WorldWideScience

Sample records for dietary assessment literature

  1. Introduction - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    To assist in the planning of the National Children's Study, investigators at the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements, NCI and Johns Hopkins University contracted with Westat to conduct a comprehensive review of the scientific literature.

  2. Adolescent Populations Research Needs - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    As with school age children, it is difficult to make conclusions about the validity of available dietary assessment instruments for adolescents because of the differences in instruments, research designs, reference methods, and populations in the validation literature.

  3. School Age Populations Research Needs - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drawing conclusions about the validity of available dietary assessment instruments in school age children is hampered by the differences in instruments, research design, reference methods, and populations in the validation literature.

  4. Pregnant & Lactating Populations Research - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Identifying and studying additional biomarkers of energy and nutrient intake will advance validation efforts and lead to a better understanding of the biases and sources of measurement error in dietary assessment instruments in pregnant or lactating populations.

  5. Preschool Age Populations Research Needs - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drawing conclusions from the validation studies on preschool populations discussed in this chapter is difficult because of the varied study designs, the relatively small study populations, and limited number of studies on each dietary assessment method.

  6. Assessment of dietary sodium intake using a food frequency questionnaire and 24-hour urinary sodium excretion: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Rachael M; Farmer, Victoria L; Nettleton, Alice; Cameron, Claire M; Cook, Nancy R; Campbell, Norman R C

    2017-12-01

    Food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) are often used to assess dietary sodium intake, although 24-hour urinary excretion is the most accurate measure of intake. The authors conducted a systematic review to investigate whether FFQs are a reliable and valid way of measuring usual dietary sodium intake. Results from 18 studies are described in this review, including 16 validation studies. The methods of study design and analysis varied widely with respect to FFQ instrument, number of 24-hour urine collections collected per participant, methods used to assess completeness of urine collections, and statistical analysis. Overall, there was poor agreement between estimates from FFQ and 24-hour urine. The authors suggest a framework for validation and reporting based on a consensus statement (2004), and recommend that all FFQs used to estimate dietary sodium intake undergo validation against multiple 24-hour urine collections. ©2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. National Children's Study Dietary Assessment Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Children's Study dietary assessment workshop was an opportunity for experts in dietary assessment methodology to gather and discuss the current state of knowledge about methodologies used to assess dietary intake during pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence.

  8. Alcoholic beverage preference and dietary habits: a systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluik, D.; Bezemer, R.A.; Sierksma, A.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this review is to systematically and critically evaluate the existing literature into the association between alcoholic beverage preference and dietary habits in adults. Methods: A literature search was conducted in the databases of Medline (Pubmed), ISI Web of Knowledge,

  9. Dietary Assessment Methodology for Adolescents: A Review of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: The aim of this review is to explore the validity and/or reproducibility of dietary assessment methods used to assess food and nutrient intakes of adolescents. Method: A detailed literature search was undertaken to trace articles reporting on the validity and/or reproducibility of food records, food frequency questionnaires ...

  10. Merging dietary assessment with the adolescent lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schap, T E; Zhu, F; Delp, E J; Boushey, C J

    2014-01-01

    The use of image-based dietary assessment methods shows promise for improving dietary self-report among children. The Technology Assisted Dietary Assessment (TADA) food record application is a self-administered food record specifically designed to address the burden and human error associated with conventional methods of dietary assessment. Users would take images of foods and beverages at all eating occasions using a mobile telephone or mobile device with an integrated camera [e.g. Apple iPhone, Apple iPod Touch (Apple Inc., Cupertino, CA, USA); Nexus One (Google, Mountain View, CA, USA)]. Once the images are taken, the images are transferred to a back-end server for automated analysis. The first step in this process is image analysis (i.e. segmentation, feature extraction and classification), which allows for automated food identification. Portion size estimation is also automated via segmentation and geometric shape template modeling. The results of the automated food identification and volume estimation can be indexed with the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies to provide a detailed diet analysis for use in epidemiological or intervention studies. Data collected during controlled feeding studies in a camp-like setting have allowed for formative evaluation and validation of the TADA food record application. This review summarises the system design and the evidence-based development of image-based methods for dietary assessment among children. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  11. Immunomodulatory dietary polysaccharides: a systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Erika D

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large body of literature suggests that certain polysaccharides affect immune system function. Much of this literature, however, consists of in vitro studies or studies in which polysaccharides were injected. Their immunologic effects following oral administration is less clear. The purpose of this systematic review was to consolidate and evaluate the available data regarding the specific immunologic effects of dietary polysaccharides. Methods Studies were identified by conducting PubMed and Google Scholar electronic searches and through reviews of polysaccharide article bibliographies. Only articles published in English were included in this review. Two researchers reviewed data on study design, control, sample size, results, and nature of outcome measures. Subsequent searches were conducted to gather information about polysaccharide safety, structure and composition, and disposition. Results We found 62 publications reporting statistically significant effects of orally ingested glucans, pectins, heteroglycans, glucomannans, fucoidans, galactomannans, arabinogalactans and mixed polysaccharide products in rodents. Fifteen controlled human studies reported that oral glucans, arabinogalactans, heteroglycans, and fucoidans exerted significant effects. Although some studies investigated anti-inflammatory effects, most studies investigated the ability of oral polysaccharides to stimulate the immune system. These studies, as well as safety and toxicity studies, suggest that these polysaccharide products appear to be largely well-tolerated. Conclusions Taken as a whole, the oral polysaccharide literature is highly heterogenous and is not sufficient to support broad product structure/function generalizations. Numerous dietary polysaccharides, particularly glucans, appear to elicit diverse immunomodulatory effects in numerous animal tissues, including the blood, GI tract and spleen. Glucan extracts from the Trametes versicolor

  12. Adolescents Background - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Within any 24-hour period in the life of a teenager, eating may be a positive or a negative experience. It may involve a quick snack or a grazing process. Eating for teens may be a group decision, an interaction, or an independent endeavor.

  13. Methodology - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review examines studies conducted mainly in industrialized, developed countries and published in English between 1982 and December 2003 for pregnant or lactating women, infants, toddlers, and preschoolers.

  14. Validity of Dietary Assessment in Athletes: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Capling

    2017-12-01

    literature demonstrates the substantial variability between methods, with under- and misreporting of intake being frequently observed. There is a clear need for careful validation of dietary assessment methods, including emerging technical innovations, among athlete populations.

  15. Identifying dietary differences between Scotland and England: a rapid review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Stephanie; Barton, Karen L; Albani, Viviana; Anderson, Annie S; Wrieden, Wendy L

    2017-10-01

    Rates of premature mortality have been higher in Scotland than in England since the 1970s. Given the known association of diet with chronic disease, the study objective was to identify and synthesise evidence on current and historical differences in food and nutrient intakes in Scotland and England. A rapid review of the peer-reviewed and grey literature was carried out. After an initial scoping search, Medline, CINAHL, Embase and Web of Science were searched. Relevant grey literature was also included. Inclusion criteria were: any date; measures of dietary intake; representative populations; cross-sectional or observational cohort studies; and English-language publications. Study quality was assessed using the Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-sectional Studies. A narrative synthesis of extracted information was conducted. Fifty publications and reports were included in the review. Results indicated that children and adults in Scotland had lower intakes of vegetables and vitamins compared with those living in England. Higher intakes of salt in Scotland were also identified. Data were limited by small Scottish samples, difficulty in finding England-level data, lack of statistical testing and adjustment for key confounders. Further investigation of adequately powered and analysed surveys is required to examine more fully dietary differences between Scotland and England. This would provide greater insight into potential causes of excess mortality in Scotland compared with England and suitable policy recommendations to address these inequalities.

  16. Nutritional biomarkers for objective dietary assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnle, Gunter G C

    2012-04-01

    The accurate assessment of dietary exposure is important in investigating associations between diet and disease. Research in nutritional epidemiology, which has resulted in a large amount of information on associations between diet and chronic diseases in the last decade, relies on accurate assessment methods to identify these associations. However, most dietary assessment instruments rely to some extent on self-reporting, which is prone to systematic bias affected by factors such as age, gender, social desirability and approval. Nutritional biomarkers are not affected by these and therefore provide an additional, alternative method to estimate intake. However, there are also some limitations in their application: they are affected by inter-individual variations in metabolism and other physiological factors, and they are often limited to estimating intake of specific compounds and not entire foods. It is therefore important to validate nutritional biomarkers to determine specific strengths and limitations. In this perspective paper, criteria for the validation of nutritional markers and future developments are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Assessing patients' attitudes towards dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzejska, Regina; Jarosz, Mirosław; Siuba, Magdalena; Rambuszek, Michał

    2014-01-01

    There is currently many over the counter products on the market that exert nutritional or physiological effects on the human body. The differences between dietary supplements and non-prescription drugs are however poorly understood by the average consumer and may thus affect their expectations as to the desired effect produced on the body. To evaluate patients' knowledge and attitudes towards dietary supplements as compared to non-prescription drugs. Subjects were 335 patients of the Mazowiecki Voivodeship Hospital in Warsaw, Poland. The data were collected from a face-to-face interview using a single and multiple choice questionnaire with 10 questions on dietary supplements. Statistical analysis used the Chi-square (χ2) test. The majority of respondents were found to be familiar with the term 'dietary supplements', but had difficulties in classifying these products into appropriate categories. Over 55% do not consider dietary supplements to be foodstuffs and more than 40% considered such products to be drugs. Most respondents thought that the main purpose of taking dietary supplements is to improve nutrition, but over one third expected them to also treat disease. Over 70% declared taking notice to which category the non-prescription products they bought belongs to ie. whether non-prescription drugs (medicinal products) or dietary supplements. Many patients mistakenly believe that dietary supplements are drugs and can be used to treat disease and health disorders. dietary supplements, opinion on dietary supplements, nutrition, dietary supplement vs. medicinal product.

  18. A bibliometric study of scientific literature on the dietary therapies for epilepsy in Scopus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandi, Gabriella; Guido, Davide; Tagliabue, Anna

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to provide a descriptive overview of the impact and production of literature on dietary therapies for epilepsy and perform a citation analysis of the related research articles. We searched for 'ketogenic OR low-glycemic OR medium chain OR modified Atkins in TITLE AND epilep*' in Title/Abstract/Keyword in Scopus database. A total of 661 references were retrieved, 80% had been published after 2000s, 87% were published in English, and 39% of the publications were published in nine journals. The majority (76.3%) of research articles describe the clinical application of the dietary therapies regarding the classical ketogenic diet (80%), followed by the modified Atkins diet (11.5%), medium chain triglyceride diet (6.4%), and low glycemic index treatment (2.0%); the remaining are basic science studies on the mechanisms of action. The citation analysis revealed that the latter have the highest percentage variation in citation per publication across the years. Concerning the article cohorts, the greatest number of citations per publication was in 1998. The overview of the literature on the dietary therapy of epilepsy evidences a growing interest in the field with a striking prevalence of clinical over basic science studies. The most cited clinical studies have validated the efficacy of the dietary therapies; the few studies on the mechanisms of action received a great number of citations. Bibliometric analysis measuring the trends and the impact of the scientific literature would help researchers to a best knowledge of this specific topic.

  19. New mobile methods for dietary assessment: review of image-assisted and image-based dietary assessment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boushey, C J; Spoden, M; Zhu, F M; Delp, E J; Kerr, D A

    2017-08-01

    For nutrition practitioners and researchers, assessing dietary intake of children and adults with a high level of accuracy continues to be a challenge. Developments in mobile technologies have created a role for images in the assessment of dietary intake. The objective of this review was to examine peer-reviewed published papers covering development, evaluation and/or validation of image-assisted or image-based dietary assessment methods from December 2013 to January 2016. Images taken with handheld devices or wearable cameras have been used to assist traditional dietary assessment methods for portion size estimations made by dietitians (image-assisted methods). Image-assisted approaches can supplement either dietary records or 24-h dietary recalls. In recent years, image-based approaches integrating application technology for mobile devices have been developed (image-based methods). Image-based approaches aim at capturing all eating occasions by images as the primary record of dietary intake, and therefore follow the methodology of food records. The present paper reviews several image-assisted and image-based methods, their benefits and challenges; followed by details on an image-based mobile food record. Mobile technology offers a wide range of feasible options for dietary assessment, which are easier to incorporate into daily routines. The presented studies illustrate that image-assisted methods can improve the accuracy of conventional dietary assessment methods by adding eating occasion detail via pictures captured by an individual (dynamic images). All of the studies reduced underreporting with the help of images compared with results with traditional assessment methods. Studies with larger sample sizes are needed to better delineate attributes with regards to age of user, degree of error and cost.

  20. Development and validation of a Meal Index of dietary Quality (Meal IQ) to assess the dietary quality of school lunches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabinsky, Marianne S; Toft, Ulla; Andersen, Klaus Kaae

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: School lunch programmes are one strategy to promote healthier dietary habits in children, but better evaluation tools for assessing the dietary quality of such programmes are needed. The aim of the present study was to develop and validate a simple index to assess the dietary quality...

  1. Authentic Assessment in the Literature Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Michelle

    1997-01-01

    Discusses various ways to strike a balance between total teacher control and total student control of the assessment process in a high school American literature course. Discusses research projects, advertising flyers, newspapers, the "transcendental change plan," and the thematic mobile. (RS)

  2. Comparisons of four dietary assessment methods during pregnancy in Taiwanese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ching Lyu

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: The combinations of 24-hour recalls for the short-term dietary changes and the CFFQ for long-term dietary patterns are suggested as appropriate dietary assessment methods during pregnancy in Taiwan.

  3. Development and validation of a Meal Index of dietary Quality (Meal IQ) to assess the dietary quality of school lunches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabinsky, Marianne; Toft, Ulla; Andersen, Klaus K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective School lunch programmes are one strategy to promote healthier dietary habits in children, but better evaluation tools for assessing the dietary quality of such programmes are needed. The aim of the present study was to develop and validate a simple index to assess the dietary quality...... of school lunches for children aged 7–13 years. Design A Meal Index of dietary Quality (Meal IQ) was developed to consist of seven components (nutrients and food groups) based on dietary issues for children aged 7–13 years, which were identified in a national dietary survey. The Meal IQ was validated......, higher contents of fibre, various vitamins and minerals, and more fruits, vegetables and fish. Conclusions The Meal IQ is a valid and useful evaluation tool for assessing the dietary quality of lunches provided by schools or brought to school from home....

  4. Dietary assessment and counseling for dental erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Teresa A

    2018-02-01

    Dental erosion occurs after exposure to intrinsic or extrinsic acids. Exposure to intrinsic gastrointestinal acids is associated with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, rumination syndrome, or gastroesophageal reflux. Extrinsic dietary acids from foods or beverages also can cause erosion, particularly when exposure is prolonged by holding or swishing behaviors. Clinicians should screen patients exhibiting dental erosion for anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, rumination syndrome, and gastroesophageal reflux disease. Clinicians should screen patients without a medical explanation for their erosion for exposure to acidic foods and beverages, particularly for habits that prolong exposure. Identification of intrinsic and extrinsic acid exposures and recommendations to minimize exposures are important to prevent erosion and maintain oral health. Copyright © 2018 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Short Tools to Assess Young Children's Dietary Intake: A Systematic Review Focusing on Application to Dietary Index Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinda K. Bell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary indices evaluate diet quality, usually based on current dietary guidelines. Indices can therefore contribute to our understanding of early-life obesity-risk dietary behaviours. Yet indices are commonly applied to dietary data collected by onerous methods (e.g., recalls or records. Short dietary assessment instruments are an attractive alternative to collect data from which to derive an index score. A systematic review of studies published before April 2013 was conducted to identify short (≤50 items tools that measure whole-of-diet intake of young children (birth-five years and are applicable to dietary indices, in particular screening obesogenic dietary behaviours. The search identified 3686 papers of which 16, reporting on 15 tools (n=7, infants and toddlers birth-24 months; n=8, preschoolers 2–5 years, met the inclusion criteria. Most tools were food frequency questionnaires (n=14, with one innovative dietary questionnaire identified. Seven were tested for validity or reliability, and one was tested for both. Six tools (n=2, infants and toddlers; n=4, preschoolers are applicable for use with current dietary indices, five of which screen obesogenic dietary behaviours. Given the limited number of brief, valid and reliable dietary assessment tools for young children to which an index can be applied, future short tool development is warranted, particularly for screening obesogenic dietary behaviours.

  6. Dietary intake assessment using integrated sensors and software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Junqing; Pepin, Eric; Johnson, Eric; Hazel, David; Teredesai, Ankur; Kristal, Alan; Mamishev, Alexander

    2012-02-01

    The area of dietary assessment is becoming increasingly important as obesity rates soar, but valid measurement of the food intake in free-living persons is extraordinarily challenging. Traditional paper-based dietary assessment methods have limitations due to bias, user burden and cost, and therefore improved methods are needed to address important hypotheses related to diet and health. In this paper, we will describe the progress of our mobile Diet Data Recorder System (DDRS), where an electronic device is used for objective measurement on dietary intake in real time and at moderate cost. The DDRS consists of (1) a mobile device that integrates a smartphone and an integrated laser package, (2) software on the smartphone for data collection and laser control, (3) an algorithm to process acquired data for food volume estimation, which is the largest source of error in calculating dietary intake, and (4) database and interface for data storage and management. The estimated food volume, together with direct entries of food questionnaires and voice recordings, could provide dietitians and nutritional epidemiologists with more complete food description and more accurate food portion sizes. In this paper, we will describe the system design of DDRS and initial results of dietary assessment.

  7. Recommendations for a trans-European dietary assessment method in children between 4 and 14 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L. F.; Lioret, S.; Brants, H.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The main objective of European Food Consumption Validation (EFCOVAL)-child Project is to define and evaluate a trans-European methodology for undertaking national representative dietary surveys among children in the age group of 4-14 years. In the process of identifying...... was to investigate whether the method (two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRs)) suggested for the adults in European Food Consumption Survey Method (EFCOSUM) would be usable for children in the age group between 4 and 14 years. However, all available dietary assessment methods were included...... of 4-14 years. Nevertheless, on the basis of the literature, the recommendations were separated for preschoolers (4-6 years) and schoolchildren (7-14 years). Conclusion: For preschoolers, two non-consecutive days of a structured food record are recommended, using a (for children adapted) picture...

  8. Are the Dietary Guidelines for Meat, Fat, Fruit and Vegetable Consumption Appropriate for Environmental Sustainability? A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Christian John; Buckley, Jonathan David; Weinstein, Philip; Boland, John

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the current literature around the environmental impacts of dietary recommendations. The focus of the review is on collating evidence relating to environmental impacts of the dietary advice found in the World Health Organisation guidelines, and environmental impact literature: reducing the consumption of fat, reducing the consumption of meat-based protein and animal-based foods, and increasing the consumption of fruit and vegetables. The environmental impact of reducing dietary fat intake is unclear, although reducing consumption of the food category of edible fats and oils appears to have little impact. However most, but not all, studies support environmental benefits of a reduced consumption of animal-based foods and increased consumption of fruit and vegetables. In general, it appears that adhering to dietary guidelines reduces impact on the environment, but further study is required to examine the environmental impacts of animal-based foods, and fruit and vegetable intake in depth. PMID:24926526

  9. Development of Family-Based Dietary Self-Management Support Program on Dietary Behaviors in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Indonesia: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aklima Aklima

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: WHO statistics show that Indonesia has the fourth highest number of diabetes sufferers. The International Diabetes Federation‟s 5th estimated that in 2011 there were 71.4 million people in South East Asia region were suffering with DM Purpose: To develop a family-based dietary self-management support program to improve dietary behaviors in patients with T2DM. Method: A literature review was conducted by reviewing articles related evidence-based practices. Only articles in the English and Indonesian languages were reviewed. The search found eleven published experimental studies related to the topic. Result: Even though dietary self-management has benefits for patients with diabetes, many studies have found that these patients often have difficulty in establishing or maintaining an effective program to self-manage their dietary behaviors. Lack of family support is one factor that often seems to be related to such failures. Family participation in a diabetes education program also had positive psychosocial impacts. Otherwise, another study found that family might not always have a positive impact on self-management. Therefore, this review recommends that development of a family-based support program could be a positive factor in helping to improve dietary self-management behaviors in patients with T2DM. Self-management theory by Funnell and Anderson‟s work (2004 can guide the development of a program with the goal of empowering individuals and families in improving the patient‟s dietary behaviors. The program consists of: (1 reflecting on current and/or past self-management experiences by listening to the patient about their dietary behaviors, (2 discussing the emotions and feelings of the patients, (3 engaging the patient in improving their situation by active listening and helping the patient reflect on their problems and identifying effective strategies, (4 providing information about dietary management and problem

  10. A review of the literature: evaluating dietary intake of Filipino Americans at risk for type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Mirella Vasquez; Leake, Anne; Parsons, Charlotte; Pham, Valynn

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to investigate the research on the dietary intake of Filipino Americans. Evaluating the dietary practices of Filipino Americans may have an effect on the development of type 2 diabetes. Data collection was obtained, and four databases were included: Pub Medical, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Journals at OVID, and Medline. The key words used in the search were "diet,"type 2 diabetes," and "Filipinos." A total of nine articles were relevant and met the inclusion criteria. The following articles were excluded: studies in a foreign language, letters to the editor, and program descriptions. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Infants - Background & Validation Studies - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    The dynamic growth and development experienced in infancy is the most rapid of any age. The progression in feeding skills marks important developmental milestones that support rapid changes in food habits and nutrient intakes.

  12. Lactation - Background & Validation Studies - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    The benefits of breastfeeding for both mothers and infants are well established and rates of breastfeeding have been increasing across all socioeconomic and ethnic groups in the US during the last decade.

  13. Toddlers - Background & Validation Studies - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    This stage of development is characterized by the slowing of the growth velocity and a rapid increase in fine and gross motor skills supporting increases in independence, exploration of the environment, and language skills.

  14. Health effects of different dietary iron intakes: a systematic literature review for the 5th Nordic Nutrition Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Domellöf

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background : The present literature review is part of the NNR5 project with the aim of reviewing and updating the scientific basis of the 4th edition of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR issued in 2004. Objective : The objective of this systematic literature review was to assess the health effects of different intakes of iron, at different life stages (infants, children, adolescents, adults, elderly, and during pregnancy and lactation, in order to estimate the requirement for adequate growth, development, and maintenance of health. Methods : The initial literature search resulted in 1,076 abstracts. Out of those, 276 papers were identified as potentially relevant. Of those, 49 were considered relevant and were quality assessed (A, B, or C. An additional search on iron and diabetes yielded six articles that were quality assessed. Thus, a total of 55 articles were evaluated. The grade of evidence was classified as convincing (grade 1, probable (grade 2, suggestive (grade 3, and inconclusive (grade 4. Results : There is suggestive evidence that prevention or treatment of iron deficiency (ID and iron deficiency anemia (IDA improves cognitive, motoric, and behavioral development in young children, and that treatment of IDA improves attention and concentration in school children and adult women. There is insufficient evidence to show negative health effects of iron intakes in doses suggested by the NNR 4. There is insufficient evidence to suggest that normal birth weight, healthy, exclusively breast-fed infants need additional dietary iron before 6 months of life in the Nordic countries.An iron concentration of 4–8 mg/L in infant formulas seems to be safe and effective for normal birth weight infants. There is probable evidence that iron supplements (1–2 mg/kg/day given up to 6 months of age to infants with low birth weight (<2,500 g prevents IDA and possibly reduce the risk of behavioral problems later on. There is probable evidence that

  15. Overcoming Dietary Assessment Challenges in Low-Income Countries: Technological Solutions Proposed by the International Dietary Data Expansion (INDDEX) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Jennifer C.; Colaiezzi, Brooke A.; Bell, Winnie; Charrondiere, U. Ruth; Leclercq, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    An increasing number of low-income countries (LICs) exhibit high rates of malnutrition coincident with rising rates of overweight and obesity. Individual-level dietary data are needed to inform effective responses, yet dietary data from large-scale surveys conducted in LICs remain extremely limited. This discussion paper first seeks to highlight the barriers to collection and use of individual-level dietary data in LICs. Second, it introduces readers to new technological developments and research initiatives to remedy this situation, led by the International Dietary Data Expansion (INDDEX) Project. Constraints to conducting large-scale dietary assessments include significant costs, time burden, technical complexity, and limited investment in dietary research infrastructure, including the necessary tools and databases required to collect individual-level dietary data in large surveys. To address existing bottlenecks, the INDDEX Project is developing a dietary assessment platform for LICs, called INDDEX24, consisting of a mobile application integrated with a web database application, which is expected to facilitate seamless data collection and processing. These tools will be subject to rigorous testing including feasibility, validation, and cost studies. To scale up dietary data collection and use in LICs, the INDDEX Project will also invest in food composition databases, an individual-level dietary data dissemination platform, and capacity development activities. Although the INDDEX Project activities are expected to improve the ability of researchers and policymakers in low-income countries to collect, process, and use dietary data, the global nutrition community is urged to commit further significant investments in order to adequately address the range and scope of challenges described in this paper. PMID:28300759

  16. Dietary assessment in children and adolescents: issues and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rodrigo, Carmen; Artiach Escauriaza, Belén; Artiach Escauriaza, Javier; Polanco Allúe, Isabel

    2015-02-26

    The assessment of dietary intake in children and adolescents is of great interest for different purposes. The characteristics of each developmental stage and associated cognitive abilities are two factors that influence the ability of children to provide valid and reliable information on food consumption. The ability to remember, limitations of vocabulary or the ability to identify different foods are some of the relevant aspects. In addition, often parents or caregivers provide surrogate information and their degree of knowledge depends on the time they spend with the child and on whether they share meals. As children grow they become more independent and increasingly spend more time away from their parents. Children also have limitations to recognize food models and photographs and associate them with different amounts of food consumed. On the other hand, often children and adolescents perceive long interviews or self-administered questionnaires they as long and boring. The use of new technologies is contributing to the development of new tools adapting dietary assessment the methods to the cognitive abilities of children, introducing gaming environments and narrative structures that attract their interest and improve the quality of information they report.. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2015. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  17. Evidence for Dietary Fibre Modification in the Recovery and Prevention of Reoccurrence of Acute, Uncomplicated Diverticulitis: A Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Camilla; Crichton, Megan; Jenkins, Julie; Nucera, Romina; Mahoney, Sophie; Marx, Wolfgang

    2018-01-01

    In practice, nutrition recommendations vary widely for inpatient and discharge management of acute, uncomplicated diverticulitis. This systematic review aims to review the evidence and develop recommendations for dietary fibre modifications, either alone or alongside probiotics or antibiotics, versus any comparator in adults in any setting with or recently recovered from acute, uncomplicated diverticulitis. Intervention and observational studies in any language were located using four databases until March 2017. The Cochrane Risk of Bias tool and GRADE were used to evaluate the overall quality of the evidence and to develop recommendations. Eight studies were included. There was “very low” quality evidence for comparing a liberalised and restricted fibre diet for inpatient management to improve hospital length of stay, recovery, gastrointestinal symptoms and reoccurrence. There was “very low” quality of evidence for using a high dietary fibre diet as opposed to a standard or low dietary fibre diet following resolution of an acute episode, to improve reoccurrence and gastrointestinal symptoms. The results of this systematic review and GRADE assessment conditionally recommend the use of liberalised diets as opposed to dietary restrictions for adults with acute, uncomplicated diverticulitis. It also strongly recommends a high dietary fibre diet aligning with dietary guidelines, with or without dietary fibre supplementation, after the acute episode has resolved. PMID:29382074

  18. Classroom Assessment Techniques: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCarlo, Kristen; Cooper, Lori

    2014-01-01

    Effective classroom assessment techniques are directly linked to course objectives and proposed outcomes. Results within formative and summative assessments have been studied in the online learning environment as educators seek to meet objectives with respect to student success in the non-traditional setting. Online classroom assessment techniques…

  19. Estimation of portion size in children's dietary assessment: lessons learnt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, E; Adamson, A J; Anderson, A S; Barton, K L; Wrieden, W L

    2009-02-01

    Assessing the dietary intake of young children is challenging. In any 1 day, children may have several carers responsible for providing them with their dietary requirements, and once children reach school age, traditional methods such as weighing all items consumed become impractical. As an alternative to weighed records, food portion size assessment tools are available to assist subjects in estimating the amounts of foods consumed. Existing food photographs designed for use with adults and based on adult portion sizes have been found to be inappropriate for use with children. This article presents a review and summary of a body of work carried out to improve the estimation of portion sizes consumed by children. Feasibility work was undertaken to determine the accuracy and precision of three portion size assessment tools; food photographs, food models and a computer-based Interactive Portion Size Assessment System (IPSAS). These tools were based on portion sizes served to children during the National Diet and Nutrition Survey. As children often do not consume all of the food served to them, smaller portions were included in each tool for estimation of leftovers. The tools covered 22 foods, which children commonly consume. Children were served known amounts of each food and leftovers were recorded. They were then asked to estimate both the amount of food that they were served and the amount of any food leftover. Children were found to estimate food portion size with an accuracy approaching that of adults using both the food photographs and IPSAS. Further development is underway to increase the number of food photographs and to develop IPSAS to cover a much wider range of foods and to validate the use of these tools in a 'real life' setting.

  20. Dietary assessment in Africa: Integration with innovative technology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adequate dietary intake is the basis of good health. ... clinics and hospitals, measuring dietary intake and nutritional status is one of the most efficient ... on respondents to recall types and amounts of foods consumed by populations of interest.

  1. Exploring assessment factors contributing to students' study strategies: literature review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Kadri, H.M.; Al-Moamary, M.S.; Roberts, C.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2012-01-01

    "Assessment steers students' learning" is a statement that has been used repeatedly without solid evidence in the literature. This manuscript aims to evaluate the published literatures on the effect of teaching learning environment in particular, the implemented assessment on students' learning

  2. Quantitative food frequency questionnaire and assessment of dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, S; Goyle, A; Gupta, R

    1998-01-01

    India is a land of varied foods and food habits. This makes the task of collecting dietary and nutrient intake data difficult. Methods need to be devised to improve the accuracy in reporting intakes by various population subgroups. There is an urgent need to develop a questionnaire that is simple enough to be administered on a large sample and whose validity and reproducibility has been quantified. Regional differences in food habits and availability will have to be taken into account in the questionnaire design. Packaging of food items with definite portion sizes is not a common practice in Indian markets and labels on food products are neither very informative nor descriptive. Epidemiologists addressing the effects of diet have generally used questionnaires that inquire about the frequency of specified foods consumed and sometimes also attempt to quantify usual portion sizes. A number of investigators have conveyed, apparently independently, that the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) as a method of dietary assessment is best suited for most epidemiological applications. A food frequency list can form the basis for nutrition education and allows the dietician and the patient to relate individual eating patterns to specific foods. Other advantages of the FFQ are that it is independent of the ability or inclination of an individual to maintain a diary and also provides immediate feedback to patients, physicians and counsellors.

  3. The effect of dietary supplements on clinical aspects of autism spectrum disorder: A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogou, Maria; Kolios, George

    2017-09-01

    Autism spectrum disorder is associated with significant social and financial burden and no definite treatment for this entity has been identified, yet. In recent years there has been an increasing interest in the use of dietary interventions as a complementary therapeutic option for these patients. The aim of this systematic review is to provide high evidence level literature data about the effect of dietary supplements on clinical aspects of children with autism. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using Pubmed as the medical database source. Randomized controlled trials conducted in pediatric populations and including measures of clinical outcomes were considered. A total of 17 eligible prospective studies were selected. Types of dietary supplements evaluated in these studies included amino acids, fatty acids and vitamins/minerals. N-acetylcysteine was shown to exert a beneficial effect on symptoms of irritability. On the other hand, literature data about the efficacy of d-cycloserine and pyridoxine-magnesium supplements was controversial. No significant effect was identified for fatty acids, N,N-dimethylglycine and inositol. Literature data about ascorbic acid and methyl B12 was few, although some encouraging results were found. No serious adverse events were reported in the vast majority of the studies, while the prevalence of adverse reactions was similar between treatment and placebo groups. The use of dietary supplements in children with autism seems to be a safe practice with encouraging data about their clinical efficacy. More studies are needed to further investigate this issue. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Methodological considerations and future insights for 24-hour dietary recall assessment in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Emma; Bradley, Jennifer

    2018-03-01

    Dietary assessment has come under much criticism of late to the extent that it has been questioned whether self-reported methods of dietary assessment are worth doing at all. Widespread under-reporting of energy intake, limitations due to memory, changes to intake due to the burden of recording and social desirability bias all impact significantly on the accuracy of the dietary information collected. Under-reporting of energy intakes has long been recognized as a problem in dietary research with doubly labeled water measures of energy expenditure uncovering significant under-reporting of energy intakes across different populations and different dietary assessment methods. In this review we focus on dietary assessment with children with particular attention on the 24-hour dietary recall method. We look at the level of under-reporting of energy intakes and how this tends to change with age, gender and body mass index. We discuss potential alternatives to self-reported (or proxy-reported) dietary assessment methods with children, such as biomarkers, and how these do not enable the collection of information important to public health nutrition such as the cooking method, the mixture of foods eaten together or the context in which the food is consumed. We conclude that despite all of the challenges and flaws, the data collected using self-reported dietary assessment methods are extremely valuable. Research into dietary assessment methodology has resulted in significant increases in our understanding of the limitations of self-reported methods and progressive improvements in the accuracy of the data collected. Hence, future investment in dietary surveillance and in improving self-reported methods of intake can make vital contributions to our understanding of dietary intakes and are thus warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessment of human dietary exposure to arsenic through rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Matthew A; Signes-Pastor, Antonio J; Argos, Maria; Slaughter, Francis; Pendergrast, Claire; Punshon, Tracy; Gossai, Anala; Ahsan, Habibul; Karagas, Margaret R

    2017-05-15

    Rice accumulates 10-fold higher inorganic arsenic (i-As), an established human carcinogen, than other grains. This review summarizes epidemiologic studies that examined the association between rice consumption and biomarkers of arsenic exposure. After reviewing the literature we identified 20 studies, among them included 18 observational and 2 human experimental studies that reported on associations between rice consumption and an arsenic biomarker. Among individuals not exposed to contaminated water, rice is a source of i-As exposure - rice consumption has been consistently related to arsenic biomarkers, and the relationship has been clearly demonstrated in experimental studies. Early-life i-As exposure is of particular concern due to its association with lifelong adverse health outcomes. Maternal rice consumption during pregnancy also has been associated with infant toenail total arsenic concentrations indicating that dietary exposure during pregnancy results in fetal exposure. Thus, the collective evidence indicates that rice is an independent source of arsenic exposure in populations around the world and highlights the importance of investigating its affect on health. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Dietary macronutrients and food consumption as determinants of long-term weight change in adult populations: a systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Fogelholm

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This systematic literature review examined the role of dietary macronutrient composition, food consumption and dietary patterns in predicting weight or waist circumference (WC change, with and without prior weight reduction. The literature search covered year 2000 and onwards. Prospective cohort studies, case–control studies and interventions were included. The studies had adult (18–70 y, mostly Caucasian participants. Out of a total of 1,517 abstracts, 119 full papers were identified as potentially relevant. After a careful scrutiny, 50 papers were quality graded as A (highest, B or C. Forty-three papers with grading A or B were included in evidence grading, which was done separately for all exposure-outcome combinations. The grade of evidence was classified as convincing, probable, suggestive or no conclusion. We found probable evidence for high intake of dietary fibre and nuts predicting less weight gain, and for high intake of meat in predicting more weight gain. Suggestive evidence was found for a protective role against increasing weight from whole grains, cereal fibre, high-fat dairy products and high scores in an index describing a prudent dietary pattern. Likewise, there was suggestive evidence for both fibre and fruit intake in protection against larger increases in WC. Also suggestive evidence was found for high intake of refined grains, and sweets and desserts in predicting more weight gain, and for refined (white bread and high energy density in predicting larger increases in WC. The results suggested that the proportion of macronutrients in the diet was not important in predicting changes in weight or WC. In contrast, plenty of fibre-rich foods and dairy products, and less refined grains, meat and sugar-rich foods and drinks were associated with less weight gain in prospective cohort studies. The results on the role of dietary macronutrient composition in prevention of weight regain (after prior weight loss were inconclusive.

  7. Dietary macronutrients and food consumption as determinants of long-term weight change in adult populations: a systematic literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogelholm, Mikael; Anderssen, Sigmund; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjörg; Lahti-Koski, Marjaana

    2012-01-01

    This systematic literature review examined the role of dietary macronutrient composition, food consumption and dietary patterns in predicting weight or waist circumference (WC) change, with and without prior weight reduction. The literature search covered year 2000 and onwards. Prospective cohort studies, case–control studies and interventions were included. The studies had adult (18–70 y), mostly Caucasian participants. Out of a total of 1,517 abstracts, 119 full papers were identified as potentially relevant. After a careful scrutiny, 50 papers were quality graded as A (highest), B or C. Forty-three papers with grading A or B were included in evidence grading, which was done separately for all exposure-outcome combinations. The grade of evidence was classified as convincing, probable, suggestive or no conclusion. We found probable evidence for high intake of dietary fibre and nuts predicting less weight gain, and for high intake of meat in predicting more weight gain. Suggestive evidence was found for a protective role against increasing weight from whole grains, cereal fibre, high-fat dairy products and high scores in an index describing a prudent dietary pattern. Likewise, there was suggestive evidence for both fibre and fruit intake in protection against larger increases in WC. Also suggestive evidence was found for high intake of refined grains, and sweets and desserts in predicting more weight gain, and for refined (white) bread and high energy density in predicting larger increases in WC. The results suggested that the proportion of macronutrients in the diet was not important in predicting changes in weight or WC. In contrast, plenty of fibre-rich foods and dairy products, and less refined grains, meat and sugar-rich foods and drinks were associated with less weight gain in prospective cohort studies. The results on the role of dietary macronutrient composition in prevention of weight regain (after prior weight loss) were inconclusive. PMID:22893781

  8. Validation of the MEDFICTS dietary questionnaire: A clinical tool to assess adherence to American Heart Association dietary fat intake guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindeman Jody

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary assessment tools are often too long, difficult to quantify, expensive to process, and largely used for research purposes. A rapid and accurate assessment of dietary fat intake is critically important in clinical decision-making regarding dietary advice for coronary risk reduction. We assessed the validity of the MEDFICTS (MF questionnaire, a brief instrument developed to assess fat intake according to the American Heart Association (AHA dietary "steps". Methods We surveyed 164 active-duty US Army personnel without known coronary artery disease at their intake interview for a primary prevention cardiac intervention trial using the Block food frequency (FFQ and MF questionnaires. Both surveys were completed on the same intake visit and independently scored. Correlations between each tools' assessment of fat intake, the agreement in AHA step categorization of dietary quality with each tool, and the test characteristics of the MF using the FFQ as the gold standard were assessed. Results Subjects consumed a mean of 36.0 ± 13.0% of their total calories as fat, which included saturated fat consumption of 13.0 ± 0.4%. The majority of subjects (125/164; 76.2% had a high fat (worse than AHA Step 1 diet. There were significant correlations between the MF and the FFQ for the intake of total fat (r = 0.52, P 70 [high fat diet] was negligible (kappa statistic = 0.036. The MF was accurate at the extremes of fat intake, but could not reliably identify the 3 AHA dietary classifications. Alternative MF cutpoints of 50 (high fat diet were highly sensitive (96%, but had low specificity (46% for a high fat diet. ROC curve analysis identified that a MF score cutoff of 38 provided optimal sensitivity 75% and specificity 72%, and had modest agreement (kappa = 0.39, P Conclusions The MEDFICTS questionnaire is most suitable as a tool to identify high fat diets, rather than discriminate AHA Step 1 and Step 2 diets. Currently recommended

  9. Dietary assessment in elderly people: experiences gained from studies in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de J.H.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Objectives: In selecting a dietary assessment method, several aspects such as the aim of the study and the characteristics of the target population should be taken into account. In elderly people, diminished functionality and cognitive decline may hamper dietary assessment and require

  10. Assessing Competency-Based Education and Training: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toohey, Susan; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A literature review examined what aspects of performance should be assessed, what methods are appropriate, whether competency-based assessments should be graded, whether assessments should be done in the workplace or training institutions, and whose responsibility they are. Competence should be very broadly defined as both technical skills and as…

  11. Electronic 12-Hour Dietary Recall (e-12HR): Comparison of a Mobile Phone App for Dietary Intake Assessment With a Food Frequency Questionnaire and Four Dietary Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béjar, Luis María; Reyes, Óscar Adrián; García-Perea, María Dolores

    2018-06-15

    One of the greatest challenges in nutritional epidemiology is improving upon traditional self-reporting methods for the assessment of habitual dietary intake. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relative validity of a new method known as the current-day dietary recall (or current-day recall), based on a smartphone app called 12-hour dietary recall, for determining the habitual intake of a series of key food and drink groups using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and four dietary records as reference methods. University students over the age of 18 years recorded their consumption of certain groups of food and drink using 12-hour dietary recall for 28 consecutive days. During this 28-day period, they also completed four dietary records on randomly selected days. Once the monitoring period was over, subjects then completed an FFQ. The two methods were compared using the Spearman correlation coefficient (SCC), a cross-classification analysis, and weighted kappa. A total of 87 participants completed the study (64% women, 56/87; 36% men, 31/87). For e-12HR versus FFQ, for all food and drink groups, the average SCC was 0.70. Cross-classification analysis revealed that the average percentage of individuals classified in the exact agreement category was 51.5%; exact agreement + adjacent was 91.8%, and no participant (0%) was classified in the extreme disagreement category. The average weighted kappa was 0.51. For e-12HR versus the four dietary records, for all food and drink groups, the average SCC was 0.63. Cross-classification analysis revealed that the average percentage of individuals classified in the exact agreement category was 47.1%; exact agreement + adjacent was 89.2%; and no participant (0%) was classified in the extreme disagreement category. The average weighted kappa was 0.47. Current-day recall, based on the 12-hour dietary recall app, was found to be in good agreement with the two reference methods (FFQ & four dietary records), demonstrating its

  12. Evaluation of methodologies for assessing the overall diet: dietary quality scores and dietary pattern analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocké, Marga C

    2013-05-01

    This paper aims to describe different approaches for studying the overall diet with advantages and limitations. Studies of the overall diet have emerged because the relationship between dietary intake and health is very complex with all kinds of interactions. These cannot be captured well by studying single dietary components. Three main approaches to study the overall diet can be distinguished. The first method is researcher-defined scores or indices of diet quality. These are usually based on guidelines for a healthy diet or on diets known to be healthy. The second approach, using principal component or cluster analysis, is driven by the underlying dietary data. In principal component analysis, scales are derived based on the underlying relationships between food groups, whereas in cluster analysis, subgroups of the population are created with people that cluster together based on their dietary intake. A third approach includes methods that are driven by a combination of biological pathways and the underlying dietary data. Reduced rank regression defines linear combinations of food intakes that maximally explain nutrient intakes or intermediate markers of disease. Decision tree analysis identifies subgroups of a population whose members share dietary characteristics that influence (intermediate markers of) disease. It is concluded that all approaches have advantages and limitations and essentially answer different questions. The third approach is still more in an exploration phase, but seems to have great potential with complementary value. More insight into the utility of conducting studies on the overall diet can be gained if more attention is given to methodological issues.

  13. Meeting challenges related to the dietary assessment of ethnic minority populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garduño-Diaz, S D; Husain, W; Ashkanani, F; Khokhar, S

    2014-08-01

    Migrants from the Indian subcontinent comprise the largest minority group in the UK. With the process of migration come alterations in lifestyle and eating habits. The present study aimed to disseminate the valuable information, experiences and challenges faced by researchers who conduct studies with ethnic minority groups in the area of diet and nutritional surveys, with an emphasis on migrant South Asians. The findings reported are the result of research carried out during 2008-2012, involving 1100 face-to-face dietary recalls conducted in the UK among South Asian children (aged 1.5-11 years; n = 300) and adults (≥30 years; n = 100). Factors to consider when planning and carrying out diet and nutrition survey studies among migrant South Asians were identified and include the employment of culture-specific tools, visual aid reinforcement and the involvement of key community members and translators to facilitate recruitment and data collection. One of the best practices found when working with minority groups was the use of incentives and tangible benefits to reward study participants. It was also found that constant communication and follow-up of the study participants improved the quality of the data and the likelihood of maintaining links with community members for future studies. From the results of in-house studies and a revision of practices reported in earlier literature, two 24-h face-to-face dietary recalls are recommended as the optimal method for the dietary assessment of migrant South Asians. To complement this assessment, ethnic-specific food frequency questionnaires such as that developed and successfully implemented among South Asians in the present study must be employed. © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  14. Usability of mobile phone food records to assess dietary intake in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobile technologies are emerging as a valuable tool to collect and assess dietary intake. Adolescents readily accept and adopt new technologies, hence, a food record application (FRapp) may provide an accurate mechanism to monitor dietary intake. We examined the usability of a FRapp in 17 free-livin...

  15. Validation of a dietary questionnaire assessed with multiple weighed dietary records or 24-hour recalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    The authors evaluated the validity of a 152-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) by comparing it with two 7-day dietary records (7DDRs) or up to 4 automated self-administered 24-hour recalls (ASA24s) over a 1-year period in the women's Lifestyle Validation Study (2010-2012), con...

  16. Assessment of dietary lutein, zeaxanthin and lycopene intakes and sources in the Spanish survey of dietary intake (2009-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez-Santiago, Rocío; Beltrán-de-Miguel, Beatriz; Olmedilla-Alonso, Begoña

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the intake and major dietary sources of lutein, zeaxanthin and lycopene (non-provitamin A carotenoids) in Spain using food consumption data from the Spanish National Dietary Intake Survey (2009-2010). Three-day diaries and one 24-h recall were used to collect dietary data and a software application that includes HPLC data was used. Average intake of those carotenoids was 4290.8 μg/d (67.1% total carotenoid intake), mainly from vegetables (3414.0 μg/d), followed by fruits (393.5 μg/d), oils/fats (204.0 μg/d) and eggs/egg products (170.0 μg/d). Main sources of lutein and zeaxanthin were vegetables (62.9% total diet, 1235.2 μg/person/d). Lycopene intake was 3055.6 μg/d (71.2% of non-provitamin A carotenoids), mainly from tomato and by-products (86.3%) and watermelon. Red- and orange-colored fruits and vegetables were the major contributors of non-provitamin carotenoids (3219.0 μg/person/d). Balanced diets should favor fruits and vegetables over other dietary sources (oils, eggs, processed foods) that contain components to be consumed with moderation.

  17. New technology in dietary assessment: a review of digital methods in improving food record accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumbo, Phyllis J

    2013-02-01

    Methods for conducting dietary assessment in the United States date back to the early twentieth century. Methods of assessment encompassed dietary records, written and spoken dietary recalls, FFQ using pencil and paper and more recently computer and internet applications. Emerging innovations involve camera and mobile telephone technology to capture food and meal images. This paper describes six projects sponsored by the United States National Institutes of Health that use digital methods to improve food records and two mobile phone applications using crowdsourcing. The techniques under development show promise for improving accuracy of food records.

  18. A Systematic Review of Urban Sustainability Assessment Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Cohen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available As the world rapidly urbanizes, there is much focus on achieving sustainability outcomes within cities. Accomplishing this goal requires not only envisioning sustainable cities and implementing strategies, but it also demands assessing progress towards sustainable urban development. Despite a growing literature on sustainability assessment, there is room to further understand the application of sustainability assessment in urban contexts. This paper presents a systematic review of urban sustainability assessment literature to (1 identify the most common methods used for urban sustainability assessment, (2 identify the most common framings for urban sustainability assessment, and (3 identify the most common categories for organizing indicators that measure urban sustainability. This research finds that urban sustainability assessment in general lacks a unifying framing and that it could be better aligned with common sustainability principles. The paper provides recommendations for future urban sustainability assessment research, including the employment of mixed-methods research among other strategies. In closing, this research offers a generic framework around which to structure urban sustainability assessment and within which to assign indicators for measuring progress towards sustainable urban development.

  19. Objective assessment of dietary patterns by use of metabolic phenotyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Perez, Isabel; Posma, Joram M; Gibson, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Accurate monitoring of changes in dietary patterns in response to food policy implementation is challenging. Metabolic profiling allows simultaneous measurement of hundreds of metabolites in urine, the concentrations of which can be affected by food intake. We hypothesised that metabo...

  20. Development of a Dietary Index to Assess Overall Diet Quality for Chinese School-Aged Children: The Chinese Children Dietary Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guo; Duan, Ruonan; Kranz, Sibylle; Libuda, Lars; Zhang, Lishi

    2016-04-01

    A composite measure of diet quality is preferable to an index of nutrients, food groups, or health-promoting behaviors in dietary assessment. However, to date, such a tool for Chinese children is lacking. Based on the current Chinese Dietary Guidelines and Dietary Reference Intakes, a dietary index for Chinese school-aged children, the Chinese Children Dietary Index was developed to assess overall diet quality among children in South China. Dietary data were recorded using 24-hour recalls among 1,719 children aged 7 to 15 years between March and June 2013. Inactivity data and sociodemographic information were also collected. The Chinese Children Dietary Index included 16 components, which incorporated nutrients, foods/food groups, and health-promoting behaviors. The range of possible Chinese Children Dietary Index scores was 0 to 160, with a higher score indicating better diet quality. Pearson/Spearman correlation was used to assess relative validity using correlations between total Chinese Children Dietary Index score and age, body mass index (BMI; calculated as kg/m(2)), inactivity, whole-grain intake, frequency of fried-foods intake, nutrient adequacy ratios for energy intake and 12 nutrients not included in the Chinese Children Dietary Index, and the mean adequacy ratio. Finally, a stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed to indicate the factors correlated with Chinese Children Dietary Index. Mean Chinese Children Dietary Index score of this sample was 88.1 points (range=34.2 to 137.8), the Chinese Children Dietary Index score of girls was higher than that of boys and decreased with higher age. Children with higher Chinese Children Dietary Index had lower body mass index and spent less time being inactive. Positive associations were observed between Chinese Children Dietary Index and the majority of nutrient adequacy ratios and the mean adequacy ratio. Age, paternal educational level, and family size were correlated with Chinese Children Dietary

  1. Determination of caffeine and identification of undeclared substances in dietary supplements and caffeine dietary exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Diana Brito da Justa; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra

    2017-07-01

    Caffeine is one of the most consumed stimulants in the world, and is a frequent ingredient of dietary supplements. The aims of this work were to validate a GC-MS method for the quantitation of caffeine and identification of other substances in supplements, mainly weight loss products, and to estimate the caffeine intake by consumers. Sample preparation included extraction with chloroform:water in ultrasonic bath, centrifugation and analysis of the organic layer for caffeine quantitation, and extraction with methanol for identification of other substances. A total of 213 samples of 52 supplement products not registered in Brazil and seized by the Brazilian Federal Police were analyzed. From the 109 samples that declared the amount of caffeine present, 26.6% contained more than 120% of the specified content. Considering the maximum recommended dose stated on the product labels, the consumption of 47.9% of the samples would lead to a daily intake of caffeine above the safe limit of 400 mg. Undeclared drugs, including sibutramine, phenolphthalein, amphepramone and femproporex were found in 28 samples. These results show that consumers of dietary supplements should be aware that these products might contain caffeine at levels that could represent potential health risks, in addition to undeclared pharmaceutical drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Objective assessment of dietary patterns by use of metabolic phenotyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Perez, Isabel; Posma, Joram M; Gibson, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Accurate monitoring of changes in dietary patterns in response to food policy implementation is challenging. Metabolic profiling allows simultaneous measurement of hundreds of metabolites in urine, the concentrations of which can be affected by food intake. We hypothesised that metabo......BACKGROUND: Accurate monitoring of changes in dietary patterns in response to food policy implementation is challenging. Metabolic profiling allows simultaneous measurement of hundreds of metabolites in urine, the concentrations of which can be affected by food intake. We hypothesised...... fats, sugars, and salt). Participants attended four inpatient stays (72 h each, separated by at least 5 days), during which they were given one dietary intervention. The order of diets was randomly assigned across study visits. Randomisation was done by an independent investigator, with the use...... is registered with ISRCTN, number ISRCTN43087333. FINDINGS: Between Aug 13, 2013, and May 18, 2014, we contacted 300 people with a letter of invitation. 78 responded, of whom 26 were eligible and invited to attend a health screening. Of 20 eligible participants who were randomised, 19 completed all four 72 h...

  3. Using Two Different Approaches to Assess Dietary Patterns: Hypothesis-Driven and Data-Driven Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ágatha Nogueira Previdelli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of dietary patterns to assess dietary intake has become increasingly common in nutritional epidemiology studies due to the complexity and multidimensionality of the diet. Currently, two main approaches have been widely used to assess dietary patterns: data-driven and hypothesis-driven analysis. Since the methods explore different angles of dietary intake, using both approaches simultaneously might yield complementary and useful information; thus, we aimed to use both approaches to gain knowledge of adolescents’ dietary patterns. Food intake from a cross-sectional survey with 295 adolescents was assessed by 24 h dietary recall (24HR. In hypothesis-driven analysis, based on the American National Cancer Institute method, the usual intake of Brazilian Healthy Eating Index Revised components were estimated. In the data-driven approach, the usual intake of foods/food groups was estimated by the Multiple Source Method. In the results, hypothesis-driven analysis showed low scores for Whole grains, Total vegetables, Total fruit and Whole fruits, while, in data-driven analysis, fruits and whole grains were not presented in any pattern. High intakes of sodium, fats and sugars were observed in hypothesis-driven analysis with low total scores for Sodium, Saturated fat and SoFAA (calories from solid fat, alcohol and added sugar components in agreement, while the data-driven approach showed the intake of several foods/food groups rich in these nutrients, such as butter/margarine, cookies, chocolate powder, whole milk, cheese, processed meat/cold cuts and candies. In this study, using both approaches at the same time provided consistent and complementary information with regard to assessing the overall dietary habits that will be important in order to drive public health programs, and improve their efficiency to monitor and evaluate the dietary patterns of populations.

  4. Technology assessments in transportation: survey of recent literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaBelle, S.J.

    1980-03-01

    A survey and an evaluation of recent studies of transportation systems done in a technology-assessment framework were undertaken as the basis for a detailed statement of work for a US Department of Energy technology assessment of transportation energy-conservation strategies. Several bibliographies were searched and numerous professionals in the field of technology assessment were contacted regarding current work. Detailed abstracts were prepared for studies judged to be sufficiently broad in coverage of impacts assessed, yet detailed in coverage of all or part of the nation's transportation systems. Some studies were rich in data but not comprehensive in their analytical approach; brief abstracts were prepared for these. An explanation of the criteria used to screen the studies, as well as abstracts of 37 reports, are provided in this compendium of transportation-technology-assessment literature.

  5. Dietary Assessment in the MetaCardis Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verger, Eric O; Armstrong, Patrice; Nielsen, Trine

    2017-01-01

    Cardis FFQ and 3 consecutive self-administered web-based 24-hour dietary recalls (DRs). STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED: Several measures of validity of the French MetaCardis FFQ were evaluated: estimations of food groups, energy, and nutrient intakes from the DRs and the FFQ, Spearman and Pearson...... correlations, cross-classification, and Bland-Altman analyses. RESULTS: The French MetaCardis FFQ tended to report higher food, energy, and nutrient intakes compared with the DRs. Mean correlation coefficient was 0.429 for food, 0.460 for energy, 0.544 for macronutrients, 0.640 for alcohol, and 0...

  6. Aluminium in food and daily dietary intake assessment from 15 food groups in Zhejiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hexiang; Tang, Jun; Huang, Lichun; Shen, Xianghong; Zhang, Ronghua; Chen, Jiang

    2016-06-01

    Aluminium was measured in 2580 samples of 15 food groups and dietary exposure was estimated. Samples were purchased and analysed during 2010 to 2014. High aluminium levels were found in jellyfish (mean 4862 mg/kg), laver (mean 455.2 mg/kg) and fried twisted cruller (mean 392.4 mg/kg). Dietary exposure to aluminium was estimated for Zhejiang residents. The average dietary exposure to aluminium via 15 food groups in Zhejiang Province was 1.15 mg/kg bw/week, which is below the provisional tolerable weekly intake of 2 mg/kg bw /week. Jellyfish is the main Al contributor, providing 37.6% of the daily intake via these 15 food groups. This study provided new information on aluminium levels and assessment of aluminium (Al) dietary exposure in Zhejiang Province of China.

  7. Dietary assessment and self-monitoring with nutrition applications for mobile devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieffers, Jessica R L; Hanning, Rhona M

    2012-01-01

    Nutrition applications for mobile devices (e.g., personal digital assistants, smartphones) are becoming increasingly accessible and can assist with the difficult task of intake recording for dietary assessment and self-monitoring. This review is a compilation and discussion of research on this tool for dietary intake documentation in healthy populations and those trying to lose weight. The purpose is to compare this tool with conventional methods (e.g., 24-hour recall interviews, paper-based food records). Research databases were searched from January 2000 to April 2011, with the following criteria: healthy or weight loss populations, use of a mobile device nutrition application, and inclusion of at least one of three measures, which were the ability to capture dietary intake in comparison with conventional methods, dietary self-monitoring adherence, and changes in anthropometrics and/or dietary intake. Eighteen studies are discussed. Two application categories were identified: those with which users select food and portion size from databases and those with which users photograph their food. Overall, positive feedback was reported with applications. Both application types had moderate to good correlations for assessing energy and nutrient intakes in comparison with conventional methods. For self-monitoring, applications versus conventional techniques (often paper records) frequently resulted in better self-monitoring adherence, and changes in dietary intake and/or anthropometrics. Nutrition applications for mobile devices have an exciting potential for use in dietetic practice.

  8. Screening for dietary fat intake of grade six children: self-assessment vs. maternal assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenhold, Friede; MacIntyre, Una; Rheeder, Paul

    2014-10-01

    As part of justifiable nutrition promotion, this study aimed to determine internal consistency of a dietary fat screener and to compare self-assessment to maternal assessment of fat intake of grade six (about 12 years old) learners in a South African public primary school. The children completed in school a pictorial, quantitative food frequency-type screener consisting of 10 high-fat food categories; mothers individually completed a text version. Internal consistency was measured with item-total correlations, Cronbach's alpha and the split-half method. Child-mother comparison was based on kappa (κ) statistics, McNemar's tests, Wilcoxon signed-rank test and the Bland-Altman method. In total, 101 (93.5%) children and 78 (72.2%) mothers responded. The screener was internally consistent, regardless of data source and statistical technique. For portion sizes and frequency of intake, children consistently reported higher intake than mothers. This resulted in systematic error, also evidenced by a significant difference from zero for the difference between child's and mother's final test scores for the whole group, and for boys and girls separately (always P fat or prudent intake was identical, yet the chance-corrected agreement was poor (κ = 0.16) and non-agreement was non-symmetrical (P = 0.001). Children and mothers reported high fat intakes (93% and 75%, respectively). It was concluded that the dietary fat screener was internally consistent, yet children and mothers did not agree in their assessment. The high fat intakes reported by children and mothers warrant measurement refinement and implementation of primary prevention programmes. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Does dietary fluid intake affect skin hydration in healthy humans? A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdeniz, M; Tomova-Simitchieva, T; Dobos, G; Blume-Peytavi, U; Kottner, J

    2018-02-02

    Associations between daily amounts of drinking water and skin hydration and skin physiology receive increasingly attention in the daily life and in clinical practice. However, there is a lack of evidence of dermatological benefits from drinking increased amounts of water. Pubmed and Web of Science were searched without any restrictions of publication dates. References of included papers and related reviews were checked. Eligibility criteria were primary intervention and observational studies investigating the effects of fluid intake on skin properties in English, German, Spanish or Portuguese language, including subjects being healthy and 18+ years. Searches resulted in 216 records, 23 articles were read in full text, and six were included. The mean age of the samples ranged from 24 to 56 years. Overall the evidence is weak in terms of quantity and methodological quality. Disregarding the methodological limitations a slight increase in stratum corneum and "deep" skin hydration was observed after additional water intake, particularly in individuals with lower prior water consumption. Reductions of clinical signs of dryness and roughness were observed. The extensibility and elasticity of the skin increased slightly. Unclear associations were shown between water intake and transepidermal water loss, sebum content, and skin surface pH. Additional dietary water intake may increase stratum corneum hydration. The underlying biological mechanism for this possible relationship is unknown. Whether this association also exists in aged subjects is unclear. Research is needed to answer the question whether increased fluid intake decreases signs of dry skin. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Motivational interviewing as an instrument to promote physical activity and dietary adherence among people with diabetes: literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Leyva-Moral

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Motivational Interviewing is a technique which is used to get behaviour changes and whose efficacy has been highly proved in areas such as smoking cessation or alcoholism.This review pretends to ascertain if Motivational Interviewing is the most effective strategy to increase adherence to physical activity and dietary modification programs among people with type 2 diabetes.Method: An exhaustive scientific national and international literature review was done. The following electronic databases were used: PsychoINFO, PubMed, OVID Full Text, CINAHL, CUIDEN, IBECS, CompluDoc y ENFISPO. The search strategy was limited to articles published between 1995 and 2005.Results: Eleven studies were included. Motivational Interviewing appears as a useful technique to increase adherence to physical activity and diet programs in people with type 2 diabetes. However, an in-depth analysis of the studies included in this literature review shows important methodological flows which could have caused some bias. The author affirms that Motivational Interviewing is just a useful technique but no more useful as other behavioural techniques used nowadays. There are not enough strong scientific evidences to assure the standardization of Motivational Interviewing in the field of diabetic education.

  11. How dietary intake has been assessed in African countries? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila-Real, Catarina; Pimenta-Martins, Ana; Gomes, Ana Maria; Pinto, Elisabete; Maina, Ndegwa Henry

    2018-04-13

    Dietary patterns are often considered as one of the main causes of non-communicable diseases worldwide. It is of utmost importance to study dietary habits in developing countries since this work is scarce. To summarize the most recent research conducted in this field in African countries, namely the most used methodologies and tools. A systematic review was conducted on MEDLINE®/PubMed, aiming to identify scientific publications focused on studies of dietary intake of different African populations, in a ten-year period. Papers not written in English/Portuguese/Spanish, studies developed among African people but not developed in African countries, studies aiming to assess a particular nutrient/specific food/food toxin and studies that assessed dietary intake among children were excluded. Out of 99 included studies, the 24-hour recall and the food-frequency questionnaire were the most used dietary intake assessment tools, used to assess diet at an individual level. It was also observed that often country-unspecific food composition databases are used, and the methodologies employed are poorly validated and standardized. There is an emergent need to improve the existing food databases by updating food data and to develop suitable country-specific databases for those that do not have their own food composition table.

  12. Basin-Scale Opportunity Assessment Initiative Background Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saulsbury, Bo [ORNL; Geerlofs, Simon H. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Cada, Glenn F [ORNL; Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL

    2010-10-01

    As called for in the March 24, 2010, Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) for Hydropower, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), environmental stakeholders, and the hydropower industry are collaborating to identify opportunities to simultaneously increase electricity generation and improve environmental services in river basins of the United States. New analytical tools provide an improved ability to understand, model, and visualize environmental and hydropower systems. Efficiencies and opportunities that might not be apparent in site-by-site analyses can be revealed through assessments at the river-basin scale. Information from basin-scale assessments could lead to better coordination of existing hydropower projects, or to inform siting decisions (e.g., balancing the removal of some dams with the construction of others), in order to meet renewable energy production and environmental goals. Basin-scale opportunity assessments would inform energy and environmental planning and address the cumulative effects of hydropower development and operations on river basin environmental quality in a way that quantifies energy-environment tradeoffs. Opportunity assessments would create information products, develop scenarios, and identify specific actions that agencies, developers, and stakeholders can take to locate new sustainable hydropower projects, increase the efficiency and environmental performance of existing projects, and restore and protect environmental quality in our nation's river basins. Government agencies and non-governmental organizations (NGO) have done significant work to understand and assess opportunities for both hydropower and environmental protection at the basin scale. Some initiatives have been successful, others less so, and there is a need to better understand the legacy of work on which this current project can build. This background literature review is intended

  13. Assessment of the quality of pharmacoeconomic evaluation literature in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang; He, Xu; Xiang, Wei; Li, Shu Chuen

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the quality of Chinese pharmacoeconomic-evaluation literature published between 2012-2014 retrieved from the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) in order to assess their adherence to recommendations of the Chinese Pharmacoeconomic Guidelines. Identified literature was screened according to pre-specified criteria to access legibility for inclusion. Each included piece of literature was systematically compared against the recommendations proposed by the relevant Chinese guidelines. After culling, 259 studies were included in the comparative analysis. When compared to a previous study evaluating the quality of similar literature published between 1997-2007, the results showed improvements in certain technical aspects over the years. Particularly, an improvement was observed in more diverse evaluation methods being used, increased use of cost-utility analysis (2.43% in 2012-2014 vs 0.26% in 1997-2007) and use of discounting (45% in 2012-2014 vs 4.35% in 1997- 2007). In addition, a small number of studies were starting to apply modeling. The quality of economic evaluation literature has improved in recent years, with more researchers realizing the importance and necessity of using discounting, sensitivity analysis, and modeling when conducting economic evaluation. This study also highlights certain important areas needing further attention when conducting economic evaluations in China. These include the ICER threshold of economic analysis, more detailed guidance in performing sensitivity analysis and modeling, as well as transferability of cost data across different regions. Overall, the results would support the positive contribution of the Chinese Economic Guideline in promoting economic evaluations in China.

  14. Comparison of a Medication Inventory and a Dietary Supplement Interview in Assessing Dietary Supplement Use in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keturah R. Faurot

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although dietary supplement use is common, its assessment is challenging, especially among ethnic minority populations such as Hispanics/Latinos. Using the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL (n = 16,415, this report compares two strategies for capturing dietary supplement use over a 30-day period: a medication-based inventory and a nutrition-based dietary supplement interview. Age-standardized prevalence was calculated across multiple dietary supplement definitions, adjusted with survey/nonresponse weights. The prevalence of dietary supplement use was substantially higher as measured in the dietary supplement interview, compared to the medication inventory: for total dietary supplements (39% vs 26%, respectively, for nonvitamin, nonmineral supplements (24% vs 12%, and for botanicals (9.2% vs 4.5%. Concordance between the two assessments was fair to moderate (Cohen's kappa: 0.31–0.52. Among women, inclusion of botanical teas increased the prevalence of botanical supplement use from 7% to 15%. Supplement assessment that includes queries about botanical teas yields more information about patient supplement use.

  15. Identifying and assessing views among physically-active adult gym members in Israel on dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druker, Inbal; Gesser-Edelsburg, Anat

    2017-01-01

    Sports dietary supplements are available for sale in public places including sports clubs. Although there is uncertainty regarding their safety, many gym members who regularly work out consume them. The present study aimed to identify the approaches and perspectives of the public who work out in gyms and take dietary supplements. It examined how professionals view sports dietary supplement consumption, and how they communicate this issue to gym members. The literature discusses the prevalence of SDS use among athletes, but rarely discusses or compares between the risk perceptions of gym members, trainers, and dietitians, who represent the physically-active general public, regarding SDS. We conducted constructivist qualitative research in semi-structured one-on-one interviews ( n  = 34). We held in-depth interviews ( n  = 20) with a heterogeneous population of adult gym members who take dietary supplements, and ( n  = 14) with dietitians and fitness trainers. The main finding was a gap in risk perception of dietary supplement use between dietitians, gym members and fitness trainers. There was low risk perception among dietary supplements consumers. Trainers believed that benefits of supplement consumption exceeded risk, and therefore they did not convey a message to their clients about risk. In contrast, dietitians interviewed for this study renounced general use of sports dietary supplements and doubted whether trainers had proper nutritional knowledge to support it. Lack of awareness of risks suggests that there is a need for communication on this issue. We recommend that professionals (physicians and dietitians) be present in sports clubs that sell such products in an uncontrolled way.

  16. Using skin carotenoids to assess potential dietary changes after one academic year in the Shaping Healthy Choices Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reported dietary intake is often used in community interventions to assess intake of fruits and vegetables (F/V); however, dietary assessment methods are inaccurate, and time and labor intensive. Skin carotenoids are a potential biomarker to assess F/V intake given that carotenoids are predominately...

  17. Dietary nutrient composition affects digestible energy utilisation for growth: a study on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and a literature comparison across fish species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrama, J.W.; Subramanian, S.; Geurden, I.; Heinsbroek, L.T.N.; Kaushik, S.J.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of the type of non-protein energy (NPE) on energy utilisation in Nile tilapia was studied, focusing on digestible energy utilisation for growth (kgDE). Furthermore, literature data on kgDE across fish species were analysed in order to evaluate the effect of dietary macronutrient

  18. Evaluation of documented drug interactions and contraindications associated with herbs and dietary supplements: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, H-H; Lin, H-W; Simon Pickard, A; Tsai, H-Y; Mahady, G B

    2012-11-01

    The use of herbs and dietary supplements (HDS) alone or concomitantly with medications can potentially increase the risk of adverse events experienced by the patients. This review aims to evaluate the documented HDS-drug interactions and contraindications. A structured literature review was conducted on PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, tertiary literature and Internet. While 85 primary literatures, six books and two web sites were reviewed for a total of 1,491 unique pairs of HDS-drug interactions, 213 HDS entities and 509 medications were involved. HDS products containing St. John's Wort, magnesium, calcium, iron, ginkgo had the greatest number of documented interactions with medications. Warfarin, insulin, aspirin, digoxin, and ticlopidine had the greatest number of reported interactions with HDS. Medications affecting the central nervous system or cardiovascular system had more documented interactions with HDS. Of the 882 HDS-drug interactions being described its mechanism and severity, 42.3% were due to altered pharmacokinetics and 240 were described as major interactions. Of the 152 identified HDS contraindications, the most frequent involved gastrointestinal (16.4%), neurological (14.5%), and renal/genitourinary diseases (12.5%). Flaxseed, echinacea, and yohimbe had the largest number of documented contraindications. Although HDS-drug interactions and contraindications primarily concerned a relatively small subset of commonly used medications and HDS entities, this review provides the summary to identify patients, HDS products, and medications that are more susceptible to HDS-drug interactions and contraindications. The findings would facilitate the health-care professionals to communicate these documented interactions and contraindications to their patients and/or caregivers thereby preventing serious adverse events and improving desired therapeutic outcomes. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. An Assessment of Dietary Exposure to Cadmium in Residents of Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Liu, Yungang; Liu, Yufei; Liang, Boheng; Zhou, Hongwei; Li, Yingyue; Zhang, Yuhua; Huang, Jie; Yu, Chao; Chen, Kuncai

    2018-03-20

    Cadmium and its compounds are human carcinogens with severe organ toxicity, and their contamination of agricultural soil in China has been frequently reported; however, the dietary exposure to cadmium in residents and the relevant health risk have seldom been reported. In this study, the concentration of cadmium in various types of food collected from 2013 to 2015 were analyzed using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, and the dietary exposure to cadmium assessed based on a dietary survey in 2976 Guangzhou residents. In total, 3074 out of 4039 food samples had cadmium levels above the limit of detection. The mean ± standard deviation (50th, 95th percentile) cadmium content in all samples was 159.0 ± 112.7 (8.6, 392.4) μg/kg, with levels ranging from 1.0 to 7830 μg/kg. Using the mean cadmium concentrations, the average monthly dietary exposure of Guangzhou residents to cadmium was 14.4 (μg/kg body weight (BW), accounting for 57.6% of the provisional tolerable monthly intake (PTMI). Rice, laver, vegetables, and live aquatic products were the main sources of cadmium intake, on average accounting for 89% of the total value. The dietary cadmium exposure in high consumers (95th percentile food consumption) was 41.0 μg/kg·BW/month, accounting for 163% of the PTMI. Additionally, dietary cadmium exposure at mean consumption but high cadmium food concentration (95th percentile) was 32.3 μg/kg·BW/month, corresponding to 129% of the PTMI. The level of dietary exposure to cadmium in most Guangzhou residents was within the safety limit, thus increased health risk from dietary cadmium exposure is low at present. However, continued efforts by local governments to monitor the levels of cadmium in the four main food categories contributing to exposure are necessary.

  20. An Assessment of Dietary Exposure to Cadmium in Residents of Guangzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium and its compounds are human carcinogens with severe organ toxicity, and their contamination of agricultural soil in China has been frequently reported; however, the dietary exposure to cadmium in residents and the relevant health risk have seldom been reported. In this study, the concentration of cadmium in various types of food collected from 2013 to 2015 were analyzed using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, and the dietary exposure to cadmium assessed based on a dietary survey in 2976 Guangzhou residents. In total, 3074 out of 4039 food samples had cadmium levels above the limit of detection. The mean ± standard deviation (50th, 95th percentile cadmium content in all samples was 159.0 ± 112.7 (8.6, 392.4 μg/kg, with levels ranging from 1.0 to 7830 μg/kg. Using the mean cadmium concentrations, the average monthly dietary exposure of Guangzhou residents to cadmium was 14.4 (μg/kg body weight (BW, accounting for 57.6% of the provisional tolerable monthly intake (PTMI. Rice, laver, vegetables, and live aquatic products were the main sources of cadmium intake, on average accounting for 89% of the total value. The dietary cadmium exposure in high consumers (95th percentile food consumption was 41.0 μg/kg·BW/month, accounting for 163% of the PTMI. Additionally, dietary cadmium exposure at mean consumption but high cadmium food concentration (95th percentile was 32.3 μg/kg·BW/month, corresponding to 129% of the PTMI. The level of dietary exposure to cadmium in most Guangzhou residents was within the safety limit, thus increased health risk from dietary cadmium exposure is low at present. However, continued efforts by local governments to monitor the levels of cadmium in the four main food categories contributing to exposure are necessary.

  1. Assessment of Dietary Intake Patterns and Their Correlates among University Students in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salameh, Pascale; Jomaa, Lamis; Issa, Carine; Farhat, Ghada; Salamé, Joseph; Zeidan, Nina; Baldi, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Unhealthy dietary habits are major risk factors for chronic diseases, particularly if adopted during early years of adulthood. Limited studies have explored the food consumption patterns among young adults in Lebanon. Our study aimed to examine common dietary patterns and their correlates among a large sample of university student population in Lebanon, focusing on correlation with gender and body mass index (BMI). Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out on 3384 students, using a proportionate cluster sample of Lebanese students from both public and private universities. A self-administered food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary intake of university students. Factor analysis of food items and groups, cluster analysis of dietary patterns, and multivariate regressions were carried out. Results: Three dietary patterns were identified among university youth namely a vegetarian/low calorie dietary pattern (characterized mainly by consumption of plant-based food while avoiding “western” food, composite dishes, and bread); a mixed dietary pattern (characterized by high consumption of plant-based food, followed by composite dishes, bread, and a low consumption of western type food); and finally, a westernized dietary pattern (characterized by high consumption of white bread and western food, and a strong avoidance of plant food and composite dishes). We observed significant differences between males and females in terms of their reported food intake and dietary patterns. Females were particularly more prone to adopt the vegetarian/low calorie diet than males (ORa = 1.69; p universities (p = 0.053). Students with high income and obese students (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) were more likely to consume vegetarian/low calorie diets (p university students reported a higher consumption of the westernized dietary pattern as compared to female university students in Lebanon, while the latter reported a higher adoption of a

  2. Assessment of dietary intake in Spanish university students of health sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Rodríguez, María; Pocovi, Gabriela; Schmidt-RioValle, Jacqueline; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Rueda-Medina, Blanca

    2018-05-01

    Nutritional intake during early ages has been associated to disease onset later in life. This study aimed to assess dietary intake in Spanish university students of health sciences as compared to national recommended dietary intakes (DRIs). A cross-sectional study was conducted including 585 university students of health sciences aged 18-25 years. Dietary intake was assessed using a 72-h diet recall. A control group was selected from Spanish National Dietary Intake Survey (ENIDE) data. Intake of energy, protein, fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol was significantly lower (p<0.001) in university students compared to controls, while fiber intake showed the opposite trend (p<0.001). Total fat and carbohydrate intake was consistent with recommendations, but protein intake was lower than recommended. Intake of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) was markedly higher than nutrition goals, while intake of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) was lower. Both students and the reference control group did not reach the optimal dietary intake of iodine and vitamins D and E, while sodium intake was excessive in both groups. Dietary habits of university students were mainly characterized by low intakes of energy, protein, fats, fatty acids, and cholesterol, and high intake of fiber as compared to the general population. Intake of iodine and vitamins D and E was low, while sodium intake was excessive in both university students and the general population. Dietary interventions should be considered to prevent nutritional deficiencies and to ensure a balanced diet. Copyright © 2018 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. [Navigation in implantology: Accuracy assessment regarding the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrak, Ibrahim Ádám; Varga, Endre; Piffko, József

    2016-06-01

    Our objective was to assess the literature regarding the accuracy of the different static guided systems. After applying electronic literature search we found 661 articles. After reviewing 139 articles, the authors chose 52 articles for full-text evaluation. 24 studies involved accuracy measurements. Fourteen of our selected references were clinical and ten of them were in vitro (modell or cadaver). Variance-analysis (Tukey's post-hoc test; p angular deviation was 3,96 degrees. Significant difference could be observed between the two methods of implant placement (partially and fully guided sequence) in terms of deviation at the entry point, apex and angular deviation. Different levels of quality and quantity of evidence were available for assessing the accuracy of the different computer-assisted implant placement. The rapidly evolving field of digital dentistry and the new developments will further improve the accuracy of guided implant placement. In the interest of being able to draw dependable conclusions and for the further evaluation of the parameters used for accuracy measurements, randomized, controlled single or multi-centered clinical trials are necessary.

  4. Validation of a digital photographic method for assessment of dietary quality of school lunch sandwiches brought from home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabinsky, Marianne; Toft, Ulla; Andersen, Klaus K

    2013-01-01

    Background: It is a challenge to assess children’s dietary intake. The digital photographic method (DPM) may be an objective method that can overcome some of these challenges. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of a DPM to assess the quality of dietary....... The lunches were photographed using a standardised DPM. From the digital images, the dietary components were estimated by a trained image analyst using weights or household measures and the dietary quality was assessed using a validated Meal Index of Dietary Quality (Meal IQ). The dietary components...... and the Meal IQ obtained from the digital images were validated against the objective weighed foods of the school lunch sandwiches. To determine interrater reliability, the digital images were evaluated by a second image analyst. Results: Correlation coefficients between the DPM and the weighed foods ranged...

  5. Dietary cumulative acute risk assessment of organophosphorus, carbamates and pyrethroids insecticides for the Brazilian population.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jardim, Andreia Nunes Oliveira; Brito, Alessandra Page; van Donkersgoed, Gerda; Boon, Polly E; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra

    Cumulative acute dietary risk assessments of organophosphorus (OPs), carbamates (CBs) and pyrethroids (PYs) were conducted for the Brazilian population. Residue data for 30786 samples of 30 foods were obtained from two national monitoring programs and one University laboratory, and consumption data

  6. Assessment of obesity and dietary pattern of staff in a university in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Obesity is a major health problem resulting from unhealthy eating practices. Objective: This study was carried out to assess the prevalence of obesity and dietary pattern of staff of the University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Methods: The study employed a cross-sectional study design. Four hundred respondents were ...

  7. Validation of a Smartphone Image-Based Dietary Assessment Method for Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy M. Ashman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Image-based dietary records could lower participant burden associated with traditional prospective methods of dietary assessment. They have been used in children, adolescents and adults, but have not been evaluated in pregnant women. The current study evaluated relative validity of the DietBytes image-based dietary assessment method for assessing energy and nutrient intakes. Pregnant women collected image-based dietary records (via a smartphone application of all food, drinks and supplements consumed over three non-consecutive days. Intakes from the image-based method were compared to intakes collected from three 24-h recalls, taken on random days; once per week, in the weeks following the image-based record. Data were analyzed using nutrient analysis software. Agreement between methods was ascertained using Pearson correlations and Bland-Altman plots. Twenty-five women (27 recruited, one withdrew, one incomplete, median age 29 years, 15 primiparas, eight Aboriginal Australians, completed image-based records for analysis. Significant correlations between the two methods were observed for energy, macronutrients and fiber (r = 0.58–0.84, all p < 0.05, and for micronutrients both including (r = 0.47–0.94, all p < 0.05 and excluding (r = 0.40–0.85, all p < 0.05 supplements in the analysis. Bland-Altman plots confirmed acceptable agreement with no systematic bias. The DietBytes method demonstrated acceptable relative validity for assessment of nutrient intakes of pregnant women.

  8. Assessing Nutrition Knowledge and Dietary Habits of Adolescents Using Personal Data Assistants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murimi, Mary W.; Guthrie, Joanne; Landry, Danielle; Paun, Mihaela M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To assess nutrition knowledge and dietary behaviors of seventh graders in nine randomly selected middle schools in Louisiana. Methods: This descriptive study used personal data assistants (PDAs) to administer a pre-validated questionnaire developed from national instruments to 127 seventh grade students from nine randomly-selected…

  9. Combining traditional dietary assessment methods with novel metabolomics techniques : present efforts by the Food Biomarker Alliance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer-Brolsma, Elske M.; Brennan, Lorraine; Drevon, Christian A.; van Kranen, Henk; Manach, Claudine; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Roche, Helen M.; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Bouwman, Jildau; Capozzi, Francesco; De Saeger, Sarah; Gundersen, Thomas E.; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Kulling, Sabine E.; Landberg, Rikard; Linseisen, Jakob; Mattivi, Fulvio; Mensink, Ronald P.; Scaccini, Cristina; Skurk, Thomas; Tetens, Inge; Vergeres, Guy; Wishart, David S.; Scalbert, Augustin; Feskens, Edith J. M.

    FFQ, food diaries and 24 h recall methods represent the most commonly used dietary assessment tools in human studies on nutrition and health, but food intake biomarkers are assumed to provide a more objective reflection of intake. Unfortunately, very few of these biomarkers are sufficiently

  10. Assessment of Dietary Intakes of Filipino-Americans: Implications for Food Frequency Questionnaire Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Kozlow, Marilyn; Matt, Georg E.; Rock, Cheryl L.; de la Rosa, Ruth; Conway, Terry L.; Romero, Romina A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe food consumption practices of Filipino-American adults, to describe how they respond to a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) as a function of acculturation and sex, and to suggest modifications to the FFQ to improve dietary assessment among Filipino-Americans. Methods: Twenty-one…

  11. The Impact of a Computerized Dietary Assessment on Nutrition Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensleigh, Katherine Elizabeth; Eddy, James M.; Wang, Min Qi; Dennison, Darwin; Chaney, J. Don

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, many health educators have integrated computer applications into their health education program interventions. The assessment of the impact of these interventions is limited. This study assessed the impact of the Pyramid Challenge nutrition software program on nutrition knowledge levels of students enrolled in traditional personal…

  12. Traditional methods v. new technologies – dilemmas for dietary assessment in large-scale nutrition surveys and studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amoutzopoulos, B.; Steer, T.; Roberts, C.

    2018-01-01

    assessment in population surveys’, was held at the 9th International Conference on Diet and Activity Methods (ICDAM9), Brisbane, September 2015. Despite respondent and researcher burden, traditional methods have been most commonly used in nutrition surveys. However, dietary assessment technologies offer...... of traditional dietary assessment methods (food records, FFQ, 24 h recalls, diet history with interviewer-assisted data collection) v. new technology-based dietary assessment methods (web-based and mobile device applications). The panel discussion ‘Traditional methods v. new technologies: dilemmas for dietary......The aim of the present paper is to summarise current and future applications of dietary assessment technologies in nutrition surveys in developed countries. It includes the discussion of key points and highlights of subsequent developments from a panel discussion to address strengths and weaknesses...

  13. A Mobile Phone App for Dietary Intake Assessment in Adolescents: An Evaluation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Åsa

    2015-01-01

    Background There is a great need for dietary assessment methods that suit the adolescent lifestyle and give valid intake data. Objective To develop a mobile phone app and evaluate its ability to assess energy intake (EI) and total energy expenditure (TEE) compared with objectively measured TEE. Furthermore, to investigate the impact of factors on reporting accuracy of EI, and to compare dietary intake with a Web-based method. Methods Participants 14 to 16 years of age were recruited from year nine in schools in Gothenburg, Sweden. In total, 81 adolescents used the mobile phone app over 1 to 6 days. TEE was measured with the SenseWear Armband (SWA) during the same or proximate days. Individual factors were assessed with a questionnaire. A total of 15 participants also recorded dietary intake using a Web-based method. Results The mobile phone app underestimated EI by 29% on a group level (Pphone app was 1.19 times the value of TEE measured by the SWA on a group level (Pphone app stratified by gender showed that accuracy of the mobile phone app was higher among boys. EI, nutrients, and food groups assessed with the mobile phone app and Web-based method among 15 participants were not significantly different and several were significantly correlated, but strong conclusions cannot be drawn due to the low number of participants. Conclusions By using a mobile phone dietary assessment app, on average 71% of adolescents’ EI was captured. The accuracy of reported dietary intake was higher with lower BMI z-score and if a weekend day was included in the record. The daily question in the mobile phone app about physical activity could accurately rank the participants’ TEE. PMID:26534783

  14. A Mobile Phone App for Dietary Intake Assessment in Adolescents: An Evaluation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Åsa; Larsson, Christel

    2015-11-03

    There is a great need for dietary assessment methods that suit the adolescent lifestyle and give valid intake data. To develop a mobile phone app and evaluate its ability to assess energy intake (EI) and total energy expenditure (TEE) compared with objectively measured TEE. Furthermore, to investigate the impact of factors on reporting accuracy of EI, and to compare dietary intake with a Web-based method. Participants 14 to 16 years of age were recruited from year nine in schools in Gothenburg, Sweden. In total, 81 adolescents used the mobile phone app over 1 to 6 days. TEE was measured with the SenseWear Armband (SWA) during the same or proximate days. Individual factors were assessed with a questionnaire. A total of 15 participants also recorded dietary intake using a Web-based method. The mobile phone app underestimated EI by 29% on a group level (Pmobile phone app was 1.19 times the value of TEE measured by the SWA on a group level (Pmobile phone app stratified by gender showed that accuracy of the mobile phone app was higher among boys. EI, nutrients, and food groups assessed with the mobile phone app and Web-based method among 15 participants were not significantly different and several were significantly correlated, but strong conclusions cannot be drawn due to the low number of participants. By using a mobile phone dietary assessment app, on average 71% of adolescents' EI was captured. The accuracy of reported dietary intake was higher with lower BMI z-score and if a weekend day was included in the record. The daily question in the mobile phone app about physical activity could accurately rank the participants' TEE.

  15. Use of electronic dietary assessment tools in primary care: an interdisciplinary perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Carolina; Brauer, Paula; Royall, Dawna; Keller, Heather; Hanning, Rhona M; DiCenso, Alba

    2015-02-25

    Dietary assessment can be challenging for many reasons, including the wide variety of foods, eating patterns and nutrients to be considered. In team-based primary care practice, various disciplines may be involved in assessing diet. Electronic-based dietary assessment (e-DA) instruments available now through mobile apps or websites can potentially facilitate dietary assessment. Providers views of facilitators and barriers related to e-DA instruments and their recommendations for improvement can inform the further development of these tools. The objective of this study was to explore provider perspectives on e-DA tools in mobile apps and websites. The exploratory sequential mixed methods design included interdisciplinary focus groups followed by a web-based survey sent to Family Health Teams throughout Ontario, Canada. Descriptive and bivariate analyses were completed. Focus group transcripts contributed to web-survey content, while interpretive themes added depth and context. 11 focus groups with 50 providers revealed varying perspectives on the use of e-DA for: 1) improving patients' eating habits; 2) improving the quality of dietary assessment; and, 3) integrating e-DA into the care process. In the web-survey 191 respondents from nine disciplines in 73 FHTs completed the survey. Dietitians reported greater use of e-DA than other providers (63% vs.19%; p = .000) respectively. There was strong interest among disciplines in the use of e-DA tools for the management of obesity, diabetes and heart disease, especially for patient self-monitoring. Barriers identified were: patients' lack of comfort with using technology, misinterpretation of e-DA results by patients, time and education for providers to interpret results, and time for providers to offer counselling. e-DA tools in mobile apps and websites may improve dietary counselling over time. Addressing the identified facilitators and barriers can potentially promote the uptake of e-DA into clinical practice.

  16. Validity and Reproducibility of the Iodine Dietary Intake Questionnaire Assessment Conducted for Young Polish Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malowaniec, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse a designed brief iodine dietary intake questionnaire based on a food frequency assessment (IOdine Dietary INtake Evaluation-Food Frequency Questionnaire—IODINE-FFQ), including the assessment of validity and reproducibility in a group of 90 Polish women aged 20–35 years. Participants collected 3-day dietary records and filled in the IODINE-FFQ twice (FFQ1—directly after the dietary record and FFQ2—6 weeks later). The analysis included an assessment of validity (comparison with the results of the 3-day dietary record) and of reproducibility (comparison of the results obtained twice—FFQ1 and FFQ2). In the analysis of validity, a Bland-Altman index of 5.5% and 4.4% was recorded, respectively for FFQ1 and FFQ2. In the analysis of reproducibility it was 6.7%, but the share of individuals correctly classified into tertiles was over 70% (weighted κ of 0.675). It was stated, that assessment of IODINE-FFQ revealed a satisfactory level of validity and reproducibility in the analysis of Bland-Alman plot. The IODINE-FFQ may be indicated as a tool for the assessment of iodine intake in the young women in Poland, however further studies should be considered in order to obtain the practical tool for public health specialists. Due to the lack of validated iodine-specific food frequency questionnaires for countries of Eastern Europe, the IODINE-FFQ may be adjusted for courtiers other than Poland including iodine-fortified products. PMID:28661461

  17. Assessing the effects of different prebiotic dietary oligosaccharides in sheep milk ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balthazar, C F; Silva, H L A; Vieira, A H; Neto, R P C; Cappato, L P; Coimbra, P T; Moraes, J; Andrade, M M; Calado, V M A; Granato, D; Freitas, M Q; Tavares, M I B; Raices, R S L; Silva, M C; Cruz, A G

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of different prebiotic dietary oligosaccharides (inulin, fructo-oligosaccharide, galacto-oligossacaride, short-chain fructo-oligosaccharide, resistant starch, corn dietary oligosaccharide and polydextrose) in non-fat sheep milk ice cream processing through physical parameters, water mobility and thermal analysis. Overall, the fat replacement by dietary prebiotic oligosaccharides significantly decreased the melting time, melting temperature and the fraction and relaxation time for fat and bound water (T 22 ) while increased the white intensity and glass transition temperature. The replacement of sheep milk fat by prebiotics in sheep milk ice cream constitutes an interesting option to enhance nutritional aspects and develop a functional food. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. An assessment of the acute dietary exposure to glyphosate using deterministic and probabilistic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, C L; Harris, C A; Clarke, R

    2018-02-01

    Use of glyphosate in crop production can lead to residues of the active substance and related metabolites in food. Glyphosate has never been considered acutely toxic; however, in 2015 the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) proposed an acute reference dose (ARfD). This differs from the Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR) who in 2016, in line with their existing position, concluded that an ARfD was not necessary for glyphosate. This paper makes a comprehensive assessment of short-term dietary exposure to glyphosate from potentially treated crops grown in the EU and imported third-country food sources. European Union and global deterministic models were used to make estimates of short-term dietary exposure (generally defined as up to 24 h). Estimates were refined using food-processing information, residues monitoring data, national dietary exposure models, and basic probabilistic approaches to estimating dietary exposure. Calculated exposures levels were compared to the ARfD, considered to be the amount of a substance that can be consumed in a single meal, or 24-h period, without appreciable health risk. Acute dietary intakes were Probabilistic exposure estimates showed that the acute intake on no person-days exceeded 10% of the ARfD, even for the pessimistic scenario.

  19. Assessment of weight status, dietary habits and beliefs, physical activity, and nutritional knowledge among university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahia, Najat; Wang, Daniel; Rapley, Melyssa; Dey, Rajarshi

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess weight status, dietary habits, physical activity, dietary beliefs, and nutrition knowledge among a sample of students from Central Michigan University. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among a sample of undergraduate students in Fall 2011 and Spring 2012 at Central Michigan University. Participating students completed an online questionnaire that included questions related to their eating habits, physical activity and lifestyle, dietary beliefs, and nutritional knowledge. Weight, height, and waist circumference were measured. Percentage body fat and visceral fat score were determined using a Tanita body composition analyser (SC-331S). Outcomes of this study indicated that 78% of female students were within the healthy weight range compared to 52% of male students. Visceral body fat and waist circumference scores were higher in males than in females. Most students showed 'satisfactory' dietary habits. Almost half of the students reported drinking two glasses of milk and consuming two cups of fruits and vegetables daily. Physical activity and lifestyle score indicated that most of the students were not physically active. Only 7% of students reported having a very active lifestyle, and 4% had quite good nutritional knowledge. The majority of students, particularly females, were within the healthy body weight range. Students' dietary habits were satisfactory. However, physical activity, students' knowledge of healthy and unhealthy diet habits, and nutritional knowledge needed improvement. Developing gender-specific programmes for promoting healthy lifestyle behaviours among students is recommended. © Royal Society for Public Health 2015.

  20. Risk assessment of dietary exposure to aluminium in the Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Liu, Zhao-Ping; Yang, Da-Jin; Liang, Jiang; Zhu, Jiang-Hui; Xu, Hai-Bin; Li, Feng-Qin; Li, Ning

    2016-10-01

    In order to address the issue of excessive intake of aluminium (Al) from Al-containing food additives in the Chinese diet, this study conducted a dietary exposure assessment of Al in the general population based on the national surveillance data of Al content in foods and national food consumption data. It was found that the mean dietary exposure of the whole Chinese population to Al from Al-containing food additives was 1.795 mg kg ‒1 bw week ‒1 , not exceeding the PTWI, while high dietary exposures (e.g., 97.5 th percentile) to Al were 7.660 and 2.103-2.903 mg kg ‒1 bw week ‒1 for children, respectively, both exceeding the PTWI. It was found that the dietary exposure to Al for 32.5% of the total Chinese population and 42.6% of children aged 4-6 years exceeded the PTWI. Wheat flour and wheat-based products are the main source of dietary A l exposure (85% of the total intake); and puffed foods are the major source of Al intake for children. These findings suggested that consumption of Al-containing food additives could be a health concern for consumers with high food consumption (97.5 th percentile) and children under the age of 14 years.

  1. Assessment of Literature Related to Combustion Appliance Venting Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, Vi H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Singer, Brett C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stratton, Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wray, Craig P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-06-01

    In many residential building retrofit programs, air tightening to increase energy efficiency is constrained by concerns about related impacts on the safety of naturally vented combustion appliances. Tighter housing units more readily depressurize when exhaust equipment is operated, making combustion appliances more prone to backdraft or spillage. Several test methods purportedly assess the potential for depressurization-induced backdrafting and spillage, but these tests are not robustly reliable and repeatable predictors of venting performance, in part because they do not fully capture weather effects on venting performance. The purpose of this literature review is to investigate combustion safety diagnostics in existing codes, standards, and guidelines related to combustion appliances. This review summarizes existing combustion safety test methods, evaluations of these test methods, and also discusses research related to wind effects and the simulation of vent system performance. Current codes and standards related to combustion appliance installation provide little information on assessing backdrafting or spillage potential. A substantial amount of research has been conducted to assess combustion appliance backdrafting and spillage test methods, but primarily focuses on comparing short-term (stress) induced tests and monitoring results. Monitoring, typically performed over one week, indicated that combinations of environmental and house operation characteristics most conducive to combustion spillage were rare. Research, to an extent, has assessed existing combustion safety diagnostics for house depressurization, but the objectives of the diagnostics, both stress and monitoring, are not clearly defined. More research is also needed to quantify the frequency of test “failure” occurrence throughout the building stock and assess the statistical effects of weather (especially wind) on house depressurization and in turn on combustion appliance venting

  2. Assessment of Literature Related to Combustion Appliance Venting Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, V. H.; Less, B. D.; Singer, B. C.; Stratton, J. C.; Wray, C. P.

    2015-02-01

    In many residential building retrofit programs, air tightening to increase energy efficiency is often constrained by safety concerns with naturally vented combustion appliances. Tighter residential buildings more readily depressurize when exhaust equipment is operated, making combustion appliances more prone to backdraft or spill combustion exhaust into the living space. Several measures, such as installation guidelines, vent sizing codes, and combustion safety diagnostics, are in place with the intent to prevent backdrafting and combustion spillage, but the diagnostics conflict and the risk mitigation objective is inconsistent. This literature review summarizes the metrics and diagnostics used to assess combustion safety, documents their technical basis, and investigates their risk mitigations. It compiles information from the following: codes for combustion appliance venting and installation; standards and guidelines for combustion safety diagnostics; research evaluating combustion safety diagnostics; research investigating wind effects on building depressurization and venting; and software for simulating vent system performance.

  3. Assessment of dietary factors, dietary practices and exercise on mental distress in young adults versus matured adults: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begdache, Lina; Chaar, Maher; Sabounchi, Nasim; Kianmehr, Hamed

    2017-12-11

    The importance of the diet in modulating mental health is uncovering as many dietary factors have been described to alter brain chemistry. Brain maturation may not complete until the age of 30 which may explain the differential emotional control, mindset, and resilience between young adults and matured adults. As a result, dietary factors may influence mental health differently in these two populations. To study dietary intake, dietary practices and exercise in young adults (YA) (18-29 years) versus matured adults (MA) (30 years and older) in relation to mental distress. Another aim was to assess whether mental well-being potentially stimulates healthy eating, healthy practices, and exercising. An anonymous internet-based survey was sent through social media platforms to different professional and social group networks. Best-fit models were constructed using the backward regression analysis to assess the relationship between dietary variables, exercise, and mental distress in YA versus MA. YA mood seems to be dependent on food that increases availability of neurotransmitter precursors and concentrations in the brain (such as frequent meat consumption and exercise, respectively). However, MA mood may be more reliant on food that increases availability of antioxidants (fruits) and abstinence of food that inappropriately activates the sympathetic nervous system (coffee, high glycemic index, and skipping breakfast). Level of brain maturation and age-related changes in brain morphology and functions may necessitate dietary adjustments for improving mental well-being.

  4. Relative validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire to assess dietary fiber intake in Danish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuholm, Stine; Lorenzen, Janne K; Kristensen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Differences in habitual dietary fiber intake may modify effects of dietary fiber interventions, thus measurement of habitual dietary fiber intake is relevant to apply in intervention studies on fiber-rich foods, and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) is a commonly used method. Rye bread is the major contributor of dietary fiber in the Danish population, and a nation-specific FFQ is therefore needed. The aim of this study was to assess the relative validity and reproducibility of a self-administered quantitative FFQ designed to assess total dietary fiber intake among Danish adults. In order to assess the relative validity of the FFQ, a total of 125 participants completed both a 7-day weighed dietary recording (DR) and an FFQ consisting of 60 questions. To evaluate the reproducibility of the FFQ, a sub-group of 12 participants subsequently completed an FFQ approximately 6 months later. Estimates of mean dietary fiber intake were 24.9±9.8 and 28.1±9.4 g/day when applying the FFQ and DR, respectively, where FFQ estimates were ~12% lower (pfiber intake of the two methods was r=0.63 (pfiber intake (g/day), adequate ranking of subjects according to their dietary fiber intake, and good reproducibility. The FFQ is therefore believed to be a valuable tool for epidemiology and screening in human interventions, where intake of dietary fibers is of specific interest.

  5. Dietary assessment methodology for adolescents: a review of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-12-20

    Dec 20, 2009 ... During this period optimal nutrition is crucial to sustain normal growth and .... the memory of the participant or his/her ability to accurately recall portion sizes. For the ... assess energy and nutrient intakes of children and adolescents ..... epidemiological studies where the long-term diet is the important issue ...

  6. Beyond Wishful Thinking: Integrating Consumer Preferences in the Assessment of Dietary Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Convenience, taste, and prices are the main determinants of food choices. Complying with dietary recommendations therefore imposes a “taste cost” on consumers, potentially hindering adoption of those recommendations. The study presents and applies a new methodology, based on economic theory, to quantify this taste cost and assess the health and welfare effects of different dietary recommendations. Then, by comparison of those effects, we identify socially desirable recommendations that are most compatible with consumer preferences (i.e., that best balance health benefits against”taste cost”) and should be prioritized for promotion. The methodology proceeds in three-steps: first, an economic-behavioral model simulates how whole diets would change if consumers complied with dietary recommendations; second, an epidemiological model estimates the number of deaths avoided (DA) due to the dietary change; third, an efficiency analysis weighs the health benefits against the taste and policy costs of each recommendation. The empirical model is calibrated using French data. We find that recommendations to reduce consumption of red meat and soft-drinks, or raise consumption of milk products and fish/seafood impose relatively moderate taste costs. By comparison, recommendations related to F&V consumption and, to a lesser extent, butter/cream/cheese, snacks, and all meats impose larger taste costs on consumers. The F&V recommendation is the costliest for consumers to comply with, but it also reduces diet-related mortality the most, so that a large budget could be allocated to promoting F&V consumption while keeping this policy cost-beneficial. We conclude that promotion of most dietary recommendations improves social welfare. Our framework complements the programming models available in nutrition and public health: those models are best used to identify dietary targets, following which our framework identifies cost-beneficial ways of moving towards those targets. PMID

  7. Beyond Wishful Thinking: Integrating Consumer Preferences in the Assessment of Dietary Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irz, Xavier; Leroy, Pascal; Réquillart, Vincent; Soler, Louis-Georges

    2016-01-01

    Convenience, taste, and prices are the main determinants of food choices. Complying with dietary recommendations therefore imposes a "taste cost" on consumers, potentially hindering adoption of those recommendations. The study presents and applies a new methodology, based on economic theory, to quantify this taste cost and assess the health and welfare effects of different dietary recommendations. Then, by comparison of those effects, we identify socially desirable recommendations that are most compatible with consumer preferences (i.e., that best balance health benefits against"taste cost") and should be prioritized for promotion. The methodology proceeds in three-steps: first, an economic-behavioral model simulates how whole diets would change if consumers complied with dietary recommendations; second, an epidemiological model estimates the number of deaths avoided (DA) due to the dietary change; third, an efficiency analysis weighs the health benefits against the taste and policy costs of each recommendation. The empirical model is calibrated using French data. We find that recommendations to reduce consumption of red meat and soft-drinks, or raise consumption of milk products and fish/seafood impose relatively moderate taste costs. By comparison, recommendations related to F&V consumption and, to a lesser extent, butter/cream/cheese, snacks, and all meats impose larger taste costs on consumers. The F&V recommendation is the costliest for consumers to comply with, but it also reduces diet-related mortality the most, so that a large budget could be allocated to promoting F&V consumption while keeping this policy cost-beneficial. We conclude that promotion of most dietary recommendations improves social welfare. Our framework complements the programming models available in nutrition and public health: those models are best used to identify dietary targets, following which our framework identifies cost-beneficial ways of moving towards those targets.

  8. Beyond Wishful Thinking: Integrating Consumer Preferences in the Assessment of Dietary Recommendations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Irz

    Full Text Available Convenience, taste, and prices are the main determinants of food choices. Complying with dietary recommendations therefore imposes a "taste cost" on consumers, potentially hindering adoption of those recommendations. The study presents and applies a new methodology, based on economic theory, to quantify this taste cost and assess the health and welfare effects of different dietary recommendations. Then, by comparison of those effects, we identify socially desirable recommendations that are most compatible with consumer preferences (i.e., that best balance health benefits against"taste cost" and should be prioritized for promotion. The methodology proceeds in three-steps: first, an economic-behavioral model simulates how whole diets would change if consumers complied with dietary recommendations; second, an epidemiological model estimates the number of deaths avoided (DA due to the dietary change; third, an efficiency analysis weighs the health benefits against the taste and policy costs of each recommendation. The empirical model is calibrated using French data. We find that recommendations to reduce consumption of red meat and soft-drinks, or raise consumption of milk products and fish/seafood impose relatively moderate taste costs. By comparison, recommendations related to F&V consumption and, to a lesser extent, butter/cream/cheese, snacks, and all meats impose larger taste costs on consumers. The F&V recommendation is the costliest for consumers to comply with, but it also reduces diet-related mortality the most, so that a large budget could be allocated to promoting F&V consumption while keeping this policy cost-beneficial. We conclude that promotion of most dietary recommendations improves social welfare. Our framework complements the programming models available in nutrition and public health: those models are best used to identify dietary targets, following which our framework identifies cost-beneficial ways of moving towards those

  9. Motion range assessment in Rheumatoid Arthritis: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Andrea Jeannet Michaelsen Cardoso Mezzari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this review is to describe the methods used for range of motion (ROM assessment in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA in order to assist in the identification of the main limitations experienced by patients and thus contribute to the specific treatment of the most affected joints. Method: The methodology used was a critical review of the literature and the search was conducted in the capes portal, specifically in health care databases. The two MeSH descriptors “rheumatoid arthritis” and “mobility limitation” were used in the search, and also the term “range of motion”. Results: A total of 774 articles were found in the review and 446 were preselected based on title and abstract contents. After reading, 403 articles did not meet the inclusion criteria set in the study and were excluded. Thus, 43 articles were selected, which are summarized in a standardized manner. The studies do not approach the mobility of joints of RA patients, but they have in common the inclusion of ROM assessment to monitor the disease in a manner that is directly related to the function of the joints, especially the most compromised ones. Conclusion: We suggest the realization of thorough studies on joint involvement in order to outline interventions for preventing deformities generated by RA that compromise the quality of life of these patients. The studies could also contribute to disseminate such assessment practices among the multidisciplinary teams that provide assistance to these patients, optimizing the long-term care plan and taking into account the chronicity of the condition.

  10. Relative validity of the food frequency questionnaire used to assess dietary intake in the Leiden Longevity Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streppel, M.T.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Meyboom, S.; Beekman, M.; Craen, A.J.M.; Slagboom, P.E.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background - Invalid information on dietary intake may lead to false diet-disease associations. This study was conducted to examine the relative validity of the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) used to assess dietary intake in the Leiden Longevity Study. Methods - A total of 128 men and women

  11. Assessment of dietary intake among pregnant women in a rural area of western China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xueli

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adequate maternal nutrient intake during pregnancy is important to ensure satisfactory birth outcomes. There are no data available on the usual dietary intake among pregnant women in rural China. The present study describes and evaluates the dietary intake in a cohort of pregnant women living in two counties of rural Shaanxi, western China. Methods 1420 pregnant women were recruited from a trial that examined the effects of micronutrient supplementation on birth outcomes. Dietary information was collected at the end of their trimester or after delivery with an interviewed-administrated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. Nutrients intake was calculated from the FFQ and compared to the Estimated Average Requirements (EAR. The EAR cut-offs based on the Chinese Nutrition Society Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs were used to assess the prevalence of inadequate dietary intakes of energy, protein, calcium, zinc, riboflavin, vitamin C and folate. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal Wallis tests were used to compare nutrient intakes across subgroups. Results The mean nutrient intakes assessed by the FFQ was similar to those reported in the 2002 Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey from women living in rural areas except for low intakes of protein, fat, iron and zinc. Of the participants, 54% were at risk of inadequate intake of energy. There were high proportions of pregnant women who did not have adequate intakes of folate (97% and zinc (91%. Using the "probability approach", 64% of subjects had an inadequate consumption of iron. Conclusion These results reveal that the majority of pregnant women in these two counties had low intakes of nutrients that are essential for pregnancy such as iron and folate. Trial registration ISRCTN08850194.

  12. Comparison of strategies for assessing nutritional adequacy in elite female athletes' dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Susan; O'Connor, Helen; Gifford, Janelle; Naughton, Geraldine

    2010-06-01

    This study aimed to compare strategies for assessing nutritional adequacy in the dietary intake of elite female athletes. Dietary intake was assessed using an adapted food-frequency questionnaire in 72 elite female athletes from a variety of sports. Nutritional adequacy was evaluated and compared using mean intake; the proportion of participants with intakes below Australian nutrient reference values (NRV), U.S. military dietary reference intakes (MDRI), and current sports nutrition recommendations; and probability estimates of nutrient inadequacy. Mean energy intake was 10,551 +/- 3,836 kJ/day with macronutrient distribution 18% protein, 31% fat, and 46% carbohydrate, consistent with Australian acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges. Mean protein intake (1.6 g . kg(-1) . d(-1)) was consistent with (>1.2 g . kg(-1) . d(-1)), and carbohydrate intake (4.5 g . kg(-1) . d(-1)), below, current sports nutrition recommendations (>5 g . kg(-1) . d(-1)), with 30% and 65% of individuals not meeting these levels, respectively. Mean micronutrient intake met the relevant NRV and MDRI except for vitamin D and folate. A proportion of participants failed to meet the estimated average requirement for folate (48%), calcium (24%), magnesium (19%), and iron (4%). Probability estimates of inadequacy identified intake of folate (44%), calcium (22%), iron (19%), and magnesium (15%) as inadequate. Interpretation of dietary adequacy is complex and varies depending on whether the mean, proportion of participants below the relevant NRV, or statistical probability estimate of inadequacy is used. Further research on methods to determine dietary adequacy in athlete populations is required.

  13. Food Classification Systems Based on Food Processing: Significance and Implications for Policies and Actions: A Systematic Literature Review and Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Parra, Diana C; Cannon, Geoffrey; Monteiro, Carlos A

    2014-06-01

    This paper is the first to make a systematic review and assessment of the literature that attempts methodically to incorporate food processing into classification of diets. The review identified 1276 papers, of which 110 were screened and 21 studied, derived from five classification systems. This paper analyses and assesses the five systems, one of which has been devised and developed by a research team that includes co-authors of this paper. The quality of the five systems is assessed and scored according to how specific, coherent, clear, comprehensive and workable they are. Their relevance to food, nutrition and health, and their use in various settings, is described. The paper shows that the significance of industrial food processing in shaping global food systems and supplies and thus dietary patterns worldwide, and its role in the pandemic of overweight and obesity, remains overlooked and underestimated. Once food processing is systematically incorporated into food classifications, they will be more useful in assessing and monitoring dietary patterns. Food classification systems that emphasize industrial food processing, and that define and distinguish relevant different types of processing, will improve understanding of how to prevent and control overweight, obesity and related chronic non-communicable diseases, and also malnutrition. They will also be a firmer basis for rational policies and effective actions designed to protect and improve public health at all levels from global to local.

  14. Dietary Assessment on a Mobile Phone Using Image Processing and Pattern Recognition Techniques: Algorithm Design and System Prototyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmine Probst

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dietary assessment, while traditionally based on pen-and-paper, is rapidly moving towards automatic approaches. This study describes an Australian automatic food record method and its prototype for dietary assessment via the use of a mobile phone and techniques of image processing and pattern recognition. Common visual features including scale invariant feature transformation (SIFT, local binary patterns (LBP, and colour are used for describing food images. The popular bag-of-words (BoW model is employed for recognizing the images taken by a mobile phone for dietary assessment. Technical details are provided together with discussions on the issues and future work.

  15. A Mobile Phone User Interface for Image-Based Dietary Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ziad; Khanna, Nitin; Kerr, Deborah A; Boushey, Carol J; Delp, Edward J

    2014-02-02

    Many chronic diseases, including obesity and cancer, are related to diet. Such diseases may be prevented and/or successfully treated by accurately monitoring and assessing food and beverage intakes. Existing dietary assessment methods such as the 24-hour dietary recall and the food frequency questionnaire, are burdensome and not generally accurate. In this paper, we present a user interface for a mobile telephone food record that relies on taking images, using the built-in camera, as the primary method of recording. We describe the design and implementation of this user interface while stressing the solutions we devised to meet the requirements imposed by the image analysis process, yet keeping the user interface easy to use.

  16. A mobile phone user interface for image-based dietary assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ziad; Khanna, Nitin; Kerr, Deborah A.; Boushey, Carol J.; Delp, Edward J.

    2014-02-01

    Many chronic diseases, including obesity and cancer, are related to diet. Such diseases may be prevented and/or successfully treated by accurately monitoring and assessing food and beverage intakes. Existing dietary assessment methods such as the 24-hour dietary recall and the food frequency questionnaire, are burdensome and not generally accurate. In this paper, we present a user interface for a mobile telephone food record that relies on taking images, using the built-in camera, as the primary method of recording. We describe the design and implementation of this user interface while stressing the solutions we devised to meet the requirements imposed by the image analysis process, yet keeping the user interface easy to use.

  17. Reproducibility and Validity of a Food Frequency Questionnaire for Assessing Dietary Consumption via the Dietary Pattern Method in a Chinese Rural Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xudong; Wang, Xiaorong; Lin, Sihao; Song, Qingkun; Lao, Xiangqian; Yu, Ignatius Tak-Sun

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the reproducibility and validity of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) that was developed to assess the overall dietary consumption via dietary pattern method in a rural population in southwest China. A total of 179 participants aged between 40 and 70 years old were included in this study. Participants administered FFQ at baseline (FFQ1) and one year later (FFQ2) to assess the reproducibility. Six 3-day 24-hour recalls (24HRs) were completed between the administrations of two FFQs to determine the validity. Dietary patterns from three separate dietary sources were derived by using principle component factor analysis. Comparisons between dietary pattern scores were made by using Pearson or intraclass correlation coefficient, cross-classification analysis, weighted kappa (κ) statistic and Bland-Altman analysis. The de-attenuated method was adopted to correct the monthly and seasonally variation and the partial correlation analysis was used correct the influence by total energy intake. Two major dietary factors, labeled as prudent pattern and processed food pattern, were identified. The prudent pattern was characterized by higher factor loadings of wheat, rice, fresh vegetables, bean products, nuts, red meat, white meat and fresh eggs; and the processed food pattern was characterized by higher factor loadings of pickled vegetables, preserved vegetables and salted meat. Between Two FFQs, intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.57 for prudent pattern and 0.55 for processed food pattern, partial Pearson correlation coefficients were 0.51 for the prudent pattern and 0.56 for the processed food pattern; weighted κ statistic ranged from 0.45 (for the prudent pattern) to 0.56 (for the processed food pattern). Between FFQs and 24HRs, de-attenuated correlation coefficients ranged from 0.54 to 0.78 for the prudent pattern and from 0.55 to 0.61 for the processed food pattern; partial Pearson correlation coefficients ranged from 0.41 to 0

  18. Reproducibility and Validity of a Food Frequency Questionnaire for Assessing Dietary Consumption via the Dietary Pattern Method in a Chinese Rural Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Liu

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the reproducibility and validity of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ that was developed to assess the overall dietary consumption via dietary pattern method in a rural population in southwest China.A total of 179 participants aged between 40 and 70 years old were included in this study. Participants administered FFQ at baseline (FFQ1 and one year later (FFQ2 to assess the reproducibility. Six 3-day 24-hour recalls (24HRs were completed between the administrations of two FFQs to determine the validity. Dietary patterns from three separate dietary sources were derived by using principle component factor analysis. Comparisons between dietary pattern scores were made by using Pearson or intraclass correlation coefficient, cross-classification analysis, weighted kappa (κ statistic and Bland-Altman analysis. The de-attenuated method was adopted to correct the monthly and seasonally variation and the partial correlation analysis was used correct the influence by total energy intake.Two major dietary factors, labeled as prudent pattern and processed food pattern, were identified. The prudent pattern was characterized by higher factor loadings of wheat, rice, fresh vegetables, bean products, nuts, red meat, white meat and fresh eggs; and the processed food pattern was characterized by higher factor loadings of pickled vegetables, preserved vegetables and salted meat. Between Two FFQs, intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.57 for prudent pattern and 0.55 for processed food pattern, partial Pearson correlation coefficients were 0.51 for the prudent pattern and 0.56 for the processed food pattern; weighted κ statistic ranged from 0.45 (for the prudent pattern to 0.56 (for the processed food pattern. Between FFQs and 24HRs, de-attenuated correlation coefficients ranged from 0.54 to 0.78 for the prudent pattern and from 0.55 to 0.61 for the processed food pattern; partial Pearson correlation coefficients ranged

  19. Dietary assessment methods for micronutrient intake in elderly people: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ortiz-Andrellucchi, A.; Sanzech-Villegas, A.; Doreste-Alonso, J.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Serra-Majem, L.

    2009-01-01

    The European micronutrient recommendations aligned (EURRECA) Network of Excellence seeks to establish clear guidelines for assessing the validity of reported micronutrient intakes among vulnerable population groups. A systematic literature review identified studies validating the methodology used in

  20. Dietary assessment in children adhering to a food allergen avoidance diet for allergy prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlieg-Boerstra, B J; van der Heide, S; Bijleveld, C M A; Kukler, J; Duiverman, E J; Wolt-Plompen, S A A; Dubois, A E J

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to verify if avoidance of allergenic foods in children adhering to a food allergen avoidance diet from birth was complete and feasible, and whether dietary assessment can be used as a tool in predicting the outcome of double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges (DBPCFCs). Children adhering to an allergen avoidance diet from birth underwent DBPCFCs. The investigator-dietician verified whether the elimination was complete, using food frequency questionnaires for common allergenic foods. University Medical Centre Groningen, the Netherlands. Thiry-eight children aged 1-13 years, who were consecutively referred to the University Medical Centre Groningen for DBPCFC between January 2002 and February 2004. Among the 38 children undergoing DBPCFCs, there were 15 challenges with egg, 15 with peanut, five with hazelnut and three with soy. Fifteen food challenges (39%) were positive. Small quantities of allergenic foods were inadvertently present in the diets of 13 patients (34%), were possibly present in the diets of 14 patients (37%) and could not be identified in the diets of 11 patients (29%). Seven patients (54%) who had inadvertently ingested small quantities of allergenic foods without sequelae had a positive DBPCFC. Dietary avoidance was incomplete and not feasible in most cases. Tolerance of small amounts of allergenic foods does not preclude positive challenge reactions. Dietary assessment does not seem a useful tool in predicting the outcome of DBPCFC in children adhering to an elimination diet. The Stichting Astma Bestrijding (Foundation for the Prevention of Asthma), The Netherlands.

  1. Development of a Mobile User Interface for Image-based Dietary Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungye; Schap, Tusarebecca; Bosch, Marc; Maciejewski, Ross; Delp, Edward J; Ebert, David S; Boushey, Carol J

    2010-12-31

    In this paper, we present a mobile user interface for image-based dietary assessment. The mobile user interface provides a front end to a client-server image recognition and portion estimation software. In the client-server configuration, the user interactively records a series of food images using a built-in camera on the mobile device. Images are sent from the mobile device to the server, and the calorie content of the meal is estimated. In this paper, we describe and discuss the design and development of our mobile user interface features. We discuss the design concepts, through initial ideas and implementations. For each concept, we discuss qualitative user feedback from participants using the mobile client application. We then discuss future designs, including work on design considerations for the mobile application to allow the user to interactively correct errors in the automatic processing while reducing the user burden associated with classical pen-and-paper dietary records.

  2. Study protocol: the empirical investigation of methods to correct for measurement error in biobanks with dietary assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masson Lindsey F

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Public Population Project in Genomics (P3G is an organisation that aims to promote collaboration between researchers in the field of population-based genomics. The main objectives of P3G are to encourage collaboration between researchers and biobankers, optimize study design, promote the harmonization of information use in biobanks, and facilitate transfer of knowledge between interested parties. The importance of calibration and harmonisation of methods for environmental exposure assessment to allow pooling of data across studies in the evaluation of gene-environment interactions has been recognised by P3G, which has set up a methodological group on calibration with the aim of; 1 reviewing the published methodological literature on measurement error correction methods with assumptions and methods of implementation; 2 reviewing the evidence available from published nutritional epidemiological studies that have used a calibration approach; 3 disseminating information in the form of a comparison chart on approaches to perform calibration studies and how to obtain correction factors in order to support research groups collaborating within the P3G network that are unfamiliar with the methods employed; 4 with application to the field of nutritional epidemiology, including gene-diet interactions, ultimately developing a inventory of the typical correction factors for various nutrients. Methods/Design Systematic review of (a the methodological literature on methods to correct for measurement error in epidemiological studies; and (b studies that have been designed primarily to investigate the association between diet and disease and have also corrected for measurement error in dietary intake. Discussion The conduct of a systematic review of the methodological literature on calibration will facilitate the evaluation of methods to correct for measurement error and the design of calibration studies for the prospective pooling of

  3. Impact of refining the assessment of dietary exposure to cadmium in the European adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Pietro; Arcella, Davide; Heraud, Fanny; Cappé, Stefano; Fabiansson, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Exposure assessment constitutes an important step in any risk assessment of potentially harmful substances present in food. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) first assessed dietary exposure to cadmium in Europe using a deterministic framework, resulting in mean values of exposure in the range of health-based guidance values. Since then, the characterisation of foods has been refined to better match occurrence and consumption data, and a new strategy to handle left-censoring in occurrence data was devised. A probabilistic assessment was performed and compared with deterministic estimates, using occurrence values at the European level and consumption data from 14 national dietary surveys. Mean estimates in the probabilistic assessment ranged from 1.38 (95% CI = 1.35-1.44) to 2.08 (1.99-2.23) µg kg⁻¹ bodyweight (bw) week⁻¹ across the different surveys, which were less than 10% lower than deterministic (middle bound) mean values that ranged from 1.50 to 2.20 µg kg⁻¹ bw week⁻¹. Probabilistic 95th percentile estimates of dietary exposure ranged from 2.65 (2.57-2.72) to 4.99 (4.62-5.38) µg kg⁻¹ bw week⁻¹, which were, with the exception of one survey, between 3% and 17% higher than middle-bound deterministic estimates. Overall, the proportion of subjects exceeding the tolerable weekly intake of 2.5 µg kg⁻¹ bw ranged from 14.8% (13.6-16.0%) to 31.2% (29.7-32.5%) according to the probabilistic assessment. The results of this work indicate that mean values of dietary exposure to cadmium in the European population were of similar magnitude using determinist or probabilistic assessments. For higher exposure levels, probabilistic estimates were almost consistently larger than deterministic counterparts, thus reflecting the impact of using the full distribution of occurrence values to determine exposure levels. It is considered prudent to use probabilistic methodology should exposure estimates be close to or exceeding health-based guidance values.

  4. Association between Dietary Patterns of Meat and Fish Consumption with Bone Mineral Density or Fracture Risk: A Systematic Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Perna, Simone; Avanzato, Ilaria; Nichetti, Mara; D’Antona, Giuseppe; Negro, Massimo; Rondanelli, Mariangela

    2017-01-01

    This systematic review aimed to investigate the association of fish and sea fish dietary patterns (FishDiet) and meat or processed meat dietary patterns (MeatDiet) with bone mineral density (BMD) and/or risk of fractures (RF). This review includes 37 studies with a total of 432,924 subjects. The results suggest that MeatDiet and FishDiet did not affect BMD or RF in 48.2% of the subjects with MeatDiet and in 86.5% of the subjects with FishDiet. Positive effects on bone were found in 3% of subj...

  5. Assessment Quality in Tertiary Education: An Integrative Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Gerritsen-van Leeuwenkamp, Karin; Joosten-ten Brinke, Desirée; Kester, Liesbeth

    2018-01-01

    In tertiary education, inferior assessment quality is a problem that has serious consequences for students, teachers, government, and society. A lack of a clear and overarching conceptualization of assessment quality can cause difficulties in guaranteeing assessment quality in practice. Thus, the aim of this study is to conceptualize assessment quality in tertiary education by providing an overview of the assessment quality criteria, their influences, the evaluation of the assessment quality ...

  6. Dietary vitamin A intakes of Filipino elders with adequate or low liver vitamin A concentrations as assessed by the deuterated-retinol-dilution method: implications for dietary requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribaya-Mercado, Judy D; Solon, Florentino S; Fermin, Liza S; Perfecto, Christine S; Solon, Juan Antonio A; Dolnikowski, Gregory G; Russell, Robert M

    2004-04-01

    The vitamin A requirements of elderly humans have not been studied. In a cross-sectional study of 60-88-y-old men (n = 31) and women (n = 31) in rural Philippines, we assessed the dietary intakes of elders with adequate (> or = 0.07 micromol/g) or low (value for elders. The mean (+/- SD) vitamin A intakes of the men and women with adequate vitamin A in liver were 135 +/- 86 and 134 +/- 104 microg retinol activity equivalents (RAE)/d, respectively; intakes of the men and women with low vitamin A in liver were 75 +/- 53 and 60 +/- 27 microg RAE/d, respectively. Total-body vitamin A or liver vitamin A but not serum retinol correlated with dietary RAE, preformed vitamin A, beta-carotene, fat, and protein. An estimated acceptable or sufficient dietary vitamin A intake associated with adequate liver vitamin A concentrations in elders is 6.45 microg RAE/kg body wt; for a reference 76-kg man and a 61-kg woman, these values are approximately 500 and 400 microg RAE/d, respectively. The dietary vitamin A intakes of elders with adequate or low liver vitamin A concentrations as estimated by use of the deuterated-retinol-dilution technique are useful for assessing vitamin A requirements.

  7. Human dietary intakes of trace elements: A global literature survey mainly for the period 1970-1991: 1. Data listings and sources of information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parr, R.M.; Crawley, H.; Abdulla, M.; Iyengar, G.V.; Kumpulainen, J.

    1992-01-01

    A database has been compiled on human dietary intakes of trace elements by populations groups living in various countries. The main sources of information used were (1) publications in the open scientific literature, and (2) data submitted to the IAEA in response to a questionnaire. The database contains 1,758 intake values covering 35 elements and 47 countries. In this report the data are listed in various ways to facilitate identification of intake values for any specified country, element and population group. 4 refs, 5 tabs

  8. [Assessment of dietary iodine intake of population in non-high-iodine areas in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoyu; Li, Fengqin; Liu, Zhaoping; He, Yuna; Sui, Haixia; Mao, Weifeng; Liu, Sana; Yan, Weixing; Li, Ning; Chen, Junshi

    2011-03-01

    To assess the potential risk of dietary iodine insufficiency of population in non-high-iodine areas (water iodine China. The dietary iodine intake of 13 age-sex population groups were estimated by combining the data of iodine intake from food, table salt and drinking water. Two conditions were considered: consuming iodized salt or non-iodized salt. The data of food and table salt consumption were derived from the Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey in 2002. Water consumption was calculated as the recommended water intake. Iodine contents of food, table salt and water were calculated from China Food Composition Table and iodine surveillance data. Under the condition of consuming iodized salt, the average iodine intake of all population groups was higher than the Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI), while the iodine intakes of individuals above Upper Limits (UL) and below RNI were 5.8% and 13.4% respectively, and the iodine intake of individuals lower than the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) was 9.4% in adults above 18 years of age (including pregnant and lactating women). If non-iodized salt was consumed, the average iodine intake of most sex-age population groups was higher than RNI, but the iodine intake of 97.6% of individuals would be lower than RNI, while the iodine intake of 97.4% of adults would be lower than EAR. The contribution of iodine from table salt was much higher than that from drinking water and food in the condition of consuming iodized salt, while food was the predominant contributor of dietary iodine in the condition of consuming non-iodized salt. The health risk of iodine deficiency was higher than that of iodine excess in areas where water iodine was China, and the risk of iodine insufficiency was much higher if non-iodized salt was consumed. Iodized salt should be the main sources of dietary iodine intake for population in areas where water iodine was China.

  9. Assessment of dietary habits and nutritional status of depressive patients, depending on place of residence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanska, Ewa; Wendołowicz, Agnieszka; Cwalina, Urszula; Kowzan, Urszula; Konarzewska, Beata; Szulc, Agata; Ostrowska, Lucyna

    2017-12-23

    An increased incidence of depressive disorders observed in recent years in the Polish and world population is a serious health problem. The aim of the study was to compare dietary habits and nutritional status of patients with recurrent depressive disorders, depending on their place of residence. Their impact on selected metabolic parameters was also considered. The study group comprised 96 women and 84 men reporting to the Outpatient Mental Health Clinic at the Department of Psychiatry, Medical University of Bialystok in north-eastern Poland. The average age of the women was 46.7±11.7 years, and of men 47.0±11.3 years. In the quantitative assessmentof diets, 24-hour food recall interviews were conducted. Assessment of the nutritional status of the respondents consisted of anthropometric measurements, body composition analysis and biochemical parameters. It was show that the diets of female urban inhabitants were characterized by a significantly lower energy value and total fat content, compared to their rural counterparts. The food rations of men living in the city had a significantly higher energy value, protein content and total FAT, compared to rural residents. It was also noted that urban residents of both genders were characterized by a lower percentage of body fat, both visceral and subcutaneous (women), and a higher water content than rural residents. The study showed dietary errors in all compared groups, regardless of place of residence, which was reflected in the nutritional status of the respondents. The results also indicated that during the declared change in dietary habits, the treatment of depressive patients should include dietary instructions in order to ensure an optimum supply of nutrients.

  10. Assessment of burn size in obese adults; a literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borhani-Khomani, Kaveh; Partoft, Søren; Holmgaard, Rikke

    2017-01-01

    : The current literature was reviewed using relevant electronic databases. The initial search yielded 247 results. Relevant articles were then reviewed. A total of seven publications fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Results: The palmar surface area ranged between 0.59%–1.22%, depending on BMI, gender...

  11. Development of a reference database for assessing dietary nitrate in vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blekkenhorst, Lauren C; Prince, Richard L; Ward, Natalie C; Croft, Kevin D; Lewis, Joshua R; Devine, Amanda; Shinde, Sujata; Woodman, Richard J; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Bondonno, Catherine P

    2017-08-01

    Nitrate from vegetables improves vascular health with short-term intake. Whether this translates into improved long-term health outcomes has yet to be investigated. To enable reliable analysis of nitrate intake from food records, there is a strong need for a comprehensive nitrate content of vegetables database. A systematic literature search (1980-2016) was performed using Medline, Agricola and Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux abstracts databases. The nitrate content of vegetables database contains 4237 records from 255 publications with data on 178 vegetables and 22 herbs and spices. The nitrate content of individual vegetables ranged from Chinese flat cabbage (median; range: 4240; 3004-6310 mg/kg FW) to corn (median; range: 12; 5-1091 mg/kg FW). The database was applied to estimate vegetable nitrate intake using 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRs) and food frequency questionnaires (FFQs). Significant correlations were observed between urinary nitrate excretion and 24-HDR (r = 0.4, P = 0.013), between 24-HDR and 12 month FFQs (r = 0.5, P vegetables. It can be applied to dietary records to explore the associations between nitrate intake and health outcomes in human studies. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Assessment Quality in Tertiary Education: An Integrative Literature Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen-van Leeuwenkamp, Karin; Joosten-ten Brinke, Desirée; Kester, Liesbeth

    2018-01-01

    In tertiary education, inferior assessment quality is a problem that has serious consequences for students, teachers, government, and society. A lack of a clear and overarching conceptualization of assessment quality can cause difficulties in guaranteeing assessment quality in practice. Thus, the

  13. [Design and validation of a questionnaire to assess dietary behavior in Mexican students in the area of health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez-Sandoval, Yolanda Fabiola; Salazar-Ruiz, Erika Nohemi; Macedo-Ojeda, Gabriela; Altamirano-Martínez, Macedo-Ojeda; Bernal-Orozco, María Fernanda; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Vizmanos-Lamotte, Barbara

    2014-07-01

    The dietary behavior (DB) establishes the relationship between the human being and foods and has an influence on nutrient intake and, therefore, it contributes to the health or disease status of a population, even among college students. There exit some validated instruments to assess food and nutrients intake, but there are very few assessing DB. To design and validate a questionnaire to assess DB in Mexican college students. According to the literature and Reasoned Theory, a questionnaire assessing DB was designed. Its logic and content validity was determined by expert assessment. It was applied on two occasions with a 4-week interval to 333 students from the University of Guadalajara coursing the sixth semester of Medicine or Nutrition. The reproducibility was assessed by means of the interclass correlation coefficient. The construct validity and the internal consistency were calculated by Rasch analysis, for both the difficulty of the items and the subjects' capability. The questionnaire finally included 31 questions with multiple choice answers. The interclass correlation coefficient of the instrument was 0.76. The Cronbach alpha was 0.50 for the subjects' capability and 0.98 for the internal consistency of the items. 87.1% of the subjects and 89.8% of the items had INFIT and OUTFIT values within acceptable limits. The present questionnaire has the potentiality of measuring at low cost and in a practical way aspects related with DB in college student with the aim of establishing or following-up corrective or preventive actions. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  14. Design and pilot testing of a dietary assessment methodology for children at school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette; Laursen, Rikke; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg

    in school food environments. Aim: The aim of this report was to investigate and develop appropriate methods for studying the link between healthy eating practices and organic food procurement policies using Danish public elementary schools as a setting. Methods: Based on relevant scientific literature......, the Danish Dietary Recommendations, and inspired by other successful studies, a self-administered questionnaire investigating children’s eating habits was designed. After testing by an Expert Evaluation Panel and Think Aloud Interviews adjustments were integrated. Conclusion: If special attention is given...... to literacy skills and cognitive development, children in Danish 6th grade classes can be used as respondents in studies of the relation between food procurement policies and eating practice. The study suggests that a Cross-Sectional design is a satisfactory method to investigate the association between...

  15. Probabilistic assessment of the cumulative dietary exposure of the population of Denmark to endocrine disrupting pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Christiansen, Sofie

    2013-01-01

    to these pesticides from the intake of fruit and vegetables. The assessment was carried out using the probabilistic approach combined with the relative potency factor (RPF) approach. Residue data for prochloraz, procymidone, and tebuconazole were obtained from the Danish monitoring programme 2006–2009, while residue...... data for epoxiconazole were obtained from the Swedish monitoring programme carried out in the period 2007–2009. Food consumption data were obtained from the Danish nationwide dietary survey conducted in 2000–2002. Relative potency factors for the four pesticides were obtained from rat studies...

  16. Combining traditional dietary assessment methods with novel metabolomics techniques: present efforts by the Food Biomarker Alliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouwer-Brolsma, Elske M; Brennan, Lorraine; Drevon, Christian A

    2017-01-01

    food metabolomics techniques that allow the quantification of up to thousands of metabolites simultaneously, which may be applied in intervention and observational studies. As biomarkers are often influenced by various other factors than the food under investigation, FoodBAll developed a food intake...... in these metabolomics studies, knowledge about available electronic metabolomics resources is necessary and further developments of these resources are essential. Ultimately, present efforts in this research area aim to advance quality control of traditional dietary assessment methods, advance compliance evaluation...

  17. Saliency-aware food image segmentation for personal dietary assessment using a wearable computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hsin-Chen; Jia, Wenyan; Li, Yuecheng; Sun, Mingui; Sun, Xin; Li, Zhaoxin; Fernstrom, John D; Burke, Lora E; Baranowski, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Image-based dietary assessment has recently received much attention in the community of obesity research. In this assessment, foods in digital pictures are specified, and their portion sizes (volumes) are estimated. Although manual processing is currently the most utilized method, image processing holds much promise since it may eventually lead to automatic dietary assessment. In this paper we study the problem of segmenting food objects from images. This segmentation is difficult because of various food types, shapes and colors, different decorating patterns on food containers, and occlusions of food and non-food objects. We propose a novel method based on a saliency-aware active contour model (ACM) for automatic food segmentation from images acquired by a wearable camera. An integrated saliency estimation approach based on food location priors and visual attention features is designed to produce a salient map of possible food regions in the input image. Next, a geometric contour primitive is generated and fitted to the salient map by means of multi-resolution optimization with respect to a set of affine and elastic transformation parameters. The food regions are then extracted after contour fitting. Our experiments using 60 food images showed that the proposed method achieved significantly higher accuracy in food segmentation when compared to conventional segmentation methods. (paper)

  18. Nutritional status of Iranian women with rheumatoid arthritis: an assessment of dietary intake and disease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazi, Jalal; Mohtadinia, Javad; Kolahi, Soasan; Bakhtiyari, Mahmood; Delpisheh, Ali

    2011-09-01

    Long-standing chronic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis are known to be associated with impairment of nutritional status to some degree. The present study aimed to assess nutritional status of women with rheumatoid arthritis and compare their ingestion of certain micronutrients with dietary reference intakes. In this cross-sectional study, 90 eligible women were recruited. After examination, all patients were evaluated on the basis of disease activity score, calculated using the number of tender and swollen joints, patient global assessment of pain and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP). A three-day 24 h recall was completed and a 10 ml fasting blood sample was obtained to assess the plasma levels of malondialdehyde, total antioxidant and CRP. Despite normal BMI, intake of energy and micronutrients including calcium, folic acid, zinc, magnesium and vitamin B6 were considerably lower compared with the dietary reference intakes. There was no significant relationship between intake of different nutrients or food groups and disease activity score and the biochemical markers including malondialdehyde, CRP and total antioxidant. Intake of energy and some micronutrients were significantly lower than the recommended values. However, no relationship was found between intake of different food groups or nutrients with disease activity or serum antioxidant capacity.

  19. Image-Based Dietary Assessment Ability of Dietetics Students and Interns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Howes

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Image-based dietary assessment (IBDA may improve the accuracy of dietary assessments, but no formalized training currently exists for skills relating to IBDA. This study investigated nutrition and dietetics students’ and interns’ IBDA abilities, the training and experience factors that may contribute to food identification and quantification accuracy, and the perceived challenges to performing IBDA. An online survey containing images of known foods and serving sizes representing common American foods was used to assess the ability to identify foods and serving sizes. Nutrition and dietetics students and interns from the United States and Australia (n = 114 accurately identified foods 79.5% of the time. Quantification accuracy was lower, with only 38% of estimates within ±10% of the actual weight. Foods of amorphous shape or higher energy density had the highest percent error. Students expressed general difficulty with perceiving serving sizes, making IBDA food quantification more difficult. Experience cooking at home from a recipe, frequent measuring of portions, and having a food preparation or cooking laboratory class were associated with enhanced accuracy in IBDA. Future training of dietetics students should incorporate more food-based serving size training to improve quantification accuracy while performing IBDA, while advances in IBDA technology are also needed.

  20. Saliency-aware food image segmentation for personal dietary assessment using a wearable computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsin-Chen; Jia, Wenyan; Sun, Xin; Li, Zhaoxin; Li, Yuecheng; Fernstrom, John D.; Burke, Lora E.; Baranowski, Thomas; Sun, Mingui

    2015-02-01

    Image-based dietary assessment has recently received much attention in the community of obesity research. In this assessment, foods in digital pictures are specified, and their portion sizes (volumes) are estimated. Although manual processing is currently the most utilized method, image processing holds much promise since it may eventually lead to automatic dietary assessment. In this paper we study the problem of segmenting food objects from images. This segmentation is difficult because of various food types, shapes and colors, different decorating patterns on food containers, and occlusions of food and non-food objects. We propose a novel method based on a saliency-aware active contour model (ACM) for automatic food segmentation from images acquired by a wearable camera. An integrated saliency estimation approach based on food location priors and visual attention features is designed to produce a salient map of possible food regions in the input image. Next, a geometric contour primitive is generated and fitted to the salient map by means of multi-resolution optimization with respect to a set of affine and elastic transformation parameters. The food regions are then extracted after contour fitting. Our experiments using 60 food images showed that the proposed method achieved significantly higher accuracy in food segmentation when compared to conventional segmentation methods.

  1. Harmonisation of food categorisation systems for dietary exposure assessments among European children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Neve, Melissa; Sioen, Isabelle; Boon, Polly

    2010-01-01

    Within the European project called EXPOCHI (Individual Food Consumption Data and Exposure Assessment Studies for Children), 14 different European individual food consumption databases of children were used to conduct harmonised dietary exposure assessments for lead, chromium, selenium and food...... colours. For this, two food categorisation systems were developed to classify the food consumption data in such a way that these could be linked to occurrence data of the considered compounds. One system served for the exposure calculations of lead, chromium and selenium. The second system was developed...... for the exposure assessment of food colours. The food categories defined for the lead, chromium and selenium exposure calculations were used as a basis for the food colour categorisation, with adaptations to optimise the linkage with the food colour occurrence data. With this work, an initial impetus was given...

  2. Assessment of dietary choices of young women in the contexts of hormonal contraceptives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Mariola; Junak, Magdalena

    Metabolic changes caused by hormonal contraception combined with unbalanced diet may pose many threats, and deficiency or excess of nutrients may increase the risk of using such contraceptives. The purpose of the survey was to assess the dietary choices of young women using hormonal contraceptives, taking into account their general knowledge about the contraception and its impact on their bodies. The survey comprised 67 women aged from 18 to 25 years. In of three-day menus (201 daily food rations) of the women under research the content of energy and most of nutritious ingredients wandered away from recommended values in Poland. Each respondent additionally filled in a questionnaire concerning her: anthropometric data, education, place of residence; the type, name and time of taking contraceptives; purpose for using hormonal contraception along with its determinants; duration of use, breaks in contraceptive practice; occurrence of side effects during contraceptive use; stimulants used; physical activity, incidence of diarrhoea and vomiting, and dietary supplements use. The assessment of nutritional status of young women taking hormonal contraceptives has shown a number of nonconformities. The survey has revealed insufficient energy value of the menus, and incorrect proportions of basic nutrients, from recommended values, what was reflected in insufficient intake of vitamins (A, D, E, C, B1, B3, B6, and folates) and minerals (K, Ca, Mg, Fe). An excessive consumption of proteins, animal-based in particular, and insufficient consumption of lipids and carbohydrates, polysaccharides in particular, what resulted in insufficient consumption of dietary fibre. Nutritional choices of the respondents were typical to their gender and age, but were not adjusted to the use of hormonal contraceptives. Side effects observed by the respondents, mainly weight gain, may have been a summary result of improper eating behaviors that facilitated accumulation of body fat and water.

  3. Assessing potential dietary toxicity of heavy metals in selected vegetables and food crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Ejaz ul; Yang, Xiao-e; He, Zhen-li; Mahmood, Qaisar

    2007-01-01

    Heavy metals, such as cadmium, copper, lead, chromium and mercury, are important environmental pollutants, particularly in areas with high anthropogenic pressure. Their presence in the atmosphere, soil and water, even in traces can cause serious problems to all organisms, and heavy metal bioaccumulation in the food chain especially can be highly dangerous to human health. Heavy metals enter the human body mainly through two routes namely: inhalation and ingestion, ingestion being the main route of exposure to these elements in human population. Heavy metals intake by human populations through food chain has been reported in many countries. Soil threshold for heavy metal toxicity is an important factor affecting soil environmental capacity of heavy metal and determines heavy metal cumulative loading limits. For soil-plant system, heavy metal toxicity threshold is the highest permissible content in the soil (total or bioavailable concentration) that does not pose any phytotoxic effects or heavy metals in the edible parts of the crops does not exceed food hygiene standards. Factors affecting the thresholds of dietary toxicity of heavy metal in soil-crop system include: soil type which includes soil pH, organic matter content, clay mineral and other soil chemical and biochemical properties; and crop species or cultivars regulated by genetic basis for heavy metal transport and accumulation in plants. In addition, the interactions of soil-plant root-microbes play important roles in regulating heavy metal movement from soil to the edible parts of crops. Agronomic practices such as fertilizer and water managements as well as crop rotation system can affect bioavailability and crop accumulation of heavy metals, thus influencing the thresholds for assessing dietary toxicity of heavy metals in the food chain. This paper reviews the phytotoxic effects and bioaccumulation of heavy metals in vegetables and food crops and assesses soil heavy metal thresholds for potential dietary

  4. Assessment of the Contribution of Dietary and Beverage Intake Quality to Obesity Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilici, Saniye; Mortaş, Hande; Kocaadam, Betül; Köksal, Eda

    2018-04-13

    Low dietary quality is an important indicator of unhealthy eating patterns that can lead to some consequences such as obesity, so policy is a very powerful tool that can affect the consumption of both healthy and unhealthy foods. Indices that assess whether nutritional policies are applied contribute to the assessment of the quality of the population's diet. This study was conducted to investigate the quality of diets and beverages consumed by Turkish adults, and the factors affecting them. This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 352 adults aged between 18 and 58 years. The quality of diet and beverage was measured through the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI) and Healthy Beverage Index (HBI), respectively, using 2-day (weekday and weekend) dietary recall data. The total HBI scores were 79.1 ± 11.8 and 81.0 ± 11.6; total HEI-2010 scores were 45.9 ± 12.3 and 52.3 ± 11.0, of men and women, respectively (p empty calories (p > 0.05). Sugar-sweetened beverage (HBI subcomponent) was significantly correlated with the scores of HEI-2010 and empty calorie (HEI-2010 subcomponent), as expected (p empty calories is considered.

  5. Dietary assessment among women with overweight and obesity in early postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huseinovic, E; Winkvist, A; Bertz, F; Hellebö Johansson, E; Brekke, H K

    2016-08-01

    The present study aimed to assess dietary intake and evaluate the degree of agreement of group-level dietary intake as measured by 24-h recall against a 4-day diet record among postpartum women with overweight and obesity. A cross-sectional study was conducted of 110 Swedish women with a body mass index of ≥27 kg m(-2) at 6-15 weeks postpartum who were recruited to a weight loss trial and randomised to diet intervention or control. One 24-h recall was conducted among all women prior to randomisation. In addition, women subsequently randomised to diet intervention also conducted a 4-day diet record before receiving dietary treatment (n = 54). Paired tests were used to evaluate agreement of group-level dietary intake as measured by 24-h recall against 4-day diet record among women randomised to diet intervention. Women reported a median (25th and 75th percentiles) energy intake of 9.1 (6.9, 11.7) MJ day(-1) and an intake of fibre, vitamin D, folate and iron below the recommended intake as assessed by 24-h recall prior to randomisation (n = 110). Group-level median intakes of energy (9.9 versus 10.0 MJ day(-1) ), fibre (21.9 versus 21.3 g day(-1) ), vitamin D (4.8 versus 6.5 μg day(-1) ), folate (296 versus 287 μg day(-1) ), iron (11.0 versus 11.3 mg day(-1) ) and calcium (915 versus 968 mg day(-1) ) did not differ significantly between the methods; however, the record captured a higher energy-adjusted intake of fat, saturated fat and alcohol, as well as a lower intake of carbohydrates, compared to the recall (n = 54). We found no difference in group-level estimates of energy or micronutrients between the recall and the record; however, there were some differences for macronutrients. © 2015 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  6. Estimating human exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids via solid food and drinks : Implementation and comparison of different dietary assessment methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papadopoulou, Eleni; Poothong, Somrutai; Koekkoek, Jacco; Lucattini, Luisa; Padilla-Sánchez, Juan Antonio; Haugen, Margaretha; Herzke, Dorte; Valdersnes, Stig; Maage, Amund; Cousins, Ian T.; Leonards, Pim E.G.; Småstuen Haug, Line

    2017-01-01

    Background Diet is a major source of human exposure to hazardous environmental chemicals, including many perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs). Several assessment methods of dietary exposure to PFAAs have been used previously, but there is a lack of comparisons between methods. Aim To assess human exposure

  7. Development of family and dietary habits questionnaires: the assessment of family processes, dietary habits and adolescents' impulsiveness in Norwegian adolescents and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelland, Mona; Hausken, Solveig E S; Sleddens, Ester F C; Andersen, Lene F; Lie, Hanne C; Finset, Arnstein; Maes, Lea; Melbye, Elisabeth L; Glavin, Kari; Hanssen-Bauer, Merete W; Lien, Nanna

    2014-10-15

    There is a need for valid and comprehensive measures of parental influence on children's energy balance-related behaviours (EBRB). Such measures should be based on a theoretical framework, acknowledging the dynamic and complex nature of interactions occurring within a family. The aim of the Family & Dietary habits (F&D) project was to develop a conceptual framework identifying important and changeable family processes influencing dietary behaviours of 13-15 year olds. A second aim was to develop valid and reliable questionnaires for adolescents and their parents (both mothers and fathers) measuring these processes. A stepwise approach was used; (1) preparation of scope and structure, (2) development of the F&D questionnaires, (3) the conducting of pilot studies and (4) the conducting of validation studies (assessing internal reliability, test-retest reliability and confirmatory factor analysis) using data from a cross-sectional study. The conceptual framework includes psychosocial concepts such as family functioning, cohesion, conflicts, communication, work-family stress, parental practices and parental style. The physical characteristics of the home environment include accessibility and availability of different food items, while family meals are the sociocultural setting included. Individual characteristics measured are dietary intake (vegetables and sugar-sweetened beverages) and adolescents' impulsivity. The F&D questionnaires developed were tested in a test-retest (54 adolescents and 44 of their parents) and in a cross-sectional survey including 440 adolescents (13-15 year olds), 242 mothers and 155 fathers. The samples appear to be relatively representative for Norwegian adolescents and parents. For adolescents, mothers and fathers, the test-retest reliability of the dietary intake, frequencies of (family) meals, work-family stress and communication variables was satisfactory (ICC: 0.53-0.99). Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-Brief (BIS-Brief) was included

  8. Assessment of the Authenticity of Herbal Dietary Supplements: Comparison of Chemical and DNA Barcoding Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Rahul S; Handy, Sara M; Cheng, Raymond; Shyong, Nicole; Grundel, Erich

    2017-07-01

    About 7 % of the U. S. population reports using botanical dietary supplements. Increased use of such supplements has led to discussions related to their authenticity and quality. Reports of adulteration with substandard materials or pharmaceuticals are of concern because such substitutions, whether inadvertent or deliberate, may reduce the efficacy of specific botanicals or lead to adverse events. Methods for verifying the identity of botanicals include macroscopic and microscopic examinations, chemical analysis, and DNA-based methods including DNA barcoding. Macroscopic and microscopic examinations may fail when a supplement consists of botanicals that have been processed beyond the ability to provide morphological characterizations. Chemical analysis of specific marker compounds encounters problems when these compounds are not distinct to a given species or when purified reference standards are not available. Recent investigations describing DNA barcoding analysis of botanical dietary supplements have raised concerns about the authenticity of the supplements themselves as well as the appropriateness of using DNA barcoding techniques with finished botanical products. We collected 112 market samples of frequently consumed botanical dietary supplements of ginkgo, soy, valerian, yohimbe, and St. John's wort and analyzed each for specific chemical markers (i.e., flavonol glycosides, total isoflavones, total valerenic acids, yohimbine, and hypericins, respectively). We used traditional DNA barcoding techniques targeting the nuclear ITS2 gene and the chloroplast gene psb A- trn H on the same samples to determine the presence of DNA of the labelled ingredient. We compared the results obtained by both methods to assess the contribution of each in determining the identity of the samples. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Dietary exposure and human risk assessment of phthalate esters based on total diet study in Cambodia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Zhang; Li, Han-Han; Wang, Hong-sheng; Zhu, Xue-Mei; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Yasin, Mohamed Salleh Mohamed; Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Phthalate esters are used in a wide variety of consumer products, and human exposure to this class of compounds is widespread. Nevertheless, studies on dietary exposure of human to phthalates are limited. In this study, to assess the daily intakes of phthalate esters and the possible adverse health impacts, different food samples were collected from three areas of Cambodia, one of the poorest countries in the world. The ∑phthalate ester concentrations in Kampong Cham, Kratie and Kandal provinces ranged from 0.05 to 2.34 (median 0.88) μg g −1 , 0.19–1.65 (median 0.86) μg g −1 and 0.24–3.05 (median 0.59) μg g −1 wet weight (ww), respectively. Di-2-Ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) were the predominant compounds among all foodstuffs. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of phthalate esters for the general population in Kampong Cham, Kratie and Kandal was 34.3, 35.6 and 35.8 μg kg −1 bw d −1 , respectively. The dietary daily intake of DEHP, benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) in Kampong Cham, Kratie and Kandal were below the tolerable daily intakes (TDI) imposed by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and reference doses (RfD) imposed by The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Rice contributed the greatest quantity of DEHP to the daily intake in Cambodia so may deserve further exploration. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the occurrence and the daily intakes of phthalate esters in Cambodia. - Highlights: • Phthalate esters concentration in daily foodstuffs collected from Cambodia. • Investigate the bioaccessbility of phthalate esters via the foodstuffs consumption. • Health risk evaluation of dietary exposure to phthalate esters.

  10. Assessing the Risk of Probiotic Dietary Supplements in the Context of Antibiotic Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zheng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Probiotic bacteria are known to harbor intrinsic and mobile genetic elements that confer resistance to a wide variety of antibiotics. Their high amounts in dietary supplements can establish a reservoir of antibiotic resistant genes in the human gut. These resistant genes can be transferred to pathogens that share the same intestinal habitat thus resulting in serious clinical ramifications. While antibiotic resistance of probiotic bacteria from food, human and animal sources have been well-documented, the resistant profiles of probiotics from dietary supplements have only been recently studied. These products are consumed with increasing regularity due to their health claims that include the improvement of intestinal health and immune response as well as prevention of acute and antibiotic-associated diarrhea and cancer; but, a comprehensive risk assessment on the spread of resistant genes to human health is lacking. Here, we highlight recent reports of antibiotic resistance of probiotic bacteria isolated from dietary supplements, and propose complementary strategies that can shed light on the risks of consuming such products in the context of a global widespread of antibiotic resistance. In concomitant with a broader screening of antibiotic resistance in probiotic supplements is the use of computational simulations, live imaging and functional genomics to harvest knowledge on the evolutionary behavior, adaptations and dynamics of probiotics studied in conditions that best represent the human gut including in the presence of antibiotics. The underlying goal is to enable the health benefits of probiotics to be exploited in a responsible manner and with minimal risk to human health.

  11. Application of Cluster Analysis in Assessment of Dietary Habits of Secondary School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zalewska Magdalena

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of proper health and prevention of diseases of civilization are now significant public health problems. Nutrition is an important factor in the development of youth, as well as the current and future state of health. The aim of the study was to show the benefits of the application of cluster analysis to assess the dietary habits of high school students. The survey was carried out on 1,631 eighteen-year-old students in seven randomly selected secondary schools in Bialystok using a self-prepared anonymous questionnaire. An evaluation of the time of day meals were eaten and the number of meals consumed was made for the surveyed students. The cluster analysis allowed distinguishing characteristic structures of dietary habits in the observed population. Four clusters were identified, which were characterized by relative internal homogeneity and substantial variation in terms of the number of meals during the day and the time of their consumption. The most important characteristics of cluster 1 were cumulated food ration in 2 or 3 meals and long intervals between meals. Cluster 2 was characterized by eating the recommended number of 4 or 5 meals a day. In the 3rd cluster, students ate 3 meals a day with large intervals between them, and in the 4th they had four meals a day while maintaining proper intervals between them. In all clusters dietary mistakes occurred, but most of them were related to clusters 1 and 3. Cluster analysis allowed for the identification of major flaws in nutrition, which may include irregular eating and skipping meals, and indicated possible connections between eating patterns and disturbances of body weight in the examined population.

  12. Arsenic: bioaccessibility from seaweed and rice, dietary exposure calculations and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Esther F A; Janssen, Paul J C M; de Wit-Bos, Lianne

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is a metalloid that occurs in food and the environment in different chemical forms. Inorganic arsenic is classified as a class I carcinogen. The inorganic arsenic intake from food and drinking water varies depending on the geographic arsenic background. Non-dietary exposure to arsenic is likely to be of minor importance for the general population within the European Union. In Europe, arsenic in drinking water is on average low, but food products (e.g. rice and seaweed) are imported from all over the world including from regions with naturally high arsenic levels. Therefore, specific populations living in Europe could also have a high exposure to inorganic arsenic due to their consumption pattern. Current risk assessment is based on exposure via drinking water. For a good estimation of the risks of arsenic in food, it is important to investigate if the bioavailability of inorganic arsenic from food is different from drinking water. The present study further explores the issue of European dietary exposure to inorganic arsenic via rice and seaweed and its associated health risks. The bioavailability of inorganic arsenic was measured in in vitro digestion experiments. The data indicate that the bioavailability of inorganic arsenic is similar for rice and seaweed compared with drinking water. The calculated dietary intake for specific European Union populations varied between 0.44 and 4.51 µg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹. The margins of exposure between the inorganic intake levels and the BMDL0.5 values as derived by JECFA are low. Decreasing the intake of inorganic arsenic via Hijiki seaweed could be achieved by setting legal limits similar to those set for rice by the Codex Alimentarius Commission in July 2014.

  13. Assessing dietary exposure to cadmium in a metal recycling community in Vietnam: Age and gender aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minh, Ngo Duc; Hough, Rupert Lloyd; Thuy, Le Thi; Nyberg, Ylva; Mai, Le Bach; Vinh, Nguyen Cong; Khai, Nguyen Manh; Öborn, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    This study estimates the dietary exposure to cadmium (Cd), and associated potential health risks, for individuals living and working in a metal recycling community (n = 132) in Vietnam in comparison to an agricultural (reference) community (n = 130). Individual-level exposure to Cd was estimated through analysis of staple foodstuffs combined with information from a food frequency questionnaire. Individual-level exposure estimates were compared with published ‘safe’ doses to derive a Hazard Quotient (HQ) for each member of the study population. Looking at the populations as a whole, there were no significant differences in the diets of the two villages. However, significantly more rice was consumed by working age adults (18–60 years) in the recycling village compared to the reference village (p 3), while 20% of adult participants from the reference village had an HQ > 1. We found an elevated health risk from dietary exposure to Cd in the metal recycling village compared to the reference community. WHO standard of 0.4 mg Cd/kg rice may not be protective where people consume large amounts of rice/have relatively low body weight. - Highlights: ► First individual-level risk assessment of cadmium in recycling villages of Vietnam. ► Dietary analysis undertaken for a recycling community and an agricultural community. ► No significant differences were found between the diets of the two populations. ► 87% of people in the recycling community had elevated health risk. ► WHO standard (0.4 mg Cd/kg rice) may not be protective for rice-based cultures.

  14. Dietary exposure and human risk assessment of phthalate esters based on total diet study in Cambodia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Zhang; Li, Han-Han [College of Environment, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130 (China); Wang, Hong-sheng [Department of Microbial and Biochemical Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, No.132 Waihuandong Road, University Town, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zhu, Xue-Mei [College of Environment, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130 (China); Sthiannopkao, Suthipong [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan City, Taiwan (China); Kim, Kyoung-Woong [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Yasin, Mohamed Salleh Mohamed; Hashim, Jamal Hisham [United Nations University-International Institute for Global Health, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Wong, Ming-Hung, E-mail: minghwong@ied.edu.hk [Consortium on Health, Environment, Education and Research (CHEER), and Department of Science and Environmental Studies, Hong Kong Institute of Education, Tai Po, Hong Kong (China); School of Environment, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China)

    2016-10-15

    Phthalate esters are used in a wide variety of consumer products, and human exposure to this class of compounds is widespread. Nevertheless, studies on dietary exposure of human to phthalates are limited. In this study, to assess the daily intakes of phthalate esters and the possible adverse health impacts, different food samples were collected from three areas of Cambodia, one of the poorest countries in the world. The ∑phthalate ester concentrations in Kampong Cham, Kratie and Kandal provinces ranged from 0.05 to 2.34 (median 0.88) μg g{sup −1}, 0.19–1.65 (median 0.86) μg g{sup −1} and 0.24–3.05 (median 0.59) μg g{sup −1} wet weight (ww), respectively. Di-2-Ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) were the predominant compounds among all foodstuffs. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of phthalate esters for the general population in Kampong Cham, Kratie and Kandal was 34.3, 35.6 and 35.8 μg kg{sup −1} bw d{sup −1}, respectively. The dietary daily intake of DEHP, benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) in Kampong Cham, Kratie and Kandal were below the tolerable daily intakes (TDI) imposed by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and reference doses (RfD) imposed by The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Rice contributed the greatest quantity of DEHP to the daily intake in Cambodia so may deserve further exploration. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the occurrence and the daily intakes of phthalate esters in Cambodia. - Highlights: • Phthalate esters concentration in daily foodstuffs collected from Cambodia. • Investigate the bioaccessbility of phthalate esters via the foodstuffs consumption. • Health risk evaluation of dietary exposure to phthalate esters.

  15. A Novel Dietary Assessment Method to Measure a Healthy and Sustainable Diet Using the Mobile Food Record: Protocol and Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harray, Amelia J; Boushey, Carol J; Pollard, Christina M; Delp, Edward J; Ahmad, Ziad; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Mukhtar, Syed Aqif; Kerr, Deborah A

    2015-07-03

    The world-wide rise in obesity parallels growing concerns of global warming and depleting natural resources. These issues are often considered separately but there may be considerable benefit to raising awareness of the impact of dietary behaviours and practices on the food supply. Australians have diets inconsistent with recommendations, typically low in fruit and vegetables and high in energy-dense nutrient-poor foods and beverages (EDNP). These EDNP foods are often highly processed and packaged, negatively influencing both health and the environment. This paper describes a proposed dietary assessment method to measure healthy and sustainable dietary behaviours using 4-days of food and beverage images from the mobile food record (mFR) application. The mFR images will be assessed for serves of fruit and vegetables (including seasonality), dairy, eggs and red meat, poultry and fish, ultra-processed EDNP foods, individually packaged foods, and plate waste. A prediction model for a Healthy and Sustainable Diet Index will be developed and tested for validity and reliability. The use of the mFR to assess adherence to a healthy and sustainable diet is a novel and innovative approach to dietary assessment and will have application in population monitoring, guiding intervention development, educating consumers, health professionals and policy makers, and influencing dietary recommendations.

  16. A Novel Dietary Assessment Method to Measure a Healthy and Sustainable Diet Using the Mobile Food Record: Protocol and Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia J. Harray

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The world-wide rise in obesity parallels growing concerns of global warming and depleting natural resources. These issues are often considered separately but there may be considerable benefit to raising awareness of the impact of dietary behaviours and practices on the food supply. Australians have diets inconsistent with recommendations, typically low in fruit and vegetables and high in energy-dense nutrient-poor foods and beverages (EDNP. These EDNP foods are often highly processed and packaged, negatively influencing both health and the environment. This paper describes a proposed dietary assessment method to measure healthy and sustainable dietary behaviours using 4-days of food and beverage images from the mobile food record (mFR application. The mFR images will be assessed for serves of fruit and vegetables (including seasonality, dairy, eggs and red meat, poultry and fish, ultra-processed EDNP foods, individually packaged foods, and plate waste. A prediction model for a Healthy and Sustainable Diet Index will be developed and tested for validity and reliability. The use of the mFR to assess adherence to a healthy and sustainable diet is a novel and innovative approach to dietary assessment and will have application in population monitoring, guiding intervention development, educating consumers, health professionals and policy makers, and influencing dietary recommendations.

  17. Preschool Children (Ages 2 to 4 Years) - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    The preschool years are characterized as a time of increasing autonomy, expanding language skills, increasing ability to control behavior, and broadening social circumstances, such as attending preschool or staying with friends or relatives.

  18. An assessment of the dietary fiber intake of selected students in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... chronic diseases such as diabetes, obesity, colon cancer and heart disease. This study ... The study showed that the dietary fiber intake of the students was adequate. ... Keywords: Dietary Fiber, Cereal Fruits Vegetables, University Students ...

  19. Dual-Task Assessment Protocols in Concussion Assessment: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiner, Michelle; Wong, Lynne; Dubé, Alexandra; Wnuk, Katie; Hunter, Susan W; Graham, Laura J

    2018-02-01

    Study Design Systematic review. Background When assessed in isolation, balance and neurocognitive testing may not be sufficiently responsive to capture changes that occur with concussion. Normal daily activities require simultaneous cognitive and physical demands. Therefore, a dual-task assessment paradigm should be considered to identify performance deficits. Objectives To evaluate the literature and to identify dual-task testing protocols associated with changes in gait after concussion. Methods A systematic review of articles of individuals with concussion who underwent dual-task testing with a combination of motor and cognitive tasks was conducted. The AMED, CINAHL, Embase, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science databases and gray literature were searched from inception to January 29, 2017. Title and abstract, full-text, and quality review and data abstraction were performed by 2 independent reviewers. Results Twenty-four articles met the inclusion criteria. Eleven articles reported decreased gait velocity and increased medial-lateral displacement for individuals with concussion during dual-task conditions. Overall, included articles were of poor to moderate methodological quality. Fifteen articles used the same participants and data sets, creating a threat to validity and limiting the ability to make conclusions. Conclusion A deterioration in gait performance during dual-task testing is present among people with concussion. Specific recommendations for the use of a dual-task protocol to assess individuals with suspected concussion injury in a clinical setting have yet to be determined. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2018;48(2):87-103. Epub 7 Nov 2017. doi:10.2519/jospt.2018.7432.

  20. What Current Literature Tells Us about Sustainable Diets: Emerging Research Linking Dietary Patterns, Environmental Sustainability, and Economics12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auestad, Nancy; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2015-01-01

    The concept of sustainable diets, although not new, is gaining increased attention across the globe, especially in relation to projected population growth and growing concerns about climate change. As defined by the FAO (Proceedings of the International Scientific Symposium, Biodiversity and Sustainable Diets 2010; FAO 2012), “Sustainable diets are those diets with low environmental impacts which contribute to food and nutrition security and to healthy life for present and future generations.” Consistent and credible science that brings together agriculture, food systems, nutrition, public health, environment, economics, culture, and trade is needed to identify synergies and trade-offs and to inform guidance on vital elements of healthy, sustainable diets. The aim of this article is to review the emerging research on environmental and related economic impacts of dietary patterns, including habitual eating patterns, nutritionally balanced diets, and a variety of different dietary scenarios. Approaches to research designs, methodologies, and data sources are compared and contrasted to identify research gaps and future research needs. To date, it is difficult to assimilate all of the disparate approaches, and more concerted efforts for multidisciplinary studies are needed. PMID:25593141

  1. What current literature tells us about sustainable diets: emerging research linking dietary patterns, environmental sustainability, and economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auestad, Nancy; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2015-01-01

    The concept of sustainable diets, although not new, is gaining increased attention across the globe, especially in relation to projected population growth and growing concerns about climate change. As defined by the FAO (Proceedings of the International Scientific Symposium, Biodiversity and Sustainable Diets 2010; FAO 2012), "Sustainable diets are those diets with low environmental impacts which contribute to food and nutrition security and to healthy life for present and future generations." Consistent and credible science that brings together agriculture, food systems, nutrition, public health, environment, economics, culture, and trade is needed to identify synergies and trade-offs and to inform guidance on vital elements of healthy, sustainable diets. The aim of this article is to review the emerging research on environmental and related economic impacts of dietary patterns, including habitual eating patterns, nutritionally balanced diets, and a variety of different dietary scenarios. Approaches to research designs, methodologies, and data sources are compared and contrasted to identify research gaps and future research needs. To date, it is difficult to assimilate all of the disparate approaches, and more concerted efforts for multidisciplinary studies are needed. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. Assessment of delirium in ICU patients : A literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lisette Schoonhoven; Peter Pickkers; Mark van den Boogaard

    2010-01-01

    A psycho-organic disorder such as delirium is a frequently occurring and serious disorder especially on Intensive Care units. Nowadays, more attention is paid to this problem by physicians, nurses and by researchers, but assessment of delirium in all ICU patients is still not common practice. If

  3. Television for Effective Parenthood; Literature Search and Existing Materials Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appalachia Educational Lab., Charleston, WV.

    Materials concerning parenthood education were assessed and classified as published research, audiovisual materials, and pamphlets and booklets. Eighty-nine items of related research were reviewed and listed in a bibliography. Content and technical quality of audiovisual materials from a national search were reviewed and evaluated based on…

  4. Flood damage assessmentLiterature review and recommended procedure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Lea; Löwe, Roland; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    The assessment of flood risk is an essential tool in evaluating the potential consequences of a flood. The analysis of the risk can be applied as part of the flood plain management, but can also be used in a cost-benefit analysis, when comparing different adaption strategies. This analysis is the...

  5. Defining and assessing wisdom: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangen, Katherine J; Meeks, Thomas W; Jeste, Dilip V

    2013-12-01

    With increasing longevity and a growing focus on successful aging, there has been a recent growth of research designed to operationalize and assess wisdom. We aimed to (1) investigate the degree of overlap among empirical definitions of wisdom, (2) identify the most commonly cited wisdom subcomponents, (3) examine the psychometric properties of existing assessment instruments, and (4) investigate whether certain assessment procedures work particularly well in tapping the essence of subcomponents of the various empirical definitions. We searched PsychINFO-indexed articles published through May 2012 and their bibliographies. Studies were included if they were published in a peer-reviewed journal and (1) proposed a definition of wisdom or (2) discussed the development or validation of an instrument designed to assess wisdom. Thirty-one articles met inclusion criteria. Despite variability among the 24 reviewed definitions, there was significant overlap. Commonly cited subcomponents of wisdom included knowledge of life, prosocial values, self-understanding, acknowledgment of uncertainty, emotional homeostasis, tolerance, openness, spirituality, and sense of humor. Published reports describing the psychometric properties of nine instruments varied in comprehensiveness but most measures were examined for selected types of reliability and validity, which were generally acceptable. Given limitations of self-report procedures, an approach integrating multiple indices (e.g., self-report and performance-based measures) may better capture wisdom. Significant progress in the empirical study of wisdom has occurred over the past four decades; however, much needs to be done. Future studies with larger, more diverse samples are needed to determine the generalizability, usefulness, and clinical applicability of these definitions and assessment instruments. Such work will have relevance for the fields of geriatrics, psychiatry, psychology, sociology, education, and public health

  6. Evaluating the relationship between plasma and skin carotenoids and reported dietary intake in elementary school children to assess fruit and vegetable intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurate assessment of dietary intake of children can be challenging due to the limited reliability of current dietary assessment methods in children. While plasma carotenoid concentrations has been used to assess fruit and vegetable intake, this testing is rarely conducted in school settings in chi...

  7. Assessment of dietary habits and nutritional status of depressive patients, depending on place of residence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Stefanska

    2017-12-01

    The study showed dietary errors in all compared groups, regardless of place of residence, which was reflected in the nutritional status of the respondents. The results also indicated that during the declared change in dietary habits, the treatment of depressive patients should include dietary instructions in order to ensure an optimum supply of nutrients

  8. An assessment of dietary exposure to glyphosate using refined deterministic and probabilistic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, C L; Harris, C A

    2016-09-01

    Glyphosate is a herbicide used to control broad-leaved weeds. Some uses of glyphosate in crop production can lead to residues of the active substance and related metabolites in food. This paper uses data on residue levels, processing information and consumption patterns, to assess theoretical lifetime dietary exposure to glyphosate. Initial estimates were made assuming exposure to the highest permitted residue levels in foods. These intakes were then refined using median residue levels from trials, processing information, and monitoring data to achieve a more realistic estimate of exposure. Estimates were made using deterministic and probabilistic methods. Exposures were compared to the acceptable daily intake (ADI)-the amount of a substance that can be consumed daily without an appreciable health risk. Refined deterministic intakes for all consumers were at or below 2.1% of the ADI. Variations were due to cultural differences in consumption patterns and the level of aggregation of the dietary information in calculation models, which allows refinements for processing. Probabilistic exposure estimates ranged from 0.03% to 0.90% of the ADI, depending on whether optimistic or pessimistic assumptions were made in the calculations. Additional refinements would be possible if further data on processing and from residues monitoring programmes were available. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Risk assessment of dietary exposure to phytosterol oxidation products from baked food in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yinzhou; Wang, Mengmeng; Huang, Weisu; Yang, Guoliang; Lou, Tiantian; Lai, Shiyun; Lu, Baiyi; Zheng, Lufei

    2018-02-01

    Phytosterols are nutritional phytochemicals that may undergo oxidation and be transformed into phytosterol oxidation products (POPs), thus inducing pathological and toxic effects. This work investigated four main phytosterols and 28 POPs in 104 kinds of commercial baked food by using GC-MS. The dietary exposure and hazard index values (HI) associated with POPs from baked food consumption in China were estimated by using Monte Carlo simulation. Concentrations of the total phytosterols were between 3.39 and 209.80 μg/g. The total concentrations of POPs, including 5α,6α/5β,6β-epoxysterols, 7-ketosterol, 7α/7β-hydroxysterols, 6-hydroxysterols, and triols, ranged from 0.37 to 27.81 μg/g. The median dietary exposure of POP contents in baked food for four age groups in China were 10.91 (children), 6.20 (adolescents), 3.63 (adults), and 3.40 (seniors) mg/(kg×day). Risk assessment of median HI with respect to POPs indicated no risk (HI <1) for people in adolescents, adults, and seniors in the country area of China, while a risk (1 < HI < 10) would refer to the baked food consumption of people in urban area and children in country area of China. Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis showed that the most significant variables for each age group in China were POP concentration, body weight, and ingestion rate.

  10. Assessment of in Vitro Digestibility of Dietary Carbohydrates Using Rat Small Intestinal Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Lazarte, Alvaro; Olano, Agustín; Villamiel, Mar; Moreno, F Javier

    2017-09-13

    There are few studies on the assessment of digestibility of nondigestible carbohydrates, despite their increasingly important role in human health. In vitro digestibility of a range of dietary carbohydrates classified as digestible (maltose, sucrose, and lactose), well-recognized (lactulose, fructooligosaccharides (FOS), and two types of galactooligosaccharides (GOS) differing in the predominant glycosidic linkage), and potential (lactosucrose and GOS from lactulose, OsLu) prebiotics using a rat small intestinal extract (RSIE) under physiological conditions of temperature and pH is described. Recognized and potential prebiotics were highly resistant to RSIE digestion although partial hydrolysis at different extents was observed. FOS and lactulose were the most resistant to digestion, followed closely by OsLu and more distantly by both types of GOS and lactosucrose. In GOS, β(1 → 6) linkages were more resistant to digestion than β(1 → 4) bonds. The reported in vitro digestion model is a useful, simple, and cost-effective tool to evaluate the digestibility of dietary oligosaccharides.

  11. Dietary risk assessment of pesticides from vegetables and drinking water in gardening areas in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Edouard; Turrero, Nuria; Kolia, Marius; Konaté, Yacouba; de Alencastro, Luiz Felippe

    2017-12-01

    Vegetables and water samples have been collected around the lake of Loumbila in Burkina Faso. Pesticides residues in food commodities were analyzed using a modified QuEChERS extraction method prior analysis on GC-MS and UPLC-MS/MS of 31 pesticides. Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs) were exceeded in 36% of the samples for seven pesticides: acetamiprid, carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, lambda-cyhalothrin, dieldrin, imidacloprid and profenofos. Exceedance of MRLs suggests a risk for the consumers and limits the opportunities of exportation. In order to define estimated daily intake, dietary surveys were conducted on 126 gardeners using a 24hours recall method. Single pesticide and cumulative exposure risks were assessed for children and adults. Risk was identified for: chlorpyrifos and lambda-cyhalothrin in acute and chronic exposure scenarios. Hazardous chronic exposure to the endocrine disruptor and probable carcinogen dieldrin was also detected. In the studied population, cumulative dietary exposure presented a risk (acute and chronic) for children and adults in respectively >17% and 4% of the cases when considering the worst case scenarios. Processing factor largely influenced the risk of occurrence suggesting that simple washing of vegetables with water considerably reduced the risk of hazardous exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The feasibility and utility of grocery receipt analyses for dietary assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan Yan

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To establish the feasibility and utility of a simple data collection methodology for dietary assessment. Design Using a cross-sectional design, trained data collectors approached adults (~20 – 40 years of age at local grocery stores and asked whether they would volunteer their grocery receipts and answer a few questions for a small stipend ($1. Methods The grocery data were divided into 3 categories: "fats, oils, and sweets," "processed foods," and "low-fat/low-calorie substitutions" as a percentage of the total food purchase price. The questions assessed the shopper's general eating habits (eg, fast-food consumption and a few demographic characteristics and health aspects (eg, perception of body size. Statistical Analyses Performed. Descriptive and analytic analyses using non-parametric tests were conducted in SAS. Results Forty-eight receipts and questionnaires were collected. Nearly every respondent reported eating fast food at least once per month; 27% ate out once or twice a day. Frequency of fast-food consumption was positively related to perceived body size of the respondent (p = 0.02. Overall, 30% of the food purchase price was for fats, oils, sweets, 10% was for processed foods, and almost 6% was for low-fat/low-calorie substitutions. Households where no one was perceived to be overweight spent a smaller proportion of their food budget on fats, oils, and sweets than did households where at least one person was perceived to be overweight (p = 0.10; household where the spouse was not perceived to be overweight spent less on fats, oils, and sweets (p = 0.02 and more on low-fat/low-calorie substitutions (p = 0.09 than did households where the spouse was perceived to be overweight; and, respondents who perceived themselves to be overweight spent more on processed foods than did respondents who did not perceive themselves to be overweight (p = 0.06. Conclusion This simple dietary assessment method, although global in

  13. Literature Review and Assessment of Plant and Animal Transfer Factors Used in Performance Assessment Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, David E.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Napier, Bruce A.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Sasser, Lyle B.

    2003-01-01

    A literature review and assessment was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to update information on plant and animal radionuclide transfer factors used in performance-assessment modeling. A group of 15 radionuclides was included in this review and assessment. The review is composed of four main sections, not including the Introduction. Section 2.0 provides a review of the critically important issue of physicochemical speciation and geochemistry of the radionuclides in natural soil-water systems as it relates to the bioavailability of the radionuclides. Section 3.0 provides an updated review of the parameters of importance in the uptake of radionuclides by plants, including root uptake via the soil-groundwater system and foliar uptake due to overhead irrigation. Section 3.0 also provides a compilation of concentration ratios (CRs) for soil-to-plant uptake for the 15 selected radionuclides. Section 4.0 provides an updated review on radionuclide uptake data for animal products related to absorption, homeostatic control, approach to equilibration, chemical and physical form, diet, and age. Compiled transfer coefficients are provided for cow's milk, sheep's milk, goat's milk, beef, goat meat, pork, poultry, and eggs. Section 5.0 discusses the use of transfer coefficients in soil, plant, and animal modeling using regulatory models for evaluating radioactive waste disposal or decommissioned sites. Each section makes specific suggestions for future research in its area.

  14. Literature Review and Assessment of Plant and Animal Transfer Factors Used in Performance Assessment Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, David E.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Napier, Bruce A.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Sasser, Lyle B.

    2003-07-20

    A literature review and assessment was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to update information on plant and animal radionuclide transfer factors used in performance-assessment modeling. A group of 15 radionuclides was included in this review and assessment. The review is composed of four main sections, not including the Introduction. Section 2.0 provides a review of the critically important issue of physicochemical speciation and geochemistry of the radionuclides in natural soil-water systems as it relates to the bioavailability of the radionuclides. Section 3.0 provides an updated review of the parameters of importance in the uptake of radionuclides by plants, including root uptake via the soil-groundwater system and foliar uptake due to overhead irrigation. Section 3.0 also provides a compilation of concentration ratios (CRs) for soil-to-plant uptake for the 15 selected radionuclides. Section 4.0 provides an updated review on radionuclide uptake data for animal products related to absorption, homeostatic control, approach to equilibration, chemical and physical form, diet, and age. Compiled transfer coefficients are provided for cow’s milk, sheep’s milk, goat’s milk, beef, goat meat, pork, poultry, and eggs. Section 5.0 discusses the use of transfer coefficients in soil, plant, and animal modeling using regulatory models for evaluating radioactive waste disposal or decommissioned sites. Each section makes specific suggestions for future research in its area.

  15. A Printer Indexing System for Color Calibration with Applications in Dietary Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shaobo; Liu, Chang; Zhu, Fengqing; Boushey, Carol; Delp, Edward

    2015-09-01

    In image based dietary assessment, color is a very important feature in food identification. One issue with using color in image analysis in the calibration of the color imaging capture system. In this paper we propose an indexing system for color camera calibration using printed color checkerboards also known as fiducial markers (FMs). To use the FM for color calibration one must know which printer was used to print the FM so that the correct color calibration matrix can be used for calibration. We have designed a printer indexing scheme that allows one to determine which printer was used to print the FM based on a unique arrangement of color squares and binarized marks (used for error control) printed on the FM. Using normalized cross correlation and pattern detection, the index corresponding to the printer for a particular FM can be determined. Our experimental results show this scheme is robust against most types of lighting conditions.

  16. Assessing the Clinical Skills of Dental Students: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Carly L.; Grey, Nick; Satterthwaite, Julian D.

    2013-01-01

    Education, from a student perspective, is largely driven by assessment. An effective assessment tool should be both valid and reliable, yet this is often not achieved. The aim of this literature review is to identify and appraise the evidence base for assessment tools used primarily in evaluating clinical skills of dental students. Methods:…

  17. NutriNet: A Deep Learning Food and Drink Image Recognition System for Dietary Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezgec, Simon; Koroušić Seljak, Barbara

    2017-06-27

    Automatic food image recognition systems are alleviating the process of food-intake estimation and dietary assessment. However, due to the nature of food images, their recognition is a particularly challenging task, which is why traditional approaches in the field have achieved a low classification accuracy. Deep neural networks have outperformed such solutions, and we present a novel approach to the problem of food and drink image detection and recognition that uses a newly-defined deep convolutional neural network architecture, called NutriNet. This architecture was tuned on a recognition dataset containing 225,953 512 × 512 pixel images of 520 different food and drink items from a broad spectrum of food groups, on which we achieved a classification accuracy of 86 . 72 % , along with an accuracy of 94 . 47 % on a detection dataset containing 130 , 517 images. We also performed a real-world test on a dataset of self-acquired images, combined with images from Parkinson's disease patients, all taken using a smartphone camera, achieving a top-five accuracy of 55 % , which is an encouraging result for real-world images. Additionally, we tested NutriNet on the University of Milano-Bicocca 2016 (UNIMIB2016) food image dataset, on which we improved upon the provided baseline recognition result. An online training component was implemented to continually fine-tune the food and drink recognition model on new images. The model is being used in practice as part of a mobile app for the dietary assessment of Parkinson's disease patients.

  18. Assessing the Validity and Reproducibility of an Iron Dietary Intake Questionnaire Conducted in a Group of Young Polish Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Głąbska, Dominika; Guzek, Dominika; Ślązak, Joanna; Włodarek, Dariusz

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse a designed brief iron dietary intake questionnaire based on a food frequency assessment (IRONIC-FFQ—IRON Intake Calculation-Food Frequency Questionnaire), including the assessment of validity and reproducibility in a group of 75 Polish women aged 20–30 years. Participants conducted 3-day dietary records and filled in the IRONIC-FFQ twice (FFQ1—directly after the dietary record and FFQ2—6 weeks later). The analysis included an assessment of validity (comparison with the results of the 3-day dietary record) and of reproducibility (comparison of the results obtained twice—FFQ1 and FFQ2). In the analysis of validity, the share of individuals correctly classified into tertiles was over 50% (weighted κ of 0.36), while analysis of correlation revealed correlation coefficients of almost 0.5. In the assessment of reproducibility, almost 80% of individuals were correctly classified and less than 3% were misclassified (weighted κ of 0.73), while a correlation coefficient higher than 0.85 was obtained. Both in the assessment of validity and of reproducibility, a Bland–Altman index of 6.7% was recorded (93.3% of compared pairs of results were in the acceptable range, attributed to differences within ± 2SD limit). Validation of the IRONIC-FFQ revealed a satisfactory level of validity and positively validated reproducibility. PMID:28264423

  19. Assessment of Daily Food and Nutrient Intake in Japanese Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients Using Dietary Reference Intakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoto Nakamura

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Medical nutrition therapy for the management of diabetes plays an important role in preventing diabetes complications and managing metabolic control. However, little is known about actual eating habits of individuals with type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM, especially in Japan. Therefore, we sought to (1 assess the dietary intake of individuals with T2DM, and (2 characterize their intake relative to national recommendations. This cross-sectional study involved 149 patients (77 males and 72 females aged 40–79 years with T2DM recruited at a Kyoto hospital. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated self-administered diet history questionnaire. Under-consumption, adequacy, and over-consumption, of nutrients were compared to the age- and sex-based standards of the Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes. Among the results, most notable are (1 the inadequacy of diets in men with respect to intake of vitamins and minerals, likely owing to low intake of vegetables and fruits; (2 excess contributions of fat intake to total energy in both sexes; and (3 excess consumption of sweets and beverages relative to the national average. The prevalence of diabetes complications may be increasing because of a major gap between the typical dietary intake of individuals with T2DM and dietary recommendation.

  20. Usefulness and Pitfalls in Sodium Intake Estimation: Comparison of Dietary Assessment and Urinary Excretion in Chilean Children and Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campino, Carmen; Hill, Caroline; Baudrand, Rene; Martínez-Aguayo, Alejandro; Aglony, Marlene; Carrasco, Carmen A; Ferrada, Clarita; Loureiro, Carolina; Vecchiola, Andrea; Bancalari, Rodrigo; Grob, Francisca; Carvajal, Cristian A; Lagos, Carlos F; Valdivia, Carolina; Tapia-Castillo, Alejandra; Fuentes, Cristobal A; Mendoza, Carolina; Garcia, Hernan; Uauy, Ricardo; Fardella, Carlos E

    2016-10-01

    High sodium intake has been associated with various noncommunicable disease like hypertension, cardiovascular disease, or stroke. To estimate accurately sodium intake is challenging in clinical practice. We investigate the usefulness and limitations of assessing sodium intake simultaneously by dietary assessment and urinary samples in both children and adults. We used a cross-sectional study design inviting 298 Chilean subjects (74 children and 222 adults) aged between 9 and 66 years of both genders. Sodium intake by dietary assessment was obtained from Chilean food composition data, based on FAO tables. Sodium and creatinine excretion were measured in 24-hour urine samples, in all participants. Adequate urinary collection was obtained in 81% of children (59/74) and 61% of adults (135/222). The mean sodium intake by dietary assessment was similar to the sodium excretion in 24 hours (3,121±1,153mg/d vs. 3,114±1,353mg/24h, P = nonsignificant) in children but was significantly lower (3,208±1,284mg/d vs. 4,160±1,651mg/24h, P < 0.001) in adults. In both children and adults, sodium intake correlated with urinary sodium excretion (r = 0.456, P < 0.003 and r = 0.390, P < 0.001, respectively). Secondary analyses also suggested that the dietary assessment was more inaccurate in overweight adult subjects. Our results showed that average sodium intake was higher than recommended in both children and adults (WHO ≤2,000mg/d). The sodium intake estimated by dietary assessment correlated with urinary excretion in all subjects, but in obese adults was more inaccurate than in children. Future studies to validate the appropriate test to assess sodium intake by age and nutritional status are warranted. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2016. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Age dependent values of dietary intake for assessing human exposures to environmental pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rupp, E.M.

    1980-01-01

    Detailed information concerning human food consumption patterns necessary for relating pollutant body burdens to environmental contamination levels was compiled to be used in lieu of site-specific data for calculating health impacts arising from the ingestion of food containing various levels of such pollutants as radionuclides, toxic heavy metals, insecticides and many others. This paper examines available data on human food consumption rates and estimates dietary intake rates by individuals of various ages. Ingestion parameters include intake rates of water and other beverages, milk, vegetables, fruits, meat, poultry, grain and fish. Information was analyzed from documented surveys of individuals within households and from interviews and personal communications. Although average intake rates are often the only data reported in the literature, ranges as well as averages are included in this paper whenever possible. Various results are tabulated including per capita food consumption in 1955 and 1965 and changes in per capita consumption as well as changes by urbanization. Details of milk consumption are presented by selected sex-age groups. Solid food intake is given by age group. Market basket quantities of foods consumed daily are also tabulated. (author)

  2. Assessing dietary exposure to cadmium in a metal recycling community in Vietnam: Age and gender aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minh, Ngo Duc [Vietnamese Academy of Agriculture Sciences, Soils and Fertilizers Research Institute (SFRI), Tu Liem, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Hough, Rupert Lloyd, E-mail: rupert.hough@hutton.ac.uk [The James Hutton Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen, AB15 8QH (United Kingdom); Thuy, Le Thi [Vietnamese Academy of Agriculture Science, Institute of Agricultural Environment (IAE), Tu Liem, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Nyberg, Ylva [Department of Crop Production Ecology, PO Box 7043, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Mai, Le Bach [National Institute of Nutrition, 48b Tang Bat Ho, Hoan Kiem, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Vinh, Nguyen Cong [Vietnamese Academy of Agriculture Sciences, Soils and Fertilizers Research Institute (SFRI), Tu Liem, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Khai, Nguyen Manh [Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Ha Noi University of Science (HUS-VNU), 334 Nguyen Trai, Thanh Xuan, Ha Noi (Viet Nam); Oeborn, Ingrid [Department of Crop Production Ecology, PO Box 7043, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2012-02-01

    This study estimates the dietary exposure to cadmium (Cd), and associated potential health risks, for individuals living and working in a metal recycling community (n = 132) in Vietnam in comparison to an agricultural (reference) community (n = 130). Individual-level exposure to Cd was estimated through analysis of staple foodstuffs combined with information from a food frequency questionnaire. Individual-level exposure estimates were compared with published 'safe' doses to derive a Hazard Quotient (HQ) for each member of the study population. Looking at the populations as a whole, there were no significant differences in the diets of the two villages. However, significantly more rice was consumed by working age adults (18-60 years) in the recycling village compared to the reference village (p < 0.001). Rice was the main staple food with individuals consuming 461 {+-} 162 g/d, followed by water spinach (103 {+-} 51 kg/d). Concentrations of Cd in the studied foodstuffs were elevated in the metal recycling village. Values of HQ exceeded unity for 87% of adult participants of the metal recycling community (39% had a HQ > 3), while 20% of adult participants from the reference village had an HQ > 1. We found an elevated health risk from dietary exposure to Cd in the metal recycling village compared to the reference community. WHO standard of 0.4 mg Cd/kg rice may not be protective where people consume large amounts of rice/have relatively low body weight. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First individual-level risk assessment of cadmium in recycling villages of Vietnam. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dietary analysis undertaken for a recycling community and an agricultural community. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No significant differences were found between the diets of the two populations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 87% of people in the recycling community had elevated health risk. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer WHO standard (0.4 mg Cd/kg rice) may

  3. Agreement between Dietary Intake of Older Adults and Proxy Respondents Assessed by a Food Frequency Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias Medici Saldiva, S R; Bassani, L; da Silva Castro, A L; Gonçalves, I B; de Oliveira Sales, C R; Lobo Marchioni, D M

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the degree of agreement of dietary intake reported by the patient subject with the dietary intake reported by a respondent (a next-of-kin or a caregiver), collected by a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). 126 adults, both sexes, the average age was 65.9 years for patients and 54.4 years for respondents. They were recruited from the General Practice Clinic at the Clinical Hospital of São Paulo (AGD-FMUSP). The agreement between the responses given by patients and respondents was assessed using Spearman, weighted Kappa and Bland Altman tests. The analysis for accuracy between responses (Spearman test) showed a moderate degree of agreement (0.31-0.39) for Energy, Total fat, Total Saturated Fatty Acids (SFA), Total Monounsaturated Fatty Acids (MUFA). Regarding food groups a moderate agreement was found for the majority of the foods (fruits (0.30), dairy products (0.50), natural juices (0.45), beans (0.48), butter/margarine (0.55), coffee (0.41) and soda (0.45), with the exception of vegetables (0.12) and rice (0.63). The ingestion differences did not exceeded the limit of the two standard deviations for the majority of the pairs (Bland Altman). A respondent subsample composed only of husband/wives (N = 36) revealed a moderate agreement concordance for most macronutrients studied (0.30 - 0.58), except polyunsaturated fats (0.25). The results of this study show that, the FFQ may be used in cases where is impossible to get the answers directly from the patients.

  4. Assessing validity of a short food frequency questionnaire on present dietary intake of elderly Icelanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eysteinsdottir Tinna

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies exist on the validity of food frequency questionnaires (FFQs administered to elderly people. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of a short FFQ on present dietary intake, developed specially for the AGES-Reykjavik Study, which includes 5,764 elderly individuals. Assessing the validity of FFQs is essential before they are used in studies on diet-related disease risk and health outcomes. Method 128 healthy elderly participants (74 y ± 5.7; 58.6% female answered the AGES-FFQ, and subsequently filled out a 3-day weighed food record. Validity of the AGES-FFQ was assessed by comparing its answers to the dietary data obtained from the weighed food records, using Spearman's rank correlation, Chi-Square/Kendall's tau, and a Jonckheere-Terpstra test for trend. Result For men a correlation ≥ 0.4 was found for potatoes, fresh fruits, oatmeal/muesli, cakes/cookies, candy, dairy products, milk, pure fruit juice, cod liver oil, coffee, tea and sugar in coffee/tea (r = 0.40-0.71. A lower, but acceptable, correlation was also found for raw vegetables (r = 0.33. The highest correlation for women was found for consumption of rye bread, oatmeal/muesli, raw vegetables, candy, dairy products, milk, pure fruit juice, cod liver oil, coffee and tea (r = 0.40-0.61. An acceptable correlation was also found for fish topping/salad, fresh fruit, blood/liver sausage, whole-wheat bread, and sugar in coffee/tea (r = 0.28-0.37. Questions on meat/fish meals, cooked vegetables and soft drinks did not show a significant correlation to the reference method. Pearson Chi-Square and Kendall's tau showed similar results, as did the Jonckheere-Terpstra trend test. Conclusion A majority of the questions in the AGES-FFQ had an acceptable correlation and may be used to rank individuals according to their level of intake of several important foods/food groups. The AGES-FFQ on present diet may therefore be used to study the relationship between

  5. Assessing validity of a short food frequency questionnaire on present dietary intake of elderly Icelanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Few studies exist on the validity of food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) administered to elderly people. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of a short FFQ on present dietary intake, developed specially for the AGES-Reykjavik Study, which includes 5,764 elderly individuals. Assessing the validity of FFQs is essential before they are used in studies on diet-related disease risk and health outcomes. Method 128 healthy elderly participants (74 y ± 5.7; 58.6% female) answered the AGES-FFQ, and subsequently filled out a 3-day weighed food record. Validity of the AGES-FFQ was assessed by comparing its answers to the dietary data obtained from the weighed food records, using Spearman's rank correlation, Chi-Square/Kendall's tau, and a Jonckheere-Terpstra test for trend. Result For men a correlation ≥ 0.4 was found for potatoes, fresh fruits, oatmeal/muesli, cakes/cookies, candy, dairy products, milk, pure fruit juice, cod liver oil, coffee, tea and sugar in coffee/tea (r = 0.40-0.71). A lower, but acceptable, correlation was also found for raw vegetables (r = 0.33). The highest correlation for women was found for consumption of rye bread, oatmeal/muesli, raw vegetables, candy, dairy products, milk, pure fruit juice, cod liver oil, coffee and tea (r = 0.40-0.61). An acceptable correlation was also found for fish topping/salad, fresh fruit, blood/liver sausage, whole-wheat bread, and sugar in coffee/tea (r = 0.28-0.37). Questions on meat/fish meals, cooked vegetables and soft drinks did not show a significant correlation to the reference method. Pearson Chi-Square and Kendall's tau showed similar results, as did the Jonckheere-Terpstra trend test. Conclusion A majority of the questions in the AGES-FFQ had an acceptable correlation and may be used to rank individuals according to their level of intake of several important foods/food groups. The AGES-FFQ on present diet may therefore be used to study the relationship between consumption of several

  6. Re-thinking clinical assessment: What can we learn from the medical literature?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yielder, Jill; Thompson, Andrea; De Bueger, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the literature available in the field of medical education on the topic of clinical assessment, in order to suggest different ways of assessing clinical experience that may not have been considered within undergraduate radiography programmes. The medical literature is contrasted with the clinical assessment currently being used in a medical imaging programme in New Zealand, with the aim of offering suggestions that may benefit the assessment of the clinical and professional elements of radiography programmes more generally. The authors conclude that ideally students need to be assessed in the clinical domain by multiple assessors, with varied assessment methods used repeatedly over a period of time and with the provision of frequent and constructive feedback. Various methods of clinical assessment are suggested and it is emphasised that the methods selected need to be valid, reliable and psychometrically supported. This encourages an evidence-based practice approach that is supportive of on-going programme development and change.

  7. Pain Assessment in Children with Special Needs: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Brenna L.; Seibold, Esther; Hayman, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Challenges in assessing the pain of children with special needs are created by the differing abilities of these students to self-report pain presence and intensity. This article reports the results of a literature review examining methods of pain assessment for children with special needs. The authors note the need to foster partnerships with…

  8. Life cycle assessment of soil and groundwater remediation technologies: literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Gitte; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    2010-01-01

    Background, aim, and scope Life cycle assessment (LCA) is becoming an increasingly widespread tool in support systems for environmental decision-making regarding the cleanup of contaminated sites. In this study, the use of LCA to compare the environmental impacts of different remediation...... and scope definition and the applied impact assessment. The studies differ in their basic approach since some are prospective with focus on decision support while others are retrospective aiming at a more detailed assessment of a completed remediation project. Literature review The literature review showed...... scenarios in terms of their associated environmental burden. Main features An overview of the assessed remediation technologies and contaminant types covered in the literature is presented. The LCA methodologies of the 12 reviewed studies were compared and discussed with special focus on their goal...

  9. [Assessment of an educational technology in the string literature about breastfeeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Paula Marciana Pinheiro; Pagliuca, Lorita Marlena Freitag

    2013-02-01

    The goal of this study was to assess educational technology in the string literature about breastfeeding. The study was conducted between March and September 2009 by breastfeeding experts and experts on string literature. A psychometric model was adopted as the theoretical-methodological framework. For data collection, an instrument was used to assess the content about breastfeeding and the string literature rules. The analysis was based on comparisons of the notes and critical reflections of experts. Ethical guidelines were followed during the study. After the assessments, the educational technology was adjusted until all of the experts agreed. The assessment of educational technology can reduce obstacles to information dissemination and can lead to improvements in quality of life.

  10. Assessing dietary intake in childhood cancer survivors: Food frequency questionnaire versus 24-hour diet recalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer diagnosis and treatment may influence dietary intake. The validity of using self-reported methods to quantify dietary intake has not been evaluated in childhood cancer survivors. We validated total energy intake (EI) reported from Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and repeated 24-hour diet r...

  11. EFSA (European Food Safety Authority), 2016. Dietary exposure assessment to pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the European population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annette

    Chronic and acute dietary exposure to pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) was estimated in the European population via the consumption of plant-derived foods. This resulted in highest estimates of mean chronic dietary exposure of 34.5–48.4 ng/kg body weight (bw) per day in ‘Toddlers’ (LB–UB) and 154...

  12. Suitability Assessment of Printed Dietary Guidelines for Pregnant Women and Parents of Infants and Toddlers From 7 European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnweidner-Holme, Lisa Maria; Dolvik, Stina; Frisvold, Cathrine; Mosdøl, Annhild

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate selected European printed dietary guidelines for pregnant women and parents of infants and toddlers using the suitability assessment of materials (SAM) method. A descriptive study to determine the suitability of 14 printed dietary guidelines from 7 European countries based on deductive quantitative analyses. Materials varied greatly in format and content: 35.7% of materials were rated superior and 64.3% were rated adequate according to the overall SAM score for patient education material. None of the materials were scored not suitable. Among the categories, the highest average scores were for layout and typography and the lowest average scores were for cultural appropriateness and learning stimulation and motivation. Interrater reliability ranged from Cohen's kappa of 0.37 to 0.62 (mean, 0.41), indicating fair to moderate agreement among the 3 investigators. Overall, the suitability of the assessed printed dietary guidelines was adequate. Based on the SAM methodology, printed dietary guidelines may increase in suitability by emphasizing aspects related to health literacy and accommodating the needs of different food cultures within a population. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for dietary assessment in Malay adolescents in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurul-Fadhilah, Abdullah; Teo, Pey Sze; Foo, Leng Huat

    2012-01-01

    Food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) must be tailored to the target populations because dietary habits vary within the populations due to differences in cultural and lifestyles practices. Limited information is available to assess the validity of FFQ used among Malaysian adolescents. To construct the validity and reproducibility of a newly developed FFQ in assessing habitual nutrients intake over the past year of 170 Malay adolescent boys and girls in Kelantan, Malaysia. The FFQ that consisted of 124 food items was assessed, whereas three days of 24-hours dietary recalls (DR) was administered as the standard criteria method. Estimated mean intake for most nutrients assessed by the FFQ were higher as compared to the three DRs (pcross classification of quartile analysis showed that most nutrients were classified into the same or adjacent quartiles (median=52.7%). For the reproducibility of FFQ, the correlation of nutrients ranged from 0.43 for carotene to 0.86 for total fat intake (median=0.67), after adjusting for total energy intake. The newly developed dietary FFQ is a relatively good and valid tool in assessing habitual nutrients intake for the past year among Malay adolescents in Malaysia.

  14. Environmental impact assessment: use of literature data versus use of specific local and regional data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochedo, Elaine R.R.; Wasserman, Maria Angelica

    2000-01-01

    The environmental radiological impact assessment methodology includes a large number of parameters to simulate the environmental transfer and population exposure. Local and regional data are often not available, particularly for tropical regions, which leads to the use of literature data, mostly determined at temperate climate countries. Since 1993, IRD has been developing radioecological studies aiming the determination soil-plant transfer factors, which showed the possibility of finding values up to one order of magnitude higher than those found at temperate climate countries literature. This paper compares dose results for several scenarios, using regional and literature data, assessing the relevance of using site specific data for radiological impact assessments, for both practices and intervention situations. (author)

  15. Health Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues via Dietary Intake of Market Vegetables from Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Shakhaoat Hossain

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to assess the health risk of pesticide residues via dietary intake of vegetables collected from four top agro-based markets of Dhaka, Bangladesh. High performance liquid chromatography with a photo diode array detector (HPLC-PDA was used to determine six organophosphorus (chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion, parathion, ethion, acephate, fenthion, two carbamate (carbaryl and carbofuran and one pyrethroid (cypermethrin pesticide residues in twelve samples of three common vegetables (tomato, lady’s finger and brinjal. Pesticide residues ranged from below detectable limit (<0.01 to 0.36 mg/kg. Acephate, chlorpyrifos, ethion, carbaryl and cypermethrin were detected in only one sample, while co-occurrence occurred twice for fenitrothion and parathion. Apart from chlorpyrifos in tomato and cypermethrin in brinjal, all pesticide residues exceeded the maximum residue limit (MRL. Hazard risk index (HRI for ethion (10.12 and carbaryl (1.09 was found in lady’s finger and tomato, respectively. Rest of the pesticide residues were classified as not a health risk. A continuous monitoring and strict regulation should be enforced regarding control of pesticide residues in vegetables and other food commodities.

  16. Dietary safety assessment of genetically modified rice EH rich in β-carotene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yangyang; Xu, Yan; Du, Yanan; Zhao, Xiao; Hu, Ruili; Fan, Xiaorui; Ren, Fangfang; Yao, Quanhong; Peng, Rihe; Tang, Xueming; Zhao, Kai

    2017-08-01

    This 90-day study aimed to assess the dietary safety of transgenic rice EH which is rich in β-carotene. Two experimental groups of Sprague-Dawley rats were fed diets containing 45% rice flour of Zhonghua 11 rice and transgenic rice EH rich in β-carotene, respectively. The reference group was fed a diet containing standard feed nutrition. During the trial period, each rat was weighed and the food intake was recorded twice a week. Their behaviors were observed daily. In the end, blood samples were obtained from all anesthetized rats to measure the hematologic and serum chemistry indicators. Growth performance, anatomy and pathology of all organs in each group were analyzed. Although a few parameters were found to be statistically significantly different across groups, they were within the normal reference range for this breed and age of rats. Therefore, the changes were not considered to be diet related. The results revealed that the transgenic rice EH rich in β-carotene was as nutritious as Zhonghua 11 rice and showed a lack of biologically meaningful unintended effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessment of dietary intake of trace elements through Pakistani integrated diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, I.H.; Mannan, A.; Waheed, S.; Rehman, S.; Ahmad, S.

    1994-01-01

    A research study related to the determination and assessment of essential and potentially toxic trace elements in Pakistani integrated diets was undertaken at PINSTECH from 1986-90 under the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP). During this period eight different integrated human diets of the residents of the Islamabad and Gujranwala were prepared by taking into consideration their respective food habits in summer and winter seasons. Instrumental as well as radiochemical neutron activation analyses in combination with the atomic absorption spectrometry were utilized for the precise and accurate determination of up to 23 elements in the diet samples. This work has helped us obtain the base line values for studying trace elements nutrition, inadequacy, imbalances and toxicity. Further, this would help, in future, to monitor the degree of contamination from foreign chemicals. The weekly dietary intake values were calculated which showed that our foods contain fairly adequate quantity of essential trace elements. The diet samples analyzed showed no contamination level to an extent to cause an adverse impact on human health. (author). 23 refs, 5 figs, 21 tabs

  18. Comparison of two food record-based dietary assessment methods for a pan-European food consumption survey among infants, toddlers, and children using data quality indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freisling, Heinz; C. Ocké, Marga; Casagrande, Corinne

    2014-01-01

    -consecutive 1-day food diaries with data entry during a completion interview. The collected dietary data were compared between the two dietary assessment methods by country and by age groups: (i) 3-10 years. Results Overall, 70 % of the interviewers evaluated the work with EPIC...

  19. Dietary sodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The 2013 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence" did not support the current recommendations of the IOM and the American Heart Association (AHA) to reduce daily dietary sodium intake to below 2,300 mg. The report concluded that the population...

  20. The Role of Genetic, Dietary and Lifestyle Factors in Pediatric Metabolic Syndrome: A Review of the Literature from Prenatal to Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Arora

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic syndrome (MetS is described as a cluster of health conditions that are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The clinical diagnosis of MetS in pediatrics is challenging due to differing criteria, although the estimated prevalence continues to rise. The increased prevalence of childhood obesity and insulin resistance, in both developed and developing countries, is believed to be a major contributor to MetS diagnosis in children. We review the current literature surrounding genetic predisposition, maternal influence, epigenetics, environmental and lifestyle factors pertaining to pediatric MetS with a specific emphasis on obesity and insulin resistance. We highlight and discuss recent, key studies in prenatal through to adolescent populations and review evidence suggesting that children may be pre-disposed to obesity and insulin resistance, prenatally. We also discuss several key lifestyle drivers of these conditions including poor nutrition and dietary habits, insufficient physical activity, use of electronic devices, over-consumption of caffeinated and/or sugar-sweetened beverages, as well as the importance of sleep during childhood and adolescence in relation to metabolic health. We conclude with recommendations for preventable methods to tackle this growing pediatric public health issue, which, if current trends continue, will undoubtedly compromise the health and longevity of the next adult generation.

  1. Understanding Cultural Influences on Dietary Habits in Asian, Middle Eastern, and Latino Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Review of Current Literature and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Natalie; Golden, Sherita Hill

    2017-10-23

    This review focuses on evaluating and identifying gaps in the current literature regarding culturally specific dietary influences for patients with type 2 diabetes. As this topic has previously been examined in African American populations, we chose to focus on four other distinct populations (Hispanic, Middle Eastern, Western Pacific, South Asian). Given the rapid increase in global rates of type 2 diabetes and high rates of diabetes among certain ethnic groups, it is important to understand how culturally adapted strategies in diabetes management have been described in different regions and populations. The specific role of nutrition in controlling diabetes is tied to cultural habits and customs. Variation in cultural practices, including diet, create unique environments in which patients with diabetes must navigate. The role of family, particularly among Hispanics, is crucial to cultural adaptations of diabetes management. Incorporating alternative medicine, namely observed in Chinese and Indian populations, also guided diabetes care strategies. Language barriers, health literacy, and acculturation were all unique factors affecting cultural approaches to diabetes management in these four populations. Understanding such cultural determinants is crucial to addressing diabetes disparities and improving outcomes.

  2. Assessing the impact of dietary habits on health-related quality of life requires contextual measurement tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina eRuano

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The increase of non-communicable diseases at all ages has fostered the general concern for sustaining population health worldwide. Unhealthy lifestyles and dietary habits impacting physical and psycho-social health are well known risk factors for developing life threatening diseases. Identifying the determinants of quality of life is an important task from a Public Health perspective. Consumer-Reported Outcome measures of health-related quality of life are becoming increasingly necessary and relevant in the field of nutrition. However, quality of life questionnaires are seldom used in the nutrition field. We conducted a scientific literature search to find out the questionnaires used to determine the association between dietary habits and quality of life. A total of 13 studies were eligible for inclusion. Across these studies the Short Form–36, a generic (nondisease-specific health-related quality of life measurement instrument was the most widely used. However, generic measures may have limited content validity in the context of dietary habits interventions. We recommend additional contextual diet-specific health-related quality of life measures are also needed for evaluating the impact of diet habits on daily life functioning and well-being.

  3. Dietary exposure to aluminium and health risk assessment in the residents of Shenzhen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mei; Jiang, Lixin; Huang, Huiping; Zeng, Shengbo; Qiu, Fen; Yu, Miao; Li, Xiaorong; Wei, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Although there are great changes of dietary in the past few decades in China, few are known about the aluminium exposure in Chinese diet. The aim of this study is to systematically evaluate the dietary aluminium intake level in residents of Shenzhen, China. A total of 853 persons from 244 household were investigated their diet by three days food records. Finally, 149 kinds of foods in 17 food groups were selected to be the most consumed foods. From them, 1399 food samples were collected from market to test aluminium concentration. High aluminium levels were found in jellyfish (median, 527.5 mg/kg), fried twisted cruller (median, 466.0 mg/kg), shell (median, 107.1 mg/kg). The Shenzhen residents' average dietary aluminium exposure was estimated at 1.263 mg/kg bw/week which is lower than the PTWI (provisional tolerable weekly intake). But 0-2 and 3-13 age groups have the highest aluminium intake exceeding the PTWI (3.356 mg/kg bw/week and 3.248 mg/kg bw/week) than other age groups. And the main dietary aluminium exposure sources are fried twisted cruller, leaf vegetables and bean products. Our study suggested that even three decades rapid economy development, children in Shenzhen still have high dietary aluminium exposure risk. How to control high dietary aluminium exposure still is a great public health challenge in Shenzhen, China.

  4. Investigating the reliability and validity of the waterlow risk assessment scale: a literature review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Breda

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this review was to examine health literature on the reliability and validity of the Waterlow pressure sore assessment scale. A systematic review of published studies relating to the topic was conducted and literature was examined for its relevancy to the topic under investigation. Findings suggest that despite the availability of over 40 assessment tools, the Waterlow assessment scale is the most frequently used by health care staff. Research suggests that the Waterlow Scale is an unreliable method of assessing individuals at risk of pressure sore development with all studies indicating a poor interrater reliability status. Its validity has also been criticized because of its high-sensitivity but low-specificity levels.

  5. Investigating the reliability and validity of the waterlow risk assessment scale: a literature review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Breda

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this review was to examine health literature on the reliability and validity of the Waterlow pressure sore assessment scale. A systematic review of published studies relating to the topic was conducted and literature was examined for its relevancy to the topic under investigation. Findings suggest that despite the availability of over 40 assessment tools, the Waterlow assessment scale is the most frequently used by health care staff. Research suggests that the Waterlow Scale is an unreliable method of assessing individuals at risk of pressure sore development with all studies indicating a poor interrater reliability status. Its validity has also been criticized because of its high-sensitivity but low-specificity levels.

  6. Bruxism is unlikely to cause damage to the periodontium: findings from a systematic literature assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manfredini, D.; Ahlberg, J.; Mura, R.; Lobbezoo, F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: This paper systematically reviews the MEDLINE and SCOPUS literature to answer the following question: Is there any evidence that bruxism may cause periodontal damage per se? Methods: Clinical studies on humans, assessing the potential relationship between bruxism and periodontal lesions

  7. Environmental impact assessment of CCS chains – Lessons learned and limitations from LCA literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corsten, M.A.M.; Ramirez, C.A.; Shen, L.; Koornneef, A.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2013-01-01

    This study performs an assessment of existing LCA literature to obtain insights into potential environmental impacts over the complete life cycle of fossil fuel fired power plants with CCS. CCS results in a net reduction of the GWP of power plants through their life cycle in the order of 65–84%

  8. Assessment and Feedback in Higher Education: A Review of Literature for the Higher Education Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackel, Brad; Pearce, Jacob; Radloff, Ali; Edwards, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    This literature review has been undertaken for the Higher Education Academy (HEA). It explores recent scholarly contributions in the area of assessment and feedback in higher education (HE). As outlined in the HEA's terms of reference for this work, the contents of this review are designed to "help practitioners, policy makers and researchers…

  9. Probabilistic dietary risk assessment of pesticide residues in foods for the German population based on food monitoring data from 2009 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieke, Christian; Michalski, Britta; Kuhl, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Dietary risks for the German population owing to pesticide residues in foods were assessed based on food monitoring data, consumption surveys for children and adults and compound specific toxicological reference values or general thresholds of toxicological concern. A tiered probabilistic modelling was conducted to screen 700 pesticides for significant long- and short-term dietary exposures. Especially for the short-term dietary exposure, the probabilistic methodology used allows simultaneous consideration of the complete daily consumption, whereas most regulatory bodies still rely on single commodity approaches. After screening, refined exposure assessments were conducted for 19 compounds under consideration of conversion factors for toxicologically relevant metabolites, processing information, experimentally derived variability factors and the edible portion for each food item. In total, for 693 compounds the dietary exposure was unlikely to present a chronic or acute public health concern for the German population. In contrast, the refined assessments indicate that the short-term dietary exposure for chlorpyrifos and the cumulative short-term dietary exposure for dimethoate and omethoate may present a public health concern. For copper, owing to exposure assessment limitations, as well as for dimethylvinphos, halfenprox and tricyclazole, which exceeded the thresholds of toxicological concern, the dietary risk assessment remained inconclusive.

  10. Dietary determinants of obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huaidong, D.U.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity has become a serious public health problem worldwide, and dietary composition can play a role in its prevention and treatment. However, available literature on the impacts of different dietary factors on weight change is inconsistent, or even conflicting. In this review, we briefly

  11. [Analysis on contamination of zearalenone and dietary exposure assessment in food samples of Shaanxi Province in 2013-2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiawei; Wang, Caixia; Tian, Li; Wang, Minjuan; Guo, Rong; Qiao, Haiou

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the contamination of zearalenone in food in Shaanxi Province, and to assess the dietary zearalenone exposure and the health risk of intaking zearalenone from corn products for Shaanxi residents. In 2013-2016, samples of five kinds of food including grains, vegetable oil, liquor and infants' food were collected randomly from ten cities, and determined with ultra-performance liquid chromatography. Dietary intake assessment of human exposure to zearalenone was carried out in combination of food consumption data with concentration of zearalenone. 1193 samples were detected zearalenone and the total detection rate was 17. 27%, with the mean value of 13. 5 μg/kg. Among all food samples, oil products were more seriously polluted than other kinds of foods, its detection rate was 79. 37%. And 12 samples of grain products exceed the standard, the exceeding standard rate was 1. 64%, which were all corn products. The level of zearalenone detected in wheat flour, rice, millet, beer and bakery products was low. The overall level of zearalenone contamination inmarket food is common, but corn products may be the severely contaminated foods with zearalenone in Shaanxi Province. The risk assessmentresult suggests that the current dietary intake of zearalenone from corn products in Shaanxi Province has no appreciable effect on health, however, the concentrations of zearalenone in corn products are relatively high, and need to be monitored in the future.

  12. Electronic Dietary Intake Assessment (e-DIA): relative validity of a mobile phone application to measure intake of food groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangan, Anna M; Tieleman, Laurissa; Louie, Jimmy C Y; Tang, Lie Ming; Hebden, Lana; Roy, Rajshri; Kay, Judy; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2016-06-01

    Automation of dietary assessment can reduce limitations of established methodologies, by alleviating participant and researcher burden. Designed as a research tool, the electronic Dietary Intake Assessment (e-DIA) is a food record in mobile phone application format. The present study aimed to examine the relative validity of the e-DIA with the 24-h recall method to estimate intake of food groups. A sample of eighty university students aged 19-24 years recorded 5 d of e-DIA and 3 d of recall within this 5-d period. The three matching days of dietary data were used for analysis. Food intake data were disaggregated and apportioned to one of eight food groups. Median intakes of food groups were similar between the methods, and strong correlations were found (mean: 0·79, range: 0·69-0·88). Cross-classification by tertiles produced a high level of exact agreement (mean: 71 %, range: 65-75 %), and weighted κ values were moderate to good (range: 0·54-0·71). Although mean differences (e-DIA-recall) were small (range: -13 to 23 g), limits of agreement (LOA) were relatively large (e.g. for vegetables, mean difference: -4 g, LOA: -159 to 151 g). The Bland-Altman plots showed robust agreement, with minimum bias. This analysis supports the use of e-DIA as an alternative to the repeated 24-h recall method for ranking individuals' food group intake.

  13. Harmonisation of food consumption data format for dietary exposure assessments of chemicals analysed in raw agricultural commodities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boon, Polly E.; Ruprich, Jiri; Petersen, Annette

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present an approach to format national food consumption data at raw agricultural commodity (RAC) level. In this way, the data is both formatted in a harmonised way given the comparability of RACs between countries, and suitable to assess the dietary exposure to chemicals analysed......, and the use of the FAO/WHO Codex Classification system of Foods and Animal Feeds to harmonise the classification. We demonstrate that this approach works well for pesticides and glycoalkaloids, and is an essential step forward in the harmonisation of risk assessment procedures within Europe when addressing...... chemicals analysed in RACs by all national food control systems....

  14. 78 FR 20672 - Literature Review Approach “Identifying Research Needs for Assessing Safe Use of High Intakes of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Literature Review Approach... Needs for Assessing Safe Use of High Intakes of Folic Acid,'' for review of the pertinent literature... folate and folic acid, screening of the literature was undertaken to identify the potential adverse...

  15. Oral health-related cultural beliefs for four racial/ethnic groups: Assessment of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butani, Yogita; Weintraub, Jane A; Barker, Judith C

    2008-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess information available in the dental literature on oral health-related cultural beliefs. In the US, as elsewhere, many racial/ethnic minority groups shoulder a disproportionate burden of oral disease. Cultural beliefs, values and practices are often implicated as causes of oral health disparities, yet little is known about the breadth or adequacy of literature about cultural issues that could support these assertions. Hence, this rigorous assessment was conducted of work published in English on cultural beliefs and values in relation to oral health status and dental practice. Four racial/ethnic groups in the US (African-American, Chinese, Filipino and Hispanic/Latino) were chosen as exemplar populations. The dental literature published in English for the period 1980-2006 noted in the electronic database PUBMED was searched, using keywords and MeSH headings in different combinations for each racial/ethnic group to identify eligible articles. To be eligible the title and abstract when available had to describe the oral health-related cultural knowledge or orientation of the populations studied. Overall, the majority of the literature on racial/ethnic groups was epidemiologic in nature, mainly demonstrating disparities in oral health rather than the oral beliefs or practices of these groups. A total of 60 relevant articles were found: 16 for African-American, 30 for Chinese, 2 for Filipino and 12 for Hispanic/Latino populations. Data on beliefs and practices from these studies has been abstracted, compiled and assessed. Few research-based studies were located. Articles lacked adequate identification of groups studied, used limited methods and had poor conceptual base. The scant information available from the published dental and medical literature provides at best a rudimentary framework of oral health related ideas and beliefs for specific populations.

  16. Oral health-related cultural beliefs for four racial/ethnic groups: Assessment of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barker Judith C

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to assess information available in the dental literature on oral health-related cultural beliefs. In the US, as elsewhere, many racial/ethnic minority groups shoulder a disproportionate burden of oral disease. Cultural beliefs, values and practices are often implicated as causes of oral health disparities, yet little is known about the breadth or adequacy of literature about cultural issues that could support these assertions. Hence, this rigorous assessment was conducted of work published in English on cultural beliefs and values in relation to oral health status and dental practice. Four racial/ethnic groups in the US (African-American, Chinese, Filipino and Hispanic/Latino were chosen as exemplar populations. Methods The dental literature published in English for the period 1980–2006 noted in the electronic database PUBMED was searched, using keywords and MeSH headings in different combinations for each racial/ethnic group to identify eligible articles. To be eligible the title and abstract when available had to describe the oral health-related cultural knowledge or orientation of the populations studied. Results Overall, the majority of the literature on racial/ethnic groups was epidemiologic in nature, mainly demonstrating disparities in oral health rather than the oral beliefs or practices of these groups. A total of 60 relevant articles were found: 16 for African-American, 30 for Chinese, 2 for Filipino and 12 for Hispanic/Latino populations. Data on beliefs and practices from these studies has been abstracted, compiled and assessed. Few research-based studies were located. Articles lacked adequate identification of groups studied, used limited methods and had poor conceptual base. Conclusion The scant information available from the published dental and medical literature provides at best a rudimentary framework of oral health related ideas and beliefs for specific populations.

  17. Nuclear fuel cycle risk assessment: survey and computer compilation of risk-related literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yates, K.R.; Schreiber, A.M.; Rudolph, A.W.

    1982-10-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has initiated the Fuel Cycle Risk Assessment Program to provide risk assessment methods for assistance in the regulatory process for nuclear fuel cycle facilities other than reactors. Both the once-through cycle and plutonium recycle are being considered. A previous report generated by this program defines and describes fuel cycle facilities, or elements, considered in the program. This report, the second from the program, describes the survey and computer compilation of fuel cycle risk-related literature. Sources of available information on the design, safety, and risk associated with the defined set of fuel cycle elements were searched and documents obtained were catalogued and characterized with respect to fuel cycle elements and specific risk/safety information. Both US and foreign surveys were conducted. Battelle's computer-based BASIS information management system was used to facilitate the establishment of the literature compilation. A complete listing of the literature compilation and several useful indexes are included. Future updates of the literature compilation will be published periodically. 760 annotated citations are included

  18. APPROACH FOR ASSESSING RISK OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS PRESENT IN BOTANICAL DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botanical dietary supplements have a long history of use in Europe and China, but they are becoming increasing popular in the United States. Since these products are classified as herbals, the United States Food and Drug Administration does not regulate nor monitor these suppleme...

  19. A critical assessment of some biomarker approaches linked with dietary intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crews, H.; Alink, G.; Andersen, Rikke

    2001-01-01

    interactions and the role of measuring total antioxidant capacity is considered in some detail. In contrast to most nutrients, there is a marked lack of biomarkers of either exposure or effect for most non-nutrients. The role of biological effect monitoring is considered for dietary contaminants, fumonisins...

  20. A National Dietary Assessment Reference Database (NDARD) for the Dutch Population: Rationale behind the Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, E.M.; Streppel, M.T.; Lee, van L.; Geelen, M.M.E.E.; Sluik, D.; Wiel, van de A.M.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Veer, van 't P.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    The development of reliable Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQs) requires detailed information about the level and variation of dietary intake of the target population. However, these data are often limited. To facilitate the development of new high quality FFQs and validation of existing FFQs, we

  1. Relative validity of a short food frequency questionnaire assessing adherence to the Norwegian dietary guidelines among colorectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Hege Berg; Carlsen, Monica Hauger; Paur, Ingvild; Berntsen, Sveinung; Bøhn, Siv Kjølsrud; Skjetne, Anne Juul; Kværner, Ane Sørlie; Henriksen, Christine; Andersen, Lene Frost; Smeland, Sigbjørn; Blomhoff, Rune

    2018-01-01

    The Norwegian food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG) aim at reducing the risk of developing chronic diseases and promote overall health. We studied the effect of the Norwegian FBDG in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. There is a need for a time-efficient dietary assessment tool measuring adherence to these guidelines in patients treated for dietary dependent cancer, such as CRC patients. To evaluate a new short food frequency questionnaire (NORDIET-FFQ), developed to estimate adherence to the Norwegian FBDG among CRC patients. Eighty-one CRC patients from both study groups in the Norwegian Dietary Guidelines and Colorectal Cancer Survival study, an ongoing dietary intervention, completed both the short 63-item NORDIET-FFQ and a 7-day weighed food record. The NORDIET-FFQ was on group level able to estimate intakes of fruits, vegetables, unsalted nuts, fish, fatty fish, high fat dairy products, unprocessed meat, processed meat, red meat, water, sugar-rich beverages, alcoholic drinks, and sugar- and fat-rich foods. Ranking of individuals according to intake was good ( r = 0.31-0.74) for fruits and vegetables, fruits, unsalted nuts, whole grain products, sugar-rich cereals, fish, fatty fish, dairy products, red meat, water, sugar-rich beverages, alcoholic beverages, and sugar- and fat-rich foods. The NORDIET-FFQ was able to identify the individuals who did not fulfil the recommendations of fruits, vegetables, unsalted nuts, whole grains, low-fat dairy products, processed meat, water, alcoholic beverages, and sugar- and fat-rich foods (sensitivity: 67-93%). The NORDIET-FFQ showed good ability in to estimate intakes of plant-based foods, fish, dairy products, meat, and energy-dense foods; adequate ranking of individuals according to intake of most recommendations except for unprocessed meat, processed meat, and vegetables; and importantly a good ability to identify those patients in need of dietary counselling for foods that are known to modulate the risk of CRC. National

  2. Relative validity of a short food frequency questionnaire assessing adherence to the Norwegian dietary guidelines among colorectal cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hege Berg Henriksen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Norwegian food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG aim at reducing the risk of developing chronic diseases and promote overall health. We studied the effect of the Norwegian FBDG in colorectal cancer (CRC patients. There is a need for a time-efficient dietary assessment tool measuring adherence to these guidelines in patients treated for dietary dependent cancer, such as CRC patients. Objective: To evaluate a new short food frequency questionnaire (NORDIET-FFQ, developed to estimate adherence to the Norwegian FBDG among CRC patients. Design: Eighty-one CRC patients from both study groups in the Norwegian Dietary Guidelines and Colorectal Cancer Survival study, an ongoing dietary intervention, completed both the short 63-item NORDIET-FFQ and a 7-day weighed food record. Results: The NORDIET-FFQ was on group level able to estimate intakes of fruits, vegetables, unsalted nuts, fish, fatty fish, high fat dairy products, unprocessed meat, processed meat, red meat, water, sugar-rich beverages, alcoholic drinks, and sugar- and fat-rich foods. Ranking of individuals according to intake was good (r = 0.31–0.74 for fruits and vegetables, fruits, unsalted nuts, whole grain products, sugar-rich cereals, fish, fatty fish, dairy products, red meat, water, sugar-rich beverages, alcoholic beverages, and sugar- and fat-rich foods. The NORDIET-FFQ was able to identify the individuals who did not fulfil the recommendations of fruits, vegetables, unsalted nuts, whole grains, low-fat dairy products, processed meat, water, alcoholic beverages, and sugar- and fat-rich foods (sensitivity: 67–93%. Conclusions: The NORDIET-FFQ showed good ability in to estimate intakes of plant-based foods, fish, dairy products, meat, and energy-dense foods; adequate ranking of individuals according to intake of most recommendations except for unprocessed meat, processed meat, and vegetables; and importantly a good ability to identify those patients in need of dietary

  3. Barriers to delirium assessment in the intensive care unit: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley-Conwy, Gabby

    2018-02-01

    Delirium is a common syndrome that has both short and long-term negative outcomes for critically ill patients. Many studies over several years have found a knowledge gap and lack of evidence-based practice from critical care personnel, but there has been little exploration of the reasons for this. To identify the perceived barriers to delirium assessment and management among critical care nurses. A literature review of published studies to examine barriers to effective delirium assessment using a comprehensive search strategy. Five relevant studies identified for review. Few studies have investigated barriers to delirium assessment and management, but several themes reoccur throughout the literature. The perceived time consuming nature of the assessment tools is cited by many, as is the lack of medical prioritisation of results. Lack of education on delirium appears to be a significant factor and reinforces some of the stated misconceptions. Many barriers exist to prevent effective assessment and management of delirium, but several of these are due to a lack of understanding or unfamiliarity with the condition and the assessment tools as well as lack of medical prioritisation of the results. Further research is needed on this topic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessing Video Games to Improve Driving Skills: A Literature Review and Observational Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sue, Damian; Ray, Pradeep; Talaei-Khoei, Amir; Jonnagaddala, Jitendra; Vichitvanichphong, Suchada

    2014-01-01

    Background For individuals, especially older adults, playing video games is a promising tool for improving their driving skills. The ease of use, wide availability, and interactivity of gaming consoles make them an attractive simulation tool. Objective The objective of this study was to look at the feasibility and effects of installing video game consoles in the homes of individuals looking to improve their driving skills. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted to assess the eff...

  5. Poverty and Inequality in Sub-Saharan Africa: Literature Survey and Empirical Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Delfin Go; Denis Nikitin; Xiongjian Wang; Heng-fu Zou

    2011-01-01

    This paper surveys the literature and assesses the magnitude, persistence, and depth of poverty and inequality in Sub-Saharan Africa using empirical analysis. Our analysis explores linkages between three key facts about development in Sub-Saharan Africa: poor economic growth, poor performance in terms of public health indicators, and resilient high-income inequality. Most of the differential between growth rates in Sub-Saharan Africa and other developing countries can be explained by two meas...

  6. Text mining for literature review and knowledge discovery in cancer risk assessment and research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Korhonen

    Full Text Available Research in biomedical text mining is starting to produce technology which can make information in biomedical literature more accessible for bio-scientists. One of the current challenges is to integrate and refine this technology to support real-life scientific tasks in biomedicine, and to evaluate its usefulness in the context of such tasks. We describe CRAB - a fully integrated text mining tool designed to support chemical health risk assessment. This task is complex and time-consuming, requiring a thorough review of existing scientific data on a particular chemical. Covering human, animal, cellular and other mechanistic data from various fields of biomedicine, this is highly varied and therefore difficult to harvest from literature databases via manual means. Our tool automates the process by extracting relevant scientific data in published literature and classifying it according to multiple qualitative dimensions. Developed in close collaboration with risk assessors, the tool allows navigating the classified dataset in various ways and sharing the data with other users. We present a direct and user-based evaluation which shows that the technology integrated in the tool is highly accurate, and report a number of case studies which demonstrate how the tool can be used to support scientific discovery in cancer risk assessment and research. Our work demonstrates the usefulness of a text mining pipeline in facilitating complex research tasks in biomedicine. We discuss further development and application of our technology to other types of chemical risk assessment in the future.

  7. Assessment of salient beliefs affecting mothers' intention to adherence to dietary diversity in their children's complementary feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Karimi-Shahanjarini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Providing a variety of foods has been emphasized as one of the most important features of optimal complementary feeding. This study investigated key beliefs that guide mothers' intention to adherence to dietary diversity in their 1–2-year-old children's complementary feeding. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 290 mothers (mean age = 27, standard deviation = 5.32 with child 1–2-year-old attending maternal and child health section of health centers in Rasht, Iran. To represent the socioeconomic status of the participants, 6 centers out of 15 were selected from three different socioeconomic areas (low-, middle-, and high-income areas. Mothers completed a questionnaire assessing intention and belief-based items of theory of planned behavior. Correlations and multiple regression analyses were performed. Results: The mean age of mothers was 27 ± 5.33 (27–43 years. Regression analyses revealed that among behavioral beliefs, the perception that adherence to dietary diversity would lead to improve children's growth was the significant predictor of intention (β = 0.13,P= 0.04. Regarding normative beliefs, perceived social pressure from health-care professionals to adherence to dietary diversity significantly predicted intention (β = 0.15,P= 0.01. Among control beliefs, the perception that daily pressures made difficult adherence to dietary diversity was the key determinant (β = 0.19,P= 0.01. Conclusions: Findings of this study represent the important beliefs that can be addressed in development planning aimed at modifying mothers' child complementary feeding practices.

  8. Assessment of Salient Beliefs Affecting Mothers' Intention to Adherence to Dietary Diversity in their Children's Complementary Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi-Shahanjarini, Akram; Rahmani, Fatemeh; Roshanei, Ghodratollah; Mahdi Hazavehei, Seyyed M

    2017-01-01

    Providing a variety of foods has been emphasized as one of the most important features of optimal complementary feeding. This study investigated key beliefs that guide mothers' intention to adherence to dietary diversity in their 1-2-year-old children's complementary feeding. This was a cross-sectional study involving 290 mothers (mean age = 27, standard deviation = 5.32) with child 1-2-year-old attending maternal and child health section of health centers in Rasht, Iran. To represent the socioeconomic status of the participants, 6 centers out of 15 were selected from three different socioeconomic areas (low-, middle-, and high-income areas). Mothers completed a questionnaire assessing intention and belief-based items of theory of planned behavior. Correlations and multiple regression analyses were performed. The mean age of mothers was 27 ± 5.33 (27-43 years). Regression analyses revealed that among behavioral beliefs, the perception that adherence to dietary diversity would lead to improve children's growth was the significant predictor of intention (β = 0.13, P = 0.04). Regarding normative beliefs, perceived social pressure from health-care professionals to adherence to dietary diversity significantly predicted intention (β = 0.15, P = 0.01). Among control beliefs, the perception that daily pressures made difficult adherence to dietary diversity was the key determinant (β = 0.19, P = 0.01). Findings of this study represent the important beliefs that can be addressed in development planning aimed at modifying mothers' child complementary feeding practices.

  9. Assessment of Salient Beliefs Affecting Mothers’ Intention to Adherence to Dietary Diversity in their Children's Complementary Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi-Shahanjarini, Akram; Rahmani, Fatemeh; Roshanei, Ghodratollah; Mahdi Hazavehei, Seyyed M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Providing a variety of foods has been emphasized as one of the most important features of optimal complementary feeding. This study investigated key beliefs that guide mothers’ intention to adherence to dietary diversity in their 1–2-year-old children's complementary feeding. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 290 mothers (mean age = 27, standard deviation = 5.32) with child 1–2-year-old attending maternal and child health section of health centers in Rasht, Iran. To represent the socioeconomic status of the participants, 6 centers out of 15 were selected from three different socioeconomic areas (low-, middle-, and high-income areas). Mothers completed a questionnaire assessing intention and belief-based items of theory of planned behavior. Correlations and multiple regression analyses were performed. Results: The mean age of mothers was 27 ± 5.33 (27–43 years). Regression analyses revealed that among behavioral beliefs, the perception that adherence to dietary diversity would lead to improve children's growth was the significant predictor of intention (β = 0.13, P = 0.04). Regarding normative beliefs, perceived social pressure from health-care professionals to adherence to dietary diversity significantly predicted intention (β = 0.15, P = 0.01). Among control beliefs, the perception that daily pressures made difficult adherence to dietary diversity was the key determinant (β = 0.19, P = 0.01). Conclusions: Findings of this study represent the important beliefs that can be addressed in development planning aimed at modifying mothers’ child complementary feeding practices. PMID:28479970

  10. Assessing dietary and lifestyle risk factors and their associations with disease comorbidities among patients with schizophrenia: A case-control study from Bahrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahrami, Haitham Ali; Faris, Mo'ez Al-Islam Ezzat; Saif, Zahraa Qassim; Hammad, Laila Habib

    2017-08-01

    Acquired dietary habits and lifestyle behaviors of patients with schizophrenia may affect their life expectancy, disease complications and prognosis. The objectives of the current study were to assess the dietary habits and other lifestyle behaviors for Bahraini patients with schizophrenia, and to determine their associations with different medical comorbidities. A case-control study was conducted during the period of March to December 2016. A sample of 120 cases were recruited from the Psychiatric Hospital, Bahrain and age-sex-matched with 120 controls. Controls were recruited from primary health centres, and were free from serious mental illness. Dietary habits and lifestyle behaviors including smoking, alcohol intake and physical activity were assessed using a questionnaire. All medical records were reviewed retrospectively. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify dietary and lifestyle risk factors that are associated with one or more disease comorbidities. Cases had higher prevalence of smoking and alcohol intake, excessive dietary intake, and decreased physical activity (all Prisk for developing chronic medical conditions such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and musculoskeletal disorders. Cases were three times more likely to have up to three or more medical comorbidities compared with controls. Excessive dietary intake and decreased physical activity were identified as the main risk factors. Excessive caloric intake and decreased physical activity represent the main dietary and lifestyle risk factors associated with comorbidities among patients with schizophrenia in Bahrain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Strategic Environment Assessment bibliographic network: A quantitative literature review analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caschili, Simone; De Montis, Andrea; Ganciu, Amedeo; Ledda, Antonio; Barra, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Academic literature has been continuously growing at such a pace that it can be difficult to follow the progression of scientific achievements; hence, the need to dispose of quantitative knowledge support systems to analyze the literature of a subject. In this article we utilize network analysis tools to build a literature review of scientific documents published in the multidisciplinary field of Strategic Environment Assessment (SEA). The proposed approach helps researchers to build unbiased and comprehensive literature reviews. We collect information on 7662 SEA publications and build the SEA Bibliographic Network (SEABN) employing the basic idea that two publications are interconnected if one cites the other. We apply network analysis at macroscopic (network architecture), mesoscopic (sub graph) and microscopic levels (node) in order to i) verify what network structure characterizes the SEA literature, ii) identify the authors, disciplines and journals that are contributing to the international discussion on SEA, and iii) scrutinize the most cited and important publications in the field. Results show that the SEA is a multidisciplinary subject; the SEABN belongs to the class of real small world networks with a dominance of publications in Environmental studies over a total of 12 scientific sectors. Christopher Wood, Olivia Bina, Matthew Cashmore, and Andrew Jordan are found to be the leading authors while Environmental Impact Assessment Review is by far the scientific journal with the highest number of publications in SEA studies. - Highlights: • We utilize network analysis to analyze scientific documents in the SEA field. • We build the SEA Bibliographic Network (SEABN) of 7662 publications. • We apply network analysis at macroscopic, mesoscopic and microscopic network levels. • We identify SEABN architecture, relevant publications, authors, subjects and journals

  12. The Strategic Environment Assessment bibliographic network: A quantitative literature review analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caschili, Simone, E-mail: s.caschili@ucl.ac.uk [UCL QASER Lab, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); De Montis, Andrea; Ganciu, Amedeo; Ledda, Antonio; Barra, Mario [Dipartimento di Agraria, University of Sassari, viale Italia, 39, 07100 Sassari (Italy)

    2014-07-01

    Academic literature has been continuously growing at such a pace that it can be difficult to follow the progression of scientific achievements; hence, the need to dispose of quantitative knowledge support systems to analyze the literature of a subject. In this article we utilize network analysis tools to build a literature review of scientific documents published in the multidisciplinary field of Strategic Environment Assessment (SEA). The proposed approach helps researchers to build unbiased and comprehensive literature reviews. We collect information on 7662 SEA publications and build the SEA Bibliographic Network (SEABN) employing the basic idea that two publications are interconnected if one cites the other. We apply network analysis at macroscopic (network architecture), mesoscopic (sub graph) and microscopic levels (node) in order to i) verify what network structure characterizes the SEA literature, ii) identify the authors, disciplines and journals that are contributing to the international discussion on SEA, and iii) scrutinize the most cited and important publications in the field. Results show that the SEA is a multidisciplinary subject; the SEABN belongs to the class of real small world networks with a dominance of publications in Environmental studies over a total of 12 scientific sectors. Christopher Wood, Olivia Bina, Matthew Cashmore, and Andrew Jordan are found to be the leading authors while Environmental Impact Assessment Review is by far the scientific journal with the highest number of publications in SEA studies. - Highlights: • We utilize network analysis to analyze scientific documents in the SEA field. • We build the SEA Bibliographic Network (SEABN) of 7662 publications. • We apply network analysis at macroscopic, mesoscopic and microscopic network levels. • We identify SEABN architecture, relevant publications, authors, subjects and journals.

  13. A systematic literature review of open source software quality assessment models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewumi, Adewole; Misra, Sanjay; Omoregbe, Nicholas; Crawford, Broderick; Soto, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Many open source software (OSS) quality assessment models are proposed and available in the literature. However, there is little or no adoption of these models in practice. In order to guide the formulation of newer models so they can be acceptable by practitioners, there is need for clear discrimination of the existing models based on their specific properties. Based on this, the aim of this study is to perform a systematic literature review to investigate the properties of the existing OSS quality assessment models by classifying them with respect to their quality characteristics, the methodology they use for assessment, and their domain of application so as to guide the formulation and development of newer models. Searches in IEEE Xplore, ACM, Science Direct, Springer and Google Search is performed so as to retrieve all relevant primary studies in this regard. Journal and conference papers between the year 2003 and 2015 were considered since the first known OSS quality model emerged in 2003. A total of 19 OSS quality assessment model papers were selected. To select these models we have developed assessment criteria to evaluate the quality of the existing studies. Quality assessment models are classified into five categories based on the quality characteristics they possess namely: single-attribute, rounded category, community-only attribute, non-community attribute as well as the non-quality in use models. Our study reflects that software selection based on hierarchical structures is found to be the most popular selection method in the existing OSS quality assessment models. Furthermore, we found that majority (47%) of the existing models do not specify any domain of application. In conclusion, our study will be a valuable contribution to the community and helps the quality assessment model developers in formulating newer models and also to the practitioners (software evaluators) in selecting suitable OSS in the midst of alternatives.

  14. Systematic review assessing the effectiveness of dietary intervention on gut microbiota in adults with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, David; Hardy, Timothy; Stewart, Christopher; Errington, Linda; Day, Christopher P; Trenell, Michael I; Avery, Leah

    2018-05-12

    Despite improved understanding of the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus, explanations for individual variability in disease progression and response to treatment are incomplete. The gut microbiota has been linked to the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus and may account for this variability. We conducted a systematic review to assess the effectiveness of dietary and physical activity/exercise interventions in modulating the gut microbiota and improving glucose control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. A systematic search was conducted to identify studies reporting on the effect of dietary and physical activity/exercise interventions on the gut microbiota and glucose control in individuals with a confirmed diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Study characteristics, methodological quality and details relating to interventions were captured using a data-extraction form. Meta-analyses were conducted where sufficient data were available, and other results were reported narratively. Eight studies met the eligibility criteria of the systematic review. No studies were found that reported on the effects of physical activity/exercise on the gut microbiota and glucose control. However, studies reporting on dietary interventions showed that such interventions were associated with modifications to the composition and diversity of the gut microbiota. There was a statistically significant improvement in HbA 1c (standardised mean difference [SMD] -2.31 mmol/mol [95% CI -2.76, -1.85] [0.21%; 95% CI -0.26, -0.16]; I 2  = 0%, p  0.05), fasting insulin (SMD -1.82 pmol/l [95% CI -7.23, 3.60], I 2  = 54%, p > 0.05) or HOMA-IR (SMD -0.15 [95% CI -0.63, 0.32], I 2  = 69%, p > 0.05) when comparing dietary interventions with comparator groups. There were no significant changes in the relative abundance of bacteria in the genera Bifidobacterium (SMD 1.29% [95% CI -4.45, 7.03], I 2  = 33%, p > 0.05), Roseburia (SMD -0.85% [95% CI

  15. [Nutritional status assessment in a group of university students by means of dietary parameters and body composition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Roldán, C; Veiga Herreros, P; López de Andrés, A; Cobo Sanz, J Ma; Carbajal Azcona, A

    2005-01-01

    To assess the nutritional status in a young adults by means of dietary parameters and body composition. The sample comprises 49 young men (35 women and 14 men) with a mean age of 21.9 +/- 2.9 ages, at Alfonso X el Sabio University of Madrid. Body composition was analyzed through anthropometrical parameters. By means of validated questionnaires, physical activity performed within a week was assessed, as well as energy and nutrients intake. The later was estimated through a registry of all foods and beverages consumed for the last 14 days performed by each one of the participants (previously instructed) and estimating the amounts by weight or home or standard servings. The resting energy waste was determined by indirect calorimetry and through the Harris-Benedict predictive formula. Body mass index was similar in both men and women (p = 0.10) (23.5 +/- 1.9 and 22.0 +/- 2.8 kg/m2). The percentage of fat obtained through anthropometrics was 16.4 +/- 3.5% and 27.1 +/- 3.8% (p vitamin A in men, with levels below the recommended ones. In some aspects, the diet from this group deviates from current dietary standards. It would be advisable to increase the physical activity that would allow a higher food intake in order to cover for the insufficient intake of some nutrients without energetically unbalancing the diet. The assessment of resting energetic waste by indirect calorimetry seems to better predict the energetic needs.

  16. [Assessment of dietary habits in students of the Medical University of Bialystok with differentiated nutritional status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefańiska, Ewa; Ostrowska, Lucyna; Sajewicz, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    The research was conducted into 360 students of Medical University in Bialystok with differentiated nutritional status. The study involved 251 female students (46 with underweight, 186 with normal weight, 19 with excessive body weight) and 69 male students (7 with underweight, 47 with normal weight, 15 with excessive body weight). The quantity analyze of daily food rations was conducted on the base of the previous day 24 h dietary recall method. The computer program Diet 2.0 designed in the Institute of Food and Nutrition in Warsaw was used for calculations. Energetic value and basic nutrients supply was estimated and also the average content of dietary fiber and cholesterol. The results of the conducted research indicate lack ofbalanced content ofessential nutrients in daily food rations of the tested students of both sexes, irrespective of nutritional status. Energy supply was far too low comparing to recommended standards. It was proved that carbohydrate and fat supply was definitely lower than recommended standards. The research also showed low consumption of dietary fiber in all investigated groups and high consumption of cholesterol in men.

  17. A user's guide to the disease management literature: recommendations for reporting and assessing program outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Ariel; Roberts, Nancy

    2005-02-01

    Recently there has been tremendous growth in the number of lay-press articles and peer-reviewed journal articles reporting extraordinary improvements in health status and financial outcomes due to disease management (DM) interventions. However, closer scrutiny of these reports reveals serious flaws in research design and/or analysis, leaving many to question the veracity of the claims. In recent years, there have been numerous contributions to the literature on how to assess the quality of medical research papers. However, these guidelines focus primarily on randomized controlled trials, with little attention given to the observational study designs typically used in DM outcome studies. As such, general guides to evaluating the medical literature are inadequate in their utility to assist authors and readers of DM outcomes research. The purpose of this paper is to provide authors with a clear and comprehensive guide to the reporting of DM outcomes, as well as to educate readers of the DM literature (both lay and peer reviewed) in how to assess the quality of the findings presented.

  18. Bruxism is unlikely to cause damage to the periodontium: findings from a systematic literature assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredini, Daniele; Ahlberg, Jari; Mura, Rossano; Lobbezoo, Frank

    2015-04-01

    This paper systematically reviews the MEDLINE and SCOPUS literature to answer the following question: Is there any evidence that bruxism may cause periodontal damage per se? Clinical studies on humans, assessing the potential relationship between bruxism and periodontal lesions (i.e., decreased attachment level, bone loss, tooth mobility/migration, altered periodontal perception) were eligible. Methodologic shortcomings were identified by the adoption of the Critical Appraisal Skills Program quality assessment, mainly concerning the internal validity of findings according to an unspecific bruxism diagnosis. The six included articles covered a high variability of topics, without multiple papers on the same argument. Findings showed that the only effect of bruxism on periodontal structures was an increase in periodontal sensation, whereas a relationship with periodontal lesions was absent. Based on the analysis of Hill criteria, the validity of causation conclusions was limited, mainly owing to the absence of a longitudinal evaluation of the temporal relationship and dose-response effects between bruxism and periodontal lesions. Despite the scarce quantity and quality of the literature that prevents sound conclusions on the causal link between bruxism and the periodontal problems assessed in this review, it seems reasonable to suggest that bruxism cannot cause periodontal damage per se. It is also important to emphasize, however, that because of methodologic problems, particularly regarding sleep bruxism assessment, more high-quality studies (e.g., randomized controlled trials) are needed to further clarify this issue.

  19. Health Economics of Dengue: A Systematic Literature Review and Expert Panel's Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Mark E.; Beutels, Philippe; Meltzer, Martin I.; Shepard, Donald S.; Hombach, Joachim; Hutubessy, Raymond; Dessis, Damien; Coudeville, Laurent; Dervaux, Benoit; Wichmann, Ole; Margolis, Harold S.; Kuritsky, Joel N.

    2011-01-01

    Dengue vaccines are currently in development and policymakers need appropriate economic studies to determine their potential financial and public health impact. We searched five databases (PubMed, EMBASE, LILAC, EconLit, and WHOLIS) to identify health economics studies of dengue. Forty-three manuscripts were identified that provided primary data: 32 report economic burden of dengue and nine are comparative economic analyses assessing various interventions. The remaining two were a willingness-to-pay study and a policymaker survey. An expert panel reviewed the existing dengue economic literature and recommended future research to fill information gaps. Although dengue is an important vector-borne disease, the economic literature is relatively sparse and results have often been conflicting because of use of inconsistent assumptions. Health economic research specific to dengue is urgently needed to ensure informed decision making on the various options for controlling and preventing this disease. PMID:21363989

  20. A measurement error approach to assess the association between dietary diversity, nutrient intake, and mean probability of adequacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Maria L; Carriquiry, Alicia

    2010-11-01

    Collection of dietary intake information requires time-consuming and expensive methods, making it inaccessible to many resource-poor countries. Quantifying the association between simple measures of usual dietary diversity and usual nutrient intake/adequacy would allow inferences to be made about the adequacy of micronutrient intake at the population level for a fraction of the cost. In this study, we used secondary data from a dietary intake study carried out in Bangladesh to assess the association between 3 food group diversity indicators (FGI) and calcium intake; and the association between these same 3 FGI and a composite measure of nutrient adequacy, mean probability of adequacy (MPA). By implementing Fuller's error-in-the-equation measurement error model (EEM) and simple linear regression (SLR) models, we assessed these associations while accounting for the error in the observed quantities. Significant associations were detected between usual FGI and usual calcium intakes, when the more complex EEM was used. The SLR model detected significant associations between FGI and MPA as well as for variations of these measures, including the best linear unbiased predictor. Through simulation, we support the use of the EEM. In contrast to the EEM, the SLR model does not account for the possible correlation between the measurement errors in the response and predictor. The EEM performs best when the model variables are not complex functions of other variables observed with error (e.g. MPA). When observation days are limited and poor estimates of the within-person variances are obtained, the SLR model tends to be more appropriate.

  1. Risk Assessment on Dietary Exposure to Aflatoxin B1 in Post-Harvest Peanuts in the Yangtze River Ecological Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiaoxia; Wu, Linxia; Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Zhaowei; Zhou, Haiyan; Bai, Yizhen; Chen, Xiaomei; Jiang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Based on the 2983 peanut samples from 122 counties in six provinces of China’s Yangtze River ecological region collected between 2009–2014, along with the dietary consumption data in Chinese resident nutrition and health survey reports from 2002 and 2004, dietary aflatoxin exposure and percentiles in the corresponding statistics were calculated by non-parametric probability assessment, Monte Carlo simulation and bootstrap sampling methods. Average climatic conditions in the Yangtze River ecological region were calculated based on the data from 118 weather stations via the Thiessen polygon method. The survey results found that the aflatoxin contamination of peanuts was significantly high in 2013. The determination coefficient (R2) of multiple regression reflected by the aflatoxin B1 content with average precipitation and mean temperature in different periods showed that climatic conditions one month before harvest had the strongest impact on aflatoxin B1 contamination, and that Hunan and Jiangxi provinces were greatly influenced. The simulated mean aflatoxin B1 intake from peanuts at the mean peanut consumption level was 0.777–0.790 and 0.343–0.349 ng/(kg·d) for children aged 2–6 and standard adults respectively. Moreover, the evaluated cancer risks were 0.024 and 0.011/(100,000 persons·year) respectively, generally less than China’s current liver cancer incidence of 24.6 cases/(100,000 persons·year). In general, the dietary risk caused by peanut production and harvest was low. Further studies would focus on the impacts of peanut circulation and storage on aflatoxin B1 contamination risk assessment in order to protect peanut consumers’ safety and boost international trade. PMID:26501322

  2. Are adaptations self-organized, autonomous, and harmonious? Assessing the social-ecological resilience literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hahn

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes how adaptability (adaptive capacity and adaptations is constructed in the literature on resilience of social-ecological systems (SES. According to some critics, this literature views adaptability as the capacity of SES to self-organize in an autonomous harmonious consensus-building process, ignoring strategies, conflicting goals, and power issues. We assessed 183 papers, coding two dimensions of adaptability: autonomous vs. intentional and descriptive vs. normative. We found a plurality of framings, where 51% of the papers perceived adaptability as autonomous, but one-third constructed adaptability as intentional processes driven by stakeholders; where social learning and networking are often used as strategies for changing power structures and achieving sustainability transformations. For the other dimension, adaptability was used normatively in 59% of the assessed papers, but one-third used descriptive framings. We found no evidence that the SES literature in general assumes a priori that adaptations are harmonious consensus-building processes. It is, rather, conflicts that are assumed, not spelled out, and assertions of "desirable" that are often not clarified by reference to policy documents or explicit normative frameworks. We discuss alternative definitions of adaptability and transformability to clarify or avoid the notion of desirability. Complex adaptive systems framing often precludes analysis of agency, but lately self-organization and emergence have been used to study actors with intentions, strategies, and conflicting interests. Transformations and power structures are increasingly being addressed in the SES literature. We conclude that ontological clashes between social science and SES research have resulted in multiple constructive pathways.

  3. Community participation in Health Impact Assessment. A scoping review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broeder, Lea den; Uiters, Ellen; Have, Wim ten; Wagemakers, Annemarie; Schuit, Albertine Jantine

    2017-01-01

    Currently, the engagement of local communities in Health Impact Assessment is becoming more and more important. A scoping review was performed to take stock of visions, methods and experiences in this field. A combined Scopus and Medline search yielded 100 articles in scientific journals. The final selection consisted of 43 papers, including case studies, evaluation studies, reviews, and opinion papers. After analysis, consultation of four experts was performed to check preliminary study outcomes. A grey literature web search was performed to check and complement the results. Results show that community participation is generally considered a core element in HIA. Views as expressed in the papers concern, firstly, the need for and value of local knowledge, secondly, the adherence to or application of democratic values and, thirdly, empowerment of communities. Three categories of methods are used in relation to community participation, often in combination: methods to facilitate knowledge elicitation, to ensure the inclusion of communities in the HIA process, and to build community capacity to participate in policy development. However, the theoretical or practical underpinning of the choice for specific methods is mostly not presented. The experiences described in the papers mainly focus on the access to local knowledge and its usability as a source of evidence in the HIA process. Described effects of community participation are (improved) relations between communities and local agencies, policy makers and professionals and the empowerment of community members. Although these effects are ascribed to community participation, many papers do not provide support for this conclusion beyond the retrospective perception of participants. Expert consultation and additional analysis of the grey literature supported the results derived from the scientific literature and provided more in-depth knowledge. In the grey literature theoretical frameworks, methods and tools for

  4. Hepatitis C and Dietary Supplements: What the Science Says

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Integrative Health NCCIH Clinical Digest for health professionals Hepatitis C and Dietary Supplements: What the Science Says ... Thinkstock Clinical Guidelines, Scientific Literature, Info for Patients: Hepatitis C and Dietary Supplements Dietary Supplements Milk Thistle ...

  5. The Role of Standardized Tests as a Means of Assessment of Young Children: A Review of Related Literature and Recommendations of Alternative Assessments for Administrators and Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Stacie; Karr-Kidwell, P. J.

    An extensive review of literature related to the role of standardized tests in the assessment of young children was conducted, and recommendations were made for alternative approaches more appropriate to the assessment of young children. The first section of the paper contains a literature review that provides a brief history of standardized tests…

  6. Assessing the effect of dietary calcium intake and 25 OHD status on bone turnover in women in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Aysha Habib; Naureen, Ghazala; Iqbal, Romaina; Dar, Farhan Javed

    2013-01-01

    Bone health assessed in three towns of Karachi, Pakistan in females showed poor calcium intake, vitamin D deficiency, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and high bone turnover. Correlates of high bone turnover included females residing in Saddar Town, underweight females less than 30 years of age from low socio-economic status, and secondary hyperparathyroidism. To assess bone health and association of dietary calcium and 25 hydroxy vitamin D with bone turnover in the community-dwelling females of Karachi. Bone health was assessed in three randomly selected towns of Karachi, Pakistan. One premenopausal female fulfilling the inclusion criteria from each household was included in the study. Dietary calcium was assessed through a food frequency questionnaire and biochemical markers including calcium, phosphates, albumin, magnesium, creatinine, and SGPT, intact parathyroid hormone, 25 hydroxy vitamin D, and N-telopeptide of type I collagen were measured to assess the bone health. Three hundred and five females were included from three towns. Overall, 90.5% of females had vitamin D deficiency with 42.6 and 23.3% having secondary hyperparathyroidism and high bone turn over respectively. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and high bone turnover was significantly different among towns. Mean vitamin D levels were significantly low and iPTH levels significantly high in females with high bone turnover. Calcium intake was not significantly different among females with normal, high, and low bone turnover. Correlates of high bone turnover included females residing in Saddar Town, underweight females less than 30 years of age belonging to low socio-economic status, and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Compromised bone health is seen in community-dwelling females of Karachi. There is a need to perform large-scale community-based studies in all age groups to understand the interplay of markers in our population to understand the impact of these variables

  7. Optimisation modelling to assess cost of dietary improvement in remote Aboriginal Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Brimblecombe

    Full Text Available The cost and dietary choices required to fulfil nutrient recommendations defined nationally, need investigation, particularly for disadvantaged populations.We used optimisation modelling to examine the dietary change required to achieve nutrient requirements at minimum cost for an Aboriginal population in remote Australia, using where possible minimally-processed whole foods.A twelve month cross-section of population-level purchased food, food price and nutrient content data was used as the baseline. Relative amounts from 34 food group categories were varied to achieve specific energy and nutrient density goals at minimum cost while meeting model constraints intended to minimise deviation from the purchased diet.Simultaneous achievement of all nutrient goals was not feasible. The two most successful models (A & B met all nutrient targets except sodium (146.2% and 148.9% of the respective target and saturated fat (12.0% and 11.7% of energy. Model A was achieved with 3.2% lower cost than the baseline diet (which cost approximately AUD$13.01/person/day and Model B at 7.8% lower cost but with a reduction in energy of 4.4%. Both models required very large reductions in sugar sweetened beverages (-90% and refined cereals (-90% and an approximate four-fold increase in vegetables, fruit, dairy foods, eggs, fish and seafood, and wholegrain cereals.This modelling approach suggested population level dietary recommendations at minimal cost based on the baseline purchased diet. Large shifts in diet in remote Aboriginal Australian populations are needed to achieve national nutrient targets. The modeling approach used was not able to meet all nutrient targets at less than current food expenditure.

  8. Optimisation modelling to assess cost of dietary improvement in remote Aboriginal Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimblecombe, Julie; Ferguson, Megan; Liberato, Selma C; O'Dea, Kerin; Riley, Malcolm

    2013-01-01

    The cost and dietary choices required to fulfil nutrient recommendations defined nationally, need investigation, particularly for disadvantaged populations. We used optimisation modelling to examine the dietary change required to achieve nutrient requirements at minimum cost for an Aboriginal population in remote Australia, using where possible minimally-processed whole foods. A twelve month cross-section of population-level purchased food, food price and nutrient content data was used as the baseline. Relative amounts from 34 food group categories were varied to achieve specific energy and nutrient density goals at minimum cost while meeting model constraints intended to minimise deviation from the purchased diet. Simultaneous achievement of all nutrient goals was not feasible. The two most successful models (A & B) met all nutrient targets except sodium (146.2% and 148.9% of the respective target) and saturated fat (12.0% and 11.7% of energy). Model A was achieved with 3.2% lower cost than the baseline diet (which cost approximately AUD$13.01/person/day) and Model B at 7.8% lower cost but with a reduction in energy of 4.4%. Both models required very large reductions in sugar sweetened beverages (-90%) and refined cereals (-90%) and an approximate four-fold increase in vegetables, fruit, dairy foods, eggs, fish and seafood, and wholegrain cereals. This modelling approach suggested population level dietary recommendations at minimal cost based on the baseline purchased diet. Large shifts in diet in remote Aboriginal Australian populations are needed to achieve national nutrient targets. The modeling approach used was not able to meet all nutrient targets at less than current food expenditure.

  9. Key-feature questions for assessment of clinical reasoning: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrynchak, Patricia; Takahashi, Susan Glover; Nayer, Marla

    2014-09-01

    Key-feature questions (KFQs) have been developed to assess clinical reasoning skills. The purpose of this paper is to review the published evidence on the reliability and validity of KFQs to assess clinical reasoning. A literature review was conducted by searching MEDLINE (1946-2012) and EMBASE (1980-2012) via OVID and ERIC. The following search terms were used: key feature; question or test or tests or testing or tested or exam; assess or evaluation, and case-based or case-specific. Articles not in English were eliminated. The literature search resulted in 560 articles. Duplicates were eliminated, as were articles that were not relevant; nine articles that contained reliability or validity data remained. A review of the references and of citations of these articles resulted in an additional 12 articles to give a total of 21 for this review. Format, language and scoring of KFQ examinations have been studied and modified to maximise reliability. Internal consistency reliability has been reported as being between 0.49 and 0.95. Face and content validity have been shown to be moderate to high. Construct validity has been shown to be good using vector thinking processes and novice versus expert paradigms, and to discriminate between teaching methods. The very modest correlations between KFQ examinations and more general knowledge-based examinations point to differing roles for each. Importantly, the results of KFQ examinations have been shown to successfully predict future physician performance, including patient outcomes. Although it is inaccurate to conclude that any testing format is universally reliable or valid, published research supports the use of examinations using KFQs to assess clinical reasoning. The review identifies areas of further study, including all categories of evidence. Investigation into how examinations using KFQs integrate with other methods in a system of assessment is needed. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Baseline Depressive Symptoms, Completion of Study Assessments, and Behavior Change in a Long-Term Dietary Intervention Among Breast Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Julie B; Pierce, John P; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Cadmus-Bertram, Lisa A; Flatt, Shirley W; Madanat, Hala; Newman, Vicky A; Nichols, Jeanne F; Natarajan, Loki

    2015-12-01

    Depressive symptoms can lower adherence and change in dietary studies. Behavioral activation may reduce these effects. This study aims to assess relationships among depressive symptoms on adherence and dietary change in the Women's Healthy Eating and Living (WHEL) Study Secondary analyses from the WHEL Study, which achieved major dietary change in breast cancer survivors (N = 2817), were conducted. Logistic regressions were undertaken of baseline depressive symptoms (six-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D)) with (1) completion of 1- and 4-year study assessments and (2) validated change in dietary behavior in the intervention group. In the comparison group (vs. intervention), depressive symptoms lowered completion of dietary recalls and clinic visits [4 years: odds ratio (OR) = 2.0; 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.4-3.0]. The behaviorally oriented intervention achieved major change in those furthest from study targets, although changes were lower in those with depressive symptoms: fruit/vegetable (+37.2 %), fiber (+49.0 %), and fat (-22.4 %). Behavioral activation in dietary change interventions can overcome the impact of depressive symptoms.

  11. A systematic review of glomerular hyperfiltration assessment and definition in the medical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachat, Francois; Combescure, Christophe; Cauderay, Michel; Girardin, Eric; Chehade, Hassib

    2015-03-06

    Evaluation of glomerular hyperfiltration (GH) is difficult; the variable reported definitions impede comparisons between studies. A clear and universal definition of GH would help in comparing results of trials aimed at reducing GH. This study assessed how GH is measured and defined in the literature. Three databases (Embase, MEDLINE, CINAHL) were systematically searched using the terms "hyperfiltration" or "glomerular hyperfiltration". All studies reporting a GH threshold or studying the effect of a high GFR in a continuous manner against another outcome of interest were included. The literature search was performed from November 2012 to February 2013 and updated in August 2014. From 2013 retrieved studies, 405 studies were included. Threshold use to define GH was reported in 55.6% of studies. Of these, 88.4% used a single threshold and 11.6% used numerous thresholds adapted to participant sex or age. In 29.8% of the studies, the choice of a GH threshold was not based on a control group or literature references. After 2004, the use of GH threshold use increased (Psex-matched control group should be used to define a GH threshold. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  12. Dietary Exposure Assessment of Danish Consumers to Dithiocarbamate Residues in Food: a Comparison of the Deterministic and Probabilistic Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Andersen, Jens Hinge; Petersen, Annette

    2008-01-01

    Probabilistic and deterministic estimates of the acute and chronic exposure of the Danish populations to dithiocarbamate residues were performed. The Monte Carlo Risk Assessment programme (MCRA 4.0) was used for the probabilistic risk assessment. Food consumption data were obtained from...... the nationwide dietary survey conducted in 2000-02. Residue data for 5721 samples from the monitoring programme conducted in the period 1998-2003 were used for dithiocarbamates, which had been determined as carbon disulphide. Contributions from 26 commodities were included in the calculations. Using...... the probabilistic approach, the daily acute intakes at the 99.9% percentile for adults and children were 11.2 and 28.2 mu g kg(-1) body weight day(-1), representing 5.6% and 14.1% of the ARfD for maneb, respectively. When comparing the point estimate approach with the probabilistic approach, the outcome...

  13. Assessing the sensitivity of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) to dietary endosulfan exposure using tissue biochemistry and histology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glover, Chris N.; Petri, Dietrich [National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), Bergen (Norway); Tollefsen, Knut-Erik [Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), Oslo (Norway); Jorum, Nanne [Skretting ARC, Stavanger (Norway); Handy, Richard D. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Berntssen, Marc H.G. [National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), Bergen (Norway)], E-mail: marc.berntssen@nifes.no

    2007-10-15

    The incorporation of plant-based ingredients, and the possible carry-over of pesticides such as endosulfan, in fish feeds may present new toxicological challenges to aquacultural species. Biological responses of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) to a 35-day dietary endosulfan exposure at levels ranging from 4 to 710 {mu}g kg{sup -1} were assessed using tissue histology and biochemistry. Liver 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deacetylase (EROD) activity was significantly elevated in the highest exposure group (710 {mu}g kg{sup -1}) by day 35. Other hepatic indicators of stress impacts and responses (glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase activities and hepatic {alpha}-tocopherol content) remained unchanged. Branchial Na{sup +}, K{sup +}-ATPase activity was significantly reduced at day 14 in the highest exposure group, but returned to control levels by day 35. Conversely, intestinal Na{sup +}, K{sup +}-ATPase activity was significantly inhibited at day 35, but again only at the highest exposure level. In contrast to the biochemical results, hepatic and intestinal histology revealed effects of exposure even at the lowest dose tested (4 {mu}g kg{sup -1}). In the posterior intestine, pathology was characterised by vacuolation and fusion of villi, and in the most severe cases, loss of epithelial integrity in villi tips. In the liver the primary effects were glycogen depletion and lipidosis. These changes were typical of a generalised stress response. While histology endpoints may prove to be the most sensitive indicators of dietary endosulfan exposure, the organismal relevance of these structural changes must be considered in the absence of effects in other biomarkers at dietary levels less than 710 {mu}g kg{sup -1}.

  14. Assessing the sensitivity of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) to dietary endosulfan exposure using tissue biochemistry and histology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glover, Chris N.; Petri, Dietrich; Tollefsen, Knut-Erik; Jorum, Nanne; Handy, Richard D.; Berntssen, Marc H.G.

    2007-01-01

    The incorporation of plant-based ingredients, and the possible carry-over of pesticides such as endosulfan, in fish feeds may present new toxicological challenges to aquacultural species. Biological responses of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) to a 35-day dietary endosulfan exposure at levels ranging from 4 to 710 μg kg -1 were assessed using tissue histology and biochemistry. Liver 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deacetylase (EROD) activity was significantly elevated in the highest exposure group (710 μg kg -1 ) by day 35. Other hepatic indicators of stress impacts and responses (glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase activities and hepatic α-tocopherol content) remained unchanged. Branchial Na + , K + -ATPase activity was significantly reduced at day 14 in the highest exposure group, but returned to control levels by day 35. Conversely, intestinal Na + , K + -ATPase activity was significantly inhibited at day 35, but again only at the highest exposure level. In contrast to the biochemical results, hepatic and intestinal histology revealed effects of exposure even at the lowest dose tested (4 μg kg -1 ). In the posterior intestine, pathology was characterised by vacuolation and fusion of villi, and in the most severe cases, loss of epithelial integrity in villi tips. In the liver the primary effects were glycogen depletion and lipidosis. These changes were typical of a generalised stress response. While histology endpoints may prove to be the most sensitive indicators of dietary endosulfan exposure, the organismal relevance of these structural changes must be considered in the absence of effects in other biomarkers at dietary levels less than 710 μg kg -1

  15. Evaluation of Pictorial Dietary Assessment Tool for Hospitalized Patients with Diabetes: Cost, Accuracy, and User Satisfaction Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Budiningsari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Although nutritional screening and dietary monitoring in clinical settings are important, studies on related user satisfaction and cost benefit are still lacking. This study aimed to: (1 elucidate the cost of implementing a newly developed dietary monitoring tool, the Pictorial Dietary Assessment Tool (PDAT; and (2 investigate the accuracy of estimation and satisfaction of healthcare staff after the use of the PDAT. A cross-over intervention study was conducted among 132 hospitalized patients with diabetes. Cost and time for the implementation of PDAT in comparison to modified Comstock was estimated using the activity-based costing approach. Accuracy was expressed as the percentages of energy and protein obtained by both methods, which were within 15% and 30%, respectively, of those obtained by the food weighing. Satisfaction of healthcare staff was measured using a standardized questionnaire. Time to complete the food intake recording of patients using PDAT (2.31 ± 0.70 min was shorter than when modified Comstock (3.53 ± 1.27 min was used (p < 0.001. Overall cost per patient was slightly higher for PDAT (United States Dollar 0.27 ± 0.02 than for modified Comstock (USD 0.26 ± 0.04 (p < 0.05. The accuracy of energy intake estimated by modified Comstock was 10% lower than that of PDAT. There was poorer accuracy of protein intake estimated by modified Comstock (<40% compared to that estimated by the PDAT (>71% (p < 0.05. Mean user satisfaction of healthcare staff was significantly higher for PDAT than that for modified Comstock (p < 0.05. PDAT requires a shorter time to be completed and was rated better than modified Comstock.

  16. Dietary intake of aflatoxins in the adult Malaysian population - an assessment of risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, C K; Abdullah, A; Sugita-Konishi, Y

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to aflatoxins in the adult Malaysian diet was estimated by analysing aflatoxins in 236 food composites prepared as "ready for consumption". Dietary exposure to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) ranged from 24.3 to 34.00 ng/kg b.w./day (lower to upper bound), with peanuts being the main contributor. Estimated liver cancer risk from this exposure was 0.61-0.85 cancers/100,000 population/year, contributing 12.4%-17.3% of the liver cancer cases. Excluding AFB1 occurrence data higher than 15 µg/kg reduced exposure by 65%-91% to 2.27-11.99 ng/kg b.w./day, reducing the cancer risk to 0.06-0.30 cancers/100,000 population/year (contributing 1.2%-6.1% liver cancer cases). Reducing further the ML of AFB1 from 15 to 5 µg/kg yielded 3%-7% greater drop in the exposure to 0.47-10.26 ng/kg b.w./day with an estimated risk of 0.01-0.26 cancers/100,000 population/year (0.2%-5.1% liver cancer cases attributed to dietary AFB1). These findings indicate that current MLs are adequate in protecting Malaysians' health.

  17. Validation of a simplified food frequency questionnaire for the assessment of dietary habits in Iranian adults: Isfahan Healthy Heart Program, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadifard, Noushin; Sajjadi, Firouzeh; Maghroun, Maryam; Alikhasi, Hassan; Nilforoushzadeh, Farzaneh; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2015-03-01

    Dietary assessment is the first step of dietary modification in community-based interventional programs. This study was performed to validate a simple food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) for assessment of selected food items in epidemiological studies with a large sample size as well as community trails. This validation study was carried out on 264 healthy adults aged ≥ 41 years old living in 3 district central of Iran, including Isfahan, Najafabad, and Arak. Selected food intakes were assessed using a 48-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The FFQ was interviewer-administered, which was completed twice; at the beginning of the study and 2 weeks thereafter. The validity of this SFFQ was examined compared to estimated amount by single 24 h dietary recall and 2 days dietary record. Validation of the FFQ was determined using Spearman correlation coefficients between daily frequency consumption of food groups as assessed by the FFQ and the qualitative amount of daily food groups intake accessed by dietary reference method was applied to evaluate validity. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were used to determine the reproducibility. Spearman correlation coefficient between the estimated amount of food groups intake by examined and reference methods ranged from 0.105 (P = 0.378) in pickles to 0.48 (P studies and clinical trial with large participants.

  18. Nano-TiO₂--feasibility and challenges for human health risk assessment based on open literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Frans M; Johnston, Helinor J; Stone, Vicki; Aitken, Robert J; Hankin, Steve; Peters, Sheona; Aschberger, Karin

    2011-06-01

    This study aims at investigating feasibility and challenges associated with conducting a human health risk assessment for nano-titanium-dioxide (nano-TiO₂) based on the open literature by following an approach similar to a classical regulatory risk assessment. Gaps in the available data set, both in relation to exposures and hazard, do not allow reaching any definite conclusions that could be used for regulatory decision-making. Results show that repeated inhalation in the workplace and possibly consumer inhalation may cause risks. Also short-term inhalation following spray applications may cause risks. Main future work should focus on generating occupational and consumer inhalation exposure data, as well as toxicity data on absorption following inhalation, repeated dermal contact, and contact with damaged skin. Also relevant seems further information on possible neurotoxicity and genotoxicity/carcinogenicity, as well as establishing a No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) for acute inhalation of nano-TiO₂.

  19. The assessment of dentofacial esthetics in restorative dentistry: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frese, Cornelia; Staehle, Hans Joerg; Wolff, Diana

    2012-05-01

    The authors conducted a literature review to determine how dentofacial esthetics can be evaluated in restorative dentistry and which quantifiable clinical parameters can be used for this assessment of dentofacial esthetics. The authors selected 35 studies that focused on assessment strategies for dental professionals. The primary inclusion criteria were intraoral and extraoral esthetic assessment methods and indexes or rating scales evaluating esthetics in restorative dentistry. The studies' protocols and assessment methods were heterogeneous. The authors grouped the studies into six categories according to topic: golden proportion, soft-tissue measurement, smile and smile line assessment, orofacial indexes and scales, incisor proportion and angulation, and facial esthetics. These categories included various esthetic parameters, including the smile line, lip line, incisal offset, location of dental and facial midline, incisor angulations and width to height ratios of the maxillary anterior teeth, gingival contour, and root coverage and papilla height. These parameters should be considered when providing dental treatment in the anterior area, as they allow for quantification and objective judgment. The findings of this review might increase interest in a comprehensive dental esthetic index that allows for objective quantification and intrastudy and interstudy comparison of dental treatment outcomes.

  20. Nutritional assessment of patients with head and neck cancer in North-East India and dietary intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhinandan Bhattacharjee

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Nutritional Assessment Index has been found to be the best index to evaluate malnutrition. The daily requirement of nutrients for HNCA patients can be satisfactorily met by adopting specific diet chart presented in our study. As no structured diet plan are available in literature, our diet chart can act as a template diet appropriate for HNCA patients of this region.

  1. Life Cycle Assessment of Pavements: A Critical Review of Existing Literature and Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santero, Nicholas; Masanet, Eric; Horvath, Arpad

    2010-04-20

    This report provides a critical review of existing literature and modeling tools related to life-cycle assessment (LCA) applied to pavements. The review finds that pavement LCA is an expanding but still limited research topic in the literature, and that the existing body of work exhibits methodological deficiencies and incompatibilities that serve as barriers to the widespread utilization of LCA by pavement engineers and policy makers. This review identifies five key issues in the current body of work: inconsistent functional units, improper system boundaries, imbalanced data for asphalt and cement, use of limited inventory and impact assessment categories, and poor overall utility. This review also identifies common data and modeling gaps in pavement LCAs that should be addressed in future work. These gaps include: the use phase (rolling resistance, albedo, carbonation, lighting, leachate, and tire wear and emissions), asphalt fumes, feedstock energy of bitumen, traffic delay, the maintenance phase, and the end-of-life phase. This review concludes with a comprehensive list of recommendations for future research, which shed light on where improvements in knowledge can be made that will benefit the accuracy and comprehensiveness of pavement LCAs moving forward.

  2. A review on indexes and dietary assessment methods for determining the quality of diets - doi:10.5020/18061230.2011.p404

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Pinheiro Volp

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To summarize the different indexes most frequently used to evaluate the quality of diets, as well as the dietary assessment methods used for scoring, pointing out their advantages and disadvantages. Methods: We performed a literature search, with no date restriction, on primary indexed sources and in the databases SciELO, PubMed, Medline, Lilacs, Dedalus and ILSI Web of Knowledge. The keywords used were diet (ary quality, diet (ary patterns, diet quality index, Mediterranean diet and nutrition. Then, the cited references were reviewed, classifying the information by index. Results: The most widely indexes used are Diet Quality Index, Healthy Eating Index and Alternative Mediterranean Diet Score, using the food frequency questionnaire or a combination of the 24-hour recall and food (s record (s. Conclusion: The determination of feeding patterns through indices is a relatively easy process; however, to have confidence in the results is necessary to know the biases that each index and instrument has, as well as its construction and punctuation.

  3. Exposure assessment of adult intake of bisphenol A (BPA) with emphasis on canned food dietary exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorber, Matthew; Schecter, Arnold; Paepke, Olaf; Shropshire, William; Christensen, Krista; Birnbaum, Linda

    2015-04-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high-volume, synthetic compound found in epoxy resins and plastics used in food packaging. Food is believed to be a major source of BPA intake. In this study, we measured the concentration of BPA in convenience samplings of foodstuffs purchased in Dallas, Texas. Sampling entailed collection of 204 samples of fresh, frozen, and canned foods in two rounds in 2010. BPA was positive in 73% of the canned food samples, while it was found in only 7% of non-canned foods at low concentrations. The results of this food sampling program were used to calculate adult dietary intakes of BPA. A pathway approach combined food intakes, a "canned fraction" parameter which described what portion of total intake of that food came from canned products, and measured food concentrations. Dietary intakes were calculated as 12.6 ng/kg-day, of which 12.4 ng/kg-day was from canned foods. Canned vegetable intakes alone were 11.9 ng/kg-day. This dietary intake was compared to total intakes of BPA estimated from urine measurements of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Total adult central tendency intakes ranged from 30 to 70 ng/kg-day for NHANES cycles between 2005 and 2010. Three possibilities were explored to explain the difference between these two approaches for intake estimation. Not all foods which may have been canned, particularly canned beverages such as soft drinks, were sampled in our food sampling program. Second, non-food pathways of exposure may be important for adults, including thermal paper exposures, and dust and air exposures. Finally, our canned food concentrations may not be adequately representative of canned foods in the United States; they were found to be generally lower compared to canned food concentrations measured in six other worldwide food surveys including three in North America. Our finding that canned food concentrations greatly exceeded non-canned concentrations was consistent with other studies, and

  4. Assessment of dietary food and nutrient intake and bone density in children with eczema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, T F; Wang, S S; Kwok, F Yy; Leung, L Ws; Chow, C M; Hon, K L

    2017-10-01

    Dietary restrictions are common among patients with eczema, and such practice may lead to diminished bone mineral density. This study investigated dietary intake and bone mineral density in Hong Kong Chinese children with eczema. This cross-sectional and observational study was conducted in a university-affiliated teaching hospital in Hong Kong. Chinese children aged below 18 years with physician-diagnosed eczema were recruited from our paediatric allergy and dermatology clinics over a 6-month period in 2012. Subjects with stable asthma and/or allergic rhinitis who were free of eczema and food allergy as well as non-allergic children were recruited from attendants at our out-patient clinics as a reference group. Intake of various foods and nutrients was recorded using a food frequency questionnaire that was analysed using Foodworks Professional software. Bone mineral density at the radius and the tibia was measured by quantitative ultrasound bone sonometry, and urinary cross-linked telopeptides were quantified by immunoassay and corrected for creatinine level. Overall, 114 children with eczema and 60 other children as reference group were recruited. Eczema severity of the patients was classified according to the objective SCORing Atopic Dermatitis score. Males had a higher daily energy intake than females (median, 7570 vs 6736 kJ; P=0.035), but intake of any single food item or nutrient did not differ between them. Compared with the reference group, children with eczema had a higher intake of soybeans and miscellaneous dairy products and lower intake of eggs, beef, and shellfish. Children with eczema also consumed less vitamin D, calcium, and iron. The mean (standard deviation) bone mineral density Z-score of children with eczema and those in the reference group were 0.52 (0.90) and 0.55 (1.12) over the radius (P=0.889), and 0.02 (1.03) and -0.01 (1.13) over the tibia (P=0.886), respectively. Urine telopeptide levels were similar between the groups. Calcium intake

  5. Dietary Intakes of Minerals, Essential and Toxic Trace Elements for Adults from Eragrostis tef L.: A Nutritional Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Koubová

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analysed the contents of thirty-six mineral and trace elements in teff (Eragrostis tef L. grains. What is more, dietary intakes were calculated. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS was used to assess mineral and trace element contents. Consequently, the appropriate Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA or adequate intake (AI, and provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI or provisional tolerable monthly intake (PTMI values for adults were determined according to the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO and Institute of Medicine (IOM regulations. Teff is a significant contributor to RDAs and AIs for females in the following order: Mn > Cu > Zn ≥ Mg > Fe ≥ P and Ca. For males, teff contributes in the order, Mn > Cu > Fe > Zn ≥ P ≥ Mg > and Ca. The concentration of arsenic (65.9 µg/kg in brown teff originating in Bolivia exceeded the average acceptable value set by Reg. No. 1881 of 6–50 µg/kg in cereals consumed in the EU. The PTWIs or PTMIs for Al, Cd, Sn and Hg were all under 7%, which is below the limits of toxic element intake related to the body weight of 65 kg for adult females and 80 kg for males, set by the FAO/WHO. Teff grains can be recommended as a valuable and safe source of minerals and trace elements.

  6. Strategies to improve the dietary quality of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) beneficiaries: an assessment of stakeholder opinions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, Susan J; Hoffnagle, Elena E; Leung, Cindy W; Lofink, Hayley; Jensen, Helen H; Foerster, Susan B; Cheung, Lilian Wy; Nestle, Marion; Willett, Walter C

    2014-12-01

    To examine the opinions of stakeholders on strategies to improve dietary quality of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants. Participants answered a thirty-eight-item web-based survey assessing opinions and perceptions of SNAP and programme policy changes. Survey of 522 individuals with stakeholder interest in SNAP, conducted in October through December 2011. The top three barriers to improving dietary quality identified were: (i) unhealthy foods marketed in low-income communities; (ii) the high cost of healthy foods; and (iii) lifestyle challenges faced by low-income individuals. Many respondents (70 %) also disagreed that current SNAP benefit levels were adequate to maintain a healthy diet. Stakeholders believed that vouchers, coupons or monetary incentives for purchasing healthful foods might have the greatest potential for improving the diets of SNAP participants. Many respondents (78 %) agreed that sodas should not be eligible for purchases with SNAP benefits. More than half (55 %) believed retailers could easily implement such restrictions. A majority of respondents (58 %) agreed that stores should stock a minimum quantity of healthful foods in order to be certified as a SNAP retailer, and most respondents (83 %) believed that the US Department of Agriculture should collect data on the foods purchased with SNAP benefits. Results suggest that there is broad stakeholder support for policies that align SNAP purchase eligibility with national public health goals of reducing food insecurity, improving nutrition and preventing obesity.

  7. Web-based Dietary Assessment for 8-11 Year Old School-children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia

    status and BMI of the children. Possible causes may be the weight and health focus of the study, social desirability and the diet reporting itself. When using plasma carotenoid concentrations as a reference, the WebDASC’s ability to rank participants according to FJV intake was good and the Web...... ability and social desirability which in addition is influenced by the OPUS study. Furthermore, they are untrained in the task and they may not be involved in food shopping or preparation and therefore have little insight into the foods they eat. The overall aim of the present project was to deliver......Background and aim The potential health effects of a New Nordic Diet (NND) are to be tested in the Danish OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet) School Meal study among 8-11- year-old school-children. Valid and reliable dietary...

  8. Dietary Tools To Modulate Glycogen Storage In Fish Muscle: A Proteomic Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Tomé S.; Matos, Elisabete; Cordeire, Odete

    proteins, and consequent muscle softening. The purpose of this study was to modulate the energy status of the muscle at the time of death through the use of dietary muscle buffering compounds, namely glycerol and maslinic acid. Four fish groups of gilthead seabream (in duplicate) were fed for three months...... and isolipidic. Fish were slaughtered by immersion in ice-salt water slurry and muscle samples were immediately obtained from three fish of each tank, for a total of six muscle samples per treatment. Sarcoplasmic proteins were extracted from each muscle sample, separated/quantified by 2D-DIGE and identified...... by peptide fragment fingerprinting using MALDI-TOF MS. Preliminary analysis of the results shows an effect of the diets on muscle parameters such as measured pH and onset of rigor mortis. At the proteome level, the addition of glycerol and maslinic acid to the diets seemed to have affected the abundance...

  9. Assessing lead thresholds for phytotoxicity and potential dietary toxicity in selected vegetable crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, C L; Jia, Y B; Yang, X E; He, Z L; Stoffella, P J

    2008-04-01

    Lead tolerance and accumulation in shoots and edible parts varied with crop species and soil type. The critical Pb concentrations at 10% yield reduction were 24.71, 28.25, and 0.567 mg kg(-1) for pakchoi, celery, and hot pepper, respectively under hydroponic conditions, whereas were 13.1, 3.83, 0.734 mg kg(-1) grown in the Inceptisol and 31.7, 30.0, 0.854 mg kg(-1) in the Alluvial soil, respectively. Based on the threshold of human dietary toxicity for Pb, the critical levels of soil available Pb for pakchoi, celery, and hot pepper were 5.07, 8.06, and 0.48 mg kg(-1) for the Inceptisol, and 1.38, 1.47, and 0.162 mg kg(-1) for the Alluvial soil, respectively. Similarly, the total soil Pb thresholds were different from vegetable species and soil types.

  10. Evaluation of a Mobile Phone Image-Based Dietary Assessment Method in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan E. Rollo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Image-based dietary records have limited evidence evaluating their performance and use among adults with a chronic disease. This study evaluated the performance of a 3-day mobile phone image-based dietary record, the Nutricam Dietary Assessment Method (NuDAM, in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Criterion validity was determined by comparing energy intake (EI with total energy expenditure (TEE measured by the doubly-labelled water technique. Relative validity was established by comparison to a weighed food record (WFR. Inter-rater reliability was assessed by comparing estimates of intake from three dietitians. Ten adults (6 males, age: 61.2 ± 6.9 years old, BMI: 31.0 ± 4.5 kg/m2 participated. Compared to TEE, mean EI (MJ/day was significantly under-reported using both methods, with a mean ratio of EI:TEE 0.76 ± 0.20 for the NuDAM and 0.76 ± 0.17 for the WFR. Correlations between the NuDAM and WFR were mostly moderate for energy (r = 0.57, carbohydrate (g/day (r = 0.63, p < 0.05, protein (g/day (r = 0.78, p < 0.01 and alcohol (g/day (rs = 0.85, p < 0.01, with a weaker relationship for fat (g/day (r = 0.24. Agreement between dietitians for nutrient intake for the 3-day NuDAM (Intra-class Correlation Coefficient (ICC = 0.77–0.99 was lower when compared with the 3-day WFR (ICC = 0.82–0.99. These findings demonstrate the performance and feasibility of the NuDAM to assess energy and macronutrient intake in a small sample. Some modifications to the NuDAM could improve efficiency and an evaluation in a larger group of adults with T2DM is required.

  11. Assessing Overweight/Obesity, Dietary Habits, and Physical Activity in Hispanic College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulku S. Karabulut

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study examined the overweight, obesity, dietary habits, and physical activity among Hispanic college students. Methods Eighty seven (n=87, age= 24.03 ± 5.69 Hispanic college students participated in the study. Descriptive and anthropometric measurements including resting heart rate (RHR, resting blood pressure (RBP, height, weight, body mass index (BMI, circumference measurements [waist at narrowest point (Xiphoid, and hip at widest point (Hip, body composition (BC were collected. Subjects completed the Dietary Screener Questionnaire (DSQ. PA was estimated via Godin’s (2011 Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire. Results The mean BMI was 27.29±6.20 kg/m2, in the overweight range. The mean WC for males was 90.86±13.23 and for females was 82.35±14.61. Independent t-test showed that males had significantly higher values in height (p<0.01, weight (p<0.01, WC (p<0.01, and PA (p<0.01 compared to females. DSQ data indicated that participants consumed fruits, green leafy or lettuce salad, and milk less than recommended amount. It also showed high intake of sugary food. Conclusions Hispanic young adults are in a poorest condition regarding the level of obesity as opposed to White and African American counterparts. This may be due to the decrease in PA. Diet behavior; less consumption of dairy, fruits and vegetable but frequent consumption of high sugary might be related to obesity in Hispanic young adults.

  12. Feasibility of dietary assessment methods, other tools and procedures for a pan-European food consumption survey among infants, toddlers and children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ocké, Marga; Brants, Henny; Dofkova, Marcela

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To test the feasibility of tools and procedures for a pan-European food consumption survey among children 0-10 years and to recommend one of two tested dietary assessment methods. Methods Two pilot studies including 378 children were conducted in Belgium and the Czech Republic in the Pilot...... more challenging by the interviewers. Conclusions Both dietary assessment methods with related tools and administration protocols were evaluated as feasible. The administration protocol with two 1-day food diaries with completion interviews offers more advantages for the future pan-European survey...

  13. A Mobile Phone Based Method to Assess Energy and Food Intake in Young Children: A Validation Study against the Doubly Labelled Water Method and 24 h Dietary Recalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle Nyström, Christine; Forsum, Elisabet; Henriksson, Hanna; Trolle-Lagerros, Ylva; Larsson, Christel; Maddison, Ralph; Timpka, Toomas; Löf, Marie

    2016-01-15

    Mobile phones are becoming important instruments for assessing diet and energy intake. We developed the Tool for Energy Balance in Children (TECH), which uses a mobile phone to assess energy and food intake in pre-school children. The aims of this study were: (a) to compare energy intake (EI) using TECH with total energy expenditure (TEE) measured via doubly labelled water (DLW); and (b) to compare intakes of fruits, vegetables, fruit juice, sweetened beverages, candy, ice cream, and bakery products using TECH with intakes acquired by 24 h dietary recalls. Participants were 39 healthy, Swedish children (5.5 ± 0.5 years) within the ongoing Mobile-based Intervention Intended to Stop Obesity in Preschoolers (MINISTOP) obesity prevention trial. Energy and food intakes were assessed during four days using TECH and 24 h telephone dietary recalls. Mean EI (TECH) was not statistically different from TEE (DLW) (5820 ± 820 kJ/24 h and 6040 ± 680 kJ/24 h, respectively). No significant differences in the average food intakes using TECH and 24 h dietary recalls were found. All food intakes were correlated between TECH and the 24 h dietary recalls (ρ = 0.665-0.896, p foods and thus has the potential to be a useful tool for dietary studies in pre-school children, for example obesity prevention trials.

  14. A Mobile Phone Based Method to Assess Energy and Food Intake in Young Children: A Validation Study against the Doubly Labelled Water Method and 24 h Dietary Recalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Delisle Nyström

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile phones are becoming important instruments for assessing diet and energy intake. We developed the Tool for Energy Balance in Children (TECH, which uses a mobile phone to assess energy and food intake in pre-school children. The aims of this study were: (a to compare energy intake (EI using TECH with total energy expenditure (TEE measured via doubly labelled water (DLW; and (b to compare intakes of fruits, vegetables, fruit juice, sweetened beverages, candy, ice cream, and bakery products using TECH with intakes acquired by 24 h dietary recalls. Participants were 39 healthy, Swedish children (5.5 ± 0.5 years within the ongoing Mobile-based Intervention Intended to Stop Obesity in Preschoolers (MINISTOP obesity prevention trial. Energy and food intakes were assessed during four days using TECH and 24 h telephone dietary recalls. Mean EI (TECH was not statistically different from TEE (DLW (5820 ± 820 kJ/24 h and 6040 ± 680kJ/24 h, respectively. No significant differences in the average food intakes using TECH and 24 h dietary recalls were found. All food intakes were correlated between TECH and the 24 h dietary recalls (ρ = 0.665–0.896, p < 0.001. In conclusion, TECH accurately estimated the average intakes of energy and selected foods and thus has the potential to be a useful tool for dietary studies in pre-school children, for example obesity prevention trials.

  15. Relative validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire to assess dietary fiber intake in Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vuholm, Stine; Lorenzen, Janne Kunchel; Kristensen, Mette Bredal

    2014-01-01

    months later. Results: Estimates of mean dietary fiber intake were 24.999.8 and 28.199.4 g/day when applying the FFQ and DR, respectively, where FFQ estimates were 12% lower (pB0.001). Pearson’s correlation coefficient between the estimated dietary fiber intake of the two methods was r0.63 (pB0......: The developed FFQ showed moderate underestimation of dietary fiber intake (g/day), adequate ranking of subjects according to their dietary fiber intake, and good reproducibility. The FFQ is therefore believed to be a valuable tool for epidemiology and screening in human interventions, where intake of dietary...

  16. A literature review on self-care of chronic illness: definition, assessment and related outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausili, Davide; Masotto, Matteo; Dall'Ora, Chiara; Salvini, Lorena; Di Mauro, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    Chronic illnesses care represents a challenging issue for people well-being and future health systems' sustainability. Promotion of self-care is considered a key point for chronically ill patients' care. The aim of this literature was to explore: how self-care of chronic illness has been theoretically defined; how self-care can be assessed in clinical and research settings; what associations exist between self-care and health outcomes of chronically ill patients. A wide range of definitions and terminologies related to self-care of chronic illness has been found in the literature. Although some common elements useful to explain the concept of self-care have been identified, the physical, cognitive, emotional and social processes underlying self-care remain controversial and poorly defined. Valid and reliable disease-specific assessment tools have been developed and used in a growing number of studies; however, the lack of utilization of standardized instruments in clinical practice has been referred by many authors. Significant correlations between self-care of chronic illness and outcome measures e.g. general health status, quality of life and healthcare costs, are reported by a limited number of studies. Supporting patient self-care is recognized as a crucial factor in chronic illness care. A deeper analysis of variables and processes influencing self-care could help for a full description of the phenomenon. A systematic evaluation of self-care in health professionals' everyday clinical practice is strongly recommended. The development of general non-disease-specific assessment tools could facilitate the evaluation of complex patients, especially those with multiple co-morbidities. Although self-care has been recognized as a vital intermediate outcome, further large-scale studies clarifying the association between self-care and patients' and health systems' outcomes are needed.

  17. International Literature Review on WHODAS II (World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federici, Stefano

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This review is a critical analysis regarding the study and utilization of the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHODAS II as a basis for establishing specific criteria for evaluating relevant international scientific literature.The WHODAS II is an instrument developed by the World Health Organisation in order to assess behavioural limitations and restrictions related to an individual’s participation, independent from a medical diagnosis. This instrument was developed by the WHO’s Assessment, Classification and Epidemiology Group within the framework of the WHO/NIH Joint Project on Assessment and Classification of Disablements. To ascertain the international dissemination level of for WHODAS II’s utilization and, at the same time, analyse the studies regarding the psychometric validation of the WHODAS II translation and adaptation in other languages and geographical contests. Particularly, our goal is to highlight which psychometric features have been investigated, focusing on the factorial structure, the reliability, and the validity of this instrument. International literature was researched through the main data bases of indexed scientific production: the Cambridge Scientific Abstracts – CSA, PubMed, and Google Scholar, from 1990 through to December 2008.The following search terms were used:“whodas”, in the field query, plus “title” and “abstract”.The WHODAS II has been used in 54 studies, of which 51 articles are published in international journals, 2 conference abstracts, and one dissertation abstract. Nevertheless, only 7 articles are published in journals and conference proceedings regarding disability and rehabilitation. Others have been published in medical and psychiatric journals, with the aim of indentifying comorbidity correlations in clinical diagnosis concerning patients with mental illness. Just 8 out of 51 articles have studied the psychometric properties of the WHODAS II. The

  18. Formulating autism systemically: Part 1 - A review of the published literature and case assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crittenden, Patricia M

    2017-07-01

    Autism is a psychiatric disorder of unknown aetiology. In this article, the literature on genetic, neurological, psychological, relational and cultural causes of autism is reviewed, beginning with the 2014 review of Crittenden, Dallos, Landini et al. (pp. 64-70) up to and including recent publications in 2017. Some of the findings were unexpected; others led to new questions. The unexpected findings were the minimal contribution of genes to autism, the extremely evident neurological differences, the interpersonal quality of the psychological findings (that lacked evidence of parents' behaviour), the relational evidence that mothers' childhood trauma, perinatal stress and marital stress increased the risk of autism, and the reciprocal relation between funding for treatment of autism and diagnoses of autism. Notably, there was an abundance of genetic studies, numerous neurological studies and only scattered psychological, relational and cultural studies, thus rendering those findings speculative. The new questions included whether mothers used postural/gestural signs to signal their children to maintain distance and whether mothers experienced wariness of males as a result of childhood trauma, with their sons possibly experiencing gender confusion. Following the literature review, a small archival set of video-recorded and transcribed assessments of attachment of cases of autism were examined for evidence to corroborate or refute the psychological and relational findings of the literature review. The findings were striking in their support of mothers' use of postural/gestural communication regarding distance, children's close attention to mothers' bodily signals, without looking at mothers' face, mothers' greater comfort when they approached their sons than when their sons approached them, one boy's lack of verbal self-representation and mothers' childhood triangulation. These became hypotheses regarding what to look for in Part 2 of this article, a prospective, 12

  19. Assessing video games to improve driving skills: a literature review and observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue, Damian; Ray, Pradeep; Talaei-Khoei, Amir; Jonnagaddala, Jitendra; Vichitvanichphong, Suchada

    2014-08-07

    For individuals, especially older adults, playing video games is a promising tool for improving their driving skills. The ease of use, wide availability, and interactivity of gaming consoles make them an attractive simulation tool. The objective of this study was to look at the feasibility and effects of installing video game consoles in the homes of individuals looking to improve their driving skills. A systematic literature review was conducted to assess the effect of playing video games on improving driving skills. An observatory study was performed to evaluate the feasibility of using an Xbox 360 Kinect console for improving driving skills. Twenty-nine articles, which discuss the implementation of video games in improving driving skills were found in literature. On our study, it was found the Xbox 360 with Kinect is capable of improving physical and mental activities. Xbox Video games were introduced to engage players in physical, visual and cognitive activities including endurance, postural sway, reaction time, eyesight, eye movement, attention and concentration, difficulties with orientation, and semantic fluency. However, manual dexterity, visuo-spatial perception and binocular vision could not be addressed by these games. It was observed that Xbox Kinect (by incorporating Kinect sensor facilities) combines physical, visual and cognitive engagement of players. These results were consistent with those from the literature review. From the research that has been carried out, we can conclude that video game consoles are a viable solution for improving user's physical and mental state. In future we propose to carry a thorough evaluation of the effects of video games on driving skills in elderly people.

  20. Differences in Mothers' and Children's Dietary Intake during Physical and Sedentary Activities: An Ecological Momentary Assessment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Sydney G; Koprowski, Carol; Dzubur, Eldin; Leventhal, Adam M; Huh, Jimi; Dunton, Genevieve Fridlund

    2017-08-01

    Physical activity and diet are major modifiable health behaviors contributing to obesity risk. Although patterns of these behaviors tend to cluster within individuals and within family units, it is unknown to what extent healthy and unhealthy dietary intake might differentially accompany sedentary and physical activities in mothers compared with their children. Our goal was to examine differences in co-occurrence of activities and dietary intake between mothers and children, as measured in real time using ecological momentary assessment. This study examined cross-sectional data from 175 mothers and their children aged 8 to 12 years. Participants completed 8 days of ecological momentary assessment surveys, reporting on whether the following activities had occurred during the past 2 hours: sedentary screen activity, physical activity, and intake of healthy (ie, fruits and vegetables) and unhealthy (ie, fast food, chips/fries, pastries/sweets, and soda/energy drinks) foods. Multilevel logistic regression models estimated the adjusted odds of consuming healthy and unhealthy dietary intake for mothers and children during time periods reporting physical activity (vs no physical activity) or sedentary screen activity (vs no sedentary screen activity). Post hoc tests compared estimates for mothers vs children. Children were significantly more likely than their mothers to consume unhealthy foods during 2-hour windows that included physical activity (odds ratio [children] 1.85, 95% CI 1.47 to 2.31; odds ratio [mothers] 0.83, 95% CI 0.58 to 1.20; P diff sedentary screen activity (P diff =0.067). In addition, children and their mothers did not differ in their likelihood of consuming healthy foods during 2-hour windows with sedentary screen activity (P diff  =0.497) or physical activity (P diff  =0.170). Results indicate that the consumption of unhealthy foods may be more likely to co-occur within a 2-hour window including physical activity in children as compared to their

  1. Psychometric evaluation of dietary habits questionnaire for type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sami, W.; Ansari, T.; Butt, N. S.; Hamid, M. R. Ab

    2017-09-01

    This research evaluated the psychometric properties of English version of dietary habits questionnaires developed for type 2 diabetic patients. There is scarcity of literature about availability of standardized questionnaires for assessing dietary habits of type 2 diabetics in Saudi Arabia. As dietary habits vary from country to country, therefore, this was an attempt to develop questionnaires that can serve as a baseline. Through intensive literature review, four questionnaires were developed / modified and subsequently tested for psychometric properties. Prior to pilot study, a pre-test was conducted to evaluate the face validity and content validity. The pilot study was conducted from 23 October - 22 November, 2016 to evaluate the questionnaires’ reliability and validity. Systematic random sampling technique was used to collect the data from 132 patients by direct investigation method. Questionnaires assessing diabetes mellitus knowledge (0.891), dietary knowledge (0.869), dietary attitude (0.841) and dietary practices (0.874) had good internal consistency reliability. Factor analysis conducted on dietary attitude questionnaire showed a valid 5 factor solution. Directions of loadings were positive and free from factorial complexity. Relying on the data obtained from type 2 diabetics, these questionnaires can be considered as reliable and valid for the assessment of dietary habits in Saudi Arabia and neighbouring Gulf countries population.

  2. Development and validation of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire to assess dietary intake in Turkish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunes, Fatma Esra; Imeryuz, Nese; Akalin, Arzu; Bekiroglu, Nural; Alphan, Emel; Oguz, Aytekin; Dehghan, Mahshid

    2015-07-01

    To validate the original food frequency questionnaire in Turkish adult population. The cross-sectional study was conducted in June and December 2008 and 2009, and comprised adults of either gender aged 30-70 years. All subjects were Caucasians and were native Turkish speakers. The food frequency questionnaire containing 229 most frequently consumed foods under 7 topics was used for data collection. It was completed twice and the 24-hour dietary recall four times in a year. In order to assess the validity of the questionnaire, Pearson correlation, attenuation coefficient, measures of agreement between the two methods, weighted kappa statistics and Bland-Altman plots were employed. SPSS 16 was used for statistical analysis. Of the 120 subjects in the study, 71(59%) were males and 49(41%) were females with an overall mean age of 50.16±9.76 years. The correlation of estimated nutrient intake between the food frequency questionnaire and 24-hour dietary recall varied between 0.200 and 0.468, energy-adjusted regression was between 0.044 and 0.611 and attenuation coefficients of regression were between 0.339 and 0.658 for the selected macro and micro nutrients. Bland-Altman plots showed an acceptable agreement between the two methods. When nutrient intake was categorised in quartiles, proportions of the same or adjacent quartiles were 98.3%, 98.4%, 98.3%, 96.7% and 95% for energy, fat, protein, carbohydrates and fibre, respectively. The first food frequency questionnaire developed in Turkish language was an adequate and valid tool to assess the nutritional habits of the local population.

  3. Methodology Used to Assess Acceptability of Oral Pediatric Medicines: A Systematic Literature Search and Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Punam; Batchelor, Hannah

    2017-06-01

    Regulatory guidelines require that any new medicine designed for a pediatric population must be demonstrated as being acceptable to that population. There is currently no guidance on how to conduct or report on acceptability testing. Our objective was to undertake a review of the methods used to assess the acceptability of medicines within a pediatric population and use this review to propose the most appropriate methodology. We used a defined search strategy to identify literature reports of acceptability assessments of medicines conducted within pediatric populations and extracted information about the tools used in these studies for comparison across studies. In total, 61 articles were included in the analysis. Palatability was the most common (54/61) attribute measured when evaluating acceptability. Simple scale methods were most commonly used, with visual analog scales (VAS) and hedonic scales used both separately and in combination in 34 of the 61 studies. Hedonic scales alone were used in 14 studies and VAS alone in just five studies. Other tools included Likert scales; forced choice or preference; surveys or questionnaires; observations of facial expressions during administration, ease of swallowing, or ability to swallow the dosage; prevalence of complaints or refusal to take the medicine; and time taken for a nurse to administer the medicine. The best scale in terms of validity, reliability, feasibility, and preference to use when assessing acceptability remains unclear. Further work is required to select the most appropriate method to justify whether a medicine is acceptable to a pediatric population.

  4. Assessing Hospital Physicians' Acceptance of Clinical Information Systems: A Review of the Relevant Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram Pynoo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In view of the tremendous potential benefits of clinical information systems (CIS for the quality of patient care; it is hard to understand why not every CIS is embraced by its targeted users, the physicians. The aim of this study is to propose a framework for assessing hospital physicians' CIS-acceptance that can serve as a guidance for future research into this area. Hereto, a review of the relevant literature was performed in the ISI Web-of-Science database. Eleven studies were withheld from an initial dataset of 797 articles. Results show that just as in business settings, there are four core groups of variables that influence physicians' acceptance of a CIS: its usefulness and ease of use, social norms, and factors in the working environment that facilitate use of the CIS (such as providing computers/workstations, compatibility between the new and existing system.... We also identified some additional variables as predictors of CIS-acceptance.

  5. A scoping research literature review to assess the state of existing evidence on the "bad" death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Donna M; Hewitt, Jessica A

    2018-02-01

    A scoping research literature review on "bad death" was undertaken to assess the overall state of the science on this topic and to determine what evidence exists on how often bad deaths occur, what contributes to or causes a bad death, and what the outcomes and consequences of bad deaths are. A search for English-language research articles was conducted in late 2016, with 25 articles identified and all retained for examination, as is expected with scoping reviews. Only 3 of the 25 articles provided incidence information, specifying that 7.8 to 23% of deaths were bad and that bad deaths were more likely to occur in hospitals than in community-care settings. Many different factors were associated with bad deaths, with unrelieved pain being the most commonly identified. Half of the studies provided information on the possible consequences or outcomes of bad deaths, such as palliative care not being initiated, interpersonal and team conflict, and long-lasting negative community effects. This review identified a relatively small number of research articles that focused in whole or in part on bad deaths. Although the reasons why people consider a death to be bad may be highly individualized and yet also socioculturally based, unrelieved pain is a commonly held reason for bad deaths. Although bad and good deaths may have some opposing causative factors, this literature review revealed some salient bad death attributes, ones that could be avoided to prevent bad deaths from occurring. A routine assessment to allow planning so as to avoid bad deaths and enhance the probability of good deaths is suggested.

  6. Knowledge silos: assessing knowledge sharing between specialties through the vestibular schwannoma literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnurman, Zane; Golfinos, John G; Roland, J Thomas; Kondziolka, Douglas

    2017-12-01

    OBJECTIVE It is common for a medical disorder to be managed or researched by individuals who work within different specialties. It is known that both neurosurgeons and neurotologists manage vestibular schwannoma (VS) patients. While overlap in specialty focus has the potential to stimulate multidisciplinary collaboration and innovative thinking, there is a risk of specialties forming closed-communication loops, called knowledge silos, which may inhibit knowledge diffusion. This study quantitatively assessed knowledge sharing between neurosurgery and otolaryngology on the subject of VS. METHODS A broad Web of Science search was used to download details for 4439 articles related to VS through 2016. The publishing journal's specialty and the authors' specialties (based on author department) were determined for available articles. All 114,647 of the article references were categorized by journal specialty. The prevalence of several VS topics was assessed using keyword searches of titles. RESULTS For articles written by neurosurgeons, 44.0% of citations were from neurosurgery journal articles and 23.4% were from otolaryngology journals. The citations of otolaryngology authors included 11.6% neurosurgery journals and 56.5% otolaryngology journals. Both author specialty and journal specialty led to more citations of the same specialty, though author specialty had the largest effect. Comparing the specialties' literature, several VS topics had significantly different levels of coverage, including radiosurgery and hearing topics. Despite the availability of the Internet, there has been no change in the proportions of references for either specialty since 1997 (the year PubMed became publicly available). CONCLUSIONS Partial knowledge silos are observed between neurosurgery and otolaryngology on the topic of VS, based on the peer-reviewed literature. The increase in access provided by the Internet and searchable online databases has not decreased specialty reference bias

  7. Caffeine levels in beverages from Argentina's market: application to caffeine dietary intake assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmos, V; Bardoni, N; Ridolfi, A S; Villaamil Lepori, E C

    2009-03-01

    The caffeine content of different beverages from Argentina's market was measured. Several brands of coffees, teas, mates, chocolate milks, soft and energy drinks were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet detection. The highest concentration level was found in short coffee (1.38 mg ml(-1)) and the highest amount per serving was found in instant coffee (95 mg per serving). A consumption study was also carried out among 471 people from 2 to 93 years of age to evaluate caffeine total dietary intake by age and to identify the sources of caffeine intake. The mean caffeine intake among adults was 288 mg day(-1) and mate was the main contributor to that intake. The mean caffeine intake among children of 10 years of age and under was 35 mg day(-1) and soft drinks were the major contributors to that intake. Children between 11 and 15 years old and teenagers (between 16 and 20 years) had caffeine mean intakes of 120 and 240 mg day(-1), respectively, and mate was the major contributor to those intakes. Drinking mate is a deep-rooted habit among Argentine people and it might be the reason for their elevated caffeine mean daily intake.

  8. Exploration of different methods to assess dietary acrylamide exposure in pregnant women participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brantsaeter, A.L.; Haugen, M.; Mul, de A.; Bjellaas, T.; Becher, G.; Klaveren, van J.D.; Alexander, J.; Meltzer, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    We assessed dietary exposure to acrylamide in 119 pregnant Norwegian women. The aim of the study was to explore three different methods for estimation of long-term intake of acrylamide and whether it is possible by a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to identify pregnant women with high exposure to

  9. Improving Training Condition Assessment in Endurance Cyclists: Effects of Ganoderma lucidum and Ophiocordyceps sinensis Dietary Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Rossi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main reasons for taking daily dietary supplements are to maintain good health, to improve homeostasis, and to create conditions for reducing the risk of disease. Due to growing market demand, the search for effective, nontoxic, natural compounds with antioxidant and ergogenic properties has increasingly become a matter of interest. This paper describes how a specific combination of fungal supplements can help improve the performance of endurance athletes. We report the effects of a brief 3-month trial of two fungal supplements, Ganoderma lucidum and Cordyceps sinensis (3 capsules of O. sinensis and 2 capsules of G. lucidum per day, in 7 healthy male volunteers, aged between 30 and 40 years, who are all amateur cyclists that participate in “Gran Fondo” cycling races. This trial investigated the effects of fungal supplements on the level of physical fitness of the athletes by monitoring and comparing the following biomarkers just before and after physical exertion: the testosterone/cortisol ratio in the saliva and oxidative stress (DPPH free radical scavenging activity. A decrease of more than 30% in the testosterone/cortisol ratio after race compared to before race was considered as a risk factor for nonfunctional overreaching (NFO or the overtraining syndrome (OTS. The results show that, after 3 months of supplementation, the testosterone/cortisol ratio changed in a statistically significant manner, thereby protecting the athletes from NFO and OTS. Antioxidant activity was measured by quantifying the scavenging ability of the human serum on the synthetic free radical DPPH. After 3 months of fungal supplementation, the data demonstrate an increased scavenger capacity of free radicals in the athletes’ serum after the race, thereby protecting the athletes from oxidative stress.

  10. Improving Training Condition Assessment in Endurance Cyclists: Effects of Ganoderma lucidum and Ophiocordyceps sinensis Dietary Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Paola; Buonocore, Daniela; Altobelli, Elisa; Brandalise, Federico; Cesaroni, Valentina; Iozzi, Davide; Savino, Elena; Marzatico, Fulvio

    2014-01-01

    The main reasons for taking daily dietary supplements are to maintain good health, to improve homeostasis, and to create conditions for reducing the risk of disease. Due to growing market demand, the search for effective, nontoxic, natural compounds with antioxidant and ergogenic properties has increasingly become a matter of interest. This paper describes how a specific combination of fungal supplements can help improve the performance of endurance athletes. We report the effects of a brief 3-month trial of two fungal supplements, Ganoderma lucidum and Cordyceps sinensis (3 capsules of O. sinensis and 2 capsules of G. lucidum per day), in 7 healthy male volunteers, aged between 30 and 40 years, who are all amateur cyclists that participate in "Gran Fondo" cycling races. This trial investigated the effects of fungal supplements on the level of physical fitness of the athletes by monitoring and comparing the following biomarkers just before and after physical exertion: the testosterone/cortisol ratio in the saliva and oxidative stress (DPPH free radical scavenging activity). A decrease of more than 30% in the testosterone/cortisol ratio after race compared to before race was considered as a risk factor for nonfunctional overreaching (NFO) or the overtraining syndrome (OTS). The results show that, after 3 months of supplementation, the testosterone/cortisol ratio changed in a statistically significant manner, thereby protecting the athletes from NFO and OTS. Antioxidant activity was measured by quantifying the scavenging ability of the human serum on the synthetic free radical DPPH. After 3 months of fungal supplementation, the data demonstrate an increased scavenger capacity of free radicals in the athletes' serum after the race, thereby protecting the athletes from oxidative stress.

  11. Assessment of stainless steel 348 fuel rod performance against literature available data using TRANSURANUS code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovedi Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Early pressurized water reactors were originally designed to operate using stainless steel as cladding material, but during their lifetime this material was replaced by zirconium-based alloys. However, after the Fukushima Daiichi accident, the problems related to the zirconium-based alloys due to the hydrogen production and explosion under severe accident brought the importance to assess different materials. In this sense, initiatives as ATF (Accident Tolerant Fuel program are considering different material as fuel cladding and, one candidate is iron-based alloy. In order to assess the fuel performance of fuel rods manufactured using iron-based alloy as cladding material, it was necessary to select a specific stainless steel (type 348 and modify properly conventional fuel performance codes developed in the last decades. Then, 348 stainless steel mechanical and physics properties were introduced in the TRANSURANUS code. The aim of this paper is to present the obtained results concerning the verification of the modified TRANSURANUS code version against data collected from the open literature, related to reactors which operated using stainless steel as cladding. Considering that some data were not available, some assumptions had to be made. Important differences related to the conventional fuel rods were taken into account. Obtained results regarding the cladding behavior are in agreement with available information. This constitutes an evidence of the modified TRANSURANUS code capabilities to perform fuel rod investigation of fuel rods manufactured using 348 stainless steel as cladding material.

  12. Comprehensive geriatric assessment for older women with early breast cancer – a systematic review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parks Ruth M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA is an analytical tool increasingly implemented in clinical practice. Breast cancer is primarily a disease of older people; however, most evidence-based research is aimed at younger patients. Methods A systematic review of literature was carried out to assess the use of CGA in older breast cancer patients for clinical decision making. The PubMed, Embase and Cochrane databases were searched. Results A total of nine useful full text article results were found. Only five of these were exclusively concerned with early breast cancer; thus, studies involving a variety of cancer types, stages and treatments were accepted, as long as they included early breast cancer.The results comprised a series of low sources of evidence. However, all results shared a common theme: the CGA has a use in determining patient suitability for different types of cancer treatment and subsequently maximizing the patient’s quality of life. Conclusions There is not yet sufficient high level evidence to instate CGA guidelines as a mandatory practice in the management of breast cancer, due to the heterogeneity of available studies. More studies need to be conducted to cement current work on the benefits of the CGA. An area of particular interest is with regard to treatment options, especially surgery and chemotherapy, and identifying patients who may be suitable for these treatments.

  13. Measuring aesthetic emotions: A review of the literature and a new assessment tool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Schindler

    Full Text Available Aesthetic perception and judgement are not merely cognitive processes, but also involve feelings. Therefore, the empirical study of these experiences requires conceptualization and measurement of aesthetic emotions. Despite the long-standing interest in such emotions, we still lack an assessment tool to capture the broad range of emotions that occur in response to the perceived aesthetic appeal of stimuli. Elicitors of aesthetic emotions are not limited to the arts in the strict sense, but extend to design, built environments, and nature. In this article, we describe the development of a questionnaire that is applicable across many of these domains: the Aesthetic Emotions Scale (Aesthemos. Drawing on theoretical accounts of aesthetic emotions and an extensive review of extant measures of aesthetic emotions within specific domains such as music, literature, film, painting, advertisements, design, and architecture, we propose a framework for studying aesthetic emotions. The Aesthemos, which is based on this framework, contains 21 subscales with two items each, that are designed to assess the emotional signature of responses to stimuli's perceived aesthetic appeal in a highly differentiated manner. These scales cover prototypical aesthetic emotions (e.g., the feeling of beauty, being moved, fascination, and awe, epistemic emotions (e.g., interest and insight, and emotions indicative of amusement (humor and joy. In addition, the Aesthemos subscales capture both the activating (energy and vitality and the calming (relaxation effects of aesthetic experiences, as well as negative emotions that may contribute to aesthetic displeasure (e.g., the feeling of ugliness, boredom, and confusion.

  14. Measuring aesthetic emotions: A review of the literature and a new assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Ines; Hosoya, Georg; Menninghaus, Winfried; Beermann, Ursula; Wagner, Valentin; Eid, Michael; Scherer, Klaus R

    2017-01-01

    Aesthetic perception and judgement are not merely cognitive processes, but also involve feelings. Therefore, the empirical study of these experiences requires conceptualization and measurement of aesthetic emotions. Despite the long-standing interest in such emotions, we still lack an assessment tool to capture the broad range of emotions that occur in response to the perceived aesthetic appeal of stimuli. Elicitors of aesthetic emotions are not limited to the arts in the strict sense, but extend to design, built environments, and nature. In this article, we describe the development of a questionnaire that is applicable across many of these domains: the Aesthetic Emotions Scale (Aesthemos). Drawing on theoretical accounts of aesthetic emotions and an extensive review of extant measures of aesthetic emotions within specific domains such as music, literature, film, painting, advertisements, design, and architecture, we propose a framework for studying aesthetic emotions. The Aesthemos, which is based on this framework, contains 21 subscales with two items each, that are designed to assess the emotional signature of responses to stimuli's perceived aesthetic appeal in a highly differentiated manner. These scales cover prototypical aesthetic emotions (e.g., the feeling of beauty, being moved, fascination, and awe), epistemic emotions (e.g., interest and insight), and emotions indicative of amusement (humor and joy). In addition, the Aesthemos subscales capture both the activating (energy and vitality) and the calming (relaxation) effects of aesthetic experiences, as well as negative emotions that may contribute to aesthetic displeasure (e.g., the feeling of ugliness, boredom, and confusion).

  15. Estimating human exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids via solid food and drinks: Implementation and comparison of different dietary assessment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Eleni; Poothong, Somrutai; Koekkoek, Jacco; Lucattini, Luisa; Padilla-Sánchez, Juan Antonio; Haugen, Margaretha; Herzke, Dorte; Valdersnes, Stig; Maage, Amund; Cousins, Ian T; Leonards, Pim E G; Småstuen Haug, Line

    2017-10-01

    Diet is a major source of human exposure to hazardous environmental chemicals, including many perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs). Several assessment methods of dietary exposure to PFAAs have been used previously, but there is a lack of comparisons between methods. To assess human exposure to PFAAs through diet by different methods and compare the results. We studied the dietary exposure to PFAAs in 61 Norwegian adults (74% women, average age: 42 years) using three methods: i) by measuring daily PFAA intakes through a 1-day duplicate diet study (separately in solid and liquid foods), ii) by estimating intake after combining food contamination with food consumption data, as assessed by 2-day weighted food diaries and iii) by a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). We used existing food contamination data mainly from samples purchased in Norway and if not available, data from food purchased in other European countries were used. Duplicate diet samples (n=122) were analysed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to quantify 15 PFAAs (11 perfluoroalkyl carboxylates and 4 perfluoroalkyl sulfonates). Differences and correlations between measured and estimated intakes were assessed. The most abundant PFAAs in the duplicate diet samples were PFOA, PFOS and PFHxS and the median total intakes were 5.6ng/day, 11ng/day and 0.78ng/day, respectively. PFOS and PFOA concentrations were higher in solid than liquid samples. PFOS was the main contributor to the contamination in the solid samples (median concentration 14pg/g food), while it was PFOA in the liquid samples (median concentrations: 0.72pg/g food). High intakes of fats, oils, and eggs were statistically significantly related to high intakes of PFOS and PFOA from solid foods. High intake of milk and consumption of alcoholic beverages, as well as food in paper container were related to high PFOA intakes from liquid foods. PFOA intakes derived from food diary and FFQ were significantly higher than

  16. Assessment of the dietary transfer of pesticides to dairy milk and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The transfer of organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides in dairy cattle's milk when fed on agroindustrial by-product diet was assessed in this study. The transfer and accumulation of such pesticide in cattle fat tissue and milk was also assessed and the adverse effect on cattle's and human health was also studied. For that ...

  17. Application of instrumental neutron activation analysis to assess dietary intake of selenium in Korean adults from meat and eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Jong-Hwa; Kim, Sun-Ha; Chung, Yong-Sam; Lee, Ok-Hee

    2013-01-01

    Selenium is a key constituent of enzyme in glutathione peroxidase, which is effective in decreasing various types of oxidative stress, Thus, the adequacy of selenium intake is very important in decreasing the risks of various degenerating diseases such as cardiovascular disease, or certain cancers. Lately, the intake of animal foods is increasing among Koreans owing to a dietary transition toward a western style. This study was conducted to measure the selenium content in meat and eggs, and then assessed the selenium intake from these foods. Forty frequently eaten items among meat and eggs were analyzed using an Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The selenium content in 100g of raw meat and eggs ranged from 8.1ug to 50.9ug. In particular, 100g of beef contained 12.4ug to 50.9ug of selenium; pork, 11.2ug to 22.6ug chicken, 10.2ug to 13.7ug and eggs, 28.6ug to 43.0ug. Thus, beef viscera and chicken eggs contain the highest amounts of selenium among these groups. 100g of Pork belly, the most frequently eaten meat type among Koreans, contains 14.6ug of selenium. An evaluation of dietary selenium intake shows that the total selenium supply from meats and eggs was 28.4ug/day and 27.5 ug/day in adult men and women, respectively. These are over one-half of the Korean RNI (Recommended Daily Intake) of 55ug/day. (author)

  18. Assessing exclusive breastfeeding practices, dietary intakes and body mass index (BMI) of nursing mothers in Ekiti State of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijarotimi, Oluwole Steve

    2010-06-01

    Breastfeeding is an unequalled way of providing ideal food for the infants. The benefits of breastfeeding practices to infants and mothers are well documented. However, information on breastfeeding practices and its effect on body mass index (BMI) of mothers are scarce, particularly in Ekiti State of Nigeria. Therefore, the present study is designed to assess breastfeeding practices and its association with BMI of mothers. A descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted among breastfeeding mothers that attended postnatal clinic of the state specialist hospitals and maternity centers in the study location. The specialist hospital and two-third of the nine maternity centers were purposively selected because of their health facilities and personnel. The mother-child pairs (200 respondents) were randomly selected from the study locations. Information on demographic characteristic, socio-economic parameters, nutritional knowledge of breastfeeding and dietary intakes of mothers were collected using questionnaires. BMI of mothers was determined as described by World Health Organization. Age distribution of mothers was between 25-34 years; and almost half of respondents had good educational background and were engaged in different occupations. The respondent monthly income ranged between = N = 3500 - 26000 ($26.92 - $200); and their dietary intakes varied between starchy and protein-based food. The result also showed that the respondent consumed enough nutrients to meet up the recommended daily allowance for protein, carbohydrate, fat, zinc, magnesium, sodium and phosphorous requirements. The BMI classifications showed that over three-fifth of respondents were normal, while the remaining were underweight (6%) and overweight/obese (26.5%). Also, large proportion of respondents engaged in exclusive breastfeeding and with good knowledge of breastfeeding practices. Statistically, exclusive breastfeeding practices had no correlation between the BMI and frequency of

  19. Assessing Parenting Capacity in Psychiatric Mother and Baby Units: A case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Julie; Lipsedge, Maurice

    2015-09-01

    This review aimed to improve infant risk assessments in the context of maternal mental illness by identifying key predictors of poor parenting outcomes. Inadequate parenting as a result of severe and persistent mental illness is a common reason for courts terminating parental rights. However, the current practice of parenting capacity assessments in the setting of perinatal psychiatry is fraught with risks and uncertainty. A well-recognised flaw in the assessment process is the lack of valid and reliable tools that have been specifically validated for assessing parenting capacity in mothers with a history of mental illness and the potential risk of harm to their infant. To date, there is only one instrument available. A systematic search of Medline, PsycInfo and Embase via the Ovid interface was conducted between September and December 2014. Citation snowball sampling was also used to identify further relevant studies. An additional search was performed in Google to access grey literature. A total of 38 citations were identified, of which 8 publications focusing on the populations of England, France and Belgium met the eligibility criteria of this review. Evidence from existing research suggests that poor parenting outcomes in maternal psychiatric illness are strongly associated with correlates of socio-economic inequalities. However, evidence regarding the long-term implications of such factors is weak as only one follow up study and no longitudinal studies were identified in this review. Our review suggests that the use of standardised empirically validated risk assessment tools would benefit the current practice of parenting assessments by improving the process by which collected information is analysed. This would enhance the accuracy of decision-making, and improve the safeguarding of the infant. Further research is needed on medium to long-term parenting outcomes, particularly regarding its relations to: the type of maternal psychiatric disorder; the quality

  20. A review of literature for the structural assessment of mitred bends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a state-of-the-art review of literature available for the structural assessment of all types of mitred pipe bends. Compared with smooth bends, the volume of literature available for mitres is less extensive and its scope is not as wide. Historically, this reflects a reduced application level, as well as a less demanding range of applications, such as non-high temperature use. There is also the issue that an analysis of a mitred bend is complicated by discontinuity stresses, as well as those due to cross-section ovalisation. This fact delayed the development of non-linear analysis of mitred bends. Nevertheless, there is now a substantial body of work on mitred bends. This review tabulates and characterises all publications to date in chronological order. The details of experimental specimens are highlighted, with a view to these perhaps providing useful verification data for any future finite element analysis for example. Issues of particular interest to pipework designers are discussed, including the effects of combinations of loading, out-of-circularity, tangent pipe length and flanges. Failure characteristics and loads are discussed where relevant. Topics for further research are also noted. For example, comprehensive design curves do not exist for the elastic and plastic behaviour of all mitre types, over a practical range of geometry and loading parameters. Similarly, there is still scope for further work on the effect of combined loading, end effects and out-of-circularity. Limit, collapse and burst loads are not yet available across the entire spectrum of bends and loading parameters either. Creep and optimisation represent virgin territory as far as mitred bends are concerned and given that unforeseen vibration is a common source of high-cycle fatigue failure in pipework, there must also be scope for vibration-induced fatigue studies

  1. Validation of a simplified food frequency questionnaire for the assessment of dietary habits in Iranian adults: Isfahan Healthy Heart Program, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noushin Mohammadifard

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dietary assessment is the first step of dietary modification in community-based interventional programs. This study was performed to validate a simple food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ for assessment of selected food items in epidemiological studies with a large sample size as well as community trails. METHODS: This validation study was carried out on 264 healthy adults aged ≥ 41 years old living in 3 district central of Iran, including Isfahan, Najafabad, and Arak. Selected food intakes were assessed using a 48-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. The FFQ was interviewer-administered, which was completed twice; at the beginning of the study and 2 weeks thereafter. The validity of this SFFQ was examined compared to estimated amount by single 24 h dietary recall and 2 days dietary record. Validation of the FFQ was determined using Spearman correlation coefficients between daily frequency consumption of food groups as assessed by the FFQ and the qualitative amount of daily food groups intake accessed by dietary reference method was applied to evaluate validity. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC were used to determine the reproducibility. RESULTS: Spearman correlation coefficient between the estimated amount of food groups intake by examined and reference methods ranged from 0.105 (P = 0.378 in pickles to 0.48 (P < 0.001 in plant protein. ICC for reproducibility of FFQ were between 0.47-0.69 in different food groups (P < 0.001. CONCLUSION: The designed SFFQ has a good relative validity and reproducibility for assessment of selected food groups intake. Thus, it can serve as a valid tool in epidemiological studies and clinical trial with large participants.   

  2. Diet quality as assessed by the Healthy Eating Index, the Alternate Healthy Eating Index, the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension score, and health outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwingshackl, Lukas; Hoffmann, Georg

    2015-05-01

    Dietary patterns consider synergistic effects compared with isolated foods or nutrients on health outcomes. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine the associations of diet quality as assessed by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI), the Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) score and the risk of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality or incidence, cancer mortality or incidence, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and neurodegenerative diseases. A literature search was performed using the electronic databases MEDLINE, SCOPUS, and EMBASE with an end date of May 10, 2014. Study-specific risk ratios were pooled using a random effect model by the Cochrane software package Review Manager 5.2. Fifteen cohort studies (34 reports), including 1,020,642 subjects, met the criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. Diets of the highest quality, as assessed by the HEI, AHEI, and DASH score, resulted in a significant risk reduction (RR) for all-cause mortality (RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.76 to 0.80; PDiets that score highly on the HEI, AHEI, and DASH are associated with a significant reduction in the risk of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and type 2 diabetes mellitus by 22%, 22%, 15%, and 22%, respectively, and therefore is of high public health relevance. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cowpea fresh pods - a new legume for the market: assessment of their quality and dietary characteristics of 37 cowpea accessions grown in southern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karapanos, Ioannis; Papandreou, Anastasia; Skouloudi, Marianna; Makrogianni, Despoina; Fernández, Juan A; Rosa, Eduardo; Ntatsi, Georgia; Bebeli, Penelope J; Savvas, Dimitrios

    2017-10-01

    Cowpea is traditionally cultivated in some regions of southern Europe for its dried seeds; however, there is a scarcity of information on the quality and dietary characteristics of fresh pods, which are occasionally used in folk diets. This paper aims at covering this gap in knowledge, thereby contributing to the dissemination of fresh cowpea pods as a novel product for the market. The quality and dietary characteristics of pods from 37 accessions (Vigna unguiculata ssp. unguiculata and ssp. sesquipedalis) grown in southern Europe were assessed in an attempt to provide information on pod quality and nutritional properties and to identify relationships between quality traits and accession origin. Pods from the sesquipedalis accessions were heavier and larger, and reached commercial maturity 2 days later, than those from the unguiculata accessions. There were also large differences in the quality and dietary characteristics of the accessions. The pods of most accessions were rich in proteins, chlorophylls, carotenoids and phenolics, and showed high antioxidant activity and low concentrations of nitrates and raffinose-family oligosaccharides. Cluster analysis based on quality, dietary or antinutritional traits did not reveal any apparent grouping among the accessions. All the quality characteristics were independent of accession origin and subspecies. Most of the accessions produced fresh pods of good quality and high dietary value, suitable for introduction in the market and/or for use as valuable genetic material for the development of new improved varieties. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Using an FFQ to assess intakes of dietary flavonols and flavones among female adolescents in the Suihua area of northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Caihong; Wang, Hui; Wang, Dong; Chen, Yanping; Zhao, Yan; Xia, Wei

    2015-03-01

    The present study aimed to (i) evaluate the reproducibility and validity of a designed FFQ, (ii) apply the FFQ for estimating the dietary intakes of four flavonols and two flavones in female adolescents and (iii) explain their major dietary sources. The reproducibility between the first and second FFQ administrations (1 year interval) was estimated using the intra-class correlation coefficient. The validity of the first FFQ relative to the average of four three-day 24 h dietary recalls (24-HR) from four seasons was assessed using the Spearman correlation coefficient. Using a flavonoid content database, the individual flavonol and flavone intakes were calculated and the major food sources were estimated. Middle school in Suihua area of Heilongjiang Province, northern China. Female adolescents (n 887) aged 12-18 years. Better reproducibility and validity were obtained in the present study. The flavonol and flavone intakes were 16.29 and 4.31 mg/d, respectively. Quercetin and kaempferol were the major contributors (26.8 % and 23.7 %, respectively) to the total intake of flavonols and flavones. The main food sources of flavonols and flavones were apples (14.1 %), followed by potatoes (7.5 %), lettuce (7.3 %) and oranges (7.3 %). The dietary flavonol and flavone intakes among female adolescents in northern China were similar to those reported in several countries, but significant differences were observed in the food sources ascribed to the geographical location and dietary characteristics.

  5. Dietary Assessment in the MetaCardis Study: Development and Relative Validity of an Online Food Frequency Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verger, Eric O; Armstrong, Patrice; Nielsen, Trine; Chakaroun, Rima; Aron-Wisnewsky, Judith; Gøbel, Rikke Juul; Schütz, Tatjana; Delaere, Fabien; Gausseres, Nicolas; Clément, Karine; Holmes, Bridget A

    2017-06-01

    The European study MetaCardis aims to investigate the role of the gut microbiota in health and cardiometabolic diseases in France, Germany, and Denmark. To evaluate long-term diet-disease relationships, a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was found to be the most relevant dietary assessment method for the MetaCardis study. The objectives of this study were to describe the development of three semiquantitative online FFQs used in the MetaCardis study-one FFQ per country-and to assess the relative validity of the French MetaCardis FFQ. The layout and format of the MetaCardis FFQ was based on the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk FFQ and the content was based on relevant European FFQs. Portion size and nutrient composition were derived from national food consumption surveys and food composition databases. To assess the validity of the French MetaCardis FFQ, a cross-sectional study design was utilized. The validation study included 324 adults recruited between September 2013 and June 2015 from different hospitals in Paris, France. Food intakes were measured with both the French MetaCardis FFQ and 3 consecutive self-administered web-based 24-hour dietary recalls (DRs). Several measures of validity of the French MetaCardis FFQ were evaluated: estimations of food groups, energy, and nutrient intakes from the DRs and the FFQ, Spearman and Pearson correlations, cross-classification, and Bland-Altman analyses. The French MetaCardis FFQ tended to report higher food, energy, and nutrient intakes compared with the DRs. Mean correlation coefficient was 0.429 for food, 0.460 for energy, 0.544 for macronutrients, 0.640 for alcohol, and 0.503 for micronutrient intakes. Almost half of participants (44.4%) were correctly classified within tertiles of consumption, whereas 12.9% were misclassified in the opposite tertile. Performance of the FFQ was relatively similar after stratification by sex. The French MetaCardis FFQ was found to have an acceptable level

  6. Costs Associated with Using the ASA24® Dietary Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of its mission to advance measures and methods for monitoring cancer-related behaviors and other risk factors, the Risk Factor Assessment Branch provides tools and resources to the extramural research community.

  7. In vitro assessment of antiproliferative action selectivity of dietary isothiocyanates for tumor versus normal human cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konić-Ristić Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Numerous epidemiological studies have shown beneficial effects of cruciferous vegetables consumption in cancer chemoprevention. Biologically active compounds of different Brassicaceae species with antitumor potential are isothiocyanates, present in the form of their precursors - glucosinolates. The aim of this study was to determine the selectivity of antiproliferative action of dietary isothiocyanates for malignant versus normal cells. Methods. Antiproliferative activity of three isothiocyanates abundant in human diet: sulforaphane, benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC and phenylethyl isothiocyanate, on human cervix carcinoma cell line - HeLa, melanoma cell line - Fem-x, and colon cancer cell line - LS 174, and on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC, with or without mitogen, were determined by MTT colorimetric assay 72 h after their continuous action. Results. All investigated isothiocyanates inhibited the proliferation of HeLa, Fem-x and LS 174 cells. On all cell lines treated, BITC was the most potent inhibitor of cell proliferation with half-maximum inhibitory concentration (IC50 values of 5.04 mmoL m-3 on HeLa cells, 2.76 mmol m-3 on Fem-x, and 14.30 mmol m-3 on LS 174 cells. Antiproliferative effects on human PBMC were with higher IC50 than on malignant cells. Indexes of selectivity, calculated as a ratio between IC50 values obtained on PBMC and malignant cells, were between 1.12 and 16.57, with the highest values obtained for the action of BITC on melanoma Fem-x cells. Conclusion. Based on its antiproliferative effects on malignant cells, as well as the selectivity of the action to malignant vs normal cells, benzyl isothiocyanate can be considered as a promising candidate in cancer chemoprevention. In general, the safety of investigated compounds, in addition to their antitumor potential, should be considered as an important criterion in cancer chemoprevention. Screening of selectivity is a plausible approach to the evaluation

  8. Food Perceptions and Dietary Behavior of American-Indian Children, Their Caregivers, and Educators: Formative Assessment Findings from Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Toporoff, Elanah Greer; Story, Mary; Evans, Marguerite; Anliker, Jean; Davis, Sally; Sharma, Anjali; White, Jean

    2000-01-01

    Dietary findings from a school-based obesity prevention project (Pathways) are reported for children from six different American-Indian nations. A formative assessment was undertaken with teachers, caregivers, and children from nine schools to design a culturally appropriate intervention, including classroom curriculum, food service, physical education, and family components. This assessment employed a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods (including direct observations, paired-child in-depth interviews, focus groups with child caregivers and teachers, and semistructured interviews with caregivers and foodservice personnel) to query local perceptions and beliefs about foods commonly eaten and risk behaviors associated with childhood obesity at home, at school, and in the community. An abundance of high-fat, high-sugar foods was detected in children's diets described by caregivers, school food-service workers, and the children themselves. Although children and caregivers identified fruits and vegetables as healthy food choices, this knowledge does not appear to influence actual food choices. Frequent high-fat/high-sugar food sales in the schools, high-fat entrees in school meals, the use of food rewards in the classroom, rules about finishing all of one's food, and limited family resources are some of the competing factors that need to be addressed in the Pathways intervention.

  9. Reproducibility and Validity of Dietary Patterns Assessed by a Food Frequency Questionnaire Used in the 5-Year Follow-Up Survey of the Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nanri, Akiko; Shimazu, Taichi; Ishihara, Junko; Takachi, Ribeka; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Inoue, Manami; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2012-01-01

    Background Analysis of dietary pattern is increasingly popular in nutritional epidemiology. However, few studies have examined the validity and reproducibility of dietary patterns. We assessed the reproducibility and validity of dietary patterns identified by a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) used in the 5-year follow-up survey of the Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective Study (JPHC Study). Methods The participants were a subsample (244 men and 254 women) from the JPHC Study. Princ...

  10. NMR-based metabonomics approaches for the assessment of the metabolic impact of dietary polyphenols on humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duynhoven, J.; van Velzen, E.; Gross, G.; van Dorsten, F.; Jacobs, D.; Bingham, M.; Draijer, R.; Mulder, T.; Koning, T.; Vaughan, E.; van der Wiele, T.; Westerhuis, J.; Smilde, A.

    2009-01-01

    Dietary polyphenols, as present in for example tea, fruit and vegetables, are associated with several beneficial health effects. Most evidence is still based on epidemiological studies. So far, most nutritional intervention studies on dietary polyphenols are directly focused on pre-identified

  11. A cross-sectional study to assess the incompatible dietary behavior of patients suffering from skin diseases: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghana Kulkarni

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: Scores for consumption of incompatible diet and dietary habits were found to be higher in acne and psoriasis patients compared to controls. Patients with fungal infections had higher scores for the presence of incompatible dietary habits but similar scores for the consumption of incompatible diet, whereas both scores in patients of vitiligo were similar to controls.

  12. Measuring aesthetic emotions: A review of the literature and a new assessment tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoya, Georg; Menninghaus, Winfried; Beermann, Ursula; Wagner, Valentin; Eid, Michael; Scherer, Klaus R.

    2017-01-01

    Aesthetic perception and judgement are not merely cognitive processes, but also involve feelings. Therefore, the empirical study of these experiences requires conceptualization and measurement of aesthetic emotions. Despite the long-standing interest in such emotions, we still lack an assessment tool to capture the broad range of emotions that occur in response to the perceived aesthetic appeal of stimuli. Elicitors of aesthetic emotions are not limited to the arts in the strict sense, but extend to design, built environments, and nature. In this article, we describe the development of a questionnaire that is applicable across many of these domains: the Aesthetic Emotions Scale (Aesthemos). Drawing on theoretical accounts of aesthetic emotions and an extensive review of extant measures of aesthetic emotions within specific domains such as music, literature, film, painting, advertisements, design, and architecture, we propose a framework for studying aesthetic emotions. The Aesthemos, which is based on this framework, contains 21 subscales with two items each, that are designed to assess the emotional signature of responses to stimuli’s perceived aesthetic appeal in a highly differentiated manner. These scales cover prototypical aesthetic emotions (e.g., the feeling of beauty, being moved, fascination, and awe), epistemic emotions (e.g., interest and insight), and emotions indicative of amusement (humor and joy). In addition, the Aesthemos subscales capture both the activating (energy and vitality) and the calming (relaxation) effects of aesthetic experiences, as well as negative emotions that may contribute to aesthetic displeasure (e.g., the feeling of ugliness, boredom, and confusion). PMID:28582467

  13. Single mothers' self-assessment of health: a systematic exploration of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousou, E; Kouta, C; Middleton, N; Karanikola, M

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to explore single mothers' self-assessed level of health status compared to partnered mothers and the relevant factors associated with it. The number of single-mother families is increasing worldwide. A large body of international research reveals that single mothers experience poorer physical and mental health than their married counterparts. An important contributory factor for this health disparity appears to be socio-economic disadvantage. A systematic search of the literature was conducted using the keywords 'lone' or 'single' and 'mother*' or 'parent*' or 'family structure' in combination with 'health'. EMBASE, CINAHL, COCHRANE and PUBMED databases were searched for quantitative research studies published in the past decade. Eleven quantitative research articles with self-assessment of health status in single mothers were identified. Single mothers report lower levels of health status compared to partnered mothers. These inequalities appear to be associated with financial hardship and lack of social support. Both these factors increase single mothers' susceptibility to stress and illness. Despite the study limitations (e.g. results based mainly on secondary data from household surveys), it provides evidence that single motherhood places women in an adverse social position that is associated with prolonged stress mainly due to unemployment, economic hardship and social exclusion, which affects negatively their health status. These findings can be seen as a challenge for health professionals, especially those working in the community sector and policy makers too, to establish supportive measures for this vulnerable group focused on socio-economic factors. © 2013 International Council of Nurses.

  14. Assessment of potential risks of dietary RNAi to a soil micro-arthropod, Sinella curviseta Brook (Collembola: Entomobryidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huipeng Pan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available RNAi-based genetically engineered (GE crops for the management of insect pests are likely to be commercialized by the end of this decade. Without a workable framework for conducting the ecological risk assessment (ERA and a standardized ERA protocol, however, the utility of RNAi transgenic crops in pest management remains uncertain. The overall goal of this study is to assess the risks of RNAi-based GE crops on a non-target soil micro-arthropod, Sinella curviseta, which could be exposed to plant-protected dsRNAs deposited in crop residues. Based on the preliminary research, we hypothesized that insecticidal dsRNAs targeting at the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, a billion-dollar insect pest, has no adverse impacts on S. curviseta, a soil decomposer. Following a tiered approach, we tested this risk hypothesis using a well-designed dietary RNAi toxicity assay. To create the worst-case scenario, the full-length cDNA of v-ATPase subunit A from S. curviseta were cloned and a 400 bp fragment representing the highest sequence similarity between target pest and non-target arthropods was selected as the template to synthesize insecticidal dsRNAs. Specifically, 10-day old S. curviseta larvae were subjected to artificial diets containing v-ATPase A dsRNAs from both D. v. virgifera (dsDVV and S. curviseta (dsSC, respectively, a dsRNA control, β-glucuronidase, from plant (dsGUS, and a vehicle control, H2O. The endpoint measurements included gene expression profiles, survival, and life history traits, such as developmental time, fecundity, hatching rate, and body length. Although S. curviseta larvae developed significantly faster under the treatments of dsDVV and dsSC than the vehicle control, the combined results from both temporal RNAi effect study and dietary RNAi toxicity assay support the risk hypothesis, suggesting that the impacts of ingested arthropod-active dsRNAs on this representative soil decomposer are negligible.

  15. Probabilistic safety assessment for instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants. A literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Lixuan; Jiang, Jin

    2003-01-01

    Deregulation in electricity market will create a great deal of challenges for Nuclear Power Plants (NPP). To stay competitive, NPP will need to find new ways to reduce their operation costs. In NPP, Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems play an important role in reducing the cost of producing electricity while maintaining and/or enhancing safety. Therefore, it is extremely important that one should manage the I and C systems more efficiently and economically. Meanwhile, obsolescence problem associated with I and C systems encouraged the usage of advanced digital techniques in I and C systems. Thus, new methodologies are needed to analyze the reliability and determine the maintenance strategy for the digital I and C systems. Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) has been probed to be a promising method to deal with this issue. This paper provides a literature survey on the development of digital I and C systems in NPP, followed by a detailed review of PSA including its benefits, limitations and the future direction of its development. Most importantly, potential applications of PSA in various aspects of I and C systems are brought into perspective throughout the paper. Furthermore, the applicability of PSA in the regulation of safety-related I and C systems is demonstrated. Detailed information on PSA applications in 1) the resource allocation for I and C systems: 2) the determination of surveillance testing strategies; and 3) I and C system designs, is provided. (author)

  16. Assessing the origins, evolution and prospects of the literature on dynamic capabilities: A bibliometric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gema Albort-Morant

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to serve as orientation and guidance to academics that are starting or currently developing their research within the field of dynamic capabilities, in order to enhance their knowledge about which are the key scientific journals, authors and articles shaping this topic. This paper presents a bibliometric analysis on dynamic capabilities, making use of the Web of Science database to perform it. This analysis comprises fundamental issues such as (i the number of studies published per year, (ii the countries with the highest rate of productivity, (iii the most prolific and influential authors, (iv assessment of studies citing dynamic capabilities, and (v the most productive journals on dynamic capabilities and recent studies on this topic. Results reveal an exponential growth in the number of publications on dynamic capabilities for the 2000–2012 period. Although, since 2012 this growth has decelerated, the number of publications on this topic remains noteworthy. This study brings useful information for those academics and practitioners attempting to analyze and deepen within this particular field of research, at the same time that provides some insights concerning the future development and progress of the dynamic capabilities topic in the management, business and economics academic literature.

  17. Safety assessment of GM plants: An updated review of the scientific literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, José L

    2016-09-01

    In a wide revision of the literature conducted in 2000, I noted that the information in scientific journals on the safety of genetically modified (GM) foods in general, and GM plants in particular, was scarce. Of course, it was not sufficient to guarantee that the consumption of these products should not mean risks for the health of the consumers. Because of the scientific interest in GM organisms (GMOs), as well as the great concern that the consumption of GM foods/plants has raised in a number of countries, I conducted two subsequent revisions (2007 and 2011) on the adverse/toxic effects of GM plants. In the present review, I have updated the information on the potential adverse health effects of GM plants consumed as food and/or feed. With only a few exceptions, the reported studies in the last six years show rather similar conclusions; that is to say, the assessed GM soybeans, rice, corn/maize and wheat would be as safe as the parental species of these plants. However, in spite of the notable increase in the available information, studies on the long-term health effects of GM plants, including tests of mutagenicity, teratogenicity and carcinogenicity seem to be still clearly necessary. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Empirical assessment of published effect sizes and power in the recent cognitive neuroscience and psychology literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szucs, Denes; Ioannidis, John P A

    2017-03-01

    We have empirically assessed the distribution of published effect sizes and estimated power by analyzing 26,841 statistical records from 3,801 cognitive neuroscience and psychology papers published recently. The reported median effect size was D = 0.93 (interquartile range: 0.64-1.46) for nominally statistically significant results and D = 0.24 (0.11-0.42) for nonsignificant results. Median power to detect small, medium, and large effects was 0.12, 0.44, and 0.73, reflecting no improvement through the past half-century. This is so because sample sizes have remained small. Assuming similar true effect sizes in both disciplines, power was lower in cognitive neuroscience than in psychology. Journal impact factors negatively correlated with power. Assuming a realistic range of prior probabilities for null hypotheses, false report probability is likely to exceed 50% for the whole literature. In light of our findings, the recently reported low replication success in psychology is realistic, and worse performance may be expected for cognitive neuroscience.

  19. Metabolomics as a tool in the identification of dietary biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Helena; Brennan, Lorraine

    2017-02-01

    Current dietary assessment methods including FFQ, 24-h recalls and weighed food diaries are associated with many measurement errors. In an attempt to overcome some of these errors, dietary biomarkers have emerged as a complementary approach to these traditional methods. Metabolomics has developed as a key technology for the identification of new dietary biomarkers and to date, metabolomic-based approaches have led to the identification of a number of putative biomarkers. The three approaches generally employed when using metabolomics in dietary biomarker discovery are: (i) acute interventions where participants consume specific amounts of a test food, (ii) cohort studies where metabolic profiles are compared between consumers and non-consumers of a specific food and (iii) the analysis of dietary patterns and metabolic profiles to identify nutritypes and biomarkers. The present review critiques the current literature in terms of the approaches used for dietary biomarker discovery and gives a detailed overview of the currently proposed biomarkers, highlighting steps needed for their full validation. Furthermore, the present review also evaluates areas such as current databases and software tools, which are needed to advance the interpretation of results and therefore enhance the utility of dietary biomarkers in nutrition research.

  20. Market Assessment and Product Evaluation of Probiotic Containing Dietary Supplements Available in Bangladesh Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjuman Ara Begum

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics containing food supplements available in Bangladesh market were identified and collected for assessment. To assess their label claim, they were resuspended into sterile distilled water. Then, series dilutions of each sample solution were prepared and immediately plated out, in duplicate, into De Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS agar. These plates were then incubated at 37°C for 48 hours and colonies were counted. Viable cell numbers stated on the labels were compared with actual viable cell numbers. To assess the viability of the probiotics included in the products, probiotic strains were isolated from each of the four products and screened for inhibitory activity against six indicator strains. It was surprisingly found that although the viable cell numbers of all supplements were three to four log cycles lower than label claim of the products, however, this problem did not affect the inhibitory activity of the probiotic strains against indicator strains according to in vitro assessment. Legislation and regulation regarding prebiotic-probiotic containing products should be built up in Bangladesh to ensure quality products supply to the consumers. Moreover, manufacturers of probiotic containing products should take the responsibility for providing the consumer with scientifically and legally correct information.

  1. Dietary assessment in the elderly: Validation of a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klipstein-Grobusch, K.; Breeijen, J.H. den; Goldbohm, R.A.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Hofman, A.; Grobbee, D.E.; Witteman, J.C.M.

    1998-01-01

    Objective: The study was conducted to assess the relative validity of a 170-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) adapted for use in the elderly. Design and subjects: The study was carried out in a sample of 80 men and women aged 55-75 y participating in a community based

  2. Dietary risk assessment of v-ATPase A dsRNAs on monarch butterfly larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this study is to assess the risks of RNA interference (RNAi)-based genetically engineered crops on a non-target arthropod, monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus. We hypothesize that an insecticidal double-stranded (ds) RNA targeting western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, ha...

  3. Scientific information and the Tongass land management plan: key findings derived from the scientific literature, species assessments, resource analyses, workshops, and risk assessment panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas N. Swanston; Charles G. Shaw; Winston P. Smith; Kent R. Julin; Guy A. Cellier; Fred H. Everest

    1996-01-01

    This document highlights key items of information obtained from the published literature and from specific assessments, workshops, resource analyses, and various risk assessment panels conducted as part of the Tongass land management planning process. None of this information dictates any particular decision; however, it is important to consider during decisionmaking...

  4. Assessment of dietary calcium intake of university students: a pilot study in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navruz-Varlı, Semra; Köse, Süleyman; Tatar, Tuğba; Arslan, Sabriye; Köksal, Eda

    2018-03-30

    The aim of this study was to adapt the rapid assessment method (RAM) and International Osteoporosis Foundation Food Frequency Questionnaire (IOF FFQ) tools, used for the assessment of daily calcium intake in university students, and to compare the data obtained using 24-h recall (24-HR) data. There was a moderate positive correlation between the RAM and IOF. Calcium is an essential mineral that plays vital roles in metabolism and it is very important to accurately assess the amount of calcium intake on the diet. It was aimed to assess the daily calcium intake of university students by two different food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) developed specifically for evaluating calcium intake, and 24-h recall method. The study was conducted with a total of 183 female university students aged 18-31. In the study, a questionnaire including sociodemographic information, a calcium calculator, IOF FFQ, prepared in seven different languages, and RAM was applied. In addition, 1-day food consumption records were obtained using 24-HR method. The daily average calcium intakes of individuals according to two different food frequency questionnaires (RAM FFQ and IOF FFQ) and 24-h food consumption records are respectively 1594.2 ± 810.9, 897.9 ± 368.4, and 605.6 ± 278.3 mg. When the daily average calcium intake was compared with the other two methods, RAM was found to be statistically higher (p fast and short tools to ensure adequate calcium intake from young age. It is thought that FFQs are the most appropriate methods in assessing daily calcium intake for this study group because it is observed that the list of foods and the amount of portions in FFQs reduce the problem of remembering at 24-h method to a great extent.

  5. Auditory Workload Assessment. Volume II: Non-Copyrighted Literature Search Results

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rench, Michael

    2000-01-01

    In support of the US Army Research Laboratory, Human Research and Engineering Directorate, HSIAC, the Human Systems Information Analysis Center, conducted an extensive search of scientific literature...

  6. Long-term dietary exposure to lead in young European children: Comparing a pan-European approach with a national exposure assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boon, P.E.; Te Biesebeek, J.D.; van Klaveren, J.D.

    2012-01-01

    Long-term dietary exposures to lead in young children were calculated by combining food consumption data of 11 European countries categorised using harmonised broad food categories with occurrence data on lead from different Member States (pan-European approach). The results of the assessment...... in children living in the Netherlands were compared with a long-term lead intake assessment in the same group using Dutch lead concentration data and linking the consumption and concentration data at the highest possible level of detail. Exposures obtained with the pan-European approach were higher than...... the national exposure calculations. For both assessments cereals contributed most to the exposure. The lower dietary exposure in the national study was due to the use of lower lead concentrations and a more optimal linkage of food consumption and concentration data. When a pan-European approach, using...

  7. Elderly with knee osteoarthritis should perform nutritional assessment: integrative literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Isabelle Ferreira da Silva; Oliveira Neta, Rosa Sá de; Gazzola, Juliana Maria; Souza, Marcelo Cardoso de

    2017-01-01

    To review scientific literature to assess nutritional status of elderly patients with osteoarthritis in the last 16 years. This is an integrative literature review that included articles published in national and international journals indexed in PubMed, SciELO and BIREME. We selected 14 articles, and English language was predominant. The year of publication of articles ranged from 2006 to 2016, and most of papers were cross-sectional studies. To gather papers and for posterior evaluate, we used a validated data collection instrument and the included studies were critical analyzed by reading, gathering and analysis of articles. Studies suggested that there is a positive correlation between obesity and knee osteoarthritis. Obesity is one of the most important modifiable factors in worsening of osteoarthritis symptoms. RESUMO O objetivo da pesquisa foi revisar a produção científica referente à avaliação do estado nutricional de idosos com osteoartrite nos últimos 16 anos. Assim, o estudo foi uma revisão integrativa da literatura, realizada com a busca de artigos publicados em periódicos nacionais e internacionais indexados no PubMed, na SciELO e na BIREME. Foram selecionados 14 artigos, e o idioma inglês foi preponderante. O período de publicação dos artigos variou de 2006 a 2016, com predominância de estudos do tipo transversais. Para reunir os artigos e para posterior avaliação, foi utilizado um instrumento de coleta de dados validado, e as análises críticas dos estudos incluídos foram realizadas por meio da leitura, do agrupamento e da análise dos artigos. As pesquisas sugeriram que existe correlação positiva entre obesidade e osteoartrite de joelhos. Além disto, a obesidade é um dos fatores mais significativos e modificáveis no agravamento dos sintomas da osteoartrite.

  8. Assessment of Dietary Mercury Intake and Blood Mercury Levels in the Korean Population: Results from the Korean National Environmental Health Survey 2012–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Ah Kim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available From a public health perspective, there is growing concern about dietary mercury intake as the most important source of mercury exposure. This study was performed to estimate dietary mercury exposure and to analyze the association between mercury intake and blood mercury levels in Koreans. The study subjects were 553 adults, comprising a 10% representative subsample of the Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS 2012–2014, who completed a health examination, a face-to-face interview, and a three-day food record. Dietary mercury and methylmercury intakes were assessed from the three-day food record, and blood mercury concentration was measured using a mercury analyzer. The association between dietary mercury intake and blood mercury levels was analyzed by comparing the odds ratios for the blood mercury levels above the Human BioMonitoring (HBM I value (5 μg/L among the three groups with different mercury intakes. The average total mercury intake was 4.74 and 3.07 μg/day in males and females, respectively. The food group that contributed most to mercury intake was fish and shellfish, accounting for 77.8% of total intake. The geometric mean of the blood mercury concentration significantly and linearly increased with the mercury and methylmercury intakes (p < 0.001. The odds ratios for blood mercury levels above the HBM I value in the highest mercury and methyl mercury intake group were 3.27 (95% Confidence Interval (CI 1.79–5.95 and 3.20 (95% CI 1.77–5.79 times higher than that of the lowest intake group, respectively. Our results provide compelling evidence that blood mercury level has a strong positive association with dietary intake, and that fish and shellfish contribute most to the dietary mercury exposure.

  9. Assessment of Dietary Mercury Intake and Blood Mercury Levels in the Korean Population: Results from the Korean National Environmental Health Survey 2012–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Ah; Kwon, YoungMin; Kim, Suejin; Joung, Hyojee

    2016-01-01

    From a public health perspective, there is growing concern about dietary mercury intake as the most important source of mercury exposure. This study was performed to estimate dietary mercury exposure and to analyze the association between mercury intake and blood mercury levels in Koreans. The study subjects were 553 adults, comprising a 10% representative subsample of the Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS) 2012–2014, who completed a health examination, a face-to-face interview, and a three-day food record. Dietary mercury and methylmercury intakes were assessed from the three-day food record, and blood mercury concentration was measured using a mercury analyzer. The association between dietary mercury intake and blood mercury levels was analyzed by comparing the odds ratios for the blood mercury levels above the Human BioMonitoring (HBM) I value (5 μg/L) among the three groups with different mercury intakes. The average total mercury intake was 4.74 and 3.07 μg/day in males and females, respectively. The food group that contributed most to mercury intake was fish and shellfish, accounting for 77.8% of total intake. The geometric mean of the blood mercury concentration significantly and linearly increased with the mercury and methylmercury intakes (p mercury levels above the HBM I value in the highest mercury and methyl mercury intake group were 3.27 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.79–5.95) and 3.20 (95% CI 1.77–5.79) times higher than that of the lowest intake group, respectively. Our results provide compelling evidence that blood mercury level has a strong positive association with dietary intake, and that fish and shellfish contribute most to the dietary mercury exposure. PMID:27598185

  10. Model-based measurement of food portion size for image-based dietary assessment using 3D/2D registration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hsin-Chen; Yue, Yaofeng; Sun, Mingui; Jia, Wenyan; Li, Zhaoxin; Sun, Yung-Nien; Fernstrom, John D

    2013-01-01

    Dietary assessment is important in health maintenance and intervention in many chronic conditions, such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, there is currently a lack of convenient methods for measuring the volume of food (portion size) in real-life settings. We present a computational method to estimate food volume from a single photographic image of food contained on a typical dining plate. First, we calculate the food location with respect to a 3D camera coordinate system using the plate as a scale reference. Then, the food is segmented automatically from the background in the image. Adaptive thresholding and snake modeling are implemented based on several image features, such as color contrast, regional color homogeneity and curve bending degree. Next, a 3D model representing the general shape of the food (e.g., a cylinder, a sphere, etc) is selected from a pre-constructed shape model library. The position, orientation and scale of the selected shape model are determined by registering the projected 3D model and the food contour in the image, where the properties of the reference are used as constraints. Experimental results using various realistically shaped foods with known volumes demonstrated satisfactory performance of our image-based food volume measurement method even if the 3D geometric surface of the food is not completely represented in the input image. (paper)

  11. Taking Advantage of the Strengths of 2 Different Dietary Assessment Instruments to Improve Intake Estimates for Nutritional Epidemiology

    KAUST Repository

    Carroll, R. J.

    2012-01-24

    With the advent of Internet-based 24-hour recall (24HR) instruments, it is now possible to envision their use in cohort studies investigating the relation between nutrition and disease. Understanding that all dietary assessment instruments are subject to measurement errors and correcting for them under the assumption that the 24HR is unbiased for usual intake, here the authors simultaneously address precision, power, and sample size under the following 3 conditions: 1) 1-12 24HRs; 2) a single calibrated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ); and 3) a combination of 24HR and FFQ data. Using data from the Eating at America\\'s Table Study (1997-1998), the authors found that 4-6 administrations of the 24HR is optimal for most nutrients and food groups and that combined use of multiple 24HR and FFQ data sometimes provides data superior to use of either method alone, especially for foods that are not regularly consumed. For all food groups but the most rarely consumed, use of 2-4 recalls alone, with or without additional FFQ data, was superior to use of FFQ data alone. Thus, if self-administered automated 24HRs are to be used in cohort studies, 4-6 administrations of the 24HR should be considered along with administration of an FFQ.

  12. Degradation Dynamics and Dietary Risk Assessments of Two Neonicotinoid Insecticides during Lonicera japonica Planting, Drying, and Tea Brewing Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Qingkui; Shi, Yanhong; Cao, Haiqun; Tong, Zhou; Xiao, Jinjing; Liao, Min; Wu, Xiangwei; Hua, Rimao

    2017-03-01

    The degradation dynamics and dietary risk assessments of thiamethoxam and thiacloprid during Lonicera japonica planting, drying, and tea brewing processes were systematically investigated using high-performance liquid chromatography. The half-lives of thiamethoxam and thiacloprid were 1.0-4.1 d in the honeysuckle flowers and leaves, with degradation rate constants k ranging from -0.169 to -0.696. The safety interval time was 7 d. The sun- and oven-drying (70 °C) percent digestions were 59.4-81.0% for the residues, which were higher than the shade- and oven-drying percentages at lower temperatures (30, 40, 50, and 60 °C, which ranged from 37.7% to 57.0%). The percent transfers of thiamethoxam and thiacloprid were 0-48.4% and 0-25.2%, respectively, for the different tea brewing conditions. On the basis of the results of this study, abiding by the safety interval time is important, and using reasonable drying methods and tea brewing conditions can reduce the transfer of thiamethoxam and thiacloprid to humans.

  13. Specialized food composition dataset for vitamin D content in foods based on European standards: Application to dietary intake assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milešević, Jelena; Samaniego, Lourdes; Kiely, Mairead; Glibetić, Maria; Roe, Mark; Finglas, Paul

    2018-02-01

    A review of national nutrition surveys from 2000 to date, demonstrated high prevalence of vitamin D intakes below the EFSA Adequate Intake (AI) (d vitamin D) in adults across Europe. Dietary assessment and modelling are required to monitor efficacy and safety of ongoing strategic vitamin D fortification. To support these studies, a specialized vitamin D food composition dataset, based on EuroFIR standards, was compiled. The FoodEXplorer™ tool was used to retrieve well documented analytical data for vitamin D and arrange the data into two datasets - European (8 European countries, 981 data values) and US (1836 data values). Data were classified, using the LanguaL™, FoodEX2 and ODIN classification systems and ranked according to quality criteria. Significant differences in the content, quality of data values, missing data on vitamin D 2 and 25(OH)D 3 and documentation of analytical methods were observed. The dataset is available through the EuroFIR platform. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Estimate of dietary intake of chloropropanols (3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP and health risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Pavesi Arisseto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Chloropropanols, including 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD and 1,3-dichloropropan-2-ol (1,3-DCP, comprise a group of chemical contaminants with carcinogenic and genotoxic properties. They have been found in a variety of processed foods and food ingredients, such as hydrolyzed vegetable protein, soy sauce, cereal-based products, malt-derived ingredients, and smoked foods. This study aimed to assess the dietary exposure to 3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP in Brazil and verify whether the presence of these substances in foods could represent health risks. The intake was calculated by combining data on food consumption, provided by the Consumer Expenditure Survey 2008-2009, with the levels of contaminant occurrence determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The exposure to 3-MCPD ranged from 0.06 to 0.51 µg.kg bw-1.day-1 considering average and high consumers, while the intake of 1,3-DCP was estimated to be 0.0036 µg.kg bw-1.day-1 in the worst case scenario evaluated. Based on these results, it was verified that the Brazilians' exposure to chloropropanols does not present a significant health risk. However, the consumption of specific foods containing high levels of 3-MCPD could exceed the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake of 2 µg.kg bw-1 established for this compound and, therefore, represent a potential concern.

  15. Health risk assessment and dietary exposure of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), lead and cadmium from bread consumed in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udowelle, Nnaemeka Arinze; Igweze, Zelinjo Nkeiruka; Asomugha, Rose Ngozi; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere

    A risk assessment and dietary exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), lead and cadmium from bread, a common food consumed in Nigeria. Sixty samples of bread were collected from different types of bakeries where the heat is generated by wood (42 samples) or by electricity (18 samples) from twenty bakeries located in Gusau Zamfara (B1- B14) and Port Harcourt Rivers States (B15-B20) in Nigeria. PAHs in bread were determined by gas chromatography. Lead and cadmium were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Non-carcinogenic PAHs pyrene (13.72 μg/kg) and genotoxic PAHs (PAH8), benzo[a]anthracene (9.13 μg/ kg) were at the highest concentrations. Total benzo[a]pyrene concentration of 6.7 μg/kg was detected in 100% of tested samples. Dietary intake of total PAHs ranged between 0.004-0.063 μg/kg bw. day-1 (children), 0.002-0.028 μg/kg day-1 (adolescents), 0.01-0.017 μg/kg day-1 (male), 0.002-0.027 μg/kg day-1 (female), and 0.002-0.025 μg/kg day-1 (seniors). The Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) for Pb and Cd were below 1. Lead ranged from 0.01-0.071 mg/kg with 10.85 and 100% of bread samples violating the permissible limit set by USEPA, WHO and EU respectively. Cadmium ranged from 0.01-0.03 mg/kg, with all bread samples below the permissible limits as set by US EPA, JECFA and EU. The daily intake of Pb and Cd ranged from 0.03-0.23 μg/kg bw day-1 and 0.033-0.36 μg/kg bw day-1 respectively. Incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) was 3.8 x 10-7. The levels of these contaminants in bread if not controlled might present a possible route of exposure to heavy metals and PAHs additional to the body burden from other sources.

  16. Insecticide Exposures on Commercial Aircraft: A Literature Review and Screening Level Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddalena, Randy I.; McKone, Thomas E.

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this project was to provide initial estimates of the relationship between insecticide use on passenger aircraft and exposure levels present in the cabin environment. The work was initially divided into three tasks including 1) a review of insecticide application practices in commercial aircraft, 2) exploratory measurements of insecticide concentrations in treated aircraft and 3) screening level exposure modeling. Task 1 gathered information that is needed to assess the time-concentration history of insecticides in the airline cabin. The literature review focused on application practices, information about the cabin environment and existing measurements of exposure concentrations following treatment. Information from the airlines was not available for estimating insecticide application rates in the U.S. domestic fleet or for understanding how frequently equipment rotate into domestic routes following insecticide treatment. However, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends several methods for treating aircraft with insecticide. Although there is evidence that these WHO guidelines may not always be followed, and that practices vary by airline, destination, and/or applicator company, the guidelines in combination with information related to other indoor environments provides a plausible basis for estimating insecticide loading rates on aircraft. The review also found that while measurements of exposure concentrations following simulated aerosol applications are available, measurements following residual treatment of aircraft or applications in domestic aircraft are lacking. Task 2 focused on developing an approach to monitor exposure concentrations in aircraft using a combination of active and passive sampling methods. An existing active sampling approach was intended to provide data immediately following treatment while a passive sampler was developed to provide wider coverage of the fleet over longer sampling periods. The passive sampler, based

  17. Literature review supporting assessment of potential radionuclides in the 291-Z exhaust ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahoney, L.A.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Jette, S.J.; Thomas, L.M. Glissmeyer, J.A.; Davis, W.E.

    1994-08-01

    This literature review was prepared to support a study conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to assess the potential deposition and resuspension of radionuclides in the 291-Z ventilation exhaust building located in the 200 West Area of the US Department of Energy's Hanford Project near Richland, Washington. The filtered ventilation air from three of the facilities at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) complex are combined together in the 291-Z building before discharge through a common stack. These three facilities contributing filtered exhaust air to the discharge stream are (1) the PFP, also known as the Z-Plant or 234-5Z, (2) the Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF or 236-Z), and (3), the Waste Incinerator Building (WIB or 232-Z). The 291-Z building houses the exhaust fans that pull air from the 291-Z central collection plenum and exhausts the air to the stack. Section 2.0 of this report is a description of the physical characteristic of the ventilation system from the High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters to the exhaust stack. A description of the processes performed in the facilities that are vented through 291-Z is given in Section 3.0. The description focuses on the chemical and physical forms of potential aerosols given off from the unit operations. A timeline of the operations and events that may have affected the deposition of material in the ventilation system is shown. Aerosol and radiation measurements taken in previous studies are also discussed. Section 4.0 discusses the factors that influence particle deposition and adhesion. Mechanisms of attachment and resuspension are covered with specific attention to the PFP ducts. Conclusions and recommendations are given in Section 5.0

  18. Reliability of joint count assessment in rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Peter P; Gossec, Laure; Mak, Anselm; March, Lyn

    2014-06-01

    Joint counts are central to the assessment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) but reliability is an issue. To evaluate the reliability and agreement of joint counts (intra-observer and inter-observer) by health care professionals (physicians, nurses, and metrologists) and patients in RA, and the impact of training and standardization on joint count reliability through a systematic literature review. Articles reporting joint count reliability or agreement in RA in PubMed, EMBase, and the Cochrane library between 1960 and 2012 were selected. Data were extracted regarding tender joint counts (TJCs) and swollen joint counts (SJCs) derived by physicians, metrologists, or patients for intra-observer and inter-observer reliability. In addition, methods and effects of training or standardization were extracted. Statistics expressing reliability such as intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were extracted. Data analysis was primarily descriptive due to high heterogeneity. Twenty-eight studies on health care professionals (HCP) and 20 studies on patients were included. Intra-observer reliability for TJCs and SJCs was good for HCPs and patients (range of ICC: 0.49-0.98). Inter-observer reliability between HCPs for TJCs was higher than for SJCs (range of ICC: 0.64-0.88 vs. 0.29-0.98). Patient inter-observer reliability with HCPs as comparators was better for TJCs (range of ICC: 0.31-0.91) compared to SJCs (0.16-0.64). Nine studies (7 with HCPs and 2 with patients) evaluated consensus or training, with improvement in reliability of TJCs but conflicting evidence for SJCs. Intra- and inter-observer reliability was high for TJCs for HCPs and patients: among all groups, reliability was better for TJCs than SJCs. Inter-observer reliability of SJCs was poorer for patients than HCPs. Data were inconclusive regarding the potential for training to improve SJC reliability. Overall, the results support further evaluation for patient-reported joint counts as an outcome measure. © 2013

  19. Assessment of imidacloprid and acetamiprid residues in okra and eggplant grown in peri-urban areas and their dietary intake in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amjad, A.; Akhtar, S.; Randhawa, M.; Binyameen, M.

    2018-01-01

    This research work was designed to estimate the gradually increasing use of insecticides on vegetables to create awareness among the consumers regarding their insecticide residues. The main aim of this study is to highlight the harmful effects of insecticides in comparison with dietary intake assessment of vegetables. In this regard, total 180 (n = 60×3) samples of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) and eggplant (Solanum melongena) comprising of 30 samples vegetable were collected from the peri-urban farming system of Multan, Faisalabad and Gujranwala to assess insecticide residues along with their dietary intake assessment. The selected samples were quantified for the insecticide residues by using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) technique equipped with UV/Visible detector. Results revealed that imidacloprid residues found in eggplant (0.226 mg Kg-1) and okra (0.176 mg Kg-1) from Multan region were greater than the residues reported from Gujranwala and Faisalabad. Out of all analyzed samples for imidacloprid and acetamaprid residues, 58% and 65% samples contained detectable residues respectively. Whereas 10% and 15% samples exceeded their maximum residue limits (MRLs) established by European Commission. Dietary intake assessment for imidacloprid and acetamiprid was calculated as per their maximum permissible intake (MPI) values i.e. 3.84 and 4.48 mg person-1day-1, respectively, which revealed that although a reasonable proportion of samples exceeded MRLs but their consumption was found within safe limit. (author)

  20. Validation of a Tablet Application for Assessing Dietary Intakes Compared with the Measured Food Intake/Food Waste Method in Military Personnel Consuming Field Rations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavra Ahmed

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The collection of accurate dietary intakes using traditional dietary assessment methods (e.g., food records from military personnel is challenging due to the demanding physiological and psychological conditions of training or operations. In addition, these methods are burdensome, time consuming, and prone to measurement errors. Adopting smart-phone/tablet technology could overcome some of these barriers. The objective was to assess the validity of a tablet app, modified to contain detailed nutritional composition data, in comparison to a measured food intake/waste method. A sample of Canadian Armed Forces personnel, randomized to either a tablet app (n = 9 or a weighed food record (wFR (n = 9, recorded the consumption of standard military rations for a total of 8 days. Compared to the gold standard measured food intake/waste method, the difference in mean energy intake was small (−73 kcal/day for tablet app and −108 kcal/day for wFR (p > 0.05. Repeated Measures Bland-Altman plots indicated good agreement for both methods (tablet app and wFR with the measured food intake/waste method. These findings demonstrate that the tablet app, with added nutritional composition data, is comparable to the traditional dietary assessment method (wFR and performs satisfactorily in relation to the measured food intake/waste method to assess energy, macronutrient, and selected micronutrient intakes in a sample of military personnel.

  1. Appraisal of the quality of assessment of memory in anesthesia and psychopharmacology literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoneim, M M; Ali, M A; Block, R I

    1990-11-01

    To test the hypothesis that there are important differences between studies on memory published in anesthesia literature and those published in the psychopharmacology literature, we compared the two from the period January 1978 through May 1988 to identify deficiencies in the design and methodologies used and to provide guidelines for future experiments. Eight-eight articles in each discipline were reviewed. The sample sizes were larger in the articles in anesthesia journals than in those in psychopharmacology journals (medians 52.5 vs. 18 subjects, respectively). Most (85%) of the studies in the anesthesia literature used patients, who had a median age of 38.9 yr and included a median of 28 women among the subjects per study. In contrast, the majority (60%) of the studies in the psychopharmacology literature used healthy volunteers, who had a median age of 23.6 yr and included a median of only 3.5 females among the subjects per study. Characteristics more common in the psychopharmacology than in the anesthesia literature, respectively, were use of a control or placebo group (90% vs. 42%), double-blind design (80% vs. 47%), use of pre- and posttreatment memory measurements (64% vs. 23%), use of multiple memory tests with distinct equated stimuli (83% vs. 8%), relation of methodology to some theoretical model of memory (72% vs. 17%), and use of other behavioral tests (68% vs. 48%). Relative to the psychopharmacology literature, the anesthesia literature used pictures as stimuli for the memory tests more often (44% vs. 14%, respectively) and words less often (11% vs. 67%) and relied heavily on questions about recall of perioperative events (41% vs. 0%). There is room for improvement in both types of literature, and more so in the anesthesia literature.

  2. Language Acquisition and Assessment in Normal and Handicapped Preschool Children: A Review of the Literature. Final Report. Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, Thomas M.

    The second of four documents provides a summary of the scientific literature pertaining to spontaneous language acquisition in handicapped preschool children, and reviews and evaluates procedures for assessing language acquisition in these children. Chapter l focuses on language development in nonhandicapped children after they have acquired their…

  3. Clinimetric properties of instruments to assess activities in patients with hand injury: a systematic review of the literature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven-Stevens, L.A.W. van de; Munneke, M.; Terwee, C.B.; Spauwen, P.H.M.; Linde, H. van der

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review of the literature to assess the clinimetric properties of instruments measuring limitations of activity. DATA SOURCES: The Medline, Cochrane Library, Picarta, Occupational Therapy-seeker, and CINAHL databases were searched for English or Dutch language

  4. Using the web for recruitment, screen, tracking, data management, and quality control in a dietary assessment clinical validation trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab, Lenore; Hahn, Harry; Henry, Judith; Chacko, Sara; Winter, Ashley; Cambou, Mary C

    2010-03-01

    Screening and tracking subjects and data management in clinical trials require significant investments in manpower that can be reduced through the use of web-based systems. To support a validation trial of various dietary assessment tools that required multiple clinic visits and eight repeats of online assessments, we developed an interactive web-based system to automate all levels of management of a biomarker-based clinical trial. The "Energetics System" was developed to support 1) the work of the study coordinator in recruiting, screening and tracking subject flow, 2) the need of the principal investigator to review study progress, and 3) continuous data analysis. The system was designed to automate web-based self-screening into the trial. It supported scheduling tasks and triggered tailored messaging for late and non-responders. For the investigators, it provided real-time status overviews on all subjects, created electronic case reports, supported data queries and prepared analytic data files. Encryption and multi-level password protection were used to insure data privacy. The system was programmed iteratively and required six months of a web programmer's time along with active team engagement. In this study the enhancement in speed and efficiency of recruitment and quality of data collection as a result of this system outweighed the initial investment. Web-based systems have the potential to streamline the process of recruitment and day-to-day management of clinical trials in addition to improving efficiency and quality. Because of their added value they should be considered for trials of moderate size or complexity. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessing the underlying breast cancer risk of Chinese females contributed by dietary intake of residual DDT from agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mengling; Zhao, Meirong; Zhou, Shanshan; Chen, Kun; Zhang, Chunlong; Liu, Weiping

    2014-12-01

    The greatest concern over DDT exposure in China arose since the early 1990s for the rising breast cancer incidence, and the cause still remains to be elucidated. An extensive survey of DDT background in agricultural soils, covered the entire region of China, was conducted. DDT at concentrations greater than 100 ng/g (the China's Farmland Environmental Quality Evaluation Standards for Edible Agricultural Products) was found to impact 42.3 million Chinese population. Considering the geographical differences with diverse DDT contributions and different diet products and habits, the average daily dietary intake was modeled and estimated to be 0.34 μg/kg p,p'-DDE (the main bioactive constituent in DDT). Population attributable fraction derived from a case-control study from 78 women with breast cancer and 72 controls was used to assess the DDT exposure risk to breast cancer. Based on the estimated population attributable fraction with a median value of 0.6% (IQR 0.23-2.11%), the excess annual breast cancer incidence rate attributable to p,p'-DDE exposure averaged 0.06×10(-5) with significant spatial variations varying from 0.00021×10(-5) to 11.05×10(-5) in Chinese females. Exposure to DDT is a contributor to breast cancer, but the overall limited relative risk and population attributable fraction imply confounding factors for breast cancer in Chinese females. Exposure risk in a regional scale helps understand the cause and prevention of breast cancer. Our mapping and modeling method could be used to assess other environmental carcinogens and related cancer diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Using physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling for dietary risk assessment of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachler, Gerald; von Goetz, Natalie; Hungerbuhler, Konrad

    2015-05-01

    Nano-sized titanium dioxide particles (nano-TiO2) can be found in a large number of foods and consumer products, such as cosmetics and toothpaste, thus, consumer exposure occurs via multiple sources, possibly involving different exposure routes. In order to determine the disposition of nano-TiO2 particles that are taken up, a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed. High priority was placed on limiting the number of parameters to match the number of underlying data points (hence to avoid overparameterization), but still reflecting available mechanistic information on the toxicokinetics of nano-TiO2. To this end, the biodistribution of nano-TiO2 was modeled based on their ability to cross the capillary wall of the organs and to be phagocytosed in the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS). The model's predictive power was evaluated by comparing simulated organ levels to experimentally assessed organ levels of independent in vivo studies. The results of our PBPK model indicate that: (1) within the application domain of the PBPK model from 15 to 150 nm, the size and crystalline structure of the particles had a minor influence on the biodistribution; and (2) at high internal exposure the particles agglomerate in vivo and are subsequently taken up by macrophages in the MPS. Furthermore, we also give an example on how the PBPK model may be used for risk assessment. For this purpose, the daily dietary intake of nano-TiO2 was calculated for the German population. The PBPK model was then used to convert this chronic external exposure into internal titanium levels for each organ.

  7. Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring Assessment: Literature Review and Laboratory Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butner, R. Scott; Reid, Douglas J.; Hoffman, Michael G.; Sullivan, Greg; Blanchard, Jeremy

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of NILM technologies, a literature review was conducted to identify any test protocols or standardized testing approaches currently in use. The literature review indicated that no consistent conventions were currently in place for measuring the accuracy of these technologies. Consequently, PNNL developed a testing protocol and metrics to provide the basis for quantifying and analyzing the accuracy of commercially available NILM technologies. This report discusses the results of the literature review and the proposed test protocol and metrics in more detail.

  8. Trace elements in starter infant formula: dietary intake and safety assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargellini, Annalisa; Venturelli, Francesco; Casali, Elisabetta; Ferrari, Angela; Marchesi, Isabella; Borella, Paola

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the concentrations of five essential (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu and Se) and four non-essential/toxic elements (Cr, Cd, Ni and Pb) in 35 different starter infant formulas (0-6 months) sold in Italy. In addition, a safety assessment of these trace elements was carried out, by comparing the estimated daily intake (EDI) with the adequate intake (AI) and the provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI), with a view to provide information on the metal distribution patterns and health risk to infants arising from the consumption of these products. The concentrations were determined by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after microwave digestion. The concentrations expressed in geometric mean ± geometric standard deviation of Fe (6.17 ± 1.61 mg/L), Zn (6.21 ± 1.31 mg/L), Cu (416.4 ± 1.21 μg/L), Mn (121.5 ± 1.85 μg/L) and Se (13.27 ± 1.67 μg/L) were within legal limits. In spite of this, the mean EDIs of Fe (4.81 mg/day) and Mn (94.75 μg/day) were many times higher than the recommended AI, especially for Mn. Chromium, Ni, Cd and Pb concentrations were not detectable in 11, 37, 57 and 66% of the samples, respectively. Considering the overall sample, the GM ± GSD of these elements were 4.80 ± 5.35 μg/L for Cr, 1.02 ± 11.65 μg/L for Ni, 0.21 ± 14.83 μg/L for Cd and 0.14 ± 17.13 μg/L for Pb. The mean EDIs were far below the respective PTDI. When the safety assessment was based on the 75° percentile level of each elements, all EDIs remained well below the PTDI, with the exception of Cd, whose EDI approached (74.7%), albeit remaining below the PTDI. In conclusion, our results and the increased awareness on the potential risks of excessive Mn and Fe for infants support that an urgent scientific-based definition of the appropriated levels of fortification in formulas is required. Moreover, regular monitoring of all the stages of production of infant formulas is essential in order to

  9. The 2014 FDA assessment of commercial fish: practical considerations for improved dietary guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Jennifer; Kaplan, Jason; Lapolla, John; Kleiner, Rima

    2016-07-13

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently released its report: A Quantitative Assessment of the Net Effects on Fetal Neurodevelopment from Eating Commercial Fish (As Measured by IQ and also by Early Age Verbal Development in Children). By evaluating the benefits and potential concerns of eating fish during pregnancy and breastfeeding, the analysis suggests that pregnant women consuming two seafood meals (8-12 oz) per week could provide their child with an additional 3.3 IQ points by age 9. Recent insights from behavioral economics research indicate that other factors, such as concerns about price and methylmercury (MeHg) exposure, appear to reduce fish consumption in many individuals.To assess the net effects of eating commercial fish during pregnancy, we compared the consumption of select fish species necessary to achieve IQ benefits with the amount necessary to have adverse developmental effects due to MeHg exposure. For the species or market types evaluated, the number of servings necessary to reach MeHg exposure to observe an adverse effect was at least twice that the amount estimated to achieve peak developmental benefit. We then reported average costs of fresh and canned or pouched fish, and calculated the cost per week for pregnant women to achieve maximum IQ benefits for their gestating child. Canned light tuna was the least expensive option at $1.83 per week to achieve maximum IQ benefit.Due to their relatively low cost, canned and pouched fish products eaten with enough regularity are likely to provide peak cognitive benefits. Because of its popularity, canned and pouched tuna could provide some of the largest cognitive benefits from fish consumption in the U.S. Future FDA consumer advice and related educational initiatives could benefit from a broader perspective that highlights the importance of affordable and accessible fish choices. These observations underscore the importance of clear public health messaging that address both health

  10. Toward a risk assessment of the spent fuel and high-level nuclear waste disposal system. Risk assessment requirements, literature review, methods evaluation: an interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Hill, D.; Rowe, M.D.; Stern, E.

    1986-04-01

    This report provides background information for a risk assessment of the disposal system for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). It contains a literature review, a survey of the statutory requirements for risk assessment, and a preliminary evaluation of methods. The literature review outlines the state of knowledge of risk assessment and accident consequence analysis in the nuclear fuel cycle and its applicability to spent fuel and HLW disposal. The survey of statutory requirements determines the extent to which risk assessment may be needed in development of the waste-disposal system. The evaluation of methods reviews and evaluates merits and applicabilities of alternative methods for assessing risks and relates them to the problems of spent fuel and HLW disposal. 99 refs

  11. Toward a risk assessment of the spent fuel and high-level nuclear waste disposal system. Risk assessment requirements, literature review, methods evaluation: an interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Hill, D.; Rowe, M.D.; Stern, E.

    1986-04-01

    This report provides background information for a risk assessment of the disposal system for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). It contains a literature review, a survey of the statutory requirements for risk assessment, and a preliminary evaluation of methods. The literature review outlines the state of knowledge of risk assessment and accident consequence analysis in the nuclear fuel cycle and its applicability to spent fuel and HLW disposal. The survey of statutory requirements determines the extent to which risk assessment may be needed in development of the waste-disposal system. The evaluation of methods reviews and evaluates merits and applicabilities of alternative methods for assessing risks and relates them to the problems of spent fuel and HLW disposal. 99 refs.

  12. Evaluation of a Novel Single-administration Food Frequency Questionnaire for Assessing Seasonally Varied Dietary Patterns among Women in Rural Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Rebecca K; Talegawkar, Sameera A; Christian, Parul; Leclerq, Steven C; Khatry, Subarna K; Wu, Lee S F; Stewart, Christine P; West, Keith P

    2015-01-01

    Novel dietary assessment methods are needed to study chronic disease risk in agrarian cultures where food availability is highly seasonal. In 16,320 rural Nepalese women, we tested a novel food frequency questionnaire, administered once, to assess past 7-day intake and usual frequency of intake throughout the year for year-round foods and when in season for seasonal foods. Spearman rank correlations between usual and past 7-day intakes were 0.12-0.85 and weighted kappa statistics, representing chance-corrected agreement, were 0.10-0.80, with better agreement for frequently consumed foods. The questionnaire performed well, but may require refinement for settings of extremely low dietary diversity.

  13. Assessment of a government-subsidized supermarket in a high-need area on household food availability and children's dietary intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbel, Brian; Moran, Alyssa; Dixon, L Beth; Kiszko, Kamila; Cantor, Jonathan; Abrams, Courtney; Mijanovich, Tod

    2015-10-01

    To assess the impact of a new government-subsidized supermarket in a high-need area on household food availability and dietary habits in children. A difference-in-difference study design was utilized. Two neighbourhoods in the Bronx, New York City. Outcomes were collected in Morrisania, the target community where the new supermarket was opened, and Highbridge, the comparison community. Parents/caregivers of a child aged 3-10 years residing in Morrisania or Highbridge. Participants were recruited via street intercept at baseline (pre-supermarket opening) and at two follow-up periods (five weeks and one year post-supermarket opening). Analysis is based on 2172 street-intercept surveys and 363 dietary recalls from a sample of predominantly low-income minorities. While there were small, inconsistent changes over the time periods, there were no appreciable differences in availability of healthful or unhealthful foods at home, or in children's dietary intake as a result of the supermarket. The introduction of a government-subsidized supermarket into an underserved neighbourhood in the Bronx did not result in significant changes in household food availability or children's dietary intake. Given the lack of healthful food options in underserved neighbourhoods and need for programmes that promote access, further research is needed to determine whether healthy food retail expansion, alone or with other strategies, can improve food choices of children and their families.

  14. Dose-to-dose variations with single packages of counterfeit medicines and adulterated dietary supplements as a potential source of false negatives and inaccurate health risk assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venhuis, B J; Zwaagstra, M E; Keizers, P H J; de Kaste, D

    2014-02-01

    In this report, we show three examples of how the variability in dose units in single packages of counterfeit medicines and adulterated dietary supplements may contribute to a false negative screening result and inaccurate health risk assessments. We describe a counterfeit Viagra 100mg blister pack and a box of an instant coffee both containing dose units with and without an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). We also describe a purportedly herbal slimming product with capsules that mutually differed in API and impurities. The adulterated dietary supplements contained sibutramine, benzyl-sibutramine, N-desmethyl-sibutramine (DMS), N,N-didesmethyl-sibutramine (DDMS) and several other related impurities. Counterfeit medicines and adulterated dietary supplements are a health risk because their quality is unreliable. Health risks are even greater when such unreliability extends to fundamental differences between dose units in one package. Because dose-to-dose variability for these products is unpredictable, the confidence interval of a sample size is unknown. Consequently, the analyses of a selection of dose units may not be representative for the package. In the worst case, counterfeit or unauthorised medicines are not recognised as such or a health risk is not identified. In order to reduce erroneous results particular care should be taken when analysing a composite of dose units, when finding no API in a dietary supplement and when finding conformity in a suspect counterfeit medicine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of a Semi-Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire to Assess the Dietary Intake of a Multi-Ethnic Urban Asian Population

    OpenAIRE

    Neelakantan, Nithya; Whitton, Clare; Seah, Sharna; Koh, Hiromi; Rebello, Salome A.; Lim, Jia Yi; Chen, Shiqi; Chan, Mei Fen; Chew, Ling; van Dam, Rob M.

    2016-01-01

    Assessing habitual food consumption is challenging in multi-ethnic cosmopolitan settings. We systematically developed a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in a multi-ethnic population in Singapore, using data from two 24-h dietary recalls from a nationally representative sample of 805 Singapore residents of Chinese, Malay and Indian ethnicity aged 18–79 years. Key steps included combining reported items on 24-h recalls into standardized food groups, developing a food list fo...

  16. Halogenated and parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in vegetables: Levels, dietary intakes, and health risk assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Li, Chunmei; Jiao, Bining; Li, Qiwan; Su, Hang; Wang, Jing; Jin, Fen

    2018-03-01

    Halogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HPAHs) are attracting increasing concern because of their greater toxicity than their corresponding parent PAHs. However, human exposure to HPAHs via food consumption is not fully understood. In this study, daily intake via vegetable ingestion of 11 HPAHs and 16 PAHs and subsequent cancer risk were assessed for population in Beijing. A total of 80 vegetable samples were purchased from markets, including five leafy vegetables and three root vegetables. The concentrations of total HPAHs (∑HPAHs) were 0.357-0.874ng/g in all vegetables, lower than that of total PAHs (∑PAHs, 10.6-47.4ng/g). ∑HPAHs and ∑PAHs concentrations in leafy vegetables were higher than those in root vegetables, suggesting that the atmospheric deposition might be the dominant source of PAHs and HPAHs in leafy vegetables. Among the HPAH congeners, 2-BrFle and 9-ClFle were the predominant compounds and frequently detected in the vegetable samples. HPAHs and PAHs were also found in certificated vegetables at the concentrations of 0.466-0.751ng/g and 10.6-38.9ng/g, respectively, which were lower than those in non-certificated vegetables except for spinach. For leafy vegetables from local farms, the ∑PAHs and ∑HPAHs levels in the rape and Chinese cabbage samples significantly decreased with increasing the distance away from the incineration plant. The incremental lifetime cancer risks of HPAHs were below the acceptable risk level (10 -6 ), suggesting that there might be little or no risk to consumers from these compounds in vegetables. For all population groups, children were the most sensitive population to PAHs and HPAHs, and their health issues should be paid more attention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessment of iodine concentration in dietary salt at household level in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahidi, Ahmed; Zahidi, Meriem; Taoufik, Jamal

    2016-05-20

    Following WHO recommendations, Morocco adopted in 1995 the universal salt iodization (USI) as a strategy to prevent and control iodine deficiency disorders. In 2009, the standard salt iodine concentration was adjusted to 15-40 mg/kg. The success of USI for the control of iodine deficiency disorders requires an evaluation of iodine concentration in salt prior to assessing the iodine nutritional status of a population. In our study we refer to the anterior studies that were made in Morocco in 1993 and 1998. 178 salt samples from households were tested for iodine using spot-testing kits. The iodometric titration method was used to analyze accurately the concentration of iodine in the 178 household salt samples. An empiric polling method was adopted, using a non-probability sampling method; across the different twelve regions in the country. The median and interquartile range iodine concentration in salt was 2.9 mg/kg (IQR: 2.4-3.7). The results show that only 25 % of households use iodized salt. The recommended iodine concentration in salt of 15-40 mg/kg was met only in 4.5 % of salt samples. The bulk salt is used by 8 % of households. All samples of this bulk salt were found in rural areas. According to nonparametric appropriate tests used, there is no significant difference in iodine concentrations between regions, between urban and rural areas and between packaged and bulk salt. Two decades since introducing legislation on Universal Salt Iodization, our survey shows that generalization of iodized salt is far from being reached. In 2015, only a quarter of Moroccan households use the iodized salt and only 4.5 % of salt is in conformity with regulations. The use of bulk salt by households in rural areas constitutes a major obstacle to the success of USI. The National Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control Program can only be achieved if an internal follow-up and a control of external quality of program is put in place.

  18. Dietary exposure to acrylamide from cafeteria foods in Jeddah schools and associated risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Tawila, Mahmoud M; Al-Ansari, Ahmed M; Alrasheedi, Amani A; Neamatallah, Abdulateef A

    2017-10-01

    Acrylamide (AA) is a carcinogenic and genotoxic food contaminant produced at high temperatures in foods that are rich in carbohydrates. Foods sold in schools in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, are among such carbohydrate-rich foods produced at high cooking temperatures. It is crucial to determine the importance of AA exposure with respect to cafeteria foods and assess the associated risks. The highest mean AA level was measured in chocolate pies (439 µg kg -1 ), followed by custard pies (435 µg kg -1 ) and cheese pies (432 µg kg -1 ). The average and 95th percentile values of AA exposure were 0.51 and 1.17 [µg kg -1 body weight (BW) school day -1 ]. The average exposure significantly decreased with an increase in age, from 0.65 (µg kg -1 BW school day -1 ) in primary school students to 0.37 in secondary school students. Cheese and chocolate pies are the main contributors in AA intake. The contributions of cheese and chocolate pies to the average exposure among primary, middle and secondary school students were 23.1%, 24.7% and 29.4% and 16.9%, 12.1% and 11.9%, respectively. Other products with significant contributions included cheese sandwiches (10.8%, 8.9% and 12.7%), plain cookies (7.7%, 5.6% and 6.7%) and custard pies (7.7%, 4.8% and 8.9%). Other cafeteria products contributed to AA exposure at much lower percentages. The calculated margins of exposure (MOEs) for the average [356 and 614 for both benchmark dose lower confidence limit (BMDL) 0.18 and 0.31 mg kg -1 BW day -1 ] and 95th percentile AA exposure values (154 and 265 for both BMDL 0.18 and 0.31 mg kg -1 BW day -1 ) suggest that there is a health concern with respect to school-aged students. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Assessing the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of adaptive e-Learning to improve dietary behaviour: protocol for a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michie Susan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The composition of habitual diets is associated with adverse or protective effects on aspects of health. Consequently, UK public health policy strongly advocates dietary change for the improvement of population health and emphasises the importance of individual empowerment to improve health. A new and evolving area in the promotion of dietary behavioural change is e-Learning, the use of interactive electronic media to facilitate teaching and learning on a range of issues, including diet and health. The aims of this systematic review are to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of adaptive e-Learning for improving dietary behaviours. Methods/Design The research will consist of a systematic review and a cost-effectiveness analysis. Studies will be considered for the review if they are randomised controlled trials, involving participants aged 13 or over, which evaluate the effectiveness or efficacy of interactive software programmes for improving dietary behaviour. Primary outcome measures will be those related to dietary behaviours, including estimated intakes of energy, nutrients and dietary fibre, or the estimated number of servings per day of foods or food groups. Secondary outcome measures will be objective clinical measures that are likely to respond to changes in dietary behaviours, such as anthropometry or blood biochemistry. Knowledge, self-efficacy, intention and emotion will be examined as mediators of dietary behaviour change in order to explore potential mechanisms of action. Databases will be searched using a comprehensive four-part search strategy, and the results exported to a bibliographic database. Two review authors will independently screen results to identify potentially eligible studies, and will independently extract data from included studies, with any discrepancies at each stage settled by a third author. Standardised forms and criteria will be used. A descriptive analysis of included

  20. Assessing the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of adaptive e-Learning to improve dietary behaviour: protocol for a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Phil; Felix, Lambert; Harris, Jody; Ferguson, Elaine; Free, Caroline; Landon, Jane; Lock, Karen; Michie, Susan; Miners, Alec; Murray, Elizabeth

    2010-04-21

    The composition of habitual diets is associated with adverse or protective effects on aspects of health. Consequently, UK public health policy strongly advocates dietary change for the improvement of population health and emphasises the importance of individual empowerment to improve health. A new and evolving area in the promotion of dietary behavioural change is e-Learning, the use of interactive electronic media to facilitate teaching and learning on a range of issues, including diet and health. The aims of this systematic review are to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of adaptive e-Learning for improving dietary behaviours. The research will consist of a systematic review and a cost-effectiveness analysis. Studies will be considered for the review if they are randomised controlled trials, involving participants aged 13 or over, which evaluate the effectiveness or efficacy of interactive software programmes for improving dietary behaviour. Primary outcome measures will be those related to dietary behaviours, including estimated intakes of energy, nutrients and dietary fibre, or the estimated number of servings per day of foods or food groups. Secondary outcome measures will be objective clinical measures that are likely to respond to changes in dietary behaviours, such as anthropometry or blood biochemistry. Knowledge, self-efficacy, intention and emotion will be examined as mediators of dietary behaviour change in order to explore potential mechanisms of action. Databases will be searched using a comprehensive four-part search strategy, and the results exported to a bibliographic database. Two review authors will independently screen results to identify potentially eligible studies, and will independently extract data from included studies, with any discrepancies at each stage settled by a third author. Standardised forms and criteria will be used.A descriptive analysis of included studies will describe study design, participants, the

  1. Procedures of assessment on the quantification of thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis by radiography and photogrammetry: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Alessandra Beggiato; Okazaki, Victor Hugo Alves

    2017-10-01

    The quantification of thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis can be assessed in different ways; among them radiography and photogrammetry. However, the assessment procedures are not consistent in the literature for either method. The objective of this study was to conduct a literature review about postural assessment through radiography and photogrammetry, for delineating the procedures for both methods. In total 38 studies were selected by an online search in the MEDLINE and LILACS databases with the keywords: radiograph and posture, postural alignment, photogrammetry or photometry or biophotogrammetry. For the radiographic method, the results showed divergences in arm positioning and in the calculation of thoracic and lumbar angles. The photogrammetry demonstrated differences in relation to the camera, tripod, plumb line and feet positioning, angle calculation, software utilization, and the use of footwear. Standardization is proposed for both methods to help establish normative values and comparisons between diagnoses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessing the Relationship between Weight–Controlling Behaviors and Eating Attitude Disorders with Dietary Intake in Female Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hengameh Khezri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescents pay more attention to their appearance and body.Irregular nutritional patterns, eating certain types of food, and consuming more protein-containing food are more common in this age group. Considering the importance of this issue and lack of adequate studies in Iran, especially in Fars province, we aimed to assess the relationship between weight-controlling attitudes and eating disorders with dietary intake in female adolescents. Methods: This cross-sectional study was done on 600 female students aged 14-17 years from the four educational districts of Shiraz, southern Iran, during 2011-2012 using the stratified random sampling method. Data were collected using three questionnaires as follows: demographic data questionnaire, Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26 to assess eating attitude disorders in students, and the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ. Data were analyzed using SPSS software, version 13 and the NUT 4 software. Results: Six (1% EAT-26 questionnaire were omitted from analysis for being incomplete. Also, 556, 446, and 491 questionnaires were evaluated in meat, bread, and fat groups, respectively; and the rest were omitted because of not being complete. The mean±SD age of the students was 15.8±0.9 years. According to the EAT-26, we found that 80.1% of the students were at risk of eating attitude disorders (CI=95%, 76.9-83.3. By comparing the results of the FFQ and the EAT-26 and weight controlling behaviors, we found that consumption of meat and fat was significantly higher in students with eating attitude disorder (P=0.027 and P=0.003 respectively. Bread intake was significantly higher in the groups with no disorder (P=0.08. (This P value is not significant. Moreover, the mean consumption of sandwiches was higher in students with eating attitude disorders (P=0.002. Conclusion: Considering the high prevalence of eating attitude disorders in our study, assessing the underlying reasons and implementing preventive

  3. Estimating the impact of vitamin A-fortified vegetable oil in Bangladesh in the absence of dietary assessment data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, John L; Lividini, Keith; Bermudez, Odilia I

    2015-02-01

    Vitamin A deficiency is a serious health problem in Bangladesh. The 2011-12 Bangladesh Micronutrient Survey found 76·8% of children of pre-school age were vitamin A deficient. In the absence of nationally representative, individual dietary assessment data, we use an alternative--household income and expenditure survey data--to estimate the potential impact of the introduction of vitamin A-fortified vegetable oil in Bangladesh. Items in the household income and expenditure survey were matched to food composition tables to estimate households' usual vitamin A intakes. Then, assuming (i) the intra-household distribution of food is in direct proportion to household members' share of the household's total adult male consumption equivalents, (ii) all vegetable oil that is made from other-than mustard seed and that is purchased is fortifiable and (iii) oil fortification standards are implemented, we modelled the additional vitamin A intake due to the new fortification initiative. Nationwide in Bangladesh. A weighted sample of 12,240 households comprised of 55,580 individuals. Ninety-nine per cent of the Bangladesh population consumes vegetable oil. The quantities consumed are sufficiently large and, varying little by socio-economic status, are able to provide an important, large-scale impact. At full implementation, vegetable oil fortification will reduce the number of persons with inadequate vitamin A intake from 115 million to 86 million and decrease the prevalence of inadequate vitamin A intake from 80% to 60%. Vegetable oil is an ideal fortification vehicle in Bangladesh. Its fortification with vitamin A is an important public health intervention.

  4. Assessment of yeast as a dietary additive on haematology and water quality of common carp in a recirculating aquaculture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goran, Siraj Muhammed Abdulla; Omar, Samad Sofy; Anwer, Ayub Youns

    2017-09-01

    Feeding experiment was accomplished at the Aquaculture unit (Close system), Grdarasha station, Agriculture College, University of Salahaddin, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, to investigate different levels of Aquagrow E (AGEY) brewer's yeast cell Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the haematological and water quality of common carp fingerlings Cyprinus carpio. The basal diet was formulated to contain 34% protein and 10% lipid and the dietary treatments were supplemented with 0.5%, 1% and 1.5% of AGEY diet. A total of 180 Common carp (10.30 ± 0.27 g) fed on experimental diets for 10 weeks. Water quality assessment for well water and pond water for rearing Cyprinus carpio in cage system conducted weekly, while some parameters including pH, EC, water temperature and DO were monitored daily during the entire periods of study. Values of total hardness, alkalinity, ammonia and nitrate for studied water samples were within normal ranges for rearing Cyprinus carpio. Mean concentration of GPT, GOT and Glucose were 104 to 170 U/L, 1371 to 3308 U/L and 34 to 63mg/dl respectively, moreover, highest levels were observed in treatments with higher concentrations of yeast in its food except for blood sugar. Slight variation in lipase enzyme were found between control and treatment groups, while levels of amylase enzyme were increased toward cages with higher levels of yeast until T1 and then decreased toward T3. Total protein levels were increased to toward higher levels of yeast in food of Cyprinus carpio fish. Haematological results showed highest levels of WBC and platelets in treatments cages than control group. Levels of RBCs and hemoglobin were highest in treatment group 1 with 0.5%of yeast than treatments higher yeast concentrations. Significant correlation was found in haematological parameters between control and treatments.

  5. ASSESSING THE POSSIBLE INTERACTION BETWEEN CARDUUS MARIANUS AND DIETARY DEOXYNIVALENOL ON CAECAL MICROBIOTA AND FERMENTATION OF GROWING RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam Kachlek

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of feed with mycotoxins is a common problem encountered in animal farming. Mycotoxin exposure can affect adversely the health of animals. In rabbits caecal fermentation is an essential digestive process being indication of physiological alterations. Deoxynivalenol (DON is one of the most frequent contaminants of grains which affect the growth of monogastric animals. Data about dietary DON and its effect in rabbits are scarce. Medicinal plants are often used as feed additives to enhance the performance of the animals. Carduus marianus (milk thistle is known for its hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects (among others but no data are available about the effect on rabbit caecum. Considering the aforementioned, the aim of this study was to assess the possible interactive effect of Carduus marianus and DON on the caecum of growing rabbits. 75 Pannon White rabbits were reared for six weeks from 35 (after weaning till 77 days of age. Rabbits received the following diets: control (C, control with DON (CT, control supplemented with C. marianus in 0,5% (H1, control supplemented with C. marianus in 0,5% and DON (H1T, control supplemented with C. marianus in 1% (H2 and control supplemented with C. marianus in 1% and DON (H2T. On slaughter, caecum was collected for the analysis of total volatile fatty acids (VFA and the microbiota of the caecum, pH of the caecum was also recorded. There was no significant difference in total VFA concentration or individual VFA. Number of aerobic bacteria significantly differed among toxin and non-toxin groups. DON affected adversely the number of aerobic bacteria. An interactive effect of DON and Carduus marianus on E.coli number was observed. There was no effect on total or individual VFA amounts.

  6. Assessment of the Dietary Intake of Schoolchildren in South Africa: 15 Years after the First National Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelia Steyn

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available There has not been a national dietary study in children in South Africa since 1999. Fortification of flour and maize meal became mandatory in October 2003 to address micronutrient deficiencies found in the national study in 1999. The purpose of this review was to identify studies done after 1999 in schoolchildren, 6–15 years old, in order to determine whether dietary intakes reflected improvements in micronutrients, namely: iron, zinc, vitamin A, folate, thiamine, riboflavin, vitamin B6, and niacin. An electronic and hand search was done to identify all studies complying with relevant inclusion criteria. The search yielded 10 studies. Overall, there is a paucity of dietary studies which have included the fortified nutrients; only four, of which only one, reported on all micronutrients; making it difficult to determine whether fortification has improved the micronutrient intake of schoolchildren. This is further complicated by the fact that different dietary methods were used and that studies were only done in three of the nine provinces and thus are not generalizable. The results of these studies clearly point to the importance of doing a national study on the dietary intake of schoolchildren in order to confirm the outcomes of the fortification process.

  7. Implementing first-year assessment principles: An analysis of selected scholarly literature

    OpenAIRE

    Theda Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Assessment plays an important role in students’ learning as students often frame their learning around their assessment tasks. Well-designed assessment can be used to facilitate first-year students making their social and academic transition to university. In 2009, Professor David Nicol prepared a framework for first-year assessment practices that included 12 principles. In this study, these principles were revisited and used to analyse papers from 2013 to 2016 in the journals: ‘Assessment & ...

  8. Lifestyle and dietary habits of an obese pregnant cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Karen L; Heneghan, Clara; McNulty, Breige; Brennan, Lorraine; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M

    2015-01-01

    Obese pregnant women are the focus of numerous dietary and lifestyle intervention studies, however there is a paucity of literature examining the habitual dietary and lifestyle habits of this population. This paper aims to assess maternal dietary and lifestyle habits in an obese cohort, in order to identify priority areas to be addressed in future studies and in clinical practice. This prospective observational study recruited 100 pregnant women with a body mass index 30.0-39.9 kg/m(2) from routine antenatal clinics. Dietary intakes were assessed using a 3-day food diary and a structured lifestyle questionnaire assessed physical activity levels, smoking and alcohol habits and wellbeing. Macronutrient intakes as a percentage of total energy were not compliant to healthy eating guidelines with an inadequate intake of carbohydrate and excess intake of saturated fat. Compliance to recommended intakes of calcium, iron, folate and vitamin D was poor from diet alone. The consumption of energy dense food groups high in fat and sugar was greater than for published pregnant populations and the general female non-pregnant population. One-third of women reported engaging in weekly physical activity that would comply with recommendations for pregnant women while 25 % reported low mood status indicating potential depression. High intakes of energy-dense processed foods and poor compliance to micronutrient recommendations are critical dietary issues of concern among obese pregnant women. Low mood is a barrier to motivation for changing behaviour which would also need to be addressed in future lifestyle intervention studies.

  9. Health effects of protein intake in healthy elderly populations: a systematic literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Agnes N.; Cederholm, Tommy

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the evidence behind the dietary requirement of protein and to assess the health effects of varying protein intake in healthy elderly persons in order to evaluate the evidence for an optimal protein intake. The literature search covered year 2000-...

  10. Psychometric Properties of a Scale to Assess Parental Self-Efficacy for Influencing Children's Dietary, Physical Activity, Sedentary, and Screen Time Behaviors in Disadvantaged Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Åsa; Bohman, Benjamin; Nyberg, Gisela; Schäfer Elinder, Liselotte

    2018-02-01

    According to social cognitive theory, self-efficacy is central to behavior change. Consequently, parental self-efficacy (PSE) for influencing children's dietary, physical activity (PA), sedentary, and screen time behaviors is important for child obesity prevention. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of an instrument to measure PSE regarding these behaviors in disadvantaged areas. Parents ( n = 229) of whom 47% had completed secondary school or less, and who participated in the Healthy School Start trial, responded to a 15-item PSE instrument. Children's diet and screen time were measured through parent reports. PA and sedentary behaviors were measured using accelerometers. Construct validity was assessed using exploratory factor analysis (EFA), criterion validity by correlations with child behaviors, and internal consistency by Cronbach's alpha. The EFA yielded three factors: (a) PSE for promoting PA; (b) PSE for limiting intake of unhealthy foods, unhealthy drinks, and screen time; and (c) PSE for promoting intake of fruits and vegetables, all with acceptable to good internal consistency (α = .77-.81). Significant correlations ( p children's dietary ( r s = -.19 to -.29) and screen time ( r = -.29) behaviors and Factor 2, and dietary behaviors and Factor 3 ( r s = .20-.39) but not regarding PA and sedentary behaviors and Factor 1. The instrument demonstrated good construct validity and acceptable to good internal consistency regarding all but PA behaviors. It may be useful for assessing PSE in child obesity prevention interventions in disadvantaged settings after some refinement.

  11. Assessing the effect of dietary inulin supplementation on gastrointestinal fermentation, digestibility and growth in pigs: A meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Metzler-Zebeli, B U; Trevisi, P; Prates, J A M

    2017-01-01

    Inulin has been reported to improve the homeostasis in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of pigs by modulating the intestinal microbiota and fermentation. The present study aimed to quantify the relationship between dietary inulin and microbial response variables in digesta from the GIT and feces...... of weaned, growing and finishing pigs using a meta-analytical approach. We further examined the effect of dietary inulin on the coefficients of ileal (CIAD) and total tract apparent digestibility (CTTAD) of nutrients and ADG. Pig’s starting body weight was considered the main inclusion criterion. Missing....... Prediction models on the effect on inulin were computed accounting for inter- and intra-study variability. Dietary inulin levels ranged from 0.1 to 25.8%, whereby the median and mean inulin levels were 0.1–2% and 3–4%, respectively. Few of the investigated fermentation response variables were influenced...

  12. Assessing Side Effects of Pharmacotherapy Treatment of Bipolar Disorder: A 20-Year Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Gonzalez, Melissa L.; Smith, Kimberly R.; Terlonge, Cindy; Thorson, Ryan T.; Dixon, Dennis R.

    2006-01-01

    A substantial literature on the effective treatment of bipolar disorder has begun to appear, particularly in the last 20 years.The majority of treatments studied have employed medications, particularly mood stabilizers, a typical antipsychotics and antidepressants. Most treatments produce side effects and medications are no exception. A review of…

  13. Clinical Outcomes Measures for Assessment of Longevity in the Dental Implant Literature : ORONet Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bassi, Francesco; Carr, Alan B.; Chang, Ting-Ling; Estafanous, Emad; Garrett, Neal R.; Happonen, Risto-Pekka; Koka, Sreenivas; Laine, Juhani; Osswald, Martin; Reintsema, Harry; Rieger, Jana; Roumanas, Eleni; Salinas, Thomas J.; Stanford, Clark M.; Wolfaardt, Johan

    2013-01-01

    The Oral Rehabilitation Outcomes Network (ORONet) Longevity Working Group undertook a search of the literature from 1995 to 2009 on randomized controlled trials related to longevity of osseointegrated implants. Outcomes measures used in these studies were identified and subjected to the OMERACT

  14. Role-Play in Literature Lectures: The Students' Assessment of Their Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riain, Isobel Ní; Dawson, Ciarán; McCarthy, Marian

    2018-01-01

    The following article is based on a piece of qualitative research on the use of role-play in a literature module in the Modern Irish Dept. of University College Cork, Ireland, in 2015. There were 18 students involved in the research. The aim of the research was to investigate if students associate learning with the use of role-play in literature…

  15. A comparative assessment of the potential use of alginates and dietary calcium manipulation as countermeasures to reduce the transfer of radiostrontium to the milk of dairy animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beresford, N.A.; Mayes, R.W.; Colgrove, P.M.; Barnett, C.L.; Bryce, L.; Dodd, B.A.; Lamb, C.S.

    2000-01-01

    The potential of using different alginates or supplementary calcium as feed-additives to reduce the transfer of ingested radiostrontium to milk was assessed in dairy cattle fed a haylage/concentrate diet. The feed-additives compared were: calcium alginate (4% by dry matter), sodium alginate (4% by dry matter) and four levels of supplementation with CaCO 3 . Both alginates reduced the transfer of radiostrontium to milk by 30-40% without effecting diet palatability. However, the high present cost of alginates precludes their use as countermeasures. Dietary calcium supplementation reduced the transfer of 85 Sr to milk broadly in agreement with previous predictions. From data relevant to dairy cattle in the United Kingdom it is suggested that dietary calcium intake could be doubled without exceeding recommended maximum intakes, thus decreasing the transfer of radiostrontium to milk by approximately 50%

  16. Development and Validation of a Semi-Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire to Assess Dietary Intake of Turkish School-Aged Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güneş Fatma Esra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop and validate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ on the dietary intake of Turkish school-aged children. Fifty randomly selected students aged 7–12 from urban areas of Istanbul were included in this study. An FFQ, containing a list of 138 frequently consumed foods was developed. Dietary records (DRs including three days, and FFQs were collected during autumn and spring. Daily consumption of each food group was assessed and the nutrient compositions of diet were calculated. The Pearson correlation coefficient, weighted kappa, the Bland-Altman scatter plots between averages of the reported (FFQ and the references method (DR were used as validity coefficient.

  17. A comparative assessment of the potential use of alginates and dietary calcium manipulation as countermeasures to reduce the transfer of radiostrontium to the milk of dairy animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beresford, N.A. E-mail: nab@ceh.ac.uk; Mayes, R.W.; Colgrove, P.M.; Barnett, C.L.; Bryce, L.; Dodd, B.A.; Lamb, C.S

    2000-12-01

    The potential of using different alginates or supplementary calcium as feed-additives to reduce the transfer of ingested radiostrontium to milk was assessed in dairy cattle fed a haylage/concentrate diet. The feed-additives compared were: calcium alginate (4% by dry matter), sodium alginate (4% by dry matter) and four levels of supplementation with CaCO{sub 3}. Both alginates reduced the transfer of radiostrontium to milk by 30-40% without effecting diet palatability. However, the high present cost of alginates precludes their use as countermeasures. Dietary calcium supplementation reduced the transfer of {sup 85}Sr to milk broadly in agreement with previous predictions. From data relevant to dairy cattle in the United Kingdom it is suggested that dietary calcium intake could be doubled without exceeding recommended maximum intakes, thus decreasing the transfer of radiostrontium to milk by approximately 50%.

  18. Evaluation of Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children: comparing reported fruit, juice and vegetable intakes with plasma carotenoid concentration and school lunch observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Bysted, Anette; Trolle, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children (WebDASC) was developed to estimate dietary intake in a school meal intervention study among 8- to 11-year-old Danish children. The present study validates self-reported fruit, juice and vegetable (FJV) intakes in 8- to 11-year-old children...... by comparing intake with plasma carotenoid concentration, and by comparing the reported FJV intake to actually eaten FJV, as observed by a photographic method. A total of eighty-one children, assisted by parents, reported their diet for seven consecutive days. For the same five schooldays as they reported...... their diet, the children's school lunch was photographed and weighed before and after eating. In the week after the diet reporting, fasting blood samples were taken. Self-reported intake of FJV and estimated intake of carotenoids were compared with plasma carotenoid concentration. Accuracy of self...

  19. Legacy and emerging brominated flame retardants in China: A review on food and human milk contamination, human dietary exposure and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhixiong; Zhang, Lei; Li, Jingguang; Wu, Yongning

    2018-05-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are a large group of widely used chemicals, which have been produced and used since 1970s. As a consequence of substantial and long-term usage, BFRs have been found to be ubiquitous in humans, wildlife, and abiotic matrices around the world. Although several reports have reviewed BFRs contamination in general, none have focused specifically on foods and human milk, and the corresponding dietary exposure. Foods (including human milk) have long been recognized as a major pathway of BFRs intake for non-occupationally exposed persons. This review summarizes most available BFRs data in foods and human milk from China in recent years, and emphasizes several specific aspects, i.e., contamination levels of legacy and emerging BFRs, dietary exposure assessment and related health concerns, comparison between various BFRs, and temporal changes in BFRs contamination. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessment of Dietary Intake Patterns among University Students in Lebanon: a focus on gender differences and overweight correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale eSalameh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Unhealthy dietary habits are a major risk factor for chronic diseases, particularly if adopted during early adulthood. In a study conducted on a large sample of university students from both public and private universities in Lebanon, we observed differences in obesity prevalence between males and females. Given this difference, the objective of this analysis was to define the different dietary patterns among university students, focusing on correlation with gender and body mass index (BMI. Methods : A cross-sectional study was carried out on 3384 students, using a proportionate cluster sample of Lebanese students from both public and private universities. Results : Three dietary patterns were identified among university youth namely, vegetarian/low calorie diet (mainly plant food while avoiding ‘western’ food, composite dishes, and bread; mixed diet (high consumption of plant food, followed by composite dishes, bread, and a low consumption of western type food, and finally the westernized diet (high consumption of white bread and western food, and a strong avoidance of plant food and composite dishes. We observed significant differences between males and females in terms of their reported food intake and dietary patterns. Females were particularly more prone to adopt the vegetarian/low calorie diet than males (ORa=1.69; p<0.001, while males were more likely to adopt a westernized diet (ORa=1.51; p<0.001, seemingly in private universities (p=0.053. Students with high income and obese students (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 were more likely to consume vegetarian/low calorie diets (P<0.05. Conclusion: Male university students, despite having a higher BMI, reported a higher consumption of food according to a westernized dietary pattern as compared to female university students in Lebanon, while the latter reported a higher adoption of a vegetarian diet. Health promotion programs are needed among university youth in Lebanon to address their

  1. The preventable causes of death in the United States: comparative risk assessment of dietary, lifestyle, and metabolic risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodarz Danaei

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the number of deaths caused by risk factors is needed for health policy and priority setting. Our aim was to estimate the mortality effects of the following 12 modifiable dietary, lifestyle, and metabolic risk factors in the United States (US using consistent and comparable methods: high blood glucose, low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol, and blood pressure; overweight-obesity; high dietary trans fatty acids and salt; low dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acids (seafood, and fruits and vegetables; physical inactivity; alcohol use; and tobacco smoking.We used data on risk factor exposures in the US population from nationally representative health surveys and disease-specific mortality statistics from the National Center for Health Statistics. We obtained the etiological effects of risk factors on disease-specific mortality, by age, from systematic reviews and meta-analyses of epidemiological studies that had adjusted (i for major potential confounders, and (ii where possible for regression dilution bias. We estimated the number of disease-specific deaths attributable to all non-optimal levels of each risk factor exposure, by age and sex. In 2005, tobacco smoking and high blood pressure were responsible for an estimated 467,000 (95% confidence interval [CI] 436,000-500,000 and 395,000 (372,000-414,000 deaths, accounting for about one in five or six deaths in US adults. Overweight-obesity (216,000; 188,000-237,000 and physical inactivity (191,000; 164,000-222,000 were each responsible for nearly 1 in 10 deaths. High dietary salt (102,000; 97,000-107,000, low dietary omega-3 fatty acids (84,000; 72,000-96,000, and high dietary trans fatty acids (82,000; 63,000-97,000 were the dietary risks with the largest mortality effects. Although 26,000 (23,000-40,000 deaths from ischemic heart disease, ischemic stroke, and diabetes were averted by current alcohol use, they were outweighed by 90,000 (88,000-94,000 deaths from

  2. Assessing the Economics of Dengue: Results from a Systematic Review of the Literature and Expert Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constenla, Dagna; Garcia, Cristina; Lefcourt, Noah

    2015-11-01

    The economics of dengue is complex and multifaceted. We performed a systematic review of the literature to provide a critical overview of the issues related to dengue economics research and to form a background with which to address the question of cost. Three literature databases were searched [PubMed, Embase and Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS)], covering a period from 1980 to 2013, to identify papers meeting preset inclusion criteria. Studies were reviewed for methodological quality on the basis of a quality checklist developed for this purpose. An expert survey was designed to identify priority areas in dengue economics research and to identify gaps between the methodology and actual practice. Survey responses were combined with the literature review findings to determine stakeholder priorities in dengue economics research. The review identified over 700 papers. Forty-two of these papers met the selection criteria. The studies that were reviewed presented results from 32 dengue-endemic countries, underscoring the importance of dengue as a global public health problem. Cost analyses were the most common, with 21 papers, followed by nine cost-effectiveness analyses and seven cost-of-illness studies, indicating a relatively strong mix of methodologies. Dengue annual overall costs (in 2010 values) ranged from US$13.5 million (in Nicaragua) to $56 million (in Malaysia), showing cost variations across countries. Little consistency exists in the way costs were estimated and dengue interventions evaluated, making generalizations around costs difficult. The current evidence suggests that dengue costs are substantial because of the cost of hospital care and lost earnings. Further research in this area will broaden our understanding of the true economic impact of dengue.

  3. Key figures for joint assessment of indoor environmental quality (IEQ) and energy consumption in modern buildings – a literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tisov, Ana; Siroky, Jan; Kolarik, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    ’s energy management and operational diagnostics focus mostly on energy consumption. Consequently also present key figures comprise performance indicators related to energy use. The fact that modern buildings are not spared from IEQ related problems indicates that there is a need for joint assessment...... and test key figures that would directly combine performance indicators related to both energy use and IEQ....... of energy and IEQ performance. The aim of this paper was to review relevant literature to form a scientific background for development of key figures enabling the joint assessment of energy and IEQ. The review resulted in forty cited publications. Majority of them focused explicitly on energy performance...

  4. Design of a randomized controlled clinical trial assessing dietary sodium restriction and hemodialysis-related symptom profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya N. Clark-Cutaia

    2016-08-01

    Conclusion: Curbing dietary sodium intake may lead to improvement in intradialytic symptom amelioration and potential for better long-term outcomes. Generating empirical support will be critical to ascertain, and espouse, the appropriate level of sodium intake for patients receiving HD.

  5. Dietary pattern and colonic diverticulosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tursi, Antonio

    2017-09-01

    To assess the role of dietary pattern on the occurrence of colonic diverticulosis, diverticular disease and acute diverticulitis. High-fiber diet does not prevent diverticulosis occurrence, and results about prevention/treatment of diverticular disease and acute diverticulitis are still conflicting.No association was seen between nut, corn or popcorn consumption and occurrence of diverticulosis, diverticular disease and acute diverticulitis.It seems to be a mild association between high alcohol intake and diverticulosis occurrence, whereas alcohol dependence seems to show lower risk of in-hospital mortality due to acute diverticulitis.Higher red-meat consumption shows mild increased risk of acute diverticulitis, especially when consumed as unprocessed red meat (defined as consumption of 'beef or lamb as main dish', 'pork as main dish', 'hamburger' and 'beef, pork or lamb as a sandwich or mixed dish'); higher consumption of poultry (viz. white meat) was not associated with risk of acute diverticulitis.Finally, higher fish intake was associated with reduced risk of diverticulitis in age-adjusted model, but not after further adjustment for other potential confounders. Current literature data about the role of dietary pattern on the occurrence of colonic diverticulosis, diverticular disease and acute diverticulitis are still too conflicting.

  6. Assessment of different dietary fibers (tomato fiber, beet root fiber, and inulin) for the manufacture of chopped cooked chicken products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cava, Ramón; Ladero, Luis; Cantero, V; Rosario Ramírez, M

    2012-04-01

    Three dietary fibers (tomato fiber [TF], beet root fiber [BRF], and inulin) at 3 levels of addition (1%, 2%, and 3%) were assessed for the manufacture of chopped, cooked chicken products and compared with a control product without fiber added. The effect of fiber incorporation on (i) batters, (ii) cooked (30 min at 70 °C), and (iii) cooked and stored (for 10 d at 4 °C) chicken products were studied. The addition of the fiber to chicken meat products reduced the pH of chicken batters in proportional to the level of fiber addition. Fiber incorporation increased water-holding capacity but only the addition of TF reduced cook losses. The color of batters and cooked products was significantly modified by the type and level of fiber added. These changes were more noticeable when TF was added. Texture parameters were affected by the incorporation of TF and BRF; they increased the hardness in proportional to the level of addition. The addition of tomato and BRF to chicken meat products reduced lipid oxidation processes. These changes were dependent on the level of fiber added. The reduction of lipid oxidation processes was more marked in TF meat products than in products with other types of fibers. In contrast, the addition level of inulin increased TBA-RS numbers in chicken meat products. Although the addition of TF increased the redness of the meat products, the use of this fiber was more suitable as it reduced the extent of lipid oxidation processes. INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION: Nowadays, the reduction of fat and the increase of fiber content in meat products is one of the main goals of meat industry. Numerous sources of fiber can be added to the meat products; however, before that it is necessary to study their technological effect on raw and cooked meat products in order to evaluate their suitability for meat products manufacture. In addition, some of them could have beneficial effect on meat products conservation that could also increase their shelf life. © 2012

  7. Variability in GCSE Controlled Assessments Subject to High Levels of Control: Ipsos MORI's "Evaluation of the Introduction of Controlled Assessment" (2011) and Its Implications for Controlled Assessments in English Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vowles, C. G.

    2012-01-01

    Controlled assessment (CA) was introduced as a valid and reliable replacement for coursework in GCSE English and English Literature assessments in 2009. I argue that CA lacks clear definition, typically mimics externally-assessed public examinations and, when interrogated through the Crooks eight-link chain model, is undermined by several threats…

  8. Nutritional status, dietary habits, nutritional knowledge and self-care assessment in a group of older adults attending community centres in Pavia, Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turconi, G; Rossi, M; Roggi, C; Maccarini, L

    2013-02-01

    The population of industrialised countries is ageing as a consequence of an increase in life expectancy. As a result of the increasing ageing process, the assessment of nutritional status and dietary habits, as well as the assessment of self-care, is needed to plan selected actions aimed at improving the quality of life in the third and fourth life spans. A cross-sectional study was carried out on a randomly selected sample of 200 healthy older adults (≥65 years old), attending community centres for older people in Pavia, Northern Italy. Ninety-two percent of the recruited subjects participated in the survey. Anthropometric measurements and the Mini Nutritional Assessment were performed. Dietary habits, nutritional knowledge and self-care were investigated using a questionnaire administered by two dietitians. The majority of subjects were low socio-economic status and overweight [mean (SD) body mass index = 28.4 (4.3) kg/m(2) ], 12% were malnourished according to their Mini Nutritional Assessment score and the majority of the arm muscle circumference measurements were below the 10th percentile, predicting accelerated loss of lean mass, even in the healthy independently living older adults. Only 30% of the sample had adequate dietary habits, whereas the ability to self-care was good for the whole sample. The unhealthy and unbalanced diet, frequently too rich in sugar and fats and low in protein intake, might explain being overweight and the loss of lean mass in the study subjects. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2012 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  9. Can active learning principles be applied to the bioscience assessments of nursing students? A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakon, Shannon; Craft, Judy; Christensen, Martin; Wirihana, Lisa

    2016-02-01

    To explore if active learning principles be applied to nursing bioscience assessments and will this influence student perception of confidence in applying theory to practice? A review of the literature utilising searches of various databases including CINAHL, PUBMED, Google Scholar and Mosby's Journal Index. The literature search identified research from twenty-six original articles, two electronic books, one published book and one conference proceedings paper. Bioscience has been identified as an area that nurses struggle to learn in tertiary institutions and then apply to clinical practice. A number of problems have been identified and explored that may contribute to this poor understanding and retention. University academics need to be knowledgeable of innovative teaching and assessing modalities that focus on enhancing student learning and address the integration issues associated with the theory practice gap. Increased bioscience education is associated with improved patient outcomes therefore by addressing this "bioscience problem" and improving the integration of bioscience in clinical practice there will subsequently be an improvement in health care outcomes. From the literature several themes were identified. First there are many problems with teaching nursing students bioscience education. These include class sizes, motivation, concentration, delivery mode, lecturer perspectives, student's previous knowledge, anxiety, and a lack of confidence. Among these influences the type of assessment employed by the educator has not been explored or identified as a contributor to student learning specifically in nursing bioscience instruction. Second that educating could be achieved more effectively if active learning principles were applied and the needs and expectations of the student were met. Lastly, assessment influences student retention and the student experience and as such assessment should be congruent with the subject content, align with the learning

  10. Practice makes pretty good: assessment of primary literature reading abilities across multiple large-enrollment biology laboratory courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Brian K; Kadandale, Pavan; He, Wenliang; Murata, Paige M N; Latif, Yama; Warschauer, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Primary literature is essential for scientific communication and is commonly utilized in undergraduate biology education. Despite this, there is often little time spent training our students how to critically analyze a paper. To address this, we introduced a primary literature module in multiple upper-division laboratory courses. In this module, instructors conduct classroom discussions that dissect a paper as researchers do. While previous work has identified classroom interventions that improve primary literature comprehension within a single course, our goal was to determine whether including a scientific paper module in our classes could produce long-term benefits. On the basis of performance in an assessment exam, we found that our module resulted in longitudinal gains, including increased comprehension and critical-thinking abilities in subsequent lab courses. These learning gains were specific to courses utilizing our module, as no longitudinal gains were seen in students who had taken other upper-division labs that lacked extensive primary literature discussion. In addition, we assessed whether performance on our assessment correlated with a variety of factors, including grade point average, course performance, research background, and self-reported confidence in understanding of the article. Furthermore, all of the study conclusions are independent of biology disciplines, as we observe similar trends within each course. © 2014 B. K. Sato et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2014 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  11. Population versus hospital controls in the assessment of dietary intake of isoflavone for case-control studies on cancers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Zhang, Min; Holman, C D'Arcy J

    2013-01-01

    To assess dietary isoflavone intake between population and hospital outpatient controls and examine if cancer risks estimated for isoflavone using hospital outpatient controls would be different from those using population controls. Three parallel case-control studies on leukemia, breast, and colorectal cancers in China in 2009-2010 were conducted, using population and hospital outpatient controls to separately match 560 incident cases at a 1:1 ratio. A validated food frequency questionnaire was administered by face-to-face interview. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The 2 control groups had closely similar distributions of dietary isoflavone intake. Risk estimates for breast cancers were adjusted ORs (95% CI) of 0.39 (0.23-0.66) and 0.31 (0.18-0.55) for daidzein, 0.35 (0.20-0.61) and 0.28 (0.16-0.52) for genistein, 0.66 (0.41-1.08) and 0.53 (0.32-0.88) for glycitein, and 0.53 (0.33-0.85) and 0.43 (0.26-0.71) for total isoflavone using hospital outpatient and population controls respectively. The study found that hospital outpatient controls were comparable to population controls in measured dietary intake of isoflavone in the Chinese hospital setting.

  12. Dietary diversity and nutrient intake adequacy among women in Iwo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dietary diversity and nutrient intake adequacy among women in Iwo Local Government Area, Osun State Nigeria. ... A 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire was used to assess the food intake of the respondents, which was converted into nutrient intake using adapted Total Dietary Assessment (TDA) software. Dietary ...

  13. Is there an association between dietary intake and academic achievement: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, T; Goldman, S; Pursey, K; Lim, R

    2017-04-01

    The majority of literature examining the effect of dietary behaviour on academic achievement has focused on breakfast consumption only. Here, we aim to systematically review the literature investigating the broader effects of dietary intake and behaviours on school-aged children's academic achievement. A search was undertaken across seven databases using keywords. For studies to be included, they needed to be conducted in: school-aged children (5-18 years); assess and report: (i) a measure of academic performance; (ii) a measure of dietary intake/behaviour; and (iii) the association between dietary intake/behaviours and academic performance. Forty studies were included in the review. The majority of studies were cross-sectional in design (n = 33) and studied children aged >10 years, with very few reports in younger age groups. More than 30 different dietary assessment tools were used, with only 40% of those using a validated/standardised assessment method. Half the studies collected outcomes of academic achievement objectively from a recognised educational authority, whereas 10 studies used self-reported measures. The dietary outcomes most commonly reported to have positive associations with academic achievement were: breakfast consumption (n = 12) and global diet quality/meal patterns (n = 7), whereas negative associations reported with junk/fast food (n = 9). This review highlights that moderate associations exist for dietary intakes characterised by regular breakfast consumption, lower intakes of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and overall diet quality with respect to outcomes of academic achievement. Future studies should consider the use of validated dietary assessment methods and standardised reporting of academic achievement. © 2016 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  14. Psychometric evaluation of the short version of the Personal Diabetes Questionnaire to assess dietary behaviors and exercise in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akohoue, Sylvie A; Wallston, Kenneth A; Schlundt, David G; Rothman, Russell L

    2017-08-01

    Patients with diabetes and of lower socioeconomic status have difficulty adhering to dietary recommendations. Practical and effective tools assessing self-management behaviors are needed to help evaluate interventions tailored to the needs of individual patients or population groups. This study examined the psychometric properties of a short 11-item version of the Personal Diabetes Questionnaire scale (PDQ-11) using data from the Public-Private Partnership to Improve Diabetes Education trial. Patients (n=411) with type 2 diabetes from ten safety net primary care clinics in the Mid-Cumberland Region of Tennessee completed the PDQ-11, the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities (SDSCA), the Perceived Diabetes Self-Management Scale (PDSMS), and the Adherence to Refills and Medications Scale (ARMS). Statistical analyses were conducted to explore the subscale structure of the PDQ-11, and the internal consistency and validity of its subscales. Exploratory factor analysis of the PDQ-11 revealed four components (Cronbach's α=0.50 to 0.81): Eating Behavior Problems; Use of Information for Dietary Decision Making; Calorie Restriction; and Activity and Exercise. Eating Behavior Problems and Use of Information for Dietary Decision Making had the strongest associations with the diet subscales of the SDSCA and were also correlated with the PDSMS and the ARMS scores (all ps<0.001). Different PDQ-11 subscales were correlated with BMI (Calorie Restriction Activity and Exercise) and blood pressure (Eating Behavior Problems). The PDQ-11 is a useful measure of dietary behaviors in patients with type 2 diabetes; its use may help providers tailor individual nutrition intervention strategies to patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Efficiency indicators to assess the organ donation and transplantation process: systematic review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Marina Martins; Araujo, Claudia Affonso; de Aguiar Roza, Bartira; Schirmer, Janine

    2016-08-01

    To search the literature and identify indicators used to monitor and control the organ donation and transplantation process and to group these indicators into categories. In November 2014, a systematic review of the literature was carried out in the following databases: Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS), EBSCO, Emerald, Proquest, Science Direct, and Web of Science. The following search terms (and the corresponding terms in Brazilian Portuguese) were employed: "efficiency," "indicators," "organ donation," "tissue and organ procurement," and "organ transplantation." Of the 344 articles retrieved, 23 original articles published between 1992 and 2013 were selected and reviewed for analysis of efficiency indicators. The review revealed 117 efficiency indicators, which were grouped according to similarity of content and divided into three categories: 1) 71 indicators related to organ donation, covering mortality statistics, communication of brain death, clinical status of donors and exclusion of donors for medical reasons, attitude of families, confirmation of donations, and extraction of organs and tissues; 2) 22 indicators related to organ transplantation, covering the surgical procedure per se and post-transplantation follow-up; and 3) 24 indicators related to the demand for organs and the resources of hospitals involved in the process. Even if organ transplantation is a recent phenomenon, the high number of efficiency indicators described in the literature suggests that scholars interested in this field have been searching for ways to measure performance. However, there is little standardization of the indicators used. Also, most indicators focus on the donation step, suggesting gaps in the measurement of efficiency at others points in the process. Additional indicators are needed to monitor important stages, such as organ distribution (for example, organ loss indicators) and post-transplantation aspects (for example, survival and quality of life).

  16. Assessment of Primary Representational Systems with Neurolinguistic Programming: Examination of Preliminary Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Fred J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Reviews the inconsistent findings of studies on neurolinguistic programing and recommends some areas that should be examined to verify various claims. Discusses methods of assessing client's primary representational systems, including predicate usage and eye movements, and suggests that more reliable methods of assessing PRS must be found. (JAC)

  17. Development and Evaluation of a Web-based Computer-Assisted Personal Interview System (CAPIS) for Open-ended Dietary Assessments among Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sangah; Park, Eunyoung; Sun, Dong Han; You, Tae-Kyoung; Lee, Myung-Joo; Hwang, Soochan; Paik, Hee Young; Joung, Hyojee

    2014-07-01

    The accuracy of dietary assessments has emerged as a major concern in nutritional epidemiology and new dietary assessment tools using computer technology to increase accuracy have been developed in many countries. The purpose of this study was to develop a web-based computer-assisted personal interview system (CAPIS) for conducting dietary assessment and to evaluate its practical utilization among Koreans. The client software was developed using Microsoft's ClickOnce technology, which allows communication with a database system via an http server to add or retrieve data. The system consists of a tracking system for the subject and researcher, a data-input system during the interview, a calculation system for estimating food and nutrient intake, a data-output system for presenting the results, and an evaluation system for assessing the adequacy of nutrient and food intake. Databases of the nutrient composition of common food (n = 3,642), recipes for common dishes (n = 1,886), and photos of serving sizes for food and dishes (n = 4,152) were constructed, and logical processes for data collection, calculation, and output were developed. The functionality, on-site applicability, and efficiency of CAPIS were evaluated in a convenience sample of 181 participants (61 males, 120 females; aged 24 to 85) by comparing with manual 24 hour recall method with paper questionnaire. The CAPIS was functioned adequately in the field survey in terms of completeness of function, security, and compliance of researcher and subjects. Regarding on-site applicability, 23.2%, 32.6%, 35.4%, and 43.7% of subjects reported that CAPIS was easier to recall their diet, to estimate the amount consumed, to communicate with the interviewer, and to concentrate on the interview than the manual method with paper questionnaire, respectively. Although CAPIS required more interview time (9 min 42 sec) compared to the manual method (7 min 30 sec), it saved time and cost for data coding and entry (15 min 35

  18. Assessment of panoramic radiography as a national oral examination tool: review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jin Woo [School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    The purpose of this review is to evaluate the possibility of panoramic radiography as a national oral examination tool. This report was carried out by review of the literatures. Panoramic radiography has sufficient diagnostic accuracy in dental caries, periodontal diseases, and other lesions. Also, the effective dose of panoramic radiography is lower than traditional full-mouth periapical radiography. Panoramic radiography will improve the efficacy of dental examination in national oral examination. However, more studies are required to evaluate the benefit, financial cost, and operation time and also to make selection criteria and quality management program.

  19. An Overview of Key Indicators and Evaluation Tools for Assessing Housing Quality: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Rajan Chandra; Sarkar, Satyaki; Mandal, Nikhil Ranjan

    2017-09-01

    The issue of the housing quality has been addressed for various stakeholders at different levels. There exist varied opinion about its measurability and possible applications. Thus the study is carried out to have an insight into the concept of housing quality and its relevance in the changing demographics, technological, socio-economic and socio-cultural conditions. This study attempts to summarize the literature that addresses past research concerned with factors related to housing quality, its measurement methodology and critically examines the broad key indicators identified to have impact upon enhancing the housing quality. This work discusses the recent techniques which are extensively used for analysis of housing quality.

  20. Policy Development for Grey Literature Resources. An Assessment of the Pisa Declaration

    OpenAIRE

    Savić, Dobrica (IAEA-NIS); Farace, Dominic J. (GreyNet); Frantzen, Jerry (GreyNet); Biagioni, Stefania (ISTI-CNR); Carlesi, Carlo (ISTI-CNR); Gruttemeier, Herbert (Inist-CNRS); Stock, Christiane (Inist-CNRS); Puccinelli, Roberto (CNR); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    2017-01-01

    In the spring of 2014, a workshop took place at the Italian National Council of Research in Pisa. The topic of this event dealt with policy development for grey literature resources. Some seventy participants from nine countries took an active part in the workshop – the outcome of which produced what is today known as the Pisa Declaration. This fifteen point document arising from the input of those who attended the workshop sought to provide a roadmap that would help to serve diverse communit...

  1. Policy Development for Grey Literature Resources: An Assessment of the Pisa Declaration

    OpenAIRE

    Savic, Dobrica; Farace, Dominic; Frantzen, Jerry; Biagioni, Stefania; Carlesi, Carlo; Gruttemeier, Herbert; Stock, Christiane

    2017-01-01

    In the spring of 2014, a workshop took place at the Italian National Council of Research in Pisa1. The topic of this event dealt with policy development for grey literature resources. Some seventy participants from nine countries took an active part in the workshop - the outcome of which produced what is today known as the Pisa Declaration2. This fifteen point document arising from the input of those who attended the workshop sought to provide a roadmap that would help to serve diverse commun...

  2. Certain dietary patterns are beneficial for the metabolic syndrome: reviewing the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calton, Emily K; James, Anthony P; Pannu, Poonam K; Soares, Mario J

    2014-07-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a global public health issue of increasing magnitude. The Asia-Pacific region is expected to be hardest hit due to large population numbers, rising obesity, and insulin resistance (IR). This review assessed the protective effects of dietary patterns and their components on MetS. A literature search was conducted using prominent electronic databases and search terms that included in combination: diet, dietary components, dietary patterns, and metabolic syndrome. Articles were restricted to prospective studies and high quality randomized controlled trials that were conducted on humans, reported in the English language, and within the time period of 2000 to 2012. Traditional factors such as age, gender, physical activity, and obesity were associated with risk of MetS; however, these potential confounders were not always accounted for in study outcomes. Three dietary patterns emerged from the review; a Mediterranean dietary pattern, dietary approaches to stop hypertension diet, and the Nordic Diet. Potential contributors to their beneficial effects on prevalence of MetS or reduction in MetS components included increases in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, dairy and dairy components, calcium, vitamin D, and whey protein, as well as monounsaturated fatty acids, and omega-3 fatty acids. Additional prospective and high quality randomized controlled trial studies that investigate Mediterranean dietary pattern, the dietary approaches to stop hypertension diet, and the Nordic Diet would cement the protective benefits of these diets against the MetS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Essential Oil from Piper aduncum: Chemical Analysis, Antimicrobial Assessment, and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianet Monzote

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The challenge in antimicrobial chemotherapy is to find safe and selective agents with potency that will not be compromised by previously developed resistance. Terrestrial plants could provide new leads to antibacterial, antifungal, or antiprotozoal activity. Methods: The essential oil (EO of Piper aduncum L. (Piperaceae from Cuba was analyzed by gas chromatography—mass spectrometry (GC-MS. A cluster analysis of P. aduncum EO compositions reported in the literature was carried out. The EO was screened against a panel of microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, parasitic protozoa as well as for cytotoxicity against human cells. In addition, a review of scientific literature and a bibliometric study was also conducted. Results: A total of 90 compounds were identified in the EO, of which camphor (17.1%, viridiflorol (14.5%, and piperitone (23.7% were the main components. The cluster analysis revealed at least nine different chemotypes. The EO did not show notable activity against bacteria or fungi, but was active against parasitic protozoa. Conclusions: The results from this study indicate P. aduncum from Cuba is a unique chemotype, support the importance of P. aduncum EOs as medicines, and demonstrate the promise of Cuban P. aduncum EO as a chemotherapeutic agent against parasitic protozoal infections.

  4. Essential Oil from Piper aduncum: Chemical Analysis, Antimicrobial Assessment, and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzote, Lianet; Scull, Ramón; Cos, Paul; Setzer, William N

    2017-07-02

    Background: The challenge in antimicrobial chemotherapy is to find safe and selective agents with potency that will not be compromised by previously developed resistance. Terrestrial plants could provide new leads to antibacterial, antifungal, or antiprotozoal activity. Methods: The essential oil (EO) of Piper aduncum L. (Piperaceae) from Cuba was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A cluster analysis of P. aduncum EO compositions reported in the literature was carried out. The EO was screened against a panel of microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, parasitic protozoa) as well as for cytotoxicity against human cells. In addition, a review of scientific literature and a bibliometric study was also conducted. Results: A total of 90 compounds were identified in the EO, of which camphor (17.1%), viridiflorol (14.5%), and piperitone (23.7%) were the main components. The cluster analysis revealed at least nine different chemotypes. The EO did not show notable activity against bacteria or fungi, but was active against parasitic protozoa. Conclusions: The results from this study indicate P. aduncum from Cuba is a unique chemotype, support the importance of P. aduncum EOs as medicines, and demonstrate the promise of Cuban P. aduncum EO as a chemotherapeutic agent against parasitic protozoal infections.

  5. Assessing the relationships between nurse working conditions and patient outcomes: systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sung-Heui

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to systematically evaluate nurse working conditions and to review the literature dealing with their association with patient outcomes. Improving nurse working conditions is essential to address nursing shortages. Although general reviews of the literature support the positive link between working conditions and patient outcomes, definitive evidence has been lacking. A search of six electronic bibliographic databases was conducted for the primary research published in English, from January 2000 to October 2009. The concepts of working conditions were categorized into 10 groups of working conditions. A total of 69 relationships between working conditions and patient outcomes were examined. Increased attention has been drawn to nurse working conditions resulting from nursing shortages. The findings of this review suggested that the evidence supporting positive relationships between working conditions and patient outcomes is inconclusive. Further studies of a longitudinal and interventional nature in various settings are needed to advance knowledge of the complex contextual and multivariate influences among nurse working conditions and patient outcomes. Efforts to improve working conditions should be made in various health-care work settings to ensure patient safety and improve patient quality of outcomes. 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Tools assessing nurse manager behaviours and RN job satisfaction: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feather, Rebecca

    2015-09-01

    To determine the state of the science in relation to registered nurse (RN) perceptions of nurse manager behaviours that influence registered nurse job satisfaction. Nurse managers have been related by research to the job satisfaction of their staff. However, little is known about how nurses perceive the behaviours of nurse managers as influencing their job satisfaction. A literature search was conducted to identify journal articles that included studies involving instruments of nurse manager behaviours and staff nurse job satisfaction levels. The literature shows a lack of consistency in the definitions of job satisfaction, instrumentation for measurement and conclusions that identify specific management behaviours effective for high levels of job satisfaction of RNs related to staff nurse perceptions. Studies include important aspects of what shapes a healthy work environment for nurses, but no single study identified specific nurse manager behaviours based solely on the perceptions of staff nurses and their job satisfaction. The perceptions of staff nurses are important for hospital administrators and nurse managers in order to know how to improve satisfaction and reduce turnover. Instruments developed based on manager beliefs may not provide data needed to influence a change in management behaviours that results in improved job satisfaction. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Dietary supplements for football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespel, P; Maughan, R J; Greenhaff, P L

    2006-07-01

    Physical training and competition in football markedly increase the need for macro- and micronutrient intake. This requirement can generally be met by dietary management without the need for dietary supplements. In fact, the efficacy of most supplements available on the market is unproven. In addition, players must be cautious of inadequate product labelling and supplement impurities that may cause a positive drug test. Nonetheless, a number of dietary supplements may beneficially affect football performance. A high endurance capacity is a prerequisite for optimal match performance, particularly if extra time is played. In this context, the potential of low-dose caffeine ingestion (2 - 5 mg . kg body mass(-1)) to enhance endurance performance is well established. However, in the case of football, care must be taken not to overdose because visual information processing might be impaired. Scoring and preventing goals as a rule requires production of high power output. Dietary creatine supplementation (loading dose: 15 - 20 g . day(-1), 4 - 5 days; maintenance dose: 2 - 5 g g . day(-1)) has been found to increase muscle power output, especially during intermittent sprint exercises. Furthermore, creatine intake can augment muscle adaptations to resistance training. Team success and performance also depend on player availability, and thus injury prevention and health maintenance. Glucosamine or chondroitin may be useful in the treatment of joint pain and osteoarthritis, but there is no evidence to support the view that the administration of these supplements will be preventative. Ephedra-containing weight-loss cocktails should certainly be avoided due to reported adverse health effects and positive doping outcomes. Finally, the efficacy of antioxidant or vitamin C intake in excess of the normal recommended dietary dose is equivocal. Responses to dietary supplements can vary substantially between individuals, and therefore the ingestion of any supplement must be assessed

  8. Availability, quality and relevance of toxicogenomics data for human health risk assessment: A scoping review of the literature on trihalomethanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon, Julien; Pagé-Larivière, Florence; Sirard, Marc-André; Rodriguez, Manuel J; Levallois, Patrick; Campagna, Céline

    2018-03-05

    Human health risk assessment (HHRA) must be adapted to the challenges of the 21st century, and the use of toxicogenomics data in HHRA is among the changes that regulatory agencies worldwide are trying to implement. However, the use of toxicogenomics data in HHRA is still limited. The purpose of this study was to explore the availability, quality and relevance to HHRA of toxicogenomics publications as potential barriers to their use in HHRA. We conducted a scoping review of available toxicogenomics literature, using trihalomethanes as a case study. Four bibliographic databases (including the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database) were assessed. An evaluation table was developed to characterise quality and relevance of studies included on the basis of criteria proposed in the literature. Studies were selected and analysed by two independent reviewers. Only nine studies, published between 1997 and 2015, were included in the analysis. Based on the selected criteria, critical methodological details were often missing; in fact, only three out of nine studies were considered to be of adequate quality for HHRA. No studies met more than three (out of seven) criteria of relevance to HHRA (e.g. adequate number of doses and sample size, etc.). This first scoping review of toxicogenomics publications on trihalomethanes shows that low availability, quality and relevance to HHRA of toxicogenomics publications presents potential barriers to their use in HHRA. Improved reporting of methodological details and study design is needed in the future so that toxicogenomics studies can be appropriately assessed regarding their quality and value for HHRA.

  9. Using Household Consumption and Expenditures Survey (HCES) data to assess dietary intake in relation to the nutrition transition: a case study from Cape Verde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dop, Marie Claude; Pereira, Clodomir; Mistura, Lorenza; Martinez, Claudio; Cardoso, Edith

    2012-09-01

    Few surveys of food and nutrient intakes are conducted at the individual level in low- and middle-income countries, whereas Household Consumption and Expenditures Surveys (HCES) are regularly carried out to monitor economic conditions. Because of the paucity of individual-level data, there is interest in using HCES to aid in the design of food and nutrition policies. Data from the 2001/02 HCES from Cape Verde were used to assess household dietary intakes in the context of the country's nutrition transition. The survey included weighed measurements of household food intake and measurements of the weight and height of all household members. Households were classified as "underweight" if they had at least one underweight member, "overweight" if they had at least one overweight member, and "dual burden" if they had at least one underweight and one overweight member. The proportion of households classified as underweight, overweight, and dual burden was 18%, 41%, and 14%, respectively. Household food and nutrient intakes were higher in the overweight households (particularly protein, vitamin A, and calcium) and lower in the underweight households, while there was no clear pattern of intakes in the dual burden group. Overweight households consumed more animal food groups than other households. Intakes of fruits and vegetables were low in all groups. The HCES data for Cape Verde were useful for assessing the extent of the nutrition transition and characterizing dietary intakes by anthropometric classification. Analysis of nutrient and food intakes showed that ensuring sufficient energy availability is no longer the most important issue for Cape Verde, but that ensuring dietary quality is equally crucial, in particular increasing access to fruits and vegetables.

  10. A theoretical assessment of the empirical literature on the impact of multinationality on performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennart, J.M.A.

    2011-01-01

    I assess the theoretical basis for the existence of a relationship between the size of a firm's foreign footprint (its multinationality) and its performance. I argue that multinationality results from a firm's choice between coordinating internally the stages of its value chain and letting them be

  11. Assessment of balance in propensity score analysis in the medical literature: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, M. Sanni|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/345709497; Groenwold, Rolf H.H.; Belitser, Svetlana V.; Pestman, Wiebe R.; Hoes, Arno W.; Roes, Kit C.B.; Boer, Ade; Klungel, Olaf H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/181447649

    2013-01-01

    Background: Assessing balance on co-variate distributions between treatment groups with a given propensity score (PS) is a crucial step in PS analysis. Several methodological papers comparing different balance measures have been published in the last decade. However, the current practice on

  12. Life cycle assessments of urban water systems: a comparative analysis of selected peer-reviewed literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loubet, Philippe; Roux, Philippe; Loiseau, Eleonore; Bellon-Maurel, Veronique

    2014-12-15

    Water is a growing concern in cities, and its sustainable management is very complex. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been increasingly used to assess the environmental impacts of water technologies during the last 20 years. This review aims at compiling all LCA papers related to water technologies, out of which 18 LCA studies deals with whole urban water systems (UWS). A focus is carried out on these 18 case studies which are analyzed according to criteria derived from the four phases of LCA international standards. The results show that whereas the case studies share a common goal, i.e., providing quantitative information to policy makers on the environmental impacts of urban water systems and their forecasting scenarios, they are based on different scopes, resulting in the selection of different functional units and system boundaries. A quantitative comparison of life cycle inventory and life cycle impact assessment data is provided, and the results are discussed. It shows the superiority of information offered by multi-criteria approaches for decision making compared to that derived from mono-criterion. From this review, recommendations on the way to conduct the environmental assessment of urban water systems are given, e.g., the need to provide consistent mass balances in terms of emissions and water flows. Remaining challenges for urban water system LCAs are identified, such as a better consideration of water users and resources and the inclusion of recent LCA developments (territorial approaches and water-related impacts). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Community participation in Health Impact Assessment. A scoping review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeder, den Lea; Uiters, Ellen; Have, ten Wim; Wagemakers, Annemarie; Schuit, Albertine Jantine

    2017-01-01

    Currently, the engagement of local communities in Health Impact Assessment is becoming more and more important. A scoping review was performed to take stock of visions, methods and experiences in this field. A combined Scopus and Medline search yielded 100 articles in scientific journals. The

  14. Community participation in Health Impact Assessment. A scoping review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Broeder, Lea; Uiters, Ellen; ten Have, Wim; Wagemakers, Annemarie; Schuit, Albertine Jantine

    2017-01-01

    Currently, the engagement of local communities in Health Impact Assessment is becoming more and more important. A scoping review was performed to take stock of visions, methods and experiences in this field. A combined Scopus and Medline search yielded 100 articles in scientific journals. The final

  15. Arteriovenous malformation of the external ear: a clinical assessment with a scoping review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Hye Kim

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Auricular Arteriovenous Malformation of the external ear is a rarely encountered disease; in particular, arteriovenous malformation arising from the auricle, with spontaneous bleeding, has seldom been reported. Objective: In the current study, we report an unusual case of late-onset auricular arteriovenous malformation originating from the posterior auricular artery that was confirmed by computed tomographic angiography. The case was successfully managed by pre-surgical intravascular embolization followed by total lesion excision. Prompted by this case, we also present a scoping review of the literature. Methods: A case of a 60 year-old man with right auricular arteriovenous malformation treated in our tertiary care center, and 52 patients with auricular arteriovenous malformation described in 10 case reports and a retrospective review are presented. Auricular arteriovenous malformation can manifest as swelling of the ear, pulsatile tinnitus, pain, and/or bleeding. On physical examination, a pulsatile swelling and/or a tender mass is evident. When arteriovenous malformation is suspected, the lesions should be visualized using imaging modalities that optimally detect vascular lesions, and managed via embolization, mass excision, or auricular resection. Effectiveness of the various diagnostic methods used and the treatment outcomes were analyzed. Results: Various imaging modalities including Doppler sonography, computed tomographic angiography, magnetic resonance angiography, and/or transfemoral cerebral angiography were used to diagnose 38 cases reported in the literature. In another 15 cases, no imaging was performed; treatment was determined solely by physical examination and auscultation. Of the total of 53 cases, 12 were not treated (their symptoms were merely observed whereas 20 underwent therapeutic embolization. In total, 32 patients, including 1 patient who was not treated and 10 with persistent or aggravated

  16. Radiation dose from initial trauma assessment and resuscitation: review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Catherine M; MacGregor, John H; Tien, Homer C; Kortbeek, John B

    2009-04-01

    Trauma care benefits from the use of imaging technologies. Trauma patients and trauma team members are exposed to radiation during the continuum of care. Knowledge of exposure amounts and effects are important for trauma team members. We performed a review of the published literature; keywords included "trauma," "patients," "trauma team members," "wounds," "injuries," "radiation," "exposure," "dose" and "computed tomography" (CT). We also reviewed the Board on Radiation Effects Research (BEIR VII) report, published in 2005 and 2006. We found no randomized controlled trials or studies. Relevant studies demonstrated that CT accounts for the single largest radiation exposure in trauma patients. Exposure to 100 mSv could result in a solid organ cancer or leukemia in 1 of 100 people. Trauma team members do not exceed the acceptable occupation radiation exposure determined by the National Council of Radiation Protection and Management. Modern imaging technologies such as 16- and 64-slice CT scanners may decrease radiation exposure. Multiple injured trauma patients receive a substantial dose of radiation. Radiation exposure is cumulative. The low individual risk of cancer becomes a greater public health issue when multiplied by a large number of examinations. Though CT scans are an invaluable resource and are becoming more easily accessible, they should not replace careful clinical examination and should be used only in appropriate patients.

  17. Assessing the health workforce implications of health policy and programming: how a review of grey literature informed the development of a new impact assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nove, Andrea; Cometto, Giorgio; Campbell, James

    2017-11-09

    In their adoption of WHA resolution 69.19, World Health Organization Member States requested all bilateral and multilateral initiatives to conduct impact assessments of their funding to human resources for health. The High-Level Commission for Health Employment and Economic Growth similarly proposed that official development assistance for health, education, employment and gender are best aligned to creating decent jobs in the health and social workforce. No standard tools exist for assessing the impact of global health initiatives on the health workforce, but tools exist from other fields. The objectives of this paper are to describe how a review of grey literature informed the development of a draft health workforce impact assessment tool and to introduce the tool. A search of grey literature yielded 72 examples of impact assessment tools and guidance from a wide variety of fields including gender, health and human rights. These examples were reviewed, and information relevant to the development of a health workforce impact assessment was extracted from them using an inductive process. A number of good practice principles were identified from the review. These informed the development of a draft health workforce impact assessment tool, based on an established health labour market framework. The tool is designed to be applied before implementation. It consists of a relatively short and focused screening module to be applied to all relevant initiatives, followed by a more in-depth assessment to be applied only to initiatives for which the screening module indicates that significant implications for HRH are anticipated. It thus aims to strike a balance between maximising rigour and minimising administrative burden. The application of the new tool will help to ensure that health workforce implications are incorporated into global health decision-making processes from the outset and to enhance positive HRH impacts and avoid, minimise or offset negative impacts.

  18. Measuring aesthetic emotions: A review of the literature and a new assessment tool

    OpenAIRE

    Schindler, I.; Hosoya, G.; Menninghaus, W.; Beermann, U.; Wagner, V.; Eid, M.; Scherer, K.

    2017-01-01

    Aesthetic perception and judgement are not merely cognitive processes, but also involve feelings. Therefore, the empirical study of these experiences requires conceptualization and measurement of aesthetic emotions. Despite the long-standing interest in such emotions, we still lack an assessment tool to capture the broad range of emotions that occur in response to the perceived aesthetic appeal of stimuli. Elicitors of aesthetic emotions are not limited to the arts in the strict sense, but ex...

  19. A dietary risk assessment of the pyrethroid insecticide resmethrin associated with its use for West Nile Virus mosquito vector control in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley C. Carr

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of human illnesses associated with West Nile Virus (WNV occurred in New York City in 1999. Since then, it has gradually spread westwards, reaching northern California for the first time in 2005. WNV is transmitted by several mosquito species and birds serve as the main reservoir. Several control measures have been used, targeting both the aquatic larvae and the adult mosquitoes. In the latter case, roosting birds in trees are sprayed with pyrethroid insecticides because these are highly toxic to mosquitoes, but have low avian toxicity. A request was made to use a resmethrin-containing insecticide during the month of October 2005 in California. Because resmethrin was not registered for use on growing crops, concerns were raised about potential crop contamination. Therefore, an expedited dietary risk assessment was conducted on resmethrin. Developmental toxicity in the rat (NOELs of 25 or 40 mg/kg/day was used as the acute endpoint and dietary exposure was assessed using the DEEM-FCIDTM computer program. Only crops growing above ground during October were considered. Margins of Safety (MOS were found to be above 100, the level generally considered to be sufficient to protect public health when using an animal NOEL.

  20. Reliability and comparative validity of a Diet Quality Index for assessing dietary patterns of preschool-aged children in Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunaratnam, Kanita; Halaki, Mark; Wen, Li Ming; Baur, Louise A; Flood, Victoria M

    2018-03-01

    To report on the reliability and validity of a Diet Quality Index (DQI) to assess preschoolers dietary patterns using a short food frequency questionnaire (sFFQ) and 3-day food records (3d-FR). Seventy-seven preschool carers/parents completed a telephone interview on preschoolers (2-5-year olds) dietary habits in metropolitan Sydney. Agreement in scores was assessed using intraclass correlation (ICC) and paired t-tests for repeated sFFQ-DQI scores and Bland-Altman methods and paired t-tests for sFFQ-DQI and 3d-FR-DQI scores. Mean-total sFFQ-DQI ICC scores was high = 0.89, 95% CI (0.81, 0.93). There was weak agreement between sFFQ-DQI and 3d-FR-DQI scores (r = 0.36, p < 0.01). The 3d-FR-DQI scores were positively associated with carbohydrate, folate, ß-carotene, magnesium, calcium, protein, total fat and negatively associated with sugar, starch, niacin, vitamin C, phosphorus, polyunsaturated fat, and monounsaturated fat. The sFFQ-DQI demonstrated good reliability but weak validity. Associations between nutrients and 3d-FR-DQI scores indicate promising usability and warrants further investigation. Further research is needed to establish its validity in accurately scoring children's diet quality using sFFQ compared to 3d-FR before the tool can be implemented for use in population settings.

  1. Assessing iodine intake, iodine status, and the effects of maternal iodine supplementation: introduction to articles arising from 3 workshops held by the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershow, Abby G; Coates, Paul M; Swanson, Christine A

    2016-01-01

    The NIH Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) convened 3 workshops on iodine nutrition in 2014, each held in Rockville, Maryland. These workshops were part of the ongoing ODS Iodine Initiative, begun in 2011 in response to concerns that US pregnant women may be at risk of iodine deficiency and that a high fraction of prenatal dietary supplements do not contain the recommended amounts of iodine. The primary purpose of the workshops was to consider the data and resources necessary to evaluate the clinical and public health benefits and risks of maternal iodine supplementation in the United States. The first workshop focused on the assessment of iodine intake, the second focused on the assessment of iodine status, and the third focused on the design and interpretation of clinical trials of maternal iodine supplementation. Here we provide the background of the ODS Iodine Initiative, summarize the 3 workshops held in 2014, and introduce the articles that arose from the workshops and are published in this supplement issue. PMID:27534646

  2. Literature review of visual representation of the results of benefit-risk assessments of medicinal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallgreen, Christine E; Mt-Isa, Shahrul; Lieftucht, Alfons; Phillips, Lawrence D; Hughes, Diana; Talbot, Susan; Asiimwe, Alex; Downey, Gerald; Genov, Georgy; Hermann, Richard; Noel, Rebecca; Peters, Ruth; Micaleff, Alain; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Ashby, Deborah

    2016-03-01

    The PROTECT Benefit-Risk group is dedicated to research in methods for continuous benefit-risk monitoring of medicines, including the presentation of the results, with a particular emphasis on graphical methods. A comprehensive review was performed to identify visuals used for medical risk and benefit-risk communication. The identified visual displays were grouped into visual types, and each visual type was appraised based on five criteria: intended audience, intended message, knowledge required to understand the visual, unintentional messages that may be derived from the visual and missing information that may be needed to understand the visual. Sixty-six examples of visual formats were identified from the literature and classified into 14 visual types. We found that there is not one single visual format that is consistently superior to others for the communication of benefit-risk information. In addition, we found that most of the drawbacks found in the visual formats could be considered general to visual communication, although some appear more relevant to specific formats and should be considered when creating visuals for different audiences depending on the exact message to be communicated. We have arrived at recommendations for the use of visual displays for benefit-risk communication. The recommendation refers to the creation of visuals. We outline four criteria to determine audience-visual compatibility and consider these to be a key task in creating any visual. Next we propose specific visual formats of interest, to be explored further for their ability to address nine different types of benefit-risk analysis information. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. The assessment and impact of sarcopenia in lung cancer: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jemima; Noble, Simon; Chester, John; Coles, Bernadette; Byrne, Anthony

    2014-01-02

    There is growing awareness of the relationship between sarcopenia (loss of muscle mass and function), and outcomes in cancer, making it a potential target for future therapies. In order to inform future research and practice, we undertook a systematic review of factors associated with loss of muscle mass, and the relationship between muscle function and muscle mass in lung cancer, a common condition associated with poor outcomes. We conducted a computerised systematic literature search on five databases. Studies were included if they explored muscle mass as an outcome measure in patients with lung cancer, and were published in English. Secondary care. Patients with lung cancer. Factors associated with loss of muscle mass and muscle function, or sarcopenia, and the clinical impact thereof in patients with lung cancer. We reviewed 5726 citations, and 35 articles were selected for analysis. Sarcopenia, as defined by reduced muscle mass alone, was found to be very prevalent in patients with lung cancer, regardless of body mass index, and where present was associated with poorer functional status and overall survival. There were diverse studies exploring molecular and metabolic factors in the development of loss of muscle mass; however, the precise mechanisms that contribute to sarcopenia and cachexia remain uncertain. The effect of nutritional supplements and ATP infusions on muscle mass showed conflicting results. There are very limited data on the correlation between degree of sarcopenia and muscle function, which has a non-linear relationship in older non-cancer populations. Loss of muscle mass is a significant contributor to morbidity in patients with lung cancer. Loss of muscle mass and function may predate clinically overt cachexia, underlining the importance of evaluating sarcopenia, rather than weight loss alone. Understanding this relationship and its associated factors will provide opportunities for focused intervention to improve clinical outcomes.

  4. Assessment of the Cost–Benefit Literature on Early Childhood Education for Vulnerable Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim M. Dalziel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Given international interest in evidence-informed early education policy, we sought to interpret what is often a confusing literature on the performance of early childhood education programs. We explore whether they represent a good return on investment and the factors affecting their transferability. A systematic review was conducted to identify all cost–benefit (C-B studies of center-based programs enrolling disadvantaged children prior to age 5 compared with a matched group. From a search across all pertinent databases in 2013, 13 economic evaluations relating to six distinct programs were identified that met the inclusion criteria. Of the six programs, half were reported as producing a substantial net benefit (benefits considerably greater than cost representing a good investment, while for the other half, costs were greater than benefits. We explore possible reasons for the considerable divergence in economic outcomes. The primary driver was the divergent effectiveness of the programs reported in the original outcome studies, and to a lesser extent the scope of benefits included in the economic evaluation and period of follow-up. The context in which programs were delivered and program intensity differed markedly. The two oldest (1960s and 1970s small randomized control trials of high intensity produced far better outcomes and return on investment than more recent large-scale service delivery. This collection of C-B studies challenges the expectation of good returns on investment from the rollout of early childhood programs. A checklist is provided to assist policy makers with the interpretation of C-B studies.

  5. Summary Findings of a Systematic Literature Review of the Ultrasound Assessment of Bone Erosions in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szkudlarek, Marcin; Terslev, Lene; Wakefield, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Bone erosions in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have been studied in an increasing amount of research. Both earlier and present classification criteria of RA contain erosions as a significant classification component. Ultrasound (US) can detect bone changes in accessible surfaces. Therefore...... (5 papers). Reliability of assessment was presented in 20 papers and sensitivity to change in 11 papers. CONCLUSION: This paper presents results of a systematic literature review of bone erosion assessment in RA with US. The survey suggests that US can be a helpful adjunct to the existing methods...... of imaging bone erosions in RA. It analyzes definitions, scoring systems, used comparators, and elements of the OMERACT filter. It also presents recommendations for a future research agenda based on the results of the review....

  6. Dietary Intake of Competitive Bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spendlove, Jessica; Mitchell, Lachlan; Gifford, Janelle; Hackett, Daniel; Slater, Gary; Cobley, Stephen; O'Connor, Helen

    2015-07-01

    Competitive bodybuilders are well known for extreme physique traits and extremes in diet and training manipulation to optimize lean mass and achieve a low body fat. Although many of the dietary dogmas in bodybuilding lack scientific scrutiny, a number, including timing and dosing of high biological value proteins across the day, have more recently been confirmed as effective by empirical research studies. A more comprehensive understanding of the dietary intakes of bodybuilders has the potential to uncover other dietary approaches, deserving of scientific investigation, with application to the wider sporting, and potential health contexts, where manipulation of physique traits is desired. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review of dietary intake practices of competitive bodybuilders, evaluate the quality and currency of the existing literature, and identify research gaps to inform future studies. A systematic search of electronic databases was conducted from the earliest record until March 2014. The search combined permutations of the terms 'bodybuilding', 'dietary intake', and 'dietary supplement'. Included studies needed to report quantitative data (energy and macronutrients at a minimum) on habitual dietary intake of competitive bodybuilders. The 18 manuscripts meeting eligibility criteria reported on 385 participants (n = 62 women). Most studies were published in the 1980-1990s, with three published in the past 5 years. Study methodological quality was evaluated as poor. Energy intake ranged from 10 to 24 MJ/day for men and from 4 to 14 MJ/day for women. Protein intake ranged from 1.9 to 4.3 g/kg for men and from 0.8 to 2.8 g/kg for women. Intake of carbohydrate and fat was 6 months from competition) or immediate post-competition period and lowest during competition preparation (≤6 months from competition) or competition week. The most commonly reported dietary supplements were protein powders/liquids and amino acids. The studies failed to provide

  7. Metrics to assess injury prevention programs for young workers in high-risk occupations: a scoping review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Smith

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite legal protections for young workers in Canada, youth aged 15–24 are at high risk of traumatic occupational injury. While many injury prevention initiatives targeting young workers exist, the challenge faced by youth advocates and employers is deciding what aspect(s of prevention will be the most effective focus for their efforts. A review of the academic and grey literatures was undertaken to compile the metrics—both the indicators being evaluated and the methods of measurement—commonly used to assess injury prevention programs for young workers. Metrics are standards of measurement through which efficiency, performance, progress, or quality of a plan, process, or product can be assessed. Methods: A PICO framework was used to develop search terms. Medline, PubMed, OVID, EMBASE, CCOHS, PsychINFO, CINAHL, NIOSHTIC, Google Scholar and the grey literature were searched for articles in English, published between 1975-2015. Two independent reviewers screened the resulting list and categorized the metrics in three domains of injury prevention: Education, Environment and Enforcement. Results: Of 174 acquired articles meeting the inclusion criteria, 21 both described and assessed an intervention. Half were educational in nature (N=11. Commonly assessed metrics included: knowledge, perceptions, self-reported behaviours or intentions, hazardous exposures, injury claims, and injury counts. One study outlined a method for developing metrics to predict injury rates. Conclusion: Metrics specific to the evaluation of young worker injury prevention programs are needed, as current metrics are insufficient to predict reduced injuries following program implementation. One study, which the review brought to light, could be an appropriate model for future research to develop valid leading metrics specific to young workers, and then apply these metrics to injury prevention programs for youth.

  8. Embryonic eggshell thickness erosion: A literature survey re-assessing embryo-induced eggshell thinning in birds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orłowski, Grzegorz; Hałupka, Lucyna

    2015-01-01

    Although eggshell thinning has been described mainly in the context of environmental pollution, it can also be the effect of reproductive changes induced by a developing embryo. On the basis of a literature survey of 25 bird species (26 published papers) we reviewed data on embryo-induced eggshell thinning (EET) in three groups of birds: precocials, semi-precocials and altricials. The average EET at the equator of the eggs was 6.4% (median = 4.7%). Our review did not confirm a general prediction of elevated EET at the egg equator in precocial species: altricial birds exhibited the highest EET (average = 12.0%), followed by precocials (7.6%) and semi-precocials (4.2%). We make certain critical recommendations based on the results of this study. Studies aiming to assess variation in eggshell thickness should examine intrinsic factors affecting shell properties of avian eggs, like thickness, which are the result of anatomical or reproductive changes. - Highlights: • We reviewed literature data on embryo-induced eggshell thinning (EET) in birds. • The average EET at the equator of the eggs of 25 bird species was 6.4%. • Altricial birds exhibited the highest EET, followed by precocials and semi-precocials. • All studies on variation in eggshell thickness should take EET into consideration. - Our study emphasizes the need to consider embryo-induced eggshell thinning in studies aiming to assess variation in eggshell thickness

  9. Assessment of wind turbine seismic risk : existing literature and simple study of tower moment demand.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prowell, Ian (University of California, San Diego, CA); Veers, Paul S.

    2009-03-01

    Various sources of risk exist for all civil structures, one of which is seismic risk. As structures change in scale, the magnitude of seismic risk changes relative to risk from other sources. This paper presents an introduction to seismic hazard as applied to wind turbine structures. The existing design methods and research regarding seismic risk for wind turbines is then summarized. Finally a preliminary assessment is made based on current guidelines to understand how tower moment demand scales as rated power increases. Potential areas of uncertainty in the application of the current guidelines are summarized.

  10. Development and validation of a food frequency questionnaire for dietary intake assessment among multi-ethnic primary school-aged children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatihah, Fadil; Ng, Boon Koon; Hazwanie, Husin; Norimah, A Karim; Shanita, Safii Nik; Ruzita, Abd Talib; Poh, Bee Koon

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study aimed to develop and validate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to assess habitual diets of multi-ethnic Malaysian children aged 7–12 years. METHODS A total of 236 primary school children participated in the development of the FFQ and 209 subjects participated in the validation study, with a subsample of 30 subjects participating in the reproducibility study. The FFQ, consisting of 94 food items from 12 food groups, was compared with a three-day dietary record (3DR) as the reference method. The reproducibility of the FFQ was assessed through repeat administration (FFQ2), seven days after the first administration (FFQ1). RESULTS The results of the validation study demonstrated good acceptance of the FFQ. Mean intake of macronutrients in FFQ1 and 3DR correlated well, although the FFQ intake data tended to be higher. Cross-classification of nutrient intake between the two methods showed that Malaysia. PMID:26702165

  11. Probiotic-enriched foods and dietary supplement containing SYNBIO positively affects bowel habits in healthy adults: an assessment using standard statistical analysis and Support Vector Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvi, Stefania; Verdenelli, M Cristina; Cecchini, Cinzia; Coman, M Magdalena; Bernabei, M Simonetta; Rosati, Jessica; De Leone, Renato; Orpianesi, Carla; Cresci, Alberto

    2014-12-01

    A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study assessed in healthy adults how daily consumption of the probiotic combination SYNBIO®, administered in probiotic-enriched foods or in a dietary supplement, affected bowel habits. Primary and secondary outcomes gave the overall assessment of bowel well-being, while a Psychological General Well-Being Index compiled by participants estimated the health-related quality of life as well as the gastrointestinal tolerance determined with the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale. Support Vector Machine models for classification problems were used to validate the total outcomes on bowel well-being. SYNBIO® consumption improved bowel habits of volunteers consuming the probiotic foods or capsules, while the same effects were not registered in the control groups. The recovery of probiotic bacteria from the faeces of a cohort of 100 subjects for each supplemented group showed the persistence of strains in the gastrointestinal tract.

  12. Assessment of the potential activity of major dietary compounds as selective estrogen receptor modulators in two distinct cell models for proliferation and differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecomte, Sylvain; Lelong, Marie; Bourgine, Gaëlle [Institut de Recherche en Santé-Environnement-Travail (IRSET), Inserm UMR 1085, Team Transcription, Environment and Cancer, University of Rennes 1, 9 Avenue du Pr Léon Bernard, 35000 Rennes (France); Efstathiou, Theo [Laboratoire Nutrinov, Technopole Atalante Champeaux, 8 rue Jules Maillard de la Gournerie, 35012 Rennes Cedex (France); Saligaut, Christian [Institut de Recherche en Santé-Environnement-Travail (IRSET), Inserm UMR 1085, Team Transcription, Environment and Cancer, University of Rennes 1, 9 Avenue du Pr Léon Bernard, 35000 Rennes (France); Pakdel, Farzad, E-mail: farzad.pakdel@univ-rennes1.fr [Institut de Recherche en Santé-Environnement-Travail (IRSET), Inserm UMR 1085, Team Transcription, Environment and Cancer, University of Rennes 1, 9 Avenue du Pr Léon Bernard, 35000 Rennes (France)

    2017-06-15

    Estrogen receptors (ERs) α and β are distributed in most tissues of women and men. ERs are bound by estradiol (E2), a natural hormone, and mediate the pleiotropic and tissue-specific effects of E2, such as proliferation of breast epithelial cells or protection and differentiation of neuronal cells. Numerous environmental molecules, called endocrine disrupting compounds, also interact with ERs. Phytoestrogens belong to this large family and are considered potent therapeutic molecules that act through their selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) activity. Using breast cancer cell lines as a model of estrogen-dependent proliferation and a stably ER-expressing PC12 cell line as a model of neuronal differentiating cells, we studied the SERM activity of major dietary compounds, such as apigenin, liquiritigenin, daidzein, genistein, coumestrol, resveratrol and zearalenone. The ability of these compounds to induce ER-transactivation and breast cancer cell proliferation and enhance Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) -induced neuritogenesis was assessed. Surprisingly, although all compounds were able to activate the ER through an estrogen responsive element reporter gene, they showed differential activity toward proliferation or differentiation. Apigenin and resveratrol showed a partial or no proliferative effect on breast cancer cells but fully contributed to the neuritogenesis effect of NGF. However, daidzein and zearalenone showed full effects on cellular proliferation but did not induce cellular differentiation. In summary, our results suggest that the therapeutic potential of phytoestrogens can diverge depending on the molecule and the phenotype considered. Hence, apigenin and resveratrol might be used in the development of therapeutics for breast cancer and brain diseases. - Highlights: • SERM activity of dietary compounds on proliferation and differentiation is studied. • All the dietary compounds tested transactivate estrogen receptors. • Apigenin and

  13. Dietary patterns and prevalence of wasting among street children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a cross-sectional study of 36 street children in Lilongwe, Malawi, dietary practices and the prevalence of wasting were assessed to provide information on the risk of poor dietary intake and malnutrition in this population. A food frequency questionnaire and 24-hour dietary recalls were used to determine dietary practices, ...

  14. Food frequency questionnaire is a valid tool for the assessment of dietary habits of South Indian pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwarkanath, Pratibha; Soares, Mario J; Thomas, Tinku; Vaz, Mario; Swaminathan, Sumathi; Kurpad, Anura V

    2014-09-01

    The food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was validated against multiple 24-hour dietary recalls (24-HDRs) and for a few blood biomarkers in 154 pregnant women at the obstetrics and gynecology department of St John's Medical College Hospital, Bangalore, India. Absolute nutrient intakes from the FFQ correlated positively with the average 24-HDR during pregnancy. Energy-adjusted nutrients from the FFQ in all trimesters, except proteins, carbohydrate, folate intake, and vitamin B6 in the third trimester, correlated positively with average 24-HDR. Overestimation by the FFQ compared with the 24-HDR ranged from 9% to 41%. Vitamin B12 status in the first and second trimesters positively correlated with energy-adjusted and absolute vitamin B12 intakes from the FFQ. The Bland Altman plots showed a pattern such that a trend was seen toward underreporting of intakes through the FFQ, with increasing mean intakes by the 2 methods, considering 24-HDR as the reference tool. We conclude that the FFQ is a valid tool to measure dietary intakes during pregnancy. © 2012 APJPH.

  15. Nutritional assessment for primary school children in tehran: an evaluation of dietary pattern with emphasis on snacks and meals consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Maryam; Dadkhah-Piraghaj, Monireh; Abtahi, Mitra; Abdollahi, Morteza; Houshiarrad, Anahita; Kimiagar, Masoud

    2014-05-01

    In order to provide better advice for prevention of obesity and eating disorders among children, there is a need to have more knowledge of their dietary patterns. This study examined meal and snacking patterns of primary school children in Tehran. A total of 761 male and female primary school children from all educational areas in Tehran were recruited in a cross-sectional survey. The data was collected by interviewing the students and their mothers or caregivers. Information on food consumption patterns was collected by one 24-h-recall and one snack-oriented food frequency questionnaire which covered a period of 1 month. Means, standard deviations, frequencies, percentages, energy and nutrient analyzes and nutrient densities were reported. All of the students snacked at least once on the day of the survey. Snacks provided 38% of total energy intake by the students. Fruits and sweet snacks were consumed by almost all of the students during a week. Energy and most nutrient intakes from meals were greater than those consumed from snacks. Snacks had a higher density of fiber, carbohydrate, calcium, iron, vitamin C, riboflavin and thiamin and had a lower density of protein, fat and niacin, compared with main meals. Salty snacks such as extruded cheese curls (Cheetos) and chips were not consumed so often. Results provide detailed information about dietary patterns, which in turn enable development of targeted messages and/or interventions to improve nutritional status of school children.

  16. Dietary Fibre in Health and Disease | Kolawole | Nigerian Endocrine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mechanism by which dietary fibre exerts its various effects have been the subject several studies. Its ability to slow food digestion and nutrient absorption is well known. This review summarises the broader literature on what constitutes dietary fibre, mechanisms of action of dietary fibre, and its impact on some disease ...

  17. Assessment of a Pharmaceutical Advertisement Analysis Module in a Drug Literature Evaluation Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Mohamed Ezzat Khamis; Fattouh, Youssef

    2017-08-01

    Objective. To evaluate the impact of an educational module on students' self-efficacy when analyzing the content of promotional drug brochures (PDBs) and to assess the students' value of PDBs' as an educational tool. Methods. Third-year bachelor of pharmacy students participated in a one-hour lecture and a two-hour laboratory. Students completed a survey before and after participating in the module. Results. The module elicited a statistically significant change in students' self-efficacy beliefs regarding evaluating promotional drug brochures, while the average perceived value of promotional drug brochures did not change significantly after the module. Conclusion. A brief educational module can increase students' self-efficacy in evaluating the content of PDBs.

  18. Quality assessment of radiological measurements of trochlear dysplasia; a literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paiva, Mathias; Blønd, Lars; Hölmich, Per

    2018-01-01

    screened for their relevance based on predefined parameters, and all measurements showing a statistical association between trochlear dysplasia and patellar instability were presented. Four experts evaluated the quality of the measures using a purpose-made quality scale. RESULTS: The search generated 600...... papers of which eight were chosen for review. Thirty-three unique measurements were identified and described in order of their date of publication. The lateral trochlea inclination was rated highest by the expert panel. The crossing sign, the trochlea bump, the TT-TG distance, the trochlea depth...... and the ventral trochlea prominence also had high ratings. CONCLUSION: Thirty-three unique measurements were identified with the lateral trochlea inclination as the highest rated measurement by the expert panel, and it is recommended for use in assessment of trochlear dysplasia. The crossing sign, the trochlea...

  19. Development and validation of a self-administered food frequency questionnaire to assess habitual dietary intake and quality of diet in healthy adults in the Republic of Croatia. .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabić, Dora; Sindik, Joško; Missoni, Saša

    2014-09-01

    Food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) are designed to assess habitual diet by asking about the frequency with which food items or specific food groups are consumed over a reference period. In this study, we have developed a FFQ to assess habitual dietary intake of healthy adults to estimate the quality of their nutrition and conducted a study to validate the developed FFQ against a three-day 24-hour recall. Second aim of the study is to establish the correlation between the FFQ to assess habitual dietary intake and a three-day 24-hour recall, in relation with participants' age and education level. FFQ used in our study was adapted from the Harvard Semiquantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire, consisted of 101 food items, divided into 9 groups. The 24-hour recalls were collected during one week (the same week when the FFQ was completed) and on each different day of the week (two weekdays and one weekend day). Both the FFQ and three day 24-hour recall were distributed to 100 healthy, employed subjects, 32 males (aged 39.73 +/- 14.02) and 36 females (aged 34.20 +/- 10.63). The results indicated that the developed FFQ is valid instrument to assess the habitual intake of energy and most of the nutrients in healthy adults in the Republic of Croatia, while men tended to have higher correlation coefficients than women and therefore a higher correlation of the FFQ with the three 24-hour recalls. Statistically significant correlations are not found between energy and nutrient intake based on the education level of the participants.

  20. An assessment of the effectiveness of magnetic resonance imaging of the shoulder: literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bearcroft, P.W.P.; Blanchard, T.K.; Dixon, A.K.

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To analyse and compare all papers published to date (August 2000) that quantify the effectiveness, defined as the impact of clinician's diagnosis or management plans, or patient outcome, of MRI of the shoulder.Design. A computerised search of Index Medicus with a broad search strategy relating to shoulder MRI was performed. Manual assessment of all papers listed was undertaken with classification of each paper depending on whether it addressed questions of (1) technical performance, (2) diagnostic performance or (3) outcome.Results. Four of 265 qualifying papers addressed aspects of effectiveness and these were reviewed. The impact on the clinician's diagnosis varied widely between papers: the primary diagnosis was altered in 23% to 68% of cases, and the management plans were subsequently changed in 15% to 61% of cases. Only one paper addressed the impact on patient health.Conclusions. The effectiveness of MRI of the shoulder depends on the clinical skills of the referring clinician and prevalence of disease in the study population. This will have implications when the effectiveness of an imaging technique between different institutions is compared, and this in turn will influence any comparisons of cost-effectiveness. (orig.)

  1. In Silico Assessment of Literature Insulin Bolus Calculation Methods Accounting for Glucose Rate of Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappon, Giacomo; Marturano, Francesca; Vettoretti, Martina; Facchinetti, Andrea; Sparacino, Giovanni

    2018-05-01

    The standard formula (SF) used in bolus calculators (BCs) determines meal insulin bolus using "static" measurement of blood glucose concentration (BG) obtained by self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) fingerprick device. Some methods have been proposed to improve efficacy of SF using "dynamic" information provided by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), and, in particular, glucose rate of change (ROC). This article compares, in silico and in an ideal framework limiting the exposition to possibly confounding factors (such as CGM noise), the performance of three popular techniques devised for such a scope, that is, the methods of Buckingham et al (BU), Scheiner (SC), and Pettus and Edelman (PE). Using the UVa/Padova Type 1 diabetes simulator we generated data of 100 virtual subjects in noise-free, single-meal scenarios having different preprandial BG and ROC values. Meal insulin bolus was computed using SF, BU, SC, and PE. Performance was assessed with the blood glucose risk index (BGRI) on the 9 hours after meal. On average, BU, SC, and PE improve BGRI compared to SF. When BG is rapidly decreasing, PE obtains the best performance. In the other ROC scenarios, none of the considered methods prevails in all the preprandial BG conditions tested. Our study showed that, at least in the considered ideal framework, none of the methods to correct SF according to ROC is globally better than the others. Critical analysis of the results also suggests that further investigations are needed to develop more effective formulas to account for ROC information in BCs.

  2. Physical inactivity, gender and culture in Arab countries: a systematic assessment of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharara, Eman; Akik, Chaza; Ghattas, Hala; Makhlouf Obermeyer, Carla

    2018-05-18

    Physical inactivity is associated with excess weight and adverse health outcomes. We synthesize the evidence on physical inactivity and its social determinants in Arab countries, with special attention to gender and cultural context. We searched MEDLINE, Popline, and SSCI for articles published between 2000 and 2016, assessing the prevalence of physical inactivity and its social determinants. We also included national survey reports on physical activity, and searched for analyses of the social context of physical activity. We found 172 articles meeting inclusion criteria. Standardized data are available from surveys by the World Health Organization for almost all countries, but journal articles show great variability in definitions, measurements and methodology. Prevalence of inactivity among adults and children/adolescents is high across countries, and is higher among women. Some determinants of physical inactivity in the region (age, gender, low education) are shared with other regions, but specific aspects of the cultural context of the region seem particularly discouraging of physical activity. We draw on social science studies to gain insights into why this is so. Physical inactivity among Arab adults and children/adolescents is high. Studies using harmonized approaches, rigorous analytic techniques and a deeper examination of context are needed to design appropriate interventions.

  3. Quantitative Literacy on the Web of Science, 2 – Mining the Health Numeracy Literature for Assessment Items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.L. Vacher

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A topic search of the Web of Science (WoS database using the term “numeracy” produced a bibliography of 293 articles, reviews and editorial commentaries (Oct 2008. The citation graph of the bibliography clearly identifies five benchmark papers (1995-2001, four of which developed numeracy assessment instruments. Starting with the 80 papers that cite these benchmarks, we identified a set of 25 papers (1995-2008 in which the medical research community reports the development and/or application of health-numeracy assessments. In all we found 10 assessment instruments from which we have compiled a total of 48 assessment items. There are both general and context-specific tests, with the wide range in the latter illustrated by names such as the Diabetes Numeracy Test and the Asthma Numeracy Questionnaire. There is also a Medical Data Interpretation Test and a Subjective Numeracy Scale. Much of this literature discusses the validity and reliability of the test, and many papers include item-by-item results of the tests from when they were applied in the research reported in the papers. The research that used the tests was directed at exploring such subjects as the patients’ ability to evaluate risks and benefits in order to make informed decisions; to understand and carry out instructions in order to self-manage their medical conditions; and, in research settings, to understand what the researchers were asking in their assessments (e.g., quantified quality of life that require comparison of numerical information. We present the collection of items as a potential resource for educators interested in numeracy assessments in context.

  4. Dietary exposure assessment of Chinese population to tetrabromobisphenol-A, hexabromocyclododecane and decabrominated diphenyl ether: Results of the 5th Chinese Total Diet Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Zhixiong; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Yunfeng; Sun, Zhiwei; Zhou, Xianqing; Li, Jingguang; Wu, Yongning

    2017-01-01

    Based on the 5th Chinese Total Diet Study (TDS) carried out in 2011, the dietary exposure of Chinese population to three currently used brominated flame retardants (BFRs), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and decabrominated diphenyl ether (BDE-209), was estimated and the related health risks were assessed. Levels of the three BFRs were determined in 80 composite samples from four animal-origin food groups. The average levels of BFRs in various food groups ranged from 0.671 to 5.76 ng/g lipid weight (lw). The levels of TBBPA were lower than those of HBCD but higher than those of BDE-209. Moreover, average contamination levels of TBBPA and HBCD in TDS 2011 were found to be 3 to 30 times higher than those observed in TDS 2007 in the four food groups, indicating an increase in TBBPA and HBCD in the environment during 2007–2011. The average estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of TBBPA, HBCD and BDE-209 via food consumption for a “standard Chinese man” were 1.34, 1.51 and 0.96 ng/kg bw/day, respectively. Meat and meat products were found to be the major contributor to the daily dietary intake because the consumption of meat and meat products were significantly higher than that of other food groups in China. In comparison, the levels and EDIs of BFRs in this study were found to be higher than those in most studies worldwide. However, the large margin of exposure (MOE), with at least 1.1 × 10 5 calculated following the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) approach, indicates that the estimated dietary exposure to these three BFRs is unlikely to raise significant health concerns. In addition, a comparison between the contamination levels of TBBPA, HBCD, BDE-209 and some novel BFRs in food samples from TDS 2011 indicated an obvious shift in the industrial production and usage pattern between PBDE and non-PBDE BFRs in China. - Highlights: • In a national survey, TBBPA, HBCD and BDE-209 were measured in food composites collected from 20

  5. Dietary exposure assessment for arsenic and mercury following submarine tailings placement in Ratatotok Sub-district, North Sulawesi, Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, Keith; Soebandrio, Amin

    2017-01-01

    The Mesel gold mine in the Ratatotok Sub-district operated between 1996 and 2004 with tailings disposal via an engineered submarine tailings placement (STP) into Buyat Bay. This operation raised concerns of increased levels of arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg) associated disease in the local communities from consumption of seafood contaminated with anthropogenic As and Hg. This report uses the dietary exposure to As and Hg, from local fishermen and market-purchased Codex “as consumed” and environmental fish results from the pre-mining baseline (1990–1995), the mine operational (1996–2004) and post-closure monitoring (2007–2016) to examine the potential health effects. The Ratatotok Sub-district consumers total As average daily intake from fish was between 152 and 317 μg/day (adults) and 58 and 105 μg/day (infants). The average daily intake of inorganic arsenic (As i ) from the dietary staples fish and rice and drinking water consumption was 77 μg/day (adults) and 35 μg/day (infants) at Buyat Pantai and 39 μg/day (adults) and 19 μg/day (infants) at Ratatotok township. Fish consumption contributed 8.2% (adults) and 6.5% (infants) to total daily As i intake. Average Hg intake from fish consumption, exceeded the FAO WHO PTWI for methylmercury (MeHg) for all age and gender groups at Buyat Pantai 4.6 μg/kg bw/wk (adults) and 7.3 μg/kg bw/wk (infants) and for the infants at Buyat village and Ratatotok township (2.5 and 2.8 μg/kg bw/wk respectively). The Manado City consumers had average intakes below the MeHg PTWI. The Hg exceedances resulted from the high fish consumption in coastal communities and not elevated levels of Hg in fish. Hg exposure levels from the pre-mining baseline, Mesel STP operation and post-closure monitoring, confirmed that exceedances were unrelated to the tailings deposited into Buyat Bay. - Highlights: • Submarine tailings placement has not resulted in As and Hg associated disease. • Dietary exposures were unaffected

  6. Baseline Assessment of a Healthy Corner Store Initiative: Associations between Food Store Environments, Shopping Patterns, Customer Purchases, and Dietary Intake in Eastern North Carolina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie B. Jilcott Pitts

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2016, the North Carolina (NC Legislature allocated $250,000 to the NC Department of Agriculture, to identify and equip small food retailers to stock healthier foods and beverages in eastern NC food deserts (the NC Healthy Food Small Retailer Program, HFSRP. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between food store environments, shopping patterns, customer purchases, and dietary consumption among corner store customers. We surveyed 479 customers in 16 corner stores regarding demographics, food purchased, shopping patterns, and self-reported fruit, vegetable, and soda consumption. We objectively assessed fruit and vegetable consumption using a non-invasive reflection spectroscopy device to measure skin carotenoids. We examined associations between variables of interest, using Pearson’s correlation coefficients and adjusted linear regression analyses. A majority (66% of participants were African American, with a mean age of 43 years, and a mean body mass index (BMI of 30.0 kg/m2. There were no significant associations between the healthfulness of food store offerings, customer purchases, or dietary consumption. Participants who said they had purchased fruits and vegetables at the store previously reported higher produce intake (5.70 (4.29 vs. 4.60 (3.28 servings per day, p = 0.021 versus those who had not previously purchased fresh produce. The NC Legislature has allocated another $250,000 to the HFSRP for the 2018 fiscal year. Thus, evaluation results will be important to inform future healthy corner store policies and initiatives.

  7. Gaussian Quadrature is an efficient method for the back-transformation in estimating the usual intake distribution when assessing dietary exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekkers, A L M; Slob, W

    2012-10-01

    In dietary exposure assessment, statistical methods exist for estimating the usual intake distribution from daily intake data. These methods transform the dietary intake data to normal observations, eliminate the within-person variance, and then back-transform the data to the original scale. We propose Gaussian Quadrature (GQ), a numerical integration method, as an efficient way of back-transformation. We compare GQ with six published methods. One method uses a log-transformation, while the other methods, including GQ, use a Box-Cox transformation. This study shows that, for various parameter choices, the methods with a Box-Cox transformation estimate the theoretical usual intake distributions quite well, although one method, a Taylor approximation, is less accurate. Two applications--on folate intake and fruit consumption--confirmed these results. In one extreme case, some methods, including GQ, could not be applied for low percentiles. We solved this problem by modifying GQ. One method is based on the assumption that the daily intakes are log-normally distributed. Even if this condition is not fulfilled, the log-transformation performs well as long as the within-individual variance is small compared to the mean. We conclude that the modified GQ is an efficient, fast and accurate method for estimating the usual intake distribution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Development and Pilot Testing of 24-Hour Multiple-Pass Recall to Assess Dietary Intake of Toddlers of Somali- and Iraqi-Born Mothers Living in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navnit Kaur Grewal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop, test, and evaluate a 24-h recall procedure to assess the dietary intake of toddlers of Somali- and Iraqi-born mothers living in Norway. A protocol for a 24-h multiple-pass recall procedure, registration forms, and visual tools (a picture library for food identification and portion size estimation was developed and tested in 12 mothers from Somalia and Iraq with children aged 10–21 months. Five female field workers were recruited and trained to conduct the interviews. Evaluation data for the 24-h recall procedure were collected from both the mothers and the field workers. Nutrient intake was calculated using a Norwegian dietary calculation system. Each child’s estimated energy intake was compared with its estimated energy requirement. Both the mothers and the field workers found the method feasible and the visual tools useful. The estimated energy intake corresponded well with the estimated energy requirement for most of the children (within mean ± 2 SD, except for three. The pilot study identified the need for additional foods in the picture library and some crucial aspects in training and supervising the field workers to reduce sources of error in the data collection.

  9. Dietary exposure and risk assessment of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls of the population in the Region of Valencia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijano, Leyre; Marín, Silvia; Millan, Encarnación; Yusà, Vicent; Font, Guillermina; Pardo, Olga

    2018-04-01

    Dietary exposure of the Valencia Region population to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and PCBs was assessed in the Region of Valencia in 2010-2011. A total of 7700 food samples were collected. Occurrence data were combined with consumption data to estimate dietary exposure in adults (>15 years of age) and young people (6-15 years of age). The estimated intake was calculated by a probabilistic approach. Average intake levels (upper-bound scenario) were 1.58 and 2.76 pg toxic equivalent (TEQ) kg -1 body weight (bw) day -1 for adults and young people, respectively. These average intakes are within range of the tolerable daily intake of 1-4 pg WHO-TEQ kg -1 bw day -1 recommended by WHO, and slightly above the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) of 14 pg TEQ kg -1 bw week -1 and the Provisional tolerable monthly intake of 70 pg TEQ kg -1 bw month -1 set by the Scientific Committee on Food and the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food, respectively. These results show that the contamination levels in food and therefore the exposure of the general population to PCDD/Fs and PCBs have declined in this region and therefore show the efficiency of the European risk-management measures. In terms of risk characterisation, the results showed that, under the upper-bound scenario, 22% of the adult and 58% of the young people population could exceed the TWI.

  10. Baseline Assessment of a Healthy Corner Store Initiative: Associations between Food Store Environments, Shopping Patterns, Customer Purchases, and Dietary Intake in Eastern North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B; Wu, Qiang; Truesdale, Kimberly P; Laska, Melissa N; Grinchak, Taras; McGuirt, Jared T; Haynes-Maslow, Lindsey; Bell, Ronny A; Ammerman, Alice S

    2017-10-07

    In 2016, the North Carolina (NC) Legislature allocated $250,000 to the NC Department of Agriculture, to identify and equip small food retailers to stock healthier foods and beverages in eastern NC food deserts (the NC Healthy Food Small Retailer Program, HFSRP). The purpose of this study was to examine associations between food store environments, shopping patterns, customer purchases, and dietary consumption among corner store customers. We surveyed 479 customers in 16 corner stores regarding demographics, food purchased, shopping patterns, and self-reported fruit, vegetable, and soda consumption. We objectively assessed fruit and vegetable consumption using a non-invasive reflection spectroscopy device to measure skin carotenoids. We examined associations between variables of interest, using Pearson's correlation coefficients and adjusted linear regression analyses. A majority (66%) of participants were African American, with a mean age of 43 years, and a mean body mass index (BMI) of 30.0 kg/m². There were no significant associations between the healthfulness of food store offerings, customer purchases, or dietary consumption. Participants who said they had purchased fruits and vegetables at the store previously reported higher produce intake (5.70 (4.29) vs. 4.60 (3.28) servings per day, p = 0.021) versus those who had not previously purchased fresh produce. The NC Legislature has allocated another $250,000 to the HFSRP for the 2018 fiscal year. Thus, evaluation results will be important to inform future healthy corner store policies and initiatives.

  11. Psychometric Properties of Quality of Life Assessment Tools in Morbid Obesity: A Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negar Yazdani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since studies have demonstrated that morbid obesity can exponentially impair quality of life, the measurement of quality of life is paramount to monitoring the effects of treatment and influences the development of clinical pathways, service provision, healthcare expenditures, and public health policy. Accordingly, clinicians, researchers, and policy makers must rely on valid instruments. Aim: This study aimed to review and critique the psychometric properties of some specific tools by COSMIN checklist and their application among morbidly obese individuals. Method: We searched PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO, Ovid, Elsevier, and ScienceDirect by using the keywords related to the Quality of Life Questionnaire, namely “morbid obesity”, “tool”, and “scale”, to retrieve articles published during 1989-2017. Then, the psychometric properties of the selected tools were assessed using the COSMIN checklist. Results: Most of the tools had not reported complete and desirable psychometrics properties. Demonstration of responsiveness from independent randomized controlled trials was not available in two of the eight questionnaires. These tools also did not report proper definition of interpretability. However, the data obtained by COSMIN checklist showed that Laval questionnaire is a proper scale for measuring quality of life in obese individuals, which can be recommended to researchers. Implications for Practice: Although Laval questionnaire was found a proper tool for measuring the quality of life among morbid obese patients, developing an instrument suitable for different societies with varied cultural and social characteristics is suggested because socio-cultural factors can influence the quality of life.

  12. Dietary supplements for body-weight reduction: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittler, Max H; Ernst, Edzard

    2004-04-01

    Compliance with conventional weight-management programs is notoriously poor, and a plethora of over-the-counter slimming aids are sold with claims of effectiveness. The objective of the study was to assess the evidence from rigorous clinical trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses on the effectiveness of dietary supplements in reducing body weight. The study was a systematic review. Literature searches were conducted on Medline, Embase, Amed, Cinahl, and the Cochrane Library until March 2003. Hand searches of medical journals, the authors' own files, and bibliographies of identified articles were conducted. There were no restrictions regarding the language of publication. The screening of studies, selection, validation, data extraction, and the assessment of methodologic quality were performed independently by the 2 reviewers. To be included, trials were required to be randomized and double-blind. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of dietary supplements were included if they were based on the results of randomized, double-blind trials. Five systematic reviews and meta-analyses and 25 additional trials were included and reviewed. Data on the following dietary supplements were identified: chitosan, chromium picolinate, Ephedra sinica, Garcinia cambogia, glucomannan, guar gum, hydroxy-methylbutyrate, plantago psyllium, pyruvate, yerba maté, and yohimbe. The reviewed studies provide some encouraging data but no evidence beyond a reasonable doubt that any specific dietary supplement is effective for reducing body weight. The only exceptions are E. sinica- and ephedrine-containing supplements, which have been associated with an increased risk of adverse events. The evidence for most dietary supplements as aids in reducing body weight is not convincing. None of the reviewed dietary supplements can be recommended for over-the-counter use.

  13. AIC identifies optimal representation of longitudinal dietary variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanBuren, John; Cavanaugh, Joseph; Marshall, Teresa; Warren, John; Levy, Steven M

    2017-09-01

    The Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) is a well-known tool for variable selection in multivariable modeling as well as a tool to help identify the optimal representation of explanatory variables. However, it has been discussed infrequently in the dental literature. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the use of AIC in determining the optimal representation of dietary variables in a longitudinal dental study. The Iowa Fluoride Study enrolled children at birth and dental examinations were conducted at ages 5, 9, 13, and 17. Decayed or filled surfaces (DFS) trend clusters were created based on age 13 DFS counts and age 13-17 DFS increments. Dietary intake data (water, milk, 100 percent-juice, and sugar sweetened beverages) were collected semiannually using a food frequency questionnaire. Multinomial logistic regression models were fit to predict DFS cluster membership (n=344). Multiple approaches could be used to represent the dietary data including averaging across all collected surveys or over different shorter time periods to capture age-specific trends or using the individual time points of dietary data. AIC helped identify the optimal representation. Averaging data for all four dietary variables for the whole period from age 9.0 to 17.0 provided a better representation in the multivariable full model (AIC=745.0) compared to other methods assessed in full models (AICs=750.6 for age 9 and 9-13 increment dietary measurements and AIC=762.3 for age 9, 13, and 17 individual measurements). The results illustrate that AIC can help researchers identify the optimal way to summarize information for inclusion in a statistical model. The method presented here can be used by researchers performing statistical modeling in dental research. This method provides an alternative approach for assessing the propriety of variable representation to significance-based procedures, which could potentially lead to improved research in the dental community. © 2017 American

  14. Toxicity of Pb-contaminated soil to Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) and the use of the blood-dietary Pb slope in risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W. Nelson; Chen, Yu; Henry, Paula; May, Thomas; Mosby, David; Rattner, Barnett A.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Sprague, Daniel; Weber, John

    2014-01-01

    This study relates tissue concentrations and toxic effects of Pb in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) to the dietary exposure of soil-borne Pb associated with mining and smelting. From 0% to 12% contaminated soil, by weight, was added to 5 experimental diets (0.12 to 382 mg Pb/kg, dry wt) and fed to the quail for 6 weeks. Benchmark doses associated with a 50% reduction in delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity were 0.62 mg Pb/kg in the blood, dry wt, and 27 mg Pb/kg in the diet. Benchmark doses associated with a 20% increase in the concentration of erythrocyte protoporphyrin were 2.7 mg Pb/kg in the blood and 152 mg Pb/kg in the diet. The quail showed no other signs of toxicity (histopathological lesions, alterations in plasma–testosterone concentration, and body and organ weights). The relation of the blood Pb concentration to the soil Pb concentration was linear, with a slope of 0.013 mg Pb/kg of blood (dry wt) divided by mg Pb/kg of diet. We suggest that this slope is potentially useful in ecological risk assessments on birds in the same way that the intake slope factor is an important parameter in risk assessments of children exposed to Pb. The slope may also be used in a tissue-residue approach as an additional line of evidence in ecological risk assessment, supplementary to an estimate of hazard based on dietary toxicity reference values.

  15. Analyzing pepsin degradation assay conditions used for allergenicity assessments to ensure that pepsin susceptible and pepsin resistant dietary proteins are distinguishable.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Wang

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of a dietary protein to proteolytic degradation by digestive enzymes, such as gastric pepsin, provides information on the likelihood of systemic exposure to a structurally intact and biologically active macromolecule, thus informing on the safety of proteins for human and animal consumption. Therefore, the purpose of standardized in vitro degradation studies that are performed during protein safety assessments is to distinguish whether proteins of interest are susceptible or resistant to pepsin degradation via a study design that enables study-to-study comparison. Attempting to assess pepsin degradation under a wide-range of possible physiological conditions poses a problem because of the lack of robust and consistent data collected under a large-range of sub-optimal conditions, which undermines the needs to harmonize in vitro degradation conditions. This report systematically compares the effects of pH, incubation time, and pepsin-to-substrate protein ratio on the relative degradation of five dietary proteins: three pepsin susceptible proteins [ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco, horseradish peroxidase (HRP, hemoglobin (Hb], and two pepsin resistant proteins [lipid transfer protein (LTP and soybean trypsin inhibitor (STI]. The results indicate that proteins susceptible to pepsin degradation are readily distinguishable from pepsin-resistant proteins when the reaction conditions are within the well-characterized optima for pepsin. The current standardized in vitro pepsin resistant assay with low pH and high pepsin-to-substrate ratio fits this purpose. Using non-optimal pH and/or pepsin-to-substrate protein ratios resulted in susceptible proteins no longer being reliably degraded by this stomach enzyme, which compromises the ability of this in vitro assay to distinguish between resistant and susceptible proteins and, therefore, no longer providing useful data to an overall weight-of-evidence approach to

  16. Feasibility of dietary assessment methods, other tools and procedures for a pan-European food consumption survey among infants, toddlers and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocké, Marga; Brants, Henny; Dofkova, Marcela; Freisling, Heinz; van Rossum, Caroline; Ruprich, Jiri; Slimani, Nadia; Temme, Elisabeth; Trolle, Ellen; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Huybrechts, Inge; de Boer, Evelien

    2015-08-01

    To test the feasibility of tools and procedures for a pan-European food consumption survey among children 0-10 years and to recommend one of two tested dietary assessment methods. Two pilot studies including 378 children were conducted in Belgium and the Czech Republic in the Pilot studies for Assessment of Nutrient intake and food Consumption among Kids in Europe. One protocol included a 3-day food diary which was checked with a parent, and data were entered afterwards using EPIC-Soft. The alternative protocol consisted of two non-consecutive 1-day food diaries followed by EPIC-Soft completion interviews. Both protocols included general and food propensity questionnaires and anthropometric measurements. The protocols were compared using evaluation questionnaires among the participating parents and study personnel. The parents found the questionnaires and instructions for filling in the food diaries understandable. Food description and food quantification was evaluated as problematic by 29 and 15% of the participants for the 3-day diaries versus 15 and 12% for the 1-day diaries. The protocol with 1-day food diaries was evaluated as less burdensome by the parents and logistically more challenging by the interviewers. Both dietary assessment methods with related tools and administration protocols were evaluated as feasible. The administration protocol with two 1-day food diaries with completion interviews offers more advantages for the future pan-European survey in children 0-10 years. The positive evaluation of feasibility of tools and materials is an important step towards harmonised food consumption data at European level among the younger age groups.

  17. The e-EPIDEMIOLOGY Mobile Phone App for Dietary Intake Assessment: Comparison with a Food Frequency Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejar, Luis Maria; Sharp, Brett Northrop; García-Perea, María Dolores

    2016-11-02

    There is a great necessity for new methods of evaluation of dietary intake that overcome the limitations of traditional self-reporting methods. The objective of this study was to develop a new method, based on an app for mobile phones called e-EPIDEMIOLOGY, which was designed to collect individual consumption data for a series of foods/drinks, and to compare this app with a previously validated paper food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). University students >18 years of age recorded the consumption of certain foods/drinks using e-EPIDEMIOLOGY during 28 consecutive days and then filled out a paper FFQ at the end of the study period. To evaluate the agreement between the categories of habitual consumption for each of the foods/drinks included in the study, cross-classification analysis and a weighted kappa statistic were used. A total of 119 participants completed the study (71% female, 85/119; 29% male, 34/119). Cross-classification analysis showed that 79.8% of the participants were correctly classified into the same category and just 1.1% were misclassified into opposite categories. The average weighted kappa statistic was good (κ=.64). The results indicate that e-EPIDEMIOLOGY generated ranks of dietary intakes that were highly comparable with the previously validated paper FFQ. However, it was noted that further testing of e-EPIDEMIOLOGY is required to establish its wider utility. ©Luis Maria Bejar, Brett Northrop Sharp, María Dolores García-Perea. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (http://www.researchprotocols.org), 02.11.2016.

  18. Assessment of dietary exposure in the French population to 13 selected food colours, preservatives, antioxidants, stabilizers, emulsifiers and sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemrah, Nawel; Leblanc, Jean-Charles; Volatier, Jean-Luc

    2008-01-01

    The results of French intake estimates for 13 food additives prioritized by the methods proposed in the 2001 Report from the European Commission on Dietary Food Additive Intake in the European Union are reported. These 13 additives were selected using the first and second tiers of the three-tier approach. The first tier was based on theoretical food consumption data and the maximum permitted level of additives. The second tier used real individual food consumption data and the maximum permitted level of additives for the substances which exceeded the acceptable daily intakes (ADI) in the first tier. In the third tier reported in this study, intake estimates were calculated for the 13 additives (colours, preservatives, antioxidants, stabilizers, emulsifiers and sweeteners) according to two modelling assumptions corresponding to two different food habit scenarios (assumption 1: consumers consume foods that may or may not contain food additives, and assumption 2: consumers always consume foods that contain additives) when possible. In this approach, real individual food consumption data and the occurrence/use-level of food additives reported by the food industry were used. Overall, the results of the intake estimates are reassuring for the majority of additives studied since the risk of exceeding the ADI was low, except for nitrites, sulfites and annatto, whose ADIs were exceeded by either children or adult consumers or by both populations under one and/or two modelling assumptions. Under the first assumption, the ADI is exceeded for high consumers among adults for nitrites and sulfites (155 and 118.4%, respectively) and among children for nitrites (275%). Under the second assumption, the average nitrites dietary exposure in children exceeds the ADI (146.7%). For high consumers, adults exceed the nitrite and sulfite ADIs (223 and 156.4%, respectively) and children exceed the nitrite, annatto and sulfite ADIs (416.7, 124.6 and 130.6%, respectively).

  19. Critical assessment of seismic and geomechanics literature related to a high-level nuclear waste underground repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kana, D.D.; Vanzant, B.W.; Nair, P.K. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (USA). Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses; Brady, B.H.G. [ITASCA Consulting Group, Inc., Minneapolis, MN (USA)

    1991-06-01

    A comprehensive literature assessment has been conducted to determine the nature and scope of technical information available to characterize the seismic performance of an underground repository and associated facilities. Significant deficiencies were identified in current practices for prediction of seismic response of underground excavations in jointed rock. Conventional analytical methods are based on a continuum representation of the host rock mass. Field observations and laboratory experiments indicate that, in jointed rock, the behavior of the joints controls the overall performance of underground excavations. Further, under repetitive seismic loading, shear displacement develops progressively at block boundaries. Field observations correlating seismicity and groundwater conditions have provided significant information on hydrological response to seismic events. However, lack of a comprehensive model of geohydrological response to seismicity has limited the transportability conclusions from field observations. Based on the literature study, matters requiring further research in relation to the Yucca Mountain repository are identified. The report focuses on understanding seismic processes in fractured tuff, and provides a basis for work on the geohydrologic response of a seismically disturbed rock mass. 220 refs., 43 figs., 11 tabs.

  20. Critical assessment of seismic and geomechanics literature related to a high-level nuclear waste underground repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kana, D.D.; Vanzant, B.W.; Nair, P.K.

    1991-06-01

    A comprehensive literature assessment has been conducted to determine the nature and scope of technical information available to characterize the seismic performance of an underground repository and associated facilities. Significant deficiencies were identified in current practices for prediction of seismic response of underground excavations in jointed rock. Conventional analytical methods are based on a continuum representation of the host rock mass. Field observations and laboratory experiments indicate that, in jointed rock, the behavior of the joints controls the overall performance of underground excavations. Further, under repetitive seismic loading, shear displacement develops progressively at block boundaries. Field observations correlating seismicity and groundwater conditions have provided significant information on hydrological response to seismic events. However, lack of a comprehensive model of geohydrological response to seismicity has limited the transportability conclusions from field observations. Based on the literature study, matters requiring further research in relation to the Yucca Mountain repository are identified. The report focuses on understanding seismic processes in fractured tuff, and provides a basis for work on the geohydrologic response of a seismically disturbed rock mass. 220 refs., 43 figs., 11 tabs

  1. Knee ultrasound from research to real practice: a systematic literature review of adult knee ultrasound assessment feasibility studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltea, Alexandra; Berghea, Florian; Gudu, Tania; Ionescu, Ruxandra

    2016-12-05

    To identify and analyse existing data regarding knee ultrasound (US) feasibility in clinical practice. Material and methods: A systematic literature review was performed using the terms: ("knee") AND ("ultrasound" OR "ultrasonography") AND ("feasibility" OR "pilot" OR "proof of concept"). Feasibility studies regarding knee US or US aided maneuver involving knee joint, published during 2005-2015, were selected and evaluated against a complex framework constructed around mandatory key areas for feasibility studies: acceptability, demand, implementation, practicality, adaptation, integration and expansion. One hundred and fifty-nine publications were identified, of which 9 were included in the final analysis: 6 dealt with the development and implementation of novel US scores, while the rest focused on implementing MSUS in clinical practice, evaluating the usefulness of articular cartilage US assessment and the feasibility of sonography for intra-articular knee injections, respectively. Six studies quantified feasibility as time spent for the evaluation, with only two addressing areassuch as acceptability, implementation and practicality, although none of these systematically assessed all feasibility domains. Knee US feasibility is still poorly addressed; the time required for US assessment is the main area addressed. This information gap should be properly addressed in future works, in order to ensure the right place for this technique.

  2. Systematic literature review of clinical trials evaluating pharmacotherapy for overactive bladder in elderly patients: An assessment of trial quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Kristin D; Xu, Yingxin; Zou, Kelly H; Ntanios, Fady; Chapman, Douglass S; Luo, Xuemei

    2018-01-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) disproportionately affects older-aged adults, yet most randomized controlled trials (RCTs) underrepresent patients ≥65. This systematic literature review (SLR) identified RCTs evaluating β-3 adrenergic agonists or muscarinic antagonists in elderly patients with OAB, and compared study quality across trials. MEDLINE ® , Embase ® , and Cochrane Collaboration Central Register of Clinical Trials databases were searched from inception through April 28, 2015 to identify published, peer-reviewed RCT reports evaluating β-3 adrenergic agonists or muscarinic antagonists in elderly OAB patients (either ≥65 years or study-described as "elderly"). To assess study quality of RCT reports, we focused on internal/external validity, assessed via two scales: the validated Effective Public Health Practice Project [EPHPP]): Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies, and a tool commissioned by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). Database searches yielded 1380 records that were then screened according to predefined inclusion/exclusion criteria. We included eight papers meeting study criteria. Despite scientific community efforts to improve RCT reporting standards, published reports still include incomplete and inconsistent reporting-of subject attrition, baseline patient characteristics, inclusion/exclusion criteria, and other important details. Only three of the eight OAB RCTs in this review received quality ratings of Strong (EPHPP) or Fair (AHRQ) and were multicenter with large samples. Despite the prevalence of OAB among older age individuals, relatively few RCTs evaluate OAB treatments explicitly among elderly subjects. The findings from this quality assessment suggest some areas for improvement in both conduct and reporting of future RCTs assessing OAB treatment in elderly. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. How parental dietary behavior and food parenting practices affect children's dietary behavior. Interacting sources of influence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, J.K.; Hermans, R.C.J.; Sleddens, E.F.C.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Fisher, J.O.; Kremers, S.P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Until now, the literatures on the effects of food parenting practices and parents' own dietary behavior on children's dietary behavior have largely been independent from one another. Integrating findings across these areas could provide insight on simultaneous and interacting influences on

  4. Assessment of dietary exposure to flavouring substances via consumption of flavoured teas. Part II: transfer rates of linalool and linalyl esters into Earl Grey tea infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Anne-Marie; Poplacean, Iulia; Fastowski, Oxana; Engel, Karl-Heinz

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of dietary exposure via the consumption of flavoured foods is a key element of the safety evaluation of flavouring substances. Linalyl acetate and linalool are the major flavouring substances in Earl Grey teas; the objective of this study was to determine their transfer rates from the tea leaves into the tea beverage upon preparation of a hot water infusion. Spiking experiments revealed a transfer rate of 66% for linalool. In contrast, the transfer rate for linalyl acetate was only 1.9%; in turn, the hydrolysis product linalool (17.0%) and a spectrum (19.9%) of degradation and rearrangement products (monoterpene alcohols, esters and hydrocarbons) were present in the tea beverage. The transfer rates were shown to be proportional to the length of the infusion. The impact of the hot water treatment on the enantiomeric compositions of linalyl acetate and linalool was determined, and structure-dependent experiments were performed by variation of the acyl and the alcohol moiety of the monoterpene ester. Comparative dietary exposure assessments demonstrated the need to take correction factors based on the experimentally determined transfer rates into account. Based on tea consumption data from the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2000/2001), the exposure to linalyl acetate ranges from 0.2 mg day(-1) (average) to 1.8 mg day(-1) (high). The corresponding values for linalool are 4.2 mg day(-1) (average) and 46.6 mg day(-1) (high). The exposure of linalool via consumption of the tea beverage is approximately 26 times higher than that of linalyl acetate, although in the flavoured tea leaves the median content of linalyl acetate is approximately 1.8 times higher than that of linalool.

  5. A Dish-based Semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire for Assessment of Dietary Intakes in Epidemiologic Studies in Iran: Design and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshteli, Ah; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Rajaie, Somayeh; Askari, Gholamreza; Feinle-Bisset, Christine; Adibi, Peyman

    2014-01-01

    Earlier forms of food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) used in Iran have extensive lists of foods, traditional categories and food-based design, mostly with the interviewer-administered approach. The aim of the current paper is to describe the development of a dish-based, machine-readable, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (DFQ). Within the framework of the Study on the Epidemiology of Psychological, Alimentary Health and Nutrition project, we created a novel FFQ using Harvard FFQ as a model. THE FOLLOWING STEPS WERE TAKEN TO DEVELOP THE QUESTIONNAIRE: Construction of a list of commonly consumed Iranian foods, definition of portion sizes, design of response options for consumption frequency of each food item and finally a pilot test of the preliminary DFQ. From a comprehensive list of foods and mixed dishes, we included those that were nutrient-rich, consumed reasonably often or contributed to between-person variations. We focused on mixed dishes, rather than their ingredients, along with foods. To shorten the list, the related food items or mixed dishes were categorized together in one food group. These exclusions resulted in a list of 106 foods or dishes in the questionnaire. The portion sizes used in the FFQ were obtained from our earlier studies that used dietary recalls and food records. The frequency response options for the food list varied from 6-9 choices from "never or less than once a month" to "12 or more times per day". The DFQ could be a reasonable dietary assessment tool for future epidemiological studies in the country. Validation studies are required to assess the validity and reliability of this newly developed questionnaire.

  6. A Dish-based Semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire for assessment of dietary intakes in epidemiologic studies in Iran: Design and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Hassanzadeh Keshteli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Earlier forms of food frequency questionnaire (FFQ used in Iran have extensive lists of foods, traditional categories and food-based design, mostly with the interviewer-administered approach. The aim of the current paper is to describe the development of a dish-based, machine-readable, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (DFQ. Methods: Within the framework of the Study on the Epidemiology of Psychological, Alimentary Health and Nutrition project, we created a novel FFQ using Harvard FFQ as a model. Results: The following steps were taken to develop the questionnaire: Construction of a list of commonly consumed Iranian foods, definition of portion sizes, design of response options for consumption frequency of each food item and finally a pilot test of the preliminary DFQ. From a comprehensive list of foods and mixed dishes, we included those that were nutrient-rich, consumed reasonably often or contributed to between-person variations. We focused on mixed dishes, rather than their ingredients, along with foods. To shorten the list, the related food items or mixed dishes were categorized together in one food group. These exclusions resulted in a list of 106 foods or dishes in the questionnaire. The portion sizes used in the FFQ were obtained from our earlier studies that used dietary recalls and food records. The frequency response options for the food list varied from 6-9 choices from "never or less than once a month" to "12 or more times per day". Conclusions: The DFQ could be a reasonable dietary assessment tool for future epidemiological studies in the country. Validation studies are required to assess the validity and reliability of this newly developed questionnaire.

  7. The Role of Arsenic Speciation in Dietary Exposure Assessment and the Need to Include Bioaccessibility and Biotransformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical form specific exposure assessment for arsenic has long been identified as a source of uncertainty in estimating the risk associated with the aggregate exposure for a population. Some speciation based assessments document occurrence within an exposure route; however, the...

  8. Assessment of spatial variation in drinking water iodine and its implications for dietary intake: A new conceptual model for Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voutchkova, Denitza Dimitrova, E-mail: ddv@geo.au.dk [Department of Geoscience, Aarhus University, Høegh-Guldbergs Gade 2, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Lyseng Allé 1, DK-8270 Højbjerg (Denmark); Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Øster Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Ernstsen, Vibeke [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Øster Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Hansen, Birgitte; Sørensen, Brian Lyngby [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Lyseng Allé 1, DK-8270 Højbjerg (Denmark); Zhang, Chaosheng [GIS Centre and School of Geography and Archaeology, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland); Kristiansen, Søren Munch [Department of Geoscience, Aarhus University, Høegh-Guldbergs Gade 2, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

    2014-09-15

    Iodine is essential for human health. Many countries have therefore introduced universal salt iodising (USI) programmes to ensure adequate intake for the populations. However, little attention has been paid to subnational differences in iodine intake from drinking water caused by naturally occurring spatial variations. To address this issue, we here present the results of a Danish nationwide study of spatial trends of iodine in drinking water and the relevance of these trends for human dietary iodine intake. The data consist of treated drinking water samples from 144 waterworks, representing approx. 45% of the groundwater abstraction for drinking water supply in Denmark. The samples were analysed for iodide, iodate, total iodine (TI) and other major and trace elements. The spatial patterns were investigated with Local Moran's I. TI ranges from < 0.2 to 126 μg L{sup −1} (mean 14.4 μg L{sup −1}, median 11.9 μg L{sup −1}). Six speciation combinations were found. Half of the samples (n = 71) contain organic iodine; all species were detected in approx. 27% of all samples. The complex spatial variation is attributed both to the geology and the groundwater treatment. TI > 40 μg L{sup −1} originates from postglacial marine and glacial meltwater sand and from Campanian–Maastrichtian chalk aquifers. The estimated drinking water contribution to human intake varies from 0% to > 100% of the WHO recommended daily iodine intake for adults and from 0% to approx. 50% for adolescents. The paper presents a new conceptual model based on the observed clustering of high or low drinking-water iodine concentrations, delimiting zones with potentially deficient, excessive or optimal iodine status. Our findings suggest that the present coarse-scale nationwide programme for monitoring the population's iodine status may not offer a sufficiently accurate picture. Local variations in drinking-water iodine should be mapped and incorporated into future adjustment of the

  9. Assessment of dietary ratios of red clover and corn silages on milk production and milk quality in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorby, J M; Ellis, N M; Davies, D R

    2016-10-01

    Twenty-four multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square changeover design experiment to test the effects of changing from corn (Zea mays) silage to red clover (Trifolium pratense) silage in graded proportions on feed intakes, milk production, and whole-body N and P partitioning. Three dietary treatments with ad libitum access to 1 of 3 forage mixtures plus a standard allowance of 4kg/d dairy concentrates were offered. The 3 treatment forage mixtures were, on a dry matter (DM) basis: (1) R10: 90% corn silage and 10% red clover silage, (2) R50: 50% corn silage and 50% red clover silage, and (3) R90: 10% corn silage and 90% red clover silage. In each of 3 experimental periods, there were 21d for adaptation to diets, and 7d for measurements. Diet crude protein intakes increased, and starch intakes decreased, as the silage mixture changed from 90% corn to 90% red clover, although the highest forage DM intakes and milk yields were achieved on diet R50. Although milk fat yields were unaffected by diet, milk protein yields were highest with the R 0250 diet. Whole-body partitioning of N was measured in a subset of cows (n=9), and both the daily amount and proportion of N consumed that was excreted in feces and urine increased as the proportion of red clover silage in the diet increased. However, the apparent efficiency of utilization of feed N for milk protein production decreased from 0.33g/g for diet R10 to 0.25g/g for diet R90. The urinary excretion of purine derivatives (sum of allantoin and uric acid) tended to increase, suggesting greater flow of microbial protein from the rumen, as the proportion of red clover silage in the diet increased, and urinary creatinine excretion was affected by diet. Fecal shedding of E. coli was not affected by dietary treatment. In conclusion, even though microbial protein flow may have been greatest from the R 0450 diet, optimum feed intakes and milk yields were achieved on a diet that contained a

  10. Assessment of spatial variation in drinking water iodine and its implications for dietary intake: A new conceptual model for Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voutchkova, Denitza Dimitrova; Ernstsen, Vibeke; Hansen, Birgitte; Sørensen, Brian Lyngby; Zhang, Chaosheng; Kristiansen, Søren Munch

    2014-01-01

    Iodine is essential for human health. Many countries have therefore introduced universal salt iodising (USI) programmes to ensure adequate intake for the populations. However, little attention has been paid to subnational differences in iodine intake from drinking water caused by naturally occurring spatial variations. To address this issue, we here present the results of a Danish nationwide study of spatial trends of iodine in drinking water and the relevance of these trends for human dietary iodine intake. The data consist of treated drinking water samples from 144 waterworks, representing approx. 45% of the groundwater abstraction for drinking water supply in Denmark. The samples were analysed for iodide, iodate, total iodine (TI) and other major and trace elements. The spatial patterns were investigated with Local Moran's I. TI ranges from < 0.2 to 126 μg L −1 (mean 14.4 μg L −1 , median 11.9 μg L −1 ). Six speciation combinations were found. Half of the samples (n = 71) contain organic iodine; all species were detected in approx. 27% of all samples. The complex spatial variation is attributed both to the geology and the groundwater treatment. TI > 40 μg L −1 originates from postglacial marine and glacial meltwater sand and from Campanian–Maastrichtian chalk aquifers. The estimated drinking water contribution to human intake varies from 0% to > 100% of the WHO recommended daily iodine intake for adults and from 0% to approx. 50% for adolescents. The paper presents a new conceptual model based on the observed clustering of high or low drinking-water iodine concentrations, delimiting zones with potentially deficient, excessive or optimal iodine status. Our findings suggest that the present coarse-scale nationwide programme for monitoring the population's iodine status may not offer a sufficiently accurate picture. Local variations in drinking-water iodine should be mapped and incorporated into future adjustment of the monitoring and/or the

  11. How can multi criteria decision analysis support value assessment of pharmaceuticals? - Findings from a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolasa, Katarzyna; Zah, Vladimir; Kowalczyk, Marta

    2018-04-29

    As budget constraints become more and more visible, there is growing recognition for greater transparency and greater stakeholders' engagement in the pharmaceuticals' pric-ing&reimbursement (P&R) decision making. New frameworks of drugs' value assessments are searched for. Among them, the multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) receives more and more attention. In 2014, ISPOR established Task Force to provide methodological recommendations for MCDA utilization in the health care decision making. Still, there is not so much knowledge about the real life experience with MCDA's adaptation to the P&R processes. Areas covered: A systematic literature review was performed to understand the rationale for MCDA adaptation, methodology used as well as its impact on P&R outcomes. Expert commentary: In total 102 hits were found through the search of databases, out of which 18 publications were selected. Although limited in scope, the review highlighted how MCDA can im-prove the decision making processes not only regarding pricing & reimbursement but also contribute to the the risk benefit assessment as well as optimization of treatment outcomes. Still none of re-viewed studies did report how MCDA results actually impacted the real life settings.

  12. Antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy in women: a literature review on the reliability and validity of assessment instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Mairead; Völlm, Birgit

    2009-01-01

    Crime rates are low in women compared to men. The two disorders most commonly associated with offending behaviour, antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and psychopathy, are also less prevalent in female samples. However, developments in forensic psychiatry have often ignored gender, and the utility of constructs such as psychopathy and their assessment instruments in female samples remains unclear. This article presents a review of studies looking at rates of ASPD and psychopathy and on the reliability and validity of assessment instruments of these disorders in women. Gender differences in symptom patterns will be considered. The literature seems to suggest that DSM-IV criteria for ASPD may lead to an underestimation of the prevalence of the disorder in women due to the requirement of childhood conduct disorder symptoms. The Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) is a valid and reliable instrument to identify psychopathy in women but there are gender differences in the factor structure and item loadings on this measure. Research to date seems to suggest a three-factor model may be most strongly supported in females. Preliminary evidence suggests the PCL-R may have some value in predicting future offending while the PCL:SV may be useful in predicting institutional violence. Clinical implications are discussed.

  13. Barriers and Drawbacks of the Assessment of Dental Fear, Dental Anxiety and Dental Phobia in Children: A Critical Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asl, Aminabadi Naser; Shokravi, Marzieh; Jamali, Zahra; Shirazi, Sajjad

    Dental anxiety, fear and phobia have different etiology, response patterns, time courses, and intensities that justify a clear distinction between these constructs. Differentiation of dental anxiety, fear or phobia in practice is a critical prerequisite for developing and implementing effective treatment for children. The aim of this study was to investigate whether current researches in the pediatric dentistry appropriately discriminate the central construct of dental anxiety, fear and phobia. We also highlighted the specific methodological issues in the assessment of these issues in pediatric dentistry. A systematic search was conducted in Pubmed/medline and Scopus for articles which assessed dental anxiety, fear or phobia in children. 104 research papers were included in the review that had made a distinction between dental anxiety, fear and phobia and had not used them interchangeably. Only five studies used different clinical measures or cut-offs to discriminate between dental anxiety, fear and phobia. The dental literature appears unable to capture and also measure the multi-sided construct of dental anxiety, fear and phobia and, therefore, there was a tendency to use them interchangeably.

  14. [Assessment of the MF59-adjuvanted pandemic influenza A/H1N1 vaccine. Systematic review of literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Aragón, J; Grande Tejada, A M; Márquez-Peláez, S; Molina Linde, J M; Yang, R

    2013-10-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of MF59-adjuvanted pandemic influenza A/H1N1 vaccine in children. A systematic review of the literature was performed after searching the MedLine and Embase electronic databases, and manual search in specialties journals, with MeSH terms and and free terms. Inclusion criteria were clinical trials with children vaccinated with MF59-adjuvanted influenza A/H1N1 vaccine, compared with other vaccines doses with/without MF59-adjuvanted. The immunogenicity and safety of the vaccine was recorded. The quality of the studies included was assessed by CASPe checklist. Four clinical trials with moderate quality were selected. The local and systemic adverse effects were rare and mild, with no differences between groups. Seroconversion and seroprotection levels were higher with MF59-adjuvanted vaccines. Antibody titres were also higher with the adjuvant vaccines. The adjuvant vaccine has a good efficacy and safety profile. The adverse effects that may occur are common and appear similarly in both vaccination groups. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Digital food photography technology improves efficiency and feasibility of dietary intake assessments in large populations eating ad libitum in collective dining facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClung, Holly L; Champagne, Catherine M; Allen, H Raymond; McGraw, Susan M; Young, Andrew J; Montain, Scott J; Crombie, Aaron P

    2017-09-01

    Accurate assessment of dietary intake continues to challenge researchers, especially in field, or non-laboratory settings. In this study, digita