role modeling fruit at snack were significantly more likely to have children who met daily F&V recommendations. Results indicate that children are aware of their parents' eating behaviors and on occasion report this behavior similarly to their parents. Parents should be encouraged to utilize the opportunity to role model healthful dietary intake, especially at snacks, where consumption of F&V appears low. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Snacks consumption among residents in Shenzhen City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Qinggang; Cao, Keke; Xu, Jiazhang; Yuan, Xueli; Zhuo, Zhipeng; Xu, Jian; Pan, Peng

    2014-07-01

    To describe the status of snacks consumption among residents in Shenzhen. By a multiple stage probability proportionate to size sampling, 12 communities were randomly selected from 8 districts of Shenzhen based on population proportion. In the second stage, 30 households were randomly selected from each community. In each household, 2 years or older were invited to take dietary survey. There were 66.1% residents consuming snacks. More girls ate snacks than boys (chi2 = 11.552, P snacks than adults (chi2 = 27.207, P snacks were 107.8 kcal (451.5 kJ), 1.7 g, 0.8 g, 22.0 g, 1.1 g, 23.1 microg, 8.3 mg, 1.1 mg,17.0 mg, 9.3 mg, 21.0 mg, 0.8 mg and 0.4 mg. Food categories the most frequently consumed as snacks were fruit, pastry, milk and products, beverages and grains. It's important to strengthen the diet education among residents in Shenzhen, especially the knowledge how to select snacks correctly and rationally.

  2. Parental role modeling of fruits and vegetables at meals and snacks is associated with children’s adequate consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draxten, Michelle; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Friend, Sarah; Flattum, Colleen F.; Schow, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Parental role modeling of healthful eating behaviors has been shown to be positively correlated to children’s dietary intake and preference for fruits and vegetables. However, no study to date has utilized both parent and child report of parental role modeling and assessed role modeling at snacks and dinner. The purpose of this study is to 1) examine associations between parent and child report of parental role modeling of fruit and vegetable consumption at snacks and dinner and 2) determine whether parental role modeling is associated with children meeting daily fruit and vegetable recommendations. Parent-child dyads (N=160) participating in the Healthy Home Offerings via the Mealtime Environment (HOME) Plus study completed baseline surveys that included questions regarding parental role modeling of fruits and vegetables at dinner and snacks. Children also completed 24-hour dietary recalls. Spearman correlations and chi-square/Fisher’s exact test were used to examine relationships between parent and child report of parental role modeling of fruit and vegetable consumption at snacks and dinner and whether children met daily recommended servings of fruits and vegetables. On average, children consumed less than three servings of fruits and vegetables per day with only 23% of children consuming the recommended four daily servings. Similarities between parent and child reports of parental role modeling of fruits and vegetables at snacks and dinner varied by food type (e.g., fruit versus green salad) and whether the role modeling behavior was at snack or dinner. Statistically significant correlations were seen between parent and child report of parental role modeling consumption of fruit at dinner and green salad at dinner. Children who reported parental role modeling of vegetable consumption at snack and green salad at dinner were significantly more likely, than those who did not, to meet the daily fruit and vegetable consumption recommendations. Parents who

  3. Association of Dietary Behaviors with Physical Activity in a Nationally Representative Sample of Children and Adolescents: the CASPIAN- IV Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Safiri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nutritional health and adequate physical activity (PA, especially in childhood and grow periods, have a substantial role in health. This study assessed the association of dietary behaviors (main courses and snacks intake with PA in children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: Using multistage random cluster sampling method, a representative sample of 14,880 school students were selected from urban and rural areas of 30 provinces of Iran. Through a validated questionnaire, daily consumption of main course ( breakfast, lunch, and dinner as well as daily consumption of different snacks and health foods ( fast foods, milk, vegetables, dry fruits, fresh fruits, sweetened beverages, salty snacks and sweets were recorded for every participants. Information of past week weekly frequency of leisure time PA was collected. Results: Overall, 13,486 out of 14,880 students (response rate: 90.6% participated in this survey. Participants consisted of 6,640 (49.2% girls and 75.6% urban residents; their mean and standard deviation (SD age was 12.47 (3.36 years. Daily consumption of fresh fruits (odds ratio [OR]: 1.35, 95%confidence interval [CI]: 1.20-1.52, dried fruits (OR: 1.21; 95%CI: 1.06-1.40, vegetable (OR: 1.39; 95% CI: 1.24-1.56, and milk (OR: 1.35; 95% CI: 1.21-1.52 increased the odds of high PA compare to low PA in adjusted model.  Skipping the breakfast, lunch and dinner decreased the odds of moderate and high PA compare to low PA (P

  4. Accelerometer determined sedentary behavior and dietary quality among US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuval, Kerem; Nguyen, Binh T; Yaroch, Amy L; Drope, Jeffrey; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee

    2015-09-01

    Scant evidence exists pertaining to objectively measured sedentary time and dietary quality among adults. Therefore, we examined the relationships between sedentary time, physical activity, and dietary quality. Cross-sectional analyses of a 4,910 US adults from two cycles (2003-2006) of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The primary independent variables were sedentary time and physical activity (continuous and categorical), while the outcomes were overall dietary quality (Healthy Eating Index (HEI) 2010), fruit and vegetable scores, and empty caloric intake (kcal). Multivariable analyses revealed that a 1min increase in daily sedentary behavior was associated with a 0.2kcal decrease in empty calories (-0.18, 95% CI=-0.34, -0.03); however, sedentary time was not significantly related to overall dietary quality (HEI) and fruit and vegetable intake. In comparison, a 1min increase in daily moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity was related to a 0.1 higher HEI score (0.08, 95% CI=0.04, 0.11), a 0.01 higher fruit score (0.01, 95% CI=0.01, 0.02), and conversely a 1.3kcal decrease in empty calories (-1.35, 95% CI=-2.01, -0.69). In addition, meeting physical activity guidelines was associated with a 2.8 point higher HEI score (2.82, 95% CI=1.40, 4.25), a 0.5 point higher fruit score (0.51, 95% CI=0.31-0.71), and 37.4 fewer empty calories (-37.43, 95% CI=-64.86, -9.10). Physical activity is significantly related to better overall dietary quality, while sedentary behavior is not. Findings suggest the need to promote physical activity and encourage adherence to dietary guidelines jointly, whereas sedentary behavior and overall dietary quality might need to be targeted independently. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Children's snack consumption: role of parents, peers and child snack-purchasing behaviour. Results from the INPACT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ansem, Wilke J C; Schrijvers, Carola T M; Rodenburg, Gerda; van de Mheen, Dike

    2015-12-01

    Parents and peers are both likely to influence children's dietary behaviour. However, their actual influence may depend on the age and life stage of the individual child. Therefore, this study examined the influence of parents (home snack availability and consumption rules) and peers on 11-year-old children's snack consumption, and whether these associations were mediated by children's snack-purchasing behaviour. It was hypothesized that children are more likely to buy unhealthy snacks if these are not always available at home, if restrictive rules apply to their consumption and if a child is sensitive to peer influence. It was also assumed that children who buy snacks out of their pocket money would consume more snacks. Data were taken from 1203 parent-child dyads who completed a questionnaire in the INPACT study (IVO Physical Activity Child cohorT). Multivariable regression models were used to (i) analyze associations between children's consumption and parents' and peers' influence and (ii) determine whether these associations were mediated by children's snack-purchasing behaviour. Of the parental factors, home availability of snacks was associated with higher snack consumption (B = 1.03, P snack-purchasing behaviour were not associated. Children who were sensitive to peer influence consumed more snacks (B = 3ċ07, P snacks out of their pocket money (odds ratio 3.27, P snack-purchasing behaviour explained part (8.6%) of the association between peer influence and children's snack consumption. As these findings indicate that both parents and peers influence children's snack consumption, health promotion may benefit from targeting the broader social environment. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  6. Using goal setting as a strategy for dietary behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, K W; Baranowski, T; Smith, S P

    2001-05-01

    Recent reviews have noted that behavioral theory-based nutrition education programs are more successful at achieving food behavior change than knowledge-based programs and that a clear understanding of the mechanisms of behavior change procedures enable dietetics professionals to more effectively promote change. Successful dietary behavior change programs target 1 or more of the personal, behavioral, or environmental factors that influence the behavior of interest and apply theory-based strategies to influence or change those factors. Goal setting is a strategy that is frequently used to help people change. A 4-step goal-setting process has been identified: recognizing a need for change; establishing a goal; adopting a goal-directed activity and self-monitoring it; and self-rewarding goal attainment. The applications of goal setting in dietary interventions for adults and children are reviewed here. Because interventions using goal setting appear to promote dietary change, dietitians should consider incorporating the goal-setting strategies to enhance the behavior change process in nutrition education programs.

  7. Examining Multiple Parenting Behaviors on Young Children's Dietary Fat Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Christina M.; Ayala, Guadalupe X.; Crespo, Noe C.; Lopez, Nanette V.; Zive, Michelle Murphy; Corder, Kirsten; Wood, Christine; Elder, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To understand the association between parenting and children's dietary fat consumption, this study tested a comprehensive model of parenting that included parent household rules, parent modeling of rules, parent mediated behaviors, and parent support. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Baseline data from the "MOVE/me Muevo"…

  8. Associations of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors with Dietary Behaviors among US High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Lowry

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Physical activity (PA, sedentary behaviors, and dietary behaviors are each associated with overweight and obesity among youth. However, the associations of PA and sedentary behaviors with dietary behaviors are complex and not well understood. Purpose. To describe the associations of PA and sedentary behaviors with dietary behaviors among a representative sample of US high school students. Methods. We analyzed data from the 2010 National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study (NYPANS. Using logistic regression models which controlled for sex, race/ethnicity, grade, body weight status, and weight management goals, we compared dietary behaviors among students who did and did not meet national recommendations for PA and sedentary behaviors. Results. Students who participated in recommended levels of daily PA (DPA and muscle strengthening PA (MSPA were more likely than those who did not to eat fruits and vegetables. Students who exceeded recommended limits for television (TV and computer/video game (C/VG screen time were less likely than those who did not to consume fruits and vegetables and were more likely to consume fast food and sugar-sweetened beverages. Conclusions. Researchers may want to address PA, sedentary behaviors, and dietary behaviors jointly when developing health promotion and obesity prevention programs for youth.

  9. Dietary Behaviors Among Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in YOGYAKARTA, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Primanda, Yanuar; Kritpracha, Charuwan; Thaniwattananon, Ploenpit

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To describe dietary behaviors and examine relationships between selected factors and dietary behaviors among type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients in Yogyakarta, Indonesia.Method: Seventy T2DM patients from a hospital in Yogyakarta who met the inclusion criteria were recruited. Patient’s dietary behaviors were measured by the Dietary Behaviors Questionnaire developed for this study with adequate reliability. The questionnaire comprised of four dimensions: recognizing the amo...

  10. Increased Snacking and Eating Occasions Are Associated with Higher Energy Intake among Mexican Children Aged 2-13 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taillie, Lindsey Smith; Afeiche, Myriam C; Eldridge, Alison L; Popkin, Barry M

    2015-11-01

    Little is known about the dietary behaviors of Mexican children with regard to frequency, amount, and quality of foods consumed at eating occasions and their impact on total daily energy intake. The objectives were to 1) describe foods consumed across eating occasions and 2) examine whether the number or type of total eating occasions was associated with increased total daily energy intake and differed between 2- to 5-y-old and 6- to 13-y-old Mexican children. A nationally representative sample of 5031 children from the 2012 ENSANUT (Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición) was used to examine the percentage of meals and snacks consumed, mean energy intake from meals and snacks, and the top food groups contributing to meals and snacks. Multivariate linear regression was used to examine the association between meals, snacks, and total eating occasions with daily energy intake for 2- to 5-y-old and 6- to 13-y-old children. Eating patterns were similar across age groups (per capita mean intake of 3 meals and 1.4-1.6 snacks/d). Each additional snack was associated with greater increases in mean daily energy for older children (+191-289 kcal/d; P < 0.01) relative to younger children (+102-130 kcal/d; P < 0.01). Likewise, each additional eating occasion was associated with greater increases in mean daily energy for older children (+323 kcal/d; P < 0.01) relative to younger children (+166-261 kcal/d; P < 0.01). In both younger and older children, snacking was prevalent (75% and 68%, respectively). Top food contributors to snacks included fruit, salty snacks, candy, sweetened breads, and cookies. Among older children, whole milk as a snack was partially replaced with soda and sweetened fruit drinks. Snacks represent an area for potential improvement in the diets of Mexican children, especially among those aged 6 to 13 y, for whom each additional snack or eating occasion was linked to even greater increases in total daily energy intake. © 2015 American Society for

  11. Associations between general parenting, restrictive snacking rules, and adolescent's snack intake. The roles of fathers and mothers and interparental congruence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevers, Dorus W M; van Assema, Patricia; Sleddens, Ester F C; de Vries, Nanne K; Kremers, Stef P J

    2015-04-01

    Little research has been done on the role of fathers and parenting congruence between mothers and fathers. This study aimed to clarify the roles of general parenting and restrictive snacking rules set by fathers and mothers, and to explore parenting congruence in explaining adolescents' snack intake. Adolescents aged 11 to 15 completed a questionnaire assessing their perception of general parenting constructs (i.e. nurturance, structure, behavioral control, coercive control, and overprotection), restrictive snacking rules set by their fathers and mothers, and their own energy-dense snack intakes between meals. Scores for mothers were significantly higher on all constructs than for fathers, except for coercive control. Generally, higher scores on general parenting constructs were associated with higher scores on restrictive snacking rules (most of the associations being significant). Most general parenting constructs were unrelated to the respondents' number of snacks consumed. The use of restrictive snacking rules by both fathers and mothers was significantly and negatively related to respondents' snack intake. Moderation analyses indicated that high levels of incongruence between parents attenuated the favorable impact of fathers' rules and nurturance on their children's snacking, but interactions of congruence with three other paternal scales and all maternal scales were absent. Our findings indicate that both paternal and maternal general parenting and restrictive snacking rules play important roles in adolescents' snacking, and that high parental incongruence regarding restrictive snacking rules and nurturance could be undesirable. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Inhibitory control effects in adolescent binge eating and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Susan L; Kisbu-Sakarya, Yasemin; Reynolds, Kim D; Boyle, Sarah; Cappelli, Christopher; Cox, Matthew G; Dust, Mark; Grenard, Jerry L; Mackinnon, David P; Stacy, Alan W

    2014-10-01

    Inhibitory control and sensitivity to reward are relevant to the food choices individuals make frequently. An imbalance of these systems can lead to deficits in decision-making that are relevant to food ingestion. This study evaluated the relationship between dietary behaviors - binge eating and consumption of sweetened beverages and snacks - and behavioral control processes among 198 adolescents, ages 14 to 17. Neurocognitive control processes were assessed with the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), a generic Go/No-Go task, and a food-specific Go/No-Go task. The food-specific version directly ties the task to food cues that trigger responses, addressing an integral link between cue-habit processes. Diet was assessed with self-administered food frequency and binge eating questionnaires. Latent variable models revealed marked gender differences. Inhibitory problems on the food-specific and generic Go/No-Go tasks were significantly correlated with binge eating only in females, whereas inhibitory problems measured with these tasks were the strongest correlates of sweet snack consumption in males. Higher BMI percentile and sedentary behavior also predicted binge eating in females and sweet snack consumption in males. Inhibitory problems on the generic Go/No-Go, poorer affective decision-making on the IGT, and sedentary behavior were associated with sweetened beverage consumption in males, but not females. The food-specific Go/No-Go was not predictive in models evaluating sweetened beverage consumption, providing some initial discriminant validity for the task, which consisted of sweet/fatty snacks as no-go signals and no sugar-sweetened beverage signals. This work extends research findings, revealing gender differences in inhibitory function relevant to behavioral control. Further, the findings contribute to research implicating the relevance of cues in habitual behaviors and their relationship to snack food consumption in an understudied population of diverse adolescents not

  13. Snack frequency: associations with healthy and unhealthy food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Christina; Siegrist, Michael; van der Horst, Klazine

    2013-08-01

    We examined associations between snack frequency, sociodemographic characteristics, BMI, dietary and eating behaviour. In order to identify whether various subgroups of high-frequency snack consumers exist, we investigated underlying food patterns and lifestyle factors. The data were based on the Swiss Food Panel Questionnaire of 2010, which included an FFQ, questions relating to sociodemographics and lifestyle factors. Data were examined using ANOVA, regression analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis. Gender differences were also investigated in the analysis of the data. A sample of 6189 adults participating in the Swiss Food Panel filled in a questionnaire (response rate 30%). The sample consisted of both men and women, with a mean age of 54?4 (SD 13?5) years. There was no association between snack frequency and BMI. Consumption frequency of sweets and savouries as well as fruit intake increased with increasing snack frequency. Additionally, three different subgroups of high-frequency snack consumers could be revealed: healthy, moderate and unhealthy dietary-pattern groups. The latter included respondents who were less health-conscious and was characterized by high alcohol consumption frequency, daily breakfast skipping and watching television during the main meal. High snack frequency occurred in the context of healthy as well as unhealthy dietary behaviour and lifestyle patterns. Women made healthier dietary food choices and were more likely to consume fruits as snacks, while men chose unhealthy foods, such as sweets and savouries, more often.

  14. Obesity, Dietary Habits, and Sedentary Behaviors Among Adolescents in Sudan: Alarming Risk Factors for Chronic Diseases in a Poor Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Nabag, Fatima O; Al-Mannai, Mariam

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of obesity, dietary habits, and sedentary patterns among Sudanese adolescents. A multistage stratified sampling method was used to select 945 adolescents (507 males and 438 females) aged 14 to 18 years, from Khartoum State, Sudan. A self-reported pretested questionnaire was used to collect the data. Overweight and obesity were determined using the International Obesity Task Force standard, which is based on body mass index for sex and age. Overweight and obesity were growing problems among urban Sudanese adolescents (10.7%). Breakfast was commonly consumed on a daily basis by the majority of adolescents (74.2%), followed by lunch (63.9%) and supper (33.5%). Snacking was not a common practice among these individuals. Vegetables (63.9%) were more frequently consumed (more than 3 days per week) than fruit (30.1%). There were significant differences between genders regarding intake of vegetables (P Sedentary behaviors (long duration of television viewing and Internet use) were highly prevalent, and physical activity was rarely practiced (6.8%). The findings indicated that risk factors for diet-related chronic diseases such as unhealthy dietary habits and sedentary behaviors are starting to rise among urban adolescents in Sudan. This creates the need for immediate action to prevent and control these risk factors before these diseases become major public health problems. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Dietary Behaviors among Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Yogyakarta, Indonesia

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    Yanuar Primanda

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To describe dietary behaviors and examine relationships between selected factors and dietary behaviors among type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients in Yogyakarta, Indonesia.Method: Seventy T2DM patients from a hospital in Yogyakarta who met the inclusion criteria were recruited. Patient’s dietary behaviors were measured by the Dietary Behaviors Questionnaire developed for this study with adequate reliability. The questionnaire comprised of four dimensions: recognizing the amount of calorie needs, selecting healthy diet, arranging a meal plan, and managing dietary behaviors challenges. Higher scores indicate better dietary behaviors.Result: More than half of the patients were women (54.3% with an average age of 56.8 years and diabetes duration of 9.7 years. The results revealed a moderate level of the total score of dietary behaviors. Considering each dimension, the results showed a moderate level of recognizing the amount of calorie needs, selecting healthy diet, and managing dietary behaviors challenges. The patients reported a high level of arranging meal plans. Pearson’s correlation was used to examine the relationships between selected factors and dietary behaviors. There was a positive significant relationship between the knowledge regarding diabetic diet and the total dietary behaviors scores (r = .36, p< .01. There were positive significant relationships between the knowledge regarding diabetic diet and the dimensions of recognizing the amount of calorie needs (r = .27, p< .05, selecting healthy diet (r = .35, p< .01, and managing dietary behaviors challenges (r = .28, p< .05. In contrast, the findings indicated no significant relationship between knowledge regarding diabetic diet and arranging a meal plan dimension. Furthermore, there was no significant relationship between the diabetes duration and dietary behaviors.Conclusion: Dietary behaviors among T2DM patients in Yogyakarta were at a moderate level. Knowledge

  16. After-school snack intake among Canadian children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Jo-Anne; Miller, Doris; Olson, Shannon; St-Pierre, Sylvie

    2012-11-06

    The article describes the after-school (AS) snacking pattern of young Canadians and its relationship with the amount of energy consumed daily and at dinner. We analyzed cross-sectional dietary data, measured by 24h recall, from 9,131 children and adolescents aged 4 to 18 years from the Canadian Community Health Survey, cycle 2.2 (2004). We evaluated AS snack intake; i.e., foods consumed Monday to Friday between 3:00 and 6:00 pm, excluding lunch and dinner. We also assessed the consumption frequency of AS snack items, the energy provided by AS snacks and total daily energy intake (TDEI) by age group and sex. Approximately 63% of respondents consumed AS snacks. AS snacks provided on average 1212[95%CI,1157-1268] kJ (290[95%CI,276-303] kcal), representing 13[95%CI,12-13]% of TDEI. Youth who consumed AS snacks contributing 1-418 kJ (1-99 kcal) reported lower TDEI than those who consumed no snack. Among AS snack consumers, TDEI was higher in groups consuming the highest amount of energy from AS snacks. Fruits were among the most frequently consumed food categories. However, the largest energy contributors were mostly foods that may be energy-dense and nutrient-poor, such as cookies, sugar-sweetened beverages and sweets. Considering that the majority of children and adolescents consumed AS snacks, that these snacks provided about 13% of their TDEI, and that the majority of the most frequently consumed snacks were generally energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods, the AS time period presents an opportunity to promote healthy eating in order to improve diet quality and potentially influence TDEI among Canadian children and adolescents.

  17. Snacking when you have diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy snacking - diabetes; Low blood sugar - snacking; Hypoglycemia - snacking ... When you have diabetes , you need to control your blood sugar. Insulin or diabetes medicines, as well as exercise in general, helps lower ...

  18. Depletion sensitivity predicts unhealthy snack purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Stefanie J; Adriaanse, Marieke A; Fennis, Bob M; De Vet, Emely; De Ridder, Denise T D

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present research is to examine the relation between depletion sensitivity - a novel construct referring to the speed or ease by which one's self-control resources are drained - and snack purchase behavior. In addition, interactions between depletion sensitivity and the goal to lose weight on snack purchase behavior were explored. Participants included in the study were instructed to report every snack they bought over the course of one week. The dependent variables were the number of healthy and unhealthy snacks purchased. The results of the present study demonstrate that depletion sensitivity predicts the amount of unhealthy (but not healthy) snacks bought. The more sensitive people are to depletion, the more unhealthy snacks they buy. Moreover, there was some tentative evidence that this relation is more pronounced for people with a weak as opposed to a strong goal to lose weight, suggesting that a strong goal to lose weight may function as a motivational buffer against self-control failures. All in all, these findings provide evidence for the external validity of depletion sensitivity and the relevance of this construct in the domain of eating behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Protein supplementation in strength and conditioning adepts: knowledge, dietary behavior and practice in Palermo, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background It is known that supplement use is a widespread and accepted practice by athletes and people who attend commercial gyms. Little is known about protein supplement amongst people undertaking strength training in commercial gyms in Italy when compared to the US. Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the use of protein supplementation, alone or in association with other supplements, and dietary behavior amongst regular fitness center attendees in Palermo, Italy. Design Resistance training information have been collected from 800 regular fitness center attendees for the initial analysis. A specific questionnaire was generated for the experimentation. Data were collected using a face-to-face interview method. Supplement users were then compared to the non users and analyzed using a one-way ANOVA, Kruskall-Wallis, chi-square test or exact test of Fisher when appropriate. Results 30.1% of the respondents use dietary supplements during their training as a believe it is the "way to gain muscles and strength". Whey protein shakes (50.0%) mixed with creatine and amino-acids (48.3%) were the most frequent choices amongst the users. A majority of the subjects (34.0%) appeared to rely on their gym instructors' advice for their intake; a lower proportion (13.0%) consulted physicians, while none of them consulted nutritionists. A high consumption of milk has been noticed in both users (67,7%) and non-users (52,8%); supplement non-users consumed significantly more snacks and bakery products than users per week (P < 0.001), while users consumed significantly more protein-rich foods (P < 0.01) with a particular preference for meat (48.0%). Conclusions A considerable number of regular strength training adepts consume protein supplements mixed with other products (mainly creatine and amino-acids). Limited numbers consult "dietary specialists" and rely mainly on their instructors. We emphasize on the importance of the dissemination of scientifically based

  20. Smart Snacks in School Legislation Does Not Change Self-Reported Snack Food and Beverage Intake of Middle School Students in Rural Appalachian Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Georgianna; Hosig, Kathy; Zhang, Angang; Shen, Sumin; Serrano, Elena

    To assess the effects of the national Smart Snacks in School standards, which include nutrient and ingredient limitations for school competitive foods and beverages effective July, 2014, on student intake in low-income rural Appalachian middle schools. Food-frequency questionnaires were administered to students before and after implementation. Multiple ordinal logistic regression models were conducted to examine effects from year of data collection, grade, and free or reduced price lunch participation rates. No significant changes were observed after implementation except a decrease in consumption of 1% or nonfat flavored milk at school. Smart Snacks in School standards did not result in significant dietary changes in this study. Longitudinal studies could evaluate long-term impacts of nutrition standards. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Association Between Parental Behavior Patterns and the Dietary Intake of Preschool Children in Tehran Kindergartens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Pazuki

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: Any effort to promote children’s dietary intake needs considering the role of parents in the development of feeding patterns, and interest in children to consume healthy foods. Keywords: Children, Dietary intake, Parental behavior patterns, Kindergarten

  2. Prevalence and energy intake from snacking in Brazil: analysis of the first nationwide individual survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffey, K J; Pereira, R A; Popkin, B M

    2013-08-01

    Snacking has increased globally. We examine snacking patterns and common snack foods in Brazil. Data from the first of two non-consecutive food diaries from 34,003 individuals (aged ≥ 10 years) in the first Brazillian nationally representative dietary survey (2008-2009) were used. Meals were defined as the largest (kcal) eating event reported during select times of the day (Breakfast, 0600-1000 hours; Lunch, 1200-1500 hours; Dinner, 1800-2100 hours); all other eating occasions were considered snacks. We estimate daily energy intake, percentage of persons consuming snacks, number of daily snacks and per capita and per consumer energy from snacks (kcal/day, kcal/snack and % of daily energy from snacks). In all, 74% of Brazilians (≥ 10 years) snacked, reporting an average 1.6 snacks/day. Also, 23% of the sample were heavy snackers (≥ 3 snacks/day). Snacking accounted for 21% of daily energy intake in the full sample but 35.5% among heavy snackers. Compared with non-snackers (1548 kcal/day), light (1-2 snacks/day) and heavy snackers consumed more daily energy (1929 and 2334 kcal/day, respectively). Taking into account time of day, the largest percentage of persons reported afternoon/early evening snacking (1501-1759 hours, 47.7%). Sweetened coffee and tea, sweets and desserts, fruit, sugar-sweetened beverages, and high-calorie salgados (fried/baked dough with meat/cheese/vegetable) were the top five most commonly consumed snacks. Differences were observed by age groups. Trends in commercial sales were observed, especially for sugar-sweetened beverages. Many commonly consumed snack foods in Brazil are classified, in the US, as being high in solid fats and added sugars. The public health impact of snacking in Brazil requires further exploration.

  3. Snacking Patterns and Snack Correlates in Third- and Fourth-Year Nursing and Dietetics Students: An Exploratory Study from the Midwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, Laura H; Monahan, P L; Sheng, Zhaohui; Holbert, Donald

    2016-01-01

    To compare snacking behaviors and psychosocial correlates of third- and fourth-year nursing (n=52) and dietetics (n=48) students. Questionnaires assessed snack choices, awareness of healthy snacks, snack recommendations and beliefs, stage of change and perceived benefits/barriers for healthy snacking, and situational snacking. The snacks purchased most often on and off campus by the nursing students were soft drinks/caffeinated beverages (58%) and chips (42%), and for the dietetics students were chips (35%) and fresh fruit (33%). One-third of the nursing and 8% of the dietetics students believed their snack choices would have an unfavorable effect on their long-term health. Two-thirds of the nursing and 75% of the dietetics students self-classified in the action stages for healthy snacking. Snacks considered healthy and recommended by both samples were fresh fruits/vegetables and granola bars. More than 90% of both samples believed their job responsibilities would include modeling and teaching healthy snacking to patients. The barriers to healthy snacking identified most often by both samples were limited budget and not readily available. On-campus vendors should be approached with suggestions about featuring nutrient-dense snacks at discounted prices and offering smaller snack packs of popular products.

  4. [Snacks consumption in Chinese children and adolescents at the ages of 3-17 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dongmei; Zhang, Bing; Zhao, Liyun; Wang, Huijun

    2008-11-01

    To describe the status of snacks consumption, the characteristics, and the contribution to their diet and nutrients intake in Chinese children and adolescents at the ages of 3-17 years. Chinese health and nutritional survey (1991-2004), Chinese National nutrition and health survey (2002), and 2007 typical survey on snacks in Chinese residents were used in this report. The incidence of snacks consumption and snacking contribution were calculated by consecutive day 3 dietary recalls of the first 2 surveys. At least 1 snacks intake in 3 days was snacking consumption. The incidences of snacks consumption in Chinese population at the ages of 3-17 years were increased from 1991 (13.2%) to 2004 (19.3%). There were 35.1% of Chinese children and adolescents consuming snacks, 55.7% in urban and 29.6% in rural. Snacks provided 7.7% of total daily energy, 18.2% of fiber, 17.9% of VC, 9.9% of calcium, 9.7% of VE, 6.9% of iron and 6.3% of zinc. The snacks were mainly consumed in the evening. The main reasons were not nutrition of food but good taste, thirsty or hungry and food advertisement. The location of snacking was mainly at home and school. The snacks came from parents or other family members. They also buy snacks themselves. The consumption of candies and chocolate, jelly more than 4-6 day a week had a certain proportion. It was important to supervise snacks selection and consumption in Chinese children and adolescents at the ages of 3-17 years. The limitations of snacks consumption data perhaps lowed underestimate the effects of snacks to dietary intake.

  5. The "Snacking Child" and its social network: some insights from an italian survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregori Dario

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The hypothesis underlying this work is that the social network of a child might have an impact on the alimentary behaviors, in particular for what concerns snack consumption patterns. Methods 1215 Italian children 6-10 ys old were interviewed using a CATI facility in January 2010. 608 "snackers" and 607 "no-snackers" were identified. Information regarding family composition, child and relatives BMI, mother perception of child weight, child, father and mother physical activity, TV watching, social network, leisure time habits and dietary habits of peers, were collected. Association of variables with the status of snacker was investigated using a multivariable logistic regression model. Results Snackers children seem to be part of more numerous social network (1.40 friends vs 1.14, p = 0.042 where the majority of peers are also eating snacks, this percentage being significantly higher (89.5 vs 76.3, p Conclusions The snacking child has more active peer-to-peer social relationships, mostly related with sport activities. However, spending leisure time in sportive activities implies being part of a social environment which is definitely a positive one from the point of view of obesity control, and indeed, no increase of overweight/obesity is seen in relation to snack consumption.

  6. Obesity Severity, Dietary Behaviors, and Lifestyle Risks Vary by Race/Ethnicity and Age in a Northern California Cohort of Children with Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Margaret C; Gordon, Nancy P; Howell, Amanda; Green, Cheryl E; Greenspan, Louise C; Chandra, Malini; Mellor, R Grant; Lo, Joan C

    2016-01-01

    Identification of modifiable behaviors is important for pediatric weight management and obesity prevention programs. This study examined obesogenic behaviors in children with obesity in a Northern California obesity intervention program using data from a parent/teen-completed intake questionnaire covering dietary and lifestyle behaviors (frequency of breakfast, family meals, unhealthy snacking and beverages, fruit/vegetable intake, sleep, screen time, and exercise). Among 7956 children with BMI ≥ 95th percentile, 45.5% were females and 14.2% were 3-5, 44.2% were 6-11, and 41.6% were 12-17 years old. One-quarter (24.9%) were non-Hispanic white, 11.3% were black, 43.5% were Hispanic, and 12.0% were Asian/Pacific Islander. Severe obesity was prevalent (37.4%), especially among blacks, Hispanics, and older children, and was associated with less frequent breakfast and exercise and excess screen time, and in young children it was associated with consumption of sweetened beverages or juice. Unhealthy dietary behaviors, screen time, limited exercise, and sleep were more prevalent in older children and in selected black, Hispanic, and Asian subgroups, where consumption of sweetened beverages or juice was especially high. Overall, obesity severity and obesogenic behaviors increased with age and varied by gender and race/ethnicity. We identified several key prevalent modifiable behaviors that can be targeted by healthcare professionals to reduce obesity when counseling children with obesity and their parents.

  7. Obesity Severity, Dietary Behaviors, and Lifestyle Risks Vary by Race/Ethnicity and Age in a Northern California Cohort of Children with Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret C. Ford

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification of modifiable behaviors is important for pediatric weight management and obesity prevention programs. This study examined obesogenic behaviors in children with obesity in a Northern California obesity intervention program using data from a parent/teen-completed intake questionnaire covering dietary and lifestyle behaviors (frequency of breakfast, family meals, unhealthy snacking and beverages, fruit/vegetable intake, sleep, screen time, and exercise. Among 7956 children with BMI ≥ 95th percentile, 45.5% were females and 14.2% were 3–5, 44.2% were 6–11, and 41.6% were 12–17 years old. One-quarter (24.9% were non-Hispanic white, 11.3% were black, 43.5% were Hispanic, and 12.0% were Asian/Pacific Islander. Severe obesity was prevalent (37.4%, especially among blacks, Hispanics, and older children, and was associated with less frequent breakfast and exercise and excess screen time, and in young children it was associated with consumption of sweetened beverages or juice. Unhealthy dietary behaviors, screen time, limited exercise, and sleep were more prevalent in older children and in selected black, Hispanic, and Asian subgroups, where consumption of sweetened beverages or juice was especially high. Overall, obesity severity and obesogenic behaviors increased with age and varied by gender and race/ethnicity. We identified several key prevalent modifiable behaviors that can be targeted by healthcare professionals to reduce obesity when counseling children with obesity and their parents.

  8. The Association of Dietary Behaviors and Physical Activity Levels with General and Central Obesity among ASEAN University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To quantify the prevalence of obesity and obesity-related factors (dietary behaviors and physical activity levels in a cross-sectional, observational study of ASEAN undergraduate students. Material and Methods: A total of 6783 (35.5% male and 64.5% female undergraduate students (Mean age: 20.5, SD = 2.0 from eight ASEAN countries completed questionnaires and anthropometric measurements. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs for the association of nutrition behaviors with prevalence of general obesity (body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m², elevated waist-to-height ratio (WHtR (>0.50, and high waist circumference (WC (≥80 cm in females, ≥90 cm in males. Covariates included sociodemographic factors, dietary behavior, physical activity and sitting time (using the “International Physical Activity Questionnaire”. Results: There was a higher prevalence of general obesity (24.2% versus 9.3%, and high WHtR (16.6% versus 12.1 in males relative to females, while high WC (9.4% versus 10.4% did not significantly differ between genders. In multivariable logistic regression analyses, compared to females, males had higher odds of obesity (odds-ratio, OR: 2.13, confidence interval, CI: 1.80, 2.77, and high WHtR (OR: 1.90, CI: 1.48, 2.43 (P < 0.001 for both. Snacking frequency and avoiding fatty foods were associated with all three obesity indicators; obesity (OR: 1.16, CI: 1.05, 1.28 and OR: 1.54, CI: 1.24, 1.92, respectively, WHtR (OR: 1.17, CI: 1.04, 1.32 and OR: 1.46, CI: 1.04, 1.54, and high WC (OR: 1.16, CI: 2.01, 1.33 and OR 1.52, CI: 1.14, 2.04, respectively. Physical activity and sedentary behavior were not significantly associated with any obesity measure. Conclusions: There was a low prevalence of healthy behaviors and a high prevalence of obesity in this sample of ASEAN young adults. Specific dietary behaviors but not physical activity nor sedentary behavior were associated with obesity.

  9. Does the availability of snack foods in supermarkets vary internationally?

    OpenAIRE

    Thornton, Lukar E; Cameron, Adrian J; McNaughton, Sarah A; Waterlander, Wilma E; Sodergren, Marita; Svastisalee, Chalida; Blanchard, Laurence; Liese, Angela D; Battersby, Sarah; Carter, Mary-Ann; Sheeshka, Judy; Kirkpatrick, Sharon I; Sherman, Sandy; Cowburn, Gill; Foster, Charlie

    2013-01-01

    Background Cross-country differences in dietary behaviours and obesity rates have been previously reported. Consumption of energy-dense snack foods and soft drinks are implicated as contributing to weight gain, however little is known about how the availability of these items within supermarkets varies internationally. This study assessed variations in the display of snack foods and soft drinks within a sample of supermarkets across eight countries. Methods Within-store audits were used to ev...

  10. Addition of dried 'Ataulfo' mango (Mangifera indica L) by-products as a source of dietary fiber and polyphenols in starch-molded mango snacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increasing demand of healthier foods favors the consumption of natural bioactive compounds such as antioxidants and dietary fiber (DF) that confers protection against cardiovascular diseases and other degenerative diseases. On the industrial processing of mango, 35-60 % of this fruit is discarde...

  11. [A cross-sectional study on the changes in dietary behavior stages in resident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang-wen; Ma, Hai-yan; Yang, Ting-zhong; Liu, Ting-jie

    2004-05-01

    To explore the possibility of applying the concept of various stages of dietary behavior changes in Hangzhou residents. The dietary behavior was surveyed and analyzed in 1 388 Hangzhou residents with 18 year-old and older using the various dietary behavior change model model and stages of change. The proportion of Hangzhou residents with unhealthy dietary behavior was high and associated with gender and education level. The changes of dietary behavior could be divided into 5 stages, i.e. preintention, intention, preparation, action and maintenance. These stages of change happen consecutively. The changes of unhealthy dietary behavior do not match the improvement of health knowledge. Although a significant proportion of the residents understand that it is unhealthy to eat too much fat, pickles and high salt food, there are only a few of them really take action to reduce the consumption of these foods and to consume more milk, fruit and vegetable. There are multiple factors that affect the changes of dietary behavior in people. The changes of dietary behavior occur in various consecutive stages. Different intervention measures should be applied to people in different dietary behavior changes.

  12. The Impact of Culinary Skills Training on the Dietary Attitudes and Behaviors of Children and Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Brook E.; Smith, Nicole; Pirkey, Paige; Beets, Michael W.; Blake, Christine E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Summer camps can serve as a modality for dietary interventions. However, camp-based strategies that improve dietary behaviors of children are unclear. Poor diet disproportionately affects low-income and minority children, making the examination of camp-based dietary interventions an important focus. Purpose: To assess the impact of a…

  13. Snacks for adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... healthy snack between meals can also decrease your hunger and keep you from overeating at meal time. ... contain added sugar. Fresh fruit is a healthier choice than a fruit-flavored drink. Foods and drinks ...

  14. Implicit action tendencies and evaluations in unwanted snacking behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, J.; Keijsers, G.P.J.; Rinck, M.; Sharbanee, J.; Vroling, M.S.; Backer, E.S.

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated automatic/implicit and controlled/explicit processes in snacking behavior. Participants who were bothered by their habit of eating snacks were compared to participants with another habit. A reaction time task was used to assess implicit action tendencies in which

  15. An after-school snack of raisins lowers cumulative food intake in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Barkha P; Bellissimo, Nick; Luhovyy, Bohdan; Bennett, Lorianne J; Hurton, Evelyn; Painter, James E; Anderson, G Harvey

    2013-06-01

    Snacks are an important part of children's dietary intake, but the role of dried fruit on energy intake in children is unknown. Therefore, the effect of ad libitum consumption of an after-school snack of raisins, grapes, potato chips, and chocolate chip cookies on appetite and energy intake in twenty-six 8- to 11-y-old normal-weight (15th to 85th percentile) children was examined. On 4 separate weekdays, 1 wk apart, children (11 M, 15 F) were given a standardized breakfast, morning snack (apple), and a standardized lunch. After school, children randomly received 1 of 4 ad libitum snacks and were instructed to eat until "comfortably full." Appetite was measured before and 15, 30, and 45 min after snack consumption. Children consumed the least calories from raisins and grapes and the most from cookies (P snack + lunch + after-school snack) (P snacks. Grapes lowered appetite compared to all other snacks (P snack. Ad libitum consumption of raisins has potential as an after-school snack to achieve low snack intake prior to dinner, similar to grapes, compared to potato chips, and cookies in children 8 to 11 y old. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Inhibitory control effects in adolescent binge eating and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and snacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Susan L.; Kisbu-Sakarya, Yasemin; Reynolds, Kim D.; Boyle, Sarah; Cappelli, Christopher; Cox, Matthew G.; Dust, Mark; Grenard, Jerry L.; Mackinnon, David P.; Stacy, Alan W.

    2014-01-01

    Inhibitory control and sensitivity to reward are relevant to the food choices individuals make frequently. An imbalance of these systems can lead to deficits in decision-making that are relevant to food ingestion. This study evaluated the relationship between dietary behaviors – binge eating and consumption of sweetened beverages and snacks - and behavioral control processes, among 198 ethnically diverse adolescents, ranging in age from 14 to 17, in Southern California. Neurocognitive control processes were assessed with the Iowa Gambling Task, a generic Go/No-Go task, and a food-specific Go/No-Go task. The food-specific Go/No-Go task directly ties the task to food cues that trigger responses, addressing an integral link between cue-habit processes. Dietary measures were assessed with self-administered food frequency and binge eating questionnaires. Results of latent variable models revealed marked gender differences. Inhibitory problems on the food-specific and generic Go/No-Go tasks were significantly correlated with binge eating only in females, whereas inhibitory problems measured with these tasks were the strongest correlates of sweet snack consumption in males. Higher BMI percentile and sedentary behavior also predicted binge eating in females and sweet snack consumption in males. Inhibitory problems on the generic Go/No-Go, poorer affective decision-making, assessed with the Iowa Gambling Task, and sedentary behavior were associated with sweetened beverage consumption in males, but not females. The food-specific Go/No-Go was not predictive in models evaluating sweetened beverage consumption, providing some initial discriminant validity for the task, which consisted of sweet/fatty snacks as no-go signals and no sugar-sweetened beverage signals. This research extends other study findings, revealing gender differences in inhibitory function relevant to behavioral control. Further, the findings contribute to research implicating the relevance of cues in

  17. Comparable Dietary Patterns Describe Dietary Behavior across Ethnic Groups in the Netherlands, but Different Elements in the Diet Are Associated with Glycated Hemoglobin and Fasting Glucose Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Louise H; van Dam, Rob M; Snijder, Marieke B; Peters, Ron J G; Dekker, Jacqueline M; de Vries, Jeanne H M; de Boer, Evelien J; Schulze, Matthias B; Stronks, Karien; Nicolaou, Mary

    2015-08-01

    Ethnic minority populations in Western societies suffer from a disproportionate burden of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Insight into the role of dietary patterns in T2D may assist public health nutrition efforts in addressing these health disparities. We explored the association between dietary patterns and biomarkers of T2D in 5 ethnic groups living in Amsterdam, Netherlands. A total of 3776 men and women aged 18-70 y of Dutch, South Asian Surinamese, African-Surinamese, Turkish, and Moroccan origin from the HELIUS (HEalthy LIfe in an Urban Setting) study were included. Diet was assessed by using a food-frequency questionnaire, and dietary patterns were derived separately per ethnic group. First, food group-based dietary patterns were derived by using principal components analysis and the association with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and plasma fasting glucose was assessed by using multivariable linear regression. Second, biomarker-driven dietary patterns based on HbA1c and fasting glucose concentrations were derived by applying reduced rank regression. Two comparable food group-based dietary patterns were identified in each ethnic group: a "meat and snack" pattern and a "vegetable" pattern. The meat-and-snack pattern derived within the Dutch origin population was significantly associated with HbA1c (β = 0.09; 95% CI: 0.00, 0.19) and fasting glucose (β = 0.18; 95% CI: 0.09, 0.26) concentrations. A biomarker-derived pattern characterized by red and processed meat was observed among Dutch-origin participants; however, among ethnic minority groups, this pattern was characterized by other foods including ethnicity-specific foods (e.g., roti, couscous). Although similar food group dietary patterns were derived within 5 ethnic groups, the association of the meat-and-snack pattern with fasting glucose concentrations differed by ethnicity. Taken together with the finding of ethnic differences in biomarker-driven dietary patterns, our results imply that addressing T2D risk in

  18. A Systematic Review of Environmental Correlates of Obesity-Related Dietary Behaviors in Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horst, Klazine; Oenema, A.; Ferreira, I.; Wendel-Vos, W.; Giskes, K.; van Lenthe, F.; Brug, J.

    2007-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the role the environment plays in shaping the dietary behavior of youth, particularly in the context of obesity prevention. An overview of environmental factors associated with obesity-related dietary behaviors among youth is needed to inform the development of interventions. A systematic review of observational…

  19. A systematic review of environmental correlates of obesity-related dietary behaviors in youth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. van der Horst (Klazine); A. Oenema (Anke); A. Ferreira (Isabel); G.C.W. Wendel-Vos (Wanda); K. Giskes (Katrina); F.J. van Lenthe (Frank); J. Brug (Hans)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThere is increasing interest in the role the environment plays in shaping the dietary behavior of youth, particularly in the context of obesity prevention. An overview of environmental factors associated with obesity-related dietary behaviors among youth is needed to inform the

  20. Testing Theories of Dietary Behavior Change in Youth Using the Mediating Variable Model with Intervention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerin, Ester; Barnett, Anthony; Baranowski, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To review and critique current experimentally-based evidence of theoretical mechanisms of dietary behavior change in youth and provide recommendations on ways to enhance theory evaluation. Methods: Interventions that examined mediators of dietary behavior change in youth (age 5-18 years) were identified via electronic database searches…

  1. Testing theories of dietary behavior change in youth using the mediating variable model with intervention programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our purpose was to review and critique current experimentally based evidence of theoretical mechanisms of dietary behavior change in youth, and provide recommendations on ways to enhance theory evaluation. Interventions that examined mediators of dietary behavior change in youth (age 5-18 years) wer...

  2. Postpartum teens' breakfast consumption is associated with snack and beverage intake and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haire-Joshu, Debra; Schwarz, Cynthia; Budd, Elizabeth; Yount, Byron W; Lapka, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Addressing high-risk dietary patterns among postpartum teens may help reduce weight retention and prevent intergenerational obesity. The objective of this study was to describe the relationship between breakfast consumption and outcomes of snack and beverage intake and body mass index (BMI) among postpartum teens. During 2007-2009, 1,330 postpartum teens across 27 states participated in a cross-sectional, baseline assessment of a group-randomized, nested cohort study. Participants were enrolled in the Parents as Teachers Teen Program and completed a 7-day recall of breakfast, snack, and beverage consumption. BMI was calculated from heights and weights obtained by on-site staff. Sample descriptives were compared across breakfast consumption frequency groupings by one-way analysis of variance tests or χ² tests. General linear models assessed relationships between breakfast consumption and measures of snack and sweetened beverage intake, water consumption, and BMI-for-age percentile. Almost half (42%) of the sample consumed breakfast fewer than 2 days per week. Those who ate breakfast 6 to 7 days/week consumed 1,197 fewer kilocalories per week from sweet and salty snacks, 1,337 fewer kilocalories per week from sweetened drinks, and had a lower BMI compared to those who ate breakfast fewer than 2 days per week (P teens is low, those who regularly consume breakfast had healthier snacking behaviors and weight. Interventions are needed to encourage breakfast consumption among teen mothers. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Snacking and Diet Quality Are Associated With the Coping Strategies Used By a Socioeconomically Diverse Urban Cohort of African-American and White Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanelli Kuczmarski, Marie; Cotugna, Nancy; Pohlig, Ryan T; Beydoun, May A; Adams, Erica L; Evans, Michele K; Zonderman, Alan B

    2017-09-01

    Stress affects health-related quality of life through several pathways, including physiological processes and health behaviors. There is always a relationship between stress (the stimulus) and coping (the response). The relationship between snacking and snackers' diet quality and stress coping is a topic overlooked in research. The study was primarily designed to determine whether energy provided by snacks and diet quality were associated with coping behaviors to manage stress. We analyzed a baseline cohort of the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span study (2004 to 2009). The sample was composed of 2,177 socioeconomically diverse African-American and white adults who resided in Baltimore, MD. Energy from snacks was calculated from 2 days of 24-hour dietary recalls collected using the US Department of Agriculture's Automated Multiple Pass Method. Snack occasions were self-reported as distinct eating occasions. Diet quality was evaluated by the Healthy Eating Index-2010. Multiple regression analyses were used to determine whether coping factors were associated with either energy provided by snacks or Healthy Eating Index-2010, adjusting for age, sex, race, socioeconomic status, education, literacy, and perceived stress. Coping was measured by the Brief COPE Inventory with instrument variables categorized into three factors: problem-focused coping, emotion-focused coping, and use of support. Perceived stress was measured with the 4-item Perceived Stress Scale. Adjusting for perceived stress and selected demographic characteristics, emotion-focused coping strategies were associated with greater energy intakes from snacks (P=0.020), and use of coping strategies involving support was positively associated with better diet quality (P=0.009). Energy contributed by snacks and diet quality were affected by the strategy that an individual used to cope with stress. The findings suggest that health professionals working with individuals seeking

  4. Depletion sensitivity predicts unhealthy snack purchases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salmon, Stefanie J.; Adriaanse, Marieke A.; Fennis, Bob M.; De Vet, Emely; De Ridder, Denise T D

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present research is to examine the relation between depletion sensitivity - a novel construct referring to the speed or ease by which one's self-control resources are drained - and snack purchase behavior. In addition, interactions between depletion sensitivity and the goal to lose

  5. Differences in lifestyle behaviors, dietary habits, and familial factors among normal-weight, overweight, and obese Chinese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaofan; Zheng, Liqiang; Li, Yang; Yu, Shasha; Sun, Guozhe; Yang, Hongmei; Zhou, Xinghu; Zhang, Xingang; Sun, Zhaoqing; Sun, Yingxian

    2012-10-02

    Pediatric obesity has become a global public health problem. Data on the lifestyle behaviors, dietary habits, and familial factors of overweight and obese children and adolescents are limited. The present study aims to compare health-related factors among normal-weight, overweight, and obese Chinese children and adolescents. We conducted a cross-sectional study consisted of 4262 children and adolescents aged 5-18 years old from rural areas of the northeast China. Anthropometric measurements and self-reported information on health-related variables, such as physical activities, sleep duration, dietary habits, family income, and recognition of weight status from the views of both children and parents, were collected by trained personnel. The prevalence rates of overweight and obesity were 15.3 and 6.4%, respectively. Compared to girls, boys were more commonly overweight (17.5% vs. 12.9%) and obese (9.5% vs. 3.1%). Approximately half of the parents with an overweight or obese child reported that they failed to recognize their child's excess weight status, and 65% of patients with an overweight child reported that they would not take measures to decrease their child's body weight. Obese children and adolescents were more likely to be nonsnackers [odds ratio (OR): 1.348; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.039-1.748] and to have a family income of 2000 CNY or more per month (OR: 1.442; 95% CI: 1.045-1.99) and less likely to sleep longer (≥7.5 h) (OR: 0.475; 95% CI: 0.31-0.728) than the normal-weight participants. Our study revealed a high prevalence of overweight and obesity in a large Chinese pediatric population. Differences in sleep duration, snacking, family income, and parental recognition of children's weight status among participants in different weight categories were observed, which should be considered when planning prevention and treatment programs for pediatric obesity.

  6. Associations between aspects of friendship networks and dietary behavior in youth: Findings from a systematized review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawka, Keri Jo; McCormack, Gavin R; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Swanson, Kenda

    2015-08-01

    To gather and synthesize current evidence on the associations between aspects of friendship networks (e.g., friends' dietary behavior, popularity) and an individual's dietary behavior among children and adolescents. A systematic search of six scientific online databases was conducted in August 2013. Eligible studies included child or adolescent participants (aged 6 to 18years), a measure of each participant's friendship network, and a measure of habitual dietary behavior for both the participant and the participant's nominated friend(s). Data on study design, participant characteristics, friendship networks, dietary behavior, and study outcomes were abstracted. From a total of 9041 articles retrieved, seven studies were included in this review. Overall, friends' unhealthy food consumption was associated with an individual's unhealthy food consumption, and this association appeared to be stronger for boys compared with girls. More popular adolescents also tended to consume more unhealthy foods. Best friends' total energy intake was correlated with an individual's total energy intake. Similarities among friends' healthy food consumption, as well as daily breakfast consumption, were inconclusive. Longitudinal evidence showed that an individual's unhealthy food consumption tended to become similar to friends' unhealthy food consumption over time. Social network analysis in the adolescent dietary behavior literature is beginning to emerge. Results highlight friends' particular influence on unhealthy food consumption among adolescents. Focus on modeling healthy dietary behaviors among adolescent friendship group may help reduce unhealthy dietary behaviors and promote healthy weight status among youth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Variations in serving sizes of Australian snack foods and confectionery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Wendy L; Kury, Alexandra; Wellard, Lyndal; Hughes, Clare; Dunford, Elizabeth; Chapman, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the serving size and energy content per serving of Australian packaged snack foods and confectionery products. Nutrition Information Panel data for 23 sub-categories of packaged snack foods (n = 3481) were extracted from The George Institute for Global Health's 2013 branded food composition database. Variations in serving size and energy content per serving were examined. Energy contents per serving were compared to recommendations in the Australian Dietary Guidelines. Serving sizes varied within and between snack food categories. Mean energy content per serving varied from 320 kJ to 899 kJ. More energy per serving than the recommended 600 kJ was displayed by 22% (n = 539) of snack foods classified in the Australian Dietary Guidelines as discretionary foods. The recommendation for energy content per serving was exceeded in 60% (n = 635) of snack foods from the Five Food Groups. Only 37% (n = 377) of confectionery products displayed the industry-agreed serving size of 25 g. Energy content per serving of many packaged snack foods do not align with the Australian Dietary Guidelines and the industry agreed serving size has not been taken up widely within the confectionery category. Given the inconsistencies in serving sizes, featuring serving size in front-of-pack information may hinder the objective of a clear and simple nutrition message. Messaging to help consumers make healthier choices should consider the variation in serving sizes on packaged snack foods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. New Novae snack point

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Located next to the car park by the flag poles, a few metres from the Main CERN Reception (building 33), a new snack point catered by Novae will open to the public on Wednesday 8 August. More information will be available in the next issue of the Bulletin!

  9. Meals and snacks: Children's characterizations of food and eating cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Jenna M; Hoffmann, Debra A; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R

    2016-02-01

    This study examined preschoolers' and their parents' categorizations of eating episodes based on cues used for defining these occasions (i.e., time, portion size, preparation, content, and emotion) as a meal or snack. Thirty-four children aged 4 to 6 saw pictorial representations of each cue, along with a short verbal description, and were asked to place the picture in one of three boxes: "meal", "snack", or "either meal or snack". One parent per child (85% mothers, Mean age = 35.1 years) separately categorized the same items in an online survey. Results illustrated which cues play a role in how parents and children categorize eating occasions as meals or snacks. Parents used 24 of the 32 cue-related items to distinguish between eating occasions as a meal or a snack, while children used only four. Parents and preschoolers were consistent in using cartoon character packaging to indicate a snack, and also used several of the same content cues. The current study highlights the various cues used to categorize an eating occasion, and the unhealthy character of snacks, as participants associated some unhealthy foods and very few healthy foods with snacks. Future research should focus on the role of parents, the home environment, and advertising media in shaping children's characterizations of eating occasions towards development of healthy eating habits and away from problematic eating behaviors that may persist later in life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Storing empty calories and chronic disease risk: snack-food products, nutritive content, and manufacturers in Philadelphia corner stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucan, Sean C; Karpyn, Allison; Sherman, Sandy

    2010-05-01

    Corner stores are part of the urban food environment that may contribute to obesity and diet-related diseases, particularly for low-income and minority children. The snack foods available in corner stores may be a particularly important aspect of an urban child's food environment. Unfortunately, there is little data on exactly what snack foods corner stores stock, or where these foods come from. We evaluated snack foods in 17 Philadelphia corner stores, located in three ethnically distinct, low-income school neighborhoods. We recorded the manufacturer, calories, fat, sugar, and sodium for all snack items, excluding candy and prepared foods. We then compared the nutritive content of assessed snack items to established dietary recommendations and a school nutrition standard. In total, stores stocked 452 kinds of snacks, with only 15% of items common between all three neighborhoods. Total and unique snacks and snack food manufacturers varied by neighborhood, but distributions in snack type varied negligibly: overall, there were no fruit snacks, no vegetable snacks, and only 3.6% of all snacks (by liberal definition) were whole grain. The remainder (96.4% of snacks) was highly processed foods. Five of 65 manufacturers supplied 73.4% of all kinds of snack foods. Depending on serving size definition, 80.0-91.5% of snack foods were "unhealthy" (by the school nutrition standard), including seven of 11 wholegrain products. A single snack item could supply 6-14% of a day's recommended calories, fat, sugar, and sodium on average (or 56-169% at the extreme) for a "typical" child. We conclude that corner store snack food inventories are almost entirely unhealthful, and we discuss possible implications and next steps for research and intervention.

  11. Copycat snacks: Can students differentiate between school and store snacks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Georgianna

    2018-02-01

    In 2014, the national Smart Snacks in School nutrition standards placed regulations on all snack foods sold in schools. Many food companies reformulated common snack food products for sale in schools, called "copycat snacks", which look similar to nutritionally different foods sold in stores. It is possible that these snacks create consumer confusion among students. The purpose of this study was to determine if middle school students could differentiate, in taste and appearance, between school (copycat) and store versions of common snacks. Seventy-six middle school students evaluated three different food products offered in schools: Froot Loops, Rice Krispy Treats, and Doritos. Students tasted snacks in a series of triangle tests for difference, one for each snack food, including school and store versions. Students were also presented with packages, school and store versions of the same products, and asked to determine the expected taste, purchase intentions, and perceived healthfulness. Students could determine taste differences between school and store Rice Krispy Treats yet could not differentiate between Froot Loop and Dorito varieties. Students rated store versions of all three snacks with greater expected taste, higher intention to purchase, and as less healthy. While it seems product confusion concerning copycat snacks may not be severe in this sample, snack food brands are still a prominent feature in schools. It is possible that these copycat snacks can confuse students' perceptions of healthy foods. Alternative packaging for school foods or reformation of store versions of snack foods may be viable solutions to this problem. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Does the availability of snack foods in supermarkets vary internationally?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thornton, L.E.; Cameron, A.J.; McNaughton, S.A.; Waterlander, W.E.; Sodergren, M.; Svastisalee, C.; Blanchard, L.; Liese, A.D.; Battersby, S.; Carter, M.A.; Sheeshka, J.; Kirkpatrick, S.I.; Sherman, S.; Cowburn, G.; Foster, C.; Crawford, D.A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cross-country differences in dietary behaviours and obesity rates have been previously reported. Consumption of energy-dense snack foods and soft drinks are implicated as contributing to weight gain, however little is known about how the availability of these items within supermarkets

  13. From the children's perspective: What are candy, snacks, and meals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Elizabeth L; Savage, Jennifer S

    2017-09-01

    There remains a lack of consensus on what distinguishes candy (i.e. features sugar as a principal ingredient, also called sweets or lollies), snack foods, and foods served at meals; therefore, this study examined characteristics elementary-aged children use to distinguish between these food categories. Participants were children aged 5-8 years (N = 41). Children were given 39 cards, each containing an image of a common American food (e.g. ice cream, fruit). Children sorted each card into either a "snack" or "candy" pile followed by a semi-structured one-on-one interview to identify children's perceptions of candy, snack foods, and foods served at meals. Verbatim transcripts were coded using a grounded theory approach to derive major themes. All children classified foods such as crackers and dry cereal as snacks; all children classified foods such as skittles and solid chocolate as candy. There was less agreement for "dessert like foods," such as cookies and ice cream, whereby some children classified these foods as candy and others as snacks. Specifically, more children categorized ice cream and chocolate chip cookies as candy (61% and 63%, respectively), than children who categorized these as snack foods (39% and 36%, respectively). Qualitative interviews revealed 4 overarching themes that distinguished among candy, snack foods, and food served at meals: (1) taste, texture, and type; (2) portion size; (3) perception of health; and (4) time of day. Children categorized a variety of foods as both a candy and a snack. Accurate measurement of candy and snack consumption is needed through the use of clear, consistent terminology and comprehensive diet assessment tools. Intervention messaging should clearly distinguish between candy, snack foods, and foods served at meals to improve children's eating behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Association Between Parental Behavior Patterns and the Dietary Intake of Preschool Children in Tehran Kindergartens

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Pazuki; Majid Hajifaraji; Morvarid Nikoosokhan; Anahita Houshyarrad; Taghi Pourebrahim; Bahram Rashidkhani

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: This study was designed to investigate the association between parental behavior and the dietary intake of Tehranian preschool children aged 2-6 years. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study conducted on 310 children aged 2-6 years from the kindergartens of 22 districts of Tehran, a qualitative validated 85-item food frequency questionnaire was completed by interviewing with their parents. Also the effect of parental behavior on the children’s dietary ...

  15. U.S. adults and child snacking patterns among sugar sweetened beverage drinkers and non-drinkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Sara N.; Wolfson, Julia A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To provide national estimates of snack patterns for sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) drinkers and non-SSB drinkers among U.S. children and adults. Methods We analyzed 24-hour dietary recall data obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2010 among children (ages 2 to 19) and adults (aged 20 and older) (N = 46,932). Results For children and adults, SSB drinkers were significantly more likely than non-SSB drinkers to consume snacks (children: salty – 60% vs. 50%; sweet – 69% vs. 65%; adults: salty – 64% vs. 58%; sweet – 64% vs. 58%), calories from snacks (children: salty snacks – 258 vs. 213 kcal; sweet snacks – 322 vs. 291 kcal; adults: salty snacks – 261 vs. 236 kcal; sweet snacks – 370 vs. 350 kcal), and total calories (children: 2098 vs. 1804 kcal; adults: 2329 vs. 2049 kcal) (p snack consumers than Whites and Hispanics (SSB consumers: White – 79%; Black – 86%, Hispanic – 82%; salty snack consumers: White – 56%; Black – 62%, Hispanic – 54%; p snacks at home (p snack and consume more calories from snacks than non-SSB drinkers, particularly Black adolescents and young adults. PMID:25584987

  16. Campus-based snack food vending consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Michelle L; Klein, Elizabeth G; Kaye, Gail

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the purchases of university vending machine clientele and to understand what consumers purchase, purchase motivations, and purchase frequency after implementation of a vending policy designed to promote access to healthier snack options. Cross-sectional data collection from consumers at 8 campus vending machines purposefully selected from a list of highest-grossing machines. Vending machines were stocked with 28.5% green (choose most often), 43% yellow (occasionally), and 28.5% red (least often) food items. Consumers were predominately students (86%) and persons aged 18-24 years (71%). Red vending choices were overwhelmingly selected over healthier vending options (59%). Vended snack food selections were most influenced by hunger (42%) and convenience (41%). Most consumers (51%) frequented vending machines at least 1 time per week. Despite decreased access to less healthful red snack food choices, consumers chose these snacks more frequently than healthier options in campus vending machines. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Using a gamified monitoring app to change adolescents' snack intake: the development of the REWARD app and evaluation design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lippevelde, W; Vangeel, J; De Cock, N; Lachat, C; Goossens, L; Beullens, K; Vervoort, L; Braet, C; Maes, L; Eggermont, S; Deforche, B; Van Camp, J

    2016-08-05

    As the snacking pattern of European adolescents is of great concern, effective interventions are necessary. Till now health promotion efforts in children and adolescents have had only limited success in changing adolescents' eating patterns and anthropometrics. Therefore, the present study proposes an innovative approach to influence dietary behaviors in youth based on new insights on effective behavior change strategies and attractive intervention channels to engage adolescents. This article describes the rationale, the development, and evaluation design of the 'Snack Track School' app. The aim of the app is to improve the snacking patterns of Flemish 14- to 16-year olds. The development of the app was informed by the systematic, stepwise, iterative, and collaborative principles of the Intervention Mapping protocol. A four week mHealth intervention was developed based on the dual-system model with behavioral change strategies targeting both the reflective (i.e., active learning, advance organizers, mere exposure, goal-setting, monitoring, and feedback) and automatic processes (i.e., rewards and positive reinforcement). This intervention will be evaluated via a controlled pre-post design in Flemish schools among 1400 adolescents. When this intervention including strategies focused on both the reflective and automatic pathway proves to be effective, it will offer a new scientifically-based vision, guidelines and practical tools for public health and health promotion (i.e., incorporation of learning theories in intervention programs). NCT02622165 registrated November 15, 2015 on clinicaltrials.gov.

  18. Using a gamified monitoring app to change adolescents’ snack intake: the development of the REWARD app and evaluation design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Van Lippevelde

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As the snacking pattern of European adolescents is of great concern, effective interventions are necessary. Till now health promotion efforts in children and adolescents have had only limited success in changing adolescents’ eating patterns and anthropometrics. Therefore, the present study proposes an innovative approach to influence dietary behaviors in youth based on new insights on effective behavior change strategies and attractive intervention channels to engage adolescents. This article describes the rationale, the development, and evaluation design of the ‘Snack Track School’ app. The aim of the app is to improve the snacking patterns of Flemish 14- to 16-year olds. Methods The development of the app was informed by the systematic, stepwise, iterative, and collaborative principles of the Intervention Mapping protocol. A four week mHealth intervention was developed based on the dual-system model with behavioral change strategies targeting both the reflective (i.e., active learning, advance organizers, mere exposure, goal-setting, monitoring, and feedback and automatic processes (i.e., rewards and positive reinforcement. This intervention will be evaluated via a controlled pre-post design in Flemish schools among 1400 adolescents. Discussion When this intervention including strategies focused on both the reflective and automatic pathway proves to be effective, it will offer a new scientifically-based vision, guidelines and practical tools for public health and health promotion (i.e., incorporation of learning theories in intervention programs. Trial registration NCT02622165 registrated November 15, 2015 on clinicaltrials.gov.

  19. Changes in Dietary Behavior Among Adolescents and Their Association With Government Nutrition Policies in Korea, 2005-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Bae, Sang Geun; Kim, Jong Yeon; Kim, Keon Yeop; Park, Soon Woo; Bae, Jisuk; Lee, Won Kee

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to observe recent changes in adolescents' dietary behavior and indirectly evaluate the effects of the government's nutritional policies in Korea. Methods We analyzed the secular trends in seven dietary behaviors using the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey data from 2005 to 2009. Through literature review, we included the policies implemented for the improvement of adolescents'dietary behaviors during the same periods. Results The significant linear...

  20. Change of School in Early Adolescence and Adverse Obesity-Related Dietary Behavior: A Longitudinal Cohort Study, Victoria, Australia, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Jennifer; Barnett, Lisa M; Allender, Steven

    2015-09-10

    Environments that facilitate energy-dense, nutrient-poor diets are associated with childhood obesity. We examined the effect of a change of school environment on the prevalence of obesity and related dietary behavior in early adolescence. Fifteen schools in Victoria, Australia, were recruited at random from the bottom 2 strata of a 5-level socioeconomic scale. In 9 schools, students in grade 6 primary school transitioned to different schools for grade 7 secondary school, whereas in 6 schools, students remained in the same school from grade 6 to grade 7. Time 1 measures were collected from students (N = 245) in grade 6 (aged 11-13 y). Time 2 data were collected from 243 (99%) of the original cohort in grade 7. Data collected were dietary recall self-reported by students via questionnaire, measured height and weight of students, and aspects of the school food environment via school staff survey. Comparative and mixed model regression analyses were conducted. Of 243 students, 63% (n = 152) changed schools from time 1 to time 2, with no significant difference in weight status. Students who changed schools reported an increase in purchases of after-school snack food, greater sweetened beverage intake, fewer fruit-and-vegetable classroom breaks, and less encouragement for healthy eating compared with students who remained in the same school. School staff surveys showed that more primary than secondary schools had written healthy canteen policies and fewer days of canteen or food services operation. A change of school environment has negative effects on children's obesity-related dietary behavior. Consistent policy is needed across school types to support healthy eating in school environments.

  1. Sensitivity to reward is associated with snack and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cock, Nathalie; Van Lippevelde, Wendy; Vervoort, Leentje; Vangeel, Jolien; Maes, Lea; Eggermont, Steven; Braet, Caroline; Lachat, Carl; Huybregts, Lieven; Goossens, Lien; Beullens, Kathleen; Kolsteren, Patrick; Van Camp, John

    2016-06-01

    High intake of palatable foods, such as energy-dense snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), is common among adolescents. An individual's sensitivity to reward (SR) may influence these intakes. The main objective of this study was to investigate the association between SR and both snack and SSB intake among adolescents. A representative cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1104 14- to 16-year-olds (mean age = 14.7 ± 0.8 years; 50.9 % boys; 18.0 % overweight) in Flanders. Daily intakes were measured by a food frequency questionnaire. SR was assessed using the behavioral activation system (BAS) scales. Multilevel regression analyses (two level: adolescent school) were conducted using STATA version 13. BAS drive was positively associated with daily intakes of SSBs (13.79 %, p snacks (5.42 %, p snacks (p snacks (3.85 %, p snacks (6.41 %, p snacks. Interaction effects of gender and BAS RR (p snacks (6.48 %, p snacks (7.22 %, p snack and SSB consumption in adolescents, especially in girls. These findings suggest that SR should be taken into account when designing interventions to improve the snack and SSB intake of adolescents.

  2. Peer influence on youth's snack purchases: a laboratory analog of convenience store shopping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvy, Sarah-Jeanne; Kluczynski, Melissa A; Nitecki, Lauren A; O'Connor, Briannon C

    2012-08-01

    This paper reports the results of two experiments using a laboratory analog to examine the influence of taxes and subsidies on youth's snack food purchases when alone (Experiment 1) and when in the presence of a same-gender peer (Experiment 2). Adolescents (12-14-years-old) completed a purchasing task, during which prices of snack foods were manipulated, either alone in Experiment 1 (N=37) or in the presence of an unfamiliar peer in Experiment 2 (N=52). In both experiments, purchases of unhealthy snacks decreased and purchases of healthy snacks increased when the price of unhealthy snacks were taxed (increased). In Experiment 1 (alone), participants did not purchase more healthy snacks when the price of these snacks were subsidized (decreased). However, in Experiment 2 (when participants were in the presence of a peer), participants purchased more healthy snacks when these snacks were subsidized. Taxes and subsidies affect adolescents' snack purchasing, as does the presence of peers. The results of this study highlight factors that influence healthy and unhealthy snack purchasing behavior in young adolescents. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Food parenting and child snacking: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaine, Rachel E; Kachurak, Alexandria; Davison, Kirsten K; Klabunde, Rachel; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet

    2017-11-03

    While the role of parenting in children's eating behaviors has been studied extensively, less attention has been given to its potential association with children's snacking habits. To address this gap, we conducted a systematic review to describe associations between food parenting and child snacking, or consuming energy dense foods/foods in between meals. Six electronic databases were searched using standardized language to identify quantitative studies describing associations of general and feeding-specific parenting styles as well as food parenting practices with snacking behaviors of children aged 2-18 years. Eligible peer-reviewed journal articles published between 1980 and 2017 were included. Data were extracted using a standard protocol by three coders; all items were double coded to ensure consistency. Forty-seven studies met inclusion criteria. Few studies focused on general feeding (n = 3) or parenting styles (n = 10). Most studies focused on controlling food parenting practices (n = 39) that were not specific to snacking. Parental restriction of food was positively associated with child snack intake in 13/23 studies, while pressure to eat and monitoring yielded inconsistent results. Home availability of unhealthy foods was positively associated with snack intake in 10/11 studies. Findings related to positive parent behaviors (e.g. role modeling) were limited and yielded mixed results (n = 9). Snacking was often assessed using food frequency items and defined post-hoc based on nutritional characteristics (e.g. energy-dense, sugary foods, unhealthy, etc.). Timing was rarely included in the definition of a snack (i.e. chips eaten between meals vs. with lunch). Restrictive feeding and home access to unhealthy foods were most consistently associated with snacking among young children. Research is needed to identify positive parenting behaviors around child snacking that may be used as targets for health promotion. Detailed definitions of snacking

  4. Factors Associated With Unhealthy Snacks Consumption Among Adolescents in Iran’s Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdi Feyzabadi, Vahid; Keshavarz Mohammadi, Nastaran; Omidvar, Nasrin; Karimi-Shahanjarini, Akram; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Rashidian, Arash

    2017-01-01

    Background: Well-informed interventions are needed if school-based health promotion is to be effective. Among other aims, the Iranian Health Promoting School (IHPS) program that was launched in 2011, has an important aim of promoting dietary behaviors of adolescents. The present study, therefore, aimed to investigate the factors affecting unhealthy snacking of adolescents and provide evidence for a more effective IHPS program. Methods: In a cross-sectional study design, 1320 students from 40 schools in Kerman city were selected using a proportional stratified random sampling method. A modified qualitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) was used to gather data about unhealthy snacking behavior. Data about intrapersonal and environmental factors were obtained using a validated and reliable questionnaire. A mixed-effects negative-binomial regression model was used to analyze the data. Results: Taste and sensory perception (prevalence rate ratio [PRR]=1.18; 95% CI: 1.09-1.27), being a male (PRR=1.20; 95% CI: 1.05-1.38) and lower nutritional knowledge (PRR=0.96; 95% CI: 0.91-0.99) were associated with higher weekly unhealthy snaking. Perceived self-efficacy (PRR=0.95; 95% CI: 0.91-1.00) negatively influenced the frequency of unhealthy snaking, with this approaching significance (Ppocket money allowance (PRR=1.21; 95% CI: 1.09-1.34), easy accessibility (PRR=1.06; 95% CI:1.01-1.11), and less perceived parental control (PRR=0.96; 95% CI: 0.92-0.99) all had a role in higher consumption of unhealthy snacks. Interestingly, larger school size was associated with less unhealthy snacking (PRR=0.79; 95% CI: 0.68-0.92). Conclusion: Unhealthy snacking behavior is influenced by individual, socio-cultural and physical-environmental influences, namely by factors relating to poor parenting practices, high SES level, family characteristics, improper social norms pressure, and less knowledge and self-efficacy of students. This evidence can be used to inform a more evidencebased IHPS

  5. Factors Associated With Unhealthy Snacks Consumption Among Adolescents in Iran's Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdi Feyzabadi, Vahid; Keshavarz Mohammadi, Nastaran; Omidvar, Nasrin; Karimi-Shahanjarini, Akram; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Rashidian, Arash

    2017-01-29

    Well-informed interventions are needed if school-based health promotion is to be effective. Among other aims, the Iranian Health Promoting School (IHPS) program that was launched in 2011, has an important aim of promoting dietary behaviors of adolescents. The present study, therefore, aimed to investigate the factors affecting unhealthy snacking of adolescents and provide evidence for a more effective IHPS program. In a cross-sectional study design, 1320 students from 40 schools in Kerman city were selected using a proportional stratified random sampling method. A modified qualitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) was used to gather data about unhealthy snacking behavior. Data about intrapersonal and environmental factors were obtained using a validated and reliable questionnaire. A mixed-effects negative-binomial regression model was used to analyze the data. Taste and sensory perception (prevalence rate ratio [PRR]=1.18; 95% CI: 1.09-1.27), being a male (PRR=1.20; 95% CI: 1.05-1.38) and lower nutritional knowledge (PRR=0.96; 95% CI: 0.91-0.99) were associated with higher weekly unhealthy snaking. Perceived self-efficacy (PRR=0.95; 95% CI: 0.91-1.00) negatively influenced the frequency of unhealthy snaking, with this approaching significance (Ppocket money allowance (PRR=1.21; 95% CI: 1.09-1.34), easy accessibility (PRR=1.06; 95% CI:1.01-1.11), and less perceived parental control (PRR=0.96; 95% CI: 0.92-0.99) all had a role in higher consumption of unhealthy snacks. Interestingly, larger school size was associated with less unhealthy snacking (PRR=0.79; 95% CI: 0.68-0.92). Unhealthy snacking behavior is influenced by individual, socio-cultural and physical-environmental influences, namely by factors relating to poor parenting practices, high SES level, family characteristics, improper social norms pressure, and less knowledge and self-efficacy of students. This evidence can be used to inform a more evidencebased IHPS program through focusing on supportive

  6. Eating patterns and composition of meals and snacks in elite Canadian athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdman, Kelly Anne; Tunnicliffe, Jasmine; Lun, Victor M; Reimer, Raylene A

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the meal- and snack-eating frequency and the nutritional composition of each eating occasion of Canadian high-performance athletes during training. Athletes from 8 Canadian Sport Centres prospectively completed 3-d dietary records including all food, fluid, and supplements consumed. The time of consumption and whether the consumption was a meal or snack were also identified. The dietary records were analyzed for energy (kcal) and macronutrient intake (carbohydrate, protein, and fat) and compared based on gender, age, meal vs. snack, and training vs. rest days. Three hundred twenty-four athletic subjects (64% female and 36% male) completed the study. On average, the athletes ate 4.8 ± 0.8 times daily. Nearly all athletes consumed 3 daily meals of breakfast (98.9%), lunch (97.9%), and dinner (98.7%), with few having snacks: 57%, 71.6%, and 58.1% of athletes consumed an a.m., p.m., and evening snack, respectively. Training-day meal frequency did not differ from that during rest days; however, fewer snacks were consumed on rest days. A.m. and p.m. snacks were consumed significantly more often on training days than rest days. Overall, snacks contributed 24.3% of total daily energy intake. Few dietary variations were discovered between genders, while the youngest athletes (<18 yr) ate less often, especially their morning snack, than the older athletes. In conclusion, Canadian high-performance athletes self-adjusted their energy intakes on training vs. rest days primarily by snacking less and reducing their carbohydrate and protein intakes on rest days, yet they consistently ate regular meals.

  7. Meals and snacking, diet quality and energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellisle, France

    2014-07-01

    The present obesity "epidemic" has been attributed to a growing trend for snacking. Snacking may contribute to excess energy intake and weight gain through different ways, for example: context/environment of eating, frequency of consumption and quality of food choices. The present article reviews data and hypotheses about the role of snacks in diet quality and body weight control. One obvious difficulty in this field is the diversity of definitions and approaches used in cross-sectional, longitudinal, and intervention studies. A brief paragraph reviews the prevalence of snacking in various countries and its recent evolution. The literature addressing the contribution of snacks to daily energy and nutrient intake presents two contrasting pictures. In many reports, snacking appears to facilitate the adjustment of energy intake to needs, and to contribute carbohydrates, rather than fats, to the diet, in addition to valuable micronutrients. Such results are usually reported in healthy, normal-weight children and adults. By contrast, snacking often appears to contribute much energy but little nutrition in the diet of other consumers, particularly obese children and adults. In addition to selecting energy-dense foods, eating in the absence of hunger in response to external non-physiological cues, in an irregular fashion, in contexts (e.g. while watching television) that do not favor attention to the act of eating, might be crucial factors determining the nutritional effects of snacking. While efforts should be continued to harmonize definitions and minimize the influence of under-reporting, interventions aimed at decreasing detrimental snacking should address both food-related aspects and behavioral components. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Snack purchasing is healthier when the cognitive demands of choice are reduced: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Julia L; Johnston, Marie; Campbell, Neil

    2015-07-01

    Individuals with inefficient executive (higher level cognitive) function have a reduced ability to resist dietary temptation. The present study aimed to design and test a theory-based point-of-purchase intervention for coffee shops that reduced the calorie content of customers' purchases by reducing the need for executive function (EF) at the moment of choice. Key facets of EF were identified by a multidisciplinary group and used to develop a point-of-purchase intervention (signage). This intervention was evaluated in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) in a public coffee shop on consumer purchases of >20,000 snacks and drinks over 12 weeks. A sample of customers (n = 128) was recruited to complete an embedded cross-sectional study measuring EF strength, dietary intentions, typical purchases, and purchases made after exposure to the intervention. The proportion of snack purchases that were high in calorie reduced significantly (t(10) = 2.34, p = .04) in intervention weeks relative to control. High calorie drink purchases were also lower in intervention than control weeks, however, this difference was not significant (t(10) = 1.56, p = .15). On average, customers purchased items containing 66 calories customer behavior increased as EF strength decreased (β = .24, p = .03). The calorie content of cafe purchases can be lowered by reducing the cognitive demands of healthy food choice at the moment of purchase, especially in those with poor EF. Environmental changes like these have the potential to help achieve population weight control. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Planning versus action: Different decision-making processes predict plans to change one's diet versus actual dietary behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiviniemi, Marc T; Brown-Kramer, Carolyn R

    2015-05-01

    Most health decision-making models posit that deciding to engage in a health behavior involves forming a behavioral intention which then leads to actual behavior. However, behavioral intentions and actual behavior may not be functionally equivalent. Two studies examined whether decision-making factors predicting dietary behaviors were the same as or distinct from those predicting intentions. Actual dietary behavior was proximally predicted by affective associations with the behavior. By contrast, behavioral intentions were predicted by cognitive beliefs about behaviors, with no contribution of affective associations. This dissociation has implications for understanding individual regulation of health behaviors and for behavior change interventions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. A dietary behaviors measure for use with low-income, Spanish-speaking Caribbean Latinos with type 2 diabetes: The Latino Dietary Behaviors Questionnaire (LDBQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Senaida; Olendzki, Barbara; Rosal, Milagros C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the validity of a Spanish-language dietary behaviors self-report questionnaire (LDBQ) for Latinos with diabetes. The sample (n = 252) was Spanish-speaking, female (77%), middle-aged (mean age = 55 years), low-education (56% internal consistency analysis; and correlation analysis using baseline and change scores for: LDBQ, three day 24-hour dietary recall nutrient mean, and clinical measures. Cronbach’s alphas were moderate. Four factors were identified at both time points. Significant baseline correlations (r) were found for LDBQ total scores, factor scores and: caloric intake (r = −.29 to −.34); total dietary fiber (r = .19); sodium (r = −.24 to −.30); percent calories from total fat (r = −.16); fat subtypes (r = −.16 to .15); and percent calories from protein (r = .17). Twelvemonth data produced a similar pattern. T-tests of LDBQ change scores showed significantly greater change in dietary behaviors for the intervention group than for the control group, t(135) = −4.17, p < .01. LDBQ change scores correlated significantly with mean 24-hour nutrient intake and a subset of clinical measures, but were not associated with clinical change scores (except HDL). The LDBQ is a useful tool to assess and target behaviors for change and assess intervention effects. PMID:21443994

  11. Independent and joint associations of TV viewing time and snack food consumption with the metabolic syndrome and its components; a cross-sectional study in Australian adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Television (TV) viewing time is positively associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adults. However, the mechanisms through which TV viewing time is associated with MetS risk remain unclear. There is evidence that the consumption of energy-dense, nutrient poor snack foods increases during TV viewing time among adults, suggesting that these behaviors may jointly contribute towards MetS risk. While the association between TV viewing time and the MetS has previously been shown to be independent of adult’s overall dietary intake, the specific influence of snack food consumption on the relationship is yet to be investigated. The purpose of this study was to examine the independent and joint associations of daily TV viewing time and snack food consumption with the MetS and its components in a sample of Australian adults. Methods Population-based, cross-sectional study of 3,110 women and 2,572 men (>35 years) without diabetes or cardiovascular disease. Participants were recruited between May 1999 and Dec 2000 in the six states and the Northern Territory of Australia. Participants were categorised according to self-reported TV viewing time (low: 0-2 hr/d; high: >2 hr/d) and/or consumption of snack foods (low: 0-3 serves/d; high: >3 serves/d). Multivariate odds ratios [95% CI] for the MetS and its components were estimated using gender-specific, forced entry logistic regression. Results OR [95% CI] for the MetS was 3.59 [2.25, 5.74] (p≤0.001) in women and 1.45 [1.02, 3.45] (p = 0.04) in men who jointly reported high TV viewing time and high snack food consumption. Obesity, insulin resistance and hypertension (women only) were also jointly associated with high TV viewing time and high snack food consumption. Further adjustment for diet quality and central adiposity maintained the associations in women. High snack food consumption was also shown to be independently associated with MetS risk [OR: 1.94 (95% CI: 1.45, 2.60), p snack food

  12. Independent and joint associations of TV viewing time and snack food consumption with the metabolic syndrome and its components; a cross-sectional study in Australian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorp, Alicia A; McNaughton, Sarah A; Owen, Neville; Dunstan, David W

    2013-08-09

    Television (TV) viewing time is positively associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adults. However, the mechanisms through which TV viewing time is associated with MetS risk remain unclear. There is evidence that the consumption of energy-dense, nutrient poor snack foods increases during TV viewing time among adults, suggesting that these behaviors may jointly contribute towards MetS risk. While the association between TV viewing time and the MetS has previously been shown to be independent of adult's overall dietary intake, the specific influence of snack food consumption on the relationship is yet to be investigated. The purpose of this study was to examine the independent and joint associations of daily TV viewing time and snack food consumption with the MetS and its components in a sample of Australian adults. Population-based, cross-sectional study of 3,110 women and 2,572 men (>35 years) without diabetes or cardiovascular disease. Participants were recruited between May 1999 and Dec 2000 in the six states and the Northern Territory of Australia. Participants were categorised according to self-reported TV viewing time (low: 0-2 hr/d; high: >2 hr/d) and/or consumption of snack foods (low: 0-3 serves/d; high: >3 serves/d). Multivariate odds ratios [95% CI] for the MetS and its components were estimated using gender-specific, forced entry logistic regression. OR [95% CI] for the MetS was 3.59 [2.25, 5.74] (p≤0.001) in women and 1.45 [1.02, 3.45] (p = 0.04) in men who jointly reported high TV viewing time and high snack food consumption. Obesity, insulin resistance and hypertension (women only) were also jointly associated with high TV viewing time and high snack food consumption. Further adjustment for diet quality and central adiposity maintained the associations in women. High snack food consumption was also shown to be independently associated with MetS risk [OR: 1.94 (95% CI: 1.45, 2.60), p snack food consumption are independently and

  13. The Nutrient Density of Snacks: A Comparison of Nutrient Profiles of Popular Snack Foods Using the Nutrient-Rich Foods Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Julie; Rao, Goutham; Slavin, Joanne

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although Americans receive almost a quarter of their daily energy from snacks, snacking remains a poorly defined and understood eating occasion. However, there is little dietary guidance about choosing snacks. Families, clinicians, and researchers need a comprehensive approach to assessing their nutritional value. Objective: To quantify and compare the nutrient density of commonly consumed snacks by their overall nutrient profiles using the Nutrient-Rich Foods (NRF) Index 10.3. Methods: NRF Index scores were calculated for the top 3 selling products (based on 2014 market research data) in different snack categories. These NRF scores were averaged to provide an overall nutrient-density score for each category. Results: Based on NRF scores, yogurt (55.3), milk (52.5), and fruit (30.1) emerged as the most nutrient-dense snacks. Ice cream (-4.4), pies and cakes (-11.1), and carbonated soft drinks (-17.2) emerged as the most nutrient-poor snacks. Conclusions: The NRF Index is a useful tool for assessing the overall nutritional value of snacks based on nutrients to limit and nutrients to encourage.

  14. Treating Retentive Encopresis: Dietary Modification and Behavioral Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabors, Laura; Morgan, Sam B.

    1995-01-01

    A home-based contingency management program, consisting of diet modification, laxatives, correction for soiling accidents, stimulus control training, and positive reinforcement, was implemented for treatment of a 4-year-old encopretic male. The findings provide evidence supporting the effectiveness of dietary modification combined with behavior…

  15. Evaluating the effects of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans on consumer behavior and health: methodological challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Joanne F; Smallwood, David M

    2003-12-01

    The Dietary Guidelines for Americans is the official nutrition policy statement for the United States. Government involvement in providing information on private behavior, such as food choice, is justified by the high cost of poor diets, as measured in medical expenses and lost productivity. The Guidelines are intended to provide an up-to-date, consistent information base for federal nutrition education and information efforts and food assistance program regulations. Through these policy mechanisms, the Guidelines are assumed to improve dietary behavior, and, ultimately, health. By law, the Dietary Guidelines for Americans must be updated every five years; however, there is no mandate for evaluation. Evaluation could provide useful information to assess the extent to which the Guidelines positively influence health and provide insights into reasons for their successes and limitations. However, evaluation would also present considerable challenges. This paper discusses the critical data and methodological needs for improving evaluation of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans.

  16. Behavioral responses and fluid regulation in male rats after combined dietary sodium deficiency and water deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucia, Kimberly J; Curtis, Kathleen S

    2018-02-01

    Most investigators use a single treatment such as water deprivation or dietary sodium deficiency to evaluate thirst or sodium appetite, which underlie behavioral responses to body fluid challenges. The goal of the present experiments was to assess the effects of combined treatments in driving behaviors. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of combined overnight water deprivation and dietary sodium deficiency on water intake and salt intake by adult male rats in 2-bottle (0.5M NaCl and water) tests. Overnight water deprivation alone increased water intake, and 10days of dietary sodium deficiency increased 0.5M NaCl intake, with a secondary increase in water intake. During combined water deprivation and dietary sodium deficiency, water intake was enhanced and 0.5M NaCl was reduced, but not eliminated, suggesting that physiologically relevant behavioral responses persist. Nonetheless, the pattern of fluid intake was altered by the combined treatments. We also assessed the effect of these behaviors on induced deficits in body sodium and fluid volume during combined treatments and found that, regardless of treatment, fluid ingestion partially repleted the induced deficits. Finally, we examined urine volume and sodium excretion during dietary sodium deficiency with or without overnight water deprivation and found that, whether or not rats were water deprived, and regardless of water consumption, sodium excretion was minimal. Thus, the combination of water deprivation and dietary sodium deficiency appears to arouse drives that stimulate compensatory behavioral responses. These behaviors, in conjunction with physiological adaptations to the treatments, underlie body sodium and volume repletion in the face of combined water deprivation and dietary sodium deficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of a healthier snack on snacking habits and glycated Hb (HbA1c): a 6-week intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Mary R; Parsons, Andrew; Whalley, Gillian A; Rush, Elaine C

    2016-12-01

    Dietary behaviour modification may change eating habits and reduce the impact of poor nutrition. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of daily consumption of a healthier snack bar on snacking habits and glycated Hb (HbA1c) within a 6-week intervention. In all, twenty-eight participants were randomly allocated to two groups to either consume the bars as the main snack for 6 weeks (n 14) or receipt of the bars was delayed for 6 weeks (n 14) following a stepped-wedge design. All participants had HbA1c concentrations measured at weeks -1, 0, 4, 6, 10 and 12. A short dietary habits questionnaire was self-completed at weeks 0, 6 and 12. Participants consumed the bars they received instead of other snacks, and found that the healthier snack bar was acceptable as part of their daily dietary pattern. Over the 12 weeks, there was a significant reduction in intake of biscuits, cakes and pies (approximately 2 servings/week, Psnack intervention and a trend towards a favourable effect on glucose homoeostasis. Habitual snacking behaviour has the potential to be improved through changes in the food supply, and in the longer term may reduce the impact of poor nutrition on public health.

  18. Snack foods and dental caries. Investigations using laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenby, T H

    1990-05-05

    The nation's eating habits are undergoing major transformation, with a swing away from traditional meals to a huge increase in snack consumption, but very little is known of the nutritional and dental implications of this change. The research project reported here evaluated a range of snack foods in caries-active laboratory animals, comparing them, as dietary ingredients, with noncariogenic and cariogenic (sugar) diets. The findings showed the very low cariogenicity of salted peanuts, followed by ready-salted and salt and vinegar crisps, extruded maize, mixed-starch and prefabricated/fried potato products, and cheese-filled puffs. Other varieties of crisps (cheese and onion and special shapes) proved to be more cariogenic, not far short of semi-sweet biscuits in some cases. It is concluded that the severity of the processing undergone by the snack foods and the nature of the flavouring agents with which they are coated can influence their dental properties.

  19. Snack foods consumption contributes to poor nutrition of rural children in West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiyama, Makiko; Roosita, Katrin; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro

    2012-01-01

    Dietary habits of children, including snack foods consumption, in developing countries have seldom been investigated in relation to their nutrition and health. To assess the effects of snack foods consumption of 154 children aged 1-12 years in a rural village of West Java, Indonesia, a 3-hour-interval food recall survey for all meals and snack foods consumed in seven consecutive days for each subject, anthropometry, and interviews for sociodemographic indicators were conducted. Their overall prevalence of stunting and underweight was 69.5% and 35.7%. There were 221 foods consumed by the subjects, among which 68 foods were categorized as snack foods. Though the children of both <7 year and ≥7 year age groups consumed snack foods similarly throughout the day, the latter group only consumed larger amounts of energy from snack foods at school recess-times. The mean percent contribution of snack foods was 59.6% for fat, 40.0% for energy, 20.6% for calcium, and <10% for vitamins A and C. Half number of the subjects who snacked more than the median amount consumed less carbohydrate and vitamin C than the remaining half. Furthermore, the more snack-consuming group the lower z score for height-for-age (HAZ) among schoolchildren. To improve this nutritionally vulnerable situation, consumption of snack foods should be replaced by the non-snack foods which contain much higher nutrient density; i.e. 15 times for calcium and 32 times for vitamin A. Moreover, considering high snack foods consumption of ≥7 y age group at school, appropriate school nutrition programs should be promoted.

  20. [Effect of poor dietary behaviors on the overweight and obesity of school-aged children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yong; Yun, Chen; Zhao, Ai; Wang, Peiyu; Zhang, Yumei; Mu, Zhishen

    2014-09-01

    To explore the rate of overweight and obesity, and the association between unhealthy dietary behaviors and overweight and obesity among Chinese school-aged children from 9 areas. By multiple stage stratified cluster sampling, 814 children aged 7 - 12 years old were chosen, provided with questionnaire and anthropometric measurements. According to the definition from Working Group on Obesity in China, children,were divided into different group, univariate logistic regression and multivariate logistic regression were used to analyze the associations between unhealthy dietary behaviors and overweight and obesity. The rates of overweight and obesity of school-aged children were 22. 88% and 9. 90%, respectively. The rates were higher in urban areas, and second-tier cities were similar with first-tier city. Influence factor analysis revealed skipping breakfast behavior was the influence factor (OR =1. 65, Pchildren’s overweight and obesity has been an increasingly serious health problem, which were correlated with genetic factor, environmental factor, and dietary behaviors and so on, poor dietary behavior might be influence factor for overweight and obesity, so it is necessary to provide earlier intervention strategies for parents to promote children’s good dietary habits.

  1. Effectiveness of school food environment policies on children's dietary behaviors: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micha, Renata; Karageorgou, Dimitra; Bakogianni, Ioanna; Trichia, Eirini; Whitsel, Laurie P; Story, Mary; Peñalvo, Jose L; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2018-01-01

    School food environment policies may be a critical tool to promote healthy diets in children, yet their effectiveness remains unclear. To systematically review and quantify the impact of school food environment policies on dietary habits, adiposity, and metabolic risk in children. We systematically searched online databases for randomized or quasi-experimental interventions assessing effects of school food environment policies on children's dietary habits, adiposity, or metabolic risk factors. Data were extracted independently and in duplicate, and pooled using inverse-variance random-effects meta-analysis. Habitual (within+outside school) dietary intakes were the primary outcome. Heterogeneity was explored using meta-regression and subgroup analysis. Funnel plots, Begg's and Egger's test evaluated potential publication bias. From 6,636 abstracts, 91 interventions (55 in US/Canada, 36 in Europe/New Zealand) were included, on direct provision of healthful foods/beverages (N = 39 studies), competitive food/beverage standards (N = 29), and school meal standards (N = 39) (some interventions assessed multiple policies). Direct provision policies, which largely targeted fruits and vegetables, increased consumption of fruits by 0.27 servings/d (n = 15 estimates (95%CI: 0.17, 0.36)) and combined fruits and vegetables by 0.28 servings/d (n = 16 (0.17, 0.40)); with a slight impact on vegetables (n = 11; 0.04 (0.01, 0.08)), and no effects on total calories (n = 6; -56 kcal/d (-174, 62)). In interventions targeting water, habitual intake was unchanged (n = 3; 0.33 glasses/d (-0.27, 0.93)). Competitive food/beverage standards reduced sugar-sweetened beverage intake by 0.18 servings/d (n = 3 (-0.31, -0.05)); and unhealthy snacks by 0.17 servings/d (n = 2 (-0.22, -0.13)), without effects on total calories (n = 5; -79 kcal/d (-179, 21)). School meal standards (mainly lunch) increased fruit intake (n = 2; 0.76 servings/d (0.37, 1.16)) and reduced total fat (-1.49%energy; n = 6 (-2

  2. Effectiveness of school food environment policies on children’s dietary behaviors: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakogianni, Ioanna; Trichia, Eirini; Whitsel, Laurie P.; Story, Mary; Peñalvo, Jose L.; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2018-01-01

    Background School food environment policies may be a critical tool to promote healthy diets in children, yet their effectiveness remains unclear. Objective To systematically review and quantify the impact of school food environment policies on dietary habits, adiposity, and metabolic risk in children. Methods We systematically searched online databases for randomized or quasi-experimental interventions assessing effects of school food environment policies on children’s dietary habits, adiposity, or metabolic risk factors. Data were extracted independently and in duplicate, and pooled using inverse-variance random-effects meta-analysis. Habitual (within+outside school) dietary intakes were the primary outcome. Heterogeneity was explored using meta-regression and subgroup analysis. Funnel plots, Begg’s and Egger’s test evaluated potential publication bias. Results From 6,636 abstracts, 91 interventions (55 in US/Canada, 36 in Europe/New Zealand) were included, on direct provision of healthful foods/beverages (N = 39 studies), competitive food/beverage standards (N = 29), and school meal standards (N = 39) (some interventions assessed multiple policies). Direct provision policies, which largely targeted fruits and vegetables, increased consumption of fruits by 0.27 servings/d (n = 15 estimates (95%CI: 0.17, 0.36)) and combined fruits and vegetables by 0.28 servings/d (n = 16 (0.17, 0.40)); with a slight impact on vegetables (n = 11; 0.04 (0.01, 0.08)), and no effects on total calories (n = 6; -56 kcal/d (-174, 62)). In interventions targeting water, habitual intake was unchanged (n = 3; 0.33 glasses/d (-0.27, 0.93)). Competitive food/beverage standards reduced sugar-sweetened beverage intake by 0.18 servings/d (n = 3 (-0.31, -0.05)); and unhealthy snacks by 0.17 servings/d (n = 2 (-0.22, -0.13)), without effects on total calories (n = 5; -79 kcal/d (-179, 21)). School meal standards (mainly lunch) increased fruit intake (n = 2; 0.76 servings/d (0.37, 1.16)) and

  3. Qualitative Analysis of Dietary Behaviors in Picture Book Fiction for 4- to 8-Year-Olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matvienko, Oksana

    2016-10-01

    Picture books may facilitate parents' efforts to decrease pickiness and other undesirable food habits in children. This study conducted a content analysis of dietary behaviors and feeding strategies featured in fictional picture books compared with those discussed in the research literature. Several databases were searched for fictional picture books about dietary behavior, published between 2000 and 2016, accessible in the US, available in print format, and designated for 4- to 8-year-olds. Messages about dietary behavior in picture book fiction. Stories were systematically coded using holistic, data-driven, and evaluation coding methods. The final set of codes was examined for themes and patterns. Of the 104 books, 50% featured a specific eating behavior, 21% lifestyle/eating patterns, 20% food-related sensations and emotions, and 9% table manners. Books about dietary behaviors are abundant but the topic coverage is unbalanced. Problem behaviors portrayed in books overlap those discussed in the research literature. However, problem-solving strategies and actions do not align with those endorsed by nutrition professionals. Messages vary in their complexity (in terms of their plot and/or language), ranging from clear and direct to vague, sophisticated, unresolved, conflicting, or controversial. Recommendations for practitioners are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Snack bar compositions and their acute glycaemic and satiety effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Mary R; Parsons, Andrew; Whalley, Gillian A; Kelleher, John; Rush, Elaine C

    Maintaining blood glucose within homeostatic limits and eating foods that sup-press hunger and promote satiety have beneficial impacts for health. This study investigated the glycaemic re-sponse and satiety effects of a serving size of a healthier snack bar, branded Nothing Else, that met the required nutrient profiling score criteria for a health claim, in comparison to two top-selling commercial snack bars. In an experimental study, 24 participants aged >=50 years were recruited. On three different days blood glucose concentration was measured twice at baseline and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after consumption of a serving size of each bar. Satiety effects were self-reported hunger, fullness, desire to eat, and amount could eat ratings on visual analogue scales. The incremental area under the blood glucose response curve (iAUC) over two hours for the Nothing Else bar was 30% lower than commercial Bar 2 (pbar induced the highest fullness rating and lowest hunger rating among the three snack bars. At two hours, fullness induced by the Nothing Else bar was twice that of Bar 2 (p=0.019), but not different to Bar 1 (p=0.212). The Nothing Else snack bar developed using the nutrient profiling scheme as a guideline, with its high protein and dietary fibre contents, had a lower glycaemic impact and induced a higher subjective satiety than the two commercial snack bars of equal weight.

  5. Maternal educational level and preschool children's consumption of high-calorie snacks and sugar-containing beverages: mediation by the family food environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijtzes, Anne I; Jansen, Wilma; Jansen, Pauline W; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Raat, Hein

    2013-11-01

    To examine the associations between maternal educational level and preschoolers' consumption of high-calorie snacks and sugar-containing beverages, and to assess the mediating effects of variables relating to the family food environment. We analyzed data from 2814 native Dutch preschoolers enrolled in a birth cohort study in Rotterdam (the Netherlands), between 2002 and 2006. Logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios of snacking ≥ 2 times/day and consuming sugar-containing beverages ≥ 3 glasses/day for children of mothers with low, mid-low, and mid-high educational levels (reference group: high educational level), before and after adjustment for mediators. Children of low and mid-low educated mothers were significantly more likely to consume excessive amounts of high-calorie snacks and sugar-containing beverages compared with children of high educated mothers, with the highest odds in children of low educated mothers (OR: 2.44; 95% CI: 1.84, 3.23 and OR: 2.46; 95% CI: 1.87, 3.24 respectively). Parental feeding practices, parental consumption of sugar-containing beverages, and children's television time partly explained these associations. Maternal educational level is inversely related to preschoolers' consumption of high-calorie snacks and sugar-containing beverages. Targeting the family food environment may be an effective way of reducing educational inequalities in children's unhealthy dietary behaviors. © 2013.

  6. Gluten-free snacks using plantain-chickpea and maize blend: chemical composition, starch digestibility, and predicted glycemic index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Silva, Pamela C; Rodriguez-Ambriz, Sandra L; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2015-05-01

    An increase in celiac consumers has caused an increasing interest to develop good quality gluten-free food products with high nutritional value. Snack foods are consumed worldwide and have become a normal part of the eating habits of the celiac population making them a target to improve their nutritive value. Extrusion and deep-frying of unripe plantain, chickpea, and maize flours blends produced gluten-free snacks with high dietary fiber contents (13.7-18.2 g/100 g) and low predicted glycemic index (28 to 35). The gluten-free snacks presented lower fat content (12.7 to 13.6 g/100 g) than those reported in similar commercial snacks. The snack with the highest unripe plantain flour showed higher slowly digestible starch (11.6 and 13.4 g/100 g) than its counterpart with the highest chickpea flour level (6 g/100 g). The overall acceptability of the gluten-free snacks was similar to that chili-flavored commercial snack. It was possible to develop gluten-free snacks with high dietary fiber content and low predicted glycemic index with the blend of the 3 flours, and these gluten-free snacks may also be useful as an alternative to reduce excess weight and obesity problems in the general population and celiac community. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Snack patterns are associated with biomarkers of glucose metabolism in US men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dayeon; Song, SuJin; Krumhar, Kim; Song, Won O

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have made distinctions between dietary intake from meals and snacks in relating them to biomarkers. We aimed to examine if snack patterns are associated with biomarkers of glucose metabolism, specifically hemoglobin A1c and HOMA-IR in US adults. Using 24-h dietary recall data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in 2007-2008, we derived snack patterns using factor analyses. Multivariate logistic regressions were performed to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AOR) for biomarkers of glucose metabolism by quintiles of snack pattern scores. Men in the highest quintile of dairy and sugary snack pattern had higher risk of having hemoglobin A1c ≥ 6.5% (AOR: 2.06; 95% CI: 1.20-3.51) and HOMA-IR > 3.0 (AOR: 1.73; 95% CI: 1.01-2.95) than did those in the lowest quintile. No significant association was found in women between snack patterns and biomarkers of glucose metabolism. Dairy and sugary snack patterns of US men had the greatest association with poor control of glucose metabolism.

  8. An afternoon snack of berries reduces subsequent energy intake compared to an isoenergetic confectionary snack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Lewis J; Funnell, Mark P; Milner, Samantha

    2015-12-01

    Observational studies suggest that increased fruit and vegetable consumption can contribute to weight maintenance and facilitate weight loss when substituted for other energy dense foods. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of berries on acute appetite and energy intake. Twelve unrestrained pre-menopausal women (age 21 ± 2 y; BMI 26.6 ± 2.6 kg m(-2); body fat 23 ± 3%) completed a familiarisation trial and two randomised experimental trials. Subjects arrived in the evening (~5pm) and consumed an isoenergetic snack (65 kcal) of mixed berries (BERRY) or confectionary sweets (CONF). Sixty min later, subjects consumed a homogenous pasta test meal until voluntary satiation, and energy intake was quantified. Subjective appetite (hunger, fullness, desire to eat and prospective food consumption) was assessed throughout trials, and for 120 min after the test meal. Energy intake was less (Psnack (691 ± 146 kcal) than after the CONF snack (824 ± 172 kcal); whilst water consumption was similar (P=0.925). There were no trial (P>0.095) or interaction (P>0.351) effects for any subjective appetite ratings. Time taken to eat the BERRY snack (4.05 ± 1.12 min) was greater (Psnack (0.93 ± 0.33 min). This study demonstrates that substituting an afternoon confectionary snack with mixed berries decreased subsequent energy intake at dinner, but did not affect subjective appetite. This dietary strategy could represent a simple method for reducing daily energy intake and aiding weight management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. SNACK BAR TINGGI SERAT BERBASIS TEPUNG AMPAS TAHU (OKARA DAN TEPUNG UBI UNGU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuri Rachmayani 1

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Unbalanced dietary consumption, lack of dietary fiber intake and low physical activity could lead to excessive nutrients resulting in obesity. This research aims to create high-fiber snack food in the form of snack bar made from pulp of tofu flour (okara, purple sweet potato flour, and cornstarch. The experimental design was a complete factorial randomized design with two variables and two replications. Two variables tested were the ratio between purple sweet potato flour and cornstarch of 1:1 and 1:2 (w/w, and the addition okara of 20, 25, and 30%. As a control, a snack bar was made from wheat flour. The analysis performed include sensory and physicochemical analysis. The recommended high-fiber healthy snack bar was the snack bar made from 20% okara, with a ratio of purple sweet potato flour to cornstarch of 1:2 (w/w. This snack bar had a sensory score of 4.31 on the overall attribute which means neutral. The anthocyanin level of the cookies was 1.97 mg/100 g (db and dietary fiber level was 13.87% (db, therefore they can be categorized as high fiber okara food according to the head of BPOM regulation number HK 03.1.23.11.11.09909 year 2011.

  10. Development of Family-Based Dietary Self-Management Support Program on Dietary Behaviors in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Indonesia: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aklima Aklima

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: WHO statistics show that Indonesia has the fourth highest number of diabetes sufferers. The International Diabetes Federation‟s 5th estimated that in 2011 there were 71.4 million people in South East Asia region were suffering with DM Purpose: To develop a family-based dietary self-management support program to improve dietary behaviors in patients with T2DM. Method: A literature review was conducted by reviewing articles related evidence-based practices. Only articles in the English and Indonesian languages were reviewed. The search found eleven published experimental studies related to the topic. Result: Even though dietary self-management has benefits for patients with diabetes, many studies have found that these patients often have difficulty in establishing or maintaining an effective program to self-manage their dietary behaviors. Lack of family support is one factor that often seems to be related to such failures. Family participation in a diabetes education program also had positive psychosocial impacts. Otherwise, another study found that family might not always have a positive impact on self-management. Therefore, this review recommends that development of a family-based support program could be a positive factor in helping to improve dietary self-management behaviors in patients with T2DM. Self-management theory by Funnell and Anderson‟s work (2004 can guide the development of a program with the goal of empowering individuals and families in improving the patient‟s dietary behaviors. The program consists of: (1 reflecting on current and/or past self-management experiences by listening to the patient about their dietary behaviors, (2 discussing the emotions and feelings of the patients, (3 engaging the patient in improving their situation by active listening and helping the patient reflect on their problems and identifying effective strategies, (4 providing information about dietary management and problem

  11. The habitual nature of unhealthy snacking: how powerful are habits in adolescence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vet, de E.; Stok, F.M.; Wit, J.B.F.; Ridder, de D.T.D.

    2015-01-01

    Many adolescents engage in unhealthy snacking behavior, and the frequency and amount of unhealthy consumption is increasing further. In this study, we aim to investigate the role that habit strength plays in unhealthy snacking during adolescence and whether self-regulation strategies can overcome

  12. The habitual nature of unhealthy snacking : How powerful are habits in adolescence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vet, E.W.M.L.; Stok, F Marijn; De Wit, John B F; De Ridder, Denise T D

    2015-01-01

    Many adolescents engage in unhealthy snacking behavior, and the frequency and amount of unhealthy consumption is increasing further. In this study, we aim to investigate the role that habit strength plays in unhealthy snacking during adolescence and whether self-regulation strategies can overcome

  13. Dietary fatty acids alter blood pressure, behavior and brain membrane composition of hypertensive rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wilde, MC; Hogyes, E; Kiliaan, AJ; Farkas, T; Luiten, PGM; Farkas, E; Wilde, Martijn C. de; Hőgyes, Endre; Kiliaan, Amanda J.

    2003-01-01

    The beneficial effect of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on developing hypertension has been repeatedly demonstrated. However. related changes in brain membrane composition and its cognitive correlates have remained unclear. Our study aimed at a comprehensive analysis of behavior and

  14. Childhood maltreatment and high dietary fat intake behaviors in adulthood: A birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Kisely, Steve; Williams, Gail; Strathearn, Lane; Najman, Jake Moses

    2017-10-01

    Childhood maltreatment has been associated with a wide range of chronic medical conditions including obesity, other metabolic events and eating disorders. However, little is known about the association between childhood maltreatment and high dietary fat intake. This study addresses the extent to which co-occurring and specific forms of substantiated childhood maltreatment are associated with self-reported high dietary fat intake in adulthood and whether there is a gender-childhood maltreatment interaction in predicting this association. The study also examines the association between age at substantiation of maltreatment, number of childhood maltreatment substantiations and high dietary fat intake-related behaviors. The data were from a prospective Australian pre-birth mother-child dyads study, the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy. The study followed 7223 mother-child dyads following the birth of a live, singleton baby at the Mater hospital. Recruitment was early in pregnancy, and then follow-ups at 3-5days postpartum and again when the child was 6 months, 5, 14 and 21 years of age. The data were linked to agency-substantiated cases of childhood maltreatment 0-14 years. This study extended the data linkage to 3766 (47.4% female) participants who had complete data on dietary fat intake behaviors at the 21-year follow-up. Consecutive logistic regressions were used to estimate odds ratios with respective 95% confidence intervals for high dietary fat intake for multiple and specific forms of childhood maltreatment, as well as age at and number of childhood maltreatment substantiations. Finally, a gender-childhood maltreatment interaction term was used to predict the outcome. In both unadjusted and adjusted analyses, substantiated childhood maltreatment including physical abuse were associated with high dietary fat intake-related behaviors. Similarly, substantiation of childhood maltreatment between the ages of 5 and 14 years was significantly

  15. Does the availability of snack foods in supermarkets vary internationally?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Lukar E; Cameron, Adrian J; McNaughton, Sarah A; Waterlander, Wilma E; Sodergren, Marita; Svastisalee, Chalida; Blanchard, Laurence; Liese, Angela D; Battersby, Sarah; Carter, Mary-Ann; Sheeshka, Judy; Kirkpatrick, Sharon I; Sherman, Sandy; Cowburn, Gill; Foster, Charlie; Crawford, David A

    2013-05-14

    Cross-country differences in dietary behaviours and obesity rates have been previously reported. Consumption of energy-dense snack foods and soft drinks are implicated as contributing to weight gain, however little is known about how the availability of these items within supermarkets varies internationally. This study assessed variations in the display of snack foods and soft drinks within a sample of supermarkets across eight countries. Within-store audits were used to evaluate and compare the availability of potato chips (crisps), chocolate, confectionery and soft drinks. Displays measured included shelf length and the proportion of checkouts and end-of-aisle displays containing these products. Audits were conducted in a convenience sample of 170 supermarkets across eight developed nations (Australia, Canada, Denmark, Netherlands, New Zealand, Sweden, United Kingdom (UK), and United States of America (US)). The mean total aisle length of snack foods (adjusted for store size) was greatest in supermarkets from the UK (56.4 m) and lowest in New Zealand (21.7 m). When assessed by individual item, the greatest aisle length devoted to chips, chocolate and confectionery was found in UK supermarkets while the greatest aisle length dedicated to soft drinks was in Australian supermarkets. Only stores from the Netherlands (41%) had less than 70% of checkouts featuring displays of snack foods or soft drinks. Whilst between-country variations were observed, overall results indicate high levels of snack food and soft drinks displays within supermarkets across the eight countries. Exposure to snack foods is largely unavoidable within supermarkets, increasing the likelihood of purchases and particularly those made impulsively.

  16. Factors Associated With Unhealthy Snacks Consumption Among Adolescents in Iran’s Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Yazdi Feyzabadi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Well-informed interventions are needed if school-based health promotion is to be effective. Amongother aims, the Iranian Health Promoting School (IHPS program that was launched in 2011, has an important aimof promoting dietary behaviors of adolescents. The present study, therefore, aimed to investigate the factors affectingunhealthy snacking of adolescents and provide evidence for a more effective IHPS program. Methods In a cross-sectional study design, 1320 students from 40 schools in Kerman city were selected using aproportional stratified random sampling method. A modified qualitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ wasused to gather data about unhealthy snacking behavior. Data about intrapersonal and environmental factors wereobtained using a validated and reliable questionnaire. A mixed-effects negative-binomial regression model was usedto analyze the data. Results Taste and sensory perception (prevalence rate ratio [PRR] = 1.18; 95% CI: 1.09-1.27, being a male (PRR = 1.20;95% CI: 1.05-1.38 and lower nutritional knowledge (PRR = 0.96; 95% CI: 0.91-0.99 were associated with higher weeklyunhealthy snaking. Perceived self-efficacy (PRR = 0.95; 95% CI: 0.91-1.00 negatively influenced the frequency ofunhealthy snaking, with this approaching significance (P< .06. In case of environmental factors, high socio-economicstatus (SES level (PRR = 1.45; 95% CI: 1.26-1.67, single-parent family (PRR = 1.14; 95% CI: 1.01-1.30, more socialnorms pressure (PRR = 1.08; 95% CI: 1.01-1.17, pocket money allowance (PRR = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.09-1.34, easyaccessibility (PRR = 1.06; 95% CI:1.01-1.11, and less perceived parental control (PRR= 0.96; 95% CI: 0.92-0.99 all hada role in higher consumption of unhealthy snacks. Interestingly, larger school size was associated with less unhealthysnacking (PRR = 0.79; 95% CI: 0.68-0.92. Conclusion Unhealthy snacking behavior is influenced by individual, socio-cultural and physical-environmentalinfluences, namely by

  17. Emotion-driven impulsiveness and snack food consumption of European adolescents: Results from the I.Family study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coumans, Juul M J; Danner, Unna N; Intemann, Timm; De Decker, Annelies; Hadjigeorgiou, Charalambos; Hunsberger, Monica; Moreno, Luis A; Russo, Paola; Stomfai, Sarolta; Veidebaum, Toomas; Adan, Roger A H; Hebestreit, Antje

    2018-04-01

    We aimed to investigate the association between emotion-driven impulsiveness and snack food consumption in 1039 European adolescents aged 12-18 years. During the cross-sectional examination in 2013/2014, complete information was collected on: emotion-driven impulsiveness (using the negative urgency subscale from the Urgency, Premeditation, Perseverance, Sensation seeking, and Positive urgency (UPPS-P) Impulsive Behaviour Scale) and snacking behaviour operationalised as 1) consumption frequency of daily snacks, 2) consumption frequency of energy-dense snacks (both measured using Food Frequency Questionnaire) and 3) usual energy intake of food consumed per snacking occasion in calories. The latter was measured using online self-administered 24-h dietary recalls and was estimated based on the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Method. Anthropometric variables were measured and BMI z-score (zBMI) calculated. Age, sex, highest education level of the family and country of residence were assessed using a questionnaire. Mixed-effect regression analyses were separately conducted for each snacking behaviour outcome with emotion-driven impulsiveness as the exposure. After controlling for zBMI, age, sex, country and socioeconomic status, emotion-driven impulsiveness was positively associated with daily consumption frequency of snacks (β = 0.07, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) [0.02, 0.12]) and consumption frequency of energy-dense snacks (β = 0.25, 95% CI [0.19, 0.31]), but not with usual energy intake of food per snacking (β = 2.52, 95% CI [-0.55, 5.59]). Adolescents with a stronger emotion-driven impulsiveness tendency reported a higher snacking frequency and specifically more energy-dense snacks, whereas the energy intake of snack food seemed less important. These findings have implications for obesity prevention and treatment as they indicate the importance of targeting emotion-driven impulsiveness as a strategy to avoid excessive snacking. Copyright © 2018

  18. Salty-snack eating, television or video-game viewing, and asthma symptoms among 10- to 12-year-old children: the PANACEA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvaniti, Fotini; Priftis, Kostas N; Papadimitriou, Anastasios; Yiallouros, Panayiotis; Kapsokefalou, Maria; Anthracopoulos, Michael B; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B

    2011-02-01

    Salty-snack consumption, as well as the amount of time children spend watching television or playing video games, have been implicated in the development of asthma; however, results are still conflicting. The aim of this work was to evaluate the association of salty-snack eating and television/video-game viewing with childhood asthma symptoms. Cross-sectional study. Seven hundred children (323 male), 10 to 12 years old, from 18 schools located in the greater area of Athens were enrolled. Children and their parents completed questionnaires, which evaluated, among other things, dietary habits. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was evaluated using the KIDMED (Mediterranean Diet Quality Index for Children and Adolescents) score. The association of children's characteristics with asthma symptoms was performed by calculating the odds ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Overall lifetime prevalence of asthma symptoms was 23.7% (27.6% boys, 20.4% girls; P=0.03). Forty-eight percent of children reported salty-snack consumption (≥ 1 times/week). Salty-snack consumption was positively associated with the hours of television/video-game viewing (P=0.04) and inversely with the KIDMED score (P=0.02). Consumption of salty snacks (>3 times/week vs never/rare) was associated with a 4.8-times higher likelihood of having asthma symptoms (95% confidence interval: 1.50 to 15.8), irrespective of potential confounders. The associations of salty-snack eating and asthma symptoms were more prominent in children who watched television or played video games >2 hours/day. In addition, adherence to the Mediterranean diet was inversely associated with the likelihood of asthma symptoms. Unhealthy lifestyle behaviors, such as salty-snack eating and television/video-game viewing were strongly associated with the presence of asthma symptoms. Future interventions and public health messages should be focused on changing these behaviors from the early stages of life. Copyright © 2011

  19. Family leadership styles and adolescent dietary and physical activity behaviors: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Katie L; Wilson, Alexandra H; Perlmutter, Lisa S; Beauchamp, Mark R

    2012-04-30

    Transformational leadership is conceptualized as a set of behaviors designed to inspire, energize and motivate others to achieve higher levels of functioning, and is associated with salient health-related outcomes in organizational settings. Given (a) the similarities that exist between leadership within organizational settings and parenting within families, and (b) the importance of the family environment in the promotion of adolescent health-enhancing behaviors, the purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the cross-sectional relationships between parents' transformational leadership behaviors and adolescent dietary and physical activity behaviors. 857 adolescents (aged 13-15, mean age = 14.70 yrs) completed measures of transformational parenting behaviors, healthful dietary intake and leisure-time physical activity. Regression analyses were conducted to examine relationships between family transformational leadership and adolescent health outcomes. A further 'extreme group analysis' was conducted by clustering families based on quartile splits. A MANCOVA (controlling for child gender) was conducted to examine differences between families displaying (a) HIGH levels of transformational parenting (consistent HIGH TP), (b) LOW levels of transformational parenting (consistent LOW TP), and (c) inconsistent levels of transformational parenting (inconsistent HIGH-LOW TP). Results revealed that adolescents' perceptions of family transformational parenting were associated with both healthy dietary intake and physical activity. Adolescents who perceived their families to display the highest levels of transformational parenting (HIGH TP group) displayed greater healthy eating and physical activity behaviors than adolescents who perceived their families to display the lowest levels of transformational parenting behaviors (LOW TP group). Adolescents who perceived their families to display inconsistent levels of transformational parenting behaviors (HIGH-LOW TP group

  20. Effect of ingredients on the quality characteristics of gluten free snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Monika; Bhattacharya, Sila

    2017-11-01

    Grain-based fabricated snacks from non-wheat grains (amaranth, finger millet, sorghum and black gram) were used to prepare puffed snacks employing the method of hot air toasting. The functional characteristics and sensory attributes of the snack were determined by varying the moisture content and time of toasting. The quality attributes of the snacks like the instrumental color parameters, peak force and puff thickness of the snack correlated well with the sensory attributes (appearance/color, texture and overall acceptability). A snack made from amaranth showed a bright reddish brown colour at a moisture content of 20-40%; the product had a good puffing and high overall acceptability. The moisture content of all the snacks was around 3% and had a fat content of 1-2%; protein and dietary fiber contents were in the ranges of 22-23 and 10-11%, respectively. The principal component analysis (PCA) accounted for a total of 89.6% variation. The PCA biplot showed that sensory appearance, sensory texture and sensory overall acceptability were closely related to the puff thickness. The microstructure of the snack indicated the presence of air cells to offer a porous structure. On toasting, the flakes increased their thickness creating a porous microstructure such that the toasted snacks were crispy having a brittle texture. Popped sorghum and gelatinized starch added doughs exhibited good puffing when toasted at 20-30% moisture content while popped amaranth samples required higher moisture content (30-40%). The grain based gluten-free snacks with improved sensory and nutritional characteristics can be prepared by using different ingredients.

  1. Associations between meal and snack frequency and diet quality and adiposity measures in British adults: findings from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kentaro; Livingstone, M Barbara E

    2016-06-01

    To examine how different definitions of meals and snacks can affect the associations of meal frequency (MF) and snack frequency (SF) with dietary intake and adiposity measures. Based on 7 d weighed dietary record data, all eating occasions providing ≥210 kJ of energy were divided into meals or snacks based on contribution to energy intake (≥15 % or snacks, SF was associated with higher intakes of confectionery and alcohol, lower intakes of cereals, protein, fat and dietary fibre, and lower HDI (except for SF based on energy contribution in women) and MDS. After adjustment for potential confounders, MF based on time, but not MF based on energy contribution, was positively associated with BMI and waist circumference in men only. SF was positively associated with BMI and waist circumference, irrespective of the definition of snacks. Higher SF was consistently associated with lower diet quality and higher adiposity measures, while associations with MF varied depending on the definition of meals and sex.

  2. Meal and snack frequency in relation to diet quality in US children and adolescents: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kentaro; Livingstone, M Barbara E

    2016-06-01

    To examine the associations of meal frequency (MF) and snack frequency (SF) with diet quality. Dietary intake was assessed using two 24 h dietary recalls. All eating occasions providing ≥210 kJ of energy were divided into meals or snacks on the basis of contribution to energy intake (≥15 % or snack, respectively), there were no associations for SF based on self-report or time. In analyses in which only plausible energy reporters (3425 children and 3753 adolescents) were included, similar results were obtained. In a representative sample of US children and adolescents, MF was associated with better diet quality, while the associations for SF varied depending on the definition of snacks. The findings highlight the importance of applying different definitions of meals and snacks when assessing the impact of dietary patterns on health.

  3. Dietary behaviors and nutritional status of adolescents in a remote rural area of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areekul, Wirote; Viravathana, Nantaporn; Aimpun, Pote; Watthanakijthavongkul, Khanin; Khruacharooen, Jakkapong; Awaiwanont, Abhinant; Khumtuikhrua, Chaowanan; Silsrikul, Pichayen; Nilrat, Pawarid; Saksoong, Saksit; Watthanatham, Jirawat; Suwannahitatorn, Picha; Sirimaneethum, Pornsirin; Meeprom, Natee; Somboonruangsri, Wuttiwong; Pongmanee, Koonphol; Rangsin, Ram

    2005-11-01

    Nutritional status among adolescents is an important health indicator. The up-to-date information about nutritional status and food consumption pattern in the remote rural area is required for the effective public health intervention in the rural area of the country. The present study aimed to demonstrate the prevalence of malnutrition, eating behavior and nutritional knowledge among secondary school students in a remote rural area in Thailand. Body weight and height data were collected from 298 secondary school students for nutritional status calculation using the Institute of Nutrition Research, Mahidol University, INMU-Thaigrowth program. Eating behavior and nutritional knowledge were observed by self-administrated questionnaires. The prevalence low height-for-age (instant noodles (64.4%). The prevalence of malnutrition was low among this population. The studied population had a fair knowledge about nutrition. The authoes found that regular consumption of highly commercialized snack products especially salted chips and instant noodles were at a high level in this remote rural area of Thailand. The pattern of nutritional problems in Thailand may have changed in which a public health program for children in rural areas of the country should recognize this transition.

  4. Physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents relative to age, gender and region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Hazzaa Hazzaa M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few lifestyle factors have been simultaneously studied and reported for Saudi adolescents. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to report on the prevalence of physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents and to examine the interrelationships among these factors using representative samples drawn from three major cities in Saudi Arabia. Methods This school-based cross-sectional study was conducted during the years 2009-2010 in three cities: Al-Khobar, Jeddah and Riyadh. The participants were 2908 secondary-school males (1401 and females (1507 aged 14-19 years, randomly selected using a multistage stratified sampling technique. Measurements included weight, height, sedentary behaviors (TV viewing, playing video games and computer use, physical activity using a validated questionnaire and dietary habits. Results A very high proportion (84% for males and 91.2% for females of Saudi adolescents spent more than 2 hours on screen time daily and almost half of the males and three-quarters of the females did not meet daily physical activity guidelines. The majority of adolescents did not have a daily intake of breakfast, fruit, vegetables and milk. Females were significantly (p p p p Conclusions The high prevalence of sedentary behaviors, physical inactivity and unhealthy dietary habits among Saudi adolescents is a major public health concern. There is an urgent need for national policy promoting active living and healthy eating and reducing sedentary behaviors among children and adolescents in Saudi Arabia.

  5. Estimates of fruit and vegetable intake in childhood and adult dietary behaviors of African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haire-Joshu, Debra; Kreuter, Matthew K; Holt, Cheryl; Steger-May, Karen

    2004-01-01

    This exploratory study examined how estimates of one's fruit and vegetable intake in childhood are related to 3 current dietary behaviors among African American women: intake of fruits and vegetables, exposure to and preference for fruits and vegetables, and preference for trying new foods. Baseline data from a randomized dietary intervention trial. Ten urban public health centers in St. Louis, Missouri. 1227 African American women. A 33-item fruit and vegetable food frequency questionnaire, items measuring estimates of childhood fruit and vegetable intake, adult fruit and vegetable intake, exposure to and preference for fruit and vegetable, and preference for trying new foods. Linear regression evaluated the association between predictors and continuous measures; logistic regression determined the association between predictors and categorical measures. Estimates of one's vegetable intake as a child were significantly related to exposure and preference for both fruits and vegetables, trying of new foods, and intake of both fruits and vegetables in adulthood. Estimates of eating fruit as a child were not significantly associated with these adult dietary behaviors. Developmental influences on adult dietary patterns may be stronger for vegetables than fruits among African American women. Additional emphasis is needed regarding exposure to and preference for vegetable intake in childhood.

  6. Peer influence on adolescent snacking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Maria Kümpel; Hansen, Kathrine Nørgaard; Grunert, Klaus G

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of the research presented in this paper is 1) To explore peer influence and the social and symbolic meaning that adolescents (10 to 16 years) attach to snacks; and 2) to investigate the relative influence of peer influence compared to personal factors in explaining perceived...... importance of snack attributes; and 3) To investigate age and gender differences in the peer influence process. Design/methodology/approach – A web-based survey distributed via email was combined with follow-up focus groups including adolescents aged 10 to 16 years in Denmark. Findings – The survey results...... show that the youngest adolescents and the girls perceived the highest influence from peers, and that peer social influence has more effect on what adolescents perceive as important snack attributes as compared to more personal factors. The focus group results show that adolescents purchase and consume...

  7. Cross-sectional analysis of eating patterns and snacking in the US Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Denise M; Reidy, Kathleen C; Fox, Mary Kay; Briefel, Ronette R; Jacquier, Emma; Eldridge, Alison L

    2017-06-01

    To explore eating patterns and snacking among US infants, toddlers and pre-school children. The Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS) 2008 was a cross-sectional national survey of children aged 6-47 months, weighted to reflect US age and racial/ethnic distributions. Dietary data were collected using one multiple-pass 24h recall. Eating occasions were categorized as meals, snacks or other (comprised of all feedings of breast milk and/or infant formula). The percentage of children consuming meals and snacks and their contribution to total energy, the number of snacks consumed per day, energy and nutrients coming from snacks and the most commonly consumed snacks were evaluated by age. A national sample of US infants, toddlers and pre-school children. A total of 2891 children in five age groups: 6-8 months (n 249), 9-11 months (n 256), 12-23 months (n 925), 24-35 months (n 736) and 36-47 months (n 725). Snacks were already consumed by 37 % of infants beginning at 6 months; by 12 months of age, nearly 95 % were consuming at least one snack per day. Snacks provided 25 % of daily energy from the age of 12 months. Approximately 40 % of toddlers and pre-school children consumed fruit and cow's milk during snacks; about 25 % consumed 100 % fruit juice. Cookies were introduced early; by 24 months, 57 % consumed cookies or candy in a given day. Snacking is common, contributing significantly to daily energy and nutrient needs of toddlers and pre-school children. There is room for improvement, however, with many popular snacking choices contributing to excess sugar.

  8. The effects of happiness and sadness on Children's snack consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Cin Cin; Holub, Shayla C

    2018-04-01

    Children appear to engage in emotional eating (i.e., eating in response to negative and positive emotions), but existing research has predominantly relied on parent-report and child-report, which may not necessarily reflect children's actual emotional eating behaviors. This study examined the effects of happiness and sadness on children's observed snack consumption and examined whether child characteristics (i.e., weight, gender, and age) interact with mood to predict snack consumption. To elicit mood, children (N = 91; M ages  = 6.8 years; 48 boys) were randomly assigned to one of the three mood induction conditions (happy, sad, or neutral); children's snack consumption was observed and measured after mood induction. Findings showed that children in the sad condition consumed more energy from chocolate, followed by children in the happy condition, and then the neutral condition. However, the reverse pattern was observed for goldfish crackers: children in the neutral condition consumed more energy from this savory snack than children in the happy condition, followed by children in sad condition. Child weight status and gender did not interact with mood to predict snack consumption. Child age did interact with mood: older children consumed more chocolates in the sad condition compared to younger children. Child age was not related to snack consumption in the happy and neutral conditions. This study suggests that emotional eating in response to positive and negative emotions is evident during early childhood, but that this is behavior is developing during this period. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Just-in-Time Technology to Encourage Incremental, Dietary Behavior Change

    OpenAIRE

    Intille, Stephen S.; Kukla, Charles; Farzanfar, Ramesh; Bakr, Waseem

    2003-01-01

    Our multi-disciplinary team is developing mobile computing software that uses “just-in-time” presentation of information to motivate behavior change. Using a participatory design process, preliminary interviews have helped us to establish 10 design goals. We have employed some to create a prototype of a tool that encourages better dietary decision making through incremental, just-in-time motivation at the point of purchase.

  10. Effectiveness of Using a Portable Video Game for Promoting Healthy Dietary Behavior among College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Shiba, Eri

    2009-01-01

    Currently the use of new technologies takes on a growing importance in education. This study assessed the effectiveness of a 2-week intervention using portable video game machine "Nintendo DS" and the software "Koharu no DS Uchigohan (Koharu' s DS home cooking)" to increase knowledge and consciousness of cooking and to promote healthier dietary behavior among college students. A pretest was administered to participants before the intervention. In addition to the same test, the questionnaire a...

  11. Just-in-Time Technology to Encourage Incremental, Dietary Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intille, Stephen S.; Kukla, Charles; Farzanfar, Ramesh; Bakr, Waseem

    2003-01-01

    Our multi-disciplinary team is developing mobile computing software that uses “just-in-time” presentation of information to motivate behavior change. Using a participatory design process, preliminary interviews have helped us to establish 10 design goals. We have employed some to create a prototype of a tool that encourages better dietary decision making through incremental, just-in-time motivation at the point of purchase. PMID:14728379

  12. Dietary Behaviors and Caregiver Perceptions of Overweight and Obesity among Chinese Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Amber; Ji, Meimei; Zhang, Yefu; Zou, Jiaojiao; Li, Mingzhi; Yang, Lina; Lin, Qian

    2018-04-11

    Introduction : Early childhood obesity in China has become a pressing public health concern. A substantial barrier to healthy weight management is poor parental recognition of child overweight. This study examined the relationship between caregiver perceptions of child weight and dietary practices. Methods : A total of 364 children between 2 and 6 years old from six urban preschools in Changsha (China) were included in a cross-sectional study. Information on household demographics, health behaviors, and caregiver attitudes was collected through a self-administered caregiver questionnaire. Chi-squared tests, t -tests, and multivariable logistic regression analysis were used to determine the relationship between caregiver perceptions, dietary behaviors, and child weight status. Results : Over 60% of caregivers with overweight/obese children underestimated their children's weight status. These caregivers were less likely to worry about weight and restrict their children's dietary intakes. Children of caregivers who incorrectly classified their weights were also more likely to have a poor appetite. Caregivers of male children and those from families with incomes between 7000 and 11,000 Ren Min Bi (RMB) were more likely to underestimate weight compared to caregivers with daughters and those from higher income households. Conclusions : Although accurate weight perception may be important for motivating healthy behavioral changes, it may also lead to greater restriction of children's diets, which has been linked to long-term weight gain. Interventions to improve awareness of child overweight should be coupled with efforts that teach caregivers about healthy weight management strategies.

  13. Using the theory of planned behavior to explore attitudes and beliefs about dietary supplements among HIV-positive Black women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lino, Stephanie; Marshak, Helen Hopp; Herring, R Patti; Belliard, Juan Carlos; Hilliard, Charles; Campbell, Danielle; Montgomery, Susanne

    2014-04-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated whether the theory of planned behavior (TPB) constructs: attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control were related to intention of dietary supplements use among African-American women living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus and/or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS). A closed-ended questionnaire based on the TPB was utilized to explore the use of dietary supplements among a cohort of 153 HIV-positive African-American women. Overall, 45% of the respondents used dietary supplements to manage/control their HIV. Combined, attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control were significant predictors of intention toward dietary supplement use (69% of the variance explained, pbehavioral control (β=0.45, pBehavioral intention and proximal TPB constructs (attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control), as well as their underlying beliefs about dietary supplements use, were all found to be significantly more positive in users of dietary supplements compared to non-users (pbehavioral control are important predictors in the intention to use dietary supplements for control of HIV among African-American women. Implications from this study suggest that the TPB can be used to better identify and understand salient beliefs that surround intentions to use alternative therapies for management of disease. These beliefs can be used to develop interventions surrounding HIV treatment and care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Nutritional Information Provision to Cancer Patients and Their Relatives Can Promote Dietary Behavior Changes Independent of Nutritional Information Needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, van Merel R.; Winkels, Renate M.; Janssen, Silvie H.M.; Kampman, Ellen; Beijer, Sandra

    2018-01-01

    We investigated whether obtaining nutritional information influences reported changes in dietary behavior in cancer survivors and their relatives and whether nutritional information needs influence this association. We included 239 cancer survivors and their relatives, recruited from an online panel

  15. The Relationship between Home Environment and Children's Dietary Behaviors, Lifestyle Factors, and Health: Super Food Education School Project by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahori, Nobue; Sekine, Michikazu; Yamada, Masaaki; Tatsuse, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The numbers of nuclear families and working women have been increasing. Such changes in the home environment may affect children's dietary behaviors, lifestyle factors, and health. This study aims to clarify the associations between the home environment and children's dietary behaviors, lifestyle factors, and health.Methods In July 2014, we questioned the students and parents of five elementary schools that joined the Super Food Education School Project in Takaoka City, Toyama Prefecture. Of 2057 subjects, 1936 (94.1%) answered and 1719 of these subjects were analyzed. In this study, the phrase "home environment" describes such terms as "mother's employment status", "family structure", "subjective economic state", "communication between parents and children", "having breakfast or supper with family", "household chores by children", "parents' awareness of food education", "regard for balanced nutrition", and "teaching table manners". We performed logistic-regression analyses using children's dietary behaviors, lifestyle factors, and health as dependent variables; the items relating to home environment were independent variables.Results Children with parents who are employed, those who do not have breakfast or supper with family, those who do not help with household chores, and those with parents who are less conscious of food education were more likely to eat fewer vegetables, to have likes and dislikes of foods, to skip breakfast, and to have snacks. Children who have little communication with their parents, who do not help with household chores, and those with parents who are less conscious of food education were less likely to exercise, sleep well, spend less time with television, and spend less time on playing videogames. Children with less affluence, those who have little communication with their parents, those who do not help with household chores, and those with parents who are less conscious of food education were less likely to have high

  16. Self-crafting vegetable snacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raghoebar, Sanne; Kleef, van Ellen; Vet, de Emely

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to test whether the IKEA-effect (Norton et al., 2012) – better liking for self-crafted products than for identical products crafted by others – can be exploited to increase liking and consumption of vegetable snacks in children. Design/methodology/approach: A

  17. Iranian Female Adolescent's Views on Unhealthy Snacks Consumption: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi-Shahanjarini, A; Omidvar, N; Bazargan3, M; Rashidian, A; Majdzadeh, R; Shojaeizadeh, D

    2010-01-01

    Given the increasing prevalence of obesity among Iranian adolescents and the role of consumption of unhealthy snacks in this issue, interventions that focus on factors influencing food choice are needed. This study was designed to delineate factors associated with unhealthy snack use among female Iranian adolescents. The theory of Planned Behavior served as the framework of the study. Qualitative data were collected via nine focus group discussions in two middle schools (6(th) to 8(th) grades) in a socio-economically diverse district in the city of Tehran in spring 2008. The study sample included 90 female adolescents aged 12-15 years. The sampling strategy was purposive method. Data analyzed using the "framework" method. Major factors identified by the respondents were taste, peer pressure, parental influence, easy access to unhealthy snacks, limited availability of healthy snacks, appeal of snacks, habit, high price of healthy snacks, and media advertisements. Nutritional value and healthiness was not one of the first priorities when buying snacks, as adolescents thought it was too early for them to worry about illness and adverse consequences of eating junk foods. For developing culturally sensitive evidence-based interventions that can motivate adolescents to choose healthy snacks, a broad range of factors should be taken into account.

  18. Iranian Female Adolescent’s Views on Unhealthy Snacks Consumption: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi-Shahanjarini, A; Omidvar, N; Bazargan3, M; Rashidian, A; Majdzadeh, R; Shojaeizadeh, D

    2010-01-01

    Background: Given the increasing prevalence of obesity among Iranian adolescents and the role of consumption of unhealthy snacks in this issue, interventions that focus on factors influencing food choice are needed. This study was designed to delineate factors associated with unhealthy snack use among female Iranian adolescents. Methods: The theory of Planned Behavior served as the framework of the study. Qualitative data were collected via nine focus group discussions in two middle schools (6th to 8th grades) in a socio-economically diverse district in the city of Tehran in spring 2008. The study sample included 90 female adolescents aged 12–15 years. The sampling strategy was purposive method. Data analyzed using the “framework” method. Results: Major factors identified by the respondents were taste, peer pressure, parental influence, easy access to unhealthy snacks, limited availability of healthy snacks, appeal of snacks, habit, high price of healthy snacks, and media advertisements. Nutritional value and healthiness was not one of the first priorities when buying snacks, as adolescents thought it was too early for them to worry about illness and adverse consequences of eating junk foods. Conclusions: For developing culturally sensitive evidence-based interventions that can motivate adolescents to choose healthy snacks, a broad range of factors should be taken into account. PMID:23113027

  19. Secular Trends in Meal and Snack Patterns among Adolescents from 1999 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; Story, Mary; Eisenberg, Marla E; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2016-02-01

    Linkages between snack patterns, diet, and obesity in adolescents likely depend on the consumption of main meals, how often snacks are prepared away from home, and whether energy-dense, nutrient-poor snack foods and sugary drinks are frequently consumed. Nutrition-based interventions need to be informed by an understanding of how secular changes in the contribution of snacks to dietary intake may be related to changes in meal frequency as well as how these trends differ by sociodemographic characteristics. To examine secular trends from 1999 to 2010 in meal and snack patterns among adolescents. A repeated cross-sectional design was used. Participants from Minneapolis/St Paul, MN, secondary schools completed classroom-administered surveys and food frequency questionnaires in 1999 (n=2,598) and 2010 (n=2,540). Weekly meal frequencies; number of snacks consumed on school and vacation/weekend days; frequent consumption of snacks prepared away from home (≥3 times/week); and daily servings of energy-dense, nutrient-poor food/drinks that are commonly consumed at snack occasions. Trends from 1999 to 2010 were examined using inverse probability weighting to control for differences in sociodemographic characteristics in the two samples. Mean frequencies of breakfast and lunch increased modestly in the overall population (both P values snacks consumed on schools days (Psnacks prepared away from home, there was a secular decrease in energy-dense, nutrient-poor food/drink consumption (Psnack trends among adolescents suggests the need for targeted efforts to ensure public health messages reach low-income and ethnic/racial minority population subgroups most vulnerable to poor nutrition and the development of obesity. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of process parameters on the properties of barley containing snacks enriched with brewer's spent grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirjoranta, Satu; Tenkanen, Maija; Jouppila, Kirsi

    2016-01-01

    Brewer's spent grain (BSG), a by-product of malting of barley in the production of malt extract, was used as an ingredient in extruded barley-based snacks in order to improve the nutritional value of the snacks and widen the applications of this by-product in food sector. The effects of the extrusion parameters on the selected properties of the snacks were studied. Snacks with different ingredients including whole grain barley flour, BSG, whey protein isolate (WPI), barley starch and waxy corn starch were produced in 5 separate trials using a co-rotating twin-screw extruder. Extrusion parameters were water content of the mass (17-23 %), screw speed (200-500 rpm) and temperature of the last section and die (110-150 °C). Expansion, hardness and water content of the snacks were determined. Snacks containing barley flour and BSG (10 % of solids) had small expansion and high hardness. Addition of WPI (20 % of solids) increased expansion only slightly. Snacks with high expansion and small hardness were obtained when part of the barley flour was replaced with starch (barley or waxy corn). Yet, the highest expansion and the smallest hardness were achieved when barley flour was used with barley starch and WPI without BSG. Furthermore, expansion increased by increasing screw speed and decreasing water content of the mass in most of the trials. This study showed that BSG is a suitable material for extruded snacks rich in dietary fiber. Physical properties of the snacks could be improved by using barley or waxy corn starch and WPI.

  1. Physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents relative to age, gender and region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M; Abahussain, Nada A; Al-Sobayel, Hana I; Qahwaji, Dina M; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O

    2011-12-21

    Few lifestyle factors have been simultaneously studied and reported for Saudi adolescents. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to report on the prevalence of physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents and to examine the interrelationships among these factors using representative samples drawn from three major cities in Saudi Arabia. This school-based cross-sectional study was conducted during the years 2009-2010 in three cities: Al-Khobar, Jeddah and Riyadh. The participants were 2908 secondary-school males (1401) and females (1507) aged 14-19 years, randomly selected using a multistage stratified sampling technique. Measurements included weight, height, sedentary behaviors (TV viewing, playing video games and computer use), physical activity using a validated questionnaire and dietary habits. A very high proportion (84% for males and 91.2% for females) of Saudi adolescents spent more than 2 hours on screen time daily and almost half of the males and three-quarters of the females did not meet daily physical activity guidelines. The majority of adolescents did not have a daily intake of breakfast, fruit, vegetables and milk. Females were significantly (p sedentary, much less physically active, especially with vigorous physical activity, and there were fewer days per week when they consumed breakfast, fruit, milk and diary products, sugar-sweetened drinks, fast foods and energy drinks than did males. However, the females' intake of French fries and potato chips, cakes and donuts, and candy and chocolate was significantly (p intake of breakfast, vegetables and fruit. Physical activity had a significant (p intake but not with sedentary behaviors. The high prevalence of sedentary behaviors, physical inactivity and unhealthy dietary habits among Saudi adolescents is a major public health concern. There is an urgent need for national policy promoting active living and healthy eating and reducing sedentary behaviors among

  2. Changes in dietary behavior among adolescents and their association with government nutrition policies in Korea, 2005-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sang Geun; Kim, Jong Yeon; Kim, Keon Yeop; Park, Soon Woo; Bae, Jisuk; Lee, Won Kee

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to observe recent changes in adolescents' dietary behavior and indirectly evaluate the effects of the government's nutritional policies in Korea. We analyzed the secular trends in seven dietary behaviors using the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey data from 2005 to 2009. Through literature review, we included the policies implemented for the improvement of adolescents'dietary behaviors during the same periods. The significant linear trends were observed in all dietary behaviors (ppolicies were implemented including 'Ban on carbonated-beverages in school', 'Green Food Zone', etc. Despite confirmed evidence of their effects, the policies on individual behavior such as nutrition education didn't influence the prevalence of dietary behaviors because they were conducted to too limited persons. Policies on the school environmental improvement, such as ban on carbonated beverage in school, were more effective because they decreased the exposure of undesirable food environment. However, for effect of Green Food Zone improving community environment we couldn't come to a conclusion because of too short period after full implementation. Among government nutrition policies conducted from 2005 to 2009, those on environmental improvement, especially in school, were more effective than those on individual behavior. Therefore, the development and implement of policies on school environmental improvement are needed in Korea.

  3. Obesity among Saudi Female University Students: Dietary Habits and Health Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Qauhiz, Norah M

    2010-01-01

    The remarkable economic growth in Saudi Arabia has affected the population life style negatively. The increasing problem of obesity has been reported from different regions in the kingdom. The rate of overweight and obesity reached 65.4% in the eastern region among females aged 18-74 years old. Although there is considerable amount of data on prevalence of obesity, yet, data on dietary habits and food consumption pattern are limited. The present study is a cross- sectional descriptive study aimed at exploring the BMI distribution among university female students. Food consumption pattern and health related behaviors were also assessed. 799 students participated in the study; data were collected using self administered questionnaire. Body weight and height were measured to calculate the BMI. Among the study participants, overweight and obesity reached 47.9%. Marriage, presence of obesity among family members, frequency of drinking aerated beverages increased the risk of obesity significantly. Misperception of body image was reported by 17.4% and 54.2% of obese and overweight students respectively. Analysis of dietary habits and life styles indicated the predominance of unhealthy behaviors. The study results mandate the need for a national strategy to adopt healthy dietary habits and life styles.

  4. Dietary Habits and Health Related Behaviors in Iranian Children and Adolescents: The CASPIAN- IV Study

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    Fatemeh Azizi-Soleiman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity has a growing global epidemic with several risk factors including lifestyle habits, physical activity, and prolonged screen time. This study aimed to compare the dietary habits and self-reported health behaviors in a nationally representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional nationwide study was conducted in the framework of the fourth survey of a national school-based surveillance program, entitled Childhood and Adolescence Surveillance and Prevention of Adult Non‑communicable disease (CASPIAN-IV Study. Participants were 14,880 students aged 6-18 years from 30 provinces in Iran. The World Health Organization- Global Student Health Survey questionnaire was utilized to assess their relationship with peers, body image, dietary, life-style and smoking habits, physical activity, and violence behaviors. Apart from the questionnaire, additional information on dietary habits was obtained as well. The Chi-square test and the student t-test were used to compare the groups. Results: Boys had higher proportions of obesity (P

  5. Nucleus accumbens inflammation mediates anxiodepressive behavior and compulsive sucrose seeking elicited by saturated dietary fat

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    Léa Décarie-Spain

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The incidence of depression is significantly compounded by obesity. Obesity arising from excessive intake of high-fat food provokes anxiodepressive behavior and elicits molecular adaptations in the nucleus accumbens (NAc, a region well-implicated in the hedonic deficits associated with depression and in the control of food-motivated behavior. To determine the etiology of diet-induced depression, we studied the impact of different dietary lipids on anxiodepressive behavior and metabolic and immune outcomes and the contribution of NAc immune activity. Methods: Adult C57Bl/6 mice were subjected to isocaloric high-fat/high-sucrose diets (HFD, enriched in either saturated or monounsaturated fat, or a control low-fat diet (LFD. Metabolic responses, anxiodepressive behavior, and plasma and NAc inflammatory markers were assessed after 12 weeks. In separate experiments, an adenoviral construct inhibiting IKKβ, an upstream component of the nuclear factor kappa-b (NFkB pathway, was a priori injected into the NAc. Results: Both HFDs resulted in obesity and hyperleptinemia; however, the saturated HFD uniquely triggered anxiety-like behavior, behavioral despair, hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance, peripheral inflammation, and multiple pro-inflammatory signs in the NAc, including reactive gliosis, increased expression of cytokines, antigen-presenting markers and NFкB transcriptional activity. Selective NAc IKKβ inhibition reversed the upregulated expression of inflammatory markers, prevented anxiodepressive behavior and blunted compulsive sucrose-seeking in mice fed the saturated HFD. Conclusions: Metabolic inflammation and NFкB-mediated neuroinflammatory responses in the NAc contribute to the expression of anxiodepressive behavior and heightened food cravings caused by a diet high in saturated fat and sugar. Keywords: Diet-induced obesity, Dietary fatty acids, Nuclear factor kappa-b, Neuroinflammation, Depression, Anxiety, Food reward

  6. Guilty pleasures: The effect of perceived overeating on food addiction attributions and snack choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddock, Helen K; Hardman, Charlotte A

    2018-02-01

    Despite being widely debated throughout the scientific community, the concept of food addiction remains a popular explanation for overeating and obesity amongst the lay public. Overeating is often accompanied by feelings of guilt and dietary concern, and this may lead people to attribute their eating to an addiction in order to minimise personal responsibility. Research also indicates that food addiction attributions and dietary concern may lead people to limit their exposure to tempting foods. To test these ideas, we examined the effect of perceived overeating on food addiction attributions and snack choice. Subjective ratings of guilt and dietary concern were indirectly manipulated by leading female participants (N=90) to believe they had eaten more than (overeating condition), less than (undereating condition), or roughly the same (control condition) amount of palatable foods in relation to their own estimated consumption and to previous participants. Participants then rated the relative importance of a list of explanations for their eating (including "the foods were really addictive") and selected a snack to take home with them. Ratings of guilt and dietary concern were highest in the overeating condition, and lowest in the undereating condition, indicating that the manipulation had been successful. However, findings revealed no effect of condition on food addiction attributions. As predicted, participants in the overeating condition selected less tempting snacks than in the undereating condition. However, this effect was not mediated by guilt/dietary concern. There was also no association between food-addiction attributions and snack choice. These findings suggest that perceived overeating affects snack choice but not food addiction attributions. Future research should investigate whether food addiction attributions may be driven by feelings of guilt and dietary concern following longer-term disinhibited eating patterns. Copyright © 2017 The Authors

  7. Application of Moldavian dragonhead (Dracocephalum moldavica L.) leaves addition as a functional component of nutritionally valuable corn snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójtowicz, Agnieszka; Oniszczuk, Anna; Oniszczuk, Tomasz; Kocira, Sławomir; Wojtunik, Karolina; Mitrus, Marcin; Kocira, Anna; Widelski, Jarosław; Skalicka-Woźniak, Krystyna

    2017-09-01

    Application of Moldavian dragonhead ( Dracocephalum moldavica L.) leaves in extruded snacks was evaluated. Directly expanded corn snacks (crisps) were supplemented with 5-20% of dragonhead leaves. The supplemented snacks were characterized to have improved nutritional value and were a good source of dietary fibre. The presence of phenolic compounds, especially rosmarinic acid, showed a high antioxidant potential and a radical scavenging activity of tested snacks, especially if a high content of additive was used. The increasing amount of additive also had an impact on the physical properties of extrudates lowering the expansion ratio, water absorption and solubility, yet increasing bulk density, cutting force and the breaking index of the enriched snacks. The highest viscosity was observed at 5 and 10% addition level. The increasing amount of dragonhead leaves lowered the brightness of snacks and increased the greenness tint significantly. A sensory evaluation showed good acceptability of snacks enriched with up to 15% of dragonhead dried leaves. Dried leaves of the Moldavian dragonhead seem to be a prospective functional additive for extruded crisps with a high nutritional value, especially because of dietary fibre and rosmarinic acid content, a strong antioxidant potential and acceptable sensory properties.

  8. The behavior of dietary fiber in the gastrointestinal tract determines its physiological effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuano, Edoardo

    2017-11-02

    A diet rich in dietary fiber (DF) is considered healthy and recommended dietary intake of DF is established all over the world. The physiological effect of DF is mostly related to its behavior during digestion. In this review, the behavior of DF in the human digestive tract is discussed and linked to its physiological effect with special attention to four aspects of such behavior: (i) the modulation of bioavailability by the plant cell walls, (ii) the effect of DF on the rheological and colloidal state of digesta, (iii) the binding of DF with phenolic compounds, bile salts, mineral ions, and digestive enzymes, and (iv) DF fermentation in the large intestine and the corresponding effect on microbiota composition. It is stressed that the detailed chemical characterization of DF is crucial to explain its effect on health and that DF behavior in the digestive tract can be modulated by interactions with other food and meal components so that information of the bare content in DF of food is not sufficient to predict its physiological effect.

  9. Amelioration of behavioral abnormalities in BH(4-deficient mice by dietary supplementation of tyrosine.

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    Sang Su Kwak

    Full Text Available This study reports an amelioration of abnormal motor behaviors in tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4-deficient Spr (-/- mice by the dietary supplementation of tyrosine. Since BH4 is an essential cofactor for the conversion of phenylalanine into tyrosine as well as the synthesis of dopamine neurotransmitter within the central nervous system, the levels of tyrosine and dopamine were severely reduced in brains of BH4-deficient Spr (-/- mice. We found that Spr (-/- mice display variable 'open-field' behaviors, impaired motor functions on the 'rotating rod', and dystonic 'hind-limb clasping'. In this study, we report that these aberrant motor deficits displayed by Spr (-/- mice were ameliorated by the therapeutic tyrosine diet for 10 days. This study also suggests that dopamine deficiency in brains of Spr (-/- mice may not be the biological feature of aberrant motor behaviors associated with BH4 deficiency. Brain levels of dopamine (DA and its metabolites in Spr (-/- mice were not substantially increased by the dietary tyrosine therapy. However, we found that mTORC1 activity severely suppressed in brains of Spr (-/- mice fed a normal diet was restored 10 days after feeding the mice the tyrosine diet. The present study proposes that brain mTORC1 signaling pathway is one of the potential targets in understanding abnormal motor behaviors associated with BH4-deficiency.

  10. Meal Frequency but Not Snack Frequency Is Associated with Micronutrient Intakes and Overall Diet Quality in Australian Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leech, Rebecca M; Livingstone, Katherine M; Worsley, Anthony; Timperio, Anna; McNaughton, Sarah A

    2016-10-01

    Skipping breakfast is associated with poorer diet quality among adults, but evidence of associations for other eating patterns [e.g., eating occasion (EO), meal, or snack frequency] is equivocal. An understanding of how eating patterns are associated with diet quality is needed to inform population-level dietary recommendations. We aimed in this cross-sectional study to determine the relation between frequency of meals, snacks, and all EOs with nutrient intakes and diet quality in a representative sample of Australian adults. Dietary data for 5242 adults aged ≥19 y collected via two 24-h recalls during the 2011-2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey were analyzed. EO, meal, and snack frequency was calculated. Adherence to recommendations for healthy eating was assessed with the use of the 2013 Dietary Guidelines Index (DGI) and its subcomponents. Linear regression, adjusted for covariates and energy misreporting, was used to examine associations between eating patterns, energy-adjusted nutrient intakes, and the DGI-2013. The frequency of meals, but not of snacks, was positively associated with micronutrient intakes, overall diet quality [men: β = 5.6 (95% CI: 3.9, 7.3); women: β = 4.1 (95% CI: 2.2, 5.9); P snacks was positively associated with DGI-2013 scores for food variety, fruits, and dairy foods (P snack frequency was associated with a lower compliance with guidelines for discretionary foods and added sugars among men (P snack frequency suggest that the quality of snack choices is variable. More research examining the dietary profiles of eating patterns and their relations with diet quality is needed to inform the development of meal-based guidelines and messages that encourage healthy eating. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. [Evaluation of consumer's acceptance of a peach palm snack (Bactris gasipaes) and determination of its potential as a functional food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Calvo, Rebeca; Pérez, Ana M; Ivankovich Guillén, Carmen; Calderón Villaplana, Sandra; Pineda Castro, Maria Lourdes

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate consumers' acceptance of a peach palm snack and to determine its potential as a functional food by chemical characterization. An assessment was conducted with 100 consumers to determine the acceptance of different snack formulations and the results were subjected to cluster analysis. This analysis revealed two groups. Group 2 included people that consume snacks and peach palm frequently and showed the highest grades for the snack evaluated characteristics. All the consumers in group 2 and approximately 85% of the consumers in group 1 indicated that they would buy the product suggesting that there is a niche market for the developed peach palm snack. Also, a qualitative evaluation, using mini focus groups, of the two most widely accepted formulas of the snack (chosen according to previously described study) was performed. The sessions considered the opinion of middle class professionals and housewives. It was determined that the combination of tara gum and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) allows a positive synergistic effect on the sensory characteristics of the snack, highlighting natural peach flavor and improving crunchiness. In a dry basis, the snack contains per 100 g: 9 ± 4 g of fat, 14.0 ± 0.3 g of dietary fiber, 15500 ± 32 µg of carotenoids and has an antioxidant capacity of 4700 ± 8 µmol TE, which demonstrates its potential as a functional food.

  12. [A measure of the motives underlying snack selection among Japanese junior high school students: the Snack Choice Questionnaire (SCQ)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akamatsu, Rie

    2007-02-01

    To develop a measure of the motives underlying snack selection by Japanese junior high school students and to examine the characteristics of each motivating factor. Self-reported questionnaires were distributed in a cross-sectional study of 1,936 students in public junior high schools in Tokyo, Japan. The respondents answered the Snack Choice Questionnaire (SCQ) and the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ), which assess overeating, snacking behavior, the food environment, lifestyle, and demographics. Twenty-two items of the SCQ were factor-analyzed using varimax rotation. Three factors were extracted and labeled "fashion and sales promotion," "convenience and taste," "health and weight control." All factors demonstrated a satisfactory Cronbach's alpha coefficient of over 0.80, and scores for both "fashion and sales promotion" (r= 0.349, Pfoods frequently had high scores for "fashion and sales promotion" and "convenience and taste" but not for "health and weight control." The factor "fashion and sales promotion" was related to more TV viewing (beta = 0.060, Pmotives underlying snack food selection in junior high-schools in Japan suggest a need for comprehensive nutrition education, along with a focus on media literacy and consumer education.

  13. Eating on nightshift: A big vs small snack impairs glucose response to breakfast

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    Stephanie Centofanti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Shift work is a risk factor for chronic diseases such as Type 2 diabetes. Food choice may play a role, however simply eating at night when the body is primed for sleep may have implications for health. This study examined the impact of consuming a big versus small snack at night on glucose metabolism. N = 31 healthy subjects (21–35 y; 18 F participated in a simulated nightshift laboratory study that included one baseline night of sleep (22:00 h-07:00 h and one night awake with allocation to either a big snack (2100 kJ or small snack (840 kJ group. The snack was consumed between 00:00–00:30 h and consisted of low fat milk, a sandwich, chips and fruit (big snack or half sandwich and fruit (small snack. Subjects ate an identical mixed meal breakfast (2100 kJ at 08:30 h after one full night of sleep and a simulated nightshift. Interstitial glucose was measured continuously during the entire study using Medtronic Continual Glucose Monitors. Only subjects with identical breakfast consumption and complete datasets were analysed (N = 20. Glucose data were averaged into 5-minute bins and area under the curve (AUC was calculated for 90 min post-breakfast. Pre-breakfast, glucose levels were not significantly different between Day1 and Day2, nor were they different between snack groups (p > 0.05. A snack group by day interaction effect was found (F1,16 = 5.36, p = 0.034 and post-hocs revealed that in the big snack group, AUC response to breakfast was significantly higher following nightshift (Day2 compared to Day1 (p = 0.001. This translated to a 20.8% (SEM 5.6 increase. AUC was not significantly different between days in the small snack group. Consuming a big snack at 00:00 h impaired the glucose response to breakfast at 08:30 h, compared to a smaller snack. Further research in this area will inform dietary advice for shift workers, which could include recommendations on how much to eat as well as content.

  14. Effects of Latino children on their mothers' dietary intake and dietary behaviors: The role of children's acculturation and the mother-child acculturation gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Sandra H; Arredondo, Elva M; Marcus, Bess; Shakya, Holly B; Roesch, Scott; Ayala, Guadalupe X

    2017-10-01

    Research shows that acculturation is important to Latinas' dietary intake and related behaviors. Although evidence suggests children may also play a role, it remains unclear whether children's acculturation is related to mothers' dietary intake/behaviors. We examined the relationship between Latino children's acculturation and mothers' dietary intake/behaviors. We also examined the mother-child acculturation gap to identify dyad characteristics associated with mothers' diet. Baseline surveys were collected in 2010 from 314 Latino mother-child (7-13 years old) dyads of Mexican-origin enrolled in a family-based dietary intervention in Southern California, USA. Mother's daily intake of fruits, vegetables, and sugary beverages, percent of calories from fat, weekly away-from-home eating, and percent of weekly grocery dollars spent on fruits and vegetables were assessed via self-report. Mothers' and children's bidimensional acculturation were examined using acculturation groups (e.g., assimilated, bicultural) derived from Hispanic and non-Hispanic dimensions of language. We also assessed the acculturation gap between mothers and children with the a) difference in acculturation between mothers' and children's continuous acculturation scores and b) mother-child acculturation gap typologies (e.g., traditional mothers of assimilated children). Findings show that having an assimilated versus a bicultural child was negatively associated with mothers' vegetable intake and positively associated with mothers' sugary beverage intake, percent of calories from fat, and frequency of away-from-home eating, regardless of mothers' acculturation. Traditional mothers of assimilated children reported more sugary beverage intake, calories from fat, and more frequent away-from-home eating than traditional mothers of bicultural children. Results suggest that children's acculturation is associated with their mothers' dietary intake/behaviors and traditional mothers of assimilated children

  15. Should snacks be recommended in obesity treatment? A 1-year randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertéus Forslund, H; Klingström, S; Hagberg, H; Löndahl, M; Torgerson, J S; Lindroos, A K

    2008-11-01

    To study the effect to recommend no snacks vs three snacks per day on 1-year weight loss. The hypothesis was that it is easier to control energy intake and lose weight if snacks in between meals are omitted. In total 140 patients (36 men, 104 women), aged 18-60 years and body mass index>30 kg/m(2) were randomized and 93 patients (27 men, 66 women) completed the study. A 1-year randomized intervention trial was conducted with two treatment arms with different eating frequencies; 3 meals/day (3M) or 3 meals and 3 snacks/day (3+3M). The patients received regular and individualized counseling by dieticians. Information on eating patterns, dietary intake, weight and metabolic variables was collected at baseline and after 1 year. Over 1 year the 3M group reported a decrease in the number of snacks whereas the 3+3M group reported an increase (-1.1 vs +0.4 snacks/day, respectively, Ptreatment (3M vs 3+3M=-4.1+/-6.1 vs -5.9+/-9.4 kg; P=0.31). Changes in metabolic variables did not differ between the groups, except for high-density lipoprotein that increased in the 3M group but not in 3+3M group (Psnacks or not between meals does not influence 1-year weight loss.

  16. Exposure to dietary mercury alters cognition and behavior of zebra finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaddle, John P; Diehl, Tessa R; Taylor, Capwell E; Fanaee, Aaron S; Benson, Jessica L; Huckstep, Neil R; Cristol, Daniel A

    2017-04-01

    Environmental stressors can negatively affect avian cognitive abilities, potentially reducing fitness, for example by altering response to predators, display to mates, or memory of locations of food. We expand on current knowledge by investigating the effects of dietary mercury, a ubiquitous environmental pollutant and known neurotoxin, on avian cognition. Zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata were dosed for their entire lives with sub-lethal levels of mercury, at the environmentally relevant dose of 1.2 parts per million. In our first study, we compared the dosed birds with controls of the same age using tests of three cognitive abilities: spatial memory, inhibitory control, and color association. In the spatial memory assay, birds were tested on their ability to learn and remember the location of hidden food in their cage. The inhibitory control assay measured their ability to ignore visible but inaccessible food in favor of a learned behavior that provided the same reward. Finally, the color association task tested each bird's ability to associate a specific color with the presence of hidden food. Dietary mercury negatively affected spatial memory ability but not inhibitory control or color association. Our second study focused on three behavioral assays not tied to a specific skill or problem-solving: activity level, neophobia, and social dominance. Zebra finches exposed to dietary mercury throughout their lives were subordinate to, and more active than, control birds. We found no evidence that mercury exposure influenced our metric of neophobia. Together, these results suggest that sub-lethal exposure to environmental mercury selectively harms neurological pathways that control different cognitive abilities, with complex effects on behavior and fitness.

  17. Dietary Behaviors and Caregiver Perceptions of Overweight and Obesity among Chinese Preschool Children

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    Amber Tang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Early childhood obesity in China has become a pressing public health concern. A substantial barrier to healthy weight management is poor parental recognition of child overweight. This study examined the relationship between caregiver perceptions of child weight and dietary practices. Methods: A total of 364 children between 2 and 6 years old from six urban preschools in Changsha (China were included in a cross-sectional study. Information on household demographics, health behaviors, and caregiver attitudes was collected through a self-administered caregiver questionnaire. Chi-squared tests, t-tests, and multivariable logistic regression analysis were used to determine the relationship between caregiver perceptions, dietary behaviors, and child weight status. Results: Over 60% of caregivers with overweight/obese children underestimated their children’s weight status. These caregivers were less likely to worry about weight and restrict their children’s dietary intakes. Children of caregivers who incorrectly classified their weights were also more likely to have a poor appetite. Caregivers of male children and those from families with incomes between 7000 and 11,000 Ren Min Bi (RMB were more likely to underestimate weight compared to caregivers with daughters and those from higher income households. Conclusions: Although accurate weight perception may be important for motivating healthy behavioral changes, it may also lead to greater restriction of children’s diets, which has been linked to long-term weight gain. Interventions to improve awareness of child overweight should be coupled with efforts that teach caregivers about healthy weight management strategies.

  18. Evaluation of a Theory-Based Intervention Aimed at Reducing Intention to Use Restrictive Dietary Behaviors Among Adolescent Female Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laramée, Catherine; Drapeau, Vicky; Valois, Pierre; Goulet, Claude; Jacob, Raphaëlle; Provencher, Véronique; Lamarche, Benoît

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a theory-based intervention to reduce the intention to use restrictive dietary behaviors for losing weight among adolescent female athletes involved in aesthetic sports. Cluster-randomized controlled trial. Aesthetic sport teams of adolescent female athletes aged 12-17 years. Two teams (n = 37 athletes) in the intervention group and 3 teams (n = 33) in the comparison group. The 2 groups received nutrition education during 3 weekly 60-minute sessions. The intervention group was further exposed to a theory-based intervention targeting the specific determinant of intention to use restrictive dietary behaviors for losing weight, namely attitude. Difference over time between groups in intention to use restrictive dietary behaviors for losing weight and in nutrition knowledge. Mixed models for repeated measures. The theory-based intervention contributed to maintaining a low intention of using restrictive dietary behaviors for losing weight over time in the intervention group compared with the comparison group (P theory-based behavior change intervention may help maintain a low intention of using restrictive dietary behaviors for losing weight among female high school athletes involved in aesthetic sports. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Self-reported health-related behaviors and dietary habits in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowicz, Katarzyna; Pałkowska, Ewelina; Bartnikowska, Elżbieta; Krzesiński, Paweł; Stańczyk, Adam; Biecek, Przemysław; Skrobowski, Andrzej; Gielerak, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate about factors affecting the maintenance of a healthy lifestyle especially in the population without coronary artery disease (CAD) symptoms and with one or several risk factors. The study was aimed at describing self-reported health-related behaviors and dietary habits in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Consecutive patients with an outpatient diagnosis of MetS admitted to our cardiology department underwent clinical examination and cardiovascular risk assessment based on the SCORE scale. Self-reported intensity of pro-healthy behaviors was described using the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI) developed by Juczynski. Diet quality was assessed using the 24-h dietary recall method, diet history questionnaire and the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI). A total of 113 patients were recruited (90 males, mean age 48 ± 9 years) including 85% of patients with at least moderate cardiovascular risk (SCORE ≥ 1%). Central obesity was confirmed in 100%, family history of CAD in 75%, LDL exceeding 115 mg/dL in 68% of the patients. A total of 66% of the patients had already been on antihypertensive and 30% on lipid-lowering treatment without previous counselling on lifestyle modification. Most patients reported high or medium level health-related behaviors (23% and 45%, respectively). However, 91% led sedentary lifestyle and none of the patients followed cardioprotective diet recommendations. According to the HEI, 73% required partial and 27% complete diet modification. There is a significant discrepancy between health perception and medical recommendations in patients with MetS. Effective patient education, taking into account a revision of the patient's knowledge on the principles of prophylaxis, may form the fundament for the changes in patient behavior, and cardiovascular risk reduction.

  20. Parent dietary, physical activity and sedentary behaviors associated with child behaviors and weight status among private school children in Delhi, India: A cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Blanche Greene-Cramer

    2016-01-01

    Background Family can be an important socializing agent that strongly influences child and adolescent behavior. While studies have found associations between parent modeling of healthy behaviors and these behaviors in children in the US and other western countries, there is a dearth of research examining these associations among low and middle-income countries like India. This study examines the association between parent dietary, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors and child behavi...

  1. Nutritional Information Provision to Cancer Patients and Their Relatives Can Promote Dietary Behavior Changes Independent of Nutritional Information Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veen, Merel R; Winkels, Renate M; Janssen, Silvie H M; Kampman, Ellen; Beijer, Sandra

    2018-04-01

    We investigated whether obtaining nutritional information influences reported changes in dietary behavior in cancer survivors and their relatives and whether nutritional information needs influence this association. We included 239 cancer survivors and their relatives, recruited from an online panel of cancer survivors and relatives. This panel completed a survey about their experiences with nutritional information provision by healthcare professionals and the media in the period after diagnosis, their information needs regarding nutrition and cancer, and whether they changed their dietary behavior since diagnosis. The survey showed that 56% of respondents obtained nutritional information, mostly during treatment. Respondents who obtained nutritional information more often reported to have altered their dietary behavior after diagnosis. This association was not altered by having information needs. The reported changes in dietary behavior were coherent with the recommendations of the World Cancer Research Fund: respondents reported to choose less products that promote weight gain, increased intake of plant foods, and decreased meat and alcohol use. Respondents who obtained nutritional information more often changed their dietary behavior, regardless whether they had nutritional information needs. This might be an indication that healthcare professionals should provide nutritional information not only to those expressing a need for nutritional information.

  2. Local food environments are associated with girls' energy, sugar-sweetened beverage and snack-food intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deierlein, Andrea L; Galvez, Maida P; Yen, Irene H; Pinney, Susan M; Biro, Frank M; Kushi, Lawrence H; Teitelbaum, Susan; Wolff, Mary S

    2014-10-01

    To describe availability and frequency of use of local snack-food outlets and determine whether reported use of these outlets was associated with dietary intakes. Data were cross-sectional. Availability and frequency of use of three types of local snack-food outlets were reported. Daily dietary intakes were based on the average of up to four 24 h dietary recalls. Multivariable linear regression models estimated average daily intakes of energy, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and snack foods/sweets associated with use of outlets. Multi-site, observational cohort study in the USA, 2004-2006. Girls aged 6-8 years (n 1010). Weekly frequency of use of local snack-food outlets increased with number of available types of outlets. Girls with access to only one type of outlet reported consuming food/beverage items less frequently than girls with access to two or three types of outlets (P snack foods/sweets intakes increased with greater use of outlets. Girls who reported using outlets>1 to 3 times/week consumed 0·27 (95 % CI 0·13, 0·40) servings of SSB more daily than girls who reported no use. Girls who reported using outlets>3 times/week consumed 449·61 (95 % CI 134·93, 764·29) kJ, 0·43 (95 % CI 0·29, 0·58) servings of SSB and 0·38 (95 % CI 0·12, 0·65) servings of snack foods/sweets more daily than those who reported no use. Girls' frequency of use of local snack-food outlets increases with the number of available types of outlets and is associated with greater daily intakes of energy and servings of SSB and snack foods/sweets.

  3. Dietary experience modifies horses' feeding behavior and selection patterns of three macronutrient rich diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redgate, S E; Cooper, J J; Hall, S; Eady, P; Harris, P A

    2014-04-01

    Choice feeding is often used to investigate an animal's nutritional requirements and dietary preferences. A problem with this approach is that animals with long gut transit times, such as the horse, may find it difficult to associate a chosen food with its nutritional consequence when alternative foods are presented simultaneously. One solution is to present foods singly for a period of time before a simultaneous choice session to allow the development of learned associations. This method was used to determine if horse's voluntary intake and feeding behavior was influenced by the macronutrient composition of the diet. Seven stabled horses, maintained on a low intensity exercise regimen, were allowed, on an ad libitum basis, haylage and 3 isocaloric forage based diets that were rich in 1 of 3 macronutrients (protein, lipid, and hydrolyzable carbohydrate). Initially, diets were presented as a 3-way choice for 5 d (self-selection a [SSa]), then singly (monadic phase) with exposure to each diet for 2 separate periods of 3 d each, and finally again as a choice for 5 d (self-selection b [SSb]). The total amount of trial diet offered differed with trial phase, with 2 to 2.5% of BW during SSa and the monadic phase, increasing to ad libitum access during SSb. To control differences in the total amount of trial diet offered, 2 measurements of voluntary intake were taken at 4 and 22 h postpresentation. Daily macronutrient and energy intakes were estimated from proximate analysis of the trial diets and batches of haylage fed. Feeding behavior was observed over a single 4-h period during both self-selection phases. Horses showed no initial preference after 4 h for any 1 diet during SSa. Following the monadic phase, horses demonstrated a preference for the protein and hydrolyzable carbohydrate rich diets over the lipid rich diet (P < 0.001). Dietary experience modified foraging behavior as the total number of visits to the diets decreased during SSb (P < 0.005). Analysis of 24

  4. Sweetened Drink and Snacking Cues in Adolescents: A Study Using Ecological Momentary Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenard, Jerry L.; Stacy, Alan W.; Shiffman, Saul; Baraldi, Amanda N.; MacKinnon, David P.; Lockhart, Ginger; Kisbu-Sakarya, Yasemin; Boyle, Sarah; Beleva, Yuliyana; Koprowski, Carol; Ames, Susan L.; Reynolds, Kim D.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify physical, social, and intrapersonal cues that were associated with the consumption of sweetened beverages and sweet and salty snacks among adolescents from lower SES neighborhoods. Students were recruited from high schools with a minimum level of 25% free or reduced cost lunches. Using Ecological Momentary Assessment, participants (N=158) were trained to answer brief questionnaires on handheld PDA devices: (a) each time they ate or drank, (b) when prompted randomly, and (c) once each evening. Data were collected over 7 days for each participant. Participants reported their location (e.g., school grounds, home), mood, social environment, activities (e.g., watching TV, texting), cravings, food cues (e.g., saw a snack), and food choices. Results showed that having unhealthy snacks or sweet drinks among adolescents was associated with being at school, being with friends, feeling lonely or bored, craving a drink or snack, and being exposed to food cues. Surprisingly, sweet drink consumption was associated with exercising. Watching TV was associated with consuming sweet snacks but not with salty snacks or sweet drinks. These findings identify important environmental and intrapersonal cues to poor snacking choices that may be applied to interventions designed to disrupt these food-related, cue-behavior linked habits. PMID:23583312

  5. Snack Food, Satiety, and Weight123

    OpenAIRE

    Njike, Valentine Yanchou; Smith, Teresa M; Shuval, Omree; Shuval, Kerem; Edshteyn, Ingrid; Kalantari, Vahid; Yaroch, Amy L

    2016-01-01

    In today’s society, snacking contributes close to one-third of daily energy intake, with many snacks consisting of energy-dense and nutrient-poor foods. Choices made with regard to snacking are affected by a multitude of factors on individual, social, and environmental levels. Social norms, for example, that emphasize healthful eating are likely to increase the intake of nutrient-rich snacks. In addition, satiety, the feeling of fullness that persists after eating, is an important factor in s...

  6. Meal and snack-time eating disorder cognitions predict eating disorder behaviors and vice versa in a treatment seeking sample: A mobile technology based ecological momentary assessment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Cheri A; Sala, Margarita; Fewell, Laura; Brosof, Leigh C; Fournier, Lauren; Lenze, Eric J

    2018-06-01

    Individuals with eating disorders experience high anxiety when eating, which may contribute to the high relapse rates seen in the eating disorders. However, it is unknown if specific cognitions associated with such anxiety (e.g., fears of gaining weight) may lead to engagement in eating disorder behaviors (e.g., weighing oneself). Participants (N = 66) recently treated at a residential eating disorder facility and diagnosed with an eating disorder (primarily anorexia nervosa; n = 40; 60.6%) utilized a mobile application to answer questions about mealtime cognitions, anxiety, and eating disorder behaviors four times a day for one week. Hierarchical linear models using cross-lag analyses identified that there were quasi-causal (and sometimes reciprocal) within-person relationships between specific eating disorder cognitions and subsequent eating disorder behaviors. These cognitions predicted higher anxiety during the next meal and eating disorder pathology at one-month follow-up. Interventions personalized to target these specific cognitions in real time might reduce eating disorder relapse. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A study of dietary habits and eating-out behavior of college students in Cheongju area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo-Eun; Yoon, Wan-Young

    2014-01-01

    To find out the effects of the general characteristic on dietary habits and eating out behavior of college students in Cheongju area. The ratios of major were 50.3% (80/159) for food and nutrition and 49.7% (79/159) for the others. The most of respondents missed breakfast and the most reason for skipping meal was no time. Older and younger group were different significantly in skipping meal, reason of meal skip, place of lunch, cost of lunch, and preferred lunch menu (Peating-out behaviors in the results of this study through education, and by seeking for alternatives from different angles such as various nutrition education and nutrition improvement programs.

  8. Parity implications for anthropometrical variables, lifestyle behaviors and dietary habits in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goñi, L; Cuervo, M; Santiago, S; Zazpe, I; Martínez, J A

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining an adequate health status and appropriate lifestyles during pregnancy is of great importance to prevent adverse outcomes for both mother and baby. The present study aimed to assess the nutritional status, socio-demographic features, lifestyle behaviors and dietary habits of pregnant women in Spain, and to identify the influence of parity on these profiles. This cross-sectional study included pregnant women from regions all over Spain. The information was collected through a 40 item questionnaire, previously validated by community health professionals. The 5,087 pregnant women analyzed had an average age of 31.9 years with an adequate nutritional status. The distribution of the sample was 56% nulliparous and 44% multiparous. The nulliparous reported a better self-perceived health status and nutritional balance, and a lower incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus. However, the multiparous showed healthier lifestyle habits (lower rates of smoking and alcohol consumption) and more physically active patterns. Regarding diet, nulliparous pregnant women consumed more dairy products, fresh fruit and nuts, and less bread, rice/pasta/potatoes, meat, sausage and buns/pastries than multiparous pregnant women. Differences between analyzed patterns were observed in anthropometrical variables, lifestyle behaviors and dietary habits, which may require different nutritional messages to nulliparous as compared to multiparous from a public health point of view.

  9. Obesity-Related Dietary Behaviors among Racially and Ethnically Diverse Pregnant and Postpartum Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Harris

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Obesity is common among reproductive age women and disproportionately impacts racial/ethnic minorities. Our objective was to assess racial/ethnic differences in obesity-related dietary behaviors among pregnant and postpartum women, to inform peripartum weight management interventions that target diverse populations. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 212 Black (44%, Hispanic (31%, and White (25% women, aged ≥ 18, pregnant or within one year postpartum, in hospital-based clinics in Baltimore, Maryland, in 2013. Outcomes were fast food or sugar-sweetened beverage intake once or more weekly. We used logistic regression to evaluate the association between race/ethnicity and obesity-related dietary behaviors, adjusting for sociodemographic factors. Results. In adjusted analyses, Black women had 2.4 increased odds of fast food intake once or more weekly compared to White women (CI = 1.08, 5.23. There were no racial/ethnic differences in the odds of sugar-sweetened beverage intake. Discussion. Compared with White or Hispanic women, Black women had 2-fold higher odds of fast food intake once or more weekly. Black women might benefit from targeted counseling and intervention to reduce fast food intake during and after pregnancy.

  10. Acculturation and changes in dietary behavior and anthropometric measures among Chinese international students in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jounghee; Gao, Ran-Ran; Kim, Jung-Hee

    2015-06-01

    International students face dissimilar food environments, which could lead to changes in dietary behaviors and anthropometric characteristics between before and after migration. We sought to examine the risk factors, including dietary behaviors, acculturation, and demographic characteristics, related to overweight subjects residing in South Korea. We conducted a cross-sectional study, collecting data from 142 Chinese international students (63 males, 79 females) in 2013. The mean age of the subjects was 25.4 years, and almost half of them immigrated to South Korea to earn a master's degree or doctoral degree (n = 70, 49.3%). Chinese international students showed an increase in skipping meals and eating speed, but a decrease in the frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption in South Korea compared to when they lived in China. We found a statistically significant increase in weight (69.4 → 73.9 kg) and BMI (22.4 → 23.8 kg/m(2)) for male subjects (P < 0.001) but no change for female subjects. We also found that overweight subjects were more likely to be highly acculturated and male compared with normal-weight subjects. Among Chinese international students living in South Korea, male and more highly acculturated subjects are more vulnerable to weight gain. This study provides useful information to design tailored nutrition intervention programs for Chinese international students.

  11. Consuming High-Protein Soy Snacks Affects Appetite Control, Satiety, and Diet Quality in Young People and Influences Select Aspects of Mood and Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidy, Heather J; Todd, Chelsie B; Zino, Adam Z; Immel, Jordan E; Mukherjea, Ratna; Shafer, Rebecca S; Ortinau, Laura C; Braun, Michelle

    2015-07-01

    Data concerning the effects of afternoon snacking on ingestive behavior, mood, and cognition are limited. The purpose of this study was to compare 1088 kJ of high-protein (HP) or high-fat (HF) afternoon snacks vs. no snacking on appetite, food intake, mood, and cognition in adolescents. Thirty-one healthy adolescents (age: 17 ± 1 y) consumed the following afternoon snacks (in randomized order) for 3 d: HP snack (26 g of protein/6 g of fat per 27 g of carbohydrates), HF snack (4 g of protein/12 g of fat per 32 g of carbohydrates), and no snack (NoS). On day 4 of each treatment, the participants completed an 8-h testing day containing pre- and postsnack appetite questionnaires, food cue-stimulated functional MRI brain scans, mood, cognitive function, and eating initiation. Ad libitum dinner and evening snacks were provided and assessed. HP, but not HF, delayed eating initiation vs. NoS (P snacks reduced appetite vs. NoS (P snacks than NoS (P snacking, particularly on HP soy foods, improves appetite, satiety, and diet quality in adolescents, while beneficially influencing aspects of mood and cognition. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01781286. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. A medium-term intervention study on the impact of high- and low-fat snacks varying in sweetness and fat content: large shifts in daily fat intake but good compensation for daily energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, C L; Delargy, H J; Smith, F C; Hamilton, V; Blundell, J E

    1998-08-01

    Thirty-six normal-weight, habitual snackers (eighteen males, eighteen females) completed a medium-term intervention study designed to examine the tendency of four different types of snacks, varying in nutrient (low- (LF) or high-fat (HF) and sensory properties (sweet (SW) or non-sweet (NSW)), to influence the control of appetite and to adjust daily energy intake. Subjects were exposed to each snack category for a 3-week period and were asked to consume a minimum number of snacks each day so that at least 25% of their daily energy intake would be derived from the test snacks. Energy and macronutrient intakes from the test snacks were calculated every day and also from other eating episodes (using 3 d food diary records) during the third week of snack exposure. Subjects consumed more energy/d from the SW snacks than from the NSW snacks, with most energy being consumed from the HF/SW snacks (3213 kJ) and least energy from the LF/NSW snacks (1628 kJ). This differential snack intake remained stable across the whole snack exposure period. Total daily energy intake did not differ significantly during exposure to any of the four snack types. Furthermore, the encouragement to eat freely from the test snacks did not lead to daily overconsumption of energy when compared with pre-study intakes. Hence, the level of snack consumption was largely compensated for by the energy consumed from the rest of the eating pattern. Although daily energy intake during exposure to the HF snacks was an average of 364 kJ higher (NS) than that during exposure to the LF snacks, the clearest and most significant effect of snack consumption was on daily macronutrient intake. Appreciable consumption of the HF snacks raised the percentage of total daily energy intake consumed as fat from 37 to 41% (P snacks reduced daily fat intake to 33.5% (LF/SW, P snacks, when compared with HF snacks, is an effective strategy to reduce fat intake so that it approaches the recommendations of dietary guidelines

  13. Algorithms for the detection of chewing behavior in dietary monitoring applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalz, Mark S.; Helal, Abdelsalam; Mendez-Vasquez, Andres

    2009-08-01

    The detection of food consumption is key to the implementation of successful behavior modification in support of dietary monitoring and therapy, for example, during the course of controlling obesity, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease. Since the vast majority of humans consume food via mastication (chewing), we have designed an algorithm that automatically detects chewing behaviors in surveillance video of a person eating. Our algorithm first detects the mouth region, then computes the spatiotemporal frequency spectrum of a small perioral region (including the mouth). Spectral data are analyzed to determine the presence of periodic motion that characterizes chewing. A classifier is then applied to discriminate different types of chewing behaviors. Our algorithm was tested on seven volunteers, whose behaviors included chewing with mouth open, chewing with mouth closed, talking, static face presentation (control case), and moving face presentation. Early test results show that the chewing behaviors induce a temporal frequency peak at 0.5Hz to 2.5Hz, which is readily detected using a distance-based classifier. Computational cost is analyzed for implementation on embedded processing nodes, for example, in a healthcare sensor network. Complexity analysis emphasizes the relationship between the work and space estimates of the algorithm, and its estimated error. It is shown that chewing detection is possible within a computationally efficient, accurate, and subject-independent framework.

  14. PERILAKU GIZI IBU, POLA ASUH MAKAN, KONTRIBUSI SNACK, DAN STATUS GIZI ANAK USIA PRASEKOLAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Habibah Wardah

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe aimed of this study were to analyze mother’s nutritional behavior, parenting eating pattern, snack contribution and their correlations toward preschool children’s nutritional status. The design of this study was a cross-sectional in Labschool IPB-ISFA, involved 20 subjects of preschool children. The result of this study showed that 45% of mothers had moderate nutritional knowledge. Most of mother’s nutritional attitude and practice were categorized as good (35% and poor (35%. Snack had the highest contribution to protein adequacy (58.6%. The contribution of snack to energy, fat, carbohydrate, and natrium adequacy were 41.8%, 44.2%, 45.5%, and 53.6% respectively. Most of subjects had normal nutritional status (80%. Mother’s nutritional knowledge and mother’s nutritional attitude was having significant correlation (p<0.05. Mother’s nutritional practices had significant correlation with eating parenting pattern. There were a significant correlations between carbohydrate and protein from snack with nutritional status (p<0.05, whereas energy and fat from snack had no correlation with nutritional status (p>0.05.Keywords: nutritional behavior, parenting pattern, snackABSTRAKTujuan umum penelitian adalah menganalisis perilaku gizi ibu, pola asuh makan, dan kontribusi snack serta hubungannya dengan status gizi anak usia prasekolah. Desain penelitian adalah cross sectional study dengan 20 subjek anak usia prasekolah di Labschool Pendidikan Karakter IPB-ISFA. Sebagian besar pengetahuan gizi ibu masuk kategori sedang (45,0%. Sikap dan praktik gizi ibu subjek paling banyak termasuk dalam kategori baik (35,0% dan kurang (35,0%. Kontribusi energi dari snack terhadap tingkat kecukupan adalah 41,8%, lemak 44,2%, karbohidrat 45,5%, dan natrium sebesar 53,6%. Kontribusi konsumsi snack terhadap kecukupan protein paling besar yaitu sebesar 58,6%. Sebanyak 80,0% subjek memiliki status gizi normal. Perilaku gizi ibu yang mempunyai hubungan

  15. Clustering of Unhealthy Food around German Schools and Its Influence on Dietary Behavior in School Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buck, Christoph; Börnhorst, Claudia; Pohlabeln, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    Background The availability of fast foods, sweets, and other snacks in the living environment of children is assumed to contribute to an obesogenic environment. In particular, it is hypothesized that food retailers are spatially clustered around schools and that a higher availability of unhealthy...

  16. Investigating behavior changes of laying hens molted by high dietary zinc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smayyeh Salari

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The commercial egg industry commonly uses induced molt procedures to rejuvenate flocks for a second or third laying cycle. Molting may be induced by feed withdrawal for up to 10 days (7, water withdrawal for 2 days (19, or both, along with a reduction of day length (14. Such programs cause concern about animal welfare because it is thought that they may be harmful to hens (28. Given the concerns for potential bird stress, various methods of nutrient restriction that would avoid long term feed withdrawal have been investigated (20, 24. One of the alternative methods for molt induction is high-dietary Zn (4. Materials and Methods In this study, a total of 30 Hy-line W-36 leghorn hens (at 50 wk old (1400 ± 150 g, were randomly assigned to 5 replicate. Ten cages (3 hens in each cage on both the upper and lower tiers were considered to observe behavior patterns. Data recording of predetermined behavioral patterns were carried out using five Camera Digital Video Recorder Multiplexer System. Behavior recording began at 9:00 h each day and ended at 11:00 h and a second observation starting at 16:00 p.m and ended at 18:00 p.m. Total of ten cages (containing 3 hens/ cage (30 hens total were used to collect 5 behaviors (feeding, drinking, nonnutritive pecking, preening and aggression pecking and one posture (sitting. The following ethogram was adopted from Webster (27 feeding defined as pecking behavior directed toward the feed trough or toward a neighboring feed trough. Drinking was defined as the appearance of ingesting water from the nipple at the near of the cage. Nonnutritive pecking was defined as non aggressive pecking at anything other than feed, which included cage pecking, feather pecking, bill pecking and air pecking. Preening behavior involved the manipulation of the plumage with the beak. Aggressive was the sum of pecks that occurred within a cage or between neighboring cages. Sitting was defined as a crouched posture with shanks

  17. Impact of Different Policies on Unhealthy Dietary Behaviors in an Adult Population of Los Angeles County: An Agent-Based Simulation Model

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Donglan

    2014-01-01

    A typical American diet is comprised of too much high-calorie foods and insufficient fruits and vegetables. Many theories and models targeting unhealthy dietary behaviors focus exclusively on people as individuals, while behavior theories such as multi-level theory of population health emphasize the social component in human cognitive habits and behaviors, providing an alternative paradigm to understand dietary behaviors. This dissertation incorporates those behavioral theories into an agent-...

  18. Associations between Meal and Snack Frequency and Diet Quality in US Adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kentaro; Livingstone, M Barbara E

    2016-07-01

    The associations between eating frequency and diet quality are inconclusive, which might be a result of different effects of meal frequency and snack frequency. This cross-sectional study examined the associations of eating frequency, meal frequency, and snack frequency with diet quality, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2012. Dietary intake was assessed in 19,427 US adults aged 20 years or older, using two 24-hour dietary recalls. All eating occasions providing ≥50 kcal were divided into either meals or snacks on the basis of contribution to daily energy intake (≥15% or snack frequency (independent variables) with dietary intake variables (dependent variables). Higher eating frequency was modestly and positively associated with higher HEI-2010 in both men and women; one additional eating occasion per day increased HEI-2010 by 1.77 points in men and 2.22 points in women (both Psnack frequency were also modestly and positively associated with HEI-2010 in both sexes, irrespective of the definition of meals and snacks. However, the associations were stronger for meal frequency than for snack frequency; one additional meal per day increased HEI-2010 by 2.14 to 5.35 points, and one additional snack per day increased HEI-2010 by 1.25 to 1.97 points (all Psnack frequency were modestly associated with better diet quality. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The habitual meal and snacking patterns of university students in two countries and their use of vending machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanos, D; Hankey, C R

    2010-02-01

    Dietary patterns and food choices in western and northern European countries can differ from those in countries that surround the Mediterranean basin. However, irregular meal patterns and the consumption of high-energy snacks tend to become common in most countries and their association with the prevalence of obesity has been examined in many studies. The first aim of the present study was to describe the habitual meal and snack intakes, including the use of vending machines, for two groups of first-year university students in two countries of different cultural backgrounds. The second aim was to explore the relationships between body mass index (BMI) and snacking for these two groups. One hundred and sixty first-year undergraduate university students from two defined universities in Greece (n = 80) and Scotland (n = 80) volunteered to complete a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The FFQ comprised 16 questions assessing their meal and snacking habits. Self-assessed height and weight data were collected. The majority of the 160 students reported a BMI in the healthy range (vending machines (P vending machines and the consumption of crisps and low fat yogurts were related to BMI (P < 0.05) for both groups. University students living in different countries report similar dietary patterns but differ in their snacking habits. No relationships were found between BMI and snacking. There is a need to carry out research to further our understanding of this relationship.

  20. [Prevalence of vegetarians and vegetarian's health dietary behavior survey in Shanghai].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xuanxia; Shen, Xiuhua; Tang, Wenjing; Zhao, Ye; Wu, Fan; Zhu, Zhenni; Tang, Qingya; Cai, Wei

    2015-03-01

    To assess the prevalence of vegetarians in the whole Shanghai population, and to know the vegetarians' brief and behavior on diet, nutrition and health. First, a multi-staged, stratified, clustered random sampling design was used. A total representative sample of 4 004 Shanghai resident subjects were asked if they were vegetarians and what type of vegetarian they were by a well-designed questionnaire. Second, from ten vegetarian restaurants located in Shanghai. 473 adult vegetarians completed a questionnaire about vegetarian status, among whom 274 vegetarians completed a detailed questionnaire about their brief and behaviors on diet, nutrition and health status. Of 4 004 subjects, 0.77% were vegetarians (0.45% were lacto-vegetarians and 0. 12% were vegans). The average age was 65. 0 years. 74. 2% of the vegetarians were female. Of 473 vegetarians, 70. 2% of the vegetarians had college or higher education. Compared to vegans, lacto-ovo-vegetarians were significantly younger and had higher educational level. The main reasons for choosing a vegetarian lifestyle were religion (49. 3%) and health (31. 3%). Furthermore, more vegan tend to be Buddhist. Vegetarians were more concerned about their health (209/274, 76. 5%) , the consumption of balance diets (183/274, 66. 8%). Comparing with lacto-ovo-vegetarians (58. 3%) more vegans (70. 4%) believed in that vegetarian diet is a kind of healthy dietary pattern and will not have any nutrients deficiency (P = 0. 037). Vegetarians consumed more healthy foods (e. g.,whole grains, vegetables, soy products, and nuts) than the general population (P < 0. 01). Only 5. 8% of the vegetarians took dietary supplements. 0. 77% of population in Shanghai was vegetarian. The two main reasons for adopting a vegetarian lifestyle were religion and health. The vegetarians tend to have more nutrition knowledge, better attitude and behavior on health. However, most of the vegetarians had not realized the nutrient deficiency risk of vegetarian

  1. Daily exposure to either a high- or low-energy-dense snack food reduces its reinforcing value in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Jennifer L; Van der Kloet, Erika; Atkins, Amanda M; Crandall, Amanda K; Ziegler, Amanda M

    2017-02-01

    To examine the impact of daily exposure to a low-energy-dense (LED) or a high-energy-dense (HED) snack food on its reinforcing value (RRV) in adolescents with healthy weight, overweight, or obesity. A parallel-group, randomized trial was used to assess RRV of LED or HED snack food at baseline and again after exposure to that snack food daily for 2 weeks in 77 adolescents, aged 13 to 17 years. Information on eating-related subject characteristics was also collected at baseline. After 2 weeks of daily exposure, the RRV of the snack foods was significantly reduced in all participants, regardless of energy density or participant weight status. Among individuals who were high in dietary restraint only, those randomized to LED food found their snack food less reinforcing at baseline than those who were randomized to HED food. Baseline eating-related variables also differed as a function of weight status. Daily exposure to snack food in adolescents reduces the RRV of that food regardless of snack food energy density or weight status of the adolescent. This finding differs from adults, suggesting that increases in RRV of HED food after repeated exposure may develop after adolescence. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  2. Firm maternal parenting associated with decreased risk of excessive snacking in overweight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Kyung E; Boutelle, Kerri N; Jelalian, Elissa; Barnes, Richard; Dickstein, Susan; Wing, Rena R

    2015-06-01

    To examine the relationship between parent feeding practices (restriction, monitoring, pressure to eat), general parenting behaviors (acceptance, psychological control, firm control), and aberrant child eating behaviors (emotional eating and excessive snacking) among overweight and normal weight children. Overweight and normal weight children between 8 and 12 years old and their mothers (n = 79, parent-child dyads) participated in this study. Mothers completed surveys on parent feeding practices (Child Feeding Questionnaire) and child eating behaviors (Family Eating and Activity Habits Questionnaire). Children reported on their mothers' general parenting behaviors (Child Report of Parent Behavior Inventory). Parent and child height and weight were measured and demographic characteristics assessed. Logistic regression models, stratified by child weight status and adjusting for parent BMI, were used to determine which parenting dimensions and feeding practices were associated with child emotional eating and snacking behavior. Overweight children displayed significantly more emotional eating and excessive snacking behavior than normal weight children. Mothers of overweight children used more restrictive feeding practices and psychological control. Restrictive feeding practices were associated with emotional eating in the overweight group (OR = 1.26, 95 % CI, 1.02, 1.56) and excessive snacking behavior in the normal weight group (OR = 1.13, 95 % CI, 1.01, 1.26). When examining general parenting, firm control was associated with decreased odds of excessive snacking in the overweight group (OR = 0.51, 95 % CI, 0.28, 0.93). Restrictive feeding practices were associated with aberrant child eating behaviors in both normal weight and overweight children. Firm general parenting however, was associated with decreased snacking behavior among overweight children. Longitudinal studies following children from infancy are needed to better understand the direction of these

  3. Behavioral Contexts, Food-Choice Coping Strategies, and Dietary Quality of a Multiethnic Sample of Employed Parents

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    Blake, Christine E.; Wethington, Elaine; Farrell, Tracy J.; Bisogni, Carole A.; Devine, Carol M.

    2012-01-01

    Employed parents’ work and family conditions provide behavioral contexts for their food choices. Relationships between employed parents’ food-choice coping strategies, behavioral contexts, and dietary quality were evaluated. Data on work and family conditions, sociodemographic characteristics, eating behavior, and dietary intake from two 24-hour dietary recalls were collected in a random sample cross-sectional pilot telephone survey in the fall of 2006. Black, white, and Latino employed mothers (n=25) and fathers (n=25) were recruited from a low/moderate income urban area in upstate New York. Hierarchical cluster analysis (Ward’s method) identified three clusters of parents differing in use of food-choice coping strategies (ie, Individualized Eating, Missing Meals, and Home Cooking). Cluster sociodemographic, work, and family characteristics were compared using χ2 and Fisher’s exact tests. Cluster differences in dietary quality (Healthy Eating Index 2005) were analyzed using analysis of variance. Clusters differed significantly (P≤0.05) on food-choice coping strategies, dietary quality, and behavioral contexts (ie, work schedule, marital status, partner’s employment, and number of children). Individualized Eating and Missing Meals clusters were characterized by nonstandard work hours, having a working partner, single parenthood and with family meals away from home, grabbing quick food instead of a meal, using convenience entrées at home, and missing meals or individualized eating. The Home Cooking cluster included considerably more married fathers with nonemployed spouses and more home-cooked family meals. Food-choice coping strategies affecting dietary quality reflect parents’ work and family conditions. Nutritional guidance and family policy needs to consider these important behavioral contexts for family nutrition and health. PMID:21338739

  4. Development and preliminary validation of the Parenting around SNAcking Questionnaire (P-SNAQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, K K; Blake, C E; Kachurak, A; Lumeng, J C; Coffman, D L; Miller, A L; Hughes, S O; Power, T G; Vaughn, A F; Blaine, R E; Younginer, N; Fisher, J O

    2018-06-01

    Snacking makes significant contributions to children's dietary intake but is poorly understood from a parenting perspective. This research was designed to develop and evaluate the psychometrics of a theoretically grounded, empirically-informed measure of snack parenting. The Parenting around SNAcking Questionnaire (P-SNAQ) was developed using a conceptual model derived from current theory and mixed-methods research to include 20 hypothesized snack parenting practices along 4 parenting dimensions (autonomy support, structure, coercive control and permissiveness). Expert panel evaluation and cognitive interviews were used to refine items and construct definitions. The initial instrument of 105 items was administered to an ethnically diverse, low-income sample of 305 parents (92% mothers) of children aged 1-6 y participating in three existing cohort studies. The sample was randomly split into two equal samples. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted with the first sample to identify snack parenting practices within each parenting dimension, followed by confirmatory factor analysis with the second sample to test the hypothesized factor structure. Internal consistency of sub-scales and associations with existing measures of food parenting practices and styles and child weight status were evaluated. The final P-SNAQ scale included 51 items reflecting 14 snack parenting practices across four parenting dimensions. The factor structure of the P-SNAQ was consistent with prior theoretical frameworks. Internal consistency coefficients were good to very good for 12 out of 14 scales and subscale scores were moderately correlated with previously validated measures. In conclusion, initial evidence suggests that P-SNAQ is a psychometrically sound measure for evaluating a wide range of snack parenting practices in young children. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Efficacy of dietary behavior modification for preserving cardiovascular health and longevity.

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    Pryde, Moira McAllister; Kannel, William Bernard

    2010-12-28

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its predisposing risk factors are major lifestyle and behavioral determinants of longevity. Dietary lifestyle choices such as a heart healthy diet, regular exercise, a lean weight, moderate alcohol consumption, and smoking cessation have been shown to substantially reduce CVD and increase longevity. Recent research has shown that men and women who adhere to this lifestyle can substantially reduce their risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). The preventive benefits of maintaining a healthy lifestyle exceed those reported for using medication and procedures. Among the modifiable preventive measures, diet is of paramount importance, and recent data suggest some misconceptions and uncertainties that require reconsideration. These include commonly accepted recommendations about polyunsaturated fat intake, processed meat consumption, fish choices and preparation, transfatty acids, low carbohydrate diets, egg consumption, coffee, added sugar, soft drink beverages, glycemic load, chocolate, orange juice, nut consumption, vitamin D supplements, food portion size, and alcohol.

  6. Efficacy of Dietary Behavior Modification for Preserving Cardiovascular Health and Longevity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moira McAllister Pryde

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD and its predisposing risk factors are major lifestyle and behavioral determinants of longevity. Dietary lifestyle choices such as a heart healthy diet, regular exercise, a lean weight, moderate alcohol consumption, and smoking cessation have been shown to substantially reduce CVD and increase longevity. Recent research has shown that men and women who adhere to this lifestyle can substantially reduce their risk of coronary heart disease (CHD. The preventive benefits of maintaining a healthy lifestyle exceed those reported for using medication and procedures. Among the modifiable preventive measures, diet is of paramount importance, and recent data suggest some misconceptions and uncertainties that require reconsideration. These include commonly accepted recommendations about polyunsaturated fat intake, processed meat consumption, fish choices and preparation, transfatty acids, low carbohydrate diets, egg consumption, coffee, added sugar, soft drink beverages, glycemic load, chocolate, orange juice, nut consumption, vitamin D supplements, food portion size, and alcohol.

  7. Predictors of Dietary Energy Density among Preschool Aged Children

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    Nilmani N.T. Fernando

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is a global problem with many contributing factors including dietary energy density (DED. This paper aims to investigate potential predictors of DED among preschool aged children in Victoria, Australia. Secondary analysis of longitudinal data for 209 mother–child pairs from the Melbourne Infant Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial was conducted. Data for predictors (maternal child feeding and nutrition knowledge, maternal dietary intake, home food availability, socioeconomic status were obtained through questionnaires completed by first-time mothers when children were aged 4 or 18 months. Three 24-h dietary recalls were completed when children were aged ~3.5 years. DED was calculated utilizing three methods: “food only”, “food and dairy beverages”, and “food and all beverages”. Linear regression analyses were conducted to identify associations between predictors and these three measures of children’s DED. Home availability of fruits (β: −0.82; 95% CI: −1.35, −0.29, p = 0.002 for DEDfood; β: −0.42; 95% CI: −0.82, −0.02, p = 0.041 for DEDfood+dairy beverages and non-core snacks (β: 0.11; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.20, p = 0.016 for DEDfood; β: 0.09; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.15, p = 0.010 for DEDfood+dairy beverages were significantly associated with two of the three DED measures. Providing fruit at home early in a child’s life may encourage the establishment of healthful eating behaviors that could promote a diet that is lower in energy density later in life. Home availability of non-core snacks is likely to increase the energy density of preschool children’s diets, supporting the proposition that non-core snack availability at home should be limited.

  8. Dietary interventions that reduce mTOR activity rescue autistic-like behavioral deficits in mice.

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    Wu, Jiangbo; de Theije, Caroline G M; da Silva, Sofia Lopes; Abbring, Suzanne; van der Horst, Hilma; Broersen, Laus M; Willemsen, Linette; Kas, Martien; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D

    2017-01-01

    Enhanced mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling in the brain has been implicated in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Inhibition of the mTOR pathway improves behavior and neuropathology in mouse models of ASD containing mTOR-associated single gene mutations. The current study demonstrated that the amino acids histidine, lysine, threonine inhibited mTOR signaling and IgE-mediated mast cell activation, while the amino acids leucine, isoleucine, valine had no effect on mTOR signaling in BMMCs. Based on these results, we designed an mTOR-targeting amino acid diet (Active 1 diet) and assessed the effects of dietary interventions with the amino acid diet or a multi-nutrient supplementation diet (Active 2 diet) on autistic-like behavior and mTOR signaling in food allergic mice and in inbred BTBR T+Itpr3tf/J mice. Cow's milk allergic (CMA) or BTBR male mice were fed a Control, Active 1, or Active 2 diet for 7 consecutive weeks. CMA mice showed reduced social interaction and increased self-grooming behavior. Both diets reversed behavioral impairments and inhibited the mTOR activity in the prefrontal cortex and amygdala of CMA mice. In BTBR mice, only Active 1 diet reduced repetitive self-grooming behavior and attenuated the mTOR activity in the prefrontal and somatosensory cortices. The current results suggest that activated mTOR signaling pathway in the brain may be a convergent pathway in the pathogenesis of ASD bridging genetic background and environmental triggers (food allergy) and that mTOR over-activation could serve as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of ASD. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. West Java Snack Mapping based on Snack Types, Main Ingredients, and Processing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurani, A. S.; Subekti, S.; Ana

    2016-04-01

    The research was motivated by lack of literature on archipelago snack especially from West Java. It aims to explore the snack types, the processing techniques, and the main ingredients by planning a learning material on archipelago cake especially from West Java. The research methods used are descriptive observations and interviews. The samples were randomly chosen from all regions in West Java. The findings show the identification of traditional snack from West java including: 1. snack types which are similar in all regions as research sample namely: opak, rangginang, nagasari, aliagrem, cuhcur, keripik, semprong, wajit, dodol, kecimpring, combro, tape ketan, and surabi. The typical snack types involve burayot (Garut), simping kaum (Purwakarta), surabi hejo (Karawang), papais cisaat (Subang), Papais moyong, opak bakar (Kuningan), opak oded, ranggesing (Sumedang), gapit, tapel (Cirebon), gulampo, kue aci (Tasikmalaya), wajit cililin, gurilem (West Bandung), and borondong (Bandung District); 2. various processing techniques namely: steaming, boiling, frying, caramelizing, baking, grilling, roaster, sugaring; 3. various main ingredients namely rice, local glutinous rice, rice flour, glutinous rice flour, starch, wheat flour, hunkue flour, cassava, sweet potato, banana, nuts, and corn; 4. snack classification in West Java namely (1) traditional snack, (2) creation-snack, (3) modification-snack, (4) outside influence-snack.

  10. Watching reality weight loss TV. The effects on body satisfaction, mood, and snack food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourn, Rebecca; Prichard, Ivanka; Hutchinson, Amanda D; Wilson, Carlene

    2015-08-01

    The present study investigated the influence of a weight loss reality TV show on body satisfaction, mood and food consumption. Young Australian women (N = 99) first completed baseline measures of state body satisfaction and mood. They were then randomly allocated to either a weight loss or a home renovation programme and were provided with snack foods during viewing. Post-measures included state body satisfaction, state mood and trait dietary restraint and snack food consumption. BMI moderated the relationship between condition and body satisfaction and mood. Larger women experienced less body satisfaction and less positive mood in response to the weight loss programme. Dietary restraint moderated the relationship between condition and food consumption. A greater percentage of women with lower dietary restraint ate in the control condition; whilst a greater percentage of women with higher dietary restraint ate food whilst watching the weight loss programme. These findings highlight the potential negative impact of weight-focused reality TV on mood, body satisfaction and snack food consumption among some women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dietary behaviors, physical activity and sedentary lifestyle associated with overweight and obesity, and their socio-demographic correlates, among Pakistani primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Muhammad Umair; Gull, Sibgha; Mushtaq, Komal; Shahid, Ubeera; Shad, Mushtaq Ahmad; Akram, Javed

    2011-11-25

    There is no data on diet- and activity-related behaviors associated with overweight and obesity among Pakistani school-aged children. The study aimed to explore dietary behaviors, physical activity and sedentary lifestyle associated with overweight and obesity, and their socio-demographic correlates, among Pakistani primary school children. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative multistage random cluster sample of 1860 children aged five to twelve years in Lahore, Pakistan. Overweight (>+1 SD) and obesity (>+2 SD) were defined using the World Health Organization reference 2007. Chi-square test was used as the test of trend. Linear regression was used to examine the predictive power of independent variables in relation to body mass index (BMI). Logistic regression was used to quantify the independent predictors and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were obtained. Statistical significance was considered at Psedentary lifestyle>one hour a day (49%) were significantly more likely to be overweight and obese while those participating in physical activity>twice a week (53%) were significantly less likely to be overweight and obese (all Psedentary lifestyle (Ptwice a week (aOR 0.49, 95% CI 0.34-0.70) and sedentary lifestyle>one hour a day (aOR 1.56, 95% CI 1.19-2.03) were independent predictors of being overweight. Skipping breakfast had independent inverse association with physical activity (aOR 0.63, 95% CI 0.45-0.89) and eating fast food and snacks had independent positive association with sedentary lifestyle (aOR 1.79, 95% CI 1.49-2.16). Female gender was independently associated with skipping breakfast (aOR 1.50, 95% CI 1.04-2.16). Male gender (aOR 1.64, 95% CI 1.33-2.02), urban area with high SES (aOR 5.09, 95% CI 3.02-8.60) and higher parental education (aOR 1.74, 95% CI 1.12-2.68) were significant independent predictors of eating fast food and snacks≥once a week. Living in the rural area was

  12. Food and Beverage Promotions in Minnesota Secondary Schools: Secular Changes, Correlates, and Associations with Adolescents' Dietary Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; Davey, Cynthia S.; Coombes, Brandon; Caspi, Caitlin; Kubik, Martha Y.; Nanney, Marilyn S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to describe promotions for unhealthy and healthy foods and beverages within Minnesota secondary schools from 2008 to 2012, and to examine associations with school-level coordination of environmental improvements and students' dietary behaviors. Methods: The Minnesota School Health Profiles and Minnesota…

  13. Metabolic syndrome associated with habitual indulgence and dietary behavior in middle‐aged health‐care professionals

    OpenAIRE

    Wan, Chu‐Jen; Lin, Li‐Yun; Yu, Tung‐Hsi; Sheu, Wayne H‐H

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Aims/Introduction:  Few studies, especially in Asia, have examined the relevance between metabolic syndrome (MetS), habitual indulgence and dietary behaviors in health‐care professionals. The present study evaluates metabolic syndrome rate and its association with habitual indulgence (coffee, tea, alcohol and cigarette smoking) and diet behavior in health‐care professionals. Materials and Methods:  Information was collected from 514 health‐care professionals (147 men, 367 women) who ...

  14. Studies on soft centered coated snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavithra, A S; Chetana, Ramakrishna; Babylatha, R; Archana, S N; Bhat, K K

    2013-04-01

    Roasted groundnut seeds, amaranth and dates pulp formed the center filling which was coated with sugar, breadings, desiccated coconut and roasted Bengalgram flour (BGF) to get 4 coated snacks. Physicochemical characteristics, microbiological profile, sorption behaviour and sensory quality of 4 coated snacks were determined. Centre filling to coating ratio of the products were in the range of 3:2-7:1, the product having BGF coating had the thinnest coating. Center filling had soft texture and the moisture content was 10.2-16.2% coating had lower moisture content (4.4-8.6%) except for Bengal gram coating, which had 11.1% moisture. Sugar coated snack has lowest fat (11.6%) and protein (7.2%) contents. Desiccated coconut coated snack has highest fat (25.4%) and Bengal gram flour coated snack had highest protein content (15.4%). Sorption studies showed that the coated snack had critical moisture content of 11.2-13.5%. The products were moisture sensitive and hence require packaging in films having higher moisture barrier property. In freshly prepared snacks coliforms, yeast and mold were absent. Mesophillic aerobes count did not show significant change during 90 days of storage at 27 °C and 37 °C. Sensory analysis showed that products had a unique texture due to combined effect of fairly hard coating and soft center. Flavour and overall quality of all the products were rated as very good.

  15. Dietary behaviors related to cancer prevention among pre-adolescents and adolescents: the gap between recommendations and reality

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    White Mary C

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diet is thought to play an important role in cancer risk. This paper summarizes dietary recommendations for cancer prevention and compares these recommendations to the dietary behaviors of U.S. youth ages 8-18. Methods We identified cancer prevention-related dietary recommendations from key health organizations and assessed dietary consumption patterns among youth using published statistics from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, the national Youth Risk Behavior Survey, and other supplemental sources. Results Cancer prevention guidelines recommend a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, recommend limiting sugary foods and beverages, red and processed meats, sodium, and alcohol, and recommend avoiding foods contaminated with carcinogens. However, youth typically do not meet the daily recommendations for fruit, vegetable, or whole grain consumption and are over-consuming energy-dense, sugary and salty foods. Conclusions A large discrepancy exists between expert recommendations about diet and cancer and actual dietary practices among young people and points to the need for more research to better promote the translation of science into practice. Future research should focus on developing and evaluating policies and interventions at the community, state and national levels for aligning the diets of youth with the evolving scientific evidence regarding cancer prevention.

  16. The relationship between a low grain intake dietary pattern and impulsive behaviors in middle-aged Japanese people.

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    Atsuhito Toyomaki

    Full Text Available Several studies indicate that dietary habits are associated with mental health. We are interested in identifying not a specific single nutrient/food group but the population preferring specific food combinations that can be related to mental health. Very few studies have examined relationships between dietary patterns and multifaceted mental states using cluster analysis. The purpose of this study was to investigate population-level dietary patterns associated with mental state using cluster analysis. We focused on depressive state, sleep quality, subjective well-being, and impulsive behaviors using rating scales. Two hundred and seventy-nine Japanese middle-aged people participated in the present study. Dietary pattern was estimated using a brief self-administered diet-history questionnaire (the BDHQ. We conducted K-means cluster analysis using thirteen BDHQ food groups: milk, meat, fish, egg, pulses, potatoes, green and yellow vegetables, other vegetables, mushrooms, seaweed, sweets, fruits, and grain. We identified three clusters characterized as "vegetable and fruit dominant," "grain dominant," and "low grain tendency" subgroups. The vegetable and fruit dominant group showed increases in several aspects of subjective well-being demonstrated by the SF-8. Differences in mean subject characteristics across clusters were tested using ANOVA. The low frequency intake of grain group showed higher impulsive behavior, demonstrated by BIS-11 deliberation and sum scores. The present study demonstrated that traditional Japanese dietary patterns, such as eating rice, can help with beneficial changes in mental health.

  17. Designing snacks to address micronutrient deficiencies in rural Kenyan schoolchildren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murphy, S.P.; Gewa, C.; Grillenberger, M.; Bwibo, N.O.; Neumann, C.G.

    2007-01-01

    Three snacks were designed to improve nutrient intakes among school-age children living in rural Kenya. Snacks containing animal-source foods (milk and meat) provided more nutrients than an equicaloric vegetarian snack. The vegetarian snack provided extra vitamin A (primarily from fortified cooking

  18. Parent dietary, physical activity and sedentary behaviors associated with child behaviors and weight status among private school children in Delhi, India: A cross-sectional study

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    Blanche Greene-Cramer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Family can be an important socializing agent that strongly influences child and adolescent behavior. While studies have found associations between parent modeling of healthy behaviors and these behaviors in children in the US and other western countries, there is a dearth of research examining these associations among low and middle-income countries like India. This study examines the association between parent dietary, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors and child behaviors and weight status in Delhi, India. Methods The study was cross-sectional by design. The target population was comprised of a convenience sample of 6th and 8th grade children enrolled at 6 private schools in Delhi, India and their parents. A total of 551 child-parent dyads were used in analysis. Measures included parent and child BMI; physical activity and sedentary behavior; and dietary intake, such as weekly breakfast consumption, daily fruit and vegetable (FV consumption, daily low-fat dairy consumption, daily energy-dense (ED food consumption, daily sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB consumption. Mixed-effects linear regression models were used to test for the association between parent dietary, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors (independent variables and child dietary, physical activity and sedentary behaviors (dependent variables while controlling for parent and child demographics. Results Significant, positive associations were observed between all parent and child dietary behaviors (weekly breakfast consumption, daily FV consumption, daily low-fat dairy consumption, daily ED food consumption, daily SSB consumption after adjusting for child sex and grade, parent sex, and parent weight status (p<0.05, all. Parent moderate/vigorous physical activity was positively associated with child moderate/vigorous physical activity (p=0.000, however there was no significant association between parent and child light physical activity levels (p=0.310. Parent

  19. Psychometric Properties of the Dietary Salt Reduction Self-Care Behavior Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikan, Pratsani; Phillips, Kenneth D

    2014-07-01

    Valid, reliable, and culturally-specific scales to measure salt reduction self-care behavior in older adults are needed. The purpose of this study was to develop the Dietary Salt Reduction Self-Care Behavior Scale (DSR-SCB) for use in hypertensive older adults with Orem's self-care deficit theory as a base. Exploratory factor analysis, Rasch modeling, and reliability were performed on data from 242 older Thai adults. Nine items loaded on one factor (factor loadings = 0.63 to 0.79) and accounted for 52.28% of the variance (Eigenvalue = 4.71). The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin method of sampling adequacy was 0.89, and the Bartlett's test showed significance (χ 2 ( df =36 ) = 916.48, p < 0.0001). Infit and outfit mean squares ranged from 0.81 to 1.25, while infit and outfit standardized mean squares were located at ±2. Cronbach's alpha was 0.88. The 9-item DSR-SCB is a short and reliable scale. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Determinants of dietary behavior and physical activity among Canadian Inuit: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akande, Victor O; Hendriks, Anna M; Ruiter, Robert A C; Kremers, Stef P J

    2015-06-24

    Increased dependence on Western diets and low physical activity have largely contributed to weight gain and associated chronic diseases in the Canadian Inuit population. The purpose of this study was to systematically review factors influencing dietary and physical activity behaviors to guide health promotion interventions and provide recommendations for future studies. We conducted a systematic literature review to identify relevant articles. Searches were conducted between May 2014 and July 2014, and inclusive of articles published up until July 2014. Articles were searched using four databases: PubMed, PsycINFO, SocINDEX, and Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection. Eligible studies focused on diet and/or physical activity or determinants of diet and/or physical activity in Canadian Inuit population, and were published in English. A total of 45 articles were included in the analysis. A detailed appraisal of the articles suggested that many Inuit have disconnected from the traditional ways of life, including harvesting and processing of traditional food species and the associated physical activity. In the last two decades there has been a significant shift from consumption of healthy traditional foods to energy-dense store-bought foods particularly among younger Inuit (Inuit. However, our understanding is limited on how these behaviours might be influenced in the face of these changes. Prospective studies are needed to advance our knowledge of cognitive and environmental determinants of Inuit energy balance-related behaviours. These studies can inform the development of health promotion interventions in the population.

  1. Chronic dietary chlorpyrifos causes long-term spatial memory impairment and thigmotaxic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Granero, Caridad; Ruiz-Muñoz, Ana M; Nieto-Escámez, Francisco A; Colomina, María T; Aschner, Michael; Sánchez-Santed, Fernando

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about the long-term effects of chronic exposure to low-level organophosphate (OP) pesticides, and the role of neurotransmitter systems, other than the cholinergic system, in mediating OP neurotoxicity. In this study, rats were administered 5mg/kg/day of chlorpyrifos (CPF) for 6 months commencing at 3-months-of-age. The animals were examined 7 months later (at 16-months-of-age) for spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze (MWM) and locomotor activity. In addition, we assessed the chronic effects of CPF on glutamatergic and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAergic) function using pharmacological challenges with dizocilpine (MK801) and diazepam. Impaired performance related to altered search patterns, including thigmotaxis and long-term spatial memory was noted in the MWM in animals exposed to CPF, pointing to dietary CPF-induced behavioral disturbances, such as anxiety. Twenty-four hours after the 31st session of repeated acquisition task, 0.1mg/kg MK801, an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist was intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected for 4 consecutive days. Decreased latencies in the MWM in the control group were noted after two sessions with MK801 treatment. Once the MWM assessment was completed, animals were administered 0.1 or 0.2mg/kg of MK801 and 1 or 3mg/kg of diazepam i.p., and tested for locomotor activity. Both groups, the CPF dietary and control, displayed analogous performance in motor activity. In conclusion, our data point to a connection between the long-term spatial memory, thigmotaxic response and CPF long after the exposure ended. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Acculturation and environmental factors influencing dietary behaviors and body mass index of Chinese students in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Beiwen; Smith, Chery

    2016-08-01

    Focus groups (n = 7) were conducted with Chinese students (n = 43) studying in the USA to determine how acculturation and environmental factors influence dietary behavior and body mass index (BMI). This study used mixed methodology, collecting both qualitative (focus groups) and quantitative (24-h dietary recalls, food adoption scores, degree of acculturation, and height and weight measures) data. Themes emerging from focus group discussions were: a) dietary and social acculturation, b) factors influencing food intake, c) cultural importance of food, and d) changes in weight and BMI status. Environmental, behavioral, and cultural factors appear to have impacted the eating behaviors of the students. Because of the nature of the study, self-reported heights and weights were used to calculate BMI while living in China and actual heights and weights were taken for each student at the focus group to calculate current BMI after living in the USA. The majority of Chinese students (69% males; 85% females) experienced weight gain, resulting in an increased BMI based on weight/height data and as reported in focus group discussions. As a result, if students continue to gain weight, they may be at higher risk of developing chronic diseases in the future. Further, implemented dietary change may be transferred to other family members if students return to China. Results suggest that nutrition education should be provided to incoming foreign students during their orientation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Dietary and Behavioral Adjustments to Manage Bowel Dysfunction After Surgery in Long-Term Colorectal Cancer Survviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Virginia; Grant, Marcia; Wendel, Christopher S.; McMullen, Carmit K.; Bulkley, Joanna E.; Altschuler, Andrea; Ramirez, Michelle; Baldwin, Carol M.; Herrinton, Lisa J.; Hornbrook, Mark C.; Krouse, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Bowel dysfunction is a known complication of colorectal cancer (CRC) surgery. Poor bowel control has a detrimental impact on survivors’ health-related quality of life (HRQOL). This analysis describes the dietary and behavioral adjustments used by CRC survivors to manage bowel dysfunction and compares adjustments used by survivors with permanent ostomy to those with anastomosis. METHODS This mixed-methods analysis included pooled data from several studies that assessed HRQOL in CRC survivors. In all studies, CRC survivors with or without permanent ostomies (N=856) were surveyed using the City of Hope Quality of Life Colorectal Cancer tool. Dietary adjustments were compared by ostomy status and by overall HRQOL score (high versus low). Qualitative data from 13 focus groups and 30 interviews were analyzed to explore specific strategies used by survivors to manage bowel dysfunction. RESULTS CRC survivors made substantial, permanent dietary and behavioral adjustments after surgery, regardless of ostomy status. Survivors who took longer after surgery to become comfortable with their diet or regain their appetite were more likely to report worse HRQOL. Adjustments to control bowel function were divided into four major strategies: dietary adjustments, behavioral adjustments, exercise, and medication use. CONCLUSIONS CRC survivors struggled with unpredictable bowel function and may fail to find a set of management strategies to achieve regularity. Understanding the myriad adjustments used by CRC survivors may lead to evidence-based interventions to foster positive adjustments after surgery and through long-term survivorship. PMID:26159443

  4. Dietary and Behavioral Adjustments to Manage Bowel Dysfunction After Surgery in Long-Term Colorectal Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Virginia; Grant, Marcia; Wendel, Christopher S; McMullen, Carmit K; Bulkley, Joanna E; Altschuler, Andrea; Ramirez, Michelle; Baldwin, Carol M; Herrinton, Lisa J; Hornbrook, Mark C; Krouse, Robert S

    2015-12-01

    Bowel dysfunction is a known complication of colorectal cancer (CRC) surgery. Poor bowel control has a detrimental impact on survivors' health-related quality of life (HRQOL). This analysis describes the dietary and behavioral adjustments used by CRC survivors to manage bowel dysfunction and compares adjustments used by survivors with permanent ostomy to those with anastomosis. This mixed-methods analysis included pooled data from several studies that assessed HRQOL in CRC survivors. In all studies, CRC survivors with or without permanent ostomies (N = 856) were surveyed using the City of Hope Quality of Life Colorectal Cancer tool. Dietary adjustments were compared by ostomy status and by overall HRQOL score (high vs. low). Qualitative data from 13 focus groups and 30 interviews were analyzed to explore specific strategies used by survivors to manage bowel dysfunction. CRC survivors made substantial, permanent dietary, and behavioral adjustments after surgery, regardless of ostomy status. Survivors who took longer after surgery to become comfortable with their diet or regain their appetite were more likely to report worse HRQOL. Adjustments to control bowel function were divided into four major strategies: dietary adjustments, behavioral adjustments, exercise, and medication use. CRC survivors struggled with unpredictable bowel function and may fail to find a set of management strategies to achieve regularity. Understanding the myriad adjustments used by CRC survivors may lead to evidence-based interventions to foster positive adjustments after surgery and through long-term survivorship.

  5. Replacing American snacks with tree nuts increases consumption of key nutrients among US children and adults: results of an NHANES modeling study

    OpenAIRE

    Rehm, Colin D.; Drewnowski, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Background Replacing typical American snacks with tree nuts may be an effective way to improve diet quality and compliance with the 2015?2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGAs). Objective To assess and quantify the impact of replacing typical snacks with composite tree nuts or almonds on diet metrics, including empty calories (i.e., added sugars and solid fats), individual fatty acids, macronutrients, nutrients of public health concern, including sodium, fiber and potassium, and summary ...

  6. Presenting Thin Media Models Affects Women's Choice of Diet or Normal Snacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahe, Barbara; Krause, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Our study explored the influence of thin- versus normal-size media models and of self-reported restrained eating behavior on women's observed snacking behavior. Fifty female undergraduates saw a set of advertisements for beauty products showing either thin or computer-altered normal-size female models, allegedly as part of a study on effective…

  7. Expansion and functional properties of extruded snacks enriched with nutrition sources from food processing by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkerd, Sopida; Wanlapa, Sorada; Puttanlek, Chureerat; Uttapap, Dudsadee; Rungsardthong, Vilai

    2016-01-01

    Rich sources of protein and dietary fiber from food processing by-products, defatted soybean meal, germinated brown rice meal, and mango peel fiber, were added to corn grit at 20 % (w/w) to produce fortified extruded snacks. Increase of total dietary fiber from 4.82 % (wb) to 5.92-17.80 % (wb) and protein from 5.03 % (wb) to 5.46-13.34 % were observed. The product indicated high expansion and good acceptance tested by sensory panels. There were 22.33-33.53 and 5.30-11.53 fold increase in the phenolics and antioxidant activity in the enriched snack products. The effects of feed moisture content, screw speed, and barrel temperature on expansion and nutritional properties of the extruded products were investigated by using response surface methodology. Regression equations describing the effect of each variable on the product responses were obtained. The snacks extruded with feed moisture 13-15 % (wb) and extrusion temperature at 160-180 °C indicated the products with high preference in terms of expansion ratio between insoluble dietary fiber and soluble dietary fiber balance. The results showed that the by-products could be successfully used for nutritional supplemented expanded snacks.

  8. Nuts Improve Diet Quality Compared to Other Energy-Dense Snacks While Maintaining Body Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Ling Tey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported that regular nut consumption reduces cardiovascular disease (CVD risk and does not promote weight gain despite the fact that nuts are energy-dense. However, no studies have investigated the body composition of those regularly consuming nuts compared to similar intakes of other snacks of equal energy density. This parallel study (n = 118 examined the effects of providing daily portions (~1100 kJ/d of hazelnuts, chocolate, or potato crisps compared to a control group receiving no snacks for twelve weeks. Effects on body weight and composition, blood lipids and lipoproteins, resting metabolic rate (RMR, appetite indices, and dietary quality were compared. At week 12, there was no significant difference in any of the outcome measurements between the groups except for dietary quality, which improved significantly in the nut group. Nuts can be incorporated into the diet without adversely affecting body weight and can improve diet quality.

  9. The Association of Dietary Behaviors and Physical Activity Levels with General and Central Obesity among ASEAN University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2017-01-01

    To quantify the prevalence of obesity and obesity-related factors (dietary behaviors and physical activity levels) in a cross-sectional, observational study of ASEAN undergraduate students. A total of 6783 (35.5% male and 64.5% female) undergraduate students (Mean age: 20.5, SD = 2.0) from eight ASEAN countries completed questionnaires and anthropometric measurements. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for the association of nutrition behaviors with prevalence of general obesity (body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m 2 ), elevated waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) (>0.50), and high waist circumference (WC) (≥80 cm in females, ≥90 cm in males). Covariates included sociodemographic factors, dietary behavior, physical activity and sitting time (using the "International Physical Activity Questionnaire"). There was a higher prevalence of general obesity (24.2% versus 9.3%), and high WHtR (16.6% versus 12.1) in males relative to females, while high WC (9.4% versus 10.4%) did not significantly differ between genders. In multivariable logistic regression analyses, compared to females, males had higher odds of obesity (odds-ratio, OR: 2.13, confidence interval, CI: 1.80, 2.77), and high WHtR (OR: 1.90, CI: 1.48, 2.43) ( P ASEAN young adults. Specific dietary behaviors but not physical activity nor sedentary behavior were associated with obesity.

  10. Fruits and vegetables as a healthier snack throughout the day among families with older children: findings from a survey of parent-child dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Teresa M; Pinard, Courtney A; Byker Shanks, Carmen; Wethington, Holly; Blanck, Heidi M; Yaroch, Amy L

    2015-04-01

    Most U.S. youth fail to eat the recommended amount of fruits and vegetables (FV) however many consume too many calories as added sugars and solid fats, often as snacks. The aim of this study was to assess factors associated with serving FV as snacks and with meals using parent-child dyads. A cross-sectional sample of U.S. children aged 9 to 18, and their caregiver/parent (n=1522) were part of a Consumer Panel of households for the 2008 YouthStyles mail survey. Chi-square test of independence and multivariable logistic regression were used to assess associations between serving patterns of FV as snacks with variations in serving patterns, and covariates including dietary habits. Most parents (72%) reported serving FV at meals and as snacks. Fruit was most frequently served as a snack during the day (52%) and vegetables were most frequently served as a snack during the day (22%) but rarely in the morning. Significant differences in child FV intake existed among FV as a snack serving patterns by parents. Compared to children whose parents served FV only at meals, children whose parents reported serving FV as snacks in addition to meals were significantly more likely to have consumed FV the day before (using a previous day screener), Psnacks, may increase FV intake among older children and adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dietary and physical activity behaviors of New York City children from different ethnic minority subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangeepuram, Nita; Mervish, Nancy; Galvez, Maida P; Brenner, Barbara; Wolff, Mary S

    2012-01-01

    To examine racial/ethnic differences in diet and physical activity behaviors in ethnic minority New York City children. Cross-sectional data from a community-based study of 486 6- to 8-year-old children were used. Race/ethnicity was derived using a caregiver's report of child's race and Hispanic ancestry. Dietary intake was obtained by 24-hour diet recalls using the Nutrition Data System for Research. Physical activity was assessed with pedometers and caregiver interviews. We compared diet and activity measures across racial/ethnic subgroups using chi-square and analysis of variance tests. Multivariate analyses adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, and caregiver education (with breastfeeding history and total energy intake included in diet models). Participants (N = 486) were categorized as Mexican (29.4%), Dominican (8.4%), Puerto Rican (20.6%), other/mixed Hispanic (14.0%), or non-Hispanic black (27.6%). Obesity rates were lower in non-Hispanic blacks (18%) than in Hispanics (31%). Mexicans had the lowest obesity rates among Hispanic subgroups (25%), and Dominicans had the highest (39%). There were differences in mean daily servings of food groups, with Mexicans having healthier diets and Puerto Ricans and non-Hispanic Blacks having less healthy diets. Sedentary time was lower in Mexicans than in other groups in adjusted models. Examination of additional models, including home language, did not show significant differences in the estimates. Diet and activity behaviors varied across racial/ethnic subgroups. Specifically, Mexican children had healthier diets, the least amount of sedentary time, and the lowest rates of obesity among the Hispanic subgroups examined. Targeted interventions in ethnic subgroups may be warranted to address specific behaviors. Copyright © 2012 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Energy compensation and nutrient displacement following regular consumption of hazelnuts and other energy-dense snack foods in non-obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Katherine R; Tey, Siew Ling; Gray, Andrew R; Chisholm, Alexandra; Brown, Rachel C

    2017-04-01

    Regular nut consumption reduces cardiovascular disease risk, partly from improvements to dietary quality. Examining how individuals make dietary changes when consuming nuts may reveal key behavioural eating patterns beneficial for the development of dietary interventions. We examined the effects of nuts in comparison with other energy-dense snacks on energy compensation, nutrient displacement, and food group patterns. This was a 12-week randomised, controlled, parallel study with four arms: ~1100 kJ/day for each of hazelnuts (42 g), chocolate (50 g), potato crisps (50 g), or no added snack food. Diet records, body composition, and physical activity were measured at baseline and week 12, in 102 non-obese participants. Significant improvements in diet quality were observed in the hazelnut group, particularly when consumed as snacks. Intakes of monounsaturated fat (MUFA) and vitamin E were significantly higher (all P snacks in this non-obese population. Regular nut consumption significantly improves nutrient profiles compared to other snacks with changes occurring at the snack level.

  13. Postpartum Teens’ Breakfast Consumption is Associated with Snack and Beverage Intake and Body Mass Index

    OpenAIRE

    Haire-Joshu, Debra; Schwarz, Cynthia; Budd, Elizabeth L; Yount, Byron W; Lapka, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Addressing high risk dietary patterns among postpartum teens may help reduce weight retention and prevent intergenerational obesity. The objective of this study was to describe the relationship between breakfast consumption and outcomes of snack and beverage intake and body mass index (BMI) among postpartum teens. During 2007–2009, 1,330 postpartum teens across 27 states participated in a cross-sectional, baseline assessment of a group-randomized, nested cohort study. Participants were enroll...

  14. Shape of snack foods does not predict snack intake in a sample of preschoolers: a cross-over study

    OpenAIRE

    Boyer Lauren E; Laurentz Sara; McCabe George P; Kranz Sibylle

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background In the past decade, the proportion snacking has increased. Snack foods consumed are predominantly not nutritious foods. One potential venue to increase children’s diet quality is to offer healthy snack foods and we explored if shaped snack foods would lead to increased consumption. Methods We investigated the consumption of high-fiber snacks (banana bread, pancakes, and sandwiches) served either in normal (round, square) or shaped (heart, hands, animals) form to preschoole...

  15. Dietary isoflavones alter regulatory behaviors, metabolic hormones and neuroendocrine function in Long-Evans male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bu Lihong

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phytoestrogens derived from soy foods (or isoflavones have received prevalent usage due to their 'health benefits' of decreasing: a age-related diseases, b hormone-dependent cancers and c postmenopausal symptoms. However, little is known about the influence of dietary phytoestrogens on regulatory behaviors, such as food and water intake, metabolic hormones and neuroendocrine parameters. This study examined important hormonal and metabolic health issues by testing the hypotheses that dietary soy-derived isoflavones influence: 1 body weight and adipose deposition, 2 food and water intake, 3 metabolic hormones (i.e., leptin, insulin, T3 and glucose levels, 4 brain neuropeptide Y (NPY levels, 5 heat production [in brown adipose tissue (BAT quantifying uncoupling protein (UCP-1 mRNA levels] and 6 core body temperature. Methods This was accomplished by conducting longitudinal studies where male Long-Evans rats were exposed (from conception to time of testing or tissue collection to a diet rich in isoflavones (at 600 micrograms/gram of diet or 600 ppm vs. a diet low in isoflavones (at approximately 10–15 micrograms/gram of diet or 10–15 ppm. Body, white adipose tissue and food intake were measured in grams and water intake in milliliters. The hormones (leptin, insulin, T3, glucose and NPY were quantified by radioimmunoassays (RIA. BAT UCP-1 mRNA levels were quantified by PCR and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis while core body temperatures were recorded by radio telemetry. The data were tested by analysis of variance (ANOVA (or where appropriate by repeated measures. Results Body and adipose tissue weights were decreased in Phyto-600 vs. Phyto-free fed rats. Food and water intake was greater in Phyto-600 animals, that displayed higher hypothalamic (NPY concentrations, but lower plasma leptin and insulin levels, vs. Phyto-free fed males. Higher thyroid levels (and a tendency for higher glucose levels and increased uncoupling

  16. Measuring Micro-Level Effects of a New Supermarket: Do Residents Within 0.5 Mile Have Improved Dietary Behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogus, Stephanie; Athens, Jessica; Cantor, Jonathan; Elbel, Brian

    2018-06-01

    Local and national policies to encourage supermarket opening or expansion are popular strategies for improving access to healthy food for residents in neighborhoods lacking these types of stores, yet few evaluations of such initiatives exist. Our aim was to test whether a newly opened supermarket in the Bronx, NY, changed household availability of healthy and unhealthy food items and reported daily consumption of these items among respondents residing in close proximity (≤0.5 mile) to the new supermarket. This quasi-experimental study evaluated changes in purchasing and consumption habits of residents within 0.5 mile of the new supermarket as compared to residents living more than 0.5 mile from the supermarket. Data were collected through street intercept surveys at three different times: once before the store opened (March to August 2011) and in two follow-up periods (1 to 5 months and 13 to 17 months after the store opened). This study analyzed a subset of successfully geocoded resident intersections from the larger study. We surveyed 3,998 residents older than the age of 18 years in two Bronx neighborhoods about their food-purchasing behaviors before the store opened and in two follow-up periods. Responses from residents whose intersections were successfully geocoded (N=3,378) were analyzed to examine the consumption and purchasing behaviors of those in close proximity to the new store. A new supermarket opened in a low-access neighborhood in the Bronx with the help of financial incentives through New York City's Food Retail Expansion to Support Health (FRESH) program. The primary outcome evaluated was the change in percent of respondents reporting that the following food items were "always available" in the home: milk, fruit juice, soda, pastries, packaged snacks, fruits, and vegetables. As a secondary outcome, we explored changes in self-reported daily servings of these items. A difference-in-difference analysis was performed, controlling for age, education

  17. Household factors, family behavior patterns, and adherence to dietary and physical activity guidelines among children at risk for obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunin-Batson, Alicia S; Seburg, Elisabeth M; Crain, A Lauren; Jaka, Meghan M; Langer, Shelby L; Levy, Rona L; Sherwood, Nancy E

    2015-01-01

    To describe the proportion of children adhering to recommended physical activity and dietary guidelines, and examine demographic and household correlates of guideline adherence. Cross-sectional (pre-randomization) data from a behavioral intervention trial designed to prevent unhealthy weight gain in children. A total of 421 children (aged 5-10 years) at risk for obesity (body mass index percentile, 70-95). Physical activity (accelerometry), screen time (parent survey), and fruit and vegetable and sugar-sweetened beverage intake (24-hour dietary recall). Proportions meeting guidelines were calculated. Logistic regression examined associations between demographic and household factors and whether children met recommended guidelines for (1) physical activity (≥ 60 min/d), (2) screen time (≤ 2 h/d), (3) fruit and vegetable intake (≥ 5 servings/d), and (4) sugar-sweetened beverage avoidance. Few children met more than 1 guideline. Only 2% met all 4 recommended guidelines and 19% met none. Each guideline had unique sociodemographic and domain-specific household predictors (ie, availability of certain foods and beverages, media, and active play and exercise equipment). Families equipped to promote healthy child behavior patterns in 1 activity or dietary domain may not be in others. Results have implications for the development of interventions to affect children's weight-related behaviors and growth trajectories. Copyright © 2015 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Dietary Behaviors of Elderly People Residing in Central Iran: A Preliminary Report of Yazd Health Study (YAHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Bahrami

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Food habits play important roles in maintaining physical and mental health and preventing chronic illnesses in the elderly. The aim of the present study was to investigate dietary behaviors of elderly people residing in Yazd city which is located in central Iran. Methods: The present analysis was conducted on 1684 participants entered to Yazd Health Study (YAHS aged over 60 years during 2014-2015. Demographic characteristics, health status, physical activity, economic status, education and dietary behaviors were collected by using a validated questionnaire. Results: Our analysis revealed that only 1.2% of the elderly consumed more than two servings of dairy per day. Furthermore only 3 and 9.8 percent of elders consumed more than three servings/day of vegetables and fruits, respectively. The study also showed that 22.9% ate more than five servings of sugar per day, 22.5% took more than four units of legumes weekly, 56.1% ate two to three servings of poultry per week, 77% reported eating fast foods for at least once a week, 47.8% consumed canned foods less than once a week of and 86.3% reported taking breakfast for at least five times a week. For cooking 18.9% of elderly still use hydrogenated vegetable oils, 52.8% of the elderly did not separate visible fats from red meat before cooking, 65.8% chose high-fat dairy and  24% of older people reported using frying and grilling as their primary cooking method. Our findings also suggest that dietary behavior is different between elder men and women. Conclusion: Unhealthy dietary habits, including low vegetables, fruits and dairy products intake, are highly prevalent among elderly people residing in Yazd. Community based interventions targeting this age group, in order to improve their dietary intake, are highly recommended.

  19. The impact of viewing a video with and without head phones on snack intake: A pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Dieze

    Full Text Available Research shows that many small changes to the environment impact one's eating behavior. The aim of this study was to examine whether the type of audio transmission would affect snack intake depending on the degree of immersion. A sample of 174 university students were randomized to either viewing a movie wearing headphones or listening over loud speakers while consuming a snack of their choice. Significant differences were found with more snacks consumed in the group without headphones compared to the group wearing headphones. Particularly women tend to eat less (about 10% of the offered snack less when wearing headphones while viewing a movie. The results seem to indicate that audio transmission mode might impact eating behavior.

  20. Situation-specific social norms as mediators of social influence on snacking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüz, Benjamin; Papadakis, Thalia; Ferguson, Stuart G

    2018-02-01

    Social factors are among the most powerful and pervasive influences on eating behavior, snacking in particular. Previous research has shown that being in the presence of people who are eating significantly increases the likelihood of eating and affects the types as well as the amount of food consumed. Much less is known about the processes underlying social influence, but previous research has suggested social norms as mediators. In this study, we extended this perspective to everyday settings and examined whether the presence of other people eating leads to a change in perceived momentary norms, and whether this change predicts snack consumption in real life. We applied ecological momentary assessment to study 61 individuals in the normal-obese weight range (M BMI = 24.97 kg/m²; SD = 4.07) over a 14-day monitoring period. We used a combination of event-based snacking reports and randomly timed assessments. The presence of others eating and momentary perceptions of injunctive norms (facets of perceived appropriateness and encouragement) were measured for both assessment types. Mediated, multilevel logistic regression showed that social cues predict snacking (OR = 3.06), and that momentary perceptions of appropriateness (a*b = 0.14) and encouragement (a*b = 0.18) partially mediated these effects. Perceptions of momentary norms mediated the effects of social influence on everyday snacking, which highlights the importance of the social environment for understanding eating behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Reported Changes in Dietary Behavior Following a First Clinical Diagnosis of Central Nervous System Demyelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Rebecca D; Lucas, Robyn M; Brennan, Vanessa; Sherriff, Jill L; Begley, Andrea; Black, Lucinda J

    2018-01-01

    Although the current evidence is insufficient to recommend a special diet for people with multiple sclerosis (MS), dietary advice for people with MS is prolific online and in the media. This study aimed to describe dietary changes made in the year following a first clinical diagnosis of central nervous system demyelination (FCD), a common precursor to MS. We used follow-up data from the Ausimmune Study, a multicentre matched case-control study examining the environmental risk factors for a FCD. A total of 244 cases (60 male, 184 female) completed a 1-year follow-up interview, which included a question about dietary changes. We described the number and proportion (%) of participants who reported making dietary changes and the type of change made. We investigated independent predictors of making a dietary change using a multivariable logistic regression model. A total of 38% ( n  = 92) of participants at the 1-year follow-up reported making at least one dietary change over the last year. There were no statistically significant independent associations between any participant characteristic and odds of making a dietary change. Of those who made at least one dietary change, the most common changes were increasing fruit and/or vegetable intake (27%, n  = 25) and following a low-fat diet (25%, n  = 23). A considerable proportion of the study population reported making at least one dietary change in the year following a FCD, with the majority of changes being toward a healthier diet. Further research is warranted to investigate the reasons behind any dietary changes adopted by people with a FCD or with MS, and whether making a dietary change has benefits for the progression of demyelinating diseases, e.g., to a diagnosis of MS, as well as for general health and well-being.

  2. Reported Changes in Dietary Behavior Following a First Clinical Diagnosis of Central Nervous System Demyelination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca D. Russell

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/objectivesAlthough the current evidence is insufficient to recommend a special diet for people with multiple sclerosis (MS, dietary advice for people with MS is prolific online and in the media. This study aimed to describe dietary changes made in the year following a first clinical diagnosis of central nervous system demyelination (FCD, a common precursor to MS.Subjects/methodsWe used follow-up data from the Ausimmune Study, a multicentre matched case-control study examining the environmental risk factors for a FCD. A total of 244 cases (60 male, 184 female completed a 1-year follow-up interview, which included a question about dietary changes. We described the number and proportion (% of participants who reported making dietary changes and the type of change made. We investigated independent predictors of making a dietary change using a multivariable logistic regression model.ResultsA total of 38% (n = 92 of participants at the 1-year follow-up reported making at least one dietary change over the last year. There were no statistically significant independent associations between any participant characteristic and odds of making a dietary change. Of those who made at least one dietary change, the most common changes were increasing fruit and/or vegetable intake (27%, n = 25 and following a low-fat diet (25%, n = 23.ConclusionA considerable proportion of the study population reported making at least one dietary change in the year following a FCD, with the majority of changes being toward a healthier diet. Further research is warranted to investigate the reasons behind any dietary changes adopted by people with a FCD or with MS, and whether making a dietary change has benefits for the progression of demyelinating diseases, e.g., to a diagnosis of MS, as well as for general health and well-being.

  3. Perceived stress and dietary choices: The moderating role of stress management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errisuriz, Vanessa L; Pasch, Keryn E; Perry, Cheryl L

    2016-08-01

    Many college students exhibit unhealthy eating behaviors, consuming large quantities of high-fat foods and few fruits and vegetables. Perceived stress has been linked to daily dietary choices among college students; however, this work has been conducted among predominantly white, female populations. The role of perceived stress management in moderating this relationship is unclear. This study investigated the relationship between perceived stress and dietary choices among a diverse sample of male and female college freshmen and assessed whether perceived ability to manage stress moderated this relationship. 613 students from a large, public university completed an online survey which assessed past week consumption of various foods and beverages (e.g. soda, fast food, fruits, vegetables), as well as perceived stress and ability to manage stress. Hierarchical linear regression examined the association between perceived stress and past week dietary choices, and the moderating effect of perceived ability to manage stress, controlling for demographic variables. Perceived stress was positively associated with past week soda, coffee, energy drink, salty snack, frozen food, and fast food consumption (pmoderated the relationship between stress and sweet snack consumption. Individuals who reported low ability to manage stress consumed greater amounts. Findings indicate greater stress is associated with poor dietary choices among college freshmen. The relationship between stress and sweet snack consumption was exacerbated among those who reported low ability to manage stress. It may be important for college nutrition education programs to focus on the relationship between stress and diet and promote effective stress management techniques. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The school food environment associations with adolescent soft drink and snack consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horst, Klazine; Timperio, Anna; Crawford, David; Roberts, Rebecca; Brug, Johannes; Oenema, Anke

    2008-09-01

    Because students may purchase food and drinks in and around their schools, the school food environment may be important for obesity-related eating behaviors such as soft drink and snack consumption. However, research exploring the associations between school environments and specific eating behaviors is sparse. Associations of the availability of canteen food and drinks, the presence of food stores around schools, and individual cognitions (attitudes, norms, modeling, perceived behavioral control, and intentions) with soft drink and snack consumption were examined in a cross-sectional study (2005-2006) among 1,293 adolescents aged 12-15 years. Soft drink and snack consumption and related cognitions were assessed with self-administered questionnaires. The presence of food stores and the distance to the nearest food store were calculated within a 500-meter buffer around each school. Data on the availability of soft drinks and snacks in school canteens were gathered by observation. In 2007, multilevel regression models were run to analyze associations and mediation pathways between cognitions, environmental factors, and behaviors. Adolescents' attitudes, subjective norms, parental and peer modeling, and intentions were positively associated with soft drink and snack consumption. There was an inverse association between the distance to the nearest store and the number of small food stores with soft drink consumption. These effects were mediated partly by cognitions. This study provided little evidence for associations of environmental factors in the school environment with soft drink and snack consumption. Individual cognitions appeared to be stronger correlates of intake than physical school-environmental factors. Longitudinal research is needed to confirm these findings.

  5. Sensory evaluation of gluten-free quinoa whole grain snacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talwinder S. Kahlon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sensory evaluation of quinoa gluten-free whole grain low fat and salt snacks was conducted. The snacks were Quinoa, Quinoa-Cayenne Pepper, Quinoa-Ginger and Quinoa-Turmeric. Cayenne pepper, ginger and turmeric are common spices that contain health promoting nutrients. Cayenne pepper has been associated with enhancing heat production. Ginger has been reported to improve blood flow and prevent joint pains. Turmeric has been observed to have wound healing potential. All the snacks contained 6% corn oil and 2% salt. Snack dough was prepared using 120 mL water for 100 g dry ingredients. About 20 g of snack dough was placed on center of preheated KrumKake Express Baker and cooked for 2 min. Seventy in-house volunteers judged Color/Appearance of Quinoa, Quinoa-Cayenne Pepper and Quinoa-Ginger snacks significantly (p ≤ 0.05 higher than Quinoa-Turmeric snacks. Odor/Aroma of Quinoa-Ginger snacks was significantly higher than other snacks tested. Texture/Mouth-feel of Quinoa-Cayenne Pepper, Quinoa-Ginger and Quinoa-Turmeric snacks was similar and significantly higher than Quinoa snacks. Taste/Flavor and Acceptance was similar in four kinds of snacks tested. Water activity of all the snacks tested ranged from 0.41–0.55 suggesting that these snacks were crispy with good antimicrobial stability. These snacks would be quite filling due to their expansion of 2.6–3.1 times due to high porosity. Acceptance of snacks tested was Quinoa 79%, Quinoa-Cayenne Pepper 77%, Quinoa-Ginger 73% and Quinoa-Turmeric 70%. These snacks contained only 3–4 ingredients and could be made in any house kitchen or commercial production. Acceptance of 70–79% is very desirable. These healthy nutritious gluten-free quinoa snacks offer choice for all including vegetarians and individuals hypersensitive to gluten.

  6. Sensory evaluation of gluten-free quinoa whole grain snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlon, Talwinder S; Avena-Bustillos, Roberto J; Chiu, Mei-Chen M

    2016-12-01

    Sensory evaluation of quinoa gluten-free whole grain low fat and salt snacks was conducted. The snacks were Quinoa, Quinoa-Cayenne Pepper, Quinoa-Ginger and Quinoa-Turmeric. Cayenne pepper, ginger and turmeric are common spices that contain health promoting nutrients. Cayenne pepper has been associated with enhancing heat production. Ginger has been reported to improve blood flow and prevent joint pains. Turmeric has been observed to have wound healing potential. All the snacks contained 6% corn oil and 2% salt. Snack dough was prepared using 120 mL water for 100 g dry ingredients. About 20 g of snack dough was placed on center of preheated KrumKake Express Baker and cooked for 2 min. Seventy in-house volunteers judged Color/Appearance of Quinoa, Quinoa-Cayenne Pepper and Quinoa-Ginger snacks significantly ( p ≤ 0.05) higher than Quinoa-Turmeric snacks. Odor/Aroma of Quinoa-Ginger snacks was significantly higher than other snacks tested. Texture/Mouth-feel of Quinoa-Cayenne Pepper, Quinoa-Ginger and Quinoa-Turmeric snacks was similar and significantly higher than Quinoa snacks. Taste/Flavor and Acceptance was similar in four kinds of snacks tested. Water activity of all the snacks tested ranged from 0.41-0.55 suggesting that these snacks were crispy with good antimicrobial stability. These snacks would be quite filling due to their expansion of 2.6-3.1 times due to high porosity. Acceptance of snacks tested was Quinoa 79%, Quinoa-Cayenne Pepper 77%, Quinoa-Ginger 73% and Quinoa-Turmeric 70%. These snacks contained only 3-4 ingredients and could be made in any house kitchen or commercial production. Acceptance of 70-79% is very desirable. These healthy nutritious gluten-free quinoa snacks offer choice for all including vegetarians and individuals hypersensitive to gluten.

  7. Understanding the influence of the snack definition on the association between snacking and obesity: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregori, Dario; Foltran, Francesca; Ghidina, Marco; Berchialla, Paola

    2011-05-01

    The aim of the present study is to understand how different definitions of snacking influence the estimated probability of obesity in the presence of concurrent risk factors. Factors influencing obesity were evaluated by reviewing the relevant literature through a PUBMED search. Six different modalities to define snack consumption were identified. A Bayesian network model in which nodes represent the variables that the retrieved studies indicate as affecting the probability of obesity was implemented and used to estimate the individual risk of developing obesity taking into account the concurrent effect of the considered risk factors. For a subject with a given profile of factors, the probability of obesity varies according to the chosen definition of snacking, up to maximum of 70%. The variability of the probability of obesity attributable to the chosen definition of snacking is very high and may threaten any conclusion about the effect of snacking, which may be related to the specific definitions adopted in the study.

  8. Properties of extruded snacks supplemented with amaranth grain grits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadnađev Miroslav S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Extruded amaranth grain products have specific aroma and can be used as snack food, supplement in breakfast cereals, or as raw material for further processing. Extruded products of corn-amaranth grits blends, containing 20% or 50% amaranth grain grits, were produced by extrusion-cooking using a laboratory Brabender single screw extruder 20 DN. Extrudates with various texture were obtained. During extrusion process starch granules are partially degraded, hence rheological properties were examined. All samples exhibited thixotropic flow behavior. Those samples in which part of the corn grits was replaced with amaranth one had lower viscosity and exhibited lower level of structuration during storage.

  9. Incorporation of air into a snack food reduces energy intake

    OpenAIRE

    Osterholt, Kathrin M.; Roe, Liane S.; Rolls, Barbara J.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated how the air content of a familiar snack food affected energy intake and whether varying the method of serving the snack modified intake. We tested two versions of an extruded snack (cheese puffs) that were equal in energy density (5.7 kcal/g), but differed in energy per volume (less-aerated snack: 1.00 kcal/ml; more- aerated snack: 0.45 kcal/ml). In a within-subjects design, 16 women and 12 men consumed the snacks ad libitum in the laboratory during four afternoon sess...

  10. LA Sprouts: A 12-Week Gardening, Nutrition, and Cooking Randomized Control Trial Improves Determinants of Dietary Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jaimie N; Martinez, Lauren C; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Gatto, Nicole M

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of an exploratory 12-week nutrition, cooking, and gardening trial (LA Sprouts) on preference for fruit and vegetables (FV); willingness to try FV; identification of FV; self-efficacy to garden, eat, and cook FV; motivation to garden, eat, and cook FV; attitudes toward FV; nutrition and gardening knowledge; and home gardening habits. Randomized controlled trial. Four elementary schools. Three hundred four predominately Hispanic/Latino third- through fifth-grade students were randomized to either the LA Sprouts group (n = 167 students) or control group (n = 137 students). Twelve-week after-school nutrition, cooking, and gardening intervention. Determinants of dietary behavior as measured by questionnaire at baseline and postintervention. Analyses of covariance. After the 12-week program, compared with controls, LA Sprouts participants improved scores for identification of vegetables (+11% vs +5%; P = .001) and nutrition and gardening knowledge (+14.5% vs -5.0%; P = .003), and were more likely to garden at home (+7.5% vs -4.4%; P = .003). The LA Sprouts program positively affected a number of determinants of dietary behaviors that suggest possible mechanisms by which gardening and nutrition education act to improve dietary intake and health outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Processing effects on bioactive components and functional properties of moringa leaves: development of a snack and quality evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Devisetti, Rajesh; Sreerama, Yadahally N.; Bhattacharya, Sila

    2015-01-01

    The effect of alkali pre-treatment on the nutritional, anti-nutritional and functional properties of moringa (Moringa oleifera) leaf flour (MLF), and sensory assessment of MLF-based snack product was investigated. The pre-treatment reduced the content of anti-nutrients, but improved the functional properties of MLF. The MLF-based ready-to-eat puffed snack exhibited high protein (21.6 g/100 g) and dietary fiber (14.8 g/100 g) contents while it contained a low fat content of 3.7 g/100 g. The HP...

  12. Integration of β-glucan fibre rich fractions from barley and mushrooms to form healthy extruded snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Margaret A; Derbyshire, Emma; Tiwari, Brijesh K; Brennan, Charles S

    2013-03-01

    β-glucan is a commonly researched plant cell wall component that when incorporated into food products has been associated with cholesterol and glycaemic response reductions. This study focusses on β-glucan rich fractions from barley and mushroom used in the production of extruded ready to eat snacks. Inclusion of barley β-glucan rich fractions and mushroom β-glucan fractions at 10 % levels increased the total dietary fibre content of extrudates compared to the control (P extruded snack products.

  13. Use of red palm oil in local snacks can increase intake of provitamin A carotenoids in young aborigines children: a Malaysian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, T K W; Low, C X; Kong, J P; Cho, Y L

    2012-12-01

    Carotenoid-rich red palm oil (RPO)-based snacks have been provided to children in impoverished communities to improve their vitamin A status. The non-availabilty of information on the acceptability of RPO-based snacks by Malaysian aborigines (Orang Asli) children forms the basis of this study. Twenty-one Orang Asli children, majority of whom had normal body mass index for age (BMI-for-age) and aged 4.73 +/- 0.92 years in Sungai Tekir, Negeri Sembilan were provided with three freshly-prepared snacks (springroll, curry puff or doughnut) each containing one teaspoon or 5 ml of RPO per serving, on separate mornings. On the fourth morning, one serving each of all 3 different snacks was provided together on a plate to every child for consumption and preference for the snacks recorded. The children's habitual vitamin A intakes were assessed by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and carotenoid retention tests for the prepared snacks were performed by column chromatography. Fifty-four percent of the children did not meet their RNI for vitamin A. Based on acceptance criterion of consuming at least one-half serving of the snacks provided, springroll and curry puff recorded 100% acceptability while doughnut had 82% acceptability. Preference of snack was in the order, springroll (47%) > doughtnut (35%) > curry puff (18%), but a Z-test test for proportions showed no statistical significance. Carotenoid retention tests showed great variation between snacks namely, doughnut (100%) > springroll (84%) > curry puff (45%). The overall findings indicate that the RPO-based snacks are highly acceptable and can be used to improve the dietary intake of provitamin A carotenoids of Malaysian Orang Asli children.

  14. Personal and situational predictors of everyday snacking: An application of temporal self-regulation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliston, Katherine G; Ferguson, Stuart G; Schüz, Benjamin

    2017-11-01

    , specifically from discretionary food choices (snacking). Temporal self-regulation theory (Hall & Fong, ) takes into account both deliberate and momentary influences on health behaviour, which is especially relevant to exploring the drivers of snacking. What does this study add? Offers new insight into the application of TST in explaining momentary eating behaviours. Snacking initiation is guided by momentary cues, not person-level factors. Dietary interventions should acknowledge the momentary cues that are associated with snacking. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  15. Dietary Patterns in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae Dong Woo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of diet in the behavior of children has been controversial, but the association of several nutritional factors with childhood behavioral disorders has been continually suggested. We conducted a case-control study to identify dietary patterns associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. The study included 192 elementary school students aged seven to 12 years. Three non-consecutive 24-h recall (HR interviews were employed to assess dietary intake, and 32 predefined food groups were considered in a principal components analysis (PCA. PCA identified four major dietary patterns: the “traditional” pattern, the “seaweed-egg” pattern, the “traditional-healthy” pattern, and the “snack” pattern. The traditional-healthy pattern is characterized by a diet low in fat and high in carbohydrates as well as high intakes of fatty acids and minerals. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR of ADHD for the highest tertile of the traditional-healthy pattern in comparison with the lowest tertile was 0.31 (95% CI: 0.12–0.79. The score of the snack pattern was positively associated with the risk of ADHD, but a significant association was observed only in the second tertile. A significant association between ADHD and the dietary pattern score was not found for the other two dietary patterns. In conclusion, the traditional-healthy dietary pattern was associated with lower odds having ADHD.

  16. Is snack consumption associated with meal skipping in children and adolescents? The CASPIAN-IV study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelishadi, Roya; Mozafarian, Nafiseh; Qorbani, Mostafa; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Safiri, Saeid; Ardalan, Gelayol; Keikhah, Mojtaba; Rezaei, Fatemeh; Heshmat, Ramin

    2017-06-01

    The present inquiry set to assess the relationship between snack consumption and meal skipping in Iranian children and adolescents. Overall, 14,880 students, aged 6-18 years, were selected via multistage cluster sampling method from rural and urban areas of 30 provinces of Iran. A validated questionnaire of food behaviors including questions on snacks consumption and taking/skipping meals was completed. Consuming and skipping meals and their related factors were reported in both crude and adjusted models. Overall, 13,486 students with a mean age of 12.47 ± 3.36 years completed the study (90.6% participation rate). Among them, 32.08, 8.89, and 10.90% skipped breakfast, lunch, and dinner, respectively. Compared to their counterpart groups, the frequency of meal skipping was higher in girls, urban inhabitants, and students in higher school grades (P Snack consumption was associated with an increased odds ratio of meal skipping in many types of snack groups. Meal skipping and snack consumption were frequent among Iranian children and adolescents. Evidence based interventions are proposed to improve the students' eating habits.

  17. Maternal encouragement to be thin moderates the effect of commercials on children's snack food intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E; van Strien, Tatjana

    The present study experimentally tested the effects of adult targeted food commercials (energy-dense and light food products) on actual snack food intake in young children while watching television. Furthermore, the moderating role of maternal behaviors was investigated. The children (N=121, aged

  18. Exploration of the Dietary and Lifestyle Behaviors and Weight Status and Their Self-Perceptions among Health Sciences University Students in North Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kassas, Germine; Ziade, Fouad

    2016-01-01

    University students may experience significant environmental changes that exert a negative influence on the quality of their diet and lifestyle. There is scarcity of data concerning the dietary and lifestyle behaviors and weight status of students in the health field in North Lebanon. To investigate these data, a cross-sectional survey was conducted including 369 health sciences students aged 18–25 chosen from four public and private universities in North Lebanon. Data were collected using a standardized interview questionnaire to determine sociodemographic, dietary, and lifestyle behaviors, appetite changes, stress related dietary behaviors, and food cravings, as well as self-perceptions of dietary adequacy, physical activity levels, and weight status. Body mass index was assessed. Results had revealed significant differences in some of the dietary consumption patterns and weight status among seniors compared to juniors. However, the overall prevalence of overweight and obesity recorded 32.2% and the dietary consumption patterns fall below recommended levels. Multivariate regression analysis showed that parental obesity, comfort eating, increased appetite, food cravings, and stressful eating were associated with increased risk of obesity while a healthy diet score was associated with decreased risk. The study's findings call for tailoring culture specific intervention programs which enable students to improve their dietary and lifestyle behaviors and control stress. PMID:27429989

  19. 20 healthy snacks with 100 calories or less

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... May 4, 2015. U.S.Department of Health and Human Services website. Healthy snacks: quick tips for parents. healthfinder.gov/HealthTopics/Category/nutrition-and-physical-activity/nutrition/healthy-snacks-quick-tips- ...

  20. Acrylamide content distribution and possible alternative ingredients for snack foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wei Chih; Sun, De Chao; Chou, Shin Shou; Yeh, An I

    2012-12-01

    Acrylamide (AA) contents in 294 snack foods including cereal-based, root- and tuber-based, and seafood-based foods, nuts, dried beans, and dried fruits purchased in Taiwan were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in this study. The highest levels of average AA content were found in root- and tuber-based snack foods (435 μg/kg), followed by cereal-based snack foods (299 μg/kg). Rice flour-based, seafood-based, and dried fruit snack foods had the lowest average AA content (snack foods in Taiwan. The results could provide important data regarding intake information from the snack foods. In addition, the results showed a great diversity of AA content in snack foods prepared from different ingredients. Rice- and seafood-based products had much lower AA than those made from other ingredients. This information could constitute a good reference for consumers to select products for healthy snacking.

  1. 4 Top Healthy Snacks | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on. Feature: Reducing Childhood Obesity 4 Top Healthy Snacks Past Issues / Spring - Summer 2010 Table of Contents ... vegetables. Always watch your toddler during meals and snacks. —Source: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and ...

  2. Daily Energy Intake from Meals and Afternoon Snacks: Findings from the Malaysian Adults Nutrition Survey (MANS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalilah, M S; Mirnalini, K; Safiah, M Y; Tahir, A; Siti Haslinda, M D; Siti Rohana, D; Khairul Zarina, M Y; Hasyami, S Mohd; Normah, H; Fatimah, A Siti

    2008-03-01

    Meal and snack patterns are associated with energy and nutrient intakes and consequently health and nutritional status. The aim of this paper is to describe the percentage of daily energy intake from meals and afternoon snack among Malaysian adults. The study included a representative sample of adults aged 18-59 years (n=7349) from a nationwide Food Consumption Survey conducted by the Ministry of Health. Information on dietary intake was obtained using a one day 24-hour diet recall (24-HDR). Dietary data on 6886 adults were analysed using Nutritionist ProTM and statistical analysis was carried out using the SPSS 13.0. The median percentage of daily energy intake is reported only for adults consuming meals and afternoon tea and by socio-demographic characteristics as well as body mass index (BMI) status. More than 80% of Malaysian adults consumed morning meals, lunch and dinner and 54% reported having afternoon tea. The median percentage of energy intake from morning meals, lunch, dinner and afternoon tea was 29.9%, 30.5%, 32.4% and 17%, respectively. There were variations in the median percentage of energy from meals and snacks according to the socio-demographic variables and BMI status. It is important to understand the eating patterns of Malaysians as the information can assist in efforts to address obesity and diet-related chronic diseases among adults.

  3. An obesogenic bias in women's spatial memory for high calorie snack food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, K; Allan, J L

    2013-08-01

    To help maintain a positive energy balance in ancestral human habitats, evolution appears to have designed a functional bias in spatial memory that enhances our ability to remember the location of high-calorie foodstuffs. Here, we investigated whether this functional bias has obesogenic consequences for individuals living in a modern urban environment. Spatial memory, dietary intentions, and perceived desirability, for high-calorie snacks and lower-calorie fruits and vegetables were measured using a computer-based task in 41 women (age: 18-35, body mass index: 18.5-30.0). Using multiple linear regression, we analyzed whether enhanced spatial memory for high-calorie snacks versus fruits and vegetables predicted BMI, controlling for dietary intention strength and perceived food desirability. We observed that enhanced spatial memory for high-calorie snacks (both independently, and relative to that for fruits and vegetables), significantly predicted higher BMI. The evolved function of high-calorie bias in human spatial memory, to promote positive energy balance, would therefore appear to be intact. But our data reveal that this function may contribute to higher, less healthy BMI in individuals in whom the memory bias is most marked. Our findings reveal a novel cognitive marker of vulnerability to weight gain that, once the proximal mechanisms are understood, may offer new possibilities for weight control interventions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Incorporation of air into a snack food reduces energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterholt, Kathrin M; Roe, Liane S; Rolls, Barbara J

    2007-05-01

    This study investigated how the air content of a familiar snack food affected energy intake and whether varying the method of serving the snack modified intake. We tested two versions of an extruded snack (cheese puffs) that were equal in energy density (5.7 kcal/g), but differed in energy per volume (less-aerated snack: 1.00 kcal/ml; more-aerated snack: 0.45 kcal/ml). In a within-subjects design, 16 women and 12 men consumed the snacks ad libitum in the laboratory during four afternoon sessions. A standard volume (1250 ml) of each snack was served once in a bowl and once in an opaque bag. Results showed significant differences in intake of the two snacks by energy (p=0.0003) and volume (psnack than the less-aerated snack, although they consumed a 73% greater volume of the more-aerated snack (239+/-24 ml). These findings suggest that subjects responded to both the weight and volume of the snack. Despite differences in intake, hunger and fullness ratings did not differ across conditions. The serving method did not significantly affect intake. Results from this study indicate that incorporating air into food provides a strategy to reduce energy intake from energy-dense snacks.

  5. Dietary behaviors and body image recognition of college students according to the self-rated health condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Joung; Lim, Ye Rom; Kwak, Ho Kyung

    2008-01-01

    This study was done to investigate the relationship between the perception of body image, body weight satisfaction or dietary behavior and self-rated health status in Korean college students. Subjects, 285 college students, were divided into three groups (healthy, normal, and unhealthy) according to the answer for the self-rated health question. Information about demographic status, self-rated health condition, height and weight, perception of body image, satisfaction of body weight, concern for body weight control, dietary behavior, nutritional knowledge, and health-related characteristics collected by a self-reported questionnaire. The proportion of men and women in each group was not significantly different. The academic year, major, experience of nutritional education, and type of residence were not significantly related with self-rated health but the pocket money range was significantly associated (ppocket money range and was increased in less than 210 thousand won or over 300 thousand won pocket money ranges. There were no significant differences for age, height, weight and BMI between the groups. The body image perception and body weight satisfaction levels of healthy group was significantly higher than those of unhealthy group (p<0.01 and p<0.001, respectively), but the level of concern for body weight control in healthy subjects was significantly lower than that in unhealthy subjects (p<0.05). The proportion of subjects reported as healthy was significantly increased with increased frequencies of following food behaviors; weekly use of protein foods (p<0.01), vegetables (p<0.05) and dairy products (p<0.01), and food habits such as "regularity of meal time" (p<0.01), "eating in moderation" (p<0.05), and "eating breakfast" (p<0.001). Overall results suggested that the college students have tended to have a better perception of health when they have better body image perception, body weight satisfaction and dietary behaviors.

  6. Altered feeding patterns in rats exposed to a palatable cafeteria diet: increased snacking and its implications for development of obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah I Martire

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rats prefer energy-rich foods over chow and eat them to excess. The pattern of eating elicited by this diet is unknown. We used the behavioral satiety sequence to classify an eating bout as a meal or snack and compared the eating patterns of rats fed an energy rich cafeteria diet or chow. METHODS: Eight week old male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to lab chow or an energy-rich cafeteria diet (plus chow for 16 weeks. After 5, 10 and 15 weeks, home-cage overnight feeding behavior was recorded. Eating followed by grooming then resting or sleeping was classified as a meal; whereas eating not followed by the full sequence was classified as a snack. Numbers of meals and snacks, their duration, and waiting times between feeding bouts were compared between the two conditions. RESULTS: Cafeteria-fed rats ate more protein, fat and carbohydrate, consistently ingesting double the energy of chow-fed rats, and were significantly heavier by week 4. Cafeteria-fed rats tended to take multiple snacks between meals and ate fewer meals than chow-fed rats. They also ate more snacks at 5 weeks, were less effective at compensating for snacking by reducing meals, and the number of snacks in the majority of the cafeteria-fed rats was positively related to terminal body weights. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to a palatable diet had long-term effects on feeding patterns. Rats became overweight because they initially ate more frequently and ultimately ate more of foods with higher energy density. The early increased snacking in young cafeteria-fed rats may represent the establishment of eating habits that promote weight gain.

  7. Effortless Inhibition: Habit Mediates the Relation Between Self-Control and Unhealthy Snack Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke eAdriaanse

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to prevailing beliefs, recent research suggests that trait self-control promotes health behavior not because those high in self-control are more successful at resisting single temptations, but rather because they develop adaptive habits. The present paper presents a first empirical test of this novel suggestion by investigating the mediating role of habit in explaining the relation between self-control and unhealthy snacking behavior. Results showed that self-control was negatively associated with unhealthy snack consumption and unhealthy snacking habits. As hypothesized, the relation between self-control and unhealthy snack intake was mediated by habit strength. Self-control was not associated with fruit consumption or fruit consumption habits. These results provide the first evidence for the notion that high self-control may influence the formation of habits and in turn affect behavior. Moreover, results imply that self-control may be particularly influential in case of inhibiting unhealthy food intake rather than promoting healthy food intake.

  8. Dietary intake, eating behaviors, and quality of life in women with polycystic ovary syndrome who are trying to conceive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Davidson, Charis R; Billings, Deborah L

    2015-03-01

    The Healthy Eating for Reproductive Health study was conducted among 18 (45% non-white) mostly obese (BMI 39.9 ± 6.1) women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) who were experiencing infertility and interested in losing weight. A variety of markers were measured at baseline: body mass index (BMI), diet, physical activity, eating behaviors (using an Eating Behavior Inventory, a questionnaire which assesses both positive and negative eating behaviors associated with weight status, with a higher score indicating adoption of eating behaviors which have been shown in prior weight-loss research to promote a healthy weight (EBI) and the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire, which assesses cognitive and behavioral components of eating among overweight adults), and a quality of life (PCOS Health-Related Quality of Life (PCOSQ)) index, which assesses satisfaction around five 'domains': emotional health, presence of body hair, infertility, weight, and menstrual problems). A comparison group of overweight women without PCOS (n = 28) was used to examine differences in measured outcomes between women with and without PCOS. Participants' habitual diets were high in fat and saturated fat and low in fiber, folate, and iron and contained significantly lower amounts of carbohydrate, iron, and whole grains compared with women without PCOS who had enrolled in a behavioral weight loss programme. Participants had a low EBI (indicating that most were not adopting eating behaviors associated with achieving a healthy weight), disinhibition (indicating participants had a tendency to overeat in the presence of highly palatable foods or were susceptible to emotional cues for eating, such as stress), and hunger scores (indicating participants did not report being susceptible to hunger, prompting overeating) and moderate dietary restraint (indicating they were not consistently attempting to restrict food intake consciously). PCOSQ scores were lowest for infertility and weight domains (indicating

  9. What is a nutritious snack? Level of processing and macronutrient content influences young adults' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vlieger, Nienke M; Collins, Clare; Bucher, Tamara

    2017-07-01

    Snacking has become more prevalent in developed countries. While poor food choices pose health risks, nutritious choices contribute important nutrients to overall dietary intakes. Young adults consumer snacks frequently and nutritious choices should be promoted among this group. However, how young adults define the term 'nutritious' currently and how they evaluate the nutritiousness of various snack foods required further investigation. The current study used a mixed methods design with 115 young adults invited to sort 32 commonly available snack foods into a line ranging from 'not nutritious' to 'very nutritious'. The sorting data was analysed by hierarchical cluster analysis and multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) analysis. Participants were also asked to define the word 'nutritious', with definitions then categorized and number of counts per category analysed. Predictors of perceived snack nutritiousness were sugar (β = -0.45, P < 0.005), fat (β = -0.43, P < 0.05), nut (β = 0.45, P < 0.05) and fruit/vegetable (β = 0.33, P < 0.05) content. Level of food processing was significantly related to perceived nutritiousness (β = 0.79, P=<0.05). The terms given within the definitions most frequently were: 'vitamins' (40%), 'good for body/body needs' (40%), 'minerals' (39%), 'low in sugars' (36%), 'protein' (32%), 'healthy' (28%) and 'long lasting source of energy' (27%). Results of the current study provide first insight into how young adults interpret the term 'nutritious'. This could help in the design of more effective nutrition education materials and food product labels to guide healthy choices in this age group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Character Apps for Children's Snacks: Effects of Character Awareness on Snack Selection and Consumption Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Marisa M; Cotto, Caroline E; Calvert, Sandra L

    2018-04-01

    Media characters are used to market snacks that are typically of poor nutritional value, which has been linked to childhood obesity. This study examines whether children's snack selections and consumption patterns are influenced by an app depicting a popular children's media character, as well as the role that children's awareness of the character plays. The results can increase our understanding of how to encourage healthier snack selection and consumption in newer game-based marketing venues, such as apps. Four- and 5-year-old children (N = 132) played a bowling game on an iPad with no character or with a character holding either healthier or unhealthy snacks. After app-play, children selected and consumed healthier or unhealthy snacks. Children's awareness of the character was measured by children's verbalizations of the character's name during or after app-play. An ordered logistic regression found no significant effect of treatment conditions compared with the control group. Within treatment conditions, awareness of the character led to selection and consumption of more healthy snacks in the healthier condition (odds ratio β = 10.340, P = 0.008), and of unhealthy snacks in the unhealthy condition (odds ratio β = 0.228, P = 0.033), but children were unaware that the character influenced their decisions. Results suggest that young children will choose and consume healthier, not just unhealthy, products when they are aware that a popular character in an app is associated with the snack, potentially leading to healthier eating patterns.

  11. Behavioral, normative and control beliefs underlying low-fat dietary and regular physical activity behaviors for adults diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and/or cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Katherine M; Terry, Deborah J; Troup, Carolyn; Rempel, Lynn A

    2007-08-01

    Promoting healthy lifestyle behaviors is an important aspect of interventions designed to improve the management of chronic diseases such as Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The present study used Ajzen's (1991) theory of planned behavior as a framework to examine beliefs amongst adults diagnosed with these conditions who do and do not engage in low-fat dietary and regular physical activity behaviors. Participants (N = 192) completed a questionnaire assessing their behavioral, normative and control beliefs in relation to regular, moderate physical activity and eating foods low in saturated fats. Measures of self-reported behavior were also examined. The findings revealed that, in general, it is the underlying behavioral beliefs that are important determinants for both physical activity and low-fat food consumption with some evidence to suggest that pressure from significant others is an important consideration for low-fat food consumption. Laziness, as a barrier to engaging in physical activity, also emerged as an important factor. To encourage a healthy lifestyle amongst this population, interventions should address the perceived costs associated with behavioral performance and encourage people to maintain healthy behaviors in light of these costs.

  12. The Tongzhou Festival of Dainty Snacks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Tongzhou is located at the east end of the 100-li street in Beijing. The area is a hub which links Beijing, Tianjin and Tangshan. It is also the starting point of the Great Beijing-Hangzhou Canal. A gathering place of merchants since ancient times, Tongzhou’s food culture continues to flourish. The snacks

  13. Baseline Depressive Symptoms, Completion of Study Assessments, and Behavior Change in a Long-Term Dietary Intervention Among Breast Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Julie B; Pierce, John P; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Cadmus-Bertram, Lisa A; Flatt, Shirley W; Madanat, Hala; Newman, Vicky A; Nichols, Jeanne F; Natarajan, Loki

    2015-12-01

    Depressive symptoms can lower adherence and change in dietary studies. Behavioral activation may reduce these effects. This study aims to assess relationships among depressive symptoms on adherence and dietary change in the Women's Healthy Eating and Living (WHEL) Study Secondary analyses from the WHEL Study, which achieved major dietary change in breast cancer survivors (N = 2817), were conducted. Logistic regressions were undertaken of baseline depressive symptoms (six-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D)) with (1) completion of 1- and 4-year study assessments and (2) validated change in dietary behavior in the intervention group. In the comparison group (vs. intervention), depressive symptoms lowered completion of dietary recalls and clinic visits [4 years: odds ratio (OR) = 2.0; 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.4-3.0]. The behaviorally oriented intervention achieved major change in those furthest from study targets, although changes were lower in those with depressive symptoms: fruit/vegetable (+37.2 %), fiber (+49.0 %), and fat (-22.4 %). Behavioral activation in dietary change interventions can overcome the impact of depressive symptoms.

  14. Appetitive and Dietary Effects of Consuming an Energy-Dense Food (Peanuts with or between Meals by Snackers and Nonsnackers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Devitt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Energy-dense foods are inconsistently implicated in elevated energy intake (EI. This may stem from other food properties and/or differences in dietary incorporation, that is, as snacks or with meals. Objective. Assess intake pattern and food properties on acute appetitive ratings (AR and EI. Design. 201 normal and overweight adults consuming a standard lunch. Test loads of 1255.2 kJ (300 kcal were added to the lunch or provided as snack. Loads (peanuts, snack mix, and snack mix with peanuts were energy, macronutrient, and volumetrically matched with a lunch portion as control. Participants completed meal and snack sessions of their randomly assigned load. Results. No differences were observed in daily EI or AR for meal versus snack or treatment versus control. Consumption of peanuts as a snack tended to strengthen dietary compensation compared to peanuts or other loads with a meal. Conclusions. Inclusion of an energy-dense food as a snack or meal component had comparable influence on AR and EI. Peanuts tended to elicit stronger dietary compensation when consumed as a snack versus with a meal. If substantiated, this latter observation suggests that properties other than those controlled here (energy, macronutrient content, and volume modify AR and EI.

  15. Appetitive and Dietary Effects of Consuming an Energy-Dense Food (Peanuts) with or between Meals by Snackers and Nonsnackers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devitt, A A; Kuevi, A; Coelho, S B; Lartey, A; Lokko, P; Costa, N; Bressan, J; Mattes, R D

    2011-01-01

    Background. Energy-dense foods are inconsistently implicated in elevated energy intake (EI). This may stem from other food properties and/or differences in dietary incorporation, that is, as snacks or with meals. Objective. Assess intake pattern and food properties on acute appetitive ratings (AR) and EI. Design. 201 normal and overweight adults consuming a standard lunch. Test loads of 1255.2 kJ (300 kcal) were added to the lunch or provided as snack. Loads (peanuts, snack mix, and snack mix with peanuts) were energy, macronutrient, and volumetrically matched with a lunch portion as control. Participants completed meal and snack sessions of their randomly assigned load. Results. No differences were observed in daily EI or AR for meal versus snack or treatment versus control. Consumption of peanuts as a snack tended to strengthen dietary compensation compared to peanuts or other loads with a meal. Conclusions. Inclusion of an energy-dense food as a snack or meal component had comparable influence on AR and EI. Peanuts tended to elicit stronger dietary compensation when consumed as a snack versus with a meal. If substantiated, this latter observation suggests that properties other than those controlled here (energy, macronutrient content, and volume) modify AR and EI.

  16. Dietary and physical activity behaviors among adults successful at weight loss maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillespie Cathleen

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited population-based data on behavioral factors found to be important for successful weight loss maintenance among adults. Methods Data from the 2004 Styles surveys, mailed to U.S. adults aged ≥18 years were used to examine the difference in selected weight loss strategies and attitudes among persons who reported successful weight loss attempts (lost weight and able to keep it off and persons who were not successful (previous attempts to lose weight were unsuccessful or they could not keep the lost weight off. Behaviors examined included modification of diet, leisure-time and sports activities, and self-monitoring, and barriers to weight management. Results Among adults who reported losing weight or trying to lose weight, 31.0% had been successful at both losing weight and maintenance after weight loss. Successful weight loss status differed by sex, age, and current weight status. Assessment of reported weight loss strategies, found that exercising ≥30 minutes/day and adding physical activity to daily life were significantly higher among successful versus unsuccessful weight losers. Individuals who were successful at weight loss and maintenance were less likely to use over-the-counter diet products than those who were unsuccessful at weight loss. Significantly more successful versus unsuccessful weight losers reported that on most days of the week they planned meals (35.9% vs. 24.9%, tracked calories (17.7% vs. 8.8%, tracked fat (16.4% vs. 6.6%, and measured food on plate (15.9% vs. 6.7%. Successful losers were also more likely to weigh themselves daily (20.3% vs. 11.0%. There were a significantly higher proportion of successful losers who reported lifting weights (19.0% versus unsuccessful (10.9%. The odds of being a successful weight loser were 48%–76% lower for those reporting exercise weight control barriers were influencing factors (e.g., no time, too tired to exercise, no one to exercise with, too

  17. Reproductive fitness and dietary choice behavior of the genetic model organism Caenorhabditis elegans under semi-natural conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyth, Katharina; Janowitz, Tim; Nunes, Frank; Voss, Melanie; Heinick, Alexander; Bertaux, Joanne; Scheu, Stefan; Paul, Rüdiger J

    2010-10-01

    Laboratory breeding conditions of the model organism C. elegans do not correspond with the conditions in its natural soil habitat. To assess the consequences of the differences in environmental conditions, the effects of air composition, medium and bacterial food on reproductive fitness and/or dietary-choice behavior of C. elegans were investigated. The reproductive fitness of C. elegans was maximal under oxygen deficiency and not influenced by a high fractional share of carbon dioxide. In media approximating natural soil structure, reproductive fitness was much lower than in standard laboratory media. In seminatural media, the reproductive fitness of C. elegans was low with the standard laboratory food bacterium E. coli (γ-Proteobacteria), but significantly higher with C. arvensicola (Bacteroidetes) and B. tropica (β-Proteobacteria) as food. Dietary-choice experiments in semi-natural media revealed a low preference of C. elegans for E. coli but significantly higher preferences for C. arvensicola and B. tropica (among other bacteria). Dietary-choice experiments under quasi-natural conditions, which were feasible by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of bacteria, showed a high preference of C. elegans for Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroides, Firmicutes, and β-Proteobacteria, but a low preference for γ-Proteobacteria. The results show that data on C. elegans under standard laboratory conditions have to be carefully interpreted with respect to their biological significance.

  18. An exploration of adolescent snacking conventions and dilemmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Jensen, Birger Boutrup; Pedersen, Susanne

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – Snacking has been characterized as normatively unrestricted and identified as one of the main causes of adolescent obesity. The purpose of this paper is not to question the relation between obesity and snacking, but to ask to which extent adolescent snacking is socially unrestricted...... and to explore adolescent perceptions of the potential conventions and dilemmas involved in snacking. Design/methodology/approach – Referring to previous research in food choice dilemmas and conventions, the paper starts out by discussing potential implications for adolescent snacking in different social...... contexts. Following this, the design, implementation and results of three focus groups, aiming at an exploration of adolescent snacking perceptions is described. Findings – By identifying two distinct forms of adolescent snacking, i.e. ‘‘in-between meals’’ and ‘‘fun snacks’’, the results of the focus...

  19. Evaluation of dietary Intake and Food Patterns of Adolescent Girls in Sistan and Baluchistan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Montazerifar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The evidence suggests a relationship between lifestyle and diet-related risk factors.Objective: This study assessed the dietary intake and habits of high school girls in Sistan and Bluchistan province, in southeastern Iran.Methods: In a cross-sectional, descriptive study, 753 high school girls aged 14-18 years old wereenrolled by a clustered random sampling method. Dietary intake and food habits were evaluatedby a two-day, 24-hour dietary recall, and a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ.Results: The analysis of dietary intakes showed that energy, calcium, zinc, vitamin C and folate intake, compared to the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI, were found to be lower. The, infrequent intake of milk and dairy products, fruits and vegetables, and a high consumption of empty calorie foods e.g. salty snacks, sweets, soft drinks and junk foods were seen among adolescents.Conclusions: The adolescent girls had an improper dietary intake and food habits. Thus, the implementation of nutrition education programs in schools and the designing of proper patternstowards healthier food choices could help improve eating behaviors, the health maintenance of adolescents, and also prevent diet- related diseases in adulthood.

  20. Preadolescents' and Parents' Dietary Coping Efficacy during Behavioral Family-Based Weight Control Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theim, Kelly R.; Sinton, Meghan M.; Stein, Richard I.; Saelens, Brian E.; Thekkedam, Sucheta C.; Welch, R. Robinson; Epstein, Leonard H.; Wilfley, Denise E.

    2012-01-01

    Developmentally relevant high-risk dietary situations (e.g., parties where tempting foods are available) may influence overweight youth's weight control, as they increase risk for overeating. Better self-efficacy for coping with these situations--which preadolescents may learn from their parents--could foster successful weight control. Overweight…

  1. Food science challenge: Translating the Dietary Guidelines for Americans to Bring About Real Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food scientists and nutrition scientists (dietitians and nutrition communicators) are tasked with creating strategies to more closely align the American food supply and the public's diet with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA). This paper is the result of 2 expert dialogues to address this m...

  2. Translating the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 to Bring About Real Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food scientists and nutrition scientists (dietitians and nutrition communicators) are tasked with creating strategies to more closely align the American food supply and the public's diet with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA). This paper is the result of 2 expert dialogues to address this m...

  3. The effect of playing advergames that promote energy-dense snacks or fruit on actual food intake among children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkvord, Frans; Anschütz, Doeschka J; Buijzen, Moniek; Valkenburg, Patti M

    2013-02-01

    Previous studies have focused on the effects of television advertising on the energy intake of children. However, the rapidly changing food-marketing landscape requires research to measure the effects of nontraditional forms of marketing on the health-related behaviors of children. The main aim of this study was to examine the effect of advergames that promote energy-dense snacks or fruit on children's ad libitum snack and fruit consumption and to examine whether this consumption differed according to brand and product type (energy-dense snacks and fruit). The second aim was to examine whether advergames can stimulate fruit intake. We used a randomized between-subject design with 270 children (age: 8-10 y) who played an advergame that promoted energy-dense snacks (n = 69), fruit (n = 67), or nonfood products (n = 65) or were in the control condition (n = 69). Subsequently, we measured the free intake of energy-dense snacks and fruit. The children then completed questionnaire measures, and we weighed and measured them. The main finding was that playing an advergame containing food cues increased general energy intake, regardless of the advertised brand or product type (energy-dense snacks or fruit), and this activity particularly increased the intake of energy-dense snack foods. Children who played the fruit version of the advergame did not eat significantly more fruit than did those in the other groups. The findings suggest that playing advergames that promote food, including either energy-dense snacks or fruit, increases energy intake in children.

  4. The relative reinforcing value of sweet versus savory snack foods after consumption of sugar- or non-nutritive sweetened beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casperson, Shanon L; Johnson, LuAnn; Roemmich, James N

    2017-05-01

    The effects of sugar-sweetened (SSB) and non-nutritive sweetened (NSB) beverages on the regulation of appetite, energy intake and body weight regulation remain controversial. Using a behavioral choice paradigm, we sought to determine the effects of consuming a SSB or NSB on appetite and the reinforcing value of sweet relative to salty/savory snack foods. In a randomized crossover study, 21 healthy weight adults consumed 360 ml of SSB (sucrose; 31 g) or NSB (sucralose; 4 g) with a standardized meal. Hedonic ratings for the sweet and salty/savory snack foods used for the reinforcement task were assessed prior to the start of the study. Satiety and the desire to eat foods with a specific taste profile were assessed before and every 30 min post-meal for 4 h. The relative reinforcing value of the snack foods was assessed using a computer-based choice task (operant responding with concurrent schedules of reinforcement) 4 h post-meal. Hedonic ratings did not differ between the most highly liked sweet and salty/savory snack foods. Beverage type did not influence measures of satiety or the desire to eat foods with a specific taste. However, sweet snacks were more (p snack foods after consuming a NSB than after a SSB. In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate that NSB can increase the motivation to gain access to sweet snacks relative to salty/savory snack foods later in the day. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Psychometric Properties of a Scale to Assess Parental Self-Efficacy for Influencing Children's Dietary, Physical Activity, Sedentary, and Screen Time Behaviors in Disadvantaged Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Åsa; Bohman, Benjamin; Nyberg, Gisela; Schäfer Elinder, Liselotte

    2018-01-01

    Background: According to social cognitive theory, self-efficacy is central to behavior change. Consequently, parental self-efficacy (PSE) for influencing children's dietary, physical activity (PA), sedentary, and screen time behaviors is important for child obesity prevention. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of an…

  6. Specific behavioral and cellular adaptations induced by chronic morphine are reduced by dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Hakimian

    Full Text Available Opiates, one of the oldest known drugs, are the benchmark for treating pain. Regular opioid exposure also induces euphoria making these compounds addictive and often misused, as shown by the current epidemic of opioid abuse and overdose mortalities. In addition to the effect of opioids on their cognate receptors and signaling cascades, these compounds also induce multiple adaptations at cellular and behavioral levels. As omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs play a ubiquitous role in behavioral and cellular processes, we proposed that supplemental n-3 PUFAs, enriched in docosahexanoic acid (DHA, could offset these adaptations following chronic opioid exposure. We used an 8 week regimen of n-3 PUFA supplementation followed by 8 days of morphine in the presence of this diet. We first assessed the effect of morphine in different behavioral measures and found that morphine increased anxiety and reduced wheel-running behavior. These effects were reduced by dietary n-3 PUFAs without affecting morphine-induced analgesia or hyperlocomotion, known effects of this opiate acting at mu opioid receptors. At the cellular level we found that morphine reduced striatal DHA content and that this was reversed by supplemental n-3 PUFAs. Chronic morphine also increased glutamatergic plasticity and the proportion of Grin2B-NMDARs in striatal projection neurons. This effect was similarly reversed by supplemental n-3 PUFAs. Gene analysis showed that supplemental PUFAs offset the effect of morphine on genes found in neurons of the dopamine receptor 2 (D2-enriched indirect pathway but not of genes found in dopamine receptor 1(D1-enriched direct-pathway neurons. Analysis of the D2 striatal connectome by a retrogradely transported pseudorabies virus showed that n-3 PUFA supplementation reversed the effect of chronic morphine on the innervation of D2 neurons by the dorsomedial prefontal and piriform cortices. Together these changes outline specific behavioral and

  7. Effortless inhibition: habit mediates the relation between self-control and unhealthy snack consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Adriaanse, Marieke A.; Kroese, Floor M.; Gillebaart, Marleen; De Ridder, Denise T. D.

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to prevailing beliefs, recent research suggests that trait self-control promotes health behavior not because those high in self-control are more successful at resisting single temptations, but rather because they develop adaptive habits. The present paper presents a first empirical test of this novel suggestion by investigating the mediating role of habit in explaining the relation between self-control and unhealthy snacking behavior. Results showed that self-control was negativel...

  8. Third generation snacks manufactured from orange by-products: physicochemical and nutritional characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar-Jiménez, Xochitl; Caro-Corrales, José; Gómez-Aldapa, Carlos A; Zazueta-Morales, José; Limón-Valenzuela, Víctor; Castro-Rosas, Javier; Hernández-Ávila, Juan; Aguilar-Palazuelos, Ernesto

    2015-10-01

    A mixture of orange vesicle flour, commercial nixtamalized corn flour and potato starch was extruded using a Brabender Laboratory single screw extruder (2:1 L/D). The resulting pellets were expanded by microwaves. Expansion index, bulk density, penetration force, carotenoid content, and dietary fiber were measured for this third-generation snack and optimum production conditions were estimated. Response surface methodology was applied using a central composite rotatable experimental design to evaluate the effect of moisture content and extrusion temperature. Temperature mainly affected the expansion index, bulk density and penetration force, while carotenoids content was affected by moisture content. Surface overlap was used to identify optimum processing conditions: temperature: 128-130 °C; moisture content: 22-24 %. Insoluble dietary fiber decreased and soluble dietary fiber increased after extrusion.

  9. Associations between nutritional quality of meals and snacks assessed by the Food Standards Agency nutrient profiling system and overall diet quality and adiposity measures in British children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kentaro

    2018-05-01

    This cross-sectional study examined how the nutritional quality of meals and snacks was associated with overall diet quality and adiposity measures. Based on 7-d weighed dietary record data, all eating occasions were divided into meals or snacks based on time (meals: 06:00-09:00 h, 12:00-14:00 h, and 17:00-20:00 h; snacks: others) or contribution to energy intake (meals: ≥15%; snacks: quality of meals and snacks was assessed as the arithmetical energy intake-weighted means of the Food Standards Agency (FSA) nutrient profiling system score of each food and beverage consumed, based on the contents of energy, saturated fatty acid, total sugar, sodium, fruits/vegetables/nuts, dietary fiber, and protein. Regardless of the definition of meals and snacks, higher FSA score (lower nutritional quality) of meals was inversely associated with overall diet quality assessed by the Mediterranean diet score in both children and adolescents (P quality of meals, but not snacks, assessed by the FSA score was associated with lower overall diet quality, whereas no consistent associations were observed with regard to adiposity measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Impact of different policies on unhealthy dietary behaviors in an urban adult population: an agent-based simulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Donglan; Giabbanelli, Philippe J; Arah, Onyebuchi A; Zimmerman, Frederick J

    2014-07-01

    Unhealthy eating is a complex-system problem. We used agent-based modeling to examine the effects of different policies on unhealthy eating behaviors. We developed an agent-based simulation model to represent a synthetic population of adults in Pasadena, CA, and how they make dietary decisions. Data from the 2007 Food Attitudes and Behaviors Survey and other empirical studies were used to calibrate the parameters of the model. Simulations were performed to contrast the potential effects of various policies on the evolution of dietary decisions. Our model showed that a 20% increase in taxes on fast foods would lower the probability of fast-food consumption by 3 percentage points, whereas improving the visibility of positive social norms by 10%, either through community-based or mass-media campaigns, could improve the consumption of fruits and vegetables by 7 percentage points and lower fast-food consumption by 6 percentage points. Zoning policies had no significant impact. Interventions emphasizing healthy eating norms may be more effective than directly targeting food prices or regulating local food outlets. Agent-based modeling may be a useful tool for testing the population-level effects of various policies within complex systems.

  11. [Associations among appetite, snacking, and body type during infant development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainuki, Tomomi; Akamatsu, Rie

    2010-02-01

    To examine associations among appetite, snacking, and body type during infant development. We also investigated whether trends in appetite, snacking, and body type continue through time. Children (n=1313) born between April 2000 and March 2004, in Ito City, Shizuoka Prefecture, were enrolled. Data were collected during health checkups at 18 and 36 months of age. The items used for analysis were the child's appetite, snack content, snack-eating style, and gender. The mothers commented on their child's appetite as good, normal, lacking, or irregular. The good and normal responses were grouped under the category good/normal appetite, while lacking and irregular were grouped under the category lacking/irregular appetite. Body types were calculated using an obesity index and classified as underweight, normal, or overweight. Fifteen kinds of snacks at 36 months were classified using cluster analysis. Appetite, snack content, snack-eating style, and body type at 18 and 36 months of age were compared using the McNemar test. Logistic regression was used to determine odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the appetite categories. There were 664 boys (50.6%) and 648 girls (49.4%) in the study (missing=1). The response rate was 56.5%. Snacks were classified by content as meal substitutes, snacks and sweet foods, or healthy snacks. There was no change in appetite at 18 and 36 months of age. By 36 months, snack content, snack-eating style had changed (e.g. solitary snacking increased.). The highest risk factor for appetite at 36 months was lacking/irregular appetite at 18 months (OR: 4.70, CI: 3.07-7.19), eating snacks without time constraints (OR: 1.81, CI: 1.24-2.65), followed by unsupervised snacking (OR: 2.92, CI: 1.45-5.87), and consuming few healthy snacks (OR: 0.69, CI: 0.48-1.00). The risk factors for lacking/irregular appetite at 18 months of age were eating snacks without time constraints (OR: 1.68, CI: 1.13-2.49), receiving snacks on-demand (OR: 1

  12. Do school break-time policies influence child dental health and snacking behaviours? An evaluation of a primary school programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, R; Oliver, M

    2009-06-27

    The aim of the two-year controlled trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of the 'Boosting Better Breaks' (BBB) break-time policy to reduce obvious decay experience and sugar snacking in a cohort of nine-year-old children attending intervention and control primary schools. A matched controlled prospective trial design. Children in Year 5 were invited with their parents/guardians to take part. The children were assessed at baseline and at 24-month follow-up. One hundred and eighty-nine children attended intervention schools and 175 attended control schools which were matched for socio-economic status (SES), school location and co-education status. The outcome variables were obvious decay experience and evidence of sugar snacks found in the children's rubbish bags. All children were asked to complete a questionnaire and keep evidence of the snacks they consumed starting from school-time break to when they retired for bed in a numbered and coded 'rubbish bag' on a specific collection day at baseline and 24-month follow-up. All children had a dental examination at baseline and 24-month follow-up. Sixty percent of children at baseline and all of the children at follow-up had at least one sugar snack in their rubbish bag. The most popular snacks at follow-up were sweets, chocolate, crisps and carbonated drinks. In the school environment children attending BBB policy schools had significantly lower mean scores for sugar snacks scores at baseline but equivalent mean sugar snacks scores at follow-up compared with children attending control schools. In the outside school environment there was no effect of school intervention on sugar snack scores. Decay into dentine at follow-up was predicted by school intervention status and evidence of sugar snacks consumption outside school and at home. The BBB break-time policy did not achieve its health promotion goals of promoting child dental health or encouraging children to adopt healthier dietary habits in school or in the wider

  13. Does television viewing predict dietary intake five years later in high school students and young adults?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neumark-Sztainer Dianne

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prior research has found that television viewing is associated with poor diet quality, though little is known about its long-term impact on diet, particularly during adolescence. This study examined the associations between television viewing behavior with dietary intake five years later. Methods Survey data, which included television viewing time and food frequency questionnaires, were analyzed for 564 middle school students (younger cohort and 1366 high school students (older cohort who had complete data available at Time 1 (1998–1999 and five years later at Time 2 (mean age at Time 2, 17.2 ± 0.6 and 20.5 ± 0.8 years, respectively. Regression models examined longitudinal associations between Time 1 television viewing behavior and Time 2 dietary intake adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, Time 1 dietary intake, and Time 2 total daily energy intake. Results Respondents were categorized as limited television users (2 hours/daily, moderately high television viewers (2–5 hours/daily, and heavy television viewers (≥5 hours/daily. Among the younger cohort, Time 1 heavy television viewers reported lower fruit intake and higher sugar-sweetened beverage consumption than the other two groups. Among the older cohort, watching five or more hours of television per day at Time 1, predicted lower intakes of fruits, vegetables, whole grain and calcium-rich foods, and higher intakes of trans fat, fried foods, fast food menu items, snack products, and sugar-sweetened beverages (products commonly advertised on television five years later. Conclusion Television viewing in middle and high school predicted poorer dietary intake five years later. Adolescents are primary targets of advertising for fast food restaurants, snack foods, and sugar-sweetened beverages, which may influence their food choices. Television viewing, especially during high school, may have long-term effects on eating choices and contribute to poor eating

  14. Gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms and dietary behaviors are significant correlates of short sleep duration in the general population: the Nagahama Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, Kimihiko; Tabara, Yasuharu; Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Muro, Shigeo; Yamada, Ryo; Setoh, Kazuya; Kawaguchi, Takahisa; Kadotani, Hiroshi; Kosugi, Shinji; Sekine, Akihiro; Nakayama, Takeo; Mishima, Michiaki; Chiba, Tsutomu; Chin, Kazuo; Matsuda, Fumihiko

    2014-11-01

    To examine relationships among gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms, dietary behaviors, and sleep duration in the general population. Cross-sectional. Community-based. There were 9,643 participants selected from the general population (54 ± 13 y). None. Sleep duration, sleep habits, and unfavorable dietary behaviors of each participant were assessed with a structured questionnaire. Participants were categorized into five groups according to their sleep duration: less than 5 h, 5 to less than 6 h, 6 to less than 7 h, 7 to less than 8 h, and 8 or more h per day. GERD was evaluated using the Frequency Scale for the Symptoms of GERD (FSSG) and participants having an FSSG score of 8 or more or those under treatment of GERD were defined as having GERD. Trend analysis showed that both the FSSG score and the number of unfavorable dietary habits increased with decreasing sleep duration. Further, multiple logistic regression analysis showed that both the presence of GERD (odds ratio = 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.07-1.32) and the number of unfavorable dietary behaviors (odds ratio = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.13-1.26) were independent and potent factors to identify participants with short sleep duration even after controlling for other confounding factors. The current study showed that both GERD symptoms and unfavorable dietary behaviors were significant correlates of short sleep duration independently of each other in a large sample from the general population.

  15. Theory of reasoned action and theory of planned behavior-based dietary interventions in adolescents and young adults: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Hackman CL; Knowlden AP

    2014-01-01

    Christine L Hackman, Adam P KnowldenDepartment of Health Science, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL, USABackground: Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions in many nations around the world. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) and the theory of reasoned action (TRA) have been used to successfully plan and evaluate numerous interventions for many different behaviors. The aim of this study was to systematically review and synthesize TPB and TRA-based dietary behavior interven...

  16. Encouraging Healthful Dietary Behavior in a Hospital Cafeteria: A Field Study Using Theories from Social Psychology and Behavioral Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Mazza, Mary Carol

    2013-01-01

    Public policy efforts to curb obesity often adhere to a rational actor model of human behavior, asserting that consumer behavior will change provided proper economic incentives, nutritional information, and health education. However, rigorous academic research related to such questions remains limited in scope and appears inconclusive as to the success of such economic and cognitive interventions. In contrast, research in social psychology and behavioral economics suggests that decision mak...

  17. Psychometric Properties of a Scale to Assess Parental Self-Efficacy for Influencing Children's Dietary, Physical Activity, Sedentary, and Screen Time Behaviors in Disadvantaged Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Åsa; Bohman, Benjamin; Nyberg, Gisela; Schäfer Elinder, Liselotte

    2018-02-01

    According to social cognitive theory, self-efficacy is central to behavior change. Consequently, parental self-efficacy (PSE) for influencing children's dietary, physical activity (PA), sedentary, and screen time behaviors is important for child obesity prevention. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of an instrument to measure PSE regarding these behaviors in disadvantaged areas. Parents ( n = 229) of whom 47% had completed secondary school or less, and who participated in the Healthy School Start trial, responded to a 15-item PSE instrument. Children's diet and screen time were measured through parent reports. PA and sedentary behaviors were measured using accelerometers. Construct validity was assessed using exploratory factor analysis (EFA), criterion validity by correlations with child behaviors, and internal consistency by Cronbach's alpha. The EFA yielded three factors: (a) PSE for promoting PA; (b) PSE for limiting intake of unhealthy foods, unhealthy drinks, and screen time; and (c) PSE for promoting intake of fruits and vegetables, all with acceptable to good internal consistency (α = .77-.81). Significant correlations ( p children's dietary ( r s = -.19 to -.29) and screen time ( r = -.29) behaviors and Factor 2, and dietary behaviors and Factor 3 ( r s = .20-.39) but not regarding PA and sedentary behaviors and Factor 1. The instrument demonstrated good construct validity and acceptable to good internal consistency regarding all but PA behaviors. It may be useful for assessing PSE in child obesity prevention interventions in disadvantaged settings after some refinement.

  18. Adolescent television viewing and unhealthy snack food consumption: the mediating role of home availability of unhealthy snack foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Natalie; Biddle, Stuart J H; Williams, Lauren; Worsley, Anthony; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

    2014-02-01

    To examine whether home availability of energy-dense snack foods mediates the association between television (TV) viewing and energy-dense snack consumption among adolescents. Cross-sectional. Secondary schools in Victoria, Australia. Adolescents (n 2984) from Years 7 and 9 of secondary school completed a web-based survey, between September 2004 and July 2005, assessing their energy-dense snack food consumption, school-day and weekend-day TV viewing and home availability of energy-dense snack foods. School-day and weekend-day TV viewing were positively associated with energy-dense snack consumption among adolescent boys (β = 0·003, P snack foods among adolescent boys and girls and home availability of energy-dense snack foods was positively associated with energy-dense snack food consumption among boys (β = 0·26, P snack consumption. The results of the present study suggest that TV viewing has a significant role to play in adolescent unhealthy eating behaviours. Future research should assess the efficacy of methods to reduce adolescent energy-dense snack food consumption by targeting parents to reduce home availability of energy-dense foods and by reducing TV viewing behaviours of adolescents.

  19. Consumption of highly processed snacks, sugar-sweetened beverages and child feeding practices in a rural area of Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Mariela; Zelaya Blandón, Elmer; Persson, Lars-Åke; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate feeding behaviours are important for child growth and development. In societies undergoing nutrition transition, new food items are introduced that may be unfavourable for child health. Set in rural Nicaragua, the aim of this study was to describe the infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices as well as the consumption of highly processed snack foods (HP snacks) and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). All households with at least one child 0- to 35-month-old (n = 1371) were visited to collect information on current IYCF practices in the youngest child as well as consumption of SSBs and HP snacks. Breastfeeding was dominant (98%) among 0- to 1-month-olds and continued to be prevalent (60%) in the second year, while only 34% of the 0- to 5-month-olds were exclusively breastfed. Complementary feeding practices were deemed acceptable for only 59% of the 6- to 11-month-old infants, with low dietary diversity reported for 50% and inadequate meal frequency reported for 30%. Consumption of HP snacks and SSBs was frequent and started early; among 6- to 8-month-olds, 42% and 32% had consumed HP snacks and SSBs, respectively. The difference between the observed IYCF behaviours and World Health Organization recommendations raises concern of increased risk of infections and insufficient intake of micronutrients that may impair linear growth. The concurrent high consumption of SSBs and HP snacks may increase the risk of displacing the recommended feeding behaviours. To promote immediate and long-term health, growth and development, there is a need to both promote recommended IYCF practices as well as discourage unfavourable feeding behaviours. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Cost of Children's Healthy vs Unhealthy Snacks Does Not Differ at Convenience Stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWeese, Robin S; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam

    2017-03-01

    This study compared the prices of unhealthy (chips) and healthy (ready-to-eat fruit) snacks that students are likely to purchase from corner stores. Snacks were purchased from 325 New Jersey corner stores; chip prices were compared with fruit prices overall and by store sales volume and block group characteristics. Prices did not differ significantly between chips and fruit in the overall sample in which both items were available (n = 104) (chips: $0.46 ± $0.15; fruit: $0.49 ± $0.19; P = .48) or by store or block group characteristics. Neither mean fruit prices nor mean chip prices differed by store sales volume or by neighborhood characteristics. Promoting ready-to-eat fruits in corner stores to children as a price-neutral alternative to calorically dense snacks can be a viable strategy to improve the nutritional quality of snacks commonly purchased at corner stores. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. From policy to practice: addressing snack quality, consumption, and price in after-school programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beets, Michael W; Tilley, Falon; Weaver, Robert G; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Moore, Justin B; Webster, Collin

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate a community partnership between after-school programs (ASPs) and grocery stores to provide discounted pricing on snacks to meet the National Afterschool Association Healthy Eating Standards that call for serving a fruit or vegetable (FV) daily while eliminating sugar-based foods and beverages. A single-group, pretest with multiple posttest design (spring, 2011-2013) in 4 large-scale ASPs serving 500 children/d was used, along with direct observation of snacks served, consumed, and cost. At baseline, FV, sugar-sweetened beverages, and desserts were served 0.1 ± 0.5, 1.7 ± 2.0, and 2.0 ± 1.4 d/wk. By spring, 2013, FV increased to 5.0 ± 0.0 d/wk, whereas sugar-sweetened beverages and desserts were eliminated. A total of 84% of children consumed the fruit; 59% consumed the vegetables. Cost associated with purchasing snacks resulted in a $2,000-$3,000 savings over a standard 180-day school year. This partnership can serve as a model for successfully meeting nutrition policies established for ASP snacks. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. All rights reserved.

  2. Parental control and overconsumption of snack foods in overweight and obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, June; Matheson, Brittany E; Rhee, Kyung E; Peterson, Carol B; Rydell, Sarah; Boutelle, Kerri N

    2016-05-01

    The associations between snack food consumption, parent feeding practices and general parenting in overweight in obese children are largely unknown. Therefore, we examined these relationships in 117 treatment-seeking overweight and obese children (10.40 ± 1.35 years; 53% female; 52% Caucasian; BMI-z: 2.06 ± .39). Children consumed a dinner meal, completed an Eating in the Absence of Hunger (EAH) free access paradigm (total EAH intake = EAH%-total; sweet food intake = EAH%-sweet), and completed the Child Report of Parent Behavior Inventory. Parents completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire. Child EAH%-total and EAH%-sweet were positively associated with dinner consumption (p's consumption of specific foods, EAH snack food, parent restriction, pressure to eat, monitoring, and maternal psychological control were positively correlated with intake of Hershey's(®) chocolate bars (p's snack food intake and maternal psychological control is associated with child total snack food consumption. Future research should evaluate the complex relationship between child eating and parenting, especially with regard to subgroups of foods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Manga comic influences snack selection in Black and Hispanic New York City youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, May May; Tripicchio, Gina; Agaronov, Alen; Hou, Ningqi

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether a single exposure to a Manga comic (Japanese comic art) with multiple messages promoting fruit intake influenced snack selection in minority urban youth. Fifty-seven youth (mean age 10.8 y; 54% female; 74% black/African American) attending after-school programs in Brooklyn, NY participated in a pilot study in which they were randomly assigned to receive the comic or a non-health-related newsletter. After reading their media, participants were offered a snack and could choose from among healthy/unhealthy options. Secondary outcomes included knowledge, self-efficacy, and outcome expectations related to fruit intake and media transportation. Data were analyzed using regression and paired t test. Comic group participants were significantly more likely to choose a healthy snack, compared to the Attention-control group (odds ratio = 3.6, 95% confidence interval: 1.1-12.1, P = .04). The Comic group reported increases in self-efficacy (P = .04) and greater transportation (immersion into media) (P = .006). Results suggest Manga comics may be a useful format to promote healthy snack selection in urban minority youth. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Trends in SSBs and snack consumption among children by age, body weight and race/ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Sara N.; Wolfson, Julia A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe national trends in discretionary calories from sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) and snacks by age-specific body weight categories and by age- and weight-specific race/ethnicity groups. Examining these sub-populations is important as population averages may mask important differences. Design and Methods We used 24-hour dietary recall data obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2010 among children aged 2 to 19 (N=14,092). Logistic and linear regression methods were used to adjust for multiple covariates and survey design. Results The number of calories from SSBs declined significantly for nearly all age-specific body weight groups. Among overweight or obese children, significant declines in the number of calories from SSBs were observed among Hispanic children aged 2 to 5 (117 kcal vs. 174 kcal) and white adolescents aged 12 to 19 (299 kcal vs. 365 kcal). Significant declines in the number of calories from salty snacks were observed among white children aged 2 to 5 (192 kcal to 134 kcal) and 6 to 11 (273 kcal vs. 200 kcal). Conclusions The decrease in SSB consumption and increase in snack consumption observed in prior research are not uniform when children are examined within sub-groups accounting for age, weight and race/ethnicity. PMID:25919923

  5. A personalized snack-based intervention for hip fracture patients: development, feasibility and acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Rosemary J G; McMurdo, Marion E T; Anderson, Annie S

    2006-04-01

    Undernutrition is common in older people admitted to hospital with hip fracture. Oral supplementation with sip feeds may be provided but compliance is a major problem. To develop a personalized snack-based intervention for practical implementation in hip fracture patients and to assess feasibility, adherence, acceptability and cost. Twenty-three older hip fracture patients with a mean age (SD) 84.1 (6.3) were provided with three between-meal snacks daily for 4 weeks following surgery. Dietary counselling, assessment of acceptability and feasibility were undertaken and costs of intervention calculated. Sixteen of the 23 participants recruited completed the study. Mean estimated energy derived from the snacks provided 26% of daily energy requirements. Monitoring adherence proved problematic and stocktakes highlighted discrepancies. Although several participants reported that they did not usually eat between meals, overall the intervention was acceptable to participants. The cost of implementation was 21.29 UK pounds per participant per week. Although it proved feasible, practical difficulties were encountered with implementation and adherence due to timing. A more appropriate time to deliver such an intervention may be after the acute phase is over and patients are back home. The costs compared favourably with the alternative of providing sip feeds.

  6. Trends in SSBs and snack consumption among children by age, body weight, and race/ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Sara N; Wolfson, Julia A

    2015-05-01

    To describe national trends in discretionary calories from sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) and snacks by age-specific body weight categories and by age- and weight-specific race/ethnicity groups. Examining these subpopulations is important as population averages may mask important differences. 24-hour dietary recall data obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2010 among children aged 2 to 19 (N = 14,092) were used. Logistic and linear regression methods were used to adjust for multiple covariates and survey design. The number of calories from SSBs declined significantly for nearly all age-specific body weight groups. Among overweight or obese children, significant declines in the number of calories from SSBs were observed among Hispanic children aged 2 to 5 (117 vs. 174 kcal) and white adolescents aged 12 to 19 (299 vs. 365 kcal). Significant declines in the number of calories from salty snacks were observed among white children aged 2 to 5 (192 to 134 kcal) and 6 to 11 (273 vs. 200 kcal). The decrease in SSB consumption and increase in snack consumption observed in prior research are not uniform when children are examined within subgroups accounting for age, weight, and race/ethnicity. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  7. Extrusion cooking technology: Principal mechanism and effect on direct expanded snacks – An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajita Tiwari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The snack industry is one of the fastest growing food sectors and is an important contributor within the global convenience food market. Nowadays snacks and convenience foods are also consumed regularly in India. Properly designed convenience foods can make an important contribution to nutrition in societies where social changes are altering traditional patterns of food preparation. Extrusion cooking as a popular means of preparing snack foods based on cereals and plant protein foodstuff has elicited considerable interest and attention over the past 30 years. Several studies on the extrusion of cereals and pulses, using various proportions, have been conducted because blends of cereals and pulses produce protein enriched products. Special importance is placed on the physicochemical and chemical modifications of protein, starch and dietary fibre. Extruded products can be categorized for a particular application based on their functional properties such as water absorption and water solubility index, expansion ratio, bulk density and viscosity of the dough.Therefore, the literature was reviewed for effect of extrusion processing on product parameters, and nutritional and anti-nutritional properties of extruded products.

  8. Fortification of extruded snacks with chitosan: Effects on techno functional and sensory quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Raushan; Xavier, K A Martin; Lekshmi, Manjusha; Balange, Amjad; Gudipati, Venkateshwarlu

    2018-08-15

    Chitosan is a dietary fibre that possesses numerous functional, technological and physiological properties useful in improving food quality. Owing to its fat absorbing ability, chitosan is widely consumed as a health supplement in the form of tablets and capsules. With a view to enhance it consumption and availability, the current work was taken up to evaluate techno-functional quality improvement of shrimp based extruded snacks fortified with chitosan. Chitosan powder at 1, 2 and 3% (w/w) level was added to the base material (corn flour and rice flour in the ratio of 70:30 and 15% Acetes powder) for extrusion. Addition of chitosan in acetes based snacks significantly reduced expansion ratio, porosity and crispiness and increased the hardness value of the product. Chitosan addition had a significant effect (p > 0.05) on the moisture retention and total protein contents of the products as well. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value of chitosan fortified extrudate showed a significantly lower value than the control sample. A higher level of chitosan also resulted in colour reduction of the final product. The FTIR spectra of extrudate confirmed the stability of chitosan during extrusion conditions. The sensory score revealed that extrudate fortified with 1% chitosan was comparable to control sample. From this study it is concluded that 1% chitosan can be incorporated in Acetes based extruded snacks for an increased level of functionality. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Future time perspective and health behaviors: temporal framing of self-regulatory processes in physical exercise and dietary behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellert, Paul; Ziegelmann, Jochen P; Lippke, Sonia; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2012-04-01

    Limitations in perceived lifetime can undermine long-term goal striving. Planning is supposed to translate intentions into health behaviors and to operate as a compensatory strategy to overcome goal striving deficits associated with a limited time perspective. Two longitudinal studies were conducted examining the compensatory role of planning: an online survey on fruit and vegetable consumption (N = 909; 16-78 years; follow-up at 4 months) and a questionnaire study on physical exercise in older adults (N = 289; 60-95 years, over a half-year period). Intentions, planning, and behavior were measured in a behavior-specific, future time perspective in a generic manner. Planning mediated between intentions and both health behaviors. Time perspective operated as a moderator, indicating that in individuals with a more limited time perspective, a stronger effect of planning on health behaviors emerged. Planning as a self-regulatory strategy may compensate for a limited time perspective.

  10. Expansion and functional properties of extruded snacks enriched with nutrition sources from food processing by-products

    OpenAIRE

    Korkerd, Sopida; Wanlapa, Sorada; Puttanlek, Chureerat; Uttapap, Dudsadee; Rungsardthong, Vilai

    2015-01-01

    Rich sources of protein and dietary fiber from food processing by-products, defatted soybean meal, germinated brown rice meal, and mango peel fiber, were added to corn grit at 20 % (w/w) to produce fortified extruded snacks. Increase of total dietary fiber from 4.82 % (wb) to 5.92–17.80 % (wb) and protein from 5.03 % (wb) to 5.46–13.34 % were observed. The product indicated high expansion and good acceptance tested by sensory panels. There were 22.33–33.53 and 5.30–11.53 fold increase in the ...

  11. Energy, nutrient and food content of snacks in French adults

    OpenAIRE

    Si Hassen, Wendy; Castetbon, Katia; Tichit, Christine; Péneau, Sandrine; Nechba, Anouar; Ducrot, Pauline; Lampuré, Aurélie; Bellisle, France; Hercberg, Serge; Méjean, Caroline

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Snacking raises concern since it may lead to an additional energy intake and poor nutrient quality. A snacking occasion can be defined as any eating occasion apart from main meals, regardless of the amount or type of foods consumed. We described the frequency of snacking occasions according to daily timing in French adults, and compared them between each other, and with the main meals, in terms of energy intake, energy and nutrient density, and food content. METHODS: This...

  12. Sensory evaluation of gluten-free quinoa whole grain snacks

    OpenAIRE

    Kahlon, Talwinder S.; Avena-Bustillos, Roberto J.; Chiu, Mei-Chen M.

    2016-01-01

    Sensory evaluation of quinoa gluten-free whole grain low fat and salt snacks was conducted. The snacks were Quinoa, Quinoa-Cayenne Pepper, Quinoa-Ginger and Quinoa-Turmeric. Cayenne pepper, ginger and turmeric are common spices that contain health promoting nutrients. Cayenne pepper has been associated with enhancing heat production. Ginger has been reported to improve blood flow and prevent joint pains. Turmeric has been observed to have wound healing potential. All the snacks contained 6% c...

  13. Automated personalized feedback for physical activity and dietary behavior change with mobile phones: a randomized controlled trial on adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbi, Mashfiqui; Pfammatter, Angela; Zhang, Mi; Spring, Bonnie; Choudhury, Tanzeem

    2015-05-14

    level and dietary intake was monitored from logged data. At the end of the study, an in-person survey was conducted that asked users to subjectively rate their intention to follow MyBehavior suggestions. In qualitative daily diary, interview, and survey data, users reported MyBehavior suggestions to be highly actionable and stated that they intended to follow the suggestions. MyBehavior users walked significantly more than the control group over the 3 weeks of the study (P=.05). Although some MyBehavior users chose lower-calorie foods, the between-group difference was not significant (P=.15). In a poststudy survey, users rated MyBehavior's personalized suggestions more positively than the nonpersonalized, generic suggestions created by professionals (P<.001). MyBehavior is a simple-to-use mobile phone app with preliminary evidence of efficacy. To the best of our knowledge, MyBehavior represents the first attempt to create personalized, contextualized, actionable suggestions automatically from self-tracked information (ie, manual food logging and automatic tracking of activity). Lessons learned about the difficulty of manual logging and usability concerns, as well as future directions, are discussed. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02359981; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02359981 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6YCeoN8nv).

  14. Snacking for a Cause: Nutritional Insufficiencies and Excesses of U.S. Children, a Critical Review of Food Consumption Patterns and Macronutrient and Micronutrient Intake of U.S. Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Hess

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review was to identify dietary insufficiencies and excesses in children aged two to 11 in the United States (U.S. and eating habits that merit concern in terms of nutrient and energy density to improve overall diet quality. Data from the What We Eat in America (WWEIA tables from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES were examined as well as survey data from the School Nutrition Dietary Assessment Study (SNDA. Analysis of survey data revealed that children consume insufficient Vitamin D, calcium, and potassium and excess energy, carbohydrates, and sodium. Dietary modifications are necessary to prevent serious deficiencies and the development of chronic illness. Snacking has steadily increased in this population since the 1970s, and snacks provide necessary nutrients. However, carbohydrates and added sugars tend to be over-consumed at snacking occasions. Replacement of current snack choices with nutrient-dense foods could lower the risks of nutrient deficiencies and help lower excess nutrient consumption. Increased consumption of low sugar dairy foods, especially yogurt, at snack times could increase intake of important micronutrients without contributing to dietary excesses.

  15. A possible link between food and mood: dietary impact on gut microbiota and behavior in BALB/c mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Pyndt Jørgensen

    Full Text Available Major depressive disorder is a debilitating disease in the Western World. A western diet high in saturated fat and refined sugar seems to play an important part in disease development. Therefore, this study is aimed at investigating whether saturated fat or sucrose predisposes mice to develop behavioral symptoms which can be interpreted as depression-like, and the possible influence of the gut microbiota (GM in this. Fourty-two mice were randomly assigned to one of three experimental diets, a high-fat, a high-sucrose or a control diet for thirteen weeks. Mice on high-fat diet gained more weight (p = 0.00009, displayed significantly less burrowing behavior than the control mice (p = 0.034, and showed decreased memory in the Morris water maze test compared to mice on high-sucrose diet (p = 0.031. Mice on high-sucrose diet burrowed less goal-oriented, showed greater latency to first bout of immobility in the forced swim test when compared to control mice (p = 0.039 and high-fat fed mice (p = 0.013, and displayed less anxiety than mice on high-fat diet in the triple test (p = 0.009. Behavioral changes were accompanied by a significant change in GM composition of mice fed a high-fat diet, while no difference between diet groups was observed for sucrose preferences, LPS, cholesterol, HbA1c, BDNF and the cytokines IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12(p70, IL-17 and TNF-α. A series of correlations was found between GM, behavior, BDNF and inflammatory mediators. In conclusion, the study shows that dietary fat and sucrose affect behavior, sometimes in opposite directions, and suggests a possible association between GM and behavior.

  16. Theory of reasoned action and theory of planned behavior-based dietary interventions in adolescents and young adults: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackman, Christine L; Knowlden, Adam P

    2014-01-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions in many nations around the world. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) and the theory of reasoned action (TRA) have been used to successfully plan and evaluate numerous interventions for many different behaviors. The aim of this study was to systematically review and synthesize TPB and TRA-based dietary behavior interventions targeting adolescents and young adults. THE FOLLOWING DATABASES WERE SYSTEMATICALLY SEARCHED TO FIND ARTICLES FOR THIS REVIEW: Academic Search Premier; Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL); Education Resources Information Center (ERIC); Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); and MEDLINE. Inclusion criteria for articles were: 1) primary or secondary interventions, 2) with any quantitative design, 3) published in the English language, 4) between January 2003 and March 2014, 5) that targeted adolescents or young adults, 6) which included dietary change behavior as the outcome, and 7) utilized TPB or TRA. Of the eleven intervention studies evaluated, nine resulted in dietary behavior change that was attributed to the treatment. Additionally, all but one study found there to be a change in at least one construct of TRA or TPB, while one study did not measure constructs. All of the studies utilized some type of quantitative design, with two employing quasi-experimental, and eight employing randomized control trial design. Among the studies, four utilized technology including emails, social media posts, information on school websites, web-based activities, audio messages in classrooms, interactive DVDs, and health-related websites. Two studies incorporated goal setting and four employed persuasive communication. Interventions directed toward changing dietary behaviors in adolescents should aim to incorporate multi-faceted, theory-based approaches. Future studies should consider utilizing randomized control trial design and

  17. Extruded snacks with the addition of different fish meals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenice Souza dos Reis GOES

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tilapia, salmon, tuna and sardine meals were prepared to develop and analyze extruded snacks with residue meal from fish processing. Residue meals were included in five types of corn snacks: control (0% fish meal and four with 9% tilapia, salmon, tuna and sardine meals. Although moisture, lipids and carbohydrates rates did not differ among the snacks, protein rates increased with the increment of fish meal, reaching 11.85% in the tuna snack. Tuna and sardine snacks had the highest iron levels. The most abundant fatty acids were linoleic, oleic, palmitic, linolenic and stearic acids, with sardine, salmon and tuna snacks presenting the highest values of n-3 series fatty acids. Greater luminosity rate was reported for salmon snack, followed by tilapia, tuna and sardine snacks. The highest sensory acceptance index was verified in tilapia (78.07% and salmon (72.40%. A 9% addition of residue meals of tilapia, salmon and tuna improved the nutritional value of the snacks.

  18. Consistent relationships between sensory properties of savory snack foods and calories influence food intake in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swithers, S E; Doerflinger, A; Davidson, T L

    2006-11-01

    Determine the influence of experience with consistent or inconsistent relationships between the sensory properties of snack foods and their caloric consequences on the control of food intake or body weight in rats. Rats received plain and BBQ flavored potato chips as a dietary supplement, along with ad lib rat chow. For some rats the potato chips were a consistent source of high fat and high calories (regular potato chips). For other rats, the chips provided high fat and high calories on some occasions (regular potato chips) and provided no digestible fat and fewer calories at other times (light potato chips manufactured with a fat substitute). Thus, animals in the first group were given experiences that the sensory properties of potato chips were strong predictors of high calories, while animals in the second group were given experiences that the sensory properties of potato chips were not predictors of high calories. Juvenile and adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Following exposure to varying potato chip-calorie contingencies, intake of a novel, high-fat snack food and subsequent chow intake were assessed. Body weight gain and body composition as measured by DEXA were also measured. In juvenile animals, exposure to a consistent relationship between potato chips and calories resulted in reduced chow intake, both when no chips were provided and following consumption of a novel high-fat, high-calorie snack chip. Long-term experience with these contingencies did not affect body weight gain or body composition in juveniles. In adult rats, exposure to an inconsistent relationship between potato chips and calories resulted in increased consumption of a novel high-fat, high-calorie snack chip premeal along with impaired compensation for the calories contained in the premeal. Consumption of foods in which the sensory properties are poor predictors of caloric consequences may alter subsequent food intake.

  19. Not enough fruit and vegetables or too many cookies, candies, salty snacks, and soft drinks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Deborah A; Sturm, Roland; Scott, Molly; Farley, Thomas A; Bluthenthal, Ricky

    2010-01-01

    There are many contributors to obesity, including excess consumption of "discretionary calories" (foods high in sugar and fat and low in essential nutrients), lack of fruit/vegetable consumption, and insufficient physical activity. This study contrasted physical activity, fruit/vegetable consumption, and discretionary calorie consumption from selected foods relative to the 2005 dietary guidelines. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 228 urban census tracts in Los Angeles County (LAC) and Southern Louisiana (SL) and estimated calories in the past 24 hours from fruit, vegetables, cookies, candy, salty snacks, sweetened soda, and alcohol among 2,767 participants. The population-weighted mean daily intake of calories from candy, cookies, salty snacks, soda, and alcohol was 438 in LAC and 617 in SL. Alcohol comprised a small portion of the calories consumed. Reported discretionary calorie consumption from a small set of items exceeded guidelines by more than 60% in LAC and 120% in SL. In contrast, the mean consumption of fruit and vegetables fell 10% short in LAC and 20% in SL. There was significant heterogeneity in consumption of cookies, candy, salty snacks, and soda across income, gender, and race. The overconsumption of discretionary calories was much greater than the underconsumption of fruit and vegetables. This finding suggests that unless the excessive consumption of salty snacks, cookies, candy, and sugar-sweetened beverages is curtailed, other interventions focusing on increasing physical activity and fruit and vegetable consumption will have a limited impact on obesity control. It may be politically more expedient to promote an increase in consumption of healthy items rather than a decrease in consumption of unhealthy items, but it may be far less effective.

  20. [Nutritional analysis of breakfast on rising and mid-morning snack in a college population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durá Travé, T

    2013-01-01

    To carry out a descriptive study on the breakfast model in a college population and to analyze the energy and nutrients provided, in connection with established nutritional requirements. Registry of food intake for breakfast (on rising and mid-morning snack) of a school day in a sample of 740 college students (286 men and 454 women) with ages ranging 19-24 years. Gender, age, weight, height, and body mass index, and type of residence were collected from each interviewee. Percentages intakes of nutrients have been calculated in proportion to established dietary recommendations (%IR). 93.2% had breakfast on rising and 83.8% took a mid-morning snack daily, and 53.5% do both intakes. The most common foods were dairy products (92.6%), cereals (58.8%) and sweet food (57.9%) at breakfast, and cereals (46.6%), fruits (40.7%) and sausages (34.9%) at mid-morning. The %IR of the calorie intake was 24.4% in males and 24.6% in females (n.s.). The %IR of the cholesterol intake was 38.2% in males and 23.9% in females (p breakfast. This breakfast model differs from the prototype of a healthy diet through an excessive consumption of sweet foods (early breakfast) and meat and derivatives (snack). Half of interviewee did not a mid-morning snack and the morning caloric intake was below recommended. In the case of university students concerned about the potentially negative effect it may have on academic performance. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  1. The Association of Meal Practices and Other Dietary Correlates With Dietary Intake Among High School Students in the United States, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demissie, Zewditu; Eaton, Danice K; Lowry, Richard; Kim, Sonia A; Park, Sohyun; Grimm, Kirsten A; Merlo, Caitlin; Harris, Diane M

    2015-01-01

    To examine behavioral and environmental factors that may be related to dietary behaviors among U.S. high school students. Data were obtained from the 2010 National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study, a cross-sectional study. The study was school-based. Study subjects were a nationally representative sample of students in grades 9 to 12 (n = 11,458). Variables of interest included meal practices, in-home snack availability, and intakes of healthful foods/beverages (fruits, vegetables, water, and milk) and less healthful foods/beverages (fried potatoes, pizza, and sugar-sweetened beverages). Sex-stratified logistic regression models were used to examine associations of meal practices and snack availability with dietary intake. Odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for race/ethnicity and grade. Eating breakfast daily, frequent family dinners, and bringing lunch from home were associated with higher odds of consuming at least three healthful foods or beverages. High fast-food intake was associated with lower odds of healthful dietary intake and higher odds of sugar-sweetened beverage intake (female OR = 3.73, male OR = 4.60). Students who mostly/always had fruits and vegetables available at home had increased odds of fruits (female OR = 3.04, male OR = 2.24), vegetables (female OR = 2.12, male OR = 1.65), water (female OR = 1.82, male OR = 1.85), and milk intake (female OR = 1.45, male OR = 1.64). Encouraging daily breakfast consumption, frequent family dinners, and fruit and vegetable availability at home may lead to higher intakes of healthful foods among high school students.

  2. Low income Russian families adopt effective behavioral strategies to maintain dietary stability in times of economic crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dore, Anna R; Adair, Linda S; Popkin, Barry M

    2003-11-01

    The social, political and economic reforms of 1992 in Russia led to a decade of rising income inequality, unemployment and economic crises, the most severe of which occurred in 1998. This study assesses dietary trends for children in low and high income households during this politically and economically unstable period from 1994 to 2000. Several possible food-related behaviors were also assessed to evaluate coping strategies adopted in the face of decreasing economic stability. Low income children maintained a steady energy intake per kilogram weight throughout the study period (251.0-259.4 kJ/kg), whereas intake for high income children increased significantly to a per capital average of 297.1 kJ/kg by 2000. At the food group level, the trend in per capita intake for all food groups was maintained for low income children except for a 22% decrease in meat and poultry consumption (P economic crisis.

  3. Neuroimmunomodulation of autistic-like behavior : targeting mTOR via dietary interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, J.

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by impairments in social behavior and communication and the presence of repetitive and stereotyped behavior. The etiology of ASD is thought to be related to an interaction of the complex genetic basis with environmental contributions. Immunological

  4. Students' adherence to dietary recommendations and their food consumption habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroebele-Benschop, Nanette; Dieze, Anastasia; Hilzendegen, Carolin

    2018-01-01

    Habitual behavior rather than intention has been linked to food intake patterns. The purpose of this study was to examine the adherence to dietary recommendations in university students and to analyze whether habit strength predicts food consumption. A student sample of the University (University of Hohenheim) was recruited ( n = 103; age range 18-30 years). Habit strength for consuming the food groups fruits, vegetables, whole grains, milk, meat, convenience foods, sugary and savory snacks, water and sugar-sweetened beverages was measured using a questionnaire. Food intake was measured via a self-administered online food frequency survey two weeks later, which was then compared to dietary recommendations. For associations of habit strength and consumption, Kendall's Tau-c correlation coefficient was calculated. The majority of students failed to meet the recommendations for all food groups except meat, eggs, oil, fat, and water. Only 4.2% of men (15.4% of women) consumed the recommended daily amount of vegetables. Fruit recommendations were met by 20.8% of men (43.6% of women). Habit strength was significantly associated with the consumption of most food groups. Adhering to dietary recommendations appeared to be difficult. Educational efforts should be undertaken to improve students' diet considering habit strength as an important determinant of food intake.

  5. PERILAKU GIZI IBU, POLA ASUH MAKAN, KONTRIBUSI SNACK, DAN STATUS GIZI ANAK USIA PRASEKOLAH

    OpenAIRE

    Siti Habibah Wardah; Ikeu Ekayanti

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTThe aimed of this study were to analyze mother’s nutritional behavior, parenting eating pattern, snack contribution and their correlations toward preschool children’s nutritional status. The design of this study was a cross-sectional in Labschool IPB-ISFA, involved 20 subjects of preschool children. The result of this study showed that 45% of mothers had moderate nutritional knowledge. Most of mother’s nutritional attitude and practice were categorized as good (35%) and poor (35%). Sn...

  6. Dietary Restriction Behaviors and Binge Eating in Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder: Trans-diagnostic Examination of the Restraint Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elran-Barak, Roni; Sztainer, Maya; Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Crow, Scott J; Peterson, Carol B; Hill, Laura L; Crosby, Ross D; Powers, Pauline; Mitchell, James E; Le Grange, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    To compare dietary restriction behaviors among adults with eating disorders involving binge eating, including anorexia nervosa-binge/purge subtype (AN-BE/P), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED), and to examine whether dietary restriction behaviors impact binge eating frequency across diagnoses. Participants included 845 treatment seeking adults (M=30.42+10.76years) who met criteria for DSM-5 AN-BE/P (7.3%;n=62), BN (59.7%;n=504), and BED (33.0%;n=279). All participants self-reported their past and current eating disorder symptoms on the Eating Disorder Questionnaire. Adults with AN-BE/P and BN reported significantly more dietary restriction behaviors (e.g. eating fewer meals per day, higher frequency of fasting, consuming small and low calorie meals) in comparison to adults with BED. Adults with AN-BE/P and BN who reported restricting food intake via eating fewer meals per day had more frequent binge eating episodes. However, adults with BN who reported restricting food intake via eating small meals and low calorie meals had less frequent binge eating episodes. This study provides mixed support for the restraint model by suggesting that not all dietary restriction behaviors are associated with higher levels of binge eating. It may be that adults with BN who report a higher frequency of eating small and low calorie meals display more control over their eating in general, and therefore also have lower frequency of binge eating. Clinicians should assess for dietary restriction behaviors at the start of treatment prior to assuming that all forms of strict dieting and weight control behaviors similarly impact binge eating. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Processing effects on bioactive components and functional properties of moringa leaves: development of a snack and quality evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devisetti, Rajesh; Sreerama, Yadahally N; Bhattacharya, Sila

    2016-01-01

    The effect of alkali pre-treatment on the nutritional, anti-nutritional and functional properties of moringa (Moringa oleifera) leaf flour (MLF), and sensory assessment of MLF-based snack product was investigated. The pre-treatment reduced the content of anti-nutrients, but improved the functional properties of MLF. The MLF-based ready-to-eat puffed snack exhibited high protein (21.6 g/100 g) and dietary fiber (14.8 g/100 g) contents while it contained a low fat content of 3.7 g/100 g. The HPLC analysis of phenolics revealed that chlorogenic and gallic acids were the predominant phenolic acids present in the raw leaf flour, whereas p-coumaric, caffeic and gallic acids were the major phenolic acids in the pre-treated leaf flour. Flavonoids such as catechin, kaempferol, rutin and luteolin were present in both MLFs and the prepared snack. Overall sensory quality indicated that the snacks had acceptable textural attributes and improved nutritional profile at the 20 % level of substitution. It is possible to develop a ready-to-eat convenience food product with good functional and nutritional properties using pre-treated moringa leaf.

  8. Determination of acrylamide levels in potato crisps and other snacks and exposure risk assessment through a Margin of Exposure approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Francesco; Nardone, Antonio; Fasano, Evelina; Triassi, Maria; Cirillo, Teresa

    2017-10-01

    Potato crisps, corn-based extruded snacks and other savoury snacks are very popular products especially among younger generations. These products could be a potential source of acrylamide (AA), a toxic compound which could develop during frying and baking processes. The purpose of this study was the assessment of the dietary intake to AA across six groups of consumers divided according to age through the consumption of potato crisps and other snacks, in order to eventually evaluate the margin of exposure (MOE) related to neurotoxic and carcinogenic critical endpoints. Different brands of potato crisps and other popular snacks were analyzed through a matrix solid-phase dispersion method followed by a bromination step and GC-MS quantification. The concentration of detected AA ranged from 21 to 3444 ng g - 1 and the highest level occurred in potato crisps samples which showed a median value of 968 ng g - 1 . The risk characterization through MOE assessment revealed that five out of six consumers groups showed higher exposure values associated with an augmented carcinogenic risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [A Survey of Maternal Dietary Behavior Based on Theory of Reasoned Action].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Luo, Bi-ru

    2015-05-01

    To detect the diet behavior and influencing factors of related behavior at different stages among pregnant women. Based on the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), literature review, expert evaluation and preliminary investigation, we designed and finalized three questionnaires. Diet behaviors among women in early term, medium term and late term were investigated by using the questionnaires. 624 early term, 619 medium term and 738 late term valid questionnaires were returned. Participants ranged from 18 to 45 years of age. 74% pregnancy body mass index (BMI) was within the normal range. More than 43% care taking was provided by the mother, followed by the husband. The participants had a good eating behavior on the whole. At 3 stages, carbohydrate intake, protein intake and fat intake were no significant difference when compared with that of recommended value (P> 0. 05). The pregnant women intaked insufficient cereal, beans, dairy and aquatic products, while fruit and nuts were more than needed (Preasonable combination of a variety of food. Subjective norms influenced their behavior attitude and behavioral intention. The mother had the strongest influence on the pregnant woman's diet attitude and behavioral intention among all those had direct contact with the pregnant woman.

  10. Identifying developmental trajectories of body mass index in childhood using latent class growth (mixture) modelling : associations with dietary, sedentary and physical activity behaviors: a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, Maaike; Hoekstra, Trynke; de Jong, Elske; Visscher, Tommy L.S.; Seidell, Jacob C.; Renders, Carry M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To date, many epidemiologic studies examining associations between obesity and dietary and sedentary/physical activity behaviors have focused on assessing Body Mass Index (BMI) at one point in time. Recent developments in statistical techniques make it possible to study the potential

  11. Effects of a Nutrition Education Program on the Dietary Behavior and Nutrition Knowledge of Second-Grade and Third-Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Alicia Raby; Struempler, Barbara J.; Guarino, Anthony; Parmer, Sondra M.

    2005-01-01

    This research investigated the effects of a nutrition education program on dietary behavior and nutrition knowledge among elementary school-aged children participating in a Social Cognitive Theory-based nutrition education program. Participants included 1100 second-grade and third-grade students selected by convenience-type sampling from public…

  12. Snacking Quality Is Associated with Secondary School Academic Achievement and the Intention to Enroll in Higher Education: A Cross-Sectional Study in Adolescents from Santiago, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Correa-Burrows

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Although numerous studies have approached the effects of exposure to a Western diet (WD on academic outcomes, very few have focused on foods consumed during snack times. We explored whether there is a link between nutritious snacking habits and academic achievement in high school (HS students from Santiago, Chile. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 678 adolescents. The nutritional quality of snacks consumed by 16-year-old was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. The academic outcomes measured were HS grade point average (GPA, the likelihood of HS completion, and the likelihood of taking college entrance exams. A multivariate analysis was performed to determine the independent associations of nutritious snacking with having completed HS and having taken college entrance exams. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA estimated the differences in GPA by the quality of snacks. Compared to students with healthy in-home snacking behaviors, adolescents having unhealthy in-home snacks had significantly lower GPAs (M difference: −40.1 points, 95% confidence interval (CI: −59.2, −16.9, d = 0.41, significantly lower odds of HS completion (adjusted odds ratio (aOR: 0.47; 95% CI: 0.25–0.88, and significantly lower odds of taking college entrance exams (aOR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.31–0.88. Unhealthy at-school snacking showed similar associations with the outcome variables. Poor nutritional quality snacking at school and at home was associated with poor secondary school academic achievement and the intention to enroll in higher education.

  13. Snacking Quality Is Associated with Secondary School Academic Achievement and the Intention to Enroll in Higher Education: A Cross-Sectional Study in Adolescents from Santiago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Burrows, Paulina; Rodríguez, Yanina; Blanco, Estela; Gahagan, Sheila; Burrows, Raquel

    2017-04-27

    Although numerous studies have approached the effects of exposure to a Western diet (WD) on academic outcomes, very few have focused on foods consumed during snack times. We explored whether there is a link between nutritious snacking habits and academic achievement in high school (HS) students from Santiago, Chile. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 678 adolescents. The nutritional quality of snacks consumed by 16-year-old was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. The academic outcomes measured were HS grade point average (GPA), the likelihood of HS completion, and the likelihood of taking college entrance exams. A multivariate analysis was performed to determine the independent associations of nutritious snacking with having completed HS and having taken college entrance exams. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) estimated the differences in GPA by the quality of snacks. Compared to students with healthy in-home snacking behaviors, adolescents having unhealthy in-home snacks had significantly lower GPAs ( M difference: -40.1 points, 95% confidence interval (CI): -59.2, -16.9, d = 0.41), significantly lower odds of HS completion (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 0.47; 95% CI: 0.25-0.88), and significantly lower odds of taking college entrance exams (aOR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.31-0.88). Unhealthy at-school snacking showed similar associations with the outcome variables. Poor nutritional quality snacking at school and at home was associated with poor secondary school academic achievement and the intention to enroll in higher education.

  14. Sleep, Dietary, and Exercise Behavioral Clusters Among Truck Drivers With Obesity: Implications for Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Ryan; Thompson, Sharon V; Wipfli, Brad; Hanson, Ginger; Elliot, Diane L; Anger, W Kent; Bodner, Todd; Hammer, Leslie B; Hohn, Elliot; Perrin, Nancy A

    2016-03-01

    The objectives of the study were to describe a sample of truck drivers, identify clusters of drivers with similar patterns in behaviors affecting energy balance (sleep, diet, and exercise), and test for cluster differences in health safety, and psychosocial factors. Participants' (n = 452, body mass index M = 37.2, 86.4% male) self-reported behaviors were dichotomized prior to hierarchical cluster analysis, which identified groups with similar behavior covariation. Cluster differences were tested with generalized estimating equations. Five behavioral clusters were identified that differed significantly in age, smoking status, diabetes prevalence, lost work days, stress, and social support, but not in body mass index. Cluster 2, characterized by the best sleep quality, had significantly lower lost workdays and stress than other clusters. Weight management interventions for drivers should explicitly address sleep, and may be maximally effective after establishing socially supportive work environments that reduce stress exposures.

  15. Association between screen time and snack consumption in children and adolescents: The CASPIAN-IV study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelishadi, Roya; Mozafarian, Nafiseh; Qorbani, Mostafa; Maracy, Mohammad Reza; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Safiri, Saeid; Ardalan, Gelayol; Asayesh, Hamid; Rezaei, Fatemeh; Heshmat, Ramin

    2017-02-01

    The relationship between screen time (ST) and the frequency of snack consumption in a national sample of Iranian children and adolescents was assessed. The present nationwide survey was conducted on 14,880 school students living in urban and rural areas of 30 provinces in Iran. Trained healthcare providers conducted the physical examination and completed the questionnaire of the World Health Organization - Global School-Based Student Health Survey (WHO-GSHS). The association between ST (total time spent watching TV and using a computer in leisure time) and the frequency of snack consumption was determined using ordinal logistic regression analysis. The subjects were 13,486 students out of the 14,880 invited including 50.8% boys. The mean (SD) age of participants was 12.47 (3.36) years. In multivariate models, for students who had prolonged ST (more than 4 h/day), the odds of daily consumption of sweets (odds ratio, OR 1.25; 95% CI 1.14-1.4), salty snacks (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.5-1.76), soft drinks (OR 1.52; 95% CI 1.4-1.7), canned fruit juice (OR 1.3; 95% CI 1.2-1.4), and fast food (OR 1.53; 95% CI 1.4-1.7) were higher compared to those with low ST. Furthermore, the odds of daily consumption of milk in students who had prolonged ST (more than 4 h/day) were lower compared to those with low ST (OR 0.9; 95% CI 0.8-0.99). Prolonged time spent watching TV and using a computer during leisure time might be associated with unhealthy dietary habits. Moreover, inactivity induced by prolonged ST may also lead to unhealthy dietary habits and in turn excess weight in children and adolescents.

  16. Sensory optimization of broken-rice based snacks fortified with protein and fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriwattana, S; Laokuldilok, N; Prinyawiwatkul, W

    2008-08-01

    A 3-component mixture experiment was used to optimize the formulation of broken-rice based snack fortified with protein and fiber based on consumer sensory acceptability. Soy protein isolate and guar gum were used as a good source of protein and fiber, respectively, according to DRV (daily reference value) based on a 2000-calorie diet. A consumer panel evaluated sensory acceptability of color, crispness, and flavor, and overall liking of 12 experimental broken-rice based snack formulations. Predicted models derived from the restricted nonintercept regression analysis were used to plot mixture response surfaces (MRS) of each sensory attribute. Areas within the MRS plots having predicted acceptability scores of at least 6.5 (on a 9-point hedonic scale) for color, crispness, flavor, and overall liking were selected to derive a predicted optimum formulation range. Flavor acceptability was a limiting factor in attaining the optimum formulation range, which consisted of 40% to 48% broken-rice flour, 8% to 16% guar gum, and 20% to 33% soy protein isolate. To verify the obtained predicted models, the formulation containing 48% broken-rice flour, 8% guar gum, and 20% soy protein isolate, which was located in the optimum area, was chosen to support our effort to utilize and add value to broken rice. Selected physicochemical measurements of the chosen optimized formulation were determined. One serving size (30 g) of the chosen optimized snack product provided 6.58 g protein and 3.80 g dietary fiber, which met the US FDA definition of a good source of protein and dietary fiber.

  17. Body image and self-esteem among adolescents undergoing an intervention targeting dietary and physical activity behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jeannie S; Norman, Gregory J; Zabinski, Marion F; Calfas, Karen; Patrick, Kevin

    2007-03-01

    To determine the effect of a one-year intervention targeting physical activity, sedentary, and diet behaviors among adolescents on self-reported body image and self-esteem. Health promotion interventions can lead to awareness of health risk and subsequent adoption of beneficial changes in behavior. However, it is possible that interventions targeting behaviors associated with childhood obesity may also increase the likelihood of unhealthy eating and physical activity obsessions and behaviors. Body image and self-esteem were assessed for adolescents participating in the PACE+ study, a randomized controlled trial of a 1-year behavioral intervention targeting physical activity, sedentary, and dietary behaviors. The Body Dissatisfaction subscale of the Eating Disorder Inventory and Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale were used to assess body image and self-esteem, respectively, and measurements were performed at baseline, and at 6 and 12 months. Demographic characteristics and weight status of participants were also ascertained. Analysis of responses was performed via both between-group and within-group repeated measure analyses. There were 657 adolescents who completed all measurements. Body image differences were found for age, gender, and weight status at baseline, whereas self-esteem differences were demonstrated for gender, ethnicity, and weight status. There were no intervention effects on body image or self-esteem for either girls or boys. Self-esteem and body satisfaction did not worsen as a result of participating in the PACE+ intervention for either boys or girls whether or not they lost or maintained their weight or gained weight. Girls assigned to the PACE intervention who experienced weight reduction or weight maintenance at either 6 or 12 months reported improvements in body image satisfaction (p = .02) over time compared with subjects who had experienced weight gain during the 12-month study period. Adverse effects on body satisfaction and self-esteem were not

  18. Sustaining Effect of Intensive Nutritional Intervention Combined with Health Education on Dietary Behavior and Plasma Glucose in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Rui; Xu, Meihong; Wang, Junbo; Zhang, Zhaofeng; Chen, Qihe; Li, Ye; Gu, Jiaojiao; Cai, Xiaxia; Guo, Qianying; Bao, Lei; Li, Yong

    2016-09-13

    Diabetes mellitus is very common in elderly Chinese individuals. Although nutritional intervention can provide a balanced diet, the sustaining effect on at-home dietary behavior and long-term plasma glucose control is not clear. Consequently, we conducted a long-term survey following one month of experiential nutritional intervention combined with health education. Based on the Dietary Guidelines for a Chinese Resident, we found that the food items met the recommended values, the percentages of energy provided from fat, protein, and carbohydrate were more reasonable after one year. The newly formed dietary patterns were "Healthy", "Monotonous", "Vegetarian", "Japanese", "Low energy", and "Traditional" diets. The 2h-PG of female participants as well as those favoring the "Japanese diet" decreased above 12 mmol/L. Participants who selected "Japanese" and "Healthy" diets showed an obvious reduction in FPG while the FPG of participants from Group A declined slightly. "Japanese" and "Healthy" diets also obtained the highest DDP scores, and thus can be considered suitable for T2DM treatment in China. The results of the newly formed dietary patterns, "Japanese" and "Healthy" diets, confirmed the profound efficacy of nutritional intervention combined with health education for improving dietary behavior and glycemic control although health education played a more important role. The present study is encouraging with regard to further exploration of comprehensive diabetes care.

  19. Sustaining Effect of Intensive Nutritional Intervention Combined with Health Education on Dietary Behavior and Plasma Glucose in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Fan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is very common in elderly Chinese individuals. Although nutritional intervention can provide a balanced diet, the sustaining effect on at-home dietary behavior and long-term plasma glucose control is not clear. Consequently, we conducted a long-term survey following one month of experiential nutritional intervention combined with health education. Based on the Dietary Guidelines for a Chinese Resident, we found that the food items met the recommended values, the percentages of energy provided from fat, protein, and carbohydrate were more reasonable after one year. The newly formed dietary patterns were “Healthy”, “Monotonous”, “Vegetarian”, “Japanese”, “Low energy”, and “Traditional” diets. The 2h-PG of female participants as well as those favoring the “Japanese diet” decreased above 12 mmol/L. Participants who selected “Japanese” and “Healthy” diets showed an obvious reduction in FPG while the FPG of participants from Group A declined slightly. “Japanese” and “Healthy” diets also obtained the highest DDP scores, and thus can be considered suitable for T2DM treatment in China. The results of the newly formed dietary patterns, “Japanese” and “Healthy” diets, confirmed the profound efficacy of nutritional intervention combined with health education for improving dietary behavior and glycemic control although health education played a more important role. The present study is encouraging with regard to further exploration of comprehensive diabetes care.

  20. Health warnings promote healthier dietary decision making: Effects of positive versus negative message framing and graphic versus text-based warnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Daniel H; Bode, Stefan; Dixon, Helen; Murawski, Carsten; Summerell, Patrick; Ng, Alyssa; Wakefield, Melanie

    2018-08-01

    Food product health warnings have been proposed as a potential obesity prevention strategy. This study examined the effects of text-only and text-and-graphic, negatively and positively framed health warnings on dietary choice behavior. In a 2 × 5 mixed experimental design, 96 participants completed a dietary self-control task. After providing health and taste ratings of snack foods, participants completed a baseline measure of dietary self-control, operationalized as participants' frequency of choosing healthy but not tasty items and rejecting unhealthy yet tasty items to consume at the end of the experiment. Participants were then randomly assigned to one of five health warning groups and presented with 10 health warnings of a given form: text-based, negative framing; graphic, negative framing; text, positive framing; graphic, positive framing; or a no warning control. Participants then completed a second dietary decision making session to determine whether health warnings influenced dietary self-control. Linear mixed effects modeling revealed a significant interaction between health warning group and decision stage (pre- and post-health warning presentation) on dietary self-control. Negatively framed graphic health warnings promoted greater dietary self-control than other health warnings. Negatively framed text health warnings and positively framed graphic health warnings promoted greater dietary self-control than positively framed text health warnings and control images, which did not increase dietary self-control. Overall, HWs primed healthier dietary decision making behavior, with negatively framed graphic HWs being most effective. Health warnings have potential to become an important element of obesity prevention. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Educational nutrition messaging at breakfast reduces snack intake and influences snack preferences in adult men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Jamie I; Gaines, Brianna L; Kubas, Gabrielle C; Mitchell, Charlayne F; Russell, Sarah L

    2017-10-01

    Breakfast skipping is associated with increased risk of weight gain and obesity in young adults, possibly due to increased snacking later in the day. Recent research suggests that providing and animal versus a plant source of protein at breakfast can reduce snack intake later in the day. In addition, providing nutrition information via a nutrition label, front-of-pack information, or via text messaging has been shown to help individuals make healthier food choices. The objective of this study was to determine if educational nutrition messaging and protein source influenced snack intake 2 h following the breakfast meal. Participants (n = 33) were randomly assigned to one of two groups: educational nutrition messaging (EM; n = 16) or no messaging (NM; n = 17) group. The study was conducted using a randomized, cross-over design in which each participant received each of two breakfast beverages, whey protein- (WP) and pea protein (PP)- based. Appetite was assessed at 0, 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after each test breakfast using visual analog scales. Participants were then provided with a selection of healthy and unhealthy snacks for 60 min. There was no effect of protein source on appetite or snack intake. However, participants presented with EM had reduced snack intake over the snacking period compared to NM (P = 0.058) and, of the snacks consumed, the EM group consumed a higher percentage of healthy versus unhealthy snacks compared to NM (P snack intake, but EM may help play a role in reducing snack intake between meals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Factors influencing the reinforcing value of fruit and unhealthy snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervoort, L; Clauwaert, A; Vandeweghe, L; Vangeel, J; Van Lippevelde, W; Goossens, L; Huybregts, L; Lachat, C; Eggermont, S; Beullens, K; Braet, C; De Cock, N

    2017-12-01

    The present study investigated the reinforcing value of healthy and unhealthy snack food in adolescents (n = 108, aged 14-16 years). Moderation by access to different foods, sex and the personality trait reward sensitivity is tested. In a computerized Food Reinforcement Task, adolescents could earn portions of a healthy and an unhealthy snack following an identical progressive reinforcement schedule for both food types. Reinforcing value of food was indexed by the number of button presses for each food type. Participants were allocated randomly to two-order condition: fruit-snack versus snack-fruit. Reward sensitivity was assessed with the Dutch age-downward version of Carver and White's BIS/BAS scale. Results showed that the reinforcing value of an unhealthy snack is higher than that of fruit, with participants making more button presses for unhealthy snacks, M = 1280.40, SD = 1203.53, than for fruit, M = 488.04, SD = 401.45, F(1,48) = 25.37, p present in the snack-fruit condition, not in the fruit-snack condition, indicating that access to food moderates the effect of food type. There is no evidence for moderation by reward sensitivity. Results point to the importance of simultaneously increasing barriers to obtain unhealthy food and promoting access to healthy food in order to facilitate healthy food choices.

  3. Relationship between impulsivity, snack consumption and children's weight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eline W M Scholten

    Full Text Available Childhood overweight is a public health problem associated with psychosocial and physical problems. Personality traits, such as impulsivity, may contribute to the development of overweight.This study examines 1 the association between general impulsivity traits (reward sensitivity and disinhibition and children's weight, 2 the association between impulsivity traits and unhealthy snack consumption, and 3 the potential mediating role of unhealthy snack consumption in the relationship between impulsivity traits and children's weight.Included were 1,377 parent-child dyads participating in the IVO Nutrition and Physical Activity Child cohorT (INPACT. Children had a mean age of 10 years. Parents completed a questionnaire to measure children's unhealthy snack consumption. Children completed a door-opening task to assess reward sensitivity and completed a questionnaire to measure disinhibition. Children's height and weight were measured to calculate their BMI z-scores. Cross-sectional linear regression analyses were performed to test the associations.Disinhibition was positively associated with unhealthy snack consumption but not with BMI z-scores. Reward sensitivity was not related to unhealthy snack consumption or to BMI z-scores.No evidence was found for a mediating effect of unhealthy snack consumption in the relation between impulsivity traits and children's weight. However, disinhibition appears to have a negative influence on children's unhealthy snack consumption. Future research focusing on food-related impulsivity in addition to general impulsivity will provide additional insight into factors that influence children's unhealthy snack consumption and weight.

  4. Ancient whole grain gluten-free buckwheat snacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four kinds of whole grain Buckwheat snacks (gluten-free, low in fat and salt) were evaluated. The snacks were Buckwheat, Buckwheat-Turmeric, Buckwheat-Pepper and Buckwheat-Ginger. Turmeric and Ginger are very common ingredients of Asian cuisines. Turmeric and ginger have been reported to have heal...

  5. Quinoa ancient whole grain gluten-free snacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four kinds of whole grain gluten-free low fat and salt quinoa snacks were evaluated. The snacks were Quinoa, Quinoa-Pepper, Quinoa-Ginger and Quinoa-Turmeric. In the Asian cuisines ginger and turmeric are very common. Ginger has been reported to improve blood flow and prevent joint pains. Turmer...

  6. Sensory evaluation of gluten-free quinoa whole grain snacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinoa gluten-free whole grain low fat and salt snacks were evaluated. The snacks were Quinoa, Quinoa-Cayenne Pepper, Quinoa-Ginger and Quinoa-Turmeric. Cayenne pepper, ginger and turmeric are common spices that contain health promoting nutrients. Cayenne pepper has been associated with enhancing ...

  7. Snacking patterns, diet quality, and cardiovascular risk factors in adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationship of snacking patterns on nutrient intake and cardiovascular risk factors in adults is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of snacking patterns with nutrient intake, diet quality, and a selection of cardiovascular risk factors in adults participating in the ...

  8. Whole grain gluten-free vegetable spicy snacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four kinds of spicy snacks (gluten-free, whole grains with fresh vegetables, low in fat, sugar and salt) were evaluated. Acceptance of spicy snacks tested were Carrot-Garlic 77%, Broccoli-Garlic 68%, Spinach-Garlic 61% and Red Onion 53%. This is the first report of spicy gluten-free, 50% vegetable...

  9. Utilization and Fortification of Patin Fish on Extrusion Snack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mala Nurilmala

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Catfish (Pangasius sp. is a well cultured freshwater fish. Fortification improves protein level in snack and an effort to vary catfish fish product. The purpose of this study was to determine drying method for fish grit, formulation of snack and its properties. Grit formation by several drying methods and proximate (AOAC and degree of polarization. Snack used based on the physical measurement, namely development ratio. Formulations of grit composition of corn: rice: fish were 70%:30%:0% (K, 65%:25%:10% (A, 62.5%:22.5%:15% (B, 60%:20%:20% (C. Fish addition only effect the color of snack based on sensory analysis. There was no effect on snacks physical properties both 10% and 15% of fish grit added. Chemical measurements comprised water, ash, lipid, protein levels and polarization degree. Statistical analysis showed that fish addition effect the protein level on extrusion snack. In addition, polarization measurement showed that the snack with fish addition of 10% (A and 15%( B are fully gelatinized.Keyword: formulation, patin fish, snack

  10. Impact of Math Snacks Games on Students' Conceptual Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winburg, Karin; Chamberlain, Barbara; Valdez, Alfred; Trujillo, Karen; Stanford, Theodore B.

    2016-01-01

    This "Math Snacks" intervention measured 741 fifth grade students' gains in conceptual understanding of core math concepts after game-based learning activities. Teachers integrated four "Math Snacks" games and related activities into instruction on ratios, coordinate plane, number systems, fractions and decimals. Using a…

  11. Relationship between impulsivity, snack consumption and children's weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, Eline W M; Schrijvers, Carola T M; Nederkoorn, Chantal; Kremers, Stef P J; Rodenburg, Gerda

    2014-01-01

    Childhood overweight is a public health problem associated with psychosocial and physical problems. Personality traits, such as impulsivity, may contribute to the development of overweight. This study examines 1) the association between general impulsivity traits (reward sensitivity and disinhibition) and children's weight, 2) the association between impulsivity traits and unhealthy snack consumption, and 3) the potential mediating role of unhealthy snack consumption in the relationship between impulsivity traits and children's weight. Included were 1,377 parent-child dyads participating in the IVO Nutrition and Physical Activity Child cohorT (INPACT). Children had a mean age of 10 years. Parents completed a questionnaire to measure children's unhealthy snack consumption. Children completed a door-opening task to assess reward sensitivity and completed a questionnaire to measure disinhibition. Children's height and weight were measured to calculate their BMI z-scores. Cross-sectional linear regression analyses were performed to test the associations. Disinhibition was positively associated with unhealthy snack consumption but not with BMI z-scores. Reward sensitivity was not related to unhealthy snack consumption or to BMI z-scores. No evidence was found for a mediating effect of unhealthy snack consumption in the relation between impulsivity traits and children's weight. However, disinhibition appears to have a negative influence on children's unhealthy snack consumption. Future research focusing on food-related impulsivity in addition to general impulsivity will provide additional insight into factors that influence children's unhealthy snack consumption and weight.

  12. Structuring of expanded snacks based on patato ingredients : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sman, van der R.G.M.; Broeze, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we review the current knowledge on the structuring via bubble expansion of starchy snacks, which are formulated on the basis of potato ingredients. These snacks are rarely discussed in scientific literature, but there are a scant number of patents dealing with various formulations and

  13. Targeting children's dietary behaviors in a family intervention: 'Entre familia: reflejos de salud'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Lucy A; Parada, Humberto; Slymen, Donald J; Arredondo, Elva; Ibarra, Leticia; Ayala, Guadalupe X

    2013-01-01

    This intervention sought to promote healthy eating with the ultimate goal of reducing childhood obesity risk. Three hundred and sixty-one Latino families living on the US-Mexico border with at least one child between 7-13 years of age were eligible to participate. Families randomly assigned to the four-month intervention received 14 contacts with a promotora (community health worker), consisting of 11 home visits and three telephone calls; the control condition was a delayed treatment intervention. Children reported on their dietary intake at baseline, immediately post-intervention and at the six month follow-up visit. The intervention reduced weekly consumption of fast food (p<0.05). A dose-response relationship was observed such that for every seven hours of promotora contact, monthly variety of fruits (p<0.01) and vegetables (p<0.01) increased by one. No other intervention effects were observed. Family-based interventions can improve children's eating habits, with the amount of contact with the promotora being key to success.

  14. Vitamin D levels, dietary intake, and photoprotective behaviors among patients with skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLong, Laura K; Wetherington, Sarah; Hill, Nikki; Kumari, Meena; Gammon, Bryan; Dunbar, Scott; Tangpricha, Vin; Chen, Suephy C

    2010-09-01

    Photoprotection against ultraviolet light is an important part of our armamentarium against actinically derived skin cancers. However, there has been concern that adherence to photoprotection may lead to low vitamin D status, leading to negative effects on patients' health. In this work we discuss previous findings in this area, which do not give a clear picture as to the relationship between vitamin D levels and photoprotection measures, as well as research performed by the authors, who did not detect a relationship between serum 25(OH)D levels and adherence to photoprotection measures in subjects with skin cancer, as assessed by the use of sunscreen, clothing, hats, sunglasses, and umbrellas/shade through the Sun Protection Habits Index. Subjects who took vitamin D oral supplementation had greater serum 25(OH)D levels than those who did not, whereas dietary intake through foods did not predict 25(OH)D levels in the authors' study. However, there was a high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in the authors' study population, highlighting the importance of assessing vitamin D status and recommending oral vitamin D supplementation when indicated. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Dietary and physical activity behaviors related to obesity-specific quality of life and work productivity: baseline results from a worksite trial

    OpenAIRE

    Cash, Stephanie Whisnant; Beresford, Shirley A.A; Henderson, Jo Ann; McTiernan, Anne; Xiao, Liren; Wang, C.Y.; Patrick, Donald L.

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is associated with impaired health-related quality of life (QoL) and reduced productivity; less is known about the effect of dietary factors. This study investigated how dietary behaviors, physical activity, and Body Mass Index (BMI) relate to weight-specific QoL and work productivity. The study was conducted in 31 small blue-collar and service industry worksites in Seattle. Participants were 747 employees (33.5% non-White). Measures included self-reported servings of fruits and veget...

  16. Dietary and physical activity patterns in French children are related to overweight and socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lioret, Sandrine; Touvier, Mathilde; Lafay, Lionel; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Maire, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    Sedentary behavior (SED) has already been identified as a risk factor of childhood overweight (OW) but less is known about the dietary patterns related to adiposity. Our objective was to investigate if lifestyle patterns combining overall diet and physical activity were associated with childhood OW and if they were involved in the reverse association between socioeconomic status (SES) and OW. Dietary intake was assessed using a 7-d food record in 748 French children aged 3-11 y from the 1998-1999 cross-sectional French Enquête Individuelle et Nationale sur les Consommations Alimentaires national food consumption survey. Weight and height, leisure time physical activity, SED (television viewing), and SES were reported by parents or children by answering questionnaires. Scores for lifestyle patterns were assessed with factor analysis and their relationship with OW was explored by logistic regression analysis. Two similar lifestyle patterns were identified in children aged 3-6 y and 7-11 y: "snacking and sedentary" and "varied food and physically active." The snacking and sedentary pattern was positively associated with OW in the youngest children (P-trend = 0.0161) and partly mediated the negative association of SES to OW. The varied food and physically active pattern was inversely correlated with OW in the eldest children only (P-trend = 0.0401). A third pattern called "big eaters at main meals" was derived in children aged 7-11 y and was positively correlated with OW (P-trend = 0.0165). From a public health perspective, the combinations of identifiable dietary and physical activity behaviors may be useful as a basis for recommendations on preventing OW.

  17. Sodium content on processed foods for snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Mariana Vieira dos Santos; Oliveira, Renata Carvalho de; Gonzalez-Chica, David Alejandro; Proença, Rossana Pacheco da Costa

    2016-04-01

    To assess the Na content reported on the labels of processed foods sold in Brazil that are usually consumed as snacks by children and adolescents. Cross-sectional study that assessed Na content and serving size reporting on processed food labels. A supermarket that is part of a large chain in Brazil. All foods available for sale at the study's location and reported in the literature as snacks present in the diets of Brazilian children and adolescents. Of the 2945 processed foods, 87 % complied with the reference serving sizes, although variability in reporting was observed in most of the food subgroups. In addition, 21 % of the processed foods had high Na levels (>600 mg/100 g) and 35 % had medium Na levels (>120 and ≤600 mg/100 g). The meats, oils, fats and seeds groups as well as the prepared dishes had higher percentages of foods classified as high Na (81 %, 58 % and 53 %, respectively). Most of the processed foods had high or medium Na content. We emphasize the importance of revising Brazilian nutrition labelling legislation to standardize reference serving sizes to avoid variation. Besides, we point out the potential for reducing Na levels in most processed foods, as evidenced by the variability in Na content within subgroups. Finally, we have identified the need to develop a method to classify Na levels in processed foods with specific parameters for children and adolescents.

  18. Dietary Patterns and Body Mass Index in Children with Autism and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, E. Whitney; Must, Aviva; Anderson, Sarah E.; Curtin, Carol; Scampini, Renee; Maslin, Melissa; Bandini, Linda

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether dietary patterns (juice and sweetened non-dairy beverages, fruits, vegetables, fruits and vegetables, snack foods, and kid's meals) and associations between dietary patterns and body mass index (BMI) differed between 53 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and 58 typically developing children, ages 3-11, multivariate…

  19. Clustering of Dietary Intake and Sedentary Behavior in 2-Year-Old Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbels, J.S.; Kremers, S.P.J.; Stafleu, A.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Vries, S.I.de; Vries, N.K.de; Thijs, C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine clustering of energy balance-related behaviors (EBRBs) in young children. This is crucial because lifestyle habits are formed at an early age and track in later life. This study is the first to examine EBRB clustering in children as young as 2 years. Study design:

  20. Dietary interventions that reduce mTOR activity rescue autistic-like behavioral deficits in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Jiangbo; de Theije, Caroline G M; da Silva, Sofia Lopes; Abbring, Suzanne; van der Horst, Hilma; Broersen, Laus M; Willemsen, Linette; Kas, Martien; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D

    Enhanced mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling in the brain has been implicated in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Inhibition of the mTOR pathway improves behavior and neuropathology in mouse models of ASD containing mTOR-associated single gene mutations. The current

  1. Social influences on adolescents' dietary behavior in Catalonia, Spain: A qualitative multiple-cases study from the perspective of social capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Álvarez, Elena; Riera-Romaní, Jordi; Canet-Vélez, Olga

    2018-04-01

    Adolescence has been referred to as the last best chance to prevent adult non-communicable diseases. Gaining further evidence on the psychosocial determinants of health behaviors, particularly the impact of peers, social networks and media on diet, is necessary to develop appropriate preventive strategies. Based on a multiple-cases study, our aim was to discuss the social influences on adolescents' dietary behavior from a social capital perspective. Participants were reached through four high-schools in different Catalan rural-urban and socioeconomic contexts. Our results confirm the different layout of social capital in the community, school, peers and family. In our sample, family and peers are the most influent sources of social capital in relation to dietary behaviors, inducing both protective and damaging effects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of energy-dense nutrient-poor snacks on the incidence of metabolic syndrome: a prospective approach in Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmiran, Parvin; Bahadoran, Zahra; Delshad, Hossein; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2014-05-01

    Increased consumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor snacks is one of the major, growing concerns in relation to the alarming trend of overweight, obesity, and metabolic disorders worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate whether consumption of energy-dense snacks could affect the occurrence of metabolic syndrome after 3 y of follow-up in adults. This longitudinal study was conducted within the framework of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study between 2006 and 2008 and 2009 and 2011, on 1466 adults, ages 19 to 70 y. The usual intake of participants was measured using a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Biochemical and anthropometric measurements were assessed at baseline and 3 y later. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate the occurrence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in each quartile of energy-dense snacks. Participants in the highest quartile of energy-dense snack consumption were significantly younger (33.8 versus 43.1 y; P consumption of salty snacks increased more than 50% (OR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.01-2.40). Consumption of soft drinks had a borderline effect on the risk for MetS. More than 361 kcal/d from total energy-dense snacks independently increased the occurrence of MetS in the fourth compared the first quartile category (OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.03-2.29). The findings of this study demonstrated that higher consumption of energy-dense snacks could be a dietary risk factor for development of MetS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessing "chaotic eating" using self-report and the UK Adult National Diet and Nutrition Survey: No association between BMI and variability in meal or snack timings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Annie R; Johnson, Laura; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M

    2018-03-24

    Although regular meal timings are recommended for weight loss, no study has characterised irregularity in the timing of eating occasions or investigated associations with body-mass index (BMI). Here, we characterise "chaotic eating" as the tendency to eat at variable times of day. In two studies, we used a novel measure to explore the relationship between BMI and chaotic eating. In Study 1 (N = 98) we measured BMI and used a self-report measure to assess the usual range of times that meals and snacks are consumed over a seven-day period, as well as meal and snack frequency. A separate meal and snack 'chaotic eating index' was derived from the number of possible thirty-minute snack- or meal-slots, divided by the frequency of these eating events. After adjusting for age, gender, and dietary habits (Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire) we found no relationship between BMI and chaotic eating of meals (β = -0.07, p = 0.73) or snacks (β = -0.10, p = 0.75). In Study 2, we calculated the same chaotic eating index (meals and snacks) using data from the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey of adults 2000-2001 (seven-day diet diaries; N = 1175). Again, we found little evidence that BMI is associated with chaotic eating of meals (β = 0.16, p = 0.27) or snacks (β = 0.15, p = 0.12). Together, these results suggest that irregular eating timings do not promote weight gain and they challenge guidelines that recommend regularity in meal timings for weight loss. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Evaluation of selected dietary behaviours of students according to gender and nutritional knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaborowicz, Katarzyna; Czarnocińska, Jolanta; Galiński, Grzegorz; Kaźmierczak, Paulina; Górska, Karolina; Durczewski, Paweł

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition is a factor influencing physical and mental fitness. In this study we examine the lifestyle of university students and its impact on nutritional errors. To evaluate the dietary behaviours of students taking into account gender and nutritional knowledge. Using a QEB questionnaire, we were able to evaluate dietary behaviours and nutritional knowledge of respondents. Our analysis was conducted on data obtained from 456 students. We found that nutritional knowledge for women was 34.7% satisfactory and 34.7% good. In contrast, nutritional knowledge for men varied, amounting to 40.2% satisfactory and 25.1% good. The number of meals and their regular consumption did not depend on gender or the nutritional knowledge of students, however, significant differences were recorded for the types of snacks they eat. A greater number of women than men snacked on sweets and biscuits, nuts and seeds, while in the case of salty snacks an opposite trend was observed. A higher level of nutritional knowledge correlated with the number of students snacking on fruit and vegetables instead of salty snacks. Moreover, it was observed that health-promoting behaviours such as not adding sugar to beverages and not adding salt to dishes were more common with women and individuals with a higher level of nutritional knowledge. Women more frequently snack on sweets, biscuits, nuts and seeds. More men snack on salty snacks, add sugar to beverages and add salt to dishes. Individuals with insufficient nutritional knowledge more frequently snack on salty snacks rather than fruit. Students with insufficient nutritional knowledge more often commit nutritional errors.

  5. Children’s and Adolescents’ Snacking: Interplay between the Individual and the School Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helge eGiese

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In schools, perceived norms of classmates facilitate but can also inhibit unhealthy food intake in children and adolescents. However, the role of actual class behaviors and attitudes is less established. Thus, the present study examined classmates’ actual eating behavior and food preferences in relation to actual food intake. In addition, it tested whether these normative effects are facilitated by corresponding individual and class food preferences or a positive social self-concept.Methods: The food preferences, social self-concept, and unhealthy snacking frequency of 734 Finnish, 829 German, and 555 Romanian children and adolescents (aged 8-19 from 127 school-classes were assessed.Results: Multilevel analysis at individual and class level showed that classmates shared similar snacking habits (14.7% variance. Moreover, the unhealthy food preference of a school-class was associated with its collective snacking (χ²(1 = 54.67, p < .001, PRV = .32. This effect was facilitated by individual, unhealthy food preferences (χ²(1 = 16.72, p < .001, PRV = .57 and a positive social self-concept (χ²(1 = 5.91, p = .015, PRV = .12.Conclusions: Actual class norms are related to children’s and adolescents’ eating, but their impact depends on individual differences in preferences and social self-concept.

  6. Cross-sectional associations between maternal self-efficacy and dietary intake and physical activity in four-year-old children of first-time Swedish mothers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Jeanett Friis; Bohman, Benjamin; Berglind, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    .03). Mothers' belief in their ability to limit unhealthy dietary and physical activity behaviours was inversely associated with children's intake of unhealthy snacks (β: -0.06 [95%CI: -0.10; -0.02] P 

  7. Association between parenting practices and children's dietary intake, activity behavior and development of body mass index: the KOALA Birth Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Vries Nanne K

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insights into the effects of energy balance-related parenting practices on children's diet and activity behavior at an early age is warranted to determine which practices should be recommended and to whom. The purpose of this study was to examine child and parent background correlates of energy balance-related parenting practices at age 5, as well as the associations of these practices with children's diet, activity behavior, and body mass index (BMI development. Methods Questionnaire data originated from the KOALA Birth Cohort Study for ages 5 (N = 2026 and 7 (N = 1819. Linear regression analyses were used to examine the association of child and parent background characteristics with parenting practices (i.e., diet- and activity-related restriction, monitoring and stimulation, and to examine the associations between these parenting practices and children's diet (in terms of energy intake, dietary fiber intake, and added sugar intake and activity behavior (i.e., physical activity and sedentary time at age 5, as well as BMI development from age 5 to age 7. Moderation analyses were used to examine whether the associations between the parenting practices and child behavior depended on child characteristics. Results Several child and parent background characteristics were associated with the parenting practices. Dietary monitoring, stimulation of healthy intake and stimulation of physical activity were associated with desirable energy balance-related behaviors (i.e., dietary intake and/or activity behavior and desirable BMI development, whereas restriction of sedentary time showed associations with undesirable behaviors and BMI development. Child eating style and weight status, but not child gender or activity style, moderated the associations between parenting practices and behavior. Dietary restriction and monitoring showed weaker, or even undesirable associations for children with a deviant eating style, whereas these

  8. Association between parenting practices and children's dietary intake, activity behavior and development of body mass index: the KOALA Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubbels, Jessica S; Kremers, Stef P J; Stafleu, Annette; de Vries, Sanne I; Goldbohm, R Alexandra; Dagnelie, Pieter C; de Vries, Nanne K; van Buuren, Stef; Thijs, Carel

    2011-03-14

    Insights into the effects of energy balance-related parenting practices on children's diet and activity behavior at an early age is warranted to determine which practices should be recommended and to whom. The purpose of this study was to examine child and parent background correlates of energy balance-related parenting practices at age 5, as well as the associations of these practices with children's diet, activity behavior, and body mass index (BMI) development. Questionnaire data originated from the KOALA Birth Cohort Study for ages 5 (N = 2026) and 7 (N = 1819). Linear regression analyses were used to examine the association of child and parent background characteristics with parenting practices (i.e., diet- and activity-related restriction, monitoring and stimulation), and to examine the associations between these parenting practices and children's diet (in terms of energy intake, dietary fiber intake, and added sugar intake) and activity behavior (i.e., physical activity and sedentary time) at age 5, as well as BMI development from age 5 to age 7. Moderation analyses were used to examine whether the associations between the parenting practices and child behavior depended on child characteristics. Several child and parent background characteristics were associated with the parenting practices. Dietary monitoring, stimulation of healthy intake and stimulation of physical activity were associated with desirable energy balance-related behaviors (i.e., dietary intake and/or activity behavior) and desirable BMI development, whereas restriction of sedentary time showed associations with undesirable behaviors and BMI development. Child eating style and weight status, but not child gender or activity style, moderated the associations between parenting practices and behavior. Dietary restriction and monitoring showed weaker, or even undesirable associations for children with a deviant eating style, whereas these practices showed associations with desirable behavior for

  9. Does Sodium Knowledge Affect Dietary Choices and Health Behaviors? Results From a Survey of Los Angeles County Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, George; Wickramasekaran, Ranjana N; Kuo, Tony; Robles, Brenda

    2017-11-22

    In 2010, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health launched a local sodium-reduction initiative to address the rising prevalence of high blood pressure (hypertension) and related cardiovascular conditions in the population. To inform this effort, we evaluated self-reported knowledge and health behaviors related to sodium intake among Los Angeles County residents. We administered 3 cross-sectional Internet panel surveys on knowledge about dietary sodium to a sample of Los Angeles County adults, at intervals from December 2014 through August 2016. Multinomial and logistic regression models were constructed to describe associations between sodium knowledge and self-reported health behaviors. A total of 7,067 panel subjects clicked into the online survey, and 2,862 completed the survey (adjusted response rate = 40.5%). Only 102 respondents (3.6%) were able to accurately report the recommended milligrams of sodium that an average adult should consume daily (1,500 mg to 2300 mg). Knowing about daily sodium intake recommendations was associated with increased odds of using Nutrition Facts labels to make food purchase decisions (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 3.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.59-7.60) and with decreased odds of taking measures to prevent hypertension (AOR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.19-0.74). Los Angeles County residents had a limited knowledge of recommended daily sodium intake. Efforts to increase understanding of these recommendations may encourage wider engagement in healthy behaviors. Health agencies should integrate sodium reduction messages in their diet and nutrition educational efforts.

  10. Parent Readiness to Change Differs for Overweight Child Dietary and Physical Activity Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Rhee, KE; McEachern, R; Jelalian, E

    2014-01-01

    Parent involvement is important to help overweight children lose weight. However, parent readiness to make changes around child eating and physical activity (PA) behaviors can differ across domains. Using a cross-sectional design, our aim was to examine which factors were associated with parents being in the action/maintenance stage of change (SOC) in each domain. From November 2008 – August 2009, parents of overweight/obese children (n=202) attending a tertiary care obesity clinic in Provide...

  11. Energy, nutrient and food content of snacks in French adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si Hassen, Wendy; Castetbon, Katia; Tichit, Christine; Péneau, Sandrine; Nechba, Anouar; Ducrot, Pauline; Lampuré, Aurélie; Bellisle, France; Hercberg, Serge; Méjean, Caroline

    2018-02-27

    Snacking raises concern since it may lead to an additional energy intake and poor nutrient quality. A snacking occasion can be defined as any eating occasion apart from main meals, regardless of the amount or type of foods consumed. We described the frequency of snacking occasions according to daily timing in French adults, and compared them between each other, and with the main meals, in terms of energy intake, energy and nutrient density, and food content. This cross-sectional analysis included 104,265 adults from the NutriNet-Santé cohort. Food intake was estimated using 24-h records of weekdays. For each eating occasion, nutrient density and energy content and density were computed. After weighting, 47.6% of our sample were men and mean age was 45.6 (15.3). Overall, 68% of participants ate at least one snack during the reported record, mainly in the morning or afternoon. Overall snack had a lower nutrient density [22.8 (SD = 278.3)] than main meals [25.8 (36.9) to 30.0 (30.4)]; but higher energy density [222.2 (163.3) kcal/100 g] than meals [133.9 (57.3) to 175.9 (99.6) kcal/100 g]. Morning snack was the snacking occasion with the lowest energy density [211 kcal/100 g], the lowest energy intake [104.1 kcal] and the highest nutrient density [60.1]. Afternoon and evening snacks had the highest energy loads [192.4 kcal and 207.6 kcal], but low nutrient scores [16 and 13, respectively]. The main food groups contributing to energy intake from snacks were fatty-sweet and sugary foods, fruit, hot beverages, and bread. Our findings highlight the frequency of snacking and the varying nutritional quality of snacks over the day. The morning snack was shown to be healthier than afternoon and evening snacks. This study was conducted according to guidelines laid down in the Declaration of Helsinki, and all procedures were approved by the Institutional Review Board of the French Institute for Health and Medical Research (IRB Inserm No. 0000388FWA00005831) and the

  12. Theory of reasoned action and theory of planned behavior-based dietary interventions in adolescents and young adults: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hackman CL

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Christine L Hackman, Adam P KnowldenDepartment of Health Science, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL, USABackground: Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions in many nations around the world. The theory of planned behavior (TPB and the theory of reasoned action (TRA have been used to successfully plan and evaluate numerous interventions for many different behaviors. The aim of this study was to systematically review and synthesize TPB and TRA-based dietary behavior interventions targeting adolescents and young adults.Methods: The following databases were systematically searched to find articles for this review: Academic Search Premier; Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL; Education Resources Information Center (ERIC; Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; and MEDLINE. Inclusion criteria for articles were: 1 primary or secondary interventions, 2 with any quantitative design, 3 published in the English language, 4 between January 2003 and March 2014, 5 that targeted adolescents or young adults, 6 which included dietary change behavior as the outcome, and 7 utilized TPB or TRA.Results: Of the eleven intervention studies evaluated, nine resulted in dietary behavior change that was attributed to the treatment. Additionally, all but one study found there to be a change in at least one construct of TRA or TPB, while one study did not measure constructs. All of the studies utilized some type of quantitative design, with two employing quasi-experimental, and eight employing randomized control trial design. Among the studies, four utilized technology including emails, social media posts, information on school websites, web-based activities, audio messages in classrooms, interactive DVDs, and health-related websites. Two studies incorporated goal setting and four employed persuasive communication.Conclusion: Interventions directed toward changing dietary behaviors

  13. Recent changes in sociodemographic characteristics, dietary behaviors and clinical parameters of adults receiving food assistance in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Castetbon

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2004–2005, a survey carried out on food recipients in France revealed an alarming nutritional situation. In 2011–2012, and using a protocol similar to that of 2004–2005, our objective was to update the description of sociodemographic characteristics, dietary behaviors and clinical parameters of food assistance recipients and to analyze changes since 2004–2005. Methods Both surveys included multistage random sampling of adults benefitting from structures that supply food pantries and charitable grocery stores. Data on sociodemographic characteristics and dietary behaviors were collected along with weight, height and blood pressure measurements. Comparisons between the 2004–2005 (n = 883 and 2011–2012 (n = 1,058 survey observations were made, adjusting for socio-demographic changes which had occurred in the meantime. Results Since 2004–2005, proportions of food recipients ≥55 years (13.1–19.1 %, born in France (29.2–36.8 % and employed (5.5–11.7 % have increased; food insufficiency has decreased (95–74 %. For over half of the recipients, canned (52.4 % and non-perishable (50.9 % foods were obtained only from food assistance. Frequency of consumption significantly increased even after adjustment for socio-demographic changes; this was the case for dairy products (for twice a day consumption, 30.2–36.4 %, fruits and vegetables (three times a day, 7.8–13.9 %, and meat, eggs and fish (twice a day, 9.4–19.2 %. In 2011–2012, 15.6 % of men and 36.0 % of women were obese, while 44.5 and 35.1 % had high blood pressure, respectively. Conclusions Between 2004–2005 and 2011–2012 in France, consumption of staple foods has been slightly improved in food assistance recipients. However, prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors remains high, which underlines the need for long-term efforts at better quality of foods delivered.

  14. Can the Theory of Planned Behavior predict dietary intention and future dieting in an ethnically diverse sample of overweight and obese veterans attending medical clinics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lash, Denise N; Smith, Jane Ellen; Rinehart, Jenny K

    2016-04-01

    Obesity has become a world-wide epidemic; in the United States (U.S.) approximately two-thirds of adults are classified as overweight or obese. Military veterans' numbers are even higher, with 77% of retired or discharged U.S. veterans falling in these weight categories. One of the most common methods of changing one's weight is through dieting, yet little is known regarding the factors that facilitate successful dieting behavior. The current investigation tested the Theory of Planned Behavior's (TPB) ability to predict dietary intention and future dieting in a sample of 84 overweight and obese patients attending medical clinics at a Veterans Affairs Hospital in the southwestern part of the U.S. Participants primarily were male (92%) and ethnic/racial minorities (58%). Perceived need and anticipated regret were added to the standard TPB model. While the TPB predicted dietary intention, it did not significantly account for improved dietary behaviors. Anticipated regret significantly enhanced the basic TPB's ability to predict intention to diet, while perceived need did not. These findings highlight the difficulty in predicting sustained change in a complex behavior such as dieting to lose weight. The need for more work with older, overweight/obese medical patients attending veterans' facilities is stressed, as is the need for such work with male patients and ethnic minorities in particular. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Multiple pathways from the neighborhood food environment to increased body mass index through dietary behaviors: A structural equation-based analysis in the CARDIA study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Andrea S.; Meyer, Katie A.; Howard, Annie Green; Boone-Heinonen, Janne; Popkin, Barry M.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Shikany, James M.; Lewis, Cora E.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine longitudinal pathways from multiple types of neighborhood restaurants and food stores to BMI, through dietary behaviors. Methods We used data from participants (n=5114) in the United States-based Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study and a structural equation model to estimate longitudinal (1985–86 to 2005–06) pathways simultaneously from neighborhood fast food restaurants, sit-down restaurants, supermarkets, and convenience stores to BMI through dietary behaviors, controlling for socioeconomic status (SES) and physical activity. Results Higher numbers of neighborhood fast food restaurants and lower numbers of sit-down restaurants were associated with higher consumption of an obesogenic fast food-type diet. The pathways from food stores to BMI through diet were inconsistent in magnitude and statistical significance. Conclusions Efforts to decrease the numbers of neighborhood fast food restaurants and to increase the numbers of sit-down restaurant options could influence diet behaviors. Availability of neighborhood fast food and sit-down restaurants may play comparatively stronger roles than food stores in shaping dietary behaviors and BMI. PMID:26454248

  16. Psychometric evaluation of the short version of the Personal Diabetes Questionnaire to assess dietary behaviors and exercise in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akohoue, Sylvie A; Wallston, Kenneth A; Schlundt, David G; Rothman, Russell L

    2017-08-01

    Patients with diabetes and of lower socioeconomic status have difficulty adhering to dietary recommendations. Practical and effective tools assessing self-management behaviors are needed to help evaluate interventions tailored to the needs of individual patients or population groups. This study examined the psychometric properties of a short 11-item version of the Personal Diabetes Questionnaire scale (PDQ-11) using data from the Public-Private Partnership to Improve Diabetes Education trial. Patients (n=411) with type 2 diabetes from ten safety net primary care clinics in the Mid-Cumberland Region of Tennessee completed the PDQ-11, the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities (SDSCA), the Perceived Diabetes Self-Management Scale (PDSMS), and the Adherence to Refills and Medications Scale (ARMS). Statistical analyses were conducted to explore the subscale structure of the PDQ-11, and the internal consistency and validity of its subscales. Exploratory factor analysis of the PDQ-11 revealed four components (Cronbach's α=0.50 to 0.81): Eating Behavior Problems; Use of Information for Dietary Decision Making; Calorie Restriction; and Activity and Exercise. Eating Behavior Problems and Use of Information for Dietary Decision Making had the strongest associations with the diet subscales of the SDSCA and were also correlated with the PDSMS and the ARMS scores (all ps<0.001). Different PDQ-11 subscales were correlated with BMI (Calorie Restriction Activity and Exercise) and blood pressure (Eating Behavior Problems). The PDQ-11 is a useful measure of dietary behaviors in patients with type 2 diabetes; its use may help providers tailor individual nutrition intervention strategies to patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Snacking patterns of U.S. adults: What We Eat In America, 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goals of this study were to track changes in snacking frequency over time, determine whether snacking is associated with food energy intake and weight status, identify foods and beverages that make the largest contributions to calories consumed at snacks, and measure the contribution of snacks t...

  18. Effects of snack consumption for 8 weeks on energy intake and body weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viskaal-van Dongen, M.; Kok, F.J.; Graaf, de C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Consumption of snacks might contribute to the obesity epidemic. It is not clear how the moment of consumption and energy density of snacks can influence the compensatory response to consumption of snacks in the long term. Objective: To investigate the effects of snack consumption for 8

  19. Food and beverage promotions in Minnesota secondary schools: secular changes, correlates, and associations with adolescents' dietary behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; Davey, Cynthia S; Coombes, Brandon; Caspi, Caitlin; Kubik, Martha Y; Nanney, Marilyn S

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe promotions for unhealthy and healthy foods and beverages within Minnesota secondary schools from 2008 to 2012, and to examine associations with school-level coordination of environmental improvements and students' dietary behaviors. The Minnesota School Health Profiles and Minnesota Student Survey data were used along with National Center for Education Statistics data to conduct analyses accounting for school-level demographics. There was no significant improvement over time in the proportion of schools that banned advertising for unhealthy products in school buildings, on school grounds, on buses, or in publications. Whereas more than two thirds of schools had implemented strategies focused on the promotion of fruits/vegetables by 2012, only 37% labeled healthful foods with appealing names and just 17% used price incentives to encourage healthy choices. The number of stakeholders representing different roles on school health councils was positively correlated with implementation of healthy food and beverage promotion strategies. Little evidence was found to support an influence of in-school advertising bans or promotions on students' diets. Policy changes are needed to protect students from food and beverage advertising and additional opportunities exist to reduce disparities in the selection of healthy options at school. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  20. Food and beverage promotions in Minnesota secondary schools: secular changes, correlates, and associations with adolescents’ dietary behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; Davey, Cynthia S.; Coombes, Brandon; Caspi, Caitlin; Kubik, Martha Y.; Nanney, Marilyn S.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to describe promotions for unhealthy and healthy foods and beverages within Minnesota secondary schools from 2008 to 2012, and to examine associations with school-level coordination of environmental improvements and students’ dietary behaviors. METHODS The Minnesota School Health Profiles and Minnesota Student Survey data were used along with National Center for Education Statistics data to conduct analyses accounting for school-level demographics. RESULTS There was no significant improvement over time in the proportion of schools that banned advertising for unhealthy products in school buildings, on school grounds, on buses, or in publications. Whereas more than two-thirds of schools had implemented strategies focused on the promotion of fruits/vegetables by 2012, only 37% labeled healthful foods with appealing names and just 17% used price incentives to encourage healthy choices. The number of stakeholders representing different roles on school health councils was positively correlated with implementation of healthy food and beverage promotion strategies. Little evidence was found to support an influence of in-school advertising bans or promotions on students’ diets. CONCLUSIONS Policy changes are needed to protect students from food and beverage advertising and additional opportunities exist to reduce disparities in the selection of healthy options at school. PMID:25388594

  1. Food Perceptions and Dietary Behavior of American-Indian Children, Their Caregivers, and Educators: Formative Assessment Findings from Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Toporoff, Elanah Greer; Story, Mary; Evans, Marguerite; Anliker, Jean; Davis, Sally; Sharma, Anjali; White, Jean

    2000-01-01

    Dietary findings from a school-based obesity prevention project (Pathways) are reported for children from six different American-Indian nations. A formative assessment was undertaken with teachers, caregivers, and children from nine schools to design a culturally appropriate intervention, including classroom curriculum, food service, physical education, and family components. This assessment employed a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods (including direct observations, paired-child in-depth interviews, focus groups with child caregivers and teachers, and semistructured interviews with caregivers and foodservice personnel) to query local perceptions and beliefs about foods commonly eaten and risk behaviors associated with childhood obesity at home, at school, and in the community. An abundance of high-fat, high-sugar foods was detected in children's diets described by caregivers, school food-service workers, and the children themselves. Although children and caregivers identified fruits and vegetables as healthy food choices, this knowledge does not appear to influence actual food choices. Frequent high-fat/high-sugar food sales in the schools, high-fat entrees in school meals, the use of food rewards in the classroom, rules about finishing all of one's food, and limited family resources are some of the competing factors that need to be addressed in the Pathways intervention.

  2. APPLICATION OF OAT, WHEAT AND RYE BRAN TO MODIFY NUTRITIONAL PROPERTIES, PHYSICAL AND SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS OF EXTRUDED CORN SNACKS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowska, Agnieszka; Polcyn, Anna; Chudy, Sylwia; Michniewicz, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Cereal products constitute the basis of the diet pyramid. While the consumption of such products as bread decreases, the group of food which popularity increase is cereal snacks. Unfortunately, the dietary value of this group of foodstuffs is limited. Thus, different types of cereal bran may be added to the produced snacks to enhance their nutritive value. However, an addition of bran may have an adverse effect on quality attributes of products. Corn grits enriched with 20 and 40% oat, wheat and rye bran was extruded. Basic parameters determining the nutritive value, physical characteristics and sensory attributes of the six produced types of extrudates were measured and compared. Moreover, the effect of additives applied on viscosity of aqueous suspensions of the raw materials and extrudates under controlled conditions was measured using RVA. The dietary value of snacks containing bran depends on the type and quantitative shares of the additives. The content of dietary fibre in produced extrudates ranged from 6.5 to 15.8%, including soluble dietary fibre at 2.1 to 3.7%. With an increase of bran content in extrudates, their expansion decreased, density increased and the colour of extrudates changed (reduced brightness, increased a*, decreased b*). In sensory evaluation the highest acceptability was given to extrudates with a 20% addition of oat bran, while the lowest was given for those with 40% wheat bran. Based on PCA results positive correlations were found between overall desirability and crispiness, porosity, taste, colour and expansion. Negative correlations between desirability and hardness and density of extrudates were observed. The additives and their level also had an effect on changes in viscosity of aqueous suspensions measured using RVA. However, no correlation was found between quality features of extrudates and values of attributes measured in the analysis of viscosity. In the production of corn extruded snacks an addition of oat, wheat and rye bran

  3. [Content analysis of television commercials for snacks and of snack packaging targeted at children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akamatsu, Rie

    2010-06-01

    To describe the marketing of snacks and beverages to children in television (TV) commercials and on food packages. Study 1: For 5 weeks from April 1 to May 7, 2007, TV commercials were recorded from one of five channels each week (Nihon, TBS, Fuji, Asahi, and Tokyo). Study 2: The energy values of the products advertised in the TV commercials analyzed in Study 1 were determined, along with whether marketing information (e.g., presents, campaigns, and URLs) was included on the packages. The data were shown in frequency tables, and a chi2 test was conducted to examine the relationship between the energy values of the products (under or over 200 kcal) and descriptions concerning consumption of the products presented in the TV commercials (none, eating alone and eating with others). Five hours and 18 minutes of food commercials and 2 hours and 57 minutes of snack commercials were obtained from the 105 hours of recordings. Of the food commercials, 55.7% were for snacks. Commercials that were repeated or that targeted adults were excluded, leaving 197 commercials for analysis. There were many beverage commercials, most often associating products with mood, such as having fun and good times. No relationship between the energy value of the products (under or over 200 kcal), and the description of consuming the product in the TV commercials (none, eating alone and eating with others) was found (chi2 (2) = 2.2, P = 0.33). A scene showing someone eating alone was the most common depiction for products with energy levels both under and over 200 kcal. The analysis of 164 snack packages showed that most gave URLs. Although the present study had several limitations, such as the relatively short research period, as the first to describe TV commercials for snacks and beverages in Japan it provides new insights. It is now necessary to understand the current state of commercials in other media, and to consider the content of nutrition education for the future, including media literacy

  4. Sex-specific effects of dietary fatty acids on saliva cortisol and social behavior in guinea pigs under different social environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Matthias; Millesi, Eva; Puehringer-Sturmayr, Verena; Kaplan, Arthur; Wagner, Karl-Heinz; Quint, Ruth; Wallner, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Unbalanced dietary intakes of saturated (SFAs) and polyunsaturated (PUFAs) fatty acids can profoundly influence the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis and glucocorticoid secretions in relation to behavioral performances. The beneficial effects of higher dietary PUFA intakes and PUFA:SFA ratios may also affect social interactions and social-living per se, where adequate physiological and behavioral responses are essential to cope with unstable social environmental conditions. Effects of diets high in PUFAs or SFAs and a control diet were investigated in male and female guinea pigs after 60 days of supplementation. Plasma fatty acid patterns served as an indicator of the general fatty acid status. HPA-axis activities, determined by measuring saliva cortisol concentrations, social behaviors, and hierarchy ranks were analyzed during group housing of established single-sexed groups and during challenging social confrontations with unfamiliar individuals of the other groups. The plasma PUFA:SFA ratio was highest in PUFA supplemented animals, with female levels significantly exceeding males, and lowest in SFA animals. SFA males and females showed increased saliva cortisol levels and decreased aggressiveness during group housing, while sociopositive behaviors were lowest in PUFA males. Males generally showed higher cortisol increases in response to the challenging social confrontations with unfamiliar individuals than females. While increasing cortisol concentrations were detected in control and PUFA animals, no such effect was found in SFA animals. During social confrontations, PUFA males showed higher levels of agonistic and sociopositive behaviors and also gained higher dominance ranks among males, which was not detected for females. While SFAs seemingly impaired cortisol responses and social behaviors, PUFAs enabled adequate behavioral responses in male individuals under stressful new social environmental conditions. This sex-specific effect was possibly

  5. A cross-sectional study to assess the incompatible dietary behavior of patients suffering from skin diseases: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghana Kulkarni

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: Scores for consumption of incompatible diet and dietary habits were found to be higher in acne and psoriasis patients compared to controls. Patients with fungal infections had higher scores for the presence of incompatible dietary habits but similar scores for the consumption of incompatible diet, whereas both scores in patients of vitiligo were similar to controls.

  6. The Comprehensive Snack Parenting Questionnaire (CSPQ: Development and Test-Retest Reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorus W. M. Gevers

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The narrow focus of existing food parenting instruments led us to develop a food parenting practices instrument measuring the full range of food practices constructs with a focus on snacking behavior. We present the development of the questionnaire and our research on the test-retest reliability. The developed Comprehensive Snack Parenting Questionnaire (CSPQ covers 21 constructs. Test-retest reliability was assessed by calculating intra class correlation coefficients and percentage agreement after two administrations of the CSPQ among a sample of 66 Dutch parents. Test-retest reliability analysis revealed acceptable intra class correlation coefficients (≥0.41 or agreement scores (≥0.60 for all items. These results, together with earlier work, suggest sufficient psychometric characteristics. The comprehensive, but brief CSPQ opens up chances for highly essential but unstudied research questions to understand and predict children’s snack intake. Example applications include studying the interactional nature of food parenting practices or interactions of food parenting with general parenting or child characteristics.

  7. Snack intake is reduced using an implicit, high-level construal cue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Menna; Higgs, Suzanne; Lee, Michelle

    2016-08-01

    Priming a high level construal has been shown to enhance self-control and reduce preference for indulgent food. Subtle visual cues have been shown to enhance the effects of a priming procedure. The current study therefore examined the combined impact of construal level and a visual cue reminder on the consumption of energy-dense snacks. A student and community-based adult sample with a wide age and body mass index (BMI) range (N = 176) were randomly assigned to a high or low construal condition in which a novel symbol was embedded. Afterward participants completed a taste test of ad libitum snack foods in the presence or absence of the symbol. The high (vs. the low) construal level prime successfully generated more abstract responses (p snacks in the presence of a visual cue-reminder. This may be a practical technique for reducing overeating and has the potential to be extended to other unhealthy behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. How State Taxes and Policies Targeting Soda Consumption Modify the Association between School Vending Machines and Student Dietary Behaviors: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Taber, Daniel R.; Chriqui, Jamie F.; Vuillaume, Renee; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sodas are widely sold in vending machines and other school venues in the United States, particularly in high school. Research suggests that policy changes have reduced soda access, but the impact of reduced access on consumption is unclear. This study was designed to identify student, environmental, or policy characteristics that modify the associations between school vending machines and student dietary behaviors. Methods: Data on school vending machine access and student diet we...

  9. Dietary options and behavior suggested by plant biomarker evidence in an early human habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magill, Clayton R.; Ashley, Gail M.; Domínguez-Rodrigo, Manuel; Freeman, Katherine H.

    2016-03-01

    The availability of plants and freshwater shapes the diets and social behavior of chimpanzees, our closest living relative. However, limited evidence about the spatial relationships shared between ancestral human (hominin) remains, edible resources, refuge, and freshwater leaves the influence of local resources on our species' evolution open to debate. Exceptionally well-preserved organic geochemical fossils-biomarkers-preserved in a soil horizon resolve different plant communities at meter scales across a contiguous 25,000 m2 archaeological land surface at Olduvai Gorge from about 2 Ma. Biomarkers reveal hominins had access to aquatic plants and protective woods in a patchwork landscape, which included a spring-fed wetland near a woodland that both were surrounded by open grassland. Numerous cut-marked animal bones are located within the wooded area, and within meters of wetland vegetation delineated by biomarkers for ferns and sedges. Taken together, plant biomarkers, clustered bone debris, and hominin remains define a clear spatial pattern that places animal butchery amid the refuge of an isolated forest patch and near freshwater with diverse edible resources.

  10. Toward identifying a broader range of social cognitive determinants of dietary intentions and behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankonen, Nelli; Absetz, Pilvikki; Kinnunen, Marja; Haukkala, Ari; Jallinoja, Piia

    2013-03-01

    Measurement of social cognitive variables is often restricted to long-term and health-related outcomes. A more comprehensive measurement of cognitive determinants would enable evidence-based design of health behavior interventions with a focus on the most relevant targets. The purpose of this study was to examine the relative impact of different social cognitive determinants on fruit and vegetable (FV) and fast food consumption. Finnish male conscripts (N = 855, age M = 20) filled in questionnaires on social cognitive factors when entering the military service, and on food consumption frequency after two months. The data were analysed using structural equation modeling. Physical well-being expectation and bad taste expectation were most strongly related to both FV and fat avoidance intentions. Perceived weight gain risk predicted fat avoidance intention, whereas perceived risk for other health problems predicted FV intention. Social self-efficacy was associated with FV intention only. Consumption of both FV and fast food was predicted by action planning and intention. A more careful evaluation of subtypes of social cognitions sheds light on the specific content behind motivation. Such understanding might help in designing more effective intervention messages. © 2012 The Authors. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being © 2012 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  11. Relative Contribution of Obesity, Sedentary Behaviors and Dietary Habits to Sleep Duration Among Kuwaiti Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Haifi, Ahmad A; AlMajed, Hana Th; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Arab, Mariam A; Hasan, Rasha A

    2015-05-17

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether body mass index (BMI), eating habits and sedentary behaviours were associated with sleep duration among Kuwaiti adolescents. The study is part of the Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS), which is a school-based cross-sectional multi-center collaborative study. A sample of 906 adolescents (boys and girls) aged 14-19 years was randomly selected from 6 Kuwaiti Governances using a multistage stratified cluster sampling technique. The findings revealed that the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 50.5% in boys and 46.5% in girls. The majority of boys (76%) and of girls (74%) fell into the short sleep duration category (6 hours/day or less). Sleep duration were found to be negatively associated with BMI (girls only). Watching television (boys and girls) and working on computers (boys only) were also negatively associated with sleep duration. While the consumption of breakfast (both genders) and milk (boys only) was positively associated with sleep duration (pgenders), sugar-sweetened drinks and sweets (boys only) potatoes (girls only) were negatively associated with sleep duration (peating habits and more sedentary behaviors. The findings also suggest gender differences in these associations. Therefore, adequate sleep is an important modifiable risk factor to prevent obesity and was positively associated with some unhealthy lifestyle habits.

  12. Use of Fitness and Nutrition Apps: Associations With Body Mass Index, Snacking, and Drinking Habits in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cock, Nathalie; Vangeel, Jolien; Lachat, Carl; Beullens, Kathleen; Vervoort, Leentje; Goossens, Lien; Maes, Lea; Deforche, Benedicte; De Henauw, Stefaan; Braet, Caroline; Eggermont, Steven; Kolsteren, Patrick; Van Camp, John; Van Lippevelde, Wendy

    2017-04-25

    Efforts to improve snacking and drinking habits are needed to promote a healthy body mass index (BMI) in adolescents. Although commercial fitness and nutrition mobile phone apps are widely used, little is known regarding their potential to improve health behaviors, especially in adolescents. In addition, evidence on the mechanisms through which such fitness and nutrition apps influence behavior is lacking. This study assessed whether the use of commercial fitness or nutrition apps was associated with a lower BMI and healthier snacking and drinking habits in adolescents. Additionally, it explored if perceived behavioral control to eat healthy; attitudes to eat healthy for the good taste of healthy foods, for overall health or for appearance; social norm on healthy eating and social support to eat healthy mediated the associations between the frequency of use of fitness or nutrition apps and BMI, the healthy snack, and beverage ratio. Cross-sectional self-reported data on snack and beverage consumption, healthy eating determinants, and fitness and nutrition app use of adolescents (N=889; mean age 14.7 years, SD 0.8; 54.8% [481/878] boys; 18.1% [145/803] overweight) were collected in a representative sample of 20 schools in Flanders, Belgium. Height and weight were measured by the researchers. The healthy snack ratio and the healthy beverage ratio were calculated as follows: gram healthy snacks or beverages/(gram healthy snacks or beverages+gram unhealthy snacks or beverages)×100. Multilevel regression and structural equation modeling were used to analyze the proposed associations and to explore multiple mediation. A total of 27.6% (245/889) of the adolescents used fitness, nutrition apps or both. Frequency of using nutrition apps was positively associated with a higher healthy beverage ratio (b=2.96 [1.11], P=.008) and a higher body mass index z-scores (zBMI; b=0.13 [0.05], P=.008. A significant interaction was found between the frequency of using nutrition and for

  13. Smaller food item sizes of snack foods influence reduced portions and caloric intake in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori, David; Waroquier, Laurent; Klein, Olivier

    2011-05-01

    Studies considering the impact of food-size variations on consumption have predominantly focused on portion size, whereas very little research has investigated variations in food-item size, especially at snacking occasions, and results have been contradictory. This study evaluated the effect of altering the size of food items (ie, small vs large candies) of equal-size food portions on short-term energy intake while snacking. The study used a between-subjects design (n=33) in a randomized experiment conducted in spring 2008. In a psychology laboratory (separate cubicles), participants (undergraduate psychology students, 29 of 33 female, mean age 20.3±2 years, mean body mass index 21.7±3.7) were offered unlimited consumption of candies while participating in an unrelated computerized experiment. For half of the subjects, items were cut in two to make the small food-item size. Food intake (weight in grams, kilocalories, and number of food items) was examined using analysis of variance. Results showed that decreasing the item size of candies led participants to decrease by half their gram weight intake, resulting in an energy intake decrease of 60 kcal compared to the other group. Appetite ratings and subject and food characteristics had no moderating effect. A cognitive bias could explain why people tend to consider that one unit of food (eg, 10 candies) is the appropriate amount to consume, regardless of the size of the food items in the unit. This study suggests a simple dietary strategy, decreasing food-item size without having to alter the portion size offered, may reduce energy intake at snacking occasions. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Can the Theory of Planned Behavior Predict Dietary Intention and Future Dieting in an Ethnically Diverse Sample of Overweight and Obese Veterans Attending Medical Clinics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lash, Denise N.; Smith, Jane Ellen; Rinehart, Jenny K.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity has become a world-wide epidemic; in the United States (U.S.) approximately two-thirds of adults are classified as overweight or obese. Military veterans’ numbers are even higher, with 77% of retired or discharged U.S. veterans falling in these weight categories. One of the most common methods of changing one’s weight is through dieting, yet little is known regarding the factors that facilitate successful dieting behavior. The current investigation tested the Theory of Planned Behavior’s (TPB) ability to predict dietary intention and future dieting in a sample of 84 overweight and obese patients attending medical clinics at a Veterans Affairs Hospital in the southwestern part of the U.S. Participants primarily were male (92%) and ethnic/racial minorities (58%). Perceived need and anticipated regret were added to the standard TPB model. While the TPB predicted dietary intention, it did not significantly account for improved dietary behaviors. Anticipated regret significantly enhanced the basic TPB’s ability to predict intention to diet, while perceived need did not. These findings highlight the difficulty in predicting sustained change in a complex behavior such as dieting to lose weight. The need for more work with older, overweight/obese medical patients attending veterans’ facilities is stressed, as is the need for such work with male patients and ethnic minorities in particular. PMID:26792774

  15. The Effects of Dietary Fat and Iron Interaction on Brain Regional Iron Contents and Stereotypical Behaviors in Male C57BL/6J Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lumei Liu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Adequate brain iron levels are essential for enzyme activities, myelination, and neurotransmitter synthesis in the brain. Although systemic iron deficiency has been found in genetically or dietary-induced obese subjects, the effects of obesity-associated iron dysregulation in brain regions have not been examined. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of dietary fat and iron interaction on brain regional iron contents and regional-associated behavior patterns in a mouse model. Thirty C57BL/6J male weanling mice were randomly assigned to six dietary treatment groups (n=5 with varying fat (control/high and iron (control/high/low contents. The stereotypical behaviors were measured during the 24th week. Blood, liver, and brain tissues were collected at the end of the 24th week. Brains were dissected into the hippocampus, midbrain, striatum, and thalamus regions. Iron contents and ferritin-H (FtH protein and mRNA expressions in these regions were measured. Correlations between stereotypical behaviors and brain regional iron contents were analyzed at the 5% significance level. Results showed that high-fat diet altered the stereotypical behaviors such as inactivity and total distance traveled (P<0.05. The high-fat diet altered brain iron contents and ferritin-H (FtH protein and mRNA expressions in a regional-specific manner: 1 high-fat diet significantly decreased the brain iron content in the striatum (P<0.05, but not other regions; and 2 thalamus has a more distinct change in FtH mRNA expression compared to other regions. Furthermore, high-fat diet resulted in a significant decreased total distance traveled and a significant correlation between iron content and sleeping in midbrain (P<0.05. Dietary iron also decreased brain iron content and FtH protein expression in a regionally specific manner. The effect of interaction between dietary fat and iron was observed in brain iron content and behaviors. All these findings will lay

  16. LEARNING AS A TOOL FOR CANCER PREVENTION THROUGH THE ACQUISITION OF NEW DIETARY HABITS AND BEHAVIORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Brito

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The need to promote knowledge of health entails, in part, by encouraging healthy eating habits. The creation of popular science materials, especially at schools, by promoting guidance for the eating habits is presented as an important tool. Foods that contain bioactive compounds are called nutraceutical foods and about 35% of various cancers occur due to inadequate diets. Conventional therapies are used in the treatment of cancer, even though they are efficient in fighting tumors, to cause many harmful effects to the patient, and therefore the researches for alternative therapies have increased. Especially those act strengthening the immunologic system. The mushrooms are able to modulate carcinogenesis in all stages of the disease through different mechanisms of action of the bioactive compounds, thus having an antitumor effect that is assigned to restore and improve the immune response through stimulation of cellular immunity which are present polysaccharides the composition of the mushrooms, such as beta-glucans that besides the anticancer effect, it still has activity as immunostimulant, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, which are already used in Japan as drugs for treating cancer patients. The aim of this work was to use learning as a tool for acquiring habits and eating behaviors in the general community and ownership and acquisition of knowledge about the antitumor potential of bioactive compounds in foods which are applied in cancer prevention through the scientific dissemination / education. Because it is a popular science work using written material and the dissemination of the material make for yourself the methodology used for the dissemination of scientific knowledge. Thus, the inclusion of consumption of mushrooms in the diet may represent an important step in the cancer prevention as the best form of prevention, and therefore it shows the need for available information to everyone, as it has proposed this work, disclosure.

  17. Charge Up! Healthy Meals and Snacks for Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrition Celebrate the Beauty of Youth Changing Your Habits for Better Health Healthy Meals & Snacks for Teens ... Make half of your plate fruits and vegetables. Power up with lean meats, chicken, seafood, eggs, beans, ...

  18. Retrospective dosimetry using salted snacks and nuts: a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansson, M.; Geber-Bergstrand, T.; Bernhardsson, C.; Mattsson, S.; Raeaef, C.L.

    2017-01-01

    The possibility of using ordinary household table salt for dosimetry is suggested by its high sensitivity to ionising radiation, which generates a readout of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). However, to exploit this finding for retrospective human dosimetry, it would be needed to find salt in close proximity to the exposed individual. Finding salty snacks frequently tucked into handbags, backpacks or pockets seemed to be a possibility; these items therefore became the test materials of the present study. The aluminium or cardboard packages used to exclude the moisture that makes crisps and nuts go soft and stale also helps to retain the induced OSL signal. Therefore, different snacks, either their salt component alone or mixed with the snack, are exposed to ionising radiation and then were assessed for their dosimetric properties. The results indicate the feasibility of using some salty snacks for dosimetry, with a minimum detectable dose as low as 0.2 mGy (authors)

  19. Relationship between impulsivity, snack consumption and children's weight

    OpenAIRE

    Scholten, Eline W. M.; Schrijvers, Carola; Nederkoorn, Chantal; Kremers, Stef; Rodenburg, Gerda

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Childhood overweight is a public health problem associated with psychosocial and physical problems. Personality traits, such as impulsivity, may contribute to the development of overweight. Objective: This study examines 1) the association between general impulsivity traits (reward sensitivity and disinhibition) and children's weight, 2) the association between impulsivity traits and unhealthy snack consumption, and 3) the potential mediating role of unhealthy snack co...