K.A.C. Berk (Kirsten); M.T. Mulder (Monique); A.J.M. Verhoeven; Van Wietmarschen, H. (Herman); Boessen, R. (Ruud); Pellis, L.P. (Linette P.); Van Spijker, A.T. (Adriaan T); R. Timman (Reinier); B. Özcan (Behiye); E.J.G. Sijbrands (Eric)
textabstractAims A very low calorie diet improves the metabolic regulation of obesity related type 2 diabetes, but not for all patients, which leads to frustration in patients and professionals alike. The aim of this study was to develop a prediction model of diet-induced weight loss in type 2
Berk, K.A.; Mulder, M.T.; Verhoeven, A.J.M.; Wietmarschen, H. van; Boessen, R.; Pellis, L.P.; Spijker, A.T. van; Timman, R.; Ozcan, B.; Sijbrands, E.J.G.
Aims A very low calorie diet improves the metabolic regulation of obesity related type 2 diabetes, but not for all patients, which leads to frustration in patients and professionals alike. The aim of this study was to develop a prediction model of diet-induced weight loss in type 2 diabetes. Methods
Kirsten A Berk
Full Text Available A very low calorie diet improves the metabolic regulation of obesity related type 2 diabetes, but not for all patients, which leads to frustration in patients and professionals alike. The aim of this study was to develop a prediction model of diet-induced weight loss in type 2 diabetes.192 patients with type 2 diabetes and BMI>27 kg/m2 from the outpatient diabetes clinic of the Erasmus Medical Center underwent an 8-week very low calorie diet. Baseline demographic, psychological and physiological parameters were measured and the C-index was calculated of the model with the largest explained variance of relative weight loss using backward linear regression analysis. The model was internally validated using bootstrapping techniques.Weight loss after the diet was 7.8±4.6 kg (95%CI 7.2-8.5; p<0.001 and was independently associated with the baseline variables fasting glucose (B = -0.33 (95%CI -0.49, -0.18, p = 0.001, anxiety (HADS; B = -0.22 (95%CI -0.34, -0.11, p = 0.001, numb feeling in extremities (B = 1.86 (95%CI 0.85, 2.87, p = 0.002, insulin dose (B = 0.01 (95%CI 0.00, 0.02, p = 0.014 and waist-to-hip ratio (B = 6.79 (95%CI 2.10, 11.78, p = 0.003. This model explained 25% of the variance in weight loss. The C-index of this model to predict successful (≥5% weight loss was 0.74 (95%CI 0.67-0.82, with a sensitivity of 0.93 (95% CI 0.89-0.97 and specificity of 0.29 (95% CI 0.16-0.42. When only the obese T2D patients (BMI≥30 kg/m2; n = 181 were considered, age also contributed to the model (B = 0.06 (95%CI 0.02, 0.11, p = 0.008, whereas waist-to-hip ratio did not.Diet-induced weight loss in overweight adults with T2D was predicted by five baseline parameters, which were predominantly diabetes related. However, failure seems difficult to predict. We propose to test this prediction model in future prospective diet intervention studies in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Munro Irene A
Full Text Available Abstract Background A major challenge for successful weight management is tailoring weight loss programs to individual needs. The aim of this study was to investigate whether personality traits could be used to match individuals to a compatible weight loss program that would maximize weight loss. Method Two different weight loss trials were conducted, both with a weight loss greater than 5% the measure of success. Fifty-four individuals, BMI 30-40 kg/m2, either followed a slow, healthy eating weight loss diet (HEWLD of 5000-6000 kJ/day for 12 weeks (n = 22, or a fast, very low energy diet (VLED of 3000 kJ/day for 4 weeks (n = 32. Anthropometric measurements were recorded at baseline, at the end of the weight loss period and, for VLED, at the end of 10 weeks of weight maintenance. Personality traits were measured at baseline using the Tangney Self Control Scale plus 3 of the scales from the Five Factor Model - Neuroticism, Conscientiousness and Extraversion. Results The percentage weight loss was significantly greater in VLED (-7.38% compared to HEWLD (-4.11%, (p Conclusion The personality factor, Neuroticism, was linked to successful weight loss (that is ≥ 5% with a particular weight loss treatment, suggesting that there is a potential to use measures of personality to identify appropriate weight loss/management strategies for individuals. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR: ACTRN12611000716965
Astrup, A; Buemann, B; Gluud, C
To identify prognostic metabolic and hormonal markers for long-term weight loss outcome in obese women.......To identify prognostic metabolic and hormonal markers for long-term weight loss outcome in obese women....
Christensen, P; Bartels, E M; Riecke, B F; Bliddal, H; Leeds, A R; Astrup, A; Winther, K; Christensen, R
Obese subjects are commonly deficient in several micronutrients. Weight loss, although beneficial, may also lead to adverse changes in micronutrient status and body composition. The objective of the study is to assess changes in micronutrient status and body composition in obese individuals after a dietary weight loss program. As part of a dietary weight loss trial, enrolling 192 obese patients (body mass index >30 kg/m2) with knee osteoarthritis (>50 years of age), vitamin D, ferritin, vitamin B12 and body composition were measured at baseline and after 16 weeks. All followed an 8-week formula weight-loss diet 415-810 kcal per day, followed by 8 weeks on a hypo-energetic 1200 kcal per day diet with a combination of normal food and formula products. Statistical analyses were based on paired samples in the completer population. A total of 175 patients (142 women), 91%, completed the 16-week program and had a body weight loss of 14.0 kg (95% confidence interval: 13.3-14.7; Pdiet resulted in increased BMD and improved vitamin D and B12 levels. Ferritin and BMC were unchanged and loss of LBM was only 13% of the total weight loss. This observational evidence supports use of formula diet-induced weight loss therapy in obese osteoarthritis patients.
Radhika V Seimon
Full Text Available Intermittent severe energy restriction is popular for weight management. To investigate whether intermittent moderate energy restriction may improve this approach by enhancing weight loss efficiency, we conducted a study in mice, where energy intake can be controlled.Male C57/Bl6 mice that had been rendered obese by an ad libitum diet high in fat and sugar for 22 weeks were then fed one of two energy-restricted normal chow diets for a 12-week weight loss phase. The continuous diet (CD provided 82% of the energy intake of age-matched ad libitum chow-fed controls. The intermittent diet (ID provided cycles of 82% of control intake for 5-6 consecutive days, and ad libitum intake for 1-3 days. Weight loss efficiency during this phase was calculated as (total weight change ÷ [(total energy intake of mice on CD or ID-(total average energy intake of controls]. Subsets of mice then underwent a 3-week weight regain phase involving ad libitum re-feeding.Mice on the ID showed transient hyperphagia relative to controls during each 1-3-day ad libitum feeding period, and overall ate significantly more than CD mice (91.1±1.0 versus 82.2±0.5% of control intake respectively, n = 10, P<0.05. There were no significant differences between CD and ID groups at the end of the weight loss or weight regain phases with respect to body weight, fat mass, circulating glucose or insulin concentrations, or the insulin resistance index. Weight loss efficiency was significantly greater with ID than with CD (0.042±0.007 versus 0.018±0.001 g/kJ, n = 10, P<0.01. Mice on the CD exhibited significantly greater hypothalamic mRNA expression of proopiomelanocortin (POMC relative to ID and control mice, with no differences in neuropeptide Y or agouti-related peptide mRNA expression between energy-restricted groups.Intermittent moderate energy restriction may offer an advantage over continuous moderate energy restriction, because it induces significantly greater weight loss relative
Full Text Available Abstract Background The physiological and behavioral responses to hypocaloric diet are to increase energy intake to defend a steady body weight. We utilized the method of "negative alliesthesia" for measuring the hedonic reponse to sweet stimulus before (Initial session and 3 months after entering a weight loss program. The negative alliesthesia test is known by physiologists but few clinical data exist. It is based on the observation that repeated pleasant gustatory stimuli turn into unpleasantness in the process of alliesthesia. At first visit participants repeatedly ingested sweet stimuli until they found them unpleasant and rated quantitatively on a linear analogue scale their hedonic experience. This procedure was repeated every 3 min until participants felt displeasure to end the session. The same protocol was followed after three months of following a weight loss diet. Dieting energy intake was from 1400 – 2000 kcal/d for 8 wk. Energy composition was 50% carb:25% prot: 25% lipid. After 8 wk caloric intake increased by 50 kcal/wk, to reach daily intake of 1800 – 2400 kcal/d. Energy composition was 50% carb:22% prot: 27% lipid. We report results on the effect of slow weight loss on negative alliesthesia in ten obese female participants enrolled in a commercial diet program based on Canada's Food Guide (Mincavi®. Results Results showed that diet lowered the mean BMI (Initial session 36.8 +/- 1.8 vs. 3 mo 34.9 +/- 1.8 kg/m2. At 3 mo the onset of negative alliesthesia, time to abandon experimental session, was shortened (Initial session 33 vs. 3 mo 24 min. The same trend was observed in the time to reach indifference (Initial session 21.9 +/- 3.8 vs. 3 mo 16.2 +/-2.4 min. There was no observed difference in maximum (Initial session +79.5 +/- 11.7; 3 mo +94.5 +/- 9.9 mm and minimum (Initial session -90.0 +/- 14.4; 3 mo -106 +/- 11.1 mm hedonic rating. Conclusion Earlier onset of negative alliesthesia, as seen in our participants, is not
Vink, R.G.; Roumans, N.J.; Čajlaković, M.; Cleutjens, J.P.M.; Boekschoten, M.V.; Fazelzadeh, P.; Vogel, M.A.A.; Blaak, E.E.; Mariman, E.C.; Baak, van M.A.; Goossens, G.H.
Background/objectives: Although adipose tissue (AT) hypoxia is present in rodent models of obesity, evidence for this in humans is limited. Here, we investigated the effects of diet-induced weight loss (WL) on abdominal subcutaneous AT oxygen tension (pO 2), AT blood flow (ATBF), AT capillary
Hansen, Henrik H; Hansen, Gitte; Tang-Christensen, Mads
Tesofensine, a novel triple monoamine reuptake inhibitor, produces a significant weight loss in humans. The present study aimed at characterizing the weight-reducing effects of tesofensine in a rat model of diet-induced obesity. Sibutramine and rimonabant were used as reference comparators....... Compared to baseline, long-term treatment with tesofensine (28 days, 1.0 or 2.5mg/kg, p.o.) resulted in a significant, dose-dependent and sustained weight loss of 5.7 and 9.9%, respectively. Sibutramine (7.5mg/kg, p.o.) treatment caused a sustained weight loss of 7.6%, whereas the employed dose...... of rimonabant (10mg/kg, p.o.) only produced a transient weight reduction. While all compounds exhibited a significant inhibitory effect on food intake which gradually wore off, the hypophagic effect of tesofensine was longer lasting than sibutramine and rimonabant. In contrast to tesofensine, the body weight...
Siklova, Michaela; Simonsen, Lene; Polak, Jan
CONTEXT: Hyperglycemia is suggested to be one of the drivers of the proinflammatory state observed in obese and diabetic patients. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the study was to investigate whether sc abdominal adipose tissue (scAT) could be one of the important sources of proinflammatory cytokines...... released in response to short-term hyperglycemia and whether this secretion capacity could be influenced by weight loss. DESIGN, PATIENTS, AND INTERVENTIONS: Output of cytokines and proteins of acute phase from scAT in response to a 3-hours hyperglycemic clamp was evaluated in nine obese women in vivo...... was assessed. RESULTS: Hyperglycemia increased the output of cytokines IL-6, MCP-1, and IL-1Ra from scAT. This effect had a tendency to be reduced after weight loss. The output of other proinflammatory substances from scAT into circulation was not detected. The diet-induced weight loss was associated...
The overall objective of this study was to examine the relationship between executive function, specifically decision making, and weight loss. We used the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) to characterize decision making and compared performance on this task to weight loss in obese women (n=29) participatin...
Rasmussen, M H; Ho, K K; Kjems, L
+/-SEM)] before and after an average weight loss of 30.3 +/- 4.6 kg and in 18 age- and sex matched normal subjects (BMI, 23.0 +/- 0.4 kg/m2) and studied the effects of a very low calorie diet over 4 days in 5 normal subjects and a subgroup of obese subjects before (n = 6) and after (n = 5) weight loss...... was positively correlated to insulin as well as proinsulin levels (r = 0.60; P diet-induced massive weight loss, GHBP levels were restored to normal in obese subjects (BMI, 27.8 +/- 1.4 kg/m2). Multiple stepwise regression analysis revealed that changes...... days of a very low calorie diet, although mean insulin levels fell significantly in the normal subgroup as well as in the obese subgroup studied after weight loss. In summary, GHBP levels are elevated in obesity, are restored to normal by massive weight loss, and are unaffected by short term...
Velázquez, Kandy T; Enos, Reilly T; Carson, Meredith S; Cranford, Taryn L; Bader, Jackie E; Chatzistamou, Ioulia; Singh, Udai P; Nagarkatti, Prakash S; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Davis, J Mark; Carson, James A; Murphy, E Angela
Obesity presents a significant public health concern given its association with increased cancer incidence, unfavorable prognosis, and metastasis. However, there is very little literature on the effects of weight loss, following obesity, on risk for colon cancer or liver cancer. Therefore, we sought to study whether intentional weight loss through diet manipulation was capable of mitigating colon and liver cancer in mice. We fed mice with a high-fat diet (HFD) comprised of 47% carbohydrates, 40% fat, and 13% protein for 20 wk to mimic human obesity. Subsequently, azoxymethane (AOM) was used to promote colon and liver carcinogenesis. A subset of obese mice was then switched to a low-fat diet (LFD) containing 67.5% carbohydrate, 12.2% fat, and 20% protein to promote intentional weight loss. Body weight loss and excess fat reduction did not protect mice from colon cancer progression and liver dysplastic lesion in the AOM-chemical-cancer model even though these mice had improved blood glucose and leptin levels. Intentional weight loss in AOM-treated mice actually produced histological changes that resemble dysplastic alterations in the liver and presented a higher percentage of F4/80 + CD206 + macrophages and activated T cells (CD4 + CD69 + ) in the spleen and lymph nodes, respectively. In addition, the liver of AOM-treated mice exposed to a HFD during the entire period of the experiment exhibited a marked increase in proliferation and pNF-κB activation. Altogether, these data suggest that intentional weight loss following chemical-induced carcinogenesis does not affect colon tumorigenesis but may in fact negatively impact liver repair mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.
We studied the effects of weight loss induced by either a low-fat normal diet or restriction of high-fat diet on hepatic steatosis, inflammation in the liver and adipose tissue, and blood monocytes of obese mice. In mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity, weight loss was achieved by switching from ...
Siersbæk, Majken; Varticovski, Lyuba; Yang, Shutong
Abstract Epigenetic factors have been suggested to play an important role in metabolic memory by trapping and maintaining initial metabolic changes within the transcriptional regulatory machinery. In this study we fed mice a high fat diet (HFD) for seven weeks followed by additional five weeks...... for efficient treatment of early obesity-associated changes to hepatic complications by simple weight loss intervention without persistent reprograming of the liver transcriptome....
Miller, G D; Beavers, D P; Hamm, D; Mihalko, S L; Messier, S P
Dietary restriction in obese older adults undergoing weight loss may exacerbate nutrient deficiencies common in this group; the nutritional health of older adults is a factor in their quality of life, disability, and mortality. This study examined the effect of an 18-month weight loss program based in social cognitive theory incorporating partial meal replacements, on nutrient intake in older overweight and obese adults. The following analysis is from the Intensive Diet and Exercise for Arthritis (IDEA) trial, a single-blind, randomized controlled trial. Individuals were randomized into one of three 18-month interventions: exercise (E); intensive diet-induced weight loss (D); or intensive diet-induced weight loss plus exercise (D+E). The study setting was at a university research facility. Overweight and obese older adults (n=388; BMI=33.7±3.8 kg/m2; 65.8±6.1 years) were recruited. The D and D+E interventions (group mean goal of ≥10% loss by 18-months) utilized partial meal replacements (2 meal replacement shakes/day for 6-months). Exercise training for E and D+E was 3 days/week, 60 minutes/day. Three day food records were collected at baseline, 6-months, and 18-months and analyzed for total energy and macro- and micronutrient intake. Comparisons of dietary intake among treatment groups were performed at 6 and 18 months using mixed linear models. Weight loss at 18-months was 11.3±8.3% (D), 10.3±6.8% (D+E), and 1.2±4.2% (E). Meal replacements were used by more than 60% (6-months) and 50% (18-months) of D and D+E participants, compared to ≤15% for E. Both D and D+E consumed less energy and fat, and more carbohydrates and selected micronutrients than E during follow-up. More than 50% of all participants consumed less than the recommended intake of particular vitamins and minerals. The diet intervention improved intakes of several nutrients. However, inadequate intake of several vitamins and minerals of concern for older adults suggests they need further
Walewski, José L; Ge, Fengxia; Lobdell, Harrison; Levin, Nancy; Schwartz, Gary J; Vasselli, Joseph R; Pomp, Afons; Dakin, Gregory; Berk, Paul D
Microarray studies identified Ch12:orf39 (Spexin) as the most down-regulated gene in obese human fat. Therefore, we examined its role in obesity pathogenesis. Spexin effects on food intake, meal patterns, body weight, respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and locomotor activity were monitored electronically in C57BL/6J mice or Wistar rats with diet-induced obesity (DIO). Its effects on adipocyte [(3)H]-oleate uptake were determined. In humans, Spexin gene expression was down-regulated 14.9-fold in obese omental and subcutaneous fat. Circulating Spexin changed in parallel, correlating (r = -0.797) with Leptin. In rats, Spexin (35 µg/kg/day SC) reduced caloric intake ∼32% with corresponding weight loss. Meal patterns were unaffected. In mice, Spexin (25 µg/kg/day IP) significantly reduced the RER at night, and increased locomotion. Spexin incubation in vitro significantly inhibited facilitated fatty acid (FA) uptake into DIO mouse adipocytes. Conditioned taste aversion testing (70 µg/kg/day IP) demonstrated no aversive Spexin effects. Spexin gene expression is markedly down-regulated in obese human fat. The peptide produces weight loss in DIO rodents. Its effects on appetite and energy regulation are presumably central; those on adipocyte FA uptake appear direct and peripheral. Spexin is a novel hormone involved in weight regulation, with potential for obesity therapy. Copyright © 2014 The Obesity Society.
Diet-induced weight loss and exercise alone and in combination enhance the expression of adiponectin receptors in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle, but only diet-induced weight loss enhanced circulating adiponectin
Christiansen, Tore; Paulsen, Søren K; Bruun, Jens M
and adiponectin receptors (AdipoR) in adipose tissue (AT) and skeletal muscle (SM). Design and Methods: Seventy-nine obese males and females were randomized into the following: 1) exercise only (12 wk of exercise without diet restriction); 2) hypocaloric diet [8 wk of very low energy diet (600 kcal/d) followed...... by 4 wk with a weight maintenance diet]; and 3) hypocaloric diet and exercise (DEX; 8 wk very low energy diet 800 kcal/d followed by 4 wk weight maintenance diet combined with exercise throughout the 12 wk). Blood samples and biopsies from sc abdominal AT and SM were collected at baseline and after 12...... in all three groups (all P hypocaloric diet groups (both P
Barquissau, Valentin; Léger, Benjamin; Beuzelin, Diane; Martins, Frédéric; Amri, Ez-Zoubir; Pisani, Didier F; Saris, Wim H M; Astrup, Arne; Maoret, Jean-José; Iacovoni, Jason; Déjean, Sébastien; Moro, Cédric; Viguerie, Nathalie; Langin, Dominique
Caloric restriction (CR) is standard lifestyle therapy in obesity management. CR-induced weight loss improves the metabolic profile of individuals with obesity. In mice, occurrence of beige fat cells in white fat depots favors a metabolically healthy phenotype, and CR promotes browning of white adipose tissue (WAT). Here, human subcutaneous abdominal WAT samples were analyzed in 289 individuals with obesity following a two-phase dietary intervention consisting of an 8 week very low calorie diet and a 6-month weight-maintenance phase. Before the intervention, we show sex differences and seasonal variation, with higher expression of brown and beige markers in women with obesity and during winter, respectively. The very low calorie diet resulted in decreased browning of subcutaneous abdominal WAT. During the whole dietary intervention, evolution of body fat and insulin resistance was independent of changes in brown and beige fat markers. These data suggest that diet-induced effects on body fat and insulin resistance are independent of subcutaneous abdominal WAT browning in people with obesity. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Caloric restriction (CR is standard lifestyle therapy in obesity management. CR-induced weight loss improves the metabolic profile of individuals with obesity. In mice, occurrence of beige fat cells in white fat depots favors a metabolically healthy phenotype, and CR promotes browning of white adipose tissue (WAT. Here, human subcutaneous abdominal WAT samples were analyzed in 289 individuals with obesity following a two-phase dietary intervention consisting of an 8 week very low calorie diet and a 6-month weight-maintenance phase. Before the intervention, we show sex differences and seasonal variation, with higher expression of brown and beige markers in women with obesity and during winter, respectively. The very low calorie diet resulted in decreased browning of subcutaneous abdominal WAT. During the whole dietary intervention, evolution of body fat and insulin resistance was independent of changes in brown and beige fat markers. These data suggest that diet-induced effects on body fat and insulin resistance are independent of subcutaneous abdominal WAT browning in people with obesity.
Soares, Nayara Pereira; Santos, Ana Celly Souza dos; Costa, Eduardo Caldas; Azevedo, George Dantas; Damasceno, Débora Cristina; Fayh, Ana Paula Trussardi; Lemos, Telma Maria Araújo Moura
We aimed to investigate the impact of following a diet to induce weight loss (500 kcal deficit per day) over DNA damage and cardiometabolic risk factors in women with overweight/obesity diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). A study was conducted in Natal, RN, Brazil selecting overweight/obese (body mass index ≥25 and weight loss, decreased sexual hormone and cardiometabolic markers such as insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were verified In the multivariate regression analysis, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index and progesterone were responsible for the variation markers in DNA damage before the diet, losing its influence upon diet. DNA damage and the impact of cardiometabolic risk factors decreased after the intervention in women with PCOS, indicating the relevance of a nutritional approach in this group of patients. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Walewski, José L.; Ge, Fengxia; Lobdell, Harrison; Levin, Nancy; Schwartz, Gary J.; Vasselli, Joseph; Pomp, Afons; Dakin, Gregory; Berk, Paul D.
Objective Microarray studies identified Ch12:orf39 (Spexin) as the most dysregulated gene in obese human fat. Therefore we examined its role in obesity pathogenesis. Design and Methods Spexin effects on food intake, meal patterns, body weight, Respiratory Exchange Ratio (RER), and locomotor activity were monitored electronically in C57BL/6J mice or Wistar rats with dietary-induced obesity (DIO). Its effects on adipocyte [3H]-oleate uptake were determined. Results In humans, Spexin gene expression was down-regulated 14.9-fold in obese omental and subcutaneous fat. Circulating Spexin changed in parallel, correlating (r = −0.797) with Leptin. In rats, Spexin (35 μg/kg/day s.c) reduced caloric intake ~32% with corresponding weight loss. Meal patterns were unaffected. In mice, Spexin (25 μg/kg/day i.p.) significantly reduced the RER at night, and increased locomotion. Spexin incubation in vitro significantly inhibited facilitated fatty acid (FA) uptake into DIO mouse adipocytes. Conditioned taste aversion testing (70μg/kg/day i.p.) demonstrated no aversive Spexin effects. Conclusions Spexin gene expression is markedly down-regulated in obese human fat. The peptide produces weight loss in DIO rodents. Its effects on appetite and energy regulation are presumably central; those on adipocyte FA uptake appear direct and peripheral. Spexin is a novel hormone involved in weight regulation, with potential for obesity therapy. PMID:24550067
Full Text Available Osteoporosis is negatively correlated with body mass, whereas both osteoporosis and weight loss occur at higher incidence during the progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD than the age-matched non-dementia individuals. Given that there is no evidence that overweight associated with AD-type cognitive dysfunction, we hypothesized that moderate weight gain might have a protective effect on the bone loss in AD without exacerbating cognitive dysfunction. In the present study, feeding a high-fat-diet (HFD, 45% calorie from fat to female APP/PS1 transgenic mice, an AD animal model, induced weight gain. The bone mineral density, microarchitecture, and biomechanical properties of the femurs were then evaluated. The results showed that the middle-aged female APP/PS1 transgenic mice were susceptible to osteoporosis of the femoral bones and that weight gain significantly enhanced bone mass and mechanical properties. Notably, HFD was not detrimental to brain insulin signaling and AβPP processing, as well as to exploration ability and working, learning and memory performance of the transgenic mice measured by T maze and water maze, compared with the mice fed a normal fat diet (10% calorie from fat. In addition, the circulating levels of leptin but not estradiol were remarkably elevated in HFD-treated mice. These results suggest that a body weight gain induced by the HFD feeding regimen significantly improved bone mass in female APP/PS1 mice with no detriments to exploration ability and spatial memory, most likely via the action of elevated circulating leptin.
Barquissau, Valentin; Léger, Benjamin; Beuzelin, Diane
Caloric restriction (CR) is standard lifestyle therapy in obesity management. CR-induced weight loss improves the metabolic profile of individuals with obesity. In mice, occurrence of beige fat cells in white fat depots favors a metabolically healthy phenotype, and CR promotes browning of white...... variation, with higher expression of brown and beige markers in women with obesity and during winter, respectively. The very low calorie diet resulted in decreased browning of subcutaneous abdominal WAT. During the whole dietary intervention, evolution of body fat and insulin resistance was independent...
Hansen, Henrik H; Jensen, Majbrit M; Overgaard, Agnete
is not clarified. Tesofensine effectively induces appetite suppression in the diet-induced obese (DIO) rat partially being ascribed to an indirect stimulation of central dopamine receptor function subsequent to blocked dopamine transporter activity. This is interesting, as obese patients have reduced central......Tesofensine is a triple monoamine reuptake inhibitor which inhibits noradrenaline, 5-HT and dopamine reuptake. Tesofensine is currently in clinical development for the treatment of obesity, however, the pharmacological basis for its strong and sustained effects in obesity management...... as compared to age-matched chow-fed rats. DIO rats also exhibited a marked reduction in baseline extracellular dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and prefrontal cortex (PFC), as compared to chow-fed rats using microdialysis. While acute administration of tesofensine (2.0mg/kg) normalized accumbal...
Castan-Laurell, Isabelle; Vítkova, Michaela; Daviaud, Danièle; Dray, Cédric; Kováciková, Michaela; Kovacova, Zuzana; Hejnova, Jindriska; Stich, Vladimir; Valet, Philippe
Apelin is a novel adipokine acting on APJ receptor, regulated by insulin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in adipose tissue (AT). Plasma apelin levels are increased in obese hyperinsulinemic subjects. The aim was to investigate whether the hypocaloric diet associated with weight loss modifies the elevated plasma apelin levels and the expression of apelin and APJ receptor in AT in obese women. Fasting plasma levels of apelin and TNF-alpha as well as mRNA levels of apelin and APJ in AT were measured before and after a 12-week hypocaloric weight-reducing diet in 20 obese women (body mass index (BMI) before diet 32.2+/-6.4 kg/m(2)). Twelve healthy women with a BMI of 20.7+/-0.6 kg/m(2) served as reference. Plasma levels of apelin and TNF-alpha were higher in obese compared with lean controls. The hypocaloric diet resulted in a significant decrease of BMI to 29.8+/-6.3 kg/m(2), plasma insulin (8.16+/-0.73 to 6.58+/-0.66 mU/l), apelin (369+/-25 pg/ml to 257+/-12 pg/ml), TNF-alpha levels (0.66+/-0.04 pg/ml to 0.56+/-0.04 pg/ml), and AT mRNAs of apelin and APJ. In addition, changes in AT mRNA apelin were related to changes in AT mRNA APJ levels. The hypocaloric diet associated with weight loss reduces the increased plasma and AT expression of apelin in obese women. This reduced apelin expression in AT could contribute to decreased circulating apelin levels.
Ballesteros-Pomar, M D; Calleja, S; Díez-Rodríguez, R; Calleja-Fernández, A; Vidal-Casariego, A; Nuñez-Alonso, A; Cano-Rodríguez, I; Olcoz-Goñi, J L
To assess if insulin resistance is related to a different inflammatory status (especially lymphocyte subpopulations) in severely obese people and to evaluate changes after weight loss either following a very-low calorie diet (VLCD) or bariatric surgery. Severely obese patients were consecutively recruited in our Obesity Unit. Blood lymphocyte subpopulations and inflammatory parameters were measured baseline, after a VLCD during 6 weeks and one year after biliopancreatic diversion. Insulin resistance was evaluated by Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) index. After excluding diabetic patients, 58 patients were studied. HOMA index classified 63.8% of them as insulin resistant (IR). Serum baseline levels of inflammatory cytokines were not significantly different between IR and insulinsensitive (IS) patients but, regarding lymphocyte subpopulations, Natural Killer (NK) cells were higher in IR patients [(305.0 (136.7) vs. 235.0 (80.7) cells/µL, p=0.047]. NK cells showed a significant positive correlation with HOMA index (r=0.484, p=0.000) and with the carbohydrate content of the diet (r=0.420, p=0.001). After VLCD, NK cells significantly decreased, but only in IR patients and in those losing more than 10% of their initial weight. After biliopancreatic diversion, total and CD8 T Lymphocytes, B lymphocytes and NK cells also decreased but only in IR individuals. NK cells are significantly increased in IR severely obese people in respect to IS, suggesting a slightly different immune status in these patients with a probable dietary relationship. Weight loss could reverse this increase either after VLCD or after bariatric surgery. © J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Full Text Available The clinical development of the first generation of globally active cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R antagonists was suspended because of their adverse neuropsychiatric effects. Selective blockade of peripheral CB1Rs has the potential to provide a viable strategy for the treatment of severe obesity while avoiding these central nervous system side effects. In the current study, a novel compound (TXX-522 was rationally designed based on the parent nucleus of a classical CB1R-selective antagonist/inverse agonist, rimonabant (SR141716A. Docking assays indicate that TXX-522 was bound with the CB1R in a mode similar to that of SR141716A. TXX-522 showed good binding, CB1R-selectivity (over the CB2R, and functional antagonist activities in a range of in vitro molecular and cellular assays. In vivo analysis of the steady state distribution of TXX-522 in the rat brain and blood tissues and the assay of its functional effects on CB1R activity collectively showed that TXX-522 showed minimal brain penetration. Moreover, the in vivo pharmacodynamic study further revealed that TXX-522 had good oral bioavailability and a potent anti-obesity effect, and ameliorated insulin resistance in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. No impact on food intake was observed in this model, confirming the limited brain penetration of this compound. Thus, the current study indicates that TXX-522 is a novel and potent peripherally acting selective CB1R antagonist with the potential to control obesity and related metabolic disorders.
Pérez-Martí, Albert; Garcia-Guasch, Maite; Tresserra-Rimbau, Anna; Carrilho-Do-Rosário, Alexandra; Estruch, Ramon; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa; Marrero, Pedro F; Haro, Diego; Relat, Joana
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is considered a promising therapeutic candidate for the treatment of obesity. Since FGF21 production is regulated by various nutritional factors, we analyze the impact of low protein intake on circulating levels of this growth hormone in mice and in a sub cohort of the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) trial. We also describe the role of hepatic FGF21 in metabolic adaptation to a low-protein diet (LPD). We fed control and liver-specific Fgf21 knockout (LFgf21KO) mice a LPD. This diet increased FGF21 production by inducing its overexpression in liver, and this correlated with a body weight decrease without changes in food intake. The LPD also caused FGF21-dependent browning in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (scWAT), as indicated by an increase in the expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). In a subgroup of 78 individuals from the PREDIMED trial, we observed an inverse correlation between protein intake and circulating FGF21 levels. Our results reinforce the involvement of FGF21 in coordinating energy homeostasis under a range of nutritional conditions. Moreover, here we describe an approach to increase the endogenous production of FGF21, which if demonstrated functional in humans, could generate a treatment for obesity. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Márquez-Quinõnes, Adriana; Mutch, David M.; Debard, Cyrille
The mechanisms underlying body weight evolution after diet-induced weight loss are poorly understood.......The mechanisms underlying body weight evolution after diet-induced weight loss are poorly understood....
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Bahadori, B; Yazdani-Biuki, B; Krippl, P; Brath, H; Uitz, E; Wascher, T C
The traditional treatment for obesity which is based on a reduced caloric diet has only been partially successful. Contributing factors are not only a poor long-term dietary adherence but also a significant loss of lean body mass and subsequent reduction in energy expenditure. Both low-fat, high-carbohydrate diets and diets using low-glycaemic index (GI) foods are capable of inducing modest weight loss without specific caloric restriction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility and medium-term effect of a low-fat diet with high (low GI) carbohydrates on weight loss, body composition changes and dietary compliance. Obese patients were recruited from two obesity outpatient clinics. Subjects were given advise by a dietician, then they attended biweekly for 1-hour group meetings. Bodyweight and body composition were measured at baseline and after 24 weeks. One hundred and nine (91%) patients completed the study; after 24 weeks the average weight loss was 8.9 kg (98.6 vs. 89.7 kg; p fat mass (42.5 vs. 36.4 kg; p vs. 53.3 kg; p low-fat, low-GI diet led to a significant reduction of fat mass; adherence to the diet was very good. Our results suggest that such a diet is feasible and should be evaluated in randomized controlled trials.
Dudek, Magdalena; Knutelska, Joanna; Bednarski, Marek; Nowiński, Leszek; Zygmunt, Małgorzata; Kazek, Grzegorz; Mordyl, Barbara; Głuch-Lutwin, Monika; Zaręba, Paula; Kulig, Katarzyna; Sapa, Jacek
Obesity affects an increasing number of individuals in the human population and significant importance is attached to research leading to the discovery of drug which would effectively reduce weight. The search for new drugs with anorectic activity and acting within the adrenergic system has attracted the interest of researchers. This study concerns the experimental effects on body weight of α2-adrenoceptor antagonists from the group of pyrrolidin-2-one derivatives in rats with diet-induced obesity. The intrinsic activity of the test compounds at the α-adrenoreceptors was tested. Obesity in rats was obtained by the use of fatty diet and then the influence of the test compounds on body weight, food and water intakes, lipid and glucose profiles and glycerol and cortisol levels were determinated. The effects of the compounds on locomotor activity, body temperature, blood pressure and heart rate were tested. One of the test compounds (1-(3-(4-phenylpiperazin-1-yl)propyl)pyrrolidin-2-one) reduces the animal's body weight and the amount of peritoneal adipose tissue during chronic administration, at the same time it does not cause significant adverse effects on the cardiovascular system. This compound decreases temperature and elevates glycerol levels and does not change the locomotor activity and cortisol level at anti-obese dose. Some derivatives of pyrrolidin-2-one that act as antagonists of the α2-adrenoreceptor may reduce body weight. Reducing body weight for 1-(3-(4-phenylpiperazin-1-yl)propyl)pyrrolidin-2-one can be associated with decrease in food intake, body fat reduction, reduction of blood glucose, and increased thermogenesis and lipolysis. This effect cannot be the result of changes in spontaneous activity or stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Snook, Laelie A; MacPherson, Rebecca E K; Monaco, Cynthia M F; Frendo-Cumbo, Scott; Castellani, Laura; Peppler, Willem T; Anderson, Zachary G; Buzelle, Samyra L; LeBlanc, Paul J; Holloway, Graham P; Wright, David C
High-fat diets rapidly cause weight gain and glucose intolerance. We sought to determine whether these changes could be mitigated with prior exercise training. Male C57BL/6J mice were exercise-trained by treadmill running (1 h/day, 5 days/wk) for 4 wk. Twenty-four hours after the final bout of exercise, mice were provided with a high-fat diet (HFD; 60% kcal from lard) for 4 days, with no further exercise. In mice fed the HFD prior to exercise training, the results were blunted weight gain, reduced fat mass, and a slight attenuation in glucose intolerance that was mirrored by greater insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation in skeletal muscle compared with sedentary mice fed the HFD. When ad libitum-fed sedentary mice were compared with sedentary high-fat fed mice that were calorie restricted (-30%) to match the weight gain of the previously trained high-fat fed mice, the same attenuated impairments in glucose tolerance were found. Blunted weight gain was associated with a greater capacity to increase energy expenditure in trained compared with sedentary mice when challenged with a HFD. Although mitochondrial enzymes in white adipose tissue and UCP-1 protein content in brown adipose tissue were increased in previously exercised compared with sedentary mice fed a HFD, ex vivo mitochondrial respiration was not increased in either tissue. Our data suggest that prior exercise training attenuates high-fat diet-induced weight gain and glucose intolerance and is associated with a greater ability to increase energy expenditure in response to a high-fat diet. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.
Weight loss surgery helps people with extreme obesity to lose weight. It may be an option if you cannot lose weight ... obesity. There are different types of weight loss surgery. They often limit the amount of food you ...
Cava, Edda; Yeat, Nai Chien; Mittendorfer, Bettina
Weight loss is the cornerstone of therapy for people with obesity because it can ameliorate or completely resolve the metabolic risk factors for diabetes, coronary artery disease, and obesity-associated cancers. The potential health benefits of diet-induced weight loss are thought to be compromised by the weight-loss–associated loss of lean body mass, which could increase the risk of sarcopenia (low muscle mass and impaired muscle function). The objective of this review is to provide an overview of what is known about weight-loss–induced muscle loss and its implications for overall physical function (e.g., ability to lift items, walk, and climb stairs). The currently available data in the literature show the following: 1) compared with persons with normal weight, those with obesity have more muscle mass but poor muscle quality; 2) diet-induced weight loss reduces muscle mass without adversely affecting muscle strength; 3) weight loss improves global physical function, most likely because of reduced fat mass; 4) high protein intake helps preserve lean body and muscle mass during weight loss but does not improve muscle strength and could have adverse effects on metabolic function; 5) both endurance- and resistance-type exercise help preserve muscle mass during weight loss, and resistance-type exercise also improves muscle strength. We therefore conclude that weight-loss therapy, including a hypocaloric diet with adequate (but not excessive) protein intake and increased physical activity (particularly resistance-type exercise), should be promoted to maintain muscle mass and improve muscle strength and physical function in persons with obesity. PMID:28507015
Fact Sheet Proven Weight Loss Methods What can weight loss do for you? Losing weight can improve your health in a number of ways. It can lower ... at www.hormone.org/Spanish . Proven Weight Loss Methods Fact Sheet www.hormone.org
Full Text Available Objective Daily energy expenditure consists of three components: basal metabolic rate, diet-induced thermogenesis and the energy cost of physical activity. Here, data on diet-induced thermogenesis are reviewed in relation to measuring conditions and characteristics of the diet. Methods Measuring conditions include nutritional status of the subject, physical activity and duration of the observation. Diet characteristics are energy content and macronutrient composition. Results Most studies measure diet-induced thermogenesis as the increase in energy expenditure above basal metabolic rate. Generally, the hierarchy in macronutrient oxidation in the postprandial state is reflected similarly in diet-induced thermogenesis, with the sequence alcohol, protein, carbohydrate, and fat. A mixed diet consumed at energy balance results in a diet induced energy expenditure of 5 to 15 % of daily energy expenditure. Values are higher at a relatively high protein and alcohol consumption and lower at a high fat consumption. Protein induced thermogenesis has an important effect on satiety. In conclusion, the main determinants of diet-induced thermogenesis are the energy content and the protein- and alcohol fraction of the diet. Protein plays a key role in body weight regulation through satiety related to diet-induced thermogenesis.
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Kim, Jongwan; Yun, Eun-Young; Quan, Fu-Shi; Park, Seung-Won; Goo, Tae-Won
The α-glucosidase inhibitor, 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), is widely used for its antiobesity and antidiabetic effects. Researchers have demonstrated that DNJ regulates body weight by increasing adiponectin levels, which affects energy intake and prevents diet-induced obesity. However, the mechanism by which centrally administered DNJ exerts anorexigenic effects has not been studied until now. We investigated the effect of DNJ in the hypothalamus of mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity. Result...
Wan, Min; Easton, Rachael M; Gleason, Catherine E; Monks, Bobby R; Ueki, Kohjiro; Kahn, C Ronald; Birnbaum, Morris J
Akt is encoded by a gene family for which each isoform serves distinct but overlapping functions. Based on the phenotypes of the germ line gene disruptions, Akt1 has been associated with control of growth, whereas Akt2 has been linked to metabolic regulation. Here we show that Akt1 serves an unexpected role in the regulation of energy metabolism, as mice deficient for Akt1 exhibit protection from diet-induced obesity and its associated insulin resistance. Although skeletal muscle contributes most of the resting and exercising energy expenditure, muscle-specific deletion of Akt1 does not recapitulate the phenotype, indicating that the role of Akt1 in skeletal muscle is cell nonautonomous. These data indicate a previously unknown function of Akt1 in energy metabolism and provide a novel target for treatment of obesity.
Eckerson, Joan M.
Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.
Diniz, Gabriela Placoná; Huang, Zhan-Peng; Liu, Jianming; Chen, Jinghai; Ding, Jian; Fonseca, Renata Inzinna; Barreto-Chaves, Maria Luiza; Donato, Jose; Hu, Xiaoyun; Wang, Da-Zhi
Obesity is associated with development of diverse diseases, including cardiovascular diseases and dyslipidemia. MiRNA-22 (miR-22) is a critical regulator of cardiac function and targets genes involved in metabolic processes. Previously, we generated miR-22 null mice and we showed that loss of miR-22 blunted cardiac hypertrophy induced by mechanohormornal stress. In the present study, we examined the role of miR-22 in the cardiac and metabolic alterations promoted by high-fat (HF) diet. We found that loss of miR-22 attenuated the gain of fat mass and prevented dyslipidemia induced by HF diet, although the body weight gain, or glucose intolerance and insulin resistance did not seem to be affected. Mechanistically, loss of miR-22 attenuated the increased expression of genes involved in lipogenesis and inflammation mediated by HF diet. Similarly, we found that miR-22 mediates metabolic alterations and inflammation induced by obesity in the liver. However, loss of miR-22 did not appear to alter HF diet induced cardiac hypertrophy or fibrosis in the heart. Our study therefore establishes miR-22 as an important regulator of dyslipidemia and suggests it may serve as a potential candidate in the treatment of dyslipidemia associated with obesity. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.
Chudnovskiy, Rostislav; Thompson, Airlia; Tharp, Kevin; Hellerstein, Marc; Napoli, Joseph L; Stahl, Andreas
To determine the metabolic effects of grapefruit juice consumption we established a model in which C57Bl/6 mice drank 25-50% sweetened GFJ, clarified of larger insoluble particles by centrifugation (cGFJ), ad libitum as their sole source of liquid or isocaloric and sweetened water. cGFJ and control groups consumed similar amounts of liquids and calories. Mice fed a high-fat diet and cGFJ experienced a 18.4% decrease in weight, a 13-17% decrease in fasting blood glucose, a three-fold decrease in fasting serum insulin, and a 38% decrease in liver triacylglycerol values, compared to controls. Mice fed a low-fat diet that drank cGFJ experienced a two-fold decrease in fasting insulin, but not the other outcomes observed with the high-fat diet. cGFJ consumption decreased blood glucose to a similar extent as the commonly used anti-diabetic drug metformin. Introduction of cGFJ after onset of diet-induced obesity also reduced weight and blood glucose. A bioactive compound in cGFJ, naringin, reduced blood glucose and improved insulin tolerance, but did not ameliorate weight gain. These data from a well-controlled animal study indicate that GFJ contains more than one health-promoting neutraceutical, and warrant further studies of GFJ effects in the context of obesity and/or the western diet.
Full Text Available Bokun Kim,1 Takehiko Tsujimoto,2,3 Rina So,4 Xiaoguang Zhao,5 Sechang Oh,6,7 Kiyoji Tanaka2 1Faculty of Sports Health Care, Inje University, Gyeongsangnamdo, Republic of Korea; 2Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 3Faculty of Human Sciences, Shimane University, Shimane, 4Research Center for Overwork-Related Disorders, National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Kawasaki, Kanagawa, 5Doctoral Program in Sports Medicine, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, 6Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, 7The Center of Sports Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Tsukuba Hospital, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan Background and objective: The benefits of weight reduction for musculoskeletal disorders are well understood. Steep declines in muscle mass following considerable weight reduction can decrease muscle strength and, consequently, physical performance. However, only a limited number of studies have examined the changes in muscle mass and strength in the context of interventional weight reduction programs. Thus, we investigated the influence of muscle mass decrease caused by diet-induced weight reduction on muscle strength in obese men.Methods: A total of 24 men with obesity (body mass index [BMI]: 29.2 ± 2.6 kg/m2; age: 52.4 ± 10.0 years attended a 12-week weight reduction program that implemented dietary restrictions. Each participant underwent assessments of body weight (by a digital scale, body composition (by whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry [DEXA], and upper and lower extremity muscle strength (by a hand-held dynamometer and a Biodex System 3 dynamometer, respectively before and after the program.Results: The program led to significant reductions of 10.5% of weight and 6.1% of lower extremity muscle mass. Similarly, lower extremity muscle strength (measured using a Biodex System 3 dynamometer was significantly decreased (isometric 60° peak torque decreased by 10% and
Robin A. Wilson
Full Text Available Intermittent fasting (IF and high intensity interval training (HIIT are effective lifestyle interventions for improving body composition and overall health. However, the long-term effects of IF and potential synergistic effects of combining IF with exercise are unclear. The purpose of the study was to investigate the long-term effects of IF, with or without HIIT, on body composition and markers of metabolic health in diet-induced obese mice. In a randosmised, controlled design, 8-week-old C57BL/6 mice (males (n = 39 and females (n = 49 were fed a high fat (HF and sugar (S water diet (30% (w/v for 24-weeks but were separated into five groups at 12-weeks: (1 ‘obese’ baseline control (OBC; (2 no intervention (CON; (3 intermittent fasting (IF; (4 high intensity intermittent exercise (HIIT and (5 combination of dietary and exercise intervention (IF + HIIT. Body composition, strength and blood variables were measured at 0, 10 and/or 12-weeks. Intermittent fasting with or without HIIT resulted in significantly less weight gain, fat mass accumulation and reduced serum low density lipoproteins (LDL levels compared to HIIT and CON male mice (p < 0.05. The results suggest that IF, with or without HIIT, can be an effective strategy for weight gain prevention despite concurrently consuming a high fat and sugar diet.
Wilson, Robin A; Deasy, William; Stathis, Christos G; Hayes, Alan; Cooke, Matthew B
Intermittent fasting (IF) and high intensity interval training (HIIT) are effective lifestyle interventions for improving body composition and overall health. However, the long-term effects of IF and potential synergistic effects of combining IF with exercise are unclear. The purpose of the study was to investigate the long-term effects of IF, with or without HIIT, on body composition and markers of metabolic health in diet-induced obese mice. In a randosmised, controlled design, 8-week-old C57BL/6 mice (males ( n = 39) and females ( n = 49)) were fed a high fat (HF) and sugar (S) water diet (30% ( w / v )) for 24-weeks but were separated into five groups at 12-weeks: (1) 'obese' baseline control (OBC); (2) no intervention (CON); (3) intermittent fasting (IF); (4) high intensity intermittent exercise (HIIT) and (5) combination of dietary and exercise intervention (IF + HIIT). Body composition, strength and blood variables were measured at 0, 10 and/or 12-weeks. Intermittent fasting with or without HIIT resulted in significantly less weight gain, fat mass accumulation and reduced serum low density lipoproteins (LDL) levels compared to HIIT and CON male mice ( p < 0.05). The results suggest that IF, with or without HIIT, can be an effective strategy for weight gain prevention despite concurrently consuming a high fat and sugar diet.
Wilson, Robin A.; Deasy, William; Stathis, Christos G.; Hayes, Alan; Cooke, Matthew B.
Intermittent fasting (IF) and high intensity interval training (HIIT) are effective lifestyle interventions for improving body composition and overall health. However, the long-term effects of IF and potential synergistic effects of combining IF with exercise are unclear. The purpose of the study was to investigate the long-term effects of IF, with or without HIIT, on body composition and markers of metabolic health in diet-induced obese mice. In a randosmised, controlled design, 8-week-old C57BL/6 mice (males (n = 39) and females (n = 49)) were fed a high fat (HF) and sugar (S) water diet (30% (w/v)) for 24-weeks but were separated into five groups at 12-weeks: (1) ‘obese’ baseline control (OBC); (2) no intervention (CON); (3) intermittent fasting (IF); (4) high intensity intermittent exercise (HIIT) and (5) combination of dietary and exercise intervention (IF + HIIT). Body composition, strength and blood variables were measured at 0, 10 and/or 12-weeks. Intermittent fasting with or without HIIT resulted in significantly less weight gain, fat mass accumulation and reduced serum low density lipoproteins (LDL) levels compared to HIIT and CON male mice (p HIIT, can be an effective strategy for weight gain prevention despite concurrently consuming a high fat and sugar diet. PMID:29534545
Le, Phuong; Kawai, Masanobu; Bornstein, Sheila; DeMambro, Victoria E; Horowitz, Mark C; Rosen, Clifford J
5-Lipoxygenase catalyzes leukotriene generation from arachidonic acid. The gene that encodes 5-lipoxygenase, Alox5, has been identified in genome-wide association and mouse Quantitative Trait Locus studies as a candidate gene for obesity and low bone mass. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that Alox5(-/-) mice would exhibit metabolic and skeletal changes when challenged by a high-fat diet (HFD). On a regular diet, Alox5(-/-) mice did not differ in total body weight, percent fat mass, or bone mineral density compared with wild-type (WT) controls (P < 0.05). However, when placed on a HFD, Alox5(-/-) gained more fat mass and lost greater areal bone mass vs. WT (P < 0.05). Microarchitectural analyses revealed that on a HFD, WT showed increases in cortical area (P < 0.01) and trabecular thickness (P < 0.01), whereas Alox5(-/-) showed no change in cortical parameters but a decrease in trabecular number (P < 0.05) and bone volume fraction compared with WT controls (P < 0.05). By histomorphometry, a HFD did not change bone formation rates of either strain but produced an increase in osteoclast number per bone perimeter in Alox5(-/-) mice (P < 0.03). In vitro, osteoclastogenesis of marrow stromal cells was enhanced in mutant but not WT mice fed a HFD. Gene expression for Rankl, Pparg, and Cox-2 was greater in the femur of Alox5(-/-) than WT mice on a HFD (P < 0.01), but these increases were suppressed in the Alox5(-/-) mice after 8 wk of treatment with celecoxib, a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor. In sum, there is a strong gene by environmental interaction for bone mass when mice lacking the Alox5 gene are fed a HFD.
Evans, Christian C; LePard, Kathy J; Kwak, Jeff W; Stancukas, Mary C; Laskowski, Samantha; Dougherty, Joseph; Moulton, Laura; Glawe, Adam; Wang, Yunwei; Leone, Vanessa; Antonopoulos, Dionysios A; Smith, Dan; Chang, Eugene B; Ciancio, Mae J
Diet-induced obesity (DIO) is a significant health concern which has been linked to structural and functional changes in the gut microbiota. Exercise (Ex) is effective in preventing obesity, but whether Ex alters the gut microbiota during development with high fat (HF) feeding is unknown. Determine the effects of voluntary Ex on the gastrointestinal microbiota in LF-fed mice and in HF-DIO. Male C57BL/6 littermates (5 weeks) were distributed equally into 4 groups: low fat (LF) sedentary (Sed) LF/Sed, LF/Ex, HF/Sed and HF/Ex. Mice were individually housed and LF/Ex and HF/Ex cages were equipped with a wheel and odometer to record Ex. Fecal samples were collected at baseline, 6 weeks and 12 weeks and used for bacterial DNA isolation. DNA was subjected both to quantitative PCR using primers specific to the 16S rRNA encoding genes for Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes and to sequencing for lower taxonomic identification using the Illumina MiSeq platform. Data were analyzed using a one or two-way ANOVA or Pearson correlation. HF diet resulted in significantly greater body weight and adiposity as well as decreased glucose tolerance that were prevented by voluntary Ex (p<0.05). Visualization of Unifrac distance data with principal coordinates analysis indicated clustering by both diet and Ex at week 12. Sequencing demonstrated Ex-induced changes in the percentage of major bacterial phyla at 12 weeks. A correlation between total Ex distance and the ΔCt Bacteroidetes: ΔCt Firmicutes ratio from qPCR demonstrated a significant inverse correlation (r2 = 0.35, p = 0.043). Ex induces a unique shift in the gut microbiota that is different from dietary effects. Microbiota changes may play a role in Ex prevention of HF-DIO.
Christian C Evans
Full Text Available Diet-induced obesity (DIO is a significant health concern which has been linked to structural and functional changes in the gut microbiota. Exercise (Ex is effective in preventing obesity, but whether Ex alters the gut microbiota during development with high fat (HF feeding is unknown.Determine the effects of voluntary Ex on the gastrointestinal microbiota in LF-fed mice and in HF-DIO.Male C57BL/6 littermates (5 weeks were distributed equally into 4 groups: low fat (LF sedentary (Sed LF/Sed, LF/Ex, HF/Sed and HF/Ex. Mice were individually housed and LF/Ex and HF/Ex cages were equipped with a wheel and odometer to record Ex. Fecal samples were collected at baseline, 6 weeks and 12 weeks and used for bacterial DNA isolation. DNA was subjected both to quantitative PCR using primers specific to the 16S rRNA encoding genes for Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes and to sequencing for lower taxonomic identification using the Illumina MiSeq platform. Data were analyzed using a one or two-way ANOVA or Pearson correlation.HF diet resulted in significantly greater body weight and adiposity as well as decreased glucose tolerance that were prevented by voluntary Ex (p<0.05. Visualization of Unifrac distance data with principal coordinates analysis indicated clustering by both diet and Ex at week 12. Sequencing demonstrated Ex-induced changes in the percentage of major bacterial phyla at 12 weeks. A correlation between total Ex distance and the ΔCt Bacteroidetes: ΔCt Firmicutes ratio from qPCR demonstrated a significant inverse correlation (r2 = 0.35, p = 0.043.Ex induces a unique shift in the gut microbiota that is different from dietary effects. Microbiota changes may play a role in Ex prevention of HF-DIO.
Hansen, Merethe; Lund, Michael Taulo; Jørgensen, Anne Line Kjærholm
AIMS: The impact of diet-induced weight loss and weight loss due to RYGB in patients with (T2DM, N = 16) and without (OB, N = 27) type 2 diabetes was studied. METHODS: At inclusion (A), after diet-induced weight loss (B), 4 months post-surgery (C) and 18 months post-surgery (D) body composition......, and approximately one-third of the total improvement in GIR in T2DM was observed after the diet-induced weight loss of only ~6 kg (B). Insulin clearance, visceral fat and fasting plasma insulin also improved significantly after the diet (P ... not change significantly, but IMTG decreased significantly consistent with significant increases in GIR. Metabolic flexibility and hepatic insulin sensitivity improved after RYGB. CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic improvements of RYGB are present already after the diet-induced weight loss prior to surgery. GLUT4...
Urs, Sumithra; Henderson, Terry; Le, Phuong; Rosen, Clifford J.; Liaw, Lucy
We recently characterized Sprouty1 (Spry1), a growth factor signaling inhibitor as a regulator of marrow progenitor cells promoting osteoblast differentiation at the expense of adipocytes. Adipose tissue specific Spry1 expression in mice resulted in increased bone mass and reduced body fat while conditional knockout of Spry1 had the opposite effect with decreased bone and increased body fat. Because Spry1 suppresses normal fat development, we tested the hypothesis that Spry1 expression prevents high fat diet-induced obesity, bone loss, and associated lipid abnormalities and demonstrate that Spry1 has a long-term protective effect on mice fed a high caloric diet. We studied diet-induced obesity in mice with fatty acid binding promoter (aP2)-driven expression or conditional knockout of Spry1 in adipocytes. Phenotyping was performed by whole body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, microCT, histology and blood analysis. In conditional Spry1 null mice, high fat diet increased body fat by 40%, impaired glucose regulation, and led to liver steatosis. However, over-expression of Spry1 led to 35% lower body fat, reduced bone loss, and normal metabolic function compared to single transgenics. This protective phenotype was associated with decreased circulating insulin (70%) and leptin (54%) compared to controls on a high fat diet. Additionally, Spry1 expression decreased adipose tissue inflammation by 45%. We show that conditional Spry1 expression in adipose tissue protects against high fat diet-induced obesity and associated bone loss. PMID:22142492
Sato, Ikuko; Arima, Hiroshi; Ozaki, Noriyuki; Ozaki, Nobuaki; Watanabe, Minemori; Goto, Motomitsu; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Masayuki; Banno, Ryouichi; Nagasaki, Hiroshi; Oiso, Yutaka
Peripheral administration of baclofen significantly reduced food intake and body weight increase in both diabetic (db/db) and diet-induced obese mice for 5 weeks, whereas it had no significant effects on energy balance in their lean control mice. Despite the decreased body weight, neuropeptide Y expression in the arcuate nucleus was significantly decreased, whereas pro-opiomelanocortin expression was significantly increased by baclofen treatment. These data demonstrate that the inhibitory effects of baclofen on body weight in the obese mice were mediated via the arcuate nucleus at least partially, and suggest that GABA(B) agonists could be a new therapeutic reagent for obesity.
Kim, Jongwan; Yun, Eun-Young; Quan, Fu-Shi; Park, Seung-Won; Goo, Tae-Won
The α -glucosidase inhibitor, 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), is widely used for its antiobesity and antidiabetic effects. Researchers have demonstrated that DNJ regulates body weight by increasing adiponectin levels, which affects energy intake and prevents diet-induced obesity. However, the mechanism by which centrally administered DNJ exerts anorexigenic effects has not been studied until now. We investigated the effect of DNJ in the hypothalamus of mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity. Results showed that intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of DNJ reduced hypothalamic ER stress, which activated the leptin-induced Janus-activated kinase 2 (JAK2)/signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway to cause appetite suppression. We conclude that DNJ may reduce obesity by moderating feeding behavior and ER stress in the hypothalamic portion of the central nervous system (CNS).
Full Text Available The α-glucosidase inhibitor, 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ, is widely used for its antiobesity and antidiabetic effects. Researchers have demonstrated that DNJ regulates body weight by increasing adiponectin levels, which affects energy intake and prevents diet-induced obesity. However, the mechanism by which centrally administered DNJ exerts anorexigenic effects has not been studied until now. We investigated the effect of DNJ in the hypothalamus of mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity. Results showed that intracerebroventricular (ICV administration of DNJ reduced hypothalamic ER stress, which activated the leptin-induced Janus-activated kinase 2 (JAK2/signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3 signaling pathway to cause appetite suppression. We conclude that DNJ may reduce obesity by moderating feeding behavior and ER stress in the hypothalamic portion of the central nervous system (CNS.
Cochrane, Gordon; Friesen, John
Investigated effects of hypnosis as a treatment for weight loss among women. The primary hypothesis that hypnosis is an effective treatment for weight loss was confirmed, but seven concomitant variables and the use of audiotapes were not significant contributors to weight loss. (Author/ABB)
Robin A. Wilson; William Deasy; Christos G. Stathis; Alan Hayes; Matthew B. Cooke
Intermittent fasting (IF) and high intensity interval training (HIIT) are effective lifestyle interventions for improving body composition and overall health. However, the long-term effects of IF and potential synergistic effects of combining IF with exercise are unclear. The purpose of the study was to investigate the long-term effects of IF, with or without HIIT, on body composition and markers of metabolic health in diet-induced obese mice. In a randosmised, controlled design, 8-week-old C...
Unrealistic expectations about weight goal and about weight loss-related benefits can hinder the effort for a successful long-term weight control. To explore weight loss-related goals and their background among overweight/obese patients. Study sample consisted of patients who participated in the inpatient weight loss treatment in the Lipidological Department of Szent Imre Hospital (n = 339, 19% men). Mean age: 50.2 years (SD = 13.47 years), mean BMI: 38.6 (SD = 7.58). self-reported anthropometric data, type and number of treated illnesses, Goals and Relative Weights Questionnaire, Motivations for Weight Loss Scale, Body Shape Questionnaire. Participants would feel disappointed with a possible 10% weight loss in a half-year time span. The acceptable weight loss percentage was higher among women, younger participants and among those who had more excess weight. Motivation regarding the increase in social desirability by weight loss is in association with body dissatisfaction, health related motivation is in association with the number of treated illnesses. Our results are contributing to the understanding of motivational factors behind weight reduction efforts, considering these can improve treatment success rates. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(49): 1960-1967.
Full Text Available Consumption of a low calorie diet is the most common approach to lose weight. While generally effective at first, it is frequently followed by a relapse where the pre-diet weight is regained, and often exceeded. This pattern of repeated weight loss/regain is referred to as weight cycling and the resulting metabolic response varies greatly between individuals. Objective: We attempted to address the issue of individual differences in the response to weight cycling in male mice. Methods: We first exposed adult wild type mice to repeated cycles of high/low fat food. Next, using a lentiviral approach, we knocked-down or over-expressed miR-219 in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH of an additional mouse cohort and performed a full metabolic assessment. Results: Exposure of wild type males to weight cycling resulted in the division of the cohort into subsets of resistant versus metabolic-syndrome-prone (MS animals, which differed in their metabolic profile and hypothalamic miR-219 levels. Lentiviral knock-down of miR-219 in the VMH led to exacerbation of metabolic syndrome. In contrast, over-expression of miR-219 resulted in moderation of the metabolic syndrome phenotype. Conclusions: Our results suggest a role for miR-219 in the mediation of the metabolic phenotype resulting from repeated weight cycling. Keywords: Weight cycling, Metabolic syndrome, miRNAs, Ventromedial hypothalamus, High fat diet, Diabetes
Blomain, Erik Scott; Dirhan, Dara Anne; Valentino, Michael Anthony; Kim, Gilbert Won; Waldman, Scott Arthur
Obesity is a world-wide pandemic and its incidence is on the rise along with associated comorbidities. Currently, there are few effective therapies to combat obesity. The use of lifestyle modification therapy, namely, improvements in diet and exercise, is preferable over bariatric surgery or pharmacotherapy due to surgical risks and issues with drug efficacy and safety. Although they are initially successful in producing weight loss, such lifestyle intervention strategies are generally unsuccessful in achieving long-term weight maintenance, with the vast majority of obese patients regaining their lost weight during followup. Recently, various compensatory mechanisms have been elucidated by which the body may oppose new weight loss, and this compensation may result in weight regain back to the obese baseline. The present review summarizes the available evidence on these compensatory mechanisms, with a focus on weight loss-induced changes in energy expenditure, neuroendocrine pathways, nutrient metabolism, and gut physiology. These findings have added a major focus to the field of antiobesity research. In addition to investigating pathways that induce weight loss, the present work also focuses on pathways that may instead prevent weight regain. Such strategies will be necessary for improving long-term weight loss maintenance and outcomes for patients who struggle with obesity.
Cluny, Nina L.; Keenan, Catherine M.; Reimer, Raylene A.; Le Foll, Bernard; Sharkey, Keith A.
Objective Acute administration of cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonists, or the ingestion of cannabis, induces short-term hyperphagia. However, the incidence of obesity is lower in frequent cannabis users compared to non-users. Gut microbiota affects host metabolism and altered microbial profiles are observed in obese states. Gut microbiota modifies adipogenesis through actions on the endocannabinoid system. This study investigated the effect of chronic THC administration on body weight and gut microbiota in diet-induced obese (DIO) and lean mice. Methods Adult male DIO and lean mice were treated daily with vehicle or THC (2mg/kg for 3 weeks and 4 mg/kg for 1 additional week). Body weight, fat mass, energy intake, locomotor activity, whole gut transit and gut microbiota were measured longitudinally. Results THC reduced weight gain, fat mass gain and energy intake in DIO but not lean mice. DIO-induced changes in select gut microbiota were prevented in mice chronically administered THC. THC had no effect on locomotor activity or whole gut transit in either lean or DIO mice. Conclusions Chronic THC treatment reduced energy intake and prevented high fat diet-induced increases in body weight and adiposity; effects that were unlikely to be a result of sedation or altered gastrointestinal transit. Changes in gut microbiota potentially contribute to chronic THC-induced actions on body weight in obesity. PMID:26633823
Janssen, Aafke W F; Katiraei, Saeed; Bartosinska, Barbara; Eberhard, Daniel; Willems van Dijk, Ko; Kersten, Sander
Angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) is an important regulator of triacylglycerol metabolism, carrying out this role by inhibiting the enzymes lipoprotein lipase and pancreatic lipase. ANGPTL4 is a potential target for ameliorating cardiometabolic diseases. Although ANGPTL4 has been implicated in obesity, the study of the direct role of ANGPTL4 in diet-induced obesity and related metabolic dysfunction is hampered by the massive acute-phase response and development of lethal chylous ascites and peritonitis in Angptl4 -/- mice fed a standard high-fat diet. The aim of this study was to better characterise the role of ANGPTL4 in glucose homeostasis and metabolic dysfunction during obesity. We chronically fed wild-type (WT) and Angptl4 -/- mice a diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol, combined with fructose in drinking water, and studied metabolic function. The role of the gut microbiota was investigated by orally administering a mixture of antibiotics (ampicillin, neomycin, metronidazole). Glucose homeostasis was assessed via i.p. glucose and insulin tolerance tests. Mice lacking ANGPTL4 displayed an increase in body weight gain, visceral adipose tissue mass, visceral adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase activity and visceral adipose tissue inflammation compared with WT mice. However, they also unexpectedly had markedly improved glucose tolerance, which was accompanied by elevated insulin levels. Loss of ANGPTL4 did not affect glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in isolated pancreatic islets. Since the gut microbiota have been suggested to influence insulin secretion, and because ANGPTL4 has been proposed to link the gut microbiota to host metabolism, we hypothesised a potential role of the gut microbiota. Gut microbiota composition was significantly different between Angptl4 -/- mice and WT mice. Interestingly, suppression of the gut microbiota using antibiotics largely abolished the differences in glucose tolerance and insulin levels between WT and Angptl4
Adam, Clare L; Gratz, Silvia W; Peinado, Diana I; Thomson, Lynn M; Garden, Karen E; Williams, Patricia A; Richardson, Anthony J; Ross, Alexander W
Dietary constituents that suppress appetite, such as dietary fibre and protein, may aid weight loss in obesity. The soluble fermentable dietary fibre pectin promotes satiety and decreases adiposity in diet-induced obese rats but effects of increased protein are unknown. Adult diet-induced obese rats reared on high fat diet (45% energy from fat) were given experimental diets ad libitum for 4 weeks (n = 8/group): high fat control, high fat with high protein (40% energy) as casein or pea protein, or these diets with added 10% w/w pectin. Dietary pectin, but not high protein, decreased food intake by 23% and induced 23% body fat loss, leading to 12% lower final body weight and 44% lower total body fat mass than controls. Plasma concentrations of satiety hormones PYY and total GLP-1 were increased by dietary pectin (168% and 151%, respectively) but not by high protein. Plasma leptin was decreased by 62% on pectin diets and 38% on high pea (but not casein) protein, while plasma insulin was decreased by 44% on pectin, 38% on high pea and 18% on high casein protein diets. Caecal weight and short-chain fatty acid concentrations in the caecum were increased in pectin-fed and high pea protein groups: caecal succinate was increased by pectin (900%), acetate and propionate by pectin (123% and 118%, respectively) and pea protein (147% and 144%, respectively), and butyrate only by pea protein (309%). Caecal branched-chain fatty acid concentrations were decreased by pectin (down 78%) but increased by pea protein (164%). Therefore, the soluble fermentable fibre pectin appeared more effective than high protein for increasing satiety and decreasing caloric intake and adiposity while on high fat diet, and produced a fermentation environment more likely to promote hindgut health. Altogether these data indicate that high fibre may be better than high protein for weight (fat) loss in obesity.
Liu, G; Liang, L; Bray, G A; Qi, L; Hu, F B; Rood, J; Sacks, F M; Sun, Q
The role of thyroid hormones in diet-induced weight loss and subsequent weight regain is largely unknown. To examine the associations between thyroid hormones and changes in body weight and resting metabolic rate (RMR) in a diet-induced weight loss setting. Data analysis was conducted among 569 overweight and obese participants aged 30-70 years with normal thyroid function participating in the 2-year Prevention of Obesity Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS) LOST randomized clinical trial. Changes in body weight and RMR were assessed during the 2-year intervention. Thyroid hormones (free triiodothyronine (T3), free thyroxine (T4), total T3, total T4 and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)), anthropometric measurements and biochemical parameters were assessed at baseline, 6 months and 24 months. Participants lost an average of 6.6 kg of body weight during the first 6 months and subsequently regained an average of 2.7 kg of body weight over the remaining period from 6 to 24 months. Baseline free T3 and total T3 were positively associated, whereas free T4 was inversely associated, with baseline body weight, body mass index and RMR. Total T4 and TSH were not associated with these parameters. Higher baseline free T3 and free T4 levels were significantly associated with a greater weight loss during the first 6 months (Ppressure, glucose, insulin, triglycerides and leptin at 6 months and 24 months (all P<0.05). In this diet-induced weight loss setting, higher baseline free T3 and free T4 predicted more weight loss, but not weight regain among overweight and obese adults with normal thyroid function. These findings reveal a novel role of thyroid hormones in body weight regulation and may help identify individuals more responsive to weight loss diets.
Urs, Sumithra; Henderson, Terry; Le, Phuong; Rosen, Clifford J; Liaw, Lucy
We recently characterised Sprouty1 (Spry1), a growth factor signalling inhibitor as a regulator of marrow progenitor cells promoting osteoblast differentiation at the expense of adipocytes. Adipose tissue-specific Spry1 expression in mice resulted in increased bone mass and reduced body fat, while conditional knockout of Spry1 had the opposite effect with decreased bone mass and increased body fat. Because Spry1 suppresses normal fat development, we tested the hypothesis that Spry1 expression prevents high-fat diet-induced obesity, bone loss and associated lipid abnormalities, and demonstrate that Spry1 has a long-term protective effect on mice fed a high-energy diet. We studied diet-induced obesity in mice with fatty acid binding promoter-driven expression or conditional knockout of Spry1 in adipocytes. Phenotyping was performed by whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, microCT, histology and blood analysis. In conditional Spry1-null mice, a high-fat diet increased body fat by 40 %, impaired glucose regulation and led to liver steatosis. However, overexpression of Spry1 led to 35 % (P < 0·05) lower body fat, reduced bone loss and normal metabolic function compared with single transgenics. This protective phenotype was associated with decreased circulating insulin (70 %) and leptin (54 %; P < 0·005) compared with controls on a high-fat diet. Additionally, Spry1 expression decreased adipose tissue inflammation by 45 %. We show that conditional Spry1 expression in adipose tissue protects against high-fat diet-induced obesity and associated bone loss.
... weight is affected by your calorie intake, activity level, overall health, age, nutrient absorption, and economic and social factors. If you're losing weight without trying and you're concerned about it, consult your doctor — as a rule of thumb, losing more than 5 ...
... Maclean JC. Alcohol consumption and body weight. Health Econ . 2010;19(7):814-832. PMID: 19548203 www. ... member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www. ...
Hidalgo, Juan; Florit, Sergi; Giralt, Mercedes
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a major cytokine involved in both normal physiological brain functions and underlying significant neuropathology. IL-6 has been suggested to play a role in the control of body weight but the results are somewhat controversial. In this study we have challenged transgenic mice...... with astrocyte-targeted IL-6 expression (GFAP-IL6 mice) with a high-fat diet (55% kcal from fat) versus a control diet (10%). The results demonstrate that the GFAP-IL6 mice are resistant to high-fat diet-induced increases in body weight and body fat, apparently without altering food intake and with no evidences...... of increased sympathetic tone. The high-fat diet-induced impaired responses to an insulin tolerance test (ITT), and to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in both genotypes. The GFAP-IL6 mice did not differ from littermate wild-type (WT) mice in ITT, but they were more glucose intolerant following the high...
Vrang, Niels; Madsen, Andreas Nygaard; Tang-Christensen, Mads
The gut hormone peptide YY (PYY) was recently proposed to comprise an endogenous satiety factor. We have studied acute anorectic functions of PYY(3-36) in mice and rats, as well as metabolic effects of chronic PYY(3-36) administration to diet-induced obese (DIO) mice and rats. A single intraperit......The gut hormone peptide YY (PYY) was recently proposed to comprise an endogenous satiety factor. We have studied acute anorectic functions of PYY(3-36) in mice and rats, as well as metabolic effects of chronic PYY(3-36) administration to diet-induced obese (DIO) mice and rats. A single...... intraperitoneal injection of PYY(3-36) inhibited food intake in mice, but not in rats. We next investigated the effects of increasing doses (100, 300, and 1,000 microg.kg-1.day-1) of PYY(3-36) administered subcutaneously via osmotic minipumps on food intake and body weight in DIO C57BL/6J mice. Whereas only...... the highest dose (1,000 microg.kg-1.day-1) of PYY(3-36) significantly reduced food intake over the first 3 days, body weight gain was dose dependently reduced, and on day 28 the group treated with 1,000 microg.kg-1.day-1 PYY(3-36) weighed approximately 10% less than the vehicle-treated group. Mesenteric...
Liu, Gang; Dhana, Klodian; Furtado, Jeremy D
in body weight and resting metabolic rate (RMR) in a diet-induced weight-loss setting. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In the 2-year POUNDS Lost randomized clinical trial based in Boston, Massachusetts, and Baton Rouge, Louisiana, that examined the effects of energy-restricted diets on weight changes, baseline...... and 24 months. Participants lost an average of 6.4 kg of body weight during the first 6 months (weight-loss period) and subsequently regained an average of 2.7 kg of body weight during the period of 6-24 months (weight regain period). After multivariate adjustment, baseline PFAS concentrations were...... not significantly associated with concurrent body weight or weight loss during the first 6 months. In contrast, higher baseline levels of PFASs were significantly associated with a greater weight regain, primarily in women. In women, comparing the highest to the lowest tertiles of PFAS concentrations...
Discovery of an Orally Bioavailable Benzimidazole Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) Inhibitor That Suppresses Body Weight Gain in Diet-Induced Obese Dogs and Postprandial Triglycerides in Humans.
Nakajima, Katsumasa; Chatelain, Ricardo; Clairmont, Kevin B; Commerford, Renee; Coppola, Gary M; Daniels, Thomas; Forster, Cornelia J; Gilmore, Thomas A; Gong, Yongjin; Jain, Monish; Kanter, Aaron; Kwak, Youngshin; Li, Jingzhou; Meyers, Charles D; Neubert, Alan D; Szklennik, Paul; Tedesco, Vivienne; Thompson, James; Truong, David; Yang, Qing; Hubbard, Brian K; Serrano-Wu, Michael H
Modification of a gut restricted class of benzimidazole DGAT1 inhibitor 1 led to 9 with good oral bioavailability. The key structural changes to 1 include bioisosteric replacement of the amide with oxadiazole and α,α-dimethylation of the carboxylic acid, improving DGAT1 potency and gut permeability. Since DGAT1 is expressed in the small intestine, both 1 and 9 can suppress postprandial triglycerides during acute oral lipid challenges in rats and dogs. Interestingly, only 9 was found to be effective in suppressing body weight gain relative to control in a diet-induced obese dog model, suggesting the importance of systemic inhibition of DGAT1 for body weight control. 9 has advanced to clinical investigation and successfully suppressed postprandial triglycerides during an acute meal challenge in humans.
Roth, Jonathan D; Hughes, Heather; Kendall, Eric; Baron, Alain D; Anderson, Christen M
Effects of amylin and pair feeding (PF) on body weight and metabolic parameters were characterized in diet-induced obesity-prone rats. Peripherally administered rat amylin (300 microg/kg.d, 22d) reduced food intake and slowed weight gain: approximately 10% (Pcontrols; VEH), amylin did not. During wk 1, amylin and PF reduced 24-h respiratory quotient (mean+/-se, 0.82+/-0.0, 0.81+/-0.0, respectively; PEnergy expenditure (EE mean+/-se) tended to be reduced by PF (5.67+/-0.1 kcal/h.kg) and maintained by amylin (5.86+/-0.1 kcal/h.kg) relative to VEH (5.77+/-0.0 kcal/h.kg). By wk 3, respiratory quotient no longer differed; however, EE increased with amylin treatment (5.74+/-0.09 kcal/.kg; Pmetabolic effects.
Haufe, Sven; Haas, Verena; Utz, Wolfgang; Birkenfeld, Andreas L.; Jeran, Stephanie; Böhnke, Jana; Mähler, Anja; Luft, Friedrich C.; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; Boschmann, Michael; Jordan, Jens; Engeli, Stefan
OBJECTIVE Weight loss reduces abdominal and intrahepatic fat, thereby improving metabolic and cardiovascular risk. Yet, many patients regain weight after successful diet-induced weight loss. Long-term changes in abdominal and liver fat, along with liver test results and insulin resistance, are not known. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We analyzed 50 overweight to obese subjects (46 ± 9 years of age; BMI, 32.5 ± 3.3 kg/m2; women, 77%) who had participated in a 6-month hypocaloric diet and were ra...
OBJECTIVE: Daily energy expenditure consists of three components: basal metabolic rate, diet-induced thermogenesis and the energy cost of physical activity. Here, data on diet-induced thermogenesis are reviewed in relation to measuring conditions and characteristics of the diet. METHODS: Measuring
Mhalhal, Thaer R; Washington, Martha C; Newman, Kayla; Heath, John C; Sayegh, Ayman I
We hypothesized that exogenous gastrin releasing peptide-29 (GRP-29), cholecystokinin-8 (CCK-8) and their combination reduce body weight (BW). To test this hypothesis, BW was measured in four groups of diet-induced obese (DIO) male rats infused in the aorta (close to the junctions of the celiac and cranial mesenteric arteries) with saline, CCK-8 (0.5 nmol/kg), GRP-29 (0.5 nmol/kg) and CCK-8+GRP-29 (0.5 nmol/kg each) once daily for a total of 23 days. We found that CCK-8, GRP-29 and CCK-8+GRP-29 reduce BW relative to saline control. In conclusion, CCK-8, GRP-29 and their combination reduce BW in the DIO rat model. If infused near their gastrointestinal sites of action CCK-8, GRP-29 and their combination may have a role in regulating BW. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Rojas, J M; Printz, R L; Niswender, K D
Initiation and intensification of insulin therapy commonly causes weight gain, a barrier to therapy. A contrasting body of evidence indicates that insulin functions as an adiposity negative feedback signal and reduces food intake, weight gain and adiposity via action in the central nervous system. Basal insulin analogs, detemir (Det) and glargine (Glar), have been associated with less hypoglycemia compared with neutral protamine hagedorn insulin, and Det with less weight gain, especially in patients with higher body mass index (BMI). We sought to determine whether insulin therapy per se causes body weight and fat mass gain when delivered via a clinically relevant subcutaneous (SC) route in the absence of hypoglycemia and glycosuria in non-diabetic lean and diet-induced obese rats. Rats were exposed to either a low-fat diet (LFD; 13.5% fat) or high-fat diet (HFD; 60% fat), and received Det (0.5 U kg(-1)), Glar (0.2 U kg(-1)) or vehicle (Veh) SC once daily for 4 weeks. These dosages of insulin were equipotent in rats with respect to blood-glucose concentration and did not induce hypoglycemia. As predicted by current models of energy homeostasis, neither insulin Det nor Glar therapy affected food intake and weight gain in LFD rats. Det treatment significantly attenuated food intake, body weight gain and fat mass gain relative to the Glar and Veh in high-fat fed animals, mirroring observations in humans. That neither insulin group gained excess weight, suggests weight gain with SC basal insulin therapy may not be inevitable. Our data further suggest that Det possesses a unique property to attenuate the development of obesity associated with a HFD.
Livingstone, Katherine M; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Papandonatos, George D
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of the FTO genotype on weight loss after dietary, physical activity, or drug based interventions in randomised controlled trials. DESIGN: Systematic review and random effects meta-analysis of individual participant data from randomised controlled trials. DATA SOURC...
Ugleholdt, Randi; Pedersen, Jens; Bassi, Maria Rosaria
that was similar between the groups. In contrast, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide-mediated insulin secretion does not seem to be important for regulation of body weight after high fat feeding. The study supports a role of the adipocyte GIPr in nutrient-dependent regulation of body weight and lean mass...
Boulangé, Claire L; Claus, Sandrine P; Chou, Chieh J; Collino, Sebastiano; Montoliu, Ivan; Kochhar, Sunil; Holmes, Elaine; Rezzi, Serge; Nicholson, Jeremy K; Dumas, Marc E; Martin, François-Pierre J
We investigated the short-term (7 days) and long-term (60 days) metabolic effect of high fat diet induced obesity (DIO) and weight gain in isogenic C57BL/6 mice and examined the specific metabolic differentiation between mice that were either strong-responders (SR), or non-responders (NR) to weight gain. Mice (n = 80) were fed a standard chow diet for 7 days prior to randomization into a high-fat (HF) (n = 56) or a low-fat (LF) (n = 24) diet group. The (1)H NMR urinary metabolic profiles of LF and HF mice were recorded 7 and 60 days after the diet switch. On the basis of the body weight gain (BWG) distribution of HF group, we identified NR mice (n = 10) and SR mice (n = 14) to DIO. Compared with LF, HF feeding increased urinary excretion of glycine conjugates of β-oxidation intermediate (hexanoylglycine), branched chain amino acid (BCAA) catabolism intermediates (isovalerylglycine, α-keto-β-methylvalerate and α-ketoisovalerate) and end-products of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) metabolism (N1-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide, N1-methyl-4-pyridone-3-carboxamide) suggesting up-regulation of mitochondrial oxidative pathways. In the HF group, NR mice excreted relatively more hexanoylglycine, isovalerylglycine, and fewer tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediate (succinate) in comparison to SR mice. Thus, subtle regulation of ketogenic pathways in DIO may alleviate the saturation of the TCA cycle and mitochondrial oxidative metabolism.
Full Text Available Introduction. Metabolically obese but normal-weight (MONW individuals have metabolic features of overt obesity, and abdominal adiposity is common in them. Animal models of MONW individuals are lacking. We aimed to develop an abdominally obese and normal-weight (AONW rat model. Methods and Results. Young male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed chow or a modified high-sucrose (HS diet for 20 weeks. The HS diet induced increased visceral adipose tissue without increased body weight, reduced glucose disposal rates, and increased hepatic glucose output during the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, increased plasma glucose during the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, and increased plasma free fatty acids. Hepatic lipidosis and hepatocyte mitochondria swelling were found in HS rats through light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy; similar impairments were not observed in muscle. RT-PCR showed that mRNA expression of uncoupling protein 3 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1α increased in muscle of HS rats, while expression of mitochondrial transcription factor A, glucose transporter type 4, and insulin receptor substrate-1 did not change significantly. Conclusion. AONW rats developed metabolic disorders seen in MONW individuals. Steatosis, mitochondrial morphologic changes, and insulin resistance were more serious in liver than in muscle. Genes involved in fatty acid metabolism and mitochondrial function changed in less impaired muscle.
Cao, Li; Liu, Xuehui; Cao, Hongyi; Lv, Qingguo; Tong, Nanwei
Metabolically obese but normal-weight (MONW) individuals have metabolic features of overt obesity, and abdominal adiposity is common in them. Animal models of MONW individuals are lacking. We aimed to develop an abdominally obese and normal-weight (AONW) rat model. Young male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed chow or a modified high-sucrose (HS) diet for 20 weeks. The HS diet induced increased visceral adipose tissue without increased body weight, reduced glucose disposal rates, and increased hepatic glucose output during the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, increased plasma glucose during the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, and increased plasma free fatty acids. Hepatic lipidosis and hepatocyte mitochondria swelling were found in HS rats through light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy; similar impairments were not observed in muscle. RT-PCR showed that mRNA expression of uncoupling protein 3 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1α increased in muscle of HS rats, while expression of mitochondrial transcription factor A, glucose transporter type 4, and insulin receptor substrate-1 did not change significantly. AONW rats developed metabolic disorders seen in MONW individuals. Steatosis, mitochondrial morphologic changes, and insulin resistance were more serious in liver than in muscle. Genes involved in fatty acid metabolism and mitochondrial function changed in less impaired muscle.
Objective Daily energy expenditure consists of three components: basal metabolic rate, diet-induced thermogenesis and the energy cost of physical activity. Here, data on diet-induced thermogenesis are reviewed in relation to measuring conditions and characteristics of the diet. Methods Measuring conditions include nutritional status of the subject, physical activity and duration of the observation. Diet characteristics are energy content and macronutrient composition. Resu...
Auerbach, Pernille; Nordby, Pernille; Bendtsen, Line Quist
in obese subjects which may be due to modulations of inflammatory pathways. In this randomized clinical trial we investigated the separate effects of endurance training-induced weight loss, diet-induced weight loss and endurance training per se (without weight loss) on plasma adiponectin multimer...... composition (Western blotting) and adipose tissue macrophage content (immunohistochemistry) in young, moderately overweight men. Weight loss and endurance training per se decreased whole body fat percentage in an additive manner. No intervention-induced changes were observed for plasma total adiponectin....... Surprisingly, endurance training, irrespectively of any associated weight loss, shifted the adiponectin multimer distribution towards a lower molecular weight (21% decrease in HMW/LMW, P=0.015) whereas diet-induced weight loss shifted the distribution towards a higher molecular weight (42% increase in HMW...
Wan, Xinyue; Yin, Jieyun; Foreman, Robert; Chen, Jiande D Z
This paper aims to optimize stimulation parameters and durations for intestinal electrical stimulation (IES) and to explore the effects and mechanisms of chronic IES with optimized methodology in obesity rats. Sixteen diet-induced obese (DIO) rats were tested for food intake with four different sets of IES parameters each lasting 1 week. Then, another 12 DIO rats were used to test the effect of IES on food intake with different stimulation durations. Finally, 16 DIO rats were treated with IES or sham-IES for 4 weeks. Meal patterns, food intake, and body weight were observed. Mechanisms involving gastrointestinal motility, ghrelin, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were studied. (1) Acute IES with different parameters showed different inhibitory effects on food intake, and the most effective parameters were 0.6 s on, 0.9 s off, 80 Hz, 2 ms, and 4 mA with which 26.3% decrease in food intake was noted (p fasting and postprandial plasma levels of GLP-1 but not ghrelin. Twelve-hour daily IES using optimized stimulation parameters reduces food intake and body weight in DIO rats by altering gastrointestinal motility and GLP-1. The IES methodology derived in this study may have a therapeutic potential for obesity.
Dunn, Carolyn; Haubenreiser, Megan; Johnson, Madison; Nordby, Kelly; Aggarwal, Surabhi; Myer, Sarah; Thomas, Cathy
There is an urgent need for effective weight management techniques, as more than one third of US adults are overweight or obese. Recommendations for weight loss include a combination of reducing caloric intake, increasing physical activity, and behavior modification. Behavior modification includes mindful eating or eating with awareness. The purpose of this review was to summarize the literature and examine the impact of mindful eating on weight management. The practice of mindful eating has been applied to the reduction of food cravings, portion control, body mass index, and body weight. Past reviews evaluating the relationship between mindfulness and weight management did not focus on change in mindful eating as the primary outcome or mindful eating as a measured variable. This review demonstrates strong support for inclusion of mindful eating as a component of weight management programs and may provide substantial benefit to the treatment of overweight and obesity.
Background/objective: Diet-induced weight loss (WL) leads to increased hunger and reduced fullness feelings, increased ghrelin and reduced satiety peptides concentration (glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), cholecystokinin (CCK) and peptide YY (PYY)). Ketogenic diets seem to minimise or supress some of these responses. The aim of this study was to determine the timeline over which changes in appetite occur during progressive WL with a ketogenic very-low-energy diet (VLED). Subjects/methods: T...
Han, Yo-Han; Kee, Ji-Ye; Park, Jinbong; Kim, Hye-Lin; Jeong, Mi-Young; Kim, Dae-Seung; Jeon, Yong-Deok; Jung, Yunu; Youn, Dong-Hyun; Kang, JongWook; So, Hong-Seob; Park, Raekil; Lee, Jong-Hyun; Shin, Soyoung; Kim, Su-Jin; Um, Jae-Young; Hong, Seung-Heon
Although arctigenin (ARC) has been reported to have some pharmacological effects such as anti-inflammation, anti-cancer, and antioxidant, there have been no reports on the anti-obesity effect of ARC. The aim of this study is to investigate whether ARC has an anti-obesity effect and mediates the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway. We investigated the anti-adipogenic effect of ARC using 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes and human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs). In high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice, whether ARC can inhibit weight gain was investigated. We found that ARC reduced weight gain, fat pad weight, and triglycerides in HFD-induced obese mice. ARC also inhibited the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα) in in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, ARC induced the AMPK activation resulting in down-modulation of adipogenesis-related factors including PPARγ, C/EBPα, fatty acid synthase, adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein, and lipoprotein lipase. This study demonstrates that ARC can reduce key adipogenic factors by activating the AMPK in vitro and in vivo and suggests a therapeutic implication of ARC for obesity treatment. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2067-2077, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Márquez-Aguirre, A L; Camacho-Ruíz, R M; Gutiérrez-Mercado, Y K; Padilla-Camberos, E; González-Ávila, M; Gálvez-Gastélum, F J; Díaz-Martínez, N E; Ortuño-Sahagún, D
Fructans from agave have received specific attention because of their highly branched fructan content. We have previously reported that the degree of polymerization (dp) influences their biological activity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of unfractionated and fractionated fructans (higher and lower dps) from Agave tequilana in high-fat diet-induced (HFD) obese mice. Fructans with a lower dp (HFD+ScF) decreased weight gain by 30 %, body fat mass by 51 %, hyperglycemia by 25 % and liver steatosis by 40 %. Interestingly, unfractionated fructans (HFD+F) decreased glucose and triglycerides (TG), whereas fractionated fructans with a higher dp (HFD+LcF) decreased TG but not glucose; in contrast, HFD+ScF decreased glucose but not TG. Our findings suggest that both higher and lower dp agave fructans have complementary effects in metabolic disorders related to obesity. These findings may contribute to the development of improved food supplements with a specific ratio combination of fructans with different dps.
Mhalhal, Thaer R; Washington, Martha C; Newman, Kayla; Heath, John C; Sayegh, Ayman I
The sites of action regulating meal size (MS) and intermeal interval (IMI) length by glucagon like peptide-1 (7-36) (GLP-1 (7-36)) and cholecystokinin-8 (CCK-8) reside in the areas supplied by the two major branches of the abdominal aorta, celiac and cranial mesenteric arteries. We hypothesized that infusing GLP-1 near those sites reduces body weight (BW) and adding CCK-8 to this infusion enhances the reduction. Here, we measured BW in diet-induced obese (DIO) male rats maintained and tested on normal rat chow and infused with saline, GLP-1 (0.5nmol/kg) and GLP-1+CCK-8 (0.5nmol/kg each) in the aorta once daily for 21days. We found that GLP-1 and GLP-1+CCK-8 decrease BW relative to saline vehicle and GLP-1+CCK-8 reduced it more than GLP-1 alone. Reduction of BW by GLP-1 alone was accompanied by decreased 24-h food intake, first MS, duration of first meal and number of meals, and an increase in latency to first meal. Reduction of BW by the combination of the peptides was accompanied by decrease 24-h food intake, first MS, duration of first meal and number of meals, and increase in the IMI length, satiety ratio and latency to first meal. In conclusion, GLP-1 reduces BW and CCK-8 enhances this reduction if the peptides are given near their sites of action. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Catherine J Knowles
Full Text Available Obesity is associated with an increased risk of cardiomyopathy, and mechanisms linking the underlying risk and dietary factors are not well understood. We tested the hypothesis that dietary intake of saturated fat increases the levels of sphingolipids, namely ceramide and sphingomyelin in cardiac cell membranes that disrupt caveolae, specialized membrane micro-domains and important for cellular signaling. C57BL/6 mice were fed two high-fat diets: palmitate diet (21% total fat, 47% is palmitate, and MCT diet (21% medium-chain triglycerides, no palmitate. We established that high-palmitate feeding for 12 weeks leads to 40% and 50% increases in ceramide and sphingomyelin, respectively, in cellular membranes. Concomitant with sphingolipid accumulation, we observed a 40% reduction in systolic contractile performance. To explore the relationship of increased sphingolipids with caveolins, we analyzed caveolin protein levels and intracellular localization in isolated cardiomyocytes. In normal cardiomyocytes, caveolin-1 and caveolin-3 co-localize at the plasma membrane and the T-tubule system. However, mice maintained on palmitate lost 80% of caveolin-3, mainly from the T-tubule system. Mice maintained on MCT diet had a 90% reduction in caveolin-1. These data show that caveolin isoforms are sensitive to the lipid environment. These data are further supported by similar findings in human cardiac tissue samples from non-obese, obese, non-obese cardiomyopathic, and obese cardiomyopathic patients. To further elucidate the contractile dysfunction associated with the loss of caveolin-3, we determined the localization of the ryanodine receptor and found lower expression and loss of the striated appearance of this protein. We suggest that palmitate-induced loss of caveolin-3 results in cardiac contractile dysfunction via a defect in calcium-induced calcium release.
Polak, J.; Kovacova, Z.; Holst, C.
, and LMW). The HMW form was suggested to be closely associated with insulin sensitivity. This study investigated whether diet-induced changes in insulin sensitivity were associated with changes in adiponectin multimeric complexes. SUBJECTS: Twenty obese women with highest and twenty obese women with lowest...... diet induced changes in insulin sensitivity (responders and non-responders respectively), matched for weight loss (body mass index (BMI)=34.5 (s.d. 2.9) resp. 36.5 kg/m(2) (s.d. 4.0) for responders and non-responders), were selected from 292 women who underwent a 10-week low-caloric diet (LCD; 600 kcal...
Bruggeman, Andrew R; Kamal, Arif H; LeBlanc, Thomas W; Ma, Joseph D; Baracos, Vickie E; Roeland, Eric J
Cancer cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome characterized by skeletal muscle loss leading to progressive functional impairment. Despite the ubiquity of cachexia in clinical practice, prevention, early identification, and intervention remain challenging. The impact of cancer cachexia on quality of life, treatment-related toxicity, physical function, and mortality are well established; however, establishing a clinically meaningful definition has proven challenging because of the focus on weight loss alone. Attempts to more comprehensively define cachexia through body composition, physical functioning, and molecular biomarkers, while promising, are yet to be routinely incorporated into clinical practice. Pharmacologic agents that have not been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration but that are currently used in cancer cachexia (ie, megestrol, dronabinol) may improve weight but not outcomes of interest such as muscle mass, physical activity, or mortality. Their routine use is limited by adverse effects. For the practicing oncologist, early identification and management of cachexia is critical. Oncologists must recognize cachexia beyond weight loss alone, focusing instead on body composition and physical functioning. In fact, becoming emaciated is a late sign of cachexia that characterizes its refractory stage. Given that cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome, it requires early identification and polymodal intervention, including optimal cancer therapy, symptom management, nutrition, exercise, and psychosocial support. Consequently, oncologists have a role in ensuring that these resources are available to their patients. In addition, in light of the promising investigational agents, it remains imperative to refer patients with cachexia to clinical trials so that available options can be expanded to effectively treat this pervasive problem.
Lee, Jieun; Choi, Joseph; Selen Alpergin, Ebru S; Zhao, Liang; Hartung, Thomas; Scafidi, Susanna; Riddle, Ryan C; Wolfgang, Michael J
The liver has a large capacity for mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation, which is critical for systemic metabolic adaptations such as gluconeogenesis and ketogenesis. To understand the role of hepatic fatty acid oxidation in response to a chronic high-fat diet (HFD), we generated mice with a liver-specific deficiency of mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid β-oxidation (Cpt2 L-/- mice). Paradoxically, Cpt2 L-/- mice were resistant to HFD-induced obesity and glucose intolerance with an absence of liver damage, although they exhibited serum dyslipidemia, hepatic oxidative stress, and systemic carnitine deficiency. Feeding an HFD induced hepatokines in mice, with a loss of hepatic fatty acid oxidation that enhanced systemic energy expenditure and suppressed adiposity. Additionally, the suppression in hepatic gluconeogenesis was sufficient to improve HFD-induced glucose intolerance. These data show that inhibiting hepatic fatty acid oxidation results in a systemic hormetic response that protects mice from HFD-induced obesity and glucose intolerance. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The liver has a large capacity for mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation, which is critical for systemic metabolic adaptations such as gluconeogenesis and ketogenesis. To understand the role of hepatic fatty acid oxidation in response to a chronic high-fat diet (HFD, we generated mice with a liver-specific deficiency of mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid β-oxidation (Cpt2L−/− mice. Paradoxically, Cpt2L−/− mice were resistant to HFD-induced obesity and glucose intolerance with an absence of liver damage, although they exhibited serum dyslipidemia, hepatic oxidative stress, and systemic carnitine deficiency. Feeding an HFD induced hepatokines in mice, with a loss of hepatic fatty acid oxidation that enhanced systemic energy expenditure and suppressed adiposity. Additionally, the suppression in hepatic gluconeogenesis was sufficient to improve HFD-induced glucose intolerance. These data show that inhibiting hepatic fatty acid oxidation results in a systemic hormetic response that protects mice from HFD-induced obesity and glucose intolerance.
Thorning, Tanja Kongerslev; Fabre, Odile; Legrand, Rémy
or obese patients treated in 54 RNPC® weight loss clinics in France. Results: A total of 10,809 (89%) patients completed the initial weight loss phase and 2996 (25%) completed the full program. Median weight loss percentage was 10.7% (Interquartile range [IQR]: 5.8; 16.5) after a median of 105 days (IQR...
Weight loss - herbal remedies and supplements; Obesity - herbal remedies; Overweight - herbal remedies ... health care provider. Nearly all over-the-counter supplements with claims of weight-loss properties contain some ...
Bliddal, Henning; Leeds, A R; Christensen, Robin Daniel Kjersgaard
Obesity is widely acknowledged as a risk factor for both the incidence and progression of osteoarthritis, and has a negative influence on outcomes. Loss of at least 10% of body weight, coupled with exercise, is recognized as a cornerstone in the management of obese patients with osteoarthritis......, and can lead to significant improvement in symptoms, pain relief, physical function and health-related quality of life. However, questions still remain surrounding optimal management. Given the significant health, social and economic burden of osteoarthritis, especially in obese patients, it is imperative...... to advance our knowledge of osteoarthritis and obesity, and apply this to improving care and outcomes. This paper overviews what is already known about osteoarthritis and obesity, discusses current key challenges and ongoing hypotheses arising from research in these areas, and finally, postulates what...
.... The term “inability to gain weight” means that there has been substantial weight loss with inability... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weight loss. 4.112... DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Digestive System § 4.112 Weight loss. For purposes of evaluating conditions...
JaKa, Meghan M; Sherwood, Nancy E; Flatt, Shirley W; Pacanowski, Carly R; Pakiz, Bilgé; Thomson, Cynthia A; Rock, Cheryl L
Understanding the degree to which eating behaviors, such as disinhibition and restraint, are associated with weight loss and weight loss maintenance could contribute to further refinement of effective weight management intervention strategies. The purpose of this analysis was to examine if these factors mediate weight loss or weight loss maintenance using data from a randomized controlled trial testing a commercial weight loss program that delivered behavioral counseling and structured meal plans including prepackaged foods. Mediation analyses were used to examine whether changes in disinhibition and restraint mediated the relationship between intervention and weight change during initial weight loss (0-6 months), continued weight loss (6-12 months), or weight loss maintenance (12-24 months) phases. Only decreases in disinhibition between baseline and 6 months mediated the intervention effect on initial weight loss. Our results suggest the mediation effects of these eating behaviors are modest and other factors contribute to a larger, more complex long-term weight loss prognosis.
Barnes, Rachel D; Ivezaj, Valentina; Pittman, Brian P; Grilo, Carlos M
Individuals seeking weight loss treatment have diverse pretreatment weight trajectories, and once enrolled, individuals' response to weight loss treatments also varies greatly and may be influenced by the presence of binge-eating disorder (BED). Reported average weight losses may obscure these considerable differences. This study examined whether BED status and different weight-related change variables are associated with successful weight loss treatment outcomes in a controlled treatment study. Participants (N = 89) with overweight/obesity, with and without BED, participated in a 3-month weight loss trial in primary care with 3- and 12-month follow-ups. We tested the prognostic significance of four weight-related change variables (the last supper, early weight loss, pretreatment weight trajectory, weight suppression) on outcomes (weight loss-overall, weight loss-"subsequent," weight loss during second half of treatment). Early weight loss was positively associated with weight loss-overall at post-treatment, and at 3-month and 12-month follow-up. Early weight loss was positively associated with weight loss-subsequent at post-treatment only. No other weight-related variables were significantly associated with weight loss. Models including BED status and treatment condition were not significant. Participants with early weight loss were more likely to continue losing weight, regardless of BED status or treatment condition. The results highlight the importance of early dedication to weight loss treatment to increase the likelihood of positive outcomes. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Asao, K; Rothberg, A E; Arcori, L; Kaur, M; Fowler, C E; Herman, W H
Medical weight loss could change sweet taste threshold and preferences. The decrease in sweet taste preferences may, in turn, help in the maintenance of weight loss. This study examined the association between sweet taste preferences at baseline and weight change during a medical weight management programme and the impact of diet-induced weight loss on sweet taste preferences. Adult patients with body mass index ≥32 kg m -2 were recruited from a medical weight management clinic. Sweet taste preference was assessed using a forced-choice, paired-comparison tracking method before and after a very-low-calorie diet (VLCD). Twenty participants were included in the analysis: mean age was 53.1 (standard deviation [SD]: 11.4) years, and 14 were female. The mean body mass index was 41.4 (SD: 7.5) kg m -2 . The median preferred sucrose concentration before VLCD was 0.45 M. Following VLCD, mean change in weight was -13.3 (SD: 6.6) kg, and percentage weight change was -11.3% (SD: 5.9%). Based on mixed models with and without adjustment for demographic factors, diabetes status and smoking history, preferred sucrose concentration at baseline did not predict change in longer-term body weight. The change of preferred sucrose concentration following 12 weeks of VLCD was not significant ( P -value 0.95). Change in weight during and after VLCD was not associated with sweet taste preferences at baseline. After diet-induced weight loss, sweet taste preferences did not change.
Geidenstam, Nina; Danielsson, Anders P H; Spégel, Peter; Ridderstråle, Martin
Weight loss improves insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in obese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), but the long term dynamic effects on blood metabolites other than glucose during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), are largely unknown. Here, we studied changes in OGTT-elicited metabolite patterns in obese subjects during a diet-induced weight loss study. Blood samples from 14 obese individuals with IGT were collected at 0, 30 and 120 min during a standard 75 g OGTT at baseline (BMI 44 ± 2 kg/m(2)), after weight loss (BMI 36 ± 2 kg/m(2)) and after weight maintenance (BMI 35 ± 2 kg/m(2)). Serum metabolite levels were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and compared to a lean glucose tolerant group. Changes in the OGTT-elicited metabolite patterns occurred differentially during weight loss and weight maintenance. Enhanced suppression of aromatic amino acids were associated with decreased insulinogenic index observed after weight loss (tyrosine: r=0.72, p=0.013; phenylalanine: r=0.63, p=0.039). The OGTT-elicited suppression and/or lack of increase in levels of glutamate, glutamine, isoleucine, leucine, and the fatty acids laurate, oleate and palmitate, improved towards the lean profile after weight maintenance, paralleling an improvement in glucose tolerance. The greater heterogeneity in the response before and after weight loss in the obese, compared to lean subjects, was markedly reduced after weight maintenance. Diet-induced weight loss followed by weight maintenance results in changes in metabolite profiles associated with either hepatic insulin sensitivity or peripheral glucose tolerance. Our results highlight the importance of evaluating the effects of weight loss and weight maintenance separately. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hunter, Gary R; Plaisance, Eric P; Fisher, Gordon
Despite evidence that energy deficit produces multiple physiological and metabolic benefits, clinicians are often reluctant to prescribe weight loss in older individuals or those with low bone mineral density (BMD), fearing BMD will be decreased. Confusion exists concerning the effects that weight loss has on bone health. Bone density is more closely associated with lean mass than total body mass and fat mass. Although rapid or large weight loss is often associated with loss of bone density, slower or smaller weight loss is much less apt to adversely affect BMD, especially when it is accompanied with high intensity resistance and/or impact loading training. Maintenance of calcium and vitamin D intake seems to positively affect BMD during weight loss. Although dual energy X-ray absorptiometry is normally used to evaluate bone density, it may overestimate BMD loss following massive weight loss. Volumetric quantitative computed tomography may be more accurate for tracking bone density changes following large weight loss. Moderate weight loss does not necessarily compromise bone health, especially when exercise training is involved. Training strategies that include heavy resistance training and high impact loading that occur with jump training may be especially productive in maintaining, or even increasing bone density with weight loss.
James, W P; Astrup, A; Finer, Nicholas
Sibutramine is a tertiary amine that has been shown to induce dose-dependent weight loss and to enhance the effects of a low-calorie diet for up to a year. We did a randomised, double-blind trial to assess the usefulness of sibutramine in maintaining substantial weight loss over 2 years.......Sibutramine is a tertiary amine that has been shown to induce dose-dependent weight loss and to enhance the effects of a low-calorie diet for up to a year. We did a randomised, double-blind trial to assess the usefulness of sibutramine in maintaining substantial weight loss over 2 years....
Prasad, Vikram; Lorenz, John N; Miller, Marian L; Vairamani, Kanimozhi; Nieman, Michelle L; Wang, Yigang; Shull, Gary E
Acute inhibition of the NHE1 Na(+)/H(+) exchanger protects against ischemia-reperfusion injury and chronic inhibition attenuates development of cardiac hypertrophy and failure. To determine the cardiac effects of chronic inhibition of NHE1 under non-pathological conditions we used NHE1-null mice as a model of long-term NHE1 inhibition. Cardiovascular performance was relatively normal in Nhe1(-/-) mice although cardiac contractility and relaxation were slightly improved in mutant mice of the FVB/N background. GSH levels and GSH:GSSG ratios were elevated in Nhe1(-/-) hearts indicating an enhanced redox potential. Consistent with a reduced need for antioxidant protection, expression of heat shock proteins Hsp60 and Hsp25 was lower in Nhe1(-/-) hearts. Similarly, expression of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase 2 was reduced, with no increase in expression of other ROS scavenging enzymes. GLUT1 levels were increased in Nhe1(-/-) hearts, the number of lipid droplets in myocytes was reduced, and PDK4 expression was refractory to high-fat diet-induced upregulation observed in wild-type hearts. High-fat diet-induced stress was attenuated in Nhe1(-/-) hearts, as indicated by smaller increases in phosphorylation of Hsp25 and α-B crystallin, and there was better preservation of insulin sensitivity, as evidenced by PKB/Akt phosphorylation. Plasma glucose and insulin levels were lower and high-fat diet-induced hepatic lipid accumulation was reduced in Nhe1(-/-) mice, demonstrating extracardiac effects of NHE1 ablation. These data indicate that long-term ablation of NHE1 activity increases the redox potential, mitigates high-fat diet-induced myocardial stress and fatty liver disease, leads to better preservation of insulin sensitivity, and may alter both cardiac and systemic metabolic substrate handling in mice. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Leahey, Tricia M; Kumar, Rajiv; Weinberg, Brad M; Wing, Rena R
Team-based internet interventions are increasing in popularity as a way of promoting weight loss in large numbers of individuals. Given that social networks influence health behavior change, this study investigated the effects of teammates and social influence on individual weight loss during a team-based weight loss competition. Shape Up Rhode Island (SURI) 2009 was a 12-week online program open to adult residents of Rhode Island. Participants joined with a team and competed with other teams on weight loss and/or physical activity. Overweight/obese (OW/OB) individuals (N = 3,330; 76% female; age = 46.1 ± 10.8; BMI = 31.2 ± 5.3 kg/m(2)), representing 987 teams, completed the weight loss program. Multilevel modeling was used to examine whether weight loss clustered among teammates and whether percentage of teammates in the weight loss division and reported teammate influence on weight loss were associated with individual weight outcomes. OW/OB completers reported losing 4.2 ± 3.4% of initial body weight. Weight loss was similar among teammates (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.10, P social influence for weight loss were associated with greater percent weight loss (P's ≤ 0.002). Similarly, achieving a clinically significant (5%) weight loss tended to cluster within teams (ICC = 0.09; P social influence for weight loss were associated with increased likelihood of achieving a 5% weight loss (odds ratio (OR) = 1.06; OR = 1.20, respectively). These results suggest that teammates affect weight loss outcomes during a team-based intervention. Harnessing and maximizing teammate influence for weight loss may enhance weight outcomes in large-scale team-based programs.
Obesity is an established risk factor for numerous chronic diseases, and successful treatment will have an important impact on medical resources utilization, health care costs, and patient quality of life. With over 60% of our population being overweight, physicians face a major challenge in assisting patients in the process of weight loss and weight-loss maintenance. Low-calorie diets can lower total body weight by an average of 8% in the short term. These diets are well-tolerated and charac...
Haufe, Sven; Haas, Verena; Utz, Wolfgang; Birkenfeld, Andreas L; Jeran, Stephanie; Böhnke, Jana; Mähler, Anja; Luft, Friedrich C; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; Boschmann, Michael; Jordan, Jens; Engeli, Stefan
Weight loss reduces abdominal and intrahepatic fat, thereby improving metabolic and cardiovascular risk. Yet, many patients regain weight after successful diet-induced weight loss. Long-term changes in abdominal and liver fat, along with liver test results and insulin resistance, are not known. We analyzed 50 overweight to obese subjects (46 ± 9 years of age; BMI, 32.5 ± 3.3 kg/m2; women, 77%) who had participated in a 6-month hypocaloric diet and were randomized to either reduced carbohydrates or reduced fat content. Before, directly after diet, and at an average of 24 (range, 17-36) months follow-up, we assessed body fat distribution by magnetic resonance imaging and markers of liver function and insulin resistance. Body weight decreased with diet but had increased again at follow-up. Subjects also partially regained abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue. In contrast, intrahepatic fat decreased with diet and remained reduced at follow-up (7.8 ± 9.8% [baseline], 4.5 ± 5.9% [6 months], and 4.7 ± 5.9% [follow-up]). Similar patterns were observed for markers of liver function, whole-body insulin sensitivity, and hepatic insulin resistance. Changes in intrahepatic fat und intrahepatic function were independent of macronutrient composition during intervention and were most effective in subjects with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease at baseline. A 6-month hypocaloric diet induced improvements in hepatic fat, liver test results, and insulin resistance despite regaining of weight up to 2 years after the active intervention. Body weight and adiposity measurements may underestimate beneficial long-term effects of dietary interventions.
Haufe, Sven; Haas, Verena; Utz, Wolfgang; Birkenfeld, Andreas L.; Jeran, Stephanie; Böhnke, Jana; Mähler, Anja; Luft, Friedrich C.; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; Boschmann, Michael; Jordan, Jens; Engeli, Stefan
OBJECTIVE Weight loss reduces abdominal and intrahepatic fat, thereby improving metabolic and cardiovascular risk. Yet, many patients regain weight after successful diet-induced weight loss. Long-term changes in abdominal and liver fat, along with liver test results and insulin resistance, are not known. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We analyzed 50 overweight to obese subjects (46 ± 9 years of age; BMI, 32.5 ± 3.3 kg/m2; women, 77%) who had participated in a 6-month hypocaloric diet and were randomized to either reduced carbohydrates or reduced fat content. Before, directly after diet, and at an average of 24 (range, 17–36) months follow-up, we assessed body fat distribution by magnetic resonance imaging and markers of liver function and insulin resistance. RESULTS Body weight decreased with diet but had increased again at follow-up. Subjects also partially regained abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue. In contrast, intrahepatic fat decreased with diet and remained reduced at follow-up (7.8 ± 9.8% [baseline], 4.5 ± 5.9% [6 months], and 4.7 ± 5.9% [follow-up]). Similar patterns were observed for markers of liver function, whole-body insulin sensitivity, and hepatic insulin resistance. Changes in intrahepatic fat und intrahepatic function were independent of macronutrient composition during intervention and were most effective in subjects with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease at baseline. CONCLUSIONS A 6-month hypocaloric diet induced improvements in hepatic fat, liver test results, and insulin resistance despite regaining of weight up to 2 years after the active intervention. Body weight and adiposity measurements may underestimate beneficial long-term effects of dietary interventions. PMID:23963894
Livingstone, Katherine M; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Papandonatos, George D
: Ovid Medline, Scopus, Embase, and Cochrane from inception to November 2015. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR STUDY SELECTION: Randomised controlled trials in overweight or obese adults reporting reduction in body mass index, body weight, or waist circumference by FTO genotype (rs9939609 or a proxy) after...
German, Alexander James
Obesity is one of the most prevalent medical diseases in pets. Outcomes are often disappointing; many animals either fail to reach target weight or regain weight. This article discusses managing obesity, focusing on prevention. It gives guidance on establishing monitoring programs that use regular body weight and condition assessments to identify animals at risk of inappropriate weight gain, enabling early intervention. Weight management in obese animals is a lifelong process. Regular weight and body condition monitoring are key to identifying animals that rebound early, while continuing to feed a therapeutic weight loss diet can help prevent it from happening. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Galioto, R.; Bond, D.; Gunstad, J.; Pera, V.; Rathier, L.; Tremont, G.
Summary Background Deficits in executive functions are related to poorer weight loss after bariatric surgery; however, less is known about the role that these deficits may play during participation in nonsurgical weight loss programmes. This study examined associations between objectively measured executive functions and weight loss during participation in a medically supervised weight loss programme. Methods Twenty?three adult patients (age 50.4???15.1, BMI 44.2???8.8, 68% female, 92% White)...
Litwak, Sara A.; Loh, Kim; Stanley, William J.; Pappas, Evan G.; Wali, Jibran A.; Selck, Claudia; Strasser, Andreas; Thomas, Helen E.; Gurzov, Esteban N.
BCL-2 proteins have been implicated in the control of glucose homeostasis and metabolism in different cell types. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the role of the pro-apoptotic BH3-only protein, p53-upregulated-modulator-of-apoptosis (PUMA), in metabolic changes mediated by diet-induced obesity, using PUMA deficient mice. At 10 weeks of age, knockout and wild type mice either continued consuming a low fat chow diet (6% fat), or were fed with a high fat diet (23% fat) for 14–17 weeks. We measured body composition, glucose and insulin tolerance, insulin response in peripheral tissues, energy expenditure, oxygen consumption, and respiratory exchange ratio in vivo. All these parameters were indistinguishable between wild type and knockout mice on chow diet and were modified equally by diet-induced obesity. Interestingly, we observed decreased food intake and ambulatory capacity of PUMA knockout mice on high fat diet. This was associated with increased adipocyte size and fasted leptin concentration in the blood. Our findings suggest that although PUMA is dispensable for glucose homeostasis in lean and obese mice, it can affect leptin levels and food intake during obesity. PMID:27033313
Nordby, Pernille; Rosenkilde, Mads; Ploug, Thorkil
Endurance training increases peak fat oxidation (PFO) during exercise, but whether this is independent of changes in body weight is not known. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of endurance training with or without weight loss or a diet-induced weight loss on PFO...... and on key skeletal muscle mitochondrial proteins involved in fat oxidation. Sixty moderately overweight, sedentary but otherwise healthy men were randomized to 12 wk of training (T), diet (D), training and increased caloric intake (T-iD), or continuous sedentary control (C). Isoenergetic deficits...... corresponding to 600 kcal/day were comprised of endurance exercise for T and caloric restriction for D. T-iD completed similar training but was not in 600 kcal deficit because of dietary replacement. PFO and the exercise intensity at which this occurred (FatMax) were measured by a submaximal exercise test...
Painter, Stefanie Lynn; Ahmed, Rezwan; Kushner, Robert F; Hill, James O; Lindquist, Richard; Brunning, Scott; Margulies, Amy
Providing coaches as part of a weight management program is a common practice to increase participant engagement and weight loss success. Understanding coach and participant interactions and how these interactions impact weight loss success needs to be further explored for coaching best practices. The purpose of this study was to analyze the coach and participant interaction in a 6-month weight loss intervention administered by Retrofit, a personalized weight management and Web-based disease prevention solution. The study specifically examined the association between different methods of coach-participant interaction and weight loss and tried to understand the level of coaching impact on weight loss outcome. A retrospective analysis was performed using 1432 participants enrolled from 2011 to 2016 in the Retrofit weight loss program. Participants were males and females aged 18 years or older with a baseline body mass index of ≥25 kg/m², who also provided at least one weight measurement beyond baseline. First, a detailed analysis of different coach-participant interaction was performed using both intent-to-treat and completer populations. Next, a multiple regression analysis was performed using all measures associated with coach-participant interactions involving expert coaching sessions, live weekly expert-led Web-based classes, and electronic messaging and feedback. Finally, 3 significant predictors (Pcoaching session attendance (Pcoaching sessions, attending 60% of live weekly Web-based classes, and receiving a minimum of 1 food log feedback day per week were associated with clinically significant weight loss. Participant's one-on-one expert coaching session attendance, live weekly expert-led interactive Web-based class attendance, and the number of food log feedback days per week from expert coach were significant predictors of weight loss in a 6-month intervention. ©Stefanie Lynn Painter, Rezwan Ahmed, Robert F Kushner, James O Hill, Richard Lindquist, Scott
Kushner, Robert F; Hill, James O; Lindquist, Richard; Brunning, Scott; Margulies, Amy
Background Providing coaches as part of a weight management program is a common practice to increase participant engagement and weight loss success. Understanding coach and participant interactions and how these interactions impact weight loss success needs to be further explored for coaching best practices. Objective The purpose of this study was to analyze the coach and participant interaction in a 6-month weight loss intervention administered by Retrofit, a personalized weight management and Web-based disease prevention solution. The study specifically examined the association between different methods of coach-participant interaction and weight loss and tried to understand the level of coaching impact on weight loss outcome. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed using 1432 participants enrolled from 2011 to 2016 in the Retrofit weight loss program. Participants were males and females aged 18 years or older with a baseline body mass index of ≥25 kg/m², who also provided at least one weight measurement beyond baseline. First, a detailed analysis of different coach-participant interaction was performed using both intent-to-treat and completer populations. Next, a multiple regression analysis was performed using all measures associated with coach-participant interactions involving expert coaching sessions, live weekly expert-led Web-based classes, and electronic messaging and feedback. Finally, 3 significant predictors (Pcoaching session attendance (Pcoaching sessions, attending 60% of live weekly Web-based classes, and receiving a minimum of 1 food log feedback day per week were associated with clinically significant weight loss. Conclusions Participant’s one-on-one expert coaching session attendance, live weekly expert-led interactive Web-based class attendance, and the number of food log feedback days per week from expert coach were significant predictors of weight loss in a 6-month intervention. PMID:29535082
Gotthardt, Juliet D; Verpeut, Jessica L; Yeomans, Bryn L; Yang, Jennifer A; Yasrebi, Ali; Roepke, Troy A; Bello, Nicholas T
Clinical studies indicate alternate-day, intermittent fasting (IMF) protocols result in meaningful weight loss in obese individuals. To further understand the mechanisms sustaining weight loss by IMF, we investigated the metabolic and neural alterations of IMF in obese mice. Male C57/BL6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD; 45% fat) ad libitum for 8 weeks to promote an obese phenotype. Mice were divided into four groups and either maintained on ad libitum HFD, received alternate-day access to HFD (IMF-HFD), and switched to ad libitum low-fat diet (LFD; 10% fat) or received IMF of LFD (IMF-LFD). After 4 weeks, IMF-HFD (∼13%) and IMF-LFD (∼18%) had significantly lower body weights than the HFD. Body fat was also lower (∼40%-52%) in all diet interventions. Lean mass was increased in the IMF-LFD (∼12%-13%) compared with the HFD and IMF-HFD groups. Oral glucose tolerance area under the curve was lower in the IMF-HFD (∼50%), whereas the insulin tolerance area under the curve was reduced in all diet interventions (∼22%-42%). HPLC measurements of hypothalamic tissue homogenates indicated higher (∼55%-60%) norepinephrine (NE) content in the anterior regions of the medial hypothalamus of IMF compared with the ad libitum-fed groups, whereas NE content was higher (∼19%-32%) in posterior regions in the IMF-LFD group only. Relative gene expression of Npy in the arcuate nucleus was increased (∼65%-75%) in IMF groups. Our novel findings indicate that intermittent fasting produces alterations in hypothalamic NE and neuropeptide Y, suggesting the counterregulatory processes of short-term weight loss are associated with an IMF dietary strategy.
Gettens, Katelyn M; Gorin, Amy A
Weight loss maintenance is a complex, multifaceted process that presents a significant challenge for most individuals who lose weight. A growing body of literature indicates a strong relationship between cognitive dysfunction and excessive body weight, and suggests that a subset of high-order cognitive processes known as executive functions (EF) likely play an important role in weight management. Recent reviews cover neuropsychological correlates of weight status yet fail to address the role of executive function in the central dilemma of successful weight loss maintenance. In this paper, we provide an overview of the existing literature examining executive functions as they relate to weight status and initial weight loss. Further, we propose a novel conceptual model of the relationships between EF, initial weight loss, and weight loss maintenance, mapping specific executive functions onto strategies known to be associated with both phases of the weight control process. Implications for the development of more efficacious weight loss maintenance interventions are discussed.
Seo, Minchul; Kim, Jongwan; Moon, Seong-Su; Hwang, Jae-Sam; Kim, Mi-Ae
We recently reported the in vitro and in vivo antiobesity effects of Tenebrio molitor larvae, a traditional food in many countries, but it remains unknown how the larvae affect appetite regulation in mice with diet-induced obesity. We hypothesized that the extract of T molitor larvae mediates appetite by regulating neuropeptide expression. We investigated T molitor larvae extract's (TME's) effects on anorexigenesis and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced orexigenic neuropeptide expression in the hypothalami of obese mice. Intracerebroventricular TME administration suppressed feeding by down-regulating the expression of the orexigenic neuropeptides neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein. T molitor larvae extract significantly reduced the expression of ER stress response genes. These results suggest that TME and its bioactive components are potential therapeutics for obesity and ER stress-driven disease states. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
No matter what your weight loss goal is, the key to reaching your goals is to make changes to your lifestyle behaviors like eating and physical activity. This involves setting realistic expectations and making a plan.
Lally, John; McDonald, Colm
The authors report the case of a 44-year-old man with a long history of chronic enduring schizophrenia who experienced dramatic weight loss after commencing treatment with clozapine, an antipsychotic medication characteristically associated with the greatest degree of weight gain among medical treatments for schizophrenia. He was obese with a body mass index (BMI) of 41.5 kg/m2, but after commencing clozapine therapy he experienced an improvement in psychotic symptoms and 40% loss of his body...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous weight-loss medications have received cautious support due to their association with pulmonary hypertension and valvular heart disease. However, newer drugs are increasingly being recommended as potentially safer and more efficacious. We report a case of ischemic colitis possibly linked to the use of a weight-loss drug, and review the literature to highlight an important latent consequence of these medications.
Pareek, Manan; Hansson, Nils Henrik; Grove, Erik Lerkevang
A previously healthy 29-year-old man was admitted with palpitations, dizziness, and near-syncope after he had recently started taking weight loss pills purchased on the internet. The pills contained caffeine and ephedrine. An electrocardiogram and telemetry revealed multiple episodes of non......-sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia, which was successfully treated with amiodarone. In conclusion, unauthorized weight loss pills can be harmful. In particular, ephedrine-containing drugs carry a risk of ventricular tachycardia and should be discouraged....
Henning, Susanne M; Yang, Jieping; Hsu, Mark; Lee, Ru-Po; Grojean, Emma M; Ly, Austin; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Heber, David; Li, Zhaoping
Decaffeinated green tea (GT) and black tea (BT) polyphenols inhibit weight gain in mice fed an obesogenic diet. Since the intestinal microflora is an important contributor to obesity, it was the objective of this study to determine whether the intestinal microflora plays a role in the anti-obesogenic effect of GT and BT. C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat/high-sucrose diet (HF/HS, 32% energy from fat; 25% energy from sucrose) or the same diet supplemented with 0.25% GTP or BTP or a low-fat/high-sucrose (LF/HS, 10.6% energy from fat, 25% energy from sucrose) diet for 4 weeks. Bacterial composition was assessed by MiSeq sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. GTP and BTP diets resulted in a decrease of cecum Firmicutes and increase in Bacteroidetes. The relative proportions of Blautia, Bryantella, Collinsella, Lactobacillus, Marvinbryantia, Turicibacter, Barnesiella, and Parabacteroides were significantly correlated with weight loss induced by tea extracts. BTP increased the relative proportion of Pseudobutyrivibrio and intestinal formation of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) analyzed by gas chromatography. Cecum propionic acid content was significantly correlated with the relative proportion of Pseudobutyrivibrio. GTP and BTP induced a significant increase in hepatic 5'adenosylmonophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation by 70 and 289%, respectively (P < 0.05) determined by Western blot. In summary, both BTP and GTP induced weight loss in association with alteration of the microbiota and increased hepatic AMPK phosphorylation. We hypothesize that BTP increased pAMPK through increased intestinal SCFA production, while GTPs increased hepatic AMPK through GTP present in the liver.
Gardner, C D
Although the 'Low-Fat' diet was the predominant public health recommendation for weight loss and weight control for the past several decades, the obesity epidemic continued to grow during this time period. An alternative 'low-carbohydrate' (Low-Carb) approach, although originally dismissed and even vilified, was comparatively tested in a series of studies over the past decade, and has been found in general to be as effective, if not more, as the Low-Fat approach for weight loss and for several related metabolic health measures. From a glass half full perspective, this suggests that there is more than one choice for a dietary approach to lose weight, and that Low-Fat and Low-Carb diets may be equally effective. From a glass half empty perspective, the average amount of weight lost on either of these two dietary approaches under the conditions studied, particularly when followed beyond 1 year, has been modest at best and negligible at worst, suggesting that the two approaches may be equally ineffective. One could resign themselves at this point to focusing on calories and energy intake restriction, regardless of macronutrient distributions. However, before throwing out the half-glass of water, it is worthwhile to consider that focusing on average results may mask important subgroup successes and failures. In all weight-loss studies, without exception, the range of individual differences in weight change within any particular diet groups is orders of magnitude greater than the average group differences between diet groups. Several studies have now reported that adults with greater insulin resistance are more successful with weight loss on a lower-carbohydrate diet compared with a lower-fat diet, whereas adults with greater insulin sensitivity are equally or more successful with weight loss on a lower-fat diet compared with a lower-carbohydrate diet. Other preliminary findings suggest that there may be some promise with matching individuals with certain genotypes to
Rasmussen, Michael; Wildschiødtz, Gordon; Juul, Anders
compared with nonobese subjects After diet-induced weight loss the differences in GH, free IGF-I, and leptin were no longer present between previously obese and nonobese subjects, whereas a significant difference in sleep duration and total IGF-I levels persisted. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, non-REM......Short sleep appears to be strongly associated with obesity and altered metabolic function, and sleep and growth hormone (GH) secretion seems interlinked. In obesity, both the GH-insulin-like-growth-factor-I (GH-IGF-I) axis and sleep have been reported to be abnormal, however, no studies have...... investigated sleep in relation to the GH-IGF-I axis and weight loss in obese subjects. In this study polygraphic sleep recordings, 24-h GH release, 24-h leptin levels, free-IGF-I, total-IGF-I, IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), acid-labile subunit (ALS), cortisol and insulin sensitivity were determined in six...
Montgomery, Kristen S; Bushee, Tracy D; Phillips, Jennifer D; Kirkpatrick, Terrie; Catledge, Courtney; Braveboy, Kristin; O'Rourke, Carol; Patel, Neema; Prophet, Malshundria; Cooper, Anita; Mosley, Lori; Parker, Christie; Douglas, Gaye M
This study was designed to examine women's experiences of weight loss during the postpartum period. Understanding women's positive and negative experiences can assist health care providers to successfully intervene in helping women lose weight following pregnancy and avoid long-term weight gain and obesity development. Phenomenology, according to Husserl's perspective. Private location of the women's choosing. Twenty-six women, who ranged in age from 25 to 35 years, and had given birth within the last 5 years, were interviewed regarding their experiences with postpartum weight loss. The majority of the sample was Caucasian. Interviews were transcribed and themes were identified from each of the interviews. Comparisons were made between interviews to identify common experiences between women. Data were analyzed according to the Giorgi method. The women in the study had a wide range of experiences. Themes that emerged from the interviews related to women's challenges with return to prepregnancy weight. These included: time and motivation issues, the need for support, and weight and other struggles. This study provides a look inside the lives of women faced with the reality of losing weight after childbirth. Losing weight after delivery is multi-faceted and influenced by many factors. Interventions to assist women with weight loss should target the challenges described in this paper. When effective strategies are developed, education can be done during pregnancy to prepare for the postpartum period. Ultimately, future research efforts can help us to eliminate pregnancy as a risk factor for obesity in women.
Lally, John; McDonald, Colm
The authors report the case of a 44-year-old man with a long history of chronic enduring schizophrenia who experienced dramatic weight loss after commencing treatment with clozapine, an antipsychotic medication characteristically associated with the greatest degree of weight gain among medical treatments for schizophrenia. He was obese with a body mass index (BMI) of 41.5 kg/m(2), but after commencing clozapine therapy he experienced an improvement in psychotic symptoms and 40% loss of his body weight attained through an altered diet and exercise regime, which resulted in him attaining a normal BMI of 24.8 kg/m(2).
Nymo, S; Coutinho, S R; Jørgensen, J
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Diet-induced weight loss (WL) leads to increased hunger and reduced fullness feelings, increased ghrelin and reduced satiety peptides concentration (glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), cholecystokinin (CCK) and peptide YY (PYY)). Ketogenic diets seem to minimise or supress some...... of these responses. The aim of this study was to determine the timeline over which changes in appetite occur during progressive WL with a ketogenic very-low-energy diet (VLED). SUBJECTS/METHODS: Thirty-one sedentary adults (18 men), with obesity (body mass index: 37±4.5 kg m-2) underwent 8 weeks (wks) of a VLED...... followed by 4 wks of weight maintenance. Body weight and composition, subjective feelings of appetite and appetite-related hormones (insulin, active ghrelin (AG), active GLP-1, total PYY and CCK) were measured in fasting and postprandially, at baseline, on day 3 of the diet, 5 and 10% WL, and at wks 9...
Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Later, Wiebke; Schautz, Britta; Lagerpusch, Merit; Goele, Kristin; Heller, Martin; Glüer, Claus-C; Müller, Manfred J
Recent studies report a significant gain in bone mineral density (BMD) after diet-induced weight loss. This might be explained by a measurement artefact. We therefore investigated the impact of intra- and extra-osseous soft tissue composition on bone measurements by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in a longitudinal study of diet-induced weight loss and regain in 55 women and 17 men (19-46 years, BMI 28.2-46.8 kg/m(2)). Total and regional BMD were measured before and after 12.7 ± 2.2 week diet-induced weight loss and 6 months after significant weight regain (≥30%). Hydration of fat free mass (FFM) was assessed by a 3-compartment model. Skeletal muscle (SM) mass, extra-osseous adipose tissue, and bone marrow were measured by whole body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Mean weight loss was -9.2 ± 4.4 kg (P BMAT) were not related to changes in BMD.
Caterson, I D; Finer, N; Coutinho, W
Aim: The Sibutramine Cardiovascular OUTcomes trial showed that sibutramine produced greater mean weight loss than placebo but increased cardiovascular morbidity but not mortality. The relationship between 12-month weight loss and subsequent cardiovascular outcomes is explored. Methods: Overweight....../obese subjects (N = 10 744), =55 years with cardiovascular disease and/or type 2 diabetes mellitus, received sibutramine plus weight management during a 6-week Lead-in Period before randomization to continue sibutramine (N = 4906) or to receive placebo (N = 4898). The primary endpoint was the time from...... randomization to first occurrence of a primary outcome event (non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, resuscitated cardiac arrest or cardiovascular death). Results: For the total population, mean weight change during Lead-in Period (sibutramine) was -2.54 kg. Post-randomization, mean total weight...
Full Text Available Recent evidence has suggested that the Korean horn beetle (Allomyrina dichotoma has anti-hepatofibrotic, anti-neoplastic, and antibiotic effects and is recognized as a traditional medicine. In our previous works, Allomyrina dichotoma larvae (ADL inhibited differentiation of adipocytes both in vitro and in vivo. However, the anorexigenic and endoplasmic reticulum(ER stress-reducing effects of ADL in obesity has not been examined. In this study, we investigated the anorexigenic and ER stress-reducing effects of ADL in the hypothalamus of diet-induced obese (DIO mice. Intracerebroventricular (ICV administration of ethanol extract of ADL (ADE suggested that an antagonizing effect on ghrelin-induced feeding behavior through the mTOR and MAPK signaling pathways. Especially, ADE resulted in strong reduction of ER stress both in vitro and in vivo. These findings strongly suggest that ADE and its constituent bioactive compounds are available and valuable to use for treatment of various diseases driven by prolonged ER stress.
Fritzen, Andreas Mæchel; Lundsgaard, Annemarie; Jordy, Andreas Børsting
adipose tissue (SCAT) were obtained at week 0 and 26. OUTCOME: Gene and protein expressions were analysed by real time PCR and western blotting. RESULTS: Improved HOMA-IR index and lowered plasma triacylglycerol concentration after NND coincided with molecular adaptations in SCAT, but not in skeletal...
Summer, Suzanne S; Brehm, Bonnie J; Benoit, Stephen C; D'Alessio, David A
Adiponectin is an adipose-derived protein with beneficial metabolic effects. Low adiponectin is associated with obesity and related diseases. Significant weight loss increases adiponectin, reducing disease risk. This study compared the effects of two weight-loss diets with different macronutrient compositions on adiponectin. Eighty-one obese women in two cohorts were randomized to a low-fat (LF) or a low-carbohydrate (LC) diet. All subjects underwent equivalent weight-loss intervention, with weight and other measures assessed at baseline and after 6 (cohort I) or 4 (cohort II) months. Body fat was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Adiponectin was measured by radioimmunoassay. Diet intake was assessed using 24-h recalls and 3-day diet records. Data were analyzed via t-tests and repeated-measures factorial ANOVA using time, diet, and replicate (cohort I vs. cohort II) as factors. Age, weight, body fat, BMI, adiponectin, and diet were similar at baseline. Following intervention, macronutrient composition of the diet was vastly different between the groups, reflecting the assigned diet. Both groups lost weight and body fat (P vs. -4.97 kg weight, P vs. -2.62 kg fat, P < 0.001). Adiponectin increased in the LC (+1.92 mcg/ml, P < 0.01), but not the LF (+0.86 mcg/ml, P = 0.81), group. There was no correlation between weight loss and increase in adiponectin. These results confirm that diet-induced loss of weight and body fat is associated with increased adiponectin concentrations. This effect is evident with weight loss of 10% or more, and may be greater with LC diets.
Weisbrod, Robert M; Shiang, Tina; Al Sayah, Leona; Fry, Jessica L; Bajpai, Saumendra; Reinhart-King, Cynthia A; Lob, Heinrich E; Santhanam, Lakshmi; Mitchell, Gary; Cohen, Richard A; Seta, Francesca
Stiffening of conduit arteries is a risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity. Aortic wall stiffening increases pulsatile hemodynamic forces that are detrimental to the microcirculation in highly perfused organs, such as the heart, brain, and kidney. Arterial stiffness is associated with hypertension but presumed to be due to an adaptive response to increased hemodynamic load. In contrast, a recent clinical study found that stiffness precedes and may contribute to the development of hypertension although the mechanisms underlying hypertension are unknown. Here, we report that in a diet-induced model of obesity, arterial stiffness, measured in vivo, develops within 1 month of the initiation of the diet and precedes the development of hypertension by 5 months. Diet-induced obese mice recapitulate the metabolic syndrome and are characterized by inflammation in visceral fat and aorta. Normalization of the metabolic state by weight loss resulted in return of arterial stiffness and blood pressure to normal. Our findings support the hypothesis that arterial stiffness is a cause rather than a consequence of hypertension.
Johannessen, Kim Berg; Berntsen, Dorthe
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) has frequently been found to have an impact on the development of obesity, with the relationship between past traumatic episodes and obesity usually thought of as uni-directional. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the level of PTSD......-symptoms would decrease as a result of weight loss in obese participants during a 16 week stay at a weight loss facility. During the 16 weeks participants’ Body Mass Index (BMI) decreased significantly. Concurrently, a significant decline in the level of PTSD symptoms was also reported. During the first week...
The efficacy of diets advocating extreme macronutrient manipulation has been reviewed extensively. Studies involving participation for 12 months or longer revealed that diet adherence, length of intervention and level of calorie. ISSUES IN MEDICINE. Achieving weight loss and avoiding obesity. Maria Elizabeth Catsicas.
Bond, D.; Gunstad, J.; Pera, V.; Rathier, L.; Tremont, G.
Summary Background Deficits in executive functions are related to poorer weight loss after bariatric surgery; however, less is known about the role that these deficits may play during participation in nonsurgical weight loss programmes. This study examined associations between objectively measured executive functions and weight loss during participation in a medically supervised weight loss programme. Methods Twenty‐three adult patients (age 50.4 ± 15.1, BMI 44.2 ± 8.8, 68% female, 92% White) enrolled in a medically supervised weight loss programme, involving prescription of a very low calorie diet and strategies to change eating and activity behaviours, underwent comprehensive computerized testing of executive functions at baseline. Weight was obtained at baseline and 8 weeks. Demographic and clinical information were obtained through medical chart review. Results Participants lost an average of 9.8 ± 3.4% of their initial body weight at 8 weeks. Fewer correct responses on a set‐shifting task and faster reaction time on a response inhibition task were associated with lower weight loss percentage at 8 weeks after adjusting for age, education and depressive symptoms. There were no associations between performance on tests of working memory or planning and weight loss. Conclusions This study shows that worse performance on a set‐shifting task (indicative of poorer cognitive flexibility) and faster reaction times on a response inhibition test (indicative of higher impulsivity) are associated with lower weight loss among participants in a medically supervised weight loss programme. Pre‐treatment assessment of executive functions may be useful in identifying individuals who may be at risk for suboptimal treatment outcomes. Future research is needed to replicate these findings in larger samples and identify underlying mechanisms. PMID:28090338
Gryka, A; Broom, J; Rolland, C
The current climate change has been most likely caused by the increased greenhouse gas emissions. We have looked at the major greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide (CO(2)), and estimated the reduction in the CO(2) emissions that would occur with the theoretical global weight loss. The calculations were based on our previous weight loss study, investigating the effects of a low-carbohydrate diet on body weight, body composition and resting metabolic rate of obese volunteers with type 2 diabetes. At 6 months, we observed decreases in weight, fat mass, fat free mass and CO(2) production. We estimated that a 10 kg weight loss of all obese and overweight people would result in a decrease of 49.560 Mt of CO(2) per year, which would equal to 0.2% of the CO(2) emitted globally in 2007. This reduction could help meet the CO(2) emission reduction targets and unquestionably would be of a great benefit to the global health.
Obert, Jonathan; Pearlman, Michelle; Obert, Lois; Chapin, Sarah
The purpose of this paper is to review the epidemiology of obesity and the most recent literature on popular fad diets and exercise regimens that are used for weight loss. The weight loss plans that will be discussed in this article include juicing or detoxification diets, intermittent fasting, the paleo diet, and high intensity training. Despite the growing popularity of fad diets and exercise plans for weight loss, there are limited studies that actually suggest these particular regimens are beneficial and lead to long-term weight loss. Juicing or detoxification diets tend to work because they lead to extremely low caloric intake for short periods of time, however tend to lead to weight gain once a normal diet is resumed. Both intermittent fasting and the paleo diet lead to weight loss because of overall decreased caloric intake as well. Lastly, studies on short bursts of high intensity training have shown remarkable weight loss and improvements in cardiovascular health. Review of the literature does suggest that some fad diets and exercise plans do lead to weight loss; however, the studies are quite limited and are all based on the concept of caloric restriction.
Full Text Available Weight regain after weight loss is common. In the Diogenes dietary intervention study, high protein and low glycemic index (GI diet improved weight maintenance.To identify blood predictors for weight change after weight loss following the dietary intervention within the Diogenes study.Blood samples were collected at baseline and after 8-week low caloric diet-induced weight loss from 48 women who continued to lose weight and 48 women who regained weight during subsequent 6-month dietary intervention period with 4 diets varying in protein and GI levels. Thirty-one proteins and 3 steroid hormones were measured.Angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE was the most important predictor. Its greater reduction during the 8-week weight loss was related to continued weight loss during the subsequent 6 months, identified by both Logistic Regression and Random Forests analyses. The prediction power of ACE was influenced by immunoproteins, particularly fibrinogen. Leptin, luteinizing hormone and some immunoproteins showed interactions with dietary protein level, while interleukin 8 showed interaction with GI level on the prediction of weight maintenance. A predictor panel of 15 variables enabled an optimal classification by Random Forests with an error rate of 24±1%. A logistic regression model with independent variables from 9 blood analytes had a prediction accuracy of 92%.A selected panel of blood proteins/steroids can predict the weight change after weight loss. ACE may play an important role in weight maintenance. The interactions of blood factors with dietary components are important for personalized dietary advice after weight loss.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00390637.
Halpern, Alfredo; Mancini, Marcio C
Weight reduction has been shown to improve glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors associated with insulin resistance in obese individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Therapeutic options for these patients include promoting weight loss (non-pharmacologic and pharmacologic treatment) and improving glycemic control, as well as treating common associated risk factors such as arterial hypertension and dyslipidemias. This article provides an overview of anti-obesity drugs used in the treatment of obese individuals with type 2 diabetes. The most widely investigated drugs, sibutramine and orlistat, result in modest, clinically worthwhile weight loss, with demonstrable improvements in many co-morbidities, among them, type 2 diabetes. Clinical trials with these anti-obesity medications in cohorts of obese diabetic patients have been reviewed as well as cathecolaminergic agents (diethylpropion [amfepramone], fenproporex, mazindol, ephedrine-caffeine combination), serotoninergic drugs (fenfluramine, dexfenfluramine, fluoxetine), and other drugs that have some action on weight loss (the antidiabetic agent metformin, anti-epileptic agents topiramate and zonisamide, and the antidepressive bupropion [amfebutamone]). These trials show variable benefits in terms of effects on glucose profiles.
Full Text Available Obesity is a global disease with epidemic proportions. Bariatric surgery or modified lifestyles go a long way in mitigating the vast weight gain. Patients following these interventions usually undergo massive weight loss. This results in redundant tissues in various parts of the body. Loose skin causes increased morbidity and psychological trauma. This demands various body contouring procedures that are usually excisional. These procedures are complex and part of a painstaking process that needs a committed patient and an industrious plastic surgeon. As complications in these patients can be quite frequent, both the patient and the surgeon need to be aware and willing to deal with them.
Christensen, Bodil Just; Iepsen, Eva Pers Winning; Lundgren, Julie Rehné
Aim: The purpose of this study was to identify psychosocial determinants for maintaining weight loss. Methods: 42 obese individuals who achieved a 12% weight loss before entering a 52-week weight maintenance program were interviewed qualitatively. Psychosocial factors related to weight loss...... weight loss maintenance was associated with an interplay between behavioral, affective and contextual changes. ‘Instrumentalization of eating behavior' seems to be an important element in long-term weight maintenance....
Jeffery Robert W
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many adults in the United States report engaging in weight loss behaviors. The current study examined weight loss strategies among managed care organization members, to determine the prevalence and impact of weight loss behaviors in this population. We hypothesized that greater engagement in weight loss strategies would be associated with greater weight loss success. Methods Data were taken from Weigh-to-Be (WTB, a two-year weight loss trial (N = 1801, 72% female, mean age = 50.7 years, mean weight = 95.9 kg, mean BMI = 34.2 kg/m2. Every six months, participants completed a questionnaire assessing frequency and duration of weight loss strategies (calorie reduction, fat reduction, increased fruit/vegetable intake, increased exercise, elimination of sweets, consumption of less food. General linear models and structural equation methods were used to examine associations between weight loss strategy use and weight change over time. Results Weight loss strategy prevalence rates ranged from 68% to 76% over two years. For all dietary strategies, any use of the strategy between baseline and 24 months was associated with weight loss at 24 months; those who did not engage in the strategy showed weight gains during that period. Results of general linear models and structural equation models indicated that increased use of weight loss strategies was significantly associated with greater 24-month weight loss. Conclusion The prevalence of weight loss strategies in this obese adult managed care population was quite high, and use of these strategies was associated in dose-response fashion with better weight loss. Future interventions may benefit from emphasis on persistence of similar strategies to achieve more successful outcomes.
Full Text Available Excess energy intake, without a compensatory increase of energy expenditure, leads to obesity. Several molecules are involved in energy homeostasis regulation and new ones are being discovered constantly. Appetite regulating hormones such as ghrelin, peptide tyrosine-tyrosine and amylin or incretins such as the gastric inhibitory polypeptide have been studied extensively while other molecules such as fibroblast growth factor 21, chemerin, irisin, secreted frizzle-related protein-4, total bile acids, and heme oxygenase-1 have been linked to energy homeostasis regulation more recently and the specific role of each one of them has not been fully elucidated. This mini review focuses on the above mentioned molecules and discusses them in relation to their regulation by the macronutrient composition of the diet as well as diet-induced weight loss.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-term weight management consists of weight-loss, weight-loss maintenance, and weight-gain stages. Qualitative insights into weight management are now appearing in the literature however research appears to be biased towards explorations of weight-loss maintenance. The qualitative understanding of weight loss, which begets weight-loss maintenance and might establish the experiences and behaviours necessary for successful long-term weight management, is comparatively under-investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the weight-loss experiences of a sample of participants not aligned to clinical intervention research, in order to understand the weight-loss experiences of a naturalistic sample. Methods Participants (n = 8 with weight-loss (n = 4 and weight-maintenance experiences (n = 4 were interviewed using a semi-structured interview to understand the weight-loss experience. Interview data was analysed thematically using Framework Analysis and was underpinned by realist meta-theory. Results Weight loss was experienced as an enduring challenge, where factors that assisted weight loss were developed and experienced dichotomously to factors that hindered it. Participants described barriers to (dichotomous thinking, environments, social pressures and weight centeredness and facilitators of (mindfulness, knowledge, exercise, readiness to change, structure, self-monitoring and social support their weight-loss goals in rich detail, highlighting that weight loss was a complex experience. Conclusions Weight loss was a difficult task, with physical, social, behavioural and environmental elements that appeared to assist and inhibit weight-loss efforts concurrently. Health professionals might need to better understand the day-to-day challenges of dieters in order to provide more effective, tailored treatments. Future research should look to investigate the psycho-social consequences of weight-loss dieting, in
Suhana Samat; Francis Kanyan Enchang; Fuzina Nor Hussein; Wan Iryani Wan Ismail
Many studies revealed the potential of honey consumption in controlling obesity. However, no study has been conducted using Malaysian honey. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of two local Malaysian honey types: Gelam and Acacia honey in reducing excess weight gain and other parameters related to obesity. The quality of both honey types was determined through physicochemical analysis and contents of phenolic and flavonoid. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were induced to become obese using h...
Full Text Available Many studies revealed the potential of honey consumption in controlling obesity. However, no study has been conducted using Malaysian honey. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of two local Malaysian honey types: Gelam and Acacia honey in reducing excess weight gain and other parameters related to obesity. The quality of both honey types was determined through physicochemical analysis and contents of phenolic and flavonoid. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were induced to become obese using high fat diet (HFD prior to introduction with/without honey or orlistat for four weeks. Significant reductions in excess weight gain and adiposity index were observed in rats fed with Gelam honey compared to HFD rats. Moreover, levels of plasma glucose, triglycerides, and cholesterol, plasma leptin and resistin, liver enzymes, renal function test, and relative organ weight in Gelam and Acacia honey treated groups were reduced significantly when compared to rats fed with HFD only. Similar results were also displayed in rats treated with orlistat, but with hepatotoxicity effects. In conclusion, consumption of honey can be used to control obesity by regulating lipid metabolism and appears to be more effective than orlistat.
Samat, Suhana; Kanyan Enchang, Francis; Nor Hussein, Fuzina; Wan Ismail, Wan Iryani
Many studies revealed the potential of honey consumption in controlling obesity. However, no study has been conducted using Malaysian honey. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of two local Malaysian honey types: Gelam and Acacia honey in reducing excess weight gain and other parameters related to obesity. The quality of both honey types was determined through physicochemical analysis and contents of phenolic and flavonoid. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were induced to become obese using high fat diet (HFD) prior to introduction with/without honey or orlistat for four weeks. Significant reductions in excess weight gain and adiposity index were observed in rats fed with Gelam honey compared to HFD rats. Moreover, levels of plasma glucose, triglycerides, and cholesterol, plasma leptin and resistin, liver enzymes, renal function test, and relative organ weight in Gelam and Acacia honey treated groups were reduced significantly when compared to rats fed with HFD only. Similar results were also displayed in rats treated with orlistat, but with hepatotoxicity effects. In conclusion, consumption of honey can be used to control obesity by regulating lipid metabolism and appears to be more effective than orlistat.
Mifune, Hiroharu; Tajiri, Yuji; Nishi, Yoshihiro; Hara, Kento; Iwata, Shimpei; Tokubuchi, Ichiro; Mitsuzono, Ryouichi; Yamada, Kentaro; Kojima, Masayasu
In the present study, effects of voluntary exercise in an obese animal model were investigated in relation to the rhythm of daily activity and ghrelin production. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a high fat diet (HFD) or a chow diet (CD) from four to 16 weeks old. They were further subdivided into either an exercise group (HFD-Ex, CD-Ex) with a running wheel for three days of every other week or sedentary group (HFD-Se, CD-Se). At 16 weeks old, marked increases in body weight and visceral fat were observed in the HFD-Se group, together with disrupted rhythms of feeding and locomotor activity. The induction of voluntary exercise brought about an effective reduction of weight and fat, and ameliorated abnormal rhythms of activity and feeding in the HFD-Ex rats. Wheel counts as voluntary exercise was greater in HFD-Ex rats than those in CD-Ex rats. The HFD-obese had exhibited a deterioration of ghrelin production, which was restored by the induction of voluntary exercise. These findings demonstrated that abnormal rhythms of feeding and locomotor activity in HFD-obese rats were restored by infrequent voluntary exercise with a concomitant amelioration of the ghrelin production and weight reduction. Because ghrelin is related to food anticipatory activity, it is plausible that ghrelin participates in the circadian rhythm of daily activity including eating behavior. A beneficial effect of voluntary exercise has now been confirmed in terms of the amelioration of the daily rhythms in eating behavior and physical activity in an animal model of obesity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kjølbæk, Louise; Sørensen, Lone Brinkmann; Søndertoft, Nadja Buus
Background: High-protein diets increase weight loss (WL) during energy restriction; therefore, it has been suggested that additional protein intake may improve weight maintenance (WM) after WL.Objective: We investigated the effect of protein supplements from either whey with or without calcium...... were performed to investigate diet-induced-thermogenesis (DIT) and appetite sensation. Compliance was tested by 24-h urinary nitrogen excretion.Results: A total of 151 participants completed the WM period. The control and 3 protein supplements did not result in different mean ± SD weight regains (whey.......58 ± 1.4 kg; and control: 1.74 ± 1.4 kg; P = 0.50) during WM. Changes in blood pressure and blood biochemistry were not different between groups. Compared with the control, protein supplementation resulted in higher DIT (∼30 kJ/2.5 h) and resting energy expenditure (243 kJ/d) and an anorexigenic appetite...
Kubow, Stan; Hobson, Luc; Iskandar, Michèle M; Sabally, Kebba; Donnelly, Danielle J; Agellon, Luis B
Both sexes of mice were fed a high fat diet (HFD) for 10 weeks without and with polyphenolic-rich potato extracts (PRPE) of cultivars Onaway and Russet Burbank. PRPE attenuated weight gain in male and female mice by as much as 63.2%, which was associated mostly with a reduction in adiposity. Mice receiving PRPE showed enhanced capacity for blood glucose clearance. Sex differences regarding the impact of HFD and PRPE on plasma levels of insulin, ghrelin, leptin, gastric inhibitory peptide, and resistin were noted. PRPE may serve as part of a preventative dietary strategy against the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
James Lester Figarola
Full Text Available Obesity is a chronic metabolic disorder caused by imbalance between energy intake and expenditure, and is one of the principal causative factors in the development of metabolic syndrome, diabetes and cancer. COH-SR4 ("SR4" is a novel investigational compound that has anti-cancer and anti-adipogenic properties. In this study, the effects of SR4 on metabolic alterations in high fat diet (HFD-induced obese C57BL/J6 mice were investigated. Oral feeding of SR4 (5 mg/kg body weight. in HFD mice for 6 weeks significantly reduced body weight, prevented hyperlipidemia and improved glycemic control without affecting food intake. These changes were associated with marked decreases in epididymal fat mass, adipocyte hypertrophy, increased plasma adiponectin and reduced leptin levels. SR4 treatment also decreased liver triglycerides, prevented hepatic steatosis, and normalized liver enzymes. Western blots demonstrated increased AMPK activation in liver and adipose tissues of SR4-treated HFD obese mice, while gene analyses by real time PCR showed COH-SR4 significantly suppressed the mRNA expression of lipogenic genes such as sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (Srebf1, acetyl-Coenzyme A carboxylase (Acaca, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparg, fatty acid synthase (Fasn, stearoyl-Coenzyme A desaturase 1 (Scd1, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a (Cpt1a and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (Hmgcr, as well as gluconeogenic genes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 (Pck1 and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6pc in the liver of obese mice. In vitro, SR4 activates AMPK independent of upstream kinases liver kinase B1 (LKB1 and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase β (CaMKKβ. Together, these data suggest that SR4, a novel AMPK activator, may be a promising therapeutic compound for treatment of obesity, fatty liver disease, and related metabolic disorders.
Ravussin, Yann; Koren, Omry; Spor, Ayme; LeDuc, Charles; Gutman, Roee; Stombaugh, Jesse; Knight, Rob; Ley, Ruth E; Leibel, Rudolph L
Maintenance of a reduced body weight is accompanied by a decrease in energy expenditure beyond that accounted for by reduced body mass and composition, as well as by an increased drive to eat. These effects appear to be due--in part--to reductions in circulating leptin concentrations due to loss of body fat. Gut microbiota have been implicated in the regulation of body weight. The effects of weight loss on qualitative aspects of gut microbiota have been studied in humans and mice, but these studies have been confounded by concurrent changes in diet composition, which influence microbial community composition. We studied the impact of 20% weight loss on the microbiota of diet-induced obese (DIO: 60% calories fat) mice on a high-fat diet (HFD). Weight-reduced DIO (DIO-WR) mice had the same body weight and composition as control (CON) ad-libitum (AL) fed mice being fed a control diet (10% calories fat), allowing a direct comparison of diet and weight-perturbation effects. Microbial community composition was assessed by pyrosequencing 16S rRNA genes derived from the ceca of sacrificed animals. There was a strong effect of diet composition on the diversity and composition of the microbiota. The relative abundance of specific members of the microbiota was correlated with circulating leptin concentrations and gene expression levels of inflammation markers in subcutaneous white adipose tissue in all mice. Together, these results suggest that both host adiposity and diet composition impact microbiota composition, possibly through leptin-mediated regulation of mucus production and/or inflammatory processes that alter the gut habitat.
Full Text Available Extracellular matrix (ECM remodelling of the adipose tissue plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of obesity. The lysyl oxidase (LOX family of amine oxidases, including LOX and LOX-like (LOXL isoenzymes, controls ECM maturation, and upregulation of LOX activity is essential in fibrosis; however, its involvement in adipose tissue dysfunction in obesity is unclear. In this study, we observed that LOX is the main isoenzyme expressed in human adipose tissue and that its expression is strongly upregulated in samples from obese individuals that had been referred to bariatric surgery. LOX expression was also induced in the adipose tissue from male Wistar rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD. Interestingly, treatment with β-aminopropionitrile (BAPN, a specific and irreversible inhibitor of LOX activity, attenuated the increase in body weight and fat mass that was observed in obese animals and shifted adipocyte size toward smaller adipocytes. BAPN also ameliorated the increase in collagen content that was observed in adipose tissue from obese animals and improved several metabolic parameters – it ameliorated glucose and insulin levels, decreased homeostasis model assessment (HOMA index and reduced plasma triglyceride levels. Furthermore, in white adipose tissue from obese animals, BAPN prevented the downregulation of adiponectin and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4, as well as the increase in suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3 and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4 levels, triggered by the HFD. Likewise, in the TNFα-induced insulin-resistant 3T3-L1 adipocyte model, BAPN prevented the downregulation of adiponectin and GLUT4 and the increase in SOCS3 levels, and consequently normalised insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Therefore, our data provide evidence that LOX plays a pathologically relevant role in the metabolic dysfunction induced by obesity and emphasise the interest of novel pharmacological interventions that target adipose tissue fibrosis and LOX
Miana, María; Galán, María; Martínez-Martínez, Ernesto; Varona, Saray; Jurado-López, Raquel; Bausa-Miranda, Belén; Antequera, Alfonso; Luaces, María; Martínez-González, José; Rodríguez, Cristina; Cachofeiro, Victoria
Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling of the adipose tissue plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of obesity. The lysyl oxidase (LOX) family of amine oxidases, including LOX and LOX-like (LOXL) isoenzymes, controls ECM maturation, and upregulation of LOX activity is essential in fibrosis; however, its involvement in adipose tissue dysfunction in obesity is unclear. In this study, we observed that LOX is the main isoenzyme expressed in human adipose tissue and that its expression is strongly upregulated in samples from obese individuals that had been referred to bariatric surgery. LOX expression was also induced in the adipose tissue from male Wistar rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Interestingly, treatment with β-aminopropionitrile (BAPN), a specific and irreversible inhibitor of LOX activity, attenuated the increase in body weight and fat mass that was observed in obese animals and shifted adipocyte size toward smaller adipocytes. BAPN also ameliorated the increase in collagen content that was observed in adipose tissue from obese animals and improved several metabolic parameters - it ameliorated glucose and insulin levels, decreased homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index and reduced plasma triglyceride levels. Furthermore, in white adipose tissue from obese animals, BAPN prevented the downregulation of adiponectin and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), as well as the increase in suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) levels, triggered by the HFD. Likewise, in the TNFα-induced insulin-resistant 3T3-L1 adipocyte model, BAPN prevented the downregulation of adiponectin and GLUT4 and the increase in SOCS3 levels, and consequently normalised insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Therefore, our data provide evidence that LOX plays a pathologically relevant role in the metabolic dysfunction induced by obesity and emphasise the interest of novel pharmacological interventions that target adipose tissue fibrosis and LOX activity for
Sushama D Acharya
Full Text Available Sushama D Acharya3, Okan U Elci3, Susan M Sereika1,2,3, Edvin Music3, Mindi A Styn3, Melanie Warziski Turk3, Lora E Burke2,31Department of Biostatistics, Graduate School of Public Health, 2Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, 3School of Nursing, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USAObjectives: To describe participants’ adherence to multiple components (attendance, energy intake, fat gram, exercise goals, and self-monitoring eating and exercise behaviors of a standard behavioral treatment program (SBT for weight loss and how adherence to these components may influence weight loss and biomarkers (triglycerides, low density lipoproteins [LDL], high density lipoprotein, and insulin during the intensive and less-intensive intervention phases. Methods: A secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial consisting of a SBT with either fat-restricted standard or lacto-ovo vegetarian diet. The 12-month intervention was delivered in 33 group sessions. The first six months reflected the intensive phase; the second six months, the less-intensive intervention phase. We conducted the analysis without regard to treatment assignment. Eligible participants included overweight/obese adults (N = 176; mean body mass index = 34.0 kg/m2. The sample was 86.9% female, 70.5% White, and 44.4 ± 8.6 years old. The outcome measures included weight and biomarkers. Results: There was a significant decline in adherence to each treatment component over time (P < 0.0001. In the first six months, adherence to attendance, self-monitoring and the energy goal were significantly associated with greater weight loss (P < 0.05. Adherence to attendance and exercise remained significantly associated with weight loss in the second six months (P < 0.05. Adherence to attendance, self-monitoring and exercise had indirect effects through weight loss on LDL, triglycerides, and insulin (P < 0.05.Conclusions: We observed a decline in adherence to each
Geiker, Nina Rica Wium; Jensen, Peter; Kirchner Larsson, Lena
Objective To examine if psoriatic patients can achieve a weight loss to the same extent as non-psoriatic patients To describe the effect of weight loss on the cutaneous manifestations. Conclusion Patients with psoriasis achieved a weight loss, similar to non-psoriatic patients, of 12...... % of their body weight following calorie restriction for 12 weeks. Taken together with recent literature the findings suggest that weight loss has a potential to reduce skin manifestations. Weight loss might also attenuate the increased cardiovascular and diabetes risks posed by obese psoriatric patients....
Onishi, Shintaro; Ishino, Mayu; Kitazawa, Hidefumi; Yoto, Ai; Shimba, Yuki; Mochizuki, Yusuke; Unno, Keiko; Meguro, Shinichi; Tokimitsu, Ichiro; Miura, Shinji
Muscle atrophy (loss of skeletal muscle mass) causes progressive deterioration of skeletal function. Recently, excessive intake of fats was suggested to induce insulin resistance, followed by muscle atrophy. Green tea extracts (GTEs), which contain polyphenols such as epigallocatechin gallate, have beneficial effects on obesity, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance, but their effects against muscle atrophy are still unclear. Here, we found that GTEs prevented high-fat (HF) diet-induced muscle weight loss in senescence-accelerated mouse prone-8 (SAMP8), a murine model of senescence. SAMP8 mice were fed a control diet, an HF diet, or HF with 0.5% GTEs (HFGT) diet for 4 months. The HF diet induced muscle weight loss with aging (measured as quadriceps muscle weight), whereas GTEs prevented this loss. In HF diet-fed mice, blood glucose and plasma insulin concentrations increased in comparison with the control group, and these mice had insulin resistance as determined by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). In these mice, serum concentrations of leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 2 (LECT2), which is known to induce insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, were elevated, and insulin signaling in muscle, as determined by the phosphorylation levels of Akt and p70 S6 kinases, tended to be decreased. In HFGT diet-fed mice, these signs of insulin resistance and elevation of serum LECT2 were not observed. Although our study did not directly show the effect of serum LECT2 on muscle weight, insulin resistance examined using HOMA-IR indicated an intervention effect of serum LECT2 on muscle weight, as revealed by partial correlation analysis. Accordingly, GTEs might have beneficial effects on age-related and HF diet-induced muscle weight loss, which correlates with insulin resistance and is accompanied by a change in serum LECT2.
Dyck, D. J.
Although there remains controversy regarding the role of macronutrient balance in the etiology of obesity, the consumption of high-fat diets appears to be strongly implicated in its development. Evidence that fat oxidation does not adjust rapidly to acute increases in dietary fat, as well as a decreased capacity to oxidize fat in the postprandial state in the obese, suggest that diets high in fat may lead to the accumulation of fat stores. Novel data is also presented suggesting that in rodents, high-fat diets may lead to the development of leptin resistance in skeletal muscle and subsequent accumulations of muscle triacylglycerol. Nevertheless, several current fad diets recommend drastically reduced carbohydrate intake, with a concurrent increase in fat content. Such recommendations are based on the underlying assumption that by reducing circulating insulin levels, lipolysis and lipid oxidation will be enhanced and fat storage reduced. Numerous supplements are purported to increase fat oxidation (carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid), increase metabolic rate (ephedrine, pyruvate), or inhibit hepatic lipogenesis (hydroxycitrate). All of these compounds are currently marketed in supplemental form to increase weight loss, but few have actually been shown to be effective in scientific studies. To date, there is little or no evidence supporting that carnitine or hydroxycitrate supplementation are of any value for weight loss in humans. Supplements such as pyruvate have been shown to be effective at high dosages, but there is little mechanistic information to explain its purported effect or data to indicate its effectiveness at lower dosages. Conjugated linoleic acid has been shown to stimulate fat utilization and decrease body fat content in mice but has not been tested in humans. The effects of ephedrine, in conjunction with methylxanthines and aspirin, in humans appears unequivocal but includes various cardiovascular side effects. None of these compounds have been
Santos, Inês; Vieira, Paulo N; Silva, Marlene N; Sardinha, Luís B; Teixeira, Pedro J
To describe key behaviors reported by participants in the Portuguese Weight Control Registry and to determine associations between these behaviors and weight loss maintenance. A total of 388 adults participated in this cross-sectional study. Assessments included demographic information, weight history, weight loss and weight maintenance strategies, dietary intake, and physical activity. Participants lost on average 18 kg, which they had maintained for ~28 months. Their average dietary intake was 2199 kcal/day, with 33 % of energy coming from fat. About 78 % of participants engaged in levels of moderate-plus-vigorous physical activity exceeding 150 min/week (51 % above 250 min/week), with men accumulating 82 more minutes than women (p breakfast. Greater weight loss maintenance was associated with higher levels of physical activity, walking, weight self-monitoring, establishing specific goals, and with reduced portion size use, reduced consumption of carbohydrates, and increased consumption of protein, (p < 0.05). Results indicate that weight loss maintenance is possible through the adoption of a nutritionally-balanced diet and regular participation in physical activity, but also suggest that adopting different (and, to a degree, individualized) set of behavioral strategies is key for achieving success.
Dandanell, Sune; Ritz, Christian; Verdich, Elisabeth
in one to four 11-12 week lifestyle interventions (residential weight loss programme, mixed activities). Weight loss was promoted through a hypocaloric diet (-500 to -700 kcal/day) and daily physical activity (1-3 hours/day). Primary outcomes were weight loss and change in body composition (bioimpedance...
Ingels, John Spencer; Misra, Ranjita; Stewart, Jonathan; Lucke-Wold, Brandon; Shawley-Brzoska, Samantha
The role of dietary tracking on weight loss remains unexplored despite being part of multiple diabetes and weight management programs. Hence, participants of the Diabetes Prevention and Management (DPM) program (12 months, 22 sessions) tracked their food intake for the duration of the study. A scatterplot of days tracked versus total weight loss revealed a nonlinear relationship. Hence, the number of possible tracking days was divided to create the 3 groups of participants: rare trackers (66% total days tracked). After controlling for initial body mass index, hemoglobin A 1c , and gender, only consistent trackers had significant weight loss (-9.99 pounds), following a linear relationship with consistent loss throughout the year. In addition, the weight loss trend for the rare and inconsistent trackers followed a nonlinear path, with the holidays slowing weight loss and the onset of summer increasing weight loss. These results show the importance of frequent dietary tracking for consistent long-term weight loss success.
Basch, Corey H; Roberts, Katherine J; Samayoa-Kozlowsky, Sandra; Glaser, Debra B
Weight gain before and after pregnancy is important for women's health. The purpose of this study was to assess articles and advertisements related to weight loss in three widely read parenting magazines, "Parenting School Years," "Parenting Early Years," and "Parenting," which have an estimated combined readership of approximately 24 million (mainly women readers). Almost a quarter (23.7%, n = 32) of the 135 magazine issues over a four year period included at least one feature article on weight loss. A variety of topics were covered in the featured articles, with the most frequent topics being on losing weight to please yourself (25.2%), healthy ways to lose weight (21.1%), and how to keep the weight off (14.7%). Less than half (45.9%) of the articles displayed author credentials, such as their degree, qualifications, or expertise. A fifth (20.0%, n = 27) of the magazines included at least one prominent advertisement for weight loss products. Almost half (46.9%) of the weight loss advertisements were for weight loss programs followed by weight loss food products (25.0%), weight loss aids (21.9%), and only 6.2% of the advertisements for weight loss were on fitness. Parenting magazines should advocate for healthy weight loss, including lifestyle changes for sustained health.
Gepner, Yftach; Shelef, Ilan; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Cohen, Noa; Bril, Nitzan; Rein, Michal; Tsaban, Gal; Zelicha, Hila; Yaskolka Meir, Anat; Tene, Lilac; Sarusy, Benjamin; Rosen, Philip; Hoffman, Jay R; Stout, Jeffrey R; Thiery, Joachim; Ceglarek, Uta; Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias; Stampfer, Meir J; Shai, Iris
Intramyocellular triacylglycerol (IMTG) is utilized as metabolic fuel during exercise and is linked to insulin resistance, but the long-term effect of weight loss strategies on IMTG among participants with abdominal fat, remain unclear. In an 18-month trial, sedentary participants with abdominal fat/dyslipidemia were randomized to either a low-fat (LF) or Mediterranean/low-carbohydrate (MED/LC) diet (including 28g·day-1 of walnuts). After 6-months, the participants were re-randomized to moderate intense physical activity (PA+) or non-physical activity (PA-). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to quantify changes of IMTG, abdominal sub-depots, hepatic and intermuscular fats. Across the 277 participants [86% men, age = 48 years, body-mass-index (BMI) = 31kg/m2, visceral fat = 33%] 86% completed the 18-m trial. At baseline, women had higher IMTG than men (3.4% vs. 2.3%, pvs. 9.5-18.5%, p<0.05). Changes in IMTG were associated with visceral and intermuscular fat, metabolic syndrome, insulin and leptin (p<0.05 for all), however, these associations did not remain after adjustment for visceral fat changes. Lifestyle strategies differentially affect IMTG accumulation; combination of exercise with decreased carbohydrate/increased unsaturated fat proportion intake greatly increase IMTG. Our findings suggest that increased IMTG during diet-induced moderate weight loss may not be directly related to cardiometabolic risk. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01530724.
Weight loss, body fat loss (%) and daily energy intake reductions were equally reduced in the subjects in all three groups who completed the programme. There was, however, a significantly higher dropout rate in the control group. Taking this into account, the weight loss in the two test groups was similar and greater than ...
Rossell, Joana; González, Marta; Mestres, Núria; Pardina, Eva; Ricart-Jané, David; Peinado-Onsurbe, Julia; Baena-Fustegueras, Juan Antonio
Bariatric surgery with or without diet change has become one of the most effective treatments for obesity. The objective of this study was to observe the effects of vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) and diet change in Sprague-Dawley rats on both body and tissue weights. Eighteen rats were fed with a standard chow diet (SCD) (C group), and 36 rats were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) (diet-induced obesity (DIO) group). After 8 weeks, the animals underwent VSG, sham surgery or no surgery (NS). After surgery, a third of the rats fed with the HFD changed to the SCD (DIO + C group). Body weight, food and energy intake were recorded daily during the experiment (12 weeks). Food efficiency (%) (FE) was determined from weekly weight gain and weekly kilocalorie consumed measurements. The DIO group had higher and significant weight gain than the C group at the time of surgery (p weight loss (WL) was observed in the DIO + C-VSG group, during the 4 weeks after surgery. Adipose tissues in the DIO + C-VSG group were drastically reduced and had a weight similar to those in the C-VSG group. VSG and the diet change combination led to a greater WL, which was maintained during the 4 weeks post-surgery, leading to a normalization of body weight. VSG and diet change also affected most of the tissues, not only adipose, showing a global change in whole body composition.
Flaherman, Valerie J; Bokser, Seth; Newman, Thomas B
Exclusive breastfeeding reduces infant infectious disease. Losing > or =10% birth weight may lead to formula use. The predictive value of first-day weight loss for subsequent weight loss has not been studied. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between weight loss at or =10%. For 1,049 infants, we extracted gestational age, gender, delivery method, feeding type, and weights from medical records. Weight nadir was defined as the lowest weight recorded during birth hospitalization. We used multivariate logistic regression to assess the effect of first-day weight loss on subsequent in-hospital weight loss. Mean in-hospital weight nadir was 6.0 +/- 2.6%, and mean age at in-hospital weight nadir was 38.7 +/- 18.5 hours. While in the hospital 6.4% of infants lost > or =10% of birth weight. Infants losing > or =4.5% birth weight at or =10% (adjusted odds ratio 3.57 [1.75, 7.28]). In this cohort, 798 (76.1%) infants did not have documented weight gain while in the hospital. Early weight loss predicts higher risk of > or =10% in-hospital weight loss. Infants with high first-day weight loss could be targeted for further research into improved interventions to promote breastfeeding.
Vet, de E.; Nelissen, R.M.A.; Zeelenberg, M.; Ridder, de D.T.D.
Although psychological theories outline that it might be beneficial to set more challenging goals, people attempting to lose weight are generally recommended to set modest weight loss goals. The present study explores whether the amount of weight loss individuals strive for is associated with more
Handjieva-Darlenska, T.; Handjiev, S.; Larsen, Thomas Meinert
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether pre-treatment subject characteristics and weight change during the first weeks of a low-calorie diet (LCD) can predict weight loss outcomes at the end of a controlled 8-week weight loss period in overweight and obese adults....
de Vet, E.; Nelissen, R.M.A.; Zeelenberg, M.; de Ridder, D.T.D.
Although psychological theories outline that it might be beneficial to set more challenging goals, people attempting to lose weight are generally recommended to set modest weight loss goals. The present study explores whether the amount of weight loss individuals strive for is associated with more
Furtado, Jeremy D.; Liang, Liming; Qi, Lu; Bray, George A.; DeJonge, Lilian; Coull, Brent
Background The potential endocrine-disrupting effects of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been demonstrated in animal studies, but whether PFASs may interfere with body weight regulation in humans is largely unknown. This study aimed to examine the associations of PFAS exposure with changes in body weight and resting metabolic rate (RMR) in a diet-induced weight-loss setting. Methods and findings In the 2-year POUNDS Lost randomized clinical trial based in Boston, Massachusetts, and Baton Rouge, Louisiana, that examined the effects of energy-restricted diets on weight changes, baseline plasma concentrations of major PFASs were measured among 621 overweight and obese participants aged 30–70 years. Body weight was measured at baseline and 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. RMR and other metabolic parameters, including glucose, lipids, thyroid hormones, and leptin, were measured at baseline and 6 and 24 months. Participants lost an average of 6.4 kg of body weight during the first 6 months (weight-loss period) and subsequently regained an average of 2.7 kg of body weight during the period of 6–24 months (weight regain period). After multivariate adjustment, baseline PFAS concentrations were not significantly associated with concurrent body weight or weight loss during the first 6 months. In contrast, higher baseline levels of PFASs were significantly associated with a greater weight regain, primarily in women. In women, comparing the highest to the lowest tertiles of PFAS concentrations, the multivariate-adjusted mean weight regain (SE) was 4.0 (0.8) versus 2.1 (0.9) kg for perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) (Ptrend = 0.01); 4.3 (0.9) versus 2.2 (0.8) kg for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (Ptrend = 0.007); 4.7 (0.9) versus 2.5 (0.9) kg for perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) (Ptrend = 0.006); 4.9 (0.9) versus 2.7 (0.8) kg for perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS) (Ptrend = 0.009); and 4.2 (0.8) versus 2.5 (0.9) kg for perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) (Ptrend = 0.03). When
van Gemert, Willemijn A M; van der Palen, Job; Monninkhof, Evelyn M; Rozeboom, Anouk; Peters, Roelof; Wittink, Harriet; Schuit, Albertine J; Peeters, Petra H
This study investigates the effect of a modest weight loss either by a calorie restricted diet or mainly by increased physical exercise on health related quality of life (HRQoL) in overweight-to-obese and inactive postmenopausal women. We hypothesize that HRQoL improves with weight loss, and that exercise-induced weight loss is more effective for this than diet-induced weight loss. The SHAPE-2 trial was primarily designed to evaluate any additional effect of weight loss by exercise compared with a comparable amount of weight loss by diet on biomarkers relevant for breast cancer risk. In the present analysis we focus on HRQoL. We randomly assigned 243 eligible women to a diet (n = 97), exercise (n = 98), or control group (n = 48). Both interventions aimed for 5-6 kg weight loss. HRQoL was measured at baseline and after 16 weeks by the SF-36 questionnaire. Data of 214 women were available for analysis. Weight loss was 4.9 kg (6.1%) and 5.5 kg (6.9%) with diet and exercise, respectively. Scores of the SF-36 domain 'health change' increased significantly by 8.8 points (95% CI 1.6;16.1) with diet, and by 20.5 points (95% CI 13.2;27.7) with exercise when compared with control. Direct comparison of diet and exercise showed a statistically significantly stronger improvement with exercise. Both intervention groups showed a tendency towards improvements in most other domains, which were more pronounced in the exercise group, but not statistically different from control or each other. In a randomized trial in overweight-to-obese and inactive postmenopausal women a comparable 6%-7% weight loss was achieved by diet-only or mainly by exercise and showed improvements in physical and mental HRQoL domains, but results were not statistically significant in either the diet or exercise group. However, a modest weight loss does lead to a positive change in self-perceived health status. This effect was significantly larger with exercise-induced weight loss than with comparable diet-induced
Willemijn A M van Gemert
Full Text Available This study investigates the effect of a modest weight loss either by a calorie restricted diet or mainly by increased physical exercise on health related quality of life (HRQoL in overweight-to-obese and inactive postmenopausal women. We hypothesize that HRQoL improves with weight loss, and that exercise-induced weight loss is more effective for this than diet-induced weight loss.The SHAPE-2 trial was primarily designed to evaluate any additional effect of weight loss by exercise compared with a comparable amount of weight loss by diet on biomarkers relevant for breast cancer risk. In the present analysis we focus on HRQoL. We randomly assigned 243 eligible women to a diet (n = 97, exercise (n = 98, or control group (n = 48. Both interventions aimed for 5-6 kg weight loss. HRQoL was measured at baseline and after 16 weeks by the SF-36 questionnaire.Data of 214 women were available for analysis. Weight loss was 4.9 kg (6.1% and 5.5 kg (6.9% with diet and exercise, respectively. Scores of the SF-36 domain 'health change' increased significantly by 8.8 points (95% CI 1.6;16.1 with diet, and by 20.5 points (95% CI 13.2;27.7 with exercise when compared with control. Direct comparison of diet and exercise showed a statistically significantly stronger improvement with exercise. Both intervention groups showed a tendency towards improvements in most other domains, which were more pronounced in the exercise group, but not statistically different from control or each other.In a randomized trial in overweight-to-obese and inactive postmenopausal women a comparable 6%-7% weight loss was achieved by diet-only or mainly by exercise and showed improvements in physical and mental HRQoL domains, but results were not statistically significant in either the diet or exercise group. However, a modest weight loss does lead to a positive change in self-perceived health status. This effect was significantly larger with exercise-induced weight loss than with comparable
Full Text Available Intramyocellular triacylglycerol (IMTG is utilized as metabolic fuel during exercise and is linked to insulin resistance, but the long-term effect of weight loss strategies on IMTG among participants with abdominal fat, remain unclear.In an 18-month trial, sedentary participants with abdominal fat/dyslipidemia were randomized to either a low-fat (LF or Mediterranean/low-carbohydrate (MED/LC diet (including 28g·day-1 of walnuts. After 6-months, the participants were re-randomized to moderate intense physical activity (PA+ or non-physical activity (PA-. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was used to quantify changes of IMTG, abdominal sub-depots, hepatic and intermuscular fats.Across the 277 participants [86% men, age = 48 years, body-mass-index (BMI = 31kg/m2, visceral fat = 33%] 86% completed the 18-m trial. At baseline, women had higher IMTG than men (3.4% vs. 2.3%, p<0.001 and increased IMTG was associated with aging and higher BMI, visceral and intermuscular fats, HbA1c%, HDL-c and leptin(p<0.05, but not with intra-hepatic fat. After 18 month of intervention and a -3 kg mean weight loss, participants significantly increased IMTG by 25%, with a distinct effect in the MED/LCPA+ group as compared to the other intervention groups (57% vs. 9.5-18.5%, p<0.05. Changes in IMTG were associated with visceral and intermuscular fat, metabolic syndrome, insulin and leptin (p<0.05 for all, however, these associations did not remain after adjustment for visceral fat changes.Lifestyle strategies differentially affect IMTG accumulation; combination of exercise with decreased carbohydrate/increased unsaturated fat proportion intake greatly increase IMTG. Our findings suggest that increased IMTG during diet-induced moderate weight loss may not be directly related to cardiometabolic risk.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01530724.
Waring, Molly E; Schneider, Kristin L; Appelhans, Bradley M; Busch, Andrew M; Whited, Matthew C; Rodrigues, Stephanie; Lemon, Stephenie C; Pagoto, Sherry L
Some adults with comorbid depression and obesity respond well to lifestyle interventions while others have poor outcomes. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether early-treatment weight loss progress predicts clinically significant 6-month weight loss among women with obesity and depression. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from 75 women with obesity and depression who received a standard lifestyle intervention. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for achieving ≥5% weight loss by 6 months were calculated based on whether they achieved ≥1 lb/week weight loss in weeks 2-8. Among those on target at week 3, we examined potential subsequent time points at which weight loss progress might identify additional individuals at risk for treatment failure. At week 2, women who averaged ≥1 lb/week loss were twice as likely to achieve 5% weight loss by 6 months than those who did not (RR=2.40; 95% CI: 2.32-4.29); weight loss at weeks 3-8 was similarly predictive (RRs=2.02-3.20). Examining weight loss progress at week 3 and subsequently at a time point during weeks 4-8, 52-67% of participants were not on target with their weight loss, and those on target were 2-3 times as likely to achieve 5% weight loss by 6 months (RRs=1.82-2.92). Weight loss progress as early as week 2 of treatment predicts weight loss outcomes for women with comorbid obesity and depression, which supports the feasibility of developing stepped care interventions that adjust treatment intensity based on early progress in this population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... calories more than you consume each day — through diet and exercise. You might lose weight more quickly if you ... yourself with regular weigh-ins and tracking your diet and activity, which is ... don't have a positive attitude about losing weight, you might not be ready — ...
Levitz, Leonard S.; And Others
The behaviorally-based weight control program conducted by Levitz and Jordan at the University of Pennsylvania and the Institute for Behavioral Education is tailored to patient needs and includes stimulus control, cognitive restructuring, and nutrition education. The success of patients in maintaining the clinically meaningful weight losses…
O'Neil, Patrick M; Theim, Kelly R; Boeka, Abbe; Johnson, Gail; Miller-Kovach, Karen
Greater use of key self-regulatory behaviors (e.g., self-monitoring of food intake and weight) is associated with greater weight loss within behavioral weight loss treatments, although this association is less established within widely-available commercial weight loss programs. Further, high hedonic hunger (i.e., susceptibility to environmental food cues) may present a barrier to successful behavior change and weight loss, although this has not yet been examined. Adult men and women (N=111, body mass index M±SD=31.5±2.7kg/m(2)) were assessed before and after participating in a 12-week commercial weight loss program. From pre- to post-treatment, reported usage of weight control behaviors improved and hedonic hunger decreased, and these changes were inversely associated. A decrease in hedonic hunger was associated with better weight loss. An improvement in reported weight control behaviors (e.g., self-regulatory behaviors) was associated with better weight loss, and this association was even stronger among individuals with high baseline hedonic hunger. Findings highlight the importance of specific self-regulatory behaviors within weight loss treatment, including a commercial weight loss program developed for widespread community implementation. Assessment of weight control behavioral skills usage and hedonic hunger may be useful to further identify mediators of weight loss within commercial weight loss programs. Future interventions might specifically target high hedonic hunger and prospectively examine changes in hedonic hunger during other types of weight loss treatment to inform its potential impact on sustained behavior change and weight control. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
De Vet, Emely; Nelissen, Rob M A; Zeelenberg, Marcel; De Ridder, Denise T D
Although psychological theories outline that it might be beneficial to set more challenging goals, people attempting to lose weight are generally recommended to set modest weight loss goals. The present study explores whether the amount of weight loss individuals strive for is associated with more positive psychological and behavioral outcomes. Hereto, 447 overweight and obese participants trying to lose weight completed two questionnaires with a 2-month interval. Many participants set goals that could be considered unrealistically high. However, higher weight loss goals did not predict dissatisfaction but predicted more effort in the weight loss attempt, as well as more self-reported short-term weight loss when baseline commitment and motivation were controlled for.
Bodil Just Christensen
Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to identify psychosocial determinants for maintaining weight loss. Methods: 42 obese individuals who achieved a 12% weight loss before entering a 52-week weight maintenance program were interviewed qualitatively. Psychosocial factors related to weight loss maintenance were identified in two contrasting groups: weight reducers and weight regainers. Groups were defined by health-relevant weight maintenance (additional weight loss > 3% at week 52, n = 9 versus weight gain > 3%, at week 52, n = 20. Results: Weight reducers reported structured meal patterns (p = 0.008, no comfort eating (p = 0.016 and less psychosocial stress (p = 0.04 compared to weight regainers. The ability to instrumentalize eating behavior emerged as an important factor (p = 0.007. Nutritional knowledge, motivation or exercise level did not differ between groups (p > 0.05. Conclusions: Successful weight loss maintenance was associated with an interplay between behavioral, affective and contextual changes. ‘Instrumentalization of eating behavior' seems to be an important element in long-term weight maintenance.
Fatemeh Azizi Soeliman
Full Text Available Background: Weight regain after weight loss is a common problem for all those obese or overweight who have had a recent weight loss. Different cures such as diet therapy, behavioral therapy, exercise or a mixture of them have been advised as solutions. The purpose of this review is to find the best diet or eating pattern to maintain a recent weight loss. Materials and Methods: We searched in PubMed and SCOPUS by using the following key words: Overweight, obesity, weight maintenance, weight regain, and diet therapy. Finally, we assessed 26 articles in the present article. Results: Meal replacement, low carbohydrate-low glycemic index (GI diet, high protein intake, and moderate fat consumption have shown some positive effects on weight maintenance. However, the results are controversial. A Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH-type diet seems helpful for weight maintenance although the need for more study has remained. Some special behaviors were associated with less weight regain, such as, not being awake late at night, drinking lower amount of sugar-sweetened beverages, and following a healthy pattern. Some special foods have been suggested for weight maintenance. However, the roles of specific foods are not confirmed. Conclusion: Healthy diets recommend low carbohydrate, low GI, and moderate fat foods, but it is not clear whether they are useful in preventing weight gain. It seems that consuming fewer calories helps people to keep weight loss. Further research to find strategies in obesity management focusing on successful maintenance of weight loss is needed.
Holm, Jens-Christian; Gamborg, Michael; Ward, Leigh
Objective: This study assessed if lower than predicted serum leptin concentrations seen during weight loss persisted during weight regain, with possible implications for weight control. Methods: 115 children were investigated during a 12-week weight loss program. 90 children completed the program....... Results: Children with the greatest increases in BMI standard deviation score (SDS) exhibited the largest leptin increments. The disproportionate reduction of leptin seen during weight loss recovered after weight loss. Leptin increases mirrored increases in BMI SDS during weight regain, and the leptin......-BMI SDS relationship seen during follow-up resembled the baseline leptin-BMI SDS relationship. Conclusion: Proportional increases of leptin and BMI SDS during weight regain suggests an intact leptin response during re-accumulation of fat. Following the pronounced reduction of leptin during weight loss...
... kale vitamin D—cereals or soy-based beverages Myth: “Going vegetarian” will help you lose weight and be healthier. Some research shows that a healthy vegetarian eating plan may be linked to lower obesity levels. ...
... should teach you how to change permanently those eating habits and lifestyle factors, such as lack of physical ... skills and techniques to make permanent changes in eating habits and levels of physical activity to prevent weight ...
... to the extra body weight. The body mass index (BMI) measures below are used by many doctors ... Saunders; 2015:chap 29. Mechanick JI, Youdim A, Jones DB, et al. Clinical practice guidelines for the ...
BHOGAL, Manpal Singh; Langford, Robert
Provides evidence that men lose more weight than women when enrolled on a weight loss intervention.\\ud •\\ud Men lose more weight than women from their initial assessment up to 12-months.\\ud •\\ud Men maintain their weight and continue to lose more weight postintervention compared to women.
Nielsen, Sabrina M; Bartels, Else Marie; Henriksen, Marius
OBJECTIVES: Weight loss is commonly recommended for gout, but the magnitude of the effect has not been evaluated in a systematic review. The aim of this systematic review was to determine benefits and harms associated with weight loss in overweight and obese patients with gout. METHODS: We search...
Martinez, J Alfredo; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Saris, Wim H M
A large number of different dietary approaches have been studied in an attempt to achieve healthy, sustainable weight loss among individuals with overweight and obesity. Restriction of energy intake is the primary method of producing a negative energy balance leading to weight loss. However, owin...
Mattos, F.; Garcia, P.; Pennings, J.M.E.
We analyze how the introduction of probability weighting and loss aversion in a futures hedging model affects decision making. Analytical findings indicate that probability weighting alone always affects optimal hedge ratios, while loss and risk aversion only have an impact when probability
Christiaan G. Abildso; Olivier Schmid; Megan Byrd; Sam Zizzi; Alessandro Quartiroli; Sean J. Fitzpatrick
Intentional weight loss among overweight and obese adults (body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2) is associated with numerous health benefits, but weight loss maintenance (WLM) following participation in weight management programming has proven to be elusive. Many individuals attempting to lose weight join formal programs, especially women, but these programs vary widely in focus, as do postprogram weight regain results. We surveyed 2,106 former participants in a community-based, insurance-sponsored wei...
Harden, Samantha M.; You, Wen; Almeida, Fabio A.; Hill, Jennie L.; Linnan, Laura A.; Allen, Kacie C.; Estabrooks, Paul A.
Certain risk factors associated with overweight and obesity may lead to reduced productivity in the workforce (i.e., increased absenteeism and presenteeism). Participants in a large, Internet-based worksite weight loss intervention, who were present at follow-up (N = 1,030), completed a self-reported productivity measure (World Health Organization’s Health and Work Performance Questionnaire) at baseline and postintervention. Twenty-two percent of the participants lost a clinically meaningful amount of weight (≥5% weight loss). There were no statistically significant (p absenteeism or for absolute or relative presenteeism. Within a modestly successful Internet-based, worksite weight loss intervention, weight loss did not improve self-reported absenteeism or presenteeism. Further studies are needed to explore the sensitivity of the World Health Organization’s Health and Work Performance Questionnaire and the long-term effects of weight loss on productivity. PMID:25842385
Harden, Samantha M; You, Wen; Almeida, Fabio A; Hill, Jennie L; Linnan, Laura A; Allen, Kacie C; Estabrooks, Paul A
Certain risk factors associated with overweight and obesity may lead to reduced productivity in the workforce (i.e., increased absenteeism and presenteeism). Participants in a large, Internet-based worksite weight loss intervention, who were present at follow-up (N = 1,030), completed a self-reported productivity measure (World Health Organization's Health and Work Performance Questionnaire) at baseline and postintervention. Twenty-two percent of the participants lost a clinically meaningful amount of weight (≥5% weight loss). There were no statistically significant (p absenteeism or for absolute or relative presenteeism. Within a modestly successful Internet-based, worksite weight loss intervention, weight loss did not improve self-reported absenteeism or presenteeism. Further studies are needed to explore the sensitivity of the World Health Organization's Health and Work Performance Questionnaire and the long-term effects of weight loss on productivity. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.
Hasanbegovic, Emir; Sørensen, Jens Ahm
Bariatric surgery is a way to achieve lasting weight loss in the obese. Body contouring surgery seeks to alleviate some of the discomfort caused by the excessive loose skin following massive weight loss. Higher complication rates are described in this type of surgery when done post......-bariatric. The purpose of this article is to compare complication rates of body contouring surgery when performed on patients with weight loss due to bariatric surgery compared to patients who lost weight due to dietary changes and/or exercise....
Ayisi Addo, Sandra; Steiner-Asiedu, Matilda
Obesity is a major public health challenge not only for developed but developing countries as well. The World Health Organization recommends the immediate use of effective, efficient and widely accessible weight loss interventions. Telephone based weight loss intervention could provide a cheaper and wider reach of obese participants. Previous systematic reviews on telephone based weight loss interventions either excluded studies that had obese participants with co-morbidities or were silent on their inclusion. Obese/overweight individuals with co-morbidities constitute an important population in any weight loss intervention study due to the strong association of obesity with major chronic health conditions. This paper, reviews the efficacy of telephone based weight loss intervention solely in overweight/obese individuals with obesity related diseases and discusses its relevance for developing countries.
McEvedy, Samantha M; Sullivan-Mort, Gillian; McLean, Siân A; Pascoe, Michaela C; Paxton, Susan J
This study collates existing evidence regarding weight loss among overweight but otherwise healthy adults who use commercial weight-loss programs. Systematic search of 3 databases identified 11 randomized controlled trials and 14 observational studies of commercial meal-replacement, calorie-counting, or pre-packaged meal programs which met inclusion criteria. In meta-analysis using intention-to-treat data, 57 percent of individuals who commenced a commercial weight program lost less than 5 percent of their initial body weight. One in two (49%) studies reported attrition ≥30 percent. A second meta-analysis found that 37 percent of program completers lost less than 5 percent of initial body weight. We conclude that commercial weight-loss programs frequently fail to produce modest but clinically meaningful weight loss with high rates of attrition suggesting that many consumers find dietary changes required by these programs unsustainable.
Glenn, Nicole M; Raine, Kim D; Spence, John C
Mandatory presurgical, behavior-induced weight loss, although not standard, is a relatively common practice among bariatric surgical clinics. We explore the patient's experience of this practice using phenomenology. We gathered experiential accounts from 7 individuals waiting to have the procedure at a large publically funded clinic in western Canada. In writing this article, we focused on four phenomenological themes: "just nod your head and carry on"-silencing through the ideal; waiting and weighing-promoting weight consciousness to the weight conscious; paying for surgical approval through weight loss; and presurgical weight loss and questioning the need for weight loss surgery altogether. We contrast the experiential findings with the clinical literature to question the impact and possible (unintended or unexpected) effects the practice might have, particularly on patients' lives. We situate this article within a larger discussion about the possible contribution of experiential knowledge to clinical guidelines, practices, and pedagogies. © The Author(s) 2014.
Yang, Jaewon; Lee, Moon-Soo; Joe, Sook-Haeng; Jung, In-Kwa; Kim, Seung-Hyun
Weight gain and metabolic disturbances constitute bothersome problems in schizophrenic patients treated with atypical antipsychotics. Several medications, exercise regimens, and lifestyle changes have been used in attempts to ameliorate these problems. We describe 3 patients with schizophrenia who manifested distinct weight loss and reduction in waist circumference during medication with zonisamide. This report suggests that zonisamide might be associated with weight loss in patients with schizophrenia.
... America. 2018;102:49. Smethers AD, et al. Dietary management of obesity — Cornerstones of healthy eating patterns. Medical Clinics of ... and factors favouring weight regain. International Journal of Obesity. ... In: The Mayo Clinic Diet. 2nd ed. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical ...
Rosenberg, Eugene; Zilber-Rosenberg, Ilana; Sharon, Gil; Segal, Daniel
Diet-induced mating preference was initially observed by Dodd (1). Subsequently, we reported that diet-induced mating preference occurred in Drosophila melanogaster. Treatment of the flies with antibiotics abolished the mating preference, suggesting that fly-associated commensal bacteria were responsible for the phenomenon (2). The hypothesis was confirmed when it was shown that colonizing antibiotic-treated flies with Lactobacillus plantarum reestablished mating preference in multiple-choice...
Wood Richard J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Diets that restrict carbohydrate (CHO have proven to be a successful dietary treatment of obesity for many people, but the degree of weight loss varies across individuals. The extent to which genetic factors associate with the magnitude of weight loss induced by CHO restriction is unknown. We examined associations among polymorphisms in candidate genes and weight loss in order to understand the physiological factors influencing body weight responses to CHO restriction. Methods We screened for genetic associations with weight loss in 86 healthy adults who were instructed to restrict CHO to a level that induced a small level of ketosis (CHO ~10% of total energy. A total of 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were selected from 15 candidate genes involved in fat digestion/metabolism, intracellular glucose metabolism, lipoprotein remodeling, and appetite regulation. Multiple linear regression was used to rank the SNPs according to probability of association, and the most significant associations were analyzed in greater detail. Results Mean weight loss was 6.4 kg. SNPs in the gastric lipase (LIPF, hepatic glycogen synthase (GYS2, cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP and galanin (GAL genes were significantly associated with weight loss. Conclusion A strong association between weight loss induced by dietary CHO restriction and variability in genes regulating fat digestion, hepatic glucose metabolism, intravascular lipoprotein remodeling, and appetite were detected. These discoveries could provide clues to important physiologic adaptations underlying the body mass response to CHO restriction.
Lorenzen, Janne; Frederiksen, Rikke; Hoppe, Camilla
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: There is increasing evidence to support that a high-protein diet may promote weight loss and prevent weight (re)gain better than a low-protein diet, and that the effect is due to higher diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) and increased satiety. However, data on the effect...... of different types of protein are limited. In the present study we compare the effect of whey, casein and milk on DIT and satiety. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Seventeen slightly overweight (29 ± 4 kg/m(2)) male subjects completed the study. The study had a randomized, crossover design, where the effect on 4 h...... for baseline values. There was no significant difference in effect on EE, protein oxidation or carbohydrate oxidation. CONCLUSIONS: Milk reduced subsequent EI more than isocaloric drinks containing only whey or casein. A small but significant increase in lipid oxidation was seen after casein compared with whey....
We examined the association of food cravings with weight loss and eating behaviors in a 6 month worksite lifestyle weight loss program. This randomized controlled trial of the intervention versus a wait-listed control was conducted at 4 worksites, and 95 participants completed outcome assessments ...
Hongu, Nobuko; Kataura, Martha P.; Block, Linda M.
This article helps Extension professionals guide individuals in a successful long-term weight loss program. A program should focus on behavioral changes (improving eating habits and physical activity), not just weight loss. In order to do this, Extension professionals should implement behavior change strategies that motivate individuals to…
Full Text Available Apart from its role during labor and lactation, oxytocin is involved in several other functions. Interestingly, oxytocin- and oxytocin receptor-deficient mice develop late-onset obesity with normal food intake, suggesting that the hormone might exert a series of beneficial metabolic effects. This was recently confirmed by data showing that central oxytocin infusion causes weight loss in diet-induced obese mice. The aim of the present study was to unravel the mechanisms underlying such beneficial effects of oxytocin. Chronic central oxytocin infusion was carried out in high fat diet-induced obese rats. Its impact on body weight, lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity was determined. We observed a dose-dependent decrease in body weight gain, increased adipose tissue lipolysis and fatty acid β-oxidation, as well as reduced glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. The additional observation that plasma oxytocin levels increased upon central infusion suggested that the hormone might affect adipose tissue metabolism by direct action. This was demonstrated using in vitro, ex vivo, as well as in vivo experiments. With regard to its mechanism of action in adipose tissue, oxytocin increased the expression of stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1, as well as the tissue content of the phospholipid precursor, N-oleoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine, the biosynthetic precursor of the oleic acid-derived PPAR-alpha activator, oleoylethanolamide. Because PPAR-alpha regulates fatty acid β-oxidation, we hypothesized that this transcription factor might mediate the oxytocin effects. This was substantiated by the observation that, in contrast to its effects in wild-type mice, oxytocin infusion failed to induce weight loss and fat oxidation in PPAR-alpha-deficient animals. Altogether, these results suggest that oxytocin administration could represent a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of human obesity and type 2 diabetes.
Zinn, Caryn; Schofield, Grant M; Hopkins, Will G
To compare the effect of "small-changes" and "usual care" workplace interventions on weight loss and to investigate the effect of small changes with or without maintenance on weight and health outcomes. Overweight/obese employees at two New Zealand worksites received a 12-month usual-care intervention (n = 53), followed by a 12-month small-changes intervention (n = 102). Small changes comprised a 12-week component, followed by 9 months of maintenance, implemented at only one worksite. Magnitudes of effects were assessed via a threshold of -5% (weight loss) and standardization (health outcomes). Small changes showed beneficial weight loss relative to usual care in both worksites. For small-changes interventions, worksites reduced weight (12 weeks) and maintained lost weight (12 months). One in every three participants lost 5% or more weight. Some improvements in health outcomes were shown. Regardless of maintenance, the small-changes intervention was successful in sustaining weight loss.
Stephens, Janna; Moscou-Jackson, Gyasi; Allen, Jerilyn K
Overweight and obesity are a major concern in young adults. Technology has been integrated into many weight loss interventions; however little is known about the use of this technology in young adults. The purpose of this study was to explore through focus group sessions the opinions of young adults on the use of technology for weight loss. A total of 17 young adults, between 18 and 25 years of age, participated in three focus group sessions. Major results indicated that young adults have very little knowledge on the use of Smartphone technology for weight loss but would like to use this type of technology to help them lose weight. Results also indicated that young adults struggle to make healthy food choices and have priorities that outweigh exercise and they need support and guidance to make better decisions. In conclusion, young adults would be open to using Smartphone technology for weight loss but also need feedback and guidance to help make healthy decisions.
Rasmussen, Michael H; Juul, Anders; Hilsted, J
OBJECTIVE: It has been hypothesized that increased free insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I levels generated from an increase in IGF-binding protein (IGFBP) protease activity could be the inhibitory mechanism for the decreased growth hormone (GH) secretion observed in obese subjects. RESEARCH...... METHODS AND PROCEDURES: In this study, we determined basal and 24-hour levels of free IGF-I and -II, total IGF-I and -II, IGFBP-1, as well as basal IGFBP-2, -3, and -4, acid-labile subunit (ALS), IGFBP-1, -2, and -3 protease activity, and 24-hour GH release in obese women before and after a diet......-induced weight loss. Sixteen obese women (age, 29.5+/-1.4 years) participated in a weight loss program and 16 age-matched non-obese women served as controls. RESULTS: Circulating free IGF-I and 24-hour GH release were significantly decreased in obese women at before weight loss compared with non-obese women (1...
Chen, Gary C; Ramanathan, Vivek S; Law, David; Funchain, Pauline; Chen, George C; French, Samuel; Shlopov, Boris; Eysselein, Viktor; Chung, David; Reicher, Sonya; Pham, Binh V
We report three cases of patients with acute liver injury induced by weight-loss herbal supplements. One patient took Hydroxycut while the other two took Herbalife supplements. Liver biopsies for all patients demonstrated findings consistent with drug-induced acute liver injury. To our knowledge, we are the first institute to report acute liver injury from both of these two types of weight-loss herbal supplements together as a case series. The series emphasizes the importance of taking a cautious approach when consuming herbal supplements for the purpose of weight loss.
Rasmussen, M H; Jensen, L T; Andersen, T
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of obesity, fat distribution and weight loss on collagen turnover using serum concentrations of the carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen (S-PICP) and the aminoterminal propeptide of type III pro-collagen (S-PIIINP) as markers for collagen turnover...... an increased turnover of type III collagen related to obesity in general and to abdominal obesity in particular. S-PIIINP levels decreases during weight loss in obese subjects, whereas S-PICP levels seems un-related to obesity and weight loss....
Cao, Jiaqing; Ren, Quan; Tan, Cai; Duan, Jinyuan
This study investigated the role of proximal small intestinal bypass (PSIB) and distal small intestinal bypass (DSIB) as well as their long-term effects on weight loss and glucose metabolism in high-sugar and high-fat diet-induced obese rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: PSIB, bypassing 60% of the proximal small intestine length; DSIB, bypassing 60% of the distal small intestine length; sham-operated (Sham) animals; and control animals. All rats were fed a high-sugar and high-fat diet after surgery. The primary outcome measures were body weight, food intake, fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and the insulin tolerance test (ITT). Global body weight (BW) and food intake in the PSIB and DSIB groups were lower than those in the Sham group at postoperative week 2. BW and food intake in the PSIB group were lower than those in the DSIB group at postoperative week 24. The PSIB and DSIB groups exhibited improvement in glucose tolerance at postoperative weeks 4, 8, and 24. The PSIB and DSIB groups exhibited improvement in FBG at postoperative week 24, and only the DSIB group exhibited improvement in insulin sensitivity. This study provides experimental evidence that PSIB surgery induced a better and more persistent weight loss effect than DSIB surgery and that the two types of intestinal bypass surgeries yielded equivalent and stable long-term improvement in glucose tolerance in an obese rat model.
Pollak, Kathryn I.; Alexander, Stewart C.; Coffman, Cynthia J.; Tulsky, James A.; Lyna, Pauline; Dolor, Rowena J.; James, Iguehi E.; Namenek Brouwer, Rebecca J.; Manusov, Justin R.E.; Østbye, Truls
Background Physicians are encouraged to counsel overweight and obese patients to lose weight. Purpose It was examined whether discussing weight and use of motivational-interviewing techniques (e.g., collaborating, reflective listening) while discussing weight predicted weight loss 3 months after the encounter. Methods 40 primary care physicians and 461 of their overweight or obese patient visits were audio recorded between December 2006 and June 2008. Patient actual weight at the encounter and 3 months after the encounter (n=426), whether weight was discussed, physicians’ use of Motivational-Interviewing techniques, and patient, physician and visit covariates (e.g., race, age, specialty) were assessed. This was an observational study and data were analyzed in April 2009. Results No differences in weight loss were found between patients whose physicians discussed weight or did not. Patients whose physicians used motivational interviewing–consistent techniques during weight-related discussions lost weight 3 months post-encounter; those whose physician used motivational interviewing–inconsistent techniques gained or maintained weight. The estimated difference in weight change between patients whose physician had a higher global “motivational interviewing–Spirit” score (e.g., collaborated with patient) and those whose physician had a lower score was 1.6 kg (95% CI=−2.9, −0.3, p=.02). The same was true for patients whose physician used reflective statements 0.9 kg (95% CI=−1.8, −0.1, p=.03). Similarly, patients whose physicians expressed only motivational interviewing–consistent behaviors had a difference in weight change of 1.1 kg (95% CI=−2.3, 0.1, p=.07) compared to those whose physician expressed only motivational interviewing–inconsistent behaviors (e.g., judging, confronting). Conclusions In this small observational study, use of motivational-interviewing techniques during weight loss discussions predicted patient weight loss. PMID
Wolfe, Bruce M.; Kvach, Elizaveta; Eckel, Robert H.
This review focuses on the mechanisms underlying, and indications for, bariatric surgery in the reduction of cardiovascular disease (CVD) as well as other expected benefits of this intervention. The fundamental basis for bariatric surgery for the purpose of accomplishing weight loss is the determination that severe obesity is a disease associated with multiple adverse effects on health which can be reversed or improved by successful weight loss in patients who have been unable to sustain weight loss by non-surgical means. An explanation of possible indications for weight loss surgery as well as specific bariatric surgical procedures is presented, along with review of the safety literature of such procedures. Procedures that are less invasive or those that involve less gastrointestinal rearrangement accomplish considerably less weight loss but have substantially lower perioperative and longer-term risk. The ultimate benefit of weight reduction relates to the reduction of the co-morbidities, quality of life and all-cause mortality. With weight loss being the underlying justification for bariatric surgery in ameliorating CVD risk, current evidence-based research is discussed concerning body fat distribution, dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, inflammation, obstructive sleep apnea and others. The rationale for bariatric surgery reducing CVD events is discussed and juxtaposed with impacts on all-cause mortalities. Given the improvement of established obesity-related CVD risk factors following weight loss, it is reasonable to expect a reduction of CVD events and related mortality following weight loss in populations with obesity. The quality of the current evidence is reviewed and future research opportunities and summaries are stated. PMID:27230645
The biological clocks of the circadian timing system coordinate cellular and physiological processes and synchronizes these with daily cycles, feeding patterns also regulates circadian clocks. The clock genes and adipocytokines show circadian rhythmicity. Dysfunction of these genes are involved in the alteration of these adipokines during the development of obesity. Food availability promotes the stimuli associated with food intake which is a circadian oscillator outside of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Its circadian rhythm is arranged with the predictable daily mealtimes. Food anticipatory activity is mediated by a self-sustained circadian timing and its principal component is food entrained oscillator. However, the hypothalamus has a crucial role in the regulation of energy balance rather than food intake. Fatty acids or their metabolites can modulate neuronal activity by brain nutrient-sensing neurons involved in the regulation of energy and glucose homeostasis. The timing of three-meal schedules indicates close association with the plasma levels of insulin and preceding food availability. Desynchronization between the central and peripheral clocks by altered timing of food intake and diet composition can lead to uncoupling of peripheral clocks from the central pacemaker and to the development of metabolic disorders. Metabolic dysfunction is associated with circadian disturbances at both central and peripheral levels and, eventual disruption of circadian clock functioning can lead to obesity. While CLOCK expression levels are increased with high fat diet-induced obesity, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) alpha increases the transcriptional level of brain and muscle ARNT-like 1 (BMAL1) in obese subjects. Consequently, disruption of clock genes results in dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and obesity. Modifying the time of feeding alone can greatly affect body weight. Changes in the circadian clock are associated with temporal alterations in
Neves, João Sérgio; Souteiro, Pedro; Oliveira, Sofia Castro; Pedro, Jorge; Magalhães, Daniela; Guerreiro, Vanessa; Costa, Maria Manuel; Bettencourt-Silva, Rita; Santos, Ana Cristina; Queirós, Joana; Varela, Ana; Freitas, Paula; Carvalho, Davide
Thyroid function has an important role on body weight regulation. However, the impact of thyroid function on weight loss after bariatric surgery is still largely unknown. We evaluated the association between preoperative thyroid function and the excess weight loss 1 year after surgery, in 641 patients with morbid obesity who underwent bariatric surgery. Patients with a history of thyroid disease, treatment with thyroid hormone or antithyroid drugs and those with preoperative evaluation consistent with overt hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism were excluded. The preoperative levels of TSH and FT4 were not associated with weight loss after bariatric surgery. The variation of FT3 within the reference range was also not associated with weight loss. In contrast, the subgroup with FT3 above the reference range (12.3% of patients) had a significantly higher excess weight loss than patients with normal FT3. This difference remained significant after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, type of surgery, TSH and FT4. In conclusion, we observed an association between high FT3 and a greater weight loss after bariatric surgery, highlighting a group of patients with an increased benefit from this intervention. Our results also suggest a novel hypothesis: the pharmacological modulation of thyroid function may be a potential therapeutic target in patients undergoing bariatric surgery.
Diaz, V A; Mainous, A G; Pope, C
In spite of the high prevalence of obesity in the Latino population, there is limited recent information that can be used by health-care providers to develop culturally appropriate weight loss strategies for this population. Therefore, we describe weight loss experiences, attitudes and barriers in overweight Latino adults. Qualitative study using focus group methodology. Twenty-one overweight adults (body mass index >/=25, age >/=20 years) self-identified as Latinos. Subjects participated in one of three focus groups. Reccurring themes within group discussions were identified by three independent investigators, one who was ethnicity concordant. Themes included the presence of mixed messages when determining one's appropriate weight, with participants' desire to lose weight to be healthy (based on professional advice and personal experience) conflicting with the cultural idea that being overweight is healthy. Participants described discordance when adapting to the mainstream, leading to the loss of healthy traditional habits. Participants expressed interest in weight loss and familiarity with dieting and weight loss interventions. They desired culturally appropriate nutrition education and reassurance regarding healthy dieting from health-care providers. The importance of interactions with peers during education was another relevant theme, and participants were overwhelmingly positive about group education. To improve health promotion for Latinos, cultural factors distinctive to this underserved population, and barriers they articulate, should be considered when developing weight loss interventions.
Procaccini, Diane; Curley, Ann L Cupp; Goldman, Martha
It is accepted that newborns lose weight in the first few days of life. Baby-Friendly practices that support breastfeeding may affect newborn weight loss. The objective of this study were: 1) To determine whether Baby-Friendly practices are associated with term newborn weight loss day 0-2 in three feeding categories (exclusively breastfed, mixed formula fed and breastfed, and formula fed). 2) To determine whether Baby-Friendly practices increase exclusive breast feeding rates in different ethnic populations. This was a retrospective case-control study. Term newborn birth weight, neonatal weights days 0-2, feeding type, type of birth, and demographic information were collected for 1,000 births for the year before Baby-Friendly designation (2010) and 1,000 in 2013 (after designation). Ultimately 683 in the first group and 518 in the second met the inclusion criteria. Mean weight loss decreased day 0-2 for infants in all feeding types after the initiation of Baby-Friendly practices. There was a statistically significant effect of Baby-Friendly designation on weight loss for day 0-2 in exclusively breastfed infants (p Baby-Friendly practices were put in place. There was a decrease in mean weight loss day 0-2 regardless of feeding type after Baby-Friendly designation. Exclusive breast feeding increased in the presence of Baby-Friendly practices.
de la Garza, Ana Laura; Etxeberria, Usune; Haslberger, Alexander; Aumueller, Eva; Martínez, J Alfredo; Milagro, Fermín I
Obesity is characterized by an increased production of inflammatory markers. High levels of circulating free fatty acids and chronic inflammation lead to increased oxidative stress, contributing to the development of insulin resistance (IR). Recent studies have focused on the potential use of flavonoids for obesity management due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This study was designed to investigate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of helichrysum and grapefruit extracts in overweight insulin-resistant rats. Thirty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly distributed in two groups: control group (n=8) and high-fat sucrose (HFS) group (n=30). After 22 days of ad libitum water and food access, the rats fed HFS diet changed to standard diet and were reassigned into three groups (n=10 each group): nonsupplemented, helichrysum extract (2 g/kg bw), and grapefruit extract (1 g/kg bw) administered for 5 weeks. Rats supplemented with both extracts gained less body weight during the 5-week period of treatment, showed lower serum insulin levels and liver TBARS levels. Leptin/adiponectin ratio, as an indicator of IR, was lower in both extract-administered groups. These results were accompanied by a reduction in TNFα gene expression in epididymal adipose tissue and intestinal mucosa, and TLR2 expression in intestinal mucosa. Helichrysum and grapefruit extracts might be used as complement hypocaloric diets in weight loss treatment. Both extracts helped to reduce weight gain, hyperinsulinemia, and IR, improved inflammation markers, and decreased the HFS diet-induced oxidative stress in insulin-resistant rats.
Hunger or malnutrition is not only a historical issue but also a current problem worldwide. Biological responses to hunger are evolutionary prepared in our body, including energy generation by degradation of body proteins. Extreme weight loss (malnutrition) can cause air space enlargement in human and rodents. However, the changes in rodents could be reversible, since refeeding could repair the pathology. On the other hand, weight loss is a common feature in patients with more severe COPD. Complex factors, such as increased energy consumption, decreased food uptake by low grade inflammation, socio-economic factors and so on, are involved in weight loss. Weight loss in patients with COPD also increases the risk of exacerbation, hospitalization, and death.
... getting enough sleep, changes in work schedules, lack of motivation, and injury or illness? Is the program in ... physical activity, behavior change, and weight loss? What type of certifications, education, experience, and training do staff members ...
... diabetes, heart disease or allergies? Do you have cultural or ethnic requirements or preferences regarding food? It's tempting to buy into promises of rapid and dramatic weight loss, but a slow and steady approach is easier ...
Mar 1, 2016 ... Background: In Ghana, obesity is showing a rising trend and there are weight loss initiatives being practised by .... tients seeking treatment in Italian medical centres, the .... Childhood Obesity: Need for a Trans-Sectoral.
Vedel-Larsen, Esben; Iepsen, Eva Winning; Lundgren, Julie
INTRODUCTION: Obesity is associated with increased all-cause mortality, but weight loss may not decrease cardiovascular events. In fact, very low calorie diets have been linked to arrhythmias and sudden death. The QT interval is the standard marker for cardiac repolarization, but T-wave morphology...... analysis has been suggested as a more sensitive method to identify changes in cardiac repolarization. We examined the effect of a major and rapid weight loss on T-wave morphology. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-six individuals had electrocardiograms (ECG) taken before and after eight weeks of weight loss......A1c (pweight loss induces changes in cardiac repolarization. Monitoring of MCS during calorie restriction makes it possible to detect repolarization changes with higher discriminative power than the QT-interval during major rapid weight...
Nielsen, Sabrina M; Bartels, Else Marie; Henriksen, Marius
OBJECTIVES: Weight loss is commonly recommended for gout, but the magnitude of the effect has not been evaluated in a systematic review. The aim of this systematic review was to determine benefits and harms associated with weight loss in overweight and obese patients with gout. METHODS: We searched...... six databases for longitudinal studies, reporting the effect of weight loss in overweight/obese gout patients. Risk of bias was assessed using the tool Risk of Bias in Non-Randomised Studies of Interventions. The quality of evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment......, Development and Evaluation. RESULTS: From 3991 potentially eligible studies, 10 were included (including one randomised trial). Interventions included diet with/without physical activity, bariatric surgery, diuretics, metformin or no intervention. Mean weight losses ranged from 3 kg to 34 kg. Clinical...
Eg, Marianne; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Vamosi, Marianne
-loss programme. Three rounds of semi-structured interviews stretching over 5 years (2010-2015) were transcribed verbatim, then analyzed using Kvale and Brinkmann's framework for working with qualitative research interviews. FINDINGS: Five years after the intervention ended, we found that a family's interactions...... support is crucial if adolescents are to benefit from weight-loss intervention. DESIGN: Qualitative research interviews with families who participated in a weight-loss programme. METHODS: The sample consisted of 10 families selected among participants in a 1-year multidisciplinary family-based weight...
Hobbs, Renee; Broder, Sharon; Pope, Holly; Rowe, Jonelle
While they demonstrate some ability to critically analyze the more obvious forms of deceptive weight-loss advertising, many girls do not recognize how advertising evokes emotional responses or how visual and narrative techniques are used to increase identification in weight-loss advertising. This study examined how girls aged 9-17 years interpreted magazine advertising, television (TV) advertising and infomercials for weight-loss products in order to determine whether deceptive advertising techniques were recognized and to assess pre-existing media-literacy skills. A total of 42 participants were interviewed in seven geographic regions of the United States. In groups of three, participants were shown seven print and TV advertisements (ads) for weight-loss products and asked to share their interpretations of each ad. Common factors in girls' interpretation of weight-loss advertising included responding to texts emotionally by identifying with characters; comparing and contrasting persuasive messages with real-life experiences with family members; using prior knowledge about nutrition management and recognizing obvious deceptive claims like 'rapid' or 'permanent' weight loss. Girls were less able to demonstrate skills including recognizing persuasive construction strategies including message purpose, target audience and subtext and awareness of economic factors including financial motives, credibility enhancement and branding.
Soini, Sirpa; Mustajoki, Pertti; Eriksson, Johan G
Changes in several lifestyle related factors are required for successful long-term weight loss. Identification of these factors is of major importance from a public health point of view. This study was based upon findings from the Finnish Weight Control Registry (FWCR), a web-based registry. In total, 316 people were recruited and 184 met the study inclusion criteria. The aims of this study were to assess means and typical changes in eating habits associated with successful long-term weight loss. Half of the participants (48%) reported that they lost weight slowly primarily with dietary changes. Self-weighing frequency was high, 92% was weighing themselves at least once a week during the weight loss phase, and 75% during the maintenance phase. Dietary aspects associated with successful weight loss and weight maintenance included an increase in intake of vegetables, a reduction in frequency of eating candies and fast food, regular meal frequency and application of the Plate model. Both slow and fast weight loss may lead to successful long-term results and weight maintenance. A decrease in energy intake was achieved by reducing intake of energy-dense food, applying the Plate model and by regular meal frequency. Key messages Successful long-term weight loss is associated with a reduction in intake of energy-dense food. A more regular meal frequency and a high frequency of self-weighing seem to be helpful.
Full Text Available This paper discusses different measures for quantifying regional hurricane loss. The main measures used in the past are normalized percentage loss and dollar value loss. In this research, we show that these measures are useful but may not properly reflect the size of the population influenced by hurricanes. A new loss measure is proposed that reflects the hurricane impact on people occupying the structure. For demonstrating the differences among these metrics, regional loss analysis was conducted for Florida. The regional analysis was composed of three modules: the hazard module stochastically modeled the wind occurrence in the region; the vulnerability module utilized vulnerability functions developed in this research to calculate the loss; and the financial module quantified the hurricane loss. In the financial module, we calculated three loss metrics for certain region. The first metric is the average annual loss (AAL which represents the expected loss per year in percentage. The second is the average annual dollar loss which represents the expected dollar amount loss per year. The third is the average annual population-weighted loss (AAPL—a new measure proposed in this research. Compared with the AAL, the AAPL reflects the number of people influenced by the hurricane. The advantages of the AAPL are illustrated using three different analysis examples: (1 conventional regional loss analysis, (2 mitigation potential analysis, and (3 forecasted future loss analysis due to the change in population.
Hortobagyi, Tibor; Herring, Cortney; Pories, Walter J.; Rider, Patrick; DeVita, Paul
Hortobagyi T, Herring C, Pories WJ, Rider P, DeVita P. Massive weight loss-induced mechanical plasticity in obese gait. J Appl Physiol 111: 1391-1399, 2011. First published August 18, 2011; doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00291.2011.-We examined the hypothesis that metabolic surgery-induced massive weight
Hjorth, Mads Fiil; Due, Anette; Larsen, Thomas Meinert
OBJECTIVE: Levels of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and fasting insulin (FI) were studied as diet-specific prognostic markers for successful weight loss maintenance in participants with overweight. METHODS: After losing ≥ 8% of body weight, participants received one of three ad libitum diets for 6...
Batra, Payal; Das, Sai Krupa; Salinardi, Taylor; Robinson, Lisa; Saltzman, Edward; Scott, Tammy; Pittas, Anastassios G; Roberts, Susan B
We examined the association of food cravings with weight loss and eating behaviors in a lifestyle intervention for weight loss in worksites. This research was part of a randomized controlled trial of a 6-month weight loss intervention versus a wait-listed control in 4 Massachusetts worksites. The intervention emphasized reducing energy intake by adherence to portion-controlled menu suggestions, and assessments were obtained in 95 participants at baseline and 6 months including non-fasting body weight, food cravings (Craving Inventory and Food Craving Questionnaire for state and trait) and the eating behavior constructs restraint, disinhibition and hunger (Eating Inventory). There were statistically significant reductions in all craving variables in the intervention group compared to the controls. Within the intervention group, changes in craving-trait were significantly associated with weight loss after controlling for baseline weight, age, gender and worksite. However, in a multivariate model with craving-trait and eating behaviors (restraint, disinhibition and hunger), hunger was the only significant predictor of weight change. In contrast to some previous reports of increased food cravings with weight loss in lifestyle interventions, this study observed a broad reduction in cravings associated with weight loss. In addition, greater reductions in craving-trait were associated with greater weight change, but craving-trait was not a significant independent correlate of weight change when hunger was included in statistical models. Studies are needed to examine the effectiveness of hunger suppressing versus craving-suppressing strategies in lifestyle interventions for obesity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Moser, Federico; Signorini, Franco J; Maldonado, Pablo S; Lopez Sivilat, Arturo; Gorodner, Verónica; Viscido, Germán; Saleg, Patricia; Obeide, Lucio R
Smoking cessation had been typically associated with weight gain. So far, there are no reports documenting the relationship between weight loss after bariatric surgery and smoking habit. The objective of the study was to establish the relationship between weight loss and smoking habit in patients undergoing bariatric surgery and to analyze weight loss on severe smokers and on those patients who stopped smoking during the postoperative period. All patients undergoing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) with at least 2-year follow-up were included. Patients were divided into three groups: (A) smokers, (B) ex-smokers, and (C) non-smokers. Demographics and weight loss at 6, 12, and 24 months were analyzed. Smokers were subdivided for further analysis into the following: group A1: heavy smokers, group A2: non-heavy smokers, group A3: active smokers after surgery, and group A4: quitters after surgery. Chi-square test was used for statistics. One hundred eighty-four patients were included; group A: 62 patients, group B: 57 patients, and group C: 65 patients. Mean BMI was 34 ± 6, 31 ± 6, and 31 ± 6 kg/m2; mean %EWL was 63 ± 18, 76 ± 21, and 74 ± 22 % at 6, 12, and 24 months, respectively. The subgroup analysis showed the following composition: group A1: 19 patients, group A2: 43 patients, group A3: 42 patients, and group A4: 20 patients. Weight loss difference among groups and subgroups was statistically non-significant. Our study shows that weight loss evolution was independent from smoking habit. Neither smoking cessation during the postoperative period nor smoking severity could be related to weight loss after LSG.
Zinn, Caryn; Schofield, Grant M; Hopkins, Will G
The effect of weight reduction on workplace productivity is unknown. We have investigated a "small-changes" workplace weight loss intervention on weight and productivity outcomes. Overweight/obese employees at two New Zealand worksites (n = 102) received the 12-week intervention. One site received an extra 9-month weight-maintenance component. Magnitudes of effects on weight and productivity were assessed via standardization. Both groups reduced weight at 12 weeks and maintained lost weight at 12 months. There were small possible improvements in productivity at one worksite and trivial reductions at the other by 12 weeks, with little subsequent change during maintenance in either group. At an individual level, weight change was associated with at most only small improvements or small reductions in productivity. Workplace weight loss initiatives may need to be more intensive or multidimensional to enhance productivity.
Herrera Uribe, Juber; Vitger, Anne Désiré; Ritz, Christian
little attention. The aim of the present study was to investigate changes in the transcriptome of key energy metabolism genes in muscle and adipose tissues in response to diet-induced weight loss alone, or combined with exercise in dogs. Overweight pet dogs were enrolled on a weight loss programme, based...... on calorie restriction and physical training (FD group, n = 5) or calorie restriction alone (DO group, n = 7). mRNA expression of 12 genes and six microRNAs were investigated using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). In the FD group, FOXO1 and RAC1 were expressed at lower levels in adipose tissue, whereas...
Thombs, Dennis L.; And Others
A canonical correlation analysis of various weight concerns in a sample of college women revealed that strong expectations of weight loss benefits and a high relative body weight were positively correlated with the four major symptoms of bulimia. Expectations of increased self-worth and social confidence were linked to eating problems. (RJM)
Ghrelin is postulated to be an orexigenic signal that promotes weight regain after weight loss (WL). However, it is not known whether this putative effect of ghrelin is sustained after weight stabilization. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship of plasma ghrelin concentrati...
Hjorth, Mads Fiil; Due, Anette; Larsen, Thomas Meinert
OBJECTIVE: Levels of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and fasting insulin (FI) were studied as diet-specific prognostic markers for successful weight loss maintenance in participants with overweight. METHODS: After losing ≥ 8% of body weight, participants received one of three ad libitum diets for 6.......12 to -0.43]; P = 0.020). The addition of FI strengthened these associations. CONCLUSIONS: Slightly elevated pretreatment FPG determined success in dietary weight loss maintenance among overweight patients on ad libitum diets differing in macronutrient and fiber content....
Faghri, Pouran D; Simon, Julia; Huedo-Medina, Tania; Gorin, Amy
To evaluate if self-efficacy (SE) and financial incentives (FI) mediate the effect of health behavior on weight loss in a group of overweight and obese nursing-home employees participating in a 16-week weight-loss intervention with 12-week follow-up. Ninety nine overweight/obese (body mass index [BMI] > 25) employees from four nursing-homes participated, with a mean age of 46.98 years and BMI of 35.33. Nursing-homes were randomized to receiving an incentive-based intervention (n = 51) and no incentive (n = 48). Participants' health behaviors and eating and exercise self-efficacy (Ex-SE) were assessed at week 1, 16, and 28 using a self-reported questionnaire. Mediation and moderated mediation analysis assessed relationships among these variables. Eating self-efficacy (Eat-SE) and Ex-SE were significant mediators between health behaviors and weight loss (P self-efficacy (P = 0.00) on weight loss. Self-efficacy and FI may affect weight loss and play a role in weight-loss interventions.
Svane, Maria Saur; Bojsen-Møller, Kirstine N; Madsbad, Sten
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy are referred to as 'metabolic surgery' due to hormonal shifts with impacts on diabetes remission and weight loss. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent findings in mechanisms underlying beneficial effects...... of weight loss surgery. RECENT FINDINGS: Importantly, gut hormone secretion is altered after RYGB and sleeve gastrectomy due to accelerated transit of nutrients to distal parts of the small intestine, leading to excessive release of L-cell peptide hormones [e.g. glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY......; as demonstrated by relapse of impaired glucose tolerance in studies blocking the GLP-1 receptor by exendin 9-39, and later after major weight loss increased peripheral insulin sensitivity. Gut hormone secretion changes towards a more anorectic profile and is likely important for less caloric intake and weight...
Wimmelmann, Cathrine Lawaetz; Dela, Flemming; Mortensen, Erik Lykke
factors are thought to play animportant role for maintaining the surgical weight loss. However, results from priorresearch examining preoperative psychological predictors of weight loss outcomeare inconsistent. The aim of this article was to review more recent literature onpsychological predictors...... studies published after 2003 were included.Results: 19 eligible studies were identified. Psychological predictors of surgicalweight loss investigated in the reviewed studies include cognitive function, per-sonality, psychiatric disorder, and eating behaviour.......Background: Morbid obesity is the fastest growing BMI group in the U.S. and the prevalence of morbid obesity worldwide has never been higher. Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for severe forms of obesity especially with regardto a sustained long-term weight loss. Psychological...
Full Text Available Obesity is a global health issue affecting millions of people of different age groups. The incidence of male obesity induced infertility is rising in couples undergoing ARTs suggesting that obesity is an established risk factor for male infertility. Recent studies demonstrate that paternal diet induced obesity could induce epigenetic disturbances in offspring. Obesity is a multifactorial disorder with predominantly genetic or environmental causes. No studies have compared the effect of genetic and diet induced obesity on male reproduction. The present study aims to delineate effects of obesity on male fertility, spermatogenesis and sperm epigenome using two rat models: genetically induced obese (GIO – WNIN/OB and diet induced obese (DIO – High fat diet. Body weights were similar in both groups, but, differential effects on hormonal profiles were observed. Fertility assessment showed decreased litter size mainly due to increased pre- and post-implantation loss in DIO group. However, GIO group were infertile due to decrease in libido. We observed a decrease in sperm counts in GIO group but not in DIO group despite the body weights being similar in both the groups. Flow cytometry and cell type specific marker expression studies in testis revealed that both DIO and GIO affect mitosis and differentiation process by increasing spermatogonial proliferation. In DIO group, no effect was observed on meiosis whereas in GIO group, we observed an effect on meiosis. Spermiogenesis process was affected in both the groups. In order to study the effect of genetic and diet induced obesity on different aspects of spermatogenesis, we performed qRT-PCR to study expression of genes involved in spermatocyte progression, spermiogenesis process, reproductive hormone receptors and leptin signaling in testis. Since epigenetic mechanisms are susceptible to environmental and genetic changes, we analyzed the methylation status of Igf2-H19 DMR in spermatozoa of both the
Full Text Available Reduced physical activity and almost unlimited availability of food are major contributors to the development of obesity. With the decline of strenuous work, energy expenditure due to spontaneous physical activity has attracted increasing attention. Our aim was to assess changes in energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits in obese subjects aiming at self-directed weight loss. Methods: Energy expenditure and physical activity patterns were measured with a portable armband device. Nutritional habits were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. Results: Data on weight development, energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits were obtained for 105 patients over a six-month period from an initial cohort of 160 outpatients aiming at weight loss. Mean weight loss was −1.5 ± 7.0 kg (p = 0.028. Patients with weight maintenance (n = 75, with substantial weight loss (>5% body weight, n = 20 and with substantial weight gain (>5% body weight, n = 10 did not differ in regard to changes of body weight adjusted energy expenditure components (total energy expenditure: −0.2 kcal/kg/day; non-exercise activity thermogenesis: −0.3 kcal/kg/day; exercise-related activity thermogenesis (EAT: −0.2 kcal/kg/day or patterns of physical activity (duration of EAT: −2 min/day; steps/day: −156; metabolic equivalent unchanged measured objectively with a portable armband device. Self-reported consumption frequency of unfavorable food decreased significantly (p = 0.019 over the six-month period. Conclusions: An increase in energy expenditure or changes of physical activity patterns (objectively assessed with a portable armband device are not employed by obese subjects to achieve self-directed weight loss. However, modified nutritional habits could be detected with the use of a food frequency questionnaire.
Elbelt, Ulf; Schuetz, Tatjana; Knoll, Nina; Burkert, Silke
Reduced physical activity and almost unlimited availability of food are major contributors to the development of obesity. With the decline of strenuous work, energy expenditure due to spontaneous physical activity has attracted increasing attention. Our aim was to assess changes in energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits in obese subjects aiming at self-directed weight loss. Energy expenditure and physical activity patterns were measured with a portable armband device. Nutritional habits were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. Data on weight development, energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits were obtained for 105 patients over a six-month period from an initial cohort of 160 outpatients aiming at weight loss. Mean weight loss was -1.5 ± 7.0 kg (p = 0.028). Patients with weight maintenance (n = 75), with substantial weight loss (>5% body weight, n = 20) and with substantial weight gain (>5% body weight, n = 10) did not differ in regard to changes of body weight adjusted energy expenditure components (total energy expenditure: -0.2 kcal/kg/day; non-exercise activity thermogenesis: -0.3 kcal/kg/day; exercise-related activity thermogenesis (EAT): -0.2 kcal/kg/day) or patterns of physical activity (duration of EAT: -2 min/day; steps/day: -156; metabolic equivalent unchanged) measured objectively with a portable armband device. Self-reported consumption frequency of unfavorable food decreased significantly (p = 0.019) over the six-month period. An increase in energy expenditure or changes of physical activity patterns (objectively assessed with a portable armband device) are not employed by obese subjects to achieve self-directed weight loss. However, modified nutritional habits could be detected with the use of a food frequency questionnaire.
Garaulet, M; Gómez-Abellán, P; Alburquerque-Béjar, J J; Lee, Y-C; Ordovás, J M; Scheer, F A J L
There is emerging literature demonstrating a relationship between the timing of feeding and weight regulation in animals. However, whether the timing of food intake influences the success of a weight-loss diet in humans is unknown. To evaluate the role of food timing in weight-loss effectiveness in a sample of 420 individuals who followed a 20-week weight-loss treatment. Participants (49.5% female subjects; age (mean ± s.d.): 42 ± 11 years; BMI: 31.4 ± 5.4 kg m(-2)) were grouped in early eaters and late eaters, according to the timing of the main meal (lunch in this Mediterranean population). 51% of the subjects were early eaters and 49% were late eaters (lunch time before and after 1500 hours, respectively), energy intake and expenditure, appetite hormones, CLOCK genotype, sleep duration and chronotype were studied. Late lunch eaters lost less weight and displayed a slower weight-loss rate during the 20 weeks of treatment than early eaters (P=0.002). Surprisingly, energy intake, dietary composition, estimated energy expenditure, appetite hormones and sleep duration was similar between both groups. Nevertheless, late eaters were more evening types, had less energetic breakfasts and skipped breakfast more frequently that early eaters (all; Pmeal (P=0.015) with a higher frequency of minor allele (C) carriers among the late eaters (P=0.041). Neither sleep duration, nor CLOCK SNPs or morning/evening chronotype was independently associated with weight loss (all; P>0.05). Eating late may influence the success of weight-loss therapy. Novel therapeutic strategies should incorporate not only the caloric intake and macronutrient distribution - as is classically done - but also the timing of food.
Pan, Qing; Jablonski, Kathleen A.; Aroda, Vanita R.; Watson, Karol E.; Bray, George A.; Kahn, Steven E.; Florez, Jose C.; Perreault, Leigh; Franks, Paul W.
OBJECTIVE This study examined specific measures of weight loss in relation to incident diabetes and improvement in cardiometabolic risk factors. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This prospective, observational study analyzed nine weight measures, characterizing baseline weight, short- versus long-term weight loss, short- versus long-term weight regain, and weight cycling, within the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) lifestyle intervention arm (n = 1,000) for predictors of incident diabetes and improvement in cardiometabolic risk factors over 2 years. RESULTS Although weight loss in the first 6 months was protective of diabetes (hazard ratio [HR] 0.94 per kg, 95% CI 0.90, 0.98; P weight loss from 0 to 2 years was the strongest predictor of reduced diabetes incidence (HR 0.90 per kg, 95% CI 0.87, 0.93; P Weight cycling (defined as number of 5-lb [2.25-kg] weight cycles) ranged 0–6 times per participant and was positively associated with incident diabetes (HR 1.33, 95% CI 1.12, 1.58; P weight, the effect of weight cycling remained statistically significant for diabetes risk (HR 1.22, 95% CI 1.02, 1.47; P = 0.03) but not for cardiometabolic traits. CONCLUSIONS Two-year weight loss was the strongest predictor of reduced diabetes risk and improvements in cardiometabolic traits. PMID:25024396
Ames, Gretchen E; Thomas, Colleen S; Patel, Roshni H; McMullen, Jillian S; Lutes, Lesley D
Attrition is a problem among patients who participate in commercial weight loss programs. One possible explanation is that if patients are unable to reach a weight that they expect to achieve, they may be more likely to drop out of treatment. This study investigated variables associated with attrition among 30 obese patients who completed a liquid meal replacement program (LMR) and enrolled in a 52-week Small Changes Maintenance intervention (SCM). Patients lost a median 18% of body weight during LMR and completed assessments about weight expectations and weight satisfaction pre- and post-SCM. Of the 30 patients who started SCM, 8 (27%) were lost to attrition. Odds of SCM attrition were higher in patients who lost ≤ 18.2% of pre-LMR weight (OR: 12.25, P = 0.035), had lower satisfaction (≤7) pre-SCM (OR: 10.11, P = 0.040), and who expected further weight loss of 9.1 kg or more pre-SCM (OR: 10.11, P = 0.040). SCM completers significantly increased weight loss expectations by a median of 2.3 kg from pre-SCM to post-SCM (WSR P = 0.049) that paralleled weight regained post-SCM (2.7 kg). After completion of a medically-supervised commercial weight loss program, patients with the greatest expectations for further weight loss and the lowest weight satisfaction were more likely to drop out of SCM. Failure to participate in maintenance treatment may lead to regain of greater than half of lost weight over the next year. Among SCM completers, lower expectations for further weight loss and greater weight satisfaction appeared to be associated with continued engagement in maintenance treatment.
Anastasiou, Costas A; Fappa, Evaggelia; Karfopoulou, Eleni; Gkza, Anastasia; Yannakoulia, Mary
Locus of control, i.e. the degree of an individual's belief on the control of his/her life, has been related to many health outcomes, including weight loss in overweight/obese individuals. No information is available on the impact of locus of control in maintaining weight loss. We aimed to investigate the effect of locus of control in weight loss maintenance and explore potential associations with lifestyle factors. Study participants included 239 individuals (41% males) who had lost at least 10% of body weight in the past and either maintained the loss (maintainers: weight maintenance of at least 10% of initial weight) or regained it (regainers). Locus of control was defined by a relevant multi-dimensional scale; participants were categorised to internals and externals, based on "internal" and "others" sub-scales. A significant interaction was found between locus of control and weight loss maintenance status (p locus of control. Individualised treatment, according to locus of control, may increase weight loss maintenance rates in former overweight/obese individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Levine, Michele D.; Kalarchian, Melissa A.; Courcoulas, Anita P.; Wisinski, Meghan S.C.; Marcus, Marsha D.
Smoking cessation often results in weight gain. Although smoking cessation frequently is recommended to patients presenting for weight loss surgery (WLS), the relationship between smoking cessation and weight gain among WLS candidates is poorly understood. Thus, we sought to document the history and prevalence of smoking and smoking-related weight gain among WLS candidates. Subjects (N = 67) presenting for bariatric surgery provided demographic information, were interviewed about smoking, and...
Stubbs, RJ; McConnon, A; Gibbs, M; Raats, M; Whybrow, S
This analysis examined the lifestyle correlates of weight loss maintenance in 1428 participants of a slimming organisation, who had been members for a mean SD of 16 16 months, had lost 13.8% 9.2% weight and were trying to maintain, or increase, their weight loss during a subsequent 6 month study period. Data were collected as part of the DiOGenes study(1). Ethical approval was given by the University of Surrey Ethics Committee. Adults were recruited between August 2006 and July 2008 from Slim...
Masheb, Robin M; Lutes, Lesley D; Kim, Hyungjin Myra; Holleman, Robert G; Goodrich, David E; Janney, Carol A; Kirsh, Susan; Richardson, Caroline R; Damschroder, Laura J
To assess for the frequency of binge eating behavior and its association with weight loss in an overweight/obese sample of veterans. This study is a secondary analysis of data from the ASPIRE study, a randomized effectiveness trial of weight loss among veterans. Of the 481 enrolled veterans with overweight/obesity, binge eating frequency was obtained by survey for 392 (82%). The majority (77.6%) reported binge eating, and 6.1% reported high-frequency binge eating. Those reporting any binge eating lost 1.4% of body weight, decreased waist circumference by 2.0 cm, and had significantly worse outcomes than those reporting never binge eating who lost about double the weight (2.7%) and reduced waist circumference by twice as much (4.2 cm). The high-frequency binge group gained 1.4% of body weight and increased waist circumference by 0.3 cm. High rates of binge eating were observed in an overweight/obese sample of veterans enrolled in weight loss treatment. The presence of binge eating predicted poorer weight loss outcomes. Furthermore, high-frequency binge eating was associated with weight gain. These findings have operational and policy implications for developing effective strategies to address binge eating in the context of behavioral weight loss programs for veterans. © 2014 The Obesity Society.
Feller, Silke; Müller, Astrid; Mayr, Andreas; Engeli, Stefan; Hilbert, Anja; de Zwaan, Martina
Differences between successful long-term weight loss maintainers and the general population with regard to eating and weighing habits, non-normative eating behaviors, and eating-related and general psychopathological parameters are unknown. Self-identified weight loss maintainers from the German Weight Control Registry (GWCR, n = 494) were compared with a representative sample of the general German population (n = 2,129). The samples did not differ in current BMI. Using the same assessment instruments in both cohorts, a variety of eating-related and psychological variables were determined. The GWCR participants reported more self-weighing and higher eating frequency but less hot meal consumption and more eating-out-of-home. Binge eating, compensatory behaviors, and concerns about shape and weight were reported more often by successful weight loss maintainers. Scores of depression and worrying about health were slightly higher whereas severity of somatic symptoms was less pronounced in the GWCR participants. Overall, our data suggest that successful weight loss maintainers are characterized by more concerns about shape and weight, greater binge eating frequency, and higher use of compensatory behaviors. The latter suggests that weight loss maintenance might not only be achieved by healthy strategies but also by non-normative behaviors which might increase the vulnerability for weight regain. © 2015 The Obesity Society.
Meyer, Lene Bomholt; Waaddegaard, Mette; Lau, Marianne Engelbrecht; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine
Binge-eating disorder (BED) is a severe eating disorder strongly associated with obesity. Treatments struggle to provide safe and effective ways of addressing weight in a BED context. This study explored a two-phased treatment for BED developed at a major out-patient eating disorder service in Denmark. The study used interviews and participant observations to gain insight into experiences and processes related to weight and body issues in three treatment contexts that addressed weight stability, weight acceptance, and weight loss. Using systems theory, the study proposed a relational weight problem that embeds feelings of non-acceptance due to weight, a merge of weight and identity, and an internalized body- and weight-critical gaze of others. Contrary to critical claims that weight acceptance discourages people with obesity from engaging in weight loss efforts, this study suggests that acceptance and a disentanglement of weight and identity are prerequisites for weight loss for this group.
Varghese, Sharon; Kubatka, Peter; Rodrigo, Luis; Gazdikova, Katarina; Caprnda, Martin; Fedotova, Julia; Zulli, Anthony; Kruzliak, Peter; Büsselberg, Dietrich
Chili has culinary as well as medical importance. Studies in humans, using a wide range of doses of chili intake (varying from a single meal to a continuous uptake for up to 12 weeks), concluded that it facilitates weight loss. In regard to this, the main targets of chili are fat metabolism, energy expenditure, and thermogenesis. To induce weight loss, the active substance of chili, capsaicin, activates Transient Receptor Potential Cation Channel sub-family V member 1 (TRPV1) channels) receptors causing an increase in intracellular calcium levels and triggering the sympathetic nervous system. Apart from TRPV1, chili directly reduces energy expenditure by activating Brown Adipose Tissue. Weight loss by chili is also the result of an improved control of insulin, which supports weight management and has positive effects for treatment for diseases like obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disorders. This review summarizes the major pathways by which chili contributes to ameliorating parameters that help weight management and how the consumption of chili can help in accelerating weight loss through dietary modifications.
Henriksen, M; Christensen, R; Hunter, D J
OBJECTIVE: To compare structural knee joint changes in obese patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) that after an intensive weight loss therapy were randomized to continuous dietetic support, a specialized knee exercise program, or 'no attention' for 1 year. METHODS: 192 obese individuals with knee...... OA underwent an intensive 16-week weight loss program with subsequent randomization to one of the three treatment groups. Changes in cartilage loss, bone marrow lesions (BMLs), synovitis, and effusion were assessed using semi quantitative assessments of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) obtained...... (difference: -0.21 [95%CI -0.40:-0.03]) and "no attention" (difference: -0.26 [95%CI -0.44:-0.07]) groups. CONCLUSION: In this 1 year follow-up after weight-loss in obese knee OA patients, we found a potentially increased number of BMLs in the exercise group compared to the diet and no attention groups...
Full Text Available Emily L Whitcomb1, Leslee L Subak21Southern California Permanente Medical Group, Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery, Orange County-Irvine Medical Center, Irvine, CA, USA; 2University of California San Francisco, UCSF Departments of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, and Urology, and Epidemiology and Biostatistics, SF Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, CA, USABackground: The purpose of this research was review the epidemiology of the association of obesity and urinary incontinence, and to summarize the published data on the effect of weight loss on urinary incontinence.Methods: A literature review of the association between urinary incontinence and overweight/obesity in women was performed. Case series and clinical trials reporting the effect of surgical, behavioral, and/or pharmacological weight loss on urinary incontinence are summarized.Results: Epidemiological studies demonstrate that obesity is a strong and independent risk factor for prevalent and incident urinary incontinence. There is a clear dose-response effect of weight on urinary incontinence, with each 5-unit increase in body mass index associated with a 20%–70% increase in risk of urinary incontinence. The maximum effect of weight on urinary incontinence has an odds ratio of 4–5. The odds of incident urinary incontinence over 5–10 years increase by approximately 30%–60% for each 5-unit increase in body mass index. There appears to be a stronger association between increasing weight and prevalent and incident stress incontinence (including mixed incontinence than for urge incontinence. Weight loss studies indicate that both surgical and nonsurgical weight loss leads to significant improvements in prevalence, frequency, and/or symptoms of urinary incontinence.Conclusion: Epidemiological studies document overweight and obesity as important risk factors for urinary incontinence. Weight loss by both surgical and more conservative
Whitcomb, Emily L; Subak, Leslee L
Background The purpose of this research was review the epidemiology of the association of obesity and urinary incontinence, and to summarize the published data on the effect of weight loss on urinary incontinence. Methods A literature review of the association between urinary incontinence and overweight/obesity in women was performed. Case series and clinical trials reporting the effect of surgical, behavioral, and/or pharmacological weight loss on urinary incontinence are summarized. Results Epidemiological studies demonstrate that obesity is a strong and independent risk factor for prevalent and incident urinary incontinence. There is a clear dose-response effect of weight on urinary incontinence, with each 5-unit increase in body mass index associated with a 20%–70% increase in risk of urinary incontinence. The maximum effect of weight on urinary incontinence has an odds ratio of 4–5. The odds of incident urinary incontinence over 5–10 years increase by approximately 30%–60% for each 5-unit increase in body mass index. There appears to be a stronger association between increasing weight and prevalent and incident stress incontinence (including mixed incontinence) than for urge incontinence. Weight loss studies indicate that both surgical and nonsurgical weight loss leads to significant improvements in prevalence, frequency, and/or symptoms of urinary incontinence. Conclusion Epidemiological studies document overweight and obesity as important risk factors for urinary incontinence. Weight loss by both surgical and more conservative approaches is effective in reducing urinary incontinence symptoms and should be strongly considered as a first line treatment for overweight and obese women with urinary incontinence. PMID:24198645
modification of diet-induced WL alone, or with AEX training, results in a significant reduction of the fat infiltration in the abdominal and spinal muscles of the trunk region. Our finding that losses of total body fat predict a reduction in the IMAT of the trunk supports the idea that WL reduces fat depots throughout the body. Keywords: dieting, intramuscular fat, aging, mobility, obesity
Koppo, Katrien; Siklová-Vitková, Michaela; Klimcáková, Eva
The aim of this study was to investigate the evolution of the adrenergic and insulin-mediated regulation of lipolysis during different phases of a 6-mo dietary intervention. Eight obese women underwent a 6-mo dietary intervention consisting of a 1-mo very low-calorie diet (VLCD) followed by a 2-mo...
Polák, J.; Kováčová, Z.; Jacek, M.; Klimčáková, E.; Kováčiková, M.; Vítková, M.; Kuda, Ondřej; Šebela, M.; Samcová, E.; Štich, V.
Roč. 112, č. 11 (2007), s. 557-565 ISSN 0143-5221 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : adiponectin * adipose tissue * dietary intervention Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 3.900, year: 2007
K.A.C. Berk (Kirsten); R. Vongpromek (Ranitha); M. Jiang (Meizi); W.J. Schneider (Wolfgang); R. Timman (Reinier); A.J.M. Verhoeven; H. Bujo (Hideaki); E.J.G. Sijbrands (Eric); M.T. Mulder (Monique)
markdownabstract__Background and aims__ Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major complication in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), especially in those with obesity. Plasma soluble low density lipoprotein receptor-relative with 11 ligand-binding repeats (sLR11) plays a role in the development of
Alsanea, Sary; Gao, Mingming; Liu, Dexi
Reactive oxygen species generated as a by-product in metabolism play a central role in the development of obesity and obesity-related metabolic complications. The objective of the current study is to explore the possibility to block obesity and improve metabolic homeostasis via phloretin, a natural antioxidant product from apple tree leaves and Manchurian apricot. Both preventive and therapeutic activities of phloretin were assessed using a high-fat diet-induced obesity mouse model. Phloretin was injected intraperitoneally twice weekly into regular and obese mice fed a high-fat diet. The effects of phloretin treatment on body weight and composition, fat content in the liver, glucose and lipid metabolism, and insulin resistance were monitored and compared to the control animals. Phloretin treatment significantly blocks high-fat diet-induced weight gain but did not induce weight loss in obese animals. Phloretin improved glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity and alleviated hepatic lipid accumulation. RT-PCR analysis showed that phloretin treatment suppresses expression of macrophage markers (F4/80 and Cd68) and pro-inflammatory genes (Mcp-1 and Ccr2) and enhances adiponectin gene expression in white adipose tissue. In addition, phloretin treatment elevated the expression of fatty acid oxidation genes such as carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a and 1b (Cpt1a and Cpt1b) and reduced expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (Mcp-1), de novo lipogenesis transcriptional factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ 2 (Pparγ2), and its target monoacylglycerol O-acyltransferase (Mgat-1) genes. These results provide direct evidence to support a possible use of phloretin for mitigation of obesity and maintenance of metabolic homeostasis.
Full Text Available Catherine Rolland, Michelle Hession, Iain BroomCentre for Obesity Research and Epidemiology, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, Scotland, UKBackground: Adipose tissue functions as an endocrine organ by releasing adipokines which have important roles in the regulation of inflammation and insulin sensitivity. Although there is evidence of improvement in circulating levels of adipokines with weight loss, few studies relate such changes to specific diets. We investigated the effects of weight loss achieved by two different diets on circulating adipokine levels in obese individuals.Methods: A total of 120 obese patients (body mass index ≥ 35 kg/m2 underwent a three-month screening period on a low-fat, reduced-calorie diet. Patients failing to achieve a 5% weight loss using this approach were randomly allocated to either a low carbohydrate/high protein diet (n = 17 or to a commercial very low calorie diet (LighterLife®, n = 14 for a period of nine months.Results: At nine months, a significant weight loss was only maintained for LighterLife® (−32.3 ± 22.7 kg, P < 0.0001 but not on the low carbohydrate/high protein diet. Changes in adiponectin (15.8 ± 17.1 ng/mL versus −0.8 ± 6.2 ng/mL, P = 0.003 and leptin (−17.6 ± 24.3 ng/mL versus −3.0 ± 9.2 ng/mL, P = 0.049 at nine months were significantly greater for LighterLife® than for the low carbohydrate/high protein diet, which may reflect greater weight loss and decrease in fat mass. Changes in tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 did not differ significantly between the dietary interventions at nine months.Conclusion: A significant weight loss of 23.8% from baseline weight was observed using a very low calorie diet and resulted in significant improvements in circulating levels of leptin, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1, and adiponectin, which are likely to be due to weight loss and not macronutrient intake.Keywords: weight loss
content of ad libitum diets produces weight loss in both the short-term and over periods as long as 7 years. A fat-reduced diet, combined with physical activity, reduces all risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and reduces the incidence of type 2 diabetes. The combination of reduction of dietary fat...... and energy, and increased physical activity, has been shown to reduce the incidence of diabetes by 58% in two major trials. In post hoc analyses the reduction in dietary fat (energy density) and increase in fibre were the strongest predictors of weight loss and diabetes protective effects. It remains...... to be shown whether a low-glycemic index diet provides benefits beyond this. Low-carbohydrate diets may be an option for inducing weight loss in obese patients, but a very low intake of carbohydrate-rich foods is not commensurate with a healthy and palatable diet in the long term. However, there is evidence...
Karfopoulou, Eleni; Brikou, Dora; Mamalaki, Eirini; Bersimis, Fragiskos; Anastasiou, Costas A; Hill, James O; Yannakoulia, Mary
The dietary habits contributing to weight loss maintenance are not sufficiently understood. We studied weight loss maintainers in comparison with regainers, to identify the differentiating behaviors. The MedWeight study is a Greek registry of weight loss maintainers and regainers. Participants had intentionally lost ≥10 % of their weight and either had maintained this loss for over a year, or had regained weight. Questionnaires on demographics and lifestyle habits were completed online. Dietary assessment was carried out by two telephone 24-h recalls. Present analysis focused on 361 participants (32 years old, 39 % men): 264 maintainers and 97 regainers. Energy and macronutrient intake did not differ by maintenance status (1770 ± 651 kcal in maintainers vs. 1845 ± 678 kcal in regainers, p = 0.338), although protein intake per kg of body weight was higher in maintainers (1.02 ± 0.39 vs. 0.83 ± 0.28 g/kg in regainers, p meal preparation and eating at home for men, and a higher eating frequency and slower eating rate for women. Men maintaining weight loss were much more likely to adhere to a healthy eating pattern. Eating at home, involvement in meal preparation, higher eating frequency and slower eating rate were also associated with maintenance. These lifestyle habits of successful maintainers provide target behaviors to improve obesity treatment.
Hammond, Douglas; Williams, Rhodri W; Juj, Kiranjit; O'Connell, Susan; Isherwood, Grant; Hammond, Nichola
To analyse weight change, body composition change and Body Mass Index change in patients undergoing orthognathic surgery. A service evaluation was undertaken in orthognathic patients pre-operatively and at 4 weeks post-surgery. Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham outpatient department. Thirty-one patients scheduled for single- or two-jaw orthognathic surgery and rigid internal fixation. Immediately pre-operatively and at 4 weeks post-surgery the following information was gathered: (1) patient height; (2) patient weight (kg); (3) Patient Body Mass Index; and (4) patient body fat percentage. In the 4-week post-operative period, the average weight loss was -4·96 kg (range: -9·6 to +3·0 kg), with a body fat reduction of -3·07% (range: -5·80% to +2·30%) and an average reduction in Body Mass Index of -1·63 (range: -3·4 to +0·8). There was no statistically significant difference in weight loss (P = 0·1562) or body fat composition change (P = 0·2391) between single- or two-jaw surgery. There was no statistically significant difference in weight loss (P = 0·4858) or body fat composition change (P = 0·5321) between male and female patients. Weight loss observed was similar to that reported in studies using inter-maxillary fixation. Closer psychological and dietetic support is needed for patients who have a low normal or underweight Body Mass Index. Better and more bespoke tailored Oral Nutritional Supplementation must be provided for all orthognathic surgery patients to potentially reduce this significant weight loss.
Full Text Available Background: The high prevalence of obesity among commercial truck drivers may be related to sedentary nature of the job, lack of healthy eating choices, and lack of exercise. There may be a link between obesity and crash risk, therefore an intervention to reduce obesity in this population is needed. Objective: To assess feasibility of a 12-week weight loss intervention for truck drivers with a weight loss goal of 10% of initial body weight. Methods: Drivers were selected based on age (≥21 years and body mass index (≥30 kg/m2. The drivers participated in a before-after clinical trial. The intervention included a 12-week program that provided information on healthy diet and increasing exercise, and telephone-based coaching using SMART goals. Outcomes included change from baseline in reported energy intake, measured weight, waist, hip, and neck circumference, blood pressure, and point of care capillary blood lipids and hemoglobin A1c. Exit interviews were conducted to gain insight into driver opinions on the program features and usefulness. This study was registered with the NIH Clinical Trials Registry, number NCT02348983. Results: 12 of 13 drivers completed the study. Weight loss was statistically significant (p=0.03. Reported energy (p=0.005, total fat consumption (p=0.04, and saturated fat consumption (p=0.02 intake were also lower after the 12-week intervention. Drivers attributed their weight loss to health coaching and suggested a longer intervention so that they could reach their goal and become accustomed to the changes. Conclusion: This weight loss intervention is feasible for this difficult population. Additional research is needed to compare this intervention with a control group.
Stephens, Janna; Moscou-Jackson, Gyasi; Allen, Jerilyn K.
Overweight and obesity are a major concern in young adults. Technology has been integrated into many weight loss interventions; however little is known about the use of this technology in young adults. The purpose of this study was to explore through focus group sessions the opinions of young adults on the use of technology for weight loss. A total of 17 young adults, between 18 and 25 years of age, participated in three focus group sessions. Major results indicated that young adults have ver...
Waring, W S; McKnight, J A
We report a recent clinical case of an elderly patient who presented with weight loss and fatigue and who was diagnosed with hyperthyroidism. Some time later, he was discovered to have underlying oesophageal lymphoma. The latter diagnosis was believed to contribute, at least in part, to his symptoms at the time of initial presentation. The case illustrates the potential difficulties associated with establishing the diagnosis of oesophageal lymphoma. Furthermore, symptoms of weight loss and fatigue are commonly encountered in general medical patients. This case reminded us that even when a diagnosis of hyperthyroidism has been established, these symptoms may be attributable to other pathology.
Christensen, Robin; Hansen, Julie Bolvig; Lund, Hans
This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (Intervention). The objectives are as follows: To determine the benefits and harms associated with weight loss in overweight individuals with knee or hip osteoarthritis in terms of pain, physical function, quality of life, and safety. Further we will have...... an explicit focus on quality of the weight loss intervention (including magnitude and intensity) (Herbert 2005), to see whether there is a dose-response relationship at the trial (i.e. group) level....
Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate the incidence of weight gain and hair loss as adverse effects of anti-TNF therapy in rheumatic diseases. Methods. Patients using anti-TNF therapy, who are followed in rheumatology clinic, were interviewed using a questionnaire to investigate the side effects of anti-TNF therapy. Patients who complained of hair loss and weight gain were asked additional questions concerning the relationship of these adverse effects to anti-TNF use, whether therapy was stopped because of these adverse effects and if the adverse effects reversed after stopping therapy. The files were reviewed to follow the weight change before, during, and after discontinuation of anti-TNF. Results. One hundred fifty consecutive patients (82 RA, 34 ankylosing spondylitis, 32 psoriatic arthritis, and 4 for other indications were interviewed .Weight gain was observed in 20 patients (13.3% with average gain of 5.5 Kg. Anti-TNF was stopped in five patients because of this adverse effect. Hair loss during anti-TNf therapy was reported in five females (3.3% and anti-TNF therapy was stopped in all of them. Conclusion. Weight gain and hair loss appear to be associated with anti-TNF therapy and may be one reason for discontinuing the therapy.
Franco, Ruth Rocha; Cominato, Louise; Damiani, Durval
To evaluate the effect of sibutramine on weight loss in obese adolescents. A double-blind controlled study lasting 13 months. The study included 73 obese adolescents of both sexes aged between 10 and 18 years. Laboratory tests and imaging studies were performed before, during wash-out, and at the end of 13 months. The percentage of patients who lost 10% of their initial weight in the placebo group was 46%, and in the sibutramine group was 75%. When placebo was used, average weight rose by 1.61 kg, and BMI decreased by 0.24 kg/m(2) whereas with the use of sibutramine, weight decreased by 4.47 kg, and average BMI decreased, 2.38 kg/m(2), with p Sibutramine induced significantly more weight loss in obese adolescents compared with placebo, without significant side effects. The weight loss curve was different depending on the moment sibutramine was introduced. This finding indicates that the best time to start sibutramine is when adhesion begins to fail.
Monereo Megías, Susana; Arnoriaga Rodríguez, María; Olmedilla Ishishi, Yoko Lucía; Martínez de Icaya, Purificación
Obesity is a very prevalent disease with multiple chronic complications that decrease or disappear after a small (5-10%) but maintained weight loss. Nevertheless, maintaining weight loss after the treatment is very difficult and it involves one of the biggest challenges to control this epidemic. Although the reasons that contribute to regain the lost weight are diverse and related to the biological response to caloric restriction and the lack of adherence to treatment, up to 20% of the patients are able to keep it off. The keys to success, involve the maintenance of healthy habits, exercise and a reasonable daily calorie intake to allow a normal way of life, without sacrificing the social life. At this point, learning to distinguish food and drink options in a society where social life often revolves around the table is very important. We review the keys to keep the weight off after a diet as well as the role of fermented beverages such as beer, in this process. In conclusion, maintenance the weight loss is harder than losing it. The mild-to-moderate consumption of fermented beverages such as beer is not associated with weight increase.
Full Text Available Bradley Curtis1, Risa P Hayes1, Sheri Fehnel2, Laurie Zografos21Global Health Outcomes, Eli Lilly and Co, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 2RTI Health Solutions, Research Triangle Park, NC, USAAbstract: The objective of this study was to assess specific areas of life in which obesity affects individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, and changes that obese persons with T2DM experience with weight loss of varying degrees. Thirty in-depth interviews were conducted in persons identified as: age ≥40 years, diagnosed with T2DM for ≥2 years, on oral antihyperglycemic medications >3 months, BMI 30–35 kg/m2, having attempted to lose weight in the last 2 years. Participants (60% female, mean age 53 years, 53% Caucasian, mean BMI 32.2 kg/m2 agreed that 5% weight loss, while not reflective of an ultimate goal, would be meaningful and important; benefits were expected to accrue in physical functioning, self-confidence, blood glucose levels, and motivation to keep losing weight. Participants reported the greatest effect of weight loss on energy, physical activity, mobility, pain, and clothes/appearance. Participants reported weight affecting mood, with feelings of depression and frustration most commonly described. This research indicates that weight loss is likely to affect health-related quality of life in obese individuals with T2DM. Given the purported weight loss benefits of many emerging diabetic medications, it will be important to include measures of weight-related quality of life in future clinical trials of these agents.Keywords: health-related quality of life, obesity, type 2 diabetes, weight loss, patient-reported outcomes
Elisabeth Annie Lambert
Full Text Available Sympathetic activation in subjects with the metabolic syndrome (MS plays a role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease development. Diet-induced weight loss decreases sympathetic outflow. However the mechanisms that account for sympathetic inhibition are not known. We sought to provide a detailed description of the sympathetic response to diet by analyzing the firing behavior of single-unit sympathetic nerve fibres. Fourteen subjects (57±2 years, 9 men, 5 females fulfilling ATP III criteria for the MS underwent a 3-month low calorie diet. Metabolic profile, hemodynamic parameters and multi-unit and single unit muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA, microneurography were assessed prior to and at the end of the diet. Patients’ weight dropped from 96±4 to 88±3 kg (P<0.001. This was associated with a decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure (-12 ±3 and -5±2 mmHg, P<0.05, and in heart rate (-7±2 bpm, P<0.01 and an improvement in all metabolic parameters (fasting glucose: -0.302.1±0.118 mmol/l, total cholesterol: -0.564±0.164 mmol/l, triglycerides: -0.414±0.137 mmol/l, P<0.05. Multi-unit MSNA decreased from 68±4 to 59±5 bursts per 100 heartbeats (P<0.05. Single-unit MSNA indicated that the firing rate of individual vasoconstrictor fibres decreased from 59±10 to 32±4 spikes per 100 heart beats (P<0.05. The probability of firing decreased from 34±5 to 23±3 % of heartbeats (P<0.05, and the incidence of multiple firing decreased from 14±4 to 6±1 % of heartbeats (P<0.05. Cardiac and sympathetic baroreflex function were significantly improved (cardiac slope: 6.57±0.69 to 9.57±1.20 msec.mmHg-1; sympathetic slope: -3.86±0.34 to -5.05±0.47 bursts per 100 heartbeats.mmHg-1 P<0.05 for both. Hypocaloric diet decreased sympathetic activity and improved hemodynamic and metabolic parameters. The sympathoinhibition associated with weight loss involves marked changes, not only in the rate but also in the firing pattern of
Kunešová, M; Hlavatý, P; Tvrzická, E
Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue changes with weight loss. Palmitoleic acid as a possible marker of endogenous lipogenesis or its functions as a lipokine are under debate. Objective was to assess the predictive role of adipose triglycerides fatty acids in weight maintenance in participants...... of the DIOGENES dietary intervention study. After an 8-week low calorie diet (LCD) subjects with > 8 % weight loss were randomized to 5 ad libitum weight maintenance diets for 6 months: low protein (P)/low glycemic index (GI) (LP/LGI), low P/high GI (LP/HGI), high P/low GI (HP/LGI), high P/high GI (HP....../HGI), and a control diet. Fatty acid composition in adipose tissue triglycerides was determined by gas chromatography in 195 subjects before the LCD (baseline), after LCD and weight maintenance. Weight change after the maintenance phase was positively correlated with baseline adipose palmitoleic (16:1n-7...
Kooy, van der K.
This thesis describes the effects of weight loss and subsequent weight regain on body composition, fat distribution and resting energy expenditure in moderately obese men and moderately obese premenopausal women. Participants were subjected to a controlled 4.2 MJ/day energy deficit diet for
Jaramillo-Sánchez, Rosalba; Espinosa-de Santillana, Irene; Espíndola-Jaramillo, Ilia Angélica
to determine the association between weight loss and family functioning. a cohort of 168 persons with overweight or obesity from 20-49 years, either sex, with no comorbidity was studied at the nutrition department. A sociodemographic data was obtained and FACES III instrument to measure family functioning was applied. At the third month a new assessment of the body mass index was measured. Descriptive statistical analysis and relative risk were done. obesity presented in 50.6 %, 59.53 % of them did not lose weight. Family dysfunction was present in 56.6 % of which 50 % did not lose weight. From 43.4 % of functional families, 9.52 % did not lose weight (p = 0.001). The probability or risk of not losing weight was to belong to a dysfunctional family is 4.03 % (CI = 2.60-6.25). A significant association was found between the variables: weight loss and family functioning. Belonging to a dysfunctional family may be a risk factor for not losing weight.
Theim, Kelly R; Brown, Joshua D; Juarascio, Adrienne S; Malcolm, Robert R; O'Neil, Patrick M
Greater self-regulatory behavior usage is associated with greater weight loss within behavioral weight loss treatments. Hedonic hunger (i.e., susceptibility to environmental food cues) may impede successful behavior change and weight loss. Adult men and women (N = 111, body mass index M ± SD = 35.89 ± 6.97 kg/m(2)) were assessed before and after a 15-week lifestyle change weight loss program with a partial meal-replacement diet. From pre- to post-treatment, reported weight control behavior usage improved and hedonic hunger decreased, and these changes were inversely related. Individuals with higher hedonic hunger scores at baseline showed the greatest weight loss. Similarly, participants with lower baseline use of weight control behaviors lost more weight, and increased weight control behavior usage was associated with greater weight loss-particularly among individuals with low baseline hedonic hunger. Further study is warranted regarding the significance of hedonic hunger in weight loss treatments.
Compared with the general population, individuals with schizophrenia demonstrate an increased prevalence of obesity. While most antipsychotics are associated with weight gain, certain second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) appear to be especially problematic. Weight gain and obesity are highly distressing to these patients, can reduce treatment adherence, and may increase the relative risk of serious medical conditions and all-cause premature mortality. The selection of an antipsychotic on the basis of its effectiveness and relative side effect profile is recognized as an important initial consideration in the treatment of schizophrenia. However, less is known regarding the efficacy of dietary, pharmacologic, and behavioral therapy in reducing antipsychotic-related weight gain and obesity. Behavioral therapy, in particular, is understudied, and there are relatively few controlled trials of its effectiveness in reducing SGA-induced weight gain. Although weight loss resulting from behavioral therapy has been observed mostly as a result of effective short-term interventions, controlled behavioral studies do exist to suggest that weight can be controlled long term. In addition, a small pilot study in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder recently demonstrated that behavioral therapy that utilizes stepped interventions, involving body weight self-monitoring, diet, and exercise, can prevent weight gain in patients initiating treatment with SGAs. Additional studies of behavioral therapy for long-term weight control in patients with schizophrenia and other forms of severe mental illness are warranted.
Minaker, Leia M; Leatherdale, Scott T
Youth smoking and obesity may both be mediated by weight control behaviors and experiences of bullying. This study examines associations between smoking and obesity among youth, and explores whether associations are mediated by weight loss attempts or bullying experiences. Data from 24,173 grade 9 to 12 students in the COMPASS study (2012-13) were used to examine the prevalence of self-reported smoking, weight status, attempting to lose weight, and being a victim of bullying. Generalized linear mixed effects models were used to examine correlates of smoking. Among youth, 11% reported currently smoking, 20% were overweight or obese, 42% reported attempting to lose weight, and 18% reported being bullied. Girls who reported attempting to lose weight had higher odds of smoking (OR = 1.42, p = .0039), and students who reported being bullied had higher odds of smoking (OR = 1.85, p weight status. For girls, weight loss attempts were associated with smoking. For both sexes, being bullied was associated with smoking, independent of weight status. Programs attempting to reduce smoking among youth should consider the effects of weight control behaviors and bullying irrespective of weight status.
Jensen, Kirstin D.
The program described here shows how Extension can be a strong collaborative partner in a rural setting in improving the overall health of the community by organizing a three month "Biggest Loser" Weight Loss Challenge. A pre-and post-fitness assessment and bi-weekly weigh-ins were administered. Three healthy lifestyle educational…
Jeffers, Amy J.; Vatalaro Hill, Katherine E.; Benotsch, Eric G.
Objective: The present study examined energy drink consumption and relations with weight loss attempts and behaviors, body image, and eating disorders. Participants/Methods: This is a secondary analysis using data from 856 undergraduate students who completed the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II…
Kitzinger, Hugo B; Abayev, Sara; Pittermann, Anna; Karle, Birgit; Bohdjalian, Arthur; Langer, Felix B; Prager, Gerhard; Frey, Manfred
Massive weight loss following bariatric surgery leads to excess skin with functional and aesthetic impairments. Surplus skin can then contribute to problems with additional weight loss or gain. The aims of the current study were to evaluate the frequency of massive soft tissue development in gastric bypass patients, to determine whether males and females experience similar post-bypass body changes, and to learn about the expectations and impairments related to body contouring surgery. A questionnaire addressing information on the satisfaction of body image, quality of life, and expectation of body contouring surgery following massive weight loss was mailed to 425 patients who had undergone gastric bypass surgery between 2003 and 2009. Of these 425 individuals, 252 (59%) patients completed the survey. Ninety percent of women and 88% of men surveyed rated their appearance following massive weight loss as satisfactory, good, or very good. However, 96% of all patients developed surplus skin, which caused intertriginous dermatitis and itching. In addition, patients reported problems with physical activity (playing sports) and finding clothing that fit appropriately. Moreover, 75% of female and 68% of male patients reported desiring body contouring surgery. The most important expectation of body contouring surgery was improved appearance, followed by improved self-confidence and quality of life. Surplus skin resulting from gastric bypass surgery is a common issue that causes functional and aesthetic impairments in patients. Consequently, this increases the desire for body contouring surgery with high expectations for the aesthetic outcome as well as improved life satisfaction.
... energy. During this complex biochemical process, calories in food and beverages are combined with oxygen to release the energy ... Aug. 7, 2017. Obesity for Adults, Prevention and Management of. ... weight loss. Food and Drug Administration. https://www.fda.gov/ForConsumers/ ...
Lim, S.; O'Reilly, S.; Behrens, H.
Post-partum weight loss is critical to preventing and managing obesity in women, but the results from lifestyle interventions are variable and the components associated with successful outcomes are not yet clearly identified. This study aimed to identify lifestyle intervention strategies associated...
"ies in maintaining weight loss. A study of unsuccessful dieters focused on a group of 50 obese subjects who had previously joined a slimming organisation, but who had dropped out. They were interviewed with emphasis on factors relating to ...
Split-bamboo samples conditioned to 11.76% moisture content were converted to test specimens for Percentage Weight Loss (PWL) and treated with mechanically extracted neem seed oil at two different treatment temperature regimes by completely soaking a set in oil at ambient room temperature of 25 ± 2oC for 24 hours ...
Background: Although postmenopausal associated disorders are important public health problems worldwide, to date limited studies evaluated the endothelial function and systemic inflammation response to weight loss in obese postmenopausal women. Objective: This study was done to evaluate the endothelial function ...
Objectives: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of abnormal eating attitudes and weight-loss behaviour in female Jewish adolescents. Teachersf awareness of these factors and their attitudes towards a school programme to address these were also investigated. Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted.
Full Text Available Obesity and related diseases of the metabolic syndrome contribute to the major health problems in industrialized countries. Alterations in the metabolism of lipid classes and lipid species may significantly be involved in these metabolic overload diseases. However, little is known about specific lipid species in this syndrome and existing data are contradictive.In this study, we quantified plasma lipid species by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS in obese subjects before and after 3 month weight loss as well as in a control group.The comparison of obese subjects with control subjects before weight loss revealed significantly lower lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC concentrations in obesity. LPC concentrations did not significantly increase during the observed period in the weight loss group. Analysis of LPC species revealed a decrease of most species in obesity and negative correlations with C-reactive protein (CRP and body mass index (BMI. Correlating BMI ratio before and after weight loss with the ratio of total LPC and individual LPC species revealed significant negative relationships of LPC ratios with BMI ratio.Our findings contribute to the contradictive discussion of the role of LPC in obesity and related chronic inflammation strongly supporting pre-existing data in the literature that show a decrease of LPC species in plasma of obese and a potentially anti-inflammatory role in these subjects.
Geiker, Nina; Myint, Khin Swe; Heck, Patrick
Aims: The risk of heart failure (HF) increases with BMI, but paradoxically obesity has been associated with reduced mortality in patients with HF. The effect of intentional or therapeutic weight loss on HF is not well known. We examined the effect of weight loss induced by low energy diet (LED......) on physical performance and cardiovascular risk factors in obese patients with moderate-to-severe HF and/or ischaemic heart disease (IHD). Methods and Results: Results from two weight loss interventions at two centres, one in Denmark (DK - 12 week intervention in 21 subjects (14 LED, 7 controls)) and one.......1 in the intervention group versus -22.1% ± 25.6 in the control group (P=0.000). Treatment also improved triglycerides (P=0.000), very low lipoprotein (P=0.001) and C-reactive protein (P=0.010). Conclusion: Weight loss induced by LED in obese patients with moderate-to-severe HF or IHD resulted in clinically significant...
Worksites are increasingly being used as locations for implementing healthy diet and weight loss interventions. Hence, there is an urgent need to identify programs that are both successful and sustainable. We conducted a 6-month pilot randomized controlled trial in overweight and obese employees a...
Stombaugh, Angela M.
Self-management of a disease is defined as "having or being able to obtain, the skills and resources necessary to best accommodate to the chronic disease and its consequences" (Holman & Lorig, 1992, p. 309). Self-management has been used in the management of several chronic conditions and this model may be useful in the management of weight loss.…
Sabinsky, Marianne; Toft, U. N.; Raben, A.
motive for losing weight was a strong desire to become more effective and a greater asset for one's workplace. Overweight subjects were considered less effective and attractive for the labour market. Conclusion: This study indicates that if men from lower socioeconomic backgrounds are to be motivated......Objective: To explore motivation and perceived barriers towards weight loss among Danish men. Design: The study was of an explorative nature, using qualitative focus group interviews as a method. Setting: Copenhagen, Denmark. Subjects: Twenty-two overweight men, at the age of 25-44 years...... and motivated for weight loss, were recruited and distributed into four focus groups. The men were primarily unskilled workers. Overall 13 men participated and each group contained three or four participants. Intervention: The interview guide was partly structured, partly unstructured and the themes...
Nazeri, Alireza; Massumi, Ali; Wilson, James M; Frank, Christopher M; Bensler, Michael; Cheng, Jie; Saeed, Mohammad; Rasekh, Abdi; Razavi, Mehdi
We examined nonprescription weight-loss supplements marketed on the Internet for ingredients with potential arrhythmogenic and life-threatening cardiac adverse effects. We aimed to define the risks of life-threatening cardiac adverse effects that are associated with weight-loss supplements marketed on the Internet. We entered the key words "weight-loss supplements" and "diet pills" into three popular Internet search engines. The top four nonoverlapping hits from each search engine were purchased. After receipt, the products and their ingredient lists were inspected, and Medline and the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database were searched for reports of significant associations between each ingredient and various key words for life-threatening cardiac adverse effects. All supplements had the list of ingredients on the label. We identified 60 different ingredients (7.25 +/- 4.66 per supplement; range 1-21). Eleven ingredients representing eight different substances (because multiple names were used for some substances) were each associated with two or more reports of life-threatening cardiac complications or death. Eight of the 12 products contained one or more such ingredients, but none of these eight products had warnings about life-threatening cardiac adverse effects on the Web pages, on the labels, or in the package inserts. One product contained ma huang (Chinese ephedra), even though the marketing of ephedra-containing products is banned in the United States. The Internet provides easy access to weight-loss supplements, several of which contain ingredients with potentially life-threatening adverse effects. There is a need for increased public education and awareness regarding such weight-loss products.
Barata José T
Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to analyze pretreatment predictors of short-term weight loss in Portuguese overweight and obese women involved in a weight management program. Behavioral and psychosocial predictors were selected a priori from previous results reported in American women who participated in a similar program. Methods Subjects were 140 healthy overweight/obese women (age, 38.3 ± 5.9 y; BMI, 30.3 ± 3.7 kg/m2 who participated in a 4-month lifestyle weight loss program consisting of group-based behavior therapy to improve diet and increase physical activity. At baseline, all women completed a comprehensive behavioral and psychosocial battery, in standardized conditions. Results Of all starting participants, 3.5% (5 subjects did not finish the program. By treatment's end, more than half of all women had met the recomended weight loss goals, despite a large variability in individual results (range for weight loss = 19 kg. In bivariate and multivariate correlation/regression analysis fewer previous diets and weight outcome evaluations, and to a lesser extent self-motivation and body image were significant and independent predictors of weight reduction, before and after adjustment for baseline weight. A negative and slightly curvilinear relationship best described the association between outcome evaluations and weight change, revealing that persons with very accepting evaluations (that would accept or be happy with minimal weight change lost the least amount of weight while positive but moderate evaluations of outcomes (i.e., neither low nor extremely demanding were more predictive of success. Among those subjects who reported having initiated more than 3–4 diets in the year before the study, very few were found to be in the most successful group after treatment. Quality of life, self-esteem, and exercise variables did not predict outcomes. Conclusions Several variables were confirmed as predictors of success in short
Draper, Catherine E; Davidowitz, Kesiah J; Goedecke, Julia H
A higher tolerance for a larger body size has been associated with obesity in black South African (SA) women. The aim of the present study was to explore perceptions regarding body size and weight loss in a sample of black women from a low-income community in Cape Town, SA. Qualitative pilot study including five focus groups. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Khayelitsha, Cape Town, SA. Twenty-one black SA women. The majority of participants had positive perceptions of overweight/obesity, which were influenced by community and cultural perceptions, but some inconsistencies were observed as overweight/obesity was also associated with ill health. Participants identified many benefits to weight loss, but due to the association with sickness, they were concerned about being stigmatised in their community. Although participants had knowledge about healthy eating, the main barrier to eating healthily included the perceived higher cost of healthier food and food insecurity. All participants saw exercise as a strategy to lose weight and improve health, and were interested in participating in a community-based exercise intervention, but negative community perceptions and conflicting views regarding who should lead the intervention were identified as barriers. These findings highlight the complexities surrounding participants' perceptions regarding body size, weight loss and weight-loss interventions, and emphasise low socio-economic status as a barrier to change. The study also highlights the strong influence of cultural ideals and community perceptions on personal perceptions. These findings underscore the necessity for culturally appropriate weight-loss interventions in low-income, transitioning communities.
Full Text Available This study explored the predictors of weight loss following orlistat with a focus on both baseline variables and changes in beliefs and behaviours occurring over the course of taking the drug. Patients (n=566 prescribed orlistat completed a questionnaire at baseline and after 6 months concerning their weight, beliefs and behaviours. By 6 months the majority had lost some weight and showed improvements in diet. Many had also stopped taking the drug and a large minority reported using it flexibly as a lifestyle drug. Those who lost most weight showed a decrease in beliefs in a medical solution, a decrease in unhealthy eating, an increased belief in treatment control and an increased belief that the unpleasant consequences are both due to their eating behaviour and just part of the drug. When taken with fatty food orlistat causes symptoms such as anal leakage and oily stools. These may encourage some patients to focus on the behavioural aspects of their weight problem thus promoting the dietary changes needed for both short and longer term weight loss. When prescribing orlistat, clinicians should encourage patients to see the consequences as an education as a means to promote the effectiveness of this form of medical management.
Steinberg, Dori M; Bennett, Gary G; Askew, Sandy; Tate, Deborah F
Daily weighing is emerging as the recommended self-weighing frequency for weight loss. This is likely because it improves adoption of weight control behaviors. To examine whether weighing every day is associated with greater adoption of weight control behaviors compared with less frequent weighing. Longitudinal analysis of a previously conducted 6-month randomized controlled trial. Overweight men and women in Chapel Hill, NC, participated in the intervention arm (N=47). The intervention focused on daily weighing for weight loss using an e-scale that transmitted weights to a study website, along with weekly e-mailed lessons and tailored feedback on daily weighing adherence and weight loss progress. We gathered objective data on self-weighing frequency from the e-scales. At baseline and 6 months, weight change was measured in the clinic and weight control behaviors (total items=37), dietary strategies, and calorie expenditure from physical activity were assessed via questionnaires. Calorie intake was assessed using an online 24-hour recall tool. We used χ(2) tests to examine variation in discrete weight control behaviors and linear regression models to examine differences in weight, dietary strategies, and calorie intake and expenditure by self-weighing frequency. Fifty-one percent of participants weighed every day (n=24) over 6 months. The average self-weighing frequency among those weighing less than daily (n=23) was 5.4±1.2 days per week. Daily weighers lost significantly more weight compared with those weighing less than daily (mean difference=-6.1 kg; 95% CI -10.2 to -2.1; P=0.004). The total number of weight control behaviors adopted was greater among daily weighers (17.6±7.6 vs 11.2±6.4; P=0.004). There were no differences by self-weighing frequency in dietary strategies, calorie intake, or calorie expenditure. Weighing every day led to greater adoption of weight control behaviors and produced greater weight loss compared with weighing most days of the
Full Text Available The enzymatic synthesis of capsaicin glycosides and 8-nordihydrocapsaicin glycosides was investigated using almond β-glucosidase and cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase. Capsaicin and 8-nordihydrocapsaicin were converted into their β-glucoside and β-maltooligosaccharide (amylose conjugate, i.e. β-maltoside and β-maltotrioside, by sequencial glycosylation with almond β-glucosidase and CGTase. The β-glucoside and β-maltoside of capsaicin and β-glucoside of 8-nordihydrocapsaicin showed inhibitory effects on high-fat-diet-induced elevations in body weight of mice.
Full Text Available The enzymatic synthesis of capsaicin glycosides and 8-nordihydrocapsaicin glycosides was investigated using almond β-glucosidase and cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase. Capsaicin and 8-nordihydrocapsaicin were converted into their β-glucoside and β-maltooligosaccharide (amylose conjugate, i.e. β-maltoside and β-maltotrioside, by sequencial glycosylation with almond β-glucosidase and CGTase. The β-glucoside and β-maltoside of capsaicin and β-glucoside of 8-nordihydrocapsaicin showed inhibitory effects on high-fat-diet-induced elevations in body weight of mice.
Harden, Samantha M.; You, Wen; Almeida, Fabio A.; Hill, Jennie L.; Linnan, Laura A.; Allen, Kacie C.; Estabrooks, Paul A.
Certain risk factors associated with overweight and obesity may lead to reduced productivity in the workforce (i.e., increased absenteeism and presenteeism). Participants in a large, Internet-based worksite weight loss intervention, who were present at follow-up (N = 1,030), completed a self-reported productivity measure (World Health…
Smith, Steven R; O'Neil, Patrick M; Astrup, Arne
OBJECTIVE: To identify an early treatment milestone that optimizes sensitivity and specificity for predicting ≥5% weight loss at Week (W) 52 in patients with and without type 2 diabetes on lorcaserin or placebo. METHODS: Post hoc area under the curve for receiver operating characteristic analyses...
Osman, Mugtaba; Devadas, Vekneswaran
Dysphagia is listed as a 'rare' side effect following clozapine treatment. In this case report, we describe how significant clozapine-induced dysphagia has led to significant reduction of nutritional intake with subsequent substantial weight loss. An 18-year-old single man with an established diagnosis of treatment-resistant paranoid schizophrenia recovered well on a therapeutic dose of clozapine. However, he was noted to lose weight significantly (up to 20% of his original weight) as the dose was uptitrated. This was brought about by development of dysphagia, likely to be due to clozapine. Addition of nutritional supplementary liquids and initiation of a modified behavioural dietary/swallowing programme, while repeatedly mastering the Mendelsohn manoeuvre technique, alleviated the swallowing difficulties and restored his weight. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
Matthew G. Engel
Full Text Available Weight-loss diets restrict intakes of energy and macronutrients but overlook micronutrient profiles. Commercial diet plans may provide insufficient micronutrients. We analyzed nutrient profiles of three plans and compared their micronutrient sufficiency to Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs for male U.S. adults. Hypocaloric vegan (Eat to Live-Vegan, Aggressive Weight Loss; ETL-VAWL, high-animal-protein low-carbohydrate (Fast Metabolism Diet; FMD and weight maintenance (Eat, Drink and Be Healthy; EDH diets were evaluated. Seven single-day menus were sampled per diet (n = 21 menus, 7 menus/diet and analyzed for 20 micronutrients with the online nutrient tracker CRON-O-Meter. Without adjustment for energy intake, the ETL-VAWL diet failed to provide 90% of recommended amounts for B12, B3, D, E, calcium, selenium and zinc. The FMD diet was low (<90% DRI in B1, D, E, calcium, magnesium and potassium. The EDH diet met >90% DRIs for all but vitamin D, calcium and potassium. Several micronutrients remained inadequate after adjustment to 2000 kcal/day: vitamin B12 in ETL-VAWL, calcium in FMD and EDH and vitamin D in all diets. Consistent with previous work, micronutrient deficits are prevalent in weight-loss diet plans. Special attention to micronutrient rich foods is required to reduce risk of micronutrient deficiency in design of commercial diets.
J. Kern, Hua; Brenna, J. Thomas; H. Mitmesser, Susan
Weight-loss diets restrict intakes of energy and macronutrients but overlook micronutrient profiles. Commercial diet plans may provide insufficient micronutrients. We analyzed nutrient profiles of three plans and compared their micronutrient sufficiency to Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for male U.S. adults. Hypocaloric vegan (Eat to Live-Vegan, Aggressive Weight Loss; ETL-VAWL), high-animal-protein low-carbohydrate (Fast Metabolism Diet; FMD) and weight maintenance (Eat, Drink and Be Healthy; EDH) diets were evaluated. Seven single-day menus were sampled per diet (n = 21 menus, 7 menus/diet) and analyzed for 20 micronutrients with the online nutrient tracker CRON-O-Meter. Without adjustment for energy intake, the ETL-VAWL diet failed to provide 90% of recommended amounts for B12, B3, D, E, calcium, selenium and zinc. The FMD diet was low (diet met >90% DRIs for all but vitamin D, calcium and potassium. Several micronutrients remained inadequate after adjustment to 2000 kcal/day: vitamin B12 in ETL-VAWL, calcium in FMD and EDH and vitamin D in all diets. Consistent with previous work, micronutrient deficits are prevalent in weight-loss diet plans. Special attention to micronutrient rich foods is required to reduce risk of micronutrient deficiency in design of commercial diets. PMID:29361684
G Engel, Matthew; J Kern, Hua; Brenna, J Thomas; H Mitmesser, Susan
Weight-loss diets restrict intakes of energy and macronutrients but overlook micronutrient profiles. Commercial diet plans may provide insufficient micronutrients. We analyzed nutrient profiles of three plans and compared their micronutrient sufficiency to Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for male U.S. adults. Hypocaloric vegan (Eat to Live-Vegan, Aggressive Weight Loss; ETL-VAWL), high-animal-protein low-carbohydrate (Fast Metabolism Diet; FMD) and weight maintenance (Eat, Drink and Be Healthy; EDH) diets were evaluated. Seven single-day menus were sampled per diet ( n = 21 menus, 7 menus/diet) and analyzed for 20 micronutrients with the online nutrient tracker CRON-O-Meter. Without adjustment for energy intake, the ETL-VAWL diet failed to provide 90% of recommended amounts for B 12 , B₃, D, E, calcium, selenium and zinc. The FMD diet was low (90% DRIs for all but vitamin D, calcium and potassium. Several micronutrients remained inadequate after adjustment to 2000 kcal/day: vitamin B 12 in ETL-VAWL, calcium in FMD and EDH and vitamin D in all diets. Consistent with previous work, micronutrient deficits are prevalent in weight-loss diet plans. Special attention to micronutrient rich foods is required to reduce risk of micronutrient deficiency in design of commercial diets.
Seoane-Collazo, Patricia; Martínez de Morentin, Pablo B; Fernø, Johan; Diéguez, Carlos; Nogueiras, Rubén; López, Miguel
Nicotine, the main addictive component of tobacco, promotes body weight reduction in humans and rodents. Recent evidence has suggested that nicotine acts in the central nervous system to modulate energy balance. Specifically, nicotine modulates hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase to decrease feeding and to increase brown adipose tissue thermogenesis through the sympathetic nervous system, leading to weight loss. Of note, most of this evidence has been obtained in animal models fed with normal diet or low-fat diet (LFD). However, its effectiveness in obese models remains elusive. Because obesity causes resistance towards many factors involved in energy homeostasis, the aim of this study has been to compare the effect of nicotine in a diet-induced obese (DIO) model, namely rats fed a high-fat diet, with rats fed a LFD. Our data show that chronic peripheral nicotine treatment reduced body weight by decreasing food intake and increasing brown adipose tissue thermogenesis in both LFD and DIO rats. This overall negative energy balance was associated to decreased activation of hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase in both models. Furthermore, nicotine improved serum lipid profile, decreased insulin serum levels, as well as reduced steatosis, inflammation, and endoplasmic reticulum stress in the liver of DIO rats but not in LFD rats. Overall, this evidence suggests that nicotine diminishes body weight and improves metabolic disorders linked to DIO and might offer a clear-cut strategy to develop new therapeutic approaches against obesity and its metabolic complications.
Full Text Available Elizabeth F Sutton, Leanne M Redman Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA Abstract: The development and dissemination of smart devices has cultivated a global environment of hyperconnectivity and increased our access to information. The paralleled launch and success of the Mobile Health industry has created a market of commercially available applications or “apps” along with tools or sensors, which allow the user to receive and collect personal health information. Apps and accompanying tools now allow an individual to “self-digitize” and, pertaining to weight management, monitor their body weight, caloric intake, physical activity, and more. These products possess the ability to improve the scalability of traditional in-person weight management services considering their near ubiquity, affordability, and capability to deliver information directly and personally to the user. However, similar to the dietary supplement market, the anecdotal value of these products has driven their popularity and acceptance by the general public without requirement of scientific validation or, in the area of weight management or diet/exercise, validation of the safety and efficacy by the Food and Drug Administration prior to market launch. By conducting a literature and clinical trial search, we found remarkably few active, completed, or published studies testing the efficacy of smart device applications using randomized controlled trials. Research efforts must be focused on illuminating the efficacy of behavioral interventions and remote self-monitoring for weight loss/maintenance treatment with true, randomized controlled trials. Keywords: smartphone, mobile phone, application, app, weight, weight loss, weight maintenance
Geiker, Nina R W; Ritz, Christian; Pedersen, Sue D
compared with the effect of simple energy restriction. DESIGN: A total of 60 healthy, overweight, premenopausal women were included in a 6-mo weight-loss program in which each subject consumed a diet of 1600 kcal/d. Subjects were randomly assigned to either a combined diet and exercise program...... that was tailored to metabolic changes of the menstrual cycle (Menstralean) or to undergo simple energy restriction (control). RESULTS: Thirty-one women (19 Menstralean and 12 control women) completed the study [mean ± SD body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 32.0 ± 5.2]. Both groups lost weight during the study....... CONCLUSION: A differentiated diet and exercise program that is tailored to counteract food cravings and metabolic changes throughout the menstrual cycle may increase weight loss above that achieved with a traditional diet and exercise program in women who can comply with the program. This trial...
Su, Mei-Chen; Lin, Hung-Ru; Chu, Nain-Feng; Huang, Chih-Hsung; Tsao, Lee-Ing
To develop a descriptive theory for the weight loss experiences of obese perimenopausal women with metabolic syndrome. Obesity and metabolic syndrome both pose a threat to the health of perimenopausal women; therefore, understanding perimenopausal women's subjective feelings and experiences is beneficial to establishing effective prevention strategies. However, studies have rarely explored these relevant experiences. A qualitative study using the grounded theory method to establish a descriptive theory. Eighteen obese perimenopausal women with metabolic syndrome aged 45-60 years participated in comprehensive interviews. 'Crossing the gaps to making life modifications' was the core category, and 'the awareness of weight gain and health alarm' was the antecedent condition. In the weight loss experience, the following three interaction categories were identified: (1) 'experiencing bad feelings,' (2) 'encountering obstacles' and (3) 'making efforts to transition to a new life.' Some women adhered to new life habits through perceiving social support and by using self-incentives. Finally, women enjoyed and mastered self-monitoring of their health in their new life, and practiced new changes as part of their life. However, some participants felt that making changes to their life was too time-consuming. Therefore, these women chose to live with their abnormal health without making changes. Obese perimenopausal women with metabolic syndrome experienced various gaps in their weight loss process. Although they struggled with many obstacles, these women were able to learn from their experiences and face their health challenges. These findings can guide healthcare professionals to provide appropriate interventions to understand the hidden health problems of this particular group of women. Healthcare professionals should develop a set of plans by which women receive a complete weight loss program and support from professionals and family. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Dhurandhar, Emily J; Dawson, John; Alcorn, Amy
BACKGROUND: Breakfast is associated with lower body weight in observational studies. Public health authorities commonly recommend breakfast consumption to reduce obesity, but the effectiveness of adopting these recommendations for reducing body weight is unknown.OBJECTIVE: We tested the relative...... effectiveness of a recommendation to eat or skip breakfast on weight loss in adults trying to lose weight in a free-living setting. DESIGN: We conducted a multisite, 16-wk, 3-parallel-arm randomized controlled trial in otherwise healthy overweight and obese adults [body mass index (in kg/m(2)) between 25 and 40.......53 ± 1.16, -0.59 ± 1.06, and -0.71 ± 1.17 kg for the control, breakfast, and NB groups, respectively. Self-reported compliance with the recommendation was 93.6% for the breakfast group and 92.4% for the NB group.Conclusions: A recommendation to eat or skip breakfast for weight loss was effective...
Maclin-Akinyemi, Courtney; Krukowski, Rebecca A; Kocak, Mehmet; Talcott, G Wayne; Beauvais, Alexis; Klesges, Robert C
Rates of overweight and obesity among Active Duty Military Personnel remain high despite fitness test requirements, negative consequences of fitness test failure, and emphasis on weight and appearance standards. Specific motivating factors for weight loss influence weight loss program interest and often differ by gender, race, ethnicity, or age. This study investigates the weight loss motivations endorsed by a diverse population of Active Duty Military Personnel initiating a behavioral weight loss study, to inform the development of future recruitment efforts and program development. Active Duty Military Personnel (n = 248) completed a 16-item questionnaire of weight loss motivations before initiating a behavioral weight loss study. We evaluated endorsement patterns by demographic characteristics (body mass index [BMI], gender, race, ethnicity, age, and military rank). Data collection for this study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Wilford Hall Ambulatory Surgical Center and acknowledged by the Institutional Review Board of the University of Tennessee Health Science Center. Results indicated that improved physical health, improved fitness, improved quality of life, and to live long were endorsed as "very important" motivations by at least three-fourths of the sample. "To pass the fitness test" was endorsed less frequently as a "very important" motivation, by 69% of the sample. A greater proportion of women as compared to men endorsed being very motivated by improving mood/well-being, quality of life, physical mobility, job performance, appearance, and sex life, as well as fitting into clothes. Participants categorized in the "Other" racial group and African Americans more frequently endorsed motivations to improve fitness and physical strength when compared to Caucasians. Moreover, participants in the "Other" race category were significantly more likely to rate their ability to physically defend themselves, improve physical mobility, and improve
Morean, Meghan E; Wedel, Amelia V
Some traditional cigarette smokers are motivated to smoke to lose weight or control their weight. The current study evaluated whether a subset of adult e-cigarette users reported vaping to lose or control their weight and examined potential predictors of vaping for weight management. Adult e-cigarette users (n=459) who reported wanting to lose weight or maintain their weight completed an anonymous online survey. Participants reported on demographics, vaping frequency, e-cigarette nicotine content, cigarette smoking status, preferred e-cigarette/e-liquid flavors, current weight status (i.e., overweight, underweight), use of dieting strategies associated with anorexia and bulimia, lifetime history of binge eating, self-discipline, and impulse control. Binary logistic regression was used to examine whether vaping for weight loss/control was associated with the aforementioned variables. Participants who reported vaping for weight loss/control (13.5%) were more likely to vape frequently (adjOR=1.15; 95% CI [1.00, 1.31]); be overweight (adjOR=2.80; [1.33, 5.90]); restrict calories (adjOR=2.23; [1.13, 4.42]); have poor impulse control (adjOR=0.59; [0.41, 0.86]); and prefer coffee- (adjOR=2.92; [1.47, 5.80]) or vanilla-flavored e-liquid (adjOR=7.44; [1.56, 36.08]). A subset of adult e-cigarette users reported vaping for weight loss/control, raising concerns about expanded, scientifically unsubstantiated uses of e-cigarettes. Identifying where individuals obtain information about vaping for weight loss (e.g., e-cigarette ads, Internet) and whether weight-related motives promote e-cigarette initiation among e-cigarette naïve individuals is important to informing regulatory efforts. Further research also is needed to better understand the link between e-liquid flavors and weight loss motivations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
F. Saverio Bersani
Full Text Available Obesity and overeating are among the most prevalent health concerns worldwide and individuals are increasingly using performance and image-enhancing drugs (PIEDs as an easy and fast way to control their weight. Among these, herbal weight-loss products (HWLPs often attract users due to their health claims, assumed safety, easy availability, affordable price, extensive marketing, and the perceived lack of need for professional oversight. Reports suggest that certain HWLPs may lead to onset or exacerbation of psychiatric disturbances. Here we review the available evidence on psychiatric adverse effects of HWLPs due to their intrinsic toxicity and potential for interaction with psychiatric medications.
Andersen, T; Gluud, C; Franzmann, Magnus
= 0.026). Liver biochemistry, which was of no individual diagnostic value, improved. It is concluded that morbidly obese subjects with a high degree of hepatic fatty change are at risk of developing portal inflammation and fibrosis when undergoing very fast dietary weight reductions.......This prospective study was carried out in order to evaluate the influence on liver morphology and function of a very-low-calorie formula diet. Fourty-one morbidly obese, non-alcoholic subjects had liver biopsy performed before and after a median weight loss of 34 kg. Fatty change improved (p less...
Antonio Lancha Junior
Full Text Available The objective of this review is to organize the main literature findings on the effects of rapid weight loss onphysiological systems and performance in grappling combat sports. Several surveys showed that most wrestlers lose significant amount of body weight few days prior to competitions by means of several harmful methods, as severe food and water restriction, or even vomiting and use of laxative and diuretics. The same weight loss patterns seems to occur among Brazilian judo athletes. Many athletes begin to lose weight frequently in puberty. In general, the weight cycles are very recurrent during seasons. A small decrease in some growth variables, followed by a rapid catch-up can be observed during a season. The rapid weight loss involves several adverse effects such as hormonal imbalance, body fat redistribution, decrease of immune system activity, impairments on cardiovascular system, imbalance on water and electrolytes homeostasis and decrease in renal function and in mental and mood state. The aerobic as well as anaerobic performance can be negatively affected by weight reduction. Depending on the kind of weight loss, diet and the recovery time after weighing, anaerobic performance may not be decreased. The weight reduction, if necessary, should be gradual and small. Athletes must consume a high carbohydrate diet during weight loss period and after weighing, prior to the beginning of the competitions. Dehydration should be avoided. Relatively simple changes in rules combined with educational programs could minimize rapid weight loss-related problems. RESUMO O objetivo desta revisão é organizar os principais achados da literatura a respeito dos efeitos das práticas de perda rápida de peso sobre os sistemas fisiológicos e sobre o desempenho em esportes de combate. Diversos levantamentos demonstraram que grande parte dos atletas norte-americanos de luta olímpica perde significativaquantidade de peso dias antes das competições, por
Westerterp, K R; Saris, W H; Soeters, P B; ten Hoor, F
Weight loss after gastric partition is highly variable even when the operation itself has been successful. We studied changes in body composition in relation to energy expenditure before and one year after surgery in one woman and five men, age 20-38 years, and BMI 42-62 kg/m2. Observations were performed shortly before, and 6, 12, 27 and 54 weeks after surgery. Body composition was measured with hydrostatic weighing and isotope dilution, and energy expenditure over 24 h (24EE) and during complete rest (sleeping metabolic rate (SMR)) with a respiration chamber and in five of the six subjects under daily living conditions over two-week intervals with doubly labeled water (average daily metabolic rate (ADMR). Weight loss and fat loss over the full observation period until 54 weeks after surgery was 54 +/- 8 and 43 +/- 9 kg (mean +/- s.e.m.), respectively. There was a more than three-fold difference in fat loss between the subject losing most, i.e. 70 kg, and the subject losing least, i.e. 20 kg. Fat loss was not related to initial fat mass in this group of six subjects but there was a significant negative relation with the loss of protein mass. There was a strong negative relation between fat loss and activity level of the subjects expressed as the quotient ADMR/SMR. These results show the contrary from what would be expected. Reduction of fat mass after successful gastric partition is highest in those subjects having the lowest physical activity level (before and) after surgery; these subjects lose less fat-free mass.
Bongers, M E; Visser, R; van Vliet, W; Wielders, J P; Hogeman, P H
A 16-year-old girl had symptoms of vomiting, malaise and weight loss for two months. Blood tests revealed an elevated activity of liver enzymes and hyperthyroidism. Although the patient at first denied the possibility of pregnancy, a pregnancy was subsequently confirmed. Hyperemesis gravidarum was diagnosed based on the combination of the clinical symptoms, pregnancy and increased serum human chorionic gonadotrophin and oestradiol. Hyperemesis gravidarum also explained the demonstrated biochemical hyperthyroidism and elevated liver enzyme levels. Rapid alleviation of all the clinical symptoms was seen after termination of this unwanted pregnancy. Although vomiting, malaise and weight loss in children can have many different causes, in girls at a sexually mature age a pregnancy with possible hyperemesis gravidarum should certainly also be considered and a gynaecological examination performed.
Michael Vicente Stanton
Full Text Available Despite substantial evidence for their effectiveness in treating disordered eating and obesity, mindfulness-based treatments have not been broadly implemented among Veterans. A number of reviews have reported mindfulness to be beneficial in promoting healthy eating behaviors and weight loss among non-Veteran samples. We discuss this approach in the context of the Veterans Affairs system, the largest integrated healthcare provider in the United States and in the context of Veterans, among whom obesity is at epidemic proportions. In this article, we discuss what is known about treating obesity using a mindfulness approach, mindfulness interventions for Veterans, a new pilot mindfulness-based weight loss program designed for Veterans, and future directions for this type of obesity treatment in Veterans. We conclude that this population may be uniquely poised to benefit from mindfulness-based treatments.
Stanton, Michael V; Matsuura, Justin; Fairchild, Jennifer Kaci; Lohnberg, Jessica A; Bayley, Peter J
Despite substantial evidence for their effectiveness in treating disordered eating and obesity, mindfulness-based treatments have not been broadly implemented among Veterans. A number of reviews have reported mindfulness to be beneficial in promoting healthy eating behaviors and weight loss among non-Veteran samples. We discuss this approach in the context of the Veterans Affairs system, the largest integrated healthcare provider in the U.S. and in the context of Veterans, among whom obesity is at epidemic proportions. In this article, we discuss what is known about treating obesity using a mindfulness approach, mindfulness interventions for Veterans, a new pilot mindfulness-based weight loss program designed for Veterans, and future directions for this type of obesity treatment in Veterans. We conclude that this population may be uniquely poised to benefit from mindfulness-based treatments.
Miskowiak, J.; Fleckenstein, P.; Andersen, B.
Gastroplasty aimed at treatment of morbid obesity creates a small proximal pouch and a narrow stoma to the remainder of the stomach. In 11 consecutive obese patients subjected to gastroplasty radiologic examinations of the stomach were performed before operation and one week, 3 and 12 months postoperatively. All stomachs were normal before operation. A significant decrease in pouch area and increase in stoma diameter were registered over the observation period. There were no statistically significant correlations between postoperative weight loss and stoma diameter or pouch area. Nor was retention in the pouch one week after gastroplasty related to weight loss. Radiographic evidence of gastroesophageal reflux was present in only one patient. The described method of follow-up is evidently not suited to predict the outcome of gastroplasty.
Cha, Jiyoung Y.; Kim, Hyo Jung; Yu, Jung Hwan; Xu, Jing; Kim, Daham; Paul, Bindu D.; Choi, Hyeonjin; Kim, Seyun; Lee, Yoo Jeong; Ho, Gary P.; Rao, Feng; Snyder, Solomon H.; Kim, Jae-woo
Adipogenesis, the conversion of precursor cells into adipocytes, is associated with obesity and is mediated by glucocorticoids acting via hitherto poorly characterized mechanisms. Dexras1 is a small G protein of the Ras family discovered on the basis of its marked induction by the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone. We show that Dexras1 mediates adipogenesis and diet-induced obesity. Adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells is abolished with Dexras1 depletion, whereas overexpression of Dexras1 elicits adipogenesis. Adipogenesis is markedly reduced in mouse embryonic fibroblasts from Dexras1-deleted mice, whereas adiposity and diet-induced weight gain are diminished in the mutant mice. PMID:24297897
Andriessen, Charlotte; Christensen, Pia; Vestergaard Nielsen, Lone; Ritz, Christian; Astrup, Arne; Meinert Larsen, Thomas; Martinez, J.A.; Saris, Wim H.M.; Baak, van Marleen A.; Papadaki, Angeliki; Kunesova, Marie; Jebb, Susan; Blundell, John; Lawton, Clare; Raben, Anne
People with obesity often struggle to maintain their weight loss after a weight loss period. Furthermore, the effect of weight loss on appetite and food preferences remains unclear. Hence this study investigated the effect of weight loss on subjective appetite and food preferences in healthy,
Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Larsen, Thomas Meinert; Due, Anette Pia
. This was tested in a parallel intervention trial on overweight individuals (aged 28.4 (SD 4.7) years) randomly assigned to a MUFA-diet (35-45% of energy as fat; >20% as MUFA, n=21) or a low-fat (LF) diet (20-30% of energy as fat, n=22) for 6months after a weight loss of ~10%. All foods were provided free...
To explore body image matters amongst patients following massive weight loss. In contemporary health care, a growing number of morbidly obese patients are seeking surgical solutions such as bariatric surgery or in other cases engaging with radical lifestyle changes. Massive weight loss can leave patients with a huge excess of lax overstretched skin that in some cases can trigger major body image dissatisfaction or depression. There is a scarcity of research about the needs of this group of patients and this is important for nursing practice. A qualitative design using in-depth interviews was employed. Twenty white adults (18 women and two men) were recruited retrospectively amongst patients who had massive weight loss by undergoing bariatric surgery or radical lifestyle changes, aged 29-63 years. All of the participants gave signed informed consent. Face-to-face in-depth interviews were conducted and transcribed verbatim. The data were analysed using thematic analysis. One core theme focusing on body image ugliness and three associated subthemes were identified: the subthemes included feeling socially marginalised, feeling depressed and sexual and intimacy difficulties. Body image matters are hugely significant and appear to have a lasting effect on emotional well-being and function, contributing to psychological distress and social isolation. Greater sensitivity is required in enabling patients to work through emotional isolation and shame that has been a part of their childhood. Furthermore more, treatments need to be accessible to this growing patient population such as reconstructive surgery. Nurses who care for massive weight loss patients need to be mindful of their psychodynamic needs and be non-judgemental and accepting. Moreover, nurses need to be aware of treatment options and be able to assess body image matters and implement quality care for this particular patient group including body image acceptance programmes and support groups. © 2013 Blackwell
Siervo, M; Montagnese, C; Muscariello, E; Evans, E; Stephan, B C M; Nasti, G; Papa, A; Iannetti, E; Colantuoni, A
Unrealistic weight loss expectations (WLEs) and greater body dissatisfaction may be associated with the poor long-term outcomes of dietary and lifestyle weight loss treatments. We evaluated the association between body size, WLEs and body dissatisfaction in young women attempting to lose weight. Forty-four young healthy women [age range 18-35 years, body mass index (BMI) range 23-40 kg/m2] were recruited. Women were classified as obese (BMI ≥ 30.0 kg/m2) and non-obese (BMI social (career, family acceptance, peer acceptance, mass media, social pressure) factors. Individual WLEs were compared with recommended clinical targets (5%, 10% and 20%) for weight loss. Body dissatisfaction was lower in non-obese subjects and was directly associated with BMI (P media, whereas they perceived that family and friends were supportive of a lesser degree of weight loss. We observed a mismatch between clinical and personal expectations, and social pressure and interpersonal relationships appear to have a prominent role with respect to influencing the association. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.
Full Text Available Immature and mature Biomphalaria glabrata are kept out of water at relative humidities varying from 0 to 100%. When snails are submitted to a saturated atmosphere, they show a slow weight loss and survival may be long. If relative humidity (RH decreases, weight loss becomes important and survival is short. A reduced RH (0 to 65% produces similar effects. During desiccation, fasting has no noticeable effect; survival depends essentially on weight loss.Biomphalaria glabrata maduros ou imaturos são mantidos fora da água, variando a umidade de 0 a 100%. Quando caramujos são submetidos a uma atmosfera saturada, sofrem uma lenta perda de peso e a sobrevivência pode ser longa. Se a umidade relativa decresce, a perda de peso será importante e a sobrevida será abreviada. Uma umidade relativa de 0 a 65% pode produzir efeitos similares. Durante a dessecação, a privação de alimento não tem efeito notável, a sobrevivência dependendo essencialmente da perda de peso.
Raynor, Hollie A; Li, Fan; Cardoso, Chelsi
Timing of energy intake, a temporal dietary pattern, may enhance health. Eating a greater amount of energy earlier and a smaller amount of energy later in the day, a behavioral circadian rhythm, may assist with chronoenhancement. Chronoenhancement seeks to enhance entrainment (synchronization) of biological and behavioral circadian rhythms. In humans, research reports that eating a greater amount of energy early and a smaller amount of energy later in the day increases dietary induced thermogenesis, improves cardiometabolic outcomes, and enhances weight loss. However, little human research has examined if this eating pattern enhances regularity of biological circadian rhythm. In a randomized controlled 8-week pilot study, the influence of energy distribution timing on weight loss and regularity of sleep onset and wake times (marker for biological circadian rhythm) was examined. Within an hypocaloric, three-meal prescription, participants (n = 8) were assigned to either: 1) Morning: 50%, 30%, and 20% of kcal at breakfast, lunch, and dinner, respectively; or 2) Evening: 20%, 30%, and 50% of kcal at breakfast, lunch, and dinner, respectively. Percent weight loss and regularity of sleep onset and wake times were significantly (p energy distribution timing on health, longer studies conducted in free-living participants, with dietary intake assessed using time-stamped methods, that include measures of the circadian timing system are needed. This small review is based upon a symposium presentation at the Society of the Study of Ingestive Behavior in 2017. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gul Pamukcu Gunaydin
Full Text Available Supposedly herbal weight loss pills are sold online and are widely used in the world. Some of these products are found to contain sibutramine by FDA and their sale is prohibited. We report a case of a female patient who presented to the emergency department after taking slimming pills. 17-year-old female patient presented to the emergency room with palpitations, dizziness, anxiety, and insomnia. She stated that she had taken 3 pills named La Jiao Shou Shen for slimming purposes during the day. Her vital signs revealed tachycardia. On her physical examination, she was restless, her oropharynx was dry, her pupils were mydriatic, and no other pathological findings were found. Sibutramine intoxication was suspected. She was given 5 mg IV diazepam for restlessness. After supportive therapy and observation in emergency department for 12 hours there were no complications and the patient was discharged home. Some herbal pills that are sold online for weight loss have sibutramine hidden as an active ingredient, and their sale is prohibited for this reason. For people who use herbal weight loss drugs, sibutramine excessive intake should be kept in mind at all times.
Full Text Available Objective. This prospective study evaluated laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy for its safety and efficiency in excess weight loss (%EWL in super superobese patients (BMI >60 Kg/m2. Results. Thirty patients (33 women and 7 men were included, with mean age of 35 years (range 18 to 59. Mean preoperative BMI was 66 Kg/m2 (range 60 to 85. The study included one patient with complete situs inversus and 4 (14% with previous restrictive gastric banding. The mean operative time was 120 minutes (range 80 to 220 min and the mean hospital stay was 7.5 days (4 to 28 days. There was no postoperative mortality or need for a laparotomy conversion. Two subphrenic hematomas, one gastric fistula, and one pulmonary embolism, were the major complications. After 18 months 17 (77% had sufficient weight loss and six had insufficient results, leading to either re-sleeve gastrectomy (3, or gastric bypass (2. Three years after the initial laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy, the mean EWL was 51% (range 21 to 82. Conclusion. The laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy is a safe and efficient operating procedure for treating super superobesity. In the case of insufficient weight loss, a second-stage operation like resleeve gastrectomy or gastric bypass can be proposed.
Barte, J. C. M.; ter Bogt, N. C. W.; Bogers, R. P.; Teixeira, P. J.; Blissmer, B.; Mori, T. A.; Bemelmans, W. J. E.
P>Lifestyle interventions can reduce body weight, but weight regain is common and may particularly occur with higher initial weight loss. If so, one may argue whether the 10% weight loss in clinical guidelines is preferable above a lower weight loss. This systematic review explores the relation
Brown, Ruth E; Canning, Karissa L; Fung, Michael; Jiandani, Dishay; Riddell, Michael C; Macpherson, Alison K; Kuk, Jennifer L
Ability to accurately estimate calories is important for weight management, yet few studies have investigated whether individuals can accurately estimate calories during exercise or in a meal. The objective of this study was to determine if accuracy of estimation of moderate or vigorous exercise energy expenditure and calories in food is associated with body weight class or weight loss status. Fifty-eight adults who were either normal weight (NW) or overweight (OW), and either attempting (WL) or not attempting weight loss (noWL), exercised on a treadmill at a moderate (60% HRmax) and a vigorous intensity (75% HRmax) for 25 min. Subsequently, participants estimated the number of calories they expended through exercise and created a meal that they believed to be calorically equivalent to the exercise energy expenditure. The mean difference between estimated and measured calories in exercise and food did not differ within or between groups after moderate exercise. After vigorous exercise, OW-noWL overestimated energy expenditure by 72% and overestimated the calories in their food by 37% (P food compared with both WL groups (P food. There was a wide range of underestimation and overestimation of calories during exercise and in a meal. Error in calorie estimation may be greater in overweight adults who are not attempting weight loss.
Martínez, J Alfredo; Milagro, Fermín I; Claycombe, Kate J; Schalinske, Kevin L
Given the role that diet and other environmental factors play in the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes, the implication of different epigenetic processes is being investigated. Although it is well known that external factors can cause cell type-dependent epigenetic changes, including DNA methylation, histone tail modifications, and chromatin remodeling, the regulation of these processes, the magnitude of the changes and the cell types in which they occur, the individuals more predisposed, and the more crucial stages of life remain to be elucidated. There is evidence that obese and diabetic people have a pattern of epigenetic marks different from nonobese and nondiabetic individuals. The main long-term goals in this field are the identification and understanding of the role of epigenetic marks that could be used as early predictors of metabolic risk and the development of drugs or diet-related treatments able to delay these epigenetic changes and even reverse them. But weight gain and insulin resistance/diabetes are influenced not only by epigenetic factors; different epigenetic biomarkers have also been identified as early predictors of weight loss and the maintenance of body weight after weight loss. The characterization of all the factors that are able to modify the epigenetic signatures and the determination of their real importance are hindered by the following factors: the magnitude of change produced by dietary and environmental factors is small and cumulative; there are great differences among cell types; and there are many factors involved, including age, with multiple interactions between them.
Martínez, J. Alfredo; Milagro, Fermín I.; Claycombe, Kate J.; Schalinske, Kevin L.
Given the role that diet and other environmental factors play in the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes, the implication of different epigenetic processes is being investigated. Although it is well known that external factors can cause cell type-dependent epigenetic changes, including DNA methylation, histone tail modifications, and chromatin remodeling, the regulation of these processes, the magnitude of the changes and the cell types in which they occur, the individuals more predisposed, and the more crucial stages of life remain to be elucidated. There is evidence that obese and diabetic people have a pattern of epigenetic marks different from nonobese and nondiabetic individuals. The main long-term goals in this field are the identification and understanding of the role of epigenetic marks that could be used as early predictors of metabolic risk and the development of drugs or diet-related treatments able to delay these epigenetic changes and even reverse them. But weight gain and insulin resistance/diabetes are influenced not only by epigenetic factors; different epigenetic biomarkers have also been identified as early predictors of weight loss and the maintenance of body weight after weight loss. The characterization of all the factors that are able to modify the epigenetic signatures and the determination of their real importance are hindered by the following factors: the magnitude of change produced by dietary and environmental factors is small and cumulative; there are great differences among cell types; and there are many factors involved, including age, with multiple interactions between them. PMID:24425725
Ryan, Alice S; Serra, Monica C; Goldberg, Andrew P
To determine the 6-month follow-up effects after intentional 6-month weight loss alone (WL) and after weight loss with aerobic exercise (AEX + WL) on body composition, glucose metabolism, and cardiovascular disease risk factors in older postmenopausal women and to identify the mechanisms for weight regain. Women (n = 65, BMI > 25 kg/m 2 ) underwent maximal oxygen consumption testing, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, computed tomography scans, and oral glucose tolerance tests before and after 6 months of AEX + WL or WL and at 12 months ad libitum follow-up. Insulin sensitivity (M) (hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp) was measured at baseline and 6 months. Thirty WL and thirty-five AEX + WL women completed a follow-up at 12 months. Similar weight loss was observed (-8%) in both groups from 0 to 6 months. Total fat mass, fat-free mass, visceral fat area, subcutaneous abdominal and midthigh fat areas, fasting glucose, insulin levels, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), insulin areas under the curve, and triglyceride levels decreased similarly after WL and AEX + WL and remained lower at 12 months than at baseline, despite weight regain at 12 months. Initial M was associated with weight regain (r = -0.40, P < 0.01). Weight regain was related to independent changes in leptin and HOMA-IR from 6 to 12 months in a multiple regression model (r = 0.77, P < 0.0001). Reductions in body fat and improvements in insulin sensitivity after AEX + WL and WL were maintained at 12 months despite modest weight regain. Baseline insulin resistance partially predicted the magnitude of weight regain in postmenopausal women. © 2017 The Obesity Society.
Wang, Ping; Menheere, Paul P C A; Astrup, Arne
OBJECTIVE: Weight loss helps reduce the symptoms of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the obese, but weight regain after active weight loss is common. We investigated the changes and predictive role of circulating adipokines and sex hormones for weight regain in men during dietary intervention...
Fine Eugene J
Full Text Available Abstract Carbohydrate restriction as a strategy for control of obesity is based on two effects: a behavioral effect, spontaneous reduction in caloric intake and a metabolic effect, an apparent reduction in energy efficiency, greater weight loss per calorie consumed. Variable energy efficiency is established in many contexts (hormonal imbalance, weight regain and knock-out experiments in animal models, but in the area of the effect of macronutrient composition on weight loss, controversy remains. Resistance to the idea comes from a perception that variable weight loss on isocaloric diets would somehow violate the laws of thermodynamics, that is, only caloric intake is important ("a calorie is a calorie". Previous explanations of how the phenomenon occurs, based on equilibrium thermodynamics, emphasized the inefficiencies introduced by substrate cycling and requirements for increased gluconeogenesis. Living systems, however, are maintained far from equilibrium, and metabolism is controlled by the regulation of the rates of enzymatic reactions. The principles of nonequilibrium thermodynamics which emphasize kinetic fluxes as well as thermodynamic forces should therefore also be considered. Here we review the principles of nonequilibrium thermodynamics and provide an approach to the problem of maintenance and change in body mass by recasting the problem of TAG accumulation and breakdown in the adipocyte in the language of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. We describe adipocyte physiology in terms of cycling between an efficient storage mode and a dissipative mode. Experimentally, this is measured in the rate of fatty acid flux and fatty acid oxidation. Hormonal levels controlled by changes in dietary carbohydrate regulate the relative contributions of the efficient and dissipative parts of the cycle. While no experiment exists that measures all relevant variables, the model is supported by evidence in the literature that 1 dietary carbohydrate, via its
Gotthardt, Juliet D; Bello, Nicholas T
Alternate day, intermittent fasting (IMF) can be an effective weight loss strategy. However, the effects of IMF on eating behaviors are not well characterized. We investigated the acute and residual effects of IMF for weight loss on meal patterns in adult obese male C57BL/6 mice. After 8weeks of ad libitum high-fat diet to induce diet-induced obesity (DIO), mice were either continued on ad libitum high-fat diet (HFD) or placed on one of 5 diet strategies for weight loss: IMF of high-fat diet (IMF-HFD), pair-fed to IMF-HFD group (PF-HFD), ad libitum low-fat diet (LFD), IMF of low-fat diet (IMF-LFD), or pair-fed to IMF-LFD group (PF-LFD). After the 4-week diet period, all groups were refed the high-fat diet for 6weeks. By the end of the diet period, all 5 groups had lost weight compared with HFD group, but after 6weeks of HFD re-feeding all groups had similar body weights. On (Day 2) of the diet period, IMF-HFD had greater first meal size and faster eating rate compared with HFD. Also, first meal duration was greater in LFD and IMF-LFD compared with HFD. At the end of the diet period (Day 28), the intermittent fasting groups (IMF-HFD and IMF-LFD) had greater first meal sizes and faster first meal eating rate compared with their respective ad libitum fed groups on similar diets (HFD and LFD). Also, average meal duration was longer on Day 28 in the low-fat diet groups (LFD and IMF-LFD) compared with high-fat diet groups (HFD and IMF-HFD). After 6weeks of HFD re-feeding (Day 70), there were no differences in meal patterns in groups that had previously experienced intermittent fasting compared with ad libitum fed groups. These findings suggest that meal patterns are only transiently altered during alternate day intermittent fasting for weight loss in obese male mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Levine, Michele D.; Kalarchian, Melissa A.; Courcoulas, Anita P.; Wisinski, Meghan S.C.; Marcus, Marsha D.
Smoking cessation often results in weight gain. Although smoking cessation frequently is recommended to patients presenting for weight loss surgery (WLS), the relationship between smoking cessation and weight gain among WLS candidates is poorly understood. Thus, we sought to document the history and prevalence of smoking and smoking-related weight gain among WLS candidates. Subjects (N = 67) presenting for bariatric surgery provided demographic information, were interviewed about smoking, and weighed and measured prior to operation. Sixty-seven percent of patients reported a lifetime history of smoking, and 26.9% were current smokers. Among lifetime smokers who had attempted to quit, the average maximum amount of weight gained following smoking cessation was 28.1 pounds, but there was wide variability in postcessation weight gain. These data suggest that smoking among candidates for bariatric surgery is prevalent, and that previous cessation attempts were associated with considerable weight gain. Because patients often receive recommendations to quit smoking and lose weight prior to surgery, additional information on the impact of presurgical smoking cessation on long-tem weight control in this population is needed. PMID:17408868
K.A.C. Berk (Kirsten); H. Buijks (Hanneke); A.J.M. Verhoeven (Adrie); Mulder, M.T. (Monique T.); B. Özcan (Behiye); van ’T Spijker, A. (Adriaan); R. Timman (Reinier); J.J. van Busschbach (Jan); E.J.G. Sijbrands (Eric)
textabstractAims/hypothesis: Weight-loss programmes for adults with type 2 diabetes are less effective in the long term owing to regain of weight. Our aim was to determine the 2 year effectiveness of a cognitive behavioural group therapy (group-CBT) programme in weight maintenance after diet-induced
Coutinho, Sílvia Ribeiro; With, Emilie; Rehfeld, Jens F
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Rapid weight loss (WL) has been associated with a larger loss of fat free mass and a disproportional reduction in resting metabolic rate (RMR), but the evidence is inconclusive. We aimed to evaluate the impact of WL rate on body composition and compensatory mechanisms activated...... with WL (reduced RMR, increased exercise efficiency (ExEff) and appetite), both during negative and neutral energy balance (EB). METHODS: Thirty-five participants with obesity were randomized to lose a similar weight rapidly (4 weeks) or gradually (8 weeks), and afterwards to maintain it (4 weeks). Body...... weight and composition, RMR, ExEff (10, 25 and 50 W), appetite feelings and appetite-regulating hormones (active ghrelin, cholecystokinin, total peptide YY (PYY), active glucagon-like peptide-1 and insulin), in fasting and every 30 min up to 2.5 h, were measured at baseline and after each phase. RESULTS...
Leidy, Heather J; Clifton, Peter M; Astrup, Arne; Wycherley, Thomas P; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D; Woods, Stephen C; Mattes, Richard D
Over the past 20 y, higher-protein diets have been touted as a successful strategy to prevent or treat obesity through improvements in body weight management. These improvements are thought to be due, in part, to modulations in energy metabolism, appetite, and energy intake. Recent evidence also supports higher-protein diets for improvements in cardiometabolic risk factors. This article provides an overview of the literature that explores the mechanisms of action after acute protein consumption and the clinical health outcomes after consumption of long-term, higher-protein diets. Several meta-analyses of shorter-term, tightly controlled feeding studies showed greater weight loss, fat mass loss, and preservation of lean mass after higher-protein energy-restriction diets than after lower-protein energy-restriction diets. Reductions in triglycerides, blood pressure, and waist circumference were also reported. In addition, a review of the acute feeding trials confirms a modest satiety effect, including greater perceived fullness and elevated satiety hormones after higher-protein meals but does not support an effect on energy intake at the next eating occasion. Although shorter-term, tightly controlled feeding studies consistently identified benefits with increased protein consumption, longer-term studies produced limited and conflicting findings; nevertheless, a recent meta-analysis showed persistent benefits of a higher-protein weight-loss diet on body weight and fat mass. Dietary compliance appears to be the primary contributor to the discrepant findings because improvements in weight management were detected in those who adhered to the prescribed higher-protein regimen, whereas those who did not adhere to the diet had no marked improvements. Collectively, these data suggest that higher-protein diets that contain between 1.2 and 1.6 g protein · kg -1 · d -1 and potentially include meal-specific protein quantities of at least ∼25-30 g protein/meal provide
Donnelly, Joseph E.; Goetz, Jeannine; Gibson, Cheryl; Sullivan, Debra K.; Lee, Robert; Smith, Bryan K.; Lambourne, Kate; Mayo, Matthew S.; Hunt, Suzanne; Lee, Jae Hoon; Honas, Jeffrey J.; Washburn, Richard A.
Objective Face-to-face weight management is costly and presents barriers for individuals seeking treatment; thus, alternate delivery systems are needed. The objective of this study was to compare weight management delivered by face-to-face (FTF) clinic or group conference calls (phone). Design and Methods Randomized equivalency trial in 295 overweight/obese men/women (BMI = 35.1±4.9, Age = 43.8±10.2, Minority = 39.8%). Weight loss (0–6 months) was achieved by reducing energy intake between 1,200– 1,500 kcal/day and progressing physical activity to 300 minutes/week. Weight maintenance (7–18 months) provided adequate energy to maintain weight and continued 300 minutes/week of physical activity. Behavioral weight management strategies were delivered weekly for 6 months and gradually reduced during months 7–18. A cost analysis provided a comparison of expenses between groups. Results Weight change from baseline to 6 months was −13.4 ± 6.7% and −12.3 ± 7.0% for FTF clinic and phone, respectively. Weight change from 6 months to 18 months was 6.4 ± 7.0% and 6.4 ± 5.2%, for FTF clinic and phone, respectively. The cost to FTF participants was $789.58 more person. Conclusions Phone delivery provided equivalent weight loss and maintenance and reduced program cost. Ubiquitous access to phones provides a vast reach for this approach. PMID:23408579
Jurgens, Tannis M; Whelan, Anne Marie; Killian, Lara; Doucette, Steve; Kirk, Sara; Foy, Elizabeth
Preparations of green tea are used as aids in weight loss and weight maintenance. Catechins and caffeine, both contained in green tea, are each believed to have a role in increasing energy metabolism, which may lead to weight loss. A number of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the role of green tea in weight loss have been published; however, the efficacy of green tea preparations in weight loss remains unclear. To assess the efficacy and safety of green tea preparations for weight loss and weight maintenance in overweight or obese adults. We searched the following databases from inception to specified date as well as reference lists of relevant articles: The Cochrane Library (Issue 12, 2011), MEDLINE (December 2011), EMBASE (December 2011), CINAHL (January 2012), AMED (January 2012), Biological Abstracts (January 2012), IBIDS (August 2010), Obesity+ (January 2012), IPA (January 2012) and Web of Science (December 2011). Current Controlled Trials with links to other databases of ongoing trials was also searched. RCTs of at least 12 weeks' duration comparing green tea preparations to a control in overweight or obese adults. Three authors independently extracted data, assessed studies for risk of bias and quality, with differences resolved by consensus. Heterogeneity of included studies was assessed visually using forest plots and quantified using the I(2) statistic. We synthesised data using meta-analysis and descriptive analysis as appropriate; subgroup and sensitivity analyses were conducted. Adverse effects reported in studies were recorded. Due to the level of heterogeneity among studies, studies were divided into two groups; those conducted in Japan and those conducted outside Japan. Study length ranged between 12 and 13 weeks. Meta-analysis of six studies conducted outside Japan showed a mean difference (MD) in weight loss of -0.04 kg (95% CI -0.5 to 0.4; P = 0.88; I(2) = 18%; 532 participants). The eight studies conducted in Japan were not similar
Postrach, Elisa; Aspalter, Rosa; Elbelt, Ulf; Koller, Michael; Longin, Rita; Schulzke, J?rg-Dieter; Valentini, Luzia
Background The Internet is widely available and commonly used for health information; therefore, Web-based weight loss programs could provide support to large parts of the population in self-guided weight loss. Previous studies showed that Web-based weight loss interventions can be effective, depending on the quality of the program. The most effective program tools are visual progress charts or tools for the self-monitoring of weight, diet, and exercises. KiloCoach, a commercial program curre...
Braquet, P; Mercier, G; Reynes, J; Jeandel, C; Pinzani, V; Guilpain, P; Rivière, S; Le Quellec, A
The diagnostic value of selective anorexia is debated. Some authors have suggested an association between meat aversion and cancer, but most do not use it as a diagnostic tool. We aimed to characterize anorexia of different diseases to search for an association between selective aversions and diagnostic groups. All the patients admitted to three departments of a teaching hospital were included consecutively for 22months if they had more than 10 % weight loss in less than one year. Patients were excluded if history taking was not reliable, or if they suffered from anorexia nervosa. We compiled diagnoses at discharge and validated them six months later. We used logistic regression to identify independent factors associated with selective anorexia. Inclusion criteria were met in 106patients (female 44 %, median age 65years). Most frequent diagnoses were: cancer (36 %), infection (35 %), digestive diseases (19 %), non organic diseases (21 %). Recent selective anorexia was found in 46 % of the cases. It was significantly associated with female gender (P=0.002), marginally with young age (P=0.069) and long duration of weight loss (P=0.079). Opioid use at admission was negatively associated with selective anorexia (P=0.001). No specific diagnostic category was found to be associated. Selective anorexia does not appear to be a useful symptom to investigate pathological weight loss. It behaves more like a non-specific reactivation by current disease of earlier latent personal food aversions. Copyright © 2015 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
Muñoz Obino KF
Full Text Available Karen Fernanda Muñoz Obino,1 Caroline Aguiar Pereira,1 Rafaela Siviero Caron-Lienert2 1Nutrology/Clinical Nutrition Unit, Ernesto Dornelles Hospital, 2Nutrition of the Educational and Research Institute of Moinhos de Vento Hospital, Porto Alegre, Brazil Introduction: Coaching is proposed to raise a patient’s awareness and responsibility for their health behaviour change by transforming the professional–patient relationship.Objective: To review the scientific literature on how coaching can assist in weight loss and improve a patient’s state of health.Methodology: An integrative literature search was performed using PubMed, Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences, and Scientific Electronic Library Online. We selected articles that were published in Portuguese, English, and Spanish over the last 10 years. Data analysis was performed using a validated data collection instrument.Results: Among the 289 articles identified in the search, 276 were excluded because they did not address the leading research question, their full texts were not available on the Internet, or they were duplicate publications. Therefore, for the analysis, we selected 13 articles that we classified as randomized clinical studies (46.15%; n=6, cohort studies (30.76%; n=4, cross-sectional studies (7.69%; n=1, case studies (7.69%; n=1, and review articles (7.69%; n=1. Joint intervention (combined in-person and telecoaching sessions constituted the majority of session types. The use of technical coaching was superior in reducing anthropometric measurements and increasing the levels of motivation and personal satisfaction compared with formal health education alone.Conclusion: Coaching is an efficient, cost-effective method for combining formal education and treatment of health in the weight-loss process. Additional randomized studies are needed to demonstrate its effectiveness with respect to chronic disease indicators. Keywords: coaching, weight loss
Quaade, F; Astrup, A
(4.1-28.8], than group 1 (8.7 kg (-1.1 to 19.1), P = 0.008; and 7.3 kg (0.9-18.2 P = 0.01). Weight losses in both groups eliminated or strongly reduced the need for a wide variety of expensive drugs: antidiabetics, diuretics, antihypertensives, analgetics, etc. It is concluded that VLCD...... for 2 months or more. The two groups were comparable with regard to height, absolute weight and percentual overweight, but group 2 was somewhat older than group 1 (49.5 vs 38.3 years, P less than 0.01). Group 2 lost significantly more weight, both totally (17.1 kg (7.8-40.1] and on VLCD alone (12.3 kg...... is an effective and encouraging way of starting a dieting program, and that it should be continued for at least two months, as the length of the initial VLCD period related significantly to the amount of weight eventually lost....
Presnell, Katherine; Pells, Jennifer; Stout, Anna; Musante, Gerard
The aim of the current study was to examine whether weight loss self-efficacy, binge eating, and depressive symptoms predicted weight loss during treatment, and whether gender moderates these associations with prospective data from 297 participants (223 women and 74 men) enrolled in a residential obesity treatment program. Men reported higher initial levels of self-efficacy than women, whereas women reported greater pre-treatment levels of binge eating and depressive symptoms. Higher pre-treatment levels of weight control self-efficacy, binge eating, and depressive symptoms predicted greater weight loss in men, but not in women. Results suggest that certain psychological and behavioral factors should be considered when implementing weight loss interventions, and indicate a need to consider gender differences in predictors of weight loss treatment. Future research should seek to identify predictors of weight loss among women.
Gilardini, Luisa; Pasqualinotto, Lucia; Di Pierro, Francesco; Risso, Paolo; Invitti, Cecilia
Background Most subjects regain weight after weight loss due to compensatory adaptations finalized to maintain stable body energy stores. Green tea (GT) preparations, which help maintain energy expenditure while dieting could be a useful strategy to facilitate weight maintenance. The usefulness of GT preparations in weight maintenance has been poorly studied so far with conflicting results. This study evaluated if a supplement of GSP and piperine helps obese women to maintain the weight loss ...
Kazak, Lawrence; Chouchani, Edward T; Lu, Gina Z; Jedrychowski, Mark P; Bare, Curtis J; Mina, Amir I; Kumari, Manju; Zhang, Song; Vuckovic, Ivan; Laznik-Bogoslavski, Dina; Dzeja, Petras; Banks, Alexander S; Rosen, Evan D; Spiegelman, Bruce M
Diet-induced thermogenesis is an important homeostatic mechanism that limits weight gain in response to caloric excess and contributes to the relative stability of body weight in most individuals. We previously demonstrated that creatine enhances energy expenditure through stimulation of mitochondrial ATP turnover, but the physiological role and importance of creatine energetics in adipose tissue have not been explored. Here, we have inactivated the first and rate-limiting enzyme of creatine biosynthesis, glycine amidinotransferase (GATM), selectively in fat (Adipo-Gatm KO). Adipo-Gatm KO mice are prone to diet-induced obesity due to the suppression of elevated energy expenditure that occurs in response to high-calorie feeding. This is paralleled by a blunted capacity for β3-adrenergic activation of metabolic rate, which is rescued by dietary creatine supplementation. These results provide strong in vivo genetic support for a role of GATM and creatine metabolism in energy expenditure, diet-induced thermogenesis, and defense against diet-induced obesity. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Handjieva-Darlenska, T; Handjiev, S; Larsen, Thomas Meinert
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether pre-treatment subject characteristics and weight change during the first weeks of a low-calorie diet (LCD) can predict weight loss outcomes at the end of a controlled 8-week weight loss period in overweight and obese adults....
Engelbrechtsen, Line; Iepsen, Eva Pers Winning; Galijatovic, Ehm Astrid Andersson
increased during weight loss (p = 5.2 × 10−15) and showed inverse correlation with insulin resistance measured by HOMA–IR levels (r = −0.318, p = 0.025). Valine concentrations were lower in the control group compared to the GLP-1RA group during weight maintenance (p = 0.005). Conclusion Weight loss...
Choi, Jeong-Sil; Kim, Ji-Soo
Background: We explored the relationship between body mass index-for-age percentile, body image distortion, and unnecessary weight loss efforts in Korean adolescent girls who are underweight and normal weight and examined the mediating effect of body image distortion on weight loss efforts. Methods: This study used data from the 2013 Korea Youth…
Le Foll, Bernard; Trigo, Jose M; Sharkey, Keith A; Le Strat, Yann
Obesity is one of the highest preventable causes of morbidity and mortality in the developed world . It has been well known for a long time that exposure to cannabis produces an increase of appetite (a phenomenon referred to as the 'munchies'). This phenomenon led to an exploration of the role of the endocannabinoid system in the regulation of obesity and associated metabolic syndrome. This effort subsequently led to the development of a successful therapeutic approach for obesity that consisted of blocking the cannabinoid CB1 receptors using ligands such as Rimonabant in order to produce weight loss and improve metabolic profile . Despite being efficacious, Rimonabant was associated with increased rates of depression and anxiety and therefore removed from the market. We recently discovered that the prevalence of obesity is paradoxically much lower in cannabis users as compared to non-users and that this difference is not accounted for by tobacco smoking status and is still present after adjusting for variables such as sex and age. Here, we propose that this effect is directly related to exposure to the Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) present in cannabis smoke. We therefore propose the seemingly paradoxical hypothesis that THC or a THC/cannabidiol combination drug may produce weight loss and may be a useful therapeutic for the treatment of obesity and its complications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Douglas C. Cowan
Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA syndrome is common, and obesity is a major risk factor. Increased peripharyngeal and central adiposity result in increased pharyngeal collapsibility, through increased mechanical loading around the upper airway, reduced tracheal traction on the pharynx, and reduced neuromuscular activity, particularly during sleep. Significant and sustained weight loss, if achieved, is likely to be a useful therapeutic option in the management of OSA and may be attempted by behavioural, pharmacological, and surgical approaches. Behavioural therapy programs that focus on aspects such as dietary intervention, exercise prescription patients and general lifestyle counselling have been tested. Bariatric surgery is an option in the severely obese when nonsurgical measures have failed, and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass are the most commonly employed techniques in the United Kingdom. Most evidence for efficacy of surgery comes from cohort studies. The role of sibutramine in OSA in the obese patients has been investigated, however, there are concerns regarding associated cardiovascular risk. In this paper the links between obesity and OSA are discussed, and the recent studies evaluating the behavioural, pharmacological and surgical approaches to weight loss in OSA are reviewed.
Sauter Edward R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity has long been associated with postmenopausal breast cancer risk and more recently with premenopausal breast cancer risk. We previously observed that nipple aspirate fluid (n levels of prostate specific antigen (PSA were associated with obesity. Serum (s levels of adiponectin are lower in women with higher body mass index (BMI and with breast cancer. We conducted a prospective study of obese women who underwent gastric bypass surgery to determine: 1 change in n- and s-adiponectin and nPSA after surgery and 2 if biomarker change is related to change in BMI. Samples (30-s, 28-n and BMI were obtained from women 0, 3, 6 and 12 months after surgery. Findings There was a significant increase after surgery in pre- but not postmenopausal women at all time points in s-adiponectin and at 3 and 6 months in n-adiponectin. Low n-PSA and high s-adiponectin values were highly correlated with decrease in BMI from baseline. Conclusions Adiponectin increases locally in the breast and systemically in premenopausal women after gastric bypass. s-adiponectin in pre- and nPSA in postmenopausal women correlated with greater weight loss. This study provides preliminary evidence for biologic markers to predict weight loss after gastric bypass surgery.
Thomas, V.J.; Olive, R.P.
The Point Lepreau Generating Station (PLGS) will undergo an 18 month refurbishment project beginning in April, 2008. During this time, most of the carbon steel piping in the primary loop will be drained of water and dried. However, some water will remain during the shutdown due to the lack of drains in some lower points in the piping system. As a result, it is necessary to examine the effect of corrosion during the refurbishment. This study examined the effect of several variables on the corrosion rate of clean carbon steel. Specifically, the effect of oxygen in the system and the presence of chloride ions were evaluated. Corrosion rates were determined using both a weight-loss technique and electrochemical methods. The experiment was conducted at room temperature. The corrosion products from the experiment were analyzed using a Raman microscope. The results of the weight-loss measurements show that the corrosion rate of polished carbon steel is independent of both the presence of oxygen and chloride ions. The electrochemical method failed to yield meaningful results due to the lack of clearly interpretable data and the inherent subjectivity in the analysis. Lepidocricite was found to be the main corrosion product using the Raman microscope. (author)
Muñoz Obino, Karen Fernanda; Aguiar Pereira, Caroline; Caron-Lienert, Rafaela Siviero
Coaching is proposed to raise a patient's awareness and responsibility for their health behaviour change by transforming the professional-patient relationship. To review the scientific literature on how coaching can assist in weight loss and improve a patient's state of health. An integrative literature search was performed using PubMed, Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences, and Scientific Electronic Library Online. We selected articles that were published in Portuguese, English, and Spanish over the last 10 years. Data analysis was performed using a validated data collection instrument. Among the 289 articles identified in the search, 276 were excluded because they did not address the leading research question, their full texts were not available on the Internet, or they were duplicate publications. Therefore, for the analysis, we selected 13 articles that we classified as randomized clinical studies (46.15%; n=6), cohort studies (30.76%; n=4), cross-sectional studies (7.69%; n=1), case studies (7.69%; n=1), and review articles (7.69%; n=1). Joint intervention (combined in-person and telecoaching sessions) constituted the majority of session types. The use of technical coaching was superior in reducing anthropometric measurements and increasing the levels of motivation and personal satisfaction compared with formal health education alone. Coaching is an efficient, cost-effective method for combining formal education and treatment of health in the weight-loss process. Additional randomized studies are needed to demonstrate its effectiveness with respect to chronic disease indicators.
Purnell, Jonathan Q; Kahn, Steven E; Samuels, Mary H; Brandon, David; Loriaux, D Lynn; Brunzell, John D
Controversy exists as to whether endogenous cortisol production is associated with visceral obesity and insulin resistance in humans. We therefore quantified cortisol production and clearance rates, abdominal fat depots, insulin sensitivity, and adipocyte gene expression in a cohort of 24 men. To test whether the relationships found are a consequence rather than a cause of obesity, eight men from this larger group were studied before and after weight loss. Daily cortisol production rates (CPR), free cortisol levels (FC), and metabolic clearance rates (MCR) were measured by stable isotope methodology and 24-h sampling; intra-abdominal fat (IAF) and subcutaneous fat (SQF) by computed tomography; insulin sensitivity (S(I)) by frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test; and adipocyte 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1 (11beta-HSD-1) gene expression by quantitative RT-PCR from subcutaneous biopsies. Increased CPR and FC correlated with increased IAF, but not SQF, and with decreased S(I). Increased 11beta-HSD-1 gene expression correlated with both IAF and SQF and with decreased S(I). With weight loss, CPR, FC, and MCR did not change compared with baseline; however, with greater loss in body fat than lean mass during weight loss, both CPR and FC increased proportionally to final fat mass and IAF and 11beta-HSD-1 decreased compared with baseline. These data support a model in which increased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity in men promotes selective visceral fat accumulation and insulin resistance and may promote weight regain after diet-induced weight loss, whereas 11beta-HSD-1 gene expression in SQF is a consequence rather than cause of adiposity.
Petzke, Klaus J; Freudenberg, Anne; Klaus, Susanne
High-protein diets have been shown to prevent the development of diet-induced obesity and can improve associated metabolic disorders in mice. Dietary leucine supplementation can partially mimic this effect. However, the molecular mechanisms triggering these preventive effects remain to be satisfactorily explained. Here we review studies showing a connection between high protein or total amino nitrogen intake and obligatory water intake. High amino nitrogen intake may possibly lower lipid storage, and prevent insulin resistance. Suggestions are made for further systematical studies to explore the relationship between water consumption, satiety, and energy expenditure. Moreover, these examinations should better distinguish between leucine-specific and unspecific effects. Research in this field can provide important information to justify dietary recommendations and strategies in promoting long-term weight loss and may help to reduce health problems associated with the comorbidities of obesity.
Puhl, Rebecca M; Quinn, Diane M; Weisz, Bradley M; Suh, Young J
Challenges of maintaining long-term weight loss are well-established and present significant obstacles in obesity prevention and treatment. A neglected but potentially important barrier to weight-loss maintenance is weight stigmatization. We examined the role of weight stigma-experienced and internalized-as a contributor to weight-loss maintenance and weight regain in adults. A diverse, national sample of 2702 American adults completed an online battery of questionnaires assessing demographics, weight-loss history, subjective weight category, experienced and internalized weight stigma, weight-monitoring behaviors, physical activity, perceived stress, and physical health. Analyses focused exclusively on participants who indicated that their body weight a year ago was at least 10% less than their highest weight ever (excluding pregnancy), the weight loss was intentional, and that attempts to lose or maintain weight occurred during the past year (n = 549). Participants were further classified as weight regainers (n = 235) or weight-loss maintainers (n = 314) based on subsequent weight loss/gain. Data were collected in 2015 and analyzed in 2016. Hierarchical logistic regression models showed that internalized weight stigma and subjective weight category made significant individual contributions to prediction of weight-loss maintenance, even after accounting for demographics, perceived stress, experienced stigma, physical health, and weight-loss behaviors. For every one-unit increase in internalized weight stigma, the odds of maintaining weight loss decreased by 28% (95% CI: 14-40%, p < .001). Findings provide initial evidence that overlooked psychosocial factors, like weight stigma, may hinder weight-loss maintenance. Implications for addressing stigma in obesity-focused clinical interventions are highlighted.
Nymo, Siren; Coutinho, Silvia R; Torgersen, Linn-Christin H; Bomo, Ola J; Haugvaldstad, Ingrid; Truby, Helen; Kulseng, Bård; Martins, Catia
Diet-induced weight loss (WL) is associated with reduced resting and non-resting energy expenditure (EE), driven not only by changes in body composition but also potentially by adaptive thermogenesis (AT). When exactly this happens, during progressive WL, remains unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the timeline of changes in RMR and exercise-induced EE (EIEE), stemming from changes in body composition v. the presence of AT, during WL with a very-low-energy diet (VLED). In all, thirty-one adults (eighteen men) with obesity (BMI: 37 (sem 4·5) kg/m2; age: 43 (sem 10) years) underwent 8 weeks of a VLED, followed by 4 weeks of weight maintenance. Body weight and composition, RMR, net EIEE (10, 25 and 50 W) and AT (for RMR (ATRMR) and EIEE (ATEIEE)) were measured at baseline, day 3 (2 (sem 1) % WL), after 5 and 10 % WL and at weeks 9 (16 (sem 2) %) and 13 (16 (sem 1) %). RMR and fat mass were significantly reduced for the first time at 5 % WL (12 (sem 8) d) (P<0·01 and P<0·001, respectively) and EIEE at 10 % WL (32 (sem 8) d), for all levels of power (P<0·05), and sustained up to week 13. ATRMR was transiently present at 10 % WL (-460 (sem 690) kJ/d, P<0·01). A fall in RMR should be anticipated at ≥5 % WL and a reduction in EIEE at ≥10 % WL. Transient ATRMR can be expected at 10 % WL. These physiological adaptations may make progressive WL difficult and will probably contribute to relapse.
Siddiq, G.; Aziz, W.; Pervez, M. B.; Haider, M. I.; Hussain, S. V.; Khan, N.
Objective: To investigate the outcomes of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) in terms of weight loss. Study Design: Descriptive cohort study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Surgery, Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, from January 2009 to January 2015. Methodology: A total of 100 consecutive patients were included in the study through retrospective chart review. A 5-port technique was utilized with the gastric sleeve being created using endostapler. Postoperatively, patients gradually progressed from clear liquid diet and oral rehydration salts to nutritional supplements over three days. By two weeks postoperatively, patients had progressed to a solid diet. SPSS was used for data entry and analysis. Body mass index (BMI) and weight in kg were determined. Results: From 100 patients, 17 were lost to follow-up less than a week into the postoperative period. Of the remaining, average age of the patients was 34.7 ±11.3 years at the time of surgery. The majority of patients were females (72 percentage). Mean preoperative and postoperative BMI was 45.3 ±10.4 kg/m2 and 35.0 ±10 kg/m2, respectively. Of the 83 patients, 62 were followed-up for longer than 1 month (average 419 days). For patients in this category, mean reduction in BMI was 10.3 ±6.5 kg/m2 with average weight loss of 34.3 ±18.2 kg. There were no mortalities associated with LSG. Conclusion: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy is a safe and effective intervention in young Pakistani females with encouraging outcomes at a mean follow-up of over one year. (author)
Delahanty, Linda M
The American Diabetes Association nutrition and lifestyle recommendations for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes focus on losing 7% of body weight and increasing physical activity to at least 150minperweek. This emphasis is largely based on results of the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) and Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) clinical trials. DPP demonstrated that a lifestyle intervention aimed at 7% weight loss and 150min of activity per week reduced diabetes incidence by 58% after 2.8years of follow-up and resulted in sustained improvements in hemoglobinA1c, blood pressure and lipid levels. After 15years of follow-up, DPP's lifestyle intervention sustained a 27% risk reduction in progression to diabetes. Look AHEAD's lifestyle intervention significantly reduced hemoglobinA1c, blood pressure, triglycerides, and the amount and costs of medications needed to treat these conditions when compared with diabetes support and education. Other clinical and psychological benefits achieved with lifestyle intervention were greater reductions in c-reactive protein, less self-reported retinopathy, reduced risk of nephropathy, less sexual dysfunction, decreased incidence of urinary incontinence and fatty liver, remission of sleep apnea, better physical functioning, less knee pain, more remission of diabetes, reduced incidence of depression, less body image dissatisfaction and improved quality-of-life. A number of DPP translation studies have demonstrated weight losses of 4 to 7% at 6month and 1year follow-up which has led to Medicare coverage for CDC recognized DPP lifestyle programs starting in April 2018. Translation studies of Look AHEAD using a variety of delivery formats are underway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Soenen, Stijn; Mariman, Edwin C M; Vogels, Neeltje; Bouwman, Freek G; den Hoed, Marcel; Brown, Louise; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S
Genetic variation in the perilipin (PLIN) gene may play a role in the etiology and treatment of obesity. To examine different polymorphisms in the PLIN gene in relation to body-weight regulation. 118 subjects followed a 6 wk VLCD, followed by 1 year weight maintenance. Body-weight (BW), body composition, leptin concentration, and polymorphisms of the PLIN gene: PLIN1:rs2289487, PLIN4:rs894160, PLIN6:rs1052700, PLIN5:rs2304795 and PLIN7:rs 2304796 were determined. BW loss during VLCD was 7.0+/-3.1 kg (p0.9, r2=0.72; PLIN5 and PLIN7: D' >0.9, r2=0.85. In men, body weight, BMI, waist circumference, body fat, leptin concentrations were significantly lower for the haplotype of PLIN1 (C-alleles) and PLIN4 (A-alleles). In women weight loss and loss of fat mass were larger for the haplotype of PLIN1 (C-alleles) and PLIN4 (A-alleles). For PLIN6 genotypes body weight and body fat were lower for homozygotes of the minor allele (T/T) in the men; in the women leptin concentrations were lower. The haplotype of PLIN5 and PLIN7 consisting of A/G and G/G of PLIN5 and A/A of PLIN7 showed a reduction in FM: 5.9+/-0.6 kg vs 3.1+/-0.4 kg, % body fat: 5.5+/-0.6% vs 2.2+/-0.2%, and leptin: 20.5+/-10.8 ng/ml vs 12.9+/-6.7 ng/ml over time in the women (pinfluencer of obesity risk in humans.
Bond, DS; Raynor, HA; McCaffery, JM; Wing, RR
Objective Research shows that slower habituation of salivary responses to food stimuli is related to greater energy intake and that obese (Ob) individuals habituate slower than those of normal weight (NW). No study has examined habituation rates in weight loss maintainers (WLMs) who have reduced from obese to normal weight, relative to those who are Ob or NW. Design Salivation to two baseline water trials and 10 lemon-flavored lollipop trials were studied in 14 WLMs, 15 Ob and 18 NW individuals comparable in age, gender and ethnicity. Linear mixed models were used to compare WLMs with Ob and NW groups. Results Salivation in the WLM and NW groups decreased significantly (for both P <0.005) across trials, indicative of habituation. Salivary responses in the Ob group did not habituate (P=0.46). When compared with Ob group, WLMs showed a quicker reduction in salivation (P<0.05). WLM and NW groups did not differ in habituation rate (P=0.49). Conclusions WLMs have habituation rates that are comparable to NW individuals without previous history of obesity, and show quicker habituation than those who are currently obese. These results suggest that physiological responses to food may ‘normalize’ with successful weight loss maintenance. PMID:20010900
Kwasnicka, Dominika; Dombrowski, Stephan U; White, Martin; Sniehotta, Falko F
Behaviour change interventions are effective in supporting individuals to achieve clinically significant weight loss, but weight loss maintenance (WLM) is less often attained. This study examined predictive variables associated with WLM. N-of-1 study with daily ecological momentary assessment combined with objective measurement of weight and physical activity, collected with wireless devices (Fitbit™) for six months. Eight previously obese adults who had lost over 5% of their body weight in the past year took part. Data were analysed using time series methods. Predictor variables were based on five theoretical themes: maintenance motives, self-regulation, personal resources, habits, and environmental influences. Dependent variables were: objectively estimated step count and weight, and self-reported WLM plan adherence. For all participants, daily fluctuations in self-reported adherence to their WLM plan were significantly associated with most of the explanatory variables, including maintenance motivation and satisfaction with outcomes, self-regulation, habit, and stable environment. Personal resources were not a consistent predictor of plan adherence. This is the first study to assess theoretical predictions of WLM within individuals. WLM is a dynamic process including the interplay of motivation, self-regulation, habit, resources, and perceptions of environmental context. Individuals maintaining their weight have unique psychological profiles which could be accounted for in interventions.
Thomas, Diana M; Ivanescu, Andrada E; Martin, Corby K; Heymsfield, Steven B; Marshall, Kaitlyn; Bodrato, Victoria E; Williamson, Donald A; Anton, Stephen D; Sacks, Frank M; Ryan, Donna; Bray, George A
Currently, early weight-loss predictions of long-term weight-loss success rely on fixed percent-weight-loss thresholds. The objective was to develop thresholds during the first 3 mo of intervention that include the influence of age, sex, baseline weight, percent weight loss, and deviations from expected weight to predict whether a participant is likely to lose 5% or more body weight by year 1. Data consisting of month 1, 2, 3, and 12 treatment weights were obtained from the 2-y Preventing Obesity Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS Lost) intervention. Logistic regression models that included covariates of age, height, sex, baseline weight, target energy intake, percent weight loss, and deviation of actual weight from expected were developed for months 1, 2, and 3 that predicted the probability of losing model. The AUC statistic quantified the ROC curve's capacity to classify participants likely to lose models yielding the highest AUC were retained as optimal. For comparison with current practice, ROC curves relying solely on percent weight loss were also calculated. Optimal models for months 1, 2, and 3 yielded ROC curves with AUCs of 0.68 (95% CI: 0.63, 0.74), 0.75 (95% CI: 0.71, 0.81), and 0.79 (95% CI: 0.74, 0.84), respectively. Percent weight loss alone was not better at identifying true positives than random chance (AUC ≤0.50). The newly derived models provide a personalized prediction of long-term success from early weight-loss variables. The predictions improve on existing fixed percent-weight-loss thresholds. Future research is needed to explore model application for informing treatment approaches during early intervention. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.
Full Text Available The type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase (D2 converts the pro-hormone thyroxine into T3 within target tissues. D2 is essential for a full thermogenic response of brown adipose tissue (BAT, and mice with a disrupted Dio2 gene (D2KO have an impaired response to cold. BAT is also activated by overfeeding.After 6-weeks of HFD feeding D2KO mice gained 5.6% more body weight and had 28% more adipose tissue. Oxygen consumption (V0(2 was not different between genotypes, but D2KO mice had an increased respiratory exchange ratio (RER, suggesting preferential use of carbohydrates. Consistent with this, serum free fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate were lower in D2KO mice on a HFD, while hepatic triglycerides were increased and glycogen content decreased. Neither genotype showed glucose intolerance, but D2KO mice had significantly higher insulin levels during GTT independent of diet. Accordingly, during ITT testing D2KO mice had a significantly reduced glucose uptake, consistent with insulin resistance. Gene expression levels in liver, muscle, and brown and white adipose tissue showed no differences that could account for the increased weight gain in D2KO mice. However, D2KO mice have higher PEPCK mRNA in liver suggesting increased gluconeogenesis, which could also contribute to their apparent insulin resistance.We conclude that the loss of the Dio2 gene has significant metabolic consequences. D2KO mice gain more weight on a HFD, suggesting a role for D2 in protection from diet-induced obesity. Further, D2KO mice appear to have a greater reliance on carbohydrates as a fuel source, and limited ability to mobilize and to burn fat. This results in increased fat storage in adipose tissue, hepatic steatosis, and depletion of liver glycogen in spite of increased gluconeogenesis. D2KO mice are also less responsive to insulin, independent of diet-induced obesity.
Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC tends to occur at older age; however, CRC incidence rates have been rising sharply among young age groups. The increasing prevalence of obesity is recognized as a major risk, yet the mechanistic underpinnings remain poorly understood. Using a diet-induced obesity mouse model, we identified obesity-associated molecular changes in the colonic epithelium of young and aged mice, and we further investigated whether the changes were reversed after weight loss. Transcriptome analysis indicated that obesity-related colonic cellular metabolic switch favoring long-chain fatty acid oxidation happened in young mice, while obesity-associated downregulation of negative feedback regulators of pro-proliferative signaling pathways occurred in older mice. Strikingly, colonic DNA methylome was pre-programmed by obesity at young age, priming for a tumor-prone gene signature after aging. Furthermore, obesity-related changes were substantially preserved after short-term weight loss, but they were largely reversed after long-term weight loss. We provided mechanistic insights into increased CRC risk in obesity.
Wu, Guang-Cheng; Lin, Shyr-Yi; Liang, Hong-Jen; Hou, Wen-Chi
The C57BL/6J mice were fed a 135-day normal diet or a high-fat diet (HFD) without, or concurrent with, a single yam dioscorin (80 mg/kg) or dipeptide NW (40 mg/kg) intervention every day. The final body weights (g) of mice were 26.1 ± 1.4, 34.97 ± 2.1, 31.75 ± 2.6, and 31.66 ± 3.1, respectively, for normal diet-fed, HFD-fed, dioscorin-intervened, and NW-intervened group. The mice in both intervened groups showed similar less weight gains and had significant differences (P index of mice with dioscorin interventions showed significantly lower contents in total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein, and NW interventions showed significantly lower total triglyceride contents compared to those of the HFD group (P glucose levels by oral glucose tolerance tests and both showed significant differences (P glucose tolerance controls, which require further clinical trial investigations.
Roeland, Eric J; Ma, Joseph D; Nelson, Sandahl H; Seibert, Tyler; Heavey, Sean; Revta, Carolyn; Gallivan, Andrea; Baracos, Vickie E
Participation in cancer cachexia clinical trials requires a defined weight loss (WL) over time. A loss in skeletal muscle mass, measured by cross-sectional computed tomography (CT) image analysis, represents a possible alternative. Our aim was to compare WL versus muscle loss in patients who were screened to participate in a cancer cachexia clinical trial. This was a single-center, retrospective analysis in metastatic colorectal cancer patients screened for an interventional cancer cachexia trial requiring a ≥5 % WL over the preceding 6 months. Concurrent CT images obtained as part of standard oncology care were analyzed for changes in total muscle and fat (visceral, subcutaneous, and total). Of patients screened (n = 36), 3 (8 %) enrolled in the trial, 17 (47 %) were excluded due to insufficient WL (20 %), and 16 (44 %) met inclusion criteria for WL. Patients who met screening criteria for WL (5-20 %) had a mean ± SD of 7.7 ± 8.7 % muscle loss, 24.4 ± 37.5 % visceral adipose loss, 21.6 ± 22.3 % subcutaneous adipose loss, and 22.1 ± 24.7 % total adipose loss. Patients excluded due to insufficient WL had 2 ± 6.4 % muscle loss, but a gain of 8.5 ± 39.8 % visceral adipose, and 4.2 ± 28.2 % subcutaneous adipose loss and 0.8 ± 28.4 % total adipose loss. Of the patients excluded due to WL 5 %. Defining cancer cachexia by WL over time may be limited as it does not capture skeletal muscle loss. Cross-sectional CT body composition analysis may improve early detection of muscle loss and patient participation in future cancer cachexia clinical trials.
Seremet, Jasmina; Laginja, Stanislava; Marinović, Marin
Diabetes mellitus type 2 is one of the most common diseases with a prevalence increasing with age. If blood sugar is not controlled, complications arise and diabetic foot ulcer occurs. Depending on the blood vessels involved, we distinguish venous and arterial ulcers. Venous ulcers respond very well to modern methods of treatment such as compression therapy and hydrocolloid dressings, but for arterial ulcer prevention is most significant, e.g. weight loss, dietary modification, etc. The aim of this study was to show that despite all the available therapeutic options, we cannot cure ulcers completely because the patient's readiness to change his lifestyle plays a decisive role. Therefore, we present a patient having suffered from venous ulcers for several years and arterial ulcer that healed only after the patient had lost about 20 pounds.
Nawrocki, Andrea R; Rodriguez, Carlos G; Toolan, Dawn M; Price, Olga; Henry, Melanie; Forrest, Gail; Szeto, Daphne; Keohane, Carol Ann; Pan, Yie; Smith, Karen M; Raheem, Izzat T; Cox, Christopher D; Hwa, Joyce; Renger, John J; Smith, Sean M
Phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) is a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of schizophrenia. Here we report a novel role of PDE10A in the regulation of caloric intake and energy homeostasis. PDE10A-deficient mice are resistant to diet-induced obesity (DIO) and associated metabolic disturbances. Inhibition of weight gain is due to hypophagia after mice are fed a highly palatable diet rich in fats and sugar but not a standard diet. PDE10A deficiency produces a decrease in caloric intake without affecting meal frequency, daytime versus nighttime feeding behavior, or locomotor activity. We tested THPP-6, a small molecule PDE10A inhibitor, in DIO mice. THPP-6 treatment resulted in decreased food intake, body weight loss, and reduced adiposity at doses that produced antipsychotic efficacy in behavioral models. We show that PDE10A inhibition increased whole-body energy expenditure in DIO mice fed a Western-style diet, achieving weight loss and reducing adiposity beyond the extent seen with food restriction alone. Therefore, chronic THPP-6 treatment conferred improved insulin sensitivity and reversed hyperinsulinemia. These data demonstrate that PDE10A inhibition represents a novel antipsychotic target that may have additional metabolic benefits over current medications for schizophrenia by suppressing food intake, alleviating weight gain, and reducing the risk for the development of diabetes.
Kulovitz, Michelle G; Kolkmeyer, Deborah; Conn, Carole A; Cohen, Deborah A; Ferraro, Robert T
The aim of this study was to investigate body composition changes in fat mass (FM) to lean body mass (LBM) ratios following 15% body weight loss (WL) in both integrated medical treatment and bariatric surgery groups. Obese patients (body mass index [BMI] 46.6 ± 6.5 kg/m(2)) who underwent laparoscopic gastric bypass surgery (BS), were matched with 24 patients undergoing integrated medical and behavioral treatment (MT). The BS and MT groups were evaluated for body weight, BMI, body composition, and waist circumference (WC) at baseline and after 15% WL. Following 15% body WL, there were significant decreases in %FM and increased %LBM (P maintenance of WL at 1 y were found. For both groups, baseline FM was found to be negatively correlated with percentage of weight regained (%WR) at 1 y post-WL (r = -0.457; P = 0.007). Baseline WC and rate of WL to 15% were significant predictors of %WR only in the BS group (r = 0.713; P = 0.020). If followed closely by professionals during the first 15% body WL, patients losing 15% weight by either medical or surgical treatments can attain similar FM:LBM loss ratios and can maintain WL for 1 y. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
ROTHBERG, Bonnie E. Gould; MAGRIPLES, Urania; KERSHAW, Trace S.; RISING, Sharon Schindler; ICKOVICS, Jeannette R.
Objective Document weight change trajectories that lead to gestational weight gain or postpartum weight loss outside clinical recommendations established by Institute of Medicine (IOM). Methods Women aged 14-25 receiving prenatal care and delivering singleton infants at term (N=427). Medical record review and four structured interviews conducted: second and third trimester, 6- and 12-months postpartum. Longitudinal mixed modeling to evaluate weight change trajectories. Results Only 22% of participants gained gestational weight within IOM guidelines. 62% exceeded maximum recommendations -- more common among those overweight/obese (BMI≥25.0; phypertension; breastfeeding promoted postpartum weight loss (all p<.02). BMI by race interaction suggested healthier outcomes for Latinas (p=0.02). Conclusion Excessive pregnancy weight gain and inadequate postpartum weight loss are highly prevalent among young low-income ethnic minority women. Pregnancy and postpartum are critical junctures for weight management interventions. PMID:20974459
T.S. de Melo
Full Text Available Previous studies have reported on the glucose and lipid-lowering effects of ferulic acid (FA but its anti-obesity potential has not yet been firmly established. This study investigated the possible anti-obesitogenic effects of FA in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD for 15 weeks. To assess the antiobesity potential of FA, 32 male Swiss mice, weighing 20–25 g (n=6–8 per group were fed a normal diet (ND or HFD, treated orally or not with either FA (10 mg/kg or sibutramine (10 mg/kg for 15 weeks and at the end of this period, the body weights of animals, visceral fat accumulation, plasma levels of glucose and insulin hormone, amylase and lipase activities, the satiety hormones ghrelin and leptin, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCH-1 were analyzed. Results revealed that FA could effectively suppress the HFD-associated increase in visceral fat accumulation, adipocyte size and body weight gain, similar to sibutramine, the positive control. FA also significantly (P<0.05 decreased the HFD-induced elevations in serum lipid profiles, amylase and lipase activities, and the levels of blood glucose and insulin hormone. The markedly elevated leptin and decreased ghrelin levels seen in HFD-fed control mice were significantly (P<0.05 reversed by FA treatment, almost reaching the values seen in ND-fed mice. Furthermore, FA demonstrated significant (P<0.05 inhibition of serum levels of inflammatory mediators TNF-α, and MCH-1. These results suggest that FA could be beneficial in lowering the risk of HFD-induced obesity via modulation of enzymatic, hormonal and inflammatory responses.
Background: Weight loss studies were conducted in children without asthma have demonstrated a reduction in systemic inflammation. However, the impact of weight loss in the obese paediatric population with asthma has not been investigated. Objective: To measure the effects of weight loss on markers of systemic ...
Mundbjerg, Lene Hymøller; Stolberg, Charlotte Røn; Cecere, Stefano
Objective: Bariatric surgery results in significant weight loss and reduces cardiovascular morbidity. However, a large variation in postsurgery weight loss is seen. Physical activity promotes weight loss in nonsurgically treated subjects with obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate...
Horna, Oihana; Toyas, Carla
Roflumilast is a recently marketed drug, indicated for maintenance treatment of severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease associated with chronic bronchitis in adult patients with a history of frequent exacerbations as add on to bronchodilator treatment. The safety data of this drug have always been subjected to controversy and concerns. The Food and Drug Administration rejected the drug after the first evaluation, asking the company to clarify the adverse reactions during the investigation process, the European Medicines Agency approved the drug including a Risk Management Plan, designed to promote a safe use of the drug. During the first months after the marketing process, the Spanish Pharmacovigilance System has already been acquainted of several adverse events notifications; therefore, these patients may be closely monitored, mainly because of digestive and psychiatric disorders. Here we report the case of a female patient who showed a serious digestive clinical profile and a severe weight loss, more than 25% of her initial weight, when a treatment with roflumilast was started. The suspicion of a side effect as the cause of the reported clinical profile and its resolution required 3 hospital admissions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Neve, Melinda J; Morgan, Philip J; Collins, Clare E
As further understanding is required of what behavioural factors are associated with long-term weight-loss success, the aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of successful weight loss 15 months post-enrolment in a commercial web-based weight-loss programme and which behavioural factors were associated with success. An online survey was completed 15 months post-enrolment in a commercial web-based weight-loss programme to assess weight-related behaviours and current weight. Participants were classified as successful if they had lost ≥5 % of their starting weight after 15 months. Commercial users of a web-based weight-loss programme. Participants enrolled in the commercial programme between August 2007 and May 2008. Six hundred and seventy-seven participants completed the survey. The median (interquartile range) weight change was -2·7 (-8·2, 1·6) % of enrolment weight, with 37 % achieving ≥5 % weight loss. Multivariate logistic regression analysis found success was associated with frequency of weight self-monitoring, higher dietary restraint score, lower emotional eating score, not skipping meals, not keeping snack foods in the house and eating takeaway foods less frequently. The findings suggest that individuals trying to achieve or maintain ≥5 % weight loss should be advised to regularly weigh themselves, avoid skipping meals or keeping snack foods in the house, limit the frequency of takeaway food consumption, manage emotional eating and strengthen dietary restraint. Strategies to assist individuals make these changes to behaviour should be incorporated within obesity treatments to improve the likelihood of successful weight loss in the long term.
Nancarrow, Abigail; Hollywood, Amelia; Ogden, Jane; Hashemi, Majid
The aim of this study is to explore the role of attachment styles in obesity. The present study explored differences in insecure attachment styles between an obese sample waiting for bariatric surgery (n = 195) and an age, sex and height matched normal weight control group (n = 195). It then explored the role of attachment styles in predicting change in BMI 1 year post bariatric surgery (n = 143). The bariatric group reported significantly higher levels of anxious attachment and lower levels of avoidant attachment than the control non-obese group. Baseline attachment styles did not, however, predict change in BMI post surgery. Attachment style is different in those that are already obese from those who are not. Attachment was not related to weight loss post surgery.
Webber, Kelly H.; Tate, Deborah F.; Ward, Dianne S.; Bowling, J. Michael
Objective: To examine changes in motivation and the relationship of motivation to adherence to self-monitoring and weight loss in a 16-week Internet behavioral weight-loss intervention. Design: Two-group randomized design. Setting: This study was conducted over the Internet. Participants: Sixty-six women, ages 22-65, with a body mass index (BMI)…
Fujioka, Ken; O'Neil, Patrick M; Davies, Melanie; Greenway, Frank; C W Lau, David; Claudius, Birgitte; Skjøth, Trine Vang; Bjørn Jensen, Christine; P H Wilding, John
To identify an early response criterion for predicting ≥5% weight loss with liraglutide 3.0 mg at week 56 and to compare efficacy outcomes in early responders (ERs) and early nonresponders (ENRs). Using pooled data from the SCALE Obesity and Prediabetes and SCALE Diabetes trials, weight loss of ≥4% at 16 weeks best predicted ≥5% weight loss after 56 weeks. Weight loss and changes in cardiometabolic risk factors and health-related quality of life were evaluated in ERs (≥4% weight loss at week 16) and ENRs (3.0 mg were 77.3%/22.7% (individuals without type 2 diabetes, T2D) and 62.7%/37.3% (those with T2D). Greater mean weight loss was observed in ERs versus ENRs: 10.8% versus 3.0% (without T2D) and 8.5% versus 3.1% (T2D). In both trials, greater proportions of ERs versus ENRs achieved ≥5%, >10%, and >15% weight loss at week 56 with liraglutide 3.0 mg. Greater improvements in cardiometabolic risk factors and health-related quality of life scores were observed in ERs versus ENRs. The early response criterion was clinically useful to identify individuals who would achieve clinically meaningful weight loss at 56 weeks. © 2016 The Authors Obesity published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Obesity Society (TOS).
O'Neil, Patrick M.; Davies, Melanie; Greenway, Frank; C.W. Lau, David; Claudius, Birgitte; Skjøth, Trine Vang; Bjørn Jensen, Christine; P.H. Wilding, John
Objective To identify an early response criterion for predicting ≥5% weight loss with liraglutide 3.0 mg at week 56 and to compare efficacy outcomes in early responders (ERs) and early nonresponders (ENRs). Methods Using pooled data from the SCALE Obesity and Prediabetes and SCALE Diabetes trials, weight loss of ≥4% at 16 weeks best predicted ≥5% weight loss after 56 weeks. Weight loss and changes in cardiometabolic risk factors and health‐related quality of life were evaluated in ERs (≥4% weight loss at week 16) and ENRs (3.0 mg were 77.3%/22.7% (individuals without type 2 diabetes, T2D) and 62.7%/37.3% (those with T2D). Greater mean weight loss was observed in ERs versus ENRs: 10.8% versus 3.0% (without T2D) and 8.5% versus 3.1% (T2D). In both trials, greater proportions of ERs versus ENRs achieved ≥5%, >10%, and >15% weight loss at week 56 with liraglutide 3.0 mg. Greater improvements in cardiometabolic risk factors and health‐related quality of life scores were observed in ERs versus ENRs. Conclusions The early response criterion was clinically useful to identify individuals who would achieve clinically meaningful weight loss at 56 weeks. PMID:27804269
Full Text Available To establish the role of the metabolic state in the pathogenesis of polyneuropathy, an age- and sex-matched, longitudinal study in rats fed high-fat and high-sucrose diets (HFSD or high-fat, high-sucrose and high-salt diets (HFSSD relative to controls was performed. Time courses of body weight, systolic blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose (FPG, insulin, free fatty acids (FFA, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR, thermal and mechanical sensitivity and motor coordination were measured in parallel. Finally, large and small myelinated fibers (LMF, SMF as well as unmyelinated fibers (UMF in the sciatic nerves and ascending fibers in the spinal dorsal column were quantitatively assessed under electron microscopy. The results showed that early metabolic syndrome (hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, and hypertension and prediabetic conditions (impaired fasting glucose could be induced by high energy diet, and these animals later developed painful polyneuropathy characterized by myelin breakdown and LMF loss in both peripheral and central nervous system. In contrast SMF and UMF in the sciatic nerves were changed little, in the same animals. Therefore the phenomenon that high energy diets induce bilateral mechanical, but not thermal, pain hypersensitivity is reflected by severe damage to LMF, but mild damage to SMF and UMF. Moreover, dietary sodium (high-salt deteriorates the neuropathic pathological process induced by high energy diets, but paradoxically high salt consumption, may reduce, at least temporarily, chronic pain perception in these animals.
Hou, Jun-Feng; Jiao, Kai; Costigan, Michael; Chen, Jun
To establish the role of the metabolic state in the pathogenesis of polyneuropathy, an age- and sex-matched, longitudinal study in rats fed high-fat and high-sucrose diets (HFSD) or high-fat, high-sucrose and high-salt diets (HFSSD) relative to controls was performed. Time courses of body weight, systolic blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), insulin, free fatty acids (FFA), homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), thermal and mechanical sensitivity and motor coordination were measured in parallel. Finally, large and small myelinated fibers (LMF, SMF) as well as unmyelinated fibers (UMF) in the sciatic nerves and ascending fibers in the spinal dorsal column were quantitatively assessed under electron microscopy. The results showed that early metabolic syndrome (hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, and hypertension) and prediabetic conditions (impaired fasting glucose) could be induced by high energy diet, and these animals later developed painful polyneuropathy characterized by myelin breakdown and LMF loss in both peripheral and central nervous system. In contrast SMF and UMF in the sciatic nerves were changed little, in the same animals. Therefore the phenomenon that high energy diets induce bilateral mechanical, but not thermal, pain hypersensitivity is reflected by severe damage to LMF, but mild damage to SMF and UMF. Moreover, dietary sodium (high-salt) deteriorates the neuropathic pathological process induced by high energy diets, but paradoxically high salt consumption, may reduce, at least temporarily, chronic pain perception in these animals. PMID:23451227
Oginsky, Max F.; Maust, Joel D.; Corthell, John T.; Ferrario, Carrie R.
Rationale Basal and diet-induced differences in mesolimbic function, particularly within the nucleus accumbens (NAc), may contribute to human obesity; these differences may be more pronounced in susceptible populations. Objectives We determined whether there are differences in cocaine-induced behavioral plasticity in rats that are susceptible vs. resistant to diet-induced obesity, and basal differences in the striatal neuron function in adult and adolescent obesity-prone and obesity-resistant rats. Methods Susceptible and resistant outbred rats were identified based on “junk-food” diet-induced obesity. Then, the induction and expression of cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization, which is mediated by enhanced striatal function and is associated with increased motivation for rewards and reward-paired cues, were evaluated. Basal differences in mesolimbic function were examined in selectively bred obesity-prone and obesity-resistant rats (P70-80 and P30-40) using both cocaine induced locomotion and whole-cell patch clamping approaches in NAc core medium spiny neurons (MSNs). Results In rats that became obese after eating “junk-food”, the expression of locomotor sensitization was enhanced compared to non-obese rats, with similarly strong responses to 7.5 and 15 mg/kg cocaine. Without diet manipulation, obesity-prone rats were hyper-responsive to the acute locomotor-activating effects of cocaine, and the intrinsic excitability of NAc core MSNs was enhanced by ~60% at positive and negative potentials. These differences were present in adult, but not adolescent rats. Post-synaptic glutamatergic transmission was similar between groups. Conclusions Mesolimbic systems, particularly NAc MSNs, are hyper-responsive in obesity-prone individuals; and interactions between predisposition and experience influence neurobehavioral plasticity in ways that may promote weight gain and hamper weight loss in susceptible rats. PMID:26612617
Groller, Karen D
Education plays a key role in adherence to lifestyle modifications after weight loss surgery (WLS). Education given before and after surgery may decrease weight recidivism rates and improve outcomes. The purpose of this systematic review was to analyze educational practices in bariatric centers. The Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health and PubMed databases were searched in May 2016 for English-language, peer-reviewed studies about WLS patient education practices from 1999 to 2016. Publications were: (1) rated with the Advancing Research and Clinical Practice through Close Collaboration levels of evidence hierarchy (see Melnyk's pryamid [http://guides.lib.umich.edu/c.php?g=282802&p=1888246]) and (2) analyzed according to surgical phase, curriculum, program delivery, and educator. Twenty-four publications met the study criteria. Evidence ratings for preoperative (n = 16) and postoperative studies (n = 8) were levels I to III (n = 5) and IV to VII (n = 17). Two publications were not ratable. Preoperative and postoperative education programs varied in curriculum, teaching methods, and educator. Topics varied in depth. Commonalities were surgical procedure, nutrition, activity, and psychosocial behaviors. Preoperative education was mostly provided in small groups, whereas individual sessions were used postoperatively. Lecture and discussion provided by myriad of healthcare experts from multiple disciplines were typical in both phases. Written or web-based aides supported learning needs in both phases. WLS patient education varied by curriculum and dose and commonly used passive learning methods (e.g., traditional lecture style instruction with minimal engagement from learners). Results shared can inform future bariatric education programs and accreditation standard development (e.g., Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery Accreditation and Quality Improvement Program patient education standards). Additional study is needed, but existing evidence can guide improvements
Thirunavukkarasu Thirumalai; Narayanaswamy Tamilselvan; Ernest David
Objective: To evaluate the hypolipidemic effect of Piper betel (P. betel) in high fat diet induced hyperlipidemia rat. Methods: The methanol leaf extract was tested for hypolipidemic effect in the albino rats at the selected optimum dosage of 250 mg/kg body weight and administered orally. Adult male albino rats of six numbers in each group were undertaken study and evaluated. Results: In group II animals, the activity levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low densi...
German, A J; Titcomb, J M; Holden, S L; Queau, Y; Morris, P J; Biourge, V
Most weight loss studies in obese dogs assess rate and percentage of weight loss in the first 2-3 months, rather than the likelihood of successfully reaching target weight. To determine outcome of controlled weight loss programs for obese dogs, and to determine the factors associated with successful completion. 143 obese dogs undergoing a controlled weight loss program. This was a cohort study of obese dogs attending a referral weight management clinic. Dogs were studied during their period of weight loss, and cases classified according to outcome as "completed" (reached target weight), "euthanized" (was euthanized before reaching target weight), or "stopped prematurely" (program stopped early for other reasons). Factors associated with successful completion were assessed using simple and multiple logistic regression. 87/143 dogs (61%) completed their weight loss program, 11 [8%] died or were euthanized, and the remaining 45 [32%] stopped prematurely. Reasons for dogs stopping prematurely included inability to contact owner, refusal to comply with weight management advice, or development of another illness. Successful weight loss was positively associated with a faster rate (P obese dogs on a controlled weight loss program reach their target weight. Future studies should better clarify reasons for success in individual cases, and also the role of factors such as activity and behavioral modification. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
Rutledge, Thomas; Groesz, Lisa M.; Savu, Michelle
Background Although pre-surgical psychological evaluations are commonly administered to patients considered for weight loss surgeries, the value of these evaluations for predicting weight loss success has been questioned. In this study, we addressed this issue by examining patient’s total number of psychiatric indicators rather than individual psychological factors as predictors of weight loss/weight regain. Methods Sixty adult veterans completed gastric bypass surgery or laparoscopic gastric...
Pan, Wenjing; Peña, Jorge
This study examined how exposure to pictures of women with different body sizes (thin, obese), physical attractiveness levels (attractive, unattractive), along with exposure to weight-related messages (pro-anorexia, anti-anorexia) embedded in a fashion website affected female participants' planned behavior toward weight loss. Participants exposed to attractive model pictures showed higher intentions, attitudes, and subjective norms to lose weight compared with unattractive models. Additionally, participants exposed to thin and attractive model pictures indicated the highest attitudes and self-efficacy to lose weight, whereas those exposed to thin and unattractive model pictures indicated the lowest. Furthermore, weight-related messages moderated the effect of model appearance (body size and attractiveness) on controllability of weight-loss activities. However, website pictures' body size differences had no main effects on planned behavior toward weight loss. These effects are discussed in the light of social comparison mechanisms.
Hill, Christine; Khashab, Mouen A; Kalloo, Anthony N; Kumbhari, Vivek
Obesity is a public health epidemic associated with a number of comorbidities, most notably type 2 diabetes and hypertension, as well as elevated all-cause mortality. The treatment for obesity and its associated comorbidities has most recently expanded into the field of bariatric endoscopy. This field bridges a gap between lifestyle counseling with or without pharmaceutical treatment and the most effective treatment of obesity, bariatric surgery. Because of its minimally invasive nature, bariatric endoscopic therapy has the potential to appeal to the large sector of the obese population that resists surgery, as well as those early in the onset of obesity. To date, five endoscopic devices have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of obesity, and many more are in development, undergoing clinical trials, or being used around the world. Here, we present the current state of the field, highlight recent developments, and describe the clinical outcomes of these minimally invasive procedures in terms of weight loss, improvement in metabolic profile, and reduction in comorbidities. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.
Blackburn, George L; Hutter, Matthew M; Harvey, Alan M; Apovian, Caroline M; Boulton, Hannah R W; Cummings, Susan; Fallon, John A; Greenberg, Isaac; Jiser, Michael E; Jones, Daniel B; Jones, Stephanie B; Kaplan, Lee M; Kelly, John J; Kruger, Rayford S; Lautz, David B; Lenders, Carine M; Lonigro, Robert; Luce, Helen; McNamara, Anne; Mulligan, Ann T; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K; Perna, Frank M; Pratt, Janey S A; Riley, Stancel M; Robinson, Malcolm K; Romanelli, John R; Saltzman, Edward; Schumann, Roman; Shikora, Scott A; Snow, Roger L; Sogg, Stephanie; Sullivan, Mary A; Tarnoff, Michael; Thompson, Christopher C; Wee, Christina C; Ridley, Nancy; Auerbach, John; Hu, Frank B; Kirle, Leslie; Buckley, Rita B; Annas, Catherine L
Rapid shifts in the demographics and techniques of weight loss surgery (WLS) have led to new issues, new data, new concerns, and new challenges. In 2004, this journal published comprehensive evidence-based guidelines on WLS. In this issue, we've updated those guidelines to assure patient safety in this fast-changing field. WLS involves a uniquely vulnerable population in need of specialized resources and ongoing multidisciplinary care. Timely best-practice updates are required to identify new risks, develop strategies to address them, and optimize treatment. Findings in these reports are based on a comprehensive review of the most current literature on WLS; they directly link patient safety to methods for setting evidence-based guidelines developed from peer-reviewed scientific publications. Among other outcomes, these reports show that WLS reduces chronic disease risk factors, improves health, and confers a survival benefit on those who undergo it. The literature also shows that laparoscopy has displaced open surgery as the predominant approach; that government agencies and insurers only reimburse procedures performed at accredited WLS centers; that best practice care requires close collaboration between members of a multidisciplinary team; and that new and existing facilities require wide-ranging changes to accommodate growing numbers of severely obese patients. More than 100 specialists from across the state of Massachusetts and across the many disciplines involved in WLS came together to develop these new standards. We expect them to have far-reaching effects of the development of health care policy and the practice of WLS.
Ivanescu, Andrada E; Martin, Corby K; Heymsfield, Steven B; Marshall, Kaitlyn; Bodrato, Victoria E; Williamson, Donald A; Anton, Stephen D; Sacks, Frank M; Ryan, Donna; Bray, George A
Background: Currently, early weight-loss predictions of long-term weight-loss success rely on fixed percent-weight-loss thresholds. Objective: The objective was to develop thresholds during the first 3 mo of intervention that include the influence of age, sex, baseline weight, percent weight loss, and deviations from expected weight to predict whether a participant is likely to lose 5% or more body weight by year 1. Design: Data consisting of month 1, 2, 3, and 12 treatment weights were obtained from the 2-y Preventing Obesity Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS Lost) intervention. Logistic regression models that included covariates of age, height, sex, baseline weight, target energy intake, percent weight loss, and deviation of actual weight from expected were developed for months 1, 2, and 3 that predicted the probability of losing <5% of body weight in 1 y. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, area under the curve (AUC), and thresholds were calculated for each model. The AUC statistic quantified the ROC curve’s capacity to classify participants likely to lose <5% of their body weight at the end of 1 y. The models yielding the highest AUC were retained as optimal. For comparison with current practice, ROC curves relying solely on percent weight loss were also calculated. Results: Optimal models for months 1, 2, and 3 yielded ROC curves with AUCs of 0.68 (95% CI: 0.63, 0.74), 0.75 (95% CI: 0.71, 0.81), and 0.79 (95% CI: 0.74, 0.84), respectively. Percent weight loss alone was not better at identifying true positives than random chance (AUC ≤0.50). Conclusions: The newly derived models provide a personalized prediction of long-term success from early weight-loss variables. The predictions improve on existing fixed percent-weight-loss thresholds. Future research is needed to explore model application for informing treatment approaches during early intervention. The POUNDS Lost study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00072995. PMID:25733628
German, Alexander J; Holden, Shelley L; Mather, Nicola J; Morris, Penelope J; Biourge, Vincent
Weight rebound after successful weight loss is a well-known phenomenon in humans and dogs, possibly due to the fact that energy restriction improves metabolic efficiency, reducing post-weight-loss maintenance energy requirements (MER). The aim of the present study was to estimate post-weight-loss MER in obese pet dogs that had successfully lost weight and did not subsequently rebound. A total of twenty-four obese dogs, successfully completing a weight management programme at the Royal Canin Weight Management Clinic, University of Liverpool (Wirral, UK), were included. In all dogs, a period of >14 d of stable weight ( lean tissue lost was negatively associated with post-weight-loss MER. MER are low after weight loss in obese pet dogs (typically only 10 % more than required during weight-loss MER), which has implications for what should constitute the optimal diet during this period. Preserving lean tissue during weight loss may maximise post-weight-loss MER and help prevent rebound.
Mettler, Samuel; Mitchell, Nigel; Tipton, Kevin D
To examine the influence of dietary protein on lean body mass loss and performance during short-term hypoenergetic weight loss in athletes. In a parallel design, 20 young healthy resistance-trained athletes were examined for energy expenditure for 1 wk and fed a mixed diet (15% protein, 100% energy) in the second week followed by a hypoenergetic diet (60% of the habitual energy intake), containing either 15% (approximately 1.0 g x kg(-1)) protein (control group, n = 10; CP) or 35% (approximately 2.3 g x kg(-1)) protein (high-protein group, n = 10; HP) for 2 wk. Subjects continued their habitual training throughout the study. Total, lean body, and fat mass, performance (squat jump, maximal isometric leg extension, one-repetition maximum (1RM) bench press, muscle endurance bench press, and 30-s Wingate test) and fasting blood samples (glucose, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), glycerol, urea, cortisol, free testosterone, free Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and growth hormone), and psychologic measures were examined at the end of each of the 4 wk. Total (-3.0 +/- 0.4 and -1.5 +/- 0.3 kg for the CP and HP, respectively, P = 0.036) and lean body mass loss (-1.6 +/- 0.3 and -0.3 +/- 0.3 kg, P = 0.006) were significantly larger in the CP compared with those in the HP. Fat loss, performance, and most blood parameters were not influenced by the diet. Urea was higher in HP, and NEFA and urea showed a group x time interaction. Fatigue ratings and "worse than normal" scores on the Daily Analysis of Life Demands for Athletes were higher in HP. These results indicate that approximately 2.3 g x kg(-1) or approximately 35% protein was significantly superior to approximately 1.0 g x kg(-1) or approximately 15% energy protein for maintenance of lean body mass in young healthy athletes during short-term hypoenergetic weight loss.
Dangol, Manita; Kim, Suyong; Li, Cheng Guo; Fakhraei Lahiji, Shayan; Jang, Mingyu; Ma, Yonghao; Huh, Inyoung; Jung, Hyungil
Natural products such as caffeine have been found to be effective in reducing body weight through lipolysis. Here, we report the successful loading of caffeine onto dissolving microneedle following inhibition of its crystal growth by hyaluronic acid (HA), the matrix material of the dissolving microneedle (DMN). Further, the anti-obesity activity of caffeine was evaluated in high-fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6J mice. After 6weeks of caffeine loaded dissolving microneedle patch (CMP) administration, lipolysis improved significantly as shown by leptin and adiponectin activity, which resulted in considerable weight loss of about 12.8±0.75% in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. Comparison of the levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol after CMP administration with the initial levels in obese mice indicated significant anti-obesity activity of CMP. These findings suggested that a novel CMP with an increased amount of caffeine loaded onto DMN has therapeutic activity against obesity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Neve, Melinda; Morgan, Philip J; Collins, Clare E
There is a paucity of information in the scientific literature on the effectiveness of commercial weight loss programs, including Web-based programs. The potential of Web-based weight loss programs has been acknowledged, but their ability to achieve significant weight loss has not been proven. The objectives were to evaluate the weight change achieved within a large cohort of individuals enrolled in a commercial Web-based weight loss program for 12 or 52 weeks and to describe participants' program use in relation to weight change. Participants enrolled in an Australian commercial Web-based weight loss program from August 15, 2007, through May 31, 2008. Self-reported weekly weight records were used to determine weight change after 12- and 52-week subscriptions. The primary analysis estimated weight change using generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) for all participants who subscribed for 12 weeks and also for those who subscribed for 52 weeks. A sensitivity analysis was conducted using the last observation carried forward (LOCF) method. Website use (ie, the number of days participants logged on, made food or exercise entries to the Web-based diary, or posted to the discussion forum) was described from program enrollment to 12 and 52 weeks, and differences in website use by percentage weight change category were tested using Kruskal-Wallis test for equality of populations. Participants (n = 9599) had a mean (standard deviation [SD]) age of 35.7 (9.5) years and were predominantly female (86% or 8279/9599) and obese (61% or 5866/9599). Results from the primary GLMM analysis including all enrollees found the mean percentage weight change was -6.2% among 12-week subscribers (n = 6943) and -6.9% among 52-week subscribers (n = 2656). Sensitivity analysis using LOCF revealed an average weight change of -3.0% and -3.5% after 12 and 52 weeks respectively. The use of all website features increased significantly (P Web-based weight loss program is likely to be in the range of
Jørgensen, Sune Dandanell; Skovborg, Camilla; Præst, Charlotte Boslev
OBJECTIVE: Intensive lifestyle interventions (ILI) are criticised for ineffective obesity treatment because weight loss over time is modest and thus of limited clinical relevance. However, a subgroup (5-30%) maintains a clinical weight loss >10%, but it is not clear if cardiometabolic health foll...... activity (155±6, 130±5, 113±5μmol/g/min) and VO2max (49±1, 43±1, 41±1mL/min/FFM) (p10% weight loss compared to moderate weight loss and weight regain....
Marco Aurelio Santo
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The incidence of obesity and particularly super obesity, has increased tremendously. At our institution, super obesity represents 30.1% of all severely obese individuals in the bariatric surgery program. In super obesity, surgical morbidity is higher and the results are worse compared with morbid obesity, independent of the surgical technique. The primary strategy for minimizing complications in these patients is to decrease the body mass index before surgery. Preoperative weight reduction can be achieved by a hypocaloric diet, drug therapy, an intragastric balloon, or hospitalization. The objective of this study was to analyze the results of a period of hospitalization for preoperative weight loss in a group of super-obese patients. METHODS: Twenty super-obese patients were submitted to a weight loss program between 2006 and 2010. The mean patient age was 46 years (range 21-59. The mean BMI was 66 kg/m2 (range 51-98 and 12 were women. The average hospital stay was 19.9 weeks and the average weight loss was 19% of the initial weight (7-37%. The average caloric intake was 5 kcal/kg/day. After the weight loss program, the patients underwent gastric bypass surgery. RESULTS: The statistical analysis revealed that after 14 weeks of treatment (15% loss of initial weight, the weight loss was not significant. All patients had satisfactory surgical recovery and were discharged after an average of 4.6 days. CONCLUSION: In super obesity, preoperative weight loss is an important method for reducing surgical risks. Hospitalization and a hypocaloric diet are safe and effective. After 14 weeks, the weight loss rate stabilized, signaling the time of surgical intervention in our study.
Roumans, Nadia J T; Vink, Roel G; Gielen, Marij
The extracellular matrix (ECM) of adipocytes is important for body weight regulation. Here, we investigated whether genetic variation in ECM-related genes is associated with weight regain among participants of the European DiOGenes study. Overweight and obese subjects (n = 469, 310 females, 159 m.......40-5.63). Concluding, variants of ECM genes are associated with weight regain after weight loss in a sex-specific manner....
Zwarts, L; Hulscher, JB; Zegers, PM
This paper analyses the weight loss in Oystercatchers on the roost and after capture and attempts to investigate to what degree this weight loss is due to defecation of digested food, to dehydration and to utilisation of nutrient stores. The study emphasizes the need to record weight changes
Full Text Available Aims. We investigated the relationship between circulating amino acid levels and obesity; to what extent weight loss followed by weight maintenance can correct amino acid abnormalities; and whether amino acids are related to weight loss. Methods. Amino acids associated with waist circumference (WC and BMI were studied in 804 participants from the Malmö Diet and Cancer Cardiovascular Cohort (MDC-CC. Changes in amino acid levels were analyzed after weight loss and weight maintenance in 12 obese subjects and evaluated in a replication cohort (n=83. Results. Out of the eight identified BMI-associated amino acids from the MDC-CC, alanine, isoleucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, and glutamate decreased after weight loss, while asparagine increased after weight maintenance. These changes were validated in the replication cohort. Scores that were constructed based on obesity-associated amino acids and known risk factors decreased in the ≥10% weight loss group with an associated change in BMI (R2=0.16–0.22, p<0.002, whereas the scores increased in the <10% weight loss group (p<0.0004. Conclusions. Weight loss followed by weight maintenance leads to differential changes in amino acid levels associated with obesity. Treatment modifiable scores based on epidemiological and interventional data may be used to evaluate the potential metabolic benefit of weight loss.
Gabel, Kathe A.; Lund, Robin J.
Addresses three claims of high-protein, low-carbohydrate diets: weight loss is attributed to the composition of the diet; insulin promotes the storage of fat, thereby, by limiting carbohydrates, dieters will decrease levels of insulin and body fat; and weight loss is the result of fat loss. The paper examines relevant scientific reports and notes…
Jensen, P; Zachariae, Claus; Christensen, R
Psoriasis is associated with adiposity and weight gain increases the severity of psoriasis and the risk of incident psoriasis. Therefore, we aimed to measure the effect of weight reduction on the severity of psoriasis in obese patients with psoriasis.......Psoriasis is associated with adiposity and weight gain increases the severity of psoriasis and the risk of incident psoriasis. Therefore, we aimed to measure the effect of weight reduction on the severity of psoriasis in obese patients with psoriasis....
Walter Moraes; Dalva Poyares; Christian Guilleminault; Agostinho Rosa; Marco Tulio Mello; Adriana Rueda; Sergio Tufik
Background: Weight loss can be caused by a loss of body mass due to metabolism and by water loss as unsensible water loss, sweating, or excretion in feces and urine. Although weight loss during sleep is a well-known phenomenon, it has not yet been studied in relation to sleep structure or autonomic tonus during sleep. Our study is proposed to be a first step in assessing the relationship between overnight weight loss, sleep structure, and HRV (heart rate variability) parameters.Methods: Twent...
Pratt, Janey S.A.; Lenders, Carine M.; Dionne, Emily A.; Hoppin, Alison G.; Hsu, George L.K.; Inge, Thomas H.; Lawlor, David F.; Marino, Margaret F.; Meyers, Alan F.; Rosenblum, Jennifer L.; Sanchez, Vivian M.
The objective of this study is to update evidence-based best practice guidelines for pediatric/adolescent weight loss surgery (WLS). We performed a systematic search of English-language literature on WLS and pediatric, adolescent, gastric bypass, laparoscopic gastric banding, and extreme obesity published between April 2004 and May 2007 in PubMed, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Library. Keywords were used to narrow the search for a selective review of abstracts, retrieval of full articles, and grading of evidence according to systems used in established evidence-based models. In light of evidence on the natural history of obesity and on outcomes of WLS in adolescents, guidelines for surgical treatment of obesity in this age group need to be updated. We recommend modification of selection criteria to include adolescents with BMI ≥ 35 and specific obesity-related comorbidities for which there is clear evidence of important short-term morbidity (i.e., type 2 diabetes, severe steatohepatitis, pseudotumor cerebri, and moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea). In addition, WLS should be considered for adolescents with extreme obesity (BMI ≥ 40) and other comorbidities associated with long-term risks. We identified >1,085 papers; 186 of the most relevant were reviewed in detail. Regular updates of evidence-based recommendations for best practices in pediatric/adolescent WLS are required to address advances in technology and the growing evidence base in pediatric WLS. Key considerations in patient safety include carefully designed criteria for patient selection, multidisciplinary evaluation, choice of appropriate procedure, thorough screening and management of comorbidities, optimization of long-term compliance, and age-appropriate fully informed consent. PMID:19396070
Kedia, Rohit; Lowes, Alicia; Gillis, Sarah; Markert, Ronald; Koroscil, Thomas
Among patients who have undergone total thyroidectomy, do those with thyroid cancer being kept iatrogenically subclinical hyperthyroid (SCH) differ from euthyroid patients in long-term weight change? In a retrospective study, medical records identified 291 patients who had undergone a thyroidectomy for differentiated thyroid cancer or benign thyroid disease. Weight, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and levothyroxine dose were measured presurgery and 1, 2, and 3 years postsurgery. Of 291 patients, 147 were in the SCH group and 144 were in the euthyroid group. At all 3 years both groups gained weight from baseline, but the two groups did not differ in weight change from baseline at any time period: year 1 (SCH mean 0.4% ± 6.2% weight gain vs euthyroid group mean 2.2% ± 6.6% weight gain; P = 0.12), year 2 (SCH mean 1.1% ± 9.1% weight gain vs euthyroid mean 2.9% ± 7.8% weight gain; P = 0.22), and year 3 (SCH mean 2.6% ± 9.2% weight gain vs euthyroid mean 3.1% ± 11.1% weight gain; P = 0.49). Among total thyroidectomy patients, weight change did not differ between SCH patients and euthyroid patients at years 1 through 3. As such, the use of levothyroxine to induce SCH did not lead to long-term weight change when compared with euthyroid patients.
Kersbergen, I.; Sutin, A.; Daly, M.; Robinson, E.
Summary It is commonly assumed that a person identifying that they are ‘overweight’ is an important prerequisite to successful weight management. However, there has been no systematic evaluation of evidence supporting this proposition. The aim of the present research was to systematically review evidence on the relationship between perceived overweight and (i) weight loss attempts, (ii) weight control strategies (healthy and unhealthy), (iii) weight‐related behaviours (physical activity and eating habits), (iv) disordered eating and (v) weight change. We synthesized evidence from 78 eligible studies and evaluated evidence linking perceived overweight with outcome variables separately according to the gender, age and objective weight status of study participants. Results indicated that perceived overweight was associated with an increased likelihood of attempting weight loss and with healthy and unhealthy weight control strategies in some participant groups. However, perceived overweight was not reliably associated with physical activity or healthy eating and was associated with greater disordered eating in some groups. Rather than being associated with improved weight management, there was consistent evidence that perceived overweight was predictive of increased weight gain over time. Individuals who perceive their weight status as overweight are more likely to report attempting weight loss but over time gain more weight. PMID:29266851
Drager, Luciano F; Li, Jianguo; Reinke, Christian; Bevans-Fonti, Shannon; Jun, Jonathan C; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y
Obesity causes insulin resistance (IR) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but the relative contribution of sleep apnea is debatable. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), a hallmark of sleep apnea, on IR and NAFLD in lean mice and mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO). Mice (C57BL/6J), 6-8 weeks of age were fed a high fat (n = 18) or regular (n = 16) diet for 12 weeks and then exposed to CIH or control conditions (room air) for 4 weeks. At the end of the exposure, fasting (5 h) blood glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index, liver enzymes, and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (1 g/kg) were measured. In DIO mice, body weight remained stable during CIH and did not differ from control conditions. Lean mice under CIH were significantly lighter than control mice by day 28 (P = 0.002). Compared to lean mice, DIO mice had higher fasting levels of blood glucose, plasma insulin, the HOMA index, and had glucose intolerance and hepatic steatosis at baseline. In lean mice, CIH slightly increased HOMA index (from 1.79 ± 0.13 in control to 2.41 ± 0.26 in CIH; P = 0.05), whereas glucose tolerance was not affected. In contrast, in DIO mice, CIH doubled HOMA index (from 10.1 ± 2.1 in control to 22.5 ± 3.6 in CIH; P obesity.
Williams, Rebecca L; Wood, Lisa G; Collins, Clare E; Morgan, Philip J; Callister, Robin
Sex differences in weight loss are often seen despite using the same weight loss program. There has been relatively little investigation of physiological influences on weight loss success in males and females, such as energy homeostasis and appetite regulating hormones. The aims were to 1) characterise baseline plasma leptin, ghrelin and adiponectin concentrations in overweight and obese males and females, and 2) determine whether baseline concentrations of these hormones predict weight loss in males and females. Subjects were overweight or obese (BMI 25-40 kg/m(2)) adults aged 18-60 years. Weight was measured at baseline, and after three and six months participation in a weight loss program. Baseline concentrations of leptin, adiponectin and ghrelin were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). An independent t-test or non-parametric equivalent was used to determine any differences between sex. Linear regression determined whether baseline hormone concentrations were predictors of six-month weight change. Females had significantly higher baseline concentrations of leptin, adiponectin and unacylated ghrelin as well as ratios of leptin:adiponectin and leptin:ghrelin. The ratio of acylated:unacylated ghrelin was significantly higher in males. In males and females, a higher baseline concentration of unacylated ghrelin predicted greater weight loss at six months. Additionally in females, higher baseline total ghrelin predicted greater weight loss and a higher ratio of leptin:ghrelin predicted weight gain at six months. A higher pre-weight-loss plasma concentration of unacylated ghrelin is a modest predictor of weight loss success in males and females, while a higher leptin:ghrelin ratio is a predictor of weight loss failure in females. Further investigation is required into what combinations and concentrations of these hormones are optimal for weight loss success. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cayci, Haci Murat; Erdogdu, Umut Eren; Karaman, Kerem; Budak, Ersin; Taymur, İbrahim; Buyukuysal, Cagatay
The effect of preoperative weight changes on postoperative outcomes after bariatric surgery remains inconclusive. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of preoperative weight gain on postoperative weight loss outcomes after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (SG). Ninety-two morbidly obese patients undergoing SG from January 2014 to April 2016 were separated into two groups according to whether they gained weight or not during the waiting time prior to surgery. Thirty-nine patients (42.4 %) gained weight during the waiting time and 53 patients (57.6 %) did not. The median body mass index (BMI; kg/m 2 ) at surgery was significantly higher in weight-gained patients (47.8 (min-max, 40-62)) compared to patients who had not gained weight (45.10 (min-max, 41-67)), (P = 0.034). No significant difference was found between the two groups regarding the distribution of age, gender, family history of obesity, existence of comorbidity, smoking, weight gain during childhood or adulthood, preoperative Beck depression and Beck anxiety scores, waiting time period, and body weight at the initial visit (P > 0.05). The ASA I score was higher in weight-gained patients whereas ASA II score was higher in those who did not gain, and the difference was significant (P = 0.046). Postoperative % BMI loss and % weight loss were not significantly different between the two groups at the first, third, sixth months, and the end of the first year (P > 0.05). Weight gain during waiting time has no negative impact on % weight loss and % BMI loss after SG.
Preoperative weight loss with glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist treatment predicts greater weight loss achieved by the combination of medical weight management and bariatric surgery in patients with type 2 diabetes: A longitudinal analysis.
Tang, Tien; Abbott, Sally; le Roux, Carel W; Wilson, Violet; Singhal, Rishi; Bellary, Srikanth; Tahrani, Abd A
We examined the relationship between weight changes after preoperative glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) treatment and weight changes from the start of medical weight management (MWM) until 12 months after bariatric surgery in patients with type 2 diabetes in a retrospective cohort study. A total of 45 patients (64.4% women, median [interquartile range] age 49 [45-60] years) were included. The median (interquartile range) weight loss from start of MWM until 12 months post-surgery was 17.9% (13.0%-29.3%). GLP-1RA treatment during MWM resulted in 5.0% (1.9%-7.7%) weight loss. Weight loss during GLP-1RA treatment predicted weight loss from the start of MWM until 12 months post-surgery, but not postoperative weight loss after adjustment. The proportion of weight loss from start of MWM to 12 months post-surgery attributed to GLP-1RA treatment was negatively associated with that attributed to surgery, after adjustment. In conclusion, weight change after GLP-1RA treatment predicted the weight loss achieved by a combination of MWM and bariatric surgery, but not weight loss induced by surgery only. Failure to lose weight after GLP-1RA treatment should not be considered a barrier to undergoing bariatric surgery. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Riccardo Dalle Grave
Full Text Available Objective: The analysis of the relation between weight loss goals and attrition in the treatment of obesity has produced conflicting results. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of weight loss goals on attrition in a cohort of obese women seeking treatment at 8 Italian medical centres. Methods: 634 women with obesity, consecutively enrolled in weight loss programmes, were included in the study. Weight loss goals were evaluated with the Goals and Relative Weights Questionnaire (GRWQ, reporting a sequence of unrealistic (‘dream' and ‘happy' and more realistic (‘acceptable' and ‘disappointing' weight loss goals. Attrition was assessed at 12 months on the basis of patients' medical records. Results: At 12 months, 205/634 patients (32.3% had interrupted their programme and were lost to follow-up. After adjustment for age, baseline weight, education and employment status, attrition was significantly associated with higher percent acceptable and disappointing weight loss targets, not with dream and happy weight loss. Conclusion: In ‘real world' clinical settings, only realistic expectations might favour attrition whenever too challenging, whereas unrealistic weight loss goals have no effect. Future studies should assess the effect of interventions aimed at coping with too challenging weight goals on attrition.
Nørgaard, Sisse A; Sand, Fredrik W; Sørensen, Dorte B
The streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mouse is a widely used model of diabetes and diabetic nephropathy (DN). However, it is a well-known issue that this model is challenged by high weight loss, which despite supportive measures often results in high euthanization rates. To overcome...... these issues, we hypothesized that supplementing STZ-induced diabetic mice with water-softened chow in addition to normal chow would reduce weight loss, lower the need for supportive treatment, and reduce the number of mice reaching the humane endpoint of 20% weight loss. In a 15 week STZ-induced DN study we...... demonstrated that diabetic male mice receiving softened chow had reduced acute weight loss following STZ treatment ( p = 0.045) and additionally fewer mice were euthanized due to weight loss. By supplementing the diabetic mice with softened chow, no mice reached 20% weight loss whereas 37.5% of the mice...
Amy M. Egras
Full Text Available Objective. To review the literature on fat modifying dietary supplements commonly used for weight loss. Methods. Recently published randomized, placebo-controlled trials were identified in PubMed, MEDLINE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Cochrane Database, and Google Scholar using the search terms dietary supplement, herbal, weight loss, obesity, and individual supplement names. Discussion. Data for conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, Garcinia cambogia, chitosan, pyruvate, Irvingia gabonensis, and chia seed for weight loss were identified. CLA, chitosan, pyruvate, and Irvingia gabonensis appeared to be effective in weight loss via fat modifying mechanisms. However, the data on the use of these products is limited. Conclusion. Many obese people use dietary supplements for weight loss. To date, there is little clinical evidence to support their use. More data is necessary to determine the efficacy and safety of these supplements. Healthcare providers should assist patients in weighing the risks and benefits of dietary supplement use for weight loss.
Shapiro, Jennifer R; Anderson, Drew A; Danoff-Burg, Sharon
Previous studies have found a relation between weight loss and pain severity in various chronic pain populations. However, there has been little research examining the relation between body mass index (BMI) and fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the relationship between BMI and FMS symptoms and to determine if FMS symptoms would decrease following weight loss. Overweight and obese women participated in a 20-week behavioral weight loss treatment. Participants, on average, lost 9.2 lbs (4.4% of their initial weight), and there were significant pre-postimprovements on several outcome measures. Although weight was not significantly related to pain at baseline, weight loss significantly predicted a reduction in FMS, pain interference, body satisfaction, and quality of life (QOL). Findings suggest that behavioral weight loss treatment could be included in the treatment for overweight/obese women with FMS.
Näslund, Erik; King, N; Mansten, S
Recombinant glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36)amide (rGLP-1) was recently shown to cause significant weight loss in type 2 diabetics when administered for 6 weeks as a continuous subcutaneous infusion. The mechanisms responsible for the weight loss are not clarified. In the present study, rGLP-1 was ...... as a probable mechanism of action of increased satiety, decreased hunger and, hence, reduced food intake with an ensuing weight loss....
Wang, Ping; Holst, Claus; Andersen, Malene R
Weight regain after weight loss is common. In the Diogenes dietary intervention study, high protein and low glycemic index (GI) diet improved weight maintenance.......Weight regain after weight loss is common. In the Diogenes dietary intervention study, high protein and low glycemic index (GI) diet improved weight maintenance....
St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Salinardi, Taylor; Herron-Rubin, Kristin; Black, Richard M.
Mannooligosaccharides (MOS), extracted from coffee, have been shown to promote a decrease in body fat when consumed as part of free-living, weight-maintaining diets. Our objective was to determine if MOS consumption (4 g/day), in conjunction with a weight-loss diet, would lead to greater reductions in adipose tissue compartments than placebo. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled weight-loss study in which 60 overweight men and women consumed study beverages and received weekly group counseling for 12 weeks. Weight and blood pressure were measured weekly, and adipose tissue distribution was assessed at baseline and at end point using magnetic resonance imaging. A total of 54 subjects completed the study. Men consuming the MOS beverage had greater loss of body weight than men consuming the Placebo beverage (−6.0 ± 0.6% vs. −2.3 ± 0.5%, respectively, P coffee-derived MOS to a weight-loss diet enhanced both weight and adipose tissue losses in men, suggesting a potential functional use of MOS for weight management and improvement in adipose tissue distribution. More studies are needed to investigate the apparent gender difference in response to MOS consumption. PMID:21938072
Rock, Cheryl L; Flatt, Shirley W; Pakiz, Bilge; Quintana, Elizabeth L; Heath, Dennis D; Rana, Brinda K; Natarajan, Loki
Obesity is a risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer incidence and premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer mortality, which may be explained by several metabolic and hormonal factors (sex hormones, insulin resistance, and inflammation) that are biologically related. Differential effects of dietary composition on weight loss and these metabolic factors may occur in insulin-sensitive vs. insulin-resistant obese women. To examine the effect of diet composition on weight loss and metabolic, hormonal and inflammatory factors in overweight/obese women stratified by insulin resistance status in a 1-year weight loss intervention. Nondiabetic women who were overweight/obese (n=245) were randomly assigned to a lower fat (20% energy), higher carbohydrate (65% energy) diet; a lower carbohydrate (45% energy), higher fat (35% energy) diet; or a walnut-rich (18% energy), higher fat (35% energy), lower carbohydrate (45% energy) diet. All groups lost weight at follow-up (Ploss of 9.2(1.1)% in lower fat, 6.5(0.9)% in lower carbohydrate, and 8.2(1.0)% in walnut-rich groups at 12months. The diet×time×insulin resistance status interaction was not statistically significant in the model for overall weight loss, although insulin sensitive women at 12months lost more weight in the lower fat vs. lower carbohydrate group (7.5kg vs. 4.3kg, P=0.06), and in the walnut-rich vs. lower carbohydrate group (8.1kg vs. 4.3kg, P=0.04). Sex hormone binding globulin increased within each group except in the lower carbohydrate group at 12months (Ploss depending on insulin resistance status. Prescribing walnuts is associated with weight loss comparable to a standard lower fat diet in a behavioral weight loss intervention. Weight loss itself may be the most critical factor for reducing the chronic inflammation associated with increased breast cancer risk and progression. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Wilson, Kathryn E.; Harden, Samantha M.; Almeida, Fabio A.; You, Wen; Hill, Jennie L.; Goessl, Cody; Estabrooks, Paul A.
Self-efficacy is a commonly included cognitive variable in weight-loss trials, but there is little uniformity in its measurement. Weight-loss trials frequently focus on physical activity (PA) and eating behavior, as well as weight loss, but no survey is available that offers reliable measurement of self-efficacy as it relates to each of these targeted outcomes. The purpose of this study was to test the psychometric properties of brief, pragmatic self-efficacy scales specific to PA, healthful eating and weight-loss (4 items each). An adult sample (n=1790) from 28 worksites enrolled in a worksite weight-loss program completed the self-efficacy scale, as well as measures of PA, dietary fat intake, and weight, at baseline, 6-, and 12-months. The hypothesized factor structure was tested through confirmatory factor analysis, which supported the expected factor structure for three latent self-efficacy factors, specific to PA, healthful eating, and weight-loss. Measurement equivalence/invariance between relevant demographic groups, and over time was also supported. Parallel growth processes in self-efficacy factors and outcomes (PA, fat intake, and weight) support the predictive validity of score interpretations. Overall, this initial series of psychometric analyses supports the interpretation that scores on these scales reflect self-efficacy for PA, healthful eating, and weight-loss. The use of this instrument in large-scale weight-loss trials is encouraged. PMID:26619093
Dutton, Gareth R.; Herman, Katharine G.; Tan, Fei; Goble, Mary; Dancer-Brown, Melissa; Van Vessem, Nancy; Ard, Jamy D.
Background A variety of physician and patient characteristics may influence whether weight loss counseling occurs in primary care encounters. Objectives This study utilized a cross-sectional survey of primary care patients, which examined patient characteristics, physician characteristics, and characteristics of the physician-patient relationship associated with weight loss counseling and recommendations provided by physicians. Participants Participants (N=143, mean age=46.8 years, mean BMI=36.9 kg/m2, 65% Caucasian) were overweight and obese primary care patients participating in a managed care weight loss program. Measures Participants completed self-report surveys in the clinic prior to the initial weight loss session. Surveys included items assessing demographic/background characteristics, weight, height, and a health care questionnaire evaluating whether their physician had recommended weight loss, the frequency of their physicians’ weight loss counseling, and whether their physician had referred them for obesity treatment. Results Patient BMI and physician sex were most consistently associated with physicians’ weight loss counseling practices. Patients seen by female physicians were more likely to be told that they should lose weight, received more frequent obesity counseling, and were more likely to have been referred for obesity treatment by their physician. Length and frequency of physician-patient contacts were unrelated to the likelihood of counseling. Conclusions These findings add to previous evidence suggesting possible differences in the weight loss counseling practices of male and female physicians, although further research is needed to understand this potential difference between physicians. PMID:24743007
Stocks, Tanja; Angquist, Lars; Banasik, Karina
Numerous gene loci are related to single measures of body weight and shape. We investigated if 55 SNPs previously associated with BMI or waist measures, modify the effects of fat intake on weight loss and waist reduction under energy restriction.......Numerous gene loci are related to single measures of body weight and shape. We investigated if 55 SNPs previously associated with BMI or waist measures, modify the effects of fat intake on weight loss and waist reduction under energy restriction....
Millward, D Joe; Truby, Helen; Fox, Kenneth R; Livingstone, M Barbara E; Macdonald, Ian A; Tothill, Peter
Sex differences in the ratio of fat mass (FM):fat-free mass (FFM) during weight change should differentially affect the extent of weight change during energy imbalance in men and women. In the present study, we determined FM and FFM contents by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and calculated the P-ratios (protein energy/total energy) of excess weight and weight loss during a randomised controlled trial of four commercial weight loss regimens. Overweight and obese women (n 210) and men (n 77) were studied at baseline and at 2 and 6 months during weight loss on four dietary regimens: Dr Atkins' New Diet Revolution; The Slim-Fast Plan; Weight-Watchers programme; Rosemary Conley's Diet and Fitness Plan. At baseline, the percentage of FFM (%FFM) and P-ratios of excess weight were 40 % and 0·071 for men and 27 % and 0·039 for women. At 2 months, men had lost twice as much weight as women and three times more FFM than women, indicating higher FFM content and P-ratios of weight loss for men, 0·052, than for women, 0·029, with no dietary effects. Between 2 and 6 months, the rate at which weight was lost decreased and the %FFM of weight loss decreased to similar low levels in men (7 %) and women (5 %): i.e. P-ratios of 0·009 and 0·006, respectively, with no dietary effects. Thus, for men compared with women, there were greater FFM content and P-ratios of weight change, which could partly, but not completely, explain their greater weight loss at 2 months. However, protein-conserving adaptations occur with increasing weight loss and over time, more extensively in men, eventually eliminating any sex difference in the composition of weight loss.
Linde, Jennifer A; Simon, Gregory E; Ludman, Evette J; Ichikawa, Laura E; Operskalski, Belinda H; Arterburn, David; Rohde, Paul; Finch, Emily A; Jeffery, Robert W
Obesity is associated with clinical depression among women. However, depressed women are often excluded from weight loss trials. This study examined treatment outcomes among women with comorbid obesity and depression. Two hundred three (203) women were randomized to behavioral weight loss (n = 102) or behavioral weight loss combined with cognitive-behavioral depression management (n = 101). Average participant age was 52 years; mean baseline body mass index was 39 kg/m(2). Mean Patient Health Questionnaire and Hopkins Symptom Checklist (SCL-20) scores indicated moderate to severe baseline depression. Weight loss and SCL-20 changes did not differ between groups at 6 or 12 months in intent-to-treat analyses (p = 0.26 and 0.55 for weight, p = 0.70 and 0.25 for depressive symptoms). Depressed obese women lost weight and demonstrated improved mood in both treatment programs. Future weight loss trials are encouraged to enroll depressed women.
Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with abnormal markers of inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress markers. Although, these abnormalities could be modulated with weight reduction; there is limitation in clinical studies that have addressed the beneficial effects of weight reduction in modulating ...
Lous, Jørgen; Freund, Kirsten S.
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is in a general practice trial setting to identify predictive factors for weight loss after 1 year among young adults who are over-weight or obese and who have several psychosocial problems. METHODS: Twenty-eight general practitioners recruited 495 patients aged 20...
Bourron, Olivier; Ciangura, Cécile; Bouillot, Jean-Luc; Massias, Laurent; Poitou, Christine; Oppert, Jean-Michel
Gastric bypass is increasingly used in morbidly obese patients to achieve significant reduction of body weight and fat mass and concurrent improvement in co-morbidities. We report the case of a 53-year-old male patient (141 kg, BMI 50 kg/m2), successfully treated by amiodarone for supraventricular arrythmia, who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP). 6 months after surgery, he had lost 45% of his preoperative weight (44.8% of weight loss was lean mass) and developed amiodarone-induced subclinical hyperthyroidism. We hypothesize the following sequence of events: weight loss after RYGBP, therefore fat loss, decrease in distribution volume of amiodarone inducing iodine overload and hyperthyroidism, reinforcing weight loss and particularly loss of lean mass. This report emphasizes the importance of careful monitoring of weight and body composition changes after RYGBP. In this situation, checking thyroid status is recommended, especially when there is a history of thyroid disease or potentially toxic thyroid medication.
Full Text Available Melanie McGrice, Kathlene Don Paul Nutrition Plus Enterprises, Melbourne, VIC, Australia Abstract: Bariatric surgery aims to provide long-term weight loss and improvement in weight-related comorbidities. Unfortunately, some patients do not achieve predicted weight loss targets and many regain a portion of their lost weight within 2–10 years postsurgery. A review of the literature found that behavioral, dietary, psychological, physical, and medical considerations can all play a role in suboptimal long-term weight loss. Recommendations to optimize long-term weight loss include ensuring that the patient understands how the procedure works, preoperative and postoperative education sessions, tailored nutritional supplements, restraint with liquid kilojoules, pureed foods, grazing and eating out of the home, an average of 60 minutes of physical activity per day, and lifelong annual medical, psychological, and dietary assessments.Keywords: weight, bariatric, surgery
Full Text Available Treatments for obesity have been shown to reduce pain secondary to weight loss. Intestinal microbiota, as an endogenous factor, influences obesity and pain sensitivity but the effect of oral probiotic supplementation on musculoskeletal pain perception has not been studied systematically. The present study examined the effect of a single daily oral dose (1 × 109 CFU of probiotics (Lactobacillus rhamnosus PB01, DSM14870 supplement on mechanical pain thresholds in behaving diet-induced obese (DIO mice and their normal weight (NW controls. The mice (N=24, 6-week-old male were randomly divided into four groups on either standard or high fat diet with and without probiotic supplementation. Both DIO and NW groups with probiotic supplementation maintained an insignificant weight gain while the control groups gained significant weight (P<0.05. Similarly, both DIO and NW probiotics supplemented groups demonstrated a significantly (P<0.05 lower sensitivity to mechanical stimulation compared to their corresponding control. The results of this study suggest a protective effect of probiotics on nociception circuits, which propose a direct result of the weight reduction or an indirect result of anti-inflammatory properties of the probiotics. Deciphering the exact underlying mechanism of the weight loss and lowering nociception effect of the probiotic applied in this study require further investigation.
Bays, Harold; Pi-Sunyer, Xavier; Hemmingsson, Joanna Uddén; Claudius, Birgitte; Jensen, Christine B; Van Gaal, Luc
As an adjunct to a reduced-calorie diet and increased physical activity, treatment with liraglutide 3.0 mg for weight management provides a statistically significant and clinically meaningful weight loss of 5.7%-8.0% compared to 1.6%-2.6% with placebo. The objective of this post hoc analysis was to quantify the relative contribution of weight loss to the treatment effects of liraglutide 3.0 mg on key efficacy endpoints. The analysis utilized data from 4725 participants across three randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trials that evaluated the efficacy and safety of liraglutide 3.0 mg versus placebo, as an adjunct to a reduced-calorie diet and increased physical activity (ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT01272219, NCT01272232 and NCT01557166). The duration of two of the trials was 56 weeks; one trial was of 32 weeks' duration. A mediation analysis was performed, which ranked the relative contribution of weight loss to the treatment effects of liraglutide 3.0 mg on key cardiometabolic efficacy endpoints, Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI) and health-related quality of life (QoL). A limitation of this type of analysis is that it cannot conclusively prove a causal relationship. In individuals without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), endpoints predominantly driven by liraglutide-induced weight loss included waist circumference, diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, AHI, and Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Lite total and physical function scores. Endpoints predominantly independent of weight loss included the glycemic endpoints hemoglobin A1c and fasting plasma glucose in individuals with and without T2DM. Regardless of the degree of dependence on weight loss according to the mediation analysis, greater weight loss was associated with greater improvement in all endpoints. Treatment with liraglutide 3.0 mg contributes to improved cardiometabolic parameters, AHI and health-related QoL through both weight-loss
Hursel, Rick; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S
Green tea and protein separately are able to increase diet-induced thermogenesis. Although their effects on long-term weight-maintenance were present separately, they were not additive. Therefore, the effect of milk-protein (MP) in combination with green tea on diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) was examined in 18 subjects (aged 18-60 years; BMI: 23.0 ± 2.1 kg/m(2)). They participated in an experiment with a randomized, 6 arms, crossover design, where energy expenditure and respiratory quotient (RQ) were measured. Green tea (GT)vs. placebo (PL) capsules were either given in combination with water or with breakfasts containing milk protein in two different dosages: 15 g (15 MP) (energy% P/C/F: 15/47/38; 1.7 MJ/500 mL), and 3.5 g (3.5 MP) (energy% P/C/F: 41/59/0; 146.4 kJ/100 mL). After measuring resting energy expenditure (REE) for 30 min, diet-induced energy expenditure was measured for another 3.5 h after the intervention. There was an overall significant difference observed between conditions (p milk-protein inhibits the effect of green tea on DIT.
Full Text Available Acacia senegal L. (Fabaceae seeds are essential ingredient of “Pachkutta,” a specific Rajasthani traditional food. The present study explored antiatherosclerotic and cardioprotective potential of Acacia senegal seed extract, if any, in hypercholesterolemic diet-induced atherosclerosis in rabbits. Atherosclerosis in rabbits was induced by feeding normal diet supplemented with oral administration of cholesterol (500 mg/kg body weight/day mixed with coconut oil for 15 days. Circulating total cholesterol (TC, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C, LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C, triglycerides, and VLDL-cholesterol (VLDL-C levels; atherogenic index (AI; cardiac lipid peroxidation (LPO; planimetric studies of aortal wall; and histopathological studies of heart, aorta, kidney, and liver were performed. Apart from reduced atherosclerotic plaques in aorta (6.34±0.72 and increased lumen volume (51.65±3.66, administration with ethanolic extract of Acacia senegal seeds (500 mg/kg/day, p.o. for 45 days to atherosclerotic rabbits significantly lowered serum TC, LDL-C, triglyceride, and VLDL-C levels and atherogenic index as compared to control. Atherogenic diet-induced cardiac LPO and histopathological abnormalities in aorta wall, heart, kidney, and liver were reverted to normalcy by Acacia senegal seed extract administration. The findings of the present study reveal that Acacia senegal seed extract ameliorated diet-induced atherosclerosis and could be considered as lead in the development of novel therapeutics.
Peterson, Jonathan M; Seldin, Marcus M; Wei, Zhikui; Aja, Susan; Wong, G William
CTRP3 is a secreted plasma protein of the C1q family that helps regulate hepatic gluconeogenesis and is downregulated in a diet-induced obese state. However, the role of CTRP3 in regulating lipid metabolism has not been established. Here, we used a transgenic mouse model to address the potential function of CTRP3 in ameliorating high-fat diet-induced metabolic stress. Both transgenic and wild-type mice fed a high-fat diet showed similar body weight gain, food intake, and energy expenditure. Despite similar adiposity to wild-type mice upon diet-induced obesity (DIO), CTRP3 transgenic mice were strikingly resistant to the development of hepatic steatosis, had reduced serum TNF-α levels, and demonstrated a modest improvement in systemic insulin sensitivity. Additionally, reduced hepatic triglyceride levels were due to decreased expression of enzymes (GPAT, AGPAT, and DGAT) involved in triglyceride synthesis. Importantly, short-term daily administration of recombinant CTRP3 to DIO mice for 5 days was sufficient to improve the fatty liver phenotype, evident as reduced hepatic triglyceride content and expression of triglyceride synthesis genes. Consistent with a direct effect on liver cells, recombinant CTRP3 treatment reduced fatty acid synthesis and neutral lipid accumulation in cultured rat H4IIE hepatocytes. Together, these results establish a novel role for CTRP3 hormone in regulating hepatic lipid metabolism and highlight its protective function and therapeutic potential in attenuating hepatic steatosis.
diet regimen, where as the control group received medical treatment only for 12 weeks. Results: The mean values of ... Keywords: Type 2 diabetes, weight reduction, oxidative stress, cytokines, obesity. ..... muscle in severely obese subjects.
... engaging in this behavior; however, evidence for any benefit on weight is mixed. A 2013 systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of food intake memory and awareness on eating indicates that attentive eating is likely to influence ...
... second update of codes and MET values. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2011;43:1575. 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines ... second update of codes and MET values. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2011;43:1575. Losing weight. Centers for ...
Rafiei, N; Gill, T
Despite the number of weight management programmes and their wide promotion, most overweight and obese individuals tend to lose weight on their own. The present study aimed to understand the characteristics and strategies of those who successfully engage in self-directed weight loss, which could empower other overweight and obese individuals with information and strategies to manage their weight on their own. Men and women who had lost at least 5% of their body weight without direct interaction with professionals or weight management programmes were recruited. Demographic data were collected by questionnaire and participants' weight-loss experiences were explored using semi- structured interviews to elicit in-depth individual experiences and perspectives. Iterative thematic method data analysis was used to generate themes describing contributing factors to the success of self-directed weight loss identified by participants. Most characteristics of those who successfully self-managed their weight loss were in line with those reported by successful weight losers participating in professional-led projects. However, strategies such as early embedding of new lifestyle behaviours into daily routine, the ability to learn from previous weight-loss experiences, and not requiring social support were identified as distinctive factors that contributed to the success of self-directed weight loss by participants of the present study. Overweight or obese individuals with strong internal motivation, problem-solving skills and self-reliance are more likely to be successful at achieving self-directed weight loss. The patients identified with these characteristics could be encouraged to self-manage their weight-loss process, leaving the places available in more resource-intensive professional-led programmes to those individuals unlikely to succeed on their own. © 2017 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.
Full Text Available Obesity is a serious international health problem that increases the risk of several diet-related chronic diseases. The genetic factors predisposing to obesity are little understood. Rcan2 was originally identified as a thyroid hormone-responsive gene. In the mouse, two splicing variants that harbor distinct tissue-specific expression patterns have been identified: Rcan2-3 is expressed predominately in the brain, whereas Rcan2-1 is expressed in the brain and other tissues such as the heart and skeletal muscle. Here, we show that Rcan2 plays an important role in the development of age- and diet-induced obesity. We found that although the loss of Rcan2 function in mice slowed growth in the first few weeks after birth, it also significantly ameliorated age- and diet-induced obesity in the mice by causing a reduction in food intake rather than increased energy expenditure. Rcan2 expression was most prominent in the ventromedial, dorsomedial and paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei governing energy balance. Fasting and refeeding experiment showed that only Rcan2-3 mRNA expression is up-regulated in the hypothalamus by fasting, and loss of Rcan2 significantly attenuates the hyperphagic response to starvation. Using double-mutant (Lep(ob/ob Rcan2(-/- mice, we were also able to demonstrate that Rcan2 and leptin regulate body weight through different pathways. Our findings indicate that there may be an Rcan2-dependent mechanism which regulates food intake and promotes weight gain through a leptin-independent pathway. This study provides novel information on the control of body weight in mice and should improve our understanding of the mechanisms of obesity in humans.
Braver, H M; Block, A J; Perri, M G
We sought to find a combination of noninvasive treatments for snoring by adding weight loss to previously studied treatments, including the combination of sleeping on one's side and using a decongestant nasal spray. Twenty asymptomatic men who snore heavily were studied previously on a control night and on a night when they slept on their side and used a nasal spray. With these two treatments, minor improvements in apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) were seen, but no improvement occurred in snoring frequency. Nineteen of these subjects subsequently completed a 6-month weight loss program, and 12 lost weight. These 19 subjects comprise the study population of this report. At the conclusion of the weight loss program, a repeated sleep study was done from which the effect of adding weight loss to the two previously studied treatments could be assessed. Those 12 subjects who lost any amount of weight showed a very mild reduction in snores per hour from 328 using two modalities of treatment to 232 per hour with the addition of weight loss (p = 0.15). The nine subjects who lost > or = 3 kg reduced the number of snores per hour from 320 to 176 (p = 0.0496). Three subjects losing an average of only 7.6 kg showed virtual elimination of snoring after weight loss. Subjects who gained weight had no improvement in snoring. Weight loss added to the other two modalities of treatment had no effect on the AHI. In most cases, the combination of weight loss, sleeping on one's side, and the administration of a nasal decongestant significantly reduces the frequency of snoring in asymptomatic men who snore heavily. The major effect appears to be related to weight loss.
Bul, Vadim; Sleesman, Brett; Boulay, Brian
Patient: Male, 46 Final Diagnosis: Celiac crisis Symptoms: Abdominal pain ? chronic diarrhea ? lightheadedness ? weakness ? weight loss Medication: ? Clinical Procedure: ? Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Rare disease Background: Celiac disease is a hypersensitivity enteropathy that can have various presentations in adults. Rarely, patients can present with severe lab abnormalities, dehydration and weight loss caused by celiac disease ? a celiac crisis. Case Report: A 46-...
Handjieva-Darlenska, Teodora; Holst, Claus; Grau, Katrine
clinical centres in 7 European countries, who underwent a 10-week dietary intervention study comparing two hypo-energetic (-600 kcal/day) diets varying in fat content. Results: The multiple regression model showed that weight loss at week 10 was predicted by: 6.55 + 1.27 × early weight loss (kg) at week 1...... kg weight loss at week 5 emerged as an optimal predictor for reaching at least 10% weight loss at week 10. Greater attrition likelihood was predicted by high-fat diet, decreased early and half-way weight losses. Conclusion: Early and half-way weight losses are associated with and could contribute......Objective: The aim of this study was to identify the pre-treatment subject characteristics and weight loss changes as determinants of weight loss and attrition during a 10-week dietary intervention study. Methods: A total of 771 obese subjects (BMI 35.6 kg/m(2)) of both genders were included from 8...
Napolitano, Melissa A.; Hayes, Sharon; Russo, Giuseppe; Muresu, Debora; Giordano, Antonio; Foster, Gary D.
Background: Virtual reality and other avatar-based technologies are potential methods for demonstrating and modeling weight loss behaviors. This study examined avatar-based technology as a tool for modeling weight loss behaviors. Methods: This study consisted of two phases: (1) an online survey to obtain feedback about using avatars for modeling weight loss behaviors and (2) technology development and usability testing to create an avatar-based technology program for modeling weight loss behaviors. Results: Results of phase 1 (n = 128) revealed that interest was high, with 88.3% stating that they would participate in a program that used an avatar to help practice weight loss skills in a virtual environment. In phase 2, avatars and modules to model weight loss skills were developed. Eight women were recruited to participate in a 4-week usability test, with 100% reporting they would recommend the program and that it influenced their diet/exercise behavior. Most women (87.5%) indicated that the virtual models were helpful. After 4 weeks, average weight loss was 1.6 kg (standard deviation = 1.7). Conclusion: This investigation revealed a high level of interest in an avatar-based program, with formative work indicating promise. Given the high costs associated with in vivo exposure and practice, this study demonstrates the potential use of avatar-based technology as a tool for modeling weight loss behaviors. PMID:23911189
The prevalence of overweight and obesity in the world is growing. Because obesity is associated with a number of serious lifestyle diseases such as hearth disease, a vast amount of research has been devoted to investigate how to assist weight loss, for example through behavioural weight loss...
Geyer, Philipp E; Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai J; Tyanova, Stefka
Sustained weight loss is a preferred intervention in a wide range of metabolic conditions, but the effects on an individual's health state remain ill-defined. Here, we investigate the plasma proteomes of a cohort of 43 obese individuals that had undergone 8 weeks of 12% body weight loss followed ...
Nittrouer, Susan; Lowenstein, Joanna H.
Purpose: Children must develop optimal perceptual weighting strategies for processing speech in their first language. Hearing loss can interfere with that development, especially if cochlear implants are required. The three goals of this study were to measure, for children with and without hearing loss: (a) cue weighting for a manner distinction,…
In response to the increasing incidence of obesity, a large number of weight loss supplements (WLS) have become available that proclaim to stimulate weight loss and perceived energy. The purpose of the study was to examine a WLS containing caffeine blended with herbal extracts to elucidate the effects of the WLS on ...
Background: Obesity is a prevalent and worldwide health problem . The most common weight loss method preferred by obese individuals is dietary supplements. This study was performed in order to determine the dietary supplements used by obese individuals for weight loss and to examine the barriers to informing health ...
Outcome measures: Structured telephonic interviews were conducted with 25 dietitians and 46 pharmacists to ascertain whether or not they had heard of the individual ingredients listed in non-prescription, weight-loss products and if they knew if each of these ingredients were scientifically proven to induce weight loss.
S. Leij-Halfwerk (Susanne); P.C. Dagnelie (Pieter); J.W.O. van den Berg (Willem); J.L.D. Wattimena (Josias); C.H. Hordijk-Luijk; J.H.P. Wilson (Paul)
textabstractBACKGROUND: The role of gluconeogenesis from protein in the pathogenesis of weight loss in lung cancer is unclear. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to study gluconeogenesis from alanine in lung cancer patients and to analyze its relation to the degree of weight loss.
High eating behavior self-efficacy may contribute to successful weight loss. Diet interventions that maximize eating behavior self-efficacy may therefore improve weight loss outcomes. However, data on the effect of diet composition on eating behavior self-efficacy are sparse. To determine the eff...
Higgins, Janine A
The obesity epidemic has prompted researchers to find effective weight-loss and maintenance tools. Weight loss and subsequent maintenance are reliant on energy balance--the net difference between energy intake and energy expenditure. Negative energy balance, lower intake than expenditure, results in weight loss whereas positive energy balance, greater intake than expenditure, results in weight gain. Resistant starch has many attributes, which could promote weight loss and/or maintenance including reduced postprandial insulinemia, increased release of gut satiety peptides, increased fat oxidation, lower fat storage in adipocytes, and preservation of lean body mass. Retention of lean body mass during weight loss or maintenance would prevent the decrease in basal metabolic rate and, therefore, the decrease in total energy expenditure, that occurs with weight loss. In addition, the fiber-like properties of resistant starch may increase the thermic effect of food, thereby increasing total energy expenditure. Due to its ability to increase fat oxidation and reduce fat storage in adipocytes, resistant starch has recently been promoted in the popular press as a "weight loss wonder food". This review focuses on data describing the effects of resistant starch on body weight, energy intake, energy expenditure, and body composition to determine if there is sufficient evidence to warrant these claims.
Carpenter, Kelly M; Vickerman, Katrina A; Salmon, Erica E; Javitz, Harold S; Epel, Elissa S; Lovejoy, Jennifer C
This study evaluated the feasibility and efficacy of integrating mindfulness training into a phone-based weight loss program to improve outcomes in those with high levels of emotional eating. Participants were 75 enrollees into an employer-sponsored weight loss program who reported high levels of overeating in response to thoughts and feelings. Seventy-five overweight and obese participants (92% female, 65% Caucasian, aged 26 to 68 years) were randomized to the new mindfulness weight loss program (n = 50) or the standard behavioral weight loss program (n = 25). Both programs consisted of 11 coaching calls with health coaches and registered dietitians with supplemental online materials. Satisfaction, engagement, and percent weight lost did not significantly differ for intervention vs. control at six months. Intervention participants had significantly better scores at six-month follow-up on mindful eating, binge eating, experiential avoidance, and one mindfulness subscale. Exploratory analyses showed that improvements on several measures predicted more weight loss in the intervention group. This pilot study found that integrating mindfulness into a brief phone-based behavioral weight loss program was feasible and acceptable to participants, but did not produce greater weight loss on average, despite hypothesized changes in mindful eating. Only one third of intervention participants reported participating in mindfulness exercises regularly. Mechanisms of change observed within the intervention group suggest that for adults with high levels of emotional eating those who embrace mindful eating and meditation may lose more weight with a mindfulness intervention.
Sarah E Jackson
Full Text Available Participation in weight loss programs is often associated with improved wellbeing alongside reduced cardio-metabolic risk. In contrast, population-based analyses have found no evidence of psychological benefits of weight loss, but this may be due to inclusion of healthy-weight individuals. We therefore examined cardio-metabolic and psychological changes following weight loss in a cohort of overweight/obese adults.Data were from 1,979 overweight and obese adults (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2; age ≥ 50 y, free of long-standing illness or clinical depression at baseline, from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Participants were grouped according to four-year weight change into those losing ≥ 5% weight, those gaining ≥ 5%, and those whose weight was stable within 5%. Logistic regression examined changes in depressed mood (eight-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression score ≥ 4, low wellbeing (Satisfaction With Life Scale score <20, hypertension (systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg or anti-hypertensives, and high triglycerides (≥ 1.7 mmol/l, controlling for demographic variables, weight loss intention, and baseline characteristics.The proportion of participants with depressed mood increased more in the weight loss than weight stable or weight gain groups (+289%, +86%, +62% respectively; odds ratio [OR] for weight loss vs. weight stable = 1.78 [95% CI 1.29-2.47]. The proportion with low wellbeing also increased more in the weight loss group (+31%, +22%, -4%, but the difference was not statistically significant (OR = 1.16 [0.81-1.66]. Hypertension and high triglyceride prevalence decreased in weight losers and increased in weight gainers (-28%, 4%, +18%; OR = 0.61 [0.45-0.83]; -47%, -13%, +5%; OR = 0.41 [0.28-0.60]. All effects persisted in analyses adjusting for illness and life stress during the weight loss period.Weight loss over four years in initially healthy overweight/obese older adults was associated with reduction in cardio
Leidy, Heather J; Clifton, Peter M; Astrup, Arne
Over the past 20 y, higher-protein diets have been touted as a successful strategy to prevent or treat obesity through improvements in body weight management. These improvements are thought to be due, in part, to modulations in energy metabolism, appetite, and energy intake. Recent evidence also...... to be the primary contributor to the discrepant findings because improvements in weight management were detected in those who adhered to the prescribed higher-protein regimen, whereas those who did not adhere to the diet had no marked improvements. Collectively, these data suggest that higher-protein diets...... that contain between 1.2 and 1.6 g protein · kg(-1) · d(-1) and potentially include meal-specific protein quantities of at least ∼25-30 g protein/meal provide improvements in appetite, body weight management, cardiometabolic risk factors, or all of these health outcomes; however, further strategies to increase...
Joosten, Simon A; Khoo, Jun K; Edwards, Bradley A; Landry, Shane A; Naughton, Matthew T; Dixon, John B; Hamilton, Garun S
Weight loss fails to resolve obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in most patients; however, it is unknown as to whether weight loss differentially affects OSA in the supine compared with nonsupine sleeping positions. We aimed to determine if weight loss in obese patients with OSA results in a greater reduction in the nonsupine apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) compared with the supine AHI, thus converting participants into supine-predominant OSA. Post hoc analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial assessing the effect of weight loss (bariatric surgery vs. medical weight loss) on OSA in 60 participants with obesity (body mass index: >35 and sleep study at 2 years. Eight of 37 (22%) patients demonstrated a normal nonsupine AHI (sleep avoidance may cure their OSA. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail email@example.com.
Moran, Lisa J; Noakes, Manny; Wittert, Gary A; Clifton, Peter M; Norman, Robert J
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk. The effect of weight loss on the vascular inflammatory markers plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) is unknown. Overweight women with (n=14) and without (n=13) PCOS of comparable age and body mass index undertook an 8-week weight-loss programme. Women with PCOS had elevated PAI-1, sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1 before and after weight loss compared with the controls. For all women, sVCAM-1 (P=0.026) and sICAM-1 (P=0.04) decreased with weight loss. Women with PCOS have elevated inflammatory markers, which are partially reduced by weight loss. Copyright © 2012 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rhee, Julie S; Saben, Jessica L; Mayer, Allyson L; Schulte, Maureen B; Asghar, Zeenat; Stephens, Claire; Chi, Maggie M-Y; Moley, Kelle H
What effect does diet-induced obesity have on endometrial stromal cell (ESC) decidualization? Diet-induced obesity impairs ESC decidualization. Decidualization is important for successful implantation and subsequent health of the pregnancy. Compared with normal-weight women, obese women have lower pregnancy rates (both spontaneous and by assisted reproductive technology), higher rates of early pregnancy loss and poorer oocyte quality. Beginning at 6 weeks of age, female C57Bl/6J mice were fed either a high-fat/high-sugar diet (HF/HS; 58% Fat Energy/Sucrose) or a diet of standard mouse chow (CON; 13% Fat) for 12 weeks. At this point, metabolic parameters were measured. Some of the mice (n = 9 HF/HS and 9 CON) were mated with reproductively competent males, and implantation sites were assessed. Other mice (n = 11 HF/HS and 10 CON) were mated with vasectomized males, and artificial decidualization was induced. For in vitro human studies of primary ESCs, endometrial tissue was obtained via biopsy from normo-ovulatory patients without history of infertility (obese = BMI > 30 kg/m(2), n = 11 and lean = BMI treatment with cAMP and medroxyprogesterone. The level of expression of decidualization markers was assessed by RT-qPCR (mRNA) and western blotting (protein). ATP content of ESCs was measured, and levels of autophagy were assessed by western blotting of the autophagy regulators acetyl coa carboxylase (ACC) and ULK1 (Ser 317). Autophagic flux was measured by western blot of the marker LC3b-II. Mice exposed to an HF/HS diet became obese and metabolically impaired. HF/HS-exposed mice mated to reproductively competent males had smaller implantation sites in early pregnancy (P obese women than in those of normal-weight women (Ptreatment abrogated this increase. Many aspects of obesity and metabolic impairment could contribute to the decidualization defects observed in the HF/HS-exposed mice. Although our findings suggest that both autophagy and decidualization are impaired
Sainsbury, Kirby; Evans, Elizabeth; Pedersen, Susanne
Purpose: Despite the wide availability of effective weight loss programmes, maintenance of weight loss remains challenging. Difficulties in emotion regulation are associated with binge eating and may represent one barrier to long-term intervention effectiveness in obesity. The purpose of this study...... was to determine the relationship between emotion regulation difficulties and the extent of weight regain in a sample of adults who had lost, and then regained, weight, and to examine the character-istics associated with emotional difficulties. Methods: 2000 adults from three European countries (UK, Portugal...... for emotion regulation difficulties). Spearman’s correlations and logistic regression were used to assess the associa-tions between emotion regulation, weight regain, and strategy use. Results: Emotion regulation difficulties were associated with greater weight regain (N= 1594 who lost and regained weight...
Johnson, Ping H; Annesi, James J
We examined the reasons for weight gain and barriers to weight loss among emerging adults with obesity. Eighty-one female undergraduate students with obesity completed 4-open ended questions in 2015-2016. Qualitative responses were analyzed using NVivo 11 Pro software. Most participants experienced weight gain prior to attending college. The most commonly reported reasons for weight gain include a lack of ability to control one's behaviors or overcome barriers (ie, poor eating habits, lack of physical activity, lack of time, easy access to food), emotional/mental health issues, physical health, and influence of significant others. Nearly half reported having a weight loss goal. Most reported having used one or more weight loss methods. Few reached short-term weight loss but quickly regained the lost weight. Major reported barriers reflect a lack of self-regulation skills, negative mood and stress, and lack of self-efficacy for healthy eating or physical activity. Results suggest that the perceived ability to control one's behaviors and overcome barriers, self-efficacy, and mood are important in weight-related behaviors, weight, and weight loss success among emerging adults, especially those enrolled in college.
Batterham, M; Tapsell, L; Charlton, K; O'Shea, J; Thorne, R
Traditional methods for predicting weight loss success use regression approaches, which make the assumption that the relationships between the independent and dependent (or logit of the dependent) variable are linear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between common demographic and early weight loss variables to predict weight loss success at 12 months without making this assumption. Data mining methods (decision trees, generalised additive models and multivariate adaptive regression splines), in addition to logistic regression, were employed to predict: (i) weight loss success (defined as ≥5%) at the end of a 12-month dietary intervention using demographic variables [body mass index (BMI), sex and age]; percentage weight loss at 1 month; and (iii) the difference between actual and predicted weight loss using an energy balance model. The methods were compared by assessing model parsimony and the area under the curve (AUC). The decision tree provided the most clinically useful model and had a good accuracy (AUC 0.720 95% confidence interval = 0.600-0.840). Percentage weight loss at 1 month (≥0.75%) was the strongest predictor for successful weight loss. Within those individuals losing ≥0.75%, individuals with a BMI (≥27 kg m -2 ) were more likely to be successful than those with a BMI between 25 and 27 kg m -2 . Data mining methods can provide a more accurate way of assessing relationships when conventional assumptions are not met. In the present study, a decision tree provided the most parsimonious model. Given that early weight loss cannot be predicted before randomisation, incorporating this information into a post randomisation trial design may give better weight loss results. © 2017 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.
Pellegrini Christine A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity remains a major public health challenge, demanding cost-effective and scalable weight management programs. Delivering key treatment components via mobile technology offers a potential way to reduce expensive in-person contact, thereby lowering the cost and burden of intensive weight loss programs. The ENGAGED study is a theory-guided, randomized controlled trial designed to examine the feasibility and efficacy of an abbreviated smartphone-supported weight loss program. Methods/design Ninety-six obese adults (BMI 30–39.9 kg/m2 will be randomized to one of three treatment conditions: (1 standard behavioral weight loss (STND, (2 technology-supported behavioral weight loss (TECH; or (3 self-guided behavioral weight loss (SELF. All groups will aim to achieve a 7% weight loss goal by reducing calorie and fat intake and progressively increasing moderate intensity physical activity to 175 minutes/week. STND and TECH will attend 8 group sessions and receive regular coaching calls during the first 6 months of the intervention; SELF will receive the Group Lifestyle Balance Program DVD’s and will not receive coaching calls. During months 1–6, TECH will use a specially designed smartphone application to monitor dietary intake, body weight, and objectively measured physical activity (obtained from a Blue-tooth enabled accelerometer. STND and SELF will self-monitor on paper diaries. Linear mixed modeling will be used to examine group differences on weight loss at months 3, 6, and 12. Self-monitoring adherence and diet and activity goal attainment will be tested as mediators. Discussion ENGAGED is an innovative weight loss intervention that integrates theory with emerging mobile technologies. We hypothesize that TECH, as compared to STND and SELF, will result in greater weight loss by virtue of improved behavioral adherence and goal achievement. Trial registration NCT01051713
Dandanell, Sune; Elbe, Anne-Marie; Pfister, Gertrud; Elsborg, Peter; W Helge, Jørn
To investigate the relationship between volition, physical activity and weight loss maintenance. We recruited 84 sedentary (maximal oxygen uptake: 25 ± 5 ml/min), overweight and obese (Body mass index (BMI) 38 ± 7 m/h 2 , fat 44 ± 7 %) women ( n = 55) and men ( n = 29) for an interdisciplinary prospective study with follow-up. The change in lifestyle and weight loss is promoted via a 3-month intensive lifestyle intervention at a private health school. The intervention consists of supervised training (1-3 hours/day), a healthy hypo-caloric diet (-500 to -700 kCal/day) and education in healthy lifestyle in classes/groups. The participants' body weight and composition (Dual Energy X-ray absorptiometry), volitional skills (questionnaire), physical activity level (heart rate accelerometer/questionnaire) and maximal oxygen uptake (indirect calorimetry) are to be monitored before, after, and 3 and 12 months after the intervention. At the 12-month follow-up, three different groups will be established: Clinical weight loss maintenance (> 10% weight loss from baseline), moderate weight loss maintenance (1-10% weight loss) and no weight loss (or weight regain). A linear mixed model analysis will be used to compare levels of volitional skills, physical activity and maximal oxygen uptake over time, between the three groups. Correlational analyses will be used to investigate possible associations between volition, maximal oxygen uptake, physical activity level and weight loss maintenance. If specific volitional skills are identified as predictors of adherence to physical activity and success in clinical weight loss maintenance, these can be trained in future intensive lifestyle interventions in order to optimize the success rate.
Tracy L. Tylka
Full Text Available Using an ethical lens, this review evaluates two methods of working within patient care and public health: the weight-normative approach (emphasis on weight and weight loss when defining health and well-being and the weight-inclusive approach (emphasis on viewing health and well-being as multifaceted while directing efforts toward improving health access and reducing weight stigma. Data reveal that the weight-normative approach is not effective for most people because of high rates of weight regain and cycling from weight loss interventions, which are linked to adverse health and well-being. Its predominant focus on weight may also foster stigma in health care and society, and data show that weight stigma is also linked to adverse health and well-being. In contrast, data support a weight-inclusive approach, which is included in models such as Health at Every Size for improving physical (e.g., blood pressure, behavioral (e.g., binge eating, and psychological (e.g., depression indices, as well as acceptability of public health messages. Therefore, the weight-inclusive approach upholds nonmaleficience and beneficience, whereas the weight-normative approach does not. We offer a theoretical framework that organizes the research included in this review and discuss how it can guide research efforts and help health professionals intervene with their patients and community.
Christina Bording Rasmussen; Svend eLindenberg
AbstractObjective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue liraglutide on weight loss in overweight and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Methods: In an observational study, 84 overweight or obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome were treated with liraglutide. Baseline characteristics and weight changes at clinical follow-up were recorded. Main outcome measures were absolute and relative weight loss.Results: In overweight o...
Nov 9, 2012 ... among adults who had seriously attempted to lose weight, 44.9% of women and ... as the advertising and labelling claims which are made about their efficacy and .... Safety assessment of kola nut extract as a food ingredient.
Aarts, Floor; Radhakishun, Nalini N. E.; van Vliet, Mariska; Geenen, Rinie; von Rosenstiel, Ines A.; Hinnen, Chris; Beijnen, Jos H.; Brandjes, Dees P. M.; Diamant, Michaela; Gerdes, Victor E. A.
Introduction: Following bariatric surgery, patients are expected to implement diet and lifestyle changes that may be imitated by cohabitating family members. We hypothesize that cohabitating family members will lose weight and improve their eating behavior within 1 year after surgery. Methods: In
... healthy weight: Key to wellness. In: American Dietetic Association Complete Food and Nutrition Guide. 4th ed. Hoboken, N.J.: ... relaxation training reduce emotional eating in women with obesity? An exploratory ... Dietetic Association. 2009;10:1427. Macht M. How emotions affect ...
... Behavior. 2009;97:609. Rouhani MH, et al. Associations between dietary energy density and obesity: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Nutrition. 2016;32:1037. Stelmach-Mardas M, et al. Link between food energy density and body weight changes in obese ...
Goss, Amy M.; Goree, Laura Lee; Ellis, Amy C.; Chandler-Laney, Paula C.; Casazza, Krista; Lockhart, Mark E.; Gower, Barbara A.
Qualitative aspects of diet may affect body composition and propensity for weight gain or loss. We tested the hypothesis that consumption of a relatively low glycemic load (GL) diet would reduce total and visceral adipose tissue under both eucaloric and hypocaloric conditions. Participants were 69 healthy overweight men and women. Body composition was assessed by DXA and fat distribution by CT scan at baseline, after 8 weeks of a eucaloric diet intervention, and after 8 weeks of a hypocaloric (1000 kcal/d deficit) diet intervention. Participants were provided all food for both phases, and randomized to either a low GL diet (≤45 points per 1000 kcal; n=40) or high GL diet (>75 points per 1000 kcal, n=29). After the eucaloric phase, participants who consumed the low GL diet had 11% less intra-abdominal fat (IAAT) than those who consumed the high GL diet (Phypocaloric phase, with no differences in the amount of weight loss with diet assignment (P=0.39). Following weight loss, participants who consumed the low GL diet had 4.4% less total fat mass than those who consumed the high GL diet (Pdiet may affect energy partitioning, both inducing reduction in IAAT independent of weight change, and enhancing loss of fat relative to lean mass during weight loss. PMID:23671029
Asp, Michelle L.; Tian, Min; Kliewer, Kara L.; Belury, Martha A.
Cachexia is characterized by severe weight loss, including adipose and muscle wasting, and occurs in a large percentage of cancer patients. Insulin resistance contributes to dysregulated metabolism in cachexia and occurs prior to weight loss in mice with colon-26 tumor-induced cachexia. Therefore, we hypothesized that the insulin sensitizer, rosiglitazone, would attenuate the loss of adipose and muscle to result in improved outcomes for mice with late-stage cachexia. Male CD2F1 mice were inoc...
Brown, Robyn Mary; Kupchik, Yonatan Michael; Spencer, Sade; Garcia-Keller, Constanza; Spanswick, David C; Lawrence, Andrew John; Simonds, Stephanie Elise; Schwartz, Danielle Joy; Jordan, Kelsey Ann; Jhou, Thomas Clayton; Kalivas, Peter William
There is increasing evidence that the pathological overeating underlying some forms of obesity is compulsive in nature and therefore contains elements of an addictive disorder. However, direct physiological evidence linking obesity to synaptic plasticity akin to that occurring in addiction is lacking. We sought to establish whether the propensity to diet-induced obesity (DIO) is associated with addictive-like behavior, as well as synaptic impairments in the nucleus accumbens core considered hallmarks of addiction. Sprague Dawley rats were allowed free access to a palatable diet for 8 weeks then separated by weight gain into DIO-prone and DIO-resistant subgroups. Access to palatable food was then restricted to daily operant self-administration sessions using fixed ratio 1, 3, and 5 and progressive ratio schedules. Subsequently, nucleus accumbens brain slices were prepared, and we tested for changes in the ratio between α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate currents and the ability to exhibit long-term depression. We found that propensity to develop DIO is linked to deficits in the ability to induce long-term depression in the nucleus accumbens, as well as increased potentiation at these synapses as measured by AMPA/N-methyl-D-aspartate currents. Consistent with these impairments, we observed addictive-like behavior in DIO-prone rats, including 1) heightened motivation for palatable food; 2) excessive intake; and 3) increased food seeking when food was unavailable. Our results show overlap between the propensity for DIO and the synaptic changes associated with facets of addictive behavior, supporting partial coincident neurological underpinnings for compulsive overeating and drug addiction. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. All rights reserved.
Spencer, Sade; Garcia-Keller, Constanza; Spanswick, David C; Lawrence, Andrew John; Simonds, Stephanie Elise; Schwartz, Danielle Joy; Jordan, Kelsey Ann; Jhou, Thomas Clayton; Kalivas, Peter William
Background There is increasing evidence that the pathological overeating underlying some forms of obesity is compulsive in nature, and therefore contains elements of an addictive disorder. However, direct physiological evidence linking obesity to synaptic plasticity akin to that occurring in addiction is lacking. We sought to establish whether the propensity to diet-induced obesity (DIO) is associated with addictive-like behavior, as well as synaptic impairments in the nucleus accumbens core (NAcore) considered hallmarks of addiction. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were allowed free access to a palatable diet for 8 weeks then separated by weight gain into DIO prone (OP) and resistant (OR) subgroups. Access to palatable food was then restricted to daily operant self-administration sessions using fixed (FR1, 3 and 5) and progressive ratio (PR) schedules. Subsequently, NAcore brain slices were prepared and we tested for changes in the ratio between AMPA and NMDA currents (AMPA/NMDA) and the ability to exhibit long-term depression (LTD). Results We found that propensity to develop DIO is linked to deficits in the ability to induce LTD in the NAcore, as well as increased potentiation at these synapses as measured by AMPA/NMDA currents. Consistent with these impairments, we observed addictive-like behavior in OP rats, including i) heightened motivation for palatable food (ii) excessive intake and (iii) increased food-seeking when food was unavailable. Conclusions Our results show overlap between the propensity for DIO and the synaptic changes associated with facets of addictive behavior, supporting partial coincident neurological underpinnings for compulsive overeating and drug addiction. PMID:26826876
Versteeg, R. I.; Ackermans, M. T.; Nederveen, A. J.; Fliers, E.; Serlie, M. J.; La Fleur, S. E.
BACKGROUND: Several human and rodent studies suggest that in addition to the amount of energy consumed, timing of food intake contributes to body weight regulation. Consuming most energy in the morning has favorable effects on weight loss and weight maintenance. Whether this also affects glucose
Christensen, Pia; Henriksen, Marius; Bartels, Else Marie
Background: A formula low-energy diet (LED) reduces weight effectively in obese patients with knee osteoarthritis, but the role of LED in long-term weight-loss maintenance is unclear.Objective: We aimed to determine the effect of intermittent LED compared with daily meal replacements on weight...
Reeuwijk, N.M.; Venhuis, B.J.; Kaste, de D.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Rietjens, I.; Martena, M.J.
Herbal food supplements claiming to reduce weight may contain active pharmacological ingredients (APIs) that can be used for the treatment of overweight and obesity. The aim of this study was to determine whether herbal food supplements for weight loss on the Dutch market contain APIs with weight
Brown, Catana; Goetz, Jeannine; Hamera, Edna; Gajewski, Byron
Individuals with serious mental illness have high rates of obesity and a need for specialized weight loss intervention programs. This study examines the efficacy of the RENEW weight loss intervention and examines the impact of the intervention setting on outcomes. 136 individuals with serious mental illness from 4 different settings were randomly assigned to receive the RENEW weight loss intervention or a control condition of treatment as usual. The RENEW intervention is a one year program that includes an intensive, maintenance and intermittent supports phase. The intervention group experienced a modest weight loss of 4.8 lbs at 3 months, 4.1 lbs at 6 months and a slight weight gain of 1.5 lbs at 12 months. The control group gained a total of 6.2 lbs at 12 months. However when settings were examined separately the responder sites had a weight loss of 9.4 lbs at 3 months, 10.9 lbs at 6 months and 7 lbs at 12 months. These results suggest that the settings in which individuals receive services may act as a support or hindrance toward response to weight loss interventions. The concept of the obesogenic environment deserves further examination as a factor in the success of weight loss programs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kulkas, A; Leppänen, T; Tiihonen, P; Mervaala, E; Töyräs, J; Sahlman, J; Seppä, J; Kokkarinen, J; Randell, J; Tuomilehto, H
Weight loss is an effective treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The mechanisms of how weight loss affects nocturnal breathing are not fully understood. The severity of OSA is currently estimated by the number of respiratory events per hour of sleep (i.e. apnea-hypopnea-index, AHI). AHI neglects duration and morphology of individual respiratory events, which describe the severity of individual events. In the current paper, we investigate the novel Adjusted-AHI parameter (incorporating individual event severity) and AHI after weight loss in relation to sleeping position. It was hypothesised that there are positional differences in individual event severity changes during weight loss. Altogether, 32 successful (> 5% of weight) and 34 unsuccessful weight loss patients at baseline and after 1 year follow-up were analysed. The results revealed that individual respiratory event severity was reduced differently in supine and non-supine positions during weight loss. During weight loss, AHI was reduced by 54% (p = 0.004) and 74% (p < 0.001), while Adjusted-AHI was reduced by 14% (p = 0.454) and 48% (p = 0.003) in supine and non-supine positions, respectively. In conclusion, the severity of individual respiratory events decreased more in the non-supine position. The novel Adjusted-AHI parameter takes these changes into account and might therefore contribute additional information to the planning of treatment of OSA patients. (paper)
Sacha, C R; Page, C M; Goldman, R H; Ginsburg, E S; Zera, C A
To assess attitudes towards weight loss interventions in patients seeking infertility treatment. We evaluated prior weight loss experiences, attitudes towards future interventions by body mass index (BMI), and willingness to delay fertility treatment for weight loss interventions stratified by BMI using logistic regression amongst women ≤45years old with infertility over three months or recurrent pregnancy loss. The average age of our convenience sample of respondents (148 of 794 eligible women, 19%) was 34.5 years old, with a mean BMI of 26.7±7.4kg/m 2 , including 37 with a BMI >30kg/m 2 (25%). Most women had attempted conception over 1year. The majority of women with overweight or obesity were attempting weight loss at the time of survey completion (69%). While 47% of these women reported interest in a supervised medical weight loss program, 92% of overweight women and 84% of women with obesity were not willing to delay fertility treatment more than 3 months to attempt weight loss. Most women with obesity and infertility in our population are unwilling to postpone fertility treatment for weight loss interventions. Copyright © 2017 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tvarijonaviciute, A; Ceron, J J; Holden, S L; Biourge, V; Morris, P J; German, A J
Obesity is a common medical disorder in dogs, and can predispose to a number of diseases. Human obesity is a risk factor for the development and progression of chronic kidney disease. To investigate the possible association of weight loss on plasma and renal biomarkers of kidney health. Thirty-seven obese dogs that lost weight were included in the study. Prospective observational study. Three novel biomarkers of renal functional impairment, disease, or both (homocysteine, cystatin C, and clusterin), in addition to traditional markers of chronic renal failure (serum urea and creatinine, urine specific gravity [USG], urine protein-creatinine ratio [UPCR], and urine albumin corrected by creatinine [UAC]) before and after weight loss in dogs with naturally occurring obesity were investigated. Urea (P = .043) and USG (P = .012) were both greater after weight loss than before loss, whilst UPCR, UAC, and creatinine were less after weight loss (P = .032, P = .006, and P = .026, respectively). Homocysteine (P canine obesity, which improve with weight loss. Further work is required to determine the nature of these alterations and, most notably, the reason for the association between before loss plasma clusterin and subsequent lean tissue loss during weight management. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
de Luis, Daniel Antonio; Izaola, Olatz; Primo, David; Ovalle, Hilda F; Lopez, Juan Jose; Gomez, Emilia; Ortola, Ana; Aller, Rocio
The aim of our study was to evaluate the influence of lifestyle factors and molecular biomarkers on the maintenance of the weight lost after a hypocaloric Mediterranean diet. After 3 months on a diet, patients (n = 335) remained with no controlled diet during 3 years and they were revaluated. Using linear regression, in the group of responders, we detected that a positive weight loss at 3 months, serum levels of leptin at 3 months, and each 30 min per week of physical activity were associated with weight loss maintenance. In the model with reduced weight (RW) as dependent variable, a positive weight loss at 3 months was associated with 2.4% RW (95% CI 1.31-8.11; p = 0.015), each unit of serum leptin levels at 3 months with -0.44% RW (95% CI -0.59 to -0.020; p = 0.007), each basal unit homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) level with -2.32% (95% CI -13.01 to -0.17; p = 0.040), and each 30 min per week of physical activity with 1.58% RW (95% CI 1.08-2.94; p = 0.020). Obese subjects who are on maintenance weight loss after a dietary intervention appear to have a better initial response during the 3 months intervention, more physical activity at 3 years, and lower basal HOMA-IR and leptin after weight loss than those who regain weight. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Barley, Oliver R; Chapman, Dale W; Abbiss, Chris R
Combat sports are typically divided into weight classes and body mass manipulation to reach a weight class is commonplace. Previous research suggests that mixed martial arts (MMA) weight loss practices may be more extreme than other combat sports. We sought to investigate the magnitude of weight lost and prevalence of weight loss strategies in different combat sports. Competitors (n=637) from Brazilian jiu jitsu (BJJ), boxing, judo, MMA, muay Thai/kickboxing (MT/K), taekwondo (TKD) and wrestling completed an online questionnaire seeking information regarding their weight loss practices. Body mass manipulation was commonly undertaken by all combat sports athletes, with a particularly high incidence of gradual dieting, increased exercise and fluid restriction. Skipping meals was higher in TKD and wrestling (84%) compared with the other combat sports (~58%), whilst training in heated rooms and forced oral fluid loss (spitting) was higher in wrestling (83% and 47%, respectively) compared with other combat sports (~45% and ~19%, respectively). MMA athletes reported the highest usage of sauna (76%) and water loading (67%) whilst also reporting the second highest use of training in rubber/plastic suits (63%). Body mass manipulation was present in all combat sports with the prevalence and magnitude of acute weight loss greater in MMA. The incidence of and practices reported will assist support staff to be fully aware of the variety of methods these athletes and coaches may use to achieve weight loss. Additionally, the results could aid regulatory bodies in the further development of policies on weight cutting.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Unanticipated control group improvements have been observed in intervention trials targeting various health behaviours. This phenomenon has not been studied in the context of behavioural weight loss intervention trials. The purpose of this study is to conduct a systematic review and meta-regression of behavioural weight loss interventions to quantify control group weight change, and relate the size of this effect to specific trial and sample characteristics. Methods Database searches identified reports of intervention trials meeting the inclusion criteria. Data on control group weight change and possible explanatory factors were abstracted and analysed descriptively and quantitatively. Results 85 trials were reviewed and 72 were included in the meta-regression. While there was no change in control group weight, control groups receiving usual care lost 1 kg more than control groups that received no intervention, beyond measurement. Conclusions There are several possible explanations why control group changes occur in intervention trials targeting other behaviours, but not for weight loss. Control group participation may prevent weight gain, although more research is needed to confirm this hypothesis.
Larsen, Junilla K; Geenen, Rinie; Maas, Cora; de Wit, Pieter; van Antwerpen, Tiny; Brand, Nico; van Ramshorst, Bert
Personality characteristics are assumed to underlie health behaviors and, thus, a variety of health outcomes. Our aim was to examine prospectively whether personality traits predict short- and long-term weight loss after laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding. Of patients undergoing laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding, 168 (143 women, 25 men, 18 to 58 years old, mean 37 years, preoperative BMI 45.9 +/- 5.6 kg/m(2)) completed the Dutch Personality Questionnaire on average 1.5 years before the operation. The relationship between preoperative personality and short- and long-term postoperative weight loss was determined using multilevel regression analysis. The average weight loss of patients progressively increased to 10 BMI points until 18 months after surgery and stabilized thereafter. A lower baseline BMI, being a man, and a higher educational level were associated with a lower weight loss. None of the personality variables was associated with weight outcome at short-term follow-up. Six of seven personality variables did not predict long-term weight outcome. Egoism was associated with less weight loss in the long-term postoperative period. The effect sizes of the significant predictions were small. None of the personality variables predicted short-term weight outcome, and only one variable showed a small and unexpected association with long-term weight outcome that needs confirmation. This suggests that personality assessment as intake psychological screening is of little use for the prediction of a poor or successful weight outcome after bariatric surgery.
Henry J Thompson
Full Text Available Body weight management is not emphasized in clinical practice guidelines for breast cancer survivors, reflecting the lack of evidence that weight loss improves prognosis. Even if this situation changes, the optimal design for weight loss interventions is unclear. We conducted a 6-month non-randomized, controlled weight loss intervention in 249 post-menopausal breast cancer survivors. This paper reports effects on two secondary endpoints, change in body weight and composition. Participants were predominantly non-Hispanic whites (89% with a mean age of 54.9 ± 9.2 years, a mean BMI of 29.0 ± 2.6 kg/m: (2 and an average of 43 ± 5% body fat. Two dietary interventions, low fat or low carbohydrate, were investigated and consisted of a 42 day cycle of menus and recipes. Weight loss counseling and anthropometric assessment were provided at monthly clinic visits. One hundred ninety-two women completed the trial (77% retention. In comparison to the nonintervention control, both intervention arms achieved significant decreases in body weight (12.5%, body fat (27.5%, waist circumference (9.5%, and hip circumference (7.8% (all p < 0.001 with minimal effects on lean mass (1.3% decrease. Median time to 5 and 10% weight loss was 2 (95% confidence interval = 1 to 3 and 4 (95% confidence interval = 3 to 5 months, respectively, and 23% of participants experienced ≥ 15% weight loss. Loss of body weight and fat mass was rapid and substantial irrespective of dietary approach when a structured program was provided with monthly anthropometric assessment and weight loss counseling.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01315483.
Painter, Stefanie Lynn; Ahmed, Rezwan; Hill, James O; Kushner, Robert F; Lindquist, Richard; Brunning, Scott; Margulies, Amy
Using technology to self-monitor body weight, dietary intake, and physical activity is a common practice used by consumers