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Sample records for dietary 3 fatty

  1. Maternal dietary omega-3 fatty acids and placental function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Megan L; Mark, Peter J; Waddell, Brendan J

    2014-05-01

    The developing fetus requires substantial amounts of fatty acids to support rapid cellular growth and activity. Although the fatty acid composition delivered to the fetus is largely determined by maternal circulating levels, the placenta preferentially transfers physiologically important long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs), particularly omega-3 (n-3) PUFAs. Maternal dietary supplementation with n-3 PUFAs during pregnancy has been shown to increase gestation length, enhance fetal growth, and reduce the risk of pregnancy complications, although the precise mechanisms governing these effects remain uncertain. Omega-3 PUFAs are involved in several physiological pathways which could account for these effects, including anti-inflammatory, pro-resolving, and anti-oxidative pathways. Recent studies have shown that maternal dietary n-3 PUFA supplementation during rat pregnancy can reduce placental oxidative damage and increase placental levels of pro-resolving mediators, effects associated with enhanced fetal and placental growth. Because several placental disorders, such as intrauterine growth restriction, preeclampsia, and gestational diabetes mellitus, are associated with heightened placental inflammation and oxidative stress, there is considerable interest in the potential for dietary n-3 PUFAs as a therapeutic intervention for these disorders. In this study, we review the impact of dietary n-3 PUFAs on placental function, with particular focus on placental inflammation, inflammatory resolution, and oxidative stress.

  2. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Formulations in Cardiovascular Disease: Dietary Supplements are Not Substitutes for Prescription Products

    OpenAIRE

    Fialkow, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acid products are available as prescription formulations (icosapent ethyl, omega-3-acid ethyl esters, omega-3-acid ethyl esters A, omega-3-carboxylic acids) and dietary supplements (predominantly fish oils). Most dietary supplements and all but one prescription formulation contain mixtures of the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Products containing both EPA and DHA may raise low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). In clinical t...

  3. The effects of dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, G L; Faarvang, K L; Thomsen, B S

    1992-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) on disease variables in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. DESIGN: Multicenter, randomized, placebo controlled, double blind. SETTING: Three Danish hospital Departments of Rheumato......STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) on disease variables in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. DESIGN: Multicenter, randomized, placebo controlled, double blind. SETTING: Three Danish hospital Departments...

  4. Effect of dietary selenium and omega-3 fatty acids on muscle composition and quality in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hetland Harald

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human health may be improved if dietary intakes of selenium and omega-3 fatty acids are increased. Consumption of broiler meat is increasing, and the meat content of selenium and omega-3 fatty acids are affected by the composition of broiler feed. A two-way analyses of variance was used to study the effect of feed containing omega-3 rich plant oils and selenium enriched yeast on broiler meat composition, antioxidation- and sensory parameters. Four different wheat-based dietary treatments supplemented with 5% rapeseed oil or 4% rapeseed oil plus 1% linseed oil, and either 0.50 mg selenium or 0.84 mg selenium (organic form per kg diet was fed to newly hatched broilers for 22 days. Results The different dietary treatments gave distinct different concentrations of selenium and fatty acids in thigh muscle; one percent linseed oil in the diet increased the concentration of the omega-3 fatty acids 18:3, 20:5 and 22:5, and 0.84 mg selenium per kg diet gave muscle selenium concentration at the same level as is in fish muscle (0.39 mg/kg muscle. The high selenium intake also resulted in increased concentration of the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids EPA (20:5, DPA (22:5 and DHA (22:6, thus it may be speculated if high dietary selenium might have a role in increasing the concentration of EPA, DPA and DHA in tissues after intake of plant oils contning omega-3 fatty acids. Conclusion Moderate modifications of broiler feed may give a healthier broiler meat, having increased content of selenium and omega-3 fatty acids. High intakes of selenium (organic form may increase the concentration of very long-chain omega-3 fatty acids in muscle.

  5. Dietary omega-6 fatty acid lowering increases bioavailability of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in human plasma lipid pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Ameer Y.; Cheon, Yewon; Faurot, Keturah F.; MacIntosh, Beth; Majchrzak-Hong, Sharon F.; Mann, J. Douglas; Hibbeln, Joseph R.; Ringel, Amit; Ramsden, Christopher E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Dietary linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6) lowering in rats reduces n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) plasma concentrations and increases n-3 PUFA (eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) concentrations. Objective To evaluate the extent to which 12 weeks of dietary n-6 PUFA lowering, with or without increased dietary n-3 PUFAs, change unesterified and esterified plasma n-6 and n-3 PUFA concentrations in subjects with chronic headache. Design Secondary analysis of a randomized trial. Subjects with chronic headache were randomized for 12 weeks to: (1) average n-3, low n-6 (L6) diet; or (2) high n-3, low n-6 LA (H3-L6) diet. Esterified and unesterified plasma fatty acids were quantified at baseline (0 weeks) and after 12 weeks on a diet. Results Compared to baseline, the L6 diet reduced esterified plasma LA and increased esterified n-3 PUFA concentrations (nmol/ml), but did not significantly change plasma arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) concentration. In addition, unesterified EPA concentration was increased significantly among unesterified fatty acids. The H3-L6 diet decreased esterified LA and AA concentrations, and produced more marked increases in esterified and unesterified n-3 PUFA concentrations. Conclusion Dietary n-6 PUFA lowering for 12 weeks significantly reduces LA and increases n-3 PUFA concentrations in plasma, without altering plasma AA concentration. A concurrent increase in dietary n-3 PUFA for 12 weeks further increases n-3 PUFA plasma concentrations, but also reduces AA. PMID:24675168

  6. DIETARY OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS MODIFIED THE ASSOCIATION OF PULMONARY FUNCTION WITH AIR POLLUTION IN ADOLESCENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous children's studies in North America and Germany have shown that ambient sulfate particles are associated with an increased prevalence of bronchitis and decreased lung function. We have now investigated the ability of dietary intake of anti-inflammatory omega-3 fatty aci...

  7. Dietary (n-3)-fatty acids, prostaglandins, and prolonged gestation in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.; Olsen, S.F.

    1988-01-01

    arachidonic acid-derived prostaglandins as well as stimulate formation of eicosapentaenoic acid-derived prostaglandins. The latter ones often have lower biological activity than the former ones. The effect of (n-3)-fatty acids on prostaglandin formation has been shown by analysis of prostaglandin metabolites......Prostaglandins, especially prostaglandin F2 alpha, are important regulators in the onset and maintenance of parturition in humans. Inhibition of prostaglandin formation by drugs can prolong gestation in humans. High dietary intake of long chain (n-3)-fatty acids can inhibit formation of many...... chain (n-3)-fatty acids. We have hypothesized that a high intake of long chain (n-3)-fatty acids prolongs gestation in humans by interfering with uterine prostaglandin formation, possibly by inhibiting formation of prostaglandin F2 alpha and prostaglandin E2. Preliminary results of an epidemiological...

  8. Dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids upregulate expression of FADS3 transcripts

    OpenAIRE

    Reardon, Holly T.; Hsieh, Andrea T.; Park, Woo Jung; Kothapalli, Kumar S.D.; Anthony, Joshua C.; Nathanielsz, Peter W.; Brenna, J. Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene family at 11q12-13.1 includes FADS1 and FADS2, both known to mediate biosynthesis of omega-3 and omega-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA). FADS3 is a putative desaturase due to its sequence similarity with FADS1 and FADS2, but its function is unknown. We have previously described 7 FADS3 alternative transcripts (AT) and 1 FADS2 AT conserved across multiple species. This study examined the effect of dietary LCPUFA levels on liver FADS gene e...

  9. Does Short-Term Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation Influence Brain Hippocampus Gene Expression of Zinc Transporter-3?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Farhana Ahmad Sopian

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dietary omega-3 fatty acids have been recognized to improve brain cognitive function. Deficiency leads to dysfunctional zinc metabolism associated with learning and memory impairment. The objective of this study is to explore the effect of short-term dietary omega-3 fatty acids on hippocampus gene expression at the molecular level in relation to spatial recognition memory in mice. A total of 24 male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into four groups and fed a standard pellet as a control group (CTL, n = 6, standard pellet added with 10% (w/w fish oil (FO, n = 6, 10% (w/w soybean oil (SO, n = 6 and 10% (w/w butter (BT, n = 6. After 3 weeks on the treatment diets, spatial-recognition memory was tested on a Y-maze. The hippocampus gene expression was determined using a real-time PCR. The results showed that 3 weeks of dietary omega-3 fatty acid supplementation improved cognitive performance along with the up-regulation of α-synuclein, calmodulin and transthyretin genes expression. In addition, dietary omega-3 fatty acid deficiency increased the level of ZnT3 gene and subsequently reduced cognitive performance in mice. These results indicate that the increased the ZnT3 levels caused by the deficiency of omega-3 fatty acids produced an abnormal zinc metabolism that in turn impaired the brain cognitive performance in mice.

  10. Effects of LPS and dietary free fatty acids on MCP-1 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and macrophages in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cullberg, K B; Larsen, Jens Ølholm; Pedersen, S B

    2014-01-01

    Effects of LPS and dietary free fatty acids on MCP-1 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and macrophages in vitro......Effects of LPS and dietary free fatty acids on MCP-1 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and macrophages in vitro...

  11. Dietary omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids modulate hepatic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadge, Saraswoti; Sharp, John Graham; Thiele, Geoffrey M; McGuire, Timothy R; Klassen, Lynell W; Duryee, Michael J; Britton, Holly C; Dafferner, Alicia J; Beck, Jordan; Black, Paul N; DiRusso, Concetta C; Talmadge, James

    2018-02-01

    Recent evidence has suggested that dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) modulate inflammation; however, few studies have focused on the pathobiology of PUFA using isocaloric and isolipidic diets and it is unclear if the associated pathologies are due to dietary PUFA composition, lipid metabolism or obesity, as most studies compare diets fed ad libitum. Our studies used isocaloric and isolipidic liquid diets (35% of calories from fat), with differing compositions of omega (ω)-6 or long chain (Lc) ω-3 PUFA that were pair-fed and assessed hepatic pathology, inflammation and lipid metabolism. Consistent with an isocaloric, pair-fed model we observed no significant difference in diet consumption between the groups. In contrast, the body and liver weight, total lipid level and abdominal fat deposits were significantly higher in mice fed an ω-6 diet. An analysis of the fatty acid profile in plasma and liver showed that mice on the ω-6 diet had significantly more arachidonic acid (AA) in the plasma and liver, whereas, in these mice ω-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) were not detected and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was significantly lower. Histopathologic analyses documented that mice on the ω-6 diet had a significant increase in macrovesicular steatosis, extramedullary myelopoiesis (EMM), apoptotic hepatocytes and decreased glycogen storage in lobular hepatocytes, and hepatocyte proliferation relative to mice fed the Lc ω-3 diet. Together, these results support PUFA dietary regulation of hepatic pathology and inflammation with implications for enteral feeding regulation of steatosis and other hepatic lesions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of dietary fatty acid supplements, varying in fatty acid composition, on milk fat secretion in dairy cattle fed diets supplemented to less than 3% total fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffel, C M; Crump, P M; Armentano, L E

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fatty acids can affect both milk fat yield and fatty acid (FA) composition. This relationship is well established when the dietary level of FA exceeds 3% of diet dry matter (DM). We could find no reports directly examining the effects of dietary FA profile on milk fat at levels below 3%. Twenty-four primiparous and 36 multiparous lactating cows were paired by production (1 high with 1 low, within parity) to form 30 experimental units. Pairs were fed 6 diets in five 6×6 balanced Latin squares with 21-d periods, and data were collected during the last 5d of each period. Two control diets were fed: a corn control diet (CC; 29% corn silage, 16% alfalfa silage, 19% corn grain, and 8% distillers grain on a DM basis) containing 1.8% FA; and a low-oil control diet (LOC; 9% corn silage, 35% alfalfa silage, 20% food-grade corn starch, and 8% corn gluten feed on a DM basis) containing 1.2% FA. A portion of the food-grade corn starch in LOC was replaced with 4 different FA supplements to create the 4 treatment diets. Treatments were 1.7% (DM basis) of a 50:50 blend of corn oil and high-linoleic safflower oil (LO), 1.7% high-oleic sunflower oil (OO), 1.7% palm oil (PO), or 1.8% calcium salts of palm fatty acids (PFA). The resultant diets were thus enriched in linoleic (LO), oleic (OO), or palmitic acid (PO and PFA). Dietary treatments did not affect dry matter intake. Addition of any of the fat sources to LOC resulted in increased milk yield, but milk fat yields and milk FA composition were variable for the different treatments. The LO treatment resulted in lower milk fat yield, fat concentration, and C16:0 yield but increased both trans-10 C18:1 and trans-10,cis-12 C18:2 yields compared with the other added FA treatments. Diets PO and PFA resulted in increased milk C16:0 yield and decreased total milk C18 yield compared with OO. Regression analysis revealed a negative coefficient for dietary linoleic acid content over basal (LOC) for both milk short-chain FA yield and

  13. Dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids induce plasminogen activator activity and DNA damage in rabbit spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokoli, A N; Lavrentiadou, S N; Zervos, I A; Tsantarliotou, M P; Georgiadis, M P; Nikolaidis, E A; Botsoglou, N; Boscos, C M; Taitzoglou, I A

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect(s) of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) on rabbit semen. Adult rabbit bucks were assigned to two groups that were given two diets, a standard diet (control) and a diet supplemented with ω-3 PUFA. Sperm samples were collected from all bucks with the use of an artificial vagina in 20-day intervals, for a total period of 120 days. The enrichment of membranes in ω-3 PUFA was manifested by the elevation of the 22:5 ω-3 (docosapentaenoic acid [DPA]) levels within 40 days. This increase in DPA content did not affect semen characteristics (i.e., concentration, motility and viability). However, it was associated with the induction of lipid peroxidation in spermatozoa, as determined on the basis of the malondialdehyde content. Lipid peroxidation was associated with DNA fragmentation in ω-3 PUFA-enriched spermatozoa and a concomitant increase in plasminogen activator (PA) activity. The effects of ω-3 PUFA on sperm cells were evident within 40 days of ω-3 PUFA dietary intake and exhibited peack values on day 120. Our findings suggest that an ω-3 PUFA-rich diet may not affect semen characteristics; however, it may have a negative impact on the oxidative status and DNA integrity of the spermatozoa, which was associated with an induction of PAs activity. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Effects of various dietary n-3 / n-6 fatty acid ratios on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Different combinations of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids were fed to broilers to establish their effect on the fatty acid composition of the broiler carcass and the abdominal fat pad. Six combinations of Canola acid oil (CAO, high levels of C18:3n-3 and monounsaturated fatty acids) and Famarol acid oil (FAO, high levels ...

  15. Erythrocyte levels compared with reported dietary intake of marine n-3 fatty acids in pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S.F.; Hansen, H.S.; Sandstrom, B.

    1995-01-01

    It is well established that marine n-3 fatty acids measured in erythrocyte phospholipids of non-pregnant subjects reflect the subjects' intake of these fatty acids. In 135 pregnant women in the 30th week of gestation we compared intake of marine n-3 fatty acids and energy, estimated by a combined...... acids in pregnant women may be employed as a qualitative method to rank subjects according to intake of marine n-3 fatty acids; (2) with respect to the power to explain FA-ratio variability, three simple marine food frequency questions were comparable with intake of marine n-3 fatty acids assessed...

  16. Dietary (n-6 : n-3) fatty acids alter plasma and tissue fatty acid composition in pregnant Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Amira Abdulbari; Abu Bakar, Md Zuki; Yong Meng, Goh; Mustapha, Noordin Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to study the effects of varying dietary levels of n-6 : n-3 fatty acid ratio on plasma and tissue fatty acid composition in rat. The treatment groups included control rats fed chow diet only, rats fed 50% soybean oil (SBO): 50% cod liver oil (CLO) (1 : 1), 84% SBO: 16% CLO (6 : 1), 96% SBO: 4% CLO (30 : 1). Blood samples were taken at day 15 of pregnancy, and the plasma and tissue were analyzed for fatty acid profile. The n-3 PUFA in plasma of Diet 1 : 1 group was significantly higher than the other diet groups, while the total n-6 PUFA in plasma was significantly higher in Diet 30 : 1 group as compared to the control and Diet 1 : 1 groups. The Diet 1 : 1 group showed significantly greater percentages of total n-3 PUFA and docosahexaenoic acid in adipose and liver tissue, and this clearly reflected the contribution of n-3 fatty acids from CLO. The total n-6 PUFA, linoleic acid, and arachidonic acid were significantly difference in Diet 30 : 1 as compared to Diet 1 : 1 and control group. These results demonstrated that the dietary ratio of n-6 : n-3 fatty acid ratio significantly affected plasma and tissue fatty acids profile in pregnant rat.

  17. Effects of dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids levels on egg and larval quality of Eurasian perch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henrotte, E.; Overton, Julia Lynne; Kestemont, P.

    2008-01-01

    Three groups of 40 perch breeders were reared in order to study the effects of 3 different levels of dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids on egg quality. Two experimental diets, R1 and R2 (n-3/n-6 = 0.13 and 35.54, respectively), were compared to one commercial food, R3 (n-3/n-6 = 3.48.). Spawning and...

  18. The Role for Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acids Supplementation in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Molfino

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Optimal nutrition is one of the most important determinants of healthier ageing, reducing the risk of disability, maintaining mental and physical functions, and thus preserving and ensuring a better quality of life. Dietary intake and nutrient absorption decline with age, thus increasing the risk of malnutrition, morbidity and mortality. Specific nutrients, particularly long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, might have the potential of preventing and reducing co-morbidities in older adults. Omega-3 PUFAs are able to modulate inflammation, hyperlipidemia, platelet aggregation, and hypertension. Different mechanisms contribute to these effects, including conditioning cell membrane function and composition, eicosanoid production, and gene expression. The present review analyzes the influence of omega-3 PUFAs status and intake on brain function, cardiovascular system, immune function, muscle performance and bone health in older adults. Omega-3 FAs may have substantial benefits in reducing the risk of cognitive decline in older people. The available data encourage higher intakes of omega-3 PUFAs in the diet or via specific supplements. More studies are needed to confirm the role of omega-3 FAs in maintaining bone health and preventing the loss of muscle mass and function associated with ageing. In summary, omega-3 PUFAs are now identified as potential key nutrients, safe and effective in the treatment and prevention of several negative consequences of ageing.

  19. Adaptive thermogenesis by dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: Emerging evidence and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Rong; Koehler, Karsten; Chung, Soonkyu

    2018-04-19

    Brown/beige fat plays a crucial role in maintaining energy homeostasis through non-shivering thermogenesis in response to cold temperature and excess nutrition (adaptive thermogenesis). Although numerous molecular and genetic regulators have been identified, relatively little information is available regarding thermogenic dietary molecules. Recently, a growing body of evidence suggests that high consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) or activation of GPR120, a membrane receptor of n-3 PUFA, stimulate adaptive thermogenesis. In this review, we summarize the emerging evidence that n-3 PUFA promote brown/beige fat formation and highlight the potential mechanisms whereby n-3 PUFA require GPR120 as a signaling platform or act independently. Human clinical trials are revisited in the context of energy expenditure. Additionally, we explore some future perspective that n-3 PUFA intake might be a useful strategy to boost or sustain metabolic activities of brown/beige fat at different lifecycle stages of pregnancy and senescence. Given that a high ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFA intake is associated with the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes, understanding the impact of n-6/n-3 ratio on energy expenditure and adaptive thermogenesis will inform the implementation of a novel nutritional strategy for preventing obesity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The role for dietary omega-3 fatty acids supplementation in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molfino, Alessio; Gioia, Gianfranco; Rossi Fanelli, Filippo; Muscaritoli, Maurizio

    2014-10-03

    Optimal nutrition is one of the most important determinants of healthier ageing, reducing the risk of disability, maintaining mental and physical functions, and thus preserving and ensuring a better quality of life. Dietary intake and nutrient absorption decline with age, thus increasing the risk of malnutrition, morbidity and mortality. Specific nutrients, particularly long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), might have the potential of preventing and reducing co-morbidities in older adults. Omega-3 PUFAs are able to modulate inflammation, hyperlipidemia, platelet aggregation, and hypertension. Different mechanisms contribute to these effects, including conditioning cell membrane function and composition, eicosanoid production, and gene expression. The present review analyzes the influence of omega-3 PUFAs status and intake on brain function, cardiovascular system, immune function, muscle performance and bone health in older adults. Omega-3 FAs may have substantial benefits in reducing the risk of cognitive decline in older people. The available data encourage higher intakes of omega-3 PUFAs in the diet or via specific supplements. More studies are needed to confirm the role of omega-3 FAs in maintaining bone health and preventing the loss of muscle mass and function associated with ageing. In summary, omega-3 PUFAs are now identified as potential key nutrients, safe and effective in the treatment and prevention of several negative consequences of ageing.

  1. Theoretical dietary modelling of Australian seafood species to meet long-chain omega 3 fatty acid dietary recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A. Grieger

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several agencies recommend seafood to be consumed 2–3 times per week. In Australia, there is a lack of nutrient composition data for seafood species and it is not known whether including different seafood species in a diet would provide sufficient long-chain omega 3 fatty acids (LC n–3 PUFA to meet various national recommendations. Objective: To utilise recent nutrient composition data for major Australian seafood groups (n=24 with the addition of two tuna options (total n=26 to: 1 determine whether including these species into a diet based on the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE will achieve LC n–3 PUFA recommendations [Adequate Intake (AI: 160 mg/d men, 90 mg/d women], Suggested Dietary Target (SDT, 500 mg/d Heart Foundation (HF recommendation and 2 determine the weekly number of servings of seafood to meet recommendations using either lower fat (n=23, <10% total fat or higher fat (n=3,≥10% total fat seafood. Design: Two simulation models incorporated all 26 species of seafood or only lower fat seafood into a diet based on the AGHE. Two further models identified the number of servings of lower or higher fat seafood required to meet recommendations. Results: Including 2 and 3 servings/week of any seafood would enable 89% of women and 66% of men to meet the AI. Including only lower fat seafood would enable 83% of women and 47% of men to meet the AI. Half a serving/week of higher fat seafood would enable 100% of men and women to meet the AI. Conclusions: Including the recommended 2–3 servings of seafood/week requires at least some higher fat seafood to be consumed in order for most men and women to meet the AI. Further messages and nutrition resources are needed which provide options on how to increase intake of LC n–3 PUFA, specifically through consumption of the higher fat seafood.

  2. Neuroinflammation and aging: influence of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid*

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    Layé Sophie

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The innate immune system of the brain is principally composed of microglial cells and astrocytes, which, once activated, protect neurons against noxious agents or lesions. Activated glial cells produce inflammatory cytokines that act specifically through receptors expressed in the brain, leading to the development of altered emotional and cognitive behavior. These behavioral alterations cease along with the synthesis of brain cytokines. When the level of expression of these cytokines remains high, they become toxic to neurons possibly leading to neuronal death, as observed in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease. Omega-3 (n-3 type polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs are essential nutrients and fundamental components of neuronal and glial cell membranes. Additionally, they have immunomodulatory properties. They accumulate in the brain during the perinatal period in a dietary supply-dependant fashion. Their brain levels diminish with age, but can be corrected by a diet enriched in n-3 PUFAs. The increasing exposure of the population to diets unbalanced in n-3 PUFAs could contribute to the deleterious effect of inflammatory cytokines in the brain.

  3. Discrepancy between Knowledge and Perceptions of Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intake Compared with the Omega-3 Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowmyanarayanan V. Thuppal

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the relationship between perceptions of nutrient adequacy and biomarkers of nutrition status. This cross-sectional study of U.S. and German adults (n = 200; 18–80 years compared dietary practices, knowledge, and beliefs of omega-3 fatty acids (O3-FA with the omega-3 index (O3-I, an erythrocyte-based biomarker associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD risk. More than half of adults believed that O3-FAs are beneficial for heart and brain health and could correctly identify the food sources of O3-FA. However, the mean O3-I in the U.S. (4.3% and Germany (5.5% puts the majority of adults sampled (99% in intermediate or high CVD-risk categories. More Americans were considered at high CVD-risk (40% when compared with Germans (10%. In the U.S., but not Germany, women had a significantly higher O3-I than men (4.8% vs. 3.8%, p < 0.001. In the intermediate CVD-risk group, about one-third of adults in both countries (30% in the U.S. and 27% in Germany believed their diet was adequate in O3-FA. Notably, mean O3-I concentrations did not significantly differ with dietary perceptions of adequacy. More adults in Germany (26% than in the U.S. (10% believed that dietary supplements are needed to achieve a balanced diet. In spite of adequate knowledge about food sources and a consistent belief that O3-FA are important for health, very few participants had O3-I concentrations in the range for CVD protection.

  4. Erythrocyte levels compared with reported dietary intake of marine n-3 fatty acids in pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S.F.; Hansen, Harald S.; Sandstrom, B.

    1995-01-01

    .54 respectively. In a linear regression model with three frequency questions about marine sandwiches, marine cooked meals and fish oil as explanatory variables, and the FA-ratio as dependent variable, the multiple correlation coefficient was 0.46. Conclusions from the study were (1) levels of erythrocyte fatty...... acids in pregnant women may be employed as a qualitative method to rank subjects according to intake of marine n-3 fatty acids; (2) with respect to the power to explain FA-ratio variability, three simple marine food frequency questions were comparable with intake of marine n-3 fatty acids assessed...

  5. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids and locomotor activity in an animal model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD

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    Klaus W. Lange

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is the most frequent behavioral disorder of childhood and is characterized by hyperactivity, attention problems and impulsivity. Pharmacological and behavioral therapies have been shown to be effective. In addition, the role of dietary compounds in the etiology and possibly the treatment of ADHD has attracted increasing attention. For example, the lack of dietary essential fatty acids has been suggested to be associated with symptoms of ADHD in humans.Objective: To investigate the effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs on locomotor activity in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR which has been proposed as an animal model of ADHD.Methods: Two groups of randomly assigned spontaneously hypertensive rats were fed with either n-3 PUFA-deficient or n-3 PUFA-enriched food (based on AIN93G for six weeks and this was continued during the phase of behavioral testing. Locomotor activity was subsequently assessed using an open field test.Results: The results showed a marked difference in locomotor activity between the two groups of SHRs. In comparison with rats fed with n-3 deficient food, the animals on an n-3 enriched diet showed a statistically significant decrease in motor activity as assessed by the distance traveled.Conclusions: The present study demonstrates a marked reduction in locomotor activity following an n-3 PUFA-enriched diet in SHRs, i.e. the dietary enrichment with n-3 PUFAs reduced the motor activity in an established animal model of ADHD. Dietary n-3 PUFAs may therefore play a role in the pathophysiology of ADHD.Key words: omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, ADHD, animal model, spontaneously hypertensive rat, SHR, motor activity

  6. Effect of Different Dietary n-6 to n-3 Fatty Acid Ratios on the Performance and Fatty Acid Composition in Muscles of Broiler Chickens

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    G. P. Mandal

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the different dietary ratios of n-6 to n-3 (n-6/n-3 fatty acid (FA on performance and n-6/n-3 FA in muscles of broiler chickens. A total of 300 one-day-old Cobb chicks were randomly assigned to 3 treatments of 10 replicates in each (10 birds/replicate. Birds were fed on a corn-soybean meal-based diet containing 1% oil during starter (day 1 to 21 and 2% oil during finisher (day 22 to 39 phases, respectively. Treatments of high, medium and low dietary n-6/n-3 FA were formulated by replacing rice bran oil with linseed oil to achieve n-6/n-3 FA close to >20:1, 10:1 and 5:1, respectively. Average daily gain, average daily feed intake, and feed conversion ratio were similar (p>0.05 among the treatments. Serum glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations were not affected (p>0.05 by dietary treatments. In breast, concentration of C18:3n-3 was significantly greater (p = 0.001 for medium and low vs high n-6/n-3 FA, while concentrations of C20:5n-3, C22:6n-3, total n-3 FA, and n-6/n-3 FA were significantly higher for low vs medium, and medium vs high dietary n-6/n-3 FA. In contrast, concentrations of C18:2 and mono-unsaturated FA (MUFA were lower for low vs high dietary n-6/n-3 FA. In thigh muscles, concentrations of C20:5n-3 were higher (p<0.05 for medium and low vs high dietary n-6/n-3 FA, and concentrations of C18:3n-3, C22:6, and n-3 FA were greater (p<0.05 for medium vs high, low vs medium dietary n-6/n-3 FA. However, concentrations of C18:1, MUFA, n-6/n-3 were lower (p<0.05 for low and medium vs high dietary n-6/n-3 FA. In conclusion, lowering the dietary n-6/n-3 FA did not affect the performance of chickens, but enhanced beneficial long-chain n-3 FA and decreased n-6/n-3 FA in chicken breast and thigh, which could be advantageous for obtaining healthy chicken products.

  7. New insights into the health effects of dietary saturated and omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Lorgeril Michel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cardiovascular diseases and cancers are leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Reducing dietary saturated fat and replacing it with polyunsaturated fat is still the main dietary strategy to prevent cardiovascular diseases, although major flaws have been reported in the analyses supporting this approach. Recent studies introducing the concept of myocardial preconditioning have opened new avenues to understand the complex interplay between the various lipids and the risk of cardiovascular diseases. The optimal dietary fat profile includes a low intake of both saturated and omega-6 fatty acids and a moderate intake of omega-3 fatty acids. This profile is quite similar to the Mediterranean diet. On the other hand, recent studies have found a positive association between omega-6 and breast cancer risk. In contrast, omega-3 fatty acids do have anticancer properties. It has been shown that certain (Mediterranean polyphenols significantly increase the endogenous synthesis of omega-3 whereas high intake of omega-6 decreases it. Finally, epidemiological studies suggest that a high omega-3 to omega-6 ratio may be the optimal strategy to decrease breast cancer risk. Thus, the present high intake of omega-6 in many countries is definitely not the optimal strategy to prevent cardiovascular disease and cancers. A moderate intake of plant and marine omega-3 in the context of the traditional Mediterranean diet (low in saturated and omega-6 fatty acids but high in plant monounsaturated fat appears to be the best approach to reduce the risk of both cardiovascular diseases and cancers, in particular breast cancer.

  8. Effects of the Dietary ω3:ω6 Fatty Acid Ratio on Body Fat and Inflammation in Zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Mickie L; Pegues, Melissa A; Szalai, Alexander J; Ghanta, Vithal K; D'Abramo, Louis R; Watts, Stephen A

    2015-08-01

    The diets of populations in industrialized nations have shifted to dramatically increased consumption of ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), with a corresponding decrease in the consumption of ω3 PUFA. This dietary shift may be related to observed increases in obesity, chronic inflammation, and comorbidities in the human population. We examined the effects of ω3:ω6 fatty acid ratios in the context of constant total dietary lipid on the growth, total body fat, and responses of key inflammatory markers in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio). Zebrafish were fed diets in which the ω3:ω6 PUFA ratios were representative of those in a purported ancestral diet (1:2) and more contemporary Western diets (1:5 and 1:8). After 5 mo, weight gain (fat free mass) of zebrafish was highest for those that received the 1:8 ratio treatment, but total body fat was lowest at this ratio. Measured by quantitative real-time RT-PCR, mRNA levels from liver samples of 3 chronic inflammatory response genes (C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A, and vitellogenin) were lowest at the 1:8 ratio. These data provide evidence of the ability to alter zebrafish growth and body composition through the quality of dietary lipid and support the application of this model to investigations of human health and disease related to fat metabolism.

  9. Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acid Deficiency and High Fructose Intake in the Development of Metabolic Syndrome, Brain Metabolic Abnormalities, and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artemis P. Simopoulos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Western diets are characterized by both dietary omega-3 fatty acid deficiency and increased fructose intake. The latter found in high amounts in added sugars such as sucrose and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS. Both a low intake of omega-3 fatty acids or a high fructose intake contribute to metabolic syndrome, liver steatosis or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, promote brain insulin resistance, and increase the vulnerability to cognitive dysfunction. Insulin resistance is the core perturbation of metabolic syndrome. Multiple cognitive domains are affected by metabolic syndrome in adults and in obese adolescents, with volume losses in the hippocampus and frontal lobe, affecting executive function. Fish oil supplementation maintains proper insulin signaling in the brain, ameliorates NAFLD and decreases the risk to metabolic syndrome suggesting that adequate levels of omega-3 fatty acids in the diet can cope with the metabolic challenges imposed by high fructose intake in Western diets which is of major public health importance. This review presents the current status of the mechanisms involved in the development of the metabolic syndrome, brain insulin resistance, and NAFLD a most promising area of research in Nutrition for the prevention of these conditions, chronic diseases, and improvement of Public Health.

  10. A combination of dietary N-3 fatty acids and a cyclooxygenase-1 inhibitor attenuates nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswathi, Viswanathan; Perriotte-Olson, Curtis; Ganesan, Murali; Desouza, Cyrus V; Alnouti, Yazen; Duryee, Michael J; Thiele, Geoffrey M; Nordgren, Tara M; Clemens, Dahn L

    2017-04-01

    We sought to determine whether a combination of purified n-3 fatty acids (n-3) and SC-560 (SC), a cyclooxygenase-1-specific inhibitor, is effective in ameliorating nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in obesity. Female wild-type mice were fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet (HF) supplemented with n-3 in the presence or absence of SC. Mice treated with SC alone exhibited no change in liver lipids, whereas n-3-fed mice tended to have lower hepatic lipids. Mice given n-3+SC had significantly lower liver lipids compared with HF controls indicating enhanced lipid clearance. Total and sulfated bile acids were significantly higher only in n-3+SC-treated mice compared with chow diet (CD) controls. Regarding mechanisms, the level of pregnane X receptor (PXR), a nuclear receptor regulating drug/bile detoxification, was significantly higher in mice given n-3 or n-3+SC. Studies in precision-cut liver slices and in cultured hepatoma cells showed that n-3+SC enhanced not only the expression/activation of PXR and its target genes but also the expression of farnesoid X receptor (FXR), another regulator of bile synthesis/clearance, indicating that n-3+SC can induce both PXR and FXR. The mRNA level of FGFR4 which inhibits bile formation showed a significant reduction in Huh 7 cells upon n-3 and n-3+SC treatment. PXR overexpression in hepatoma cells confirmed that n-3 or SC each induced the expression of PXR target genes and in combination had an enhanced effect. Our findings suggest that combining SC with n-3 potentiates its lipid-lowering effect, in part, by enhanced PXR and/or altered FXR/FGFR4 signaling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Dietary methionine and n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio reduce adverse effects of infectious bursal disease in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroufyan, E; Kasim, A; Ebrahimi, M; Loh, T C; Hair-Bejo, M; Soleimani, A F

    2012-09-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the modulatory effects of dietary methionine and n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) ratio on immune response and performance of infectious bursal disease (IBD)-challenged broiler chickens. In total, 350 one-day-old male broiler chicks were assigned to 1 of the 6 dietary treatment groups in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement. There were 3 n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios (45, 5.5, and 1.5) and 2 levels of methionine (NRC recommendation and twice NRC recommendation). The results showed that birds fed with dietary n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio of 5.5 had higher BW, lower feed intake, and superior FCR than other groups. However, the highest antibody response was observed in birds with dietary n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio of 1.5. Lowering n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio reduced bursa lesion score equally in birds fed with n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio of 5.5 and 1.5. Supplementation of methionine by twice the recommendation also improved FCR and reduced feed intake and bursa lesion score. However, in this study, the optimum performance (as measured by BW, feed intake, and FCR) did not coincide with the optimum immune response (as measured by antibody titer). It seems that dietary n-3 PUFA modulates the broiler chicken performance and immune response in a dose-dependent but nonlinear manner. Therefore, it can be suggested that a balance of moderate level of dietary n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio (5.5) and methionine level (twice recommendation) might enhance immune response together with performance in IBD-challenged broiler chickens.

  12. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids and ionizing irradiation on human breast cancer xenograft growth and angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Ivan L

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of an omega-3 (n-3 fatty acid enriched diet alone and in combination with gamma irradiation (IR therapy in nude mice bearing a human MDA-MB231 breast cancer xenograft were tested. The cancer cells were injected into the mammary fat pad of young female mice. Six weeks later, mice were randomly divided into two diet groups: 1 mice with 10% corn oil (rich in omega 6 fatty acids in their food, 2 mice consuming a 10% fat diet that was enriched in n-3 fatty acids. After two weeks on the diet, treatment with 200 cGy of IR every second day for four treatments (total 800 cGy was initiated on half of the mice from each diet group. Some mice in each of the 4 groups were euthanized 24 hours after the end of IR while the remaining mice were followed for 3 additional weeks. Tumor sections were stained for endothelial cells with CD31 and PAS and for hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-α. Results The tumor cortex within 100 microns of the well-vascularized capsule had little vascularization. Blood vessels, capillaries, and endothelial pseudopods were found at areas greater than 100 microns from the capsule (subcortex. Mice on the corn oil diet and treated with IR 24 hours previously or non-irradiated mice fed the n-3 diet had tumors with fewer blood vessels in the subcortex and more endothelial pseudopods projecting into hypoxic (HIF- α positive areas than did mice from the non-irradiated corn oil fed group. The tumor growth rate of mice that received IR or that were fed the n-3 fatty acid enriched diet was significantly slower than in the mice fed the 10% corn oil diet. Harmful side effects were found only in the IR treated mice. Conclusion The omega-3 fatty acid enriched diet proved to be a safe means for retarding tumor growth and vascularization.

  13. Effects of dietary omega-3 and -6 supplementations on phospholipid fatty acid composition in mice uterus during window of pre-implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattahi, Amir; Darabi, Masoud; Farzadi, Laya; Salmassi, Ali; Latifi, Zeinab; Mehdizadeh, Amir; Shaaker, Maghsood; Ghasemnejad, Tohid; Roshangar, Leila; Nouri, Mohammad

    2018-03-01

    Since fatty acid composition of uterus phospholipids is likely to influence embryo implantation, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary omega-3 and -6 fatty acids on implantation rate as well as uterine phospholipid fatty acids composition during mice pre-implantation period. Sixty female mice were randomly distributed into:1) control (standard pellet), 2) omega-3 (standard pellet + 10% w/w of omega-3 fatty acids) and 3) omega-6 (standard pellet + 10% w/w of omega-6 fatty acids). Uterine phospholipid fatty acid composition during the pre-implantation window (days 1-5 of pregnancy) was analyzed using gas-chromatography. The implantation rate on the fifth day of pregnancy was also determined. Our results showed that on days 1, 2 and 3 of pregnancy, the levels of arachidonic acid (ARA) as well as total omega-6 fatty acids were significantly higher and the levels of linolenic acid and total omega-3 fatty acids were statistically lower in the omega-6 group compared to the omega-3 group (p omega-6 fatty acids, and poly-unsaturated fatty acids levels were significantly different between the two dietary supplemented groups (p omega-6 fatty acids, especially ARA, with the implantation rate. The present study showed that diets rich in omega-3 and -6 fatty acids could differently modify uterine phospholipid fatty acid composition and uterine levels of phospholipid ARA, and that the total omega-6 fatty acids had a positive association with the implantation rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Potential for dietary ω-3 fatty acids to prevent nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and reduce the risk of primary liver cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jump, Donald B; Depner, Christopher M; Tripathy, Sasmita; Lytle, Kelli A

    2015-11-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has increased in parallel with central obesity, and its prevalence is anticipated to increase as the obesity epidemic remains unabated. NAFLD is now the most common cause of chronic liver disease in developed countries and is defined as excessive lipid accumulation in the liver, that is, hepatosteatosis. NAFLD ranges in severity from benign fatty liver to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and NASH is characterized by hepatic injury, inflammation, oxidative stress, and fibrosis. NASH can progress to cirrhosis, and cirrhosis is a risk factor for primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The prevention of NASH will lower the risk of cirrhosis and NASH-associated HCC. Our studies have focused on NASH prevention. We developed a model of NASH by using mice with the LDL cholesterol receptor gene ablated fed the Western diet (WD). The WD induces a NASH phenotype in these mice that is similar to that seen in humans and includes robust induction of hepatic steatosis, inflammation, oxidative stress, and fibrosis. With the use of transcriptomic, lipidomic, and metabolomic approaches, we examined the capacity of 2 dietary ω-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5ω-3; EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6ω-3; DHA), to prevent WD-induced NASH. Dietary DHA was superior to EPA at attenuating WD-induced changes in plasma lipids and hepatic injury and at reversing WD effects on hepatic metabolism, oxidative stress, and fibrosis. The outcome of these studies suggests that DHA may be useful in preventing NASH and reducing the risk of HCC. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Dietary supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ameliorates acute pneumonia induced by Klebsiella pneumoniae in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sonica; Chhibber, Sanjay; Mohan, Harsh; Sharma, Saroj

    2013-07-01

    The immune benefits associated with the optimal intake of dietary fatty acids are widely known. The objective of the present investigation was to elucidate the role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) food source on acute pneumonia induced by Klebsiella pneumoniae. Three different n-3 PUFA preparations (cod liver oil, Maxigard, and flaxseed oil) were orally supplemented and infection was induced in different groups of experimental mice. Mice fed olive oil and normal saline served as oil and saline controls, respectively. After 2 weeks of fatty acid feeding, no effect on the establishment of infection was observed when acute pneumonia was induced in animals. On the other hand, 6 weeks of n-3 PUFA administration was found to improve resistance in mice, as reduced lung bacterial load coupled with significant improvement in pathology was seen in infected mice. Alveolar macrophages collected from all 3 groups of mice fed n-3 PUFA exhibited a significant decrease in the level of apoptosis following infection with K. pneumoniae and an enhanced in vitro phagocytic potential for the pathogen. Lower lung levels of nitric oxide, malondialdehyde, and lactate dehydrogenase were associated with a decrease in the severity of tissue damage. There was a significant increase in the lung levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β)). No significant change was observed in the levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10). This study highlights that dietary n-3 PUFA supplementation exerts an overall beneficial effect against acute experimental pneumonia. This mechanism is operative through upregulation of nonspecific and specific immune defenses of the host.

  16. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Intake to Regulate Helicobacter pylori-Associated Gastric Diseases as Nonantimicrobial Dietary Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Min Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs, commonly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, have been acknowledged as essential long-chain fatty acids imposing either optimal health promotion or the rescuing from chronic inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis, fatty liver, and various inflammatory gastrointestinal diseases. Recent studies dealing with EPA and DHA have sparked highest interests because detailed molecular mechanisms had been documented with the identification of its receptor, G protein coupled receptor, and GPR120. In this review article, we have described clear evidences showing that n-3 PUFAs could reduce various Helicobacter pylori- (H. pylori- associated gastric diseases and extended to play even cancer preventive outcomes including H. pylori-associated gastric cancer by influencing multiple targets, including proliferation, survival, angiogenesis, inflammation, and metastasis. Since our previous studies strongly concluded that nonantimicrobial dietary approach for reducing inflammation, for instance, application of phytoceuticals, probiotics, natural products including Korean red ginseng, and walnut plentiful of n-3 PUFAs, might be prerequisite step for preventing H. pylori-associated gastric cancer as well as facilitating the rejuvenation of precancerous atrophic gastritis, these beneficial lipids can restore or modify inflammation-associated lipid distortion and correction of altered lipid rafts to send right signaling to maintain healthy stomach even after chronic H. pylori infection.

  17. Effect of Dietary n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Oxidant/Antioxidant Status in Macrosomic Offspring of Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Guermouche

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the effect of dietary n-3 PUFA on oxidant/antioxidant status, in vitro very low and low density lipoprotein (VLDL-LDL, and VLDL-LDL-fatty acid composition in macrosomic pups of diabetic mothers. We hypothesized that n-3 PUFA would improve oxidative stress in macrosomia. Diabetes was induced in female Wistar rats fed with the ISIO diet (control or with the EPAX diet (enriched in n-3 PUFAs, by streptozotocin. The macrosomic pups were killed at birth (day 0 and at adulthood (day 90. Lipid parameters and VLDL-LDL-fatty acid composition were investigated. The oxidant/antioxidant status was determined by measuring plasma oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC, hydroperoxides, carbonyl proteins, and VLDL-LDL oxidation. Macrosomic rats of ISIO fed diabetic mothers showed an increase in plasma and VLDL-LDL-triglycerides and VLDL-LDL-cholesterol levels and altered VLDL-LDL-fatty acid composition. Plasma ORAC was low with high hydroperoxide and carbonyl protein levels. The in vitro oxidizability of VLDL-LDL was enhanced in these macrosomic rats. The EPAX diet corrected lipid parameters and improved oxidant/antioxidant status but increased VLDL-LDL susceptibility to oxidation. Macrosomia is associated with lipid abnormalities and oxidative stress. n-3 PUFA exerts favorable effects on lipid metabolism and on the oxidant/antioxidant status of macrosomic rats. However, there are no evident effects on VLDL-LDL oxidation.

  18. C-reactive protein, dietary n-3 fatty acids, and the extent of coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Trine; Skou, Helle Aarup; Hansen, Vibeke Ellegaard

    2001-01-01

    The acute-phase reactant C-reactive protein (CRP) has emerged as an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease. Experimental and clinical studies provide evidence of anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) derived from fish. We have studied the effect of marin.......003). The inverse correlation between CRP and DHA may reflect an anti-inflammatory effect of DHA in patients with stable coronary artery disease and suggest a novel mechanism by which fish consumption may decrease the risk of coronary artery disease. (C) 2001 by Excerpta Medica, Inc....

  19. Enrichment of poultry products with omega3 fatty acids by dietary supplementation with the alga Nannochloropsis and mantur oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitsan, Z; Mokady, S; Sukenik, A

    1999-12-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficiency of the microalga Nannochloropsis sp. (Nanno.), as a supplement to laying hens' diet, for the production of enriched eggs and meat with omega3 fatty acids (FA). Nanno. has a unique FA composition, namely, the occurrence of a high concentration of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 omega3) and the absence of other omega3 FA. The effect of supplementing diets with Nanno. on omega3 FA levels in eggs, plasma, liver, and thigh muscle was compared to that of mantur oil, high in alpha-linolenic acid (LNA; 18:3 omega3). Nanno. is rich also in carotenoids, which may be useful for egg yolk pigmentation. The observed effect of Nanno. supplementation on yolk pigmentation was dose responsive, in both the rate of coloration and the color intensity. Addition of enzyme preparations (glucanase plus cellulase or glucanase plus pectinase) slightly elevated the yolk color score. The most prominent changes in the level of omega3 FA in egg yolk were evident when the diets were supplemented with 1% Nanno. or mantur lipid extracts. Levels of dietary algal meal (0.1-1.0%) had low and inconsistent effects on the level of yolk omega3 FA. Algal EPA is not accumulated in the liver or in the egg yolk; it is apparently converted and deposited as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). LNA from mantur oil was partially converted to DHA, and both DHA and LNA were deposited in egg yolks and livers. It is suggested that the absence of DHA and EPA from thigh muscle is due to the small amount of dietary omega3 FA used in this work, compared to other studies, and to the possibility that in laying hens the egg yolk has a priority on dietary FA over that of muscles.

  20. Time trend investigation of PCBs, PBDEs, and organochlorine pesticides in selected n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid rich dietary fish oil and vegetable oil supplements; nutritional relevance for human essential n-3 fatty acid requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Miriam N; Covaci, Adrian; Gheorghe, Adriana; Schepens, Paul

    2004-03-24

    In addition to being used in the food and animal feed industry, fish oils have also been used traditionally as dietary supplements. Due to the presence of long-chain n-3 fatty acids, fish oils have therapeutic benefits in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular, immunological, and arthritic diseases, as well as childhood deficiency diseases such as rickets, because of a high content of vitamin D. However, fish oils are also susceptible to contamination with lipophilic organic chemicals that are now ubiquitous contaminants of marine ecosystems. Many vegetable oils are sources of the shorter chain precursor forms of n-3 fatty acids, and in recent years the specialist dietary supplement market has expanded to include these oils in a variety of different formulations. This paper reports analytical results of selected contaminants, including polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers, for a range of commercially available n-3 fatty acid rich fish and vegetable oil dietary supplements. Using principal component analysis, the values are compared with historic samples to elucidate time trends in contamination profiles. Levels of contaminants are discussed in relation to the nutritional benefits to the consumer of long- and short-chain forms of n-3 fatty acids.

  1. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and HER2-positive breast cancer: interest of the fat-1 transgenic mouse model over conventional dietary supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zuquan; Bidu, Célia; Bellenger, Sandrine; Narce, Michel; Bellenger, Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    Overexpression of the tyrosine kinase receptor ErbB2/HER2/Neu, occurs in 25%-30% of invasive breast cancer (BC) with poor patient prognosis. Even if numerous studies have shown prevention of breast cancer by n-3 fatty acid intake, the experimental conditions under which n-3 fatty acids exert their protective effect have been variable from study to study, preventing unifying conclusions. Due to confounding factors, inconsistencies still remain regarding protective effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on BC. When animals are fed with dietary supplementation in n-3 fatty acids (the traditional approach to modify tissue content and decrease the n-6/n-3 ratio) complex dietary interactions can occur among dietary lipids (antioxidants, vitamins…) that can modulate the activity of n-3 fatty acids. So, what are the specific roles of these n-3 PUFA in reducing breast cancer risk and particularly preventing HER2-positive breast cancer? In this review, we discuss crucial points that may account for discrepancies of results and provide a highly effective genetic approach that can eliminate confounding factors of diet for evaluating the molecular mechanisms of n-3 PUFA in HER2 signaling pathway regulation. The fat-1 transgenic mouse model is capable of converting n-6 to n-3 fatty acids leading to an increase in n-3 fatty acid content with a balanced n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio in all tissues. The fat-1 mouse model allows well-controlled studies in HER2-positive breast cancer prevention to be performed, without the conflict of potential confounding factors of diet. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Plasma and dietary omega-3 fatty acids, fish intake, and heart failure risk in the Physicians' Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, Jemma B; Tsai, Michael Y; Hanson, Naomi Q; Gaziano, J Michael; Djoussé, Luc

    2012-10-01

    Data on the relation of plasma and dietary omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FAs) with heart failure (HF) risk have been inconsistent. We evaluated the relation of n-3 FAs with HF in US male physicians. We used nested case-control (n = 1572) and prospective cohort study designs (n = 19,097). Plasma phospholipid n-3 FAs were measured by using gas chromatography, and food-frequency questionnaires were used to assess dietary n-3 FAs and fish intake. Incident HF was ascertained via annual follow-up questionnaires and validated in a subsample. The mean age was 58.7 y at blood collection. In a multivariable model, plasma α-linolenic acid (ALA) was associated with a lower risk of HF in a nonlinear fashion (P-quadratic trend = 0.02), and the lowest OR was observed in quintile 4 (0.66; 95% CI: 0.47, 0.94). Plasma EPA and DHA were not associated with HF, whereas plasma docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) showed a nonlinear inverse relation with HF for quintile 2 (OR: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.39, 0.79). Dietary marine n-3 FAs showed a trend toward a lower risk of HF in quintile 4 (HR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.64, 1.02) and a nonlinear pattern across quintiles. Fish intake was associated with a lower risk of HF, with RRs of ~0.70 for all categories of fish consumption greater than one serving per month. Our data are consistent with an inverse and nonlinear relation of plasma phospholipid ALA and DPA, but not EPA or DHA, with HF risk. Fish consumption greater than once per month was associated with a lower HF risk.

  3. Plasma and dietary omega-3 fatty acids, fish intake, and heart failure risk in the Physicians’ Health Study123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, Jemma B; Tsai, Michael Y; Hanson, Naomi Q; Gaziano, J Michael; Djoussé, Luc

    2012-01-01

    Background: Data on the relation of plasma and dietary omega-3 (n–3) fatty acids (FAs) with heart failure (HF) risk have been inconsistent. Objective: We evaluated the relation of n−3 FAs with HF in US male physicians. Design: We used nested case-control (n = 1572) and prospective cohort study designs (n = 19,097). Plasma phospholipid n−3 FAs were measured by using gas chromatography, and food-frequency questionnaires were used to assess dietary n−3 FAs and fish intake. Incident HF was ascertained via annual follow-up questionnaires and validated in a subsample. Results: The mean age was 58.7 y at blood collection. In a multivariable model, plasma α-linolenic acid (ALA) was associated with a lower risk of HF in a nonlinear fashion (P-quadratic trend = 0.02), and the lowest OR was observed in quintile 4 (0.66; 95% CI: 0.47, 0.94). Plasma EPA and DHA were not associated with HF, whereas plasma docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) showed a nonlinear inverse relation with HF for quintile 2 (OR: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.39, 0.79). Dietary marine n−3 FAs showed a trend toward a lower risk of HF in quintile 4 (HR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.64, 1.02) and a nonlinear pattern across quintiles. Fish intake was associated with a lower risk of HF, with RRs of ∼0.70 for all categories of fish consumption greater than one serving per month. Conclusions: Our data are consistent with an inverse and nonlinear relation of plasma phospholipid ALA and DPA, but not EPA or DHA, with HF risk. Fish consumption greater than once per month was associated with a lower HF risk. PMID:22952185

  4. Distribution and mobility of omega 3 fatty acids in rainbow trout fed varying levels and types of dietary lipid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castledine, A J; Buckley, J T

    1980-04-01

    The availability of essential fatty acids in fish neutral lipid to tissue phospholipids was determined under conditions of adequate and inadequate essential fatty acid intake as well as during fasting. Juvenile rainbow trout were fed a semi-purified diet containing varying levels of cod liver oil, with or without supplementary olein. Fatty acid analysis indicated that in all treatments the neutral lipid pool was not turned over during feeding but was enhanced by exogenous or endogenously synthesized fatty acids. Fish that received diets devoid of essential fatty acids maintained virtually all of the docosahexenoic acid originally present in each lipid pool. Fish fed diets containing essential fatty acids deposited them in proportion to the dietary levels. After a 4-week fast, no change was noted in the relative levels of fatty acids in neutral lipid indicating that all fatty acids in neutral lipid were catabolized equally--including essential fatty acids. During fasting there was a selective retention of docosahexenoic and linoleic acids in the phospholipid pool.

  5. Ratio of Dietary n-6/n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Independently Related to Muscle Mass Decline in Hemodialysis Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te-Chih Wong

    Full Text Available n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs might be useful nutritional strategy for treating patients with sarcopenia. We evaluated the effect of the intake of dietary n-3 PUFAs on the skeletal muscle mass (SMM, appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM, and its determinants in patients receiving standard hemodialysis (HD treatment for the management of end stage renal disease.In this cross-sectional study, data of 111 HD patients were analyzed. Anthropometric and bioelectrical impedance measurements used to estimate the muscle mass were performed the day of dialysis immediately after the dialysis session. Routine laboratory and 3-day dietary data were also collected. The cutoff value of adequate intake (AI for both n-3 PUFAs and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA was 1.6 g/day and 1.1 g/day for men and women, respectively.The mean age, mean dietary n-3 PUFAs intake, ALA intake, ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs intake, SMM, and ASM of patients were 61.4 ± 10.4 years, 2.0 ± 1.3 g/day, 1.5 ± 1.0 g/day, 9.5 ± 6.7 g/day, 23.9 ± 5.5 kg, and 17.5 ± 4.5 kg, respectively. A higher SMM and ASM significantly observed in patients who achieved an AI of n-3 PUFAs. Similar trends appeared to be observed among those patients who achieved the AI of ALA, but the difference was not significantly, except for ASM (P = 0.047. No relevant differences in demographics, laboratory and nutritional parameters were observed, regardless of whether the patients achieved an AI of n-3 PUFAs. Multivariate analysis showed that the BMI and equilibrated Kt/V were independent determinants of the muscle mass. Moreover, the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs was an independent risk determinant of reduced ASM in HD patients.Patients with an AI of n-3 PUFAs had better total-body SMM and ASM. A higher dietary ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs seemed to be associated with a reduced muscle mass in HD patients.

  6. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), n-3 and n-6 fatty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-28

    Nov 28, 2011 ... lipid nutrition studies, since it is highly sensitive to dietary fat modifications and many of the studies done with chickens deal with the degree of saturation or source type of the dietary replaced fat and how it influences the performance and carcass quality improvement of the animal (Rymer and Givens, 2005) ...

  7. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids increase oxidative stress in rats with intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yongsoon; Nam, Somyoung; Yi, Hyeong-Joong; Hong, Hyun-Jong; Lee, Myoungsook

    2009-11-01

    Intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been suggested to associate with an increased risk of hemorrhagic stroke. The present study was designed to investigate the hypothesis that EPA and DHA increase oxidative stress and hemorrhage volume in rats with intracerebral hemorrhagic (ICH) stroke. Thirty-five-week-old male rats were fed an American Institute of Nutrition-93M diet containing 0% (n = 27), 0.5% (n = 15), or 1% EPA + DHA of total energy for 5 weeks. Of 5 rats fed 1% EPA + DHA (41%), 5 died because of excessive bleeding within 12 hours after ICH surgery. Behavior test score and hemorrhage volume were significantly (P surgery rats. Brain levels of EPA and DHA were highest in rats fed 1% EPA + DHA than in rats fed 0% and 0.5% EPA + DHA. These results suggested that intake of 1% EPA + DHA of total energy could lead to oxidative damage to the brain and thus increase the risk of intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke in this rat model.

  8. Effects of aging and dietary n-3 fatty acids on rat brain phospholipids: focus on plasmalogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, A; Juanéda, P; Sébédio, J L; Chardigny, J M

    2005-08-01

    The aging brain undergoes modifications in the lipid composition of cell membranes and especially in plasmalogens. These phospholipids represent between one-half and two-thirds of the ethanolamine phospholipids in the brain. They are known to facilitate membrane fusion and act as endogenous antioxidants. During normal aging and in some pathological conditions, plasmalogen and DHA levels fall. In this context, we aimed to evaluate the influence of n-3 FA intake on plasmalogens in the brain during aging. Littermates from two generations of n-3-deficient rats were fed an n-3-deficient diet or an equilibrated diet containing either alpha-linolenic acid alone (alpha-LNA) or with two doses of DHA (0.3 or 0.6% w/w). After weaning, 9 mon of diet, or 21 mon of diet, plasmalogen levels were assessed, and the sn-2 substitutions of plasmenylethanolamines were analyzed in the cortex, striatum, and hippocampus. Our results showed that plasmalogen contents were not influenced by the diet. Plasmalogen levels were significantly decreased in aged rats compared with adults, whereas DHA levels increased in the hippocampus and remained stable in the cortex and striatum. DHA levels were significantly and similarly increased in total phospholipids and especially in plasmenylethanolamines after 9 mon of diet containing alpha-LNA alone or combined with DHA. This study showed that each structure sustained specific age-induced modifications. Dietary n-3 FA may not oppose the physiological decrease in brain plasmalogen levels during aging. Moreover, alpha-LNA appears to be equally as potent as preformed DHA at replacing DHA in the brain of our rat model.

  9. Dietary Fatty Acids and Predementia Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Solfrizzi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An increasing body of epidemiological evidence suggests that elevated saturated fatty acids (SFA could have negative effects on age-related cognitive decline (ARCD. Furthermore, a reduction of risk for cognitive decline and mild cognitive impairment (MCI has been found in population samples with elevated fish consumption, and high intake of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, particularly n-3 PUFA. However, recent findings from clinical trials with n-3 PUFA supplementation showed efficacy on depressive symptoms in non–Vapolipoprotein E (APOE ε4 carriers, and on cognitive symptoms only in very mild Alzheimer's disease (AD subgroups, MCI patients, and cognitively unimpaired non-APOE ε4 carriers. These data, together with epidemiological evidence, support the idea that n-3 PUFA may play a role in maintaining adequate cognitive functioning in predementia syndromes, but not when the AD process has already taken over. Therefore, at present, no definitive dietary recommendations on fish and unsaturated fatty acids consumption, or lower intake of saturated fat, in relation to the risk for dementia and cognitive decline are possible.

  10. Effect of dietary omega-3 fatty acids and chronic ethanol consumption on reverse cholesterol transport in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmillot, P; Rao, M N; Liu, Q H; Chirtel, S J; Lakshman, M R

    2000-04-01

    We previously showed that chronic ethanol feeding leads to a decrease of apolipoprotein E (apoE) in high-density lipoprotein (HDL), whereas supplementing this diet with 2.8% of total dietary calories as omega3-fatty acids (omega3FAs) restores HDL-apoE to the control values. Since HDL containing apoE plays a major role in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), we measured the effects chronic ethanol intake and omega3-FAs on RCT in the present study. Four groups of rats, control normal fat (CN), alcohol-normal fat (AN), control omega3FA fat (CF), and alcohol-omega3FA fat (AF), were fed their respective diets for 8 weeks, after which hepatocytes and HDLs from each group were evaluated for RCT capacity (cholesterol efflux from macrophages and uptake by liver cells). Compared with the control diet (CN), chronic ethanol (AN) feeding inhibited the cholesterol efflux capacity of HDL by 21% (P cholesterol uptake by the liver, there were no significant 3-way or 4-way interactions between the 4 factors, HDL-alcohol, HDL-fish oil, hepatocyte-alcohol, and hepatocyte-fish oil. The main effects for HDL-alcohol, HDL-fish oil, and hepatocyte-alcohol were all highly significant (P = .0001, .0001, and .007, respectively). There was a significant HDL-alcohol and HDL-fish oil interaction (P = .0001). Hepatocyte-alcohol was not a factor in any 2-way interactions. Our study indicates no evidence of an interaction between the effects of omega3FAs and the effects of alcohol on hepatocytes in terms of RCT function. Thus, feeding as little as 2.8% of the total dietary calories as omega3FA not only restored the impaired RCT function of HDL caused by chronic ethanol intake, but also enhanced by severalfold the ability of HDL to promote RCT even in normal animals.

  11. Dietary effects on fatty acid metabolism of common carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csengeri, I

    1996-01-01

    The paper summarises experimental data demonstrating effects of various dietary factors exerting changes in the fatty acid composition and fatty acid metabolism of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Among the dietary factors (1) supplementary feeding in fish ponds, (2) absence of essential fatty acids (EFA) in the diet, (3) starvation, and (4) ration level were studied. It was concluded that supplementary feeding in carp rearing ponds is frequently excessive in the Hungarian carp culture practice, inducing slight EFA-deficiency and enhancing de novo fatty acid synthesis. This latter caused enlarged fat depots with high oleic acid contents in the fish organs and tissues. EFA-deficient diets enhanced the synthesis of oleic acid except when high rate of de novo fatty acid synthesis was suppressed by dietary fatty acids. Feeding EFA-deficient diets caused gradual decrease in the levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids and gradual increase in that of Mead's acid: 20:3(n-9), an indicator of the EFA-deficiency. At prolonged starvation, polyunsaturated fatty acids of the structural lipids were somehow protected and mainly oleic acid was utilised for energy production. At high ration levels, excessive exogenous polyunsaturates were decomposed, and probably converted to oleic acid or energy. Starvation subsequent to the feeding the fish at various ration levels, reflected adaptive changes in the fatty acid metabolism: Below and above the ration level required for the most efficient feed utilisation for growth, decomposition processes of the fatty acid metabolism were accelerated.

  12. Developmental programming of adult adrenal structure and steroidogenesis: effects of fetal glucocorticoid excess and postnatal dietary omega-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Brendan J; Bollen, Maike; Wyrwoll, Caitlin S; Mori, Trevor A; Mark, Peter J

    2010-05-01

    Fetal glucocorticoid excess programs a range of detrimental outcomes in the adult phenotype, at least some of which may be due to altered adult adrenocortical function. In this study, we determined the effects of maternal dexamethasone treatment on offspring adrenal morphology and function, as well as the interactive effects of postnatal dietary omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids. This postnatal dietary intervention has been shown to alleviate many of the programming outcomes in this model, but whether this is via the effects on adrenal function is unknown. Dexamethasone acetate was administered to pregnant rats (0.75 microg/ml drinking water) from day 13 to term. Cross-fostered offspring were raised on either a standard or high-n-3 diet. Adrenal weight (relative to body weight) at 6 months of age was unaffected by prenatal dexamethasone, regardless of postnatal diet, and stereological analysis showed no effect of dexamethasone on the volumes of adrenal components (zona glomerulosa, zona fasciculata/reticularis or adrenal medulla). Expression of key steroidogenic genes (Cyp11a1 and Star) was unaffected by either prenatal dexamethasone or postnatal diet. In contrast, adrenal expression of Mc2r mRNA, which encodes the ACTH receptor, was higher in offspring of dexamethasone-treated mothers, an effect partially attenuated by the Hn3 diet. Moreover, stress-induced levels of plasma and urinary corticosterone and urinary aldosterone were elevated in offspring of dexamethasone-treated mothers, indicative of enhanced adrenal responsiveness. In conclusion, this study shows that prenatal exposure to dexamethasone does not increase basal adrenocortical activity but does result in a more stress-responsive adrenal phenotype, possibly via increased Mc2r expression.

  13. Incorporation of dietary n-3 fatty acids into selective phosphatidylcholine lipids in human plasma after salmon intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elevated intake of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) is associated with reduced risk for cardiovascular disease. Intake of n-3 LCPUFA is often quantified by analysis of plasma phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA); however, the typical analysis by gas chromatography does not allow fo...

  14. Influence of maternal dietary n-3 fatty acids on breast milk and liver lipids of rat dams and offspring - a preliminary study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvigsen, M.S.; Mu, Huiling; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2003-01-01

    The impact of triacylglycerol (TAG) structure and level of n-3 fatty acids on the fatty acid profile of total breast milk lipids and total liver phospholipids (PL) of dams and offspring (1, 3 and 13 weeks of age), when administered during development, was examined. Pregnant rats were fed...... fatty acids. Samples from three animals in each group were analyzed. The highest level of 22:6n-3 in the breast milk was obtained with diets containing this fatty acid itself. The fatty acid profile of rat dam liver PL was very different from the milk lipids indicating that the maternal dietary fats...... and the fatty acid synthesis in the mammary gland are the major determinants of the fatty acid profile of breast milk, whereas the liver does not significantly add to this. The 20:4n-6 was decreased in breast milk lipids and liver PL of dams and offspring when 18:3n-3 was increased in the diet. When the diet...

  15. Quality changes during storage of minced fish products containing dietary fiber and fortified with ω3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, C; Mendes, R; Pedro, S; Vaz-Pires, P; Nunes, M L

    2010-02-01

    Two ready-to-eat minced fish products from hake were developed, their proximate composition and fatty acid profiles determined and their quality changes followed during 3.5 months under refrigeration at 2 ± 1 °C and 10 ± 1 °C. These products contain dietary fiber and are innovative and healthy. The formulation was identical, except vegetable oil (VO), 5.6% (w/w) in one group and 2.7% (w/w) plus 2.9% (w/w) cod liver oil (CLO) in the other. CLO products had a higher ω3/ω6 ratio (0.54 ± 0.02 versus 0.08 ± 0.02) and ensured, per 100 g serving, the 500 mg recommended daily intake of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. CLO products showed lower gel strength (p ≤ 0.05), however, other textural properties were similar to those of the VO group. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values were higher in CLO products. All groups presented acceptable sensory scores and no microbiological growth. During storage products became redder and less yellow, while seafood aroma and flavor declined and saltiness perception augmented. Temperature had a negative effect on sensory elasticity and instrumental texture.

  16. Influence of maternal dietary n-3 fatty acids on breast milk and liver lipids of rat dams and offspring - a preliminary study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvigsen, M.S.; Mu, Huiling; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2003-01-01

    fatty acids. Samples from three animals in each group were analyzed. The highest level of 22:6n-3 in the breast milk was obtained with diets containing this fatty acid itself. The fatty acid profile of rat dam liver PL was very different from the milk lipids indicating that the maternal dietary fats...... was based on 10 mol% 18:3n-3 from structured lipid trace levels of 22:6n-3 occurred in breast milk. The 22:6n-3 in liver PL of 1 week old offspring was significantly higher when the diet was based on the specific structured oil (2 mol%) compared to linseed oil. The metabolism of fatty acids may therefore......The impact of triacylglycerol (TAG) structure and level of n-3 fatty acids on the fatty acid profile of total breast milk lipids and total liver phospholipids (PL) of dams and offspring (1, 3 and 13 weeks of age), when administered during development, was examined. Pregnant rats were fed...

  17. Dietary High-Oleic Acid Soybean Oil Dose Dependently Attenuates Egg Yolk Content of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Laying Hens Fed Supplemental Flaxseed Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkin, Robert G; Kukorowski, Alexandra N; Ying, Yun; Harvatine, Kevin J

    2018-02-01

    Chickens can hepatically synthesize eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3) from α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3 n-3); however, the process is inefficient and competitively inhibited by dietary linoleic acid (LNA; 18:2 n-6). In the present study, the influence of dietary high-oleic acid (OLA; 18:1 n-9) soybean oil (HOSO) on egg and tissue deposition of ALA and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) synthesized from dietary ALA was investigated in laying hens fed a reduced-LNA base diet supplemented with high-ALA flaxseed oil (FLAX). We hypothesized that reducing the dietary level of LNA would promote greater hepatic conversion of ALA to very long-chain (VLC; >20C) n-3 PUFA, while supplemental dietary HOSO would simultaneously further enrich eggs with OLA without influencing egg n-3 PUFA contents. Nine 51-week-old hens each were fed 0, 10, 20, or 40 g HOSO/kg diet for 12 weeks. Within each group, supplemental dietary FLAX was increased every 3 weeks from 0 to 10 to 20 to 40 g/kg diet. Compared to controls, dietary FLAX maximally enriched the total n-3 and VLC n-3 PUFA contents in egg yolk by 9.4-fold and 2.2-fold, respectively, while feeding hens 40 g HOSO/kg diet maximally attenuated the yolk deposition of ALA, VLC n-3 PUFA, and total n-3 PUFA by 37, 15, and 32%, respectively. These results suggest that dietary OLA is not neutral with regard to the overall process by which dietary ALA is absorbed, metabolized, and deposited into egg yolk, either intact or in the form of longer-chain/more unsaturated n-3 PUFA derivatives. © 2018 AOCS.

  18. Dietary fatty acids alter mitochondrial phospholipid fatty acyl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. J. T. Ekanem

    type and relative amount of fatty acids that make up the membrane. Naturally, the phospholipid fatty acyl profiles of biological membranes vary dramatically across species2,3. For instance, the phospholpid fatty acid profiles of cellular membranes in yeasts are different from those in flies and those of mouse are different from ...

  19. Dietary Changes with Omega-3 Fatty Acids Improves the Blood Lipid Profile of Wistar Albino Rats with Hypercholesterolaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Shahida A Khan; Ahmad Makki

    2017-01-01

    Background: Lipid profile is a reasonably reliable parameter for the assessment of cardiovascular risk, besides the anthropometric measurements. Serum lipid dysfunctions in the HDL and LDL components are commonly observed in cardiac patients. Omega-3 fatty acids exhibit a hypolipidemic potential which could be exploited in preventing the onset of this alarmingly increasing problem globally. Aims: To evaluate and compare the effects of different sources of omega-3 fatty acids, on t...

  20. Bioavailability of Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acids Added to a Variety of Sausages in Healthy Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Anton; Heinrich, Johanna; von Schacky, Clemens

    2017-06-19

    A low Omega-3 Index (eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in erythrocytes) is associated with cardiac, cerebral, and other health issues. Intake of EPA and DHA, but not of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), increases the Omega-3 Index. We investigated bioavailability, safety, palatability and tolerability of EPA and DHA in a novel source: a variety of sausages. We screened 96 healthy volunteers, and recruited 44 with an Omega-3 Index Omega-3 Index increased from 4.18 ± 0.54 to 5.72 ± 0.66% ( p Omega-3 Index per intake of EPA and DHA we observed was higher than for other sources previously studied, indicating superior bioavailability. As increasing production of EPA and DHA is difficult, improvements of bioavailability can facilitate reaching the target range for the Omega-3 Index (8-11%).

  1. Dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids alter the fatty acid composition of hepatic and plasma bioactive lipids in C57BL/6 mice: a lipidomic approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayode A Balogun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Omega (n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA are converted to bioactive lipid components that are important mediators in metabolic and physiological pathways; however, which bioactive compounds are metabolically active, and their mechanisms of action are still not clear. We investigated using lipidomic techniques, the effects of diets high in n-3 PUFA on the fatty acid composition of various bioactive lipids in plasma and liver. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Female C57BL/6 mice were fed semi-purified diets (20% w/w fat containing varying amounts of n-3 PUFA before mating, during gestation and lactation, and until weaning. Male offspring were continued on their mothers' diets for 16 weeks. Hepatic and plasma lipids were extracted in the presence of non-naturally occurring internal standards, and tandem electrospray ionization mass spectrometry methods were used to measure the fatty acyl compositions. There was no significant difference in total concentrations of phospholipids in both groups. However, there was a significantly higher concentration of eicosapentaenoic acid containing phosphatidylcholine (PC, lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC, and cholesteryl esters (CE (p < 0.01 in the high n-3 PUFA group compared to the low n-3 PUFA group in both liver and plasma. Plasma and liver from the high n-3 PUFA group also had a higher concentration of free n-3 PUFA (p < 0.05. There were no significant differences in plasma concentrations of different fatty acyl species of phosphatidylethanolamine, triglycerides, sphingomyelin and ceramides. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings reveal for the first time that a diet high in n-3 PUFA caused enrichment of n-3 PUFA in PC, LPC, CE and free fatty acids in the plasma and liver of C57BL/6 mice. PC, LPC, and unesterified free n-3 PUFA are important bioactive lipids, thus altering their fatty acyl composition will have important metabolic and physiological roles.

  2. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), n-3 and n-6 fatty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted on broiler chickens to study the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), fish oil, soybean oil or their mixtures (at 7% for single and 3.5% + 3.5% for mixtures) as well as up 12% dosage of palm oil, on the performance and carcass traits of broiler chickens. The chicks fed 7% fish oil or 7% CLA ...

  3. Bioavailability of Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acids Added to a Variety of Sausages in Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Köhler

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A low Omega-3 Index (eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in erythrocytes is associated with cardiac, cerebral, and other health issues. Intake of EPA and DHA, but not of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, increases the Omega-3 Index. We investigated bioavailability, safety, palatability and tolerability of EPA and DHA in a novel source: a variety of sausages. We screened 96 healthy volunteers, and recruited 44 with an Omega-3 Index <5%. Participants were randomly assigned to receive a variety of sausages enriched with approximately 250 mg EPA and DHA per 80 g (n = 22 daily for 8 weeks, or matching placebo sausages (n = 22. All sausages contained approximately 250 mg ALA/80 g. In the verum group, the mean Omega-3 Index increased from 4.18 ± 0.54 to 5.72 ± 0.66% (p < 0.001, while it remained unchanged in the placebo group. While ALA levels increased only in the placebo group, DPA levels increased in both groups. Inter-individual variability in the response was large. The mean increase of the Omega-3 Index per intake of EPA and DHA we observed was higher than for other sources previously studied, indicating superior bioavailability. As increasing production of EPA and DHA is difficult, improvements of bioavailability can facilitate reaching the target range for the Omega-3 Index (8–11%.

  4. Dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in early childhood: effects on blood pressure and arterial structure and function at age 8 y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayer, Julian G; Harmer, Jason A; Xuan, Wei; Toelle, Brett; Webb, Karen; Almqvist, Catarina; Marks, Guy B; Celermajer, David S

    2009-08-01

    n-3 Fatty acid supplementation in adults results in cardiovascular benefits. However, the cardiovascular effects of n-3 supplementation in early childhood are unknown. The objective was to evaluate blood pressure (BP) and arterial structure and function in 8-y-old children who had participated in a randomized controlled trial of dietary n-3 and n-6 modification over the first 5 y of life. The children (n = 616; 49% girls) were randomly assigned antenatally to active (n = 312; increase in n-3 intake and decrease in n-6 intake) or control (n = 304) diet interventions implemented from the time of weaning or introduction of solids until 5 y of age. At age 8.0 +/- 0.1 y, BP, carotid intima-media thickness, carotid artery distensibility, augmentation index, and brachial pulse wave velocity were measured in 405 of these children. Venous blood was collected for measurement of plasma fatty acids, lipoproteins, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and asymmetric dimethylarginine. Plasma fatty acid concentrations were also assessed during the intervention. Plasma concentrations of n-3 fatty acids were higher and of n-6 were lower in the active than in the control diet group at 18 mo and 3 and 5 y (P n-3 and n-6 fatty acids were similar at 8 y. At 8 y of age, no significant differences were found in BP, carotid intima-media thickness, carotid artery distensibility, augmentation index, asymmetric dimethylarginine, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, or lipoproteins between diet groups. A dietary supplement intervention to increase n-3 and decrease n-6 intakes from infancy until 5 y does not result in significant improvements in arterial structure and function at age 8 y. This trial was registered at the Australian Clinical Trials Registry as ACTRN012605000042640.

  5. Effect of dietary n-6 to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different ratio n-6:n-3 on the PPAR expression of rats endometrial tissue. The findings obtained from this study showed significant induction of PPARδ mRNA levels in endomatral cells treatment 1:1 group by 1.38 fold compared with the PPARδ mRNA levels in ...

  6. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), n-3 and n-6 fatty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-28

    Nov 28, 2011 ... 3Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM. Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. 4Department ... CLA is a naturally occurring substance in dairy products and meat from ruminant animals, as a result of bacterial biohydrogenation in the rumen ...

  7. Long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid dietary intake is positively associated with bone mineral density in normal and osteopenic Spanish women

    OpenAIRE

    Lavado-García, Jesus; Roncero-Martin, Raul; Moran, Jose M.; Pedrera-Canal, Maria; Aliaga, Ignacio; Leal-Hernandez, Olga; Rico-Martin, Sergio; Canal-Macias, Maria L.

    2018-01-01

    The regular consumption of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCO3-PUFAs) results in general health benefits. The intake of LCO3-PUFAs has been reported to contribute to bone metabolism. We aimed to investigate the relationships between dietary intakes of LCO3-PUFAs and bone mineral density (BMD) in Spanish women aged 20–79 years old. A total of 1865 female subjects (20–79 years old) were enrolled, and lumbar (L2, L3, L3 and total spine), hip (femoral neck (FN), femoral trochante...

  8. Metabolomics of Dietary Fatty Acid Restriction in Patients with Phenylketonuria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mütze, Ulrike; Beblo, Skadi; Kortz, Linda; Matthies, Claudia; Koletzko, Berthold; Bruegel, Mathias; Rohde, Carmen; Thiery, Joachim; Kiess, Wieland; Ceglarek, Uta

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients with phenylketonuria (PKU) have to follow a lifelong phenylalanine restricted diet. This type of diet markedly reduces the intake of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids especially long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). Long-chain saturated fatty acids are substrates of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation for acetyl-CoA production. LC-PUFA are discussed to affect inflammatory and haemostaseological processes in health and disease. The influence of the long term PKU diet on fatty acid metabolism with a special focus on platelet eicosanoid metabolism has been investigated in the study presented here. Methodology/Principal Findings 12 children with PKU under good metabolic control and 8 healthy controls were included. Activated fatty acids (acylcarnitines C6–C18) in dried blood and the cholesterol metabolism in serum were analyzed by liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Fatty acid composition of plasma glycerophospholipids was determined by gas chromatography. LC-PUFA metabolites were analyzed in supernatants by LC-MS/MS before and after platelet activation and aggregation using a standardized protocol. Patients with PKU had significantly lower free carnitine and lower activated fatty acids in dried blood compared to controls. Phytosterols as marker of cholesterol (re-) absorption were not influenced by the dietary fatty acid restriction. Fatty acid composition in glycerophospholipids was comparable to that of healthy controls. However, patients with PKU showed significantly increased concentrations of y-linolenic acid (C18:3n-6) a precursor of arachidonic acid. In the PKU patients significantly higher platelet counts were observed. After activation with collagen platelet aggregation and thromboxane B2 and thromboxane B3 release did not differ from that of healthy controls. Conclusion/Significance Long-term dietary fatty acid restriction influenced the intermediates of mitochondrial beta-oxidation. No functional

  9. Metabolomics of dietary fatty acid restriction in patients with phenylketonuria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Mütze

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with phenylketonuria (PKU have to follow a lifelong phenylalanine restricted diet. This type of diet markedly reduces the intake of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids especially long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA. Long-chain saturated fatty acids are substrates of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation for acetyl-CoA production. LC-PUFA are discussed to affect inflammatory and haemostaseological processes in health and disease. The influence of the long term PKU diet on fatty acid metabolism with a special focus on platelet eicosanoid metabolism has been investigated in the study presented here. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 12 children with PKU under good metabolic control and 8 healthy controls were included. Activated fatty acids (acylcarnitines C6-C18 in dried blood and the cholesterol metabolism in serum were analyzed by liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. Fatty acid composition of plasma glycerophospholipids was determined by gas chromatography. LC-PUFA metabolites were analyzed in supernatants by LC-MS/MS before and after platelet activation and aggregation using a standardized protocol. Patients with PKU had significantly lower free carnitine and lower activated fatty acids in dried blood compared to controls. Phytosterols as marker of cholesterol (re- absorption were not influenced by the dietary fatty acid restriction. Fatty acid composition in glycerophospholipids was comparable to that of healthy controls. However, patients with PKU showed significantly increased concentrations of y-linolenic acid (C18:3n-6 a precursor of arachidonic acid. In the PKU patients significantly higher platelet counts were observed. After activation with collagen platelet aggregation and thromboxane B(2 and thromboxane B(3 release did not differ from that of healthy controls. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Long-term dietary fatty acid restriction influenced the intermediates of mitochondrial beta

  10. Dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids suppress NHE-1 upregulation in a rabbit model of volume- and pressure-overload

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Borren, Marcel M. G. J.; den Ruijter, Hester M.; Baartscheer, Antonius; Ravesloot, Jan H.; Coronel, Ruben; Verkerk, Arie O.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Increased consumption of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega 3-PUFAs) from fish oil (FO) may have cardioprotective effects during ischemia/reperfusion, hypertrophy, and heart failure (HE). The cardiac Na+/H+-exchanger (NHE-1) is a key mediator for these detrimental cardiac

  11. Maternal and neonatal dietary intake of balanced n-6/n-3 fatty acids modulates experimental colitis in young adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, K Vijay Kumar; Naidu, K Akhilender

    2016-08-01

    The imbalance of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the maternal diet impairs intestinal barrier development and sensitizes the colon response to inflammatory insults in the young rats. With a view to overcoming this issue, we designed this study to investigate the effect of maternal and neonatal intake of different proportions of n-6/n-3 fatty acids on colon inflammation in the young adult rats. Female Wistar rats were assigned into four groups, and each group fed one of four semisynthetic diets, namely n-6, low n-3, n-6/n-3 and n-3 fatty acids for 8 weeks prior to mating, during gestation and lactation periods. At weaning, the pups were separated from the dams and fed diet similar to the mothers. Colitis was induced on postnatal day 35, by administering 2 % dextran sulfate sodium in drinking water for 10 days. Colitis was assessed based on the clinical and inflammatory markers in the colon. Fatty acid analysis was done in liver, RBC, colon and spleen. A balanced n-6/n-3 PUFA diet significantly improved the body weight loss, rectal bleeding and mortality in rats. This was associated with lower myeloperoxidase activity, nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, TNF-α and IL-6, IL-8, COX-2 and iNOS levels in the colon tissues. Fatty acid analysis has shown that the arachidonic acid/docosahexaenoic acid ratio was significantly lower in liver, RBC, colon and spleen in n-6/n-3 and n-3 diet groups. We demonstrate that balanced n-6/n-3 PUFA supplementation in maternal and neonatal diet alters systemic AA/DHA ratio and attenuates colon inflammation in the young adult rats.

  12. Effects of dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids on clinical outcome in a porcine model on postoperative infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langerhuus, Sine Nygaard; Tønnesen, Else Kirstine; Jensen, Karin Hjelholt

    2012-01-01

    oil (rich in n-3 LC-PUFA), sunflower oil (rich in n-6 LC-PUFA) or animal fat. After 3 weeks of dietary treatment, the pigs had an aortic vascular prosthetic graft inserted, and it was inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus (106 colony-forming units). Changes in selected plasma and erythrocyte n-3 and n......·001). In the post-operative period, feed intake (P = 0·004) and body-weight gain (P = 0·038) were higher in the fish oil treatment compared with the sunflower oil treatment. The dietary treatments did not affect the number of days pigs were showing fever, weakness in the hindquarters or impaired general appearance....... In conclusion, preoperative treatment with dietary fish oil compared with sunflower oil improved clinical outcome in pigs with AVPGI by improving feed intake and body-weight gain post-operatively....

  13. Dietary n-3:n-6 fatty acid ratios differentially influence hormonal signature in a rodent model of metabolic syndrome relative to healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koch Lauren G

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dietary ratios of omega-3 (n-3 to omega-6 (n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs have been implicated in controlling markers of the metabolic syndrome, including insulin sensitivity, inflammation, lipid profiles and adiposity. However, the role of dietary PUFAs in regulating energy systems in healthy relative to metabolic diseased backgrounds has not been systematically addressed. We used dietary manipulation of n-3 to n-6 PUFA ratios in an animal model of metabolic syndrome and a related healthy line to assay feeding behavior and endocrine markers of feeding drive and energy regulation. Two related lines of rodents with a healthy and a metabolic syndrome phenotype were fed one of two isocaloric diets, comprised of either a 1:1 or a 1:30 n-3 to n-6 ratio, for 30 days. Food intake and weight gain were monitored; and leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin and a suite of hypothalamic neuropeptides involved in energy regulation were assayed following the dietary manipulation period. There was no difference in caloric intake or weight gain between diet groups, however there was a significant interaction between diet and phenotypic line on central and peripheral markers of energy homeostasis. Thus serum levels of leptin, acylated-ghrelin and adiponectin, and mRNA levels of the anorexigenic hypothalamic neuropeptide, cocaine-amphetamine related transcript (CART, showed differential, dietary responses with HCR rats showing an increase in anorexigenic signals in response to unbalanced n-3:6 ratios, while LCR did not. These data are the first to demonstrate that a rodent line with a metabolic syndrome-like phenotype responds differentially to dietary manipulation of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids relative to a related healthy line with regard to endocrine markers of energy homeostasis. The dietary n-3:n-6 ratios used in this experiment represent extreme points of natural human diets, however the data suggest that optimal recommendations regarding omega-3 and

  14. Reduced dietary omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid ratio and 12/15-lipoxygenase deficiency are protective against chronic high fat diet-induced steatohepatitis.

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    Milos Lazic

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with metabolic perturbations including liver and adipose tissue inflammation, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. Omega-6 fatty acids (ω6 promote and omega-3 fatty acids (ω3 reduce inflammation as they can be metabolized to pro- and anti-inflammatory eicosanoids, respectively. 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LO enzymatically produces some of these metabolites and is induced by high fat (HF diet. We investigated the effects of altering dietary ω6/ω3 ratio and 12/15-LO deficiency on HF diet-induced tissue inflammation and insulin resistance. We examined how these conditions affect circulating concentrations of oxidized metabolites of ω6 arachidonic and linoleic acids and innate and adaptive immune system activity in the liver. For 15 weeks, wild-type (WT mice were fed either a soybean oil-enriched HF diet with high dietary ω6/ω3 ratio (11∶1, HFH, similar to Western-style diet, or a fat Kcal-matched, fish oil-enriched HF diet with a low dietary ω6/ω3 ratio of 2.7∶1 (HFL. Importantly, the total saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat content was matched in the two HF diets, which is unlike most published fish oil studies in mice. Despite modestly increased food intake, WT mice fed HFL were protected from HFH-diet induced steatohepatitis, evidenced by decreased hepatic mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory genes and genes involved in lymphocyte homing, and reduced deposition of hepatic triglyceride. Furthermore, oxidized metabolites of ω6 arachidonic acid were decreased in the plasma of WT HFL compared to WT HFH-fed mice. 12/15-LO knockout (KO mice were also protected from HFH-induced fatty liver and elevated mRNA markers of inflammation and lymphocyte homing. 12/15-LOKO mice were protected from HFH-induced insulin resistance but reducing dietary ω6/ω3 ratio in WT mice did not ameliorate insulin resistance or adipose tissue inflammation. In conclusion, lowering dietary ω6/ω3 ratio in HF diet

  15. Dietary long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids prevent impaired social behaviour and normalize brain dopamine levels in food allergic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Theije, Caroline G M; van den Elsen, Lieke W J; Willemsen, Linette E M; Milosevic, Vanja; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien A H; Lopes da Silva, Sofia; Broersen, Laus M; Korte, S Mechiel; Olivier, Berend; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D

    2015-03-01

    Allergy is suggested to exacerbate impaired behaviour in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. We have previously shown that food allergy impaired social behaviour in mice. Dietary fatty acid composition may affect both the immune and nervous system. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) on food allergy-induced impaired social behaviour and associated deficits in prefrontal dopamine (DA) in mice. Mice were fed either control or n-3 LCPUFA-enriched diet before and during sensitization with whey. Social behaviour, acute allergic skin response and serum immunoglobulins were assessed. Monoamine levels were measured in brain and intestine and fatty acid content in brain. N-3 LCPUFA prevented impaired social behaviour of allergic mice. Moreover, n-3 LCPUFA supplementation increased docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) incorporation into the brain and restored reduced levels of prefrontal DA and its metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3-methoxytyramine and homovanillic acid in allergic mice. In addition to these brain effects, n-3 LCPUFA supplementation reduced the allergic skin response and restored decreased intestinal levels of serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in allergic mice. N-3 LCPUFA may have beneficial effects on food allergy-induced deficits in social behaviour, either indirectly by reducing the allergic response and restoring intestinal 5-HT signalling, or directly by DHA incorporation into neuronal membranes, affecting the DA system. Therefore, it is of interest to further investigate the relevance of food allergy-enhanced impairments in social behaviour in humans and the potential benefits of dietary n-3 LCPUFA supplementation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the amount of triglycerides (a fat- ... in people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of medications called antilipemic ...

  17. Dietary Changes with Omega-3 Fatty Acids Improves the Blood Lipid Profile of Wistar Albino Rats with Hypercholesterolaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahida A Khan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lipid profile is a reasonably reliable parameter for the assessment of cardiovascular risk, besides the anthropometric measurements. Serum lipid dysfunctions in the HDL and LDL components are commonly observed in cardiac patients. Omega-3 fatty acids exhibit a hypolipidemic potential which could be exploited in preventing the onset of this alarmingly increasing problem globally. Aims: To evaluate and compare the effects of different sources of omega-3 fatty acids, on the lipid profile parameters in rats induced with hyperlipidaemia. Methods and material: In our present study, we supplemented omega-3 oils from the plant source as well as the fish source to hypocholesteraemia induced Wistar albino rats for a period of three months. Wistar albino rats were fed normal chow along with 1% cholesterol for a period of three months to induce hypocholesteraemia. To this 1% flax oil and 0.1% fish oil were mixed separately and fed to two groups of rats for another period of three months to check for hypolipidemic effects if any. Results and conclusions: A significant reduction in total cholesterol, LDL, and glucose levels with increases in HDL levels in the flax oil as well as fish oil groups is observed. Also, a noticeable change though not significant was observed in the plasma triglyceride concentrations after the supplementation period. This significant hypolipemic effect by omega-3 fatty acids from both the sources, demonstrates their possible therapeutic use in patients with cardiac risk.

  18. Dietary patterns, n-3 fatty acids intake from seafood and high levels of anxiety symptoms during pregnancy: findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana dos Santos Vaz

    Full Text Available Little is known about relationships between dietary patterns, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA intake and excessive anxiety during pregnancy.To examine whether dietary patterns and n-3 PUFA intake from seafood are associated with high levels of anxiety during pregnancy.Pregnant women enrolled from 1991-1992 in ALSPAC (n 9,530. Dietary patterns were established from a food frequency questionnaire using principal component analysis. Total intake of n-3 PUFA (grams/week from seafood was also examined. Symptoms of anxiety were measured at 32 weeks of gestation with the Crown-Crisp Experiential Index; scores ≥ 9 corresponding to the 85(th percentile was defined as high anxiety symptoms. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the OR and 95% CI, adjusted by socioeconomic and lifestyle variables.Multivariate results showed that women in the highest tertile of the health-conscious (OR 0.77; 0.65-0.93 and the traditional (OR 0.84; 0.73-0.97 pattern scores were less likely to report high levels of anxiety symptoms. Women in the highest tertile of the vegetarian pattern score (OR 1.25; 1.08-1.44 were more likely to have high levels of anxiety, as well as those with no n-3 PUFA intake from seafood (OR 1.53; 1.25-1.87 when compared with those with intake of >1.5 grams/week.The present study provides evidence of a relationship between dietary patterns, fish intake or n-3 PUFA intake from seafood and symptoms of anxiety in pregnancy, and suggests that dietary interventions could be used to reduce high anxiety symptoms during pregnancy.

  19. Clearing the fog: a review of the effects of dietary omega-3 fatty acids and added sugars on chemotherapy-induced cognitive deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchard, Tonya S; Gaudier-Diaz, Monica M; Weinhold, Kellie R; Courtney DeVries, A

    2017-02-01

    Cancer treatments such as chemotherapy have been an important part of extending survival in women diagnosed with breast cancer. However, chemotherapy can cause potentially toxic side effects in the brain that impair memory, verbal fluency, and processing speed in up to 30% of women treated. Women report that post-chemotherapy cognitive deficits negatively impact quality of life and may last up to ten years after treatment. Mechanisms underlying these cognitive impairments are not fully understood, but emerging evidence suggests that chemotherapy induces structural changes in the brain, produces neuroinflammation, and reduces adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Dietary approaches that modify inflammation and neurogenesis are promising strategies for reducing chemotherapy-induced cognitive deficits in breast cancer survivors. In this review, we describe the cognitive and neuronal side effects associated with commonly used chemotherapy treatments for breast cancer, and we focus on the often opposing actions of omega-3 fatty acids and added sugars on cognitive function, neuroinflammation, and adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Omega-3 fatty acids administered concurrently with doxorubicin chemotherapy have been shown to prevent depressive-like behaviors and reduce neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and neural apoptosis in rodent models. In contrast, diets high in added sugars may interact with n-3 FAs to diminish their anti-inflammatory activity or act independently to increase neuroinflammation, reduce adult hippocampal neurogenesis, and promote cognitive deficits. We propose that a diet rich in long-chain, marine-derived omega-3 fatty acids and low in added sugars may be an ideal pattern for preventing or alleviating neuroinflammation and oxidative stress, thereby protecting neurons from the toxic effects of chemotherapy. Research testing this hypothesis could lead to the identification of modifiable dietary choices to reduce the long-term impact of chemotherapy on the

  20. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor mRNA levels are modified by dietary n-3 fatty acid restriction and energy restriction in the brain and liver of growing rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Without dietary sources of long chain (LC) n-3 fatty acids, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA;18:3n-3) is the precursor for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3). It is not known how energy restriction (ER) impacts ALA conversion to DHA. We tested the hypothesis that ER reduces LCn-3 content in growing rats ...

  1. Dietary fatty acids modulate associations between genetic variants and circulating fatty acids in plasma and erythrocyte membranes: meta-analysis of nine studies in the CHARGE consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scope: Tissue concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids may reduce cardiovascular disease risk, and genetic variants are associated with circulating fatty acids concentrations. Whether dietary fatty acids interact with genetic variants to modify circulating omega-3 fatty acids is unclear. We evaluated i...

  2. The Relationship of Dietary ω-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Intake With Incident Age-Related Macular Degeneration AREDS Report No. 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    SanGiovanni, John Paul; Chew, Emily Y.; Agron, Elvira; Clemons, Traci E.; Ferris, Frederick L.; Gensler, Gary; Lindblad, Anne S.; Milton, Roy C.; Seddon, Johanna M.; Klein, Ronald; Sperduto, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine the association of dietary ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid and fish intake with incident neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and central geographic atrophy (CGA). Methods Multicenter clinic-based prospective cohort study from a clinical trial including Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) participants with bilateral drusen at enrollment. Main outcome measures were incident neovascular AMD and CGA, ascertained from annual stereoscopic color fundus photographs (median follow-up, 6.3 years). We estimated nutrient and food intake from a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) at baseline, with intake of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), combined EPA and DHA, and fish as primary exposures. Results After controlling for known covariates, we observed a reduced likelihood of progression from bilateral drusen to CGA among people who reported the highest levels of EPA (odds ratio [OR], 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.23-0.87) and EPA+DHA (OR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.23-0.90) consumption. Levels of DHA were associated with CGA in age-, sex-, and calorie-adjusted models (OR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.26-1.00); however, this statistical relationship did not persist in multivariable models. Conclusions Dietary lipid intake is a modifiable factor that may influence the likelihood of developing sight-threatening forms of AMD. Our findings suggest that dietary ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid intake is associated with a decreased risk of progression from bilateral drusen to CGA. PMID:18779490

  3. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in adults on hemodialysis: The DIET-HD multinational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saglimbene, Valeria M; Wong, Germaine; Ruospo, Marinella; Palmer, Suetonia C; Campbell, Katrina; Larsen, Vanessa Garcia; Natale, Patrizia; Teixeira-Pinto, Armando; Carrero, Juan-Jesus; Stenvinkel, Peter; Gargano, Letizia; Murgo, Angelo M; Johnson, David W; Tonelli, Marcello; Gelfman, Rubén; Celia, Eduardo; Ecder, Tevfik; Bernat, Amparo G; Del Castillo, Domingo; Timofte, Delia; Török, Marietta; Bednarek-Skublewska, Anna; Duława, Jan; Stroumza, Paul; Hoischen, Susanne; Hansis, Martin; Fabricius, Elisabeth; Wollheim, Charlotta; Hegbrant, Jörgen; Craig, Jonathan C; Strippoli, Giovanni F M

    2017-12-06

    Patients on hemodialysis suffer from high risk of premature death, which is largely attributed to cardiovascular disease, but interventions targeting traditional cardiovascular risk factors have made little or no difference. Long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) are putative candidates to reduce cardiovascular disease. Diets rich in n-3 PUFA are recommended in the general population, although their role in the hemodialysis setting is uncertain. We evaluated the association between the dietary intake of n-3 PUFA and mortality for hemodialysis patients. The DIET-HD study is a prospective cohort study (January 2014-June 2017) in 9757 adults treated with hemodialysis in Europe and South America. Dietary n-3 PUFA intake was measured at baseline using the GA 2 LEN Food Frequency Questionnaire. Adjusted Cox regression analyses clustered by country were conducted to evaluate the association of dietary n-3 PUFA intake with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. During a median follow up of 2.7 years (18,666 person-years), 2087 deaths were recorded, including 829 attributable to cardiovascular causes. One third of the study participants consumed sufficient (at least 1.75 g/week) n-3 PUFA recommended for primary cardiovascular prevention, and less than 10% recommended for secondary prevention (7-14 g/week). Compared to patients with the lowest tertile of dietary n-3 PUFA intake (n-3 PUFA were 0.82 (0.69-0.98) and 1.03 (0.84-1.26), respectively. Corresponding adjusted hazard ratios for all-cause mortality were 0.96 (0.86-1.08) and 1.00 (0.88-1.13), respectively. Dietary n-3 PUFA intake was not associated with cardiovascular or all-cause mortality in patients on hemodialysis. As dietary n-3 PUFA intake was low, the possibility that n-3 PUFA supplementation might mitigate cardiovascular risk has not been excluded. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. What Is the Most Effective Way of Increasing the Bioavailability of Dietary Long Chain Omega-3 Fatty Acids—Daily vs. Weekly Administration of Fish Oil?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Ghasemifard

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The recommendations on the intake of long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA vary from eating oily fish (“once to twice per week” to consuming specified daily amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA (“250–500 mg per day”. It is not known if there is a difference in the uptake/bioavailability between regular daily consumption of supplementsvs. consuming fish once or twice per week. In this study, the bioavailability of a daily dose of n-3 LC-PUFA (Constant treatment, representing supplements, vs. a large weekly dose of n-3 LC-PUFA (Spike treatment, representing consuming once or twice per week, was assessed. Six-week old healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a Constant treatment, a Spike treatment or Control treatment (no n-3 LC-PUFA, for six weeks. The whole body, tissues and faeces were analysed for fatty acid content. The results showed that the major metabolic fate of the n-3 LC-PUFA (EPA+docosapentaenoic acid (DPA + DHA was towards catabolism (β-oxidation accounting for over 70% of total dietary intake, whereas deposition accounted less than 25% of total dietary intake. It was found that significantly more n-3 LC-PUFA were β-oxidised when originating from the Constant treatment (84% of dose, compared with the Spike treatment (75% of dose. Conversely, it was found that significantly more n-3 LC-PUFA were deposited when originating from the Spike treatment (23% of dose, than from the Constant treatment (15% of dose. These unexpected findings show that a large dose of n-3 LC-PUFA once per week is more effective in increasing whole body n-3 LC-PUFA content in rats compared with a smaller dose delivered daily.

  5. Dietary (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate Supplementation Counteracts Aging-Associated Skeletal Muscle Insulin Resistance and Fatty Liver in Senescence-Accelerated Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hung-Wen; Chan, Yin-Ching; Wang, Ming-Fu; Wei, Chu-Chun; Chang, Sue-Joan

    2015-09-30

    Aging is accompanied by pathophysiological changes including insulin resistance and fatty liver. Dietary supplementation with (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) improves insulin sensitivity and attenuates fatty liver disease. We hypothesized that EGCG could effectively modulate aging-associated changes in glucose and lipid metabolism in senescence-accelerated mice (SAM) prone 8 (SAMP8). Higher levels of glucose, insulin, and free fatty acid, inhibited Akt activity, and decreased glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) expression were observed in SAMP8 mice compared to the normal aging group, SAM resistant 1 mice. EGCG supplementation for 12 weeks successfully decreased blood glucose and insulin levels via restoring Akt activity and GLUT4 expression and stimulating AMPKα activation in skeletal muscle. EGCG up-regulated genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and subsequently restored mitochondrial DNA copy number in skeletal muscle of SAMP8 mice. Decreased adipose triglyceride lipase and increased sterol regulatory element binding proteins-1c (SREBP-1c) and carbohydrate responsive element binding protein at mRNA levels were observed in SAMP8 mice in accordance with hepatocellular ballooning and excess lipid accumulation. The pevention of hepatic lipid accumulation by EGCG was mainly attributed to down-regulation of mTOR and SREBP-1c-mediated lipid biosynthesis via suppression of the positive regulator, Akt, and activation of the negative regulator, AMPKα, in the liver. EGCG beneficially modulates glucose and lipid homeostasis in skeletal muscle and liver, leading to alleviation of aging-associated metabolic disorders.

  6. Dietary Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Improve the Neurolipidome and Restore the DHA Status while Promoting Functional Recovery after Experimental Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Johnny D.; Cordero, Kathia; llán, Miguel S.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) confer multiple health benefits and decrease the risk of neurological disorders. Studies are needed, however, to identify promising cellular targets and to assess their prophylactic value against neurodegeneration. The present study (1) examined the efficacy of a preventive diet enriched with ω-3 PUFAs to reduce dysfunction in a well-established spinal cord injury (SCI) animal model and (2) used a novel metabolomics data analysis to identify potential neurolipidomic targets. Rats were fed with either control chow or chow enriched with ω-3 PUFAs (750 mg/kg/day) for 8 weeks before being subjected to a sham or a contusion SCI operation. We report new evidence showing that rats subjected to SCI after being pre-treated with a diet enriched with ω-3 PUFAs exhibit significantly better functional outcomes. Pre-treated animals exhibited lower sensory deficits, autonomic bladder recovery, and early improvements in locomotion that persisted for at least 8 weeks after trauma. We found that SCI triggers a robust alteration in the cord PUFA neurolipidome, which was characterized by a marked docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) deficiency. This DHA deficiency was associated with dysfunction and corrected with the ω-3 PUFA-enriched diet. Multivariate data analyses revealed that the spinal cord of animals consuming the ω-3 PUFA-enriched diet had a fundamentally distinct neurolipidome, particularly increasing the levels of essential and long chain ω-3 fatty acids and lysolipids at the expense of ω-6 fatty acids and its metabolites. Altogether, dietary ω-3 PUFAs prophylaxis confers resiliency to SCI mediated, at least in part, by generating a neuroprotective and restorative neurolipidome. PMID:23294084

  7. Effect of the ratio of dietary n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on broiler breeder performance, egg quality, and yolk fatty acid composition at different breeder ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppenol, A; Delezie, E; Aerts, J; Willems, E; Wang, Y; Franssens, L; Everaert, N; Buyse, J

    2014-03-01

    When added to the feed of broiler breeder hens, dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA) can be incorporated into the yolk and therefore become available to the progeny during their early development. The mechanism involved in lipid metabolism and deposition in the egg may be influenced by breeder age. Before the effect of an elevated concentration of certain polyunsaturated FA on the embryo can be investigated, the effect at breeder level and egg quality must be further assessed. The aim of the present experiment was to evaluate the effects of dietary n-6/n-3 ratios and dietary eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) ratios, provided to broiler breeder hens, in terms of their zoo technical performance, egg quality, and yolk FA composition. Starting at 6 wk of age, 640 Ross-308 broiler breeder hens were fed 1 of 4 different diets. The control diet was a basal diet, rich in n-6 FA. The 3 other diets were enriched in n-3 FA, formulated to obtain a different EPA/DHA ratio of 1/1 (EPA = DHA), 1/2 (DHA), or 2/1 (EPA). In fact, after analysis the EPA/DHA ratio was 0.8, 0.4, or 2.1, respectively. Dietary EPA and DHA addition did not affect the performance of the breeder hens, except for egg weight. Egg weight was lower (P < 0.001) for all n-3 treatments. Dietary EPA improved number of eggs laid in the first 2 wk of the production cycle (P = 0.029). The absolute and relative yolk weight of eggs laid by EPA = DHA fed hens was lowest (P = 0.004 and P = 0.025, respectively). The EPA and DHA concentrations in the yolk were highly dependent on dietary EPA and DHA concentrations with a regression coefficient equal to 0.89. It can be concluded that dietary EPA and DHA can be incorporated in the breeder egg yolk to become available for the developing embryo, without compromising the performance and egg quality of the flock.

  8. Effect of Dietary Omega-3 to Omega-6 Ratio on Growth Performance, Immune Response, Carcass Traits and Meat Fatty Acids Profile of Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Katcha MI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to study the effect of dietary n-3 to n-6 ratio on performance, immune response, blood parameters and fatty acids profile of broiler chickens. A total number of 192 one day old broiler chicks were randomly alloctted into 6 groups. Chicks of groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 were fed balanced corn-soybean diets containing n-3 to n-6 ratios of 1:1, 1:3, 1:5, 1:7, 1:9 and 1:11, respectively. Different n-3 to n-6 ratioes had no significant effect on growth performance parameters. The best dressing percentage was recorded in group 3 while no significant difference was noticed in the weight of organs except for a significant increase in the weight of gizzard in group 4. There was a variable effect of the n-3 to n-6 ratio on parameters of innate immunity. The highest lymphocyte percentage was detected in group 5. Antibody titers against Newcastle disease (ND and Avian Influenza (AI increased in wider ratio groups. The lowest glucose level was detected in group 4. Though serum albumin and total protein were decreased in group 3, serum globulin increased in groups 2 and 3. The lowest cholesterol content of breast meat was detected in group 3 and the highest content was detected in group 6. The cholesterol content of the thigh recorded opposite results. Narrow dietary n-3 to n-6 groups tended to record higher n-3 PUFAs content especially DHA in breast meat. While wider n-3 to n-6 ratio groups tended to deposit more SFAS, MUFAs and n-6 PUFAs than the narrower ratio groups. The best n-3 to n-6 ratio of breast meat was recorded in group 2 receiving dietary n-3 to n-6 ratio of 1:3. From the results of this study, it could be concluded that the dietary n-3 to n-6 ratio had no significant effect on growth performance of broiler chickens. The best dressing percentage was detected in group with the ratio of 1:5. The ratio of 1:3 recorded the best health state parameters.

  9. Targeted Alteration of Dietary Omega 3 and Omega 6 Fatty Acids for the Treatment of Post Traumatic Headaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    circulating anti- and pro-nociceptive lipid mediators and their precursor fatty acids, reduced psychological distress and improved quality-of- life in a...lipid mediators and their precursor fatty acids, reduced psychological distress and improved quality-of-life in a chronic headache population. These

  10. Dietary trans-fatty acids and metabolic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Zdzisław Kochan; Joanna Karbowska; Ewa Babicz-Zielińska

    2010-01-01

    Trans-fatty acids (TFAs), products of partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils, have become more prevalent in our diet since the 1960s, when they replaced animal fats. TFAs also occur naturally in meat and dairy products from ruminants. There is growing evidence that dietary trans-fatty acids may increase the risk of metabolic syndrome. Several studies have demonstrated adverse effects of TFAs on plasma lipids and lipoproteins. In dietary trials, trans-fatty acids have been shown to raise the ...

  11. Dietary omega-3 and -6 polyunsaturated fatty acids affect the composition and development of sheep granulosa cells, oocytes and embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonnacott, K E; Kwong, W Y; Hughes, J; Salter, A M; Lea, R G; Garnsworthy, P C; Sinclair, K D

    2010-01-01

    The evidence that omega-3 (n-3) and -6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have differential effects on ovarian function, oocytes and embryo quality is inconsistent. We report on the effects of n-3 versus n-6 PUFA-enriched diets fed to 36 ewes over a 6-week period, prior to ovarian stimulation and follicular aspiration, on ovarian steroidogenic parameters and embryo quality. Follicle number and size were unaltered by diet, but follicular-fluid progesterone concentrations were greater in n-3 PUFA-fed ewes than in n-6 PUFA-fed ewes. The percentage of saturated FAs (mostly stearic acid) was greater in oocytes than in either granulosa cells or plasma, indicating selective uptake and/or de novo synthesis of saturated FAs at the expense of PUFAs by oocytes. High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) fractionated from sera of these ewes increased granulosa cell proliferation and steroidogenesis relative to the FA-free BSA control during culture, but there was no differential effect of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs on either oestradiol or progesterone production. HDL was ineffective in delivering FAs to embryos during culture, although n-6 PUFA HDL reduced embryo development. All blastocysts, irrespective of the treatment, contained high levels of unsaturated FAs, in particular linoleic acid. Transcripts for HDL and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors (SCARB1 and LDLR) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) are reported in sheep embryos. HDL reduced the expression of transcripts for LDLR and SCD relative to the BSA control. The data support a differential effect of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs on ovarian steroidogenesis and pre-implantation development, the latter in the absence of a net uptake of FAs.

  12. What health professionals should know about omega-3 fatty acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Western diets are often deficient in n-3 fatty acids because of an insufficient intake of cold water oily fish. The main n-3 fatty acids in fatty fish are ... To date, no formally accepted dietary reference intakes for EPA and DHA exist, while international intake recommendations differ widely. Supplementation is an easy and ...

  13. Associations between dietary n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and arachidonic acid compositions in plasma and erythrocytes in young and elderly Japanese volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawabata Terue

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We reported that the compositions of arachidonic acid (ARA in erythrocytes and plasma phospholipids (PL in the elderly were lower than those in the young, though the ARA intake was nearly identical. Objective We further analyzed data in four study groups with different ages and sexes, and determined that the blood ARA levels were affected by the kinds of dietary fatty acids ingested. Methods One hundred and four healthy young and elderly volunteers were recruited. Dietary records together with photographic records from 28 consecutive days were reviewed and the fatty acid composition in plasma lipid fractions and erythrocyte PL was analyzed. Results No correlations for ARA between dietary fatty acids and blood lipid fractions were observed. A significant negative correlation between eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA intake and ARA composition in erythrocyte PL was observed. ARA composition in erythrocyte PL was significantly lower in elderly subjects than in young subjects, because EPA and DHA intake in elderly subjects was higher than in young subjects. However, after removing the effect of dietary EPA+DHA intake, the ARA composition in erythrocyte PL in elderly subjects was significantly lower than that in young subjects. Conclusions Changes in physical conditions with aging influenced the low ARA composition of erythrocyte in elderly subjects in addition to the effects of dietary EPA and DHA.

  14. Effect of dietary intervention to reduce the n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio on maternal and fetal fatty acid profile and its relation to offspring growth and body composition at 1 year of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Much, D; Brunner, S; Vollhardt, C; Schmid, D; Sedlmeier, E-M; Brüderl, M; Heimberg, E; Bartke, N; Boehm, G; Bader, B L; Amann-Gassner, U; Hauner, H

    2013-03-01

    Evidence is accumulating that the long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) are associated with offspring growth and body composition. We investigated the relationship between LCPUFAs in red blood cells (RBCs) of pregnant women/breastfeeding mothers and umbilical cord RBCs of their neonates with infant growth and body composition ≤ 1 year of age. In an open-label randomized, controlled trial, 208 healthy pregnant women received a dietary intervention (daily supplementation with 1200 mg n-3 LCPUFAs and dietary counseling to reduce arachidonic acid (AA) intake) from the 15th week of gestation until 4 months of lactation or followed their habitual diet. Fatty acids of plasma phospholipids (PLs) and RBCs from maternal and cord blood were determined and associated with infant body weight, body mass index (BMI), lean body mass and fat mass assessed by skinfold thickness measurements and ultrasonography. Dietary intervention significantly reduced the n-6/n-3 LCPUFA ratio in maternal and cord-blood plasma PLs and RBCs. Maternal RBCs docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), n-3 LCPUFAs and n-6 LCPUFAs at the 32nd week of gestation were positively related to birth weight. Maternal n-3 LCPUFAs, n-6 LCPUFAs and AA were positively associated with birth length. Maternal RBCs AA and n-6 LCPUFAs were significantly negatively related to BMI and Ponderal Index at 1 year postpartum, but not to fat mass. Maternal DHA, AA, total n-3 LCPUFAs and n-6 LCPUFAs might serve as prenatal growth factors, while n-6 LCPUFAs also seems to regulate postnatal growth. The maternal n-6/n-3 LCPUFA ratio does not appear to have a role in adipose tissue development during early postnatal life.

  15. The effects of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on attention and impulsivity in an animal model of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Makulska-Gertruda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is one of the commonest psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents. The main symptoms of ADHD are hyperactivity, inattention and impulsivity. Both etiology and neurobiological basis of ADHD are unknown. In this context, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs, especially omega-3 (n-3 PUFAs, have become a focus of interest. The symptoms of ADHD have been suggested to be associated with a deficiency of n-3 PUFAs. In addition, the impact of a supply of dietary n-3 PUFAs in the treatment of ADHD has frequently been discussed. Objective: The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of n-3 PUFA supplementation on attention and impulsivity in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR which has been proposed to be a valid genetic animal model of ADHD. Methods: Seven-week-old male SHRs were randomly divided into two groups of 15 rats and fed one of two experimental diets (n-3 PUFA-enriched or n-3 PUFA-deficient prior to and during behavioral testing. Attention and impulsivity were assessed using a three-choiceserial-reaction-time-task (3CSRTT which is based on the five-choice-serial-reaction-timetask. The experiment was performed with three-month-old rats. Results: Our findings demonstrate a marked difference between groups regarding impulsivity but not attention. The n-3 PUFA-enriched diet significantly reduced impulsivity in SHRs compared with rats fed with the n-3 PUFA-deficient diet. Conclusion: The present data show a decrease in impulsivity following a dietary n-3 PUFA supplementation, but no changes in attention. A possible explanation for these results is that the attention displayed by SHR may not be linked to n-3 PUFA supply. It is important to note that inattention and impulsiveness are two of the main symptoms of ADHD. Our results regarding dietary n-3 PUFA supply may support the positive findings in human studies demonstrating that n-3 PUFA administration

  16. [Effects of dietary different ratios of n-3 to n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids influence lipid metabolism and appetite of rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Manxue; Xue, Nan; Cao, Zipeng; Liu, Hanqiang

    2009-03-01

    To study the effects of dietary different ratios of n-3 to n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids on food intake of SD rats and potential mechanisms. According to their serum total cholesterol level, male rats were randomly divided into 6 groups, and were fed common feed diet, high fat diet, high fat with n-3/n-6 1:1 PUFA diet, high fat with n-3/n-6 1:5 PUFA diet, common feed with n-3/n-6 1:1 PUFA diet, and common feed with n-3/n-6 1:5 PUFA diet, respectively. Weights were measured about every 6 days, and food intake were measured everyday. At 0, 15, 30 and 45 days, triglycerides (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) in the plasma were measured using kits. After 45 days, the rats were sacrificed. RT-PCR was used for measuring the expression of neuropepide Y (NPY) and AMP-activated protein kinase-alpha2 (AMPK-alpha2) mRNA in the hypothalamus. Four diets with any ratio of n-3/n-6 PUFA resulted in significant restraint of body weight gain, TC and TG level in the plasma, NPY and AMPK-alpha2 mRNA level in the hypothalamus compared to high fat diets (P < 0.05). These situations in two groups with common diet and one group with high diet added 1:1 PUFA are more significant than the high fat diet group. These results indicate that dietary PUFA improved lipid metabolism which may be related with appetite control through AMPK path.

  17. Benefits of omega-3 fatty acid dietary supplementation on health-related quality of life in patients with meibomian gland dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleñik A

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Andrea Oleñik, Ignacio Mahillo-Fernández, Nicolás Alejandre-Alba, Guillermo Fernández-Sanz, María Alarcón Pérez, Sol Luxan, Silvia Quintana, Alfonso Martínez de Carneros Llorente, Blanca García-Sandoval, Ignacio Jiménez-AlfaroDepartment of Ophthalmology, Fundación Jiménez Díaz, Madrid, SpainBackground: We assessed the impact of a dietary supplement based on the combination of omega-3 essential fatty acids and antioxidants on health-related quality of life in patients with meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD.Methods: Patients of either sex (aged 18–85 years diagnosed with MGD according to criteria identified at a 2011 International Workshop on Meibomian Gland Dysfunction participated in this randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled study. Group A patients (controls received an oral placebo supplement and group B patients received the oral study supplement (Brudysec® 1.5 g; Brudy Laboratories, Barcelona, Spain. At baseline and at 3-month follow-up, the patients completed the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey questionnaire using a Spanish validated version. The Physical (PCS and Mental (MCS Component Summary scores were the main outcome variables.Results: A total of 61 patients completed the study (group A, n=31; group B, n=30. There were no significant differences in PCS and MCS scores at baseline between the two study groups, but after 3 months of treatment, significantly higher mean PCS and MSC scores were observed in patients treated with the active omega-3 dietary supplement as compared with controls (mean [standard deviation] PCS score 53.33±5.57 versus 47.46±7.31, P=0.008; mean MCS score 54.60±5.64 versus 47.80±8.45, P=0.0005. Moreover, mean differences between values at 3 months as compared with baseline were statistically significant for patients in group B (PCS score 7.14±5.81, 95% confidence interval 4.97–9.31, P=0.000; MCS score 5.96±7.64, 95% confidence interval 3.10–8.81, P=0

  18. Omega-3 fatty acids (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-3 fatty acids are a form of polyunsaturated fat that the body derives from food. Omega-3s (and omega-6s) are known as essential fatty acids (EFAs) because they are important for good health. ...

  19. Association between fish consumption, dietary omega-3 fatty acids and persistent organic pollutants intake, and type 2 diabetes in 18 First Nations in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marushka, Lesya; Batal, Malek; David, William; Schwartz, Harold; Ing, Amy; Fediuk, Karen; Sharp, Donald; Black, Andrew; Tikhonov, Constantine; Chan, Hing Man

    2017-07-01

    First Nations (FNs) populations in Canada experience a disproportionally higher rate of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) compared to the general population. Recent data suggest that a high consumption of fish may help prevent T2D. On the other hand, fish might also be a potential source of environmental contaminants which could potentially be a risk factor for T2D. To investigate the potential associations between self-reported T2D and consumption of locally-harvested fish, dietary long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (n-3FAs) and persistent organic pollutants intake among adult FNs living on reserve in Ontario. Data from the First Nations Food Nutrition and Environment Study, which included a cross-sectional study of 1429 Ontario FNs adults living in 18 communities across 4 ecozones in 2012 were analyzed. Social and lifestyle data were collected using household interviews. The consumption of locally-harvested fish was estimated using a traditional food frequency questionnaire along with portion size information obtained from 24hr recalls. Fish samples were analyzed for the presence of contaminants including dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Dietary intakes of DDE and PCBs were estimated using community-specific levels of DDE/PCBs in fish species. Multiple logistic regression models adjusted for potential covariates including age, gender, body mass index, physical activity, total energy intake, smoking, and education were developed. The prevalence of T2D in Ontario FNs was 24.4%. A significant positive association between fish consumption of one portion per week and more and T2D compared to no fish consumption was found (OR=2.5 (95% CI: 1.38-4.58). Dietary DDE and PCBs intake was positively associated with T2D (OR=1.09 (95%CI: 1.05-1.75) for DDE and OR=1.07 (95%CI: 1.004-1.27) for PCBs) per unit increase in DDE/PCBs while n-3-FAs intake, adjusted for DDE/PCBs intake, showed an inverse effect against T2D among older individuals

  20. Effect of Dietary Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Heart Rate and Heart Rate Variability in Animals Susceptible or Resistant to Ventricular Fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billman, George E.

    2012-01-01

    The consumption of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n−3 PUFAs) has been reported to reduce cardiac mortality following myocardial infarction as well as to decrease resting heart rate (HR) and increase HR variability (HRV). However, it has not been established whether n−3 PUFAs exhibit the same actions on HR and HRV in individuals known to be either susceptible or resistant to ventricular fibrillation (VF). Therefore, HR and HRV (high frequency and total R–R interval variability) were evaluated before and 3 months after n−3 PUFA treatment in dogs with healed myocardial infarction that were either susceptible (VF+, n = 31) or resistant (VF−, n = 31) to ventricular tachyarrhythmias induced by a 2-min coronary artery occlusion during the last minute of a submaximal exercise test. HR and HRV were evaluated at rest, during submaximal exercise and in response to acute myocardial ischemia at rest before and after either placebo (1 g/day, corn oil, VF+, n = 9; VF− n = 8) or n−3 PUFA (docosahexaenoic acid + eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl esters, 1–4 g/day, VF+, n = 22; VF−, n = 23) treatment for 3 months. The n−3 PUFA treatment elicited similar increases in red blood cell membrane, right atrial, and left ventricular n−3 PUFA levels in both the VF+ and VF− dogs. The n−3 PUFA treatment also provoked similar reductions in baseline HR and increases in baseline HRV in both groups that resulted in parallel shifts in the response to either exercise or acute myocardial ischemia (that is, the change in these variables induced by physiological challenges was not altered after n−3 PUFA treatment). These data demonstrate that dietary n−3 PUFA decreased HR and increased HRV to a similar extent in animals known to be prone to or resistant to malignant cardiac tachyarrhythmias. PMID:22470351

  1. Effect of Dietary Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Heart Rate and Heart Rate Variability in Animals Susceptible or Resistant to Ventricular Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George E Billman

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs has been reported to reduce cardiac mortality following myocardial infarction as well as to decrease resting heart rate (HR and increase heart rate variability (HRV. However, it has not been established whether n-3 PUFAs exhibit the same actions on HR and HRV in individuals known to be either susceptible or resistant to ventricular fibrillation (VF. Therefore, HR and HRV (high frequency and total R-R interval variability were evaluated before and 3 months after n-3 PUFA treatment in dogs with healed myocardial infarction that were either susceptible (VF+, n = 31 or resistant (VF-, n = 31 to ventricular tachyarrhythmias induced by a 2 min coronary artery occlusion during the last minute of a submaximal exercise test. HR and HRV were evaluated at rest, during submaximal exercise and in response to acute myocardial ischemia at rest before and after either placebo (1 g/day, corn oil, VF+, n = 9; VF- n = 8 or n-3 PUFA (docosahexaenoic acid + eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl esters, 1-4g/day, VF+, n = 22; VF-, n = 23 treatment for 3 months. The n-3 PUFA treatment elicited similar increases in red blood cell membrane, right atrial, and left ventricular n-3 PUFA levels in both the VF+ and VF- dogs. The n-3 PUFA treatment also provoked similar reductions in baseline HR and increases in baseline HRV in both groups that resulted in parallel shifts in the response to either exercise or acute myocardial ischemia (that is, the change in these variables induced by physiological challenges was not altered after n-3 PUFA treatment. These data demonstrate that dietary n-3 PUFA decreased HR and increased HRV to a similar extent in animals known to be prone to or resistant to malignant cardiac tachyarrhythmias.

  2. Dietary habits, plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids and selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dietary habits, plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids and selected coronary disease risk factors in Tanzania. ... Conclusion: Our results indicate that, there are significant differences in dietary patterns among the three study areas, and that the intake of fish is inversely associated with selected risk factors for coronary heart ...

  3. Dietary fatty acids modulate associations between genetic variants and circulating fatty acids in plasma and erythrocyte membranes: meta-analysis of 9 studies in the CHARGE consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Caren E.; Follis, Jack L.; Nettleton, Jennifer A.; Foy, Millennia; Wu, Jason H.Y.; Ma, Yiyi; Tanaka, Toshiko; Manichakul, Ani W.; Wu, Hongyu; Chu, Audrey Y.; Steffen, Lyn M.; Fornage, Myriam; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Kabagambe, Edmond K.; Ferruci, Luigi; da Chen, Yii-Der I; Rich, Stephen S.; Djoussé, Luc; Ridker, Paul M.; Tang, Weihong; McKnight, Barbara; Tsai, Michael Y.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Rotter, Jerome I.; Hu, Frank B.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Arnett, Donna K.; King, Irena B.; Sun, Qi; Wang, Lu; Lumley, Thomas; Chiuve, Stephanie E.; Siscovick, David S; Ordovás, José M.; Lemaitre, Rozenn N.

    2015-01-01

    Scope Tissue concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids may reduce cardiovascular disease risk, and genetic variants are associated with circulating fatty acids concentrations. Whether dietary fatty acids interact with genetic variants to modify circulating omega-3 fatty acids is unclear. Objective We evaluated interactions between genetic variants and fatty acid intakes for circulating alpha-linoleic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA). Methods and Results We conducted meta-analyses (N to 11,668) evaluating interactions between dietary fatty acids and genetic variants (rs174538 and rs174548 in FADS1 (fatty acid desaturase 1), rs7435 in AGPAT3 (1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate), rs4985167 in PDXDC1 (pyridoxal-dependent decarboxylase domain-containing 1), rs780094 in GCKR (glucokinase regulatory protein) and rs3734398 in ELOVL2 (fatty acid elongase 2)). Stratification by measurement compartment (plasma vs. erthyrocyte) revealed compartment-specific interactions between FADS1 rs174538 and rs174548 and dietary ALA and linoleic acid for DHA and DPA. Conclusion Our findings reinforce earlier reports that genetically-based differences in circulating fatty acids may be partially due to differences in the conversion of fatty acid precursors. Further, fatty acids measurement compartment may modify gene-diet relationships, and considering compartment may improve the detection of gene-fatty acids interactions for circulating fatty acid outcomes. PMID:25626431

  4. Effects of varying levels of n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio on plasma fatty acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effects of varying dietary levels of n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio on plasma fatty acid composition and prostanoid synthesis in pregnant rats. Four groups consisting of seven rats per group of non pregnant rats were fed diets with either a very low n-6:n-3 ratio of 50% soybean oil (SBO): 50% cod liver oil ...

  5. Dietary fatty acids influence sperm quality and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferramosca, A; Moscatelli, N; Di Giacomo, M; Zara, V

    2017-05-01

    Recently, obesity has been linked to male infertility. In animal models the administration of a high-fat diet caused a reduction in sperm quality, by impairing gamete energy metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate a possible effect of dietary fatty acids supplementation in the modulation of sperm energy metabolism and, in turn, in the improvement of sperm quality in rats fed a high-fat diet. Sexually mature male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups and fed for 4 weeks a standard diet (control group), a high-fat diet (enriched in 35% of fat and 15% sucrose), a high-fat diet supplemented with 2.5% olive oil (a source of monounsaturated fatty acids) or a high-fat diet supplemented with 2.5% krill oil (a source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids). Liver and adipose tissue weight, plasma glucose, insulin and lipid concentrations were determined. Activities of enzymes involved in sperm energetic metabolism were evaluated by spectrophotometric assays. Sperm mitochondrial respiratory efficiency was also assayed. The obtained results suggest that olive oil partially counteracts the negative effects of a high-fat diet on sperm quality, by increasing gamete motility, by reducing oxidative stress and slightly improving mitochondrial respiration efficiency. On the other hand, krill oil determines an increase in sperm concentration and motility, an increase in the activities of lactate dehydrogenase, Krebs cycle enzymes and respiratory chain complexes; a parallel increase in the cellular levels of ATP and a reduction in oxidative damage were also observed. These results suggest that dietary fatty acids are able to positively influence sperm quality and function. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  6. Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acids Suppress Experimental Autoimmune Uveitis in Association with Inhibition of Th1 and Th17 Cell Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoda, Hiromi; Yanai, Ryoji; Yoshimura, Takeru; Nagai, Tomohiko; Kimura, Kazuhiro; Sobrin, Lucia; Connor, Kip M.; Sakoda, Yukimi; Tamada, Koji; Ikeda, Tsunehiko; Sonoda, Koh-Hei

    2015-01-01

    Omega (ω)–3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) inhibit the production of inflammatory mediators and thereby contribute to the regulation of inflammation. Experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) is a well-established animal model of autoimmune retinal inflammation. To investigate the potential effects of dietary intake of ω-3 LCPUFAs on uveitis, we examined the anti-inflammatory properties of these molecules in comparison with ω-6 LCPUFAs in a mouse EAU model. C57BL/6 mice were fed a diet containing ω-3 LCPUFAs or ω-6 LCPUFAs for 2 weeks before as well as after the induction of EAU by subcutaneous injection of a fragment of human interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein emulsified with complete Freund’s adjuvant. Both clinical and histological scores for uveitis were smaller for mice fed ω-3 LCPUFAs than for those fed ω-6 LCPUFAs. The concentrations of the T helper 1 (Th1) cytokine interferon-γ and the Th17 cytokine interleukin-17 in intraocular fluid as well as the production of these cytokines by lymph node cells were reduced for mice fed ω-3 LCPUFAs. Furthermore, the amounts of mRNAs for the Th1- and Th17-related transcription factors T-bet and RORγt, respectively, were reduced both in the retina and in lymph node cells of mice fed ω-3 LCPUFAs. Our results thus show that a diet enriched in ω-3 LCPUFAs suppressed uveitis in mice in association with inhibition of Th1 and Th17 cell function. PMID:26393358

  7. Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acids Suppress Experimental Autoimmune Uveitis in Association with Inhibition of Th1 and Th17 Cell Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromi Shoda

    Full Text Available Omega (ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs inhibit the production of inflammatory mediators and thereby contribute to the regulation of inflammation. Experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU is a well-established animal model of autoimmune retinal inflammation. To investigate the potential effects of dietary intake of ω-3 LCPUFAs on uveitis, we examined the anti-inflammatory properties of these molecules in comparison with ω-6 LCPUFAs in a mouse EAU model. C57BL/6 mice were fed a diet containing ω-3 LCPUFAs or ω-6 LCPUFAs for 2 weeks before as well as after the induction of EAU by subcutaneous injection of a fragment of human interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein emulsified with complete Freund's adjuvant. Both clinical and histological scores for uveitis were smaller for mice fed ω-3 LCPUFAs than for those fed ω-6 LCPUFAs. The concentrations of the T helper 1 (Th1 cytokine interferon-γ and the Th17 cytokine interleukin-17 in intraocular fluid as well as the production of these cytokines by lymph node cells were reduced for mice fed ω-3 LCPUFAs. Furthermore, the amounts of mRNAs for the Th1- and Th17-related transcription factors T-bet and RORγt, respectively, were reduced both in the retina and in lymph node cells of mice fed ω-3 LCPUFAs. Our results thus show that a diet enriched in ω-3 LCPUFAs suppressed uveitis in mice in association with inhibition of Th1 and Th17 cell function.

  8. Dietary Composition Independent of Weight Loss in the Management of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Eslamparast, Tannaz; Tandon, Puneeta; Raman, Maitreyi

    2017-01-01

    Poor dietary composition is an important factor in the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The majority of NAFLD patients follow diets with overconsumption of simple carbohydrates, total and saturated fat, with reduced intake of dietary fiber and omega-3 rich foods. Although lifestyle modifications including weight loss and exercise remain the keystone of NAFLD management, modifying dietary composition with or without a calorie-restricted diet may also be a feasible and ...

  9. Incorporation of eicosapentaenioic and docosahexaenoic acids into breast adipose tissue of women at high risk of breast cancer: a randomized clinical trial of dietary fish and n-3 fatty acid capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straka, Shana; Lester, Joanne L; Cole, Rachel M; Andridge, Rebecca R; Puchala, Sarah; Rose, Angela M; Clinton, Steven K; Belury, Martha A; Yee, Lisa D

    2015-09-01

    The fatty acid profile of dietary lipids is reflected in mammary adipose tissue and may influence mammary gland biology and cancer risk. To determine the effects of fish consumption on breast adipose tissue fatty acids, we conducted a study of fish versus n-3 PUFA supplements in women at increased risk of breast cancer. High risk women were randomized to comparable doses of marine n-3 PUFAs as canned salmon + albacore or capsules for 3 months. Pre- and posttreatment fatty acid profiles were obtained by GC. Dietary fish (n = 12) and n-3 PUFA capsules (n = 13) yielded increased eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in plasma (p breast fat (p Women taking capsules had higher plasma and erythrocyte membrane EPA changes (∼four versus twofold, p = 0.002), without significant differences in DHA. Increases in breast adipose EPA, DHA were similar for both groups. Higher BMI correlated with smaller changes in plasma, erythrocyte membrane EPA, and breast adipose EPA, DHA. Adherence was excellent at 93.9% overall and higher in the fish arm (p = 0.01). Fish provides an excellent source of n-3 PUFAs that increases breast adipose EPA, DHA similar to supplements and represents a well-tolerated intervention for future studies of the impact of n-3 PUFAs and dietary patterns on breast cancer. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. The effect of fatty acid positioning in dietary triacylglycerols and intake of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on bone mineral accretion in growing piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders Daniel; Ludvig, Stine E; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab

    2013-01-01

    compared with a control (CONT) and if increasing n-3LCPUFA intake giving fish oil (FO) compared with sunflower oil (SO) would affect bone parameters in piglets in two sets of controlled 14d-interventions (n=12/group). We assessed this by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and ex vivo peripheral quantitative...

  11. Health Implications of High Dietary Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Patterson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Omega-6 (n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA (e.g., arachidonic acid (AA and omega-3 (n-3 PUFA (e.g., eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA are precursors to potent lipid mediator signalling molecules, termed “eicosanoids,” which have important roles in the regulation of inflammation. In general, eicosanoids derived from n-6 PUFA are proinflammatory while eicosanoids derived from n-3 PUFA are anti-inflammatory. Dietary changes over the past few decades in the intake of n-6 and n-3 PUFA show striking increases in the (n-6 to (n-3 ratio (~15 : 1, which are associated with greater metabolism of the n-6 PUFA compared with n-3 PUFA. Coinciding with this increase in the ratio of (n-6 : (n-3 PUFA are increases in chronic inflammatory diseases such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, cardiovascular disease, obesity, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, rheumatoid arthritis, and Alzheimer's disease (AD. By increasing the ratio of (n-3 : (n-6 PUFA in the Western diet, reductions may be achieved in the incidence of these chronic inflammatory diseases.

  12. A porcine gluteus medius muscle genome-wide transcriptome analysis: dietary effects of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids on biological mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogłuszka, Magdalena; Szostak, Agnieszka; Te Pas, Marinus F W; Poławska, Ewa; Urbański, Paweł; Blicharski, Tadeusz; Pareek, Chandra S; Juszczuk-Kubiak, Edyta; Dunkelberger, Jenelle R; Horbańczuk, Jarosław O; Pierzchała, Mariusz

    2017-01-01

    The level of omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids can affect many cellular systems and function via nuclear receptors or the bioactive lipid regulation of gene expression. The objective of this study was to investigate changes in the muscle transcriptome and the biological functions regulated by increased consumption of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in the pig gluteus medius muscle. The transcriptome of the gluteus medius muscle was studied for pigs subjected to either a control diet or a diet supplemented with linseed and rapeseed oil to increase polyunsaturated fatty acid content. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) was used to generate the muscle tissue transcriptome database pointing differentially expressed genes (DEG). Comparative expression analyses identified 749 genes significantly differing at least in the twofold of change between two groups of animals fed with divergent level of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. The expression of 219 genes was upregulated, and the expression of 530 genes was downregulated in the group of pigs supplemented with omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in relation to control group pigs. Results of RNA-seq indicated a role of fatty acid in the regulation of the expression of genes which are essential for muscle tissue development and functioning. Functional analysis revealed that the identified genes were important for a number of biological processes including inflammatory response, signaling, lipid metabolism, and homeostasis. Summarizing, obtained results provide strong evidence that omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids regulate fundamental metabolic processes in muscle tissue development and functioning.

  13. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) decrease obesity-associated Th17 cell-mediated inflammation during colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Jennifer M; Hou, Tim Y; Turk, Harmony F; Weeks, Brad; Wu, Chaodong; McMurray, David N; Chapkin, Robert S

    2012-01-01

    Clinical and experimental evidence suggests that obesity-associated inflammation increases disease activity during colitis, attributed in part to the effects of Th17 cells. Using a model of concurrent obesity and colitis, we monitored changes in critical immune cell subsets and inflammatory biomarker expression in three key tissues: visceral adipose tissue, colon (local inflammatory site) and spleen (systemic inflammatory site), and we hypothesized that n-3 PUFA would reduce the percentage of inflammatory immune cell subsets and suppress inflammatory gene expression, thereby improving the disease phenotype. Obesity was induced in C57BL/6 mice by feeding a high fat (HF) diet (59.2% kcal) alone or an isocaloric HF diet supplemented with fish oil (HF-FO) for 12 weeks. Colitis was induced via a 2.5% trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) enema. The HF-FO diet improved the obese phenotype by reducing i) serum hormone concentrations (leptin and resistin), ii) adipose tissue mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines (MCP-1, IFNγ, IL-6, IL17F and IL-21) and iii) total (F4/80⁺ CD11b⁺) and inflammatory adipose tissue M1 (F4/80⁺ CD11c⁺) macrophage content compared to HF (Pdiet reduced both colitis-associated disease severity and colonic mRNA expression of the Th17 cell master transcription factor (RORγτ) and critical cytokines (IL-6, IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21, IL-23 and IFNγ) versus HF (P<0.05). Compared to HF, the percentage of both splenic Th17 and Th1 cells were reduced by the HF-FO group (P<0.05). Under ex vivo polarizing conditions, the percentage of HF-FO derived CD4⁺ T cells that reached Th17 cell effector status was suppressed (P = 0.05). Collectively, these results indicate that n-3 PUFA suppress Th1/Th17 cells and inflammatory macrophage subsets and reconfigure the inflammatory gene expression profile in diverse tissue sites in obese mice following the induction of colitis.

  14. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA decrease obesity-associated Th17 cell-mediated inflammation during colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M Monk

    Full Text Available Clinical and experimental evidence suggests that obesity-associated inflammation increases disease activity during colitis, attributed in part to the effects of Th17 cells. Using a model of concurrent obesity and colitis, we monitored changes in critical immune cell subsets and inflammatory biomarker expression in three key tissues: visceral adipose tissue, colon (local inflammatory site and spleen (systemic inflammatory site, and we hypothesized that n-3 PUFA would reduce the percentage of inflammatory immune cell subsets and suppress inflammatory gene expression, thereby improving the disease phenotype. Obesity was induced in C57BL/6 mice by feeding a high fat (HF diet (59.2% kcal alone or an isocaloric HF diet supplemented with fish oil (HF-FO for 12 weeks. Colitis was induced via a 2.5% trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS enema. The HF-FO diet improved the obese phenotype by reducing i serum hormone concentrations (leptin and resistin, ii adipose tissue mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines (MCP-1, IFNγ, IL-6, IL17F and IL-21 and iii total (F4/80⁺ CD11b⁺ and inflammatory adipose tissue M1 (F4/80⁺ CD11c⁺ macrophage content compared to HF (P<0.05. In addition, the HF-FO diet reduced both colitis-associated disease severity and colonic mRNA expression of the Th17 cell master transcription factor (RORγτ and critical cytokines (IL-6, IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21, IL-23 and IFNγ versus HF (P<0.05. Compared to HF, the percentage of both splenic Th17 and Th1 cells were reduced by the HF-FO group (P<0.05. Under ex vivo polarizing conditions, the percentage of HF-FO derived CD4⁺ T cells that reached Th17 cell effector status was suppressed (P = 0.05. Collectively, these results indicate that n-3 PUFA suppress Th1/Th17 cells and inflammatory macrophage subsets and reconfigure the inflammatory gene expression profile in diverse tissue sites in obese mice following the induction of colitis.

  15. Lipid oxidation of stored eggs enriched with very long chain n-3 fatty acids, as affected by dietary olive leaves (Olea europea L.) or α-tocopheryl acetate supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botsoglou, E; Govaris, A; Fletouris, D; Botsoglou, N

    2012-09-15

    The antioxidant potential of dietary olive leaves or α-tocopheryl acetate supplementation on lipid oxidation of refrigerated stored hen eggs enriched with very long-chain n-3 fatty acids, was investigated. Ninety-six brown Lohmann laying hens, were equally assigned into three groups. Hens within the control group were given a typical diet containing 3% fish oil, whereas other groups were given the same diet further supplemented with 10 g ground olive leaves/kg feed or 200mg α-tocopheryl acetate/kg feed. Results showed that α-tocopheryl acetate or olive leaves supplementation had no significant effect on the fatty acid composition and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels of fresh eggs but reduced their lipid hydroperoxide levels compared to controls. Storage for 60 d decreased the proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) but increased those of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) in eggs from the control group, while had no effect on the fatty acid composition of the eggs from the other two groups, which showed decreased levels of lipid hydroperoxides and MDA. Therefore, the very long chain n-3 PUFAs in eggs were protected from undergoing deterioration partly by olive leaves supplementation and totally by α-tocopheryl acetate supplementation. In addition, incorporating tocopherols into eggs might also provide a source of tocopherols for the human diet. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Impact of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on cognition, motor skills and hippocampal neurogenesis in developing C57BL/6J mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Carola I. F.; Zerbi, Valerio; Mutsaers, Martina P. C.; de Jong, Bas S. W.; Wiesmann, Maximilian; Arnoldussen, Ilse A. C.; Geenen, Bram; Heerschap, Arend; Muskiet, Frits A. J.; Jouni, Zeina E.; van Tol, Eric A. F.; Gross, Gabriele; Homberg, Judith R.; Berg, Brian M.; Kiliaan, Amanda J.

    Maternal intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) is critical during perinatal development of the brain. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the most abundant n-3 PUFA in the brain and influences neuronal membrane function and neuroprotection. The present study aims to assess the effect of

  17. Effect of dietary fat source on fatty acid profile and lipid oxidation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Martina Muller

    Fish oil also resulted in the lowest n-6 to n-3 ratio (1.16 to 1), while sunflower oil resulted in the highest ratio (24.6 to 1). Results indicate that the fatty acid profile of eggs could be altered by means of dietary intervention. However, an improvement of omega-3 type fatty acids of eggs will result in a higher susceptibility to lipid ...

  18. Dietary fatty acids affecting hepatic metabolism and atherosclerosis - mechanisms unravelled using a proteomics approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Gutierrez, G.; Roos, B. de

    2009-07-01

    Dietary fatty acids play an important role in the aetiology of coronary heart disease. The effects of dietary fatty acids on lipoprotein metabolism are well described, but additional or alternative mechanisms relating to potential influence on coronary heart disease are not known. This review describes how proteomics techniques have been used to identify proteins that are differentially regulated by dietary fatty acids. Such proteins may reveal pathways by which dietary fatty acids influence disease risk. (Author) 40 refs.

  19. The Relationship between Dietary Fatty Acids and Inflammatory Genes on the Obese Phenotype and Serum Lipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael T. Joffe

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Obesity, a chronic low-grade inflammatory condition is associated with the development of many comorbidities including dyslipidemia. This review examines interactions between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP in the inflammatory genes tumor necrosis alpha (TNFA and interleukin-6 (IL-6 and dietary fatty acids, and their relationship with obesity and serum lipid levels. In summary, dietary fatty acids, in particular saturated fatty acids and the omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, impact the expression of the cytokine genes TNFA and IL-6, and alter TNFα and IL-6 production. In addition, sequence variants in these genes have also been shown to alter their gene expression and plasma levels, and are associated with obesity, measures of adiposity and serum lipid concentrations. When interactions between dietary fatty acids and TNFA and IL-6 SNPs on obesity and serum lipid were analyzed, both the quantity and quality of dietary fatty acids modulated the relationship between TNFA and IL-6 SNPs on obesity and serum lipid profiles, thereby impacting the association between phenotype and genotype. Researching these diet–gene interactions more extensively, and understanding the role of ethnicity as a confounder in these relationships, may contribute to a better understanding of the inter-individual variability in the obese phenotype.

  20. Influence of dietary triacylglycerol structure and level of n-3 fatty acids administered during development on brain phospholipids and memory and learning ability of rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvigsen, M.S.; Mu, Huiling; Hougaard, K.S.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of triacylglycerol (TAG) structure and level of n-3 fatty acids on fatty acid profile of brain phospholipids (PL) of dams and offspring, and the memory and learning ability of the offspring, when administered during initial development....... No considerable differences between groups were found when memory or learning was tested in the Morris water maze. Conclusion: The results suggest that extreme diet modifications are needed in order to observe significant effects on the memory and learning ability in rats....

  1. A porcine gluteus medius muscle genome-wide transcriptome analysis: dietary effects of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids on biological mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ogłuszka, Magdalena; Szostak, Agnieszka; Pas, te M.F.W.; Poławska, Ewa; Urbański, Paweł; Juszczuk-Kubiak, Edyta; Blicharski, Tadeusz; Pareek, Chandra Shekhar; Dunkelberger, Jenelle R.; Horbańczuk, Jarosław O.; Pierzchała, Mariusz

    2017-01-01

    The level of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may affect many cellular systems and functions via nuclear receptors or the bioactive lipid regulation of gene expression. The objective of this study was to investigate the changes in the muscle transcriptome and the biological functions

  2. A porcine gluteus medius muscle genome-wide transcriptome analysis: dietary effects of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids on biological mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ogłuszka, Magdalena; Szostak, Agnieszka; Pas, te Marinus F.W.; Poławska, Ewa; Urbański, Paweł; Blicharski, Tadeusz; Pareek, Chandra Shekhar; Juszczuk-Kubiak, Edyta; Dunkelberger, Jenelle R.; Horbańczuk, Jarosław O.; Pierzchała, Mariusz

    2017-01-01


    Background

    The level of omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids can affect many cellular systems and function via nuclear receptors or the bioactive lipid regulation of gene expression. The objective of this study was to investigate changes in the muscle transcriptome and the

  3. Relation between dietary fat intake type and serum fatty acid status in children with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqbool, Asim; Schall, Joan I; Gallagher, Paul R; Zemel, Babette S; Strandvik, Birgitta; Stallings, Virginia A

    2012-11-01

    Children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and pancreatic insufficiency (PI) are at risk for fatty acid (FA) abnormalities and essential FA deficiency, with low linoleic acid (LA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) concentrations and abnormal triene:tetraene (T:T) and arachidonic acid (AA):DHA ratios. The aim of the article was to determine whether type of dietary fat predicted serum LA, DHA, T:T, and AA:DHA ratios in subjects with CF and PI as compared to an unaffected comparison group. Serum FA concentrations were assessed by capillary gas-liquid chromatography (mol%) and dietary intake by 7-day weighed food records; the 3-day coefficient of fat absorption was calculated. Total energy intake was expressed in kilocalories. A total of 65 subjects with CF and PI (8.4 ± 1.0 years, 32 girls) and 22 controls (8.5 ± 1.1 years, 13 girls) were included. Despite greater energy, saturated fat, and LA intake, the subjects with CF had lower serum LA and DHA and higher T:T and AA:DHA than those in the comparison group. Dietary total fat, monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), LA, total ω 6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (Tω6PUFA), and α-linolenic acid (ALA) intake positively predicted serum LA concentration. MUFA, total ω 3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (Tω3PUFA), and ALA intake positively predicted serum DHA concentration. Total dietary fat, MUFA, PUFA, Tω3PUFA, LA, and ALA intake negatively predicted serum T:T. ALA and Tω3PUFA intake negatively predicted serum AA:DHA. Dietary fat patterns influenced serum LA, DHA, T:T, and AA:DHA in children with CF and PI. These data suggest that changes in dietary practices may result in FA profiles associated with improved clinical outcomes.

  4. Relation Between Dietary Fat Intake Type and Serum Fatty Acid Status in Children With Cystic Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqbool, Asim; Schall, Joan I.; Gallagher, Paul R.; Zemel, Babette S.; Strandvik, Birgitta; Stallings, Virginia A.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective Children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and pancreatic insufficiency (PI) are at risk for fatty acid (FA) abnormalities and essential FA deficiency, with low linoleic acid (LA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) concentrations and abnormal triene:tetraene (T:T) and arachidonic acid (AA):DHA ratios. The aim of the article was to determine whether type of dietary fat predicted serum LA, DHA, T:T, and AA:DHA ratios in subjects with CF and PI as compared to an unaffected comparison group. Methods Serum FA concentrations were assessed by capillary gas-liquid chromatography (mol%) and dietary intake by 7-day weighed food records; the 3-day coefficient of fat absorption was calculated. Total energy intake was expressed in kilocalories. Results A total of 65 subjects with CF and PI (8.4 ± 1.0 years, 32 girls) and 22 controls (8.5 ± 1.1 years, 13 girls) were included. Despite greater energy, saturated fat, and LA intake, the subjects with CF had lower serum LA and DHA and higher T:T and AA:DHA than those in the comparison group. Dietary total fat, monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), LA, total ω 6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (Tω6PUFA), and α-linolenic acid (ALA) intake positively predicted serum LA concentration. MUFA, total ω 3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (Tω3PUFA), and ALA intake positively predicted serum DHA concentration. Total dietary fat, MUFA, PUFA, Tω3PUFA, LA, and ALA intake negatively predicted serum T:T. ALA and Tω3PUFA intake negatively predicted serum AA:DHA. Conclusions Dietary fat patterns influenced serum LA, DHA, T:T, and AA:DHA in children with CF and PI. These data suggest that changes in dietary practices may result in FA profiles associated with improved clinical outcomes. PMID:22699835

  5. Dietary fatty acids were not independently associated with lipoprotein subclasses in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaghehband, Fatemeh Ramezan; Lankinen, Maria; Värri, Miika; Sirola, Joonas; Kröger, Heikki; Erkkilä, Arja T

    2017-07-01

    Dietary fatty acids are known to affect serum lipoproteins; however, little is known about the associations between consumption of dietary fatty acids and lipoprotein subclasses. In this study, we hypothesized that there is an association between dietary fatty acids and lipoprotein subclasses and investigated the cross-sectional association of dietary fat intake with subclasses of lipoproteins in elderly women. Altogether, 547 women (aged ≥65 years) who were part of OSTPRE cohort participated. Dietary intake was assessed by 3-day food records, lifestyle, and health information obtained through self-administrated questionnaires, and lipoprotein subclasses were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. To analyze the associations between fatty acids and lipoprotein subclasses, we used Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients and the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) test with, adjustment for physical activity, body mass index, age, smoking status, and intake of lipid-lowering drugs. There were significant correlations between saturated fatty acids (SFA; % of energy) and concentrations of large, medium, and small low-density lipoproteins (LDL); total cholesterol in large, medium, and small LDL; and phospholipids in large, medium, and small LDL, after correction for multiple testing. After adjustment for covariates, the higher intake of SFA was associated with smaller size of LDL particles (P = .04, ANCOVA) and lower amount of triglycerides in small very low-density lipoproteins (P = .046, ANCOVA). However, these associations did not remain significant after correction for multiple testing. In conclusion, high intake of SFA may be associated with the size of LDL particles, but the results do not support significant, independent associations between dietary fatty acids and lipoprotein subclasses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Dietary trans-fatty acids and metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdzisław Kochan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Trans-fatty acids (TFAs, products of partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils, have become more prevalent in our diet since the 1960s, when they replaced animal fats. TFAs also occur naturally in meat and dairy products from ruminants. There is growing evidence that dietary trans-fatty acids may increase the risk of metabolic syndrome. Several studies have demonstrated adverse effects of TFAs on plasma lipids and lipoproteins. In dietary trials, trans-fatty acids have been shown to raise the total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio and Lp(a levels in blood. Moreover, a high intake of TFAs has been associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease. Prospective cohort studies have shown that dietary trans-fatty acids promote abdominal obesity and weight gain. In addition, it appears that TFA consumption may be associated with the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. The documented adverse health effects of TFAs emphasise the importance of efforts to reduce the content of partially hydrogenated vegetable oils in foods.

  7. The dietary inclusion of Portulaca oleracea to the diet of laying hens increases the n-3 fatty acids content and reduces the cholesterol content in the egg yolk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igino Andrighetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA-enriched diet on yolk fatty acid profile and cholesterol content was evaluated. Dried Poutulaca oleracea (purslane: PO diet was added to a commercial diet (C diet at 20% of inclusion level. The effect of the supplemented diet was compared to that of C diet. Twenty-six laying hens were fed ad libitum for 21 days with the 2 diets, supplemented also with 300 mg α-tocopherol acetate/kg. Eggs were collected and then the fatty acids (FA profile and the cholesterol content were analysed. The PO diet significantly reduced the saturated FA content (P<0.05 and increased that of the polyunsaturated FA (PUFA: 18:2 n-6 (P<0.001, 18:3 n-3 (P<0.001 and 22:6 n-3 (DHA; P<0.01. Both n-6 and n-3 PUFA significantly increased with the PO diet and the n-6/n-3 ratio was improved (10.4 vs 11.3; P<0.05.

  8. Modulation of hepatic steatosis by dietary fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Zara, Vincenzo

    2014-02-21

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) describes a range of conditions caused by fat deposition within liver cells. Liver fat content reflects the equilibrium between several metabolic pathways involved in triglyceride synthesis and disposal, such as lipolysis in adipose tissue and de novo lipogenesis, triglyceride esterification, fatty acid oxidation and very-low-density lipoprotein synthesis/secretion in hepatic tissue. In particular, it has been demonstrated that hepatic de novo lipogenesis plays a significant role in NAFLD pathogenesis. It is widely known that the fatty acid composition of the diet influences hepatic lipogenesis along with other metabolic pathways. Therefore, dietary fat may not only be involved in the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis, but may also prevent and/or reverse hepatic fat accumulation. In this review, major data from the literature about the role of some dietary fats as a potential cause of hepatic fat accumulation or as a potential treatment for NAFLD are described. Moreover, biochemical mechanisms responsible for an increase or decrease in hepatic lipid content are critically analyzed. It is noteworthy that both quantitative and qualitative aspects of dietary fat influence triglyceride deposition in the liver. A high-fat diet or the dietary administration of conjugated linoleic acids induced hepatic steatosis. In contrast, supplementation of the diet with krill oil or pine nut oil helped in the prevention and/or in the treatment of steatotic liver. Quite interesting is the "case" of olive oil, since several studies have often provided different and/or conflicting results in animal models.

  9. Effect of sex, dietary glycerol or dietary fat during late fattening, on fatty acid composition and positional distribution of fatty acids within the triglyceride in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, J; Cambero, M I; Cámara, L; Loriente, C; Mateos, G G; López-Bote, C J

    2015-11-01

    The effect of sex, source of saturated fat (lard v. palm oil) and glycerol inclusion in the fattening diet on composition and fatty acid positional distribution in the triglyceride molecule was studied in pigs from 78 to 110 kg BW. Average daily gain and carcass characteristics, including ham and loin weight, were not affected by dietary treatment but sex affected backfat depth (P acid (SFA) concentrations were greater in barrows than in gilts. In contrast, the concentration of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and of C18:2n-6, C18:3n-3, C20:3n-9 and C20:4n-6 in the intramuscular fat (IMF) was higher (P acids (MUFA) concentration in the IMF. The proportion of SFA in the subcutaneous fat (SF) was higher in barrows than in gilts (P fat did not affect total SFA or PUFA concentrations of the IMF but the subcutaneous total MUFA concentration tended to be higher (P = 0.079) in pigs fed lard than in pigs fed palm oil. Dietary glycerol increased total MUFA and C18:1n-9 concentration in the IMF and increased total MUFA and decreased C18:2n-6, C18:3n-3 and total PUFA concentrations in the SF. The data indicate that altering the fatty acid composition of the triglyceride molecule at the 2-position, by dietary intervention during the fattening phase, is very limited.

  10. Dietary cholesterol, female gender and n-3 fatty acid deficiency are more important factors in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease than the saturation index of the fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia Caraballo Sonia C

    2011-01-01

    > male, and cholesterol content (high > low of the diet, but not on dietary fat composition. Conclusions Dietary cholesterol plays a determining, independent role in inflammation, especially in female mice. The fatty-acid saturation of the diet hardly affected hepatic steatosis or inflammation.

  11. Pregnancy, bovine somatotropin, and dietary n-3 fatty acids in lactating dairy cows: I. Ovarian, conceptus, and growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor system responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilby, T R; Sozzi, A; Lopez, M M; Silvestre, F T; Ealy, A D; Staples, C R; Thatcher, W W

    2006-09-01

    The objective was to examine effects of bovine somatotropin (bST), pregnancy, and dietary fatty acids on reproductive responses in lactating dairy cows. Beginning at approximately 17 d in milk (DIM), a comparison was made of isoenergetic diets comprising supplementary lipids of whole cottonseed vs. calcium salts of fish oil enriched lipid (FO). Ovulation was synchronized in cows with a presynchronization plus Ovsynch protocol, and cows were inseminated artificially by appointment or not inseminated (d 0 = time of synchronized ovulation; 77 +/- 12 DIM). On d 0 and 11, cows received bST (500 mg) or no bST. All cows were slaughtered on d 17. Number of cows in each group was as follows: control diet had 5 bST-treated cyclic (bST-C), 5 non-bST-treated cyclic (no bST-C), 4 bST-treated pregnant (bST-P), and 5 non-bST-treated pregnant (no bST-P) cows; and cyclic cows fed FO diet had 4 bST-treated (bST-FO) and 5 non-bST-treated cyclic (no bST-FO-C) cows. Feeding FO increased milk production, number of class 1 follicles (2 to 5 mm), and decreased insulin during the period before d 0 compared with control-fed cows. The bST increased milk production, pregnancy rate [83% (5/6) vs. 40% (4/10)], conceptus length (45 vs. 34 cm), and interferon-tau in the uterine luminal flushings (9.4 vs. 5.3 microg) with no effect on interferon-tau mRNA concentration in the conceptus. Treatment with bST increased plasma growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I. Among control-fed cows (cyclic and pregnant), bST decreased progesterone concentration in plasma. Cows fed FO had less plasma insulin than control-fed cyclic cows, and FO altered the plasma GH (bST-FO > bST-C) and IGF-I (bST-C > bST-FO-C) responses to bST injections. Endometrial IGF-I mRNA was reduced in pregnant cows and tended to decrease in those fed FO. The IGF-II mRNA was increased in the endometrium of pregnant and bST-treated cows fed the control diet. Cows fed FO had increased concentrations of IGF-II mRNA, when b

  12. Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acids Prevented Adipocyte Hypertrophy by Downregulating DGAT-2 and FABP-4 in a Sex-Dependent Fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogun, Kayode A; Cheema, Sukhinder K

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is characterized by an increase in fat mass primarily as a result of adipocyte hypertrophy. Diets enriched in omega (n)-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are suggested to reduce obesity, however, the mechanisms are not well understood. We investigated the effect of n-3 PUFA on adipocyte hypertrophy and the key genes involved in adipocyte hypertrophy. Female C57BL/6 mice were fed semi-purified diets (20 % w/w fat) containing high n-3 PUFA before mating, during pregnancy, and until weaning. Male and female offspring were continued on high n-3 PUFA (10 % w/w), medium n-3 PUFA (4 % w/w), or low n-3 PUFA (2 % w/w) diet for 16 weeks postweaning. Adipocyte area was quantified using microscopy, and gonadal mRNA expression of acyl CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase-2 (DGAT-2), fatty acid binding protein-4 (FABP-4) and leptin were measured. The high n-3 PUFA group showed higher levels of total n-3 PUFA in gonadal TAG compared to the medium and low n-3 PUFA groups (P hypertrophy by downregulating FABP-4, DGAT-2 and leptin; the effects are however sex-specific.

  13. Dietary advice on Inuit traditional food use needs to balance benefits and risks of mercury, selenium, and n3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Brian D; Goncharov, Alexey B; Egeland, Grace M; Chan, Hing Man

    2013-06-01

    Elevated concentrations of mercury (Hg) are commonly found in the traditional foods, including fish and marine mammals, of Inuit living in Canada's Arctic. As a result, Inuit often have higher dietary Hg intake and elevated Hg blood concentrations. However, these same traditional foods are excellent sources of essential nutrients. The goals of this study were 1) to identify the traditional food sources of Hg exposure for Inuit, 2) to estimate the percentage of Inuit who meet specific nutrient Dietary Reference Intakes and/or exceed the Toxicological Reference Values (TRVs), and 3) to evaluate options that maximize nutrient intake while minimizing contaminant exposure. A participatory cross-sectional survey was designed in consultation with Inuit in 3 Canadian Arctic jurisdictions (Nunatsiavut, Nunavut, and the Inuvialuit Settlement Region). Estimated intakes for EPA (20:5n3) and DHA (22:6n3) met suggested dietary targets, and estimated selenium (Se) intake fell within the Acceptable Range of Oral Intake. Estimated intakes of Hg (rs = 0.41, P exposure must emphasize the overall healthfulness of traditional foods and be designed to prevent concomitant harm to the nutrient intakes of Inuit.

  14. Effect of dietary fatty acid saturation on egg production at end-of-lay ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of dietary fatty acid saturation on egg production at end-of-lay. ... results of the current study fail to indicate a clear trend regarding dietary fatty acid saturation on feed intake of birds, it could be concluded that the long term exposure to a range of fatty acid saturation levels, has no negative effect on hen performance.

  15. The effect of dietary n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio on salmonid alphavirus subtype 1 (SAV-1) replication in tissues of experimentally infected rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Jimena, Benjamin; Lyons, Philip; Herath, Tharangani; Richards, Randolph H; Leaver, Michael; Bell, J Gordon; Adams, Alexandra; Thompson, Kim D

    2015-07-09

    Salmon pancreas disease (SPD) is one of the most commercially significant viral diseases of farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Europe. In this study, the potential for dietary mitigation of the disease using different polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) profiles was assessed in rainbow trout. We experimentally infected fish with salmonid alphavirus subtype 1 (SAV-1), the causative agent of SPD. These fish were fed two diets with different n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio (high omega 3, 3.08, and high omega 6, 0.87). We assessed the influence of the diets on the fatty acid composition of the heart at 0 days post infection (d.p.i.) (after 4 weeks of feeding the experimental diets prior to SAV-1 infection), and sampled infected and control fish at 5, 15 and 30d.p.i. Viral E1 and E2 glycoprotein genes were quantified by two absolute real-time PCRs in all the organs sampled, and significantly lower levels of the virus were evident in the organs of fish fed with high omega 6. Characteristic pathological lesions were identified in infected fish as early as 5d.p.i., with no significant differences in the pathology lesion scores between the two dietary regimes. This study shows that decreasing the n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio in experimental diets of rainbow trout changes the fatty acid content of the fish, and is associated with reduced SAV-1 replication in rainbow trout. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Conversion of α-linolenic acid to long-chain omega-3 fatty acid derivatives and alterations of HDL density subfractions and plasma lipids with dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids in Monk parrots (Myiopsitta monachus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzinger, C; Larner, C; Heatley, J J; Bailey, C A; MacFarlane, R D; Bauer, J E

    2014-04-01

    The effect of α-linolenic acid from a flaxseed (FLX)-enriched diet on plasma lipid and fatty acid metabolism and possible atherosclerosis risk factors was studied in Monk parrots (Myiopsitta monachus). Twenty-four Monk parrots were randomly assigned to diets containing either 10% ground SUNs or 10% ground FLXs. Feed intake was calculated daily. Blood samples, body condition scores and body weights were obtained at -5 weeks, day 0, 7, 14, 28, 42 and 70. Plasma samples were analysed for total cholesterol, free cholesterol, triacylglycerols and lipoproteins. Phospholipid subfraction fatty acid profiles were determined. By day 70, the FLX group had significantly higher plasma phospholipid fatty acids including 18:3n-3 (α-linolenic acid), 20:5n-3 (eicosapentaenoic acid) and 22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid). The sunflower group had significantly higher plasma phospholipid levels of 20:4n-6 (arachidonic acid). By day 70, the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) peak shifted resulting in significantly different HDL peak densities between the two experimental groups (1.097 g/ml FLX group and 1.095 g/ml SUN group, p = 0.028). The plasma fatty acid results indicate that Monk parrots can readily convert α-linolenic acid to the long-chain omega-3 derivatives including docosahexaenoic acid and reduce 20:4n-6 accumulation in plasma phospholipids. The reason for a shift in the HDL peak density is unknown at this time. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids attenuate myocardial arrhythmogenic factors and propensity of the heart to lethal arrhythmias in a rodent model of human essential hypertension

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Radošinská, J.; Bačová, B.; Knezl, V.; Beňová, T.; Žurmanová, J.; Soukup, Tomáš; Arnoštová, P.; Slezák, J.; Goncalvesová, E.; Tribulová, N.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 9 (2013), s. 1876-1885 ISSN 0263-6352 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA304/08/0256; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB12SK158 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : hypertension * omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids * ventricular fibrillation * sinus rhythm restoration * myocardial connexin-43 * protein kinase C * myosin heavy chain Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 4.222, year: 2013

  18. Effects of trans- and n-3 unsaturated fatty acids on cardiovascular risk markers in healthy males. An 8 weeks dietary intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyerberg, J; Eskesen, D C; Andersen, P W

    2004-01-01

    of dietary enrichment with TFA or n-3 PUFA. DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind, parallel intervention trial. SETTING: Department of Human Nutrition, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University. SUBJECTS: In all, 87 healthy males included, 79 completed. INTERVENTION: Subjects were randomly assigned to 8...... weeks of a daily intake of 33 g of experimental fats from either partially hydrogenated soy oil containing 20 g of TFA, 12 g of fish oil with approximately 4 g of n-3 PUFA and 21 g of control fat, or 33 g of control fat. The experimental fats were incorporated into bakery products. Plasma lipids, blood...

  19. Comparing the Effects of Dietary Flaxseed and Omega-3 Fatty Acids Supplement on Cyclical Mastalgia in Iranian Women: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Vaziri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the negative side effects of chemical drugs, there is a great need for effective alternative treatment strategies to manage cyclical mastalgia. Therefore, this study aimed at comparing the effects of flaxseed diet and omega-3 fatty acids supplement on treatment of cyclical mastalgia. In this study, 61, 60, and 60 women, respectively, received flaxseed as bread, omega-3 fatty acids as pearl, and wheat bread as their diet for two menstrual cycles. At the baseline cycle and end of both interventional cycles, intensity of mastalgia was measured using visual analogue scale. Analysis of covariance showed a significant difference among the three groups regarding the mean intensity of cyclical mastalgia in the first and second cycles of the interventions (P<0.001. Also, repeated measures analysis of covariance with adjustment of two variables of age and mastalgia intensity of the baseline cycle demonstrated that flaxseed bread was more effective compared to omega-3 and wheat bread (P<0.001. The results of this study demonstrated that flaxseed bread diet was an effective approach in decreasing cyclical mastalgia and could be prescribed to women as a simple treatment with few complications.

  20. Role of dietary fatty acids in liver injury caused by vinyl chloride metabolites in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, Lisanne C; Yeo, Heegook; Kaelin, Brenna R; Lang, Anna L; Bushau, Adrienne M; Douglas, Amanda N; Cave, Matt; Arteel, Gavin E; McClain, Craig J

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vinyl chloride (VC) causes toxicant-associated steatohepatitis at high exposure levels. Recent work by this group suggests that underlying liver disease may predispose the liver to VC hepatotoxicity at lower exposure levels. The most common form of underlying liver disease in the developed world is non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). It is well-known that the type of dietary fat can play an important role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. However, whether the combination of dietary fat and VC/metabolites promotes liver injury has not been studied. Methods: Mice were administered chloroethanol (CE - a VC metabolite) or vehicle once, 10 weeks after being fed diets rich in saturated fatty acids (HSFA), rich in poly-unsaturated fatty acids (HPUFA), or the respective low-fat control diets (LSFA; LPUFA). Results: In control mice, chloroethanol caused no detectable liver injury, as determined by plasma transaminases and histologic indices of damage. In HSFA-fed mice, chloroethanol increased HSFA-induced liver damage, steatosis, infiltrating inflammatory cells, hepatic expression of proinflammatory cytokines, and markers of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Moreover, markers of inflammasome activation were increased, while markers of inflammasome inhibition were downregulated. In mice fed HPUFA all of these effects were significantly attenuated. Conclusions: Chloroethanol promotes inflammatory liver injury caused by dietary fatty acids. This effect is far more exacerbated with saturated fat, versus poly-unsaturated fat; and strongly correlates with a robust activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in the saturated fed animals only. Taken together these data support the hypothesis that environmental toxicant exposure can exacerbate the severity of NAFLD/NASH. - Highlights: • CE promotes inflammatory liver injury caused by dietary fatty acids. • This effect is stronger with saturated than with unsaturated fatty acids. • Damage caused by saturated fat and CE

  1. Short communication: Decreasing the dietary ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids increases the n-3 concentration of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in weaned Holstein heifer calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worden, L C; Erickson, M G; Gramer, S; Tap, C; Ylioja, C; Trottier, N; Preseault, C L; VandeHaar, M J; Lock, A L; Karcher, E L

    2018-02-01

    Utilization of nutrients to improve overall heifer health is of interest because of the importance of replacement heifers to the dairy industry. The objective of our study was to compare the effect of supplementation of dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids (FA) on FA concentrations in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of Holstein calves. Twenty-seven Holstein heifer calves (107 ± 2.6 d of age; 142.6 ± 6.5 kg of body weight) from the university research and teaching herd were randomly assigned to a common TMR supplemented with 1 of 3 treatments: Ca salts of flaxseed FA (Virtus Nutrition, Corcoran, CA) containing 35% 18:3 n-3 (N3), Ca salts of soybean FA (Virtus Nutrition) containing 50% 18:2 n-6 (N6), or a 50:50 mix of N3 and N6. Treatments were supplemented with FA at 4% of dietary dry matter and fed for 30 d. Feed intake was recorded daily, and body weight, wither height, and body condition score were measured weekly throughout the study. On d 28 heifers were vaccinated with a Pasteurella vaccine and the temperature response to the vaccine was recorded. Blood was collected on d 0 and 28 for PBMC isolation. After total lipid extraction and FA methyl ester preparation, FA composition of PBMC was measured. We observed no effect of treatment on body weight gain, body condition score change, or wither height change. Heifers receiving the N3 diet had a lower temperature response to Pasteurella challenge compared with both the mix and N6 diets. Heifers consuming the N3 diet had a greater content of total n-3 FA, α-linolenic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid in PBMC compared with heifers fed the N6 and mix diets. Heifers receiving the N3 diet also had a lower content of total n-6 FA, linoleic acid, and arachidonic acid in PBMC than heifers fed the N6 and mix diets. In conclusion, our study determined that feeding weaned female Holstein heifers a diet high in n-3 FA increased concentrations of n-3 FA in PBMC. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association

  2. Dietary Composition Independent of Weight Loss in the Management of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslamparast, Tannaz; Tandon, Puneeta; Raman, Maitreyi

    2017-07-26

    Poor dietary composition is an important factor in the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The majority of NAFLD patients follow diets with overconsumption of simple carbohydrates, total and saturated fat, with reduced intake of dietary fiber and omega-3 rich foods. Although lifestyle modifications including weight loss and exercise remain the keystone of NAFLD management, modifying dietary composition with or without a calorie-restricted diet may also be a feasible and sustainable strategy for NAFLD treatment. In the present review article, we highlight the potential therapeutic role of a "high quality healthy diet" to improve hepatic steatosis and metabolic dysfunction in patients with NAFLD, independent of caloric restriction and weight loss. We provide a literature review evaluating the evidence behind dietary components including fiber-, meat- and omega-3-rich diets and, pending further evidence, we concur with the EASL-EASD-EASO Clinical Guidelines recommendation of the Mediterranean diet as the diet of choice in these patients.

  3. Nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics of ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanden Heuvel, John P

    2012-01-01

    Diets rich in ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3-PUFAs) such as alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid are associated with decreased incidence and severity of several chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer. At least some of the beneficial effects of these dietary fatty acids are via metabolites such as prostaglandins, leukotrienes, thromboxanes, and resolvins. The effects of ω3-PUFAs are in contrast to those of fatty acids with virtually identical structures, such as the ω6-PUFAs linoleic acid and arachidonic acid, and their corresponding metabolites. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss both the nutrigenomics (nutrient-gene interactions) and nutrigenetics (genetic variation in nutrition) of dietary fatty acids with a focus on the ω3-PUFAs (Gebauer et al., 2007(1)). Important in the biological response for these fatty acids or their metabolites are cognate receptors that are able to regulate gene expression and coordinately affect metabolic or signaling pathways associated with CVD and cancer. Four nuclear receptor (NR) subfamilies will be emphasized as receptors that respond to dietary and endogenous ligands: (1) peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, (2) retinoid X receptors, (3) liver X receptors, and (4) farnesoid X receptor. In addition to the different responses elicited by varying structures of fatty acids, responses may vary because of genetic variation in enzymes that metabolize ω3- and ω6 fatty acids or that respond to them. In particular, polymorphisms in the fatty acid desaturases and the aforementioned NRs contribute to the complexity of nutritional effects seen with ω3-PUFAs. Following a brief introduction to the health benefits of ω3-PUFAs, the regulation of gene expression by these dietary fatty acids via NRs will be characterized. Subsequently, the effects of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in key enzymes involved in the metabolism and response to ω3-PUFAs will

  4. Dietary n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids modify phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity and lipid synthesis from glucose in adipose tissue of rats fed a high-sucrose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londero, Lisiane G; Rieger, Débora K; Hansen, Fernanda; Silveira, Simone L; Martins, Tiago L; Lulhier, Francisco; da Silva, Roselis S; Souza, Diogo O; Perry, Marcos L S; de Assis, Adriano M

    2013-12-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFAs) have hypolipidemic effects and modulate intermediary metabolism to prevent or reverse insulin resistance in a way that is not completely elucidated. Here, effects of these fatty acids on the lipid profile, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) activity, lipid synthesis from glucose in epididymal adipose tissue (Ep-AT) and liver were investigated. Male rats were fed a high-sucrose diet (SU diet), containing either sunflower oil or a mixture of sunflower and fish oil (SU-FO diet), and the control group was fed a standard diet. After 13 weeks, liver, adipose tissue and blood were harvested and analysed. The dietary n-3 LCPUFAs prevented sucrose-induced increase in adiposity and serum free fat acids, serum and hepatic triacylglycerol and insulin levels. Furthermore, these n-3 LCPUFAs decreased lipid synthesis from glucose and increased PEPCK activity in the Ep-AT of rats fed the SU-FO diet compared to those fed the SU diet, besides reducing lipid synthesis from glucose in hepatic tissue. Thus, the inclusion of n-3 LCPUFAs in the diet may be beneficial for the prevention or attenuation of dyslipidemia and insulin resistance, and for reducing the risk of related chronic diseases. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Perinatal maternal dietary supplementation of ω3-fatty acids transiently affects bone marrow microenvironment, osteoblast and osteoclast formation, and bone mass in male offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Laura; Muhlhausler, Beverly S; Gibson, Robert A; Xian, Cory J

    2012-05-01

    It is increasingly evident that micronutrient environment experienced before birth and in infancy is important for achieving optimal bone mass by adolescence and maintaining bone health. This study determined whether maternal supplementation with ω3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (n3FA) improved offspring bone growth and adult bone mass. Female rats were fed a diet containing 0.1% (control, n = 10) or 1% (n3FA, n = 11) docosahexanoic acid (DHA) during pregnancy and lactation. Offspring were weaned onto a control rat chow diet. Tibial growth plate and metaphysis structure, osteoblast/osteoclast density and differentiation, and gene expression were assessed in offspring at 3 wk (weaning), 6 wk (adolescent), and 3 months (adult). Maternal n3FA supplementation elevated offspring plasma n3FA levels at 3 and 6 wk. Although total growth plate heights were unaffected at any age, the resting zone thickness was increased in both male and female offspring at 3 wk. In n3FA males, but not females, bone trabecular number and thickness were increased at 3 wk but not other ages. The wk 3 n3FA males also exhibited an increased bone volume, an increased osteoblast but decreased osteoclast density, and lower expression of osteoclastogenic cytokines receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand, TNF-α, and IL-6. No effects were seen at 6 wk or 3 months in either sex. Thus, perinatal n3FA supplementation is associated with increased bone formation, decreased resorption, and a higher bone mass in males, but not in females, at weaning; these effects do not persist into adolescence and adulthood and are unlikely to produce lasting improvements in bone health.

  6. The omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio: health implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simopoulos Artemis P.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Today, Western diets are characterized by a higher omega-6 and a lower omega-3 fatty acid intake, whereas during the Paleolithic period when human’s genetic profile was established, there was a balance between omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. Their balance is an important determinant for brain development and in decreasing the risk for coronary heart disease (CHD, hypertension, cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and other autoimmune and possibly neurodegenerative diseases. Both omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids influence gene expression. Because of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in their metabolic pathways, blood levels of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids are determined by both endogenous metabolism and dietary intake making the need of balanced dietary intake essential for health and disease prevention. Whether an omega-6/omega-3 ratio of 3:1 to 4:1 could prevent the pathogenesis of many diseases induced by today’s Western diets (AFSSA, 2010, a target of 1:1 to 2:1 appears to be consistent with studies on evolutionary aspects of diet, neurodevelopment, and genetics. A target of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio of 1:1 to 2:1 appears to be consistent with studies on evolutionary aspects of diet, neurodevelopment and genetics. A balanced ratio of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids is important for health and in the prevention of CHD and possibly other chronic diseases.

  7. Lowering dietary n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids: interaction with brain arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alashmali, Shoug M; Hopperton, Kathryn E; Bazinet, Richard P

    2016-02-01

    Arachidonic (ARA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids are the most abundant polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the brain, where they have many biological effects, including on inflammation, cell-signaling, appetite regulation, and blood flow. The Western diet contains a high ratio of n-6: n-3 PUFA. Although interest in lowering this ratio has largely focused on increasing intake of n-3 PUFA, few studies have examined lowering dietary n-6 PUFA. This review will evaluate the effect of lowering dietary n-6 PUFA on levels and metabolism of ARA and DHA in animal models and in humans, with a primary focus on the brain. In animal models, lowering dietary ARA or linoleic acid generally lowers levels of brain ARA and raises DHA. Lowering dietary n-6 PUFA can also modulate the levels of ARA and DHA metabolizing enzymes, as well as their associated bioactive mediators. Human studies examining changes in plasma fatty acid composition following n-6 PUFA lowering demonstrate no changes in levels of ARA and DHA, though there is evidence of alterations in their respective bioactive mediators. Lowering dietary n-6 PUFA, in animal models, can alter the levels and metabolism of ARA and DHA in the brain, but it remains to be determined whether these changes are clinically meaningful.

  8. Omega-3 Fatty Acids during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS DURING PREGNANCY S HARE W ITH W OMEN OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS DURING PREGNANCY During pregnancy, your baby gets most ... you eat and vitamins you take. Omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3s) are an important family of building ...

  9. Shifts in dietary carbohydrate-lipid exposure regulate expression of the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease-associated gene PNPLA3/adiponutrin in mouse liver and HepG2 human liver cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Lei; Ito, Kyoko; Huang, Kuan-Hsun; Sae-tan, Sudathip; Lambert, Joshua D; Ross, A Catharine

    2014-10-01

    Patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3 (PNPLA3, adiponutrin) has been identified as a modifier of lipid metabolism. To better understand the physiological role of PNPLA3/adiponutrin, we have investigated its regulation in intact mice and human hepatocytes under various nutritional/metabolic conditions. PNPLA3 gene expression was determined by real-time PCR in liver of C57BL/6 mice after dietary treatments and in HepG2 cells exposed to various nutritional/metabolic stimuli. Intracellular lipid content was determined in HepG2 cells after siRNA-mediated knockdown of PNPLA3. In vivo, mice fed a high-carbohydrate (HC) liquid diet had elevated hepatic lipid content, and PNPLA3 mRNA and protein expression, compared to chow-fed mice. Elevated expression was completely abrogated by addition of unsaturated lipid emulsion to the HC diet. By contrast, in mice with high-fat diet-induced steatosis, Pnpla3 expression did not differ compared to low-fat fed mice. In HepG2 cells, Pnpla3 expression was reversibly suppressed by glucose depletion and increased by glucose refeeding, but unchanged by addition of insulin and glucagon. Several unsaturated fatty acids each significantly decreased Pnpla3 mRNA, similar to lipid emulsion in vivo. However, Pnpla3 knockdown in HepG2 cells did not alter total lipid content in high glucose- or oleic acid-treated cells. Our results provide evidence that PNPLA3 expression is an early signal/signature of carbohydrate-induced lipogenesis, but its expression is not associated with steatosis per se. Under lipogenic conditions due to high-carbohydrate feeding, certain unsaturated fatty acids can effectively suppress both lipogenesis and PNPLA3 expression, both in vivo and in a hepatocyte cell line. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Arginine supplementation modulates pig plasma lipids, but not hepatic fatty acids, depending on dietary protein level with or without leucine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, Marta Sofia Morgado Dos Santos; Rolo, Eva Sofia Alves; Pires, Virgínia Maria Rico; Alfaia, Cristina Maria Riscado Pereira Mateus; Coelho, Diogo Francisco Maurício; Lopes, Paula Alexandra Antunes Brás; Martins, Susana Isabel Vargas; Pinto, Rui Manuel Amaro; Prates, José António Mestre

    2017-05-30

    In the present study, the effect of arginine and leucine supplementation, and dietary protein level, were investigated in commercial crossbred pigs to clarify their individual or combined impact on plasma metabolites, hepatic fatty acid composition and mRNA levels of lipid sensitive factors. The experiment was conducted on fifty-four entire male pigs (Duroc × Pietrain × Large White × Landrace crossbred) from 59 to 92 kg of live weight. Each pig was randomly assigned to one of six experimental treatments (n = 9). The treatments followed a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement, providing two levels of arginine supplementation (0 vs. 1%) and three levels of basal diet (normal protein diet, NPD; reduced protein diet, RPD; reduced protein diet with 2% of leucine, RPDL). Significant interactions between arginine supplementation and protein level were observed across plasma lipids. While dietary arginine increased total lipids, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol and triacylglycerols in NPD, the inverse effect was observed in RPD. Overall, dietary treatments had a minor impact on hepatic fatty acid composition. RPD increased 18:1c9 fatty acid while the combination of leucine and RPD reduced 18:0 fatty acid. Arginine supplementation increased the gene expression of FABP1, which contributes for triacylglycerols synthesis without affecting hepatic fatty acids content. RPD, with or without leucine addition, upregulated the lipogenic gene CEBPA but downregulated the fat oxidation gene LPIN1. Arginine supplementation was responsible for a modulated effect on plasma lipids, which is dependent on dietary protein level. It consistently increased lipaemia in NPD, while reducing the correspondent metabolites in RPD. In contrast, arginine had no major impact, neither on hepatic fatty acids content nor on fatty acid composition. Likewise, leucine supplementation of RPD, regardless the presence of arginine, promoted no changes on total fatty acids in

  11. Effect of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid rich fish oil on the endometrial prostaglandin production in the doe (Capra hircus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Ravjibhai K; Mahla, Ajit Singh; Singh, Amit Kumar; Singh, Sanjay Kumar; Pawde, Abhijit M; Gandham, Ravi Kumar; Singh, Gyanendra; Sarkar, Mihir; Kumar, Harendra; Krishnaswamy, Narayanan

    2018-03-01

    Recently, we showed that dietary supplementation of n-3 PUFA rich fish oil (FO) decreased the metabolites of serum prostaglandin (PG) F 2α and E 2 during the window of pregnancy recognition in the doe. In this study, we investigated its effect on the changes on endometrial PG production in vitro. Cycling does (n = 12) of Rohilkhand region were divided into two equal groups and fed a concentrate diet supplemented with either FO containing 26% n-3 PUFA (TRT; n = 6) or palm oil (CON; n = 6) @ 0.6 mL/kg body weight for 57 days. Estrus was synchronized by two injections of PGF 2α analogue viz, on day 25 and 36 of supplementation and laparo-hysterotomy was performed to obtain endometrial tissue on day 16 of the synchronized estrus. Endometrial explant culture was done using a defined medium.The basal PG production was assayed at 6 and 12 h. Endometrial explant was stimulated with oxytocin (OXT) and/or recombinant ovine interferon tau (roIFN-τ) and PGs were assayed at 3 and 12 h post-treatment. The relative expression of genes related to PG metabolism in the endometrium was done by Quantitative Real Time PCR technique (qRT-PCR). There was a significant (P  0.05) effect on the PGF 2α and PGE 2 production in the TRT group. Similarly, the PG production in the OXT and roIFN-τ was comparable with the control in TRT. Expression of mRNA for cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), cytosolic phospholipase A 2 (cPLA 2 ) and PGF synthase (PGFS) was lower (P n-3 PUFA fed doe. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of FO decreased the endometrial production of PGF 2α and PGE 2 by downregulating the COX-2, cPLA 2 and PGFS transcripts in the doe. The findings suggest that n-3 PUFA influence embryo survival by modulating the endometrial PG. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Rapid Prediction of Fatty Acid Content in Marine Oil Omega-3 Dietary Supplements Using a Portable Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Device and Partial Least-Squares Regression (PLSR) Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunathilaka, Sanjeewa R; Mossoba, Magdi M; Chung, Jin Kyu; Haile, Ermias A; Srigley, Cynthia T

    2017-01-11

    Using a portable field device, a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and partial least-squares regression (PLSR) method was developed for the rapid (<5 min) prediction of major and minor fatty acid (FA) concentrations in marine oil omega-3 dietary supplements. Calibration models were developed with 174 gravimetrically prepared samples. These models were tested using an independent validation set of dietary supplements. FAs analyzed included eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); the sums of saturated, branched-chain, and monounsaturated FAs; and n-6, n-4, n-3, n-1, and trans polyunsaturated FA. The spectral ranges 650-1500 or 650-1500 and 2800-3050 cm -1 provided reliable predictions for FA components in 34 neat oil products: standard error of prediction, 0.73-1.58%; residual predictive deviation, 6.41-12.6. This simple, nondestructive quantitative method is a rapid screening tool and a time and cost-saving alternative to gas chromatography for verifying label declarations and in quality control.

  13. Concentrations of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in Dutch bovine milk fat and their contribution to human dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Valenberg, H J F; Hettinga, K A; Dijkstra, J; Bovenhuis, H; Feskens, E J M

    2013-07-01

    Weekly samples representative of Dutch milk were analyzed for concentrations of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids (FA). Concentrations of the n-3 FA α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosatetraenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosapentaenoic acid were 0.495±0.027, 0.041±0.004, 0.067±0.005, and 0.086±0.008g per 100g of fat, respectively, whereas docosahexaenoic acid was absent or present in concentrations lower than 0.020g per 100g of fat. Concentrations of the n-6 FA linoleic acid (LeA), γ-linoleic acid, dihomo-γ-linoleic acid, and arachidonic acid were 1.428±0.068, 0.070±0.007, 0.066±0.004, and 0.089±0.004g per 100g of fat, respectively; adrenic acid was present in concentrations lower than 0.020g per 100g of fat, whereas docosapentaenoic acid was absent in all samples. The concentrations of ALA and LeA were significantly higher in spring and summer, compared with autumn and winter. The concentrations of all other ALA- and LeA-derived n-3 and n-6 FA were not significantly different between seasons. The contribution of milk fat to the daily intake of eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid was calculated for human consumption levels in different countries. Milk fat contributed between 10.7 and 14.1% to the daily intake of eicosapentaenoic acid and between 23.5 and 34.2% to the intake of docosapentaenoic acid; whereas docosahexaenoic acid contribution was marginal. Arachidonic acid from milk fat contributed between 10.5 and 18.8% to the human intake of n-6 FA. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Association of Blood Fatty Acid Composition and Dietary Pattern with the Risk of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Patients Who Underwent Cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Poyoung; Choi, Dongho; Park, Yongsoon

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between diet and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in patients with gallstone disease and in those who have a high risk for NAFLD has not been investigated. This study was conducted to investigate the association between the risk of NAFLD and dietary pattern in patients who underwent cholecystectomy. Additionally, we assessed the association between erythrocyte fatty acid composition, a marker for diet, and the risk of NAFLD. Patients (n = 139) underwent liver ultrasonography to determine the presence of NAFLD before laparoscopic cholecystectomy, reported dietary intake using food frequency questionnaire, and were assessed for blood fatty acid composition. Fifty-eight patients were diagnosed with NAFLD. The risk of NAFLD was negatively associated with 2 dietary patterns: consuming whole grain and legumes and consuming fish, vegetables, and fruit. NAFLD was positively associated with the consumption of refined grain, meat, processed meat, and fried foods. Additionally, the risk of NAFLD was positively associated with erythrocyte levels of 16:0 and 18:2t, while it was negatively associated with 20:5n3, 22:5n3, and Omega-3 Index. The risk of NAFLD was negatively associated with a healthy dietary pattern of consuming whole grains, legumes, vegetables, fish, and fruit and with an erythrocyte level of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids rich in fish. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Effect of dietary (n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids on growth and survival of fat snook (Centropomus parallelus, Pisces: Centropomidae larvae during first feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E.B. Seiffert

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of rotifers, Brachionus rotundiformis (S-type, fed three different diets: A (rotifer fed Nannochloropsis oculata, B (rotifer fed N. oculata and baker's yeast, 1:1, and C (rotifer fed N. oculata and baker's yeast, 1:1, and enriched with Selcoâ, was evaluated based on the survival, growth and swim bladder inflation rate of fat snook larvae. Rotifers of treatment A had higher levels (4.58 mg/g dry weight of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA than B (1.81 mg/g dry weight, and similar levels (0.04 and 0.06 mg/g dry weight, respectively of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. Rotifers of treatment C had the highest levels of EPA (13.2 mg/g dry weight and DHA (6.08 mg/g dry weight. Fat snook eggs were obtained by spawning induction with human chorionic gonadotropin. Thirty hours after hatching, 30 larvae/liter were stocked in black cylindric-conical tanks (36-liter capacity. After 14 days of culture, there were no significant differences among treatments. Mean standard length was 3.13 mm for treatment A, 3.17 mm for B, and 3.39 mm for C. Mean survival rates were very low (2.7% for treatment A, 2.3% for B, and 1.8% for C. Swim bladder inflation rates were 34.7% for treatment A, 27.1% for B, and 11.9% for C. The lack of differences in growth and survival among treatments showed that the improvement of the dietary value of rotifer may not have been sufficient to solve the problem of larval rearing. Some other factor, probably pertaining to the quality of the larvae, may have negatively influenced survival.

  16. Dietary total fat and fatty acids intake, serum fatty acids and risk of breast cancer: A meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yi; Hou, Lin; Wang, Weijing

    2016-04-15

    Results from prospective cohort studies on the association between dietary total fat and fatty acids intake and risk of breast cancer remain controversial. Pertinent prospective cohort studies were identified by a search of Embase and PubMed from inception to September 2015. Study-specific relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals were pooled using a random-effect model. Between-study heterogeneity and publication bias were assessed, and sensitivity analysis was conducted. Twenty-four independent studies on dietary total fat and fatty acids intake and seven studies on serum fatty acids were included. The pooled RR of breast cancer for the highest vs. lowest category of dietary total fat intake was 1.10 (1.02-1.19); however, no association was observed in studies adjusting for traditional risk factors of breast cancer. No association was observed between animal fat, vegetable fat, saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), n-3 PUFA, n-6 PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and arachidonic acid and risk of breast cancer. The pooled RRs of breast cancer for the highest vs. lowest category of serum SFA, MUFA, PUFA, n-3 PUFA and n-6 PUFA were 1.00 (0.78-1.28), 1.41 (0.99-2.03), 0.59 (0.27-1.30), 0.81 (0.60-1.10) and 0.84 (0.60-1.18), respectively. Results from this meta-analysis suggested that dietary total fat and fatty acids might be not associated with risk of breast cancer. © 2015 UICC.

  17. Dietary patterns in Brazilian patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Marinho Ferolla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Recent evidence suggests that non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with diet. Our aim was to investigate the dietary patterns of a Brazilian population with this condition and compare them with the recommended diet. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 96 non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients before any dietetic counseling. All patients underwent abdominal ultrasound, biochemical tests, dietary evaluations, and anthropometric evaluations. Their food intake was assessed by a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire and 24-hour food recall. RESULTS: The median patient age was 53 years, and 77% of the individuals were women. Most (67.7% participants were obese, and a large waist circumference was observed in 80.2% subjects. Almost 70% of the participants had metabolic syndrome, and 62.3% presented evidence of either insulin resistance or overt diabetes. Most patients (51.5, 58.5, and 61.7%, respectively exceeded the recommendations for energy intake, as well as total and saturated fat. All patients consumed less than the amount of recommended monounsaturated fatty acids, and 52.1 and 76.6% of them consumed less polyunsaturated fatty acids and fiber, respectively, than recommended. In most patients, the calcium, sodium, potassium, pyridoxine, and vitamin C intake did not meet the recommendations, and in 10.5-15.5% of individuals, the tolerable upper limit intake for sodium was exceeded. The patients presented a significantly high intake of meats, fats, sugars, legumes (beans, and vegetables and a low consumption of cereals, fruits, and dairy products compared with the recommendations. CONCLUSIONS: Although patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease exhibited high energy and lipid consumption, most of them had inadequate intake of some micronutrients. The possible role of nutrient-deficient intake in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease warrants investigation.

  18. Dietary fatty acids and lipoproteins on progression of age-related macular degeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montserrat-de la Paz, S.; Naranjo, M.C.; Bermúdez, B.; López, S.; Abia, R.; Muriana, F.J.G.

    2017-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a medical condition of central loss vision and blindness. Numerous studies have revealed that changes on certain dietary fatty acids (FAs) could have useful for AMD management. This review summarizes the effects of dietary omega-3 long-chain PUFAs, MUFAs, and SFAs, and lipoproteins on AMD. Findings are consistent with the beneficial role of dietary omega-3 long-chain PUFAs, while the effects of dietary MUFAs and SFAs appeared to be ambiguous with respect to the possible protection from MUFAs and to the possible adverse impact from SFAs on AMD. Some of the pathological mechanisms associated with lipoproteins on AMD share those observed previously in cardiovascular diseases. It was also noticed that the effects of FAs in the diet and lipoprotein on AMD could be modulated by genetic variants. From a population health perspective, the findings of this review are in favour of omega-3 long-chain FAs recommendations in a preventive and therapeutic regimen to attain lower AMD occurrence and progression rates. Additional long-term and short-term nutrigenomic studies are required to clearly establish the role and the relevance of interaction of dietary FAs, lipoproteins, and genes in the genesis and progression of AMD. [es

  19. Dietary fatty acids and lipoproteins on progression of age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Montserrat-de la Paz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is a medical condition of central loss vision and blindness. Numerous studies have revealed that changes on certain dietary fatty acids (FAs could have useful for AMD management. This review summarizes the effects of dietary omega-3 long-chain PUFAs, MUFAs, and SFAs, and lipoproteins on AMD. Findings are consistent with the beneficial role of dietary omega-3 long-chain PUFAs, while the effects of dietary MUFAs and SFAs appeared to be ambiguous with respect to the possible protection from MUFAs and to the possible adverse impact from SFAs on AMD. Some of the pathological mechanisms associated with lipoproteins on AMD share those observed previously in cardiovascular diseases. It was also noticed that the effects of FAs in the diet and lipoprotein on AMD could be modulated by genetic variants. From a population health perspective, the findings of this review are in favour of omega-3 long-chain FAs recommendations in a preventive and therapeutic regimen to attain lower AMD occurrence and progression rates. Additional long-term and short-term nutrigenomic studies are required to clearly establish the role and the relevance of interaction of dietary FAs, lipoproteins, and genes in the genesis and progression of AMD.

  20. Effect of dietary inclusion of lampante olive oil on milk and cheese fatty acid profiles of ewes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, E.; Vera, R. R.; Aguilar, C.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of a dietary supplementation of lampant olive oil on the fatty aid profiles of the milk and cheese of ewes. Nine lactating ewes were used in a 3 × 3 Latin square design. Dietary treatments were supplemented with 0 (control; T0), 36 (T1...... as the concentration of lampante olive oil was increased in dietary rations. Overall, the supplementation of lampante olive oil in the diets of lactating ewes increased monounsaturated FA and decreased saturated FA concentrations in milk and cheese, thus improving their quality from the human health standpoint....

  1. Omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid intake of children and older adults in the U.S.: dietary intake in comparison to current dietary recommendations and the Healthy Eating Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Kelly W; Cheatham, Carol L

    2018-03-09

    Omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) and their ratio have been shown to affect cognitive function in children and older adults. With these analyses, we aimed to describe omega-6 and omega-3 FA intake among children and older adults in light of FA intake recommendations and with consideration of overall diet. Data were merged from two cross-sectional studies with 219 children 7 to 12 years old and one longitudinal study with 133 adults 65 to 79 years old. Demographic data, anthropometric data, and Healthy Eating Index scores were used to study relations among the omega-6 to omega-3 FA ratio and age, education, body mass index, and diet quality. FA intake, demographic, and anthropometric data were examined using partial correlations, t-tests, and analysis of variance. Most children and adults consumed at least the recommended amount of alpha-linolenic acid (LNA; omega-3) for their age and gender without consuming high amounts of linoleic acid (LA; omega-6), but did not consume sufficient eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; omega-) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; omega-3). The average omega-6 to omega-3 ratios in both groups were lower than previously reported. Eating lower ratios was associated with healthier diets and consuming adequate amounts of several other nutrients. No demographic or anthropometric variables were related to FA intake in children. Adults with a college degree had significantly lower ratios than those without a college degree. American children and older adults are able to consume more balanced omega-6 to omega-3 ratios than has been indicated by commodity data. However, very few American children met even the lowest recommendations for EPA and DHA intake. Research is needed to clarify recommendations for the optimal ratio across development, which may aid in increasing EPA and DHA intake and improving health outcomes in the United States. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02199808 13 July 2014, NCT01823419 (retrospectively registered) 20 March 2013, and NCT

  2. Fatty Acids Composition of Vegetable Oils and Its Contribution to Dietary Energy Intake and Dependence of Cardiovascular Mortality on Dietary Intake of Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Orsavova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Characterizations of fatty acids composition in % of total methylester of fatty acids (FAMEs of fourteen vegetable oils—safflower, grape, silybum marianum, hemp, sunflower, wheat germ, pumpkin seed, sesame, rice bran, almond, rapeseed, peanut, olive, and coconut oil—were obtained by using gas chromatography (GC. Saturated (SFA, monounsaturated (MUFA and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, palmitic acid (C16:0; 4.6%–20.0%, oleic acid (C18:1; 6.2%–71.1% and linoleic acid (C18:2; 1.6%–79%, respectively, were found predominant. The nutritional aspect of analyzed oils was evaluated by determination of the energy contribution of SFAs (19.4%–695.7% ERDI, PUFAs (10.6%–786.8% ERDI, n-3 FAs (4.4%–117.1% ERDI and n-6 FAs (1.8%–959.2% ERDI, expressed in % ERDI of 1 g oil to energy recommended dietary intakes (ERDI for total fat (ERDI—37.7 kJ/g. The significant relationship between the reported data of total fat, SFAs, MUFAs and PUFAs intakes (% ERDI for adults and mortality caused by coronary heart diseases (CHD and cardiovascular diseases (CVD in twelve countries has not been confirmed by Spearman’s correlations.

  3. MAT1A variants modulate the effect of dietary fatty acids on plasma homocysteine concentrations and DNA damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are associated with decreased plasma homocysteine (Hcy), an important biomarker for cardiovascular disease. Methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT1A) is an enzyme involved in formation of form S-adenosylmethionine during methionine metabolism. The objectiv...

  4. Interactions between ADIPOQ gene variants and dietary monounsaturated: saturated fatty acid ratio on serum lipid levels in Korean children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J Y; Lee, H-J; Jang, H B; Hwang, J-Y; Kang, J H; Han, B-G; Lee, J-Y; Song, J

    2014-01-01

    Adiponectin plays important roles in the regulation of insulin action and metabolism of glucose and lipids. We investigated whether ADIPOQ genetic variants are associated with serum lipid levels in Korean children and whether those influences might be modulated by dietary factors such as dietary monounsaturated fatty acid to saturated fatty acid ratio (MUFA:SFA). The study included a population-based sample of 687 children aged 7-11 years in Gwacheon city, Kyunggi Province, Korea. Anthropometric and biochemical measurements and ADIPOQ genotype (-11377 C/G, +45 T/G, and +276 G/T) were determined. Dietary intake was estimated with a self reported 3-day food diary. The -11377 G allele carriers had significantly higher serum total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol compared to non-carriers. When dietary MUFA:SFA ratio was dichotomized (MUFA:SFA ≥ 1 or effects of the minor allele on serum total and LDL cholesterol were only present when the MUFA:SFA ratio was effect of ADIPOQ G-T-G haplotype to increase serum total and LDL cholesterol could be seen only when the MUFA:SFA ratio was effects between ADIPOQ genetic variants and dietary MUFA:SFA ratio on serum lipid levels in Korean children. These results suggest that individual genetic information and dietary fatty acid intake information should be assessed together to achieve an effective outcome for reducing the atherogenic lipid profile. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Habitual dietary intake of fatty acids are associated with leptin gene expression in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue of patients without diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Hosein; Samadi, Mohammad; Yuzbashian, Emad; Zarkesh, Maryam; Asghari, Golaleh; Hedayati, Mehdi; Daneshafrooz, Afsoon; Mirmiran, Parvin; Khalaj, Alireza

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the association of leptin gene expression in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues with habitual fatty acid intake and its subtypes in adults. Visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues were gathered from 97 participants aged ≥ 20, who had undergone elective abdominal surgery. Dietary fatty acid intakes including total fatty acids (TFA), saturated fatty acid (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), n-3, n-6, and n-9 fatty acids were collected using a valid and reliable food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The leptin gene expression in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues was measured by Real-Time PCR. After controlling for body mass index (BMI) and insulin, energy-adjusted dietary intake of SFA was positively and MUFA and n-3 fatty acids were negatively associated with subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues leptin gene expression. Besides, a significant negative association of PUFA, n-6, and n-9 fatty acids with leptin mRNA from visceral adipose tissue were observed. In order to better interpretations of the results, the participants were allocated two groups including non-obese (BMI fatty acids had a negative association with visceral leptin gene expression. Habitual intake of SFA, MUFA, and n-3 fatty acids were associated with leptin gene expression in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues, suggesting an important role of quality and quantity of fatty acids intake in adipose tissue to regulate leptin expression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Bioavailability of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids from foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling

    2008-01-01

    Increasing recognition of the importance of the omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) has caused greater attention about dietary intake of these fatty acids. Fatty fish is the major dietary source of these fatty acids. Because of the low intake of fish at many places, foods...... enriched with omega-3 LCPUFA can be good alternatives to improve the intake of these fatty acids. Effects of lipid structures and food matrices on bioavailability of omega-3 LCPUFA have been investigated. Short term studies showed that both lipid structure and food matrix affect the bioavailability...... of these fatty acids, whereas diverse results have been reported from long-term studies. Therefore more studies are encouraged to clarify the long-term effects....

  7. Interaction of Dietary Fatty Acids with Tumour Necrosis Factor Family Cytokines during Colon Inflammation and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straková, Nicol; Vaculová, Alena Hyršlová; Tylichová, Zuzana; Šafaříková, Barbora; Kozubík, Alois

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal homeostasis is precisely regulated by a number of endogenous regulatory molecules but significantly influenced by dietary compounds. Malfunction of this system may result in chronic inflammation and cancer. Dietary essential n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and short-chain fatty acid butyrate produced from fibre display anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. Both compounds were shown to modulate the production and activities of TNF family cytokines. Cytokines from the TNF family (TNF-α, TRAIL, and FasL) have potent inflammatory activities and can also regulate apoptosis, which plays an important role in cancer development. The results of our own research showed enhancement of apoptosis in colon cancer cells by a combination of either docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or butyrate with TNF family cytokines, especially by promotion of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and modulation of NFκB activity. This review is focused mainly on the interaction of dietary PUFAs and butyrate with these cytokines during colon inflammation and cancer development. We summarised recent knowledge about the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in such effects and outcomes for intestinal cell behaviour and pathologies. Finally, the possible application for the prevention and therapy of colon inflammation and cancer is also outlined. PMID:24876678

  8. A Dietary Medium-Chain Fatty Acid, Decanoic Acid, Inhibits Recruitment of Nur77 to the HSD3B2 Promoter In Vitro and Reverses Endocrine and Metabolic Abnormalities in a Rat Model of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bao Hui; Indran, Inthrani Raja; Tan, Huey Min; Li, Yu; Zhang, Zhiwei; Li, Jun; Yong, Eu-Leong

    2016-01-01

    Hyperandrogenism is the central feature of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Due to the intricate relationship between hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance in PCOS, 50%-70% of these patients also present with hyperinsulinemia. Metformin, an insulin sensitizer, has been used to reduce insulin resistance and improve fertility in women with PCOS. In previous work, we have noted that a dietary medium-chain fatty acid, decanoic acid (DA), improves glucose tolerance and lipid profile in a mouse model of diabetes. Here, we report for the first time that DA, like metformin, inhibits androgen biosynthesis in NCI-H295R steroidogenic cells by regulating the enzyme 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ5-Δ4-isomerase type 2 (HSD3B2). The inhibitory effect on HSD3B2 and androgen production required cAMP stimulation, suggesting a mechanistic action via the cAMP-stimulated pathway. Specifically, both DA and metformin reduced cAMP-enhanced recruitment of the orphan nuclear receptor Nur77 to the HSD3B2 promoter, coupled with decreased transcription and protein expression of HSD3B2. In a letrozole-induced PCOS rat model, treatment with DA or metformin reduced serum-free testosterone, lowered fasting insulin, and restored estrous cyclicity. In addition, DA treatment lowered serum total testosterone and decreased HSD3B2 protein expression in the adrenals and ovaries. We conclude that DA inhibits androgen biosynthesis via mechanisms resulting in the suppression of HSD3B2 expression, an effect consistently observed both in vitro and in vivo. The efficacy of DA in reversing the endocrine and metabolic abnormalities of the letrozole-induced PCOS rat model are promising, raising the possibility that diets including DA could be beneficial for the management of both hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance in PCOS.

  9. Dietary fatty acids and risk factors for coronary heart disease : controlled studies in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zock, P.L.

    1995-01-01

    High levels of LDL cholesterol, blood pressure and Lp(a), and low levels of HDL cholesterol increase the risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). This thesis describes the effects of dietary fatty acids on these risk factors. In each of three trials we fed diets with tailored fatty acid

  10. Effect of dietary fat sources on fatty acid deposition and lipid metabolism in broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smink, W.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Hovenier, R.; Geelen, M.J.H.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Beynen, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    The hypothesis tested was that dietary vegetable fats rich in saturated fatty acids, when compared with a vegetable oil rich in linoleic acid, increase fat deposition in broiler chickens and affect synthesis or oxidation, or both, of individual fatty acids. Diets with native sunflower oil (SO), a

  11. The utility of omega-3 fatty acids in cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saremi, Adonis; Arora, Rohit

    2009-01-01

    We reviewed the use of marine-derived omega-3 fatty acids in cardiovascular disease by discussing key epidemiologic and placebo-controlled studies in people with and without prior cardiovascular disease at baseline. In addition, studies on the antitriglyceridemic, antihypertensive, hemostatic, antiarrhythmic, and antiatherogenic properties of omega-3 fatty acids were examined. Lastly, we discussed current dietary and safety recommendations regarding fish and fish oil capsules as stated by the US Food and Drug Administration and the US Environmental Protection Agency. We found that omega-3 fatty acids have shown to significantly reduce coronary mortality and sudden death in people without prior cardiovascular disease and reduce all-cause death and cardiac mortality in secondary prevention studies. Studies on stroke are still unclear and more studies need to focus on stroke subtypes. The beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids might be the result of their ability to reduce triglyceride levels, blood pressure, platelet aggregation, arrhythmia, and atherogenesis. Currently, the general public is recommended to consume two fatty fish meals per week (0.3-0.5 grams per day eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid). Pregnant mothers and children should refrain from eating fish high in methylmercury levels while limiting their consumption of other fish varieties to 12 ounces per week. Patients with coronary heart disease should have 1 g per day of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, whereas patients with hypertriglyceridemia should take 3 to 5 g per day of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid under a physician's supervision.

  12. Dietary Gut Microbial Metabolites, Short-chain Fatty Acids, and Host Metabolic Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayu Kasubuchi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available During feeding, the gut microbiota contributes to the host energy acquisition and metabolic regulation thereby influencing the development of metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs such as acetate, butyrate, and propionate, which are produced by gut microbial fermentation of dietary fiber, are recognized as essential host energy sources and act as signal transduction molecules via G-protein coupled receptors (FFAR2, FFAR3, OLFR78, GPR109A and as epigenetic regulators of gene expression by the inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC. Recent evidence suggests that dietary fiber and the gut microbial-derived SCFAs exert multiple beneficial effects on the host energy metabolism not only by improving the intestinal environment, but also by directly affecting various host peripheral tissues. In this review, we summarize the roles of gut microbial SCFAs in the host energy regulation and present an overview of the current understanding of its physiological functions.

  13. Reduction in Dietary Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Eicosapentaenoic Acid plus Docosahexaenoic Acid Ratio Minimizes Atherosclerotic Lesion Formation and Inflammatory Response in the LDL Receptor Null Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary very long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been associated with reduced CVD risk. LDL receptor null mice (LDLr-/-) were used to assess different dietary ratios of omega-6 PUFA to eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid (omega-6:EPA+DHA) on atherogenesis and infl...

  14. Dietary Composition Independent of Weight Loss in the Management of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tannaz Eslamparast

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Poor dietary composition is an important factor in the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. The majority of NAFLD patients follow diets with overconsumption of simple carbohydrates, total and saturated fat, with reduced intake of dietary fiber and omega-3 rich foods. Although lifestyle modifications including weight loss and exercise remain the keystone of NAFLD management, modifying dietary composition with or without a calorie-restricted diet may also be a feasible and sustainable strategy for NAFLD treatment. In the present review article, we highlight the potential therapeutic role of a “high quality healthy diet” to improve hepatic steatosis and metabolic dysfunction in patients with NAFLD, independent of caloric restriction and weight loss. We provide a literature review evaluating the evidence behind dietary components including fiber-, meat- and omega-3-rich diets and, pending further evidence, we concur with the EASL-EASD-EASO Clinical Guidelines recommendation of the Mediterranean diet as the diet of choice in these patients.

  15. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for fats, including saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and cholesterol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    This Opinion of the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA) deals with the setting of Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for fats. A lower bound of the reference intake range for total fat of 20 energy % (E%) and an upper bound of 35 E% are proposed. Fat intake in infants can......-linolenic acid (ALA) of 0.5 E%; not to set an UL for ALA; to set an AI of 250 mg for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for adults; to set an AI of 100 mg DHA for infants (>6 months) and young children...... gradually be reduced from 40 E% in the 6-12 month period to 35-40 E% in the 2nd and 3rd year of life. For specific fatty acids the following is proposed: saturated fatty acid (SFA) and trans fatty acid intake should be as low as possible; not to set any DRV for cis-monounsaturated fatty acids......; not to formulate a DRV for the intake of total cis-polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA); not to set specific values for the n-3/n-6 ratio; to set an Adequate Intake (AI) of 4 E% for linoleic acid (LA); not to set any DRV for arachidonic acid; not to set an UL for total or any of the n-6 PUFA; to set an AI for alpha...

  16. Selection in Europeans on fatty acid desaturases associated with dietary changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buckley, Matthew T.; Racimo, Fernando; Allentoft, Morten Erik

    2017-01-01

    PUFA synthesis and PUFA dietary intake: carriers of the derived allele display lower LDL cholesterol levels with a higher intake of PUFAs. We hypothesize that the selective patterns observed in Europeans were driven by a change in dietary composition of fatty acids following the transition...

  17. Practical Dietary Recommendations for the Prevention and Management of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Elena S; Forsyth, Adrienne; Itsiopoulos, Catherine; Nicoll, Amanda J; Ryan, Marno; Sood, Siddharth; Roberts, Stuart K; Tierney, Audrey C

    2018-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease worldwide. In the absence of effective pharmacotherapies, clinical guidelines focus primarily on weight loss to treat this condition. Established consensus, evidence-based, and clinical dietary recommendations for NAFLD are currently lacking. The aim of this paper is to provide evidence-based practical dietary recommendations for the prevention and management of NAFLD in adults. A literature review focusing on established principles for the development of clinical practice recommendations was employed using the following criteria: based on substantial evidence, ensures risk minimization, is flexible for an individual patient approach, and is open to further modification as evidence emerges. The Practice-based Evidence in Nutrition classification system was used to grade these principles. Five key dietary recommendations were developed: 1) follow traditional dietary patterns, such as the Mediterranean diet; 2) limit excess fructose consumption and avoid processed foods and beverages with added fructose; 3) PUFAs, especially long-chain omega-3 rich foods and MUFAs, should replace SFAs in the diet; 4) replace processed food, fast food, commercial bakery goods, and sweets with unprocessed foods high in fiber, including whole grains, vegetables, fruits, legumes, nuts, and seeds; and 5) avoid excess alcohol consumption. Improving diet quality may reduce the incidence and progression of NAFLD and associated risk factors. Many of the benefits are likely to result from the collective effect of dietary patterns. High-quality research-in particular, randomized clinical trials assessing dietary interventions that focus on liver-specific endpoints-are needed as a priority. © 2018 American Society for Nutrition. All rights reserved.

  18. Fatty acid intake and its dietary sources in relation with markers of type 2 diabetes risk: The NEO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanders, A J; Alssema, M; de Koning, E J P; le Cessie, S; de Vries, J H; Zock, P L; Rosendaal, F R; Heijer, M den; de Mutsert, R

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relations between intakes of total, saturated, mono-unsaturated, poly-unsaturated and trans fatty acids (SFA, MUFA, PUFA and TFA), and their dietary sources (dairy, meat and plant) with markers of type 2 diabetes risk. This was a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data of 5675 non-diabetic, middle-aged participants of the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity (NEO) study. Associations between habitual dietary intake and fasting and postprandial blood glucose and insulin, Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), HOMA of β-cell function (HOMA-B) and Disposition Index were assessed through multivariable linear regression models with adjustments for demographic, lifestyle and dietary factors. Mean (s.d.) intakes in percent of energy (En%) were 34.4 (5.8) for total fatty acids, 12.4 (2.9) for SFA, 12.2 (2.4) for MUFA, 6.9 (1.9) for PUFA and 0.6 (0.2) for TFA. As compared with carbohydrates, only SFA was weakly inversely associated with fasting insulin, HOMA-IR and HOMA-B. When stratified by dietary source, all fatty acids from meat were positively associated with fasting insulin - total fatty acids meat (per 5 En%: 10.0%; 95% confidence interval: 4.0, 16.3), SFA meat (per 1 En%: 3.7%; 0.4, 7.2), MUFA meat (per 1 En%: 5.0%; 2.0, 8.1), PUFA meat (per 1 En%: 17.3%; 6.0, 29.7) and TFA meat (per 0.1 En%: 10.5%; 3.2, 18.3). Similarly, all fatty acids from meat were positively associated with HOMA-IR and HOMA-B and inversely with Disposition Index. Our study suggests that the relations between fatty acid intakes and markers of type 2 diabetes risk may depend on the dietary sources of the fatty acids. More epidemiological studies on diet and cardiometabolic disease are needed, addressing possible interactions between nutrients and their dietary sources.

  19. The effects of trans-fatty acids on TAG regulation in mice depend on dietary unsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saín, Juliana; González, Marcela Aída; Lavandera, Jimena Verónica; Scalerandi, María Victoria; Bernal, Claudio Adrián

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of trans-fatty acids (TFA) on liver and serum TAG regulation in mice fed diets containing different proportions of n-3, n-6 and n-9 unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) from olive (O), maize (C) or rapeseed (R) oils partially substituted or not with TFA (Ot, Ct and Rt, respectively). Male CF1 mice were fed (30 d) one of these diets. The effects of the partial substitution (1 %, w/w) of different UFA with TFA on the activity and expression of hepatic enzymes involved in lipogenesis and fatty acids oxidation were evaluated, as well as their transcription factor expressions. Some of the mechanisms involved in the serum TAG regulation, hepatic VLDL rich in TAG (VLDL-TAG) secretion rate and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity were assessed. In liver, TFA induced an increase in TAG content in the Ot and Rt groups, and this effect was associated with an imbalance between lipogenesis and β-oxidation. In the Ot group, exacerbated lipogenesis may be one of the mechanisms responsible for the liver steatosis induced by TFA, whereas in Rt it has been related to a decreased β-oxidation, compared with their respective controls. The enhanced hepatic VLDL-TAG secretion in the Ot and Rt groups was compensated with a differential removal of TAG by LPL enzyme in extrahepatic tissues, leading to unchanged serum TAG levels. In brief, the effects of low levels of TFA on liver and serum TAG regulation in mice depend on the dietary proportions of n-3, n-6 and n-9 UFA.

  20. Effects of Dietary Palmitoleic Acid on Plasma Lipoprotein Profile and Aortic Cholesterol Accumulation Are Similar to Those of Other Unsaturated Fatty Acids in the F1B Golden Syrian Hamster 1–3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthan, Nirupa R.; Dillard, Alice; Lecker, Jaime L.; Ip, Blanche; Lichtenstein, Alice H.

    2008-01-01

    The lower susceptibility of palmitoleic acid (16:1) to oxidation compared to PUFA may confer functional advantages with respect to finding acceptable alternatives to partially hydrogenated fats, but limited data are available on its effect on cardiovascular risk factors. This study investigated the effect of diets (10% fat, 0.1% cholesterol, wt:wt) enriched with macadamia [monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA)16:1], palm (SFA,16:0), canola (MUFA,18:1), or safflower (PUFA,18:2) oils on lipoprotein profiles and aortic cholesterol accumulation in F1B Golden Syrian hamsters (n = 16/group). After 12 wk, 8 hamsters in each group were killed (phase 1). The remaining hamsters fed palm oil were changed to a diet containing coconut oil, while hamsters in the other diet groups continued on their original diets for an additional 6 wk (phase 2). With minor exceptions, the time course and dietary SFA source did not alter the study outcomes. Macadamia oil-fed hamsters had lower non-HDL cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations compared with the palm and coconut oil-fed hamsters and higher HDL-cholesterol compared with the coconut, canola, and safflower oil-fed hamsters. The aortic cholesterol concentration was not affected by dietary fat type. The hepatic cholesterol concentration was higher in the unsaturated compared with the saturated oil-fed hamsters. RBC membrane and aortic cholesteryl ester, triglyceride, and phospholipid fatty acid profiles reflected that of the dietary oil. These data suggest that an oil relatively high in palmitoleic acid does not adversely affect plasma lipoprotein profiles or aortic cholesterol accumulation and was similar to other unsaturated fatty acid-rich oils. PMID:19106316

  1. Serum fatty acid levels, dietary style and coronary heart disease in three neighbouring areas in Japan: the Kumihama study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Tomoki; Azuma, Akihiro; Kuribayashi, Toshiro; Sugihara, Hiroki; Okuda, Seisuke; Nakagawa, Masao

    2003-02-01

    CHD mortality is extremely low in Japan, particularly in rural districts, when compared with that in Western countries. This has been partly attributed to the difference in dietary lifestyle. We investigated the factors influencing CHD mortality in a rural coastal district of Japan, comprising mercantile, farming, and fishing areas with distinct dietary habits. We prospectively examined the incidence of CHD from 1994 to 1998, as well as coronary risk factors and serum fatty acid concentrations. The incidence of angina pectoris was significantly (P=0.01) lower in the fishing area than in the mercantile and farming areas. Blood pressure, physical activity, prevalence of diabetes, serum levels of uric acid and HDL-cholesterol were similar between the three areas. Total- and LDL-cholesterol levels were significantly lower but the smoking rate was markedly higher in the fishing area than in the other two areas. Serum levels of saturated fatty acids and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were lowest in the fishing area, but n-3 PUFA did not differ significantly. The n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio was lowest and eicosapentaenoic:arachidonic acid was highest in the fishing area. Although many previous studies have emphasized the beneficial effect of n-3 PUFA in preventing CHD, the present study indicated that a lower intake of n-6 PUFA and saturated fatty acids has an additional preventive effect on CHD even when the serum level of n-3 PUFA is high because of high dietary fish consumption.

  2. Impact of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on the Gut Microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farinon, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Long-term dietary habits play a crucial role in creating a host-specific gut microbiota community in humans. Despite the many publications about the effects of carbohydrates (prebiotic fibers), the impact of dietary fats, such as omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), on the gut microbiota is less well defined. The few studies completed in adults showed some common changes in the gut microbiota after omega-3 PUFA supplementation. In particular, a decrease in Faecalibacterium, often associated with an increase in the Bacteroidetes and butyrate-producing bacteria belonging to the Lachnospiraceae family, has been observed. Coincidentally, a dysbiosis of these taxa is found in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Omega-3 PUFAs can exert a positive action by reverting the microbiota composition in these diseases, and increase the production of anti-inflammatory compounds, like short-chain fatty acids. In addition, accumulating evidence in animal model studies indicates that the interplay between gut microbiota, omega-3 fatty acids, and immunity helps to maintain the intestinal wall integrity and interacts with host immune cells. Finally, human and animal studies have highlighted the ability of omega-3 PUFAs to influence the gut–brain axis, acting through gut microbiota composition. From these findings, the importance of the omega-3 connection to the microbiota emerges, encouraging further studies. PMID:29215589

  3. Impact of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on the Gut Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Costantini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Long-term dietary habits play a crucial role in creating a host-specific gut microbiota community in humans. Despite the many publications about the effects of carbohydrates (prebiotic fibers, the impact of dietary fats, such as omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, on the gut microbiota is less well defined. The few studies completed in adults showed some common changes in the gut microbiota after omega-3 PUFA supplementation. In particular, a decrease in Faecalibacterium, often associated with an increase in the Bacteroidetes and butyrate-producing bacteria belonging to the Lachnospiraceae family, has been observed. Coincidentally, a dysbiosis of these taxa is found in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Omega-3 PUFAs can exert a positive action by reverting the microbiota composition in these diseases, and increase the production of anti-inflammatory compounds, like short-chain fatty acids. In addition, accumulating evidence in animal model studies indicates that the interplay between gut microbiota, omega-3 fatty acids, and immunity helps to maintain the intestinal wall integrity and interacts with host immune cells. Finally, human and animal studies have highlighted the ability of omega-3 PUFAs to influence the gut–brain axis, acting through gut microbiota composition. From these findings, the importance of the omega-3 connection to the microbiota emerges, encouraging further studies.

  4. Dietary intervention increases n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in sceletal muscle membrane phospholipids of obese subjects. Inplications for insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Steen B; Madsbad, Sten; Høy, C-E

    2006-01-01

    . Insulin resistance was estimated by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). RESULTS The mean weight loss was 5.1 kg (range -15.3 to +1.3 kg). BMI decreased from 36.5 to 34.9 kg/m(2) (P=0.003). Saturated FA (SFA) decreased 11% (P=0.0001). Polyunsaturated FA (PUFA)n-6 increased 4% (P =0.003). Long......-chain PUFAn-3 increased 51% (P= 0.0001), mainly due to a 75% increase (PHOMA-IR correlated significantly with changes in long-chain PUFAn-3 (R=-0.57, P... that included changes in weight, fat mass, waist circumference, plasma lipids, PUFA, SFA and long-chain PUFAn-3 indicated that SFA and long-chain PUFAn-3 were independent predictors of HOMA-IR (R(2)=0.33, P

  5. Dietary intervention increases n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in skeletal muscle membrane phospholipids of obese subjects. Implications for insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, S.B.; Madsbad, S.; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2006-01-01

    . Insulin resistance was estimated by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). Results The mean weight loss was 5.1 kg (range -15.3 to +1.3 kg). BMI decreased from 36.5 to 34.9 kg/m(2) (P = 0.003). Saturated FA (SFA) decreased 11% (P = 0.0001). Polyunsaturated FA (PUFA)n-6 increased 4% (P = 0.003). Long......-chain PUFAn-3 increased 51% (P = 0.0001), mainly due to a 75% increase (P HOMA-IR correlated significantly with changes in long-chain PUFAn-3 (R = -0.57, P ... analysis that included changes in weight, fat mass, waist circumference, plasma lipids, PUFA, SFA and long-chain PUFAn-3 indicated that SFA and long-chain PUFAn-3 were independent predictors of HOMA-IR (R-2 = 0.33, P

  6. Effect of gene transfer of Chlorella vulgaris n-3 fatty acid desaturase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enoh

    2012-04-05

    Apr 5, 2012 ... Chlorella vulgaris had the gene of n-3 fatty acid desaturase (CvFad3) which can synthesize the precursor of ... vector pEGFP-C3-n-3 and expressed the n-3 Fad gene in mouse breast cancer cells (4T1 cells). Transfection of ..... altering dietary omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratios on prostate cancer membrane ...

  7. Lipid oxidation in fresh and stored eggs enriched with dietary w 3 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lipid oxidation in fresh and stored eggs enriched with dietary w3 and w6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E and A dosages. HA Shahryar, R Salamatdoust, S Chekani-Azar, F Ahadi, T Vahdatpoor ...

  8. Dietary uptake of omega-3 fatty acids in mouse tissue studied by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sjövall, P.; Rossmeisl, Martin; Hanrieder, J.; Kuda, Ondřej; Kopecký, Jan; Bryhn, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 407, č. 17 (2015), s. 5101-5111 ISSN 1618-2642 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-09347S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Omega -3 * TOF-SIMS * mouse tissue * lipids Imaging * PCA Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 3.125, year: 2015

  9. Dietary intervention increases n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in skeletal muscle membrane phospholipids of obese subjects. Implications for insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, S.B.; Madsbad, S.; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2006-01-01

    . Insulin resistance was estimated by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). Results The mean weight loss was 5.1 kg (range -15.3 to +1.3 kg). BMI decreased from 36.5 to 34.9 kg/m(2) (P = 0.003). Saturated FA (SFA) decreased 11% (P = 0.0001). Polyunsaturated FA (PUFA)n-6 increased 4% (P = 0.003). Long......-chain PUFAn-3 increased 51% (P = 0.0001), mainly due to a 75% increase (P SFA (R = 0.58, P ... analysis that included changes in weight, fat mass, waist circumference, plasma lipids, PUFA, SFA and long-chain PUFAn-3 indicated that SFA and long-chain PUFAn-3 were independent predictors of HOMA-IR (R-2 = 0.33, P

  10. Dietary intervention increases n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in sceletal muscle membrane phospholipids of obese subjects. Inplications for insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Steen B; Madsbad, Sten; Høy, C-E

    2006-01-01

    . Insulin resistance was estimated by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). RESULTS The mean weight loss was 5.1 kg (range -15.3 to +1.3 kg). BMI decreased from 36.5 to 34.9 kg/m(2) (P=0.003). Saturated FA (SFA) decreased 11% (P=0.0001). Polyunsaturated FA (PUFA)n-6 increased 4% (P =0.003). Long......-chain PUFAn-3 increased 51% (P= 0.0001), mainly due to a 75% increase (PSFA (R=0.58, P... that included changes in weight, fat mass, waist circumference, plasma lipids, PUFA, SFA and long-chain PUFAn-3 indicated that SFA and long-chain PUFAn-3 were independent predictors of HOMA-IR (R(2)=0.33, P

  11. The influence of dietary fatty acid composition on the respiratory and cardiovascular physiology of Adriatic sturgeon (Acipenser naccarii): a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKenzie, DJ; Piraccini, G; Agnisola, C

    1999-01-01

    as 15% of dry feed weight), with an elevated content of highly unsaturated fatty acids of the co3 series (¿3 HUFA), had a significantly lower standard metabolic rate (SMR) and routine oxygen consumption (Mo2) than those fed a diet enriched with the same quantity of hydrogenated coconut oil......This paper reviews evidence that the fatty acid composition of dietary lipids influences the respiratory and cardiovascular physiology of Adriatic sturgeon {Acipenser naccarii) and, thereby, their tolerance of the stress of hypoxia. Sturgeon fed a commercial diet enriched in fish oil (menhaden oil...

  12. Impact of dietary fatty acids on metabolic activity and host intestinal microbiota composition in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Elaine; O' Doherty, Robert M; Murphy, Eileen F; Wall, Rebecca; O' Sullivan, Orla; Nilaweera, Kanishka; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Cotter, Paul D; Ross, R Paul; Stanton, Catherine

    2014-06-14

    Different dietary fat and energy subtypes have an impact on both the metabolic health and the intestinal microbiota population of the host. The present study assessed the impact of dietary fat quality, with a focus on dietary fatty acid compositions of varying saturation, on the metabolic health status and the intestinal microbiota composition of the host. C57BL/6J mice (n 9-10 mice per group) were fed high-fat (HF) diets containing either (1) palm oil, (2) olive oil, (3) safflower oil or (4) flaxseed/fish oil for 16 weeks and compared with mice fed low-fat (LF) diets supplemented with either high maize starch or high sucrose. Tissue fatty acid compositions were assessed by GLC, and the impact of the diet on host intestinal microbiota populations was investigated using high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing. Compositional sequencing analysis revealed that dietary palm oil supplementation resulted in significantly lower populations of Bacteroidetes at the phylum level compared with dietary olive oil supplementation (Poil was associated with an increase in the population of the family Bacteroidaceae compared with dietary supplementation of palm oil, flaxseed/fish oil and high sucrose (Poil diet for 16 weeks led to significantly increased tissue concentrations of EPA, docosapentaenoic acid and DHA compared with ingestion of all the other diets (Pimpact on host physiology with further downstream alterations to the intestinal microbiota population, with a HF diet supplemented with flaxseed/fish oil positively shaping the host microbial ecosystem.

  13. Dietary Fatty Acids and Their Potential for Controlling Metabolic Diseases Through Activation of FFA4/GPR120

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulven, Trond; Christiansen, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    acting as precursors of potent signaling molecules, dietary fatty acids act directly on intracellular and cell surface receptors. The free fatty acid receptor 4 (FFA4, previously GPR120) is linked to the regulation of body weight, inflammation, and insulin resistance and represents a potential target...... for the treatment of metabolic disorders, including type 2 diabetes and obesity. In this review, we discuss the various types of dietary fatty acids, the link between FFA4 and metabolic diseases, the potential effects of the individual fatty acids on health, and the ability of fatty acids to activate FFA4. We also...... discuss the possibility of dietary schemes that implement activation of FFA4....

  14. A human model of dietary saturated fatty acid induced insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koska, Juraj; Ozias, Marlies K; Deer, James; Kurtz, Julie; Salbe, Arline D; Harman, S Mitchell; Reaven, Peter D

    2016-11-01

    Increased consumption of high-fat diets is associated with the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Current models to study the mechanisms of high-fat diet-induced IR in humans are limited by their long duration or low efficacy. In the present study we developed and characterized an acute dietary model of saturated fatty acid-enriched diet induced insulin resistance. High caloric diets enriched with saturated fatty acids (SFA) or carbohydrates (CARB) were evaluated in subjects with normal and impaired glucose tolerance (NGT or IGT). Both diets were compared to a standard eucaloric American Heart Association (AHA) control diet in a series of crossover studies. Whole body insulin resistance was estimated as steady state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentrations during the last 30min of a 3-h insulin suppression test. SSPG was increased after a 24-h SFA diet (by 83±74% vs. control, n=38) in the entire cohort, which was comprised of participants with NGT (92±82%, n=22) or IGT (65±55%, n=16) (all pinsulin resistance in both NGT and IGT subjects. Insulin resistance persisted overnight after the last SFA meal and was attenuated by one day of a healthy diet. This model offers opportunities for identifying early mechanisms and potential treatments of dietary saturated fat induced insulin resistance. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Nutritional Properties of Dietary Omega-3-Enriched Phospholipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Murru

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fatty acids regulate several physiological functions. However, to exert their properties, they have to be present in the diet in an optimal balance. Particular attention has been focused on tissue highly polyunsaturated fatty acids (HPUFAs n-6/n-3 ratio, influenced by the type and the esterified form of dietary fatty acids. Dietary EPA and DHA when esterified to phospholipids (PLs are more efficiently incorporated into tissue PLs and seem to possess peculiar properties through specific mechanism(s of action, such as the capacity to affect endocannabinoid biosynthesis at much lower doses than EPA and DHA in triglyceride form, probably because of the above mentioned higher incorporation into tissue PLs. Downregulation of the endocannabinoid system seems to mediate the positive effects exerted by omega-3-enriched PLs on several parameters of metabolic syndrome. PLs are one of the major dietary forms of EPA and DHA we are exposed to with the everyday diet; therefore, it is not surprising that it guarantees an effective EPA and DHA nutritional activity. Future studies should address whether EPA and DHA in PL form are also more effective than other formulations in ameliorating other pathological conditions where n-3 HPUFAs seem to exert beneficial activities such as cancer and psychiatric disorders.

  16. Nutritional properties of dietary omega-3-enriched phospholipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murru, Elisabetta; Banni, Sebastiano; Carta, Gianfranca

    2013-01-01

    Dietary fatty acids regulate several physiological functions. However, to exert their properties, they have to be present in the diet in an optimal balance. Particular attention has been focused on tissue highly polyunsaturated fatty acids (HPUFAs) n-6/n-3 ratio, influenced by the type and the esterified form of dietary fatty acids. Dietary EPA and DHA when esterified to phospholipids (PLs) are more efficiently incorporated into tissue PLs and seem to possess peculiar properties through specific mechanism(s) of action, such as the capacity to affect endocannabinoid biosynthesis at much lower doses than EPA and DHA in triglyceride form, probably because of the above mentioned higher incorporation into tissue PLs. Downregulation of the endocannabinoid system seems to mediate the positive effects exerted by omega-3-enriched PLs on several parameters of metabolic syndrome. PLs are one of the major dietary forms of EPA and DHA we are exposed to with the everyday diet; therefore, it is not surprising that it guarantees an effective EPA and DHA nutritional activity. Future studies should address whether EPA and DHA in PL form are also more effective than other formulations in ameliorating other pathological conditions where n-3 HPUFAs seem to exert beneficial activities such as cancer and psychiatric disorders.

  17. The interaction between ApoA2 -265T>C polymorphism and dietary fatty acids intake on oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Elham; Sadrzadeh-Yeganeh, Haleh; Sotoudeh, Gity; Keramat, Laleh; Eshraghian, Mohammadreza; Rafiee, Masoumeh; Koohdani, Fariba

    2017-08-01

    Apolipoprotein A2 (APOA2) -265T>C polymorphism has been studied in relation to oxidative stress and various dietary fatty acids. Since the interaction between APOA2 polymorphism and dietary fatty acids on oxidative stress has not yet discussed, we aimed to investigate the interaction on oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. The subjects were 180 T2DM patients with known APOA2 genotype, either TT, TC or CC. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was determined by colorimetric method. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and serum level of 8-isoprostane F2α were measured by spectrophotometry and ELISA, respectively. Dietary intake was collected through a food frequency questionnaire. Based on the median intake, fatty acids intake was dichotomized into high or low groups. The interaction between APOA2 polymorphism and dietary fatty acids intake was analyzed by ANCOVA multivariate interaction model. Higher than median intake of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 PUFA) was associated with increased serum level of 8-isoprostane F2α in subjects with TT/TC genotype (p = 0.004), and higher than median intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) was associated with increased serum SOD activity in CC genotype (p fatty acids intake on oxidative stress. More investigations on different populations are required to confirm the interaction.

  18. Antiatherogenic effects of n-3 fatty acids - evidence and mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Zampolli

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available N-3 (omega-3 (polyunsaturated fatty acids are thought to display a variety of beneficial effects for human health. Clues to the occurrence of cardiovascular protective effects have been, however, the spur for the first biomedical interest in these compounds, and are the best documented. Historically, the epidemiologic association between dietary consumption of n-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular protection was first suggested by Bang and Dyerberg, who identified the high consumption of fish, and therefore, of fish oil-derived n-3 fatty acids, as the likely explanation for the strikingly low rate of coronary heart disease events reported in the Inuit population. Since their initial reports, research has proceeded in parallel to provide further evidence for their cardioprotection and to understand underlying mechanisms. Decreased atherogenesis is currently thought to be a part of the cardiovascular protection by n-3 fatty acids. This article summarizes the evidence for such a claim and the mechanisms putatively involved. (Heart International 2006; 3-4: 141-54

  19. Overview of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Therapies

    OpenAIRE

    Bradberry, J. Chris; Hilleman, Daniel E.

    2013-01-01

    Products containing omega-3 fatty acids, such as krill oil and fish oils, have been effective in lowering triglyceride levels. Although no data have suggested that the low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) increases associated with some omega-3 fatty acid formulations lead to adverse outcomes, these elevations in LDL-C levels may compromise the achievement of lipid targets. Thus, there is a need for agents that can lower triglyceride levels without increasing LDL-C levels.

  20. Growth Performance, Meat Quality and Fatty Acid Metabolism Response of Growing Meat Rabbits to Dietary Linoleic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Li

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of different amounts of dietary linoleic acid (LA on growth performance, serum biochemical traits, meat quality, fatty acids composition of muscle and liver, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC and carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 (CPT 1 mRNA expression in the liver of 9 wks old to 13 wks old growing meat rabbits. One hundred and fifty 9 wks old meat rabbits were allocated to individual cages and randomly divided into five groups. Animals in each group were fed with a diet with the following LA addition concentrations: 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 g/kg diet (as-fed basis and LA concentrations were 0.84, 1.21, 1.34, 1.61 and 1.80% in the diet, respectively. The results showed as follows: the dietary LA levels significantly affected muscle color of LL included a* and b* of experimental rabbits (p<0.05. The linear effect of LA on serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol was obtained (p = 0.0119. The saturated fatty acids (SFAs and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs contents of LL decreased and the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs content of LL increased with dietary LA increase (p<0.0001. The PUFA n-6 content and PUFA n-3 content in the LL was significantly affected by the dietary LA levels (p<0.01, p<0.05. The MUFAs content in the liver decreased and the PUFAs contents in the liver increased with dietary LA increase (p<0.0001. The PUFA n-6 content and the PUFA n-6/n-3 ratio in the liver increased and PUFA n-3 content in the liver decreased with dietary LA increase (p<0.01. The linear effect of LA on CPT 1 mRNA expression in the liver was obtained (p = 0.0081. In summary, dietary LA addition had significant effects on liver and muscle fatty acid composition (increased PUFAs of 9 wks old to 13 wks old growing meat rabbits, but had little effects on growth performance, meat physical traits and mRNA expression of liver relative enzyme of experimental rabbits.

  1. The effect of dietary fat on the fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of Hy-line and Warren hen eggs from Hy-line and Warren hens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Munoz, M. J.; Bastida, S.; Jimenez, O.; Lorenzo, C. de; Vergara, G.; Sanchez-Muniz, F. J.

    2009-07-01

    The present study analyzed the effect of dietary fat and strain on the fatty acid and cholesterol contents of eggs over a 20 month-period. Hy-line and Warren hens received three consecutive 7% lipid diets in which the basal constituents of the diet supplied 3% of the fats while the remaining 4% was composed of fats, oils or oleins added to progressively increase polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels, while decreasing dietary levels of both saturated fatty acids (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). In general, the percentages of most fatty acids in egg lipids were affected by changes in dietary lipids but not by the strain. Data suggest the existence of a dietary threshold for elaidic acid to appear in eggs. Mufa decreased and total PUFA increased throughout the study. The cholesterol egg content was higher at the animal fat plus soybean oil than at the animal fat or the olein plus soybean oil blend. Overall, results showed that changes in dietary lipids influenced fatty acid composition and hence atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes much more than the strain. (Author) 37 refs.

  2. Dietary arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid regulate liver fatty acid desaturase (FADS) alternative transcript expression in suckling piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijendran, Vasuki; Downs, Ian; Tyburczy, Cynthia; Kothapalli, Kumar S. D.; Park, Woo Jung; Blank, Bryant S.; Zimmer, J. Paul; Butt, C.M.; Salem, Norman; Brenna, J. Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Molecular regulation of fatty acid desaturase (Fads) gene expression by dietary arachidonic (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) during early postnatal period, when the demand for long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) is very high, has not been well defined. The objective of the current study was to determine regulation of liver Fads1, Fads2 and Fads3 classical (CS) and alternative transcripts (AT) expression by dietary ARA and DHA, within the physiological range present in human breast milk, in suckling piglets. Piglets were fed one of six milk replacer formula diets (Formula-reared groups, FR) with varying ARA and DHA content from days 3-28 of age. The ARA/DHA levels of the six formula diets were as follows (% total fatty acid, FA/FA): (A1) 0.1/1.0; (A2) 0.53/1.0; (A3-D3) 0.69/1.0; (A4) 1.1/1.0; (D2) 0.67/0.62; (D1) 0.66/0.33. The control maternal-reared (MR) group remained with the dam. Fads1 expression was not significantly different between FR and MR groups. Fads2 expression was down-regulated significantly in diets with 1:1 ratio of ARA:DHA, compared to MR. Fads2 AT1 expression was highly correlated to Fads2 expression. Fads3 AT7 was the only Fads3 transcript sensitive to dietary LC-PUFA intake and was up-regulated in the formula diets with lowest ARA and DHA content compared to MR. Thus, the present study provides evidence that the proportion of dietary ARA:DHA is a significant determinant of Fads2 expression and LC-PUFA metabolism during the early post-natal period. Further, the data suggest that Fads3 AT7 may have functional significance when dietary supply of ARA and DHA are low during early development. PMID:24075244

  3. Effects of Dietary Supplementation with Rapeseed and Linseed Oil on the Composition of Fatty Acids in Porcine Muscle Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Kralik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary supplementation with rapeseed and linseed oils on changes of the fatty acid profile in porcine meat. The research was conducted on 45 fattening pigs divided into three groups. Group 1 was given a diet with 2% of sunflower oil, group 2 was given a diet with 2% of rapeseed oil and group 3 was given a diet supplemented with 2% of linseed oil. The highest content of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and the most favourable ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFA was determined in the meat of pigs that were fed diets with linseed oil (P < 0.001, whereas the meat of pigs that were fed diets with sunflower oil had an unfavourable ratio of these acids. The results point out the necessity of finding out optimal portions of forages rich in PUFA to improve the ratio of fatty acids in porcine muscle tissue.

  4. Sources and Bioactive Properties of Conjugated Dietary Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Alan A; Ross, Paul R; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Stanton, Catherine

    2016-04-01

    The group of conjugated fatty acids known as conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers have been extensively studied with regard to their bioactive potential in treating some of the most prominent human health malignancies. However, CLA isomers are not the only group of potentially bioactive conjugated fatty acids currently undergoing study. In this regard, isomers of conjugated α-linolenic acid, conjugated nonadecadienoic acid and conjugated eicosapentaenoic acid, to name but a few, have undergone experimental assessment. These studies have indicated many of these conjugated fatty acid isomers commonly possess anti-carcinogenic, anti-adipogenic, anti-inflammatory and immune modulating properties, a number of which will be discussed in this review. The mechanisms through which these bioactivities are mediated have not yet been fully elucidated. However, existing evidence indicates that these fatty acids may play a role in modulating the expression of several oncogenes, cell cycle regulators, and genes associated with energy metabolism. Despite such bioactive potential, interest in these conjugated fatty acids has remained low relative to the CLA isomers. This may be partly attributed to the relatively recent emergence of these fatty acids as bioactives, but also due to a lack of awareness regarding sources from which they can be produced. In this review, we will also highlight the common sources of these conjugated fatty acids, including plants, algae, microbes and chemosynthesis.

  5. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Antioxidants in Edible Wild Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARTEMIS P SIMOPOULOS

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Human beings evolved on a diet that was balanced in the omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, and was high in antioxidants. Edible wild plants provide alpha-linolenic acid (ALA and higher amounts of vitamin E and vitamin C than cultivated plants. In addition to the antioxidant vitamins, edible wild plants are rich in phenols and other compounds that increase their antioxidant capacity. It is therefore important to systematically analyze the total antioxidant capacity of wild plants and promote their commercialization in both developed and developing countries. The diets of Western countries have contained increasingly larger amounts of linoleic acid (LA, which has been promoted for its cholesterol-lowering effect. It is now recognized that dietary LA favors oxidative modification of low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol and increases platelet response to aggregation. In contrast, ALA intake is associated with inhibitory effects on the clotting activity of platelets, on their response to thrombin, and on the regulation of arachidonic acid (AA metabolism. In clinical studies, ALA contributed to lowering of blood pressure, and a prospective epidemiological study showed that ALA is inversely related to the risk of coronary heart disease in men. Dietary amounts of LA as well as the ratio of LA to ALA appear to be important for the metabolism of ALA to longer-chain omega-3 PUFAs. Relatively large reserves of LA in body fat, as are found in vegans or in the diet of omnivores in Western societies, would tend to slow down the formation of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids from ALA. Therefore, the role of ALA in human nutrition becomes important in terms of long-term dietary intake. One advantage of the consumption of ALA over omega-3 fatty acids from fish is that the problem of insufficient vitamin E intake does not exist with high intake of ALA from plant sources.

  6. Study of the effects of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids: Molecular mechanisms involved intestinal inflammation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoch, B.; Barnett, M. P. G.; Roy, N. C.; McNabb, W. C.

    2009-07-01

    The use of omics techniques in combination with model systems and molecular tools allows to understand how foods and food components act on metabolic pathways to regulate transcriptional processes. Polyunsaturated fatty acids have distinctive nutritional and metabolic effects because they give rise to lipid mediated products and affect the expression of various genes involved in intestinal inflammation. The present review focuses on the molecular effects of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids on intestinal inflammation. (Author) 74 refs.

  7. Fatty acid profile and dietary fibre contents of some standardized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    100g in Jollof rice to 62.00+0.94g/100g in Melon seed and vegetable soup, the Soluble Dietary Fibre (SDF) ranged from 2.05+0.32g/100g in Steamed bean pudding to 7.81+0.74g/100g in Ikokore while the Insoluble Dietary Fibre (IDF) ranged ...

  8. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Inflammatory Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip C. Calder

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Long chain fatty acids influence inflammation through a variety of mechanisms; many of these are mediated by, or at least associated with, changes in fatty acid composition of cell membranes. Changes in these compositions can modify membrane fluidity, cell signaling leading to altered gene expression, and the pattern of lipid mediator production. Cell involved in the inflammatory response are typically rich in the n-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid, but the contents of arachidonic acid and of the n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA can be altered through oral administration of EPA and DHA. Eicosanoids produced from arachidonic acid have roles in inflammation. EPA also gives rise to eicosanoids and these often have differing properties from those of arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids. EPA and DHA give rise to newly discovered resolvins which are anti-inflammatory and inflammation resolving. Increased membrane content of EPA and DHA (and decreased arachidonic acid content results in a changed pattern of production of eicosanoids and resolvins. Changing the fatty acid composition of cells involved in the inflammatory response also affects production of peptide mediators of inflammation (adhesion molecules, cytokines etc.. Thus, the fatty acid composition of cells involved in the inflammatory response influences their function; the contents of arachidonic acid, EPA and DHA appear to be especially important. The anti-inflammatory effects of marine n-3 PUFAs suggest that they may be useful as therapeutic agents in disorders with an inflammatory component.

  9. Changes in short-chain fatty acid plasma profile incurred by dietary fiber composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Jørgensen, Henry Johs. Høgh; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2016-01-01

    Pigs were used as model for humans to study the impact of dietary fiber (DF), the main substrate for microbial fermentation, on plasma profile of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA; acetate, propionate, and butyrate). Six female pigs fitted with catheters in the portal vein and mesenteric artery...... and with a flow probe around the portal vein to monitor blood flow were used. Equal DF bread diets were prepared from white wheat flour with added purified wheat fiber (WFL), whole wheat grain (WWG), wheat aleurone flour (WAF), or rye aleurone flour (RAF). The main DF components of the WFL diet was cellulose...... >> arabinoxylan >> β-glucan, whereas in the WWG, WAF, and RAF, diets it was arabinoxylan >> cellulose > β-glucan. The diets were fed to the pigs during 3 wk in a crossover design. Within an experimental week, WFL was supplied on Days 1 through 3 and WWG, WAF, or RAF was supplied during Days 4 through 7. Fasting...

  10. Influences of maternal dietary intake and suckling on breast milk lipid and fatty acid composition in low-income women from Brasilia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha, Juliana; Macedo da Costa, Teresa Helena; Ito, Marina Kiyomi

    2005-03-01

    Diet has a strong effect, while suckling stimulus is believed not to influence breast milk fatty acids. The effect of dietary pattern and suckling on the fatty acid composition of Brazilian women's breast milk was studied. A cross-sectional study was conducted with low-income women living in the central region of Brazil, where dietary DHA is not readily available. Fore and hind milk fatty acids were collected from 77 women on day 15+/-1 postpartum, and information on maternal characteristics and dietary habit was taken. The effect of suckling stimulus was measured by the changes between fore and hind milk. The mean body mass index (BMI) of volunteers was 23.7+/-3.2 kg/m(2), and the milk lipid concentration was 4.8+/-1.2 g/dl. A mixture of traditional and western type of dietary habit, high in fat and sugar was observed. The fatty acids of the subject's milk were 41.93+/-1.42% saturated, 33.31+/-1.67% monounsaturated and 25.03+/-5.23% polyunsaturated (wt/wt). The DHA level in the milk was 0.34+/-0.19%, similar to the values found in milk of many western societies. DHA and 18:3n-3 levels increased from fore to hind milk (p<0.05). Correlation existed mostly between dietary components and milk 16:0 and oleic acid (18:0). An analysis of classes of fatty acids in milk showed oleic acid (18:0) to present a negative correlation with all milk fatty acid classes. The results suggest that breast milk fatty acids of Brazilian women reflect a western maternal dietary pattern and are influenced by the suckling.

  11. Using Caenorhabditis elegans to Uncover Conserved Functions of Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a powerful model organism to study functions of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The ability to alter fatty acid composition with genetic manipulation and dietary supplementation permits the dissection of the roles of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in many biological process including reproduction, aging and neurobiology. Studies in C. elegans to date have mostly identified overlapping functions of 20-carbon omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in reproduction and in neurons, however, specific roles for either omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids are beginning to emerge. Recent findings with importance to human health include the identification of a conserved Cox-independent prostaglandin synthesis pathway, critical functions for cytochrome P450 derivatives of polyunsaturated fatty acids, the requirements for omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in sensory neurons, and the importance of fatty acid desaturation for long lifespan. Furthermore, the ability of C. elegans to interconvert omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids using the FAT-1 omega-3 desaturase has been exploited in mammalian studies and biotechnology approaches to generate mammals capable of exogenous generation of omega-3 fatty acids. PMID:26848697

  12. Effect of dietary fat type on the fatty acids composition of irradiated and frozen storage japanese quails meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd EI-Wahab, S. A.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of substitution of dietary cotton seed oil (CSO) by used restaurant oil (URO) with different percentages 25% group 2 (G2), 50% group 3 (G3) and 100% group 4 (G4) in Japanese quail diets on the fatty acids composition of their meat especially polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The effect of gamma irradiation doses (1.5, 3 and 5 kGy) at frozen storage -18 C (degree) for 2 and 4 months in comparison with unirradiated and un storage were studied. The total saturated fatty acids (SFA) in quail meat fed G4 diet (100% URO) increased significantly in comparison with SFA in G2 (25% URO) and G3 (50% URO) but there is no significant effect with G2 and G3 in comparison with G1 (100% CSO).The monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were not affected by G2 and G3 diet. Also, linoleic acid (C 18:2, n-6) had the same trend in those groups with range (32.75% to 33.35%). It is concluded that feeding a diet with URO 25% and 50% conserve the content of linoleic acid and the content of PUFA in quail meat. The irradiation doses and storage periods had no significant effect on the linoleic acid, MUFA and PUFA content.

  13. The association of n-3 fatty acids with serum High Density Cholesterol (HDL) is modulated by sex but not by Inuit ancestry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    To explore the association between dietary n-3 fatty acids and serum lipids in a population with a high intake of marine food. Specifically to test interaction with sex and ethnicity.......To explore the association between dietary n-3 fatty acids and serum lipids in a population with a high intake of marine food. Specifically to test interaction with sex and ethnicity....

  14. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Their Health Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidi, Fereidoon; Ambigaipalan, Priyatharini

    2018-03-25

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) include α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3 ω-3), stearidonic acid (SDA; 18:4 ω-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 ω-3), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA; 22:5 ω-3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 ω-3). In the past few decades, many epidemiological studies have been conducted on the myriad health benefits of omega-3 PUFAs. In this review, we summarized the structural features, properties, dietary sources, metabolism, and bioavailability of omega-3 PUFAs and their effects on cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, Alzheimer's disease, dementia, depression, visual and neurological development, and maternal and child health. Even though many health benefits of omega-3 PUFAs have been reported in the literature, there are also some controversies about their efficacy and certain benefits to human health.

  15. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Hess

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFA are a family of essential fatty acids with many biological activities. These fatty acids are incorporated into cell membranes, changing their structural and functional characteristics. N-3 PUFA can act by modulating inflammatory responses at different levels. Omega-3 PUFA can be converted in the body to longer-chain n-3 PUFA at a limited rate and are differently converted in body systems. It appears that when specific longer-chain n-3 PUFA are desired these need to be supplemented directly in the diet. In different species some evidence indicates a potential effect on improving insulin sensitivity. Recently, a novel class of n-3 PUFA-derived anti-inflammatory mediators have been recognized, termed E-series and D-series resolvins, formed from EPA and DHA, respectively. N-3 PUFA derived resolvins and protectins are heavily involved in the resolution of inflammation. Supplementation with n-3 fatty acids in horses may help manage chronic inflammatory conditions such as osteoarthritis, equine metabolic syndrome, laminitis, and thereby help to improve longevity of sport horse.

  16. Dietary PUFA Intervention Affects Fatty Acid- and Micronutrient Profiles of Beef and Related Beef Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannenberger, Dirk; Nuernberg, Karin; Herdmann, Andrea; Nuernberg, Gerd; Hagemann, Elke; Kienast, Walter

    2013-07-09

    The study investigated the dietary impact of 18:3 n -3 vs. 18:2 n -6 on fatty acid- and micronutrient concentration of beef muscle and the extent of diet- and processing-induced changes of lipid- and micronutrient concentrations of beef products made thereof (German Corned beef (GCB), tea sausage spread (TSS), scalded sausage (SS)). Beef and beef products were obtained from German Holstein bulls which either received a control diet consisting of maize silage and concentrate with soybean meal (41%), or an experimental diet of grass silage and concentrate plus rapeseed cake (12%) and linseed oil (3%). The study revealed that upon an 18:3 n -3 vs. 18:2 n -6 intervention the amounts of 18:3 n -3, EPA and Σ n -3 LC-PUFA were significantly increased by 2.6, 2.3 and 1.7 fold, respectively. Experimental diet significantly increased β-carotene contents, and the γ-tocopherol contents were decreased. During beef processing, n -3 PUFA from beef were found to be product-specifically transferred into the corresponding beef products. 18:3 n -3 and Σ n -3 LC-PUFA contents were found to be 1.4 and 1.5 times higher in GCB from grass silage- than maize silage-fed bulls. The trace element contents in GCB (iron, copper, zinc, selenium) were not affected by the diet; however γ-tocopherol contents were decreased by experimental diet. In conclusion, dietary n -3 PUFA were completely transferred into beef products unaffected by beef processing conditions.

  17. Dietary PUFA Intervention Affects Fatty Acid- and Micronutrient Profiles of Beef and Related Beef Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Dannenberger

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the dietary impact of 18:3n-3 vs. 18:2n-6 on fatty acid- and micronutrient concentration of beef muscle and the extent of diet- and processing-induced changes of lipid- and micronutrient concentrations of beef products made thereof (German Corned beef (GCB, tea sausage spread (TSS, scalded sausage (SS. Beef and beef products were obtained from German Holstein bulls which either received a control diet consisting of maize silage and concentrate with soybean meal (41%, or an experimental diet of grass silage and concentrate plus rapeseed cake (12% and linseed oil (3%. The study revealed that upon an 18:3n-3 vs. 18:2n-6 intervention the amounts of 18:3n-3, EPA and Σn-3 LC-PUFA were significantly increased by 2.6, 2.3 and 1.7 fold, respectively. Experimental diet significantly increased β-carotene contents, and the γ-tocopherol contents were decreased. During beef processing, n-3 PUFA from beef were found to be product-specifically transferred into the corresponding beef products. 18:3n-3 and Σn-3 LC-PUFA contents were found to be 1.4 and 1.5 times higher in GCB from grass silage- than maize silage-fed bulls. The trace element contents in GCB (iron, copper, zinc, selenium were not affected by the diet; however γ-tocopherol contents were decreased by experimental diet. In conclusion, dietary n-3 PUFA were completely transferred into beef products unaffected by beef processing conditions.

  18. Cardiovascular and Renal Calcification and Bone: A comparison of the effect of Dietary Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Nicoll

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular (CV and renal calcification is regularly found with osteoporosis and both are conditions of chronic inflammation and oxidative stress. Intake of dietary fatty acids is known to impact on the incidence of CV disease and bone loss but few studies have specifically looked at their impact on CV or renal calcification. This review found that although a very high total fat intake is likely to prove detrimental to both tissues and bone, particularly with low calcium intake, human studies often show mixed results, possibly because fatty acid intake shows a U-shaped dose/response curve, contrary to the expected linear relationship. Nevertheless, intake of fish and fish oil are generally found to protect against ectopic calcification and bone loss, with a low omega 6 to omega 3 ratio (preferably <5:1 proving critical. Fish intake of 3-4 servings a week was believed to be optimal. In arteries, the relationship between fish oil intake and other markers of sub-clinical atherosclerosis, such as intima-medial thickness, may be stronger than their relationship with arterial calcification. Any association with arterial calcification often lost significance after adjustment for CV risk factors, suggesting that fish oil may act principally by lowering risk factors and calling into question whether CV calcification is a condition of dyslipidaemia.

  19. Dietary fatty acids in metabolic syndrome, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascio, Giuseppe; Schiera, Gabriella; Di Liegro, Italia

    2012-01-01

    In the last few decades, the prevalence of overweight and essential obesity has been undergoing a fast and progressive worldwide increase. Obesity has been in turn linked to type II diabetes, with the total number of diabetic patients worryingly increasing, in the last fifteen years, suggesting a pandemic phenomenon. At the same time, an increase in the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases has been also recorded. Increasing evidence suggests that the diet is involved in such escalation. In particular, the progressive globalization of food industry allowed massive supply, at a relatively low price, of a great variety of pre-packed food and bakery products, with very high energy content. Most of this food contains high amounts of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and of hydrogenated or trans fatty acids (TFA), that probably represent the prominent risk factors in the diet. Herein we will report diffusion and possible impact on health of such molecules, with reference to coronary heart disease, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and diabetes. We will also discuss the cellular and molecular mechanisms of action of fatty acids and fatty acid-derivatives which have been involved either in promoting or in preventing human pathologies. Free fatty acids (FFA) are not indeed only essential fuels for the organism. They also act as ligands for both membrane and nuclear receptors involved in different signaling pathways. Notably, some of these pathways can induce cell stress and apoptosis. Most important, FFA can affect glucose-induced insulin secretion and activate β-cell death. These events can be at least in part counteracted by polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  20. Effect of dietary poly unsaturated fatty acids on total brain lipid concentration and anxiety levels of electron beam irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchetha Kumari; Bekal, Mahesh

    2013-01-01

    The whole brain irradiation causes injury to the nervous system at various levels. Omega-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids are very much essential for the growth and development of nervous system. Dietary supplementation of these nutrients will promote the development of injured neuronal cells. Therefore this study was undertaken to establish the role of Omega-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids on total brain lipid concentration, lipid peroxidation and anxiety levels in the irradiated mice. The effect of Electron Beam Radiation (EBR) on total brain lipid concentration, lipid peroxidation and anxiety level were investigated in male Swiss albino mice. The study groups were subjected to a sub-lethal dose of EBR and also the flax seed extract and fish oil were given orally to the irradiated mice. Irradiated groups show significant elevation in anxiety levels when compared to control group, indicating the acute radiation effects on the central nervous system. But the oral supplementation of dietary PUFA source decrees the anxiety level in the irradiated group. The analysis of lipid peroxidation showed a significant level of changes when compared between control and radiation groups. Dietary PUFA supplementation showed a significant level of decrease in the lipid peroxidation in the irradiated groups. The observation of total lipids in brain shows decrease in concentration in the irradiated groups, the differences in the variables follow the similar patterns as of that the MDA levels. This study suggests that the dietary intake of PUFAs may help in prevention and recovery of the oxidative stress caused by radiation. (author)

  1. Fatty acid intake and its dietary sources in relation with markers of type 2 diabetes risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanders, A.J.; Alssema, M.; Koning, de E.J.P.; Cessie, Le S.; Vries, de J.H.; Zock, P.L.; Rosendaal, F.R.; Heijer, den M.; Mutsert, de R.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the relations between intakes of total, saturated, mono-unsaturated, poly-unsaturated and trans fatty acids (SFA, MUFA, PUFA and TFA), and their dietary sources (dairy, meat and plant) with markers of type 2 diabetes risk. Subjects/Methods: This was

  2. Effect of dietary vegetable oils on the fatty acid profile of plasma lipoproteins in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, Einar; Íñiguez-González, Gonzalo; Cancino-Padilla, Nathaly

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of dietary supplementation of soybean oil (SO) and hydrogenated palm oil (HPO) on the transport of fatty acids (FA) within plasma lipoproteins in lactating and non-lactating cows. Three lactating and three non-lactating Holstein cows were...

  3. Effect of dietary fat source on fatty acid profile and lipid oxidation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effects of supplementary dietary lipid sources on the fatty acid profile and lipid oxidation of eggs. Five isoenergetic (12.6 MJ AME/kg DM) and isonitrogenous (170 g CP/kg DM) diets were formulated, using a control diet (50 : 50 blend of fish- and linseed oil), fish oil, sunflower oil, high oleic acid ...

  4. Effect of dietary cis and trans fatty acids on serum lipoprotein(a) levels in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink, R.P.; Zock, P.L.; Katan, M.B.; Hornstra, G.

    1992-01-01

    Serum lipoprotein[a] (Lp[a]) is a strong risk factor for coronary heart disease. We therefore examined the effect of dietary fatty acid composition on serum Lp[a] levels in three strictly controlled experiments with healthy normocholesterolemic men and women. In Expt. I, 58 subjects consumed a

  5. Effects of dietary flaxseed oil on the muscle fatty acid composition in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary flaxseed oil on the fatty acid (FA) composition of two types of muscles, longissimus dorsi (LD) and semitendinosus (ST), of Mangalitsa pigs reared in an extensive system. Fourteen Mangalitsa castrated pigs, 55 ± 8 kg, 240 ± 12 days of age, were randomly assigned ...

  6. Tracing the fate of dietary fatty acids: metabolic studies of postprandial lipaemia in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Barbara

    2011-08-01

    Most postprandial studies have investigated the response of a single meal, yet the ingestion of sequential meals is more typical in a Western society. The aim of this review is to explain how natural and stable isotope tracers of fatty acids have been used to investigate the metabolism of dietary fat after single and multiple meals, with a focus on in vivo measurements of adipose tissue metabolism. When stable isotope tracers are combined with arteriovenous difference measurements, very specific measurements of metabolic flux across tissues can be made. We have found that adipose tissue is a net importer of dietary fat for 5 h following a single test meal and for most of the day during a typical three-meal eating pattern. When dietary fat is cleared from plasma, some fatty acids 'spillover' into the plasma and contribute up to 50% of postprandial plasma NEFA concentrations. Therefore, plasma NEFA concentrations after a meal reflect the balance between intracellular and extracellular lipolysis in adipose tissue. This balance is altered after the acute ingestion of fructose. The enzyme lipoprotein lipase is a key modulator of fatty acid flux in adipose tissue and its rate of action is severely diminished in obese men. In conclusion, in vivo studies of human metabolism can quantify the way that adipose tissue fatty acid trafficking modulates plasma lipid concentrations. This has implications for the flux of fatty acids to tissues that are susceptible to ectopic fat deposition such as the liver and muscle.

  7. Effect of dietary oil supplementation on fatty acid profile of backfat and intramuscular fat in finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Pulina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two groups of finishing gilts were fed, for 4 weeks, a commercial feed enriched (2% with either rapeseed oil or sunflower oil. Pig growth was monitored bi-weekly and the fatty acid composition of backfat and Longissimus muscle was determined after slaughtering. Type of dietary oil affected significantly the fatty acid profile of pork fat, especially the C18:3n-3 concentration which was higher in pigs fed rapeseed oil than in those fed sunflower oil. The content of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA of Longissimus muscle was significantly higher than that of backfat, due to the its higher concentration of C18:1cis9 and C16:1. Differently, the long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA content was higher in backfat than in Longissimus muscle. These results confirm that it is possible to manipulate the fatty acid composition of the diet, in order to improve the health properties of the adipose tissues of pork meat.

  8. Omega-3 fatty acids: new insights into the pharmacology and biology of docosahexaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Michael H

    2013-12-01

    Fish oil contains a complex mixture of omega-3 fatty acids, which are predominantly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Each of these omega-3 fatty acids has distinct biological effects that may have variable clinical effects. In addition, plasma levels of omega-3 fatty acids are affected not only by dietary intake, but also by the polymorphisms of coding genes fatty acid desaturase 1-3 for the desaturase enzymes that convert short-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. The clinical significance of this new understanding regarding the complexity of omega-3 fatty acid biology is the purpose of this review. FADS polymorphisms that result in either lower levels of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids or higher levels of long-chain omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as arachidonic acid, are associated with dyslipidemia and other cardiovascular risk factors. EPA and DHA have differences in their effects on lipoprotein metabolism, in which EPA, with a more potent peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha effect, decreases hepatic lipogenesis, whereas DHA not only enhances VLDL lipolysis, resulting in greater conversion to LDL, but also increases HDL cholesterol and larger, more buoyant LDL particles. Overall, these results emphasize that blood concentrations of individual long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which reflect both dietary intake and metabolic influences, may have independent, but also complementary- biological effects and reinforce the need to potentially provide a complex mixture of omega-3 fatty acids to maximize cardiovascular risk reduction.

  9. Dietary intakes and food sources of fatty acids in Guatemalan schoolchildren: A cross-sectional study

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bermudez, Odilia I.

    2010-04-23

    Abstract Background Consumption of healthy diets that contribute with adequate amounts of fat and fatty acids is needed for children. Among Guatemalan children, there is little information about fat intakes. Therefore, the present study sought to assess intakes of dietary fats and examine food sources of those fats in Guatemalan children. Methods The study subjects consisted of a convenience sample of 449 third- and fourth-grade schoolchildren (8-10 y), attending public or private schools in Quetzaltenango City, Guatemala. Dietary data was obtained by means of a single pictorial 24-h record. Results The percentages of total energy (%E) from total fat, saturated fat (SFA) and monounsaturated fat (MUFA) reached 29%E for total fat and 10%E for each SFA and MUFA, without gender differences. %E from fats in high vs. low-socio economic status (SES) children were significantly higher for boys, but not for girls, for total fat (p = 0.002) and SFA (p < 0.001). Large proportions of the children had low levels of intakes of some fatty acids (FA), particularly for n-3 FA, with >97% of all groups consuming less than 1%E from this fats. Fried eggs, sweet rolls, whole milk and cheese were main sources of total fat and, SFA. Whole milk and sweet bread were important sources of n-3 FA for high- and low-SES boys and girls, respectively. Fried plantain was the main source of n-3 FA for girls in the high-SES group. Fried fish, seafood soup, and shrimp, consumed only by boys in low amounts, were sources of eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids, which may explain the low intakes of these nutrients. Conclusions α-linolenic acid, EPA and DHA were the most limiting fatty acids in diets of Guatemalan schoolchildren, which could be partially explained by the low consumption of sources of these nutrients, particularly fish and seafood (for EPA and DHA). This population will benefit from a higher consumption of culturally acceptable foods that are rich in these limiting

  10. Dietary Alfalfa and Calcium Salts of Long-Chain Fatty Acids Alter Protein Utilization, Microbial Populations, and Plasma Fatty Acid Profile in Holstein Freemartin Heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yang; Qiu, Qinghua; Shao, Taoqi; Niu, Wenjing; Xia, Chuanqi; Wang, Haibo; Li, Qianwen; Gao, Zhibiao; Yu, Zhantao; Su, Huawei; Cao, Binghai

    2017-12-20

    This study presented the effects of alfalfa and calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids (CSFA) on feed intake, apparent digestibility, rumen fermentation, microbial community, plasma biochemical parameters, and fatty acid profile in Holstein freemartin heifers. Eight Holstein freemartin heifers were randomly divided into a 4 × 4 Latin Square experiment with 2 × 2 factorial diets, with or without alfalfa or CSFA. Dietary supplementation of CSFA significantly increased the apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, organic matter, and significantly reduced N retention (P fatty acids in the plasma, which was expressed in reducing saturated fatty acid (ΣSFA) ratio and C14-C17 fatty acids proportion except C16:0 (P fatty acid (ΣPUFA) and unsaturated fatty acid (ΣUFA) (P fatty acids in plasma. Alfalfa and CSFA had mutual interaction effect on fat digestion and plasma triglycerides.

  11. High feeding intensity increases the severity of fatty liver in the American mink (Neovison vison) with potential ameliorating role for long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Morag F; Hurford, Jennifer; Lei, Sha; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Nieminen, Petteri; Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti

    2014-01-16

    Rapid body fat mobilization, obesity, and an inadequate supply of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been suggested to play roles in the etiology of fatty liver in the American mink (Neovison vison). This study examined the effects of feeding intensity and dietary fat source on fatty liver induced by fasting. In a multi-factorial design, 3 different fat sources (herring oil, rich in n-3 PUFA, soya oil, rich in n-6 PUFA, and canola oil, rich in n-9 monounsaturated fatty acids) were fed to mink at a low and high feeding intensity for 10 weeks, followed by an overnight or a 5-day fasting treatment to induce fatty liver. Fasting led to the development of fatty liver with increased severity in the mink fed at the high feeding intensity. The herring oil diet, high in long-chain n-3 PUFA, was found to decrease the severity of fatty liver in the mink at the high feeding intensity. Preventing excessive weight gain and increasing dietary intake of n-3 long-chain PUFA may help prevent excessive lipid accumulation during prolonged periods of fasting or inappetence by promoting hepatic fatty acid oxidation.

  12. Dietary fatty acids and oxidative stress in the heart mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Hélène; Bulteau, Anne Laure; Friguet, Bertrand; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Blier, Pierre U

    2011-01-01

    Our study compared the effects of different oils on oxidative stress in rat heart mitochondria, as well as on plasma parameters used as risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The rats were fed for 16 weeks with coconut, olive, or fish oil diet (saturated, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated fatty acids, respectively). The cardiac mitochondria from rats fed with coconut oil showed the lowest concentration of oxidized proteins and peroxidized lipids. The fish oil diet leads to the highest oxidative stress in cardiac mitochondria, an effect that could be partly prevented by the antioxidant probucol. Total and LDL cholesterols decreased in plasma of rats fed fish oil, compared to olive and coconut oils fed rats. A diet enriched in saturated fatty acids offers strong advantages for the protection against oxidative stress in heart mitochondria. Copyright © 2010 Mitochondria Research Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of ω-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Young People at Ultrahigh Risk for Psychotic Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGorry, Patrick D; Nelson, Barnaby; Markulev, Connie

    2017-01-01

    Importance: A promising treatment to prevent onset and improve outcomes in patients at ultrahigh risk for psychosis is dietary supplementation with long-chain ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Objective: To determine whether treatment with ω-3 PUFAs in combination with a high-quality psych...

  14. Post-Prandia glucose levels and consumption of Omega 3 fatty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Amount and quality of dietary fat modifies glucose tolerance. Omega 3 Fatty Acids (n-3F A) are polyunsaturated fats, mainly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) found primarily in fish and they have a positive effect on glucose tolerance. Objective: To compare risk of type 2 diabetes ...

  15. Inter-tissue differences in fatty acid incorporation as a result of dietary oil manipulation in Port Jackson sharks (Heterodontus portusjacksoni).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Crystal L; Mitchell, James G; Stone, David A J; Huveneers, Charlie

    2014-06-01

    Fatty acid profile analysis is a tool for dietary investigation that may complement traditional stomach contents analysis. While recent studies have shown that the liver of sharks fed different diets have differing fatty acid profiles, the degree to which diet is reflected in shark blood serum and muscle tissue is still poorly understood. An 18-week controlled feeding experiment was undertaken using captive Port Jackson sharks (Heterodontus portusjacksoni). Sharks were fed exclusive diets of artificial pellets treated with fish or poultry oil and sampled every 6 weeks. The fatty acid profiles from liver, blood serum, and muscle were affected differently, with the period from which significant differences were observed varying by tissue and diet type. The total fatty acid profiles of fish oil and poultry oil fed sharks were significantly different from week 12 onwards in the liver and blood serum, but significant differences were only observed by week 18 in the muscle tissue of sharks fed different diets. The drivers of dissimilarity which aligned with dietary input were 14:0, 18:2n-6, 20:5n-3, 18:1n-9 and 22:6n-3 in the liver and blood serum. Dietary fatty acids accumulated more consistently in the liver than in the blood plasma or muscle, likely due to its role as the central organ for fat processing and storage. Blood serum and muscle fatty acid profiles were influenced by diet, but fluctuated over-time. The low level of correlation between diet and muscle FA profiles is likely a result of low levels of fat (shark muscle tissues. Our findings describe inter-tissue differences in the incorporation of fatty acids from the diet to consumer, which should be taken into account when interpreting dietary patterns from fatty acid profiles.

  16. Intake of dietary saturated fatty acids and risk of type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Netherlands cohort : Associations by types, sources of fatty acids and substitution by macronutrients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, S.; van der Schouw, Y.T.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.; Spijkerman, A.M.W.; Sluijs, I.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The association between dietary saturated fatty acids (SFA) intake and type 2 diabetes (T2D) remains unclear. This study aimed at investigating the association between SFA intake and T2D risk based on (1) individual SFA (differing in carbon chain length), (2) food sources of SFA and (3) the

  17. The Role of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyuan Bu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is the third commonest cause of death following cardiovascular diseases and cancer. In particular, in recent years, the morbidity and mortality of stroke keep remarkable growing. However, stroke still captures people attention far less than cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Past studies have shown that oxidative stress and inflammation play crucial roles in the progress of cerebral injury induced by stroke. Evidence is accumulating that the dietary supplementation of fish oil exhibits beneficial effects on several diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, metabolic diseases, and cancer. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs, the major component of fish oil, have been found against oxidative stress and inflammation in cardiovascular diseases. And the potential of n-3 PUFAs in stroke treatment is attracting more and more attention. In this review, we will review the effects of n-3 PUFAs on stroke and mainly focus on the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 PUFAs.

  18. Associations among Omega-3 Fatty Acid Status, Anxiety, and Mental Toughness in Female Collegiate Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Patrick B; Madrigal, Leilani A

    2017-01-01

    Poor omega-3 fatty acid status has been linked to anxiety in the general population, but scarce data are available describing omega-3 fatty acid levels in athletes and their associations with anxiety and mental toughness. Whole blood samples were obtained from 54 female collegiate athletes and analyzed for fatty acids as a part of this cross-sectional observational study. Participants also completed a food frequency questionnaire on the intake of omega-3 fatty acids, as well as the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Sport Anxiety Scale (SAS)-2, and Mental Toughness Scale (MTS). Measures were collected during the athletes' off-season. Spearman's rho coefficients were used to examine the associations between fatty acid levels and psychological scores. Blood levels of the HS-Omega-3 Index® (rho = -0.32, p = 0.02), eicosapentaenoic acid (rho = -0.40, p = 0.003), and docosapentaenoic acid (rho = -0.33, p = 0.02) were negatively correlated with BAI scores. Likewise, dietary intakes of eicosapentaenoic acid (rho = -0.38, p = 0.007) and docosahexaenoic acid (rho = -0.35, p = 0.02) were negatively correlated with BAI scores. Blood docosapentaenoic acid was positively correlated with MTS (rho = 0.27, p = 0.049). None of the dietary or blood fatty acids were significantly correlated with SAS-2 scores. Both blood and dietary omega-3 fatty acid levels are associated with general but not sport-specific anxiety in female collegiate athletes during an off-season period. Randomized trials should be conducted to evaluate the effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on anxiety and mental toughness in athletes.

  19. Effect of dietary vegetable oils on the fatty acid profile of plasma lipoproteins in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, Einar; Íñiguez-González, Gonzalo; Cancino-Padilla, Nathaly; Loor, Juan J; Garnsworthy, Philip C

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of dietary supplementation of soybean oil (SO) and hydrogenated palm oil (HPO) on the transport of fatty acids (FA) within plasma lipoproteins in lactating and non-lactating cows. Three lactating and three non-lactating Holstein cows were used in two different 3 × 3 Latin square experiments that included three periods of 21 d. Dietary treatments for lactating cows consisted of a basal diet (control; no fat supplement) and fat-supplemented diets containing SO (500 g/d per cow) or HPO (500 g/d per cow). For non-lactating cows, dietary treatments consisted of a basal diet (control; no fat supplement) and fat-supplemented diets containing SO (170 g/d per cow) or HPO (170 g/d per cow). Compared with the control and SO diet, HPO addition increased (p < 0.05) the concentration of C16:0, C18:0, C18:2cis-9,12, C18:3cis-9,12,15 and total saturated and polyunsaturated FA in the plasma of lactating cows. In non-lactating cows, the SO addition increased the plasma concentration of C18:1trans-11. In lactating cows, concentrations of C16:0, C18:0 and total saturated FA were increased (p < 0.05) by HPO addition in the high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Total saturated FA were increased (p < 0.05) by HPO in very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). In non-lactating cows, the concentration of C18:0 was increased (p < 0.05) by HPO in HDL, whereas C18:1trans-11 was increased (p < 0.05) by SO in the low-density lipoprotein. Overall, it was found that distribution and transport of FA within the bovine plasma lipoproteins may be influenced by chain length and degree of unsaturation of dietary lipids. Also, the distribution of individual FA isomers such as C18:1trans-11 and C18:2cis-9,trans-11 may vary depending on the physiological state of the cow (lactating or non-lactating), and are increased in plasma (lactating cows) and the HDL (non-lactating cows) when cows are fed SO.

  20. Bioengineered Plants Can Be a Useful Source of Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Amjad Khan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 fatty acids have proven to be very essential for human health due to their multiple health benefits. These essential fatty acids (EFAs need to be uptaken through diet because they are unable to be produced by the human body. These are important for skin and hair growth as well as for proper visual, neural, and reproductive functions of the body. These fatty acids are proven to be extremely vital for normal tissue development during pregnancy and infancy. Omega-3 fatty acids can be obtained mainly from two dietary sources: marine and plant oils. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5 n-3 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6 n-3 are the primary marine-derived omega-3 fatty acids. Marine fishes are high in omega-3 fatty acids, yet high consumption of those fishes will cause a shortage of fish stocks existing naturally in the oceans. An alternative source to achieve the recommended daily intake of EFAs is the demand of today. In this review article, an attempt has, therefore, been made to discuss the importance of omega-3 fatty acids and the recent developments in order to produce these fatty acids by the genetic modifications of the plants.

  1. Intake of dietary saturated fatty acids and risk of type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Shengxin; Schouw, van der Yvonne T.; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S.; Spijkerman, Annemieke M.W.; Sluijs, Ivonne

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The association between dietary saturated fatty acids (SFA) intake and type 2 diabetes (T2D) remains unclear. This study aimed at investigating the association between SFA intake and T2D risk based on (1) individual SFA (differing in carbon chain length), (2) food sources of SFA and (3) the

  2. n-3 Fatty acid derived endocannabinoids: a new link between fish oil and inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balvers, M.G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Inflammatory processes are critical components of many illnesses, and dietary n-3 fatty acids have been shown to contribute to a reduction of the inflammatory status, both in in vivo and in vitro studies. The mechanisms underlying the modulation of inflammation are not completely understood, but it

  3. Effects of varying levels of n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio on plasma fatty acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-12-20

    Dec 20, 2010 ... ¹Department of Veterinary Preclinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM. Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. ... UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. Accepted 5 November, 2010 ...... Dietary lipid, fatty acid synthesis and cholesterol metabolism in aging rats. Lipids.

  4. Dietary fatty acid profile: effects on caecal fermentation and performance of young and fattening rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Casado

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work was performed to study the effect of dietary inclusion of different fatty acid combinations (saturated, n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids; PUFA on caecal fermentation activity, feed intake, growth rate and feed efficiency of young rabbits around weaning (17 to 44 d and fattening rabbits (28 to 63 d of age. Five diets were formulated using the same raw materials and including 3% of lard (A diet, rich in saturated fat, sunflower oil (S diet, rich in n-6 PUFA, linseed oil (L diet, rich in n-3 PUFA, sunflower oil and lard at 1:1 rate (SA diet, or linseed oil and lard at 1:1 rate (LA diet. In the first trial, the effect of the 5 diets on rabbit performance was evaluated in a fattening period from 28 to 63 d of age, with 490 rabbits allocated in individual cages; mortality rates were measured with 1670 rabbits (750 allocated in individual cages and 920 in collective cages, 8 rabbits/cage. In the second trial, 120 young rabbits were used from 17 to 44 d of age, weaned at 28 d, allocated in collective cages and randomly fed with A, S or L diets, evaluating performance and gut weight and caecum fermentation activity. The use of animal fat or vegetable oil and the richness in n-3 or n-6 PUFA of vegetable oils had no significant effect on the feed intake (130 g dry matter/d and growth rate of fattening rabbits (45.5 g/d, but the inclusion of sunflower oil in diet improved feed conversion rate (2.79 for S diet vs. 2.87 for the rest of diets; P<0.01. Mortality rate was lower when vegetable oils were included in diet (34 and 37% for S and L diets respectively vs. 45% for A diet; P<0.05. Feed intake and growth rate increased quickly from 17 to 44 d, but only small occasional differences were recorded in growth rate of young rabbits, in favour of rabbits receiving animal fat from 17 to 21 d (P<0.05 or sunflower oil from 28 to 30 d (P<0.05. Caecal traits of rabbits at 30 and 44 d of age were similar for the different dietary groups

  5. Effects of dietary fat saturation on fatty acid composition and gene transcription in different tissues of Iberian pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez, R; Núñez, Y; Fernández, A; Isabel, B; Fernández, A I; Rodríguez, C; Barragán, C; Martín-Palomino, P; López-Bote, C; Silió, L; Óvilo, C

    2015-04-01

    The effect of two diets, respectively enriched with SFA (S) and PUFA (P), on FA tissue composition and gene expression was studied in fattened Iberian pigs. The FA composition of adipose, muscular and liver tissues was affected by dietary treatment. S group showed higher MUFA and MUFA/SFA ratio and lower PUFA and n-6/n-3 ratio than P group in all analyzed tissues. In muscle and liver the extracted lipids were separated into neutral lipids and polar lipid fractions which showed significantly different responses to the dietary treatment, especially in liver where no significant effect of diet was observed in NL fraction. The expression of six candidate genes related to lipogenesis and FA oxidation was analyzed by qPCR. In liver, stearoyl CoA desaturase (SCD), acetyl CoA carboxylase alpha (ACACA) and malic enzyme 1 (ME1) genes showed higher expression in S group. SCD, ACACA, ME1, and fatty acid synthase (FASN) gene expression levels showed a wide variation across the tested tissues, with much higher expression levels observed in adipose tissue than other tissues. Tissue FA profile and gene expression results support the deposition of dietary FA, the lipogenic effect of dietary saturated fat in liver and the employment of saturated dietary fat for endogenous synthesis of MUFA in all the analyzed tissues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of dietary energy and protein on the performance, egg quality, bone mineral density, blood properties and yolk fatty acid composition of organic laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rakibul Hassan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary metabolizable energy (ME and crude protein (CP on the performance, egg quality, blood properties, bone characteristics and yolk fatty acid composition of organic laying hens. At 23 weeks, a total of 600 Brown nick laying hens were randomly distributed into 24 outdoor pens (4 replicate pens/treatment; 25 birds/pen and were given (2750, 2775 and 2800 kcal of ME/kg and CP (16 and 17% resulting in a 3×2 factorial arrangement of organic dietary treatments. The experiment lasted 23 weeks. The performance of laying hens were not affected by the dietary treatment while the egg weight was increased with energy and CP levels in the diet (P<0.05. Serum total protein was not affected by dietary energy and protein level. Total cholesterol and triglyceride tend to reduce with the increasing amount of CP in the diet. Thereafter, bone and egg quality characteristics were numerically increased in dietary 2775 kcal of ME/kg and 16% CP treatment. On the other hand, docosahexanoic acid content in egg yolk was higher (P<0.01 in 2750 kcal of ME/kg and 17% CP treatment. As a result, the performance, blood and fatty acid composition were maximized in 2750 kcal of ME/kg and 16% CP treatment. Thus, dietary 2750-2775 kcal of ME/kg and 16% CP may enhance performance, blood and fatty acid composition of organic laying hens.

  7. Healthy dietary pattern is inversely associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriano, Lia Silveira; Sampaio, Helena Alves de Carvalho; Arruda, Soraia Pinheiro Machado; Portela, Clarissa Lima de Melo; de Melo, Maria Luisa Pereira; Carioca, Antônio Augusto Ferreira; Soares, Nadia Tavares

    2016-06-01

    The prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is rising, an increase that may be associated with changes in lifestyle such as unhealthy dietary patterns. Although advanced age is a risk factor for NAFLD, no studies reporting this association in the elderly population were found. In the present study, the association between dietary patterns and NAFLD in the elderly was assessed. A study including 229 older adults was conducted. NAFLD diagnosis was defined as individuals whose ultrasound examination disclosed hepatic steatosis at any stage, in the absence of excess intake of alcoholic beverages. Dietary patterns were obtained by principal components analysis. Mean scores and standard errors of each dietary pattern were calculated for the groups with and without NAFLD, and mean scores of the two groups were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. The prevalence ratios and 95 % CI were estimated for each tertile of the dietary pattern adherence scores using Poisson multiple regression models with robust variance. A total of 103 (45 %) elderly with NAFLD and four dietary patterns were identified: traditional, regional snacks, energy dense and healthy. Mean scores for adherence to the healthy pattern in the groups with and without NAFLD differed. NAFLD was inversely associated with greater adherence to the healthy pattern and directly associated with the regional snacks, after adjustment for confounders. In conclusion, healthy dietary pattern is inversely associated with NAFLD in elderly.

  8. ω-3 Fatty acids reverse lipotoxity through induction of autophagy in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Xu, Chengfu; Yan, Tianlian; Yu, Chaohui; Li, Youming

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ω-3 fatty acids on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease concerning hepatocyte lipid accumulation as well as apoptosis induced by free fatty acids (FFAs) and to explore the underlying mechanism involving autophagy. Hepatocytes were incubated with a mixture of free fatty acids (FFAs) to mimic in vitro lipotoxicity in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, presented by lipid accumulation and cellular apoptosis. Chemical inhibitor or inducer of autophagy and genetic deficit cells, as well as ω-3 fatty acids were used as intervention. The autophagic role of ω-3 fatty acids was investigated using Western blot and immunofluorescence. The underlying mechanism of ω-3 fatty acids involving autophagy was preliminarily explored by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. FFAs induce lipid accumulation and apoptosis in hepatocytes. Inhibition or genetic defect of autophagy increases lipid accumulation induced by FFA, whereas induction acts inversely. ω-3 Fatty acids reduced lipid accumulation and inhibited apoptosis induced by FFA. ω-3 Fatty acids induced autophagy by downregulating stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 expression in hepatocytes. ω-3 Fatty acids exert protective effects on hepatocytes against lipotoxicity through induction of autophagy, as demonstrated by inhibition of lipid accumulation and apoptosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Genetic Variants in the FADS Gene: Implications for Dietary Recommendations for Fatty Acid Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Rasika A; Pani, Vrindarani; Chilton, Floyd H

    2014-06-01

    Unequivocally, genetic variants within the fatty acid desaturase ( FADS ) cluster are determinants of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) levels in circulation, cells and tissues. A recent series of papers have addressed these associations in the context of ancestry; evidence clearly supports that the associations are robust to ethnicity. However ∼80% of African Americans carry two copies of the alleles associated with increased levels of arachidonic acid, compared to only ∼45% of European Americans raising important questions of whether gene-PUFA interactions induced by a modern western diet are differentially driving the risk of diseases of inflammation in diverse populations, and are these interactions leading to health disparities. We highlight an important aspect thus far missing in the debate regarding dietary recommendations; we content that current evidence from genetics strongly suggest that an individual's, or at the very least the population from which an individual is sampled, genetic architecture must be factored into dietary recommendations currently in place.

  10. Regulation of Tissue LC-PUFA Contents, Δ6 Fatty Acyl Desaturase (FADS2) Gene Expression and the Methylation of the Putative FADS2 Gene Promoter by Different Dietary Fatty Acid Profiles in Japanese Seabass (Lateolabrax japonicus)

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Houguo; Dong, Xiaojing; Ai, Qinghui; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Yanjiao; Zuo, Rantao

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the influences of different dietary fatty acid profiles on the tissue content and biosynthesis of LC-PUFA in a euryhaline species Japanese seabass reared in seawater. Six diets were prepared, each with a characteristic fatty acid: Diet PA: Palmitic acid (C16:0); Diet SA: Stearic acid (C18:0); Diet OA: Oleic acid (C18:1n-9); Diet LNA: α-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3); Diet N-3 LC-PUFA: n-3 LC-PUFA (DHA+EPA); Diet FO: the fish oil control. A 10-week feedin...

  11. Effects of dietary intake of red palm oil on fatty acid composition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Little is known about the effects of the dietary intake of red palm oil (RPO) on fatty acid composition in the liver of rats. Male Wistar rats randomly divided into four groups were fed with different doses of red palm oil. The control group received no red palm oil; while the experimental groups were fed with 1 ml, 2 ml and 4 ml of ...

  12. Relationship Between Dietary Fatty Acids and Reproductive Functions in Dairy Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercan Soydan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Selection of dairy cattle for higher milk yield, without considering important non-production traits, has decreased reproductive efficiency. Thus, low reproductive performance is a major problem in high yielding dairy cattle. Previous studies showed that dietary manipulation to improve fertility holds much promise and dietary fats have positive effects on reproductive functions in high yielding dairy cattle. Positive effects of fats on reproductive performance due to the fatty acids, which are the precursors of progesterone and prostaglandins. Progesterone and prostaglandins hormones are most important factors that play a role on the control of reproductive functions. The amount of linoleic, linolenic and arachidonic fattty acids in ration can be increase or decrease progesterone and prostaglandins synthesis especially PGF2α from ovary and uterus, respectively. Also fatty acids can be influence follicular development, ovulation, embryonic implantation and maternal recognition of pregnancy. This review focuses on the relationships between dietary fatty acids and reproductive functions such as hormone profiles, ovarian function and follicular development, oocyte quality, embryo development, embryonic implantation and maternal recognition of pregnancy in dairy cattle.

  13. Effects of Dietary Fatty Acids on Lipid Traits in the Muscle and Perirenal Fat of Growing Rabbits Fed Mixed Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Giorgio Peiretti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of various raw materials (spirulina, curcuma, tomato pomace, false flax, linseed, chia, perilla seeds as suitable polyunsaturated fatty acid n-3 (n-3 PUFA sources, on the lipid traits in the longissimus dorsi muscle and perirenal fat of growing rabbits. The fatty acid (FA analyses of the diets, carried out by gas chromatography, differed over a wide range on the basis of the highly varied ingredients in 27 experimental formulations. Among the 29 identified FAs, three from feeds were catabolized in the rabbits, five were de novo synthesized and stored chiefly in the muscle. It was possible to linearly characterize the incorporation from the feed to the muscle of 16 FAs. This study has confirmed that the dietary inclusion of various raw materials could be considered as a way of enriching the n-3 PUFA of rabbit meat. A proposal for the prediction of n-3 PUFA from dietary α-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3 and a panel of another 10 FAs has been made for intramuscular fat (R2 = 0.94 and perirenal fat (R2 = 0.96.

  14. Effects of Dietary Fatty Acids on Lipid Traits in the Muscle and Perirenal Fat of Growing Rabbits Fed Mixed Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiretti, Pier Giorgio

    2012-02-22

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of various raw materials (spirulina, curcuma, tomato pomace, false flax, linseed, chia, perilla seeds) as suitable polyunsaturated fatty acid n-3 (n-3 PUFA) sources, on the lipid traits in the longissimus dorsi muscle and perirenal fat of growing rabbits. The fatty acid (FA) analyses of the diets, carried out by gas chromatography, differed over a wide range on the basis of the highly varied ingredients in 27 experimental formulations. Among the 29 identified FAs, three from feeds were catabolized in the rabbits, five were de novo synthesized and stored chiefly in the muscle. It was possible to linearly characterize the incorporation from the feed to the muscle of 16 FAs. This study has confirmed that the dietary inclusion of various raw materials could be considered as a way of enriching the n-3 PUFA of rabbit meat. A proposal for the prediction of n-3 PUFA from dietary α-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3) and a panel of another 10 FAs has been made for intramuscular fat (R² = 0.94) and perirenal fat (R² = 0.96).

  15. Dietary Anthocyanins as Nutritional Therapy for Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Valenti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, defined by excessive lipid accumulation in the liver, is the hepatic manifestation of insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome. Due to the epidemics of obesity, NAFLD is rapidly becoming the leading cause of altered liver enzymes in Western countries. NAFLD encompasses a wide spectrum of liver disease ranging from simple uncomplicated steatosis, to steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Diet may affect the development of NAFLD either by increasing risk or by providing protective factors. Therefore, it is important to investigate the role of foods and/or food bioactives on the metabolic processes involved in steatohepatitis for preventive strategies. It has been reported that anthocyanins (ACNs decrease hepatic lipid accumulation and may counteract oxidative stress and hepatic inflammation, but their impact on NAFLD has yet to be fully determined. ACNs are water-soluble bioactive compounds of the polyphenol class present in many vegetable products. Here, we summarize the evidence evaluating the mechanisms of action of ACNs on hepatic lipid metabolism in different experimental setting: in vitro, in vivo, and in human trials. Finally, a working model depicting the possible mechanisms underpinning the beneficial effects of ACNs in NAFLD is proposed, based on the available literature.

  16. Impact of dietary fatty acids on muscle composition, liver lipids, milt composition and sperm performance in European eel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butts, Ian; Baeza, R.; Støttrup, Josianne

    2015-01-01

    of dietary regime on muscle composition, and liver lipids prior to induced maturation, and the resulting sperm composition and performance. To accomplish this fish were reared on three "enhanced" diets and one commercial diet, each with different levels of fatty acids, arachidonic acid (ARA......), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Neutral lipids from the muscle and liver incorporated the majority of the fatty acid profile, while phospholipids incorporated only certain fatty acids. Diet had an effect on the majority of sperm fatty acids, on the total volume of extractable milt...... induced medium milt volumes but had the highest sperm motility. EPA also seems important for sperm quality parameters since diets with higher EPA percentages had a higher volume of milt and higher sperm motility. In conclusion, dietary fatty acids had an influence on fatty acids in the tissues of male eel...

  17. Indices of fatty acid desaturase activity in healthy human subjects: effects of different types of dietary fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessby, Bengt; Gustafsson, Inga-Britt; Tengblad, Siv; Berglund, Lars

    2013-09-14

    Δ9-Desaturase (stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1, SCD-1) regulates the desaturation of SFA, mainly stearic and palmitic, to MUFA. Δ6-Desaturase (D6D) and Δ5-desaturase (D5D) are involved in the metabolism of linoleic and α-linolenic acid to polyunsaturated metabolites. The objective of the present study was to study the effects of different types of dietary fat on indices of fatty acid desaturase (FADS) activity (evaluated as product:precursor ratios) in plasma and skeletal muscle in human subjects. A high SCD-1 index has been related to obesity and metabolic disorders, while the D5D index is associated with insulin sensitivity. Fatty acid composition of serum and skeletal muscle lipids was analysed by GLC during a randomised, controlled, 3-month dietary intervention in healthy subjects. A comparison of the effects of a diet containing butter fat (SFA, n 17) with a diet containing monounsaturated fat (MUFA, n 17), keeping all other dietary components constant, showed a reduced SCD-1 activity index by 20% on the MUFA diet compared with the SFA diet assessed in serum cholesteryl esters. The D6D and D5D indices remained unaffected. Supplementation with long-chain n-3 fatty acids reduced the SCD-1 index by a similar magnitude while the D6D index decreased and the D5D index increased. It is concluded that changes in the type of fat in the diet affect the indices of FADS activity in serum and skeletal muscle in human subjects. The desaturase activity indices estimated from the serum lipid ester composition are significantly related to corresponding indices studied in skeletal muscle phospholipids.

  18. Food for thought: dietary changes in essential fatty acid ratios and the increase in autism spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elst, K. van; Bruining, H.; Birtoli, B.; Terreaux, C.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Kas, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    The last decades have shown a spectacular and partially unexplained rise in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This rise in ASD seems to parallel changes in the dietary composition of fatty acids. This change is marked by the replacement of cholesterol by omega-6 (n-6) fatty acids in

  19. Effects of Dietary Fatty Acids on Lipid Traits in the Muscle and Perirenal Fat of Growing Rabbits Fed Mixed Diets

    OpenAIRE

    Peiretti, Pier Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    Simple Summary Polyunsaturated fatty acids in human foods have been shown to have health benefits. We investigated the potential to incorporate them into rabbit meat by adding them to the diet. Good relationships between dietary fatty acids (FAs) and their content in longissimus dorsi muscle and perirenal fat of rabbits was established, especially the latter. The results should make it possible to enhance the polyunsaturated fatty acid content of rabbit meat, with benefits to the health of hu...

  20. Omega-3 fatty acids and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Evidence of efficacy and mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorletti, Eleonora; Byrne, Christopher D

    2018-03-22

    For many years it has been known that high doses of long chain omega-3 fatty acids are beneficial in the treatment of hypertriglyceridaemia. Over the last three decades, there has also been a wealth of in vitro and in vivo data that has accumulated to suggest that long chain omega-3 fatty acid treatment might be beneficial to decrease liver triacylglycerol. Several biological mechanisms have been identified that support this hypothesis; notably, it has been shown that long chain omega-3 fatty acids have a beneficial effect: a) on bioactive metabolites involved in inflammatory pathways, and b) on alteration of nuclear transcription factor activities such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) and carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP), involved in inflammatory pathways and liver lipid metabolism. Since the pathogenesis of non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) begins with the accumulation of liver lipid and progresses with inflammation and then several years later with development of fibrosis; it has been thought in patients with NAFLD omega-3 fatty acid treatment would be beneficial in treating liver lipid and possibly also in ameliorating inflammation. Meta-analyses (of predominantly dietary studies and small trials) have tended to support the assertion that omega-3 fatty acids are beneficial in decreasing liver lipid, but recent randomised controlled trials have produced conflicting data. These trials have suggested that omega-3 fatty acid might be beneficial in decreasing liver triglyceride (docosahexanoic acid also possibly being more effective than eicosapentanoic acid) but not in decreasing other features of steatohepatitis (or liver fibrosis). The purpose of this review is to discuss recent evidence regarding biological mechanisms by which long chain omega-3 fatty acids might act to ameliorate liver disease in NAFLD; to consider the recent evidence from randomised

  1. Wing (Ib) cells in frog taste discs detect dietary unsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Yukio; Miyazaki, Toshihiro; Fujiyama, Rie; Toda, Kazuo

    2013-11-01

    The effects of unsaturated fatty acids on membrane properties were studied using conventional whole-cell patch-clamp recording of isolated wing (Ib) cells in bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus) taste discs. Applying arachidonic acid to the bath induced monophasic inward currents in 60% of wing cells and biphasic inward and outward currents in the other cells. The intracellular dialysis of arachidonic acid did not induce an inward current; however, it enhanced a slowly developing Ba(2+)-sensitive outward current. The effects of various unsaturated fatty acids were explored under the condition of Cs(+) internal solution. Linoleic and α-linolenic acids induced large inward currents. Oleic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids elicited the same inward currents as those of arachidonic acid. Wing cells, under the basal condition with Cs(+) internal solution, displayed a small inward current of -1.1±0.1pA/pF at -50mV (n=40), in which the peak existed at a membrane potential of -49mV. Removing external Ca(2+) further increased the inward current by -2.9±0.3pA/pF at -50mV (n=4) from the basal current and the peak was located at -55mV. External linoleic acid (50μM) also induced a similar inward current of -5.6±0.6pA/pF at -50mV (n=19) from the basal current and the peak was located at -61mV. External Ca(2+)-free saline and linoleic acid induced similar current/voltage (I/V) relationships elicited by a ramp voltage as well as voltage steps. Linoleic acid-induced currents were not influenced by replacing internal EGTA with BAPTA, whereas inward currents disappeared under the elimination of external Na(+) and addition of flufenamic acid. These results suggest that dietary unsaturated fatty acids may depolarize wing (Ib) cells, which affects the excitability of these cells. © 2013.

  2. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation and cognitive function: are smaller dosages more beneficial?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakari AR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Abdul-Razak Abubakari,1 Mohammad-Mahdi Naderali,2 Ebrahim K Naderali3 1School of Health and Life Sciences, Glasgow Caledonian University, London, UK; 2Blue Coat School, Liverpool, UK; 3School of Health Sciences, Liverpool Hope University, Hope Park Campus, Liverpool, UK Abstract: As longevity increases, so does the global prevalence of cognitive dysfunction. Numerous lifestyle and/or dietary interventions such as omega-3 fatty acids have been suggested to improve memory. Therefore, this study examined the consistency and strength of the impact of supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids on overall cognitive function using systematic reviews and meta-analytic methods. Of 905 studies retrieved from all searches, 12 randomized controlled trials were included in the meta-analysis. There were differences between studies reporting outcomes for single memory function parameters. Subgroup analysis of doses used (low versus high indicated that subjects receiving low (<1.73 g/day doses of omega-3 fatty acids had a significant reduction in cognitive decline rate (-0.07, 95% confidence interval -0.01, -0.02 but there was no evidence for beneficial effects at higher doses (+0.04, 95% confidence interval -0.06, +0.14 compared with the placebo group. This study suggests that omega-3 fatty acids may be beneficial in preventing memory decline at lower doses. Keywords: cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease, dietary fatty acids, omega-3, docosahexaenoic acid

  3. Microalgal biofactories: a promising approach towards sustainable omega-3 fatty acid production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adarme-Vega T

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA provide significant health benefits and this has led to an increased consumption as dietary supplements. Omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA are found in animals, transgenic plants, fungi and many microorganisms but are typically extracted from fatty fish, putting additional pressures on global fish stocks. As primary producers, many marine microalgae are rich in EPA (C20:5 and DHA (C22:6 and present a promising source of omega-3 fatty acids. Several heterotrophic microalgae have been used as biofactories for omega-3 fatty acids commercially, but a strong interest in autotrophic microalgae has emerged in recent years as microalgae are being developed as biofuel crops. This paper provides an overview of microalgal biotechnology and production platforms for the development of omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA. It refers to implications in current biotechnological uses of microalgae as aquaculture feed and future biofuel crops and explores potential applications of metabolic engineering and selective breeding to accumulate large amounts of omega-3 fatty acids in autotrophic microalgae.

  4. Comparative effects of dietary sea urchin shell powder and feed additives on meat quality and fatty acid profiles of broiler breast meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Churl Kim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was a small pen trial in which we investigated comparative effects of dietary sea urchin shell powder and feed additives on meat quality and fatty acid profiles of broiler breast meat. A total of 108 male broilers were assigned to 3 groups (control, 1% sea urchin shell powder, and 1% feed additives with 3 replicates of 12 chicks per pen in a completely randomized design for 28 days. The following parameters have been investigated: proximate composition (DM, CP, EE, and ash, physicochemical properties (pH, TBARS, cooking loss and DPPH radical scavenging, meat color and fatty acid profiles. No remarkable effects between treatment and storage day were observed for proximate composition, physicochemical properties, meat color and fatty acid profiles. In conclusion, diets with 1% sea urchin shell powder have the ability to increase DPPH radical scavenging and unsaturated fatty acid, indicating an opportunity for partial diet substitution in comparison with 1% feed additives.

  5. Omega-3 fatty acids, membrane remodeling and cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Natividad R; Kim, Eunjoo; Fan, Yang-Yi; Chapkin, Robert S

    2018-04-12

    Proteins are often credited as the macromolecule responsible for performing critical cellular functions, however lipids have recently garnered more attention as our understanding of their role in cell function and human health becomes more apparent. Although cellular membranes are the lipid environment in which many proteins function, it is now apparent that protein and lipid assemblies can be organized to form distinct micro- or nanodomains that facilitate signaling events. Indeed, it is now appreciated that cellular function is partly regulated by the specific spatiotemporal lipid composition of the membrane, down to the nanosecond and nanometer scale. Furthermore, membrane composition is altered during human disease processes such as cancer and obesity. For example, an increased rate of lipid/cholesterol synthesis in cancerous tissues has long been recognized as an important aspect of the rewired metabolism of transformed cells. However, the contribution of lipids/cholesterol to cellular function in disease models is not yet fully understood. Furthermore, an important consideration in regard to human health is that diet is a major modulator of cell membrane composition. This can occur directly through incorporation of membrane substrates, such as fatty acids, e.g., n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) and cholesterol. In this review, we describe scenarios in which changes in membrane composition impact human health. Particular focus is placed on the importance of intrinsic lipid/cholesterol biosynthesis and metabolism and extrinsic dietary modification in cancer and its effect on plasma membrane properties. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Omega-3 fatty acids as adjunctive therapy in Crohns disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Angie

    2006-01-01

    Crohns disease is an inflammatory bowel disease that can have a significant impact on the health of those afflicted. The etiology of the disease is unknown, but genetic, environmental, dietary, and immunological factors are thought to be involved. Multiple nutrients can become depleted during active disease due to inadequate intake or malabsorption. Preventing these deficiencies is paramount in the care of those suffering from Crohns disease. Often the traditional treatments (medications) have limited effectiveness and negative side effects that inhibit their use. Enteral nutrition has promising therapeutic benefits, but its use is often limited to the pediatric population due to poor patient acceptability. Omega-3 fatty acids have been investigated for their anti-inflammatory properties as an alternative to traditional care. This article reviews the etiology of Crohns disease, nutritional deficiencies, traditional treatments, and the use of omega-3 fatty acids in the prevention of Crohns recurrence. The results from clinical trials have been conflicting, but a new fish oil preparation that limits the side effects of traditional fish oil therapy shows promise as an adjunctive treatment for Crohns disease. Continued research is needed to validate these findings.

  7. Marine lipids and the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Müllertz, Anette

    2015-01-01

    Marine lipids are enriched with omega-3 fatty acids, especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Omega-3 fatty acids are important membrane lipids and have many recognized health benefits, the bioavailability of these fatty acids can therefore be important for achieving...... of omega-3 fatty acids has been reported to be affected by several factors; among the important factors were the digestion and absorption processes of omega-3 containing lipids in the gastrointestinal tract. Both lipid structures and food structures can affect the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids....... Human studies have shown that the relative bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil (triglyceride formulation) was similar to that from fish, whereas lower relative bioavailability was observed from fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) formulation in comparison with other lipid formulations...

  8. Influence of omega-3 fatty acid status on the way rats adapt to chronic restraint stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Hennebelle

    Full Text Available Omega-3 fatty acids are important for several neuronal and cognitive functions. Altered omega-3 fatty acid status has been implicated in reduced resistance to stress and mood disorders. We therefore evaluated the effects of repeated restraint stress (6 h/day for 21 days on adult rats fed omega-3 deficient, control or omega-3 enriched diets from conception. We measured body weight, plasma corticosterone and hippocampus glucocorticoid receptors and correlated these data with emotional and depression-like behaviour assessed by their open-field (OF activity, anxiety in the elevated-plus maze (EPM, the sucrose preference test and the startle response. We also determined their plasma and brain membrane lipid profiles by gas chromatography. Repeated restraint stress caused rats fed a control diet to lose weight. Their plasma corticosterone increased and they showed moderate behavioural changes, with increases only in grooming (OF test and entries into the open arms (EPM. Rats fed the omega-3 enriched diet had a lower stress-induced weight loss and plasma corticosterone peak, and reduced grooming. Rats chronically lacking omega-3 fatty acid exhibited an increased startle response, a stress-induced decrease in locomotor activity and exaggerated grooming. The brain omega-3 fatty acids increased as the dietary omega-3 fatty acids increased; diets containing preformed long-chain omega-3 fatty acid were better than diets containing the precursor alpha-linolenic acid. However, the restraint stress reduced the amounts of omega-3 incorporated. These data showed that the response to chronic restraint stress was modulated by the omega-3 fatty acid supply, a dietary deficiency was deleterious while enrichment protecting against stress.

  9. Reprint of: Marine OMEGA-3 fatty acids in the prevention of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Trevor A

    2018-04-12

    Omega-6 (ω6) and omega-33) fatty acids are two classes of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from linoleic acid (18:2ω6) and α-linolenic acid (18:3ω3), respectively. Enzymatic metabolism of linoleic and α-linolenic acids generates arachidonic acid (20:4ω6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5ω3; EPA), respectively, both of which are substrates for enzymes that yield eicosanoids with multiple and varying physiological functions. Further elongation and desaturation of EPA yields the 22-carbon fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (22:6ω3; DHA). The main dietary source of EPA and DHA for human consumption is fish, especially oily fish. There is considerable evidence that EPA and DHA are protective against cardiovascular disease (heart disease and stroke), particularly in individuals with pre-existing disease. ω3 Fatty acids benefit multiple risk factors including blood pressure, blood vessel function, heart function and blood lipids, and they have antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative actions. ω3 Fatty acids do not adversely interact with medications. Supplementation with ω3 fatty acids is recommended in individuals with elevated blood triglyceride levels and patients with coronary heart disease. A practical recommendation for the general population is to increase ω3 fatty acid intake by incorporating fish as part of a healthy diet that includes increased fruits and vegetables, and moderation of salt intake. Health authorities recommend the general population should consume at least two oily fish meals per week. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Marine OMEGA-3 fatty acids in the prevention of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Trevor A

    2017-11-01

    Omega-6 (ω6) and omega-33) fatty acids are two classes of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from linoleic acid (18:2ω6) and α-linolenic acid (18:3ω3), respectively. Enzymatic metabolism of linoleic and α-linolenic acids generates arachidonic acid (20:4ω6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5ω3; EPA), respectively, both of which are substrates for enzymes that yield eicosanoids with multiple and varying physiological functions. Further elongation and desaturation of EPA yields the 22-carbon fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (22:6ω3; DHA). The main dietary source of EPA and DHA for human consumption is fish, especially oily fish. There is considerable evidence that EPA and DHA are protective against cardiovascular disease (heart disease and stroke), particularly in individuals with pre-existing disease. ω3 Fatty acids benefit multiple risk factors including blood pressure, blood vessel function, heart function and blood lipids, and they have antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative actions. ω3 Fatty acids do not adversely interact with medications. Supplementation with ω3 fatty acids is recommended in individuals with elevated blood triglyceride levels and patients with coronary heart disease. A practical recommendation for the general population is to increase ω3 fatty acid intake by incorporating fish as part of a healthy diet that includes increased fruits and vegetables, and moderation of salt intake. Health authorities recommend the general population should consume at least two oily fish meals per week. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Omega-3 fatty acids: potential role in the management of early Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory A Jicha

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Gregory A Jicha, William R MarkesberyUniversity of Kentucky Alzheimer’s Disease Center and the Sanders-Brown Center on Aging University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY, USAbstract: Omega-3 fatty acids are essential for brain growth and development. They play an important role throughout life, as critical modulators of neuronal function and regulation of oxidative stress mechanisms, in brain health and disease. Docosahexanoic acid (DHA, the major omega-3 fatty acid found in neurons, has taken on a central role as a target for therapeutic intervention in Alzheimer’s disease (AD. A plethora of in vitro, animal model, and human data, gathered over the past decade, highlight the important role DHA may play in the development of a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders, including AD. Cross sectional and prospective cohort data have demonstrated that reduced dietary intake or low brain levels of DHA are associated with accelerated cognitive decline or the development of incipient dementia, including AD. Several clinical trials investigating the effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in AD have been completed and all failed to demonstrate its efficacy in the treatment of AD. However, these trials produced intriguing data suggesting that the beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation may depend on the stage of disease, other dietary mediators, and apolipoprotein E status.Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, omega-3 fatty acids, oxidative stress, clinical studies, treatment

  12. Dietary supplementation of calcium may counteract obesity in mice mediated by changes in plasma fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laraichi, Sarah; Parra, Pilar; Zamanillo, Rocío; El Amarti, Ahmed; Palou, Andreu; Serra, Francisca

    2013-08-01

    The scope of this study was to assess the impact of calcium and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation on plasma fatty acid profiles and to evaluate potential synergistic effects of both compounds against dietary obesity. Mice separated into five experimental groups were followed: control (C), high-fat diet (HF), HF with calcium (Ca), HF plus CLA and HF with both Ca and CLA. Plasma metabolites and fatty acids were determined by commercial kits and gas chromatography, respectively. Both dietary calcium and CLA supplementation contributed to lower body fat gain under a HF diet. Maximum efficacy was seen with calcium; no additional effect was associated with the combined treatment with CLA. Plasma leptin, adiponectin and HOMA index were in accordance with an altered glucose/insulin homeostasis in the HF and HF + CLA groups, whereas control levels were attained under Ca-enriched diets. Plasma fatty acids showed minor changes associated to CLA treatment, but a high impact on PUFA was observed under Ca-enriched diets. Our results show that the mechanism underlying the anti-obesity effects of calcium supplementation is mediated mainly by changes in PUFA plasma profile. In addition, the lack of synergy on body weight reduction in combination with associated lipid profiles of calcium and CLA suggests that calcium may interfere with absorption and/or bioactivity of CLA, which can be of relevance when using CLA-fortified dairy products against human obesity.

  13. Marked variability in hepatic expression of cytochromes CYP7A1 and CYP27A1 as compared to cerebral CYP46A1. Lessons from a dietary study with omega 3 fatty acids in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mast, Natalia; Shafaati, Marjan; Zaman, Wahiduz; Zheng, Wenchao; Prusak, Deborah; Wood, Thomas; Ansari, G A S; Lövgren-Sandblom, Anita; Olin, Maria; Bjorkhem, Ingemar; Pikuleva, Irina

    2010-06-01

    Two diets simulating the recommendations of the American Heart Association to increase the intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) were tested on Golden Syrian hamsters and compared to the diet simulating the current estimated consumption of fat in the United States. N-3 PUFAs were evaluated for their effects on serum and brain lipids and on the three cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs 7A1, 27A1, and 46A1) that play key roles in cholesterol elimination from different organs. Hamsters on the highest concentration of n-3 PUFAs had a statistically significant decrease in LDL and HDL cholesterol and no change in serum total cholesterol and triglycerides levels. CYP27A1 and CYP46A1 mRNA levels were increased in the liver and brain, respectively, whereas possible effects on CYP7A1 were obscured by a marked intergroup variability at mRNA, protein, and sterol product levels. Increased levels of CYP46A1 mRNA in the brain did not lead to significant changes in the levels of lathosterol, 24S-hydroxycholesterol or cholesterol in this organ. The data obtained are discussed in relation to inconsistent effects of n-3 PUFAs on serum lipids in human trials and reported positive effects of fish oil on cognitive function. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Dietary Fatty Acids Alter Lipid Profiles and Induce Myocardial Dysfunction without Causing Metabolic Disorders in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bainian; Huang, Yifan; Zheng, Dong; Ni, Rui; Bernards, Mark A

    2018-01-19

    Oversupply of bulk saturated fatty acids (SFA) induces metabolic disorders and myocardial dysfunction. We investigated whether, without causing metabolic disorders, the uptake of individual dietary SFA species alters lipid profiles and induces myocardial dysfunction. C57BL/6 mice were fed various customized long-chain SFA diets (40% caloric intake from SFA), including a beef tallow (HBD), cocoa butter (HCD), milk fat (HMD) and palm oil diet (HPD), for 6 months. An isocaloric fat diet, containing medium-chain triglycerides, served as a control (CHD). Long-term intake of dietary long-chain SFA differentially affected the fatty acid composition in cardiac phospholipids. All long-chain SFA diets increased the levels of arachidonic acid and total SFA in cardiac phospholipids. The preferential incorporation of individual SFA into the cardiac phospholipid fraction was dependent on the dietary SFA species. Cardiac ceramide content was elevated in all mice fed long-chain SFA diets, while cardiac hypertrophy was only presented in mice fed HMD or HPD. We have demonstrated that the intake of long-chain SFA species differentially alters cardiac lipid profiles and induces cardiac dysfunction, without causing remarkable metabolic disorders.

  15. Effect of dietary polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio and dietary vitamin E on lipid peroxidation in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, K W

    1985-11-01

    The effects of the dietary ratio of polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acids (P/S) and dietary vitamin E on lipid peroxidation (LP) were examined to determine whether the vitamin E requirement is elevated by increased P/S in ratios comparable to those found in human diets. Twelve groups of male weanling rats (six/group) were fed purified diets containing 20% fat with P/S ratios of 0.38, 0.82 or 2.30. At each P/S level, groups of rats received either 0, 10, 40 or 100 IU vitamin E/kg diet supplied as all-rac-alpha-tocopherol. After the diets were fed for 16 wk, in vivo LP was assessed by measuring pentane in expired breath. Pentane levels were significantly elevated in rats fed 0 IU vitamin E at all P/S levels. Both 40 and 100 IU vitamin E decreased pentane production to minimal levels for all P/S groups. Liver malondialdehyde levels and in vitro spontaneous red blood cell hemolysis results also indicated a significant effect of vitamin E in reducing in vitro LP, but no overall effect of P/S. Testicular and epididymal histology showed no effect of dietary P/S on the vitamin E requirement. These data demonstrated 40 IU vitamin E to be adequate for maximal inhibition of LP at the P/S levels tested and indicated that these levels of dietary P/S had no significant impact on the vitamin E requirement for the growing rat.

  16. Composition of amino acids, fatty acids and dietary fibre monomers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 17, No 3 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  17. [IMPACT OF DIETARY FATTY ACIDS ON LIPID PROFILE, INSULIN SENSITIVITY AND FUNCTIONALITY OF PANCREATIC β CELLS IN TYPE 2 DIABETIC SUBJECTS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambra Vásquez, Verónica; Rojas Moncada, Pamela; Basfi-Fer, Karen; Valencia, Alejandra; Codoceo, Juana; Inostroza, Jorge; Carrasco, Fernando; Ruz Ortiz, Manuel

    2015-09-01

    the quality of fats could influence the metabolic control of patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM2). to determine the relationship between intake and quality of dietary fatty acids to lipid profile, metabolic control, functionality of pancreatic cells and insulin sensivity in subjects with DM2. we studied 54 subjects with DM2, anthropometric measurements were performed, body composition and dietary lipid intake, saturated fatty acids (SFA), trans, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, omega 3, omega 6 and dietary cholesterol. Laboratory parameters related to their metabolic control were determined (fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, and lipid profile). The insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity was determined with the insulin-modified intravenous glucose tolerance test according to the Bergman's minimal model. 28 men and 26 women were studied (BMI of 29.5 ± 3.7 kg/m2; age 55.6 ± 6.8 y.), 48% had LDL-C 40 mg/dL and 7.4% of women c-HDL > 50 mg/dL. 32% consumed > 10% of AGS and > 300 mg/day of dietary cholesterol. The SFA intake and percentage of calories from fat (G%) were significantly associated with insulin resistance and fasting plasma glucose concentration. The G% predicted 84% variability on c-VLDL. in patients with DM2 a greater intake of fat and saturated fatty acids it associated with greater fasting glycemia and insulin resistance. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  18. Dietary Silicon Deficiency Does Not Exacerbate Diet-Induced Fatty Lesions in Female ApoE Knockout Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jugdaohsingh, Ravin; Kessler, Katharina; Messner, Barbara; Stoiber, Martin; Pedro, Liliana D; Schima, Heinrich; Laufer, Günther; Powell, Jonathan J; Bernhard, David

    2015-07-01

    Dietary silicon has been positively linked with vascular health and protection against atherosclerotic plaque formation, but the mechanism of action is unclear. We investigated the effect of dietary silicon on 1) serum and aorta silicon concentrations, 2) the development of aortic lesions and serum lipid concentrations, and 3) the structural and biomechanic properties of the aorta. Two studies, of the same design, were conducted to address the above objectives. Female mice, lacking the apolipoprotein E (apoE) gene, and therefore susceptible to atherosclerosis, were separated into 3 groups of 10-15 mice, each exposed to a high-fat diet (21% wt milk fat and 1.5% wt cholesterol) but with differing concentrations of dietary silicon, namely: silicon-deprived (-Si; silicon/g feed), silicon-replete in feed (+Si-feed; 100-μg silicon/g feed), and silicon-replete in drinking water (+Si-water; 115-μg silicon/mL) for 15-19 wk. Silicon supplementation was in the form of sodium metasilicate (feed) or monomethylsilanetriol (drinking water). The serum silicon concentration in the -Si group was significantly lower than in the +Si-feed (by up to 78%; P silicon concentration was also lower in the -Si group than in the +Si-feed group (by 65%; P = 0.025), but not compared with the +Si-water group. There were no differences in serum and aorta silicon concentrations between the silicon-replete groups. Body weights, tissue wet weights at necropsy, and structural, biomechanic, and morphologic properties of the aorta were not affected by dietary silicon; nor were the development of fatty lesions and serum lipid concentrations. These findings suggest that dietary silicon has no effect on atherosclerosis development and vascular health in the apoE mouse model of diet-induced atherosclerosis, contrary to the reported findings in the cholesterol-fed rabbit model.

  19. An Investigation into the Association between DNA Damage and Dietary Fatty Acid in Men with Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen S. Bishop

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is a growing problem in New Zealand and worldwide, as populations adopt a Western style dietary pattern. In particular, dietary fat is believed to be associated with oxidative stress, which in turn may be associated with cancer risk and development. In addition, DNA damage is associated with the risk of various cancers, and is regarded as an ideal biomarker for the assessment of the influence of foods on cancer. In the study presented here, 20 men with prostate cancer adhered to a modified Mediterranean style diet for three months. Dietary records, blood fatty acid levels, prostate specific antigen, C-reactive protein and DNA damage were assessed pre- and post-intervention. DNA damage was inversely correlated with dietary adherence (p = 0.013 and whole blood monounsaturated fatty acids (p = 0.009 and oleic acid (p = 0.020. DNA damage was positively correlated with the intake of dairy products (p = 0.043, red meat (p = 0.007 and whole blood omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (p = 0.015. Both the source and type of dietary fat changed significantly over the course of the dietary intervention. Levels of DNA damage were correlated with various dietary fat sources and types of dietary fat.

  20. Dietary intake in population-based adolescents: support for a relationship between eating disorder symptoms, low fatty acid intake and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, K L; Mori, T A; Beilin, L; Byrne, S M; Hickling, S; Oddy, W H

    2013-10-01

    Relatively little is known about the dietary intake and nutritional status of community-based individuals with eating disorders. This research aimed to: (i) describe the dietary intake of population-based adolescents with an eating disorder and (ii) examine associations between eating disorder symptoms, fatty acid intake and depressive symptoms in adolescents with and without an eating disorder. Data were drawn from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, a population-based cohort study that has followed participants from birth to young adulthood. This research utilised self-report data from the 17-year Raine Study assessment. Participants comprised 429 female adolescents who completed comprehensive questionnaire measures on dietary intake, eating disorder symptoms and depressive symptoms. Adolescents with an eating disorder (n = 66) reported a significantly lower intake of total fat, saturated fat, omega-6 fatty acid, starch, vitamin A and vitamin E compared to adolescents without an eating disorder (n = 363). Adolescents with an eating disorder and pronounced depressive symptoms (n = 23) also reported a significantly lower intake of polyunsaturated fat and omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid than adolescents with an eating disorder but no marked depression (n = 43). In the eating disorder sample but not the control sample, omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid correlated significantly and negatively with eating disorder symptoms and with depressive symptoms. Support is provided for a relationship between low omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid intake and depressive symptoms in adolescents with eating disorders. Research is needed to examine the feasibility and effectiveness of fatty acid supplementation in this high-risk group. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2012 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  1. Omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Victoria, Emilio; Yago, María Dolores

    2012-06-01

    In animal studies, n-3 PUFA have been shown to influence body composition and to reduce the accumulation of body fat, thereby affecting body weight homeostasis. In addition, it has been suggested that an additional supply of n-3 PUFA during pregnancy or lactation, or both, would have a beneficial effect on birth weight and infant growth and development. The purpose of the present study was to systematically review interventional clinical trials on the effects of dietary n-3 PUFA supplementation on body weight in adult subjects and in infants whose mothers were supplemented with these fatty acids during pregnancy and/or lactation. A systematic search, focused on n-3 PUFA and body weight, and limited to controlled clinical trials, was performed in different databases. The quality of all included studies was assessed against set criteria, and results of eligible trials were compared. There were few studies targeting this topic. In adults, all of the five studies included, except for one, show no change in body weight by dietary supplementation with n-3 PUFA. Within those trials conducted in pregnant and/or lactating women in which a main outcome was birth weight or growth in infancy, two showed a modest increase in birth weight and the rest showed no effect. None of the trials showed an effect of maternal n-3 PUFA supplementation on infant's weight at the short term. However, it should be noted that a number of limitations, including a variety of experimental designs, type and doses of n-3 PUFA, and high attrition rates, among others, make impossible to draw robust conclusions from this review.

  2. Effects of dietary pantothenic acid on growth, intestinal function, anti-oxidative status and fatty acids synthesis of juvenile blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Qian

    Full Text Available Four groups of juvenile Megalobrama amblycephala were fed three times daily with six semi-purified diets containing 3.39 (PA unsupplied diet, 10.54, 19.28, 31.04, 48.38 and 59.72 mg kg(-1 calcium D-pantothenate. The results showed that survival rate, final weight, specific growth rate, protein efficiency ratio and nitrogen retention efficiency all increased significantly (P<0.01 as dietary PA levels increased from 3.39 to 19.28 mg kg(-1, whereas the opposite was true for feed conversion ratio. Whole-body crude protein increased as dietary PA levels increased, while the opposite pattern was found for the crude lipid content. Intestinal α-amylase, lipase, protease, Na+-K+-ATPase, alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transferase activities were all elevated in fish fed PA-supplemented diets. Hepatic catalase activities improved with increases in dietary PA, while the opposite was true for malondialdehyde contents. The liver PA concentration and coenzyme A content rose significantly (P<0.01, up to 31.04 mg kg(-1, with increasing dietary PA levels and then plateaued. The percentage of hepatic saturated fatty acids increased significantly (P<0.01 as dietary PA levels increased, while the percentages of monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA decreased as dietary PA increased. Fish fed diets containing 19.28 and 31.04 mg kg(-1 PA exhibited higher (P<0.01 docosahexaenoic acid and PUFA percentages in muscle than those fed with other diets. The expression of the gene encoding pantothenate kinase was significantly up-regulated (P<0.01 in fish fed PA-supplemented diets. Hepatic Acetyl-CoA carboxylase α, fatty acid synthetase, stearoyl regulatory element-binding protein 1 and X receptor α genes all increased significantly (P<0.01 as dietary PA levels increased from 3.39 to 31.04 mg kg(-1. Based on broken-line regression analyses of weight gain, liver CoA concentrations and PA contents against dietary PA levels, the optimal

  3. Comparison of Fatty Acid Composition in Selected Dietary Supplements Containing Conjugated Linoleic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derewiaka, Dorota; Nestorowicz, Klara; Wołosiak, Rafał

    2017-07-04

    The market of pharmaceutical products is offering a wide range of supplements. Most of the consumers believe that these products will improve their state of health, but are they getting what they want and what they are paying for? The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality of selected dietary supplements containing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). All supplements were available in the Warsaw markets and bought from pharmacies. Assessment of the quality of food supplements was achieved by analysis of fatty acid using gas chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometer. On the basis of the investigations carried out, it was found that content of CLA in selected dietary supplements ranged between 282 and 528 mg by weight of a single capsule. The content of bioactive ingredients found in three of the four product supplements assessed was lower than was claimed by the manufacturer.

  4. Role of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Exercise in Breast Cancer Prevention: Identifying Common Targets

    OpenAIRE

    Salma A. Abdelmagid; Jessica L. MacKinnon; Sarah M. Janssen; David W.L. Ma

    2016-01-01

    Diet and exercise are recognized as important lifestyle factors that significantly influence breast cancer risk. In particular, dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been shown to play an important role in breast cancer prevention. Growing evidence also demonstrates a role for exercise in cancer and chronic disease prevention. However, the potential synergistic effect of n-3 PUFA intake and exercise is yet to be determined. This review explores targets for breast cancer prevent...

  5. Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of Diets with Improved Omega-3 Fatty Acid Profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, Carla R. V.; Pernollet, Franck; van der Werf, Hayo M. G.

    2016-01-01

    A high incidence of cardiovascular disease is observed worldwide, and dietary habits are one of the risk factors for these diseases. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the diet help to prevent cardiovascular disease. We used life cycle assessment to analyse the potential of two strategies to improve the nutritional and environmental characteristics of French diets: 1) modifying diets by changing the quantities and proportions of foods and 2) increasing the omega-3 contents in diets by rep...

  6. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and brain aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, Isabelle; Potier, Brigitte; Heberden, Christine; Vancassel, Sylvie

    2015-03-01

    The literature on the influence of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (ω-3 PUFA) on brain aging has grown exponentially during the last decade. Many avenues have been explored but no global picture or clear evidence has emerged. Experimental studies have shown that ω-3 PUFA is involved in many neurobiological processes that are involved in neurotransmission and neuroprotection, indicating that these PUFAs may prevent age-related brain damage. Human studies have revealed only a weak link between ω-3 PUFA status and cognitive aging, whereas interventional studies have yet to confirm it. The purpose of this review is to analyze the developments in the area during the last 2 years. Human brain MRI studies have confirmed previous findings that ω-3 PUFA can protect the brain during aging; two intervention studies obtained clear evidence. We also analyzed the experimental data clarifying the involvement of ω-3 PUFA in neurotransmission, neuroprotection (including prevention of peroxidation, inflammation, and excitotoxicity), and neurogenesis, thereby helping the brain cope with aging. These recent human and experimental studies provide support for and clarification of how ω-3 PUFA protect against brain aging and highlight the main lines for future research.

  7. Effects of dietary inulin on bacterial growth, short-chain fatty acid production and hepatic lipid metabolism in gnotobiotic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitkunat, Karolin; Schumann, Sara; Petzke, Klaus Jürgen; Blaut, Michael; Loh, Gunnar; Klaus, Susanne

    2015-09-01

    In literature, contradictory effects of dietary fibers and their fermentation products, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), are described: On one hand, they increase satiety, but on the other hand, they provide additional energy and promote obesity development. We aimed to answer this paradox by investigating the effects of fermentable and non-fermentable fibers on obesity induced by high-fat diet in gnotobiotic C3H/HeOuJ mice colonized with a simplified human microbiota. Mice were fed a high-fat diet supplemented either with 10% cellulose (non-fermentable) or inulin (fermentable) for 6 weeks. Feeding the inulin diet resulted in an increased diet digestibility and reduced feces energy, compared to the cellulose diet with no differences in food intake, suggesting an increased intestinal energy extraction from inulin. However, we observed no increase in body fat/weight. The additional energy provided by the inulin diet led to an increased bacterial proliferation in this group. Supplementation of inulin resulted further in significantly elevated concentrations of total SCFA in cecum and portal vein plasma, with a reduced cecal acetate:propionate ratio. Hepatic expression of genes involved in lipogenesis (Fasn, Gpam) and fatty acid elongation/desaturation (Scd1, Elovl3, Elovl6, Elovl5, Fads1 and Fads2) were decreased in inulin-fed animals. Accordingly, plasma and liver phospholipid composition were changed between the different feeding groups. Concentrations of omega-3 and odd-chain fatty acids were increased in inulin-fed mice, whereas omega-6 fatty acids were reduced. Taken together, these data indicate that, during this short-term feeding, inulin has mainly positive effects on the lipid metabolism, which could cause beneficial effects during obesity development in long-term studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Role of Dietary Sugars and De novo Lipogenesis in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bernadette Moore

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dietary sugar consumption, in particular sugar-sweetened beverages and the monosaccharide fructose, has been linked to the incidence and severity of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Intervention studies in both animals and humans have shown large doses of fructose to be particularly lipogenic. While fructose does stimulate de novo lipogenesis (DNL, stable isotope tracer studies in humans demonstrate quantitatively that the lipogenic effect of fructose is not mediated exclusively by its provision of excess substrates for DNL. The deleterious metabolic effects of high fructose loads appear to be a consequence of altered transcriptional regulatory networks impacting intracellular macronutrient metabolism and altering signaling and inflammatory processes. Uric acid generated by fructose metabolism may also contribute to or exacerbate these effects. Here we review data from human and animal intervention and stable isotope tracer studies relevant to the role of dietary sugars on NAFLD development and progression, in the context of typical sugar consumption patterns and dietary recommendations worldwide. We conclude that the use of hypercaloric, supra-physiological doses in intervention trials has been a major confounding factor and whether or not dietary sugars, including fructose, at typically consumed population levels, effect hepatic lipogenesis and NAFLD pathogenesis in humans independently of excess energy remains unresolved.

  9. Effects of dietary fat on the saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid metabolism in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Stanisława; Skiba, Grzegorz; Sobol, Monika; Pastuszewska, Barbara

    2017-08-01

    The effect of dietary fats differing in fatty acid (FA) composition on the metabolism of saturated FA (SFA) and monounsaturated FA (MUFA) in growing pigs was investigated. The deposition of FA in the body and the fate of individual dietary FA were assessed after slaughter. Gilts with an initial body weight (BW) of 60 kg were used as experimental animals. Six pigs were slaughtered at 60 kg BW, while further 18 pigs received three isoenergetic and isonitrogen experimental diets containing linseed oil, rapeseed oil or beef tallow at 50 g/kg diet until they reached 105 kg (six pigs per group). The chemical composition and the content of FA in the whole body were determined and compared across groups. Regardless of dietary treatment, the whole body contained similar amounts of protein, fat and total FA. The total accumulation (percentage of net intake and de novo production) of SFA and MUFA was similar in all groups, but the processes of elongation and desaturation of SFA and MUFA depended upon the type of FA added to the diet. A high dietary content and intake of MUFA inhibits desaturation compared to SFA- and PUFA-rich diets, whereas a high SFA content and intake lowers elongation rate. The increasing net intake of total SFA and MUFA was associated with a lower total de novo production of these FA in the whole body of pigs.

  10. Trans fatty acids in human milk are an indicator of different maternal dietary sources containing trans fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, A; Thijs, C; Rist, L; Simões-Wüst, A P; Huber, M; Steinhart, H

    2010-03-01

    The trans fatty acid (TFA) patterns in the fats of ruminant meat and dairy products differ from those found in other (processed) fats. We have evaluated different TFA isomers in human breast milk as an indicator of dietary intake of ruminant and dairy fats of different origins. Breast milk samples were collected 1 month postpartum from 310 mothers participating in the KOALA Birth Cohort Study (The Netherlands). The study participants had different lifestyles and consumed different amounts of dairy products. Fatty acid methyl esters were determined by GC-FID and the data were evaluated by principal component analysis (PCA), ANOVA/Post Hoc test and linear regression analysis. The two major principal components were (1) 18:1 trans-isomers and (2) markers of dairy fat including 15:0, 17:0, 11(trans)18:1 and 9(cis),11(trans)18:2 (CLA). Despite similar total TFA values, the 9(trans)18:1/11(trans)18:1-ratio and the 10(trans)18:1/11(trans)18:1-ratio were significantly lower in milk from mothers with high dairy fat intake (40-76 g/day: 0.91 +/- 0.48, P fat intake (0-10 g/day: 1.59 +/- 0.48), and lower with strict organic meat and dairy use (>90% organic: 0.92 +/- 0.46, P trans)18:1/11(trans)18:1-ratio. We conclude that both ratios are indicators of different intake of TFA from ruminant and dairy origin relative to other (including industrial) sources.

  11. Omega-3 fatty acids' supplementation in Alzheimer's disease: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canhada, Scheine; Castro, Kamila; Perry, Ingrid Schweigert; Luft, Vivian Cristine

    2017-05-03

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegeneration disorder characterized by progressive impairments of memory, language, reasoning, and other cognitive functions. Evidence suggests that omega-3 fatty acids may act as a possible protection factor in AD. To evaluate the results available in the literature involving omega-3 fatty acids supplementation and its effect on cognitive function in AD patients. A systematic review of MEDLINE (from PubMed), Excerpta Medica Database, and Cochrane Library databases was conducted according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Inclusion criteria consisted in original intervention studies, controlled by placebo, that assessed the impact of supplementation or dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids on cognitive function, in humans with AD, without limitation for prime date of publication. Initial search resulted in 361 articles. Seven studies fully met the inclusion criteria. Most studies did not find statistically significant results for the omega-3 fatty acids supplementation compared to placebo, and those who show some benefit do it only in a few cognitive assessment scales. However, the effects of omega-3 fatty acids appear to be most effectively demonstrated in patients with very mild AD. The effects of omega-3 fatty acids supplementation in mild AD corroborate epidemiological observational studies showing that omega-3 fatty acids may be beneficial in disease onset, when there is slight impairment of brain function. Although some studies have shown changes in scales of cognitive function in more severe cases, they are not enough to support omega-3 fatty acids supplementation in the treatment of AD.

  12. Cyclic fatty acid monomers from dietary heated fats affect rat liver enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamboni, C; Sébédio, J L; Perkins, E G

    1998-07-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary cyclic fatty acid monomers (CFAM), contained in heated fat from a commercial deep-fat frying operation, on rat liver enzyme activity. A partially hydrogenated soybean oil (PHSBO) used 7 d (7-DH) for frying foodstuffs, or 0.15% methylated CFAM diets was fed to male weanling rats in comparison to a control group fed a nonheated PHSBO (NH) diet in a 10-wk experiment. All diets were isocaloric with 15% fat. Animals fed either CFAM or 7-DH diets showed increased hepatic content of cytochrome (cyt.) b5 and P450 and increased activity of (E.C. 1.6.2.4) NADPH-cyt. P450 reductase in comparison to the control rats. In addition, the activities of (E.C. 2.3.1.21) carnitine palmitoyltransferase-I and (E.C. 1.1.1.42) isocitrate dehydrogenase were significantly decreased when compared to that of rats fed the NH diet. A significantly depressed activity of (E.C. 1.1.1.49) glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase was also observed for these animals compared to the control rats fed NH diet. Moreover, liver and microsomal proteins were significantly increased when CFAM or 7-DH diets were fed to animals in comparison to controls while liver glycogen was decreased significantly in experimental groups of rats. The results obtained in this study indicate that the CFAM in the diet from either synthetic sources or used fats increase the activity of liver enzyme systems that detoxify them.

  13. Intake of dietary saturated fatty acids and risk of type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Shengxin; Schouw, van der, Yvonne T.; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S.; Spijkerman, Annemieke M.W.; Sluijs, Ivonne

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The association between dietary saturated fatty acids (SFA) intake and type 2 diabetes (T2D) remains unclear. This study aimed at investigating the association between SFA intake and T2D risk based on (1) individual SFA (differing in carbon chain length), (2) food sources of SFA and (3) the substituting macronutrients. Methods: 37,421 participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands (EPIC-NL) cohort were included in this study. Baseline d...

  14. Dietary eicosapentaenoic acid normalizes hippocampal omega-3 and 6 polyunsaturated fatty acid profile, attenuates glial activation and regulates BDNF function in a rodent model of neuroinflammation induced by central interleukin-1β administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yilong; Xu, Min; Kalueff, Allan V; Song, Cai

    2017-05-18

    Interleukin (IL)-1β can activate glial cells to trigger neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Lower omega (n)-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and lower n-3/n-6 PUFA ratios occur in the brain of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have previously reported that an n-3 PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), can improve memory and attenuate neurodegeneration-like changes in animal models of AD. However, whether and how EPA modulates glial cell activity and functions remains unclear. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that EPA may attenuate neuroinflammation by inhibiting microglial activation and microglia-produced proinflammatory cytokines, and by enhancing the expression of astrocytes-produced neurotrophins and their receptors. Male Long-Evans rats were fed either palm oil supplemented diet or EPA supplemented diet for 42 days. On day 36 of diet feeding, rats received an intracerebroventricular injection of IL-1β or saline for 7 days. The glial activation, the expression of amyloid precursor protein (APP), calcium-dependent phospholipase (cPL) A2, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor, and PUFA profile in the hippocampus were analyzed. IL-1β elevated biomarkers of microglial CD11b and astrocyte GFAP expression, increased the expression of APP, tumor-necrosis factor (TNF)-α, but reduced BDNF and its receptor (TrKB). IL-1β also lowered n-3 EPA and docosapentaenoic acid concentrations but increased n-6 PUFAs and cPLA2 activity in the hippocampus. EPA supplement normalized the n-3 and n-6 PUFA profiles and cPLA2 levels, inhibited glial activation, reduced APP and TNF-α expression, as well as up-regulated BDNF and TrKB. Supplementation with EPA appear to have potential effects on improving glial over-activation, n3/n6 imbalance and BDNF down-regulation, which contribute to anti-inflammatory and may provide beneficial effects on inflammation-associated disease such as AD.

  15. Effect of Enriched Feed by n-3 fatty acids and 2% of n-6 fatty acid on Danio rerio Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.B.P Utomo

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to determine the optimum n-3 fatty acid level in the diet containing 2 % of n-6 fatty acid on the reproductive performance of zebra fish (Danio rerio. There experimental diets containing 0.0; 1.0; 1.5 % n-3 fatty acid with 2.0 % n-6 fatty acid was fed to the fish, three times daily, at satiation, for two months. In order to evaluate the gonadal development of the broodstock, two gonads og fish was used for histologis preparation in every 7 days. At the end of the second month, reproductive performance was evaluated through parameters of gonad somato indeks, fecundity, fertilization rate, hatching rate, yolk egg absorbtion rate, survival rate of 3 days old larvae. Sample of fish also was taken for proximate composition as the end of this experiment. Results shows that at the fifth weeks of this experiment, gonad of fish fed on 1.0 % of n-3 fatty acid and 2.0 % n-6 fatty acid already produce eggs with the some size, while others. Still produce small size of eggs. It was found also that the whole body of fish fed an diet with 1.0% n-3 fatty acid contain the highest protein level compare to two other diets. Based on the evaluation of reproduction performance parameters, it was concluded that the optimum dietary level of n-3 fatty acid with 2.0 % n-6 fatty acid for Danio rerio was 0.81 - 0.90 %. Keywords: essential fatty, acids, reproduction, zebra fish, Danio rerio   ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan kadar asam lemak n-3 optimum dalam pakan yang mempunyai kadar asam lemak n-6 tetap. Tiga macam pakan dengan kadar asam lemak n-3 berbeda yaitu 0.0; 1.0; dan 2.0 % diberikan pada ikan dengan bobot rata-rata 0.12 g. Pakan diberikan secara at satiation, 4 kali sehari selama 60 hari. Setiap 7 hari sekali diambil sampel ikan untuk pembentukan preparat histologi gonad dengan tujuan untuk mengevaluasi perkembangan gonad. Pada akhir penelitian, induk dipijahkan dan dievaluasi performan reproduksi berdasarkan

  16. Influence of dietary fatty acids on endocannabinoid and N-acylethanolamine levels in rat brain, liver and small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artmann, Andreas; Petersen, Gitte; Hellgren, Lars

    2008-01-01

    acid in brain, jejunum and liver. The OA-diet increased brain levels of anandamide and oleoylethanolamide (not 2-arachidonoylglycerol) without changing tissue fatty acid composition. The same diet increased oleoylethanolamide in liver. All five dietary fats decreased oleoylethanolamide in jejunum...... (AA)) on tissue levels of 2-arachidonoylglycerol, anandamide, oleoylethanolamide, palmitoylethanolamide, stearoylethanolamide, linoleoylethanolamide, eicosapentaenoylethanolamide, docosahexaenoylethanolamide and tissue fatty acid composition. The LA-diet increased linoleoylethanolamide and linoleic...... without changing levels of anandamide, suggesting that dietary fat may have an orexigenic effect. The AA-diet increased anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol in jejunum without effect on liver. The FO-diet decreased liver levels of all N-acylethanolamines (except eicosapentaenoylethanolamide...

  17. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Vitamin D in Cardiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Güttler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary modification and supplementation play an increasingly important role in the conservative treatment of cardiovascular disease. Current interest has focused on n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and vitamin D. Clinical trial results on this subject are contradictory in many aspects. Several studies indicate that n-3 PUFA consumption improves vascular and cardiac hemodynamics, triglycerides, and possibly endothelial function, autonomic control, inflammation, thrombosis, and arrhythmia. Experimental studies show effects on membrane structure and associated functions, ion channel properties, genetic regulation, and production of anti-inflammatory mediators. Clinical trials evaluating a possible reduction in cardiovascular disease by n-3 PUFA have shown different results. Supplementation of vitamin D is common regarding prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. But vitamin D also seems to have several effects on the cardiovascular system. Vitamin D deficiency appears to be related to an increase in parathyroid hormone levels and can predispose to essential hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy, increased insulin resistance, and eventually to atherosclerosis and adverse cardiovascular events. Randomized prospective clinical trials are needed to determine whether vitamin D and omega-3 FA supplementation therapy should be recommended as a routine therapy for primary or secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease.

  18. Effect of dietary fatty acids on metabolic rate and nonshivering thermogenesis in golden hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefimow, Małgorzata; Wojciechowski, Michał S

    2014-02-01

    Hibernating rodents prior to winter tend to select food rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Several studies found that such diet may positively affect their winter energy budget by enhancing torpor episodes. However, the effect of composition of dietary fatty acids (FA) on metabolism of normothermic heterotherms is poorly understood. Thus we tested whether diets different in FA composition affect metabolic rate (MR) and the capacity for nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) in normothermic golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Animals were housed in outdoor enclosures from May 2010 to April 2011 and fed a diet enriched with PUFA (i.e., standard food supplemented weekly with sunflower and flax seeds) or with saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids (SFA/MUFA, standard food supplemented with mealworms). Since diet rich in PUFA results in lower MR in hibernating animals, we predicted that PUFA-rich diet would have similar effect on MR of normothermic hamsters, that is, normothermic hamsters on the PUFA diet would have lower metabolic rate in cold and higher NST capacity than hamsters supplemented with SFA/MUFA. Indeed, in winter resting metabolic rate (RMR) below the lower critical temperature was higher and NST capacity was lower in SFA/MUFA-supplemented animals than in PUFA-supplemented ones. These results suggest that the increased capacity for NST in PUFA-supplemented hamsters enables them lower RMR below the lower critical temperature of the thermoneural zone. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Influence of selenomethionine and omega-3 fatty acid on serum mineral profile and nutrient utilization of broiler chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Kumar

    2015-02-01

    and differential leukocyte count. Dietary selenomethionine significantly (p<0.05 increased the platelet count. Hb concentration was significantly (p<0.05 higher in birds fed 0.5% omega-3 fatty acid whereas, 1% omega-3 fatty acid in the diet drastically increased (p<0.05 the platelet count. Conclusion: Supplementation of selenomethionine and omega-3 fatty acid improves the nutrient utilization and mineral retention, which subsequently enhance the bone mineralization. Supplementation also helps in combating the stress.

  20. Intake of marine fat, rich in (n-3)-polyunsaturated fatty acids, may increase birthweight by prolonging gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S.F.; Hansen, Harald S.; Sørensen, T.I.

    1986-01-01

    an important part in the timing of parturition in human beings. Dietary (n-3)-polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in high amounts influence endogenous prostaglandin metabolism. Owing to the large consumption of marine fat, the average intake of (n-3)-PUFA in the Faroes by far exceeds that in Denmark...

  1. Apolipoprotein A2 -265 T>C polymorphism interacts with dietary fatty acids intake to modulate inflammation in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keramat, Laleh; Sadrzadeh-Yeganeh, Haleh; Sotoudeh, Gity; Zamani, Elham; Eshraghian, Mohammadreza; Mansoori, Anahita; Koohdani, Fariba

    2017-05-01

    Several investigations have been conducted regarding the interaction between Apolipoprotein A2 (APOA2) -265 T>C polymorphism and dietary intake of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) on obesity in healthy individuals or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2 DM) patients. The aim of the present study is to examine the effect of this interaction on inflammatory markers in T2 DM patients. This is a comparative cross-sectional study on 180 T2 DM patients with known APOA2 genotype. Dietary intake was assessed by food-frequency questionnaire and serum levels of inflammatory markers (interleukin [IL]-18, pentraxin 3, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hs-CRP]) were measured. The subjects were dichotomized into "high" and "low" categories, based on the median dietary intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), and SFAs. The data were analyzed by analysis of covariance multivariate interaction model. In CC genotype, higher median intake of ω-3 PUFAs and MUFAs was associated with decreased serum levels of IL-18 and hs-CRP (P = 0.014 and 0.008, respectively). In T-allele carriers, higher median intake of SFAs was associated with increased serum hs-CRP level (P fatty acids, such as ω-3 PUFAs and MUFAs, could reduce the inflammatory effects associated with the CC genotype. In addition, proinflammatory fatty acids, such as SFAs, could overcome the antiinflammatory effect of the T-allele. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. n-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular events after myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, Daan; Giltay, Erik J.; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Kromhout, D.; Schouten, E. G.; Geleijnse, J. M.; de Goede, J.; Griep, L. M. Oude; Teitsma-Jansen, A. M.; Waterham, E.; Giltay, E. J.; Mulder, B. J. M.; Deckers, J. W.; Katan, M. B.; Zock, P. L.; de Boer, M. J.; de Leeuw, H.; Boersma, E.; Jukema, J. W.; van Binsbergen, J. J.; van der Kuip, D. A. M.; Thomas, K.; Rivero-Ayerza, M.; Vollaard, A. M.; Fieren, C. J.; van Kempen, L. H. J.; Bakx, A.; Sedney, M. I.; Hertzberger, D. P.; Michels, H. R.; de Rotte, A. A.; van Rugge, R. P.; Klootwijk, A.; Verheul, J. A.; Nicastia, D. M.; de Medina, R. Robles; van Rossem, M.; Leenders, C. M.; van der Meer, P.; Uppal, S. C.; Blok, J. G.; Visser, R. F.; Mosterd, A.; Umans, V. A. W. M.; Reichert, C. L. A.; Louwerenburg, J. W.; Liem, A. H.; van Rees, C.; Kirchhof, C. J. H. J.; Konst, L.; Drost, H.; van Liebergen, R. A. M.; Polak, P. E.; Plokker, H. W. M.; Schroeder-Tanka, J.; van Kesteren, H.; van den Berg, B. J.; Bronzwaer, P. N. A.; van Loenhout, T. T.; de Milliano, P.; Bloemberg, B. P. M.; Okma, L.; Jansen, E. H. J. M.; Grootaarts, W.; van Rumpt, D.; Hulshof, P. J. M.; van der Struijs-van de Putte, H. M.; Versloot, P.; Hovenier, R.; de Vries, J. H. M.; Siebelink, E.; Rosier, O. E.; Zevenbergen, J. L.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Results from prospective cohort studies and randomized, controlled trials have provided evidence of a protective effect of n-3 fatty acids against cardiovascular diseases. We examined the effect of the marine n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and

  3. Lipid profile and levels of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids especially omega-3 is projected to be way below the recommended intake in Kenya. Thus, there is need to find other sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). This study screened for the lipid profile and levels of omega-3 PUFAs in jackfruit and explored the variation in lipid ...

  4. Comparison between omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid intakes as assessed by a food frequency questionnaire and erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition in young children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Heather D.; Szabo, Nancy J.; Clare-Salzler, Michael; Norris, Jill M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective We conducted a dietary validation study in youth aged 1 to 11 years by comparing dietary intake of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) as assessed by a parent-completed semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) over time to erythrocyte membrane composition of the same fatty acids. Design The study population included youth aged 1 to 11 years who were participants in the Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young (DAISY), a longitudinal study in Denver, Colorado that is following a cohort of youth at risk for developing Type I diabetes. Four hundred four children who had erythrocyte membrane fatty acid data matched to an FFQ corresponding to the same time frame for a total of 917 visits (matches) were included. PUFA intake was expressed as both g/day (adjusted for total energy) and as percent of total fat intake. We used mixed models to test the association and calculate the correlation between the erythrocyte membrane estimates and PUFA intake using all records of data for each youth. Results Intakes of total omega-3 fatty acids (β=0.52, pchildren, a FFQ using parental report provided estimates of average long-term intakes of marine PUFAs that correlated well with their erythrocyte cell membrane fatty acid status. PMID:17440518

  5. Omega 3 fatty acids increase spontaneous release of cytosolic components from tumor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenski, L.J.; Sturdevant, L.K.; Ehringer, W.D.; Stillwell, W. (Department of Biology, Indiana University-Purdue University, Indianapolis (United States))

    1991-05-01

    Mice fed menhaden (fish) oil or coconut oil-rich diets were inoculated intraperitoneally with a rapidly growing leukemia, T27A. After one week, the tumor cells were harvested, and 51Cr was used to label intracellular molecules. Spontaneous release of 51Cr was used as a measure of plasma membrane permeability. Compared to cells from mice fed coconut oil (rich in saturated fatty acids), tumor cells from mice fed menhaden oil (rich in long chain polyunsaturated omega 3 fatty acids) showed an increased level of spontaneous 51Cr release, which was exacerbated by increased temperature and reduced by extracellular protein. At physiological salt concentrations, the released 51Cr was detected in particles of approximately 2700 daltons. Enhanced permeability correlated with the incorporation of dietary (fish oil) omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acid into the tumor cells. The results demonstrate that omega 3 fatty acids are incorporated into cellular constituents of tumor cells and change properties associated with the plasma membrane. This result suggests that dietary manipulation may be used to enhance tumor cell permeability and contribute to tumor eradication.

  6. Omega 3 fatty acids increase spontaneous release of cytosolic components from tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenski, L.J.; Sturdevant, L.K.; Ehringer, W.D.; Stillwell, W.

    1991-01-01

    Mice fed menhaden (fish) oil or coconut oil-rich diets were inoculated intraperitoneally with a rapidly growing leukemia, T27A. After one week, the tumor cells were harvested, and 51Cr was used to label intracellular molecules. Spontaneous release of 51Cr was used as a measure of plasma membrane permeability. Compared to cells from mice fed coconut oil (rich in saturated fatty acids), tumor cells from mice fed menhaden oil (rich in long chain polyunsaturated omega 3 fatty acids) showed an increased level of spontaneous 51Cr release, which was exacerbated by increased temperature and reduced by extracellular protein. At physiological salt concentrations, the released 51Cr was detected in particles of approximately 2700 daltons. Enhanced permeability correlated with the incorporation of dietary (fish oil) omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acid into the tumor cells. The results demonstrate that omega 3 fatty acids are incorporated into cellular constituents of tumor cells and change properties associated with the plasma membrane. This result suggests that dietary manipulation may be used to enhance tumor cell permeability and contribute to tumor eradication

  7. Potent Inhibitory Effect of Chinese Dietary Spices on Fatty Acid Synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bing; Liang, Yan; Sun, Xuebing; Liu, Xiaoxin; Tian, Weixi; Ma, Xiaofeng

    2015-09-01

    Dietary spices have been adopted in cooking since ancient times to enhance flavor and also as food preservatives and disease remedies. In China, the use of spices and other aromatic plants as food flavoring is an integral part of dietary behavior, but relatively little is known about their functions. Fatty acid synthase (FAS) has been recognized as a remedy target, and its inhibitors might be applied in disease treatment. The present work was designed to assess the inhibitory activities on FAS of spices extracts in Chinese menu. The in vitro inhibitory activities on FAS of 22 extracts of spices were assessed by spectrophotometrically monitoring oxidation of NADPH at 340 nm. Results showed that 20 spices extracts (90.9 %) exhibited inhibitory activities on FAS, with half inhibition concentration (IC(50)) values ranging from 1.72 to 810.7 μg/ml. Among them, seven spices showed strong inhibitory effect with IC(50) values lower than 10 μg/ml. These findings suggest that a large proportion of the dietary spices studied possess promising inhibitory activities on FAS, and subsequently might be applied in the treatment of obesity and obesity-related human diseases.

  8. Effects of Dietary Pantothenic Acid on Growth, Intestinal Function, Anti-Oxidative Status and Fatty Acids Synthesis of Juvenile Blunt Snout Bream Megalobrama amblycephala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yu; Li, Xiang-Fei; Zhang, Ding-Dong; Cai, Dong-Sen; Tian, Hong-Yan; Liu, Wen-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Four groups of juvenile Megalobrama amblycephala were fed three times daily with six semi-purified diets containing 3.39 (PA unsupplied diet), 10.54, 19.28, 31.04, 48.38 and 59.72 mg kg-1 calcium D-pantothenate. The results showed that survival rate, final weight, specific growth rate, protein efficiency ratio and nitrogen retention efficiency all increased significantly (Pdietary PA levels increased from 3.39 to 19.28 mg kg-1, whereas the opposite was true for feed conversion ratio. Whole-body crude protein increased as dietary PA levels increased, while the opposite pattern was found for the crude lipid content. Intestinal α-amylase, lipase, protease, Na+-K+-ATPase, alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transferase activities were all elevated in fish fed PA-supplemented diets. Hepatic catalase activities improved with increases in dietary PA, while the opposite was true for malondialdehyde contents. The liver PA concentration and coenzyme A content rose significantly (Pdietary PA levels and then plateaued. The percentage of hepatic saturated fatty acids increased significantly (Pdietary PA levels increased, while the percentages of monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) decreased as dietary PA increased. Fish fed diets containing 19.28 and 31.04 mg kg-1 PA exhibited higher (Pdietary PA levels increased from 3.39 to 31.04 mg kg-1. Based on broken-line regression analyses of weight gain, liver CoA concentrations and PA contents against dietary PA levels, the optimal dietary PA requirements of juvenile blunt snout bream were estimated to be 24.08 mg kg-1. PMID:25781913

  9. The Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on the Inflammatory Response to eccentric strength exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Jouris, Kelly B.; McDaniel, Jennifer L.; Weiss, Edward P.

    2011-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3) have anti-inflammatory properties. However, it is not known if omega-3 supplementation attenuates exercise-induced inflammation. We tested the hypothesis that omega-3 supplementation reduces inflammation that is induced by eccentric arm curl exercise. Healthy adult men and women (n=11; 35 ± 10 y) performed eccentric biceps curls on two occasions, once after 14d of dietary omega-3 restriction (control trial) and again after 7d of 3,000 mg/d omega-3 supplementation...

  10. Dietary long-chain unsaturated fatty acids acutely and differently reduce the activities of lipogenic enzymes and of citrate carrier in rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnoni, Antonio; Giudetti, Anna M

    2016-09-01

    The activities of lipogenic enzymes appear to fluctuate with changes in the level and type of dietary fats. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are known to induce on hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) the highest inhibitory effect, which occurs through a long-term adaptation. Data on the acute effects of dietary fatty acids on DNL are lacking. In this study with rats, the acute 1-day effect of high-fat (15 % w/w) diets (HFDs) enriched in saturated fatty acids (SFAs) or unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), i.e., monounsaturated (MUFA) and PUFA, of the ω-6 and ω-3 series on DNL and plasma lipid level was investigated; a comparison with a longer time feeding (21 days) was routinely carried out. After 1-day HFD administration UFA, when compared to SFA, reduced plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) level and the activities of the lipogenic enzymes acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and fatty acid synthase (FAS), a decreased activity of the citrate carrier (CIC), a mitochondrial protein linked to lipogenesis, was also detected. In this respect, ω-3 PUFA was the most effective. On the other hand, PUFA maintained the effects at longer times, and the acute inhibition induced by MUFA feeding on DNL enzyme and CIC activities was almost nullified at 21 days. Mitochondrial fatty acid composition was slightly but significantly changed both at short- and long-term treatment, whereas the early changes in mitochondrial phospholipid composition vanished in long-term experiments. Our results suggest that in the early phase of administration, UFA coordinately reduced both the activities of de novo lipogenic enzymes and of CIC. ω-3 PUFA showed the greatest effect.

  11. Effect of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids on reproductive output and larval growth of bivalves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, I.E.; Van Duren, L.A.; Herman, P.M.J.

    2003-01-01

    The pre-spawning condition of adult bivalves is influenced by quantity and quality of available food. For bivalves, the essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) 20:5(n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) 22:6(n-3) are presumed to determine the nutritional value of

  12. Dietary fat, fatty acid intakes and colorectal cancer risk in Chinese adults: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xiao; Fang, Yu-Jing; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Li, Bin; Wang, Lian; Zheng, Mei-Chun; Chen, Yu-Ming; Zhang, Cai-Xia

    2013-09-01

    The associations between dietary fat intakes and the risk of colorectal cancer have been examined in many epidemiological studies, but the results have remained inconsistent. This study aimed to examine the associations of total fat and fatty acid intakes with the risk of colorectal cancer in Guangzhou, China. A case-control study was carried out between July 2010 and May 2012 in Guangzhou, China. Four hundred and eighty-nine consecutively recruited colorectal cancer cases were frequency matched to 976 controls by age (5-year interval) and sex. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to collect dietary information by face-to-face interviews. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The total fat intake was not related to the risk of colorectal cancer, with an OR (95% CI) of 0.95 (0.68-1.32) comparing the highest with the lowest quartiles. Intakes of saturated fat, monounsaturated fat, and n-6 polyunsaturated fat were also not associated with the risk of colorectal cancer. However, a significant inverse association was found between total n-3 polyunsaturated fat, α-linolenic acid, and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fat consumption and the risk of colorectal cancer. The adjusted ORs of the highest versus the lowest quartile were 0.45 (95% CI=0.32-0.64, Ptrendcolorectal cancer. However, increased consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fat might reduce the risk.

  13. Effect of dietary lignocellulose on ileal and total tract digestibility of fat and fatty acids in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogusławska-Tryk, M; Piotrowska, A; Szymeczko, R; Burlikowska, K

    2016-12-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effect of a lignocellulose supplemented diet on apparent ileal and total tract digestibility of fat and fatty acids (FA) in broiler chickens. A total of 48 21-day-old male Ross 308 chickens were divided into four treatment groups (n = 12) with six replicates per treatment. From 21 to 42 days of age, the broilers were fed experimental diets varied in the amount of lignocellulose: 0%, 0.25%, 0.5% and 1%. Total excreta were gathered during the last 3 days of the feeding trial and digesta was collected from the ileum at 42 days of the bird age. Digestibility was determined by the indicator method. The ether extract content in diet/digesta/excreta was determined by the gravimetric method, and fatty acid methyl esters were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Fat digestibility measured to the end of the small intestine and in the whole gastrointestinal tract in birds was high and exceeded 90% and 87% respectively. Addition of lignocellulose (1%) increased (p fat digestibility but had no significant effect on total tract fat digestion. Absorption of total fatty acids (TFA) as well as myristic (C14:0), palmitoleic (C16:1) and α-linolenic (C18:3n-3) acids, estimated by both methods, was significantly higher in birds fed the diets supplemented with lignocellulose, especially at a dose of 1%. Total tract absorption of some dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (C20:2, C20:4n-6) was significantly lower from diet supplemented with 0.5% and 0.25% lignocellulose. There was observed a decrease in apparent digestibility of fat and most examined fatty acids, when measured between terminal ileum and total gastrointestinal tract. The results suggest that lignocellulose can affect digestion and FA absorption in broilers but, as the effect of lignocellulose was not studied previously, further investigations are necessary to confirm the results of the present experiment. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition

  14. Dietary effects on fatty acid composition in muscle tissue of juvenile European eel, Anguilla anguilla (L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigge, Enno; Malzahn, Arne M.; Zumholz, Karsten; Hanel, Reinhold

    2012-03-01

    The role of intracontinental migration patterns of European eel ( Anguilla anguilla) receives more and more recognition in both ecological studies of the European eel and possible management measures, but small-scale patterns proved to be challenging to study. We experimentally investigated the suitability of fatty acid trophic markers to elucidate the utilization of feeding habitats. Eight groups of juvenile European eels were fed on eight different diets in a freshwater recirculation system at 20°C for 56 days. Three groups were fed on freshwater diets ( Rutilus rutilus, Chironomidae larvae, and Gammarus pulex) and four groups were reared on diets of a marine origin ( Clupea harengus, Crangon crangon, Mysis spec., and Euphausia superba) and one on commercial pellets used in eel aquaculture. Fatty acid composition (FAC) of diets differed significantly with habitat. FAC of eel muscle tissue seemed to be rather insensitive to fatty acids supplied with diet, but the general pattern of lower n3:n6 and EPA:ARA ratios in freshwater prey organisms could be traced in the respective eels. Multivariate statistics of the fatty acid composition of the eels resulted in two distinct groups representing freshwater and marine treatments. Results further indicate the capability of selectively restraining certain fatty acids in eel, as e.g. the n3:n6 ratio in all treatments was feeding habitats of individual European eel.

  15. Dietary intakes and food sources of fat and fatty acids in Guatemalan schoolchildren: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez, Odilia I; Toher, Claire; Montenegro-Bethancourt, Gabriela; Vossenaar, Marieke; Mathias, Paul; Doak, Colleen; Solomons, Noel W

    2010-04-23

    Consumption of healthy diets that contribute with adequate amounts of fat and fatty acids is needed for children. Among Guatemalan children, there is little information about fat intakes. Therefore, the present study sought to assess intakes of dietary fats and examine food sources of those fats in Guatemalan children. The study subjects consisted of a convenience sample of 449 third- and fourth-grade schoolchildren (8-10 y), attending public or private schools in Quetzaltenango City, Guatemala. Dietary data was obtained by means of a single pictorial 24-h record. The percentages of total energy (%E) from total fat, saturated fat (SFA) and monounsaturated fat (MUFA) reached 29%E for total fat and 10%E for each SFA and MUFA, without gender differences. %E from fats in high vs. low-socio economic status (SES) children were significantly higher for boys, but not for girls, for total fat (p = 0.002) and SFA (p 97% of all groups consuming less than 1%E from this fats. Fried eggs, sweet rolls, whole milk and cheese were main sources of total fat and, SFA. Whole milk and sweet bread were important sources of n-3 FA for high- and low-SES boys and girls, respectively. Fried plantain was the main source of n-3 FA for girls in the high-SES group. Fried fish, seafood soup, and shrimp, consumed only by boys in low amounts, were sources of eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids, which may explain the low intakes of these nutrients. alpha-linolenic acid, EPA and DHA were the most limiting fatty acids in diets of Guatemalan schoolchildren, which could be partially explained by the low consumption of sources of these nutrients, particularly fish and seafood (for EPA and DHA). This population will benefit from a higher consumption of culturally acceptable foods that are rich in these limiting nutrients.

  16. Effects of dietary energy levels using calcium salts of fatty acids on nutritive value of diets and milk quality in peripartum dairy goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo de Souza

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Peripartum is a critical period for dairy goats, as dry matter intake (DMI is not enough to supply the energy requirement for foetal growth and subsequent lactation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of calcium salts of fatty acids (CSFA to increase dietary energy level of peripartum dairy goats and its effects on nutritive value of diets and milk quality. Twenty multiparous Saanen goats (body weight 63.5±10.3 kg were distributed in a completely randomised design in four treatments at the following dietary energy levels: 2.6 Mcal of metabolisable energy per kg of dry matter (Mcal ME/kg DM - control diet; and 2.7, 2.8, and 2.9 Mcal/kg DM - with added CSFA. Goats were housed in individual stalls and evaluated in the peripartum period, by measuring body weight (BW, DMI, dry matter and nutrient digestibility of diets, blood composition, and milk quality and yield. Increasing dietary energy level to 2.9 Mcal ME/kg DM had no effect on BW and did not limit DMI. CSFA supplementation increased intake of total digestible nutrients and did not affect fibre digestion. Blood triglycerides and cholesterol concentration increased with CSFA addition. The treatments had no effect on milk yield and composition; however, CSFA supplementation changed the fatty acid concentration of milk fat, increasing levels of polyunsaturated and essential fatty acids. In conclusion, peripartum dairy goats supplemented with CSFA to increase dietary energy level up to 2.9 Mcal ME/kg DM had a greater supply of total digestible nutrients and showed altered fatty acid concentration of milk fat.

  17. Dietary thylakoids reduce visceral fat mass and increase expression of genes involved in intestinal fatty acid oxidation in high-fat fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenblom, Eva-Lena; Egecioglu, Emil; Montelius, Caroline; Ramachandran, Deepti; Bonn, Britta; Weström, Björn; Mansouri, Abdelhak; Langhans, Wolfgang; Erlanson-Albertsson, Charlotte

    2016-09-01

    Thylakoids reduce body weight gain and body fat accumulation in rodents. This study investigated whether an enhanced oxidation of dietary fat-derived fatty acids in the intestine contributes to the thylakoid effects. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat diet with (n = 8) or without thylakoids (n = 8) for 2 wk. Body weight, food intake, and body fat were measured, and intestinal mucosa was collected and analyzed. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to measure gene expression levels of key enzymes involved in fatty acid transport, fatty acid oxidation, and ketogenesis. Another set of thylakoid-treated (n = 10) and control rats (n = 10) went through indirect calorimetry. In the first experiment, thylakoid-treated rats (n = 8) accumulated 25% less visceral fat than controls. Furthermore, fatty acid translocase (Fat/Cd36), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a (Cpt1a), and mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase 2 (Hmgcs2) genes were upregulated in the jejunum of the thylakoid-treated group. In the second experiment, thylakoid-treated rats (n = 10) gained 17.5% less weight compared with controls and their respiratory quotient was lower, 0.86 compared with 0.91. Thylakoid-intake resulted in decreased food intake and did not cause steatorrhea. These results suggest that thylakoids stimulated intestinal fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis, resulting in an increased ability of the intestine to handle dietary fat. The increased fatty acid oxidation and the resulting reduction in food intake may contribute to the reduced fat accumulation in thylakoid-treated animals. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Effect of dietary quebracho tannin extract on milk fatty acid composition in cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, Anika; Westreicher-Kristen, Edwin; Molkentin, Joachim; Dickhoefer, Uta; Knappstein, Karin; Hasler, Mario; Susenbeth, Andreas

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the capacity of quebracho tannin extract (QTE) to modulate the fatty acid (FA) profile in the milk fat of cows. Fifty Holstein cows yielding 33.2 ± 8.2 kg/d of milk were divided into 2 groups. The cows were fed a basal diet with a forage-concentrate ratio of 66:34 on a dry matter (DM) basis. Diets tested were control (CON, basal diet without QTE) and basal diet plus 15 or 30 g of QTE/kg of DM (QTE 15 and QTE 30 , respectively). Two treatments could be tested simultaneously and were arranged along 6 periods. The milk FA profile was characterized by increments in the proportion of linoleic (LA) and α-linolenic acid (α-LNA) (QTE 15 = 10 and 6.1%; QTE 30 = 28 and 25%, respectively) compared to CON, which might indicate reduced ruminal biohydrogenation (BH) of both dietary LA and α-LNA. Vaccenic acid (VA) in the milk fat was reduced (QTE 15 8.9% and QTE 30 12%) compared to CON, which may be linked to inhibited BH of LA and α-LNA. Rumenic acid (RA), a conjugated LA (cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid) and an important human health promoter, was unfortunately decreased (QTE 15 8.3% and QTE 30 16%) in the milk compared with CON, probably because of inhibited ruminal BH of LA. However, reduced RA in the milk was probably due to reduced availability of VA produced in the rumen and the consequently low VA available to be desaturated to RA in the mammary gland by Δ 9 -desaturase. The proportions of total polyunsaturated FA were increased with QTE 15 and QTE 30 by 4.7 and 15% compared to CON, respectively, and the long-chain FA proportions were also increased (QTE 15 2.0% and QTE 30 8.2%). Moreover, myristic and palmitic acid were reduced by QTE 30 (9.6 and 3.3%, respectively) compared to CON, which also contributed to increasing the nutritional quality of milk because they are recognized to increase high-density lipoprotein in humans. Branched-chain FA in milk was reduced with QTE treatments, which indicates inhibited ruminal BH

  19. Dietary saturated and trans fatty acids and cholesterol and 25-year mortality from coronary heart disease: the seven countries study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, D.; Menotti, A.; Bloemberg, B.; Aravanis, C.; Blackburn, H.; Buzina, R.; Dontas, A.S.; Fidanza, F.; Gianpaolo, S.; Jansen, A.; Karvonen, M.; Katan, M.B.; Nissinen, A.; Nedeljkovic, S.I.; Pekkanen, J.; Pekkarinen, M.; Punsar, S.; Räsänen, L.; Simic, B.; Toshima, H.

    1995-01-01

    Background. In the Seven Countries Study associations between intake of individual fatty acids and dietary cholesterol were studied in relation to serum cholesterol and 25-year mortality from coronary heart disease. All analyses concern only intercohort comparisons. Methods. In the baseline surveys

  20. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of effects of dietary fish oil on total fatty acid composition in mouse skin

    OpenAIRE

    Peiru Wang; Min Sun; Jianwei Ren; Zora Djuric; Gary J. Fisher; Xiuli Wang; Yong Li

    2017-01-01

    Altering the fatty acid (FA) composition in the skin by dietary fish oil could provide therapeutic benefits. Although it has been shown that fish oil supplementation enhances EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) abundance in the skin, comprehensive skin FA profiling is needed. We established a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method, which allows precise quantification of FA profile using small (

  1. Alteration of gene expression in mammary gland tissue of dairy cows in response to dietary unsaturated fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mach Casellas, N.; Jacobs, A.A.A.; Kruijt, L.; Baal, van J.; Smits, M.C.J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of unprotected dietary unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) from different plant oils on gene expression in the mammary gland of grazing dairy cows. Milk composition and gene expression in the mammary gland tissue were evaluated in grazing dairy cows

  2. Treating asthma with omega-3 fatty acids: where is the evidence? A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampson M

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considerable interest exists in the potential therapeutic value of dietary supplementation with the omega-3 fatty acids. Given the interplay between pro-inflammatory omega-6 fatty acids, and the less pro-inflammatory omega-3 fatty acids, it has been thought that the latter could play a key role in treating or preventing asthma. The purpose was to systematically review the scientific-medical literature in order to identify, appraise, and synthesize the evidence for possible treatment effects of omega-3 fatty acids in asthma. Methods Medline, Premedline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CAB Health, and, Dissertation Abstracts were searched to April 2003. We included randomized controlled trials (RCT's of subjects of any age that used any foods or extracts containing omega-3 fatty acids as treatment or prevention for asthma. Data included all asthma related outcomes, potential covariates, characteristics of the study, design, population, intervention/exposure, comparators, and co interventions. Results Ten RCT's were found pertinent to the present report. Conclusion Given the largely inconsistent picture within and across respiratory outcomes, it is impossible to determine whether or not omega-3 fatty acids are an efficacious adjuvant or monotherapy for children or adults. Based on this systematic review we recommend a large randomized controlled study of the effects of high-dose encapsulated omega-3 fatty acids on ventilatory and inflammatory measures of asthma controlling diet and other asthma risk factors. This review was limited because Meta-analysis was considered inappropriate due to missing data; poorly or heterogeneously defined populations, interventions, intervention-comparator combinations, and outcomes. In addition, small sample sizes made it impossible to meaningfully assess the impact on clinical outcomes of co-variables. Last, few significant effects were found.

  3. Effect of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and Vitamin E on serum oxidative status in horses performing very light exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviana Prola

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In sporting horses the use of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs could enhance performance because these fatty acids are very important in membrane permeability, and in particular they seem to increase the possibility of long chain fatty acids entering mythochondria to be burnt. The composition of cellular membranes and lipoprotein fatty acids com- position is strictly related to dietary fat quality; percentages of polyunsaturated fatty acids and amount of antioxidants also affect tissue susceptibility to lipid peroxidation. Six horses were used in a latin square design in which three homogeneous groups were subsequently assigned three dif- ferent dietary treatments for one month each: Control group (C: basic diet; Oil group (O: Basic diet + 200g/day oil rich in PUFAs (Crossential GLA TG20, Croda ®; Vitamin E group (O+E: basic diet + 200 g/day oil rich in PUFAs (Crossential GLA TG20, Croda ® + 5 g/day α-toco- pheryl-acetate (Egon-E, Acme ®. At the end of each experimental period blood samples were taken by jugular vein puncture. Serum oxidative status was evaluated by TBARs and d-ROMs assessment. Oxidative markers showed the high- est mean values for the oil group, even if no statistically significant differences were found.

  4. Omega-3 fatty acids as treatments for mental illness: which disorder and which fatty acid?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sieswerda Lee E

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing number of observational and epidemiological studies have suggested that mental illness, in particular mood disorders, is associated with reduced dietary intake and/or cellular abundance of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. This has prompted researchers to test the efficacy of omega-3 PUFA in a range of different psychiatric disorders. We have critically reviewed the double blind placebo controlled clinical trials published prior to April 2007 to determine whether omega-3 PUFA are likely to be efficacious in these disorders. Results Most trials involved a small number of participants but were largely well designed. Omega-3 PUFA were well tolerated by both children and adults with mild gastrointestinal effects being the only consistently reported adverse event. For schizophrenia and borderline personality disorder we found little evidence of a robust clinically relevant effect. In the case of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and related disorders, most trials showed at most small benefits over placebo. A limited meta-analysis of these trials suggested that benefits of omega-3 PUFA supplementation may be greater in a classroom setting than at home. Some evidence indicates that omega-3 PUFA may reduce symptoms of anxiety although the data is preliminary and inconclusive. The most convincing evidence for beneficial effects of omega-3 PUFA is to be found in mood disorders. A meta-analysis of trials involving patients with major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder provided evidence that omega-3 PUFA supplementation reduces symptoms of depression. Furthermore, meta-regression analysis suggests that supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid may be more beneficial in mood disorders than with docosahexaenoic acid, although several confounding factors prevented a definitive conclusion being made regarding which species of omega-3 PUFA is most beneficial. The mechanisms underlying the apparent efficacy of

  5. High Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in fat-1 Mice Reduce Inflammatory Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Enji; Kim, Jwa-Jin; Shin, Nara; Yin, Yuhua; Nan, Yongshan; Xu, Yinshi; Hong, Jinpyo; Hsu, Tzung Min; Chung, Woosuk; Ko, Youngkwon; Lee, Wonhyung; Lim, Kyu; Kim, Dong Woon; Lee, Sun Yeul

    2017-06-01

    Omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as α-linolenic and linoleic acids, are essential fatty acids in mammals, because they cannot be synthesized de novo. However, fat-1 transgenic mice can synthesize omega-3 PUFAs from omega-6 PUFAs without dietary supplementation of omega-3, leading to abundant omega-3 PUFA accumulation in various tissues. In this study, we used fat-1 transgenic mice to investigate the role of omega-3 PUFAs in response to inflammatory pain. A high omega-3 PUFA tissue content attenuated formalin-induced pain sensitivity, microglial activation, inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, and the phosphorylation of NR2B, a subunit of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. Our findings suggest that elevated omega-3 PUFA levels inhibit NMDA receptor activity in the spinal dorsal horn and modulate inflammatory pain transmission by regulating signal transmission at the spinal dorsal horn, leading to the attenuation of chemically induced inflammatory pain.

  6. Effects of foal presence at milking and dietary extra virgin olive oil on jennet milk fatty acids profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Alabiso

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available TwelveRagusanajennetswerestudiedtoinvestigatetheeffectsof dietaryextra Twelve Ragusana jennets were studiedtoinvestigatetheeffectsof dietaryextra studied to investigatetheeffectsof dietaryextra the effects of dietaryextra dietary extra virgin olive oil and thepresenceofthefoal duringmilkingonmilkfattyacids(FAprofile.At20, 50 thepresenceofthefoal duringmilkingonmilkfattyacids(FAprofile.At20, 50 he presence of the foal during milking on milk fatty acids (FA profile. At 20, 50 and 90 days post-foaling, each jennet was milked 4 times per day. The feeding system and the milking procedures are given by Alabiso et al. (2009. FA profiles of the composites from milkings without foals (1MNF+3MNF and with foals (2MYF+4MYF were analyzed by gas chromatography. Dietary oil had no significant effect on milk yield or fat content but increased the proportion of C18:1 (n-9 in milk. Jen- net milk had a beneficial FA profile compared to bovine milk and thus would be suitable for consump- tion by infants suffering from cows milk protein allergy, however, augmentation of the long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated FA content warrants further study.

  7. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid on the fatty acid profile and cholesterol content of egg yolks from different breeds of layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, J D; Shang, X G; Li, D F; Wang, F L; Guan, Y F; Wang, Z Y

    2008-02-01

    Brown Dwarf hens and White Leghorn hens were fed corn- and soybean meal-based diets containing 0, 2.5, or 5.0% conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) for 56 d to explore the effects of dietary CLA on the fatty acid profile and cholesterol content of egg yolks from laying hens of different breeds. Four hens were placed in 1 cage, and 3 cages were grouped as 1 replicate, resulting in 6 replicates per treatment. After feeding the experimental diets for 11 d, eggs were collected to determine the fatty acid composition of the egg yolks. From d 54 to 56, eggs were collected to measure the cholesterol content of yolks, and on d 56, a hen was selected randomly from each replicate and bled to determine the cholesterol content in plasma. There was a significant effect of layer breed on layer performance and egg composition. Concentrations of stearic, arachidonic, and docosahexaenoic acids were higher in the yolks of Brown Dwarf hens than in those of White Leghorn hens. Enrichment of cis-11, trans-13 was higher in the yolks of White Leghorns, but cis-10, cis-12 was higher in those of Brown Dwarf hens. In contrast, feed intake and egg weight, as well as yolk weight and its ratio to egg, were decreased by the 5% dietary CLA treatment. Egg production and feed efficiency were not affected by dietary CLA. Concentrations of total CLA and CLA isomers in the yolk lipids increased (P cholesterol was increased with increasing dietary CLA (P cholesterol content and serum cholesterol content. In conclusion, Brown Dwarf layers had the breed-specific characteristics of enrichment of CLA isomers and fatty acids in yolk lipids in response to dietary CLA.

  8. Adherence to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) and risk of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekmatdoost, Azita; Shamsipour, Ali; Meibodi, Mohammad; Gheibizadeh, Newsha; Eslamparast, Tannaz; Poustchi, Hossein

    2016-12-01

    This case-control study was conducted to examine the association between adherence to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet and risk of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) development in 102 patients with newly diagnosed NAFLD and 204 controls. Adherence to DASH-style diet was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire, and a DASH diet score based on food and nutrients emphasized or minimized in the DASH diet. Participants in the top quartile of DASH diet score were 30% less likely to have NAFLD (OR: 0.0.70; 95% CI: 0.61, 0.80); however, more adjustment for dyslipidemia and body mass index changed the association to non-significant (OR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.73, 1.12). In conclusion, we found an inverse relationship between the DASH-style diet and risk of NAFLD. Prospective studies are needed to confirm this association.

  9. Effect of dietary monosodium glutamate on trans fat-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collison, Kate S.; Maqbool, Zakia; Saleh, Soad M.; Inglis, Angela; Makhoul, Nadine J.; Bakheet, Razan; Al-Johi, Mohammed; Al-Rabiah, Rana; Zaidi, Marya Z.; Al-Mohanna, Futwan A.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of dietary monosodium glutamate (MSG) on trans-fatty acid (TFA)-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are addressed in an animal model. We used Affymetrix microarray analysis to investigate hepatic gene expression and the contribution of visceral white adipose tissue (WAT) to diet-induced NAFLD. Trans-fat feeding increased serum leptin, FFA, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), and total cholesterol (T-CHOL) levels, while robustly elevating the expression of genes involved in hepatic lipogenesis, including the transcription factor sterol-regulatory element binding protein 1c. Histological examination revealed hepatic macrosteatosis in TFA-fed animals. Conversely, dietary MSG at doses similar to human average daily intake caused hepatic microsteatosis and the expression of β-oxidative genes. Serum triglyceride, FFA, and insulin levels were elevated in MSG-treated animals. The abdominal cavities of TFA- or MSG-treated animals had increased WAT deposition compared with controls. Microarray analysis of WAT gene expression revealed increased lipid biosynthetic gene expression, together with a 50% decrease in the key transcription factor Ppargc1a. A combination of TFA+MSG resulted in the highest levels of serum HDL-C, T-CHOL, and leptin. Microarray analysis of TFA+MSG-treated livers showed elevated expression of markers of hepatic inflammation, lipid storage, cell damage, and cell cycle impairment. TFA+MSG mice also had a high degree of WAT deposition and lipogenic gene expression. Levels of Ppargc1a were further reduced to 25% by TFA+MSG treatment. MSG exacerbates TFA-induced NAFLD. PMID:19001666

  10. Effect of dietary soybean oil and antioxidants on fatty acids and volatile compounds of tail subcutaneous and perirenal fat tissues in fattening lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yongjia; Wang, Jiakun; Lin, Jia; Liu, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    Fat is the primary source of the volatiles that determine the characteristic flavors of animal products. Because unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) contribute to changes in flavor as a result of the oxidation process, a feeding trial was performed to investigate the effects of dietary soybean oil or antioxidants on the fatty acid and volatile profiles of the tail subcutaneous (SF) and perirenal fat tissues (PF) of fattening lambs. Thirty-six Huzhou lambs were assigned to four dietary treatments in a randomized block design. The lambs' diets were supplemented with soybean oil (0 or 3 % of DM) or antioxidants (0 or 0.025 % of DM). Neither soybean oil nor antioxidant supplementation had an effect on lamb growth (P > 0.05). In regard to tail SF, soybean oil supplementation increased the 18:2n6t (P < 0.05) and the total amount of volatile acids, whereas antioxidant supplementation increased the content of C18:2n6c and C18:3n3 (P < 0.05) but had no effect on the volatiles profile. In regard to PF, dietary soybean oil supplementation increased the C18:0 content (P < 0.01); decreased the C18:1 (P = 0.01), C22:1 n9 (P < 0.01) and total UFA (P = 0.03) contents; and tended to decrease the E-2-octenal (P = 0.08), E, E-2, 4-decadienal (P = 0.10), 2-undecenal (P = 0.14) and ethyl 9-decenoate (P = 0.10) contents. Antioxidant supplementation did not affect either the fatty acid content or the volatiles profile in the PF. Tail SF and PF responded to dietary soybean oil and antioxidant supplementation in different ways. For SF, both soybean oil and antioxidant supplementation increased the levels of unsaturated fatty acids but triggered only a slight change in volatiles. For PF, soybean oil supplementation decreased the levels of unsaturated fatty acids and oxidative volatiles, but supplementation with antioxidants had little effect on PF fatty acids and the volatiles profile.

  11. Intake of Fish and Omega-3 (n-3) Fatty Acids: Effect on Humans During Actual and Simulated Weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. M.; Pierson, D. L.; Mehta, S. K.; Zwart, S. R.

    2011-01-01

    Space flight has many negative effects on human physiology, including bone and muscle loss. Bone and muscle are two systems that are positively affected by dietary intake of fish and n-3 fatty acids. The mechanism is likely to be related to inhibition by n-3 fatty acids of inflammatory cytokines (such as TNF) and thus inhibition of downstream NF-kB activation. We have documented this effect in a 3-dimensional cell culture model, where NF-kB activation in osteoclasts was inhibited by eicosapentaenoic acid, an n-3 fatty acid. We have also indentified that NF-kB activation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of Space Shuttle crews. We found that after Shuttle flights of 2 wk, expression of the protein p65 (evidence of NF-kB activation) was increased at landing (P less than 0.001). When evaluating the effects of n-3 fatty acid intake on bone breakdown after 60 d of bed rest (a weightlessness analog). We found that after 60 d of bed rest, greater intake of n-3 fatty acids was associated with less N-telopeptide excretion (Pearson r = -0.62, P less than 0.05). We also evaluated the relationship of fish intake and bone loss in astronauts after 4 to 6 mo missions on the International Space Station. Higher consumption of fish during flight was associated with higher bone mineral density (Pearson r = 0.46, P less than 0.05). Together, these findings provide evidence of the cellular mechanism by which n-3 fatty acids can inhibit bone loss, and preliminary human evidence of the potential for n-3 fatty acids to counteract bone loss associated with space flight. This study was supported by the NASA Human Research Program.

  12. Effects of dietary oil sources on egg quality, fatty acid composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of this study demonstrated that olive oil improved egg weight and egg shell quality compared to the other oils tested; fish and soyabean oil increased the omega-3 fatty acid level of egg yolk, and soyabean oil had positive effects on serum lipid concentrations. Incorporation of these oils into the diets of Japanese ...

  13. Dietary linseed oil and selenate affect the concentration of fatty acids in selected tissues of sheep

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Czauderna, M.; Kowalczyk, J.; Marounek, Milan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 9 (2012), s. 389-401 ISSN 1212-1819 Grant - others:State Committee for Scientific Research(PL) 3PO6Z 034 22 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : selenium * linseed oil * fatty acid Subject RIV: GH - Livestock Nutrition Impact factor: 0.922, year: 2012

  14. Intake of omega-3 fatty acids contributes to bone mineral density at the hip in a younger Japanese female population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, T; Ohta, H; Onoe, Y; Tsugawa, N; Shiraki, M

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated the relationships between intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acids, and omega-6 fatty acids and bone mineral density in Japanese women aged 19 to 25 years. Intakes of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3) were positively associated with peak bone mass at the hip. Lifestyle factors such as physical activity and nutrition intake are known to optimize the peak bone mass (PBM). Recently, intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) has been reported to contribute to bone metabolism. In this study, the relationships of intakes of n-3 and omega-6 (n-6) fatty acids with PBM were evaluated in Japanese female subjects. A total of 275 healthy female subjects (19-25 years) having PBM were enrolled, and lumbar and total hip bone mineral density (BMD) and bone metabolic parameters were measured. Dietary intakes of total energy, total n-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and total n-6 fatty acids were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Physical activity information was also assessed. The mean ± SD age was 20.6 ± 1.4 years, and BMI was 21.2 ± 2.7 kg/m 2 . BMI and serum bone alkaline phosphatase contributed significantly to lumbar BMD on multiple regression analysis. Intake of n-3 fatty acids and physical activity were also significantly related to total hip BMD. Using EPA or DHA instead of total n-3 fatty acids in the model did not result in a significant result. Adequate total n-3 fatty acid intake may help maximize PBM at the hip.

  15. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation and cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jump, Donald B.; Depner, Christopher M.; Tripathy, Sasmita

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies on Greenland Inuits in the 1970s and subsequent human studies have established an inverse relationship between the ingestion of omega-3 fatty acids [C20–22 ω 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)], blood levels of C20–22 ω 3 PUFA, and mortality associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). C20–22 ω 3 PUFA have pleiotropic effects on cell function and regulate multiple pathways controlling blood lipids, inflammatory factors, and cellular events in cardiomyocytes and vascular endothelial cells. The hypolipemic, anti-inflammatory, anti-arrhythmic properties of these fatty acids confer cardioprotection. Accordingly, national heart associations and government agencies have recommended increased consumption of fatty fish or ω 3 PUFA supplements to prevent CVD. In addition to fatty fish, sources of ω 3 PUFA are available from plants, algae, and yeast. A key question examined in this review is whether nonfish sources of ω 3 PUFA are as effective as fatty fish-derived C20–22 ω 3 PUFA at managing risk factors linked to CVD. We focused on ω 3 PUFA metabolism and the capacity of ω 3 PUFA supplements to regulate key cellular events linked to CVD. The outcome of our analysis reveals that nonfish sources of ω 3 PUFA vary in their capacity to regulate blood levels of C20–22 ω 3 PUFA and CVD risk factors. PMID:22904344

  16. Reduction of dietary saturated fatty acids correlates with increased plasma lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase activity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bérard, A M; Dabadie, H; Palos-Pinto, A; Dumon, M-F; Darmon, M

    2004-06-01

    Increased HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations have been associated with lower coronary heart disease risk. On the other hand, dietary fats are known to influence the fatty acid profile of plasma lipids, including phospholipids that are substrates of lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), an important enzyme in HDL metabolism. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between the saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake and LCAT activity. An interventional study was performed in a monk community of 25 men. A French monk community, South West of France. The basal diet of the study cohort contained SFA in a proportion of 13.5% of their total energy intake (TEI). They were submitted to two experimental isocaloric diets containing either 8.4% of the TEI in SFA (diet A) or 11% (diet B), each lasting 5 weeks. The elevation of SFA in diet B was mainly obtained by decreasing carbohydrates. The only significant difference among total fats between diets A and B was the myristic acid content (0.6 and 1.2% of TEI, respectively). The elevation in SFA in diet B resulted in a significant increase of HDL-C (P<0.04), while plasma apo A-I concentration and LCAT activity both decreased (P<0.02). Altogether, these results are consistent with a negative effect of SFA on reverse cholesterol transport.

  17. Dietary Egg Yolk Supplementation Improves Low-Protein-Diet-Induced Fatty Liver in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erami, Kazuo; Tanaka, Yasutake; Kawamura, Sayaka; Miyago, Motonori; Sawazaki, Ai; Imaizumi, Katsumi; Sato, Masao

    2016-01-01

    Egg yolk is an important source of nutrients and contains different bioactive substances. In the present study, we studied the benefits of egg yolk in preventing low-protein-diet-induced fatty liver in rats. Rats were fed the following diets, which were based on the AIN-76 formula, for 2 wk: an adequate-protein diet containing 20% casein (C), a low-protein diet containing 5% casein (LP-C), a low-protein diet supplemented with 12.5% egg yolk (LP-EY), and a low-protein diet supplemented with 4.1% egg yolk oil (LP-EYO). The low-protein diets were adjusted to contain 4.13% protein and 4.7% lipids. The LP-C diet resulted in a greater increase in the liver trigriceride (TG) and the vacuolation and a greater decrease in the serum TG and free fatty acid (FFA) than did the C diet. These deviations in the serum and liver TG, serum FFA levels and the liver histopathology were corrected in rats fed the LP-EY diet but not in those fed the LP-EYO diet. Compared to rats fed the LP-C diet, although the activities of lipogenesis-related enzymes (fatty acid synthase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and malic enzyme) decreased in rats fed both of the LP-EY and LP-EYO diets, the level of the microsomal TG transfer protein (MTP) increased only in rats fed the LP-EY diet. Collectively, these results suggest that dietary egg yolk supplementation decreases the LP diet-induced accumulation of TG in the liver by increasing transport of TG in the liver, and egg yolk oil alone is not sufficient enough to bring about these benefits.

  18. Dietary Silicon Deficiency Does Not Exacerbate Diet-Induced Fatty Lesions in Female ApoE Knockout Mice123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jugdaohsingh, Ravin; Kessler, Katharina; Messner, Barbara; Stoiber, Martin; Pedro, Liliana D; Schima, Heinrich; Laufer, Günther; Powell, Jonathan J; Bernhard, David

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dietary silicon has been positively linked with vascular health and protection against atherosclerotic plaque formation, but the mechanism of action is unclear. Objectives: We investigated the effect of dietary silicon on 1) serum and aorta silicon concentrations, 2) the development of aortic lesions and serum lipid concentrations, and 3) the structural and biomechanic properties of the aorta. Methods: Two studies, of the same design, were conducted to address the above objectives. Female mice, lacking the apolipoprotein E (apoE) gene, and therefore susceptible to atherosclerosis, were separated into 3 groups of 10–15 mice, each exposed to a high-fat diet (21% wt milk fat and 1.5% wt cholesterol) but with differing concentrations of dietary silicon, namely: silicon-deprived (−Si; silicon/g feed), silicon-replete in feed (+Si-feed; 100-μg silicon/g feed), and silicon-replete in drinking water (+Si-water; 115-μg silicon/mL) for 15–19 wk. Silicon supplementation was in the form of sodium metasilicate (feed) or monomethylsilanetriol (drinking water). Results: The serum silicon concentration in the −Si group was significantly lower than in the +Si-feed (by up to 78%; P silicon concentration was also lower in the −Si group than in the +Si-feed group (by 65%; P = 0.025), but not compared with the +Si-water group. There were no differences in serum and aorta silicon concentrations between the silicon-replete groups. Body weights, tissue wet weights at necropsy, and structural, biomechanic, and morphologic properties of the aorta were not affected by dietary silicon; nor were the development of fatty lesions and serum lipid concentrations. Conclusions: These findings suggest that dietary silicon has no effect on atherosclerosis development and vascular health in the apoE mouse model of diet-induced atherosclerosis, contrary to the reported findings in the cholesterol-fed rabbit model. PMID:25972522

  19. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Dietary Supplementation Induces Lipid Peroxidation in Normal Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Walters

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs have anti-inflammatory effects at low concentrations; however increased dietary consumption may conversely increase susceptibility to oxidation by free radicals. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of PUFAs on selective oxidative injury and inflammatory biomarkers in canine urine and serum. Dogs (n=54 consumed a diet supplemented with 0.5% conjugated linoleic acid/dry matter, 1.0% conjugated linoleic acid/dry matter, or 200 mg/kg docosahexaenoic acid/eicosapentaenoic acid for 21 days. All dogs exhibited significantly increased plasma PUFA concentrations. All dogs had significant elevations in urinary F2a isoprostane concentration, though dogs consuming a diet containing 1.0% conjugated linoleic acid/dry matter had the highest increase (P=.0052. Reduced glutathione concentrations within erythrocytes decreased significantly in all three dietary treatment groups (P=.0108. Treatment with diets containing 1.0% conjugated linoleic acid/dry matter resulted in the greatest increase in oxidant injury. Caution should be exercised when supplementing PUFAs as some types may increase oxidation.

  20. Reducing dietary intake of linoleic acid of mouse dams during lactation increases offspring brain n-3 LCPUFA content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, L.; Oosting, A.; Scheurink, A J W; van Dijk, G.; van der Bee, E. M.

    Omega (n-)3 and n-6 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) accumulation in the infant brain after birth is strongly driven by dietary supply of n-3 and n-6 LCPUFAs and their C18 precursors through breast milk or infant formula. n-3 LCPUFA accretion is associated with positive effects on

  1. A Simple Method of Supplementation of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Use of Fortified Yogurt in Healthy Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCowen, Karen C.; Ling, Pei Ra; Decker, Eric; Djordjevic, D.; Roberts, R.F.; Coupland, J.N.; Bistrian, Bruce R.

    2011-01-01

    Background A relative dietary ω-3 fatty acid deficiency exists in Western diets, and this deficiency may be associated with some chronic diseases. The aim of the present study was to supplement yogurt with docosahexaenoic acid and assess whether this fatty acid could be incorporated into plasma lipids. Methods We developed a stable emulsion of docosahexaenoic acid that was incorporated into yogurt. Twelve healthy volunteers agreed to consume 1 serving daily that contained 600 mg of docosahexaenoic acid. Results After 3 weeks of supplementation, plasma phospholipid docosahexaenoic acid content increased significantly, by 32%, in parallel with a 16% rise in total ω-3 fatty acids. This result was associated with a significant 7% decline in phospholipid arachidonic acid. Conclusions Fortification of ordinary foods with docosahexaenoic acid is a potentially attractive method of increasing ω-3 fatty acid content of plasma lipids, and might even lower arachidonic acid concentrations. PMID:21139129

  2. Role of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed Yakoob

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dietary supplementation with Omega-3 (ω-3 fatty acids (FAs has been demonstrated to elicit several effects ranging from decrease in blood pressure, anti-arrhythmic effect and decrease in inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease, asthma and rheumatoid arthritis. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a chronic disorder characterized by abdominal pain and irregular bowel habit. It is associated with visceral hypersensitivity, increased mucosal permeability and a low-grade mucosal inflammation. Commercially available omega (ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA are being prescribed as empirical treatment for many chronic ailments including IBS.Aim: To examine literature available support use of ω-3 PUFA in IBS.Methods: We conducted a search using “Omega 3 fatty acids supplementation” on the PubMed, Scopus, and databases (e.g. MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, and Science Citation Index Expanded from 1966 to December, 2015. Result: The gut microbiota in IBS is associated with an imbalance of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio. This imbalance has an impact on gas and metabolite production such as short chain fatty acids. Omega-3 FAs are anti-inflammatory, while ω-6 FAs are proinflammatory.Conclusion: The benefit of ω-3 FAs for IBS requires more clarification by prospective studies. Current claims of long chain PUFA supplementation in IBS should be viewed with caution

  3. Effect of individual dietary fatty acids on postprandial activation of blood coagulation factor VII and fibrinolysis in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tholstrup, T.; Miller, G.J.; Bysted, Anette

    2003-01-01

    . Objective: We tested the hypothesis that FVII activation would be less after consumption of saturated fatty acids than after other fatty acids. Design: The effects of 6 matching dietary test fats, rich in stearic (S), palmitic (P), palmitic + myristic (M), oleic (O), trans 18:1 (T), and linoleic (L) acid......Background: Hypertriglyceridemia may represent a procoagulant state involving disturbances to the hemostatic system. Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) is increased in the presence of hypertriglyceridemia. Free fatty acids (FFAs) in plasma may promote factor VII (FVII) activation......, respectively, on the postprandial lipid and hemostatic profile (after 2, 4, 6, and 8 h) were investigated in 16 young men. High-fat meals (1 g fat/kg body wt; 43% from the test fatty acid) were served in the morning on 6 separate days. Results: All fats increased FVII activation. The S fat resulted in a lower...

  4. Effect of individual dietary fatty acids on postprandial activation of blood coagulation factor VII and fibrinolysis in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tholstrup, T.; Miller, G.J.; Bysted, Anette

    2003-01-01

    Background: Hypertriglyceridemia may represent a procoagulant state involving disturbances to the hemostatic system. Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) is increased in the presence of hypertriglyceridemia. Free fatty acids (FFAs) in plasma may promote factor VII (FVII) activation....... Objective: We tested the hypothesis that FVII activation would be less after consumption of saturated fatty acids than after other fatty acids. Design: The effects of 6 matching dietary test fats, rich in stearic (S), palmitic (P), palmitic + myristic (M), oleic (O), trans 18:1 (T), and linoleic (L) acid......, respectively, on the postprandial lipid and hemostatic profile (after 2, 4, 6, and 8 h) were investigated in 16 young men. High-fat meals (1 g fat/kg body wt; 43% from the test fatty acid) were served in the morning on 6 separate days. Results: All fats increased FVII activation. The S fat resulted in a lower...

  5. Membrane omega-3 Fatty Acid deficiency as a preventable risk factor for comorbid coronary heart disease in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Robert K

    2009-01-01

    Major depression disorder (MDD) significantly increases the risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) which is a leading cause of mortality in patients with MDD. Moreover, depression is frequently observed in a subset of patients following acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and increases risk for mortality. Here evidence implicating omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid deficiency in the pathoaetiology of CHD and MDD is reviewed, and the hypothesis that n-3 fatty acid deficiency is a preventable risk factor for CHD comorbidity in MDD patients is evaluated. This hypothesis is supported by cross-national and cross-sectional epidemiological surveys finding an inverse correlation between n-3 fatty acid status and prevalence rates of both CHD and MDD, prospective studies finding that lower dietary or membrane EPA+DHA levels increase risk for both MDD and CHD, case-control studies finding that the n-3 fatty acid status of MDD patients places them at high risk for emergent CHD morbidity and mortality, meta-analyses of controlled n-3 fatty acid intervention studies finding significant advantage over placebo for reducing depression symptom severity in MDD patients, and for secondary prevention of cardiac events in CHD patients, findings that n-3 fatty acid status is inversely correlated with other documented CHD risk factors, and patients diagnosed with MDD after ACS exhibit significantly lower n-3 fatty acid status compared with nondepressed ACS patients. This body of evidence provides strong support for future studies to evaluate the effects of increasing dietary n-3 fatty acid status on CHD comorbidity and mortality in MDD patients.

  6. Effect of dietary lipid on the growth, fatty acid composition and Δ5 Fads expression of abalone ( Haliotis discus hannai Ino) hepatopancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingzhu; Mai, Kangsen; Ai, Qinghui; He, Gen; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Wenbing; Zhang, Yanjiao; Zhou, Huihui; Liufu, Zhiguo

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of dietary lipid on the growth, fatty acid composition and Δ5 fatty acyl desaturase genes ( Fads) expression of juvenile abalone ( Haliotis discus hannai Ino) hepatopancreas. Six purified diets were formulated to contain tripalmitin (TP), olive oil (OO, 72.87% 18:1n-9), grape seed oil (GO, 68.67% 18:2n-6), linseed oil (LO, 70.48% 18:3n-3), ARA oil (AO, 41.81% ARA) or EPA oil (EO, 44.09% EPA and 23.67% DAH). No significant difference in survival rate was observed among abalone fed with different diets. Weight gain rate ( WGR) and daily growth rate of shell length ( DGR SL) were significantly increased in abalone fed with diets containing OO, AO and EO, but decreased in abalone fed with LO diet ( P Fads in hepatopancreas of abalone was enhanced by high concentration of 18:3n-3 and suppressed by dietary LC-PUFAs; however it was not affected by dietary high concentration of 18:1n-9 or 18:2n-6. These results provided valuable information for understanding the synthesis of LC-PUFAs and nutritional regulation of Δ5 Fads expression in abalone.

  7. Effect of administration of Lactobacillus crispatus, Clostridium lactatifermentans and dietary lactose on the development of the normal microflora and volatile fatty acids in the caeca of broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wielen, P W J J; van Knapen, F; Biesterveld, S

    2002-09-01

    1. Lactobacillus crispatus and Clostridium lactatifermentans, both isolated from the caeca of chickens, grown together in an in vitro model system are able to ferment lactose to acetate and propionate. In this study, the capabilities of these organisms were studied in vivo. 2. The effect on concentrations of volatile fatty acids and lactate, together with the development of some bacterial groups in the caeca of chicks, was studied after oral inoculation with L. crispatus and C. lactatifermentans together with dietary lactose. For this purpose, chicks were divided into 4 groups: (i) control group, (ii) dietary lactose, (iii) L. crispatus and C. lactatifermentans, and (iv) dietary lactose together with L. crispitaus and C. lactatifermentans. 3. In general, concentrations of (undissociated) volatile fatty acids in the caeca were not significantly different in broilers receiving both bacteria and dietary lactose compared with control broilers. Concentrations of lactate in the caeca of 14-d-old broilers treated with any of the three treatments were significantly higher than in the caeca of control broilers. 4. This indicates that L. crispatus or other lactate-producing organisms were responsible for the elevated concentrations of lactic acid. Clostridium lactatifermentans has probably not colonised the caeca sufficiently to ferment this lactate further to acetate and propionate. 5. Numbers of Enterobacteriaceae and enterococci in the caeca of broilers receiving both bacteria and dietary lactose were not different from control broilers. 6. We conclude from these results that under the conditions applied in this study a mixture of L. crispatus and C. lactatifermentans with dietary lactose was able to increase lactate concentrations but was unable to increase concentrates of acetate and propionate in the caeca of broiler chicks.

  8. Dietary Fatty Acids Differentially Associate with Fasting Versus 2-Hour Glucose Homeostasis: Implications for The Management of Subtypes of Prediabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Guess

    Full Text Available Over-nutrition has fuelled the global epidemic of type 2 diabetes, but the role of individual macronutrients to the diabetogenic process is not well delineated. We aimed to examine the impact of dietary fatty acid intake on fasting and 2-hour plasma glucose concentrations, as well as tissue-specific insulin action governing each. Normoglycemic controls (n = 15, athletes (n = 14, and obese (n = 23, as well as people with prediabetes (n = 10 and type 2 diabetes (n = 11, were queried about their habitual diet using a Food Frequency Questionnaire. All subjects were screened by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT and studied using the hyperinsulinemic/euglycemic clamp with infusion of 6,62H2-glucose. Multiple regression was performed to examine relationships between dietary fat intake and 1 fasting plasma glucose, 2 % suppression of endogenous glucose production, 3 2-hour post-OGTT plasma glucose, and 4 skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity (glucose rate of disappearance (Rd and non-oxidative glucose disposal (NOGD. The %kcal from saturated fat (SFA was positively associated with fasting (β = 0.303, P = 0.018 and 2-hour plasma glucose (β = 0.415, P<0.001, and negatively related to % suppression of hepatic glucose production (β = -0.245, P = 0.049, clamp Rd (β = -0.256, P = 0.001 and NOGD (β = -0.257, P = 0.001. The %kcal from trans fat was also negatively related to clamp Rd (β = -0.209, P = 0.008 and NOGD (β = -0.210, P = 0.008. In contrast, the %kcal from polyunsaturated fat (PUFA was negatively associated with 2-hour glucose levels (β = -0.383, P = 0.001, and positively related to Rd (β = 0.253, P = 0.007 and NOGD (β = 0.246, P = 0.008. Dietary advice to prevent diabetes should consider the underlying pathophysiology of the prediabetic state.

  9. Dietary Fatty Acids Differentially Associate with Fasting Versus 2-Hour Glucose Homeostasis: Implications for The Management of Subtypes of Prediabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guess, Nicola; Perreault, Leigh; Kerege, Anna; Strauss, Allison; Bergman, Bryan C

    2016-01-01

    Over-nutrition has fuelled the global epidemic of type 2 diabetes, but the role of individual macronutrients to the diabetogenic process is not well delineated. We aimed to examine the impact of dietary fatty acid intake on fasting and 2-hour plasma glucose concentrations, as well as tissue-specific insulin action governing each. Normoglycemic controls (n = 15), athletes (n = 14), and obese (n = 23), as well as people with prediabetes (n = 10) and type 2 diabetes (n = 11), were queried about their habitual diet using a Food Frequency Questionnaire. All subjects were screened by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and studied using the hyperinsulinemic/euglycemic clamp with infusion of 6,62H2-glucose. Multiple regression was performed to examine relationships between dietary fat intake and 1) fasting plasma glucose, 2) % suppression of endogenous glucose production, 3) 2-hour post-OGTT plasma glucose, and 4) skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity (glucose rate of disappearance (Rd) and non-oxidative glucose disposal (NOGD)). The %kcal from saturated fat (SFA) was positively associated with fasting (β = 0.303, P = 0.018) and 2-hour plasma glucose (β = 0.415, Prelated to % suppression of hepatic glucose production (β = -0.245, P = 0.049), clamp Rd (β = -0.256, P = 0.001) and NOGD (β = -0.257, P = 0.001). The %kcal from trans fat was also negatively related to clamp Rd (β = -0.209, P = 0.008) and NOGD (β = -0.210, P = 0.008). In contrast, the %kcal from polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) was negatively associated with 2-hour glucose levels (β = -0.383, P = 0.001), and positively related to Rd (β = 0.253, P = 0.007) and NOGD (β = 0.246, P = 0.008). Dietary advice to prevent diabetes should consider the underlying pathophysiology of the prediabetic state.

  10. Omega-3 fatty acids in mood disorders: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Christopher

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This review addresses the potential role of omega-3 fatty acids in mood disorders, from the biochemical rationale for their use to the growing body of data supporting their clinical efficacy.

  11. Interaction of (n-3) and (n-6) fatty acids in desaturation and chain elongation of essential fatty acids in cultured glioma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, H.W.; Spence, M.W.

    1987-01-01

    Recent research in various biological systems has revived interest in interactions between the (n-6) and (n-3) essential fatty acids. We have utilized cultured glioma cells to show that linolenic acid, 18:3(n-3), is rapidly desaturated and chain elongated; 20:5(n-3) is the major product and accumulates almost exclusively in phospholipids. We examined effects of various (n-6), (n-3), (n-9) and (n-7) fatty acids at 40 microM concentration on desaturation and chain elongation processes using [1- 14 C]18:3(n-3) as substrate. In general, monoenoic fatty acids were without effect. The (n-6) fatty acids (18:2, 18:3, 20:3, 20:4 and 22:4) had little effect on total product formed. There was a shift of labeled product to triacylglycerol, and in phospholipids, slightly enhanced conversion of 20:5 to 22:5 was evident. In contrast, 22:6(n-3) was inhibitory, whereas 20:3(n-3) and 20:5(n-3) had much less effect. At concentrations less than 75 microM, all acids were inhibitory. Most products were esterified to phosphatidylcholine, but phosphatidylethanolamine also contained a major portion of 20:5 and 22:5. We provide a condensed overview of how the (n-6) and (n-3) fatty acids interact to modify relative rates of desaturation and chain elongation, depending on the essential fatty acid precursor. Thus, the balance between these dietary acids can markedly influence enzymes providing crucial membrane components and substrates for biologically active oxygenated derivatives

  12. A randomised controlled trial of a Mediterranean Dietary Intervention for Adults with Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (MEDINA): study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papamiltiadous, Elena S; Roberts, Stuart K; Nicoll, Amanda J; Ryan, Marno C; Itsiopoulos, Catherine; Salim, Agus; Tierney, Audrey C

    2016-02-02

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, the most prevalent liver disease in developed countries, remains difficult to manage with no proven safe and effective pharmacotherapy available. While weight reduction is the most commonly practiced treatment strategy, this is difficult to both achieve and/or maintain in the majority. Furthermore evidence-based dietary recommendations to guide the nutritional management of these patients are lacking. Using a randomised controlled trial design, this study compares the effectiveness of the Mediterranean diet to a standard low fat diet in terms of differences in insulin sensitivity, hepatic steatosis and metabolic outcomes in participants with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Ninety four eligible patients who have non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and who are insulin resistant, will be randomised into either a Mediterranean or low fat diet group for a 3 month intervention period. Insulin sensitivity will be measured on peripheral blood using Homeostatic Model Assessment and liver fat content quantified using Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Both arms will consist of three face to face and three telephone call follow up consultations delivered by an Accredited Practicing Dietitian. The intervention arm focuses on recommendations from the traditional Mediterranean diet which have been tailored for use in the Australian population The standard arm uses the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating and the Australian National Heart Foundation dietary guidelines. Study recruitment will take place at four major metropolitan hospitals in Melbourne, Australia. Data collection will occur at all face to face reviews including baseline, 6, and 12 weeks. A follow up assessment to measure sustainability will take place at 6 and 12 months. The primary end point is improved insulin sensitivity scores at the 12 week time point. This trial aims to demonstrate in a large cohort of participants with NALFD that a Mediterranean diet independent of weight

  13. Balancing omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTF)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brenna, J Thomas; Akomo, Peter; Bahwere, Paluku

    2015-01-01

    -3 alpha-linolenic acid in RUTF did not. The results of these two small studies are consistent with well-established effects in animal studies and highlight the need for basic and operational research to improve fat composition in support of omega-3-specific development in young children as RUTF use......Ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTFs) are a key component of a life-saving treatment for young children who present with uncomplicated severe acute malnutrition in resource limited settings. Increasing recognition of the role of balanced dietary omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids...

  14. The Peroxisomal Enzyme L-PBE Is Required to Prevent the Dietary Toxicity of Medium-Chain Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ding

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Specific metabolic pathways are activated by different nutrients to adapt the organism to available resources. Although essential, these mechanisms are incompletely defined. Here, we report that medium-chain fatty acids contained in coconut oil, a major source of dietary fat, induce the liver ω-oxidation genes Cyp4a10 and Cyp4a14 to increase the production of dicarboxylic fatty acids. Furthermore, these activate all ω- and β-oxidation pathways through peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR α and PPARγ, an activation loop normally kept under control by dicarboxylic fatty acid degradation by the peroxisomal enzyme L-PBE. Indeed, L-pbe−/− mice fed coconut oil overaccumulate dicarboxylic fatty acids, which activate all fatty acid oxidation pathways and lead to liver inflammation, fibrosis, and death. Thus, the correct homeostasis of dicarboxylic fatty acids is a means to regulate the efficient utilization of ingested medium-chain fatty acids, and its deregulation exemplifies the intricate relationship between impaired metabolism and inflammation.

  15. N-3 fatty acids, neuronal activity and energy metabolism in the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harbeby Emilie

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The content of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in brain membranes is of crucial importance for the optimum development of brain functions. A lack of DHA accretion in the brain is accompanied by deficits in learning behavior linked to impairments in neurotransmission processes, which might result from alteration of brain fuel supply and hence energy metabolism. Experimental data we published support the hypothesis that n-3 fatty acids may modulate brain glucose utilization and metabolism. Indeed rats made deficient in DHA by severe depletion of total n-3 fatty acid intake have 1 a lower brain glucose utilization, 2 a decrease of the glucose transporter protein content GLUT1 both in endothelial cells and in astrocytes, 3 a repression of GLUT1 gene expression in basal state as well as upon neuronal activation. This could be due to the specific action of DHA on the regulation of GLUT1 expression since rat brain endothelial cells cultured with physiological doses of DHA had an increased GLUT1 protein content and glucose transport when compared to non-supplemented cells. These experimental data highlight the impact of n-3 fatty acids on the use of brain glucose, thereby constituting a key factor in the control of synaptic activity. This emerging role suggests that dietary intake of n-3 fatty acids can help to reduce the cognitive deficits in the elderly and possibly symptomatic cerebral metabolic alterations in Alzheimer disease by promoting brain glucose metabolism.

  16. Erythrocyte membrane omega-3 fatty acid levels and omega-3 fatty acid intake are not associated with conversion to type 1 diabetes in children with islet autoimmunity: the Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young (DAISY).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Melissa R; Yin, Xiang; Seifert, Jennifer; Clare-Salzler, Michael; Eisenbarth, George S; Rewers, Marian; Norris, Jill M

    2011-12-01

    We investigated whether omega-3 fatty acid intake and erythrocyte membrane omega-3 fatty acid levels are associated with conversion to type 1 diabetes in children with islet autoimmunity (IA). The Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young is following children at increased genetic risk for type 1 diabetes for the development of persistent IA, as defined as being positive for glutamic acid decarboxylase 65, i, or insulin autoantibodies on two consecutive visits, and then for the development of type 1 diabetes, as diagnosed by a physician. One hundred and sixty-seven children with persistent IA were followed for a mean of 4.8 yr, and 45 of these developed type 1 diabetes at a mean age of 8.7 yr. Erythrocyte membrane fatty acids (as a percent of total lipid) and dietary fatty acid intake (estimated via food frequency questionnaire) were analyzed as time-varying covariates in proportional hazards survival analysis, with follow-up time starting at detection of the first autoantibody. Neither dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids nor omega-6 fatty acids were associated with conversion to type 1 diabetes, adjusting for human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR, family history of type 1 diabetes, age at first IA positivity, maternal age, maternal education, and maternal ethnicity. Adjusting for HLA-DR, family history of type 1 diabetes and age at first IA positivity, omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid levels of erythrocyte membranes were not associated with conversion to type 1 diabetes. In this observational study, omega-3 fatty acid intake and status are not associated with conversion to type 1 diabetes in children with IA. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Total n-3 fatty acid and SFA intakes in relation to insulin resistance in a Canadian First Nation at risk for the development of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquet, Catherine; Propsting, Sarah L; Daniel, Mark

    2014-06-01

    The present study sought to investigate the associations of total n-3 fatty acid and SFA intakes with insulin resistance in a Canadian First Nation sample at risk for type 2 diabetes. Fasting values for glucose and insulin were used to estimate insulin resistance by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). Intakes of n-3 fatty acids and SFA were computed from dietary food and drink data obtained using 3 d food records. Associations between HOMA-IR and dietary n-3 and SFA consumption were tested using linear regression models accounting for age, sex, community, education, physical activity, waist circumference, fibre, protein and carbohydrate intakes, and HDL-cholesterol and TAG concentrations. Rural Okanagan region of British Columbia, Canada. On-reserve First Nation individuals (Interior Salishan) aged 18 years and over, recruited for community-based diabetes screening and determined to be normoglycaemic (n 126). HOMA-IR was negatively associated with dietary n-3 fatty acid intake (β = -0·22; 95 % CI -0·39, -0·04; P = 0·016) and positively associated with dietary SFA intake (β = 0·34; 95 % CI 0·15, 0·53; P = 0·0 0 1). Intake of dietary n-3 fatty acids may be protective against whereas SFA intake may promote insulin resistance in this high-risk Canadian First Nation sample. Reduced dietary SFA intake and greater n-3 fatty acid intake may assist the prevention of glycaemic disease among First Nations peoples. More rigorous, controlled trials are required to test whether dietary supplementation with n-3 fatty acids in natural or supplement-based form might reduce diabetes risk in high-risk aboriginal groups.

  18. Effect of dietary fatty acids on the postprandial fatty acid composition of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins in healthy male subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bysted, Anette; Holmer, G.; Lund, Pia

    2005-01-01

    interesterified test fats with equal amounts of palmitic acid ( P fat), stearic acid (S fat), trans-18: 1 isomers (T fat), oleic acid (O fat), or linoleic acid (L fat) were tested. Subjects: A total of 16 healthy, normolipidaemic males ( age 23 +/- 2 y) were recruited. Interventions: The participants ingested fat......Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of trans-18: 1 isomers compared to other fatty acids, especially saturates, on the postprandial fatty acid composition of triacylglycerols ( TAG) in chylomicrons and VLDL. Design: A randomised crossover experiment where five......-rich test meals ( 1 g fat per kg body weight) and the fatty acid profiles of chylomicron and VLDL TAG were followed for 8 h. Results: The postprandial fatty acid composition of chylomicron TAG resembled that of the ingested fats. The fatty acids in chylomicron TAG were randomly distributed among the three...

  19. Differential changes in the fatty acid composition of the main lipid classes of chick plasma induced by dietary coconut oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Fuentes, E; Gil-Villarino, A; Zafra, M F; García-Peregrín, E

    2002-10-01

    For a better understanding of the hyperlipidemic function of saturated fat, we have studied the comparative effects of diet supplementation with 10 and 20% coconut oil on the main lipid classes of chick plasma. Changes in fatty acid composition of free fatty acid and triglyceride fractions were parallel to that of the experimental diet. Thus, the increase in the percentages of 12:0 and 14:0 acids may contribute to the hypercholesterolemic effects of coconut oil feeding. Plasma phospholipids incorporated low levels of 12:0 and 14:0 acids whereas 18:0, the main saturated fatty acid of this fraction, also increased after coconut oil feeding. The percentage of 20:4 n-6 was higher in plasma phospholipids than in the other fractions and was significantly decreased by our dietary manipulations. Likewise, minor increases were found in the percentages of 12:0 and 14:0 acids in plasma cholesterol esters. However, the percentage of 18:2 acid significantly increased after coconut oil feeding. Our results show a relationship between fatty acid composition of diets and those of plasma free fatty acid and triglyceride fractions, whereas phospholipids and cholesterol esters are less sensitive to dietary changes.

  20. An Overview of Dietary Interventions and Strategies to Optimize the Management of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon J. Perumpail

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the efficacy of lifestyle adjustment strategies as a preventive measure and/or treatment of obesity-related non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in adults. Method: A systematic review of literature through 1 July 2017 on the PubMed Database was performed. A comprehensive search was conducted using key terms, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, combined with lifestyle intervention, diet, and exercise. All of the articles and studies obtained from the search were reviewed. Redundant literature was excluded. Results: Several types of dietary compositions and exercise techniques were identified. Most studies concluded and recommended reduction in the intake of saturated and trans fatty acids, carbohydrates, and animal-based protein, and increased intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs, plant-based proteins, antioxidants, and other nutrients was recommended. The Mediterranean and Paleo diet both seem to be promising schemes for NAFLD patients to follow. Exercise was also encouraged, but the type of exercise did not affect its efficacy as a NAFLD treatment when the duration is consistent. Conclusions: Although these different dietary strategies and exercise regimens can be adopted to treat NAFLD, current literature on the topic is limited in scope. Further research should be conducted to truly elucidate which lifestyle adjustments individually, and in combination, may facilitate patients with obesity-related NAFLD.

  1. The impact of omega 3 fatty acids in atherosclerosis and arterial stiffness: An overview of their actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verveniotis, Alexios; Siasos, Gerasimos; Oikonomou, Evangelos; Tsigkou, Vasiliki; Papageorgiou, Nikolaos; Zaromitidou, Marina; Psaltopoulou, Theodora; Marinos, Georgios; Deftereos, Spyridon; Vavuranakis, Manolis; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Papavassiliou, Athanasios G; Tousoulis, Dimitris

    2018-03-20

    Fatty acids are common dietary nutrients particularly in economically developed countries. Research has revealed that omega-3fatty acids exert beneficial effects in the progression of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Moreover, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid possess a number of biological actions which improve cardio-metabolic health. Omega-3 fatty acids display remarkable anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic and anti-arrythmogenic actions. Furthermore, they improve the levels of triglycerides, glucose metabolism and endothelial function. The aim of this review article is to present physical, biochemical and biological properties of omega-3 fatty acids and summarize the most important mechanisms of action on arterial wall properties and arterial stiffness in atherosclerosis. Omega-3 fatty acids may prevent the progression of atherosclerosis. Endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffness can be regulated by the supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids. The mechanisms of action of omega-3 fatty acids on cardiovascular health and arterial stiffening have been established. However, further research is needed in order to translate the conflicting results among the studies and improve the therapeutic options of cardiovascular disease. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. Immunoregulating Potential of Omega 3 Fatty Acids: Usage for Frequent Infectious Diseases Prevention in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Ovcharenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Last years more and more investigations aim to study immune modulating function of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA the usage of which in practice could prevent development of acute respiratory diseases and allergic states. Among majority of LCPUFA omega 3 fatty acids are of greater interest. The authors of this article review several stu­dies and represents own investigation of impact of dietary supplement with omega 3 fatty acids complex («Omegami Smart Kid» on acute respiratory diseases reduction in children with recurrent forms of acute respiratory infectious pathology. Immunotropic action of dietary supplement of «Omegami Smart Kid» in children was associated with enhanced functioning of congenital and adaptive immunity. Immunoregulating target was associated with limited pro-inflammatory inclination of immunity as a nitro blue tetrazolium reduction test improvement, decreased CD25 and serum content of tumor necrosis factor α while an absence of concurrent immune suppression of anti-microbial protective potential.

  3. The effect of n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratios on broiler breeder performance, hatchability, fatty acid profile and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatibjoo, A; Kermanshahi, H; Golian, A; Zaghari, M

    2018-04-20

    This experiment was conducted to study the effect of dietary omega6 (n-6) to omega3 (n-3) fatty acid (FA) ratios on performance and reproduction of broiler breeders. In experiment 1, 400 females and 40 males (30 week age) of Ross 308 broiler breeder (20 females and two males in each pen) were randomly assigned to one of the four diets with n-6/n-3 FA ratios of 4, 6, 8 and 16 (control). As a measure of hatchability, fertility of eggs and general incubation traits, 1,200 eggs (60 eggs from each pen) were collected and incubated for 21 days and embryo liver and brain fatty acid profile in 14 and 21 days were determined. In experiment 2, 48 males (three males in each pen) randomly assigned to one of the four diets with n-6/n-3 FA ratios of 4, 6, 8 and 16 (control). Semen was collected twice weekly, and semen volume, spermatozoa concentration and motility and alive and dead spermatozoa were estimated. Egg production and egg mass were decreased by n-6/n-3 FA ratios of 4:1 and 6:1 (p n-3 of egg yolk, semen, testis and liver and brain of embryo and day-old chicken were increased while concentration of linoleic acid, arachidonic acid and docosatetraenoic acid of mentioned tissues were decreased by increasing n-6/n-3 FA ratios (p > .05). In conclusion, absolute amount of n-3 and n-6 FAs in broiler breeder diet may be more important than n-6/n-3 FA ratios and to consider reproductive and performance traits of breeders, it is necessary to supply higher levels of n-3 and n-6 FA with respect to n-6/n-3 FA ratios. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Effect of diet and omega-3 fatty acid intervention on asymmetric dimethylarginine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyberg Torstein

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and aim Impaired vasodilatation has been suggested to be caused by inhibition of nitric oxide generation by the recently described asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA. In the present study we wanted to explore whether n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA supplementation and/or diet intervention have beneficial influence on endothelial function assessed as plasma levels of ADMA and L-arginine. Methods A male population (n = 563, age 70 ± 6 yrs with long-standing hyperlipidemia, characterized as high risk individuals in 1970–72, was included, randomly allocated to receive placebo n-3 PUFA capsules (corn oil and no dietary advice (control group, dietary advice (Mediterranean type, n-3 PUFA capsules, or dietary advice and n-3 PUFA combined and followed for 3 years. Fasting blood samples were drawn at baseline and the end of the study. Results Compliance with both intervention regimens were demonstrated by changes in serum fatty acids and by recordings from a food frequency questionnaire. No influence of either regimens on ADMA levels were obtained. However, n-3 PUFA supplementation was accompanied by a significant increase in L-arginine levels, different from the decrease observed in the placebo group (p 2, the decrease in L-arginine on placebo was strengthened (p = 0.01, and the L-arginine/ADMA ratio was also significantly reduced (p = 0.04. Conclusion In this rather large randomized intervention study, ADMA levels were not influenced by n-3 PUFA supplementation or dietary counselling. n-3 PUFA did, however, counteract the age-related reduction in L-arginine seen on placebo, especially in lean individuals, which might be discussed as an improvement of endothelial function.

  5. Alternative Sources of n-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Marine Microalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Dulce Alves; Custódio, Luísa; Barreira, Luísa; Pereira, Hugo; Ben-Hamadou, Radhouan; Varela, João; Abu-Salah, Khalid M.

    2013-01-01

    The main source of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) in human nutrition is currently seafood, especially oily fish. Nonetheless, due to cultural or individual preferences, convenience, geographic location, or awareness of risks associated to fatty fish consumption, the intake of fatty fish is far from supplying the recommended dietary levels. The end result observed in most western countries is not only a low supply of n-3 LC-PUFA, but also an unbalance towards the intake of n-6 fatty acids, resulting mostly from the consumption of vegetable oils. Awareness of the benefits of LC-PUFA in human health has led to the use of fish oils as food supplements. However, there is a need to explore alternatives sources of LC-PUFA, especially those of microbial origin. Microalgae species with potential to accumulate lipids in high amounts and to present elevated levels of n-3 LC-PUFA are known in marine phytoplankton. This review focuses on sources of n-3 LC-PUFA, namely eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, in marine microalgae, as alternatives to fish oils. Based on current literature, examples of marketed products and potentially new species for commercial exploitation are presented. PMID:23807546

  6. Alternative Sources of n-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Marine Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Varela

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The main source of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA in human nutrition is currently seafood, especially oily fish. Nonetheless, due to cultural or individual preferences, convenience, geographic location, or awareness of risks associated to fatty fish consumption, the intake of fatty fish is far from supplying the recommended dietary levels. The end result observed in most western countries is not only a low supply of n-3 LC-PUFA, but also an unbalance towards the intake of n-6 fatty acids, resulting mostly from the consumption of vegetable oils. Awareness of the benefits of LC-PUFA in human health has led to the use of fish oils as food supplements. However, there is a need to explore alternatives sources of LC-PUFA, especially those of microbial origin. Microalgae species with potential to accumulate lipids in high amounts and to present elevated levels of n-3 LC-PUFA are known in marine phytoplankton. This review focuses on sources of n-3 LC-PUFA, namely eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, in marine microalgae, as alternatives to fish oils. Based on current literature, examples of marketed products and potentially new species for commercial exploitation are presented.

  7. Role of 3-Hydroxy Fatty Acid-Induced Hepatic Lipotoxicity in Acute Fatty Liver of Pregnancy

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    Sathish Kumar Natarajan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP, a catastrophic illness for both the mother and the unborn offspring, develops in the last trimester of pregnancy with significant maternal and perinatal mortality. AFLP is also recognized as an obstetric and medical emergency. Maternal AFLP is highly associated with a fetal homozygous mutation (1528G>C in the gene that encodes for mitochondrial long-chain hydroxy acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD. The mutation in LCHAD results in the accumulation of 3-hydroxy fatty acids, such as 3-hydroxy myristic acid, 3-hydroxy palmitic acid and 3-hydroxy dicarboxylic acid in the placenta, which are then shunted to the maternal circulation leading to the development of acute liver injury observed in patients with AFLP. In this review, we will discuss the mechanistic role of increased 3-hydroxy fatty acid in causing lipotoxicity to the liver and in inducing oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and hepatocyte lipoapoptosis. Further, we also review the role of 3-hydroxy fatty acids in causing placental damage, pancreatic islet β-cell glucolipotoxicity, brain damage, and retinal epithelial cells lipoapoptosis in patients with LCHAD deficiency.

  8. Role of 3-Hydroxy Fatty Acid-Induced Hepatic Lipotoxicity in Acute Fatty Liver of Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibdah, Jamal A.

    2018-01-01

    Acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP), a catastrophic illness for both the mother and the unborn offspring, develops in the last trimester of pregnancy with significant maternal and perinatal mortality. AFLP is also recognized as an obstetric and medical emergency. Maternal AFLP is highly associated with a fetal homozygous mutation (1528G>C) in the gene that encodes for mitochondrial long-chain hydroxy acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD). The mutation in LCHAD results in the accumulation of 3-hydroxy fatty acids, such as 3-hydroxy myristic acid, 3-hydroxy palmitic acid and 3-hydroxy dicarboxylic acid in the placenta, which are then shunted to the maternal circulation leading to the development of acute liver injury observed in patients with AFLP. In this review, we will discuss the mechanistic role of increased 3-hydroxy fatty acid in causing lipotoxicity to the liver and in inducing oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and hepatocyte lipoapoptosis. Further, we also review the role of 3-hydroxy fatty acids in causing placental damage, pancreatic islet β-cell glucolipotoxicity, brain damage, and retinal epithelial cells lipoapoptosis in patients with LCHAD deficiency. PMID:29361796

  9. Relationship Between Circulating Fatty Acids and Fatty Acid Ethanolamide Levels After a Single 2-h Dietary Fat Feeding in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats : Elevated levels of oleoylethanolamide, palmitoylethanolamide, linoleoylethanolamide, arachidonoylethanolamide and docosahexanoylethanolamide after a single 2 h dietary fat feeding in male Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatinsu, Anthonia O; Sihag, Jyoti; Jones, Peter J H

    2017-11-01

    Previous studies show that long term variations in dietary fat consumption impact circulating fatty acid ethanolamide (FAE) concentrations, however, few studies have investigated short term effects of dietary fat feeding on FAE levels. The trial's objective was to explore the effect of acute feeding of varying amounts of dietary n-9 and n-3 fatty acids on plasma and organ levels of FAE. Sixty-four rats were assigned to four groups fed meals containing 40% of energy as either safflower oil (control), canola oil (CO), or DHA rich oil (DRO), each consumed as a bolus within a 2-h window. Plasma and tissue FAE levels were measured at 3, 6, 12 and 24 h following the bolus. FAE profiles over time exhibited patterns that were specific both to FAE and to dietary fat type provided. At 3 h, plasma and liver OEA levels were higher (p fat types impacts tissue levels of FAE within a short time frame, which could further influence the physiological roles of FAE on appetite regulation and energy expenditure.

  10. Correlations between Fruit, Vegetables, Fish, Vitamins, and Fatty Acids Estimated by Web-Based Nonconsecutive Dietary Records and Respective Biomarkers of Nutritional Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassale, Camille; Castetbon, Katia; Laporte, François; Deschamps, Valérie; Vernay, Michel; Camilleri, Géraldine M; Faure, Patrice; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2016-03-01

    It is of major importance to measure the validity of self-reported dietary intake using web-based instruments before applying them in large-scale studies. This study aimed to validate self-reported intake of fish, fruit and vegetables, and selected micronutrient intakes assessed by a web-based self-administered dietary record tool used in the NutriNet-Santé prospective cohort study, against the following concentration biomarkers: plasma beta carotene, vitamin C, and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. One hundred ninety-eight adult volunteers (103 men and 95 women, mean age=50.5 years) were included in the protocol: they completed 3 nonconsecutive-day dietary records and two blood samples were drawn 3 weeks apart. The study was conducted in the area of Paris, France, between October 2012 and May 2013. Reported fish, fruit and vegetables, and selected micronutrient intakes and plasma beta carotene, vitamin C, and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels were compared. Simple and adjusted Spearman's rank correlation coefficients were estimated after de-attenuation for intra-individual variation. Regarding food groups in men, adjusted correlations ranged from 0.20 for vegetables and plasma vitamin C to 0.49 for fruits and plasma vitamin C, and from 0.40 for fish and plasma c20:5 n-3 (eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA]) to 0.55 for fish and plasma c22:6 n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid). In women, correlations ranged from 0.13 (nonsignificant) for vegetables and plasma vitamin C to 0.41 for fruits and vegetables and plasma beta carotene, and from 0.27 for fatty fish and EPA to 0.54 for fish and EPA+docosahexaenoic acid. Regarding micronutrients, adjusted correlations ranged from 0.36 (EPA) to 0.58 (vitamin C) in men and from 0.32 (vitamin C) to 0.38 (EPA) in women. The findings suggest that three nonconsecutive web-based dietary records provide reasonable estimates of true intake of fruits, vegetables, fish, beta carotene, vitamin C, and n-3 fatty acids. Along with other validation

  11. Fat accumulation, fatty acids and melting point changes in broiler chick abdominal fat as affected by time of dietary fat feeding and slaughter age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, J M; Lopez-Bote, C J; Daza, A; Rey, A I

    2017-03-23

    1. This work aims to quantify changes in fatty acid profile, melting point, abdominal fat accumulation and 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances production depending on dietary fat source and age at slaughter, and to estimate the optimal date for the change from an unsaturated fat to a saturated fat diet or vice versa. 2. Treatments established were (1) birds fed 8% tallow from 21 to 49 d (TTT); (2) birds fed 8% tallow from 21 to 37 d and 8% sunflower oil from d 38 to 49 (TSS); (3) birds fed 8% sunflower oil from 21 to 37 d and 8% tallow from d 38 to 49 (STT); (4) birds fed 8% sunflower oil from 21 to 41 d and 8% tallow from d 42 to 49 (SST); (5) birds fed 8% sunflower oil from 21 to 49 d (SSS). Birds from each group were slaughtered on d 21, 29, 38, 40, 42, 44, 46 and 49. 3. The polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) proportion in the SSS group reached maximum values at d 40 and fitted a quadratic response. This group also showed a decrease in saturated fatty acids (SATs) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) of lower intensity than the PUFA increase. The highest synthesis of SAT + MUFA was found in the SSS and TSS groups, whereas these had the lowest body-to-dietary PUFA ratio. 4. A high and quadratic increase in the MUFA proportion was observed during the first 10 d of feeding with the tallow-enriched diet at the expenses of the proportion of PUFA that quadratically decreased (minimum values at d 38). 5. Lipogenic and desaturation capacity decreased with age. 6. The TSS group increased tissue PUFA content faster that the SST group decreased PUFA content after the change in diet which indicates that the earlier feeding has to be taken into consideration for obtaining higher or lower changes in quality parameters. 7. The melting point of the SSS group showed a lower response to the dietary treatment in the initial period when compared to the TTT treatment. 8. The TTT, STT, SST and TSS groups showed similar fat accumulation, and changes in lipid

  12. The Current Role of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in the Management of Atrial Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios A. Christou

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The main dietary source of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA is fish, which contains eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. In the present manuscript, we aimed to review the current evidence regarding the clinical role of n-3 PUFA in the prevention of atrial fibrillation (AF and the possible underlying mechanisms. Methods: A literature search based on PubMed listings was performed using “Omega-3 fatty acids” and “atrial fibrilation” as key search terms. Results: n-3 PUFA have been shown to attenuate structural atrial remodeling, prolong atrial effective refractory period through the prevention of reentry and suppress ectopic firing from pulmonary veins. Dietary fish intake has been found to have no effect on the incidence of AF in the majority of studies. Circulating DHA has been consistently reported to be inversely associated with AF risk, whereas EPA has no such effect. The majority of studies investigating the impact of n-3 PUFA supplementation on the incidence of AF following cardiac surgery reported no benefit, though most of them did not use n-3 PUFA pretreatment for adequate duration. Studies using adequate four-week pretreatment with n-3 PUFA before cardioversion of AF showed a reduction of the AF incidence. Conclusions: Although n-3 PUFA have antiarrhythmogenic properties, their clinical efficacy on the prevention of AF is not consistently supported. Further well-designed studies are needed to overcome the limitations of the existing studies and provide robust conclusions.

  13. A review of nutritional effects on fat composition of animal products with special emphasis on n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouba, Maryline; Mourot, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of animal products (eggs, milk and meat) is the reflect of both the tissue fatty acid biosynthesis and the fatty acid composition of ingested lipids. This relationship is stronger in monogastrics (pigs, poultry and rabbits) than in ruminants, where dietary fatty acids are hydrogenated in the rumen. There is an increasing recognition of the health benefits of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), because these fatty acids are essential for humans. In addition, the ratio n-6/n-3 fatty acids in the human diet is important. This ratio by far exceeds the recommended value of 5. Therefore, inclusion of fish meals, or n-3 PUFA rich oils, or linseed in animal diets is a valid means of meeting consumer demand for animal products that are nutritionally beneficial. The studies that are undertaken on animals mainly use diets supplemented with linseed, as a source of n-3 fatty acids. The use of linseed diets generally leads to an increased n-3 fatty acid content in animal products (egg, meat, milk) in ruminants and monogastrics. Recent studies have also demonstrated that neither the processing nor the cooking affects the PUFA content of pork meat or meat products. The ability of unsaturated fatty acids, especially those with more than two double bonds, to rapidly oxidise, is important in regulating the shelf life of animal products (rancidity and colour deterioration); however, a good way to avoid such problems is to use antioxidant products (such as vitamin E) in the diet. Some studies also show that it is not necessary to feed animals with linseed-supplemented diets for a long time to have the highest increase in PUFA content of the products. So, short-term diet manipulation can be a practical reality for industry. As the market for n-3 PUFA enriched products is today limited in most countries, other studies must be undertaken to develop this kind of production. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of a 3 strain -based direct-fed microbial and dietary fiber concentration on growth performance and expression of genes related to absorption and metabolism of volatile fatty acids in weanling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, N W; Owusu-Asiedu, A; Walsh, M C; McCann, J C; Loor, J J; Stein, H H

    2017-01-01

    Effects of a -based direct-fed microbial (DFM) on growth performance, plasma tumor necrosis factor ɑ (TNFɑ), relative gene expression, and intestinal VFA concentrations in weanling pigs fed low- or high-fiber diets were evaluated. Two hundred pigs (initial BW: 6.31 ± 0.73 kg) were allotted to 1 of 4 dietary treatments (5 pigs per pen and 10 pens per treatment). Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial design with 2 diet types [low-fiber (LF) or high-fiber (HF)] and 2 concentrations of DFM (0 or 60 g DFM/t of feed). The DFM contained 1.5 × 10 cfu/g and was obtained from Danisco Animal Nutrition-DuPont Industrial Biosciences, Marlborough, UK. Phase 1 diets were fed for 2 wk post-weaning and phase 2 diets were fed over the following 29 d. Low fiber diets contained corn and soybean meal as main ingredients and HF diets contained corn, soybean meal, corn distillers dried grains with solubles (7.5 and 15.0% in phase 1 and 2, respectively), and wheat middlings (10.0%). Pigs and feed were weighed at the start and at the end of each phase, and ADG, ADFI, and G:F were calculated. At the conclusion of phase 2, blood was collected from 1 pig per pen and 1 pig per pen was sacrificed. Cecum and rectum contents were analyzed for VFA, and tissue samples were collected from the ileum, cecum, rectum, and liver to determine expression of genes related to absorption and metabolism of VFA using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. Results indicated that feeding HF diets reduced ( ≤ 0.05) ADFI and ADG of pigs compared with feeding LF diets. Pigs fed DFM diets had improved ( ≤ 0.05) G:F compared with pigs fed non-DFM diets. Pigs fed LF diets had greater ( ≤ 0.05) BW at the end of phase 2 compared with pigs fed HF diets. The concentration of VFA in rectum contents was greater ( ≤ 0.05) in pigs fed LF diets than in pigs fed HF diets. The expression of in the rectum of pigs fed HF diets was greater ( ≤ 0.05) than for pigs fed LF diets, and pigs fed DFM

  15. Effects on lactating dairy cows of oscillating dietary concentrations of unsaturated and total long-chain fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, W P; Shoemaker, D E; McBeth, L R; St-Pierre, N R

    2013-01-01

    The nutrient composition of diets can vary from batch to batch because of variation in the nutrient composition of ingredients. The concentration of fat in distillers grains can be highly variable and, coupled with a high dietary inclusion rate, can result in substantial variation in the fat concentration of the total diet. Our hypothesis was that variation in dietary fat concentrations over short periods would have negative effects on production measures of dairy cattle. Twenty-four Holstein cows were used in 8 truncated Latin squares (3 cows × 2 periods). Periods were 16 d long, with a 12-d washout period separating the 2 periods. The 3 treatments were 1) control, 2) moderate variation, and 3) high variation. The control treatment was a consistent diet over the 16 d and contained 5.8% (dry basis) total long-chain fatty acids (LCFA), 23.7% distillers grains, and 1.1% of dry matter as corn oil. The average concentration of LCFA over the 16-d period for the moderate variation and high variation treatments was also 5.9%, but concentrations of LCFA varied over time by the addition or removal of corn oil. The moderate variation treatment had a 4-d phase of 5.4% LCFA, followed by a 4-d phase with 6.4% LCFA to complete the cycle, and then the cycle was repeated. The high variation treatment followed the same cycle pattern, but concentration of LCFA was either 4.8 or 7.0%. Over the 16 d, dry matter intake and milk yield were significantly decreased by the high variation treatment (intake = 21.7, 21.8, and 20.7 kg/d; milk = 36.4, 37.6, and 35.4 kg/d for the control, moderate variation, and high variation treatments). The effect of variation appeared to be cumulative; differences were not significant in the first 8-d cycle but were in the second 8-d cycle. Milk fat concentration was low (2.4%) and was not affected by treatment or cycle × treatment. The concentration of trans-10 C18:1 in milk fat was very high (4.2% of total milk fatty acids) but was not affected by

  16. Dietary fatty acids influence the growth and fatty acid composition of the yellow mealworm Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreassi, Elena; Cito, Annarita; Zanfini, Assunta; Materozzi, Lara; Botta, Maurizio; Francardi, Valeria

    2017-03-01

    Fat is the second most abundant component of the nutrient composition of the mealworm Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) that represents also an interesting source of PUFA, especially n-6 and n-3 fatty acids, involved in prevention of cardiovascular diseases. This study investigated the possibility of modifying the fat content and the FA composition of yellow mealworms through feeding and how this would be influenced by developmental stages, pupal sex, and generation with the future aim of applying this coleopteran as a diet supplement for human health. Growth rate and cumulative mortality percentage on the different feeding substrates were also evaluated to select the optimal conditions for a mass-raising of this insect species. Despite the different fat content in the six different breeding substrates used, T. molitor larvae and pupae contained a constant fat percentage (>34% in larvae and >30% in pupae). A similar total fat content was found comparing larvae and male and female pupae of the second generation to those of the first generation. On the contrary, FA composition differed both in larvae and pupae reared on the different feeding substrates. However, the exemplars reared on the diets based on 100% bread and 100% oat flour showed SFA, PUFA percentages, and an n-6/n-3 ratio more suitable for human consumption; the diet based on beer yeast, wheat flour, and oat flour resulted in a contemporary diet that most satisfied the balance between a fat composition of high quality and favorable growth conditions.

  17. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Skeletal Muscle Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Jeromson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle is a plastic tissue capable of adapting and mal-adapting to physical activity and diet. The response of skeletal muscle to adaptive stimuli, such as exercise, can be modified by the prior nutritional status of the muscle. The influence of nutrition on skeletal muscle has the potential to substantially impact physical function and whole body metabolism. Animal and cell based models show that omega-3 fatty acids, in particular those of marine origin, can influence skeletal muscle metabolism. Furthermore, recent human studies demonstrate that omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin can influence the exercise and nutritional response of skeletal muscle. These studies show that the prior omega-3 status influences not only the metabolic response of muscle to nutrition, but also the functional response to a period of exercise training. Omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin therefore have the potential to alter the trajectory of a number of human diseases including the physical decline associated with aging. We explore the potential molecular mechanisms by which omega-3 fatty acids may act in skeletal muscle, considering the n-3/n-6 ratio, inflammation and lipidomic remodelling as possible mechanisms of action. Finally, we suggest some avenues for further research to clarify how omega-3 fatty acids may be exerting their biological action in skeletal muscle.

  18. Mono-unsaturated fatty acids link H3K4me3 modifiers to C. elegans lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shuo; Schroeder, Elizabeth A; Silva-García, Carlos G; Hebestreit, Katja; Mair, William B; Brunet, Anne

    2017-04-13

    Chromatin and metabolic states both influence lifespan, but how they interact in lifespan regulation is largely unknown. The COMPASS chromatin complex, which trimethylates lysine 4 on histone H3 (H3K4me3), regulates lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans. However, the mechanism by which H3K4me3 modifiers affect longevity, and whether this mechanism involves metabolic changes, remain unclear. Here we show that a deficiency in H3K4me3 methyltransferase, which extends lifespan, promotes fat accumulation in worms with a specific enrichment of mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs). This fat metabolism switch in H3K4me3 methyltransferase-deficient worms is mediated at least in part by the downregulation of germline targets, including S6 kinase, and by the activation of an intestinal transcriptional network that upregulates delta-9 fatty acid desaturases. Notably, the accumulation of MUFAs is necessary for the lifespan extension of H3K4me3 methyltransferase-deficient worms, and dietary MUFAs are sufficient to extend lifespan. Given the conservation of lipid metabolism, dietary or endogenous MUFAs could extend lifespan and healthspan in other species, including mammals.

  19. Effects of immediate-release niacin and dietary fatty acids on acute insulin and lipid status in individuals with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montserrat-de la Paz, Sergio; Lopez, Sergio; Bermudez, Beatriz; Guerrero, Juan M; Abia, Rocio; Muriana, Francisco Jg

    2018-04-01

    The nature of dietary fats profoundly affects postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and glucose homeostasis. Niacin is a potent lipid-lowering agent. However, limited data exist on postprandial triglycerides and glycemic control following co-administration of high-fat meals with a single dose of niacin in subjects with metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of the study was to explore whether a fat challenge containing predominantly saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) or MUFAs plus omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated (LCPUFAs) fatty acids together with a single dose of immediate-release niacin have a relevant role in postprandial insulin and lipid status in subjects with MetS. In a randomized crossover within-subject design, 16 men with MetS were given a single dose of immediate-release niacin (2 g) and ∼15 cal kg -1 body weight meals containing either SFAs, MUFAs, MUFAs plus omega-3 LCPUFAs or no fat. At baseline and hourly over 6 h, plasma glucose, insulin, C-peptide, triglycerides, free fatty acids (FFAs), total cholesterol, and both high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were assessed. Co-administered with niacin, high-fat meals significantly increased the postprandial concentrations of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, triglycerides, FFAs and postprandial indices of β-cell function. However, postprandial indices of insulin sensitivity were significantly decreased. These effects were significantly attenuated with MUFAs or MUFAs plus omega-3 LCPUFAs when compared with SFAs. In the setting of niacin co-administration and compared to dietary SFAs, MUFAs limit the postprandial insulin, triglyceride and FFA excursions, and improve postprandial glucose homeostasis in MetS. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Relation between Omega 3 Fatty Acid, Iron, Zinc and Treatment of ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Shalileh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In some studies, it is suggested that a number of dietary factors including essential fatty acid, iron and zinc deficiency, may be linked to attention-deficit/hyperactivity-disorder (ADHD. However, the exact mechanism of this relationship is yet unclear. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between omega-3 fatty acids, zinc, and iron in etiopathology and management of ADHD. For the purpose of this study, Science Direct, PubMed, and Medline databases were explored and thirty-four relevant articles in english language were collected. Eighteen out of twenty-two studies confirmed the relationship between omega-3 fatty acid and ADHD. In addition, the role of insufficient store of iron in developing ADHD symptoms and the positive effect of iron supplement in improvement of ADHD behavioral symptoms have been shown. Also, plasma zinc concentration in children with ADHD was lower than the normal population, and the effect of zinc supplement on reducing on attentive-deficit symptoms was contradictory. Although polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and iron supplements are not suggested as main treatment for ADHD, but if future studies confirm the positive results of that, use of these supplements as complementary treatment will affect ADHD symptoms. Considering the little amount of studies on zinc, more research is necessary.

  1. The impact of dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on bone and cartilage in gilts and sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor-Robison, C I; Spencer, J D; Orth, M W

    2014-10-01

    Dietary long-chain PFO including arachidonic acid (ARA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are precursors for several inflammatory mediators. The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of dietary PFO supplementation on bone, cartilage, and synovial fluid in 2 ages of pigs. Sows and gilts were fed either control corn/soybean meal based diets or the control diet supplemented with PFO from Gromega (PFO; JBS United, Sheridan, IN). Sows were fed their diets for 24.5 mo and slaughtered at 43 mo while gilts were fed their diets from weaning until slaughter at 111 kg. Cartilage was harvested from both humeroulnar joints of 14 sows (7/treatment) and 16 gilts (8/treatment) within 30 h of slaughter for fatty acid analysis and explant cultures. Synovial fluid was collected from the carpal joints of each pig postmortem. The right fused radius/ulna was collected for computed tomography (CT) analysis. Cortical width and density were determined and trabecular density was measured at the distal radius. Cartilage explants were allocated to 24-well culture plates with 2 discs per well and cultured over 72 h at 37°C in serum-free Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium: nutrient mixture F-12 (Ham) medium. Six wells/pig were treated with 10 ng/mL of recombinant porcine interleukin-1 (rpIL-1). At 24, 48, and 72 h of culture, media were removed and reserved for analysis of proteoglycans, nitric oxide (NO), and PGE2 concentrations. The CT scans of the radius/ulna from gilts revealed no differences for cortical width and bone density. Sows fed PFO had greater cortical width of the proximal ulna (P Gilts fed PFO had increased DHA (P gilts and sows had no effect on the variables tested in vitro. Although the PFO diet increased omega-3 incorporation into chondrocytes, the biological significance is unclear since concentrations of ARA were at least 9-fold higher than EPA or DHA. Therefore, if omega-3 fatty acids can mitigate inflammation in joints, the

  2. Total dietary fat and fatty acid content modifies plasma phospholipid fatty acids, desaturase activity indices, and urinary prostaglandin E in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raatz, Susan K; Young, Lindsay R; Picklo, Matthew J; Sauter, Edward R; Qin, Wenyi; Kurzer, Mindy S

    2012-01-01

    Compared with diets high in fat, low-fat diets are associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that a low-fat (LF) (20% fat) and an LF high-omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid diet (LFn3) (23% fat with 3% as α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]) would enhance n-3 composition of plasma phospholipid fatty acid and reduce urinary prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) relative to a high-fat diet (HF) (40% fat) and that these changes would be associated with alterations in δ5 desaturase (D5D) and δ6 desaturase (D6D) activity. Phospholipid fatty acids and urinary PGE(2) were measured, and D5D and D6D activity indices calculated in a crossover trial in 17 postmenopausal women fed each of 3 test diets (HF, LF, and LFn3) for 8-week feeding periods. Desaturase activity indices were calculated as D5D, 20:4n-6/20:3n-6, and D6D, 20:3n-6/18:2n-6. Plasma phospholipid fatty acid, α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), DHA, and total n-3 fatty acids increased, whereas linoleic acid and arachidonic acid decreased with consumption of LFn3. The LF resulted in enhanced arachidonic acid and DHA. High fat reduced D6D, whereas both HF and LF increased D5D. Urinary PGE(2) was reduced in response to both the LF and LFn3 diets. Low-fat diets, with or without long-chain n-3 fatty acids, promote positive health effects due in part to favorable alteration of plasma phospholipid fatty acid profiles and modification in desaturase activity indices, suggesting that the type and amount of fat consumed are modifiable risk factors for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of dietary fat on lipid composition of serum and erythrocytes of the swine and in vitro incorporation of fatty acids into erythrocyte membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hiroaki

    1974-01-01

    Changes in ftty acid patterns of lipids in serum and erythrocytes induced by dietary fats and in vitro incorporation of fatty acids into erythrocyte membranes were investigated with pigs. On feeding various diets, it was found that fatty acid composition of serum and erythrocytes could be modified and altered toward the fatty acid pattern of the diet. In vitro, the incorporation of labelled fatty acids into erythrocyte membranes was accelerated by the addition of cofactors such as lysolecithin, CoA and ATP. Dietary fats also had certain effects on the incorporation of fatty acids into erythrocyte membranes. Erythrocytes, collected from the blood of pigs fed corn oil, incorporated and also released more labelled linoleate than those of pigs fed hydrogenated soybean oil. Palmitic acid was more slowly incorporated into erythrocyte membranes than linoleic acid in the pigs fed both a commercial chow and scheduled meals, indicating selective esterification of fatty acids in the erythrocyte membranes. (author)

  4. Prescription omega-3 fatty acid products containing highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinton, Eliot A; Mason, R Preston

    2017-01-31

    The omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) has multiple actions potentially conferring cardiovascular benefit, including lowering serum triglyceride (TG) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) levels and potentially reducing key steps in atherogenesis. Dietary supplements are a common source of omega-3 fatty acids in the US, but virtually all contain docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in addition to EPA, and lipid effects differ between DHA and EPA. Contrary to popular belief, no over-the-counter omega-3 products are available in the US, only prescription products and dietary supplements. Among the US prescription omega-3 products, only one contains EPA exclusively (Vascepa); another closely related prescription omega-3 product also contains highly purified EPA, but is approved only in Japan and is provided in different capsule sizes. These high-purity EPA products do not raise low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, even in patients with TG levels >500 mg/dL, in contrast to the increase in LDL-C levels with prescription omega-3 products that also contain DHA. The Japanese prescription EPA product was shown to significantly reduce major coronary events in hypercholesterolemic patients when added to statin therapy in the Japan EPA Lipid Intervention Study (JELIS). The effects of Vascepa on cardiovascular outcomes are being investigated in statin-treated patients with high TG levels in the Reduction of Cardiovascular Events With EPA-Intervention Trial (REDUCE-IT).

  5. Development of Rabbit Meat Products Fortified With n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Petracci

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Rabbit meat is a highly digestible, tasty, low-calorie food, often recommended by nutritionists over other meats. Currently research in the rabbit sector is interested in developing feeding strategies aiming to further increase the nutritional value of rabbit meat as a “functional food” by including n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, vitamins and antioxidants in rabbit diets and assessing their effects on both raw and stored/processed meat quality properties. Our recent studies indicate that the dietary inclusion from 3 to 6% of linseed might be considered as a way to achieve the enrichment of the meat with α-linolenic acid and to guarantee satisfactory product stability during further processing and storage. Considering that 6% dietary linseed corresponds to a n-3 PUFA content of 8.5% of the total fatty acids and a lipid content of 4.7 g/100 g of leg meat, a content of 396 mg n-3 PUFA/100g meat can be estimated, which represents about 19% of the recommended daily allowance (RDA for n-3 PUFA.

  6. Inhibition of nuclear T3 binding by fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersinga, W. M.; Chopra, I. J.; Teco, G. N.

    1988-01-01

    Studies were performed to evaluate a possible modulatory role of lipids on the binding of T3 to rat liver nuclear receptors in vitro. Unsaturated fatty acids were potent inhibitors of the binding of [125I] T3 to isolated rat liver nuclei. Doses (in mumol/L) causing a 50% inhibition of nuclear T3

  7. Accumulation of trans C18:1 fatty acids in the rumen after dietary algal supplementation is associated with canges in the Butyrivibrio communitytrans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeckaert, C.; Vlaeminck, B.; Fievez, V.; Maignien, L.; Dijkstra, J.; Boon, N.

    2008-01-01

    Optimization of the fatty acid composition of ruminant milk and meat is desirable. Dietary supplementation of algae was previously shown to inhibit rumen biohydrogenation, resulting in an altered milk fatty acid profile. Bacteria involved in biohydrogenation belong to the Butyrivibrio group. This

  8. Branched-chain fatty acids in the neonatal gut and estimated dietary intake in infancy and adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran-Ressler, Rinat R; Glahn, Raymond P; Bae, SangEun; Brenna, J Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA) are primarily saturated fatty acids (FA) with a methyl branch, usually near the terminal methyl group. BCFA are abundant in bacteria, skin, and vernix caseosa but have seldom been studied with respect to human nutrition. They are constituents of the term newborn infant gut lumen, being swallowed as vernix particulate components of amniotic fluid in the last trimester of normal pregnancy. We recently showed that BCFA protect against necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in the rat pup model. Dietary BCFA at levels similar to those found in human vernix reduced NEC incidence by more than 50%, increased the abundance of BCFA-containing bacteria, and increased the expression of ileal anti-inflammatory IL-10. The few published reports of BCFA in human milk enable an estimate that breastfed infants consume 19 mg BCFA per 100 ml milk. Dietary BCFA consumption from milk fat and other ruminant products, the main sources of dietary BCFA, is more than 400 mg BCFA per day in adult Americans. This estimate exceeds by severalfold the average dietary intake of bioactive FA, such as docosahexaenoic acid. BCFA are bioactive, abundant but neglected components of the human food supply. Copyright © 2013 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Intake of dietary saturated fatty acids and risk of type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands cohort: associations by types, sources of fatty acids and substitution by macronutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shengxin; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S; Spijkerman, Annemieke M W; Sluijs, Ivonne

    2018-03-09

    The association between dietary saturated fatty acids (SFA) intake and type 2 diabetes (T2D) remains unclear. This study aimed at investigating the association between SFA intake and T2D risk based on (1) individual SFA (differing in carbon chain length), (2) food sources of SFA and (3) the substituting macronutrients. 37,421 participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands (EPIC-NL) cohort were included in this study. Baseline dietary intake was assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire. T2D risks were estimated by Cox regression models adjusted for non-dietary and dietary covariates. 893 incident T2D cases were documented during 10.1-year follow-up. We observed no association between total SFA and T2D risk. Marginally inverse associations were found for lauric acid (HR per 1 SD of energy%, 95% CI 0.92, 0.85-0.99), myristic acid (0.89, 0.79-0.99), margaric acid (0.84, 0.73-0.97), odd-chain SFA (pentadecylic plus margaric acids; 0.88, 0.79-0.99), and cheese derived SFA (0.90, 0.83-0.98). Soft and liquid fats derived SFA was found related to higher T2D risk (1.08, 1.01-1.17). When substituting SFA by proteins, carbohydrates and polyunsaturated fatty acids, significantly higher risks of T2D were observed (HRs per 1 energy% ranging from 1.05 to 1.15). In this Dutch population, total SFA does not relate to T2D risk. Rather, the association may depend on the types and food sources of SFA. Cheese-derived SFA and individual SFA that are commonly found in cheese, were significantly related to lower T2D risks. We cannot exclude the higher T2D risks found for soft and liquid fats derived SFA and for substituting SFA with other macronutrients are influenced by residual confounding by trans fatty acids or limited intake variation in polyunsaturated fatty acids and vegetable protein.

  10. Nutritional Profile and Dietary Patterns of Lebanese Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Patients: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Fakhoury-Sayegh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is considered the most common liver disease in the world. Dietary habits have a significant impact on the biological and physical profile of patients and increase the risk of NAFLD. The overall pattern of diet intake is more associated with health outcomes than nutrients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional profile and the dietary patterns of Lebanese NAFLD patients and compare it with controls. During this study; 112 NAFLD Lebanese adult patients (55 men and 57 women; and 110 controls (44 men and 66 women were recruited. Dietary intake was evaluated by two 24-h recalls and a semi-quantitative 90-item food frequency questionnaire. Dietary patterns were determined by factor analysis. Results from the study demonstrated that 40% of cases belonged to the high fruit group as compared to 30% following a high meat; fast food dietary pattern. Both groups increased the odds of NAFLD by four-fold (p < 0.05. The traditional diet decreases the odds by 33% after adjustment with the covariables. The high fruit diet group was, as with the high meat, fast food dietary pattern, the main potential risk factor for NAFLD in Lebanese patients.

  11. Insufficient intake of alpha-linolenic fatty acid (18:3n-3 during pregnancy and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Garcia VASCONCELOS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze alpha-linolenic fatty acid intake in two cohorts of pregnant women, and to identify factors associated with alpha-linolenic acid intake. Methods: This is a cohort study involving pregnant women with low obstetric risk (N=353 in public health system from a municipality of São Paulo state, Brazil. In each trimester, two 24-hour food recalls were collected. Descriptive analyses of dietary lipid profiles were performed, followed by a multiple comparison test. According to the trimester of pregnancy, differences were assessed using the mean difference test. To evaluate the adequacy of linoleic fatty acid and alpha-linolenic acid intake, the adequate intake test was used. The association between alpha-linolenic acid intake adequacy and maternal characteristics was investigated using a binary logistic regression model. Results: Total lipids intake and the percentage contribution to dietary energy met recommended levels. One-third of the diets demonstrated a lower than daily recommended intake of alpha-linolenic acid. Overweight pregnant women were twice as likely to have inadequate alpha-linolenic acid intake. Pregnant women from a more disadvantaged socioeconomic situation had greater risks of inadequate intake. Conclusion: Over-intake of lipids is not problematic, but quality is an issue, with one third of the pregnant women and their fetuses exposed to adverse effects due to low intake of omega-3 fatty acids, indicating important nutritional vulnerability in this population.

  12. Effect of dietary fatty acids on the postprandial fatty acid composition of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins in healthy male subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bysted, Anette; Holmer, G.; Lund, Pia

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of trans-18: 1 isomers compared to other fatty acids, especially saturates, on the postprandial fatty acid composition of triacylglycerols ( TAG) in chylomicrons and VLDL. Design: A randomised crossover experiment where five...... interesterified test fats with equal amounts of palmitic acid ( P fat), stearic acid (S fat), trans-18: 1 isomers (T fat), oleic acid (O fat), or linoleic acid (L fat) were tested. Subjects: A total of 16 healthy, normolipidaemic males ( age 23 +/- 2 y) were recruited. Interventions: The participants ingested fat...... positions in accordance with the distributions in test fats. Calculations of postprandial TAG concentrations from fatty acid data revealed increasing amounts up to 4 h but lower response curves (IAUC) for the two saturated fats in accordance with previous published data. The T fat gave results comparable...

  13. Pork as a Source of Omega-3 (n-3) Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Michael E.R.; Vahmani, Payam; Turner, Tyler D.; Mapiye, Cletos; Juárez, Manuel; Prieto, Nuria; Beaulieu, Angela D.; Zijlstra, Ruurd T.; Patience, John F.; Aalhus, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Pork is the most widely eaten meat in the world, but typical feeding practices give it a high omega-6 (n-6) to omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid ratio and make it a poor source of n-3 fatty acids. Feeding pigs n-3 fatty acids can increase their contents in pork, and in countries where label claims are permitted, claims can be met with limited feeding of n-3 fatty acid enrich feedstuffs, provided contributions of both fat and muscle are included in pork servings. Pork enriched with n-3 fatty acids is, however, not widely available. Producing and marketing n-3 fatty acid enriched pork requires regulatory approval, development costs, quality control costs, may increase production costs, and enriched pork has to be tracked to retail and sold for a premium. Mandatory labelling of the n-6/n-3 ratio and the n-3 fatty acid content of pork may help drive production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork, and open the door to population-based disease prevention polices (i.e., food tax to provide incentives to improve production practices). A shift from the status-quo, however, will require stronger signals along the value chain indicating production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork is an industry priority. PMID:26694475

  14. Pork as a Source of Omega-3 (n-3 Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E.R. Dugan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pork is the most widely eaten meat in the world, but typical feeding practices give it a high omega-6 (n-6 to omega-3 (n-3 fatty acid ratio and make it a poor source of n-3 fatty acids. Feeding pigs n-3 fatty acids can increase their contents in pork, and in countries where label claims are permitted, claims can be met with limited feeding of n-3 fatty acid enrich feedstuffs, provided contributions of both fat and muscle are included in pork servings. Pork enriched with n-3 fatty acids is, however, not widely available. Producing and marketing n-3 fatty acid enriched pork requires regulatory approval, development costs, quality control costs, may increase production costs, and enriched pork has to be tracked to retail and sold for a premium. Mandatory labelling of the n-6/n-3 ratio and the n-3 fatty acid content of pork may help drive production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork, and open the door to population-based disease prevention polices (i.e., food tax to provide incentives to improve production practices. A shift from the status-quo, however, will require stronger signals along the value chain indicating production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork is an industry priority.

  15. [Consumptions of Meat, Dietary Fat, and Fatty-acids and Prevalence of Overweight/Obesity in Children and Adolescents-a Cross-sectional Survey in Chengdu].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yu-Xin; Duan, Ruo-Nan; Yang, Ming-Zhe; Chen, Yan-Rong; Tian, Guo; Luo, Jiao; Cheng, Guo

    2017-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents aged 7-15 years in Longquanyi District of Chengdu and its association with consumptions of meat, dietary fat and fatty-acids. A total of 1 811 children and adolescents aged 7-15 years in Longquanyi District were selected using stratified cluster sampling strategy. Their body mass, height and waist circumference were measured. The prevalence of overweight/obesity was estimated based on body mass index (BMI), body mass index standard deviation score (BMI SDS), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). Daily consumptions of meat, dietary fat and fatty-acids were calculated using data collected through a food frequency questionnaire and 3-d 24 h dietary recall. The children with overweight/obesity were compared with those with normal body mass in food/nutrient consumptions using Wilcoxon tests. The BMI SDS, WHtR, and prevalence of overweight and obesity were also compared between those having low, moderate and high food/nutrient consumptions using Chi-square tests or Kruskal-Wallis tests. About 10.34% and 6.59% of participants were found to be overweight and obese, respectively. Boys had higher prevalence of overweight (12.05%) and overweight/obesity (18.97%) than girls (8.55%, 14.80%) ( P acid (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty-acid (MUFA) than boys ( P fat (%EN) than those of normal weight. The BMI SDS and WHtR of girls increased with fat (%EN) consumptions ( P fat, SFA, and MUFA are associated with overweight/obesity of girls aged 7-15 years in Chengdu. Further studies are needed to understand the gender differences.

  16. Effects of dietary probiotic (Pediococcus acidilactici) supplementation on performance, nutrient digestibility, egg traits, egg yolk cholesterol, and fatty acid profile in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulski, D; Jankowski, J; Naczmanski, J; Mikulska, M; Demey, V

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary probiotic Pediococcus acidilactici (PA) strain MA18/5M on performance, egg traits, egg cholesterol content, and fatty acid composition in laying hens during a 24-wk period. A total of 222 Hy-Line Brown laying hens, 22 wk of age, were divided into 3 treatment groups. Control group (C) hens were fed a basal diet with no probiotic added. In group PA1, the basal diet was supplemented with PA at 100 mg.kg(-1) of feed for the first 12 wk and 50 mg.kg(-1) feed for the next 12 wk, whereas treatment PA2 was supplemented with 100 mg.kg(-1) feed for the whole trial period. Dietary treatments did not significantly affect the BW, feed intake, and egg production of hens. Pediococcus acidilactici supplementation increased egg weight (P egg specific gravity, and it improved feed efficiency ratio per kilogram of eggs (P eggs and eggs without the shell, leading to a significant (P eggs (39% for PA1 and 52% for PA2). After 6 mo of probiotic supplementation, significant differences were also found in the fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of egg yolk. The yolk cholesterol content, regardless of PA dose, decreased by more than 10%. The concentrations of total polyunsaturated fatty acids, including linoleic acid and linolenic acid, were significantly higher in treatment PA2 (6.5% increase) than in C and PA1. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of Pediococcus acidilactici MA 18/5M at 100 mg.kg(-1) has potential commercial applications for improvements in hen performance and eggshell quality during the early laying period.

  17. Patterns of food and nutrient intakes of Dutch adults according to intakes of total fat, saturated fatty acids, dietary fibre, and of fruit and vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Löwik, M.R.H.; Hulshof, K.F.A.M.; Brussaard, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    Dietary intake characteristics were studied among 3833 adults of the second Dutch National Food Consumption Survey held in 1992. The subjects were classified into three groups based on their intake of total fat (% energy), saturated fatty acids (% energy), dietary fibre (g/MJ), and fruit and

  18. Infant Dietary Exposures to Sweetness and Fattiness Increase during the First Year of Life and Are Associated with Feeding Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wen Lun; Lange, Christine; Schwartz, Camille; Martin, Christophe; Chabanet, Claire; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Nicklaus, Sophie

    2016-11-01

    Taste is a strong determinant of food intake. Previous research has suggested that early taste exposures could influence preferences and later eating behavior, but little is known about the factors related to this. The aims of this study were to describe infants' exposure to sweetness and fattiness and to examine whether maternal and infant characteristics and feeding practices are related to these exposures in participants from the OPALINE [Observatoire des Préférences Alimentaires du Nourrisson et de l'Enfant (Observatory of Infant and Child Food Preferences)] cohort study. Food consumption frequency was assessed with a 7-d food record completed monthly over the first year. Dietary taste exposure was defined by the consumption frequency of each food multiplied by the intensity of its taste, summed over all foods. The daily sweetness exposure (SweetExp) and fattiness exposure (FatExp) were calculated at 3-6, 7-9, and 10-12 mo of age for 268 infants from complementary feeding initiation (CFI) to 12 mo. Associations between taste exposure and potential factors were tested by multiple linear regressions. Both FatExp and SweetExp increased from 3-6 mo to 10-12 mo (mean ± SD: 7.5 ± 2.3 to 12.2 ± 2.5 and 6.8 ± 2.8 to 14.7 ± 4.1, respectively). Breastfeeding duration ≥6 mo was associated with higher SweetExp at all ages, with a decreasing β [β (95% CI): 2.6 (1.8; 3.4) at 3-6 mo and 1.3 (0.1; 2.4) at 10-12 mo]. CFI at <6 mo was associated with higher SweetExp at all ages but with higher FatExp only at 3-6 mo. Higher SweetExp and FatExp were associated with a higher use of all complementary food types. Boys were more likely to be exposed to SweetExp at 10-12 mo and to FatExp at 3-6 mo and 10-12 mo than were girls. Maternal higher education attainment and return to work after 6 mo were linked with higher FatExp and higher FatExp and SweetExp, respectively. SweetExp and FatExp increased from CFI until 12 mo and were associated with feeding practices in OPALINE

  19. Omega-3 fatty acid profile of eggs from laying hens fed diets supplemented with chia, fish oil, and flaxseed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coorey, Ranil; Novinda, Agnes; Williams, Hannah; Jayasena, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of diets supplemented with fish oil, flaxseed, and chia seed on the omega-3 fatty acid composition and sensory properties of hens' eggs. No significant difference in yolk fat content was found between treatments. The fatty acid composition of egg yolk was significantly affected by the dietary treatments. Inclusion of chia at 300 g/kg into the diet produced eggs with the highest concentration of omega-3 fatty acid. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were only detected in eggs from laying hens fed the diet supplemented with fish oil. Diet had a significant effect on color, flavor and overall acceptability of eggs. Types and levels of omega-3 fatty acids in feed influence the level of yolk omega-3 fatty acids in egg yolk. Inclusion of chia into the hens' diet significantly increased the concentration of yolk omega-3 fatty acid without significant change in sensory properties. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acid in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxia Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A meta-analysis was conducted to assess the effect of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation (n-3 PUFAs in lowering liver fat, liver enzyme (alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT levels, and blood lipids (triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, high density lipoprotein (HDL, and low density lipoprotein (LDL in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD or nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH. Methods. MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL, Science Citation Index (ISI Web of Science, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI were searched for relevant randomized controlled trials on the effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs in patients with NAFLD from inception to May 2015. Ten studies were included in this meta-analysis. Results. 577 cases of NAFLD/NASH in ten randomized controlled trials (RCTs were included. The results of the meta-analysis showed that benefit changes in liver fat favored PUFA treatment, and it was also beneficial for GGT, but it was not significant on ALT, AST, TC, and LDL. Conclusions. In this meta-analysis, omega-3 PUFAs improved liver fat, GGT, TG, and HDL in patients with NAFLD/NASH. Therefore, n-3 PUFAs may be a new treatment option for NAFLD.

  1. Increased dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids alter serum fatty acid concentrations and lower risk of urine stone formation in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jean A; Brockman, Jeff A; Davidson, Stephen J; MacLeay, Jen M; Jewell, Dennis E

    2017-01-01

    The lifespan of cats with non-obstructive kidney stones is shortened compared with healthy cats indicating a need to reduce stone formation and minimize chronic kidney disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of increasing dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on urine characteristics. Domestic-short-hair cats (n = 12; mean age 5.6 years) were randomized into two groups and fed one of two dry-cat foods in a cross-over study design. For one week before study initiation, all cats consumed control food that contained 0.07% arachidonic acid (AA), but no eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Group 1 continued eating control food for 56 days. Group 2 was fed test food for 56 days, which was control food plus fish oil and high-AA oil. Test food contained 0.17% AA, 0.09% EPA and 0.18% DHA. After 56 days, cats were fed the opposite food for another 56 days. At baseline and after each feeding period, serum was analyzed for fatty acid concentrations, and urine for specific gravity, calcium concentration, relative-super-saturation for struvite crystals, and a calcium-oxalate-titrimetric test was performed. After consuming test food, cats had increased (all Pcats consuming control food. Oxalate crystal formation was correlated with serum calcium concentration (r = 0.41; Pcats by increasing dietary PUFA.

  2. OMEGA-3 POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    O. A. Gromova; I. Yu. Torshin; Ye. Yu. Yegorova

    2011-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are important nutrient for proper support of normal living. Omega-3 PUFA play significant role in neurogenesis, neurotransmission, neuroprotection, they are necessary for development of human’s brain. Present study discusses results of fundamental and clinical studies on role of omega-3 PUFA in ontogenesis. Authors performed systematic analysis of physiological effects of omega-3 PUFA on molecular level. Deficiency of omega-3 PUFA results in decrease...

  3. The effect of dietary fat on the fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of Hy-line and Warren hen eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergara, G.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study analyzed the effect of dietary fat and strain on the fatty acid and cholesterol contents of eggs over a 20 month-period. Hy-line and Warren hens received three consecutive 7% lipid diets in which the basal constituents of the diet supplied 3% of the fats while the remaining 4% was composed of fats, oils or oleins added to progressively increase polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA levels, while decreasing dietary levels of both saturated fatty acids (SFA and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA. In general, the percentages of most fatty acids in egg lipids were affected by changes in dietary lipids but not by the strain. Data suggest the existence of a dietary threshold for elaidic acid to appear in eggs. Mufa decreased and total PUFA increased throughout the study. The cholesterol egg content was higher at the animal fat plus soybean oil than at the animal fat or the olein plus soybean oil blend. Overall, results showed that changes in dietary lipids influenced fatty acid composition and hence atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes much more than the strain.El objetivo del presente estudio fue analizar los efectos de la grasa de la dieta de dos estirpes de ponedoras (Hy-line y Warren sobre el contenido de ácidos grasos y colesterol del huevo durante un periodo del ciclo de puesta de 20 meses. Ambas estirpes recibieron 3 dietas consecutivas que contenían 7% de lípidos de los cuales 3% provenía de los componentes basales de la dieta y 4% fue adicionado en forma de grasa, aceites u oleínas con objeto de aumentar progresivamente el contenido de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados y disminuir el contenido de los ácidos grasos saturados y monoinsaturados. El cambio de grasa en la dieta afectó al perfil de la mayoría de los ácidos grasos del huevo, sugiriéndose la existencia de un mínimo de ácido elaídico en la grasa añadida para su aparición en el huevo. El contenido de AGP se incrementó mientras que el de AGM disminuyó en el

  4. Four Models Including Fish, Seafood, Red Meat and Enriched Foods to Achieve Australian Dietary Recommendations for n-3 LCPUFA for All Life-Stages

    OpenAIRE

    Fayet-Moore, Flavia; Baghurst, Katrine; Meyer, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Populations are not meeting recommended intakes of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA). The aim was (i) to develop a database on n-3 LCPUFA enriched products; (ii) to undertake dietary modelling exercise using four dietary approaches to meet the recommendations and (iii) to determine the cost of the models. Six n-3 LCPUFA enriched foods were identified. Fish was categorised by n-3 LCPUFA content (mg/100 g categories as ?excellent? ?good? and ?moderate?). The four model...

  5. n-3 Fatty acids combined with flavan-3-ols prevent steatosis and liver injury in a murine model of NAFLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vauzour, David; Rodriguez-Ramiro, Ildefonso; Rushbrook, Simon; Ipharraguerre, Ignacio R; Bevan, Damon; Davies, Susan; Tejera, Noemi; Mena, Pedro; de Pascual-Teresa, Sonia; Del Rio, Daniele; Gavrilovic, Jelena; Minihane, Anne Marie

    2018-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects 25% of adults and at present no licensed medication has been approved. Despite its complex patho-physiology, dietary strategies aiming at delaying or preventing NAFLD have taken a reductionist approach, examining the impact of single components. Accumulating evidence suggests that n-3 LC-PUFAs are efficacious in regulating lipogenesis and fatty acid oxidation. In addition, plant derived flavonoids are also emerging as a dietary strategy for NAFLD prevention, with efficacy attributed to their insulin sensitising and indirect antioxidant effects. Based on knowledge of their complementary molecular targets, we aimed to demonstrate that the combination of n-3 LC-PUFA (n-3) and flavan-3-ols (FLAV) prevents NAFLD. In a high-fat high-fructose (HF/HFr) fed C57Bl/6J mouse model, the independent and interactive impact of n-3 and FLAV on histologically defined NAFLD, insulin sensitivity, weight gain, intestinal and hepatic gene expression, intestinal bile acids were examined. Only the combination of FLAV and n-3 (FLAVn-3) prevented steatosis as evidenced by a strong reduction in hepatocyte ballooning. While FLAV reduced body (-28-30%), adipose tissue (-45-50%) weights and serum insulin (-22-25%) as observed following an intra-peritoneal glucose tolerance test, n-3 downregulated the expression of Srebf1 and the lipogenic genes (Acaca, Fasn). Significant impacts of interventions on intestinal bile acid metabolism, farnesoid X receptor (Fxr) signalling in the intestine and liver, and hepatic expression of fatty acid transporters (Fabp4, Vldlr, Cd36) were also evident. FLAVn-3 may be a novel intervention for NAFLD. Future research should aim to demonstrate its efficacy in the prevention and treatment of human NAFLD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Omega-3 free fatty acids for the treatment of severe hypertriglyceridemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastelein, John J P; Maki, Kevin C; Susekov, Andrey

    2014-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids in free fatty acid form have enhanced bioavailability, and plasma levels are less influenced by food than for ethyl ester forms.......Omega-3 fatty acids in free fatty acid form have enhanced bioavailability, and plasma levels are less influenced by food than for ethyl ester forms....

  7. Hypertriglyceridemia and omega-3 fatty acids: Their often overlooked role in cardiovascular disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arca, M; Borghi, C; Pontremoli, R; De Ferrari, G M; Colivicchi, F; Desideri, G; Temporelli, P L

    2018-03-01

    This review aims to describe the pathogenic role of triglycerides in cardiometabolic risk, and the potential role of omega-3 fatty acids in the management of hypertriglyceridemia and cardiovascular disease. In epidemiological studies, hypertriglyceridemia correlates with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, even after adjustment for low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. This has been further supported by Mendelian randomization studies where triglyceride-raising common single nucleotide polymorphisms confer an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Although guidelines vary in their definition of hypertriglyceridemia, they consistently define a normal triglyceride level as risk of cardiovascular disease, even in patients with optimally managed LDL-C levels, triglycerides are an important secondary target in both assessment and treatment. Dietary changes are a key element of first-line lifestyle intervention, but pharmacological treatment including omega-3 fatty acids may be indicated in people with persistently high triglyceride levels. Moreover, in patients with pre-existing cardiovascular disease, omega-3 supplements significantly reduce the risk of sudden death, cardiac death and myocardial infarction and are generally well tolerated. Targeting resistant hypertriglyceridemia should be considered as a part of clinical management of cardiovascular risk. Omega-3 fatty acids may represent a valuable resource to this aim. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Complement C3 is inversely associated with habitual intake of provitamin A but not with dietary fat, fatty acids, or vitamin E in Middle-aged to older white adults and positively associated with intake of retinol in middle-aged to older white women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greevenbroek, M.M.; Arts, I.C.W.; Kallen, van der C.J.H.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Ferreira, I.; Jansen, G.H.E.; Schalkwijk, C.G.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.

    2014-01-01

    Complement factor 3 (C3) has been identified as a novel risk factor for obesity-associated cardiometabolic diseases. Data in the literature suggest that C3 concentrations may be influenced by diet. Therefore, we investigated the associations of intake of total fat, specific fatty acids, and

  9. Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acids Treatment on Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mogoş Tiberius

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: Insulin resistance (IR is a common pathogenic factor of several diseases: diabetes mellitus, the metabolic syndrome, arterial hypertension, atherosclerosis, dyslipidemia, etc. There are many therapeutic factors involved in decreasing IR. Among them we mention metformin, pioglitazone, physical activity, weight loss, diet, etc. In the last decade, there are more observations of the influence of polyunsaturated fatty acids on IR. The most powerful seem to be omega-3 fatty acids. In our study, we wanted to asses if the administration of omega-3 fatty acids is involved in modifying IR. Materials and methods: We evaluated 126 diabetic patients with IR from January 2011 until July 2014. The study was open-label and non-randomized. For the determination of IR we used the HOMA-IR method. Results: For both males and females there was a regression of HOMA-IR during the 4 weeks of treatment with omega-3 and also after 2 weeks after stopping the administration of these fatty acids. The decrease of HOMA-IR was statistically significant (p<0.05. The statistic result observed in the next 2 weeks after stopping administration of omega-3 was also significant (p<0.05.

  10. Health Benefits and Omega-3-Fatty Acid Content of Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of this study were to identify the indigenous foods believed to have health benefits with possible functional properties, to determine the different ailments that these foods were used for, and to analyse the omega- 3-fatty acid content of the identified indigenous foods. The study population consisted of 46 ...

  11. Fatty acid profile and oxidative stability of pork as influenced by duration and time of dietary linseed or fish oil supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haak, L; De Smet, S; Fremaut, D; Van Walleghem, K; Raes, K

    2008-06-01

    In this experiment, the effect of duration and time of feeding n-3 PUFA sources on the fatty acid composition and oxidative stability of the longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle was investigated. Linseed (L) and fish oil (F), rich in alpha-linolenic acid and eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid (EPA and DHA), respectively, were supplied equivalent to a level of 1.2% oil (as fed), either during the whole fattening period or only during the first (P1; 8 wk) or second (P2; 6 to 9 wk until slaughter) fattening phase. All diets were based on barley, wheat, and soybean meal and were fed ad libitum. Crossbred pigs (n = 154; Topigs 40 x Piétrain) were randomly allotted to the 7 feeding groups. In the basal diet (B), only animal fat was used as the supplementary fat source. Three dietary groups were supplied the same fatty acid source during both fattening phases (i.e., group BB, LL, and FF). For the other 4 dietary groups, the fatty acid source was switched after the first phase (groups BL, BF, LF, and FL; the first and second letter indicating the diet in P1 and P2, respectively). Twelve animals per feeding group were selected based on average live BW. The LT was analyzed for fatty acid composition; lipid stability (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances) and color stability (a* value, % of myoglobin pigments) were determined on the LT after illuminated chill storage for up to 8 d. The alpha-linolenic acid, EPA, and docosapentaenoic acid incorporation was independent of the duration of linseed feeding (1.24, 0.54, and 0.75% of total fatty acids, respectively, for group LL). Supplying fish oil during both phases resulted in the greatest EPA and DHA proportions (1.37 and 1.02% of total fatty acids; P fish oil was administered during P2 compared with P1 (P < 0.05). There was no effect of diet on meat ultimate pH and drip loss or on lipid or color oxidation.

  12. Long-Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Modulate Mammary Gland Composition and Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadge, Saraswoti; Thiele, Geoffrey M; Sharp, John Graham; McGuire, Timothy R; Klassen, Lynell W; Black, Paul N; DiRusso, Concetta C; Talmadge, James E

    2018-03-25

    Studies in rodents have shown that dietary modifications as mammary glands (MG) develop, regulates susceptibility to mammary tumor initiation. However, the effects of dietary PUFA composition on MGs in adult life, remains poorly understood. This study investigated morphological alterations and inflammatory microenvironments in the MGs of adult mice fed isocaloric and isolipidic liquid diets with varying compositions of omega (ω)-6 and long-chain (Lc)-ω3FA that were pair-fed. Despite similar consumption levels of the diets, mice fed the ω-3 diet had significantly lower body-weight gains, and abdominal-fat and mammary fat pad (MFP) weights. Fatty acid analysis showed significantly higher levels of Lc-ω-3FAs in the MFPs of mice on the ω-3 diet, while in the MFPs from the ω-6 group, Lc-ω-3FAs were undetectable. Our study revealed that MGs from ω-3 group had a significantly lower ductal end-point density, branching density, an absence of ductal sprouts, a thinner ductal stroma, fewer proliferating epithelial cells and a lower transcription levels of estrogen receptor 1 and amphiregulin. An analysis of the MFP and abdominal-fat showed significantly smaller adipocytes in the ω-3 group, which was accompanied by lower transcription levels of leptin, IGF1, and IGF1R. Further, MFPs from the ω-3 group had significantly decreased numbers and sizes of crown-like-structures (CLS), F4/80+ macrophages and decreased expression of proinflammatory mediators including Ptgs2, IL6, CCL2, TNFα, NFκB, and IFNγ. Together, these results support dietary Lc-ω-3FA regulation of MG structure and density and adipose tissue inflammation with the potential for dietary Lc-ω-3FA to decrease the risk of mammary gland tumor formation.

  13. Enriched eggs as a source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Kralik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to enrich eggs with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids by using plant oils and fish oil as dietary supplements in laying hens’ feed. The focus was put on the effect of the daily consumption of 100 g of egg yolk, i.e. 100 g of egg mass, on the human health. The 1st group of laying hens was fed a diet containing soybean and fish oil, and the 2nd group was given feed containing a combination of linseed, rapeseed, soybean, and fish oils. Eggs laid by the 2nd group contained 4.73% α-linolenic acid, 0.20% eicosapentaenoic acid and 2.37% docosahexaenoic acid (% of total fatty acids in yolk lipids, P < 0.001, which marks an increase of × 4.04 for α-linolenic acid, × 3.33 for eicosapentaenoic acid, and × 1.75 for docosahexaenoic acid compared to eggs laid by the 1st group. Total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in eggs of the 2nd group were × 2.8 higher than in the 1st first group. Calculated per 100 g of eggs of the 2nd group, the intake for the human body corresponds to 435 mg α-linolenic acid, 18.43 mg eicosapentaenoic acid, and 218.2 mg docosahexaenoic acid.

  14. Effects of dietary fatty acid composition on metabolic rate and responses to hypoxia in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKenzie, D.J.; Piraccini, G.; Piccolella, M.

    2000-01-01

    European eels (Anguilla anguilla, L.) were fed on a commercial diet supplemented either with 15% by dry feed weight of menhaden oil (MO), an oil rich in highly unsaturated fatty acids of the n-3 series (n-3 HUFA), or with 15% by dry feed weight of coconut oil (CO), an oil composed primarily...... of saturated fatty acids (SFA). Following 90 days of feeding, the mean final masses of eels fed the two different oil supplements were similar, and higher than the mean final mass of a group fed the commercial diet alone. The diets created two distinct phenotypes of eels, distinguished by the fatty acid (FA...

  15. Omega 3 fatty acid and schizophrenia treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Zemdegs, Juliane Costa Silva; Pimentel, Gustavo Duarte; Priel, Margareth Rose

    2010-01-01

    CONTEXTO: A esquizofrenia é uma desordem psiquiátrica complexa e debilitante cujo tratamento de base é realizado com medicamentos antipsicóticos. No entanto, evidências sugerem que a suplementação dietética com ácidos graxos ômega 3 (n-3) pode ser benéfica em diversas desordens psiquiátricas. OBJETIVO: Revisar a eficácia do n-3 como coadjuvante no tratamento farmacológico da esquizofrenia. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se uma pesquisa nas bases de dados eletrônicas Medline, Lilacs e SciELO. A estratégia ...

  16. Omega-3 Fatty Acid and Nutrient Deficits in Adverse Neurodevelopment and Childhood Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbeln, Joseph. R.; Gow, Rachel V.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Nutritional insufficiencies of omega-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) may have adverse effects on brain development and neurodevelopmental outcomes. A recent meta-analysis of ten randomized controlled trials of omega-3 HUFAs reported a small to modest effect size for the efficacy of omega-3 for treating symptoms of ADHD in youth. Several controlled trials of omega-3 HUFAs combined with micronutrients (vitamins, minerals) show sizeable reductions in aggressive, antisocial, and violent behavior in youth and in young adult prisoners. Meta-analyses report efficacy for depressive symptoms in adults, and preliminary findings suggest anti-suicidal properties in adults, but studies in youth are insufficient to draw any conclusions regarding mood. Dietary adjustments to increase omega-3 and reduce omega-6 HUFA consumption are sensible recommendations for youth and adults based on general health considerations, while the evidence base for omega-3 HUFAs as potential psychiatric treatments develops. PMID:24975625

  17. Effects of Dietary Coconut Oil as a Medium-chain Fatty Acid Source on Performance, Carcass Composition and Serum Lipids in Male Broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianhong; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Li, Juntao; Chen, Yiqiang; Yang, Wenjun; Zhang, Liying

    2015-02-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary coconut oil as a medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA) source on performance, carcass composition and serum lipids in male broilers. A total of 540, one-day-old, male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 treatments with each treatment being applied to 6 replicates of 18 chicks. The basal diet (i.e., R0) was based on corn and soybean meal and was supplemented with 1.5% soybean oil during the starter phase (d 0 to 21) and 3.0% soybean oil during the grower phase (d 22 to 42). Four experimental diets were formulated by replacing 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100% of the soybean oil with coconut oil (i.e., R25, R50, R75, and R100). Soybean oil and coconut oil were used as sources of long-chain fatty acid and MCFA, respectively. The feeding trial showed that dietary coconut oil had no effect on weight gain, feed intake or feed conversion. On d 42, serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were linearly decreased as the coconut oil level increased (pcoconut oil level increased (poil in diets with coconut oil is the optimum level to reduce fat deposition and favorably affect lipid profiles without impairing performance in broilers.

  18. The role of omega-3 fatty acids in child development*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osendarp Saskia JM

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA are important constituents of the maturing brain and therefore considered crucial for brain development in utero and in early infancy. However, it is uncertain whether n-3 LCPUFA supplementation during pregnancy and lactation can have beneficial, sustainable effects on visual or cognitive development. Beneficial effects on child cognitive function after supplementation with EPA and DHA during pregnancy and lactation were observed at 4 years of age, but not at 3, 6 months or 7 years. In term infants LCPUFA when given in relative high dosages, seems to improve visual acuity, but not cognitive function. Evidence for an effect of LCPUFA supplementation of preterm infants remains inconclusive. In children older than 2 years of age, epidemiological evidence suggests an association between psychiatric or neurodevelopmental disorders and omega-3 fatty acid deficiencies. However, the evidence from randomized controlled trials exploring the impact of omega-3 fatty acids on cognitive performance or brain function in school-aged children is not conclusive. In conclusion, n-3 LCPUFA are highly present in the maturing brain and are important for normal brain functioning and development. When provided in relative high dosages, n-3 LCPUFA may improve visual acuity in term infants. However, it remains unclear whether supplementation with n-3 LCPUFA during pregnancy, early infancy, and childhood can improve cognitive function.

  19. Dietary trans-Fatty Acid Induced NASH is Normalized Following Loss of trans-Fatty Acids from Hepatic Lipid Pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, David A.; Acharya, Sahaja; Gilkey, George; Basaranoglu, Metin; Tetri, Laura H.; Brunt, Elizabeth M.

    2012-01-01

    Previous experiments in mice showed that dietary trans-fats could play a role in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) yet little is known about the accumulation trans-fats in hepatic lipid pools in relationship to liver injury. NASH is also associated with obesity yet improves with only modest weight loss. To distinguish the role of obesity versus sustained consumption of a trans-fat containing diet in causing NASH, mice with obesity and NASH induced by consuming a high trans-fat diet for 16 weeks were subsequently fed standard chow or maintained on trans-fat chow for another 8 weeks. The accumulation, partitioning and loss of trans-fats in the major hepatic lipid pools during and after trans-fat consumption were determined. Obese mice switched to standard chow remained obese but steatohepatitis improved. trans-fats were differentially incorporatedinto the majorhepatic lipid pools and the loss of trans-fats after crossover to control chow was greatest in the cholesteryl ester pool. In summary, dietary changes can improve the biochemical and histopathological changes of NASH despite persistent obesity in mice. Analysis of hepatic lipids confirmed that dietary trans-fats accumulate in the major lipid pools and are released differentially with diet normalization. The substantial loss of trans-fats from the cholesteryl ester pool in parallel with improvement in NASH suggests that this pool of trans-fats could play a role in the pathogenesis of NASH. PMID:22923371

  20. Consumption of omega-3 fatty acids and fish and risk of age-related hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, Bamini; Flood, Victoria M; Rochtchina, Elena; McMahon, Catherine M; Mitchell, Paul

    2010-08-01

    Identification of modifiable risk factors that could prevent or slow the development of age-related hearing loss (presbycusis) would be valuable. Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake may be related to age-related hearing loss. We aimed to determine the association between dietary intakes of omega-3 (n-3) PUFAs and fish and the risk of presbycusis. The Blue Mountains Hearing Study is a population-based survey of age-related hearing loss (1997-1999 to 2002-2004). We collected dietary data by using a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire and calculated PUFA and fish intakes. In 2956 participants (aged > or =50 y), we measured presbycusis, which we defined as the pure-tone average of frequencies 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 kHz >25 decibels of hearing loss. There was an inverse association between total n-3 PUFA intake and prevalent hearing loss [odds ratio (OR) per SD increase in energy-adjusted n-3 PUFAs: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.81, 0.99]. There was an inverse association between long-chain n-3 PUFAs and incident hearing loss (OR per SD increase in long-chain n-3 PUFAs: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.60, 0.97). Participants who had > or =2 servings of fish/wk compared with participants who had consumption of > or =1 to consumption of fish and hearing loss. Dietary intervention with n-3 PUFAs could prevent or delay the development of age-related hearing loss.

  1. The omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid is required for normal alcohol response behaviors in C. elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C Raabe

    Full Text Available Alcohol addiction is a widespread societal problem, for which there are few treatments. There are significant genetic and environmental influences on abuse liability, and understanding these factors will be important for the identification of susceptible individuals and the development of effective pharmacotherapies. In humans, the level of response to alcohol is strongly predictive of subsequent alcohol abuse. Level of response is a combination of counteracting responses to alcohol, the level of sensitivity to the drug and the degree to which tolerance develops during the drug exposure, called acute functional tolerance. We use the simple and well-characterized nervous system of Caenorhabditis elegans to model the acute behavioral effects of ethanol to identify genetic and environmental factors that influence level of response to ethanol. Given the strong molecular conservation between the neurobiological machinery of worms and humans, cellular-level effects of ethanol are likely to be conserved. Increasingly, variation in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid levels has been implicated in complex neurobiological phenotypes in humans, and we recently found that fatty acid levels modify ethanol responses in worms. Here, we report that 1 eicosapentaenoic acid, an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, is required for the development of acute functional tolerance, 2 dietary supplementation of eicosapentaenoic acid is sufficient for acute tolerance, and 3 dietary eicosapentaenoic acid can alter the wild-type response to ethanol. These results suggest that genetic variation influencing long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid levels may be important abuse liability loci, and that dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids may be an important environmental modulator of the behavioral response to ethanol.

  2. Dietary fatty acids on aortic root calcification in mice with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, Maria C; Bermudez, Beatriz; Garcia, Indara; Lopez, Sergio; Abia, Rocio; Muriana, Francisco J G; Montserrat-de la Paz, Sergio

    2017-04-19

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with obesity, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, and chronic low-grade inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine the role of high-fat low-cholesterol diets (HFLCDs) rich in SFAs (HFLCD-SFAs), MUFAs (HFLCD-MUFAs) or MUFAs plus omega-3 long-chain PUFAs (HFLCD-PUFAs) on vascular calcification by the modulation of the RANKL/RANK/OPG system in the aortic roots of Lep ob/ob LDLR -/- mice. Animals fed with HFLCD-SFAs had increased weight and a greater atheroma plaque size, calcification, and RANKL/CATHK expression in the aortic root than mice on MUFA-enriched diets, with an increasing OPG expression in the aortic roots of the latter. Our study demonstrates that compared to dietary SFAs, MUFAs from olive oil protect against atherosclerosis by interfering with vascular calcification via the RANKL/RANK/OPG system in the setting of MetS. These findings open opportunities for developing novel nutritional strategies with olive oil as the most important dietary source of MUFAs (notably oleic acid) to prevent cardiovascular complications in MetS.

  3. Cholesterol and triglyceride reduction in rats fed Matthiola incana seed oil rich in (n-3) fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaniv, Z; Schafferman, D; Shamir, I; Madar, Z

    1999-02-01

    Seeds of Matthiola incana contain oil rich (55-65%) in (n-3) linolenic acid. Selected lines were developed and evaluated for their agronomic and chemical parameters. Extracted oil was fed for 6 weeks to rats, which were compared with rats fed a diet containing coconut oil or sunflower oil. Cholesterol levels were significantly lowest in rats fed diets rich in M. incana oil (27% reduction), and triglycerides were significantly lower in rats receiving either M. incana or sunflower oil (36% reduction). The contents of arachidonic acid and other (n-6) fatty acids were significantly the lowest in the liver and plasma of rats that had received M. incana oil. The levels of (n-3) fatty acids were significantly greater in both the liver and plasma of rats fed M. incana oil. The ratio of (n-3)/(n-6) long-chain fatty acids in the plasma was 7 times higher in rats fed with M. incana oil than in those fed with sunflower oil and 6 times higher than in those fed coconut oil. The results demonstrate for the first time a beneficial effect of dietary M. incana oil in reducing cholesterol levels and increasing (n-3) fatty acid levels in the plasma. This new, terrestrial plant source of (n-3) fatty acids could replace marine oils and thereby contribute beneficially to the human diet.

  4. Rescue of glucocorticoid-programmed adipocyte inflammation by omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Peter J; Wyrwoll, Caitlin S; Zulkafli, Intan S; Mori, Trevor A; Waddell, Brendan J

    2014-05-13

    Adverse fetal environments predispose offspring to pathologies associated with the metabolic syndrome. Previously we demonstrated that adult offspring of dexamethasone-treated mothers had elevated plasma insulin and pro-inflammatory cytokines, effects prevented by a postnatal diet enriched with omega (n)-3 fatty acids. Here we tested whether prenatal glucocorticoid excess also programmed the adipose tissue phenotype, and whether this outcome is rescued by dietary n-3 fatty acids. Offspring of control and dexamethasone-treated mothers (0.75 μg/ml in drinking water, day 13 to term) were cross-fostered to mothers on a standard (Std) or high n-3 (Hn3) diet at birth. Offspring remained on these diets post-weaning, and serum and retroperitoneal fat were obtained at 6 months of age (n = 5-8 per group). Serum was analysed for blood lipids and fatty acid profiles, adipocyte cross sectional area was measured by unbiased stereological analysis and adipose expression of markers of inflammation, glucocorticoid sensitivity and lipid metabolism were determined by RT-qPCR analysis. Serum total fatty acid levels were elevated (P < 0.01) in male offspring of dexamethasone-treated mothers, an effect prevented by Hn3 consumption. Prenatal dexamethasone also programmed increased adipose expression of Il6, Il1b (both P < 0.05) and Tnfa (P < 0.001) mRNAs regardless of fetal sex, but again this effect was prevented (for Il6 and Il1b) by Hn3 consumption. Offspring of dexamethasone-treated mothers had increased adipose expression of Gr (P = 0.008) and Ppara (P < 0.05) regardless of sex or postnatal diet, while 11bHsd1 was upregulated in males only. The Hn3 diet increased Ppard expression and reduced adipocyte size in all offspring (both P < 0.05) irrespective of prenatal treatment. Prenatal glucocorticoid exposure programmed increased expression of inflammatory markers and enhanced glucocorticoid sensitivity of adipose tissue. Partial prevention of this

  5. Improving effect of dietary soybean phospholipids supplement on hepatic and serum indexes relevant to fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fei; Ruan, Jiming; Wang, Tiancheng; Luo, Junrong; Cao, Huabin; Song, Yalu; Huang, Jianzhen; Hu, Guoliang

    2017-11-01

    In order to investigate the effect of dietary soybean phospholipid supplement on hepatic and serum indexes relevant to fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome (FLHS) in layers, 135 300-day-old Hyline Brown layers were randomly divided into three groups (control, pathology and prevention), and each group had 45 layers with three replicates. Birds in the three groups were respectively fed the control diet, high-energy low-protein diet and high-energy high-protein diet affixed with 3% soybean phospholipid instead of maize. Results showed in the 30th day, birds' livers in the pathology group became yellowish, enlarged in size and had hemorrhagic spots, while the prevention and control groups' layers did not have such pathological changes. Contents of triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein - cholesterol, non-esterified fatty acid and malondialdehyde in serum or liver homogenate in prevention and control groups were remarkably lower than those in the pathology group (P fatty liver disease. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  6. Handmade Cloned Transgenic Sheep Rich in Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Hongwei; Chen, Lei; Chen, Longxin; Lin, Lin; Tan, Pingping; Vajta, Gabor; Gao, Jianfeng; Du, Yutao; Ma, Runlin Z.

    2013-01-01

    Technology of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been adapted worldwide to generate transgenic animals, although the traditional procedure relies largely on instrumental micromanipulation. In this study, we used the modified handmade cloning (HMC) established in cattle and pig to produce transgenic sheep with elevated levels of omega-3 (n−3) fatty acids. Codon-optimized nematode mfat-1 was inserted into a eukaryotic expression vector and was transferred into the genome of primary ovine fibroblast cells from a male Chinese merino sheep. Reverse transcriptase PCR, gas chromatography, and chromosome analyses were performed to select nuclear donor cells capable of converting omega-6 (n−6) into n−3 fatty acids. Blastocysts developed after 7 days of in vitro culture were surgically transplanted into the uterus of female ovine recipients of a local sheep breed in Xinjiang. For the HMC, approximately 8.9% (n  = 925) of reconstructed embryos developed to the blastocyst stage. Four recipients became pregnant after 53 blastocysts were transplanted into 29 naturally cycling females, and a total of 3 live transgenic lambs were produced. Detailed analyses on one of the transgenic lambs revealed a single integration of the modified nematode mfat-1 gene at sheep chromosome 5. The transgenic sheep expressed functional n−3 fatty acid desaturase, accompanied by more than 2-folds reduction of n−6/n−3 ratio in the muscle (psheep produced by the HMC. Compared to the traditional SCNT method, HMC showed an equivalent efficiency but proved cheaper and easier in operation. PMID:23437077

  7. Role of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Exercise in Breast Cancer Prevention: Identifying Common Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma A. Abdelmagid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diet and exercise are recognized as important lifestyle factors that significantly influence breast cancer risk. In particular, dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs have been shown to play an important role in breast cancer prevention. Growing evidence also demonstrates a role for exercise in cancer and chronic disease prevention. However, the potential synergistic effect of n-3 PUFA intake and exercise is yet to be determined. This review explores targets for breast cancer prevention that are common between n-3 PUFA intake and exercise and that may be important study outcomes for future research investigating the combined effect of n-3 PUFA intake and exercise. These lines of evidence highlight potential new avenues for research and strategies for breast cancer prevention.

  8. Dietary fat type, meat quality and fatty acid metabolism in swine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitchaothai, J.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the replacement of animal fat by vegetable oil in the diet for growing-finishing pigs. Generally, but not exclusively, fats of animal origin contain higher proportions of saturated fatty acids (SFA) than vegetable oils that are commonly rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids

  9. Effects of dietary intake of red palm oil on fatty acid composition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AYELESO

    2012-04-24

    Apr 24, 2012 ... From the nutritional point of view, the major concern for. RPO has to do with their degree of saturation and the effect they have on blood lipids (Hayes and Khosla,. 2007). Palmitic and stearic acids are saturated fatty acids which account for 45 and 5% of total fatty acids in red palm oil respectively (Hayes and ...

  10. OMEGA-3 POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Gromova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA are important nutrient for proper support of normal living. Omega-3 PUFA play significant role in neurogenesis, neurotransmission, neuroprotection, they are necessary for development of human’s brain. Present study discusses results of fundamental and clinical studies on role of omega-3 PUFA in ontogenesis. Authors performed systematic analysis of physiological effects of omega-3 PUFA on molecular level. Deficiency of omega-3 PUFA results in decrease of intellect and increase of hyperactivity in children. The necessity of proper administration of omega-3 PUFA in early pre-school period and in younger schoolchildren is confirmed by results of clinical studies.

  11. Maternal dietary n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid deprivation does not exacerbate post-weaning reductions in arachidonic acid and its mediators in the mouse hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alashmali, Shoug M; Kitson, Alex P; Lin, Lin; Lacombe, R J Scott; Bazinet, Richard P

    2017-09-13

    The present study examines how lowering maternal dietary n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (starting from pregnancy) compared to offspring (starting from post-weaning) affect the levels of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids in phospholipids (PL) and lipid mediators in the hippocampus of mice. Pregnant mice were randomly assigned to consume either a deprived or an adequate n-6 PUFA diet during pregnancy and lactation (maternal exposure). On postnatal day (PND) 21, half of the male pups were weaned onto the same diet as their dams, and the other half were switched to the other diet for 9 weeks (offspring exposure). At PND 84, upon head-focused high-energy microwave irradiation, hippocampi were collected for PL fatty acid and lipid mediator analyses. Arachidonic acid (ARA) concentrations were significantly decreased in both total PL and PL fractions, while eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) concentrations were increased only in PL fractions upon n-6 PUFA deprivation of offspring, regardless of maternal exposure. Several ARA-derived eicosanoids were reduced, while some of the EPA-derived eicosanoids were elevated by n-6 PUFA deprivation in offspring. There was no effect of diet on docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or DHA-derived docosanoids concentrations under either maternal or offspring exposure. These results indicate that the maternal exposure to dietary n-6 PUFA may not be as important as the offspring exposure in regulating hippocampal ARA and some lipid mediators. Results from this study will be helpful in the design of experiments aimed at testing the significance of altering brain ARA levels over different stages of life.

  12. Influence of dietary supplementation with (L)-carnitine on metabolic rate, fatty acid oxidation, body condition, and weight loss in overweight cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center, Sharon A; Warner, Karen L; Randolph, John F; Sunvold, Gregory D; Vickers, Jason R

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the influence of dietary supplementation with l-carnitine on metabolic rate, fatty acid oxidation, weight loss, and lean body mass (LBM) in overweight cats undergoing rapid weight reduction. 32 healthy adult neutered colony-housed cats. Cats fattened through unrestricted ingestion of an energy-dense diet for 6 months were randomly assigned to 4 groups and fed a weight reduction diet supplemented with 0 (control), 50, 100, or 150 μg of carnitine/g of diet (unrestricted for 1 month, then restricted). Measurements included resting energy expenditure, respiratory quotient, daily energy expenditure, LBM, and fatty acid oxidation. Following weight loss, cats were allowed unrestricted feeding of the energy-dense diet to investigate weight gain after test diet cessation. Median weekly weight loss in all groups was ≥ 1.3%, with no difference among groups in overall or cumulative percentage weight loss. During restricted feeding, the resting energy expenditure-to-LBM ratio was significantly higher in cats that received l-carnitine than in those that received the control diet. Respiratory quotient was significantly lower in each cat that received l-carnitine on day 42, compared with the value before the diet began, and in all cats that received l-carnitine, compared with the control group throughout restricted feeding. A significant increase in palmitate flux rate in cats fed the diet with 150 μg of carnitine/g relative to the flux rate in the control group on day 42 corresponded to significantly increased stoichiometric fat oxidation in the l-carnitine diet group (> 62% vs 14% for the control group). Weight gain (as high as 28%) was evident within 35 days after unrestricted feeding was reintroduced. Dietary l-carnitine supplementation appeared to have a metabolic effect in overweight cats undergoing rapid weight loss that facilitated fatty acid oxidation.

  13. Increased dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids alter serum fatty acid concentrations and lower risk of urine stone formation in cats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean A Hall

    Full Text Available The lifespan of cats with non-obstructive kidney stones is shortened compared with healthy cats indicating a need to reduce stone formation and minimize chronic kidney disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of increasing dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA on urine characteristics. Domestic-short-hair cats (n = 12; mean age 5.6 years were randomized into two groups and fed one of two dry-cat foods in a cross-over study design. For one week before study initiation, all cats consumed control food that contained 0.07% arachidonic acid (AA, but no eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. Group 1 continued eating control food for 56 days. Group 2 was fed test food for 56 days, which was control food plus fish oil and high-AA oil. Test food contained 0.17% AA, 0.09% EPA and 0.18% DHA. After 56 days, cats were fed the opposite food for another 56 days. At baseline and after each feeding period, serum was analyzed for fatty acid concentrations, and urine for specific gravity, calcium concentration, relative-super-saturation for struvite crystals, and a calcium-oxalate-titrimetric test was performed. After consuming test food, cats had increased (all P<0.001 serum concentrations of EPA (173%, DHA (61%, and AA (35%; decreased urine specific gravity (P = 0.02; decreased urine calcium concentration (P = 0.06; decreased relative-super-saturation for struvite crystals (P = 0.03; and increased resistance to oxalate crystal formation (P = 0.06 compared with cats consuming control food. Oxalate crystal formation was correlated with serum calcium concentration (r = 0.41; P<0.01. These data show benefits for reducing urine stone formation in cats by increasing dietary PUFA.

  14. Vascular effects of the Mediterranean diet-part II: role of omega-3 fatty acids and olive oil polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoditti, Egeria; Capurso, Cristiano; Capurso, Antonio; Massaro, Marika

    2014-12-01

    The lower occurrence of cardiovascular disease and cancer in populations around the Mediterranean basin as detected in the 1950s was correctly attributed to the peculiar dietary habits of those populations. Essentially, until the mid-20th century, typical Mediterranean diets were rich in fruits, vegetables, legumes, whole-wheat bread, nuts, fish, and, as a common culinary trait, the routine use of extra-virgin olive oil. Nowadays, the regular adoption of such dietary patterns is still thought to result in healthful benefits. Such patterns ensure the assumption of molecules with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions, among which ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), ω-9 monounsaturated fatty acids (oleic acid), and phenolic compounds. The aim of this review is to provide an update of the vasculo-protective pathways mediated by ω-3 PUFAs and polyphenols in the context of the modern Mediterranean dietary habits, including the possible cross-talk and synergy between these typical components. This review complements a parallel one focusing on the role of dietary nitrates and alimentary fats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Sterol regulatory element binding protein and dietary lipid regulation of fatty acid synthesis in the mammary epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Michael C; Monks, Jenifer; Burns, Valerie; Phistry, Meridee; Marians, Russell; Foote, Monica R; Bauman, Dale E; Anderson, Steven M; Neville, Margaret C

    2010-12-01

    The lactating mammary gland synthesizes large amounts of triglyceride from fatty acids derived from the blood and from de novo lipogenesis. The latter is significantly increased at parturition and decreased when additional dietary fatty acids become available. To begin to understand the molecular regulation of de novo lipogenesis, we tested the hypothesis that the transcription factor sterol regulatory element binding factor (SREBF)-1c is a primary regulator of this system. Expression of Srebf1c mRNA and six of its known target genes increased ≥2.5-fold at parturition. However, Srebf1c-null mice showed only minor deficiencies in lipid synthesis during lactation, possibly due to compensation by Srebf1a expression. To abrogate the function of both isoforms of Srebf1, we bred mice to obtain a mammary epithelial cell-specific deletion of SREBF cleavage-activating protein (SCAP), the SREBF escort protein. These dams showed a significant lactation deficiency, and expression of mRNA for fatty acid synthase (Fasn), insulin-induced gene 1 (Insig1), mitochondrial citrate transporter (Slc25a1), and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 2 (Scd2) was reduced threefold or more; however, the mRNA levels of acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1α (Acaca) and ATP citrate lyase (Acly) were unchanged. Furthermore, a 46% fat diet significantly decreased de novo fatty acid synthesis and reduced the protein levels of ACACA, ACLY, and FASN significantly, with no change in their mRNA levels. These data lead us to conclude that two modes of regulation exist to control fatty acid synthesis in the mammary gland of the lactating mouse: the well-known SREBF1 system and a novel mechanism that acts at the posttranscriptional level in the presence of SCAP deletion and high-fat feeding to alter enzyme protein.

  16. Yogurt as a Vehicle for Omega-3 Fatty Acid Enrichment

    OpenAIRE

    Rognlien, Marnie

    2010-01-01

    Consumer interest in supplementation with healthy omega-3 fatty acids (Ï 3 FA) has led to increased research in fortification of popular foods with these healthy fats. Yogurt, which is already popular, offers a functional food matrix to fortify with Ï 3 FA. Fish oil, a major source of two important long chain Ï 3 FA eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an excellent source of Ï 3 FA enrichment into foods but brings problems of oxidation and off-flavors or odors when ...

  17. Role of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in the Etiology, Treatment, and Prevention of Depression: Current Status and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Robert K.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past three decades a body of translational evidence has implicated dietary deficiency in long-chain omega-3 (LCn-3) fatty acids, including eicosapenaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in the pathophysiology and etiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). Cross-national and cross-sectional data suggest that greater habitual intake of preformed EPA+DHA is associated with reduced risk for developing depressive symptoms and syndromal MDD. Erythrocyte EPA and DHA composition is highly correlated with habitual fish or fish oil intake, and case-control studies have consistently observed lower erythrocyte EPA and/or DHA levels in patients with MDD. Low erythrocyte EPA+DHA composition may also be associated with increased risk for suicide and cardiovascular disease, two primary causes of excess premature mortality in MDD. While controversial, dietary EPA+DHA supplementation may have antidepressant properties and may augment the therapeutic efficacy of antidepressant medications. Neuroimaging and rodent neurodevelopmental studies further suggest that low LCn-3 fatty acid intake or biostatus can recapitulate central pathophysiological features associated with MDD. Prospective findings suggest that low LCn-3 fatty acid biostatus increases risk for depressive symptoms in part by augmenting pro-inflammatory responsivity. When taken collectively, these translational findings provide a strong empirical foundation in support of dietary LCn-3 fatty acid deficiency as a modifiable risk factor for MDD. This review provides an overview of this translational evidence and then discusses future directions including strategies to translate this evidence into routine clinical screening and treatment algorithms. PMID:27766299

  18. Potentiation of TRPV3 Channel Function by Unsaturated Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    HU, HONG-ZHEN; XIAO, RUI; WANG, CHUNBO; GAO, NA; COLTON, CRAIG K.; WOOD, JACKIE D.; ZHU, MICHAEL X.

    2015-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) channels are polymodal detectors of multiple environmental factors, including temperature, pH, and pressure. Inflammatory mediators enhance TRPV function through multiple signaling pathways. The lipoxygenase and epoxygenase products of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism have been shown to directly activate TRPV1 and TRPV4, respectively. TRPV3 is a thermosensitive channel with an intermediate temperature threshold of 31–39°C. We have previously shown that TRPV3 is activated by 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2APB). Here we show that AA and other unsaturated fatty acids directly potentiate 2APB-induced responses of TRPV3 expressed in HEK293 cells, Xenopus oocytes, and mouse keratinocytes. The AA-induced potentiation is observed in intracellular Ca2+ measurement, whole-cell and two-electrode voltage clamp studies, as well as single channel recordings of excised inside-out and outside-out patches. The fatty acid-induced potentiation is not blocked by inhibitors of protein kinase C and thus differs from that induced by the kinase. The potentiation does not require AA metabolism but is rather mimicked by non-metabolizable analogs of AA. These results suggest a novel mechanism regulating the TRPV3 response to inflammation, which differs from TRPV1 and TRPV4, and involves a direct action of free fatty acids on the channel. PMID:16557504

  19. Effects of dietary fiber on cecal short-chain fatty acid and cecal microbiota of broiler and laying-hen chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walugembe, M; Hsieh, J C F; Koszewski, N J; Lamont, S J; Persia, M E; Rothschild, M F

    2015-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding dietary fiber on cecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentration and cecal microbiota of broiler and laying-hen chicks. The lower fiber diet was based on corn-soybean meal (SBM) and the higher fiber diet was formulated using corn-SBM-dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and wheat bran to contain 60.0 g/kg of both DDGS and wheat bran from 1 to 12 d and 80.0 g/kg of both DDGS and wheat bran from 13 to 21 d. Diets were formulated to meet or exceed NRC nutrient requirements. Broiler and laying-hen chicks were randomly assigned to the high and low fiber diets with 11 replicates of 8 chicks for each of the 4 treatments. One cecum from 3 chicks was collected from each replicate: one cecum underwent SCFA concentration analysis, one underwent bacterial DNA isolation for terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP), and the third cecum was used for metagenomics analyses. There were interactions between bird line and dietary fiber for acetic acid (P = 0.04) and total SCFA (P = 0.04) concentration. There was higher concentration of acetic acid (P = 0.02) and propionic acid (P effect of dietary fiber on SCFA concentration and modulation of cecal microbiota in broiler and laying-hen chicks. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  20. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Skeletal Muscle Health

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart Jeromson; Iain J. Gallagher; Stuart D. R. Galloway; D. Lee Hamilton

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is a plastic tissue capable of adapting and mal-adapting to physical activity and diet. The response of skeletal muscle to adaptive stimuli, such as exercise, can be modified by the prior nutritional status of the muscle. The influence of nutrition on skeletal muscle has the potential to substantially impact physical function and whole body metabolism. Animal and cell based models show that omega-3 fatty acids, in particular those of marine origin, can influence skeletal muscl...

  1. Health benefits of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardhana, Nalin; Kalupahana, Nishan S; Moustaid-Moussa, Naima

    2012-01-01

    Marine-based fish and fish oil are the most popular and well-known sources of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), namely, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). These n-3 PUFAs are known to have variety of health benefits against cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) including well-established hypotriglyceridemic and anti-inflammatory effects. Also, various studies indicate promising antihypertensive, anticancer, antioxidant, antidepression, antiaging, and antiarthritis effects. Moreover, recent studies also indicate anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing effects of these fatty acids in metabolic disorders. Classically, n-3 PUFAs mediate some of these effects by antagonizing n-6 PUFA (arachidonic acid)-induced proinflammatory prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) formation. Another well-known mechanism by which n-3 PUFAs impart their anti-inflammatory effects is via reduction of nuclear factor-κB activation. This transcription factor is a potent inducer of proinflammatory cytokine production, including interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor-α, both of which are decreased by EPA and DHA. Other evidence also demonstrates that n-3 PUFAs repress lipogenesis and increase resolvins and protectin generation, ultimately leading to reduced inflammation. Finally, beneficial effects of EPA and DHA in insulin resistance include their ability to increase secretion of adiponectin, an anti-inflammatory adipokine. In summary, n-3 PUFAs have multiple health benefits mediated at least in part by their anti-inflammatory actions; thus their consumption, especially from dietary sources, should be encouraged. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Role of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in the Prevention and Treatment of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajie Liu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer (BC is the most common cancer among women worldwide. Dietary fatty acids, especially n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, are believed to play a role in reducing BC risk. Evidence has shown that fish consumption or intake of long-chain n-3 PUFA, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, are beneficial for inhibiting mammary carcinogenesis. The evidence regarding α-linolenic acid (ALA, however, remains equivocal. It is essential to clarify the relation between ALA and cancer since ALA is the principal source of n-3 PUFA in the Western diet and the conversion of ALA to EPA and DHA is not efficient in humans. In addition, the specific anticancer roles of individual n-3 PUFA, alone, have not yet been identified. Therefore, the present review evaluates ALA, EPA and DHA consumed individually as well as in n-3 PUFA mixtures. Also, their role in the prevention of BC and potential anticancer mechanisms of action are examined. Overall, this review suggests that each n-3 PUFA has promising anticancer effects and warrants further research.

  3. CREB3L3 controls fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis in synergy with PPAR?

    OpenAIRE

    Nakagawa, Yoshimi; Satoh, Aoi; Tezuka, Hitomi; Han, Song-iee; Takei, Kenta; Iwasaki, Hitoshi; Yatoh, Shigeru; Yahagi, Naoya; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Iwasaki, Yasumasa; Sone, Hirohito; Matsuzaka, Takashi; Yamada, Nobuhiro; Shimano, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    CREB3L3 is involved in fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis in a mutual manner with PPAR?. To evaluate relative contribution, a combination of knockout and transgenic mice was investigated. On a ketogenic-diet (KD) that highlights capability of hepatic ketogenesis, Creb3l3 ?/? mice exhibited reduction of expression of genes for fatty oxidation and ketogenesis comparable to Ppara ?/? mice. Most of the genes were further suppressed in double knockout mice indicating independent contribution of ...

  4. Fatty acid patterns of dog erythrocyte membranes after feeding of a fish-oil based DHA-rich supplement with a base diet low in n-3 fatty acids versus a diet containing added n-3 fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuhrmann Herbert

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In dogs, increasing the tissue n-3 fatty acid (FA content is associated with potential benefit in some medical conditions, e.g. atopic dermatitis, cancer or heart disease. Therefore effectively and conveniently increasing tissue n-3 FA levels in dogs is of interest. Incorporation of dietary n-3 FA into cell membranes may be studied by FA analysis of erythrocyte membranes (EM, because of the correlation of its FA composition with the FA composition of other cells. Aim of the study was to determine whether an n-3 FA additive added to a control diet is as effective in increasing EM n-3 FA content as feeding an n-3 FA enriched diet. Furthermore the time course of the incorporation of dietary n-3 FA into canine EM was investigated. Methods Thirty dogs were randomly divided into three dietary groups with ten dogs per group. CONT got a dry dog food diet which did not contain EPA or DHA. FO got a dry dog food diet with a high EPA and DHA content. ADD got the CONT diet combined with an n-3 FA additive rich in DHA and EPA. After a feeding period of 12 weeks the additive was discontinued in ADD and these dogs were fed CONT diet for another four weeks to observe washout effects. Erythrocyte lipids were extracted from venous blood samples and their FA composition was determined by gas chromatography. The Mann-Whitney-U-test was used to detect significant differences between the different groups and time points. Results After one week the proportions of n-3 FA, DHA and EPA were already significantly increased in ADD and FO, apparently reaching a plateau within eight weeks. In our study DHA and not EPA was preferably incorporated into the EM. After discontinuing the administration of the additive in ADD, the n-3 FA values declined slowly without reaching baseline levels within four weeks. Conclusions In dogs, an increase of dietary n-3 FA content leads to a rapid inclusion of n-3 FA into EM, regardless of whether the n-3 FA are offered as

  5. ω-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids and their cytochrome P450-derived metabolites suppress colorectal tumor development in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weicang; Yang, Jun; Nimiya, Yoshiki; Lee, Kin Sing Stephen; Sanidad, Katherine; Qi, Weipeng; Sukamtoh, Elvira; Park, Yeonhwa; Liu, Zhenhua; Zhang, Guodong

    2017-10-01

    Many studies have shown that dietary intake of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) reduces the risks of colorectal cancer; however, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Here we used a LC-MS/MS-based lipidomics to explore the role of eicosanoid signaling in the anti-colorectal cancer effects of ω-3 PUFAs. Our results showed that dietary feeding of ω-3 PUFAs-rich diets suppressed growth of MC38 colorectal tumor, and modulated profiles of fatty acids and eicosanoid metabolites in C57BL/6 mice. Notably, we found that dietary feeding of ω-3 PUFAs significantly increased levels of epoxydocosapentaenoic acids (EDPs, metabolites of ω-3 PUFA produced by cytochrome P450 enzymes) in plasma and tumor tissue of the treated mice. We further showed that systematic treatment with EDPs (dose=0.5 mg/kg per day) suppressed MC38 tumor growth in mice, with reduced expressions of pro-oncogenic genes such as C-myc, Axin2, and C-jun in tumor tissues. Together, these results support that formation of EDPs might contribute to the anti-colorectal cancer effects of ω-3 PUFAs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The effect of dietary menhaden, olive, and coconut oil fed with three levels of vitamin E on plasma and liver lipids and plasma fatty acid composition in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Ali I.; Hussein, Ahmed S.; Bhathena, Sam J.; Hafez, Y S.

    2002-07-01

    The effect of dietary fats with varying degrees of unsaturation in the presence of different concentrations of vitamin E on tissue lipid levels was studied in rats. Rats were fed either menhaden oil, olive oil or coconut oil at 15% levels with either 0.1, 0.3 or 0.6 mg/g of vitamin E as alpha-tocopherol for four weeks. Rat serum and liver were analyzed for total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triacylglycerol and phospholipids. In addition, fatty acid composition of serum lipids was also analyzed. Serum total cholesterol and triacylglycerol were significantly lower in rats fed menhaden oil than in those fed olive or coconut oil, while the HDL-cholesterol was significantly higher in serum of rats fed menhaden and olive oil than in those fed coconut oil. Levels of vitamin E in the diet had only a significant effect on serum cholesterol and liver phospholipids. The Pearson correlation coefficient showed a significant positive relationship between serum triacylglycerol and total cholesterol, and a negative correlation between triacylglycerol and HDL-cholesterol, and between total and HDL-cholesterol.In the liver, total cholesterol was significantly higher in rats fed coconut oil than in rats fed menhaden oil. Total liver phospholipids were lower in rats fed either coconut oil or olive oil compared to those fed menhaden oil, especially with higher levels of vitamin E intake. Higher levels of vitamin E in the diet appear to increase triacylglycerol and phospholipids in livers of rats fed menhaden oil. In the liver a significant negative correlation was observed between phospholipids and cholesterol. The type and degree of unsaturation (polyunsaturated fatty acids in menhaden oil, monounsaturated fatty acids in olive oil and saturated fatty acids in coconut oil) significantly affected plasma and tissue lipids.

  7. (N-3) fatty acids do not affect electrocardiographic characteristics of healthy men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geelen, A.; Brouwer, I.A.; Zock, P.L.; Kors, J.A.; Swenne, C.A.; Katan, M.B.; Schouten, E.G.

    2002-01-01

    (n-3) Fatty acids may reduce the risk of sudden death by preventing life-threatening cardiac arrhythmia. A standard electrocardiogram (ECG) may be used to detect clues as to the mechanism by which (n-3) fatty acids affect the electrophysiology of the heart. An earlier study showed that (n-3) fatty

  8. Consequences of PPARα Invalidation on Glutathione Synthesis: Interactions with Dietary Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najoua Guelzim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Glutathione (GSH derives from cysteine and plays a key role in redox status. GSH synthesis is determined mainly by cysteine availability and γ-glutamate cysteine ligase (γGCL activity. Because PPARα activation is known to control the metabolism of certain amino acids, GSH synthesis from cysteine and related metabolisms were explored in wild-type (WT and PPARα-null (KO mice, fed diets containing either saturated (COCO diet or 18 : 3 n-3, LIN diet. In mice fed the COCO diet, but not in those fed the LIN diet, PPARα deficiency enhanced hepatic GSH content and γGCL activity, superoxide dismutase 2 mRNA levels, and plasma uric acid concentration, suggesting an oxidative stress. In addition, in WT mice, the LIN diet increased the hepatic GSH pool, without effect on γGCL activity, or change in target gene expression, which rules out a direct effect of PPARα. This suggests that dietary 18 : 3 n-3 may regulate GSH metabolism and thus mitigate the deleterious effects of PPARα deficiency on redox status, without direct PPARα activation.

  9. Regulation of skeletal muscle insulin action in relation to dietary fatty acids and gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høeg, Louise Dalgas

    -body level compared with men. After consuming a hypercaloric fat-rich diet (80 E%) enriched in unsaturated fatty acids for three days, reduced insulin stimulated whole-body (20%) and skeletal muscle glucose uptake (28%) were observed in men compared with a isocaloric control diet. After consuming a fat......-rich diet enriched in long-chain saturated fatty acids, whole body insulin sensitivity (19%) and insulin stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle (24%) were also reduced, whereas no changes was observed after a diet enriched in medium-chain saturated fatty acids and carbohydrates. These findings show...... in skeletal muscle could rather be ascribed to attenuated GLUT4 translocation to the plasma surface membrane after the unsaturated (23%) and long-chain saturated fatty acid diet (26%) compared with the control diet (52%)(investigated in rats). Furthermore, the present data suggest that mechanisms regulating...

  10. Dietary unsaturated fatty acids differently affect catecholamine handling by adrenal chromaffin cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Andreia; Correia, Gustavo; Coelho, Marisa; Araújo, João Ricardo; Pinho, Maria João; Teixeira, Ana Luisa; Medeiros, Rui; Ribeiro, Laura

    2015-05-01

    Catecholamines (CA) play an important role in cardiovascular (CDV) disease risk. Namely, noradrenaline (NA) levels positively correlate whereas adrenaline (AD) levels negatively correlate with obesity and/or CDV disease. Western diets, which are tipically rich in Ω-6 fatty acids (FAs) and deficient in Ω-3 FAs, may contribute to the development of obesity, type 2 diabetes and/or coronary artery disease. Taking this into consideration and the fact that our group has already described that saturated FAs affect catecholamine handling by adrenal chromaffin cells, this work aimed to investigate the effect of unsaturated FAs upon catecholamine handling in the same model. Our results showed that chronic exposure to unsaturated FAs differently modulated CA cellular content and release, regardless of both FA series and number of carbon atoms. Namely, the Ω-6 arachidonic and linoleic acids, based on their effect on CA release and cellular content, seemed to impair NA and AD vesicular transport, whereas γ-linolenic acid selectively impaired AD synthesis and release. Within the Ω-9 FAs, oleic acid was devoid of effect, and elaidic acid behaved similarly to γ-linolenic acid. Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (Ω-3 series) impaired the synthesis and release of both NA and AD. These results deserve attention and future development, namely, in what concerns the mechanisms involved and correlative effects in vivo. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Short term effects of different omega-3 fatty acid formulation on lipid metabolism in mice fed high or low fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Xiao

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bioactivities of Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA depend on their chemical forms. The present study was to investigate short term effects of triglyceride (TG, ethyl ester (EE, free fatty acid (FFA and phospholipid (PL forms of omega-3 fatty acid (FA on lipid metabolism in mice, fed high fat or low fat diet. Method Male Balb/c mice were fed with 0.7% different Omega-3 fatty acid formulation: DHA bound free fatty acid (DHA-FFA, DHA bound triglyceride (DHA-TG, DHA bound ethyl ester (DHA-EE and DHA bound phospholipid (DHA-PL for 1 week, with dietary fat levels at 5% and 22.5%. Serum and hepatic lipid concentrations were analyzed, as well as the fatty acid composition of liver and brain. Result At low fat level, serum total cholesterol (TC level in mice fed diets with DHA-FFA, DHA-EE and DHA-PL were significantly lower than that in the control group (P P  0.05, DHA-EE (P  0.05 and DHA-PL (P P P P P P  Conclusion The present study suggested that not only total dietary fat content but also the molecular forms of omega-3 fatty acids contributed to lipid metabolism in mice. DHA-PL showed effective bioactivity in decreasing hepatic and serum TC, TG levels and increasing omega-3 concentration in liver and brain.

  12. Increased Dietary Intake of Saturated Fatty Acid Heptadecanoic Acid (C17:0 Associated with Decreasing Ferritin and Alleviated Metabolic Syndrome in Dolphins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie K Venn-Watson

    Full Text Available Similar to humans, bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus can develop metabolic syndrome and associated high ferritin. While fish and fish-based fatty acids may protect against metabolic syndrome in humans, findings have been inconsistent. To assess potential protective factors against metabolic syndrome related to fish diets, fatty acids were compared between two dolphin populations with higher (n = 30, Group A and lower (n = 19, Group B mean insulin (11 ± 12 and 2 ± 5 μIU/ml, respectively; P < 0.0001 and their dietary fish. In addition to higher insulin, triglycerides, and ferritin, Group A had lower percent serum heptadecanoic acid (C17:0 compared to Group B (0.3 ± 0.1 and 1.3 ± 0.4%, respectively; P < 0.0001. Using multivariate stepwise regression, higher percent serum C17:0, a saturated fat found in dairy fat, rye, and some fish, was an independent predictor of lower insulin in dolphins. Capelin, a common dietary fish for Group A, had no detectable C17:0, while pinfish and mullet, common in Group B's diet, had C17:0 (41 and 67 mg/100g, respectively. When a modified diet adding 25% pinfish and/or mullet was fed to six Group A dolphins over 24 weeks (increasing the average daily dietary C17:0 intake from 400 to 1700 mg, C17:0 serum levels increased, high ferritin decreased, and blood-based metabolic syndrome indices normalized toward reference levels. These effects were not found in four reference dolphins. Further, higher total serum C17:0 was an independent and linear predictor of lower ferritin in dolphins in Group B dolphins. Among off the shelf dairy products tested, butter had the highest C17:0 (423mg/100g; nonfat dairy products had no detectable C17:0. We hypothesize that humans' movement away from diets with potentially beneficial saturated fatty acid C17:0, including whole fat dairy products, could be a contributor to widespread low C17:0 levels, higher ferritin, and metabolic syndrome.

  13. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: The Way Forward in Times of Mixed Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weylandt, Karsten H.; Serini, Simona; Chen, Yong Q.; Su, Hui-Min; Lim, Kyu; Calviello, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    Almost forty years ago, it was first hypothesized that an increased dietary intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) from fish fat could exert protective effects against several pathologies. Decades of intense preclinical investigation have supported this hypothesis in a variety of model systems. Several clinical cardiovascular studies demonstrated the beneficial health effects of omega-3 PUFA, leading medical institutions worldwide to publish recommendations for their increased intake. However, particularly in recent years, contradictory results have been obtained in human studies focusing on cardiovascular disease and the clinical evidence in other diseases, particularly chronic inflammatory and neoplastic diseases, was never established to a degree that led to clear approval of treatment with omega-3 PUFA. Recent data not in line with the previous findings have sparked a debate on the health efficacy of omega-3 PUFA and the usefulness of increasing their intake for the prevention of a number of pathologies. In this review, we aim to examine the controversies on the possible use of these fatty acids as preventive/curative tools against the development of cardiovascular, metabolic, and inflammatory diseases, as well as several kinds of cancer. PMID:26301240

  14. Omega-3 Fatty Acids Could Alleviate the Risks of Traumatic Brain Injury – A Mini Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvathy R. Kumar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is an acquired brain trauma that occurs when any sudden trauma/injury causes damage to the brain. TBI is characterized by tissue damage and imbalance in the cerebral blood flow and metabolism. It has been established through laboratory experiments that the dietary supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids (FAs could reduce the oxidative stress developed in brain due to TBI. The inclusion of omega-3 FA in diet could normalize the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, and thus, it could restore the survival of neuronal cells. BDNF improves the synaptic transmission by regulating synapsin 1 and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP response element binding protein. The brain tissue analysis of TBI models supplemented with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs showed significantly reduced lipid peroxidation, nucleic acid and protein oxidation, thereby promoting neuronal and glial cell survival. Thus, omega-3 FA intake could be considered as a therapeutic option to reduce the secondary neuronal damages initiated by TBI.

  15. Dietary trans-10, cis-12-conjugated linoleic acid alters fatty acid metabolism and microbiota composition in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Tatiana M; Wall, Rebecca; O'Sullivan, Orla; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Shanahan, Fergus; Quigley, Eamonn M; Cotter, Paul D; Cryan, John F; Dinan, Timothy G; Ross, R Paul; Stanton, Catherine

    2015-03-14

    The main aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary trans-10, cis-12-conjugated linoleic acid (t10c12-CLA) on intestinal microbiota composition and SCFA production. C57BL/6 mice (n 8 per group) were fed a standard diet either supplemented with t10c12-CLA (0·5 %, w/w) (intervention) or with no supplementation (control), daily for 8 weeks. Metabolic markers (serum glucose, leptin, insulin and TAG, and liver TAG) were assessed by ELISA commercial kits, tissue long-chain fatty acids and caecal SCFA by GC, and microbial composition by 16S rRNA pyrosequencing. Dietary t10c12-CLA significantly decreased visceral fat mass (Pcomposition were affected by t10c12-CLA intake. Caecal acetate, propionate and isobutyrate concentrations were higher (Pmicrobiota composition following 8 weeks of t10c12-CLA supplementation revealed lower proportions of Firmicutes (P= 0·003) and higher proportions of Bacteroidetes (P= 0·027) compared with no supplementation. Furthermore, t10c12-CLA supplementation for 8 weeks significantly altered the gut microbiota composition, harbouring higher proportions of Bacteroidetes, including Porphyromonadaceae bacteria previously linked with negative effects on lipid metabolism and induction of hepatic steatosis. These results indicate that the mechanism of dietary t10c12-CLA on lipid metabolism in mice may be, at least, partially mediated by alterations in gut microbiota composition and functionality.

  16. Manifestation of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis in Different Dietary Mouse Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera HI Fengler

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, which are usually associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome, are considerable health and economic issues due to the rapid increase of their prevalence in Western society. Histologically, the diseases are characterised by steatosis, hepatic inflammation, and if further progressed, fibrosis. Dietary-induced mouse models are widely used in investigations of the development and progression of NAFLD and NASH; these models attempt to mimic the histological and metabolic features of the human diseases. However, the majority of dietary mouse models fail to reflect the whole pathophysiological spectrum of NAFLD and NASH. Some models exhibit histological features similar to those seen in humans while lacking the metabolic context, while others resemble the metabolic conditions leading to NAFLD in humans but fail to mimic the whole histological spectrum, including progression from steatosis to liver fibrosis, and thus fail to mimic NASH. This review summarises the advantages and disadvantages of the different dietary-induced mouse models of NAFLD and NASH, with a focus on the genetic background of several commonly used wild-type mouse strains as well as gender and age, which influence the development and progression of these liver diseases.

  17. Odd-chain fatty acids as a biomarker for dietary fiber intake: a novel pathway for endogenous production from propionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitkunat, Karolin; Schumann, Sara; Nickel, Daniela; Hornemann, Silke; Petzke, Klaus J; Schulze, Matthias B; Pfeiffer, Andreas Fh; Klaus, Susanne

    2017-06-01

    Background: The risk of type 2 diabetes is inversely correlated with plasma concentrations of odd-chain fatty acids [OCFAs; pentadecanoic acid (15:0) and heptadecanoic acid (17:0)], which are considered as biomarkers for dairy fat intake in humans. However, rodent studies suggest that OCFAs are synthesized endogenously from gut-derived propionate. Propionate increases with dietary fiber consumption and has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity. Objective: We hypothesized that OCFAs are produced in humans from dietary fibers by a novel endogenous pathway. Design: In a randomized, double-blind crossover study, 16 healthy individuals were supplemented with cellulose (30 g/d), inulin (30 g/d), or propionate (6 g/d) for 7 d. In addition, human hepatoma cells were incubated with different propionate concentrations. OCFAs were determined in plasma phospholipids and hepatoma cells by gas chromatography. Results: Cellulose did not affect plasma OCFA levels, whereas inulin and propionate increased pentadecanoic acid by ∼17% ( P