WorldWideScience

Sample records for diet therapy

  1. Food therapy and medical diet therapy of Traditional Chinese Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Qunli Wu; Xiaochun Liang

    2018-01-01

    Food therapy of traditional Chinese medicine aims to maintain balanced nutrition through diet. Medical diet therapy, however, is to achieve the balance of Yin and Yang through the combination of nutrition and medicine. Either “food therapy” or “medical diet therapy” aims to keep health, prevent disease, remove illness and slow aging. In recent years, both food therapy and medical diet therapy have been increasingly applied in clinical nutrition therapy. In terms of traditional Chinese food th...

  2. Diet therapy--a forgotten art?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ings, S

    2000-02-01

    This study evaluated paediatric nursing students' knowledge of diet therapy to establish whether it was sufficient to prepare them for practice. A questionnaire sampled 19 1st-year and nine 4th-year students' diet therapy knowledge in relation to chronic renal failure, cystic fibrosis, juvenile diabetes mellitus and liver disease. The knowledge of 1st and 4th-year students was compared and then evaluated against criteria, devised by the researcher to measure whether this knowledge level was sufficient for practice. The Mann-Whitney Utest showed a significant difference between the 1st and 4th-years' diet therapy knowledge. The mean score for overall diet therapy knowledge of 4th-year students was 46 per cent. The results suggest that knowledge of diet therapy is insufficient to prepare nursing students for practice and that this topic needs further emphasis in paediatric nurse education.

  3. Diet as a Trigger or Therapy for Inflammatory Bowel Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, James D; Abreu, Maria T

    2017-02-01

    The most common question asked by patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is, "Doctor, what should I eat?" Findings from epidemiology studies have indicated that diets high in animal fat and low in fruits and vegetables are the most common pattern associated with an increased risk of IBD. Low levels of vitamin D also appear to be a risk factor for IBD. In murine models, diets high in fat, especially saturated animal fats, also increase inflammation, whereas supplementation with omega 3 long-chain fatty acids protect against intestinal inflammation. Unfortunately, omega 3 supplements have not been shown to decrease the risk of relapse in patients with Crohn's disease. Dietary intervention studies have shown that enteral therapy, with defined formula diets, helps children with Crohn's disease and reduces inflammation and dysbiosis. Although fiber supplements have not been shown definitively to benefit patients with IBD, soluble fiber is the best way to generate short-chain fatty acids such as butyrate, which has anti-inflammatory effects. Addition of vitamin D and curcumin has been shown to increase the efficacy of IBD therapy. There is compelling evidence from animal models that emulsifiers in processed foods increase risk for IBD. We discuss current knowledge about popular diets, including the specific carbohydrate diet and diet low in fermentable oligo-, di-, and monosaccharides and polyols. We present findings from clinical and basic science studies to help gastroenterologists navigate diet as it relates to the management of IBD. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Ketogenic Diets: New Advances for Metabolism-Based Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossoff, Eric H.; Hartman, Adam L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Despite myriad anticonvulsants available and in various stages of development, there are thousands of children and adults with epilepsy worldwide still refractory to treatment and not candidates for epilepsy surgery. Many of these patients will now turn to dietary therapies such as the ketogenic diet, medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) diet, modified Atkins diet, and low glycemic index treatment. Recent Findings In the past several years, neurologists are finding new indications to use these dietary treatments, perhaps even as first-line therapy, including infantile spasms, myoclonic-astatic epilepsy (Doose syndrome), Dravet syndrome, and status epilepticus (including FIRES syndrome). Adults are also one of the most rapidly growing populations being treated nowadays; a group of patients previously not typically offered these treatments. In 2009, two controlled trials of the ketogenic diet were published as well as an International Expert Consensus Statement on dietary treatment of epilepsy. Ketogenic diets are also now being increasingly studied for neurologic conditions other than epilepsy, including Alzheimer disease and cancer. Insights from basic science research have helped elucidate the mechanisms by which metabolism-based therapy may be helpful, both in terms of an anticonvulsant and possibly neuroprotective effect. Summary Dietary therapy for epilepsy continues to grow in popularity worldwide, with expanding use for adults and conditions other than epilepsy. PMID:22322415

  5. Effect of Progesterone Therapy versus Diet Modification on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    progesterone therapy) compared to Group A (diet modification) (54% [154/281] and 62.98% [177/281] vs. 89.76% [614/684] and 91.08% [623/684], respectively) (P = 0.04 and 0.03, respectively). Straining during defecation and manual maneuvers ...

  6. Ketogenic Diet Therapy in Infants: Efficacy and Tolerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirrell, Elaine; Eckert, Susan; Wong-Kisiel, Lily; Payne, Eric; Nickels, Katherine

    2018-05-01

    This study evaluated tolerability and efficacy of the ketogenic diet in infants less than 12 months of age. Infants less than 12 months of age, commencing the ketogenic diet between September 2007 and July 2016 were identified. Records were reviewed for epilepsy details, diet initiation details, efficacy and tolerability. Twenty-seven infants commenced the ketogenic diet (56% male, median age seven months). Median age at seizure onset was 1.9 months and 92% had daily seizures. An epilepsy syndrome was noted in 19 (West-11, epilepsy in infancy with migrating focal seizures-5, early myoclonic encephalopathy-1, Ohtahara-1, Dravet-1). Infants were on a median of two and had failed a median of one medications for lack of efficacy. All initiated a traditional ketogenic diet at full calories without fasting, and all but one started the diet in hospital. Significant hypoglycemia during initiation was seen in two - both had emesis +/- decreased oral intake. Eighty-eight percent developed urinary ketosis by 48 hours and all were successfully discharged on the diet (median ratio 3:1). Of those continuing dietary therapy, responder rates at one, six and 12 months were 68%, 82% and 91%, with 20%, 29% and 27% achieving seizure freedom. By 12 months, two stopped the diet for serious adverse effects, five discontinued for lack of efficacy, six were lost to follow-up and two died of unrelated causes. The ketogenic diet is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for infants with intractable epilepsy. In-hospital initiation is strongly recommended due to risk of hypoglycemia with emesis or reduced intake. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Ketogenic diet therapy for epilepsy during pregnancy: A case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Louw, Elles J T M; Williams, Tanya J; Henry-Barron, Bobbie J; Olieman, Joanne F; Duvekot, Johannes J; Vermeulen, Marijn J; Bannink, Natalja; Williams, Monique; Neuteboom, Rinze F; Kossoff, Eric H; Catsman-Berrevoets, Coriene E; Cervenka, Mackenzie C

    2017-02-01

    Evaluation of ketogenic diet (KD) therapies for seizure control during pregnancy when safety and appropriate management become considerations. Until now, no information has been available on seizure reduction and human pregnancy related outcomes in women treated with KD therapies. We describe two cases of pregnant women with epilepsy treated with KD therapy either as monotherapy (Case 1) or as adjunctive therapy (Case 2). Case 1: A 27 year old woman, gravida1, started the classic KD with medium chain triglyceride (MCT) emulsion and 75g carbohydrate-restriction, later reduced to 47g. Glucose levels were 4-6mmol/L and blood ketone levels ranged from 0.2 to 1.4mmol/L. Seizure frequency decreased and seizure-free days increased. Mild side effects included intolerance to MCT, reduced serum carnitine and vitamin levels, and mild hyperlipidemia. Fetal and neonatal growth was normal as was growth and development at 12 months. Case 2: A 36 year-old nulliparous woman was treated with a 20 gram carbohydrate-restricted Modified Atkins Diet (MAD) and lamotrigine, resulting in reduction of seizure frequency to once per month prior to pregnancy. Once pregnant, carbohydrates were increased to 30g. When seizures increased, lamotrigine dose was doubled. Urine ketones trended down during second trimester. A male was born with bilateral ear deformities of unknown significance. The child had a normal neurodevelopment at eight months. Non-pharmacological epilepsy therapies like KD and MAD may be effective during human pregnancy. However, safety still has to be established. Further monitoring to identify potential long term side effects is warranted. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. All rights reserved.

  8. Metabolic management of glioblastoma multiforme using standard therapy together with a restricted ketogenic diet: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servadei Franco

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Management of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM has been difficult using standard therapy (radiation with temozolomide chemotherapy. The ketogenic diet is used commonly to treat refractory epilepsy in children and, when administered in restricted amounts, can also target energy metabolism in brain tumors. We report the case of a 65-year-old woman who presented with progressive memory loss, chronic headaches, nausea, and a right hemisphere multi-centric tumor seen with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Following incomplete surgical resection, the patient was diagnosed with glioblastoma multiforme expressing hypermethylation of the MGMT gene promoter. Methods Prior to initiation of the standard therapy, the patient conducted water-only therapeutic fasting and a restricted 4:1 (fat: carbohydrate + protein ketogenic diet that delivered about 600 kcal/day. The patient also received the restricted ketogenic diet concomitantly during the standard treatment period. The diet was supplemented with vitamins and minerals. Steroid medication (dexamethasone was removed during the course of the treatment. The patient was followed using MRI and positron emission tomography with fluoro-deoxy-glucose (FDG-PET. Results After two months treatment, the patient's body weight was reduced by about 20% and no discernable brain tumor tissue was detected using either FDG-PET or MRI imaging. Biomarker changes showed reduced levels of blood glucose and elevated levels of urinary ketones. MRI evidence of tumor recurrence was found 10 weeks after suspension of strict diet therapy. Conclusion This is the first report of confirmed GBM treated with standard therapy together with a restricted ketogenic diet. As rapid regression of GBM is rare in older patients following incomplete surgical resection and standard therapy alone, the response observed in this case could result in part from the action of the calorie restricted ketogenic diet. Further studies are needed

  9. [Computer-assisted diet therapy in pediatric kidney diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dartois, A M; Ducamp, S; Decaux, F; Broyer, M

    1989-01-01

    The authors present a computer program written in UCSD Pascal) which monitors the dietary management of children with kidney diseases. Diet is established according to height, weight, chronological and statural age and recommended dietary allowances (USRDA). The composition of the prescribed diet and of food intake is given as amounts of animal and vegetable protein, fat, carbohydrates, energy, water, Na, K, Ca, P and renal solute load, per day and per kilo BW as compared to RDA. The amount of food is presented in tabular form, per day, per meal, per feed, or per tube-feeding with the schedule. It is possible to calculate the nutrients of food recipes. The food table includes 500 items, that can be modified as required. The drug table contains 100 items. The program calculates also average food consumption for dietary surveys. Diets, recipes and food tables may be viewed and modified before print out at each step of the calculation. The diet data bank stores 100 diets per floppy disk.

  10. The nervous system and metabolic dysregulation: emerging evidence converges on ketogenic diet therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David N. Ruskin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A link between metabolism and brain function is clear. Since ancient times, epileptic seizures were noted as treatable with fasting, and historical observations of the therapeutic benefits of fasting on epilepsy were confirmed nearly 100 years ago. Shortly thereafter a high-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet debuted as a therapy to reduce seizures. This strict regimen could mimic the metabolic effects of fasting while allowing adequate caloric intake for ongoing energy demands. Today, ketogenic diet therapy, which forces predominantly ketone-based rather than glucose-based metabolism, is now well-established as highly successful in reducing seizures. More recently, cellular metabolic dysfunction in the nervous system has been recognized as existing side-by-side with nervous system disorders - although often with much less obvious cause-and-effect as the relationship between fasting and seizures. Rekindled interest in metabolic and dietary therapies for brain disorders complements new insight into their mechanisms and broader implications. Here we describe the emerging relationship between a ketogenic diet and adenosine as a way to reset brain metabolism and neuronal activity and disrupt a cycle of dysfunction. We also provide an overview of the effects of a ketogenic diet on cognition and recent data on the effects of a ketogenic diet on pain, and explore the relative time course quantified among hallmark metabolic changes, altered neuron function and altered animal behavior assessed after diet administration. We predict continued applications of metabolic therapies in treating dysfunction including and beyond the nervous system.

  11. Elemental diets in the prophylaxis and therapy for intestinal lesions: an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bounous, G.

    1989-01-01

    The recognition of potentially noxious physiologic substances in the intestinal milieu prompted the use of an elemental semihydrolyzed formula diet in the prophylaxis of experimental acute ischemic enteropathy. Elemental diets have been used in the management of a variety of digestive diseases. An elemental diet protects the intestinal mucosa of rodents from radiation injury and facilitates mucosal healing. Clinical trials have shown the benefits of this form of treatment in the prevention of acute radiation enteropathy and in the therapy for delayed radiation enteropathy and Crohn's disease.90 references

  12. Aging in community nutrition, diet therapy, and nutrition and aging textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Peggy Schafer; Wellman, Nancy S; Himburg, Susan P; Johnson, Paulette; Elfenbien, Pamela

    2005-01-01

    Using content analysis, this study evaluated the aging content and context in 11 nutrition sub-specialty textbooks: community nutrition (n = 3), diet therapy (n = 4), and nutrition and aging (n = 4). Pages with paragraphs on aging were identified in community nutrition and diet therapy textbooks, and 10% random samples of pages were evaluated in nutrition and aging textbooks. Paragraphs were assigned to one of four categories: gerontology, nutrition as primary, nutrition as secondary, or tertiary prevention. A total of 310 pages was qualitatively analyzed using NUD*IST 5 software and quantitatively with percentages. Only 7% of community nutrition and 2% of diet therapy pages were devoted to aging. There was little integration of aging beyond the chapters on aging. Community nutrition had the most gerontology (30%) and primary prevention (43%) content. Diet therapy and nutrition and aging had more secondary prevention (33% and 42%, respectively) and tertiary prevention (27% each) content. Some important databases and studies were absent. Of the 1,239 ageism words, 10% were positive, 53% neutral, and 36% negative. Photographs were generally positive. Women, but not minorities, reflected current older adult demographics. Future textbook editions should address aging more comprehensively and positively to better prepare dietitians for the job market. Recommendations for authors, course instructors, and publishers are given.

  13. Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... beef and pork, and sweets is limited. Drinking wine in moderation is encouraged. Studies have shown that ... levels and improve cholesterol levels. This diet can benefit people with high blood pressure and may benefit ...

  14. [Quality of the diet "before and during" a weight loss treatment based on Mediterranean Diet; behavioural therapy and nutritional education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Falo, Eva María; Sánchez-Moreno, Carmen; Esteban, Alberto; Alburquerque, Juan José; Garaulet, Marta

    2013-01-01

    The "Garaulet" Method (Mediterranean Diet, therapy of behavior and nutritional education), has shown to be effective in the treatment of the obesity. To evaluate and to compare the quality of the diets ingested before and during the treatment by means of Index-of-Feeding-Healthful (IAS) and its relationship with others variables. The sample was of 450 patients (383 women, 67 men), age 39.3 + 11.5 years and 31.2 + 5.3 of IMC. IAS of" before" and "during" treatment was calculated with a 24 h-recall previous to the treatment and a Seven-days-dietary-record questionnaire during treatment. The IAS consists of 10 variables that include cereal consumption, fruits, vegetables, dairy products and meats and other variables related to the nutritional guidelines for the Spanish population (SENC, 2004). Habitual dietary habits of the patients were acceptable with an IAS of 67 9 ± 13. However, lipids (43.9 ± 8.4%) and saturated fats (67.4 ± 20.1%) intakes were higher than recommended, while monounsaturated fats were lower (27.8 ± 15.1%). The IAS varied with the BMI and was significantly lower among obese subjects (65.1 ± 11.6) as compared to overweight (69.2 ± 13.9) (P IAS of 91.4 ± 9.8). IAS of the women studied was better (92.3 ± 9.0) than the one of men (86.4 ± 11.8) (P IAS (92.1 ± 9.2) during the treatment that those that did not reach it (87.9 ± 11.7) (P < 0.05). In this Spanish population, the diet studied, is useful to promote weight loss through the introduction of changes in dietary habits towards the reincorporation of the Mediterranean cultural tradition. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  15. Osmolality and pH in handmade enteral diets used in domiciliary enteral nutritional therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Simeone HENRIQUES

    Full Text Available Abstract Patients who need prolonged domiciliary enteral nutritional therapy may benefit from handmade diets. However, the preparation of such diets might cause insecurity with regard to their nutritional composition and physical-chemical properties. Current study analyzes the osmolality and Hydrogen-Ion concentration (pH on handmade enteral diets. To this purpose, six formulas and two juices, prescribed on discharge from hospital, were analyzed physically and chemically. Osmolality and pH were respectively determined by cryoscopy and potentiometry. Most formulations were classified as isosmolar (with less than 400 mOsm/kg solvent, and only one was classified as slightly hyperosmolar, with rates ranging from 356.7 to 403.5 mOsm/kg solvent. On average, the standard formula presented higher osmolality than similar ones prepared for hyperglycemia. Among the juices, only one registered hyperosmolar concentration of 595.54 mOsm/kg solvent. All formulas presented pH rates classified as low acidity, ranging between 6.1 and 6.6, while the two juices had the lowest results, 4.73 and 4.66 each. The blend of ingredients used in handmade formulas and juices studied presented acceptable osmolality and pH rates for a safe administration and absence of gastrointestinal complications. Data showed here are consistent with an appropriate and healthy diet and contributed towards success in domiciliary enteral nutritional therapy.

  16. The Nervous System and Metabolic Dysregulation: Emerging Evidence Converges on Ketogenic Diet Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruskin, David N.; Masino, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    A link between metabolism and brain function is clear. Since ancient times, epileptic seizures were noted as treatable with fasting, and historical observations of the therapeutic benefits of fasting on epilepsy were confirmed nearly 100 years ago. Shortly thereafter a high fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (KD) debuted as a therapy to reduce seizures. This strict regimen could mimic the metabolic effects of fasting while allowing adequate caloric intake for ongoing energy demands. Today, KD therapy, which forces predominantly ketone-based rather than glucose-based metabolism, is now well-established as highly successful in reducing seizures. Cellular metabolic dysfunction in the nervous system has been recognized as existing side-by-side with nervous system disorders – although often with much less obvious cause-and-effect as the relationship between fasting and seizures. Rekindled interest in metabolic and dietary therapies for brain disorders complements new insight into their mechanisms and broader implications. Here we describe the emerging relationship between a KD and adenosine as a way to reset brain metabolism and neuronal activity and disrupt a cycle of dysfunction. We also provide an overview of the effects of a KD on cognition and recent data on the effects of a KD on pain, and explore the relative time course quantified among hallmark metabolic changes, altered neuron function and altered animal behavior assessed after diet administration. We predict continued applications of metabolic therapies in treating dysfunction including and beyond the nervous system. PMID:22470316

  17. MODERN POSSIBILITIES OF THE DIET THERAPY FOR THE PREVENTION AND CORRECTION OF THE CALCIUM DEFICIENCY AMONG INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.E. Sannikova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The work studies the efficiency of the specialized milk formula inclusion into the diet to prevent and correct the calcium deficiency among infants (aged between 1 and 3 years old. The authors discovered the positive impact of the milk formula on the values of the phosphoric and calcic exchange: the level of the ionized calcium, daily excretion of calcium with urine, osteocalcin. They identified the significant effect of the diet therapy for the prevention of the pathologic symptoms on the part of the musculoskeletal system (bearing disorder, reduction of the muscular tonus and etc..Key words: children, milk formula, calcium, exchange, diet therapy.

  18. Effect of a Low Iodine Diet vs. Restricted Iodine Diet on Postsurgical Preparation for Radioiodine Ablation Therapy in Thyroid Carcinoma Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chi Young; Kim, Jung-Yeon; Yoon, Mi-Jin; Chang, Hang Seok; Park, Cheong Soo; Chung, Woong Youn

    2015-07-01

    The radioiodine ablation therapy is required for patients who underwent a total thyroidectomy. Through a comparative review of a low iodine diet (LID) and a restricted iodine diet (RID), the study aims to suggest guidelines that are suitable for the conditions of Korea. The study was conducted with 101 patients. With 24-hour urine samples from the patients after a 2-week restricted diet and after a 4-week restricted diet, the amount of iodine in the urine was estimated. The consumed radioiodine amounts for 2 hours and 24 hours were calculated. This study was conducted with 47 LID patients and 54 RID patients. The amounts of iodine in urine, the 2-week case and 4-week case for each group showed no significant differences. The amounts of iodine in urine between the two groups were both included in the range of the criteria for radioiodine ablation therapy. Also, 2 hours and 24 hours radioiodine consumption measured after 4-week restrictive diet did not show statistical differences between two groups. A 2-week RID can be considered as a type of radioiodine ablation therapy after patients undergo a total thyroidectomy.

  19. Effects of an immuno-enhanced diet containing antioxidants in esophageal cancer surgery following neoadjuvant therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiko, S; Kumano, I; Yamanaka, N; Tsujimoto, H; Takahata, R; Maehara, T

    2012-02-01

    Neoadjuvant therapy-induced immunological deterioration may be a key factor in postoperative morbidity in patients with esophageal cancer. This study aimed to determine the effects of perioperative feeding with an immuno-enhanced diet on immune competence in patients treated with neoadjuvant therapy followed by surgery. Because an immuno-enhanced diet that contained several antioxidants was used, perioperative oxidative stress and the effects of the immuno-enhanced diet on this stress were also investigated. Of 39 patients with esophageal cancer who underwent similar surgical procedures, 26 patients who received chemotherapy or chemoradiation therapy before surgery were randomly divided into two groups: group 1 (n= 14) was given an immuno-enhanced diet for 5 days before surgery, and group 2 (n= 12) received no enteral feeding products before surgery. Group 3 (n= 13) consisted of patients that did not receive neoadjuvant therapy and received no enteral feeding products before surgery. Several markers for coagulation and fibrinolysis were determined and immunological assessments were performed for each patient. To measure reactive oxygen metabolites and the total antioxidant capacity, diacron-reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) and OXY-adsorbent tests were performed using a free radical elective evaluator. Significant depression in lymphocyte numbers was observed in groups 1 and 2 before and early after surgery as compared to group 3. Numbers of B cells, CD4/CD8 ratio, and phytohemagglutinin-induced lymphocyte transformation tests were also significantly decreased in groups 1 and 2 on postoperative day 1. Fibrin and fibrinogen degradation products were significantly elevated in group 2 compared to group 1. d-ROMs and OXY-adsorbent test values were elevated before surgery and were decreased transiently early after surgery. Compared to groups 2 and 3, d-ROMs values were significantly lower in group 1 patients throughout the postoperative period, while OXY

  20. Serum uric acid concentration in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus during diet or glibenclamide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, I.H.

    2007-01-01

    To investigate serum uric acid concentration in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This is a case control study conducted in Al-Wafa Diabetic Center in Mosul over a period of one year starting from January 1, 2005 to January 1, 2006. Serum glucose concentration and uric acid concentration were measured in both control and patient's groups (group 1 patients on diet therapy, group 2 patients on glibenclamide therapy and group 3 involve naturopathic patients). Serum glucose concentration was high in the diabetic groups as compared with the control group (P 0.2) except in group-3 (P<0.05). A negative correlation was reported between hyperglycemia and uric acid concentration of the different groups. Serum uric acid concentration is slightly reduced in type 2 diabetic patients particularly in the complicated patients with peripheral neuropathy and this may be due to the oxidative stress that decreases the antioxidant capacity of the body involving uric acid. (author)

  1. The ketogenic diet and hyperbaric oxygen therapy prolong survival in mice with systemic metastatic cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M Poff

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Abnormal cancer metabolism creates a glycolytic-dependency which can be exploited by lowering glucose availability to the tumor. The ketogenic diet (KD is a low carbohydrate, high fat diet which decreases blood glucose and elevates blood ketones and has been shown to slow cancer progression in animals and humans. Abnormal tumor vasculature creates hypoxic pockets which promote cancer progression and further increase the glycolytic-dependency of cancers. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO₂T saturates tumors with oxygen, reversing the cancer promoting effects of tumor hypoxia. Since these non-toxic therapies exploit overlapping metabolic deficiencies of cancer, we tested their combined effects on cancer progression in a natural model of metastatic disease. METHODS: We used the firefly luciferase-tagged VM-M3 mouse model of metastatic cancer to compare tumor progression and survival in mice fed standard or KD ad libitum with or without HBO₂T (2.5 ATM absolute, 90 min, 3x/week. Tumor growth was monitored by in vivo bioluminescent imaging. RESULTS: KD alone significantly decreased blood glucose, slowed tumor growth, and increased mean survival time by 56.7% in mice with systemic metastatic cancer. While HBO₂T alone did not influence cancer progression, combining the KD with HBO₂T elicited a significant decrease in blood glucose, tumor growth rate, and 77.9% increase in mean survival time compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS: KD and HBO₂T produce significant anti-cancer effects when combined in a natural model of systemic metastatic cancer. Our evidence suggests that these therapies should be further investigated as potential non-toxic treatments or adjuvant therapies to standard care for patients with systemic metastatic disease.

  2. Ketogenic diets as an adjuvant cancer therapy: History and potential mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Bryan G.; Bhatia, Sudershan K.; Anderson, Carryn M.; Eichenberger-Gilmore, Julie M.; Sibenaller, Zita A.; Mapuskar, Kranti A.; Schoenfeld, Joshua D.; Buatti, John M.; Spitz, Douglas R.; Fath, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer cells, relative to normal cells, demonstrate significant alterations in metabolism that are proposed to result in increased steady-state levels of mitochondrial-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as O2•−and H2O2. It has also been proposed that cancer cells increase glucose and hydroperoxide metabolism to compensate for increased levels of ROS. Given this theoretical construct, it is reasonable to propose that forcing cancer cells to use mitochondrial oxidative metabolism by feeding ketogenic diets that are high in fats and low in glucose and other carbohydrates, would selectively cause metabolic oxidative stress in cancer versus normal cells. Increased metabolic oxidative stress in cancer cells would in turn be predicted to selectively sensitize cancer cells to conventional radiation and chemotherapies. This review summarizes the evidence supporting the hypothesis that ketogenic diets may be safely used as an adjuvant therapy to conventional radiation and chemotherapies and discusses the proposed mechanisms by which ketogenic diets may enhance cancer cell therapeutic responses. PMID:25460731

  3. Remission without insulin therapy on gluten-free diet in a 6-year old boy with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sildorf, Stine Møller; Fredheim, Siri; Svensson, Jannet

    2012-01-01

    A 5-year and 10-month old boy was diagnosed with classical type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) without celiac disease. He started on a gluten-free diet after 2–3 week without need of insulin treatment. At the initiation of gluten-free diet, HbA1c was 7.8% and was stabilised at 5.8%–6.0% without insulin...... therapy. Fasting blood glucose was maintained at 4.0–5.0 mmol/l. At 16 months after diagnosis the fasting blood glucose was 4.1 mmol/l and after 20 months he is still without daily insulin therapy. There was no alteration in glutamic acid decarboxylase positivity. The gluten-free diet was safe and without...... side effects. The authors propose that the gluten-free diet has prolonged remission in this patient with T1DM and that further trials are indicated....

  4. Biofeedback therapy combined with diet to treating ODS (Anismus: 2 years outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhryalsadat Anaraki

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Object: The advantages of biofeedback therapy along with diet in patients with constipation are among the issues discussed nowadays. The aim of this study was to evaluate 2 years outcome of biofeedback therapy along with diet in patients with obstructed defecation syndrome (ODS (Anismus. Methodology: The focus of this prospective study is a group of 129 patients with ODS constipation, who were referred to two tertiary-care referral academic centers from 2013 to 2016. Patients received biofeedback therapy combined with appropriate diet in cases group and received diet in controls group. Good response was defined as a subject with at least 50 percent improvement from before to after biofeedback therapy on a Cleveland Clinic Florida Constipation Scoring System (CCF. Factors associated with better outcome were analyzed using SPSS 20 software. Results: Out of the 129 patients, 112 patients (86.8% were female. The mean age of patients was 42.44 ± 15.05 years. The mean CCF score of the patients before and after biofeedback therapy was 12.41 ± 4.39 and 6.00 ± 3.28 respectively in case group (p-value < 0.001. In addition, the mean CCF score of the patients before and after diet therapy was 12.82 ± 4.85 and 9.43 ± 3.79 respectively in control group (p-value < 0.001. While CCF score in both case and control groups reduced significantly after therapy, the rate of this reduction was higher in case group (p < 0.001. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that biofeedback therapy combined with diet will improve patients outcome in ODS constipation. Prospective clinical trials with larger sample sizes are recommend allowing for causal correlations. Resumo: Objetivo: As vantagens da terapia por biofeedback, juntamente com a dieta, em pacientes com constipação se situam entre os tópicos atualmente em discussão. O objetvo desse estudo foi avaliar os resultados, após 2 anos, da terapia por biofeedback associada à dieta em pacientes com s

  5. Do We Need a Diet Therapy to Manage Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease in the Predialysis Period?

    OpenAIRE

    S.V. Kushnirenko

    2014-01-01

    The article examines the criteria for diagnosis of chronic kidney disease and the feasibility of diet therapy in combination with keto-analogues of essential amino acids at predialysis stage. It is proved that additional administration to the patients with predialysis chronic kidney disease of keto-analogues of essential amino acids enhances the metabolic beneficial effects of low-protein diet, promotes normalization of the amino acid composition of the blood and correction of metabolic acido...

  6. Integrating diet and exercise into care of prostate cancer patients on androgen deprivation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moyad MA

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mark A Moyad,1 Robert U Newton,2 Ulf W Tunn,3 Damian Gruca4 1Department of Urology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 2Exercise Medicine Research Institute, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, WA, Australia; 3Urological Clinic, Facharztzentrum Academic Hospital Sana Klinikum Offenbach, Offenbach/Main, 4Global Medical Affairs, AbbVie Deutschland, Ludwigshafen, Germany Abstract: Improved diagnosis and treatment regimens have resulted in greater longevity for men with prostate cancer. This has led to an increase in both androgen deprivation therapy (ADT use and duration of exposure, and therefore to its associated adverse effects, such as sexual dysfunction, osteoporosis, reduced muscle mass, increased fat mass, and increased incidence of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Given that the adverse effects of ADT are systemic, often debilitating, and difficult to treat, efforts continue in the development of new strategies for long-term management of prostate cancer. The PubMed database was searched to select trials, reviews, and meta-analyses in English using such search terms as “prostate cancer” and “androgen deprivation therapy”, “cardiovascular risk”, “lean body mass”, “exercise”, and “diet”. The initial searches produced 379 articles with dates 2005 or more recent. Articles published after 2004 were favored. This review utilizes the latest data to provide a status update on the effects of exercise and diet on patients with prostate cancer, focusing on ADT-associated side effects, and it discusses the evidence for such interventions. Since the evidence of large-scale trials in patients with prostate cancer is missing, and an extrapolation of supporting data to all patient subgroups cannot be provided, individualized risk assessments remain necessary before the initiation of exercise and diet programs. Exercise, diet, and nutritional supplementation interventions have the potential to

  7. Are patients with coeliac disease seeking alternative therapies to a gluten-free diet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Imran; Evans, Kate E; Papageorgiou, Vasiliki; Sanders, David S

    2011-03-01

    The cornerstone of treatment for coeliac disease is a gluten-free diet (GFD). However, adherence to a GFD is variable. Recently investigators have been reporting their preliminary findings using novel therapies. In addition, there is a growing interest in the use of complementary or alternative medicine (CAM) in gastrointestinal illnesses. These observations suggest that patients with coeliac disease may be dissatisfied with a GFD and possibly are seeking/using alternative therapies for their disease. Our aim was to assess the satisfaction levels of adults with coeliac disease towards a GFD, their use of oral CAM and views regarding novel therapies. 310 patients with coeliac disease completed a questionnaire survey while attending their out-patient appointment. The control group comprised 477 individuals. Over 40% of patients with coeliac disease were dissatisfied with a GFD. The frequency of CAM use in patients with coeliac disease was 21.6% (67/310) vs 27% in the control group (129/477), p=0.09. All patients expressed an interest in novel therapies, with a vaccine being the first choice in 42% of patients, 35% and 23% for anti- zonulin and peptidases, respectively. Universally, patients placed genetically modified wheat as the lowest preference. A large proportion of patients with coeliac disease are dissatisfied with a GFD. Coeliac patients are not taking CAM any more than controls, suggesting they do not view CAM as an alternative to a GFD. However, all the patients in this survey were keen to consider novel therapies, with a vaccine being the most preferred option.

  8. Very low-calorie ketogenic diet may allow restoring response to systemic therapy in relapsing plaque psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaldo, Giuseppe; Galdo, Giovanna; Rotondi Aufiero, Felice; Cereda, Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic disease associated with overweight/obesity and related cardiometabolic complications. The link between these diseases is likely the inflammatory background associated with adipose tissue, particularly the visceral one. Accordingly, previous studies have demonstrated that in the long-term weight loss may improve the response to systemic therapies. We report a case report of a woman in her 40s suffering from relapsing moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis and obesity-related metabolic syndrome, in whom adequate response to ongoing treatment with biological therapy (adalimumab) was restored after only 4 weeks of very low-calorie, carbohydrate-free (ketogenic), protein-based diet. Accordingly, through rapid and consistent weight loss, very low calorie ketogenic diet may allow restoring a quick response to systemic therapy in a patient suffering from relapsing psoriasis. This intervention should be considered in overweight/obese patients before the rearrangement of systemic therapy. Nonetheless, studies are required to evaluate whether very low calorie ketogenic diets should be preferred to common low-calorie diets to improve the response to systemic therapy at least in patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Urolithiasis on the ketogenic diet with concurrent topiramate or zonisamide therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Elahna; Conant, Kerry D.; Dunne, Irie E.; Pfeifer, Heidi H.; Lyczkowski, David A.; Linshaw, Michael A.; Thiele, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Children with refractory epilepsy who are co-treated with the ketogenic diet (KD) and carbonic anhydrase inhibitor (CA-I) anti-epileptic medications including topiramate (TPM) and zonisamide (ZNS) are at risk for urolithiasis. Retrospective chart review of all children treated with ketogenic therapy at our institution was performed in order to estimate the minimal risk of developing signs or symptoms of stone disease. Children (N = 93) were classified into groups according to KD +/− CA-I co-therapy. Fourteen patients had occult hematuria or worse, including 6 with radiologically confirmed stones. Three of 6 calculi developed in the KD + ZNS group of 17 patients who were co-treated for a cumulative total of 97 months (3.1 stones per 100 patient months). One confirmed stone was in the KD + TPM group of 22 children who were co-treated for a cumulative total of 263 months (0.4 stones per 100 patient months). All six patients had at least three of five biochemical risk factors including metabolic acidosis, concentrated urine, acid urine, hypercalciuria and hypocitraturia. Standard of care interventions to minimize hypercalciuria, crystalluria and stone formation used routinely by pediatric nephrologists should also be prescribed by neurologists treating patients with combination anti-epileptic therapy. Non-fasting KD initiation, fluid liberalization, potassium citrate prophylaxis as well as regular laboratory surveillance are indicated in this high risk population. PMID:20466520

  10. Tumor metabolism, the ketogenic diet and β-hydroxybutyrate: novel approaches to adjuvant brain tumor therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric C. Woolf

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Malignant brain tumors are devastating despite aggressive treatments such as surgical resection, chemotherapy and radiation therapy. The average life expectancy of patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma is approximately ~18 months. It is clear that increased survival of brain tumor patients requires the design of new therapeutic modalities, especially those that enhance currently available treatments and/or limit tumor growth. One novel therapeutic arena is the metabolic dysregulation that results in an increased need for glucose in tumor cells. This phenomenon suggests that a reduction in tumor growth could be achieved by decreasing glucose availability, which can be accomplished through pharmacological means or through the use of a high-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (KD. The KD, as the name implies, also provides increased blood ketones to support the energy needs of normal tissues. Preclinical work from a number of laboratories has shown that the KD does indeed reduce tumor growth in vivo. In addition, the KD has been shown to reduce angiogenesis, inflammation, peri-tumoral edema, migration and invasion. Furthermore, this diet can enhance the activity of radiation and chemotherapy in a mouse model of glioma, thus increasing survival. Additional studies in vitro have indicated that increasing ketones such as β-hydroxybutyrate in the absence of glucose reduction can also inhibit cell growth and potentiate the effects of chemotherapy and radiation. Thus, while we are only beginning to understand the pluripotent mechanisms through which the KD affects tumor growth and response to conventional therapies, the emerging data provide strong support for the use of a KD in the treatment of malignant gliomas. This has led to a limited number of clinical trials investigating the use of a KD in patients with primary and recurrent glioma.

  11. Results Of A Lifestyle Intervention Involving Healthy Diet, Exercise and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy In Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Jiskoot (Geranne); R. Timman (Reinier); A. Beerthuizen (Annemerle); Dietz de Loos, A (Alexandra); J.J. van Busschbach (Jan); J.S.E. Laven (Joop)

    2018-01-01

    markdownabstract_Context_ Long-term weight loss is important for women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Although no protocol exist for effective and long-term weight loss in this population. Three-component interventions including diet, exercise, and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) have shown

  12. Group cognitive behavioural therapy and weight regain after diet in type 2 diabetes: results from the randomised controlled POWER trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.A.C. Berk (Kirsten); H. Buijks (Hanneke); A.J.M. Verhoeven (Adrie); Mulder, M.T. (Monique T.); B. Özcan (Behiye); van ’T Spijker, A. (Adriaan); R. Timman (Reinier); J.J. van Busschbach (Jan); E.J.G. Sijbrands (Eric)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractAims/hypothesis: Weight-loss programmes for adults with type 2 diabetes are less effective in the long term owing to regain of weight. Our aim was to determine the 2 year effectiveness of a cognitive behavioural group therapy (group-CBT) programme in weight maintenance after diet-induced

  13. Metabolic therapy for temporal lobe epilepsy in a dish: investigating mechanisms of ketogenic diet using electrophysiological recordings in hippocampal slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahito Kawamura

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The hippocampus is prone to epileptic seizures and is a key brain region and experimental platform for investigating mechanisms associated with the abnormal neuronal excitability that characterizes a seizure. Accordingly, the hippocampal slice is a common in vitro model to study treatments that may prevent or reduce seizure activity. The ketogenic diet is a metabolic therapy used to treat epilepsy in adults and children for nearly 100 years; it can reduce or eliminate even severe or refractory seizures. New insights into its underlying mechanisms have been revealed by diverse types of electrophysiological recordings in hippocampal slices. Here we review these reports and their relevant mechanistic findings. We acknowledge that a major difficulty in using hippocampal slices is the inability to reproduce precisely the in vivo condition of ketogenic diet feeding in any in vitro preparation, and progress has been made in this in vivo/in vitro transition. Thus far at least three different approaches are reported to reproduce relevant diet effects in the hippocampal slices: (1 direct application of ketone bodies, (2 mimicking the ketogenic diet condition during a whole-cell patch-clamp technique, and (3 reduced glucose incubation of hippocampal slices from ketogenic diet–fed animals. Significant results have been found with each of these methods and provide options for further study into short- and long-term mechanisms including ATP-sensitive potassium channels, vesicular glutamate transporter, pannexin channels and adenosine receptors underlying ketogenic diet and other forms of metabolic therapy.

  14. Metabolic Therapy for Temporal Lobe Epilepsy in a Dish: Investigating Mechanisms of Ketogenic Diet using Electrophysiological Recordings in Hippocampal Slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Masahito Jr.; Ruskin, David N.; Masino, Susan A.

    2016-01-01

    The hippocampus is prone to epileptic seizures and is a key brain region and experimental platform for investigating mechanisms associated with the abnormal neuronal excitability that characterizes a seizure. Accordingly, the hippocampal slice is a common in vitro model to study treatments that may prevent or reduce seizure activity. The ketogenic diet is a metabolic therapy used to treat epilepsy in adults and children for nearly 100 years; it can reduce or eliminate even severe or refractory seizures. New insights into its underlying mechanisms have been revealed by diverse types of electrophysiological recordings in hippocampal slices. Here we review these reports and their relevant mechanistic findings. We acknowledge that a major difficulty in using hippocampal slices is the inability to reproduce precisely the in vivo condition of ketogenic diet feeding in any in vitro preparation, and progress has been made in this in vivo/in vitro transition. Thus far at least three different approaches are reported to reproduce relevant diet effects in the hippocampal slices: (1) direct application of ketone bodies; (2) mimicking the ketogenic diet condition during a whole-cell patch-clamp technique; and (3) reduced glucose incubation of hippocampal slices from ketogenic diet–fed animals. Significant results have been found with each of these methods and provide options for further study into short- and long-term mechanisms including Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels, vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT), pannexin channels and adenosine receptors underlying ketogenic diet and other forms of metabolic therapy. PMID:27847463

  15. Effects of weight loss diet therapy on anthropometric measurements and biochemical variables in schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urhan, Murat; Ergün, Can; Aksoy, Meral; Ayer, Ahmet

    2015-07-01

    Prevalence of obesity in schizophrenic patients is two to three times higher than in the general population and unhealthy dietary patterns, a sedentary lifestyle and antipsychotic medication use may contribute to the higher levels of obesity among schizophrenic patients. We evaluated the effects of diet therapy on weight loss, anthropometric and biochemical variables in overweight or obese (body mass index, BMI ≥ 27 kg/m(2)) female schizophrenic patients who use antipsychotic medications and in healthy volunteers. Primary demographic variables were collected via questionnaire; blood samples and anthropometric measurements were obtained. Personalized diet recipes were prepared and nutritional education was shared. We logged the physical activity of the patients and maintained food consumption records at 3-day intervals. Participants were weighed every week; anthropometric measurements and blood samples were collected at the end of the first and second months. At the end of the study, reductions in body weight and other anthropometric measurements were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Reductions in body weight and BMI values for patient group were - 4.05 ± 1.73 kg and - 1.62 ± 0.73 kg/m(2) and for the control group were - 6.79 ± 1.80 kg and - 2.55 ± 0.64 kg/m(2), respectively. When compared with the patient group, reductions in the anthropometric variables of the control group were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Fasting glucose, blood lipids, albumin and leptin levels were decreased; insulin and homeostatic model assessment-measured insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) levels were increased insignificantly. Increases in the blood ghrelin levels for both groups were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Improvements to the diets of schizophrenic patient led to improvements in anthropometric measurements and biochemical variables and reduced the health risks caused by antipsychotic medications. Furthermore, we hypothesize that antipsychotic medications do not

  16. Do We Need a Diet Therapy to Manage Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease in the Predialysis Period?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Kushnirenko

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the criteria for diagnosis of chronic kidney disease and the feasibility of diet therapy in combination with keto-analogues of essential amino acids at predialysis stage. It is proved that additional administration to the patients with predialysis chronic kidney disease of keto-analogues of essential amino acids enhances the metabolic beneficial effects of low-protein diet, promotes normalization of the amino acid composition of the blood and correction of metabolic acidosis, supports the parameters of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism at an optimum level under reduced protein intake, slowing further progression of chronic kidney disease.

  17. Veganism Is a Viable Alternative to Conventional Diet Therapy for Improving Blood Lipids and Glycemic Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepanowski, John F; Varady, Krista A

    2015-01-01

    The American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) have each outlined a set of dietary recommendations aimed at improving glycemic control and blood lipids, respectively. However, traditional vegan diets (low-fat diets that proscribe animal product consumption) are also effective at improving glycemic control, and dietary portfolios (vegan diets that contain prescribed amounts of plant sterols, viscous fibers, soy protein, and nuts) are also effective at improving blood lipids. The purpose of this review was to compare the effects of traditional vegan diets and dietary portfolios with ADA and NCEP diets on body weight, blood lipids, blood pressure, and glycemic control. The main findings are that traditional vegan diets appear to improve glycemic control better than ADA diets in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), while dietary portfolios have been consistently shown to improve blood lipids better than NCEP diets in hypercholesterolemic individuals.

  18. The effect of a high-protein, high-sodium diet on calcium and bone metabolism in postmenopausal women stratified by hormone replacement therapy use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrington, M.; Bennett, T.; Jakobsen, Jette

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of a high-sodium, high-protein diet on bone metabolism in postmenopausal women ( aged 49 - 60 y) stratified by hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use. In a crossover trial, 18 women (n = 8 HRT users (+HRT) and n = 10 nonusers (-HRT)) were...... randomly assigned to a diet high in protein ( 90 g/day) and sodium (180 mmol/day) ( calciuric diet) or a diet moderate in protein ( 70 g/day) and low in sodium ( 65 mmol/day) for 4 weeks followed by crossover to alternative dietary regimen for a further 4 weeks. The calciuric diet significantly (P...

  19. Potential mechanisms of diet therapy for fibrocystic breast conditions show inadequate evidence of effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, N K; Lampe, J W

    2000-11-01

    Fibrocystic breast conditions, formerly referred to as fibrocystic breast disease, affect about half of all women and typically present as any combination of breast nodularity, swelling, and pain. We reviewed the literature to evaluate evidence supporting nutrition interventions commonly recommended for fibrocystic breast conditions by health care providers. Randomized, controlled studies of the effectiveness of caffeine restriction fail to support any benefit in fibrocystic breast conditions. Similarly, evidence supporting evening primrose oil, vitamin E, or pyridoxine as treatments for the discomforts of fibrocystic breast conditions is insufficient to draw conclusions about effectiveness. Dietary alterations that influence the intermediate markers for fibrocystic breast conditions include low-fat (15% to 20% energy), high-fiber (30 g/day), and soy isoflavone regimens. However, our findings provide no solid evidence for secondary prevention or treatment of fibrocystic breast conditions through a dietary approach. Health care providers should limit recommendations to proven diet therapies supported by randomized, placebo-controlled trials, given the instability inherent in fibrocystic breast conditions and the near 20% placebo effect associated with intervention. Because excessive estrogen or altered sensitivity to estrogen is the dominant theory of etiology, interventions that may modulate endogenous steroid hormones warrant further investigation as potential treatments for symptomatic fibrocystic breast conditions.

  20. Garlic (Allium sativum: diet based therapy of 21st century–a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz Ansar Rasul Suleria

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Functional and nutraceutical foods provide an opportunity to improve one’s health by reducing health care costs and to support economic development in rural communities. For this reason, various phyto-based functional foods are becoming popular worldwide owing to number of evidences for their safer therapeutic applications. Garlic (Allium sativum L., is an essential vegetable that has been widely utilized as seasoning, flavoring, culinary and in herbal remedies. The consumption of traditional plants especially garlic has progressively increased worldwide because of their great effectiveness, fewer side effects and relatively low cost. Garlic is well known to contain an array of phytochemicals. These bioactive molecules are playing pivotal role in maintaining human health and having potential to reduce various ailments. It has distinct nutritional profile with special reference to its various bioactive components that can be used in different diet based therapies to cure various life-style related disorders. The present review is an attempt to explore the functional/nutraceutical role of garlic against various threats including dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia, cardiovascular disorders, antioxidant capacity and carcinogenic perspectives.

  1. Treatment of celiac disease: from gluten-free diet to novel therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francavilla, R; Cristofori, F; Stella, M; Borrelli, G; Naspi, G; Castellaneta, S

    2014-10-01

    Gluten-free diet (GFD) is the cornerstone treatment for celiac disease (CD). This diet excludes the protein gluten a protein forum in in grains such as wheat, barley, rye and triticale. Gluten causes small intestines inflammation in patients with CD and eating a GFD helps these patients in controlling signs and symptoms and prevent complications. Following a GFD may be frustrating, however, it is important to know that plenty of foods are naturally gluten-free and nowadays is relatively easy to find substitutes for gluten-containing foods. Certain grains, such as oats, are generally safe but can be contaminated with wheat during growing and processing stages of production. For this reason, it is generally recommended avoiding oats unless they are specifically labelled gluten-free. Other products that may contain gluten include food additives, such as malt flavouring, modified food starch and some supplement and/or vitamins that use gluten as a binding agent. Cross-contamination occurs when gluten-free foods come into contact with foods that contain gluten. It can happen during the manufacturing process or if the same equipment is used to make a variety of products. Cross-contamination can also occur at home if foods are prepared on common surfaces or with utensils that have not been cleaned after being used to prepare gluten-containing foods (using a toaster for gluten-free and regular bread). Although safe and effective, the GFD is not ideal: it is expensive, of limited nutritional value, and not readily available in many countries. Consequently, a need exists for novel, non-dietary therapies for celiac disease. Advances in understanding the immunopathogenesis of CD have suggested several types of therapeutic strategies alternative to the GFD. Some of these strategies attempt to decrease the immunogenicity of gluten-containing grains by manipulating the grain itself or by using oral enzymes to break down immunogenic peptides that normally remain intact during

  2. Hypothalamic Leptin Gene Therapy Reduces Bone Marrow Adiposity in ob/ob Mice Fed Regular and High Fat Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence B Lindenmaier

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Low bone mass is often associated with increased bone marrow adiposity. Since osteoblasts and adipocytes are derived from the same mesenchymal stem cell progenitor, adipocyte formation may increase at the expense of osteoblast formation. Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone known to regulate energy and bone metabolism. Genetic (e.g., leptin deficiency and high fat diet-induced (e.g., leptin resistance obesity are associated with increased marrow adipose tissue (MAT and reduced bone formation. Short-duration studies suggest that leptin treatment reduces MAT and increases bone formation in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice fed a regular diet. Here, we determined the long-duration impact of increased hypothalamic leptin on marrow adipocytes and osteoblasts in ob/ob mice using recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV gene therapy. In a first study, eight- to ten-week-old male ob/ob mice were randomized into 4 groups: (1 untreated, (2 rAAV-Lep, (3 rAAV-green fluorescent protein (rAAV-GFP, or (4 pair-fed to rAAV-Lep. For vector administration, mice were placed in a Kopf stereotaxic apparatus, and injected intracerebroventricularly with either rAAV-Lep or rAAV-GFP (9 × 107 particles in 1.5 µl. The mice were maintained for 30 weeks following vector administration. In a second study, the impact of increased hypothalamic leptin levels on MAT was determined in mice fed high fat diets. Eight- to ten-week-old male ob/ob mice were randomized into 2 groups and treated with either rAAV-Lep or rAAV-GFP. At 7 weeks post-vector administration, half the mice in each group were switched to a high fat diet for 8 weeks. Wild type (WT controls included age-matched mice fed regular or high fat diet. Hypothalamic leptin gene therapy increased osteoblast perimeter and osteoclast perimeter with minor change in cancellous bone architecture. The gene therapy decreased MAT levels in ob/ob mice fed regular or high fat diet to values similar to WT mice fed regular diet. These

  3. Gluten-free and casein-free diets in the therapy of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Klaus W; Hauser, Joachim; Reissmann, Andreas

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to discuss the role of gluten-free and casein-free diets in the treatment of autism. In a recent UK survey, more than 80% of parents of children with autism spectrum disorder reported some kind of dietary intervention for their child (gluten-free and casein-free diet in 29%). When asked about the effects of the gluten-free and casein-free diet, 20-29% of the parents reported significant improvements on the autism spectrum disorder core dimensions. The findings of this study suggest additional effects of a gluten-free and casein-free diet on comorbid problems of autism such as gastrointestinal symptoms, concentration, and attention. The findings of another recent investigation suggested that age and certain urine compounds may predict the response of autism symptoms to a gluten-free and casein-free diet. Although these results need to be replicated, they highlight the importance of patient subgroup analysis. Intervention trials evaluating the effects of a gluten-free and casein-free diet on autistic symptoms have so far been contradictory and inconclusive. Most investigations assessing the efficacy of a gluten-free and casein-free diet in the treatment of autism are seriously flawed. The evidence to support the therapeutic value of this diet is limited and weak. A gluten-free and casein-free diet should only be administered if an allergy or intolerance to nutritional gluten or casein is diagnosed.

  4. Adiponectin gene therapy ameliorates high-fat, high-sucrose diet-induced metabolic perturbations in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, A D; Sung, M M; Boisvenue, J J; Barr, A J; Dyck, J R B

    2012-09-10

    Adiponectin is an adipokine secreted primarily from adipose tissue that can influence circulating plasma glucose and lipid levels through multiple mechanisms involving a variety of organs. In humans, reduced plasma adiponectin levels induced by obesity are associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, suggesting that low adiponectin levels may contribute the pathogenesis of obesity-related insulin resistance. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether gene therapy designed to elevate circulating adiponectin levels is a viable strategy for ameliorating insulin resistance in mice fed a high-fat, high-sucrose (HFHS) diet. Electroporation-mediated gene transfer of mouse adiponectin plasmid DNA into gastrocnemius muscle resulted in elevated serum levels of globular and high-molecular weight adiponectin compared with control mice treated with empty plasmid. In comparison to HFHS-fed mice receiving empty plasmid, mice receiving adiponectin gene therapy displayed significantly decreased weight gain following 13 weeks of HFHS diet associated with reduced fat accumulation, and exhibited increased oxygen consumption and locomotor activity as measured by indirect calorimetry, suggesting increased energy expenditure in these mice. Consistent with improved whole-body metabolism, mice receiving adiponectin gene therapy also had lower blood glucose and insulin levels, improved glucose tolerance and reduced hepatic gluconeogenesis compared with control mice. Furthermore, immunoblot analysis of livers from mice receiving adiponectin gene therapy showed an increase in insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of insulin signaling proteins. Based on these data, we conclude that adiponectin gene therapy ameliorates the metabolic abnormalities caused by feeding mice a HFHS diet and may be a potential therapeutic strategy to improve obesity-mediated impairments in insulin sensitivity.

  5. Behavioural therapy in the treatment of obesity (II): role of the Mediterranean diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaulet, Marta; Pérez de Heredia, F

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is the consequence of an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure, food intake being affected by multiple factors -psychological, social, work-related, etc. This revision discusses the role of diet in the behavioural treatment (BT) of obesity, which faces multiple approaches and focuses on patients' behaviour rather than their mere energy intake. Recent literature has been revised that deals with the health benefits of Mediterranean diet in order to assess its suitability for obesity treatment based on BT. BT helps patients to develop skills and techniques in order to adopt proper habits and attain their healthiest weight. Patients learn to establish realistic goals, both as regards weight and behaviour, and to evaluate their progress in modifying eating and exercising habits. The application of the Mediterranean diet in obesity treatment presents various advantages which are based on the principles of this diet -wide variety of food, high carbohydrate content, or high satiating capacity, which prevents specific hunger and ketogenesis-, and has been demonstrated to be effective in reducing body weight. BT based on the Mediterranean diet is a useful tool for obesity treatment. The Mediterranean diet provides the patients with a diet established on widely recognised nutritional benefits, suitable to their social and daily life, and that can be easily followed in the long term, according to the objectives of BT. For these reasons, Mediterranean diet-based BT helps to prolong both the treatment and maintenance periods and therefore contributes to a more stable weight loss.

  6. EFFECT OF ADDING AN EXERCISE REGIMEN TO DIET THERAPY IN DECREASING BODY FAT PERCENTAGE AND BODY MASS INDEX AMONG OBESE FEMALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeena Haneefa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Obesity is one among the leading health problems in many developing countries including India. Lifestyle modifications, which include diet therapy and regular exercises are considered as the mainstay in the management of this health issue. Brisk walking is the preferred socially and economically acceptable mode of exercise. This randomised controlled trial tries to evaluate the efficacy of adding an exercise regimen to diet therapy in reducing body fat percentage and Body Mass Index (BMI among obese females. MATERIALS AND METHODS One hundred female patients aged between 20 and 60 years with BMI greater than 25 were recruited for this study of 6 months duration. Participants were randomised into either diet therapy alone group or diet therapy with exercise group. All participants were prescribed a low-calorie diet of 1500 kcal per day. The exercise intervention group was subjected to a home-based exercise regimen; walking for 30 minutes 5 days a week. Outcomes were measured by BMI and body fat percentage, documented every month. RESULTS Both groups showed significant reduction in body fat percentage and BMI, but the reduction was more in the exercise with diet therapy group (p value <0.001. CONCLUSION Adding a simple exercise like walking to other lifestyle modification measures can more efficiently bring down BMI and body fat percentage in turn significantly reducing the cardiovascular risk, morbidity and mortality in women.

  7. Long-term outcome on renal replacement therapy in patients who previously received a keto acid-supplemented very-low-protein diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauveau, Philippe; Couzi, Lionel; Vendrely, Benoit; de Précigout, Valérie; Combe, Christian; Fouque, Denis; Aparicio, Michel

    2009-10-01

    The consequences of a supplemented very-low-protein diet remain a matter of debate with regard to patient outcome before or after the onset of renal replacement therapy. We evaluated the long-term clinical outcome during maintenance dialysis and/or transplantation in patients who previously received a supplemented very-low-protein diet. We assessed the outcome of 203 patients who received a supplemented very-low-protein diet for >3 mo (inclusion period: 1985-2000) and started dialysis after a mean diet duration of 33.1 mo (4-230 mo). The survival rate in the whole cohort was 79% and 63% at 5 and 10 y, respectively. One hundred two patients continued with chronic dialysis during the entire follow-up, and 101 patients were grafted at least once. Patient outcomes were similar to those of the French Dialysis Registry patients for the dialysis group and similar to the 865 patients who were transplanted in Bordeaux during the same period for the transplant group. There was no correlation between death rate and duration of diet. The lack of correlation between death rate and duration of diet and the moderate mortality rate observed during the first 10 y of renal replacement therapy confirm that a supplemented very-low-protein diet has no detrimental effect on the outcome of patients with chronic kidney disease who receive renal replacement therapy.

  8. Use of fenbendazole-containing therapeutic diets for mice in experimental cancer therapy studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Qiwen; Liu, Yanfeng; Booth, Carmen J; Rockwell, Sara

    2012-03-01

    Pinworm infection (oxyuriasis) is a common problem in rodent colonies. Facility-wide prophylactic treatment of all mice with a diet containing therapeutic levels of fenbendazole for several weeks is often used to control pinworm outbreaks. We examined the effect of feeding a therapeutic diet containing 150 ppm fenbendazole on the growth of EMT6 mouse mammary tumors implanted into BALB/c Rw mice. Mice were randomized to receive either a fenbendazole-containing or control diet for 1 wk before tumor cells were injected intradermally in the flanks and throughout tumor growth. Tumor growth was monitored by serial measurements of tumor diameters from the time tumors became palpable until they reached 1000 mm3. The medicated diet did not alter tumor growth, invasion, or metastasis. When tumors reached volumes of approximately 100 mm3, some were irradiated locally with 10 Gy of X-rays. Irradiation significantly delayed tumor growth; fenbendazole did not alter the radiation-induced growth delay. However, cell culture studies showed that fenbendazole concentrations not far above those expected in the tissues of mice on this diet altered the growth of the tumor cells in culture. Recent data from other laboratories also have demonstrated effects of fenbendazole that could complicate experiments. Care should therefore be exercised in deciding whether chow containing fenbendazole should be administered to mouse colonies being used in cancer research.

  9. Carbohydrate Content in the GDM Diet: Two Views: View 2: Low-Carbohydrate Diets Should Remain the Initial Therapy for Gestational Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Mulla, Wadia R.

    2016-01-01

    IN BRIEF The appropriate dietary intervention for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is not clear. Traditionally, a low-carbohydrate diet has been prescribed. Recently, there has been a movement to prescribe a diet higher in nutrient-dense carbohydrate as the initial treatment for GDM. At this time, there is insufficient outcome data to support this type of diet.

  10. Treatment of Obesity by Behavior Therapy and Very Low Calorie Diet: A Pilot Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadden, Thomas A.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Explored the effectiveness of a very low calorie diet to induce rapid weight loss, combined with behavioral techniques to maintain this loss in 17 obese women. Results showed a substantial and sustained weight loss. Subjects did not experience increased anxiety or depression. (JAC)

  11. The immunopathogenesis of celiac disease reveals possible therapies beyond the gluten-free diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Christopher S; Kagnoff, Martin F

    2012-07-01

    Celiac disease is a T cell-mediated autoimmune inflammatory disease of the small intestine that is activated by gluten. The diagnosis of celiac disease is challenging as patients display a wide range of symptoms and some are asymptomatic. A lifelong gluten-free diet is the only currently approved treatment of celiac disease. Although the diet is safe and effective, the compliance rates and patient acceptance vary. Furthermore, many patients treated with a gluten-free diet continue to be mildly to severely symptomatic with persistent histological abnormalities, and a small number of patients develop refractory celiac disease. New therapeutic adjuncts and potential alternatives to the gluten-free diet could improve the treatment options for these patients. Advances in understanding the immunopathogenesis of celiac disease have suggested several types of therapeutic strategies that may augment or supplant the gluten-free diet. Some of these strategies attempt to decrease the immunogenicity of gluten-containing grains by manipulating the grain itself or by using oral enzymes to break down immunogenic peptides that normally remain intact during digestion. Other strategies focus on preventing the absorption of these peptides, preventing tissue transglutaminase from rendering gluten peptides more immunogenic, or inhibiting their binding to celiac disease-specific antigen-presenting molecules. Strategies that limit T cell migration to the small intestine or that reestablish mucosal homeostasis and tolerance to gluten antigens are also being explored. Additionally, it is vital to develop new therapeutic options for refractory celiac disease patients. This review highlights therapeutic strategies that may ultimately improve the health and well-being of individuals with celiac disease.

  12. Maternal Melatonin Therapy Rescues Prenatal Dexamethasone and Postnatal High-Fat Diet Induced Programmed Hypertension in Male Rat Offspring

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    You-Lin eTain

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal dexamethasone (DEX exposure and high-fat (HF intake are linked to hypertension. We examined whether maternal melatonin therapy prevents programmed hypertension synergistically induced by prenatal DEX plus postnatal HF in adult offspring. We also examined whether DEX and melatonin causes renal programming using next-generation RNA sequencing (NGS technology. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received intraperitoneal dexamethasone (0.1 mg/kg or vehicle from gestational day 16 to 22. In the melatonin-treatment groups (M, rats received 0.01% melatonin in drinking water during their entire pregnancy and lactation. Male offspring were assigned to five groups: control, DEX, HF, DEX+HF, and DEX+HF+M. Male offspring in the HF group were fed a HF diet from weaning to 4 months of age. Prenatal DEX and postnatal HF diet synergistically induced programmed hypertension in adult offspring, which melatonin prevented. Maternal melatonin treatment modified over 3000 renal transcripts in the developing offspring kidney. Our NGS data indicate that PPAR signaling and fatty acid metabolism are two significantly regulated pathways. In addition, maternal melatonin therapy elicits longstanding alterations on renal programming, including regulation of the melatonin signaling pathway and upregulation of Agtr1b and Mas1 expression in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS, to protect male offspring against programmed hypertension. Postnatal HF aggravates prenatal DEX induced programmed hypertension in adult offspring, which melatonin prevented. The protective effects of melatonin on programmed hypertension is associated with regulation of the RAS and melatonin receptors. The long-term effects of maternal melatonin therapy on renal transcriptome require further clarification.

  13. Maternal Melatonin Therapy Attenuated Maternal High-Fructose Combined with Post-Weaning High-Salt Diets-Induced Hypertension in Adult Male Rat Offspring

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    You-Lin Tain

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of food high in fructose and salt is associated with the epidemic of hypertension. Hypertension can originate from early life. Melatonin, a pleiotropic hormone, regulates blood pressure. We examined whether maternal melatonin therapy can prevent maternal high-fructose combined with post-weaning high-salt diet-induced programmed hypertension in adult offspring. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received either a normal diet (ND or a 60% fructose diet (HF during pregnancy and the lactation period. Male offspring were on either the ND or a high-salt diet (HS, 1% NaCl from weaning to 12 weeks of age and were assigned to five groups (n = 8/group: ND/ND, HF/ND, ND/HS, HF/HS, and HF/HS+melatonin. Melatonin (0.01% in drinking water was administered during pregnancy and lactation. We observed that maternal HF combined with post-weaning HS diets induced hypertension in male adult offspring, which was attenuated by maternal melatonin therapy. The beneficial effects of maternal melatonin therapy on HF/HS-induced hypertension related to regulating several nutrient-sensing signals, including Sirt1, Sirt4, Prkaa2, Prkab2, Pparg, and Ppargc1a. Additionally, melatonin increased protein levels of mammalian targets of rapamycin (mTOR, decreased plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA and symmetric dimethylarginine levels, and increased the l-arginine-to-ADMA ratio. The reprogramming effects by which maternal melatonin therapy protects against hypertension of developmental origin awaits further elucidation.

  14. The evaluation of the effectiveness of diet therapy for obese patients basing on studying of the polymorphism rs9939609 of the FTO gene

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    Irina A. Lapik

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Aim. The aim of the study was to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of dietary therapy in obese patients on the basis of studying the polymorphism rs9939609 of the FTO gene. Materials and methods. 100 patients with obesity of I-III degree aged from 18 to 55 years were examined. All patients underwent genotyping using allele-specific amplification with real-time detection of results. Depending on the genotypes of the FTO gene, obese patients received different diet therapy and were divided into 3 groups: patients with the TT and AT genotype received a standard low-calorie diet, and with the AA genotype a personalized diet. Results. It was found that a decrease in the caloric content of the diet contributed to a decrease in body weight in obese patients, mainly due to muscle mass in carriers of the genotype AT, and in carriers of genotypes TT and AA - mainly due to the fat component. Conclusions. Thus, the carriers of the mutant allele A in the homozygous and heterozygous variant require the selection of only a personalized diet. Therefore, in the appointment of dietary therapy to obese patients, it is recommended to carry out molecular genetic studies that will not only identify individuals with increased need for personalization of dietary therapy, but also increase the effectiveness of treatment for obesity and prevent the development of its complications.

  15. Principles of diet therapy in ancient Chinese medicine: 'Huang Di Nei Jing'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Z C

    1993-06-01

    Huang Di Nei Jing, the first systematic Chinese medical book, was compiled from the observations of imperial herbal doctors in the Qin and Han periods (221 BC - 220 AD). From this classic traditional source may be derived the concept of a balanced and complete diet and probably the world's first dietary guidelines. Basic to the tradition are han, re, wen and bu foods, respectively 'cold', 'hot', 'neutral', 'strengthening'. Basic to Chinese cuisine are jan and tsai- 'cereal' (the rice staple and main meal) and 'dishes' to accompany the rice. Chinese traditional medicine, as in Huang Di Nei Jing, considers the nourishment of body and mind. It also emphasises that herbal medicine and food have the same origin. Diet was essential to the prevention of disease which a glossary of Chinese terms is given at the end of the paper in the Chinese tradition, was superior to treatment.

  16. The ketogenic diet is an effective adjuvant to radiation therapy for the treatment of malignant glioma.

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    Mohammed G Abdelwahab

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The ketogenic diet (KD is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet that alters metabolism by increasing the level of ketone bodies in the blood. KetoCal® (KC is a nutritionally complete, commercially available 4:1 (fat:carbohydrate+protein ketogenic formula that is an effective non-pharmacologic treatment for the management of refractory pediatric epilepsy. Diet-induced ketosis causes changes to brain homeostasis that have potential for the treatment of other neurological diseases such as malignant gliomas. METHODS: We used an intracranial bioluminescent mouse model of malignant glioma. Following implantation animals were maintained on standard diet (SD or KC. The mice received 2×4 Gy of whole brain radiation and tumor growth was followed by in vivo imaging. RESULTS: Animals fed KC had elevated levels of β-hydroxybutyrate (p = 0.0173 and an increased median survival of approximately 5 days relative to animals maintained on SD. KC plus radiation treatment were more than additive, and in 9 of 11 irradiated animals maintained on KC the bioluminescent signal from the tumor cells diminished below the level of detection (p<0.0001. Animals were switched to SD 101 days after implantation and no signs of tumor recurrence were seen for over 200 days. CONCLUSIONS: KC significantly enhances the anti-tumor effect of radiation. This suggests that cellular metabolic alterations induced through KC may be useful as an adjuvant to the current standard of care for the treatment of human malignant gliomas.

  17. Diet Therapy for Cancer Prevention and Treatment Based on Traditional Persian Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadi, Behjat

    2018-04-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death with profound socio-economic consequences worldwide. Growing evidence suggests the crucial role of diet on cancer prevention and treatment. In Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM) there is a major focus on contribution of special diet and foods to cancer management. In the present article, the cytotoxic and antitumor activities of several food items including plants and animal products recommended by TPM as anticancer agents are discussed. Strong evidence supports the anticancer effects of beetroot (Beta vulgris) and its major compound betanin, cinnamon and cinnamaldehyde, barley (H. vulgare) and its products, extra-virgin olive oil, black pepper (P. nigrum) and its piperine, grapes (V. vinifera) and its compound resveratrol, ginger and its compound 6-gingerol, whey protein, fish, and honey. However, additional pharmacological studies and clinical trials are needed to elucidate their molecular and cellular mechanisms of actions, frequency, and amount of consumption, possible adverse effects, and optimum preparation methods. Moreover, studying mechanisms of actions of the bioactive compounds present in the discussed food items can be helpful in identifying and development of new anticancer agents.

  18. What are the minimum requirements for ketogenic diet services in resource-limited regions? Recommendations from the International League Against Epilepsy Task Force for Dietary Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossoff, Eric H; Al-Macki, Nabil; Cervenka, Mackenzie C; Kim, Heung D; Liao, Jianxiang; Megaw, Katherine; Nathan, Janak K; Raimann, Ximena; Rivera, Rocio; Wiemer-Kruel, Adelheid; Williams, Emma; Zupec-Kania, Beth A

    2015-09-01

    Despite the increasing use of dietary therapies for children and adults with refractory epilepsy, the availability of these treatments in developing countries with limited resources remains suboptimal. One possible contributory factor may be the costs. There is often reported a significant perceived need for a large ketogenic diet team, supplements, laboratory studies, and follow-up visits to provide this treatment. The 2009 Epilepsia Consensus Statement described ideal requirements for a ketogenic diet center, but in some situations this is not feasible. As a result, the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) Task Force on Dietary Therapy was asked to convene and provide practical, cost-effective recommendations for new ketogenic diet centers in resource-limited regions of the world. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International League Against Epilepsy.

  19. Group cognitive behavioural therapy and weight regain after diet in type 2 diabetes: results from the randomised controlled POWER trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Kirsten A; Buijks, Hanneke I M; Verhoeven, Adrie J M; Mulder, Monique T; Özcan, Behiye; van 't Spijker, Adriaan; Timman, Reinier; Busschbach, Jan J; Sijbrands, Eric J

    2018-04-01

    Weight-loss programmes for adults with type 2 diabetes are less effective in the long term owing to regain of weight. Our aim was to determine the 2 year effectiveness of a cognitive behavioural group therapy (group-CBT) programme in weight maintenance after diet-induced weight loss in overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes, using a randomised, parallel, non-blinded, pragmatic study design. We included 158 obese adults (median BMI 36.3 [IQR 32.5-40.0] kg/m 2 ) with type 2 diabetes from the outpatient diabetes clinic of Erasmus MC, the Netherlands, who achieved ≥5% weight loss on an 8 week very low calorie diet. Participants were randomised (stratified by weight loss) to usual care or usual care plus group-CBT (17 group sessions). The primary outcomes were the between-group differences after 2 years in: (1) body weight; and (2) weight regain. Secondary outcomes were HbA 1c levels, insulin dose, plasma lipid levels, depression, anxiety, self-esteem, quality of life, fatigue, physical activity, eating disorders and related cognitions. Data were analysed using linear mixed modelling. During the initial 8 week dieting phase, the control group (n = 75) lost a mean of 10.0 (95% CI 9.1, 10.9) kg and the intervention group (n = 83) lost 9.2 (95% CI 8.4, 10.0) kg (p = 0.206 for the between-group difference). During 2 years of follow-up, mean weight regain was 4.7 (95% CI 3.0, 6.3) kg for the control group and 4.0 (95% CI 2.3, 5.6) kg for the intervention group, with a between-group difference of -0.7 (95% CI -3.1, 1.6) kg (p = 0.6). The mean difference in body weight at 2 years was -1.2 (95% CI -7.7, 5.3) kg (p = 0.7). None of the secondary outcomes differed between the two groups. Despite increased treatment contact, a group-CBT programme for long-term weight maintenance after an initial ≥5% weight loss from dieting in obese individuals with type 2 diabetes was not superior to usual care alone. Trialregister.nl NTR2264 FUNDING: The

  20. Ketogenic Diet and Hormonal Therapy in Prevention of Evolution of West Syndrome to Lennox-Gastaut

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    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Medical records of 98 patients diagnosed with West syndrome and monitored at Sanggye Paik Hospital, Seoul, Korea, for at least 3 years were retrospectively reviewed to assess etiology, age at onset, value of various therapies, and the rate of evolution from West syndrome to Lennox-Gastaut syndrome.

  1. The calorically restricted ketogenic diet, an effective alternative therapy for malignant brain cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou Weihua; Mukherjee Purna; Kiebish Michael A; Markis William T; Mantis John G; Seyfried Thomas N

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Malignant brain cancer persists as a major disease of morbidity and mortality in adults and is the second leading cause of cancer death in children. Many current therapies for malignant brain tumors fail to provide long-term management because they ineffectively target tumor cells while negatively impacting the health and vitality of normal brain cells. In contrast to brain tumor cells, which lack metabolic flexibility and are largely dependent on glucose for growth and su...

  2. Statin dose reduction with complementary diet therapy: A pilot study of personalized medicine

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    Bianca Scolaro

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Statin intolerance, whether real or perceived, is a growing issue in clinical practice. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of reduced-dose statin therapy complemented with nutraceuticals. Methods: First phase: Initially, 53 type 2 diabetic statin-treated patients received a supplementation with fish oil (1.7 g EPA + DHA/day, chocolate containing plant sterols (2.2 g/day, and green tea (two sachets/day for 6 weeks. Second phase: “Good responders” to supplementation were identified after multivariate analysis (n = 10, and recruited for a pilot protocol of statin dose reduction. “Good responders” were then provided with supplementation for 12 weeks: standard statin therapy was kept during the first 6 weeks and reduced by 50% from weeks 6–12. Results: First phase: After 6 weeks of supplementation, plasma LDL-C (−13.7% ± 3.7, P = .002 and C-reactive protein (−35.5% ± 5.9, P = .03 were reduced. Analysis of lathosterol and campesterol in plasma suggested that intensity of LDL-C reduction was influenced by cholesterol absorption rate rather than its synthesis. Second phase: no difference was observed for plasma lipids, inflammation, cholesterol efflux capacity, or HDL particles after statin dose reduction when compared to standard therapy. Conclusions: Although limited by the small sample size, our study demonstrates the potential for a new therapeutic approach combining lower statin dose and specific dietary compounds. Further studies should elucidate “good responders” profile as a tool for personalized medicine. This may be particularly helpful in the many patients with or at risk for CVD who cannot tolerate high dose statin therapy. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02732223. Keywords: Atherosclerosis, Omega-3 fatty acids, Plant sterols, Polyphenols, Responders

  3. [Attitudes toward insulin prescription in type 2 diabetic patients non-compliant with diet therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordenti, F; D'Angiolini, G; Murgia, F

    2000-01-01

    Investigate the compliance of type 2 diabetic patients with the prescription of insulin according to pre-existing ideas on insulin, and to personality traits. Twenty insulin-treated type 2 diabetic patients were selected on the basis of previous scarce compliance with diet and exercise and BMI > 28 kg/m2. The patients' attitudes toward insulin prescription were evaluated with a semi-structured interview and personality traits were evaluated with the ACL test(Adjective Check List). When insulin was first prescribed to these patients, 65% accepted immediately. However, 45% answered that their acquiescence to insulin treatment was accompanied by doubts or apprehension. The fear of insulin dependence was shared by 50%, with a much greater prevalence among those who resisted to insulin treatment (86% vs 31%) and those who recalled doubts and fears about insulin (73% vs 22%). Patients with a fear of dependence differed significantly from the others in five personality scales: greater opposition and ambiguity, less self-confidence, more inflexible, less demanding of others and more inclined to bargain. The irrational fear of dependence may, therefore, play a role in both the manifest acceptance/rejection of insulin and non-expressed doubts, and may in turn be influenced by personality traits. Specific patient education on insulin treatment in type 2 diabetes is necessary, and should be planned according to the personality factors that may influence the perception of facts and the patients' motivation.

  4. Therapy of Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease in mice by feeding a cholesterol-enriched diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saher, Gesine; Rudolphi, Fabian; Corthals, Kristina; Ruhwedel, Torben; Schmidt, Karl-Friedrich; Löwel, Siegrid; Dibaj, Payam; Barrette, Benoit; Möbius, Wiebke; Nave, Klaus-Armin

    2012-07-01

    Duplication of PLP1 (proteolipid protein gene 1) and the subsequent overexpression of the myelin protein PLP (also known as DM20) in oligodendrocytes is the most frequent cause of Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD), a fatal leukodystrophy without therapeutic options. PLP binds cholesterol and is contained within membrane lipid raft microdomains. Cholesterol availability is the rate-limiting factor of central nervous system myelin synthesis. Transgenic mice with extra copies of the Plp1 gene are accurate models of PMD. Dysmyelination followed by demyelination, secondary inflammation and axon damage contribute to the severe motor impairment in these mice. The finding that in Plp1-transgenic oligodendrocytes, PLP and cholesterol accumulate in late endosomes and lysosomes (endo/lysosomes), prompted us to further investigate the role of cholesterol in PMD. Here we show that cholesterol itself promotes normal PLP trafficking and that dietary cholesterol influences PMD pathology. In a preclinical trial, PMD mice were fed a cholesterol-enriched diet. This restored oligodendrocyte numbers and ameliorated intracellular PLP accumulation. Moreover, myelin content increased, inflammation and gliosis were reduced and motor defects improved. Even after onset of clinical symptoms, cholesterol treatment prevented disease progression. Dietary cholesterol did not reduce Plp1 overexpression but facilitated incorporation of PLP into myelin membranes. These findings may have implications for therapeutic interventions in patients with PMD.

  5. Prenatal Metformin Therapy Attenuates Hypertension of Developmental Origin in Male Adult Offspring Exposed to Maternal High-Fructose and Post-Weaning High-Fat Diets

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    You-Lin Tain

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Widespread consumption of a Western diet, comprised of highly refined carbohydrates and fat, may play a role in the epidemic of hypertension. Hypertension can take origin from early life. Metformin is the preferred treatment for type 2 diabetes. We examined whether prenatal metformin therapy can prevent maternal high-fructose plus post-weaning high-fat diets-induced hypertension of developmental origins via regulation of nutrient sensing signals, uric acid, oxidative stress, and the nitric oxide (NO pathway. Gestating Sprague–Dawley rats received regular chow (ND or chow supplemented with 60% fructose diet (HFR throughout pregnancy and lactation. Male offspring were onto either the ND or high-fat diet (HFA from weaning to 12 weeks of age. A total of 40 male offspring were assigned to five groups (n = 8/group: ND/ND, HFR/ND, ND/HFA, HFR/HFA, and HFR/HFA+metformin. Metformin (500 mg/kg/day was administered via gastric gavage for three weeks during the pregnancy period. Combined maternal HFR plus post-weaning HFA induced hypertension in male adult offspring, which prenatal metformin therapy prevented. The protective effects of prenatal metformin therapy on HFR/HFA-induced hypertension, including downregulation of the renin-angiotensin system, decrease in uric acid level, and reduction of oxidative stress. Our results highlighted that the programming effects of metformin administered prenatally might be different from those reported in adults, and that deserves further elucidation.

  6. Nutritional and microbiological quality of commercial and homemade blenderized whole food enteral diets for home-based enteral nutritional therapy in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Maricy Machado Cavalca; Santos, Valdirene Francisca Neves; Bottoni, Andrea; Morais, Tania Beninga

    2018-02-01

    Serious nutritional and contamination risks may be involved in the preparation of blenderized tube-feeding diets and in the handling of commercial diets. Their nutritional and microbiological quality in home settings is unknown. The objective of this study was to assess the nutritional and microbiological quality of commercial enteral and homemade blenderized whole foods diets intended to adult patients in home nutritional therapy. In a cross sectional study, 66 samples of commercial (CD) and noncommercial (NCD) enteral diets were collected at the homes of patients in home enteral nutritional therapy, 33 of each type. Commercial diets were either powder (PCD; n = 13) or liquid (LCD; n = 20). The samples were analyzed in laboratory to assess their nutritional and microbiological quality. Anthropometric data of mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) and triceps skinfold (TST) thickness were obtained from the patients' medical records. NCD presented significantly lower values for protein, fat, fiber, carbohydrate and energy while water content was significantly higher. PCD and LCD did not show any statistically significant differences between them. In the NCD, the values measured for macronutrients and energy corresponded to less than 50% of the prescribed values (except for fat). In CD, protein value was about 20% more than the prescribed value; fat and energy values corresponded to approximately 100% of the prescription, while carbohydrate corresponded to 92%. Regardless the type of the diet, prevalence of undernutrition was high in both groups though patients of the NCD presented a higher percentage. Samples of NCD complied significantly less with the microbiological standards; only 6.0% complied with the standard for coliform bacteria. Escherichia coli was detected in 10, 2, and 2 samples of NCD, PCD and LCD, respectively. Homemade blenderized enteral diets showed low values of energy and macronutrients, delivered less than 50% of the prescribed values and had

  7. A non-calorie-restricted low-carbohydrate diet is effective as an alternative therapy for patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yoshifumi; Uchida, Junichi; Izumi, Hisa; Tsukamoto, Yoko; Inoue, Gaku; Watanabe, Yuichi; Irie, Junichiro; Yamada, Satoru

    2014-01-01

    Although caloric restriction is a widely used intervention to reduce body weight and insulin resistance, many patients are unable to comply with such dietary therapy for long periods. The clinical effectiveness of low-carbohydrate diets was recently described in a position statement of Diabetes UK and a scientific review conducted by the American Diabetes Association. However, randomised trials of dietary interventions in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes are scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of a non-calorie-restricted, low-carbohydrate diet in Japanese patients unable to adhere to a calorie-restricted diet. The enrolled patients were randomly allocated to receive a conventional calorie-restricted diet or low-carbohydrate diet. The patients received consultations every two months from a registered dietician for six months. We compared the effects of the two dietary interventions on glycaemic control and metabolic profiles. The HbA1c levels decreased significantly from baseline to six months in the low-carbohydrate diet group (baseline 7.6±0.4%, six months 7.0±0.7%, p=0.03) but not in the calorie-restricted group (baseline 7.7±0.6%, six months 7.5±1.0%, n.s.), (between-group comparison, p=0.03). The patients in the former group also experienced improvements in their triglyceride levels, without experiencing any major adverse effects or a decline in the quality of life. Our findings suggest that a low-carbohydrate diet is effective in lowering the HbA1c and triglyceride levels in patients with type 2 diabetes who are unable to adhere to a calorie-restricted diet.

  8. A Customized Online Nutrition Guidance System Is Effective for Treating Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease by Supporting Continuity of Diet Therapy at Home: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Tomonori; Takada, Hidekatsu; Uchiyama, Akira; Kon, Kazuyoshi; Yamashina, Shunhei; Ikejima, Kenichi; Ban, Hideyuki; Watanabe, Sumio

    2017-01-01

    Continuity is required for diet therapy, but it depends on patients. We examined the utility of a new tool, the customized online nutrition guidance system, in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Seven patients plotted their body weight (BW) and marked a customized task card on completion for 90 days on a website. The instructors encouraged them by e-mail. BW, serum transaminase levels, and system usage were evaluated. The results showed that BW and serum alanine aminotransferase levels were significantly lower than at baseline. BW and task visualization as well as encouragement by e-mails were effective in ensuring continuity. Thus, this system is effective in keeping NAFLD patients motivated to continue their diet therapy. PMID:28674352

  9. Ketogenic Diets and Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masino, Susan A.; Ruskin, David N.

    2014-01-01

    Ketogenic diets are well-established as a successful anticonvulsant therapy. Based on overlap between mechanisms postulated to underlie pain and inflammation, and mechanisms postulated to underlie therapeutic effects of ketogenic diets, recent studies have explored the ability for ketogenic diets to reduce pain. Here we review clinical and basic research thus far exploring the impact of a ketogenic diet on thermal pain, inflammation, and neuropathic pain. PMID:23680946

  10. Ketogenic Diets and Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Masino, Susan A.; Ruskin, David N.

    2013-01-01

    Ketogenic diets are well-established as a successful anticonvulsant therapy. Based on overlap between mechanisms postulated to underlie pain and inflammation, and mechanisms postulated to underlie therapeutic effects of ketogenic diets, recent studies have explored the ability for ketogenic diets to reduce pain. Here we review clinical and basic research thus far exploring the impact of a ketogenic diet on thermal pain, inflammation, and neuropathic pain.

  11. Clinical and biochemical effects of a 3-week program of diet combined with spa therapy in obese and diabetic patients: a pilot open study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fioravanti, Antonella; Adamczyk, Przemysław; Pascarelli, Nicola Antonio; Giannitti, Chiara; Urso, Renato; Tołodziecki, Michał; Ponikowska, Irena

    2015-07-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for arterial hypertension, coronary artery disease, dyslipidemias, and type 2 diabetes. Spa therapy has long been used for treating obesity and its comorbidities. Enlargement of adipose tissue has been linked to a dysregulation of adipokine secretion and adipose tissue inflammation. Adipokines are currently investigated as potential drug targets in these conditions. Our primary aim was to assess the clinical efficacy of a 3-week program of diet combined with spa therapy in obese patients with and without type 2 diabetes. The secondary aim was to examine whether this combined program influences the response of serum levels of leptin, adiponectin, visfatin, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. Fifty obese males were enrolled and 21 of these featured a type 2 diabetes. During the 3-week period of the study, the patients were on a 1,000-kcal diet and were involved in mineral bath and total body's mud-pack applications (15 procedures). Patients were assessed at baseline and at the end of the therapy for clinical and biochemical parameters (total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glycemia, and adipokines). We showed that a 3-week program of spa therapy in obese patients induced significant decrease of body weight, body mass index, triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, glycemia, and serum levels of leptin and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. So, a cycle of mud-bath therapy associated with a controlled diet may be a promising treatment for obesity and type 2 diabetes decreasing body weight and many risk factors for atherosclerosis and metabolic syndrome.

  12. Non-Toxic Metabolic Management of Metastatic Cancer in VM Mice: Novel Combination of Ketogenic Diet, Ketone Supplementation, and Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy.

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    A M Poff

    Full Text Available The Warburg effect and tumor hypoxia underlie a unique cancer metabolic phenotype characterized by glucose dependency and aerobic fermentation. We previously showed that two non-toxic metabolic therapies - the ketogenic diet with concurrent hyperbaric oxygen (KD+HBOT and dietary ketone supplementation - could increase survival time in the VM-M3 mouse model of metastatic cancer. We hypothesized that combining these therapies could provide an even greater therapeutic benefit in this model. Mice receiving the combination therapy demonstrated a marked reduction in tumor growth rate and metastatic spread, and lived twice as long as control animals. To further understand the effects of these metabolic therapies, we characterized the effects of high glucose (control, low glucose (LG, ketone supplementation (βHB, hyperbaric oxygen (HBOT, or combination therapy (LG+βHB+HBOT on VM-M3 cells. Individually and combined, these metabolic therapies significantly decreased VM-M3 cell proliferation and viability. HBOT, alone or in combination with LG and βHB, increased ROS production in VM-M3 cells. This study strongly supports further investigation into this metabolic therapy as a potential non-toxic treatment for late-stage metastatic cancers.

  13. Comparing Effects of Medication Therapy and Exercise Training with Diet on Liver enzyme Levels and Liver Sonography in Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD

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    Azadeh Nabizadeh Haghighi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, characterized by the deposition of fat in liver cells, can cause fibrosis, cirrhosis, and liver cell damage if not controlled. The aim of this study is to compare the effects of medication therapy and exercise training with diet on liver enzyme levels and liver sonography in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Materials & Methods :In this quasi-experimental study, female patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver were randomly divided into two groups: medication therapy (n = 10 and exercise therapy (n = 10 for 8 weeks. During this period, the exercise group performed exercise training three days a week for 90 minutes per session. The drug was given to the medication group. In both groups, the diet was 500 calories less than their daily energy. Before and after intervention, blood tests and liver sonography were executed. All statistical analyses were done using SPSS for Windows version 20. Comparisons between and within groups were performed by Student's t-test and Wilcoxon test on paired and unpaired data. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results :In both groups, liver enzyme levels and disease severity in sonography reduced significantly (p<0.05. Conclusion: The findings of the present research showed that both methods of therapy have the same effect on reducing the severity of NAFLD.

  14. Intravenous ketogenic diet therapy for treatment of the acute stage of super-refractory status epilepticus in a pediatric patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jainn-Jim; Lin, Kuang-Lin; Chan, Oi-Wa; Hsia, Shao-Hsuan; Wang, Huei-Shyong

    2015-04-01

    A ketogenic diet has been used successfully to treat intractable epilepsy. However, the role of early intravenous initiation of ketogenic diet in the acute phase of super-refractory status epilepticus is not well-described. An intravenous ketogenic diet was administered to a boy with super-refractory status epilepticus. At 24 hours after intravenous ketogenic diet, moderate ketosis appeared, and thiamylal was successfully weaned at 70 hours after admission. An intravenous ketogenic regimen led to subsequent ketosis and seizure control in a child with super-refractory status epilepticus. Early induction of ketosis may be a novel strategy to effectively treat super-refractory status epilepticus. Although there are few data regarding the early use of intravenous ketogenic diet in the treatment of super-refractory status epilepticus, it may be considered an alternative option. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Bland diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bland diet; Nausea - bland diet; Diarrhea - bland diet; Peptic ulcer - bland diet ... be used alongside lifestyle changes to help treat ulcers, heartburn, ... stomach or intestinal surgery. A bland diet includes foods ...

  16. Adesão de pacientes HIV positivos à dietoterapia ambulatorial Adherence of positive HIV patients to ambulatory diet therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Késia Diego Quintaes

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available É conhecida a importância do estado nutricional para a evolução clínica de pacientes HIV positivos. Entretanto, é desconhecida a expectativa do paciente com relação à dietoterapia. Por um período de 30 semanas foram acompanhados 50,0% dos pacientes HIV positivo (grupos II e IV atendidos pelo ambulatório de Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis do Hospital e Maternidade Celso Pierro. Neste período foram realizadas duas entrevistas, sendo o intervalo entre elas de 10 semanas. Na primeira foram colhidos dados socioeconômicos, antropométricos, verificadas as modificações voluntárias feitas na alimentação e também a expectativa do paciente quanto a este tipo de tratamento. Na segunda foram colhidos indicadores diretos e indiretos de adesão ao tratamento. A adesão foi maior entre os pacientes do grupo IV (64,7% do que entre os do grupo II (35,3%. No entanto, 81,3% dos pacientes do grupo II, após tomarem conhecimento da sorologia positiva para HIV, modificaram voluntariamente sua alimentação, demostrando ser este um importante período para sensibilização do paciente para o tratamento.It's well known the importance of nutritional status to the clinical evolution of positive HIV patients. However, the patient expectation in relation to diet therapy is unknown. During 30 weeks, 50.0% of the patients HIV positive (groups II and IV attended by the ambulatory of Sexually Transmitted Diseases of Hospital and Maternity Celso Pierro, were interviewed. In this period two interviews with an interval of ten weeks were carried out. At the first one socioeconomic and anthropometric data were collected voluntary feeding modifications and also the patient expectation about such treatment were verified. At the second one, direct and indirect indicators of the adherence to treatment were colleded. The adherence was greater in pacients of group IV (64.7% than in group II (35.3%. However, 81.3% of the patients from group II, after being aware

  17. Changes in quality of life as a result of ketogenic diet therapy: A new approach to assessment with the potential for positive therapeutic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Susan; Devlin, Anita; Air, Linda; Cook, Lucy

    2017-01-01

    There are difficulties inherent in measuring Quality of life (QoL) in patients with chronic illness, including agreement on definitions of quality of life and the type of measure used, disease specific or generic. Well validated QoL instruments for epilepsy exist but focus on capturing common themes pertinent to children and families as a group instead of focusing on themes important to individual patients and their families/carers. In addition, it is common for numerous items on these inventories to be left incomplete or responded to with "not applicable" since many of the items are not suitable for children with disabilities and their families. This led us to devise a way to capture individual quality-of-life measures that are linked to parental/carer expectations in families of children undergoing ketogenic diet therapy for epilepsy. As part of our routine clinical assessment, parents/carers were asked to describe what they would like to see happen or change as a result of their child being on ketogenic diet therapy. A simple unstructured form was designed to facilitate the assessment process. Parents were then asked to rate their own QoL against these criteria on a Likert scale of 0-10 prior to commencement of the diet. This assessment was repeated at subsequent visits with parents/carers initially blinded to their original responses. Our assessments indicated that ketogenic diet therapy improves quality of life over a twelve-month period when measured against parental expectations. This ideographic approach has demonstrated changes in parental Qol and parental perceptions of their child's quality of life that would not have been captured by other validated measures. A lengthy questionnaire is avoided and is replaced by a skilled supportive conversation that identifies goals for treatment that are important to parents. This helps parents to reflect on the progress their child makes on the diet by revisiting their previously stated aspirations, and assessing

  18. Structured hypocaloric diet is more effective than behavioral therapy in reducing metabolic syndrome in Mexican postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perichart-Perera, Otilia; Balas-Nakash, Margie; Muñoz-Manrique, Cinthya; Legorreta-Legorreta, Jennifer; Rodríguez-Cano, Ameyalli; Mier-Cabrera, Jennifer; Aguilera-Pérez, Jesús Rafael

    2014-07-01

    This study aims to compare the effects of a lifestyle intervention using a behavioral therapy (BT) approach with the effects of a cardioprotective structured hypocaloric diet on metabolic syndrome in Mexican postmenopausal women. This study is a randomized clinical trial (2006-2009) of Mexican postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome (Adult Treatment Panel III criteria) who were recruited from the Postmenopause Clinic of the National Institute of Perinatology in Mexico City. Women were assigned to one of two groups--group 1 (structured hypocaloric diet; n = 63): energy restriction (-300 to -500 kcal/d) emphasizing cardioprotective dietary changes; and group 2 (BT; n = 55): goal setting, problem-solving, and stimulus control to achieve cardioprotective dietary and lifestyle recommendations. Metabolic syndrome prevalence, as well as weight, waist circumference, fat mass, and fasting biochemical markers (glucose and lipid profile), were measured at baseline and at 2, 4, and 6 months after the intervention. Metabolic syndrome risk (relative risk and absolute risk reduction), mean differences between groups, and logistic regression were evaluated using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software, version 17.0. A total of 118 women were studied (mean [SD] age, 53.81 [6.43] y). No baseline differences were observed between groups. At the end of the study, a higher reduction in metabolic syndrome prevalence was observed in group 1 (-38.1%) compared with group 2 (-12.7%; relative risk, 0.237; 95% CI, 0.092-0.608; P = 0.003). The effect was maintained even when adjusted by age, hormone therapy and antihypertensive drug use. A cardioprotective structured hypocaloric diet is more effective than the BT approach in reducing metabolic syndrome after 6 months of intervention. Both strategies have positive effects on different individual cardiovascular risk factors.

  19. Differential utilization of ketone bodies by neurons and glioma cell lines: a rationale for ketogenic diet as experimental glioma therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Gabriele D; Brucker, Daniel P; Bähr, Oliver; Harter, Patrick N; Hattingen, Elke; Walenta, Stefan; Mueller-Klieser, Wolfgang; Steinbach, Joachim P; Rieger, Johannes

    2011-07-26

    Even in the presence of oxygen, malignant cells often highly depend on glycolysis for energy generation, a phenomenon known as the Warburg effect. One strategy targeting this metabolic phenotype is glucose restriction by administration of a high-fat, low-carbohydrate (ketogenic) diet. Under these conditions, ketone bodies are generated serving as an important energy source at least for non-transformed cells. To investigate whether a ketogenic diet might selectively impair energy metabolism in tumor cells, we characterized in vitro effects of the principle ketone body 3-hydroxybutyrate in rat hippocampal neurons and five glioma cell lines. In vivo, a non-calorie-restricted ketogenic diet was examined in an orthotopic xenograft glioma mouse model. The ketone body metabolizing enzymes 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (BDH1 and 2), 3-oxoacid-CoA transferase 1 (OXCT1) and acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase 1 (ACAT1) were expressed at the mRNA and protein level in all glioma cell lines. However, no activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) pathway was observed in glioma cells, consistent with the absence of substantial 3-hydroxybutyrate metabolism and subsequent accumulation of succinate. Further, 3-hydroxybutyrate rescued hippocampal neurons from glucose withdrawal-induced cell death but did not protect glioma cell lines. In hypoxia, mRNA expression of OXCT1, ACAT1, BDH1 and 2 was downregulated. In vivo, the ketogenic diet led to a robust increase of blood 3-hydroxybutyrate, but did not alter blood glucose levels or improve survival. In summary, glioma cells are incapable of compensating for glucose restriction by metabolizing ketone bodies in vitro, suggesting a potential disadvantage of tumor cells compared to normal cells under a carbohydrate-restricted ketogenic diet. Further investigations are necessary to identify co-treatment modalities, e.g. glycolysis inhibitors or antiangiogenic agents that efficiently target non-oxidative pathways.

  20. Differential utilization of ketone bodies by neurons and glioma cell lines: a rationale for ketogenic diet as experimental glioma therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurer, Gabriele D; Brucker, Daniel P; Bähr, Oliver; Harter, Patrick N; Hattingen, Elke; Walenta, Stefan; Mueller-Klieser, Wolfgang; Steinbach, Joachim P; Rieger, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Even in the presence of oxygen, malignant cells often highly depend on glycolysis for energy generation, a phenomenon known as the Warburg effect. One strategy targeting this metabolic phenotype is glucose restriction by administration of a high-fat, low-carbohydrate (ketogenic) diet. Under these conditions, ketone bodies are generated serving as an important energy source at least for non-transformed cells. To investigate whether a ketogenic diet might selectively impair energy metabolism in tumor cells, we characterized in vitro effects of the principle ketone body 3-hydroxybutyrate in rat hippocampal neurons and five glioma cell lines. In vivo, a non-calorie-restricted ketogenic diet was examined in an orthotopic xenograft glioma mouse model. The ketone body metabolizing enzymes 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (BDH1 and 2), 3-oxoacid-CoA transferase 1 (OXCT1) and acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase 1 (ACAT1) were expressed at the mRNA and protein level in all glioma cell lines. However, no activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) pathway was observed in glioma cells, consistent with the absence of substantial 3-hydroxybutyrate metabolism and subsequent accumulation of succinate. Further, 3-hydroxybutyrate rescued hippocampal neurons from glucose withdrawal-induced cell death but did not protect glioma cell lines. In hypoxia, mRNA expression of OXCT1, ACAT1, BDH1 and 2 was downregulated. In vivo, the ketogenic diet led to a robust increase of blood 3-hydroxybutyrate, but did not alter blood glucose levels or improve survival. In summary, glioma cells are incapable of compensating for glucose restriction by metabolizing ketone bodies in vitro, suggesting a potential disadvantage of tumor cells compared to normal cells under a carbohydrate-restricted ketogenic diet. Further investigations are necessary to identify co-treatment modalities, e.g. glycolysis inhibitors or antiangiogenic agents that efficiently target non-oxidative pathways

  1. Differential utilization of ketone bodies by neurons and glioma cell lines: a rationale for ketogenic diet as experimental glioma therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mueller-Klieser Wolfgang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Even in the presence of oxygen, malignant cells often highly depend on glycolysis for energy generation, a phenomenon known as the Warburg effect. One strategy targeting this metabolic phenotype is glucose restriction by administration of a high-fat, low-carbohydrate (ketogenic diet. Under these conditions, ketone bodies are generated serving as an important energy source at least for non-transformed cells. Methods To investigate whether a ketogenic diet might selectively impair energy metabolism in tumor cells, we characterized in vitro effects of the principle ketone body 3-hydroxybutyrate in rat hippocampal neurons and five glioma cell lines. In vivo, a non-calorie-restricted ketogenic diet was examined in an orthotopic xenograft glioma mouse model. Results The ketone body metabolizing enzymes 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (BDH1 and 2, 3-oxoacid-CoA transferase 1 (OXCT1 and acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase 1 (ACAT1 were expressed at the mRNA and protein level in all glioma cell lines. However, no activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α pathway was observed in glioma cells, consistent with the absence of substantial 3-hydroxybutyrate metabolism and subsequent accumulation of succinate. Further, 3-hydroxybutyrate rescued hippocampal neurons from glucose withdrawal-induced cell death but did not protect glioma cell lines. In hypoxia, mRNA expression of OXCT1, ACAT1, BDH1 and 2 was downregulated. In vivo, the ketogenic diet led to a robust increase of blood 3-hydroxybutyrate, but did not alter blood glucose levels or improve survival. Conclusion In summary, glioma cells are incapable of compensating for glucose restriction by metabolizing ketone bodies in vitro, suggesting a potential disadvantage of tumor cells compared to normal cells under a carbohydrate-restricted ketogenic diet. Further investigations are necessary to identify co-treatment modalities, e.g. glycolysis inhibitors or antiangiogenic

  2. Combination therapy efficacy of catgut embedding acupuncture and diet intervention on interleukin-6 levels and body mass index in obese patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjan, P. M.; Srilestari, A.; Abdurrohim, K.; Kresnawan, T.

    2017-08-01

    Obesity is a major health problem worldwide, affecting more than 500 million adults with an additional 1.5 billion adults classified as overweight. Acupuncture has been recognized as an adjunctive therapy for obesity, and recent evidence suggests its potential to reduce the inflammatory response in adipose tissue, a condition believed to be responsible for obesity-related health problems. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) has been proposed as an important mediator of the inflammatory response in adipose tissue, but the number of studies addressing the issue is still limited. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted with36 obese patients currently receiving dietary intervention. The patients were randomly allocated into the catgut embedding acupuncture group with diet intervention or the sham (placebo) embedding acupuncture group with diet intervention. Catgut embedding therapy was given twice at CV12 Zhongwan, ST25 Tianshu, CV6 Qihai, and SP6 Sanyinjiao acupoints with two week intervals between procedures. The study endpoints were the IL-6 levels in the blood plasma and body mass index (BMI), measured before and after the intervention. We observed a reduction in the IL-6 levels (mean reduction 0.13 pg/mL, 95% CI: 0.03-0.23) and BMI (mean reduction 0.66, 95% CI 0.43-0.88) in the accupuncture group. The average difference in mean reduction of BMI between the accupuncture and sham groups was 0.34 (95% CI: 0.17-0.52). No difference was found in mean IL-6 reduction between the two groups (95% CI: -0.17 to 0.06). The results suggest that acupoint catgut embedding therapy may help reduce IL-6 levels and BMI in obese patients receiving dietary intervention.

  3. Clinical trial evaluating cholestyramine to prevent diarrhea in patients maintained on low-fat diets during pelvic radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chary, S.; Thomson, D.H.

    1984-01-01

    A prospective randomized trial to determine the value of a low fat diet with or without cholestyramine in the treatment of acute intestinal complications of pelvic irradiation is presented. A total of 35 patients receiving pelvic irradiation were entered in the study and all patients had received a 40 gm fat diet. The group was then randomized to receive either placebo (17 patients) or cholestyramine (18 patients). Diarrhea occurred in six out of 16 evaluable patients in the control group and only one of the 17 evaluable patients in the cholestyramine group. The frequency of diarrhea and the diarrhea scale remained high in the placebo group in the entire observation period. Statistical analysis had revealed better diarrhea control in the cholestyramine group. In this report mechanism by which diarrhea occurs following pelvic irradiation is discussed. The adverse effects associated with the use of cholestyramine have been presented. It was concluded that cholestyramine is effective in preventing acute diarrhea induced by pelvic irradiation in patients receiving a low fat diet but is associated with side effects

  4. An immune-modulating diet increases the regulatory T cells and reduces T helper 1 inflammatory response in Leishmaniosis affected dogs treated with standard therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, Laura; Annunziatella, Mariangela; Palatucci, Anna Teresa; Lanzilli, Sarah; Rubino, Valentina; Di Cerbo, Alessandro; Centenaro, Sara; Guidetti, Gianandrea; Canello, Sergio; Terrazzano, Giuseppe

    2015-12-03

    Clinical appearance and evolution of Canine Leishmaniosis (CL) are the consequence of complex interactions between the parasite and the genetic and immunological backgrounds. We investigated the effect of an immune-modulating diet in CL. Dogs were treated with anti- Leishmania pharmacological therapy combined with standard diet (SD Group) or with the immune-modulating diet (IMMD Group). CD3+ CD4+ Foxp3+ Regulatory T cells (Treg) and CD3+ CD4+ IFN-γ + T helper 1 (Th1) were analyzed by flow cytometry. All sick dogs showed low platelet number at diagnosis (T0). A platelet increase was observed after six months (T6) SD Group, with still remaining in the normal range at twelve months (T12). IMMD Group showed an increase in platelet number becoming similar to healthy dogs at T6 and T12. An increase of CD4/CD8 ratio was revealed in SD Group after three months (T3), while at T6 and at T12 the values resembled to T0. The increase in CD4/CD8 ratio at T3 was maintained at T6 and T12 in IMMD Group. A reduction in the percentage of Treg of all sick dogs was observed at T0. A recovery of Treg percentage was observed only at T3 in SD Group, while this effect disappeared at T6 and T12. In contrast, Treg percentage became similar to healthy animals in IMDD Group at T3, T6 and T12. Sick dogs showed an increase of Th1 cells at T0 as compared with healthy dogs. We observed the occurrence of a decrease of Th1 cells from T3 to T12 in SD Group, although a trend of increase was observed at T6 and T12. At variance, IMMD Group dogs showed a progressive decrease of Th1 cells, whose levels became similar to healthy controls at T6 and T12. The immune-modulating diet appears to regulate the immune response in CL during the standard pharmacological treatment. The presence of nutraceuticals in the diet correlates with the decrease of Th1 cells and with the increase of Treg in sick dogs. Therefore, the administration of the specific dietary supplement improved the clinical response to the

  5. Paleo Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Kaucká, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Topic: Paleo Diet Objectives: The aim of bachelor thesis is to study available literature about Paleo Diet and evaluated it. Then determine whether there is awareness of Paleo Diet in Czech republic. In addition, find out whether there is any experience in dieting according to Paleo Diet and whether Paleo Diet coul be applied in our environment. Methods: As a source of information served a survey. The research group consists of respondents who should have any experience in dieting according t...

  6. Effects of low-carbohydrate diet therapy in overweight subject with autoimmune thyroiditis: possible synergism with ChREBP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esposito T

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Teresa Esposito,1,2 Jean Marc Lobaccaro,3 Maria Grazia Esposito,4 Vincenzo Monda,1 Antonietta Messina,1 Giuseppe Paolisso,5 Bruno Varriale,2 Marcellino Monda,1 Giovanni Messina1,6 1Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Human Physiology and Unit of Dietetics and Sports Medicine, 2Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Department of Experimental Medicine, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 3UMR, Clermont Université, Centre de Recherche en Nutrition Humaine d’Auvergne, Aubière Cedex, France; 4Complex Surgery Unit, Evangelic Hospital Villa Betania, 5Department of Scienze Mediche, Chirurgiche, Neurologiche, Metaboliche e dell’Invecchiamento, Second University of Naples, Naples, 6Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy Abstract: The thyroid is one of the metabolism regulating glands. Its function is to determine the amount of calories that the body has to burn to maintain normal weight. Thyroiditides are inflammatory processes that mainly result in autoimmune diseases. We have conducted the present study in order to have a clear picture of both autoimmune status and the control of body weight. We have evaluated the amount of either thyroid hormones, or antithyroid, or anti-microsomal, or anti-peroxidase antibodies (Abs in patients with high amounts of Abs. In a diet devoid of carbohydrates (bread, pasta, fruit, and rice, free from goitrogenic food, and based on body mass index, the distribution of body mass and intracellular and extracellular water conducted for 3 weeks gives the following results: patients treated as above showed a significant reduction of antithyroid (-40%, P<0.013, anti-microsomal (-57%, P<0.003, and anti-peroxidase (-44%, P<0,029 Abs. Untreated patients had a significant increase in antithyroid (+9%, P<0.017 and anti-microsomal (+30%, P<0.028 Abs. Even the level of anti-peroxidase Abs increased without reaching statistical significance (+16%, P>0064

  7. Lifestyle influences on the association between pre-diagnostic hormone replacement therapy and breast cancer prognosis - results from The Danish 'Diet, Cancer and Health' prospective cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Marianne; Olsen, Anja; Kroman, Niels

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The association between pre-diagnostic hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and breast cancer specific mortality as well as potential influences from other lifestyle factors on the association was investigated. STUDY DESIGN: Female participants from the prospective cohort "Diet, Cancer......, and Health" diagnosed with breast cancer (BC) were identified and their pre-diagnostic HRT use evaluated for association with tumour biology and breast cancer outcome in multivariate analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Breast cancer specific mortality. RESULTS: Of the 1212 patients originally considered 1064...... were included. Of these, 105 women died from breast cancer during a median follow-up of 6.3 years (range 0.2-14.3 years). In multivariate analyses women who used HRT at enrolment into the cohort study had 47% lower risk of dying from breast cancer as compared to women who had previously or never used...

  8. Mediterranean diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000110.htm Mediterranean diet To use the sharing features on this page, ... and other health problems. How to Follow the Diet The Mediterranean diet is based on: Plant-based ...

  9. Maternal Melatonin Therapy Rescues Prenatal Dexamethasone and Postnatal High-Fat Diet Induced Programmed Hypertension in Male Rat Offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Tain, You-Lin; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Yu, Hong-Ren; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Tiao, Mao-Meng; Hsu, Chien-Ning; Lin, Yu-Ju; Kuo, Kuang-Che; Huang, Li-Tung

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal dexamethasone (DEX) exposure and high-fat (HF) intake are linked to hypertension. We examined whether maternal melatonin therapy prevents programmed hypertension synergistically induced by prenatal DEX plus postnatal HF in adult offspring. We also examined whether DEX and melatonin causes renal programming using next-generation RNA sequencing (NGS) technology. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received intraperitoneal dexamethasone (0.1 mg/kg) or vehicle from gestational day 16 to 22. In ...

  10. The effects of acceptance and commitment therapy on eating behavior and diet delivered through face-to-face contact and a mobile app: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvelä-Reijonen, Elina; Karhunen, Leila; Sairanen, Essi; Muotka, Joona; Lindroos, Sanni; Laitinen, Jaana; Puttonen, Sampsa; Peuhkuri, Katri; Hallikainen, Maarit; Pihlajamäki, Jussi; Korpela, Riitta; Ermes, Miikka; Lappalainen, Raimo; Kolehmainen, Marjukka

    2018-02-27

    Internal motivation and good psychological capabilities are important factors in successful eating-related behavior change. Thus, we investigated whether general acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) affects reported eating behavior and diet quality and whether baseline perceived stress moderates the intervention effects. Secondary analysis of unblinded randomized controlled trial in three Finnish cities. Working-aged adults with psychological distress and overweight or obesity in three parallel groups: (1) ACT-based Face-to-face (n = 70; six group sessions led by a psychologist), (2) ACT-based Mobile (n = 78; one group session and mobile app), and (3) Control (n = 71; only the measurements). At baseline, the participants' (n = 219, 85% females) mean body mass index was 31.3 kg/m 2 (SD = 2.9), and mean age was 49.5 years (SD = 7.4). The measurements conducted before the 8-week intervention period (baseline), 10 weeks after the baseline (post-intervention), and 36 weeks after the baseline (follow-up) included clinical measurements, questionnaires of eating behavior (IES-1, TFEQ-R18, HTAS, ecSI 2.0, REBS), diet quality (IDQ), alcohol consumption (AUDIT-C), perceived stress (PSS), and 48-h dietary recall. Hierarchical linear modeling (Wald test) was used to analyze the differences in changes between groups. Group x time interactions showed that the subcomponent of intuitive eating (IES-1), i.e., Eating for physical rather than emotional reasons, increased in both ACT-based groups (p = .019); the subcomponent of TFEQ-R18, i.e., Uncontrolled eating, decreased in the Face-to-face group (p = .020); the subcomponent of health and taste attitudes (HTAS), i.e., Using food as a reward, decreased in the Mobile group (p = .048); and both subcomponent of eating competence (ecSI 2.0), i.e., Food acceptance (p = .048), and two subcomponents of regulation of eating behavior (REBS), i.e., Integrated and Identified regulation (p

  11. Aging Increases Susceptibility to High Fat Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in C57BL/6 Mice: Improvement in Glycemic and Lipid Profile after Antioxidant Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Nunes-Souza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD has been considered a novel component of the metabolic syndrome (MetS, with the oxidative stress participating in its progression. This study aimed to evaluate the metabolic profile in young and old mice with MetS, and the effects of apocynin and tempol on glycemic and lipid parameters. Young and old C57BL/6 mice with high fat diet- (HFD- induced MetS received apocynin and tempol 50 mg·kg−1/day in their drinking water for 10 weeks. After HFD, the young group showed elevated fasting glucose, worsened lipid profile in plasma, steatosis, and hepatic lipid peroxidation. Nevertheless, the old group presented significant increase in fasting insulin levels, insulin resistance, plasma and hepatic lipid peroxidation, and pronounced steatosis. The hepatic superoxide dismutase and catalase activity did not differ between the groups. Tempol and apocynin seemed to prevent hepatic lipid deposition in both groups. Furthermore, apocynin improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in old mice. In summary, old mice are more susceptible to HFD-induced metabolic changes than their young counterparts. Also, the antioxidant therapy improved insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, and in addition, apocynin seemed to prevent the HFD-induced hepatic fat deposition, suggesting an important role of oxidative stress in the induction of NAFLD.

  12. Diet & Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrition Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Diet & Nutrition Eating healthy to take charge of your health. Shelly Diagnosed in 2006 Diet & Nutrition Take Control of Your Weight Portion Control Low ...

  13. Vegetarian Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    A vegetarian diet focuses on plants for food. These include fruits, vegetables, dried beans and peas, grains, seeds and nuts. There is no single type of vegetarian diet. Instead, vegetarian eating patterns usually fall into the ...

  14. A low fermentable oligo-di-mono-saccharides and polyols (FODMAP) diet is a balanced therapy for fibromyalgia with nutritional and symptomatic benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Marum, Ana Paula; Moreira, Cátia; Tomas-Carus, Pablo; Saraiva, Fernando; Guerreiro, Catarina Sousa

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Fibromyalgia is a chronic rheumatic disease producing widespread pain, associated to a major comorbidity -irritable bowel syndrome. Low FODMAPS diet (low fermentable oligo-di-mono-saccharides and polyols diet) has been effective in controlling irritable bowel syndrome symptoms. Overweight is an aggravating factor for fibromyalgia. We studied effects of low fermentable oligo-di-mono-saccharides and polyols diets on fibromyalgia symptoms and weight status. Methods: A longitudinal ...

  15. Therapy with mesenchymal stromal cells or conditioned medium reverse cardiac alterations in a high-fat diet-induced obesity model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daltro, P S; Barreto, B C; Silva, P G; Neto, P Chenaud; Sousa Filho, P H F; Santana Neta, D; Carvalho, G B; Silva, D N; Paredes, B D; de Alcantara, A C; Freitas, L A R; Couto, R D; Santos, R R; Souza, B S F; Soares, M B P; Macambira, S G

    2017-10-01

    Obesity is associated with numerous cardiac complications, including arrhythmias, cardiac fibrosis, remodeling and heart failure. Here we evaluated the therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and their conditioned medium (CM) to treat cardiac complications in a mouse model of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. After obesity induction and HFD withdrawal, obese mice were treated with MSCs, CM or vehicle. Cardiac function was assessed using electrocardiography, echocardiography and treadmill test. Body weight and biochemical parameters were evaluated. Cardiac tissue was used for real time (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and histopathologic analysis. Characterization of CM by protein array showed the presence of different cytokines and growth factors, including chemokines, osteopontin, cystatin C, Serpin E1 and Gas 6. HFD-fed mice presented cardiac arrhythmias, altered cardiac gene expression and fibrosis reflected in physical exercise incapacity associated with obesity and diabetes. Administration of MSCs or CM improved arrhythmias and exercise capacity. This functional improvement correlated with normalization of GATA4 gene expression in the hearts of MSC- or CM-treated mice. The gene expression of connexin 43, troponin I, adiponectin, transforming growth factor (TGF) β, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP1) were significantly reduced in MSCs, but not in CM-treated mice. Moreover, MSC or CM administration reduced the intensity of cardiac fibrosis. Our results suggest that MSCs and CM have a recovery effect on cardiac disturbances due to obesity and corroborate to the paracrine action of MSCs in heart disease models. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Ketogenic diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Bregant

    2009-04-01

    conclusions This review traces a history of ketogenic diet, reviews its uses and side effects, and discusses possible alternatives and the diet’s possible mechanisms of action. We show how to use the diet in practice. Protocol and calculations are presented. We look toward possible future uses of the ketogenic diet, since it is efficient, under doctor’s supervison safe, but very demanding, additional treatment.

  17. Diverticulitis Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Examples of items allowed on a clear liquid diet include: Broth Fruit juices without pulp, such as apple juice Ice chips ... and poultry Refined white bread Fruit and vegetable juice with no ... two or three days of starting the diet and antibiotics. If you haven't started feeling ...

  18. A low fermentable oligo-di-mono-saccharides and polyols (FODMAP) diet is a balanced therapy for fibromyalgia with nutritional and symptomatic benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marum, Ana Paula; Moreira, Cátia; Tomas-Carus, Pablo; Saraiva, Fernando; Guerreiro, Catarina Sousa

    2017-06-05

    Fibromyalgia is a chronic rheumatic disease producing widespread pain, associated to a major comorbidity -irritable bowel syndrome. Low FODMAPS diet (low fermentable oligo-di-mono-saccharides and polyols diet) has been effective in controlling irritable bowel syndrome symptoms. Overweight is an aggravating factor for fibromyalgia. We studied effects of low fermentable oligo-di-mono-saccharides and polyols diets on fibromyalgia symptoms and weight status. A longitudinal study was performed on 38 fibromyalgia patients using a four-week, repeated assessment as follow: M1 = first assessments/presentation of individual low fermentable oligo-di-mono-saccharides and polyols diet; M2 = second assessments/reintroduction of FODMAPs; M3 = final assessments/nutritional counselling. The assessment instruments applied were: Fibromyalgia Survey Questionnaire (FSQ); Severity Score System (IBS-SSS); visual analogic scale (VAS). Body mass-index/composition and waist circumference (WC) were also measured. Daily macro-micronutrients and FODMAP intake were quantified at each moment of the study. The studied cohort was 37% overweight, 34% obese (average body mass-index 27.4 ± 4.6; excess fat mass 39.4 ± 7%). Weight, body mass-index and waist circumference decreased significantly (p body composition was observed. All fibromyalgiasymptoms, including somatic pain, declined significantly post-LFD (p fibromyalgia [Fibromyalgia survey questionnaire: M1 = 21.8; M2 = 16.9; M3 = 17.0 (p < 0.01)]. The intake of essential nutrients (fiber, calcium, magnesium and vitamin D) showed no significant difference. The significant reduction in FODMAP intake (M1 = 24.4 g; M2 = 2.6g; p < 0.01) reflected the "Diet adherence" (85%). "Satisfaction with improvement of symptoms" (76%), showed correlating with "diet adherence" (r = 0.65; p < 0.01). Results are highly encouraging, showing low fermentable oligo-di-mono-saccharides and polyols diets as a nutritionally balanced approach, contributing to weight loss

  19. IBS Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the most common questions IBS patients have is what food to avoid. This can drive a person to ... Global Treatments IBS Diet What to Do and What to Avoid Foods That Cause Cramping and Diarrhea Foods that Cause ...

  20. Heart disease and diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - heart disease; CAD - diet; Coronary artery disease - diet; Coronary heart disease - diet ... diet and lifestyle can reduce your risk of: Heart disease, heart attacks, and stroke Conditions that lead ...

  1. CLINICAL STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF LOW-PROTEIN DIET AND SUPPLEMENTED WITH α-KETOACIDS THERAPY ON NUTRITION STATUS AND RESIDUAL RENAL FUNCTION IN CONTINUOUS AMBULATORY PERITONEAL DIALYSIS(CAPD PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Huang

    2012-06-01

    trend of peritoneal dialysate albumin loss in keto acid group and LPD group was descendent□ Proteinuria decreased most significantly in keto acid group (P〈0.01.In conclusion, Low-protein diet supplemented with α-keto acids therapy has a tendency of protecting RRF in CAPD patients while relieving malnutritional status and improving the 1evels of branched chain amino acids.

  2. Whole-body protein turnover and energy expenditure in post-viral hepatocirrhotic patients. A study using multiple stable isotope tracers to estimate protein and energy requirements and the efficacy of a new diet therapy based on Chinese food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Z.Q.; Dai, T.C.; Luo, W.

    1993-01-01

    L-[1- 13 C]-leucine and 15 N-glycine doubly-labelled tracer experiments revealed accelerated kinetics of leucine, glycine and whole-body protein in post-viral hepatocirrhotic patients. Together with the results of nitrogen balance measurement, the daily protein requirement of these patients was estimated to be higher than 1.2 g/kg/d. Doubly labelled water experiments and NaH 13 CO 3 experiments revealed that the freely living and basal energy expenditure of post-viral hepatocirrhotic patients was not different from that in normal subjects with comparable physical and mental activities. For those freely living in hospital, the energy requirements is estimated to be 150-160 kJ/kg/d. According to the above results, a therapeutic diet formulation based on Chinese food was designed for the patients which contained 1.5 g/kg/d of protein and 150-160 kJ/kg/d. 60-70% of the dietary protein was of vegetable origin, with a branched chain amino acid/aromatic amino acid ratio slightly but significantly higher than the common hospital diet. Patients with compensated post-viral hepatocirrhosis adapted to the diet rapidly. After two months' therapy, the negative nitrogen balance turned positive along with an increase of body weight and urinary creatinine, indicating and improvement of general nutritional status, probably with accumulation of muscle protein. The diet is relatively cheap, can be easily handled by the patients themselves, and hence is also applicable to outpatients. 54 refs, 8 tabs

  3. Atkins Diet: What's Behind the Claims?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include an Atkins Diet product, such as a chocolate shake or granola bar, or a simple snack ... 16, 2017. Bray GA. Obesity in adults: Dietary therapy. http://www.uptodate.com/contents/search. Accessed March ...

  4. Low-fiber diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... residue; Low-fiber diet; Fiber restricted diet; Crohn disease - low fiber diet; Ulcerative colitis - low fiber diet; ... them if they do not contain seeds or pulp: Yellow squash (without seeds) Spinach Pumpkin Eggplant Potatoes, ...

  5. Ketogenic Diets for Adults With Highly Refractory Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, Tanya J. W.; Cervenka, Mackenzie C.

    2017-01-01

    The current review highlights the evidence supporting the use of ketogenic diets in the management of drug-resistant epilepsy and status epilepticus in adults. Ketogenic diet variants are compared and advantages and potential side effects of diet therapy are discussed.

  6. The ketogenic diet reverses gene expression patterns and reduces reactive oxygen species levels when used as an adjuvant therapy for glioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stafford Phillip

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant brain tumors affect people of all ages and are the second leading cause of cancer deaths in children. While current treatments are effective and improve survival, there remains a substantial need for more efficacious therapeutic modalities. The ketogenic diet (KD - a high-fat, low-carbohydrate treatment for medically refractory epilepsy - has been suggested as an alternative strategy to inhibit tumor growth by altering intrinsic metabolism, especially by inducing glycopenia. Methods Here, we examined the effects of an experimental KD on a mouse model of glioma, and compared patterns of gene expression in tumors vs. normal brain from animals fed either a KD or a standard diet. Results Animals received intracranial injections of bioluminescent GL261-luc cells and tumor growth was followed in vivo. KD treatment significantly reduced the rate of tumor growth and prolonged survival. Further, the KD reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS production in tumor cells. Gene expression profiling demonstrated that the KD induces an overall reversion to expression patterns seen in non-tumor specimens. Notably, genes involved in modulating ROS levels and oxidative stress were altered, including those encoding cyclooxygenase 2, glutathione peroxidases 3 and 7, and periredoxin 4. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that the KD improves survivability in our mouse model of glioma, and suggests that the mechanisms accounting for this protective effect likely involve complex alterations in cellular metabolism beyond simply a reduction in glucose.

  7. Creation and Initial Validation of the International Dysphagia Diet Standardisation Initiative Functional Diet Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Catriona M; Namasivayam-MacDonald, Ashwini M; Guida, Brittany T; Cichero, Julie A; Duivestein, Janice; Hanson, Ben; Lam, Peter; Riquelme, Luis F

    2018-05-01

    To assess consensual validity, interrater reliability, and criterion validity of the International Dysphagia Diet Standardisation Initiative Functional Diet Scale, a new functional outcome scale intended to capture the severity of oropharyngeal dysphagia, as represented by the degree of diet texture restriction recommended for the patient. Participants assigned International Dysphagia Diet Standardisation Initiative Functional Diet Scale scores to 16 clinical cases. Consensual validity was measured against reference scores determined by an author reference panel. Interrater reliability was measured overall and across quartile subsets of the dataset. Criterion validity was evaluated versus Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS) scores assigned by survey respondents to the same case scenarios. Feedback was requested regarding ease and likelihood of use. Web-based survey. Respondents (N=170) from 29 countries. Not applicable. Consensual validity (percent agreement and Kendall τ), criterion validity (Spearman rank correlation), and interrater reliability (Kendall concordance and intraclass coefficients). The International Dysphagia Diet Standardisation Initiative Functional Diet Scale showed strong consensual validity, criterion validity, and interrater reliability. Scenarios involving liquid-only diets, transition from nonoral feeding, or trial diet advances in therapy showed the poorest consensus, indicating a need for clear instructions on how to score these situations. The International Dysphagia Diet Standardisation Initiative Functional Diet Scale showed greater sensitivity than the FOIS to specific changes in diet. Most (>70%) respondents indicated enthusiasm for implementing the International Dysphagia Diet Standardisation Initiative Functional Diet Scale. This initial validation study suggests that the International Dysphagia Diet Standardisation Initiative Functional Diet Scale has strong consensual and criterion validity and can be used reliably by clinicians

  8. Sodium in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - sodium (salt); Hyponatremia - sodium in diet; Hypernatremia - sodium in diet; Heart failure - sodium in diet ... Too much sodium in the diet may lead to: High blood pressure in some people A serious buildup of fluid in people with heart failure , cirrhosis of ...

  9. Perissodactyla diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenecker, Kathryn A.

    2018-01-01

    Perissodactyla (Schoch 1989) includes tapirs, rhinoceros, wild asses, horses, and zebras. It is the order of hoofed mammals referred to as “odd-toed ungulates” because its members have one to three weight-bearing toes and walk on hoofs or “ungules.” They are herbivores that are specialized to exploit grasslands and brushy habitat (rhinos, horses, asses, zebras) or dense tropical forests (tapirs). All share a common digestive system called hindgut fermentation, or cecal digestion (in the cecum), and can consume relatively tough, coarse forage. Some perissodactyls are “browsers” that forage primarily on woody shrubs and trees, whereas others are “grazers” with a graminoid-dominated diet. They are all predominantly opportunistic feeders and select for quantity over quality of forage; that is, they consume more abundant low-quality forage instead of searching and selecting for higher-quality forage because it gives them the advantage of reducing search effort, which conserves energy.

  10. Nutrition and Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thai HbH:Vietnamese Relevant links Living with Thalassemia NUTRITION AND EXERCISE ▶ Nutrition and DietDiet for the ... Thalassemia (for providers) Exercise for Patients with Thalassemia Nutrition and Diet Nutritional deficiencies are common in thalassemia, ...

  11. Low Tyramine Headache Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find A Provider Contact Membership Donate 25 Oct Low-Tyramine Diet for Migraine Posted at 17:16h ... and Diamond Headache Clinic Headache Diet Tags: headache , low tyramine diet , MAOI , tyramine No Comments Post A ...

  12. Low-salt diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low-sodium diet; Salt restriction ... control many functions. Too much sodium in your diet can be bad for you. For most people, ... you limit salt. Try to eat a balanced diet. Buy fresh vegetables and fruits whenever possible. They ...

  13. Iodine in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - iodine ... Many months of iodine deficiency in a person's diet may cause goiter or hypothyroidism . Without enough iodine, ... and older children. Getting enough iodine in the diet may prevent a form of physical and intellectual ...

  14. Fluoride in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - fluoride ... bones and teeth. Too much fluoride in the diet is very rare. Rarely, infants who get too ... of essential vitamins is to eat a balanced diet that contains a variety of foods from the ...

  15. Feasibility and efficacy of an isocaloric high-protein vs. standard diet on insulin requirement, body weight and metabolic parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes on insulin therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luger, M; Holstein, B; Schindler, K

    2013-01-01

    To determine the feasibility and efficacy of a high-protein diet compared with a standard diet aiming for weight maintenance in insulin treated type-2 diabetic patients on insulin requirement, body weight and metabolic parameters over 12 weeks.......To determine the feasibility and efficacy of a high-protein diet compared with a standard diet aiming for weight maintenance in insulin treated type-2 diabetic patients on insulin requirement, body weight and metabolic parameters over 12 weeks....

  16. The management of psoriasis through diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duarte G

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Gleison Duarte,1 Luan Oliveira Barbosa,2 Maria Elisa A Rosa11Dermatology Division, Alergodermoclin, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil; 2Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública Salvador, Bahia, BrazilAbstract: Diet is an important factor in the management of several dermatological diseases, such as dermatitis herpetiformis, acne vulgaris, gout, phrynoderma, pellagra, psoriasis, and acrodermatitis enteropathica. New concepts have emerged concerning the influence of diet on psoriasis. For example, diet has an adjuvant role in the management of several cardiovascular comorbidities that exhibit a higher-than-expected prevalence in psoriatic patients. Functional foods, such as yellow saffron and fish oil, may exert favorable effects on immune and cardiovascular functions. A gluten-free diet may promote significant clinical and histologic improvement. Folate supplementation may induce clinical improvement of psoriasis, but side effects may also occur. Diets rich in fresh fruits and vegetables are associated with a lower prevalence of psoriasis, and vegetarian diets were associated with clinical improvement. Additionally, many drug-diet interactions (retinoids, methotrexate, cyclosporine must be considered in patients with psoriasis. Therefore, in addition to current nutritional advice given to psoriasis patients, further studies are necessary in the role of diet in psoriasis therapy.Keywords: diet, lifestyle, psoriasis, recommendations, supplementation

  17. Diet in dermatology: Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaimal Sowmya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Diet has an important role to play in many skin disorders, and dermatologists are frequently faced with the difficulty of separating myth from fact when it comes to dietary advice for their patients. Patients in India are often anxious about what foods to consume, and what to avoid, in the hope that, no matter how impractical or difficult this may be, following this dictum will cure their disease. There are certain disorders where one or more components in food are central to the pathogenesis, e.g. dermatitis herpetiformis, wherein dietary restrictions constitute the cornerstone of treatment. A brief list, although not comprehensive, of other disorders where diet may have a role to play includes atopic dermatitis, acne vulgaris, psoriasis vulgaris, pemphigus, urticaria, pruritus, allergic contact dermatitis, fish odor syndrome, toxic oil syndrome, fixed drug eruption, genetic and metabolic disorders (phenylketonuria, tyrosinemia, homocystinuria, galactosemia, Refsum′s disease, G6PD deficiency, xanthomas, gout and porphyria, nutritional deficiency disorders (kwashiorkar, marasmus, phrynoderma, pellagra, scurvy, acrodermatitis enteropathica, carotenemia and lycopenemia and miscellaneous disorders such as vitiligo, aphthous ulcers, cutaneous vasculitis and telogen effluvium. From a practical point of view, it will be useful for the dermatologist to keep some dietary information handy to deal with the occasional patient who does not seem to respond in spite of the best, scientific and evidence-based therapy.

  18. Adjusting diet with sapropterin in phenylketonuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacDonald, Anita; Ahring, Kirsten; Dokoupil, Katharina

    2011-01-01

    others are able to relax the diet to some extent. Care is required when altering the phenylalanine-restricted diet, as this may have unintended nutritional consequences and must be undertaken with caution. New clinical protocols are required for managing any dietary change while maintaining control......The usual treatment for phenylketonuria (PKU) is a phenylalanine-restricted diet. Following this diet is challenging, and long-term adherence (and hence metabolic control) is commonly poor. Patients with PKU (usually, but not exclusively, with a relatively mild form of the disorder) who...... and new questions in the dietary management of these patients. Initially, patients and carers must understand clearly the likely benefits (and limitations) of sapropterin therapy. A minority of patients who respond to sapropterin are able to discontinue the phenylalanine-restricted diet completely, while...

  19. Fad diets, miracle diets, diet cult… but no results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Fad diets, miracle diets (in sum, diet cult are diets that make promises of weight loss or other health advantages (e.g. longer life without backing by solid science, and usually they are characterized by highly restrictive or unusual food choices. These diets are often supported by celebrities and some health “professionals”, and they result attractive among people who want to lose weight quickly. By means of pseudoscientific arguments, designers of fad, miracle or magic diets usually describe them as healthy diets with unusual properties but always with undoubted benefits. After revising the history of these diets and exploring the scientific evidence, it must be noted that there is not a diet better than eating less, moving more and eating lots of fruits and vegetables. In addition, it is necessary to be aware of our general daily habits, remembering that eating is important but it is not everything. Getting active is also very relevant to improve (or recover our health. Summarizing, eating healthy and taking care of yourself are a duty but not a miracle.

  20. Adverse effects of the 'Noakes' diet on dyslipidaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schamroth, C

    2014-01-01

    There has been much hype and controversy over the so-called 'Noakes' diet. This diet advocates a low-cardohydrate, high-fat and high-protein intake. As previously reported in the Journal, Noakes has expressed the view that this diet coupled with exercise could have a favourable impact on lipid levels and potentially avoid the need for drug therapy. In that same report, it was noted that this has not been subjected to scientific validation. More recently the ability of the Noakes diet to give better weight-control results than a 'balanced diet' has been questioned.

  1. New insights into the mechanisms of the ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boison, Detlev

    2017-04-01

    High-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets have been used for almost a century for the treatment of epilepsy. Used traditionally for the treatment of refractory pediatric epilepsies, in recent years the use of ketogenic diets has experienced a revival to include the treatment of adulthood epilepsies as well as conditions ranging from autism to chronic pain and cancer. Despite the ability of ketogenic diet therapy to suppress seizures refractory to antiepileptic drugs and reports of lasting seizure freedom, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. This review explores new insights into mechanisms mobilized by ketogenic diet therapies. Ketogenic diets act through a combination of mechanisms, which are linked to the effects of ketones and glucose restriction, and to interactions with receptors, channels, and metabolic enzymes. Decanoic acid, a component of medium-chain triclycerides, contributes to seizure control through direct α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor inhibition, whereas drugs targeting lactate dehydrogenase reduce seizures through inhibition of a metabolic pathway. Ketogenic diet therapy also affects DNA methylation, a novel epigenetic mechanism of the diet. Ketogenic diet therapy combines several beneficial mechanisms that provide broad benefits for the treatment of epilepsy with the potential to not only suppress seizures but also to modify the course of the epilepsy.

  2. Purines and Neuronal Excitability: Links to the Ketogenic Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masino, SA; Kawamura, M; Ruskin, DN; Geiger, JD; Boison, D

    2011-01-01

    ATP and adenosine are purines that play dual roles in cell metabolism and neuronal signaling. Acting at the A1 receptor (A1R) subtype, adenosine acts directly on neurons to inhibit excitability and is a powerful endogenous neuroprotective and anticonvulsant molecule. Previous research showed an increase in ATP and other cell energy parameters when an animal is administered a ketogenic diet, an established metabolic therapy to reduce epileptic seizures, but the relationship among purines, neuronal excitability and the ketogenic diet was unclear. Recent work in vivo and in vitro tested the specific hypothesis that adenosine acting at A1Rs is a key mechanism underlying the success of ketogenic diet therapy and yielded direct evidence linking A1Rs to the antiepileptic effects of a ketogenic diet. Specifically, an in vitro mimic of a ketogenic diet revealed an A1R-dependent metabolic autocrine hyperpolarization of hippocampal neurons. In parallel, applying the ketogenic diet in vivo to transgenic mouse models with spontaneous electrographic seizures revealed that intact A1Rs are necessary for the seizure-suppressing effects of the diet. This is the first direct in vivo evidence linking A1Rs to the antiepileptic effects of a ketogenic diet. Other predictions of the relationship between purines and the ketogenic diet are discussed. Taken together, recent research on the role of purines may offer new opportunities for metabolic therapy and insight into its underlying mechanisms. PMID:21880467

  3. Caffeine in the diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - caffeine ... Caffeine is absorbed and passes quickly into the brain. It does not collect in the bloodstream or ... been consumed. There is no nutritional need for caffeine. It can be avoided in the diet. Caffeine ...

  4. Protein in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - protein ... Protein foods are broken down into parts called amino acids during digestion. The human body needs a ... to eat animal products to get all the protein you need in your diet. Amino acids are ...

  5. Diet-boosting foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity - diet-boosting foods; Overweight - diet-boosting foods ... Low-fat and nonfat milk, yogurt, and cottage cheese are healthy sources of calcium, vitamin D , and potassium. Unlike sweetened drinks with extra calories, milk ...

  6. Gastric Bypass Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the guidance of your doctor. A new healthy diet Three to four months after weight-loss surgery, ... as your stomach continues to heal. Throughout the diet To ensure that you get enough vitamins and ...

  7. SIGNIFICANCE OF DIET AND DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS IN GOUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A E Il'ina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses a role of a diet and therapy with the herbal complex Urisan in patients with gout. It is noted that the agent based on herbal components may be used in addition to drug therapy and diet in seasonal hyperuricuria, hyperuricemia observed after heavy strenuous and athletic activity, meat overeating, and alcohol abuse. Urisan may be recommended in subsiding gouty inflammation as a bridge to the use of allopurinol.

  8. Diet induced thermogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Westerterp KR

    2004-01-01

    Objective Daily energy expenditure consists of three components: basal metabolic rate, diet-induced thermogenesis and the energy cost of physical activity. Here, data on diet-induced thermogenesis are reviewed in relation to measuring conditions and characteristics of the diet. Methods Measuring conditions include nutritional status of the subject, physical activity and duration of the observation. Diet characteristics are energy content and macronutrient composition. Resu...

  9. Diet quality in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, van der Laura A.; Nguyen, Anh N.; Schoufour, Josje D.; Geelen, Anouk; Jaddoe, Vincent W.V.; Franco, Oscar H.; Voortman, Trudy

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: We aimed to evaluate diet quality of 8-year-old children in the Netherlands, to identify sociodemographic and lifestyle correlates of child diet quality, and to examine tracking of diet quality from early to mid-childhood. Methods: For 4733 children participating in a population-based

  10. Are Detox Diets Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Are Detox Diets Safe? KidsHealth / For Teens / Are Detox Diets ... seguras las dietas de desintoxicación? What Is a Detox Diet? The name sounds reassuring — everyone knows that ...

  11. Diet induced thermogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, K.R.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Daily energy expenditure consists of three components: basal metabolic rate, diet-induced thermogenesis and the energy cost of physical activity. Here, data on diet-induced thermogenesis are reviewed in relation to measuring conditions and characteristics of the diet. METHODS: Measuring

  12. Diet Therapy Career Ladder, AFSC 926XO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    ACCORDING TO PHYSICIAN’S OR DIETITIAN’S GUIDELINES AND AFR 160-8 50% 5.81 F171 PREPARE PUDDINGS 49% 5.74 F159 PREPARE DEHYDRATED FOODS (E.G., INSTANT MASHED...COOKING TECHNIQUES 100 F143 COOK POULTRY 100 F135 CLEAN FOOD PRIOR TO COOKING OR SERVING 100 F159 PREPARE DEHYDRATED FOODS (E.G., INSTANT MASHED POTATOES...FOR COOKING OR SERVING 100 ~, F142 COOK PASTA, SUCH AS NOODLES OR SPAGHETTI 100 F166 PREPARE GRAVIES 100 F176 SAM4PLE FOODS BY TASTE AND SMELL 100

  13. Diet and eating after esophagectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esophagectomy - diet; Post-esophagectomy diet ... weight. You will also be on a special diet when you first get home. ... will teach you how to prepare the liquid diet for the feeding tube and how much to ...

  14. Metabolic Effects of Ketogenic Diets

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1989-01-01

    The results of 24 metabolic profiles performed on 55 epileptic children receiving the classical ketogenic diet, the MCT diet, a modified MCT diet, and normal diets are reported from the University Department of Paediatrics, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, England.

  15. Diet induced thermogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westerterp KR

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective Daily energy expenditure consists of three components: basal metabolic rate, diet-induced thermogenesis and the energy cost of physical activity. Here, data on diet-induced thermogenesis are reviewed in relation to measuring conditions and characteristics of the diet. Methods Measuring conditions include nutritional status of the subject, physical activity and duration of the observation. Diet characteristics are energy content and macronutrient composition. Results Most studies measure diet-induced thermogenesis as the increase in energy expenditure above basal metabolic rate. Generally, the hierarchy in macronutrient oxidation in the postprandial state is reflected similarly in diet-induced thermogenesis, with the sequence alcohol, protein, carbohydrate, and fat. A mixed diet consumed at energy balance results in a diet induced energy expenditure of 5 to 15 % of daily energy expenditure. Values are higher at a relatively high protein and alcohol consumption and lower at a high fat consumption. Protein induced thermogenesis has an important effect on satiety. In conclusion, the main determinants of diet-induced thermogenesis are the energy content and the protein- and alcohol fraction of the diet. Protein plays a key role in body weight regulation through satiety related to diet-induced thermogenesis.

  16. Smoking and Diet: Impact on Disease Course?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosnes, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    The impact of current smoking on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) course has been studied extensively; smoking is deleterious in Crohn's disease (CD), and beneficial in ulcerative colitis (UC). Except for enteral nutrition, there are only limited data regarding the impact of diet on disease course. Current smoking worsens the course of CD, increasing the incidence of flares, the need for steroids, immunosuppressants and re-operations. Conversely, smoking cessation has a rapid beneficial effect on disease course, decreasing the risk of flares and of post-operative recurrences. From 3 months after the quit date, quitters have a disease course similar to that of never smokers. Achieving smoking cessation in CD is thus an important goal of therapy. On the contrary, smoking improves the course of UC and in particular, is associated with a decreased need for colectomy. Smoking cessation increases the risk of flare and the need for steroids or immunosuppressants. However, patients with UC should not be discouraged to quit, because the beneficial effect of smoking for their disease is counterbalanced by the deleterious systemic effects of tobacco. Among dietary interventions, only exclusive enteral nutrition was shown to induce remission and achieve mucosal healing in some patients with CD. The beneficial effect of liquid-defined diet is observed whatever be the type of administration (orally or by tube), the type of diet regarding protein and fat content and resulting alterations in the gut microbiota. In UC, enteral nutrition has no effect. Finally, popularized restrictive diets in IBD as the specific-carbohydrate diet and the gluten-free diet have not been rigorously tested. In a small trial, a semi-vegetarian diet was shown to be effective in maintaining remission over 2 years in CD. Patients with IBD should not smoke and avoid passive smoking. Aside from the defined liquid diets, there is no rationale for advising particular diets. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Protein-Losing Enteropathy as a Complication of the Ketogenic Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Won Kee; Park, Soyoung; Kim, Heung Dong

    2017-01-01

    The ketogenic diet is an effective treatment for the patients with intractable epilepsy, however, the diet therapy can sometimes be discontinued by complications. Protein?losing enteropathy is a rarely reported serious complication of the ketogenic diet. We present a 16-month-old Down syndrome baby with protein-losing enteropathy during the ketogenic diet as a treatment for West syndrome. He suffered from diarrhea, general edema and hypoalbuminemia which were not controlled by conservative ca...

  18. The Civil War Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Brennan, Matthew Philip

    2005-01-01

    The soldierâ s diet in the Civil War has been known as poor, and a number of illnesses and disorders have been associated with it. However, a nutritional analysis placed within the context of mid-nineteenth century American nutrition has been lacking. Such an approach makes clear the connection between illness and diet during the war for the average soldier and defines the importance of nutritionâ s role in the war. It also provides a bridge from the American diet to the soldier diet, ou...

  19. CLINICAL STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF LOW-PROTEIN DIET AND SUPPLEMENTED WITH α-KETOACIDS THERAPY ON NUTRITION STATUS AND RESIDUAL RENAL FUNCTION IN CONTINUOUS AMBULATORY PERITONEAL DIALYSIS(CAPD) PATIENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Juan; Yuan, Weijie; Zhou, Yi; Wang, Xuan; Wang, Ting

    2012-01-01

    It is critical to preserve residual renal function (RRF) in CAPD, as RRF is associated with lower morbidity and mortality. low- protein diet supplemented with α-keto acids was reported to have an important roles in delaying in follow-up period progression of renal failure and relieving malnutritional status in non-dialysis patients with chronic renal failure. We evaluate the effects on the nutritional status and RRF of a low-protein diet supplemented with α-keto acids on CAPD patients prospec...

  20. An Update on the Ketogenic Diet, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayelet Halevy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The ketogenic diet has been in use for the last 90 years, and its role in the treatment of epilepsy in the pediatric population has been gaining recognition. It can be helpful in many types of epilepsies, even the more severe ones, and has a beneficial effect on the child’s alertness and cognition, which can be impaired by both the condition and the medications needed for controlling it. Parental compliance is good in spite of the inconveniences inherent in following the diet. The significant advancements in understanding the nature of the diet are in better defining when its use is contraindicated and in validating its application in severe epilepsies in infancy, such as infantile spasms. Although most neurologists do not consider it as being the preferred first-line therapy, it is often a reasonable option when two medications have already failed.

  1. Effect of diet on type 2 diabetes mellitus: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazrai, Y M; Defeudis, G; Pozzilli, P

    2014-03-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is one of the fastest growing diseases; the number of people affected by diabetes will soon reach 552 million worldwide, with associated increases in complications and healthcare expenditure. Lifestyle and medical nutrition therapy are considered the keystones of type 2 diabetes prevention and treatment, but there is no definite consensus on how to treat this disease with these therapies. The American Diabetes Association has made several recommendations regarding the medical nutrition therapy of diabetes; these emphasize the importance of minimizing macrovascular and microvascular complications in people with diabetes. Four types of diets were reviewed for their effects on diabetes: the Mediterranean diet, a low-carbohydrate/high-protein diet, a vegan diet and a vegetarian diet. Each of the four types of diet has been shown to improve metabolic conditions, but the degree of improvement varies from patient to patient. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate a patient's pathophysiological characteristics in order to determine the diet that will achieve metabolic improvement in each individual. Many dietary regimens are available for patients with type 2 diabetes to choose from, according to personal taste and cultural tradition. It is important to provide a tailor-made diet wherever possible in order to maximize the efficacy of the diet on reducing diabetes symptoms and to encourage patient adherence. Additional randomized studies, both short term (to analyse physiological responses) and long term, could help reduce the multitude of diets currently recommended and focus on a shorter list of useful regimens. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Diet and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Food and Nutrition Sections Diet and Nutrition Can Fish Oil Help ... Cataract Prevention in the Produce Aisle Diet and Nutrition Leer en Español: Dieta y nutrición May. 24, ...

  3. Diet, Nutrition, and Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbein, Diana H.; Pease, Susan E.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the theoretical and methodological issues related to diet and aggressive behavior. Clinical evidence indicates that, for some persons, diet may be associated with, or exacerbate, such conditions as learning disability, poor impulse control, intellectual deficits, a tendency toward violence, hyperactivity, and alcoholism and/or drug abuse,…

  4. Children's diets (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diet of children is the proper amount of fat. Children under two years of age should not be on a fat-restricted diet, because cholesterol and fat are thought to be important nutrients for brain development. Children over two can have lower fat foods added ...

  5. Road diet informational guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    A classic Road Diet converts an existing four-lane undivided roadway segment to a three-lane segment consisting of two : through lanes and a center two-way left turn lane (TWLTL). A Road Diet improves safety by including a protected left-turn lane : ...

  6. Diet and Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... meat, skinned poultry and fish nonfat dairy products sugar-free drinks like diet soda. Controlling your weight will lower your chance ... with your doctor and dietitian to keep your diet and blood sugar in good control. Where can I get more ...

  7. Understanding the DASH diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... has been widely studied and has many health benefits. Following this diet plan may help: Lower high blood pressure Reduce the ... more expensive than prepared foods. The diet is flexible enough to follow if you are vegetarian , vegan, or gluten-free .

  8. Stroke Prevention & Treatment: Diet & Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention & Treatment: Diet & Nutrition Stroke Prevention & Treatment: Diet & Nutrition A healthy diet can reduce your risk for ... Treatment How does a stroke affect eating and nutrition? Stroke can devastate a person's nutritional health because ...

  9. Diet and Nutrition (Parkinson's Disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Living With Parkinson's › Managing Parkinson's › Diet & Nutrition Diet & Nutrition 1. Maintain Health 2. Ease PD Symptoms 3. ... your team Seek reliable information about diet and nutrition from your medical team and local resources. Please ...

  10. Relationship between healthy diet and risk of cardiovascular disease among patients on drug therapies for secondary prevention: a prospective cohort study of 31 546 high-risk individuals from 40 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghan, Mahshid; Mente, Andrew; Teo, Koon K; Gao, Peggy; Sleight, Peter; Dagenais, Gilles; Avezum, Alvaro; Probstfield, Jeffrey L; Dans, Tony; Yusuf, Salim

    2012-12-04

    Diet quality is strongly related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence, but little is known about its impact on CVD events in older people at high risk of CVD and receiving effective drugs for secondary prevention. This study assessed the association between diet quality and CVD events in a large population of subjects from 40 countries with CVD or diabetes mellitus with end-organ damage receiving proven medications. Overall, 31 546 women and men 66.5±6.2 years of age enrolled in 2 randomized trials, the Ongoing Telmisartan Alone and in Combination With Ramipril Global End Point Trial (ONTARGET) and the Telmisartan Randomized Assessment Study in ACEI Intolerant Subjects With Cardiovascular Disease (TRANSCEND), were studied. We used 2 dietary indexes: the modified Alternative Healthy Eating Index and the Diet Risk Score. The association between diet quality and the primary composite outcome of CV death, myocardial infarction, stroke, or congestive heart failure was assessed with Cox proportional hazard regression with adjustment for age, sex, trial enrollment allocation, region, and other known confounders. During the 56-month follow-up, there were 5190 events. Patients in the healthier quintiles of modified Alternative Healthy Eating Index scores had a significantly lower risk of CVD (hazard ratio, 0.78; 95% confidence interval, 0.71-0.87, top versus lowest quintile of modified Alternative Healthy Eating Index). The reductions in risk for CV death, myocardial infarction, and stroke were 35%, 14%, and 19%, respectively. The protective association was consistent regardless of whether patients were receiving proven drugs. A higher-quality diet was associated with a lower risk of recurrent CVD events among people ≥55 years of age with CVD or diabetes mellitus. Highlighting the importance of healthy eating by health professionals would substantially reduce CVD recurrence and save lives globally.

  11. Ketogenic diets, mitochondria, and neurological diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gano, Lindsey B.; Patel, Manisha; Rho, Jong M.

    2014-01-01

    The ketogenic diet (KD) is a broad-spectrum therapy for medically intractable epilepsy and is receiving growing attention as a potential treatment for neurological disorders arising in part from bioenergetic dysregulation. The high-fat/low-carbohydrate “classic KD”, as well as dietary variations such as the medium-chain triglyceride diet, the modified Atkins diet, the low-glycemic index treatment, and caloric restriction, enhance cellular metabolic and mitochondrial function. Hence, the broad neuroprotective properties of such therapies may stem from improved cellular metabolism. Data from clinical and preclinical studies indicate that these diets restrict glycolysis and increase fatty acid oxidation, actions which result in ketosis, replenishment of the TCA cycle (i.e., anaplerosis), restoration of neurotransmitter and ion channel function, and enhanced mitochondrial respiration. Further, there is mounting evidence that the KD and its variants can impact key signaling pathways that evolved to sense the energetic state of the cell, and that help maintain cellular homeostasis. These pathways, which include PPARs, AMP-activated kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin, and the sirtuins, have all been recently implicated in the neuroprotective effects of the KD. Further research in this area may lead to future therapeutic strategies aimed at mimicking the pleiotropic neuroprotective effects of the KD. PMID:24847102

  12. [Breastfeeding and vegan diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagnon, J; Cagnard, B; Bridoux-Henno, L; Tourtelier, Y; Grall, J-Y; Dabadie, A

    2005-10-01

    Vegan diet in lactating women can induce vitamin B12 deficiency for their children with risk of an impaired neurological development. A 9.5-month-old girl presented with impaired growth and severe hypotonia. She had a macrocytic anemia secondary to vitamin B12 deficiency. MRI showed cerebral atrophy. She was exclusively breastfed. Her mother was also vitamin B12 deficient, secondary to a vegan diet. She had a macrocytic anemia when discharged from the maternity. Vegan diet is a totally inadequate regimen for pregnant and lactating women, especially for their children. Prevention is based on screening, information and vitamin supplementation.

  13. Neurobiochemical mechanisms of a ketogenic diet in refractory epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Azevedo de Lima

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A ketogenic diet is an important therapy used in the control of drug-refractory seizures. Many studies have shown that children and adolescents following ketogenic diets exhibit an over 50% reduction in seizure frequency, which is considered to be clinically relevant. These benefits are based on a diet containing high fat (approximately 90% fat for 24 months. This dietary model was proposed in the 1920s and has produced variable clinical responses. Previous studies have shown that the mechanisms underlying seizure control involve ketone bodies, which are produced by fatty acid oxidation. Although the pathways involved in the ketogenic diet are not entirely clear, the main effects of the production of ketone bodies appear to be neurotransmitter modulation and antioxidant effects on the brain. This review highlights the impacts of the ketogenic diet on the modulation of neurotransmitters, levels of biogenic monoamines and protective antioxidant mechanisms of neurons. In addition, future perspectives are proposed.

  14. Diet and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiber and cancer; Cancer and fiber; Nitrates and cancer; Cancer and nitrates ... DIET AND BREAST CANCER The link between nutrition and breast cancer has been well studied. To reduce risk of breast cancer the American ...

  15. Diet and Atherosclerosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-08-14

    Aug 14, 1974 ... Animal experiments have demonstrated the possibility of producing lesions ... countries. Mortality statistics, hospital records and necropsy ... opportunity to study possible associations between diet .... risk of American men.".

  16. Diet - clear liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Group. Clear liquid diet. In: Morrison. Manual of Clinical Nutrition Management. Updated 2013. bscn2k15.weebly.com/uploads/1/2/9/2/12924787/manual_of_clinical_nutrition2013.pdf . Accessed August 20, 2016. Schattner MA, ...

  17. Diets that Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... get all the nutrients they need. Most vegetarians eat fewer calories than non-vegetarians. A vegetarian diet can help fight heart disease and high blood pressure. Sample Dinner Menu Vegetarian Spaghetti with Mushroom-Tomato-Asiago Cheese ...

  18. Sea Lion Diet Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — California sea lions pup and breed at four of the nine Channel Islands in southern California. Since 1981, SWFSC MMTD has been conducting a diet study of sea lions...

  19. Chloride in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002417.htm Chloride in diet To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Chloride is found in many chemicals and other substances ...

  20. Rationale, Feasibility and Acceptability of Ketogenic Diet for Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hae-Yun; Park, Yoo Kyoung

    2017-09-01

    Ketogenic diet has been used for more than 80 years as a successful dietary regimen for epilepsy. Recently, dietary modulation by carbohydrate depletion via ketogenic diet has been suggested as an important therapeutic strategy to selectively kill cancer cells and as adjuvant therapy for cancer treatment. However, some researchers insist ketogenic diet to be highly undesirable as ketogenic diet may trigger and/or exacerbate cachexia development and usually result in significant weight loss. This review revisits the meaning of physiological ketosis in the light of this evidence and considers possibility of the use of ketogenic diet for oncology patients. Article search was performed from 1985 through 2017 and finally 10 articles were analyzed. The review focused on the results of human trials for cancer patients and checked the feasibility of using ketogenic diet for cancer patients as adjuvant therapy. The main outcomes showed improvement of body weight changes, anthropometric changes, serum blood profiles, and reduction in novel marker for tumor progression, TKTL1, and increase of ketone body. Lactate concentration was reduced, and no significant changes were reported in the measurements of quality of life. Ketogenic diet may be efficacious in certain cancer subtypes whose outcomes appear to correlate with metabolic status, but the results are not yet supportive and inconsistent. Therefore, it warrants further studies.

  1. Diets: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spanish Mediterranean diet (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Diets updates by ... foods Diet-busting foods Mediterranean diet Related Health Topics Child Nutrition DASH Eating Plan Diabetic Diet Nutrition ...

  2. Diet and lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, P; Lange, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews and l...... are only ameliorated to a minor degree by a healthy diet.......Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews...... and large well designed original articles were preferred to form the basis for the present article. A diet rich in fruit and vegetables reduces the incidence of lung cancer by approximately 25%. The reduction is of the same magnitude in current smokers, ex-smokers and never smokers. Supplementation...

  3. Vegan diets and hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonstad, Serena; Nathan, Edward; Oda, Keiji; Fraser, Gary

    2013-11-20

    Diets eliminating animal products have rarely been associated with hypothyroidism but may protect against autoimmune disease. Thus, we investigated whether risk of hypothyroidism was associated with vegetarian compared to omnivorous dietary patterns. The Adventist Health Study-2 was conducted among church members in North America who provided data in a self-administered questionnaire. Hypothyroidism was queried at baseline in 2002 and at follow-up to 2008. Diet was examined as a determinant of prevalent (n = 4237 of 65,981 [6.4%]) and incident cases (1184 of 41,212 [2.9%]) in multivariate logistic regression models, controlled for demographics and salt use. In the prevalence study, in addition to demographic characterstics, overweight and obesity increased the odds (OR 1.32, 95% CI: 1.22-1.42 and 1.78, 95% CI: 1.64-1.93, respectively). Vegan versus omnivorous diets tended to be associated with reduced risk (OR 0.89, 95% CI: 0.78-1.01, not statistically significant) while a lacto-ovo diet was associated with increased risk (OR 1.09, 95% CI: 1.01-1.18). In the incidence study, female gender, white ethnicity, higher education and BMI were predictors of hypothyroidism. Following a vegan diet tended to be protective (OR 0.78, 95% CI: 0.59-1.03, not statistically significant). In conclusion, a vegan diet tended to be associated with lower, not higher, risk of hypothyroid disease.

  4. Epilepsy characteristics and psychosocial factors associated with ketogenic diet success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Nancy A; Carbone, Loretta A; Shellhaas, Renée A

    2013-10-01

    The ketogenic diet is an effective therapy for childhood epilepsy, but its important impacts on families could affect successful treatment. We assessed medical and psychosocial factors associated with successful ketogenic diet treatment. A total of 23 families of patients treated with ketogenic diet completed questionnaires (30% response), including inquiries about challenges to successful dietary treatments and validated family functioning scales. Of these, 14 were considered successful (diet discontinued once the child was seizure-free or continued as clinically indicated). Family-identified challenges were food preparation time (n = 11) and that the diet was too restrictive (n = 9). Neither Medicaid insurance nor family functioning scale scores were significantly associated with successful treatment. Lower seizure frequency prior to ketogenic diet initiation (P = .02) and postdiet seizure improvement (P = .01) were associated with increased odds of success. Effective ketogenic diet treatment is dictated both by psychosocial and epilepsy-related influences. A focus on understanding the psychosocial issues may help to improve families' experiences and success with the ketogenic diet.

  5. New Nordic diet versus average Danish diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khakimov, Bekzod; Poulsen, Sanne Kellebjerg; Savorani, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    and 3-hydroxybutanoic acid were related to a higher weight loss, while higher concentrations of salicylic, lactic and N-aspartic acids, and 1,5-anhydro-D-sorbitol were related to a lower weight loss. Specific gender- and seasonal differences were also observed. The study strongly indicates that healthy...... metabolites reflecting specific differences in the diets, especially intake of plant foods and seafood, and in energy metabolism related to ketone bodies and gluconeogenesis, formed the predominant metabolite pattern discriminating the intervention groups. Among NND subjects higher levels of vaccenic acid...

  6. Ketogenic diet treatment for pediatric super-refractory status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appavu, Brian; Vanatta, Lisa; Condie, John; Kerrigan, John F; Jarrar, Randa

    2016-10-01

    We aimed to study whether ketogenic diet (KD) therapy leads to resolution of super-refractory status epilepticus in pediatric patients without significant harm. A retrospective review was performed at Phoenix Children's Hospital on patients with super-refractory status epilepticus undergoing ketogenic diet therapy from 2011 to 2015. Ten children with super-refractory status epilepticus, ages 2-16 years, were identified. 4/10 patients had immune mediated encephalitis, including Rasmussen encephalitis, anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis, and post-infectious mycoplasma encephalitis. Other etiologies included Lennox Gastaut Syndrome, non-ketotic hyperglycinemia, PCDH19 and GABRG2 genetic epilepsy, New Onset Refractory Status Epilepticus, and Febrile Infection-Related Epilepsy Syndrome. 4/10 patients' EEG features suggested focal with status epilepticus, and 6/10 suggested generalized with status epilepticus. Median hospital length was 61days and median ICU length was 27days. The median number of antiepileptic medications prior to diet initiation was 3.0 drugs, and the median after ketogenic diet treatment was 3.5 drugs. Median duration of status epilepticus prior to KD was 18days. 9/10 patients had resolution of super-refractory status epilepticus in a median of 7days after diet initiation. 8/9 patients were weaned off anesthesia within 15days of diet initiation, and within 1day of achieving ketonuria. 1/10 patients experienced side effects on the diet requiring supplementation. Most patients achieved resolution of status epilepticus on KD therapy, suggesting it could be an effective therapy that can be utilized early in the treatment of children with super refractory status epilepticus. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. South Beach Diet associated ketoacidosis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalasani Swapna

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction It has been previously unclear whether a "mild" degree of low carbohydrate or "starvation" ketonemia and acidosis induced by a low carbohydrate diet is clinically relevant to a patient. Case presentation A 30-year-old Caucasian male on a low carbohydrate diet presented with nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain. The patient's bicarbonate level was 12 and he had hyperglycemia and ketonemia. He was felt to be in diabetic ketoacidosis and was started on intravenous insulin and isotonic saline infusions and responded well. Following cessation of insulin therapy, the patient remained normoglycemic for the remainder of his hospital stay. He later admitted to having been on the South Beach Diet, which is a low carbohydrate diet, for the three weeks prior to his presentation and during which time he had lost 16 pounds. On admission his BMI was 27.1. On presentation, the patient was felt to be in diabetic ketoacidosis but, interestingly, he was subsequently euglycemic without therapy. Following discharge, the patient discontinued the diet plan and he has remained asymptomatic and euglycemic over the following two years. Conclusion The hyperglycemic ketoacidosis in this patient may have been caused by increased concentrations of free fatty acids in the absence of carbohydrate-induced inhibition of beta-oxidation of fatty acids and in the presence of an abnormally high ratio of glucagons to insulin. Given the present day popularity of low-carbohydrate diet plans, healthcare providers should be aware of the apparent association between such diets and symptomatic ketoacidosis. In a patient with ketoacidosis suspected to be secondary to a low carbohydrate diet, all other causes of high anion gap acidosis should be ruled out before attributing the acidosis to the low carbohydrate diet.

  8. The New Nordic Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomo, Louise Havkrog; Poulsen, Sanne Kellebjerg; Rix, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: High phosphorus content in the diet may have adverse effect on cardiovascular health. We investigated whether the New Nordic Diet (NND), based mainly on local, organic and less processed food and large amounts of fruit, vegetables, wholegrain and fish, versus an Average Danish Diet (ADD......) would reduce the phosphorus load due to less phosphorus-containing food additives, animal protein and more plant-based proteins. METHODS: Phosphorus and creatinine were measured in plasma and urine at baseline, week 12 and week 26 in 132 centrally obese subjects with normal renal function as part....../10 MJ in the ADD group and decreased less in the NND compared to the ADD (67 ± 36 mg/10 MJ and -266 ± 45 mg/day, respectively, p high phosphorus intake and did not decrease the fractional phosphorus excretion compared with ADD. Further...

  9. Diet and lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, P; Lange, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews...... and large well designed original articles were preferred to form the basis for the present article. A diet rich in fruit and vegetables reduces the incidence of lung cancer by approximately 25%. The reduction is of the same magnitude in current smokers, ex-smokers and never smokers. Supplementation...... with vitamins A, C and E and beta-carotene offers no protection against the development of lung cancer. On the contrary, beta-carotene supplementation has, in two major randomised intervention trials, resulted in an increased mortality. Smoking remains the leading cause of lung cancer. The adverse effects...

  10. Vegan Diets and Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Tonstad

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Diets eliminating animal products have rarely been associated with hypothyroidism but may protect against autoimmune disease. Thus, we investigated whether risk of hypothyroidism was associated with vegetarian compared to omnivorous dietary patterns. The Adventist Health Study-2 was conducted among church members in North America who provided data in a self-administered questionnaire. Hypothyroidism was queried at baseline in 2002 and at follow-up to 2008. Diet was examined as a determinant of prevalent (n = 4237 of 65,981 [6.4%] and incident cases (1184 of 41,212 [2.9%] in multivariate logistic regression models, controlled for demographics and salt use. In the prevalence study, in addition to demographic characterstics, overweight and obesity increased the odds (OR 1.32, 95% CI: 1.22–1.42 and 1.78, 95% CI: 1.64–1.93, respectively. Vegan versus omnivorous diets tended to be associated with reduced risk (OR 0.89, 95% CI: 0.78–1.01, not statistically significant while a lacto-ovo diet was associated with increased risk (OR 1.09, 95% CI: 1.01–1.18. In the incidence study, female gender, white ethnicity, higher education and BMI were predictors of hypothyroidism. Following a vegan diet tended to be protective (OR 0.78, 95% CI: 0.59–1.03, not statistically significant. In conclusion, a vegan diet tended to be associated with lower, not higher, risk of hypothyroid disease.

  11. Behavioral Nutraceuticals and Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Jillian M

    2018-05-01

    Behavioral problems of companion animals are becoming more widely recognized. As a result, there are a growing number of behavioral nutraceuticals and diets on the market. These products may be useful for the treatment of mild conditions, for clients who are hesitant to give their pet a psychopharmacologic agent, or sometimes in conjunction with psychopharmacologic agents. Veterinarians should critically review the research associated with nutraceuticals and diets, and have an understanding of the functional ingredients and their mechanisms of action before prescribing treatment. This article provides an overview of nutraceuticals, their mechanisms of action, and relevant research regarding their use. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Mediterranean Diet: Choose This Heart-Healthy Diet Option

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating The heart-healthy Mediterranean diet is a healthy eating plan based on typical ... Mediterranean-style cooking. Here's how to adopt the Mediterranean diet. By Mayo Clinic Staff If you're looking ...

  13. Cadmium contamination in cereal-based diets and diet ingredients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siitonen, P.H.; Thompson, H.C. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Cereal-based diet and/or diet ingredient cadmium levels were determined by graphite furnace AAS. Cadmium contamination was 88.3 and 447 ppb in two cereal-based diets, 44.6 and 48.9 ppb in two purified diets, and ranged from less than 1.1 to 22,900 ppb in the ingredients of one cereal-based diet. The major source of cadmium contamination was attributed to the calcium supplement used for diet formulation. Comparative analyses of two purified diet samples and one cereal-based diet by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, formerly the National Bureau of Standards) and the National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR) gave virtually identical results for Cd. A comparative study of Cd levels determined by flame and furnace AAS was also made by the NCTR and the NIST

  14. DASH Diet: Reducing Hypertension through Diet and Lifestyle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include soy beans, collard greens and calcium-fortified beverages such as almond milk. Limit Saturated Fat A DASH diet is low in saturated fats, sodium and total fat. Studies have shown that a diet low in saturated ...

  15. Low-FODMAP Diet for Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Magge, Suma; Lembo, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Functional bowel disorders, including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), are common disorders that have a significant impact on patients’ quality of life. These disorders present major challenges to healthcare providers, as few effective medical therapies are currently available. Recently, there has been increasing interest in dietary therapies for IBS, particularly a diet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs). Since ingestion of FODMAPs incre...

  16. Ketogenic diet in endocrine disorders: Current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, L; Khandelwal, D; Kalra, S; Gupta, P; Dutta, D; Aggarwal, S

    2017-01-01

    Ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat, adequate-protein, and low-carbohydrate diet that leads to nutritional ketosis, long known for antiepileptic effects and has been used therapeutically to treat refractory epilepsy. This review attempts to summarize the evidence and clinical application of KD in diabetes, obesity, and other endocrine disorders. KD is usually animal protein based. An empiric vegetarian Indian variant of KD has been provided keeping in mind the Indian food habits. KD has beneficial effects on cardiac ischemic preconditioning, improves oxygenation in patients with respiratory failure, improves glycemic control in diabetics, is associated with significant weight loss, and has a beneficial impact on polycystic ovarian syndrome. Multivitamin supplementations are recommended with KD. Recently, ketones are being proposed as super-metabolic fuel; and KD is currently regarded as apt dietary therapy for “diabesity.” PMID:29022562

  17. Ketogenic diet in endocrine disorders: Current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ketogenic diet (KD is a high-fat, adequate-protein, and low-carbohydrate diet that leads to nutritional ketosis, long known for antiepileptic effects and has been used therapeutically to treat refractory epilepsy. This review attempts to summarize the evidence and clinical application of KD in diabetes, obesity, and other endocrine disorders. KD is usually animal protein based. An empiric vegetarian Indian variant of KD has been provided keeping in mind the Indian food habits. KD has beneficial effects on cardiac ischemic preconditioning, improves oxygenation in patients with respiratory failure, improves glycemic control in diabetics, is associated with significant weight loss, and has a beneficial impact on polycystic ovarian syndrome. Multivitamin supplementations are recommended with KD. Recently, ketones are being proposed as super-metabolic fuel; and KD is currently regarded as apt dietary therapy for “diabesity.”

  18. Dietary Therapies for Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric H Kossoff

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Since their introduction in 1921, high-fat, low-carbohydrate "ketogenic" diets have been used worldwide for refractory childhood epilepsy. Approximately half of the children have at least half their seizures reduced, including 15% who are seizure free. The mechanisms of action of dietary therapies are under active investigation and appear to involve mitochondria. Once perceived as a last resort, modifications to initiation and maintenance, as well as the widespread use of pre-made ketogenic formulas have allowed dietary treatment to be used earlier in the course of epilepsy. For infantile spasms (West syndrome specifically, the ketogenic diet is successful about 50% of the time as a first-line treatment. New "alternative" diets such as the modified Atkins diet were created in 2003 and can be started more easily and are less restrictive. They may have particular value for countries in Asia. Side effects include constipation, dyslipidemia, growth slowing, acidosis, and kidney stones. Additionally, neurologists are studying ketogenic diets for conditions other than epilepsy, including Alzheimer's disease, autism, and brain tumors.

  19. Individual diet has sex-dependent effects on vertebrate gut microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolnick, Daniel I.; Snowberg, Lisa K.; Hirsch, Philipp E.; Lauber, Christian L.; Org, Elin; Parks, Brian; Lusis, Aldons J.; Knight, Rob; Caporaso, J. Gregory; Svanbäck, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Vertebrates harbour diverse communities of symbiotic gut microbes. Host diet is known to alter microbiota composition, implying that dietary treatments might alleviate diseases arising from altered microbial composition (‘dysbiosis’). However, it remains unclear whether diet effects are general or depend on host genotype. Here we show that gut microbiota composition depends on interactions between host diet and sex within populations of wild and laboratory fish, laboratory mice and humans. Within each of two natural fish populations (threespine stickleback and Eurasian perch), among-individual diet variation is correlated with individual differences in gut microbiota. However, these diet–microbiota associations are sex dependent. We document similar sex-specific diet–microbiota correlations in humans. Experimental diet manipulations in laboratory stickleback and mice confirmed that diet affects microbiota differently in males versus females. The prevalence of such genotype by environment (sex by diet) interactions implies that therapies to treat dysbiosis might have sex-specific effects. PMID:25072318

  20. Hepatic Dysfunction as a Complication of Combined Valproate and Ketogenic Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Clare E; Turner, Zahava; Kossoff, Eric H

    2016-01-01

    The ketogenic diet has long been shown to be an effective therapy for children with medication-refractory seizures. Most complications of the ketogenic diet include short-lived gastrointestinal disturbances, acidosis, and dyslipidemia. Hepatic dysfunction and pancreatitis are among the less common but more serious complications of the ketogenic diet. Many patients on the ketogenic diet receive adjunct treatment with an anticonvulsant drug, and valproate is frequently used. We describe a child who developed hepatic dysfunction in association with the combined use of valproate and the ketogenic diet. After stopping the valproate and then restarting the ketogenic diet, her liver enzymes normalized, and she was able to achieve markedly improved seizure control and quality of life. Although caution should be advised when using both treatments simultaneously, the development of hepatic dysfunction should not preclude continuation of the ketogenic diet, as the hepatotoxic effects may be completely reversed once the valproate is stopped. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Lifestyle change as therapy for obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Vlad

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Lifestyle change (comprising adequate diet, physical activity, and behavior therapy represents the cornerstone of obesitytherapy. Dietary intervention consists primarily in reducing the energy content of the diet and secondarily in altering the relativemacronutrient composition. It is recommended to ingest low-calorie diets rather than very-low-calorie diets, because they aresafer and better accepted and provide at least similar long-term results. Low-fat diets have traditionally been prescribed forweight loss, because they facilitate energy restriction. Low-carbohydrate diets are helpful because they favor energy restriction,as well. Physical activity has favorable effects in obese patients: it prevents the decline in resting energy expenditure thataccompanies diet-induced weight loss, reduces the amount of free-fat mass lost, decreases the risk of developing type 2diabetes mellitus and of dying from cardiovascular disease, increases the rate of weight loss, and helps maintaining the resultson long term. Behavior therapy aims at altering eating and activity habits that promote obesity. It usually involves multiplestrategies, including stimulus control, self-monitoring, problem solving skills, cognitive restructuring, social support, andrelapse prevention. Many obese persons can achieve short-term weight loss by dieting alone. However, successful log-termresults are much more difficult to obtain and require a more complex strategy, including physical activity and behavior therapy.

  2. Elimination diets in the management of eosinophilic esophagitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wechsler JB

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Joshua B Wechsler, Sally Schwartz, Katie Amsden, Amir F Kagalwalla Department of Pediatrics, Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: Eosinophilic esophagitis, an increasingly recognized chronic inflammatory disorder isolated to the esophagus, is triggered by an abnormal allergic response to dietary antigens. Current treatment includes swallowed topical steroids and dietary modification, which aim to resolve symptoms and prevent long-term complications such as formation of strictures. The dietary approach has become more widely accepted because long-term steroid therapy is associated with potential risks. Dietary treatment includes elemental and elimination diets. An exclusive elemental diet, which requires replacement of all intact protein with amino acid-based formula, offers the best response of all available therapies, with remission in up to 96% of subjects proving it to be superior to all other available therapies including topical steroids. However, compliance with this approach is challenging because of poor taste and monotony. The high cost of formula and the associated psychosocial problems are additional drawbacks of this approach. Empiric and allergy test-directed elimination diets have gained popularity given that elimination of a limited number of foods is much easier and as such is more readily acceptable. There is a growing body of literature supporting this type of therapy in both children and adults. This paper reviews the evidence for all types of dietary therapy in eosinophilic esophagitis. Keywords: eosinophilic esophagitis, dietary therapy, empiric elimination, elemental, allergy test-directed

  3. Ileostomy and your diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that collects it. You will need to take care of the stoma and empty the pouch many times a day. People who have had an ileostomy can most often eat a normal diet. But some foods may cause problems. Foods that may ... Your pouch should be sealed well enough to ...

  4. Diet - chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you will need to eat more protein. A high-protein diet with fish, poultry, pork, or eggs at every meal may be recommended. People on dialysis should eat 8 to 10 ounces (225 to 280 grams) of high-protein foods each day. Your provider or dietitian ...

  5. Diet History Questionnaire: Suggested Citations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of the Diet History Questionnaire and Diet*Calc Analysis Software for publication purposes should contain a citation which includes version information for the software, questionnaire, and nutrient database.

  6. Hepatitis C: Diet and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with Hepatitis » Daily Living: Diet and Nutrition Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... have high cholesterol and have fatty liver. How hepatitis C affects diet If you have hepatitis, you ...

  7. High blood pressure and diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007483.htm High blood pressure and diet To use the sharing features on ... diet is a proven way to help control high blood pressure . These changes can also help you lose weight ...

  8. Diet for rapid weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... very-low-calorie-diets/Pages/very-low-calorie-diets.aspx . Accessed May 25, 2016. Review Date 4/24/2016 Updated by: Emily Wax, RD, The Brooklyn Hospital Center, Brooklyn, NY. Also reviewed by David Zieve, ...

  9. Is the diet important for psoriasis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Owczarczyk-Saczonek

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a systemic disease, associated with the occurrence of metabolic disorders (obesity, diabetes, hyperuricemia, lipid disorders and rapid development of atherosclerosis; therefore diet can be an important adjuvant therapy. A low-calorie diet is an important complement treatment of patients with psoriasis, particularly those with concomitant obesity. There are a lot of studies indicating that obesity is a risk factor for psoriasis and vice versa. Visceral adipose tissue produces numerous proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, Il-8, Il-17, Il-18, the same ones that participate in development of psoriatic lesions. Important factors in the diet are the essential polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids. They have an anti-inflammatory effect because they inhibit the production of proinflammatory cytokines (I-1b, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, VCAM-1. In addition, supplementation of omega-3 and natural antioxidants in the diet may help to reduce "oxidative stress" and systemic inflammation. The use of a gluten-free diet is controversial, but in patients with positive anti gliadin antibodies it seems justified. An essential element of the procedure is to avoid alcohol and all its forms and stimulants that have pro-inflammatory effects. We should advise our patients to avoid grapefruit juice during treatment with cyclosporine and limit the supply of simple sugars, animal fats and alcohol during treatment with retinoids. Dietary recommendations for patients with psoriasis are an important part of a holistic approach to patients who expect comprehensive care, not just the prescription.

  10. Is the Chilean Diet a Mediterranean-type Diet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAIME ROZOWSKI

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Food intake in Chile has changed markedly in the last decades, showing an increase in fat consumption and presently a small fruit and vegetables intake. A parallel is made between the Chilean and Mediterranean diet (mainly the one from Spain, Italy, and Greece, both currently and from 50 years ago. The main differences and similarities are based on food availability. Although Chilean diet seems to be approaching the traditional Mediterranean diet of the 60's, there is concern about changes that are moving away from Chilean traditional diet and towards a western one. A new food pyramid for Chile is proposed based on the traditional Mediterranean-type diet

  11. Is a healthy diet an environmentally sustainable diet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdiarmid, Jennie I

    2013-02-01

    The concept of a healthy and environmentally sustainable diet is not new, but with increasing concern about future global food security and climate change there is a renewed interest in this topic. Dietary intakes in UK accounts for approximately 20-30% of total annual greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE), with the greatest contributions coming from high intakes of meat and dairy products. Dietary proposals to help mitigate climate change (i.e. reduce GHGE) have focused on reducing consumption of meat and dairy products, but this must be considered in the context of the whole diet, alongside any possible nutritional consequences for health. Bringing together health and environmental impact of the diet raises the question of whether a healthy diet can also be an environmentally sustainable diet. While recent research showed that it is possible to achieve a realistic diet that meets dietary requirement for health and has lower GHGE, it cannot be assumed that a healthy diet will always have lower GHGE. With different combinations of food it is possible to consume a diet that meets dietary requirements for health, but has high GHGE. It is important to understand what constitutes a sustainable diet, but this then needs to be communicated effectively to try and change well-established dietary intakes of the population. Studies show that understanding of sustainable diets is poor and there are many misconceptions (e.g. the overestimation of the protein requirements for a healthy diet), which could contribute to the barriers towards changing dietary intakes.

  12. Depression, diet and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacka, Felice N; Berk, Michael

    2013-09-16

    Unhealthy lifestyle behaviour is driving an increase in the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases worldwide. Recent evidence suggests that poor diet and a lack of exercise contribute to the genesis and course of depression. While studies examining dietary improvement as a treatment strategy in depression are lacking, epidemiological evidence clearly points to diet quality being of importance to the risk of depression. Exercise has been shown to be an effective treatment strategy for depression, but this is not reflected in treatment guidelines, and increased physical activity is not routinely encouraged when managing depression in clinical practice. Recommendations regarding dietary improvement, increases in physical activity and smoking cessation should be routinely given to patients with depression. Specialised and detailed advice may not be necessary. Recommendations should focus on following national guidelines for healthy eating and physical activity.

  13. Ethnicity and children's diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annemette Ljungdalh; Krasnik, Allan; Holm, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    This study explores concerns and dilemmas connected with diet, health and child-feeding in families with ethnic minority background. The aim is to contribute to better targeting of dietary advice to ethnic minority parents in Denmark. Four focus group interviews were carried out with mothers...... dilemmas in dietary change; and (5) sources of nutritional advice. Public health authorities in Denmark tend to link diet-related health problems among ethnic minority populations with their ethnic identity, dichotomising ethnic and Danish dietary habits. This may overlook values and concerns other than...... those related to ethnicity that are sometimes more important in determining food habits. The present study found that child-feeding practices were shaped by two main aims: (1) securing and improving child health; and (2) ensuring multi-cultural eating competence in children. The results confirm...

  14. Diet and psychological health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M

    1996-09-01

    This article reviews research that suggests a relationship between diet and psychological symptoms. Mind-body dualism (as it relates to clinical practice) and the limited role of nutrition in mainstream biomedical training and treatment are discussed as background issues. Two areas of inquiry that have generated relevant research findings in this area are reviewed: (1) orthomolecular theory and vitamin deficiencies, and (2) clinical ecology/environmental medicine theory and the impact of "food allergies." Although clinical case reports and promising research findings have been reported, the impact of diet on psychological health is neither widely accepted nor integrated into mental health treatment methods. Ongoing research findings in brain biochemistry and psychoneuroimmunology point to communication pathways that can provide a clearer understanding of the links between nutritional intake, central nervous system and immune function, and psychological health status. These findings may lead to greater acceptance of dietary treatment approaches among health practitioners addressing psychological disorders.

  15. An Algorithmic Diversity Diet?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jannick Kirk; Schmidt, Jan-Hinrik

    2016-01-01

    With the growing influence of personalized algorithmic recommender systems on the exposure of media content to users, the relevance of discussing the diversity of recommendations increases, particularly as far as public service media (PSM) is concerned. An imagined implementation of a diversity...... diet system however triggers not only the classic discussion of the reach – distinctiveness balance for PSM, but also shows that ‘diversity’ is understood very differently in algorithmic recommender system communities than it is editorially and politically in the context of PSM. The design...... of a diversity diet system generates questions not just about editorial power, personal freedom and techno-paternalism, but also about the embedded politics of recommender systems as well as the human skills affiliated with PSM editorial work and the nature of PSM content....

  16. Protection of Aboriginal diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, A.

    1989-01-01

    One aspect of public concern about uranium mining in Australia has centred on possible harm to humans, particularly Aboriginal people arising from the release of radionuclides into the environment. A dose assessment model was developed based on the dispersion of radionuclides in water, their bioaccumulation in aquatic and terrestrial animals and the diet of the critical group. Of the diet components, the consumption of freshwater mussels, fish and water lilies gives rise to greater than 90% of the total exposure. On the bases of modelling dose estimates, showing which variables are more significant in the estimation of radiation exposure resulting from release of water from Ranger, limits have been deducted from the maximum annual quantity of radionuclides that can be added to Magela Creek waters without causing members of this community to be exposed to significant amounts of radiations. 2 figs., ills

  17. Protection of Aboriginal diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, A [Office of the Supervising Scientist for the Alligator Rivers Region, Sydney (Australia)

    1989-05-01

    One aspect of public concern about uranium mining in Australia has centred on possible harm to humans, particularly Aboriginal people arising from the release of radionuclides into the environment. A dose assessment model was developed based on the dispersion of radionuclides in water, their bioaccumulation in aquatic and terrestrial animals and the diet of the critical group. Of the diet components, the consumption of freshwater mussels, fish and water lilies gives rise to greater than 90% of the total exposure. On the bases of modelling dose estimates, showing which variables are more significant in the estimation of radiation exposure resulting from release of water from Ranger, limits have been deducted from the maximum annual quantity of radionuclides that can be added to Magela Creek waters without causing members of this community to be exposed to significant amounts of radiations. 2 figs., ills.

  18. Elimination diets in the management of eosinophilic esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsler, Joshua B; Schwartz, Sally; Amsden, Katie; Kagalwalla, Amir F

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis, an increasingly recognized chronic inflammatory disorder isolated to the esophagus, is triggered by an abnormal allergic response to dietary antigens. Current treatment includes swallowed topical steroids and dietary modification, which aim to resolve symptoms and prevent long-term complications such as formation of strictures. The dietary approach has become more widely accepted because long-term steroid therapy is associated with potential risks. Dietary treatment includes elemental and elimination diets. An exclusive elemental diet, which requires replacement of all intact protein with amino acid-based formula, offers the best response of all available therapies, with remission in up to 96% of subjects proving it to be superior to all other available therapies including topical steroids. However, compliance with this approach is challenging because of poor taste and monotony. The high cost of formula and the associated psychosocial problems are additional drawbacks of this approach. Empiric and allergy test-directed elimination diets have gained popularity given that elimination of a limited number of foods is much easier and as such is more readily acceptable. There is a growing body of literature supporting this type of therapy in both children and adults. This paper reviews the evidence for all types of dietary therapy in eosinophilic esophagitis.

  19. The diet factor in pediatric and adolescent migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millichap, J Gordon; Yee, Michelle M

    2003-01-01

    Diet can play an important role in the precipitation of headaches in children and adolescents with migraine. The diet factor in pediatric migraine is frequently neglected in favor of preventive drug therapy. The list of foods, beverages, and additives that trigger migraine includes cheese, chocolate, citrus fruits, hot dogs, monosodium glutamate, aspartame, fatty foods, ice cream, caffeine withdrawal, and alcoholic drinks, especially red wine and beer. Underage drinking is a significant potential cause of recurrent headache in today's adolescent patients. Tyramine, phenylethylamine, histamine, nitrites, and sulfites are involved in the mechanism of food intolerance headache. Immunoglobulin E-mediated food allergy is an infrequent cause. Dietary triggers affect phases of the migraine process by influencing release of serotonin and norepinephrine, causing vasoconstriction or vasodilatation, or by direct stimulation of trigeminal ganglia, brainstem, and cortical neuronal pathways. Treatment begins with a headache and diet diary and the selective avoidance of foods presumed to trigger attacks. A universal migraine diet with simultaneous elimination of all potential food triggers is generally not advised in practice. A well-balanced diet is encouraged, with avoidance of fasting or skipped meals. Long-term prophylactic drug therapy is appropriate only after exclusion of headache-precipitating trigger factors, including dietary factors.

  20. Is the Chilean Diet a Mediterranean-type Diet?

    OpenAIRE

    JAIME ROZOWSKI; ÓSCAR CASTILLO

    2004-01-01

    Food intake in Chile has changed markedly in the last decades, showing an increase in fat consumption and presently a small fruit and vegetables intake. A parallel is made between the Chilean and Mediterranean diet (mainly the one from Spain, Italy, and Greece), both currently and from 50 years ago. The main differences and similarities are based on food availability. Although Chilean diet seems to be approaching the traditional Mediterranean diet of the 60's, there is concern about changes t...

  1. The standardized creation of a lumbar spine vertebral compression fracture in a sheep osteoporosis model induced by ovariectomy, corticosteroid therapy and calcium/phosphorus/vitamin D-deficient diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschler, Anica; Röpenack, Paula; Herlyn, Philipp K E; Roesner, Jan; Pille, Kristin; Büsing, Kirsten; Vollmar, Brigitte; Mittlmeier, Thomas; Gradl, Georg

    2015-10-01

    Vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) are one of the most common injuries in the aging population presenting with an annual incidence of 1.4 million new cases in Europe. Current treatment strategies focus on cement-associated solutions (kyphoplasty/vertebroplasty techniques). Specific cement-associated problems as leakage, embolism and the adjacent fracture disease are reported adding to open questions like general fracture healing properties of the osteoporotic spine. In order to analyze those queries animal models are of great interest; however, both technical difficulties in the induction of experimental osteoporosis in animal as well as the lack of a standardized fracture model impede current and future in vivo studies. This study introduces a standardized animal model of an osteoporotic VCF type A3.1 that may enable further in-depth analysis of the afore mentioned topics. Twenty-four 5-year-old female Merino sheep (mean body weight: 67 kg; range 57-79) were ovariectomized (OP1) and underwent 5.5 months of weekly corticosteroid injections (dexamethasone and dexamethasone-sodium-phosphate), adding to a calcium/phosphorus/vitamin D-deficient diet. Osteoporosis induction was documented by pQCT and micro-CT BMD (bone mineral density) as well as 3D histomorphometric analysis postoperatively of the sheep distal radius and spine. Non osteoporotic sheep served as controls. Induction of a VCF of the second lumbar vertebra was performed via a mini-lumbotomy surgical approach with a standardized manual compression mode (OP2). PQCT analysis revealed osteoporosis of the distal radius with significantly reduced BMD values (0.19 g/cm(3), range 0.13-0.22 vs. 0.27 g/cm(3), range 0.23-0.32). Micro-CT documented significant lowering of BMD values for the second lumbar vertebrae (0.11 g/cm(3), range 0.10-0.12) in comparison to the control group (0.14 g/cm(3), range 0.12-0.17). An incomplete burst fracture type A3.1 was achieved in all cases and resulted in a significant decrease

  2. The ketogenic diet: metabolic influences on brain excitability and epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutas, Andrew; Yellen, Gary

    2012-01-01

    A dietary therapy for pediatric epilepsy known as the ketogenic diet has seen a revival in its clinical use in the past decade. Though the diet’s underlying mechanism remains unknown, modern scientific approaches like genetic disruption of glucose metabolism are allowing for more detailed questions to be addressed. Recent work indicates that several mechanisms may exist for the ketogenic diet including disruption of glutamatergic synaptic transmission, inhibition of glycolysis, and activation of ATP-sensitive potassium channels. Here we describe on-going work in these areas that is providing a better understanding of metabolic influences on brain excitability and epilepsy. PMID:23228828

  3. Reversal of diabetic nephropathy by a ketogenic diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal M Poplawski

    Full Text Available Intensive insulin therapy and protein restriction delay the development of nephropathy in a variety of conditions, but few interventions are known to reverse nephropathy. Having recently observed that the ketone 3-beta-hydroxybutyric acid (3-OHB reduces molecular responses to glucose, we hypothesized that a ketogenic diet, which produces prolonged elevation of 3-OHB, may reverse pathological processes caused by diabetes. To address this hypothesis, we assessed if prolonged maintenance on a ketogenic diet would reverse nephropathy produced by diabetes. In mouse models for both Type 1 (Akita and Type 2 (db/db diabetes, diabetic nephropathy (as indicated by albuminuria was allowed to develop, then half the mice were switched to a ketogenic diet. After 8 weeks on the diet, mice were sacrificed to assess gene expression and histology. Diabetic nephropathy, as indicated by albumin/creatinine ratios as well as expression of stress-induced genes, was completely reversed by 2 months maintenance on a ketogenic diet. However, histological evidence of nephropathy was only partly reversed. These studies demonstrate that diabetic nephropathy can be reversed by a relatively simple dietary intervention. Whether reduced glucose metabolism mediates the protective effects of the ketogenic diet remains to be determined.

  4. Reversal of Diabetic Nephropathy by a Ketogenic Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poplawski, Michal M.; Mastaitis, Jason W.; Isoda, Fumiko; Grosjean, Fabrizio; Zheng, Feng; Mobbs, Charles V.

    2011-01-01

    Intensive insulin therapy and protein restriction delay the development of nephropathy in a variety of conditions, but few interventions are known to reverse nephropathy. Having recently observed that the ketone 3-beta-hydroxybutyric acid (3-OHB) reduces molecular responses to glucose, we hypothesized that a ketogenic diet, which produces prolonged elevation of 3-OHB, may reverse pathological processes caused by diabetes. To address this hypothesis, we assessed if prolonged maintenance on a ketogenic diet would reverse nephropathy produced by diabetes. In mouse models for both Type 1 (Akita) and Type 2 (db/db) diabetes, diabetic nephropathy (as indicated by albuminuria) was allowed to develop, then half the mice were switched to a ketogenic diet. After 8 weeks on the diet, mice were sacrificed to assess gene expression and histology. Diabetic nephropathy, as indicated by albumin/creatinine ratios as well as expression of stress-induced genes, was completely reversed by 2 months maintenance on a ketogenic diet. However, histological evidence of nephropathy was only partly reversed. These studies demonstrate that diabetic nephropathy can be reversed by a relatively simple dietary intervention. Whether reduced glucose metabolism mediates the protective effects of the ketogenic diet remains to be determined. PMID:21533091

  5. Ketogenic Diet in Epileptic Encephalopathies

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Suvasini; Tripathi, Manjari

    2013-01-01

    The ketogenic diet is a medically supervised high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet that has been found useful in patients with refractory epilepsy. It has been shown to be effective in treating multiple seizure types and epilepsy syndromes. In this paper, we review the use of the ketogenic diet in epileptic encephalopathies such as Ohtahara syndrome, West syndrome, Dravet syndrome, epilepsy with myoclonic atonic seizures, and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome.

  6. Effects of Italian Mediterranean organic diet vs. low-protein diet in nephropathic patients according to MTHFR genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Daniele, Nicola; Di Renzo, Laura; Noce, Annalisa; Iacopino, Leonardo; Ferraro, Pietro Manuel; Rizzo, Mariagiovanna; Sarlo, Francesca; Domino, Emidio; De Lorenzo, Antonino

    2014-10-01

    Several reports associate an Italian-style Mediterranean diet (IMD) with lower risk of cardiovascular disease and morbidity. The present study aimed to explore the effects of an Italian Mediterranean organic diet (IMOD) versus low-protein diet (LPD) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, according to patients' carrier status for the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism. A total of 40 male patients with CKD and stable renal function (Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative stages 2 and 3) were classified according to MTHFR polymorphism as carrier T(+) or non carrier T(-). At the time of enrolment (T0) patients' diet consisted of LPD; they were then administered IMD for 14 days (T1), thereupon IMOD for 14 days (T2). Patients underwent a complete medical history, body composition assessment and biochemical analysis. Baseline homocysteine levels were on average 8.24 mol/l higher (95 % confidence interval 6.47, 10.00) among T(+) than T(-) and the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.001). We found a significant interaction between MTHFR status and the effect of both the IMD and IMOD on homocysteine levels compared to LPD (p for interaction <0.001). Both the IMD and IMOD resulted in significant variations of anthropometric and laboratory measurements. IMD and IMOD diets could represent a viable alternative to LPD in CKD patients on conservative therapy. The effect of these diets seems to be influenced by MTHFR genotypes.

  7. Effects of cocoa-enriched diet on orofacial pain in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, L N; Rohrs, E L; Omoto, K; Durham, P L; Holliday, L S; Morris, A D; Allen, K D; Caudle, R M; Neubert, J K

    2017-06-01

    To investigate and discuss the effects of cocoa on orofacial pain. The Department of Orthodontics at the University of Florida (UF). Male and female hairless rats (N=20/group) were tested. Rats were tested using the Orofacial Pain Assessment Device (OPAD) before and after changing their food from the standard chow to a cocoa-enriched or control-equivalent diet. Male rats fed the cocoa diet had a significantly higher operant pain index when tested at 37°C as compared to control diet-fed animals. Female rats on the cocoa diet had a significantly higher pain index when tested at 18°C and 44°C, as compared to animals fed the control diet. Capsaicin-induced pain was inhibited, with cocoa-diet male rats having a significantly higher pain index than control-diet male rats and cocoa-diet female rats at both 37°C and 44°C. Cocoa-diet female rats had a significantly higher pain index at 44°C than control-diet females. Mechanical sensitivity was affected following capsaicin cream, with a significantly decreased tolerated bottle distance in both cocoa- and control-diet animals, but there was no difference between cocoa- and control-diet groups. Using the OPAD operant system, we demonstrated that a diet rich in cocoa was effective in inhibiting neurogenic inflammatory pain in rats. This has implications for the use of novel alternative therapies such as diet modification for pain control. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Glycogen storage disease type III: modified Atkins diet improves myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorandan, Sebene; Meyer, Uta; Hartmann, Hans; Das, Anibh Martin

    2014-11-28

    Frequent feeds with carbohydrate-rich meals or continuous enteral feeding has been the therapy of choice in glycogen storage disease (Glycogenosis) type III. Recent guidelines on diagnosis and management recommend frequent feedings with high complex carbohydrates or cornstarch avoiding fasting in children, while in adults a low-carb-high-protein-diet is recommended. While this regimen can prevent hypoglycaemia in children it does not improve skeletal and heart muscle function, which are compromised in patients with glycogenosis IIIa. Administration of carbohydrates may elicit reactive hyperinsulinism, resulting in suppression of lipolysis, ketogenesis, gluconeogenesis, and activation of glycogen synthesis. Thus, heart and skeletal muscle are depleted of energy substrates. Modified Atkins diet leads to increased blood levels of ketone bodies and fatty acids. We hypothesize that this health care intervention improves the energetic balance of muscles. We treated 2 boys with glycogenosis IIIa aged 9 and 11 years with a modified Atkins diet (10 g carbohydrate per day, protein and fatty acids ad libitum) over a period of 32 and 26 months, respectively. In both patients, creatine kinase levels in blood dropped in response to Atkins diet. When diet was withdrawn in one of the patients he complained of chest pain, reduced physical strength and creatine kinase levels rapidly increased. This was reversed when Atkins diet was reintroduced. One patient suffered from severe cardiomyopathy which significantly improved under diet. Patients with glycogenosis IIIa benefit from an improved energetic state of heart and skeletal muscle by introduction of Atkins diet both on a biochemical and clinical level. Apart from transient hypoglycaemia no serious adverse effects were observed.

  9. Diet in chronic kidney disease in a Mediterranean African country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammoun, Khawla; Chaker, Hanen; Mahfoudh, Hichem; Makhlouf, Nouha; Jarraya, Faical; Hachicha, Jamil

    2017-01-23

    Mediterranean diet is characterized by low to moderate consumption of animal protein and high consumption of fruits, vegetables, bread, beans, nuts, seeds and other cereals. It has been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. However, it is not suitable for chronic kidney disease because of high potassium intake. Tunisia is an emerging Mediterranean country with limited resources, a high prevalence of chronic hemodialysis treatment and high dialysis expenditures. In order to limit dialysis cost, primary and secondary prevention of chronic renal disease are of paramount importance. In addition to drugs, secondary prevention includes diet measures (e.g. salt diet, protein diet). The aims of diet practice in chronic kidney disease are to slow chronic renal failure progression and to prevent its complications like hyperphosphatemia and hyperkaliemiae. A few decades ago, a Tunisian diet was exclusively Mediterranean, and protein consumption was not excessive. However, today, protein consumption is more comparable to western countries. Salt consumption is also excessive. Some Tunisian diets still include food with high potassium intake, which are not suitable for patients with chronic kidney disease. Therefore, the role of the dietician is extremely important to help calculate and create a dietary regimen tailored to each of our patients. Advice about diets should be adapted to both the patient and population habits to improve adherence rate. As such, the purpose of this article is to provide our own experience regarding medical nutrition therapy in patients with chronic kidney disease in Tunisia, with some changes in food habits. Prevention is far better than treatment. In this perspective, dietary measures must be at the core of our intervention.

  10. Diet and breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Romieu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Both diet and nutrition have been studied in relationship with breast cancer risk, as the great variation among different countries in breast cancer incidence could possibly be explained through the inflammatory and immune response, as well as antioxidant intake, among others.To date, no clear association with diet beyond overweight and weight gain has been found, except for alcohol consumption. Nonetheless, the small number of studies done in middle to low income countries where variability of food intake is wider,is beginning to show interesting results.Tanto la dieta como la nutrición han sido estudiadas en relación con el riesgo de cáncer de mama, dada la gran variación de incidencia de cáncer entre países, y la posibilidad de explicarla a través de la respuesta inflamatoria o inmune, así como ingesta de antioxidantes,entre otros.Hasta la fecha, ninguna asociación clara con la dieta ha sido encontrada, excepto para el consumo de alcohol, más allá del sobrepeso y del incremento de peso. Sin embargo, los estudios que se están realizando en países de mediano a bajo nivel de ingresos, con mayor variabilidad de ingesta de alimentos, comienzan a mostrar resultados interesantes.

  11. Diet, nutrition, and cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, S.

    1985-01-01

    Evidence pertaining to the role of dietary factors in carcinogenesis comes from both epidemiological studies and laboratory experiments. In 1982, the Committee on Diet, Nutrition, and Cancer of the National Research Council conducted a comprehensive evaluation of this evidence. That assessment as well as recent epidemiological and laboratory investigations suggest that a high fat diet is associated with increased susceptibility to cancer of different sites, particularly the breast and colon, and to a lesser extent, the prostate. Current data permit no definitive conclusions about other dietary macroconstituents including cholesterol, total caloric intake, protein, carbohydrates and total dietary fiber. Specific components of fiber, however, may have a protective effect against colon cancer. In epidemiological studies, frequent consumption of certain fruits and vegetables, especially citrus fruits and carotene-rich and cruciferous vegetables, is associated with a lower incidence of cancers at various sites. The specific components responsible for these effects are not clearly identified, although the epidemiological evidence appears to be most consistent for a protective effect of carotene on lung cancer and less so for vitamins A and C and various cancer sites. The laboratory evidence is most consistent for vitamin A deficiency and enhanced tumorigenesis, and for the ability of various nonnutritive components in cruciferous vegetables to block in-vivo carcinogenesis. The data for minerals and carcinogenesis are extremely limited, although preliminary evidence from both epidemiological and laboratory studies suggests that selenium may protect against overall cancer risk. 402 references.

  12. Sex Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sex therapy Overview Sex therapy is a type of psychotherapy — a general term for treating mental health problems by talking with a mental health professional. Through sex therapy, you can address concerns about sexual function, ...

  13. Family Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Family therapy Overview Family therapy is a type of psychological counseling (psychotherapy) that can help family members improve communication and resolve conflicts. Family therapy is usually provided by a psychologist, ...

  14. Celiac disease treatment: gluten-free diet and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäki, Markku

    2014-07-01

    The basis for celiac disease (CD) treatment is a strict lifelong gluten-free diet. On the diet, the small intestinal mucosal injury heals and gluten-induced symptoms and signs disappear. The mucosal healing is a prerequisite for sustaining health and is also obtained with a diet containing oats and trace amounts of gluten, industrially purified wheat starch-based gluten-free products. The small intestinal mucosa does not heal in noncompliant people, nor when a patient is inadvertently ingesting gluten. Development of adjunctive or alternative therapies is on its way. There are several novel treatment pipelines within academy and industry. Examples are the ideas of using glutenases as a drug to degrade the ingested gluten, polymers to bind and sequester the gluten to the feces, and also vaccine development for an immunotherapy to induce tolerance towards gluten. Clinical drug trials are to be foreseen in CD, soon also in children.

  15. Logical hypothesis: Low FODMAP diet to prevent diverticulitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Yoshiharu; van Velkinburgh, Jennifer C

    2016-01-01

    Despite little evidence for the therapeutic benefits of a high-fiber diet for diverticulitis, it is commonly recommended as part of the clinical management. The ongoing uncertainty of the cause(s) of diverticulitis confounds attempts to determine the validity of this therapy. However, the features of a high-fiber diet represent a logical contradiction for colon diverticulitis. Considering that Bernoulli’s principle, by which enlarged diameter of the lumen leads to increased pressure and decreased fluid velocity, might contribute to development of the diverticulum. Thus, theoretically, prevention of high pressure in the colon would be important and adoption of a low FODMAP diet (consisting of fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols) may help prevent recurrence of diverticulitis. PMID:27867683

  16. Diet Quality and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florence, Michelle D.; Asbridge, Mark; Veugelers, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Although the effects of nutrition on health and school performance are often cited, few research studies have examined the effect of diet quality on the academic performance of children. This study examines the association between overall diet quality and academic performance. Methods: In 2003, 5200 grade 5 students in Nova Scotia,…

  17. Diet Quality of Collegiate Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Kelly; Stoess, Amanda Ireland; Forsythe, Hazel; Kurzynske, Janet; Vaught, Joy Ann; Adams, Bailey

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Collegiate athletes generally appear healthy according to weight for height and body fat standards. Despite the fact that there are well known connections between athletic performance and nutrition, little is known about the diets of collegiate athletes. The objective of this study was to determine the diet quality of 138…

  18. Is Dieting OK for Kids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body ... Educators Search English Español Is Dieting OK for Kids? KidsHealth / For Kids / Is Dieting OK for Kids? ...

  19. Immunostimulants in fish diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannam, A.L.; Schrock, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    Various immunostimulants and their methods of application in fish culture are examined in this review. Important variables such as life stage and innate disease resistance of the fish; immunostimulant used, its structure and mode of action; and the fish's environment are discussed. Conflicting results have been published about the efficacy of immunostimulants in fish diets. Some researchers have had positive responses demonstrated as increased fish survival, others have not. Generally, immunostimulants enhance individual components of the non-specific immune response but that does not always translate into increased fish survival. In addition, immunostimulants fed at too high a dose or for too long can be immunosuppressive. [Article copies available for a fee from The Haworth Document Delivery Service: 1-800-342-9678. E-mail address: getinfo@haworthpressinc.com ].

  20. Artificial Diets for Mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina K. Gonzales

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito-borne diseases are responsible for more than a million human deaths every year. Modern mosquito control strategies such as sterile insect technique (SIT, release of insects carrying a dominant lethal (RIDL, population replacement strategies (PR, and Wolbachia-based strategies require the rearing of large numbers of mosquitoes in culture for continuous release over an extended period of time. Anautogenous mosquitoes require essential nutrients for egg production, which they obtain through the acquisition and digestion of a protein-rich blood meal. Therefore, mosquito mass production in laboratories and other facilities relies on vertebrate blood from live animal hosts. However, vertebrate blood is expensive to acquire and hard to store for longer times especially under field conditions. This review discusses older and recent studies that were aimed at the development of artificial diets for mosquitoes in order to replace vertebrate blood.

  1. Cassava For Space Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Njemanze, Philip; Nweke, Felix; Mitsuhashi, Jun; Hachiya, Natumi; Miyashita, Sachiko; Hotta, Atuko

    Space agriculture is an advanced life support enginnering concept based on biological and ecological system ot drive the materials recycle loop and create pleasant life environment on distant planetary bodies. Choice of space diet is one of primary decision required ot be made at designing space agriculture. We propose cassava, Manihot esculenta and, for one major composition of space food materials, and evaluate its value and feasibility of farming and processing it for space diet. Criteria to select space crop species could be stated as follows. 1) Fill th enutritional requirements. There is no perfect food material to meet this requirements without making a combination with others. A set of food materials which are adopted inthe space recipe shall fit to the nutritional requirement. 2) Space food is not just for maintaining physiological activities of human, but an element of human culture. We shall consider joy of dining in space life. In this context, space foos or recipe should be accepted by future astronauts. Food culture is diverse in the world, and has close relatioship to each cultural background. Cassava root tuber is a material to supply mainly energy in the form of carbohydrate, same as cereals and other tuber crops. Cassava leaf is rich in protein high as 5.1 percents about ten times higher content than its tuber. In the food culture in Africa, cassava is a major component. Cassava root tuber in most of its strain contains cyanide, it should be removed during preparation for cooking. However certain strain are less in this cyanogenic compound, and genetically modified cassava can also aboid this problem safely.

  2. Ketogenic diet for epilepsy treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Pereira de Brito Sampaio

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The ketogenic diet (KD, a high-fat, low-carbohydrate, and adequate-protein diet is an established, effective nonpharmacologic treatment option for intractable childhood epilepsy. The KD was developed in 1921 and even though it has been increasingly used worldwide in the past decade, many neurologists are not familiar with this therapeutic approach. In the past few years, alternative and more flexible KD variants have been developed to make the treatment easier and more palatable while reducing side effects and making it available to larger group of refractory epilepsy patients. This review summarizes the history of the KD and the principles and efficacy of the classic ketogenic diet, medium-chain triglyceride(s (MCT ketogenic diet, modified Atkins diet, and low glycemic index treatment.

  3. Health effects of vegan diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Winston J

    2009-05-01

    Recently, vegetarian diets have experienced an increase in popularity. A vegetarian diet is associated with many health benefits because of its higher content of fiber, folic acid, vitamins C and E, potassium, magnesium, and many phytochemicals and a fat content that is more unsaturated. Compared with other vegetarian diets, vegan diets tend to contain less saturated fat and cholesterol and more dietary fiber. Vegans tend to be thinner, have lower serum cholesterol, and lower blood pressure, reducing their risk of heart disease. However, eliminating all animal products from the diet increases the risk of certain nutritional deficiencies. Micronutrients of special concern for the vegan include vitamins B-12 and D, calcium, and long-chain n-3 (omega-3) fatty acids. Unless vegans regularly consume foods that are fortified with these nutrients, appropriate supplements should be consumed. In some cases, iron and zinc status of vegans may also be of concern because of the limited bioavailability of these minerals.

  4. Effect of dietary approaches to stop hypertension diet plan on pregnancy outcome patients with gestational diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to test the effects of Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH diet plan on pregnancy outcomes patients with gestational diabetes mellitus. This randomized controlled clinical trial was performed among 33 women diagnosed with gestational diabetes. These patients were randomly distributed to the control group (n = 16 or DASH diet group (n = 17 for 4 weeks. Whereas 47.1% of women in the DASH diet needed to have a cesarean section, this percentage of mean gestational age in control diet was 81.3% (p<0.01. Approximately 23.5% of women in the DASH diet and 75% of women in control diet needed to commence insulin therapy after intervention (p<0.01. In conclusion, the effect of DASH diet improved pregnancy outcomes patients with gestational diabetes.

  5. Efficacy of and patient compliance with a ketogenic diet in adults with intractable epilepsy: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Fang; Li, Xiao-Jia; Jiang, Wan-Lin; Sun, Hong-Bin; Liu, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Despite the successful use of a ketogenic diet in pediatric epilepsy, its application in adults has been limited. The aim of this meta-analysis was to summarize the findings of relevant published studies in order to identify the efficacy of and compliance with a ketogenic diet and its main subtypes (i.e., classic ketogenic diet and modified Atkins diet) in adults with intractable epilepsy, and to provide useful information for clinical practice. Electronic searches of PubMed, EMBASE, Google Scholar, and the ISI Web of Science were conducted to identify studies of the efficacy of and patient compliance with a ketogenic diet in adults with intractable epilepsy; the included studies were reviewed. Meta-analyses were performed using STATA to determine combined efficacy rates and combined rates of compliance with the ketogenic diet and its main subtypes. In total, 12 studies qualified for inclusion, and data from 270 patients were evaluated.The results of the meta-analysis revealed combined efficacy rates of all types of ketogenic diet, a classical ketogenic diet, and a modified Atkins diet were 42%, 52%, and 34%, respectively; the corresponding combined compliance rates were 45%, 38%, and 56%. The results indicate that a ketogenic diet is a promising complementary therapy in adult intractable epilepsy, and that while a classical ketogenic diet may be more effective, adult patients are likely to be less compliant with it than with a modified Atkins diet.

  6. Your diet after gastric bypass surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastric bypass surgery - your diet; Obesity - diet after bypass; Weight loss - diet after bypass ... You had gastric bypass surgery. This surgery made your stomach smaller by closing off most of your stomach with staples. It changed the way your ...

  7. Limited efficacy of the ketogenic diet in the treatment of highly refractory epileptic spasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Shaun A; Shin, Ji Hyun; Shih, Evan J; Murata, Kristina K; Sewak, Sarika; Kezele, Michele E; Sankar, Raman; Matsumoto, Joyce H

    2016-02-01

    Numerous studies have suggested that the ketogenic diet is effective in the treatment of epileptic spasms, even in refractory cases. However, there has been very limited demonstration of prompt and complete (video-EEG confirmed) response. We set out to describe our center's experience with the ketogenic diet in the treatment of children with highly refractory epileptic spasms, with rigorous seizure outcome assessment. Children treated with the ketogenic diet for epileptic spasms between April, 2010 and June, 2014 were retrospectively identified. Seizure burden was tabulated at baseline and after 1, 3, 6, and 12-months of ketogenic diet exposure. Adverse events were similarly ascertained. We identified a cohort of 22 consecutive patients who received ketogenic diet therapy, with median age of onset of epileptic spasms of 5.2 (IQR 2.0-9.0) months, with diet initiation beginning a median of 26.4 (12.5-38.7) months after onset, and following a median of 7 (IQR 5-7) treatment failures. Only 2 patients exhibited a complete response during ketogenic diet exposure, and response was more reasonably attributed to alternative therapies in both cases. A modest early reduction in seizure frequency was not sustained beyond 1 month of diet exposure. The diet was well tolerated, and continued in 6 patients with subjective and/or partial response. In contrast to prior studies reporting substantial efficacy of the ketogenic diet, our findings suggest limited efficacy, albeit in a highly refractory cohort. Prospective studies in both refractory and new-onset populations, with both video-EEG confirmation of response and rigorous cognitive outcome assessment, would be of great value to more clearly define the utility of the ketogenic diet in the treatment of epileptic spasms. Copyright © 2016 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Mechanisms of Action of Antiseizure Drugs and the Ketogenic Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogawski, Michael A.; Löscher, Wolfgang; Rho, Jong M.

    2016-01-01

    Antiseizure drugs (ASDs), also termed antiepileptic drugs, are the main form of symptomatic treatment for people with epilepsy, but not all patients become free of seizures. The ketogenic diet is one treatment option for drug-resistant patients. Both types of therapy exert their clinical effects through interactions with one or more of a diverse set of molecular targets in the brain. ASDs act by modulation of voltage-gated ion channels, including sodium, calcium, and potassium channels; by enhancement of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated inhibition through effects on GABAA receptors, the GABA transporter 1 (GAT1) GABA uptake transporter, or GABA transaminase; through interactions with elements of the synaptic release machinery, including synaptic vesicle 2A (SV2A) and α2δ; or by blockade of ionotropic glutamate receptors, including α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate (AMPA) receptors. The ketogenic diet leads to increases in circulating ketones, which may contribute to the efficacy in treating pharmacoresistant seizures. Production in the brain of inhibitory mediators, such as adenosine, or ion channel modulators, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids, may also play a role. Metabolic effects, including diversion from glycolysis, are a further postulated mechanism. For some ASDs and the ketogenic diet, effects on multiple targets may contribute to activity. Better understanding of the ketogenic diet will inform the development of improved drug therapies to treat refractory seizures. PMID:26801895

  9. Treatment of chronic portal--systemic encephalopathy with vegetable and animal protein diets. A controlled crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe, M; Márquez, M A; Garcia Ramos, G; Ramos-Uribe, M H; Vargas, F; Villalobos, A; Ramos, C

    1982-12-01

    A controlled crossover clinical comparison of 40-g/day and 80-g/day vegetable protein diets vs a 40-g/day meat protein diet plus neomycin-milk of magnesia (as control therapy) was performed on 10 cirrhotic patients with mild chronic portal-systemic encephalopathy. The 40-g vegetable protein diet had a high fiber volume and contained low methionine and low aromatic amino acids. The 80-g vegetable protein diet was rich in branched-chain amino acids and fiber, with a similar content of sulfur-containing amino acids as compared to the 40-g meat protein diet. Serial semiquantitative assessments were done, including mental state, asterixis, number connection tests, electroencephalograms and blood ammonia levels. No patient developed deep coma while ingesting either vegetable protein diet or neomycin-milk of magnesia plus 40-g meat protein diet. A significant improvement in the number connection test times was observed during the 40-g vegetable protein diet (P less than 0.05) and during the 80-g vegetable protein diet (P less than 0.05) as compared to their previous 40-g meat protein--neomycin periods. In addition, during the period of 80-g vegetable protein diet, the patients showed a significant improvement in their electroencephalograms (P less than 0.05). The frequency of bowel movements significantly increased (P less than 0.05) during the 80-g vegetable protein diet period. During the 40-g vegetable protein diet, two cirrhotic--diabetic patients experienced hypoglycemia. Three patients complained of the voluminous 80-g vegetable protein diet. Patients with mild portal--systemic encephalopathy may be adequately controlled with vegetable protein diets as a single therapy.

  10. Diet and fertility in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrujkić Tihomir

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The diet of high-yield dairy cows process a very complex and acute problem. Much new knowledge in the area of production and preparation of feedstuffs, diet technology, and the interactions that occur between the components of the nutritive feed ration are required in order to resolve this problem. It is necessary constantly to coordinate feed norms with genetic potential which is ever changing and advanced. The observed problems must be resolved using multidisciplinary methods so that a diet can yield good health, and that health contribute to better reproduction and possibilities for more successful breeding and improved performance in cattle farming. In certain countries, thanks to their geographic position and climatic conditions which allow rainfall throughout the year, a natural green diet can be applied, which provides large numbers of green mass components, and with additives which can be supplemented relatively easily. This type of diet is not possible in our farms. It is very important to know which feedstuff components are laking for certain categories of cattle. The used ration must be constant and administered to animals of certain age or production characteristics in order to improve production results at cattle farms. A great problem occurs when diet is reduced due to dried grass and the resulting stress in animals. A 50% diet reduction in young cattle often results in the occurrence of respiratory diseases. Following 10-14 days of treatment, the disease disappears in young animals, but the energy deficit leads to the weakening (depression of the immune system. Even a so-called high-energy diet often causes respiratory diseases. A diet deficient in proteins also affects cows after lactation, as opposed to a normative diet, and a reduced protein diet disturbs the microbial activity in the rumen and the synthesis of compounds which are important for both the cow and the calf, making room for the incidence of metabolic diseases, most

  11. Assessment of diet in chronic kidney disease female predialysis patients

    OpenAIRE

    Dariusz Włodarek; Dominika Głąbska; Jadwiga Rojek-Trębicka

    2014-01-01

    [b]introduction and objective[/b]. Nutrition is important in the therapy of predialysis patients. The aim of the presented single-centre descriptive study was to assess the diet in chronic kidney disease female predialysis patients with no previous dietary intervention, in comparison with recommendations, as well as the analysis of the energy, protein and phosphate intake in correlation with chosen laboratory measurements. [b]materials and methods.[/b] The research was carried out in 31...

  12. What an anticardiovascular diet should be in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, David R; Tapsell, Linda C

    2015-08-01

    Given scientific and public debate about optimal diet to prevent cardiovascular disease, and interest in diet and other chronic diseases, we propose that following a few simple dietary principles would reduce chronic disease incidence. Nutrition research has been criticized for focusing on individual nutrients and foods, treated like drug therapy. With a few important exceptions, clinical trials of supplemental nutrients have not shown benefit. Although highly specific nutrition information is elusive, diet patterns have provided consistent answers, important for public health. Observational cohort studies have found that some dietary patterns are reported with high reliability over long periods and predict future cardiovascular and other inflammatory-related diseases. Two randomized clinical trials confirmed this finding. There are many common features of Mediterranean and prudent diets, particularly the plant-centered aspect, coupled with variety of foods eaten. A dietary pattern characterized by high fruit, vegetable, legume, whole grain, nut, berry, seed, and fish intakes, and possibly by intakes of dairy, coffee, tea, chocolate, and alcohol (not in excess), but low meat and detrimentally processed foods is associated with reduced incidence of cardiovascular disease and rates of noncardiovascular, noncancer chronic inflammatory-related mortality. A plant-centered diet may be broadly recommended.

  13. The ketogenic diet is effective for refractory epilepsy associated with acquired structural epileptic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaluz, Mel Michel; Lomax, Lysa Boissé; Jadhav, Trupti; Cross, J Helen; Scheffer, Ingrid E

    2018-07-01

    Ketogenic diet therapies have proven efficacy for refractory epilepsy. There are many reports of their use in the genetic developmental and epileptic encephalopathies; however, little attention has been paid as to whether the diet is also effective in individuals with an acquired structural aetiology. We observed remarkable efficacy of the diet in two patients with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. We then analysed our cases with refractory structural epilepsies of acquired origin to characterize their response to the ketogenic diet. The classical ketogenic diet was implemented with dietary ratios of 3:1 to 4.4:1. Seizure frequency at 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years was ascertained. A responder was defined as greater than 50% seizure reduction compared to baseline. Seven of the nine patients were responders at 3 months. Somewhat surprisingly we found that the ketogenic diet was effective in patients with a developmental and epileptic encephalopathy due to an acquired structural aetiology. This cohort may not be routinely considered for the ketogenic diet because of their structural and acquired, rather than genetic, basis. The ketogenic diet should be considered early in the management of patients with acquired structural encephalopathies as it can improve seizure control with the potential to improve developmental outcome. The ketogenic diet was effective in children with epilepsy associated with an acquired structural aetiology. © 2018 Mac Keith Press.

  14. [Renal patient's diet: Can fish be included?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro González, M I; Maafs Rodríguez, A G; Galindo Gómez, C

    2012-01-01

    Medical and nutritional treatment for renal disease, now a major public health issue, is highly complicated. Nutritional therapy must seek to retard renal dysfunction, maintain an optimal nutritional status and prevent the development of underlying pathologies. To analyze ten fish species to identify those that, because of their low phosphorus content, high biological value protein and elevated n-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA, could be included in renal patient's diet. The following fish species (Litte tunny, Red drum, Spotted eagleray, Escolar, Swordfish, Big-scale pomfret, Cortez flounder, Largemouth blackbass, Periche mojarra, Florida Pompano) were analyzed according to the AOAC and Keller techniques to determine their protein, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, cholesterol, vitamins D(3) and E, and n-3 EPA+DHA content. These results were used to calculate relations between nutrients. The protein in the analyzed species ranged from 16.5 g/100 g of fillet (Largemouth black bass) to 27.2 g/100 g (Red drum); the lowest phosphorus value was 28.6 mg/100 g (Periche mojarra) and the highest 216.3 mg/100 g (Spotted eagle ray). 80% of the fish presented > 100 mg EPA + DHA in 100 g of fillet. By its Phosphorus/gProtein ratio, Escolar and Swordfish could not be included in the renal diet; Little tunny, Escolar, Big-scale pomfret, Largemouth black-bass, Periche mojarra and Florida Pompano presented a lower Phosphorus/EPA + DHA ratio. Florida pompano is the most recommended specie for renal patients, due to its optimal nutrient relations. However, all analyzed species, except Escolar and Swordfish, could be included in renal diets.

  15. Complementary and Alternative Therapies in ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedlack, Richard S.; Joyce, Nanette; Carter, Gregory T.; Pagononi, Sabrina; Karam, Chafic

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Given the severity of their illness and lack of effective disease modifying agents, it is not surprising that most patients with ALS consider trying complementary and alternative therapies. Some of the most commonly considered alternative therapies include special diets, nutritional supplements, cannabis, acupuncture, chelation and energy healing. This chapter reviews these in detail. We also describe 3 models by which physicians may frame discussions about alternative therapies: paternalism, autonomy and shared decision making. Finally, we review a program called ALSUntangled which using shared shared decision making to review alternative therapies for ALS. PMID:26515629

  16. Diet and gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šipetić Sandra B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this case-control study, conducted in Serbia during the period 1998-2000, was to investigate whether diet was associated with the development of gastric cancer. The case group consisted of 131 patients with histologically confirmed gastric cancer, and the control group of 131 patients with orthopedics diseases and injuries. Cases and controls were individually matched by age (±± 2 years, gender, and place of residence. On the basis of multivariate logistic regression analysis, following factors were found as independent risk factors for gastric cancer: more frequent consumption of high-fat milk [Odds ratio (OR =1.45, 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.99-2.16]; mutton, lamb and/or calf meat (OR = 2.46, 95% CI = 1.11-5.47, sugar (OR = 2.13, 95% CI = 1.43-3.18, semi-white bread (OR = 2.09, 95% CI = 1.25-3.50, and salting food (OR = 5.72, 95% CI = 2.63-12.42. Factors found as protective were: more frequent consumption of margarine (OR = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.25-0.69, „other“ cheeses (OR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.29 - 0.77, and fish (OR = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.19-0.76.

  17. Protein-Losing Enteropathy as a Complication of the Ketogenic Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Won Kee; Park, Soyoung; Kim, Heung Dong

    2017-07-01

    The ketogenic diet is an effective treatment for the patients with intractable epilepsy, however, the diet therapy can sometimes be discontinued by complications. Protein-losing enteropathy is a rarely reported serious complication of the ketogenic diet. We present a 16-month-old Down syndrome baby with protein-losing enteropathy during the ketogenic diet as a treatment for West syndrome. He suffered from diarrhea, general edema and hypoalbuminemia which were not controlled by conservative care for over 1 month. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy and stool alpha-1 antitrypsin indicated protein-losing enteropathy. Related symptoms were relieved after cessation of the ketogenic diet. Unexplained hypoalbuminemia combined with edema and diarrhea during ketogenic suggests the possibility of protein-losing enteropathy, and proper evaluation is recommended in order to expeditiously detect it and to act accordingly. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2017.

  18. Effects of Ketogenic Diets on Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Evidence from Animal and Human Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosinski, Christophe; Jornayvaz, François R.

    2017-01-01

    The treatment of obesity and cardiovascular diseases is one of the most difficult and important challenges nowadays. Weight loss is frequently offered as a therapy and is aimed at improving some of the components of the metabolic syndrome. Among various diets, ketogenic diets, which are very low in carbohydrates and usually high in fats and/or proteins, have gained in popularity. Results regarding the impact of such diets on cardiovascular risk factors are controversial, both in animals and humans, but some improvements notably in obesity and type 2 diabetes have been described. Unfortunately, these effects seem to be limited in time. Moreover, these diets are not totally safe and can be associated with some adverse events. Notably, in rodents, development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and insulin resistance have been described. The aim of this review is to discuss the role of ketogenic diets on different cardiovascular risk factors in both animals and humans based on available evidence. PMID:28534852

  19. Ketogenic diet efficacy in the treatment of intractable epileptic spasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayyali, Husam R; Gustafson, Megan; Myers, Tara; Thompson, Lindsey; Williams, Michelle; Abdelmoity, Ahmad

    2014-03-01

    To determine the efficacy of the ketogenic diet in controlling epileptic spasms after failing traditional antiepileptic medication therapy. This is a prospective, case-based study of all infants with epileptic spasms who were referred for treatment with the ketogenic diet at our hospital between 2009 and 2012. All subjects continued to have epileptic spasms with evidence of hypsarrhythmia or severe epileptic encephalopathy on electroencephalography despite appropriate medication treatments. The diet efficacy was assessed through clinic visits, phone communications, and electroencephalography. Quality of life improvement was charted based on the caregiver's perspective. Twenty infants (15 males) were included in the study. The mean age at seizure onset was 4.5 months. Age at ketogenic diet initiation was 0.3 to 2.9 years (mean 1.20, standard deviation 0.78). Fifteen patients had epileptic spasms of unknown etiology; three had perinatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, one had lissencephaly, and one had STXBP1 mutation. Fifteen infants failed to respond to adrenocorticotropin hormone and/or vigabatrin before going on the ketogenic diet. Three months after starting the diet, >50% seizure reduction was achieved in 70% of patients (95% CI 48-86). These results were maintained at 6- and 12-month intervals. All eight of the patients followed for 24 months had >50% seizure reduction (95% CI 63-100). At least 90% seizure reduction was reported in 20% of patients at 3 months (95% CI 7-42), 22% (95% CI 8-46) at 6 months, and 35% (95% CI 17-59) at 12 months. The majority of patients (63%) achieved improvement of their spasms within 1 month after starting the diet. Sixty percent of patients had electroencephalographic improvement. All caregivers reported improvement of the quality of life at the 3-month visit (95% confidence interval 81-100). This ratio was 94% at 6 months (95% CI 72-99) and 82% at 12 months (95% CI 58-95). The ketogenic diet is a safe and potentially

  20. GoM Diet Matrix

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set was taken from CRD 08-18 at the NEFSC. Specifically, the Gulf of Maine diet matrix was developed for the EMAX exercise described in that center...

  1. Potassium and Your CKD Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vegetable in your diet, leach them before using. Leaching is a process by which some potassium can be pulled out ... out of my favorite high-potassium vegetables? The process of leaching will help pull potassium out of some high- ...

  2. Diet History Questionnaire: International Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ARP staff adapted the Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ) for use by Canadian populations in collaboration with the Alberta Cancer Board. This questionnaire takes into account the different food fortification polices of the U.S. and Canada.

  3. Can Vegetarian Diet Reverse Diabetes?

    OpenAIRE

    KOMENAN, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is a metabolic disease that continues to grow. However, the incurable nature of the disease is questioned within the scientific community. The author examines the work of two experts concerning the cure of diabetes by a vegetarian diet.

  4. Diet and Nutrition With Lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Pinterest Email Print Diet and nutrition with lupus Lupus Foundation of America April 19, 2018 Resource ... living Recipe collection Guidance on alcohol use with lupus Moderate use of alcohol is usually not a ...

  5. Habitual Diet and Avocado Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-16

    Intra-abdominal Fat; Metabolic Syndrome; High Cholesterol; Triglycerides High; Diet Habit; High Blood Sugar; Liver Fat; Dietary Modification; HDL Cholesterol, Low Serum; Cardiovascular Diseases; High Density Lipoprotein Deficiency; Low-density-lipoprotein-type; Cardiovascular Risk Factor; Diabetes

  6. Diabetes Diet, Eating, & Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sexual, & Bladder Problems Clinical Trials Diabetes Diet, Eating, & Physical Activity Nutrition and physical activity are important parts of ... feet before, during, and after physical activity. What physical activities should I do if I have diabetes? Most ...

  7. Lowering Salt in Your Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Lowering Salt in Your Diet Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... Subscribe: FDA Consumer Health Information Everyone needs some salt to function. Also known as sodium chloride, salt ...

  8. Ten-year single-center experience of the ketogenic diet: factors influencing efficacy, tolerability, and compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibisono, Cinthya; Rowe, Natalie; Beavis, Erin; Kepreotes, Helen; Mackie, Fiona E; Lawson, John A; Cardamone, Michael

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the efficacy, tolerability, and compliance of 3 ketogenic diets, the classical ketogenic diet, medium-chain triglyceride (MCT), and modified Atkins diet. A single-center, retrospective study of 48 children with intractable epilepsy receiving ketogenic diets from 2003 to 2012. Patient demographics, epilepsy history, nutritional management, and side effects were collated. Compliance and tolerability were assessed by recording reasons for diet modification and cessation. The value of potassium citrate supplementation for preventing nephrolithiasis was reviewed. Median age at ketogenic diet initiation was 3.8 years (IQR: 2.3-7 years). The majority had intractable epilepsy, and 33 of the 48 children (69%) had epileptic encephalopathies. Three (6%) patients became seizure free, 35 (73%) reported Diet duration or ketogenic diet type did not predict reduction in seizures (P = .381; P = .272). Constipation (n = 31, 65%) was very common. Food refusal (n = 3, 6%) and poor parental compliance (n = 5, 10%) were common reasons cited for cessation. There were lower rates of side effects for modified Atkins diet. Diet cessation was greatest for MCT; however, 3 patients on MCT ceased therapy because adequate seizure control was achieved. Nephrolithiasis was reported in 1 patient before potassium citrate was used and 2 patients noncompliant with potassium citrate supplementation developed hypercalciuria. The 3 ketogenic diets were comparably effective in seizure control and generally well-tolerated. Potassium citrate supplementation is an effective prophylactic supplement for the prevention of nephrolithiasis. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Advancing beyond the "heart-healthy diet" for peripheral arterial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosova, Emily V; Conte, Michael S; Grenon, S Marlene

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a burdensome cardiovascular condition that results from chronic inflammatory insults to the arterial vasculature. Key risk factors include age, gender, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hyperhomocysteinemia, smoking, lack of physical fitness, and poor diet, the latter three being modifiable in the development and progression of PAD. A growing body of evidence indicates that imbalanced nutrient intake may contribute to the development and progression of PAD. The purpose of this review is to summarize current knowledge about nutritional patterns among patients with PAD and to ascertain whether certain health-promoting foods and nutrients could benefit patients with this condition. We conducted a comprehensive literature review to examine primary source evidence for or against the nutrients that are commonly associated with PAD and their potential utility as therapies. We summarized nine categories of nutrients, as well as four diets endorsed by the American Heart Association that may be prescribed to patients with or at risk for PAD. The nutrients reviewed included omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), folate and B-series vitamins, and antioxidants. The diet plans described include the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, Mediterranean diet, low-fat diet, low carbohydrate diet, Dr Dean Ornish's Spectrum Diet and Dr Andrew Weil's Anti-Inflammatory Diet. PAD is a chronic inflammatory condition that is associated with longstanding poor nutrition habits. We advocate for an intensified use of diet in PAD therapy, and we specifically recommend following eating patterns that are rich in nutrients with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Ketogenic diet for epilepsy treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Sampaio, Letícia Pereira de Brito

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The ketogenic diet (KD), a high-fat, low-carbohydrate, and adequate-protein diet is an established, effective nonpharmacologic treatment option for intractable childhood epilepsy. The KD was developed in 1921 and even though it has been increasingly used worldwide in the past decade, many neurologists are not familiar with this therapeutic approach. In the past few years, alternative and more flexible KD variants have been developed to make the treatment easier and more palatable whi...

  11. Medium-chain Triglyceride Ketogenic Diet, An Effective Treatment for Drug-resistant Epilepsy and A Comparison with Other Ketogenic Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeou-mei Christiana Liu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The ketogenic diet (KD is one of the most effective therapies for drug-resistant epilepsy. The efficacy of the medium-chain triglyceride KD (MCTKD is as excellent as the classic KD (CKD, which has been documented in several subsequent retrospective, prospective, and randomized studies. MCT oil is more ketogenic than long-chain triglycerides. Therefore, the MCTKD allows more carbohydrate and protein food, which makes the diet more palatable than the CKD. The MCTKD is not based on diet ratios as is the CKD, but uses a percentage of calories from MCT oil to create ketones. There has also been literature which documents the associated gastrointestinal side effects from the MCTKD, such as diarrhea, vomiting, bloating, and cramps. Therefore, the MCTKD has been an underutilized diet therapy for intractable epilepsy among children.The author has used up to >70% MCTKD diet to maximize seizure control with gastrointestinal side effects optimally controlled. As long as health care professionals carefully manage MCTKD, many more patients with epilepsy who are not appropriate for CKD or modified Atkins diet or low glycemic index treatment will benefit from this treatment. A comparison between the MCTKD and other KDs is also discussed.

  12. Diet, gut microbiota and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Cicely; Thiennimitr, Parameth; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C

    2017-02-01

    The consumption of a diet high in fat and sugar can lead to the development of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), cardiovascular disease and cognitive decline. In the human gut, the trillions of harmless microorganisms harboured in the host's gastrointestinal tract are called the 'gut microbiota'. Consumption of a diet high in fat and sugar changes the healthy microbiota composition which leads to an imbalanced microbial population in the gut, a phenomenon known as "gut dysbiosis". It has been shown that certain types of gut microbiota are linked to the pathogenesis of obesity. In addition, long-term consumption of a high fat diet is associated with cognitive decline. It has recently been proposed that the gut microbiota is part of a mechanistic link between the consumption of a high fat diet and the impaired cognition of an individual, termed "microbiota-gut-brain axis". In this complex relationship between the gut, the brain and the gut microbiota, there are several types of gut microbiota and host mechanisms involved. Most of these mechanisms are still poorly understood. Therefore, this review comprehensively summarizes the current evidence from mainly in vivo (rodent and human) studies of the relationship between diet, gut microbiota and cognition. The possible mechanisms that the diet and the gut microbiota have on cognition are also presented and discussed.

  13. [Epilepsy, cognition and ketogenic diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Penas, J J

    2018-03-01

    Most individuals with epilepsy will respond to pharmacologic treatment; however, approximately 20-30% will develop medically refractory epilepsy. Cognitive side effects of antiepileptic drugs are common and can negatively affect tolerability, compliance, and long-term retention of the treatment. Ketogenic diet is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for these children with refractory epilepsy without any negative effect on cognition or behavior. To review the current state of experimental and clinical data concerning the neuroprotective and cognitive effects of the ketogenic diet in both humans and animals. In different animal models, with or without epilepsy, the ketogenic diet seems to have neuroprotective and mood-stabilizing effects. In the observational studies in pediatric epilepsy, improvements during treatment with the ketogenic diet are reported in behavior and cognitive function, particularly with respect to attention, alertness, activity level, socialization, and sleep quality. One randomized controlled trial in patients with pediatric refractory epilepsy showed a mood and cognitive activation during ketogenic diet treatment. Ketogenic diet shows a positive impact on behavioral and cognitive functioning in children and adolescents with refractory epilepsy. More specifically, an improvement is observed in mood, sustained attention, and social interaction.

  14. Effect of Progesterone Therapy versus Diet Modification on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016 Journal of Basic and Clinical Reproductive Sciences | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow. 82. Effect of ... stools is a common cause of painful defecation and fecal ... This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons ... constipation in pregnant women compared with placebo.

  15. Mediterranean Diet and Diabetes: Prevention and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Georgoulis, Michael; Kontogianni, Meropi D.; Yiannakouris, Nikos

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present review is to examine current scientific knowledge on the association between the Mediterranean diet and diabetes mellitus (mostly type 2 diabetes). A definition of the Mediterranean diet and the tools widely used to evaluate adherence to this traditional diet (Mediterranean diet indices) are briefly presented. The review focuses on epidemiological data linking adherence to the Mediterranean diet with the risk of diabetes development, as well as evidence from interventi...

  16. Treatment of NAFLD with diet, physical activity and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Gómez, Manuel; Zelber-Sagi, Shira; Trenell, Michael

    2017-10-01

    Lifestyle intervention can be effective when treating non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD) patients. Weight loss decreases cardiovascular and diabetes risk and can also regress liver disease. Weight reductions of ⩾10% can induce a near universal non-alcoholic steatohepatitis resolution and fibrosis improvement by at least one stage. However, modest weight loss (>5%) can also produce important benefits on the components of the NAFLD activity score (NAS). Additionally, we need to explore the role of total calories and type of weight loss diet, micro- and macronutrients, evidence-based benefits of physical activity and exercise and finally support these modifications through established behavioural change models and techniques for long-term maintenance of lifestyle modifications. Following a Mediterranean diet can reduce liver fat even without weight loss and is the most recommended dietary pattern for NAFLD. The Mediterranean diet is characterised by reduced carbohydrate intake, especially sugars and refined carbohydrates (40% of the calories vs. 50-60% in a typical low fat diet), and increased monounsaturated and omega-3 fatty acid intake (40% of the calories as fat vs. up-to 30% in a typical low fat diet). Both TV sitting (a reliable marker of overall sedentary behaviour) and physical activity are associated with cardio-metabolic health, NAFLD and overall mortality. A 'triple hit behavioural phenotype' of: i) sedentary behaviour, ii) low physical activity, and iii) poor diet have been defined. Clinical evidence strongly supports the role of lifestyle modification as a primary therapy for the management of NAFLD and NASH. This should be accompanied by the implementation of strategies to avoid relapse and weight regain. Copyright © 2017 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Feminist Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidlaw, Toni; Malmo, Cheryl

    1991-01-01

    Traces roots of feminist therapy and its independence from traditional and prevalent theories and therapy practices. Asserts that Freudian theory and humanistic assumptions are sexist and contribute to powerlessness of women. In contrast, feminist therapy is seen as dealing directly with client-counselor relationships, trust, advocacy, and…

  18. Gene Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gene therapy Overview Gene therapy involves altering the genes inside your body's cells in an effort to treat or stop disease. Genes contain your ... that don't work properly can cause disease. Gene therapy replaces a faulty gene or adds a new ...

  19. Protein-losing enteropathy as a rare complication of the ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Kengo; Watanabe, Mio; Yamada, Yoshiyuki; Shiihara, Takashi

    2015-05-01

    The ketogenic diet is a valuable therapy for patients with intractable epilepsy, but it can result in a variety of complications that sometimes limits its usefulness. Hypoproteinemia is one of the common adverse effects of this diet, although the underling mechanism is largely unknown except for the diet's reduced protein intake. Only one case of protein-losing enteropathy during the ketogenic diet has been reported. A previously healthy 9-year-old girl experienced fever for 5 days then suddenly developed convulsive seizures that subsequently evolved to severe refractory status epilepticus. After multiple antiepileptic drugs failed to improve the patient's condition, we introduced the ketogenic diet. Although her seizures diminished, her course was complicated by hypoproteinemia. An abdominal dynamic scintigraphy and colonoscopy findings indicated protein-losing enteropathy with nonspecific mucosal inflammation. Her nutritional status deteriorated; thus, we discontinued the ketogenic diet. Her nutritional status gradually improved, whereas her seizures increased. Hypoproteinemia during the ketogenic diet is common, but the underlying etiologies are not well understood. Abdominal dynamic scintigraphy could be valuable for clarifying the etiology of hypoproteinemia during the ketogenic diet. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Reduced pain and inflammation in juvenile and adult rats fed a ketogenic diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David N Ruskin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The ketogenic diet is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate regimen that forces ketone-based rather than glucose-based cellular metabolism. Clinically, maintenance on a ketogenic diet has been proven effective in treating pediatric epilepsy and type II diabetes, and recent basic research provides evidence that ketogenic strategies offer promise in reducing brain injury. Cellular mechanisms hypothesized to be mobilized by ketone metabolism and underlying the success of ketogenic diet therapy, such as reduced reactive oxygen species and increased central adenosine, suggest that the ketolytic metabolism induced by the diet could reduce pain and inflammation. To test the effects of a ketone-based metabolism on pain and inflammation directly, we fed juvenile and adult rats a control diet (standard rodent chow or ketogenic diet (79% fat ad libitum for 3-4 weeks. We then quantified hindpaw thermal nociception as a pain measure and complete Freund's adjuvant-induced local hindpaw swelling and plasma extravasation (fluid movement from the vasculature as inflammation measures. Independent of age, maintenance on a ketogenic diet reduced the peripheral inflammatory response significantly as measured by paw swelling and plasma extravasation. The ketogenic diet also induced significant thermal hypoalgesia independent of age, shown by increased hindpaw withdrawal latency in the hotplate nociception test. Anti-inflammatory and hypoalgesic diet effects were generally more robust in juveniles. The ketogenic diet elevated plasma ketones similarly in both age groups, but caused slowed body growth only in juveniles. These data suggest that applying a ketogenic diet or exploiting cellular mechanisms associated with ketone-based metabolism offers new therapeutic opportunities for controlling pain and peripheral inflammation, and that such a metabolic strategy may offer significant benefits for children and adults.

  1. Gerson Therapy (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson therapy is advocated by its supporters as a method of treating cancer patients based on changes in diet and nutrient intake. No results of laboratory or animal studies have been published in scientific journals. Get detailed information about Gerson therapy in this summary for clinicians.

  2. Ketogenic diet using a Japanese ketogenic milk for patients with epilepsy: A multi-institutional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumada, Tomohiro; Imai, Katsumi; Takahashi, Yukitoshi; Nabatame, Shin; Oguni, Hirokazu

    2018-03-01

    In Japan, Meiji 817-B (M817-B), a powdered ketogenic milk, has been available since the ketogenic diet was introduced to infants and tube-fed children with medication-resistant epilepsy in the 1980s. We retrospectively evaluated the efficacy, tolerability, and side effects of the ketogenic diet using M817-B as the main source of daily food intake for patients with epilepsy by sending questionnaires to the members of a subcommittee of the Japan Epilepsy Society that focuses on the proper use of M817-B. A total of 42 patients were enrolled. Age at the initiation of the diet therapy ranged from 3 to 244 months (median, 32.5 months). Thirty-four patients were fed via tube, and the remaining 8 were fed orally. About 93% of patients were able to continue the diet for 1 month, 74% for 3 months, and 64% for 6 months. The median period of continuation was 16 months. One patient was able to continue as long as 7 years. The ketogenic ratio was maintained at about 3.0. The seizure-free rate and responder (>50% seizure reduction) rate were about 10% and 30-40%, respectively during the 12 months on the diet. Mean serum beta-hydroxybutyrate increased to almost 4 mM at 1 month and was maintained during the diet period. Side effects, which required discontinuation of the diet therapy, occurred in 11 of 42 patients and included hypertonia, weight loss, vomiting, hypoglycemia, metabolic acidosis, and hypokalemia. M817-B could be used long-term with demonstrated efficacy in seizure reduction, although there are some side effects that may require cessation of the diet therapy. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Linking diet to acne metabolomics, inflammation, and comedogenesis: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnik BC

    2015-07-01

    proliferation. Oleate stimulates P. acnes adhesion, keratinocyte proliferation, and comedogenesis via interleukin-1α release. Thus, diet-induced metabolomic alterations promote the visible sebofollicular inflammasomopathy acne vulgaris. Nutrition therapy of acne has to increase FoxO1 and to attenuate mTORC1/SREBP-1c signaling. Patients should balance total calorie uptake and restrict refined carbohydrates, milk, dairy protein supplements, saturated fats, and trans-fats. A paleolithic-like diet enriched in vegetables and fish is recommended. Plant-derived mTORC1 inhibitors and ω-3-PUFAs are promising dietary supplements supporting nutrition therapy of acne vulgaris. Keywords: acne, comedogenesis, diet, inflammasome, metabolomics, quorum sensing

  4. The ketogenic diet and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do Young; Rho, Jong M

    2008-03-01

    The ketogenic diet has long been used to treat medically refractory epilepsy. The mechanisms underlying its clinical effects, however, have remained a mystery. The evidence to date suggests that a fundamental shift from glycolysis to intermediary metabolism induced by the ketogenic diet is necessary and sufficient for clinical efficacy. This notion is supported by a growing number of studies indicating that glucose restriction, ketone bodies and polyunsaturated fatty acids may all play mechanistic roles, possibly by enhancing mitochondrial respiration and ATP production, and decreasing reactive oxygen species production. Recent reports indicate that ketone bodies can reduce oxidative stress and that fatty acid-induced mitochondrial uncoupling may also yield similar protective effects. Ketone bodies may attenuate spontaneous firing of ATP-sensitive potassium channels in central neurons, and pharmacological inhibition of glycolysis has been shown to retard epileptogenesis in a rat kindling model. While the mechanisms underlying the broad clinical efficacy of the ketogenic diet remain unclear, there is growing evidence that the ketogenic diet alters the fundamental biochemistry of neurons in a manner that not only inhibits neuronal hyperexcitability but also induces a protective effect. Thus, the ketogenic diet may ultimately be useful in the treatment of a variety of neurological disorders.

  5. Fasting - the ultimate diet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, A M

    2007-05-01

    Adult humans often undertake acute fasts for cosmetic, religious or medical reasons. For example, an estimated 14% of US adults have reported using fasting as a means to control body weight and this approach has long been advocated as an intermittent treatment for gross refractory obesity. There are unique historical data sets on extreme forms of food restriction that give insight into the consequences of starvation or semi-starvation in previously healthy, but usually non-obese subjects. These include documented medical reports on victims of hunger strike, famine and prisoners of war. Such data provide a detailed account on how the body adapts to prolonged starvation. It has previously been shown that fasting for the biblical period of 40 days and 40 nights is well within the overall physiological capabilities of a healthy adult. However, the specific effects on the human body and mind are less clearly documented, either in the short term (hours) or in the longer term (days). This review asks the following three questions, pertinent to any weight-loss therapy, (i) how effective is the regime in achieving weight loss, (ii) what impact does it have on psychology? and finally, (iii) does it work long-term?

  6. Impact of Mediterranean diet on metabolic syndrome, cancer and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Daniele, Nicola; Noce, Annalisa; Vidiri, Maria Francesca; Moriconi, Eleonora; Marrone, Giulia; Annicchiarico-Petruzzelli, Margherita; D'Urso, Gabriele; Tesauro, Manfredi; Rovella, Valentina; De Lorenzo, Antonino

    2017-01-31

    Obesity symbolizes a major public health problem. Overweight and obesity are associated to the occurrence of the metabolic syndrome and to adipose tissue dysfunction. The adipose tissue is metabolically active and an endocrine organ, whose dysregulation causes a low-grade inflammatory state and ectopic fat depositions. The Mediterranean Diet represents a possible therapy for metabolic syndrome, preventing adiposopathy or "sick fat" formation.The Mediterranean Diet exerts protective effects in elderly subjects with and without baseline of chronic diseases. Recent studies have demonstrated a relationship between cancer and obesity. In the US, diet represents amount 30-35% of death causes related to cancer. Currently, the cancer is the second cause of death after cardiovascular diseases worldwide. Furthermore, populations living in the Mediterranean area have a decreased incidence of cancer compared with populations living in Northern Europe or the US, likely due to healthier dietary habits. The bioactive food components have a potential preventive action on cancer. The aims of this review are to evaluate the impact of Mediterranean Diet on onset, progression and regression of metabolic syndrome, cancer and on longevity.

  7. Assessment of diet in chronic kidney disease female predialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Włodarek, Dariusz; Głąbska, Dominika; Rojek-Trębicka, Jadwiga

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition is important in the therapy of predialysis patients. The aim of the presented single-centre descriptive study was to assess the diet in chronic kidney disease female predialysis patients with no previous dietary intervention, in comparison with recommendations, as well as the analysis of the energy, protein and phosphate intake in correlation with chosen laboratory measurements. The research was carried out in 31 female predialysis patients with CKD of different etiology, aged 29-79 years (GFR: 19.4±9.7 ml/min/1.73 m2). Main outcome measures were self-reported data from three-day dietary recall. Nutrients content and energy value of diet were compared with guidelines for chronic kidney disease patients or, in case of nutrients when they are not settled, with the recommendations for healthy women. All patients had a lower energy intake than the recommended level. At the same time, 35.8% of patients were characterised by improper protein intake--too low or too high. The majority of patients had low intake of most of vitamins and minerals. The total, animal and plant protein were positively correlated with the energy value of diet and with amount of most of the nutrients. Values of GFR were positively correlated with animal protein intake, while phosphate and creatinine in blood were negatively correlated with total and animal protein intake. The study highlights that diet of CKD predialysis patients with no previous dietary intervention is not properly balanced.

  8. What Is Music Therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Music Therapy Association Home Contact News Help/FAQ Members Only Login About Music Therapy & AMTA What is Music Therapy? Definition and ... is Music Therapy? Print Email Share What is Music Therapy What is Music Therapy? Music Therapy is ...

  9. Are olive oil diets antithrombotic?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L. F.; Jespersen, J.; Marckmann, Peter

    1999-01-01

    compared the effects of virgin olive oil with those of rapeseed and sunflower oils on blood coagulation factor VII (FVII), a key factor in thrombogenesis. DESIGN: In a randomized and strictly controlled crossover study, 18 healthy young men consumed diets enriched with 5 g/MJ (19% of total energy) olive...... FVII (FVIIa) were 11.3 +/- 5.1 U/L lower after olive oil than after sunflower oil, an 18% reduction (P diets...... with respect to nonfasting factor VII coagulant activity (FVII:c), prothrombin fragment 1+2 (F1+2), and tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) concentrations, or with respect to fasting plasma values of FVII protein, FVII:c, FVIIa, F1+2, or TFPI. CONCLUSION: A background diet rich in olive oil may attenuate...

  10. Eating practices and diet quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lotte; Lund, Thomas Bøker; Niva, Mari

    2015-01-01

    that are found in parts of the populations, the association was substantial. Conclusions: Daily practices related to eating are correlated with diet quality. Practices that are important are in part universal but also country-specific. Efforts to promote healthy eating should address not only cognitive factors......Background/objectives: Daily practices related to eating are embedded in the social and cultural contexts of everyday life. How are such factors associated with diet quality relative to motivational factors? And, are associations universal or context-specific? We analyze the relationship between...... diet quality and the following practices: social company while eating, the regularity and duration of eating and the activity of watching TV while eating. Subjects/methods: A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based internet survey was conducted in April 2012 with stratified random samples...

  11. Diet choice patterns in rodents depend on novelty of the diet, exercise, species, and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tiffany; Xu, Wei-Jie; York, Haley; Liang, Nu-Chu

    2017-07-01

    Prolonged consumption of a palatable, high fat (HF) diet paired with a lack of physical activity can exacerbate the development of obesity. Exercise can facilitate the maintenance of a healthy body weight, possibly though mediating changes in diet preference. Using a two-diet choice and wheel running (WR) paradigm, our laboratory previously demonstrated that WR induces HF diet avoidance with different persistency in male and female rats when HF diet and WR are introduced simultaneously. The aims of this study were to examine whether this behavior is species dependent and to what extent the novelty of the diet affects WR induced HF diet avoidance. Experiment 1 utilized male C57BL6 mice in a two-diet choice and WR paradigm. Results show that all mice preferred HF to chow diet regardless of exercise and the order in which exercise and HF diet were presented. Experiment 2A (diet novelty) utilized Sprague-Dawley rats that were first habituated to a 45% HF diet prior to the simultaneous introduction of WR and a novel high-carbohydrate, low-fat (DK) diet. All rats avoided the novel high-carbohydrate diet and neither male nor female wheel running rats exhibited reduction in HF diet intake or HF diet avoidance. After all rats were returned to a sedentary condition, female rats consumed significantly more of the DK diet than the male rats. In Experiment 2B (diet familiarity), rats remained sedentary and were re-habituated to the DK diet until intake stabilized. Subsequently, a 60% HF diet was introduced for all rats and for running rats, access to the running wheels were provided simultaneously. Consistent with our previous findings, HF diet intake and preference was significantly reduced in all wheel running rats. These data suggest that exercise induced HF diet avoidance is affected by species and the novelty of the diet. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Metabolic Syndromes Associated with HIV: Mitigating the Side Effects of Drug Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, William W.; Sattler, Fred R.

    2001-01-01

    HIV infection and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) are associated with such metabolic disorders as AIDS wasting syndrome, metabolic dysregulation, and abnormalities of serum lipids. Adjunctive therapies (e.g., diet and antilipid therapy); risk factor modification (e.g., smoking cessation and blood pressure control); aerobic exercise;…

  13. Diabetes and diet : food choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niewind, A.C.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis reports on the food choices of diabetic patients. Two studies were undertaken considering the barriers these patients experience with the diabetic diet. Furthermore, the changes in food choices during the first years after the diagnosis of insulin-dependent diabetes as well as patients,

  14. Diet and Pancreatic Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Casari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is without any doubt the malignancy with the poorest prognosis and the lowest survival rate. This highly aggressive disease is rarely diagnosed at an early stage and difficult to treat due to its resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Therefore, there is an urgent need to clarify the causes responsible for pancreatic cancer and to identify preventive strategies to reduce its incidence in the population. Some circumstances, such as smoking habits, being overweight and diabetes, have been identified as potentially predisposing factors to pancreatic cancer, suggesting that diet might play a role. A diet low in fat and sugars, together with a healthy lifestyle, regular exercise, weight reduction and not smoking, may contribute to prevent pancreatic cancer and many other cancer types. In addition, increasing evidence suggests that some food may have chemo preventive properties. Indeed, a high dietary intake of fresh fruit and vegetables has been shown to reduce the risk of developing pancreatic cancer, and recent epidemiological studies have associated nut consumption with a protective effect against it. Therefore, diet could have an impact on the development of pancreatic cancer and further investigations are needed to assess the potential chemo preventive role of specific foods against this disease. This review summarizes the key evidence for the role of dietary habits and their effect on pancreatic cancer and focuses on possible mechanisms for the association between diet and risk of pancreatic cancer.

  15. PON1 and Mediterranean Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Lou-Bonafonte

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean diet has been proven to be highly effective in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1 has been implicated in the development of those conditions, especially atherosclerosis. The present work describes a systematic review of current evidence supporting the influence of Mediterranean diet and its constituents on this enzyme. Despite the differential response of some genetic polymorphisms, the Mediterranean diet has been shown to exert a protective action on this enzyme. Extra virgin olive oil, the main source of fat, has been particularly effective in increasing PON1 activity, an action that could be due to low saturated fatty acid intake, oleic acid enrichment of phospholipids present in high-density lipoproteins that favor the activity, and increasing hepatic PON1 mRNA and protein expressions induced by minor components present in this oil. Other Mediterranean diet constituents, such as nuts, fruits and vegetables, have been effective in modulating the activity of the enzyme, pomegranate and its compounds being the best characterized items. Ongoing research on compounds isolated from all these natural products, mainly phenolic compounds and carotenoids, indicates that some of them are particularly effective, and this may enhance the use of nutraceuticals and functional foods capable of potentiating PON1 activity.

  16. Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is different, but most kids with CF will eat three meals a day plus snacks to make sure that ... and Full of Calories All kids need to eat a balanced diet of regular meals and snacks that include plenty of fruits, veggies, ...

  17. Vegan diet alleviates fibromyalgia symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaartinen, K; Lammi, K; Hypen, M; Nenonen, M; Hanninen, O; Rauma, A L

    2000-01-01

    The effect of a strict, low-salt, uncooked vegan diet rich in lactobacteria on symptoms in 18 fibromyalgia patients during and after a 3-month intervention period in an open, non-randomized controlled study was evaluated. As control 15 patients continued their omnivorous diet. The groups did not differ significantly from each other in the beginning of the study in any other parameters except in pain and urine sodium. The results revealed significant improvements in Visual analogue scale of pain (VAS) (p=0.005), joint stiffness (p=0.001), quality of sleep (p=0.0001), Health assessment questionnaire (HAQ) (p=0.031), General health questionnaire (GHQ) (p=0.021), and a rheumatologist's own questionnaire (p=0.038). The majority of patients were overweight to some extent at the beginning of the study and shifting to a vegan food caused a significant reduction in body mass index (BMI) (p=0.0001). Total serum cholesterol showed a statistically significant lowering (p=0.003). Urine sodium dropped to 1/3 of the beginning values (p=0.0001) indicating good diet compliance. It can be concluded that vegan diet had beneficial effects on fibromyalgia symptoms at least in the short run.

  18. Ketogenic diets and physical performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phinney SD

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Impaired physical performance is a common but not obligate result of a low carbohydrate diet. Lessons from traditional Inuit culture indicate that time for adaptation, optimized sodium and potassium nutriture, and constraint of protein to 15-25 % of daily energy expenditure allow unimpaired endurance performance despite nutritional ketosis.

  19. Diet History Questionnaire: Canadian Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ) and the DHQ nutrient database were modified for use in Canada through the collaborative efforts of Dr. Amy Subar and staff at the Risk Factor Monitoring and Methods Branch, and Dr. Ilona Csizmadi and colleagues in the Division of Population Health and Information at the Alberta Cancer Board in Canada.

  20. Resisting "Crash Diet" Staff Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana, Nancy Fichtman; Yendol-Hoppey, Diane

    2008-01-01

    People often respond to the pressure of attending a high school reunion or their child's wedding by going on a crash diet to get quick results. In response, friends may marvel about how good they look on the outside. But what folks don't acknowledge is that, in the name of getting results, crash dieters have done some very unhealthy things to…

  1. Ketogenic diets and physical performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phinney Stephen D

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Impaired physical performance is a common but not obligate result of a low carbohydrate diet. Lessons from traditional Inuit culture indicate that time for adaptation, optimized sodium and potassium nutriture, and constraint of protein to 15–25 % of daily energy expenditure allow unimpaired endurance performance despite nutritional ketosis.

  2. Ketogenic Diet: Effects on Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the ketogenic diet on growth of 237 children (130 males, 107 females treated for intractable epilepsy has been evaluated in a prospective cohort study (average follow-up 308 days at the Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD.

  3. Polonium-210 in Bombay diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khandekar, R.N.

    1977-01-01

    The results of the measurement of concentration levels of 210 Po in most of the common foods in the typical Bombay diet are given and estimates provided of the total daily intake of 210 Po by an individual of Bombay city. (U.K.)

  4. Polonium-210 in Bombay diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khandekar, R N [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Air Monitoring Section

    1977-08-01

    The results of the measurement of concentration levels of /sup 210/Po in most of the common foods in the typical Bombay diet are given and estimates provided of the total daily intake of /sup 210/Po by an individual of Bombay city.

  5. [Mediterranean diet: not only food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Vico, Letizia; Agostini, Susanna; Brazzo, Silvia; Biffi, Barbara; Masini, Maria Luisa

    2012-09-01

    The proposal of a Mediterranean way of life is much more than advise how to eat. The Mediterranean Diet, a model of Sustainable Diet, is an example of how to combine personal choices, economic, social and cultural rights, protective of human health and the ecosystem. There is in fact fundamental interdependence between dietary requirements, nutritional recommendations, production and consumption of food. In literature studies and nutritional and epidemiological monitoring activities at national and international level have found a lack of adherence to this lifestyle, due to the spread of the economy, lifestyles of the Western type and globalization of the production and consumption. To encourage the spread of a culture and a constant practice of the Mediterranean Diet, there are some tools that are presented in this article. The Mediterranean Diet Pyramid in addition to the recommendations on the frequency and portions of food, focuses on the choice of how to cook and eat food. The "Double Food Pyramid" encourages conscious food choices based on "healthy eating and sustainability. All the nutrition professionals and dietitians in particular should be constantly striving to encourage the adoption of a sustainable and balanced nutrition.

  6. Time series livestock diet optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alqaisi, Othman; Ndambi, Oghaiki Asaah; Williams, Ryan Blake

    2017-01-01

    Sustainable feed formulation (defined here as nutritional and economic feed optimization) is substantial in feed chain production from crop farmers to livestock producers. Diet formulation employing a static linear programming (LP) approach, which is widely used in trading firms and feed production

  7. fteated bagacillo diets for lambs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ciones Agropecuarias (FONAIAP) and Universidad Central de. Venezuela, Venezuela a horizontal drum-type mixer to give a final concentration of. 6% NaOH in the processed material with a 20% moisture con- tent. ADG and feed efficiency were higher on the treated than on the untreated bagacillo diets. For all cell wall ...

  8. Proton therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Alfred R

    2006-01-01

    Proton therapy has become a subject of considerable interest in the radiation oncology community and it is expected that there will be a substantial growth in proton treatment facilities during the next decade. I was asked to write a historical review of proton therapy based on my personal experiences, which have all occurred in the United States, so therefore I have a somewhat parochial point of view. Space requirements did not permit me to mention all of the existing proton therapy facilities or the names of all of those who have contributed to proton therapy. (review)

  9. How Are Diet & Exercise Affected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Care Surgical Treatment Laparoscopic Surgery Vaccine Radiation Therapy Chemotherapy Clinical Trials Pain Management Nutrition and Exercise Holistic Care Pathology Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms Islet Cell ...

  10. Mediterranean Diet and Diabetes: Prevention and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgoulis, Michael; Kontogianni, Meropi D.; Yiannakouris, Nikos

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present review is to examine current scientific knowledge on the association between the Mediterranean diet and diabetes mellitus (mostly type 2 diabetes). A definition of the Mediterranean diet and the tools widely used to evaluate adherence to this traditional diet (Mediterranean diet indices) are briefly presented. The review focuses on epidemiological data linking adherence to the Mediterranean diet with the risk of diabetes development, as well as evidence from interventional studies assessing the effect of the Mediterranean diet on diabetes control and the management of diabetes-related complications. The above mentioned data are explored on the basis of evaluating the Mediterranean diet as a whole dietary pattern, rather than focusing on the effect of its individual components. Possible protective mechanisms of the Mediterranean diet against diabetes are also briefly discussed. PMID:24714352

  11. Eating, Diet, and Nutrition for Celiac Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Section Navigation Celiac Disease Definition & Facts Symptoms & Causes Diagnosis Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Eating, Diet, & Nutrition for Celiac Disease What should I avoid eating if I have ...

  12. High-Protein Diets: Are They Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating Are high-protein diets safe for weight loss? Answers from Katherine ... L.D. For most healthy people, a high-protein diet generally isn't harmful, particularly when followed ...

  13. DASH diet to lower high blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patientinstructions/000770.htm DASH diet to lower high blood pressure To use the sharing features on this page, ... Hypertension. The DASH diet can help lower high blood pressure and cholesterol and other fats in your blood. ...

  14. Nonfasting Versus Initial Fasting Ketogenic Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective evaluation of the ketogenic diet (KD was conducted comparing efficacy and tolerability of the diet with or without initial fasting and fluid restriction and involving university centers in Seoul, Korea.

  15. Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Autism Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and Diet Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and Diet By Karen Ansel, MS, RDN, CDN Published April 2, 2018 nambitomo/iStock/Thinkstock Autism Spectrum Disorder, or ASD, is a complex developmental and neurological ...

  16. [Therapy of hemorrhoidal disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, A

    2006-08-01

    Hemorrhoidal disease is one of the most frequent disorders in western countries. The aim of individual therapy is freedom from symptoms achieved by normalisation of anatomy and physiology. Treatment is orientated to the stage of disease: haemorrhoids 1 are treated conservatively. In addition to high-fibre diet, sclerotherapy is used. Haemorrhoids 2 prolapse during defecation and return spontaneously. First-line treatment is rubber band ligation. Haemorrhoids 3 that prolapse during defecation have to be digitally reduced, and the majority need surgery. For segmental disorders, haemorrhoidectomy according to Milligan-Morgan or Ferguson is recommended. In circular disease, Stapler hemorrhoidopexy is now the procedure of choice. Using a therapeutic regime according to the hemorrhoidal disease classification offers high healing rates and low rates of complications and recurrence.

  17. Functional oral intake and time to reach unrestricted dieting for patients with traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, T.S.; Engberg, Anders; Larsen, K.

    2008-01-01

    . INTERVENTION: Facial oral tract therapy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Unrestricted dieting assessed by the Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS). RESULTS: We found that 93% of all patients had problems with functional oral intake at admission. Within 126 days of rehabilitation, 64% recovered to unrestricted dieting...... instrument (Wald chi(2)=44.40, Poral intake was found to be very common for patients with severe TBI admitted to a subacute rehabilitation department. For those who recovered during hospital rehabilitation......, return to unrestricted dieting happened within 126 days of rehabilitation. The chance of returning to unrestricted dieting depends on the severity of the brain injury and can be predicted by GCS score, RLAS level, FIM score, and functional oral intake at admission. These results are important when...

  18. Recommendations for the clinical management of children with refractory epilepsy receiving the ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, María J; Agustinho, Ariela; Argumedo, Laura; Armeno, Marisa; Blanco, Virginia; Bouquet, Cecilia; Cabrera, Analía; Caraballo, Roberto; Caramuta, Luciana; Cresta, Araceli; de Grandis, Elizabeth S; De Martini, Martha G; Diez, Cecilia; Dlugoszewski, Corina; Escobal, Nidia; Ferrero, Hilario; Galicchio, Santiago; Gambarini, Victoria; Gamboni, Beatriz; Guisande, Silvina; Hassan, Amal; Matarrese, Pablo; Mestre, Graciela; Pesce, Laura; Ríos, Viviana; Sosa, Patricia; Vaccarezza, María; Viollaz, Rocío; Panico, Luis

    2016-02-01

    The ketogenic diet, a non-drug treatment with proven effectiveness, has been the most commonly used therapy in the past decade for the management of refractory epilepsy in the pediatric population. Compared to adding a new drug to a pre-existing treatment, the ketogenic diet is highly effective and reduces the number of seizures by 50-90% in approximately 45-60% of children after six months of treatment. For this reason, the Argentine Society of Pediatric Neurology established the Ketogenic Diet Working Group. It is integrated by pediatric dietitians, pediatricians, pediatric neurologists and B.S. in Nutrition, who developed recommendations for the optimal management of patients receiving the classical ketogenic diet based on expert consensus and scientific publications in this field. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  19. Osteoarthritis and a high-fat diet: the full 'OA syndrome' in a small animal model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraan, P.M. van der

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is one of the main risk factors for osteoarthritis (OA) and due to the global rise in obesity this will increasingly contribute to OA development. The article of Griffin and co-workers in this issue of Arthritis Research and Therapy shows that a high-fat diet leads to obesity and OA in the

  20. Linking diet to acne metabolomics, inflammation, and comedogenesis: an update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Bodo C

    2015-01-01

    -induced metabolomic alterations promote the visible sebofollicular inflammasomopathy acne vulgaris. Nutrition therapy of acne has to increase FoxO1 and to attenuate mTORC1/SREBP-1c signaling. Patients should balance total calorie uptake and restrict refined carbohydrates, milk, dairy protein supplements, saturated fats, and trans-fats. A paleolithic-like diet enriched in vegetables and fish is recommended. Plant-derived mTORC1 inhibitors and ω-3-PUFAs are promising dietary supplements supporting nutrition therapy of acne vulgaris. PMID:26203267

  1. Antiepileptic popular ketogenic diet: emerging twists in an ancient story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamecq, Joseph; Vallée, Louis; Lesage, Florian; Gressens, Pierre; Stables, James P

    2005-01-01

    The antiepileptic activity associated with ketogenic diets (KD) have been known for some time. First reports date back to the Middle Ages and even Biblical times where KD was achieved by fasting (i.e. "water diet") [see Swink, T.D., Vining, E.P.G., Freeman, J.M., 1997. The ketogenic diet: 1997. Adv. Pediatr. 44, 297-329, and references therein]. In the early 20th century, changes in the design of the KD were introduced, shifting the so-called "water diet" to a high-fat diet. Initial clinical evaluations undertaken between the 1920s and 1940s were enthusiastic, but the popularity of the KD was retrograded upon clinical introduction of phenytoin and subsequently other antiepileptic drugs. Today, despite a pharmacological arsenal targeting cerebral receptors and specific events in seizure initiation and development, about 30-40% patients are still refractory to available medications. Thus, the KD has been re-introduced in recent years as an alternative therapy, averring to be efficacious against some instances of resistant or intractable epilepsy. Despite a long historical background and enlarged clinical use, identification of the underlying anticonvulsant mechanisms associated with this nonpharmacological approach is still in stagnation. The present review is an attempt to encourage current research orientation through well-based and directed proposals for putative emerging candidates mediating KD anticonvulsant mechanisms. The reader is provided with a special emphasis on ATP-sensitive and recently cloned two-pore (or tandem) domain potassium channels, as well as several emerging conceptual views and advances such as nuclear receptors, uncoupling proteins and gap junctions that the authors speculate may contribute to understanding the basic mechanisms linked to the KD.

  2. GENOTYPE-PHENOTYPE ASSOCIATIONS: MODULATION BY DIET AND OBESITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordovas, Jose M.

    2009-01-01

    Changes in diet are likely to reduce chronic disorders, but after decades of active research and heated discussion the question still remains: what is the optimal diet to achieve this elusive goal? Is a low fat, as traditionally recommended by multiple medical societies? Or a high monounsaturated fat as predicated by the Mediterranean diet? Perhaps a high polyunsaturated fat based on the cholesterol lowering effects? The right answer may be all of the above but not for everybody. A well-known phenomenon in nutrition research and practice is the dramatic variability in interindividual response to any type of dietary intervention. There are many other factors influencing response, and they include, among many others, age, sex, physical activity, alcohol, and smoking as well as genetic factors that will help to identify vulnerable populations/individuals that will be benefit from a variety of more personalized and mechanistic based dietary recommendations. This potential could and needs to be developed within the context of nutritional genomics that in conjunction with systems biology may provide the tools to achieve the holy grail of dietary prevention and therapy of cardiovascular diseases. This approach will break with the traditional public health approach of “one size fits all.” The current evidence based on nutrigenetics has begun to identify subgroups of individuals who benefit more from a low fat diet, whereas others appear to benefit more from a high monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) diets. The continuous progress in Nutrigenomics will allow some time in the future to provide targeted gene-based dietary advice. PMID:19037211

  3. Internet Information for Patients on Cancer Diets - an Analysis of German Websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herth, Natalie; Kuenzel, Ulrike; Liebl, Patrick; Keinki, Christian; Zell, Joerg; Huebner, Jutta

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the Internet has become an important source of information for cancer patients. Various cancer diets that are publicized on the Web promise significant benefits. The aim of our study was to evaluate the quality of online patient information about cancer diets. A patient's search for 'cancer diets' on German websites was simulated using the search engine Google. The websites were evaluated utilizing a standardized instrument with formal and content aspects. An analysis of 60 websites revealed that websites from nonprofit associations as well as self-help groups offer the best content and formal ranking. Websites whose owners aim to make a profit, practices that offer cancer diet therapies, and newspapers received the poorest quality score. The majority of content provided on the Web gets published by profit-oriented content groups. The divergence between profit-driven websites offering low-quality content and the few trustworthy websites on cancer diets is enormous. The information given online about cancer diets may turn out to be a hazardous pitfall. In order to present evidence-based information about cancer diets, online information should be replenished to create a more accurate picture and give higher visibility to the right information. © 2016 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  4. Who should deliver the low FODMAP diet and what educational methods are optimal: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keeffe, Majella; Lomer, Miranda Ce

    2017-03-01

    Dietary management is being hailed as an effective strategy for the management of irritable bowel syndrome. Specifically, a diet low in fermentable carbohydrates (FODMAPs) has demonstrated efficacy in approximately 70% of patients. As evidence in support of the low FODMAP diet continues to emerge, there is increasing debate regarding implementation of the diet particularly concerning who should educate patients and how to educate them. Registered dieticians have largely pioneered the evidence that supports the effectiveness of the low FODMAP diet in irritable bowel syndrome, and the diet is recognized as a dietician-led therapy. However, there is an increasing trend for non-dietician-led implementation of the diet despite an absence of evidence on both the clinical or cost-effectiveness of such. Additionally, there is a growing requirement for dietetic services to increase capacity in response to increasing referrals, and consequently, there is a need to investigate innovative ways to educate patients whilst maintaining dietician-led intervention. Herein, we review the evidence for delivery of the low FODMAP diet and discuss potentially effective methods for service delivery. © 2017 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Early efficacy of the ketogenic diet is not affected by initial body mass index percentile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shull, Shastin; Diaz-Medina, Gloria; Wong-Kisiel, Lily; Nickels, Katherine; Eckert, Susan; Wirrell, Elaine

    2014-05-01

    Predictors of the ketogenic diet's success in treating pediatric intractable epilepsy are not well understood. The aim of this study was to determine whether initial body mass index and weight percentile impact early efficacy of the traditional ketogenic diet in children initiating therapy for intractable epilepsy. This retrospective study included all children initiating the ketogenic diet at Mayo Clinic, Rochester from January 2001 to December 2010 who had body mass index (children ≥2 years of age) or weight percentile (those diet initiation and seizure frequency recorded at diet initiation and one month. Responders were defined as achieving a >50% seizure reduction from baseline. Our cohort consisted of 48 patients (20 male) with a median age of 3.1 years. There was no significant correlation between initial body mass index or weight percentile and seizure frequency reduction at one month (P = 0.72, r = 0.26 and P = 0.91, r = 0.03). There was no significant association between body mass index or weight percentile quartile and responder rates (P = 0.21 and P = 0.57). Children considered overweight or obese at diet initiation (body mass index or weight percentile ≥85) did not have lower responder rates than those with body mass index or weight percentiles ketogenic diet. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Mechanisms of action for the medium-chain triglyceride ketogenic diet in neurological and metabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, Katrin; Khabbush, Aziza; Williams, Sophie; Eaton, Simon; Orford, Michael; Cross, J Helen; Heales, Simon J R; Walker, Matthew C; Williams, Robin S B

    2018-01-01

    High-fat, low-carbohydrate diets, known as ketogenic diets, have been used as a non-pharmacological treatment for refractory epilepsy. A key mechanism of this treatment is thought to be the generation of ketones, which provide brain cells (neurons and astrocytes) with an energy source that is more efficient than glucose, resulting in beneficial downstream metabolic changes, such as increasing adenosine levels, which might have effects on seizure control. However, some studies have challenged the central role of ketones because medium-chain fatty acids, which are part of a commonly used variation of the diet (the medium-chain triglyceride ketogenic diet), have been shown to directly inhibit AMPA receptors (glutamate receptors), and to change cell energetics through mitochondrial biogenesis. Through these mechanisms, medium-chain fatty acids rather than ketones are likely to block seizure onset and raise seizure threshold. The mechanisms underlying the ketogenic diet might also have roles in other disorders, such as preventing neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease, the proliferation and spread of cancer, and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. Analysing medium-chain fatty acids in future ketogenic diet studies will provide further insights into their importance in modified forms of the diet. Moreover, the results of these studies could facilitate the development of new pharmacological and dietary therapies for epilepsy and other disorders. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Diet-induced metabolic hamster model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhathena J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Jasmine Bhathena, Arun Kulamarva, Christopher Martoni, Aleksandra Malgorzata Urbanska, Meenakshi Malhotra, Arghya Paul, Satya PrakashBiomedical Technology and Cell Therapy Research Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Artificial Cells and Organs Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Québec, CanadaBackground: Obesity, hypercholesterolemia, elevated triglycerides, and type 2 diabetes are major risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Hamsters, unlike rats or mice, respond well to diet-induced obesity, increase body mass and adiposity on group housing, and increase food intake due to social confrontation-induced stress. They have a cardiovascular and hepatic system similar to that of humans, and can thus be a useful model for human pathophysiology.Methods: Experiments were planned to develop a diet-induced Bio F1B Golden Syrian hamster model of dyslipidemia and associated nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in the metabolic syndrome. Hamsters were fed a normal control diet, a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet, a high-fat/high-cholesterol/methionine-deficient/choline-devoid diet, and a high-fat/high-cholesterol/choline-deficient diet. Serum total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, atherogenic index, and body weight were quantified biweekly. Fat deposition in the liver was observed and assessed following lipid staining with hematoxylin and eosin and with oil red O.Results: In this study, we established a diet-induced Bio F1B Golden Syrian hamster model for studying dyslipidemia and associated nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in the metabolic syndrome. Hyperlipidemia and elevated serum glucose concentrations were induced using this diet. Atherogenic index was elevated, increasing the risk for a cardiovascular event. Histological analysis of liver specimens at the end of four weeks showed increased fat deposition in the liver of animals fed

  8. BIOCLAIMS standard diet (BIOsd): a reference diet for nutritional physiology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hoevenaars, F.P.M.; van Schothorst, E. M.; Horáková, Olga; Voigt, A.; Rossmeisl, Martin; Pico, C.; Caimari, A.; Kopecký, Jan; Klaus, S.; Keijer, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 3 (2012), s. 399-404 ISSN 1555-8932 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7E10059; GA MŠk(CZ) OC08008 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : semi-purified diet * nutrient requirements * rat * mouse Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 3.329, year: 2012

  9. A randomized trial of a low-carbohydrate diet vs orlistat plus a low-fat diet for weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancy, William S; Westman, Eric C; McDuffie, Jennifer R; Grambow, Steven C; Jeffreys, Amy S; Bolton, Jamiyla; Chalecki, Allison; Oddone, Eugene Z

    2010-01-25

    Two potent weight loss therapies, a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet (LCKD) and orlistat therapy combined with a low-fat diet (O + LFD), are available to the public but, to our knowledge, have never been compared. Overweight or obese outpatients (n = 146) from the Department of Veterans Affairs primary care clinics in Durham, North Carolina, were randomized to either LCKD instruction (initially, carbohydrate daily) or orlistat therapy, 120 mg orally 3 times daily, plus low-fat diet instruction (fat, 500-1000 kcal/d deficit) delivered at group meetings over 48 weeks. Main outcome measures were body weight, blood pressure, fasting serum lipid, and glycemic parameters. The mean age was 52 years and mean body mass index was 39.3 (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared); 72% were men, 55% were black, and 32% had type 2 diabetes mellitus. Of the study participants, 57 of the LCKD group (79%) and 65 of the O + LFD group (88%) completed measurements at 48 weeks. Weight loss was similar for the LCKD (expected mean change, -9.5%) and the O + LFD (-8.5%) (P = .60 for comparison) groups. The LCKD had a more beneficial impact than O + LFD on systolic (-5.9 vs 1.5 mm Hg) and diastolic (-4.5 vs 0.4 mm Hg) blood pressures (P Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels improved within the O + LFD group only, whereas glucose, insulin, and hemoglobin A(1c) levels improved within the LCKD group only; comparisons between groups, however, were not statistically significant. In a sample of medical outpatients, an LCKD led to similar improvements as O + LFD for weight, serum lipid, and glycemic parameters and was more effective for lowering blood pressure. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00108524.

  10. [Alternative and complementary therapies in fibromyalgia syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhorst, J; Häuser, W; Irnich, D; Speeck, N; Felde, E; Winkelmann, A; Lucius, H; Michalsen, A; Musial, F

    2008-06-01

    Interdisciplinary S3 level guidelines were devised in cooperation with 8 medical, 2 psychological and 2 patient support groups. Results were elaborated in a multilevel group process. On the bases of the "Cochrane Library" (1993-2006), "Medline" (1980-2006), "PsychInfo" (2006) and "Scopus" (2006) controlled studies and meta-analyses of controlled studies were analyzed. Only few controlled studies were found supporting in part the effectiveness of CAM therapies in the treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome. Due to the lack of information on long term efficacy and cost-effectiveness, only limited recommendations for CAM therapies can be given. Within a multicomponent therapy setting, selective CAM therapies (acupuncture, vegetarian diet, homeopathy, Tai Chi, Qi Gong, music-oriented and body-oriented therapies) can be recommended for a limited period of time.

  11. THE NEWS IN THERAPY OF AUTISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir TRAJKOVSKI

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no specifically marked medicine for the treatment of autism. A number of approaches have been used in evaluating the safety and efficiency of pharmacological treatments of both children and adults with autism. Two study parameters are particularly important, the presence of “blind” and control groups. The highest quality studies utilize equally “blind” and control procedures as well. They have to be performed at multiple sites with a large number of subjects.Research evaluating medicine proposed for treatment of autism, is on the increase. There is accelerated emphasis on medicine testing and better information on treatments should be more available than in the past. In this article, the following classes of medicine and therapies will be discussed: possible future medicine treatments - such as oxytocin, tetrahydrobiopterin and ampakines, hormone therapies, anti-yeast therapies, vitamin therapies, dimethylglycine, alpha lipoic acid and diet therapies.

  12. Obesogenic Diets in European Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Intemann, Timm; Hebestreit, Antje; Reisch, Lucia A.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Poor nutrition is a major contributor to the overall burden of disease. Worldwide, nutrition-related diseases have become a major health concern, reportedly causing a loss of over 56 million years of healthy life for European citizens in the year 2000. Childhood obesity is one...... will stress dietary factors in European children as one major aspect of the complex aetiology of childhood obesity, and offer a broader comment on the role of contemporary food systems. Results: Parental socioeconomic status, children’s media consumption and current arketing strategies employed by the food...... industry were associated with a low-quality diet and unhealthy food intake in European children. Conclusion: Present evidence calls for policy interventions to facilitate healthy diets of European children and adolescents. Prevention strategies for childhood obesity should address upstream factors...

  13. Eating pattern of vegetarian diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Couceiro

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This literature review examines several studies that evaluated the factors that influences the adoption of vegetarianism, as well as the eating pattern and recommendations of the vegetarian food guide. A search on databases such as Medline (National Library of Medicine, USA and Lilacs (Bireme, Brazil allowed us to find scientific studies published in Portuguese and/or English that had the following keywords: vegetarian, vegetarian diet and vegetarianism. Vegetarianism has been disseminated for centuries and many respected physicians, scientists and philosophers followed this practice based on different reasons. The increasing number of individuals that adopt the vegetarian diet impute to Health professionals, particularly nutritionists, the responsibility of knowing the principles of vegetarianism, in expectation of their proper management and adjustment of the vegetarian feeding behavior to the nutritional requirements of the individual.

  14. Prototypical versus contemporary Mediterranean Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizza, W; De Gara, L; Antonelli Incalzi, R; Pedone, C

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the evolution of the Mediterranean Diet (MD) in a delimited area of Southern Italy, by comparing the diet adopted 60-70 years ago (Prototypical Mediterranean Diet, PMD) with the contemporary one (Contemporary Mediterranean Diet, CMD), and to verify to what extent they fitted the recommendations of the Italian and the USDA dietary guidelines. We recruited a total of 106 participants, divided in two groups. PMD group included 52 women aged >80 years, with a good cognitive function and full independence in basic and instrumental activities of daily living. CMD group included 20 men and 34 women aged 50-60 years. Food intake was assessed by administering the EPIC food frequency questionnaire to each participant, and an additional survey to the PMD subjects only. Both PMD and CMD showed adequate intakes of macronutrients, although some deficiencies related to micronutrient requirements were evident. CMD showed a slightly greater use of animal products, processed and sugary foods, and higher intakes of simple sugars, animal proteins (49.6 vs 28.3 g/day), animal lipids (37.8 vs 20.1 g/day), saturated fats (25.0 vs 15.8 g/day) and cholesterol (305.0 vs 258.5 g/day). PMD showed many similarities to the original version of the MD in terms of macronutrients distribution and food choices. The documented evolution of the dietary habits over a 70 years timespan suggests that nowadays Mediterranean regions adhere less strictly to the original MD, although nutrients intakes are adequate to LARN and USDA recommendations. Copyright © 2016 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The bones of prehistoric diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sealy, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    Stable carbon isotope analysis is one of the techniques used to attempt to reconstruct the diet of people in the southwestern Cape as far back as 10 000 years ago. Carbon isotope measurement is also a useful mean of testing the idea that prehistoric people moved seasonally between the coast and the interior. The use of stable isotopes for dietary reconstruction in conjunction with radioactive isotopes for age determinations provides a significant body of data

  16. Diet in irritable bowel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    El-Salhy, Magdy; Gundersen, Doris Irene

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common chronic gastrointestinal disorder that is characterized by intermittent abdominal pain/discomfort, altered bowel habits and abdominal bloating/distension. This review aimed at presenting the recent developments concerning the role of diet in the pathophysiology and management of IBS. There is no convincing evidence that IBS patients suffer from food allergy/intolerance, and there is no evidence that gluten causes the debated new diagnosis of non-coel...

  17. Diet and asthma: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yueh-Ying; Forno, Erick; Holguin, Fernando; Celedón, Juan C

    2015-08-01

    Our objective was to provide an overview and discussion of recent experimental studies, epidemiologic studies, and clinical trials of diet and asthma. We focus on dietary sources and vitamins with antioxidant properties [vitamins (A, C, and E), folate, and omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 and n-6 PUFAs)]. Current evidence does not support the use of vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, or PUFAs for the prevention or treatment of asthma or allergies. Current guidelines for prenatal use of folate to prevent neural tube defects should be followed, as there is no evidence of major effects of this practice on asthma or allergies. Consumption of a balanced diet that is rich in sources of antioxidants (e.g. fruits and vegetables) may be beneficial in the primary prevention of asthma. None of the vitamins or nutrients examined is consistently associated with asthma or allergies. In some cases, further studies of the effects of a vitamin or nutrient on specific asthma phenotypes (e.g. vitamin C to prevent viral-induced exacerbations) are warranted. Clinical trials of 'whole diet' interventions to prevent asthma are advisable on the basis of existing evidence.

  18. Feed quality in swine diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Branislav

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper will demonstrate the quality of some feed used in swine diet. The emphasis will be on feed whose incorporation into mixes could result in unfavorable effects on production, health and economic production of swine. Data will be presented on maize and its possible negative effects, having in mind toxins. Soybean meal, or genetically modified soybean meal, will also be observed. The next feed which will be discussed will be soybean whey obtained by different procedures and the potential dangers of its use in swine diet rations. Sunflower meal, feed of animal origin, with emphasis on fish flour and meat-bone flour will also be covered in the work. A feed which has been attracting particular attention lately is yeast imported from Italy. Its quality characteristics will be discussed, the so-called non-protein nitrogen. Analyses of mineral feed will include sources of phosphorus, phosphates (monocalciumphosphate, dicalcium phosphate phytases and resolving the problem of phosphorus in swine rations. Finally, an inevitable segment are synthetic amino acids, especially lysine and its role in swine diet.

  19. The use of low-carbohydrate diet in type 2 diabetes – benefits and risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łucja Czyżewska-Majchrzak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The pharmacological treatment of type 2 diabetes is increasingly being supported by the recommendation of an appropriate diet. The purpose of this study is to identify the potential benefits and risks arising from the use of one of the modern models of low-carbohydrate diet in patients with type 2 diabetes. Research shows that diet can favourably affect the health of diabetic patients. It has been shown that diet affects positively the concentration of blood glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin, and also contributes to the reduction of insulin taken in the course of drug therapy. At the same time, short-term studies have demonstrated a positive relationship of nutrition with reduction in body weight, as well as favourable changes in lipid profile of HDL cholesterol and levels of triglyceride. Attention is also drawn to the negative health effects of a low-carbohydrate diet; these include an increased risk of mineral deficiency, hypovitaminosis and reduced intake of dietary fibres. This diet may be associated with very high levels of protein which, in turn, raises the risk of renal dysfunction and the appearance of irregularities in the water and electrolyte balance. The impact of changes in the skeletal system and the development of osteopenia and osteoporosis is also observed. Besides the positive impact of this model of diet on the lipid profile parameters, its use significantly increases the risk of adverse changes in other markers predisposing to atherosclerosis occurring in individuals with type 2 diabetes. In composing a nutrition model for diabetes patients, both the benefits and potential risks of a low-carbohydrate diet should therefore take into account. At the same time, it is important to individualize the diet used, based on the current state of health, used pharmacological treatments, as well as taking into account the individual characteristics of the patient.

  20. Functional Foods in fad diets: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Abigail Navaro

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fad diets can be defined as any diet making claims that are unrealistic and not supported by evidence-based data. Having been developed since the early 19th century, fad diets promise drastic weight loss and/or other unsubstantiated health claims, often omitting entire food groups. Their popularity with the public makes them an important topic for nutritionists and clinicians, especially in the framework of the obesity epidemic. Additionally, it is conceivable that components of fad diets can indeed facilitate weight loss, even if the diet overall is without merit. The grapefruit diet, the cabbage soup diet, and the human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG diet are among the most popular fad diets and are reviewed within this study not only in terms of the diet plan itself, but also in terms of possible and known weight loss and health benefits provided by the foods on which the diets are based. Bioflavonoids in grapefruit, including naringin, hesperidin, and bergamottin, may benefit glucose homeostasis. Cabbage contains lutein, zeaxanthin, kaempferol, quercetin, and apigenin, which have anti-inflammatory properties and improve both glucose homeostasis and fat metabolism. The hCG diet is frequently supplemented with non-hCG preparations, which often contains African mango, which has been shown to enhance weight loss by an unspecified mechanism; astragalus root, which has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma receptor agonistic properties; arginine, which stimulates lipolysis; glutamine, which has been shown to enhance weight loss, perhaps by altering the gut microbiome; carnitine, which appears to facilitate weight loss; B12, which improves insulin resistance; and niacin, which improves the dyslipidemia associated with overweight/obesity. Presently, high quality clinical trials suggest that fad diets reduce weight in the short term due to drastic caloric restriction rather than functional food

  1. Play Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawver, Timothy; Blankenship, Kelly

    2008-01-01

    Play therapy is a treatment modality in which the therapist engages in play with the child. Its use has been documented in a variety of settings and with a variety of diagnoses. Treating within the context of play brings the therapist and the therapy to the level of the child. By way of an introduction to this approach, a case is presented of a six-year-old boy with oppositional defiant disorder. The presentation focuses on the events and interactions of a typical session with an established patient. The primary issues of the session are aggression, self worth, and self efficacy. These themes manifest themselves through the content of the child’s play and narration of his actions. The therapist then reflects these back to the child while gently encouraging the child toward more positive play. Though the example is one of nondirective play therapy, a wide range of variation exists under the heading of play therapy. PMID:19724720

  2. Hormone Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it also can be a sign of endometrial cancer. All bleeding after menopause should be evaluated. Other side effects reported by women who take hormone therapy include fluid retention and breast soreness. This soreness usually lasts for a short ...

  3. Modified Atkins diet vs classic ketogenic formula in intractable epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Rashidy, O F; Nassar, M F; Abdel-Hamid, I A; Shatla, R H; Abdel-Hamid, M H; Gabr, S S; Mohamed, S G; El-Sayed, W S; Shaaban, S Y

    2013-12-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of the ketogenic diet (KD) whether classic 4:1 formula or the modified Atkins diet (MAD) in intractable childhood epilepsy. Anthropometric measurements and serum lipid profile were measured upon enrollment and after 3 and 6 months in 40 patients with symptomatic intractable epilepsy. Fifteen were given MAD diet, ten were kept on classic 4:1 ketogenic liquid formula, and the rest were allowed to eat as desired. The liquid ketogenic formula group showed significantly higher body mass index compared with those who did not receive KD after 6 months. The lipid profile of KD patients was within normal limits for age and sex during the study period. The rate of change of frequency and severity of seizures showed best improvement in ketogenic liquid formula patients followed by the MAD group than the patients on anti-epileptic medications alone. The KD whether classic 4:1 or MAD is a tolerable, safe, and effective adjuvant therapy for intractable symptomatic childhood epilepsy with limited adverse effects on the growth parameters and accepted changes in the lipid profile. The liquid ketogenic formula patients showed better growth pattern and significantly more seizure control. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Investigating the Ketogenic Diet As Treatment for Primary Aggressive Brain Cancer: Challenges and Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth A. Schwartz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Survival of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM with the current recommended treatment is poor. Reported median survivals are approximately 8–15 months. Based on recent publications from animal models, combining cancer drugs, radiation, and diet-metabolic treatments may be a new route to better survivals. To investigate this possibility, we have begun a clinical trial that has enrolled 15 subjects using a ketogenic diet (KD as an addition to current standard treatments that include surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Of the 15 enrolled, 10 completed the protocol. This perspective describes the challenges and lessons learned during this clinical trial and discusses the critical elements that are essential for investigating treatment with a KD. We also reviewed and compared various types of KDs. We believe that the diet selected should be standardized within individual clinical trials, and more importantly, the patients’ blood should be monitored for glucose and ketones twice daily so that the supervising dietitian can work with the patient and their caregivers to make appropriate changes in the diet. Compliance with the diet is best in highly motivated patients who have excellent home support from a family member or a friend who can help to overcome administrative, physical, and cognition deficiencies associated with the disease. Treatment of GBM using a KD represents a reasonable investigative approach. This perspective summarizes the challenges and lessons learned implementing and continuing KD therapy while the patients are concurrently being treated with radiation and chemotherapy.

  5. Manual Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Hakgüder, Aral; Kokino, Siranuş

    2002-01-01

    Manual therapy has been used in the treatment of pain and dysfunction of spinal and peripheral joints for more than a hundred years. Manual medicine includes manipulation, mobilization, and postisometric relaxation techniques. The aim of manual therapy is to enhance restricted movement caused by blockage of joints keeping postural balance, restore function and maintain optimal body mechanics. Anatomic, biomechanical, and neurophysiological evaluations of the leucomotor system is essential for...

  6. Med Diet 4.0: the Mediterranean diet with four sustainable benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dernini, S; Berry, E M; Serra-Majem, L; La Vecchia, C; Capone, R; Medina, F X; Aranceta-Bartrina, J; Belahsen, R; Burlingame, B; Calabrese, G; Corella, D; Donini, L M; Lairon, D; Meybeck, A; Pekcan, A G; Piscopo, S; Yngve, A; Trichopoulou, A

    2017-05-01

    To characterize the multiple dimensions and benefits of the Mediterranean diet as a sustainable diet, in order to revitalize this intangible food heritage at the country level; and to develop a multidimensional framework - the Med Diet 4.0 - in which four sustainability benefits of the Mediterranean diet are presented in parallel: major health and nutrition benefits, low environmental impacts and richness in biodiversity, high sociocultural food values, and positive local economic returns. A narrative review was applied at the country level to highlight the multiple sustainable benefits of the Mediterranean diet into a single multidimensional framework: the Med Diet 4.0. Setting/subjects We included studies published in English in peer-reviewed journals that contained data on the characterization of sustainable diets and of the Mediterranean diet. The methodological framework approach was finalized through a series of meetings, workshops and conferences where the framework was presented, discussed and ultimately refined. The Med Diet 4.0 provides a conceptual multidimensional framework to characterize the Mediterranean diet as a sustainable diet model, by applying principles of sustainability to the Mediterranean diet. By providing a broader understanding of the many sustainable benefits of the Mediterranean diet, the Med Diet 4.0 can contribute to the revitalization of the Mediterranean diet by improving its current perception not only as a healthy diet but also a sustainable lifestyle model, with country-specific and culturally appropriate variations. It also takes into account the identity and diversity of food cultures and systems, expressed within the notion of the Mediterranean diet, across the Mediterranean region and in other parts of the world. Further multidisciplinary studies are needed for the assessment of the sustainability of the Mediterranean diet to include these new dimensions.

  7. The Ketogenic Diet: Making a Comeback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczyk, Thomas; Wick, Jeannette Y

    2017-07-01

    Americans have embraced a large number of diets in an attempt to manage obesity, improve quality of life, and address specific health problems. Among diets developed to address health problems, the ketogenic diet has had a long and variable history. Developed in the 1920s by a faith healer to help children with epilepsy, this diet induces a state that mimics carbohydrate starvation. As medications became available and effectively addressed seizures, the diet fell out of favor. During the last few decades, researchers and clinicians have learned that it can be useful in children and adults with refractory epilepsy and a variety of other conditions. Once again, pharmacists may encounter patients who are employing dietary management of serious health problems. This very high-fat diet almost eliminates carbohydrates from the patient's food selection. The result is the substitution of ketone bodies as a source of energy. Today's ketogenic diet has been modified with scientifically proven adjustments to increase palatability and help with adherence. Effective for some forms of epilepsy, the ketogenic diet also seems to have some utility in Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and glaucoma, and many Americans are using it to lose weight. Consultant pharmacists may field questions about this diet, its potential to correct or alleviate health conditions, and its limitations. The article discusses the ketogenic diet's strengths, limitations, potential mechanisms, and use in a number of conditions with an emphasis on the elderly.

  8. The New Nordic Diet as a prototype for regional sustainable diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bügel, Susanne Gjedsted; Hertwig, Jostein; Kahl, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    A main challenge in sustainable food systems is to link sustainable production to sustainable diets and consumption patterns. The new Nordic diet (NND) builds on and shares the Mediterranean diet (MD) thinking, but utilizes the ingredients and flavours of a northern climate. In both diets...... both wild and domesticated sources. Both diets have been associated with health benefits. The NND is a prototype regional diet taking health, food culture, palatability and the environment into account. Thus, the principles and guidelines could be applied in any region of the world. There are currently...

  9. Gluten-free diet and the possibility of enriching the diet coeliacs

    OpenAIRE

    BLAŽKOVÁ, Klára

    2014-01-01

    This thesis deals with the gluten-free diet and its possible enrichment. It is divided into two parts. The first part includes chapters such as history of gluten-free diet, basics of a gluten free diet, the first step in the introduction of a gluten-free diet, gluten-free food labeling legislation and the use of alcohol on a gluten-free diet. The practical part is focused on enriching the diet celiac patients. I focused on the preparation of bakery products for celiac, I have designed and pra...

  10. Evaluation of the effect of soybean diet on interferon-α-induced depression in male mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazdan Azimi Fashi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Interferon-α (IFN therapy can cause depressive symptom which may lead to drug discontinuation. By interfering with tryptophan pathway, the available level of tryptophan required for serotonin synthesis decreases which could be related to depression. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether soybean diet could improve IFN-induced depression. Materials and Methods: Male mice weighing 28±3 g were used in the forced swimming test (FST as an animal model of depression; also, locomotor activity was recorded. IFN 16×105 IU/kg was injected subcutaneously for 6 days. Animals were fed with regular diet or soybean diet at 3 concentrations throughout the experiment. Fluoxetine was the reference drug. To check whether the tryptophan content in the soy bean diet was effective, a group of animals was injected with a single dose of tryptophan on the test day. Results: IFN-α increased the immobility time in the FST (192 sec ± 5.4, that denotes depression in mice. Soybean diets caused less immobility that was more profound with 50% soybean (26.4 sec ± 6. This diet overcame the depression caused by IFN in the FST (54 sec±18. This result was parallel with that of tryptophan injected to animals (38 sec±17. All the animals showed normal locomotor activity. Conclusion: For the first time, we showed that soybean diet could counteract with depression caused by IFN-α. Since tryptophan therapy had similar effects, possibly the tryptophan content of soybean had induced the serotonin synthesis. Thus, not only less harmful kynurenine was produced but also more serotonin was available in the brain to overcome depression. However, this interpretation needs further evaluations.

  11. Why were "starvation diets" promoted for diabetes in the pre-insulin period?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazur Allan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the decade before the discovery of insulin, the prominent American physicians Frederick Allen and Elliott Joslin advocated severe fasting and undernutrition to prolong the lives of diabetic patients. Detractors called this "starvation dieting," and some patients did indeed starve to death. Allen and Joslin promoted the therapy as a desperate application of animal experimentation to clinical treatment, and texts still describe it that way. This justification was exaggerated. The public record contains only the briefest account of relevant animal experiments, and clinical experience at the time provided little indication that severe undernutrition had better outcomes than low carbohydrate diets then in use.

  12. Konseling gizi mempengaruhi kualitas diet pasien diabetes mellitus tipe 2 di RSUP Dr.Sardjito Yogyakarta

    OpenAIRE

    Stefania Widya S; Luthfan Budi P; Martalena Br Purba

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACTBackground: One key factor in diabetes mellitus management is improvement of diet quality. Nutrition counseling is one of medical nutritional therapy that is given to improve dietary pattern and lifestyle in patients with diabetes mellitus.Objectives: To assess the effect of both individual and group counseling to improve diet quality in patient with diabetes mellitus.Methods: This research used quasi-experiment method with non-randomized control group pretest-posttest design. The die...

  13. Resting metabolic rate of obese patients under very low calorie ketogenic diet

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez-Arbelaez, Diego; Crujeiras, Ana B.; Castro, Ana I.; Martinez-Olmos, Miguel A.; Canton, Ana; Ordoñez-Mayan, Lucia; Sajoux, Ignacio; Galban, Cristobal; Bellido, Diego; Casanueva, Felipe F.

    2018-01-01

    Background The resting metabolic rate (RMR) decrease, observed after an obesity reduction therapy is a determinant of a short-time weight regain. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate changes in RMR, and the associated hormonal alterations in obese patients with a very low-calorie ketogenic (VLCK)-diet induced severe body weight (BW) loss. Method From 20 obese patients who lost 20.2 kg of BW after a 4-months VLCK-diet, blood samples and body composition analysis, determined by DXA...

  14. Assessment of diet in chronic kidney disease female predialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Włodarek

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [b]introduction and objective[/b]. Nutrition is important in the therapy of predialysis patients. The aim of the presented single-centre descriptive study was to assess the diet in chronic kidney disease female predialysis patients with no previous dietary intervention, in comparison with recommendations, as well as the analysis of the energy, protein and phosphate intake in correlation with chosen laboratory measurements. [b]materials and methods.[/b] The research was carried out in 31 female predialysis patients with CKD of different etiology, aged 29–79 years (GFR: 19.4±9.7ml/min/1.73m [sup]2[/sup] . Main outcome measures were self-reported data from three-day dietary recall. Nutrients content and energy value of diet were compared with guidelines for chronic kidney disease patients or, in case of nutrients when they are not settled, with the recommendations for healthy women. [b]results[/b]. All patients had a lower energy intake than the recommended level. At the same time, 35.8% of patients were characterised by improper protein intake – too low or too high. The majority of patients had low intake of most of vitamins and minerals. The total, animal and plant protein were positively correlated with the energy value of diet and with amount of most of the nutrients. Values of GFR were positively correlated with animal protein intake, while phosphate and creatinine in blood were negatively correlated with total and animal protein intake. [b]conclusions[/b]. The study highlights that diet of CKD predialysis patients with no previous dietary intervention is not properly balanced.

  15. Is ketogenic diet treatment hepatotoxic for children with intractable epilepsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Nur; Guzel, Orkide; Kose, Engin; Yılmaz, Unsal; Kuyum, Pınar; Aksoy, Betül; Çalık, Tansel

    2016-12-01

    Long-term ketogenic diet (KD) treatment has been shown to induce liver steatosis and gallstone formation in some in vivo and clinical studies. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the hepatic side effects of KD in epileptic children. A total of 141 patients (mean age: 7.1±4.1years [2-18 years], 45.4% girls), receiving KD at least one year for intractable epilepsy due to different diagnoses (congenital brain defects, GLUT-1 deficiency, West syndrome, tuberous sclerosis, hypoxic brain injury, etc.) were included in the study. Serum triglyceride, cholesterol, aminotransferase, bilirubin, protein and albumin levels and abdominal ultrasonography were recorded before and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months following after diet initiation. The mean duration of KD was 15.9±4.3months. At one month of therapy, three patients had elevated alanine and aspartate aminotransferase levels. These patients were receiving ketogenic diet for Doose syndrome, idiopathic epilepsy and GLUT-1 deficiency. Hepatosteatosis was detected in three patients at 6 months of treatment. Two of these patients were treated with KD for the primary diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis and one for Landau Kleffner syndrome. Cholelithiasis was detected in two patients at 12 months of treatment. They were receiving treatment for West syndrome and hypoxic brain injury sequelae. Long-term ketogenic diet treatment stimulates liver parenchymal injury, hepatic steatosis and gallstone formation. Patients should be monitored by screening liver enzymes and abdominal ultrasonography in order to detect these side effects. Copyright © 2016 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. COMPOSITION OF THE ATHLETES DIET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastislav Salaj

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available  Sports nutrition is a constantly evolving field with many of research papers published annually. However, designing the most suitable sports diet is very difficult. It must be given to the type of training, its duration and intensity, the age and sex of the athlete and also for overall health. The aim of this article is to summarize knowledges about sports nutrition, especially intake of carbohydrates, proteins, fats and dietary supplements and their influence on the performance and recovery of the athlete.doi:10.5219/126 

  17. DIET IN GOUT AND HYPERURICEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Zhelyabina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the most important works devoted to the study of the impact of individual foods and food components on the risk of gout, its clinical manifestations and the level of uricemia. It considers some mechanisms probably underlying the impact of dietary patterns on the level of uricemia. It is shown that the available data on possible alterations in the diet with their proper application can considerably affect both the incidence of gout and the course of the current disease.

  18. Adaptive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatenby, Robert A; Silva, Ariosto S; Gillies, Robert J; Frieden, B Roy

    2009-06-01

    A number of successful systemic therapies are available for treatment of disseminated cancers. However, tumor response is often transient, and therapy frequently fails due to emergence of resistant populations. The latter reflects the temporal and spatial heterogeneity of the tumor microenvironment as well as the evolutionary capacity of cancer phenotypes to adapt to therapeutic perturbations. Although cancers are highly dynamic systems, cancer therapy is typically administered according to a fixed, linear protocol. Here we examine an adaptive therapeutic approach that evolves in response to the temporal and spatial variability of tumor microenvironment and cellular phenotype as well as therapy-induced perturbations. Initial mathematical models find that when resistant phenotypes arise in the untreated tumor, they are typically present in small numbers because they are less fit than the sensitive population. This reflects the "cost" of phenotypic resistance such as additional substrate and energy used to up-regulate xenobiotic metabolism, and therefore not available for proliferation, or the growth inhibitory nature of environments (i.e., ischemia or hypoxia) that confer resistance on phenotypically sensitive cells. Thus, in the Darwinian environment of a cancer, the fitter chemosensitive cells will ordinarily proliferate at the expense of the less fit chemoresistant cells. The models show that, if resistant populations are present before administration of therapy, treatments designed to kill maximum numbers of cancer cells remove this inhibitory effect and actually promote more rapid growth of the resistant populations. We present an alternative approach in which treatment is continuously modulated to achieve a fixed tumor population. The goal of adaptive therapy is to enforce a stable tumor burden by permitting a significant population of chemosensitive cells to survive so that they, in turn, suppress proliferation of the less fit but chemoresistant

  19. Drug Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ri-Hui; Tao, Ran

    2017-01-01

    This chapter first summarizes the therapy of addiction disorder, and elaborates on the progress of medication. First, the difference between dependency and addiction are introduced. The basic principles of the therapy of substance and non-substance addiction are then put forward. It is also pointed out in this chapter that with the progress of the study, the goal of addiction disorder therapy is expected to transfer from reducing the relapse and harm of the addiction to completely eliminating and recovering from it. This chapter also introduces the progress of psychological addiction elimination technology, especially the "Unconditioned Stimulus Retrieval Extinction Paradigm and Conditioned Stimulus Retrieval Extinction Paradigm" and PITDH technology. Finally it is pointed out that in addiction disorder therapy, comprehensive intervention has become a trend. With regard to the medication for addiction disorders, this chapter also includes the progress and deficiencies of substance and non-substance addiction. In terms of addiction disorder rehabilitation, the foundation of substance addiction is medication which is, however, limited for non-substance addiction. The key to the rehabilitation of addiction disorder is psycho-behavioral therapy, which is especially effective in eliminating craving.

  20. Neutron therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riesler, Rudi

    1995-01-01

    Standard radiotherapy uses Xrays or electrons which have low LET (linear energy transfer); in contrast, particles such as neutrons with high LET have different radiobiological responses. In the late 1960s, clinical trials by Mary Catterall at the Hammersmith Hospital in London indicated that fast neutron radiation had clinical advantages for certain malignant tumours. Following these early clinical trials, several cyclotron facilities were built in the 1980s for fast neutron therapy, for example at the University of Washington, Seattle, and at UCLA. Most of these newer machines use extracted cyclotron proton beams in the range 42 to 66 MeV with beam intensities of 15 to 60 microamps. The proton beams are transported to dedicated therapy rooms, where neutrons are produced from beryllium targets. Second-generation clinical trials showed that accurate neutron beam delivery to the tumour site is more critical than for photon therapy. In order to achieve precise beam geometries, the extracted proton beams have to be transported through a gantry which can rotate around the patient and deliver beams from any angle; also the neutron beam outline (''field shape'') must be adjusted to extremely irregular shapes using a flexible collimation system. A therapy procedure has to be appropriately organized, with physicians, radiotherapists, nurses, medical physicists and other staff in attendance; other specialized equipment, such as CT or MRI scanners and radiation simulators must be made available. Neutron therapy is usually performed only in radiation oncology departments of major medical centres

  1. The Ketogenic Diet and Potassium Channel Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0463 TITLE: The Ketogenic Diet and Potassium Channel Function PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Geoffrey Murphy...NUMBER The Ketogenic Diet and Potassium Channel Function 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0463 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Geoffrey Murphy...The overall objective of this Discovery Award was to explore the hypothesis the ketogenic diet (KD) regulates neuronal excitability by influencing

  2. Art Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Vibeke; Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Based on a Jungian approach, this article will introduce an integrative model to therapeutic change using art therapy methods as practical tools, with the aim of improving quality of life and in the prevention of depression. In a research study involving six participants, painting, clay...... work and drumming were used together with imagination and personal dialogues linked to the artwork. These art therapy processes attempted to combine the participant’s experience of inner and outer reality. The effect of gaining more knowledge about their inner reality using dreams and symbols......, was that participants gained a new understanding about their personal life. In addition, some participants were able to continue to use art therapy experiences as selfdevelopmental tools after the research study terminated. Jung’s description of the interactive relationship between the two living parts of the psyche...

  3. Oxygen Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie Solmes

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available LTOT is prescribed for people with chronic lung disease in whom there is a decrease in the ability of the lungs to supply enough oxygen to the body. The heart is obliged to pump faster to meet the body's oxygen requirements. This may place undue stress on the heart, resulting in palpitations, dizziness and fatigue. A low oxygen level in arterial blood is also harmful to the heart, the brain and the pulmonary blood vessels. Oxygen therapy is used to break this cycle. A person with low blood oxygen will often be able to accomplish more with less fatigue with the help of supplemental oxygen therapy. Shortness of breath is a mechanical problem resulting from the effects of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Oxygen therapy may or may not reduce shortness of breath, but it will help the lungs and heart to function with less stress.

  4. Music therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    alternate with clear and lucid mental states. These states are important as it is here that it is possible to meet the person’s psychosocial needs. Ketil Normann’s conceps of periods of lucidity are presented and connected to clinical music therapy practice and how it is possible to use music in order...... as a consequence of person-centred care. Umeå University Medical Dissertations. New Series. Ridder, H.M. (2005). Music therapy as a way to enhance lucidity in persons with dementia in advanced stages. In: Esch, A.; Frohne-Hagemann, I.; Laqua, M.; Schirmer, H.; Seitz, E. (Eds.) Jahrbuch Musicktherapie. Forschung...... und Entwicklung Music Therapy Annual. Research and Development. 2005 (1), pp. 25-40. Reichert Verlag Wiesbaden....

  5. Gluten-free diet - facts and myths.

    OpenAIRE

    Hejduk Bobková, Barbora

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor thesis was to gain a comprehensive view of the gluten-free diet and to confirm or refute the claim that the gluten-free diet became a fashion trend in nutrition. The theoretical part explains the relationship between gluten-free diet and diseases caused by intolerance of gluten. Greater attention is paid to the most serious of these, celiac disease, whose only treatment is gluten-free diet Research of commonly available sources for the general public has produced a li...

  6. The Mediterranean diet: health and science

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoffman, Richard; Gerber, Mariette

    2012-01-01

    .... It discusses the Mediterranean diet in the light of recent developments in nutritional biochemistry, disease mechanisms and epidemiological studies, and also provides advice on nutrition policies...

  7. Calorie shifting diet versus calorie restriction diet: A comparative clinical trial study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Hossein Davoodi

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The CSD diet was associated with a greater improvement in some anthropometric measures, Adherence was better among CSD subjects. Longer and larger studies are required to determine the long-term safety and efficacy of CSD diet.

  8. Predictors of dieting and non-dieting approaches among adults living in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Leske

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a dearth of research comparing why dieting and non-dieting approaches are adopted. A greater understanding of reasons underlying dieting and non-dieting attempts will help to identify target beliefs for interventions to support and motivate adults to attempt whatever approach they are willing and/or able to pursue. We investigated the predictors of dieting and non-dieting approaches in Australian adults using predictors that were identified in a previous qualitative study. Methods We conducted a prospective study, with two waves of data collection occurring 4 weeks apart. At baseline, participants completed a questionnaire assessing constructs drawn from the theory of planned behaviour (attitude, subjective norm, and self-efficacy, past behaviour, non-planning, attributions for dieting failure, weight control beliefs, and dieting and non-dieting intentions. We used path modelling to analyse responses. Results At baseline, 719 adults (52.2% male aged between 18 and 76 completed the questionnaire. Four weeks later, 64% of participants (n = 461 reported on their dieting and non-dieting behaviour in the past month. Past behaviour, attitude, subjective norm, and self-identity significantly predicted dieting intentions. Dieting intentions and past behaviour significantly predicted dieting behaviour, while non-planning and self-efficacy did not. The model explained 74.8% of the variance in intention and 52.9% of the variance in behaviour. While most findings were similar for the non-dieting model, subjective norms and self-identity did not predict intention, while self-efficacy and self-identity both predicted non-dieting behaviour directly. The non-dieting model explained 58.2% of the variance in intention and 37.5% of the variance in behaviour. Conclusions The findings from this study provide support for the application of TPB and identity theory constructs in the context of both dieting and non-dieting behaviour

  9. [Recommended diet for reflux spectrophotometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Valter Nilton; Viebig, Ricardo Guilherme

    2003-01-01

    The spectrophotometric probe, which uses bilirubin as a marker for the detection of duodenoesophagic reflux is subject to interference from strongly colored foods, which can cause erroneously high bilirubin absorbance readings. To overcome this problem it is necessary to ingest a diet that is free from such substances. To test the absorbance of 48 different food substances in an in vitro environment. Dry foods were blended with water or milk and non-dry solid foods were blended undiluted. It was utilized the proper calibration recipient to test them. The absorbance of weakly colored foods was usually lesser than the commonly accepted threshold of 0.14, and the absorbance of strongly colored foods was usually above this. Thirty-two from the 48 substances tested are suitable when the absorbance threshold is set at 0.14, but scrambled eggs, lacteous flour mush, green beans, beetroot, carrot, chayote, squash, "baroa" potato, boiled corn, orange, cashew, purple grape, avocado, mango, papaya and peach can alter the results and must be avoided. From the foods evaluated, enough are suitable at the 0.14 threshold to enable a suitable diet to be constructed for most patients during Bilitec studies.

  10. Inhibition of Neuroblastoma Tumor Growth by Ketogenic Diet and/or Calorie Restriction in a CD1-Nu Mouse Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Johannes Morscher

    Full Text Available Neuroblastoma is a malignant pediatric cancer derived from neural crest cells. It is characterized by a generalized reduction of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. The goal of the present study was to investigate the effects of calorie restriction and ketogenic diet on neuroblastoma tumor growth and monitor potential adaptive mechanisms of the cancer's oxidative phosphorylation system.Xenografts were established in CD-1 nude mice by subcutaneous injection of two neuroblastoma cell lines having distinct genetic characteristics and therapeutic sensitivity [SH-SY5Y and SK-N-BE(2]. Mice were randomized to four treatment groups receiving standard diet, calorie-restricted standard diet, long chain fatty acid based ketogenic diet or calorie-restricted ketogenic diet. Tumor growth, survival, metabolic parameters and weight of the mice were monitored. Cancer tissue was evaluated for diet-induced changes of proliferation indices and multiple oxidative phosphorylation system parameters (respiratory chain enzyme activities, western blot analysis, immunohistochemistry and mitochondrial DNA content.Ketogenic diet and/or calorie restriction significantly reduced tumor growth and prolonged survival in the xenograft model. Neuroblastoma growth reduction correlated with decreased blood glucose concentrations and was characterized by a significant decrease in Ki-67 and phospho-histone H3 levels in the diet groups with low tumor growth. As in human tumor tissue, neuroblastoma xenografts showed distinctly low mitochondrial complex II activity in combination with a generalized low level of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, validating the tumor model. Neuroblastoma showed no ability to adapt its mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation activity to the change in nutrient supply induced by dietary intervention.Our data suggest that targeting the metabolic characteristics of neuroblastoma could open a new front in supporting standard therapy regimens

  11. Inhibition of Neuroblastoma Tumor Growth by Ketogenic Diet and/or Calorie Restriction in a CD1-Nu Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morscher, Raphael Johannes; Aminzadeh-Gohari, Sepideh; Feichtinger, René Gunther; Mayr, Johannes Adalbert; Lang, Roland; Neureiter, Daniel; Sperl, Wolfgang; Kofler, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is a malignant pediatric cancer derived from neural crest cells. It is characterized by a generalized reduction of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. The goal of the present study was to investigate the effects of calorie restriction and ketogenic diet on neuroblastoma tumor growth and monitor potential adaptive mechanisms of the cancer's oxidative phosphorylation system. Xenografts were established in CD-1 nude mice by subcutaneous injection of two neuroblastoma cell lines having distinct genetic characteristics and therapeutic sensitivity [SH-SY5Y and SK-N-BE(2)]. Mice were randomized to four treatment groups receiving standard diet, calorie-restricted standard diet, long chain fatty acid based ketogenic diet or calorie-restricted ketogenic diet. Tumor growth, survival, metabolic parameters and weight of the mice were monitored. Cancer tissue was evaluated for diet-induced changes of proliferation indices and multiple oxidative phosphorylation system parameters (respiratory chain enzyme activities, western blot analysis, immunohistochemistry and mitochondrial DNA content). Ketogenic diet and/or calorie restriction significantly reduced tumor growth and prolonged survival in the xenograft model. Neuroblastoma growth reduction correlated with decreased blood glucose concentrations and was characterized by a significant decrease in Ki-67 and phospho-histone H3 levels in the diet groups with low tumor growth. As in human tumor tissue, neuroblastoma xenografts showed distinctly low mitochondrial complex II activity in combination with a generalized low level of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, validating the tumor model. Neuroblastoma showed no ability to adapt its mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation activity to the change in nutrient supply induced by dietary intervention. Our data suggest that targeting the metabolic characteristics of neuroblastoma could open a new front in supporting standard therapy regimens. Therefore, we propose

  12. Radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peschel, R.E; Fisher, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    The new insights and controversies concerning the radiobiological properties of malignant melanoma and how these relate to new clinical approaches are reviewed. The recent clinical experience with large individual fraction sizes is analyzed. The treatment of malignant melanoma in certain specialized sites is also described. An attempt is made to place in perspective the usefulness of radiation therapy in the treatment of this complex disease. Finally, certain new applications for radiation therapy both alone and in combustion with other treatment modalities are proposed that may ultimately prove appropriate for clinical trials

  13. Mediterranean Diet: From a Healthy Diet to a Sustainable Dietary Pattern

    OpenAIRE

    Dernini, Sandro; Berry, Elliot M.

    2015-01-01

    The notion of the Mediterranean diet has undergone a progressive evolution over the past 60 years, from a healthy dietary pattern to a sustainable dietary pattern, in which nutrition, food, cultures, people, environment, and sustainability all interact into a new model of a sustainable diet. An overview of the historical antecedents and recent increased interest in the Mediterranean diet is presented and challenges related to how to improve the sustainability of the Mediterranean diet are ide...

  14. Influence of a ketogenic diet, fish-oil, and calorie restriction on plasma metabolites and lipids in C57BL/6J mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Diet therapies including calorie restriction, ketogenic diets, and fish-oil supplementation have been used to improve health and to treat a variety of neurological and non-neurological diseases. Methods We investigated the effects of three diets on circulating plasma metabolites (glucose and β-hydroxybutyrate), hormones (insulin and adiponectin), and lipids over a 32-day period in C57BL/6J mice. The diets evaluated included a standard rodent diet (SD), a ketogenic diet (KD), and a standard rodent diet supplemented with fish-oil (FO). Each diet was administered in either unrestricted (UR) or restricted (R) amounts to reduce body weight by 20%. Results The KD-UR increased body weight and glucose levels and promoted a hyperlipidemic profile, whereas the FO-UR decreased body weight and glucose levels and promoted a normolipidemic profile, compared to the SD-UR. When administered in restricted amounts, all three diets produced a similar plasma metabolite profile, which included decreased glucose levels and a normolipidemic profile. Linear regression analysis showed that circulating glucose most strongly predicted body weight and triglyceride levels, whereas calorie intake moderately predicted glucose levels and strongly predicted ketone body levels. Conclusions These results suggest that biomarkers of health can be improved when diets are consumed in restricted amounts, regardless of macronutrient composition. PMID:24910707

  15. A low-fat vegan diet elicits greater macronutrient changes, but is comparable in adherence and acceptability, compared with a more conventional diabetes diet among individuals with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Neal D; Gloede, Lise; Cohen, Joshua; Jenkins, David J A; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Green, Amber A; Ferdowsian, Hope

    2009-02-01

    macronutrient intake, a low-fat, vegan diet has an acceptability similar to that of a more conventional diabetes diet. Acceptability appears to be no barrier to its use in medical nutrition therapy.

  16. Diet induced thermogenesis measured over 24h in a respiration chamber: effect of diet composition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, K.R.; Wilson, S.A.; Rolland, V.

    1999-01-01

    Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, The Netherlands. OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of diet composition on diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) over 24h in a respiration chamber. SUBJECTS: Eight healthy female volunteers (age 27 +/- 3 y; body mass index, BMI 23 +/- 3 kg/m2). DIETS: A

  17. Habitual diet and diet quality in Irritable Bowel Syndrome : A case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tigchelaar, E. F.; Mujagic, Z.; Zhernakova, A.; Hesselink, M. A. M.; Meijboom, S.; Perenboom, C. W. M.; Masclee, A. A. M.; Wijmenga, C.; Feskens, E. J. M.; Jonkers, D. M. A. E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Diet is considered to be a key factor in symptom generation in Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and patients tend to exclude food products from their diet in pursue of symptom relief, which may impair diet quality. Methods: We evaluated habitual dietary intake in IBS patients with regard

  18. Chinese materia medica used in medicinal diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Fang; Chen, Yalin; Tan, Xiaolei; Ma, Yunyun; Peng, Yong

    2017-07-12

    Medicinal diets have a history of more than 2000 years. Locally referred to as yaoshan (Chinese: ), a medicinal diet is understood in China as a dietary product that combines herbs and food with the purpose of preventing and treating diseases or improving health under the guidance of traditional Chinese medicine theory. Medicinal diets are used in Chinese people's daily life and in specialized restaurants. Hundreds of Chinese materia medica (CMM) are used in medicinal diets; however, a comprehensive evaluation of medicinal diets is lacking. This is an exploratory study that aims to identify the CMM that are most frequently used in medicinal diets and to provide an updated view of the current situation of medicinal diets in China. A field study of 1221 people in 32 Chinese provinces was conducted over a period of approximately 6 months and included various types of interviews as well as a written questionnaire. Two approaches were used to analyse the data collected in the survey: (1) estimating the frequency of CMM consumed in daily diets; and (2) collecting CMM used in medicinal diet restaurants. Complementary information on the selected CMM was obtained from relevant databases, including PubMed, Google Scholar, Baidu Scholar, CNKI, and Web of Science. Ten CMM were reported as commonly used by more than 50% of the participants. Among these 10 species, most medicinally used parts were seeds and fruits. Pharmacological data from the literature revealed that these species are associated with a wide spectrum of biological properties, including antitumour (80%), antioxidant (50%), anti-diabetic (40%), antilipemic (40%), anti-aging (40%), antimicrobial (40%) and cardioprotective (40%) activities. Our survey shows that most medicinal diet restaurants are located in the eastern part of China, with the greatest numbers being found in Beijing and Guangzhou. Only Dioscoreae Rhizoma, Lycii Fructus, Chrysanthemi Flos and Longan Arillus were frequently consumed both in daily

  19. [Composition of macronutrients in the diabetic diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rušavý, Zdeněk; Žourek, Michal

    2016-01-01

    The diabetic diet is one of the pillars of diabetes treatment. The rapid development of knowledge relating to the treatment of diabetes also includes diet. The paper focuses on the importance of a diet in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and prevention of atherosclerosis. Its main goal is to assess the impact of a composition of macronutrients on individuals with type 2 diabetes. The paper is divided into several parts, each of which ends with a conclusion. The first part examines weight reduction. The diet aimed at a weight loss is effective, it can effectively prevent diabetes, it leads to improvements in glucose control and reduction of the risk factors for atherosclerosis, however it will not impact on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality until after more than 20 years. The second part deals with "healthy" foods. The studies exploring this area are not convincing. The only really rational component of food in relation to atherosclerosis is dietary fibres. Important is a balanced diet combined with regular physical activities. The third part focuses on the composition of macronutrients. It turns out that, considering a low-calorie diet, the effects of high- and low-carbohydrate diets on people with diabetes are similar with regard to weight loss and lowering of HbA1c, however the low-carbohydrate diet is associated with lower glycemic variability and a reduced need for anti-diabetic drugs. We do not know how the comparison of the two extreme diets would come out regarding individuals with a high energy diet. Currently it is useful to focus on the quality of individual macronutrients. Choose foods containing carbohydrates with a low glycemic index and high fibre foods, prefer fats that contain a low proportion of saturated fatty acids. The fourth part discusses the recent recommendation of the Czech Diabetes Society regarding the composition of macronutrients in the diabetic diet. As compared with the diet proposed earlier, lower intake of fibre

  20. Radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Keiichi; Miyoshi, Makoto; Jinguu, Ken-ichi

    1982-01-01

    Of the cases of lung cancer in which radiation therapy was given between 1961 and November 1981, 399 cases for which histological type was confirmed, and irradiated as follows were reviewed. The cases of squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma irradiated with more than 5,000 rad or more, those of undifferentiated carcinoma irradiated with 3,000 rad or more, and those irradiated pre- and post-operatively with 3,000 rad or more. The actual 5 year survival rate for stages I, II, III and IV were 29.6, 9.3, 7.5 and 1.9% respectively, and the survival rate tended to be better for adenocarcinoma than squamous cell carcinoma at stages I, II and III, but not different at stage IV. There was no difference between large cell, small cell and squamous cell carcinomas. Irradiation with 200 rad every other day or 150 rad daily was better than that with 200 rad, and daily irradiation with 150 rad was used since 1976. The therapy of stage III small cell carcinoma at the age of up to 80 years was improved with the combination of anticancer agents, maintenance therapy and immunotherapy, but these combined therapies were not significantly effective for the cancers with other histological types or at other stages. Although there was no significant difference in statistics for resectable cases, clinically, the results were experienced to be better after resection, and surgery was done in combination as much as possible. (Kaihara, S.)

  1. Dance Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, Marcia B.

    1980-01-01

    Dance therapy deals with personal growth via body-mind interaction. A change in movement expression is believed to result in a personality or behavior change. The therapist is trained to become sensitive to movement expression as it relates to the psychological, motor, and cognitive development of the child. (JN)

  2. Shock therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Erin

    2016-02-03

    Therapies administered by mental health nurses, aimed at "curing" gay people of their sexual preference were still in common use in the UK in the 1960s and early 1970s. Some nurses tried to avoid participating in these practices, but many believed that they were helping their patients, as a new book reveals.

  3. Proton therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jongen, Y.

    1995-01-01

    Ideal radiotherapy deposits a large amount of energy in the tumour volume, and none in the surrounding healthy tissues. Proton therapy comes closer to this goal because of a greater concentration of dose, well defined proton ranges and points of energy release which are precisely known - the Bragg peak1. In the past, the development of clinical proton therapy has been hampered by complexity, size, and cost. To be clinically effective, energies of several hundred MeV are required; these were previously unavailable for hospital installations, and pioneering institutions had to work with complex, inadequate equipment originally intended for nuclear physics research. Recently a number of specialist organizations and commercial companies have been working on dedicated systems for proton therapy. One, IBA of Belgium, has equipment for inhouse hospital operation which encompasses a complete therapy centre, delivered as a turnkey package and incorporating a compact, automated, higher energy cyclotron with isocentric gantries. Their system will be installed at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston. The proton therapy system comprises: - a 235 MeV isochronous cyclotron to deliver beams of up to 1.5 microamps, but with a hardware limitation to restrict the maximum possible dose; - variable energy beam (235 to 70 MeV ) with energy spread and emittance verification; - a beam transport and switching system to connect the exit of the energy selection system to the entrances of a number of gantries and fixed beamlines. Along the beam transport system, the beam characteristics are monitored with non-interceptive multiwire ionization chambers for automatic tuning; - gantries fitted with nozzles and beamline elements for beam control; both beam scattering and beam wobbling techniques are available for shaping the beam;

  4. [Diet, nutrition and bone health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miggiano, G A D; Gagliardi, L

    2005-01-01

    Nutrition is an important "modifiable" factor in the development and maintenance of bone mass and in the prevention of osteoporosis. The improvement of calcium intake in prepuberal age translates to gain in bone mass and, with genetic factor, to achievement of Peak Bone Mass (PBM), the higher level of bone mass reached at the completion of physiological growth. Individuals with higher PBM achieved in early adulthood will be at lower risk for developing osteoporosis later in life. Achieved the PBM, it is important maintain the bone mass gained and reduce the loss. This is possible adopting a correct behaviour eating associated to regular physical activity and correct life style. The diet is nutritionally balanced with caloric intake adequate to requirement of individual. This is moderate in protein (1 g/kg/die), normal in fat and the carbohydrates provide 55-60% of the caloric intake. A moderate intake of proteins is associated with normal calcium metabolism and presumably does'nt alter bone turnover. An adequate intake of alkali-rich foods may help promote a favorable effect of dietary protein on the skeleton. Lactose intolerance may determinate calcium malabsorption or may decrease calcium intake by elimination of milk and dairy products. Omega3 fatty acids may "down-regulate" pro-inflammatory cytokines and protect against bone loss by decreasing osteoclast activation and bone reabsorption. The diet is characterized by food containing high amount of calcium, potassium, magnesium and low amount of sodium. If it is impossible to reach the requirement with only diet, it is need the supplement of calcium and vitamin D. Other vitamins (Vit. A, C, E, K) and mineral (phosphorus, fluoride, iron, zinc, copper and boron) are required for normal bone metabolism, thus it is need adequate intake of these dietary components. It is advisable reduce ethanol, caffeine, fibers, phytic and ossalic acid intake. The efficacy of phytoestrogens is actually under investigation. Some

  5. Long-term High Fat Ketogenic Diet Promotes Renal Tumor Growth in a Rat Model of Tuberous Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liśkiewicz, Arkadiusz D; Kasprowska, Daniela; Wojakowska, Anna; Polański, Krzysztof; Lewin-Kowalik, Joanna; Kotulska, Katarzyna; Jędrzejowska-Szypułka, Halina

    2016-02-19

    Nutritional imbalance underlies many disease processes but can be very beneficial in certain cases; for instance, the antiepileptic action of a high fat and low carbohydrate ketogenic diet. Besides this therapeutic feature it is not clear how this abundant fat supply may affect homeostasis, leading to side effects. A ketogenic diet is used as anti-seizure therapy i.a. in tuberous sclerosis patients, but its impact on concomitant tumor growth is not known. To examine this we have evaluated the growth of renal lesions in Eker rats (Tsc2+/-) subjected to a ketogenic diet for 4, 6 and 8 months. In spite of existing opinions about the anticancer actions of a ketogenic diet, we have shown that this anti-seizure therapy, especially in its long term usage, leads to excessive tumor growth. Prolonged feeding of a ketogenic diet promotes the growth of renal tumors by recruiting ERK1/2 and mTOR which are associated with the accumulation of oleic acid and the overproduction of growth hormone. Simultaneously, we observed that Nrf2, p53 and 8-oxoguanine glycosylase α dependent antitumor mechanisms were launched by the ketogenic diet. However, the pro-cancerous mechanisms finally took the ascendency by boosting tumor growth.

  6. May Diet and Dietary Supplements Improve the Wellness of Multiple Sclerosis Patients? A Molecular Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Riccio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis is a complex and multifactorial neurological disease, and nutrition is one of the environmental factors possibly involved in its pathogenesis. At present, the role of nutrition is unclear, and MS therapy is not associated to a particular diet. MS clinical trials based on specific diets or dietary supplements are very few and in some cases controversial. To understand how diet can influence the course of MS and improve the wellness of MS patients, it is necessary to identify the dietary molecules, their targets and the molecular mechanisms involved in the control of the disease. The aim of this paper is to provide a molecular basis for the nutritional intervention in MS by evaluating at molecular level the effect of dietary molecules on the inflammatory and autoimmune processes involved in the disease.

  7. SUSPECTED HYPERVITAMINOSIS D IN RED-RUMPED AGOUTI ( DASYPROCTA LEPORINA) RECEIVING A COMMERCIAL RODENT DIET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kadie M; Lewandowski, Albert; Dennis, Patricia M

    2018-03-01

    An 8 yr, intact male red-rumped agouti ( Dasyprocta leporina) was evaluated for weight loss. Examination revealed poor body condition, hypercalcemia, elevated serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, metastatic calcification of soft tissues, and hyperechoic kidneys. The diet, formulated for laboratory rodents, contained elevated levels of vitamin D 3 . Histopathology from a female conspecific that died 5 mo prior identified dystrophic mineralization and nephrosclerosis, suggestive of a vitamin D 3 toxicity. The male agouti responded well to a dietary reduction in vitamin D 3 and calcium. Six months into therapy, progressive renal failure was identified and was further managed with enalapril, phosphorus binders, and dietary manipulation. Suspected vitamin D 3 toxicity has been reported in pacas ( Cuniculus paca) and agouti and has been linked to exposure to New World primate diets. In this brief communication, an agouti developed suspected hypervitaminosis D after receiving a commercial rodent diet commonly fed to this species in captivity.

  8. Konseling gizi mempengaruhi kualitas diet pasien diabetes mellitus tipe 2 di RSUP Dr.Sardjito Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Widya S

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: One key factor in diabetes mellitus management is improvement of diet quality. Nutrition counseling is one of medical nutritional therapy that is given to improve dietary pattern and lifestyle in patients with diabetes mellitus.Objectives: To assess the effect of both individual and group counseling to improve diet quality in patient with diabetes mellitus.Methods: This research used quasi-experiment method with non-randomized control group pretest-posttest design. The diet qualities of 54 respondens with diabetes mellitus were explored using semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (SQ-FFQ before converted to diet quality score using healthy eating index (HEI standard scores. Intervention group were given individual nutrition counseling, then they were formed into a group consists of 2-5 subjects per group to make focus group discussion. Intervention group were monitored via telephone or sms every week. In fourth week, the diet quality of both control and intervention group will be re-evaluated.Results: Proportion of subjects that have adequate diet quality improved in intervention group (p=0.0235 after receiving individual and group counseling. In the other hand, diet quality in control group tended to decrease (p=0.0339 in the end of the research. The effectiveness of nutrition counseling in improvingHEI scores was 73%.Conclusions: The combination of individual and group counseling could improve diet quality in patient with diabetes mellitus.KEYWORDS: diabetes mellitus, diet quality, nutrition counselingABSTRAKLatar belakang: Salah satu faktor kunci dalam penatalaksanaan penyakit diabetes mellitus adalah perbaikan kualitas diet. Konseling gizi merupakan salah satu upaya terapi gizi medis yang diberikan untuk memperbaiki pola makan dan gaya hidup pasien diabetes mellitus.Tujuan: Menguji efek konseling gizi individu dan kelompok untuk memperbaiki kualitas diet pada pasien diabetes mellitus

  9. Diabetes and diet : managing dietary barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friele, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis reports on the barriers diabetic patients experience with their diet, and the ways they cope with these barriers. A dietary barrier is a hinderance to a person's well-being, induced by being advised a diet. First inventories were made of possible dietary barriers and ways of

  10. Sustainable diets within sustainable food systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meybeck, Alexandre; Gitz, Vincent

    2017-02-01

    Sustainable diets and sustainable food systems are increasingly explored by diverse scientific disciplines. They are also recognised by the international community and called upon to orient action towards the eradication of hunger and malnutrition and the fulfilment of sustainable development goals. The aim of the present paper is to briefly consider some of the links between these two notions in order to facilitate the operationalisation of the concept of sustainable diet. The concept of sustainable diet was defined in 2010 combining two totally different perspectives: a nutrition perspective, focused on individuals, and a global sustainability perspective, in all its dimensions: environmental, economic and social. The nutrition perspective can be easily related to health outcomes. The global sustainability perspective is more difficult to analyse directly. We propose that it be measured as the contribution of a diet to the sustainability of food systems. Such an approach, covering the three dimensions of sustainability, enables identification of interactions and interrelations between food systems and diets. It provides opportunities to find levers of change towards sustainability. Diets are both the results and the drivers of food systems. The drivers of change for those variously involved, consumers and private individuals, are different, and can be triggered by different dimensions (heath, environment, social and cultural). Combining different dimensions and reasons for change can help facilitate the transition to sustainable diets, recognising the food system's specificities. The adoption of sustainable diets can be facilitated and enabled by food systems, and by appropriate policies and incentives.

  11. Diet and Cancer: The Fourth Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter C. Willett, MD, DrPH, an international expert in diet and nutrition, with posts as a Professor of Epidemiology and Nutrition and Chairman of the Department of Nutrition at Harvard School of Public Health and as Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School, presented "Diet and Cancer: The Fourth Paradigm".

  12. Nutrition and diet services actuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimenta, T.L.

    1986-01-01

    The paper stresses the difficulties to establish nutritional standard due to the fact that non-existent previous parameters because it is an new type of accident, becoming necessary an elaboration and use of nutritional plans coherent with probable demands, needs and complications of the patients. It is shown how that was accomplished without any prejudice to the other inpatients. The role of the nutritionists in all evolutional phase of the contaminated persons is described ed, introducing many types of diets used in accordance with individual and general demands. One case in which parenteral nutrition was utilized is analysed. The patients discharge from hospital conditions is explained and was a fact that all patients gained weight, concluding the writer says that was not possible to perform a deeper evaluation because of the great risk of contamination always present. (author)

  13. Unconventional diets for dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Kathryn E

    2006-11-01

    Food plays a far more complex role in daily life than simply serving as sustenance. Social and cultural factors along with individual beliefs govern people's eating behaviors, and it is likely that these same factors influence their choice of diet and feeding practices for their pets. Some people seek alternatives to conventional commercial pet foods, including commercially available "natural" diets, raw food diets, and vegetarian diets, in addition to a variety of home-prepared diets. Exploring a person's knowledge and beliefs about feeding pets can aid in understanding her or his motives for seeking alternative and may help in changing those practices when it is in the best interest of the pet to do so.

  14. Mediterranean Diet in Prevention of Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelin Meryem

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Bad eating habits lead to the emergence of chronic health problems such as coronary artery diseases, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, cancer and obesity and the relationship between diet and diseases is emphasized and the relationship between them is clearly revealed in studies conducted over many years. The Mediterranean diet, which is first described by Angel Keys at the beginning of the 1960’s, is not a specific diet but a natural way of eating in olive-growing region. With the properties such as the use of vegetable oils such as olive oil in particular, and the consumption of fish instead of red meat, the diet constitutes a health-protective nutrition. So, this review conducted the relationship between Mediterranean diet and chronic diseases.

  15. Art Therapy: What Is Art Therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... individual, couples, family, and group therapy formats. Art therapy is an effective treatment for people experiencing developmental, medical, educational, and social or psychological impairment. Individuals who benefit from art therapy include ...

  16. Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy in Progeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy in Progeria Information for Families and Caretakers from The Progeria Research Foundation ... Inc. All rights reserved. Page 2 of 5 Physical and Occupational Therapy in Progeria Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria ...

  17. Music Therapy: A Career in Music Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    About Music Therapy & Music Therapy Training M usic therapy is a healthcare profession that uses music to help individuals of all ages improve physical, cognitive, emotional, and social functioning. Music therapists work with children and adults with developmental ...

  18. Vegetarian Diet: Will It Help Me Lose Weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lifestyle Weight loss If I switch to a vegetarian diet, will I lose weight? Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L.D. Not necessarily. A vegetarian diet is not inherently a weight-loss diet, ...

  19. Particle therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raju, M.R.

    1993-09-01

    Particle therapy has a long history. The experimentation with particles for their therapeutic application got started soon after they were produced in the laboratory. Physicists played a major role in proposing the potential applications in radiotherapy as well as in the development of particle therapy. A brief review of the current status of particle radiotherapy with some historical perspective is presented and specific contributions made by physicists will be pointed out wherever appropriate. The rationale of using particles in cancer treatment is to reduce the treatment volume to the target volume by using precise dose distributions in three dimensions by using particles such as protons and to improve the differential effects on tumors compared to normal tissues by using high-LET radiations such as neutrons. Pions and heavy ions combine the above two characteristics.

  20. Radioiodine therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, J.F. Jr.; Deliso, H.B.

    1992-01-01

    For over 40 years now, radioiodine ( 131 I) has remained one of the most useful radionuclide for diagnosis and therapy in Nuclear Medicine. The wide application of radioiodine in the study of the thyroid gland and in the management of its disorders has been most rewarding. The medical literature is replete with reports of its efficacy, failures, and complications, but most of these studies have been conducted among Caucasian persons and in relatively affluent societies. Very few reports are available from the less developed and economically depressed areas of the world where thyroid disorders abound or and are even endemic. This chapter is an attempt to highlight the use of radioactive iodine therapy in the developing countries, particularly those in the Asian region

  1. Particle therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    Particle therapy has a long history. The experimentation with particles for their therapeutic application got started soon after they were produced in the laboratory. Physicists played a major role in proposing the potential applications in radiotherapy as well as in the development of particle therapy. A brief review of the current status of particle radiotherapy with some historical perspective is presented and specific contributions made by physicists will be pointed out wherever appropriate. The rationale of using particles in cancer treatment is to reduce the treatment volume to the target volume by using precise dose distributions in three dimensions by using particles such as protons and to improve the differential effects on tumors compared to normal tissues by using high-LET radiations such as neutrons. Pions and heavy ions combine the above two characteristics

  2. Music Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondalen, Gro; Bonde, Lars Ole

    2012-01-01

    music therapy orientations/models (Guided Imagery and Music, Nordoff-Robbins, Psychoanalytic, Cognitive-behavioral etc), their theoretical foundations and their practical approaches to health and wellbeing or ‘health musicking’. The relational context – the interplay of (expressive as well as receptive......Music therapy (MT) is most commonly defined as an intervention where “the therapist helps the client to promote health, using music experiences and the relationships developing through them” (Bruscia 1998). Also other definitions of MT agree that a therapeutic relationship is important for a music...... intervention to be considered MT. Other interventions that “use music for health-related goals, but in ways that do not qualify as music therapy” (Gold 2009), may be described as music medicine, or simply as music listening. In this text we elaborate on an overview chapter covering some of the different major...

  3. Music Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanfi, Ilan

    2012-01-01

    may cause detrimental long-term effects. Three studies have examined the effect of music therapy procedural support (MTPS) under needle procedures. Consequently, this study aims at examining the effects of MTPS in an RCT. Moreover, the study addresses clinical aspects of the applied MT intervention...... and provides research-based clinical tools. Methods 41 children (1 to 10 years) were enrolled and underwent a single PIVA procedure. The children were randomly assigned to either an MT or a comparable control group receiving PIVA. In addition, the music therapy (MT) group received individualised MTPS (i.......e. music alternate engagement) before, during, and after PIVA. The intervention was performed by a trained music therapist and comprised preferred songs, improvised songs/music, and instrument playing. The study was carried out in accordance with the rules in force regarding research ethics and clinical MT...

  4. Radioiodine therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Jr, J F; Deliso, H B

    1993-12-31

    For over 40 years now, radioiodine ({sup 131}I) has remained one of the most useful radionuclide for diagnosis and therapy in Nuclear Medicine. The wide application of radioiodine in the study of the thyroid gland and in the management of its disorders has been most rewarding. The medical literature is replete with reports of its efficacy, failures, and complications, but most of these studies have been conducted among Caucasian persons and in relatively affluent societies. Very few reports are available from the less developed and economically depressed areas of the world where thyroid disorders abound or and are even endemic. This chapter is an attempt to highlight the use of radioactive iodine therapy in the developing countries, particularly those in the Asian region

  5. Starvation and diet according to the Vinzenz Priessnitz family water book of 1847.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Jürgen

    2007-02-01

    Vinzenz Priessnitz (1799-1851) did not only carry out water treatments within the scope of his cure, but also movement therapy, aerial and solar baths, natural lifestyle and, above all, diet therapy. According to the literature Priessnitz only seldom allowed starvation within his cure because this would break his preferred principle of restoration. Nevertheless, the widely unknown 'Vinzenz Priessnitz family water book' which he dictated to his daughter Sophie in 1847, includes 13 orders of starvation for a series of indications (breast inflammations, pneumonia, pulmonary embolism, cholera, intestines inflammation, tapeworm) and symptoms (diarrhoea and vomiting, heart cramp, head woe, faint, stone pains, feeling of sickness). Furthermore, it comprises diet recommendations on cold water drinking, milk and cold confection of pastry, compote and buttermilk, vegetables, fruit and strawberries, fruit and frozen food, no meat, little meat and cold food. In the view of the literature, these diet principles and means as well as their applications then and now are discussed. As for those days the Priessnitz diet was quite modern, manifold, logic and 'natural'.

  6. The Short-Term Effects of Ketogenic Diet on Cardiac Ventricular Functions in Epileptic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doksöz, Önder; Çeleğen, Kübra; Güzel, Orkide; Yılmaz, Ünsal; Uysal, Utku; İşgüder, Rana; Çeleğen, Mehmet; Meşe, Timur

    2015-09-01

    Our primary aim was to determine the short-term effects of a ketogenic diet on cardiac ventricular function in patients with refractory epilepsy. Thirty-eight drug-resistant epileptic patients who were treated with a ketogenic diet were enrolled in this prospective study. Echocardiography was performed on all patients before beginning the ketogenic diet and after the sixth month of therapy. Two-dimensional, M-mode, color flow, spectral Doppler, and pulsed-wave tissue Doppler imaging measurements were performed on all patients. The median age of the 32 patients was 45.5 months, and 22 (57.8%) of them were male. Body weight, height, and body mass index increased significantly at the sixth month of therapy when compared with baseline values (P 0.05). Doppler flow indices of mitral annulus and tricuspid annulus velocity of patients at baseline and month 6 showed no significant differences (P > 0.05). Tricuspid annular E/A ratio was lower at month 6 (P 0.05), there was a decrease in Ea velocity and Ea/Aa ratio gathered from tricuspid annulus at month 6 compared with baseline (P ketogenic diet does not impair left ventricular functions in children with refractory epilepsy; however, it may be associated with a right ventricular diastolic dysfunction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The ketogenic diet is well tolerated and can be effective in patients with argininosuccinate lyase deficiency and refractory epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peuscher, Rosanne; Dijsselhof, Monique E.; Abeling, Nico G.; van Rijn, Margreet; van Spronsen, Francjan J.; Bosch, Annet M.

    2012-01-01

    Argininosuccinate lyase (ASL) deficiency (MIM 608310, McKusick 207900) is a rare disorder of the urea cycle, which leads to a deficiency of arginine and hyperammonemia. Epilepsy is a frequent complication of this disorder. A ketogenic diet (KD) can be a very effective therapy for refractory

  8. Neonatal and obstetric outcomes in diet- and insulin-treated women with gestational diabetes mellitus : a retrospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, Sarah H.; Hoogenberg, Klaas; Scheuneman, Kirsten A.; Baas, Mick G.; Korteweg, Fleurisca J.; Sollie, Krystyna M.; Schering, Bertine J.; van Loon, Aren J.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; van den Berg, Paul P.; Lutgers, Helen L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the neonatal and obstetric outcomes of pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Screening and treatment-diet-only versus additional insulin therapy-were based on the 2010 national Dutch guidelines. Methods: Retrospective study of the electronic medical

  9. Effect of Soya based Protein Rich Diet on Glycaemic Parameters and Thyroid Function Tests in Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarathi Vijaya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Medical nutrition therapy plays a major role in the management of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM. However, control of postprandial blood glucose values is often a challenge in Asian Indian GDM women due to high carbohydrate content in Indian diet.

  10. Effects of pitavastatin add-on therapy on chronic kidney disease with albuminuria and dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohsawa, Masato; Tamura, Kouichi; Wakui, Hiromichi; Kanaoka, Tomohiko; Azushima, Kengo; Uneda, Kazushi; Haku, Sona; Kobayashi, Ryu; Ohki, Kohji; Haruhara, Kotaro; Kinguchi, Sho; Toya, Yoshiyuki; Umemura, Satoshi

    2015-12-09

    In non-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with dyslipidemia, statin therapy is recommended to prevent cardiovascular complications. Dyslipidemia has been also shown to be an independent risk factor for the progression of CKD. However, it is still unclear whether statin therapy exerts an inhibitory effect on renal deterioration in CKD patients with dyslipidemia. The purpose of the present study was to examine possible therapeutic effects of statin add-on therapy on renal function as well as parameters of lipid and glucose metabolism, arterial stiffness and oxidative stress, in comparison to diet therapy, in CKD patients with dyslipidemia. This study was a randomized, open-label, and parallel-group trial consisted of a 12-months treatment period in non-dialysis CKD patients with alubuminuria and dyslipidemia. Twenty eight patients were randomly assigned either to receive diet counseling alone (diet therapy group) or diet counseling plus pitavastatin (diet-plus-statin therapy group), to achieve the LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) target of dyslipidemia.

  11. Combination of exercise training and diet restriction normalizes limited exercise capacity and impaired skeletal muscle function in diet-induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suga, Tadashi; Kinugawa, Shintaro; Takada, Shingo; Kadoguchi, Tomoyasu; Fukushima, Arata; Homma, Tsuneaki; Masaki, Yoshihiro; Furihata, Takaaki; Takahashi, Masashige; Sobirin, Mochamad A; Ono, Taisuke; Hirabayashi, Kagami; Yokota, Takashi; Tanaka, Shinya; Okita, Koichi; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Exercise training (EX) and diet restriction (DR) are essential for effective management of obesity and insulin resistance in diabetes mellitus. However, whether these interventions ameliorate the limited exercise capacity and impaired skeletal muscle function in diabetes patients remains unexplored. Therefore, we investigated the effects of EX and/or DR on exercise capacity and skeletal muscle function in diet-induced diabetic mice. Male C57BL/6J mice that were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks were randomly assigned for an additional 4 weeks to 4 groups: control, EX, DR, and EX+DR. A lean group fed with a normal diet was also studied. Obesity and insulin resistance induced by a HFD were significantly but partially improved by EX or DR and completely reversed by EX+DR. Although exercise capacity decreased significantly with HFD compared with normal diet, it partially improved with EX and DR and completely reversed with EX+DR. In parallel, the impaired mitochondrial function and enhanced oxidative stress in the skeletal muscle caused by the HFD were normalized only by EX+DR. Although obesity and insulin resistance were completely reversed by DR with an insulin-sensitizing drug or a long-term intervention, the exercise capacity and skeletal muscle function could not be normalized. Therefore, improvement in impaired skeletal muscle function, rather than obesity and insulin resistance, may be an important therapeutic target for normalization of the limited exercise capacity in diabetes. In conclusion, a comprehensive lifestyle therapy of exercise and diet normalizes the limited exercise capacity and impaired muscle function in diabetes mellitus.

  12. Physical Therapy (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Physical Therapy KidsHealth / For Parents / Physical Therapy Print en español Terapia física Physical Therapy Basics Doctors often recommend physical therapy (PT) ...

  13. Analisis Diet pada Pasien Pascabedah Sectio Caesarea di RSUD Sidikalang

    OpenAIRE

    Sianturi, Veronika Mayasari

    2012-01-01

    Diet provided to post-surgical of caesarea sectio patients is post-surgery diet and high in calorie and high in protein diet. Post-surgery diet is food given to the patient after surgical in form of diet I, II, III, and IV. Diet with high in calorie and high in protein is contained energy and protein above the normal requirements. Both of these diet are important to support the recovering process of post-surgical of caesarea sectio patients. The main nutrient components of these diet are ener...

  14. Diet-induced thermogenesis is lower in rats fed a lard diet than in those fed a high oleic acid safflower oil diet, a safflower oil diet or a linseed oil diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, H; Matsuo, T; Tokuyama, K; Shimomura, Y; Suzuki, M

    1995-04-01

    The objectives of the present study were to examine the effects of dietary fats differing in fatty acid composition on diet-induced thermogenesis, sympathetic activity in brown adipose tissue and body fat accumulation in rats. Rats were meal-fed for 12 wk an isoenergetic diet based on lard, high oleic acid safflower oil, safflower oil or linseed oil, and norepinephrine turnover rates in brown adipose tissue were then estimated. Whole-body oxygen consumption after the meal indicated that diet-induced thermogenesis was significantly lower in rats fed the lard diet than in those fed the other diets. The norepinephrine turnover rate in the interscapular brown adipose tissue was also significantly lower in the lard diet group than in the other diet groups. The carcass fat content was significantly higher in the lard diet group than in the other diet groups, whereas the abdominal adipose tissue weights were the same in all diet groups. These results suggest that the intake of animal fats rich in saturated fatty acids, compared with the intake of vegetable oils rich in monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids, decreases diet-induced thermogenesis by a decline of sympathetic activity in brown adipose tissue, resulting in the promotion of body fat accumulation.

  15. [Effect of fasting-dietary therapy in patients with arterial hypertension and obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murav'ev, S A; Okonechnikova, N S; Dmitrieva, O A; Makarova, G A

    2010-01-01

    35 patients with arterial hypertension and obesity against the background of fasting-diet therapy and after 1 and 6 months after treatment conducted daily monitoring of blood pressure, microalbuminuria and glomerular filtration rate, the study of color and contrast sensitivity of retinal eyes. Fasting-diet therapy within 11 days results in reliable reduced daily average AD and stabilization of load pressure indicators; reduction originally pathological microalbuminurii at 18%, increase in the number of patients with normal speed glomerular filtering 48%; improving of eyes function, these changes are saved within 1-6 months after treatment without the using of antihypertensive therapy.

  16. Complementary therapy use by women's health clinic clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Amy C; King, Margaret O'Brien; McGee, Karen; Rudolph, Connie

    2004-01-01

    While it is known that more women than men use complementary and alternative therapies, it is important to look at women who are pregnant or possibly receiving hormonal therapy, as side effects and consequences of these therapies may have a significant effect on their health status. To assess women's knowledge, perceived effectiveness and use of 20 complementary and alternative therapies. Descriptive four-page questionnaire to obtain data on the use, reason for use, knowledge, perceived effectiveness, and sources of information of twenty complementary and alternative therapies. Women's Health Center at a large Midwestern hospital. A convenience sample of 250 women waiting to be seen by either a nurse midwife or obstetrician/gynecologist at an outpatient clinic. Sixty-nine percent of the participants used one or more complementary therapy. The most frequently used therapies included prayer, vitamins, massage, diet, and aromatherapy. The best predictor of use of each therapy was the participant's knowledge of the therapy. Participants generally rated the efficacy of the therapies higher than their knowledge level. Frequently cited sources of information were popular media and family. The least common information sources were nurse-midwives, drug stores, Internet, and other professional healthcare providers. Women in this setting use complementary therapies at a rate greater than the general population. The participants obtained a great deal of their information about the therapies from popular press, media, friends, and family members rather than from licensed healthcare providers.

  17. [Nutrition, diet and dental health--de- and remineralisation of teeth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imfeld, Thomas

    2008-02-01

    There is little if any evidence that nutrition during the time of tooth formation has any clinically significant effect on caries susceptibility of erupted teeth in man. Caries, erosion and demastication are not nutritional diseases. They are, however, diet-related diseases because erupted teeth are subject to local chemical and mechanical effects of the diet contacting the teeth. Caries is the result of a chronic undermining demineralisation of the teeth by organic acids that are produced by the bacteria of the dental biofilm while fermenting carbohydrates from the human diet. Dental erosion is the result of a chronic localised loss of dental hard tissue etched away from the surface by acids derived from the diet or from gastric reflux. The physicochemical grounds of de- and remineralisation of teeth are explained using detailed diagrams. Initial caries lesions without cavitation of the surface can remineralise (heal) under conditions of low cariogenic diet and good oral hygiene. However, once the surface has broken and cavitation occurred, there is no alternative to restorative dental therapy because remineralisation is no more possible.

  18. The low-FODMAP diet for irritable bowel syndrome: Lights and shadows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Infante, Javier; Serra, Jordi; Fernandez-Bañares, Fernando; Mearin, Fermín

    2016-02-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) affects 10-15% of the western population. Drug therapy for this entity has shown limited efficacy. The low Fermentable Oligo-, Di-, Monosaccharides And Polyols (FODMAP) diet has recently emerged as an effective intervention for reducing gastrointestinal symptoms in IBS. Currently, several mechanistic studies have proven the rational basis of carbohydrate restriction. In addition, high-quality evidence (prospective studies and randomized controlled trials) from a variety of countries supports the high effectiveness of a low-FODMAP diet for IBS symptoms (70%), especially abdominal bloating, pain, and diarrhea. Importantly, this diet seems to be superior to a gluten-free diet for patients with non-celiac gluten sensitivity. The most controversial features of the low FODMAP diet are its short- and long-term limitations (a high level of restriction, the need for monitoring by an expert dietitian, potential nutritional deficiencies, significant gut microbiota reduction, lack of predictors of response), as well as the potential lack of advantage over alternative dietary, pharmacological and psychological interventions for IBS. Although liberalization of carbohydrate intake is recommended in the long-term, the reintroduction process remains to be clarified as, theoretically, global carbohydrate restriction is deemed to be necessary to avoid additive effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  19. Diet, Inflammation, and Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes: An Integrative Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Y. Nowlin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes (T2D is a growing national health problem affecting 35% of adults ≥20 years of age in the United States. Recently, diabetes has been categorized as an inflammatory disease, sharing many of the adverse outcomes as those reported from cardiovascular disease. Medical nutrition therapy is recommended for the treatment of diabetes; however, these recommendations have not been updated to target the inflammatory component, which can be affected by diet and lifestyle. To assess the current state of evidence for which dietary programs contain the most anti-inflammatory and glycemic control properties for patients with T2D, we conducted an integrative review of the literature. A comprehensive search of the PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, and Web of Science databases from January 2000 to May 2012 yielded 786 articles. The final 16 studies met the selection criteria including randomized control trials, quasiexperimental, or cross-sectional studies that compared varying diets and measured inflammatory markers. The Mediterranean and DASH diets along with several low-fat diets were associated with lower inflammatory markers. The Mediterranean diet demonstrated the most clinically significant reduction in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c. Information on best dietary guidelines for inflammation and glycemic control in individuals with T2D is lacking. Continued research is warranted.

  20. Beyond weight loss: a review of the therapeutic uses of very-low-carbohydrate (ketogenic) diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, A; Rubini, A; Volek, J S; Grimaldi, K A

    2013-01-01

    Very-low-carbohydrate diets or ketogenic diets have been in use since the 1920s as a therapy for epilepsy and can, in some cases, completely remove the need for medication. From the 1960s onwards they have become widely known as one of the most common methods for obesity treatment. Recent work over the last decade or so has provided evidence of the therapeutic potential of ketogenic diets in many pathological conditions, such as diabetes, polycystic ovary syndrome, acne, neurological diseases, cancer and the amelioration of respiratory and cardiovascular disease risk factors. The possibility that modifying food intake can be useful for reducing or eliminating pharmaceutical methods of treatment, which are often lifelong with significant side effects, calls for serious investigation. This review revisits the meaning of physiological ketosis in the light of this evidence and considers possible mechanisms for the therapeutic actions of the ketogenic diet on different diseases. The present review also questions whether there are still some preconceived ideas about ketogenic diets, which may be presenting unnecessary barriers to their use as therapeutic tools in the physician's hand. PMID:23801097

  1. [Efficacy of a ketogenic diet in urological cancers patients : A systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisch, P; Gschwend, J E; Retz, M

    2018-03-01

    Beside the classical anticancer treatment tumor patients try to find proactive alternative therapies to fight their disease. Lifestyle changes such as introducing a ketogenic diet is one of the most popular among them. The German Association of Urological Oncology (AUO, Arbeitsgemeinschaft Urologische Onkologie) presents a systematic review investigating the evidence of ketogenic diet in cancer patients. A systematic literature research was conducted in the databases Medline, Livivo, and the Cochrane Library. Only clinical studies of tumor patients receiving chemotherapy while on a ketogenic diet were included. The assessment of the results was performed according to the predefined primary endpoints overall survival and progression-free survival and secondary endpoints quality of life and reduction of adverse effects induced by cytostatics. Nine studies met the inclusion criteria: eight prospective and one retrospective study case series respectively cohort-studies, with a total of 107 patients. Currently there is no evidence of a therapeutic effect of a ketogenic diet in patients with malignant tumors regarding the clinical outcome or quality of life. Based on the current data, a ketogenic diet can not be recommended to cancer patients because prospective, randomized trials are missing.

  2. Effects of a supplemented hypoproteic diet in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mircescu, Gabriel; Gârneaţă, Liliana; Stancu, Simona Hildegard; Căpuşă, Cristina

    2007-05-01

    We assessed the effect of a severe hypoproteic diet supplemented with ketoanalogues (SVLPD) for 48 weeks on certain metabolic disorders of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We performed a prospective, open-label, parallel, randomized, controlled trial. The study took place in the Nephrology Department at the Dr Carol Davila Teaching Hospital of Nephrology, Bucharest, Romania. A total of 53 nondiabetic patients with CKD with an estimated glomerular filtration rate less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula), proteinuria less than 1 g/g urinary creatinine, good nutritional status, and anticipated good compliance with the diet were randomly assigned to two groups. Group I (n = 27) received the SVLPD (0.3 g/kg/d of vegetable proteins and ketoanalogues, 1 capsule for every 5 kg of ideal body weight per day). Group II (n = 26) continued a conventional low mixed protein diet (0.6 g/kg/d). Nitrogen waste products retention and calcium-phosphorus and acid-base disturbances were primary efficacy parameters, and "death" of the kidney or the patient and the estimated glomerular filtration rate were secondary efficacy parameters. The nutritional status and compliance with the diet were predefined as safety variables. There were no differences between groups in any parameter at baseline. In the SVLPD group, serum urea significantly decreased (56 +/- 7.9 mmol/L vs. 43.2 +/- 10 mmol/L), and significant improvements in serum bicarbonate (23.4 +/- 2.1 mmol/L vs. 18.1 +/- 1.5 mmol/L), serum calcium (1.10 +/- 0.17 mmol/L vs. 1.00 +/- 0.15 mmol/L at baseline), serum phosphates (1.45 +/- 0.66 mmol/L vs. 1.91 +/- 0.68 mmol/L), and calcium-phosphorus product (1.59 +/- 0.11 mmol(2)/L(2) vs. 1.91 +/- 0.10 mmol(2)/L(2)) were noted after 48 weeks. No death was registered in any group. Significantly lower percentages of patients in group I required renal replacement therapy initiation (4% vs. 27%). After 48 weeks, estimated glomerular filtration rate did not

  3. KETOGENIC DIET – FROM THE IMPLEMENTATION IN CLINICAL PRACTICE TO NOWADAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neli M. Ermenlieva

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The ketogenic diet (KGD is a high-fat, adequate-protein, low-carbohydrate diet. In 1920`s the diet was developed to treat difficult-to-control epilepsy in children. Nowadays its efficacy has been proven in many other diseases, such as metabolic disorders, brain tumours, autism, Rett syndrome, and in other areas, it has been actively studied. Aim: The aim of this article is to represent the historical review of the therapeutic implication of KGD, as well as to reveal the contemporary clinical trends in which it is being used. Material and Methods: A literature review of 96 scientific reports in English has been made. Results and Discussion: The KGD was developed in the early 1920s. In the period 1970-1990, the therapeutic use of the diet was discontinued, due to the breakthrough of the new anticonvulsants for epilepsy. The interest in KGD was recovered after a meeting of the “American Epilepsy Society” in 1996. The diet demonstrates anticonvulsant efficacy in epilepsy therapy. According to a survey in 2013, the incidence of seizures among half of the number of children was reduced by at least a half, and 15% of them were completely discontinued. The diet is also used in the treatment of metabolic diseases, such as GLUT 1-deficiency syndrome, reducing the incidence of seizures, improving muscle coordination and concentration. It is also effective in pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency syndrome by replacing the major energy source - glucose with ketones. Along with these, it is also used in patients with autism (in approximately 60% of patients it improves learning ability and social skills, Rett syndrome, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and others. Its mechanism of action is not fully clarified, as well as its degree of effectiveness in some areas. Conclusion: The ketogenic diet is widely implemented worldwide. It comprises a tremendous therapeutic potential that has been growing considerably during the past decades.

  4. Ketogenic Diet in Refractory Childhood Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amerins Weijenberg MD

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ketogenic diet in children with epilepsy has a considerable impact on daily life and is usually adopted for at least 3 months. Our aim was to evaluate whether the introduction of an all-liquid ketogenic diet in an outpatient setting is feasible, and if an earlier assessment of its efficacy can be achieved. Methods: The authors conducted a prospective, observational study in a consecutive group of children with refractory epilepsy aged 2 to 14 years indicated for ketogenic diet. Ketogenic diet was started as an all-liquid formulation of the classical ketogenic diet, KetoCal 4:1 LQ, taken orally or by tube. After 6 weeks, the liquid diet was converted into solid meals. The primary outcome parameter was time-to-response (>50% seizure reduction. Secondary outcome parameters were time to achieve stable ketosis, the number of children showing a positive response, and the retention rate at 26 weeks. Results: Sixteen children were included. Four of them responded well with respect to seizure frequency, the median time-to-response was 14 days (range 7-28 days. The mean time to achieve stable ketosis was 7 days. The retention rate at 26 weeks was 50%. Of the 8 children who started this protocol orally fed, 6 completed it without requiring a nasogastric tube. Conclusions: Introduction of ketogenic diet with a liquid formulation can be accomplished in orally fed children without major complications. It allowed for fast and stable ketosis.

  5. Grizzly bear diet shifting on reclaimed mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Cristescu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Industrial developments and reclamation change habitat, possibly altering large carnivore food base. We monitored the diet of a low-density population of grizzly bears occupying a landscape with open-pit coal mines in Canada. During 2009–2010 we instrumented 10 bears with GPS radiocollars and compared their feeding on reclaimed coal mines and neighboring Rocky Mountains and their foothills. In addition, we compared our data with historical bear diet for the same population collected in 2001–2003, before extensive mine reclamation occurred. Diet on mines (n=331 scats was dominated by non-native forbs and graminoids, while diets in the Foothills and Mountains consisted primarily of ungulates and Hedysarum spp. roots respectively, showing diet shifting with availability. Field visitation of feeding sites (n=234 GPS relocation clusters also showed that ungulates were the main diet component in the Foothills, whereas on reclaimed mines bears were least carnivorous. These differences illustrate a shift to feeding on non-native forbs while comparisons with historical diet reveal emergence of elk as an important bear food. Food resources on reclaimed mines attract bears from wilderness areas and bears may be more adaptable to landscape change than previously thought. The grizzly bear’s ready use of mines cautions the universal view of this species as umbrella indicative of biodiversity.

  6. Ketogenic Diet in Refractory Childhood Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijenberg, Amerins; van Rijn, Margreet; de Koning, Tom J.; Brouwer, Oebele F.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Ketogenic diet in children with epilepsy has a considerable impact on daily life and is usually adopted for at least 3 months. Our aim was to evaluate whether the introduction of an all-liquid ketogenic diet in an outpatient setting is feasible, and if an earlier assessment of its efficacy can be achieved. Methods: The authors conducted a prospective, observational study in a consecutive group of children with refractory epilepsy aged 2 to 14 years indicated for ketogenic diet. Ketogenic diet was started as an all-liquid formulation of the classical ketogenic diet, KetoCal 4:1 LQ, taken orally or by tube. After 6 weeks, the liquid diet was converted into solid meals. The primary outcome parameter was time-to-response (>50% seizure reduction). Secondary outcome parameters were time to achieve stable ketosis, the number of children showing a positive response, and the retention rate at 26 weeks. Results: Sixteen children were included. Four of them responded well with respect to seizure frequency, the median time-to-response was 14 days (range 7-28 days). The mean time to achieve stable ketosis was 7 days. The retention rate at 26 weeks was 50%. Of the 8 children who started this protocol orally fed, 6 completed it without requiring a nasogastric tube. Conclusions: Introduction of ketogenic diet with a liquid formulation can be accomplished in orally fed children without major complications. It allowed for fast and stable ketosis. PMID:29872664

  7. [National consensus on the ketogenic diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armeno, Marisa; Caraballo, Roberto; Vaccarezza, María; Alberti, M Julia; Ríos, Viviana; Galicchio, Santiago; de Grandis, Elizabeth S; Mestre, Graciela; Escobal, Nidia; Matarrese, Pablo; Viollaz, Rocío; Agostinho, Ariela; Díez, Cecilia; Cresta, Araceli; Cabrera, Analía; Blanco, Virginia; Ferrero, Hilario; Gambarini, Victoria; Sosa, Patricia; Bouquet, Cecilia; Caramuta, Luciana; Guisande, Silvina; Gamboni, Beatriz; Hassan, Amal; Pesce, Laura; Argumedo, Laura; Dlugoszewski, Corina; DeMartini, Martha G; Panico, Luis

    2014-09-01

    Epilepsy is a chronic disease with onset in infancy affecting 0.5-1% of the population. One third of the patients is refractory to antiepileptic drugs and they pose a challenge for the health care team. The ketogenic diet is an effective, non-pharmacological, alternative treatment for the management of refractory epilepsy. There is a need to establish guidelines for the adequate and increased use of the ketogenic diet in Spanish-speaking countries. The National Committee on the Ketogenic Diet, consisting of paediatric neurologists, clinical nutritionists, and dietitians, of the Argentine Society of Child Neurology has developed this consensus statement to standardize the use of the ketogenic diet based on the literature and clinical experience. Patient selection, pre-treatment family counseling, drug interactions, micronutrient supplementation, adverse effects, and discontinuation of the diet are discussed. The ketogenic diet is an effective treatment for children with refractory epilepsy. Education and collaboration of the patient and their family is essential. The patient should be managed by an experienced multidisciplinary team using a protocol. The formation of a national multidisciplinary team and the publication of this document provide possibilities for new centers to integrate the ketogenic diet into their treatment options.

  8. Chronic Swimming Exercise Ameliorates Low-Soybean-Oil Diet-Induced Spatial Memory Impairment by Enhancing BDNF-Mediated Synaptic Potentiation in Developing Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Mei; Cong, Jiyan; Wu, Yulong; Xie, Jiacun; Wang, Siyuan; Zhao, Yue; Zang, Xiaoying

    2018-05-01

    Exercise and low-fat diets are common lifestyle modifications used for the treatment of hypertension besides drug therapy. However, unrestrained low-fat diets may result in deficiencies of low-unsaturated fatty acids and carry contingent risks of delaying neurodevelopment. While aerobic exercise shows positive neuroprotective effects, it is still unclear whether exercise could alleviate the impairment of neurodevelopment that may be induced by certain low-fat diets. In this research, developing spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were treated with chronic swimming exercise and/or a low-soybean-oil diet for 6 weeks. We found that performance in the Morris water maze was reduced and long-term potentiation in the hippocampus was suppressed by the diet, while a combination treatment of exercise and diet alleviated the impairment induced by the specific low-fat diet. Moreover, the combination treatment effectively increased the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR), which were both down-regulated by the low-soybean-oil diet in the hippocampus of developing SHR. These findings suggest that chronic swimming exercise can ameliorate the low-soybean-oil diet-induced learning and memory impairment in developing SHR through the up-regulation of BDNF and NMDAR expression.

  9. Can a CNN recognize Catalan diet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herruzo, P.; Bolaños, M.; Radeva, P.

    2016-10-01

    Nowadays, we can find several diseases related to the unhealthy diet habits of the population, such as diabetes, obesity, anemia, bulimia and anorexia. In many cases, these diseases are related to the food consumption of people. Mediterranean diet is scientifically known as a healthy diet that helps to prevent many metabolic diseases. In particular, our work focuses on the recognition of Mediterranean food and dishes. The development of this methodology would allow to analise the daily habits of users with wearable cameras, within the topic of lifelogging. By using automatic mechanisms we could build an objective tool for the analysis of the patient's behavior, allowing specialists to discover unhealthy food patterns and understand the user's lifestyle. With the aim to automatically recognize a complete diet, we introduce a challenging multi-labeled dataset related to Mediter-ranean diet called FoodCAT. The first type of label provided consists of 115 food classes with an average of 400 images per dish, and the second one consists of 12 food categories with an average of 3800 pictures per class. This dataset will serve as a basis for the development of automatic diet recognition. In this context, deep learning and more specifically, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs), currently are state-of-the-art methods for automatic food recognition. In our work, we compare several architectures for image classification, with the purpose of diet recognition. Applying the best model for recognising food categories, we achieve a top-1 accuracy of 72.29%, and top-5 of 97.07%. In a complete diet recognition of dishes from Mediterranean diet, enlarged with the Food-101 dataset for international dishes recognition, we achieve a top-1 accuracy of 68.07%, and top-5 of 89.53%, for a total of 115+101 food classes.

  10. How Can a Ketogenic Diet Improve Motor Function?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Veyrat-Durebex

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A ketogenic diet (KD is a normocaloric diet composed by high fat (80–90%, low carbohydrate, and low protein consumption that induces fasting-like effects. KD increases ketone body (KBs production and its concentration in the blood, providing the brain an alternative energy supply that enhances oxidative mitochondrial metabolism. In addition to its profound impact on neuro-metabolism and bioenergetics, the neuroprotective effect of specific polyunsaturated fatty acids and KBs involves pleiotropic mechanisms, such as the modulation of neuronal membrane excitability, inflammation, or reactive oxygen species production. KD is a therapy that has been used for almost a century to treat medically intractable epilepsy and has been increasingly explored in a number of neurological diseases. Motor function has also been shown to be improved by KD and/or medium-chain triglyceride diets in rodent models of Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and spinal cord injury. These studies have proposed that KD may induce a modification in synaptic morphology and function, involving ionic channels, glutamatergic transmission, or synaptic vesicular cycling machinery. However, little is understood about the molecular mechanisms underlying the impact of KD on motor function and the perspectives of its use to acquire the neuromuscular effects. The aim of this review is to explore the conditions through which KD might improve motor function. First, we will describe the main consequences of KD exposure in tissues involved in motor function. Second, we will report and discuss the relevance of KD in pre-clinical and clinical trials in the major diseases presenting motor dysfunction.

  11. How does Diet influence Behavior and Neuroinflammation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Bettina Merete Pyndt; Hansen, Julie Torpe; Hansen, Axel Jacob Kornerup

    , and behavior in order to generate knowledge enabling researchers to increase the number of responders when inducing these models using environmental modulation. The hypothesis is that a diet-induced change in GM composition can induce a cytokine mediated low-grade neuroinflammation, which is also observed...... to a systemic rise in proinflammatory cytokines, thereby inducing neuroinflammation. In the burrowing test the mice on control diet burrowed significantly more bedding out of the burrow (p=0.02). However, after the test it was noticed that the mice on sugar diet had been digging several places within the cage...

  12. Diet customs in relation to Chernobylsk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elvers, E.; Falk, R.; Holmberg, M.

    1988-01-01

    A random selection of 1000 people all over the country was interviewed in February 1987. The interview was directed towards foodstuffs important from radiation protection point of view. The diet inquiry comprised milk products (quantity), reindeer meat, game, lake fish, some berries amd mushrooms (how often and where from) and finally whether diet customs have been changed because of the Chernobylsk accident. It appears i.a. that 10% of the Swedish population changed their diet customs because of the accident. (O.S.)

  13. Hyperproteic diet and pregnancy of rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, A M; Sticchi, R; Gambardella, P; D'Aponte, D; Ferrante, P

    1986-01-01

    We have studied the effects of a purified diet enriched with animal protein (casein 40%, lactalbumin 20%) on different stages of rat pregnancy. We observed that hyperproteic diet, especially when administered from the first day of pregnancy, induces morphological alterations of liver, adrenal cortex, heart and kidney. Moreover, haematic dosages, carried out on 15th day of pregnancy, have shown moderate but significant increase of glucose and triglycerides and significant decrease of circulating aldosterone and corticosterone as well. Finally an early administration of hyperproteic diet causes less numerous litters and high mortality rate at birth.

  14. Development of a healthy New Nordic Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mithril, Charlotte Elisabeth

    Summary: Many of the diseases today are diet‐related, and recommendations for a healthy diet are one of the main challenges for public health today. At the same time, concern for the environment and the planet's health has developed to be an equally important challenge, and the circumstances call...... to define and test a New Nordic Diet (NND). The hypothesis is that an optimal diet composition, based on healthy, palatable meals, may not only contribute to the prevention of excessive weight gain, obesity, and other health disorders, but may also improve quality of life, learning ability, and mental...

  15. [Effects of drinking spa therapy on oxidative stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, M; Giampaolo, C; Filippelli, A

    2012-01-01

    Data of literature have shown the correlation between oxidative stress and some diseases of gastrointestinal and metabolic relevance such as diabetes mellitus, gastric cancer, gastritis, etc.. Studies have also shown that sulfurous mineral water may be useful in the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases. The aim of our research was to evaluate the antioxidant effect of sulphurous mineral water, administered by drinking method, in type 2 diabetes mellitus, a chronic disease with a high social and economic impact. The study has been performed on 57 subjects (25% women and 75% males; mean age: 60 ± 1.1 years; BMI: 27 ± 0.4) affected by type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. The subjects were divided in four groups: A (subjected to glucose-lowering diet therapy), B (subjected to antihyperglycaemic therapy), C (exposed to glucose-lowering diet therapy + drinking SPA therapy) and D (exposed to antihyperglycaemic therapy + drinking SPA therapy). Drinking SPA treatment was effected with sulphurous mineral water from Terme of Telese SpA (Benevento - Italy) and the pharmacological treatment provided the use of hypoglycemic drugs normally used in diabetic disease. After two weeks of therapy with treatments considered were evaluated fasting blood glycaemia and plasma concentration of ROMs (reactive oxygen metabolites) (d-ROMs test-Diacron International srl®-Grosseto - Italy). The results of our study have shown a significant (pfasting blood glycaemia when to hypoglycemic drugs or diet therapy was associated the sulphurous drinking SPA therapy. It was also observed a reduction of plasma ROMs levels, significant (p water, especially in combination with antidiabetic drug treatment, may be useful in type 2 diabetes mellitus for the improvement redox state of the organism.

  16. [Gestalt therapy.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbeil, J; Poupard, D

    1978-01-01

    The authors describe Gestalt Therapy. They retrace its fundamental theoretical axes. These are psychoanalysis, character analysis, the german Gestalt theory of perception, existentialism, and the Orient. Some principal concepts are then elaborated more fully such as the cycle of awareness, desensitization, excitation anxiety and the five defense mechanisms: retroflection, introjection, projection, deflection, and confluence. The nature and goals of the therapeutic process are also described before the presentation of some techniques specific to this approach such as enactment and role playing. Finally, certain basic Gestalt rules, which aim at facilitating and intensifying the communication process among group members, are enunciated.

  17. Boron supplementation in broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EJ Fassani

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Boron supplementation in broiler feed is not a routine practice. However, some reports suggest a positive effect of boron on performance. This study assessed the effects of boron supplementation on broiler performance. Diets were based on maize and soybean meal, using boric acid P.A. as boron source. Six supplementation levels (0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 ppm were evaluated using 1,440 one-day old males housed at a density of 30 chickens in each of 48 experimental plots of 3m². A completely randomized block design was used with 8 replicates. Feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion were assessed in the periods from 1 to 7 days, 1 to 21 days and 1 to 42 days of age, and viability was evaluated for the total 42-day rearing period. No performance variable was affected by boron supplementation (p>0.05 in the period from 1 to 7 days. The regression analysis indicated an ideal level of 37.4 ppm of boron for weight gain from 1 to 21 days (p0.05, although feed intake was reduced linearly with increased boron levels (p0.05. Ash and calcium percentages in the tibias of broilers and viability in the total rearing period were not affected by boron supplementation (p>0.05.

  18. PROP Nontaster Women Lose More Weight Following a Low-Carbohydrate Versus a Low-Fat Diet in a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Brenda; Raynor, Hollie A; Tepper, Beverly J

    2017-10-01

    Taste blindness to 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) associates with increased fat preference and intake. No studies have matched a diet to a woman's PROP phenotype to improve weight loss. This study investigated (1) whether PROP nontaster (NT) women would lose more weight following a low-carbohydrate (LC) diet than a low-fat (LF) diet, and (2) whether PROP supertaster (ST) women would lose more weight following a LF diet than a LC diet. One hundred seven women (BMI = 34.8 ± 0.5 kg/m 2 ), classified as PROP NTs (n = 47) and STs (n = 60), were randomized to a LC or LF diet within a 6-month lifestyle intervention. Assessments included 4-day dietary recalls and biobehavioral and psychosocial questionnaires. At 6 months, NTs lost more weight following the LC than the LF diet (-8.5 ± 0.5 kg vs. -6.6 ± 0.5 kg, P = 0.008); there was no difference between STs following either diet (-8.8 ± 0.4 vs. -8.9 ± 0.5, P = 0.35). Dietary self-reports were unrelated to weight loss, and prescription of a LC diet associated with greater self-efficacy. NT women lost more weight following the LC diet compared to the LF diet. Screening for PROP phenotype may help personalize diet therapy for NT women to optimize their short-term weight loss. © 2017 The Authors. Obesity published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Obesity Society (TOS).

  19. Dieting behaviours, obesity and predictors of dieting among female college students at Palestinian universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayyari, W D; Henry, L J; Jones, C

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore dieting practices of female Palestinian college students. Participants ( = 410) were selected by cluster-sampling from 4 Palestinian universities. A regression model investigated dieting using: body mass index (BMI); body satisfaction; self-esteem; dress style; exercise; sociocultural factors; residence; strength of faith; perceived impact of weight on social interaction; and number of previous times dieting. Significant predictors of dieting were low body satisfaction, number of previous dieting times, perceived media pressure, regular exercising, BMI, and perceived impact of weight on social interaction, The model accounted for 45% of the variance in dieting. Body satisfaction was not significantly correlated with self-esteem or strength of faith, which indicates that "internalization of thinness" may be becoming evident among populations in certain developing countries, as in "Western" countries.

  20. Radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bader, J.L.; Glatstein, E.

    1987-01-01

    The radiation oncologist encounters the critically ill immunosuppressed patient in four settings. First, the newly diagnosed cancer patient presents for initial evaluation and treatment, with immunosuppression from the cancer itself, malnutrition, concomitant infectious disease, prior drug or alcohol abuse or other medical problems. Second, the previously treated cancer patient presents with metastatic or recurrent primary cancer causing local symptoms. Immune dysfunction in this setting may be due to prior chemotherapy and/or radiation as well as any of the original factors. Third, the patient previously treated with radiation presents with a life-threatening problem possibly due to complications of prior therapy. In this setting, the radiation oncologist is asked to evaluate the clinical problem and to suggest whether radiation might be causing part or all of the problem and what can be done to treat these sequelae of radiation. Fourth, the patient with a benign diagnosis (not cancer) is seen with a problem potentially emeliorated by radiation (e.g., kidney transplant rejection, preparation for transplant, or intractable rheumatoid arthritis). This chapter reviews these four issues and presents clinical and radiobiologic principles on which recommendations for therapy are based

  1. Extrusion processing : effects on dry canine diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, Q.D.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: Extrusion, Canine diet, Protein, Lysine, Starch gelatinization, Palatability, Drying.

    Extrusion cooking is a useful and economical tool for processing animal feed. This high temperature, short time processing technology causes chemical and physical changes that alter the

  2. GB Diet matrix as informed by EMAX

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set was taken from CRD 08-18 at the NEFSC. Specifically, the Georges Bank diet matrix was developed for the EMAX exercise described in that center...

  3. 5 Ways to Spot a Fad Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... known about how the ingredients affect the growing body. The diet tells you to eat only specific foods or foods in certain combinations. There's no reliable scientific proof that combining certain foods works. And limiting the ...

  4. Glycemic Index Diet: What's Behind the Claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... GI foods would, in turn, delay feelings of hunger. Clinical investigations of this theory have produced mixed ... provide needed direction to help them make better choices for a healthy diet plan. The researchers who ...

  5. GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF BROILER CHICKS FED DIETS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. A.O. Ani

    2012-06-15

    Jun 15, 2012 ... ISSN 1684–5315 ©2012 Academic Journals ... Increasing raw bambara nut waste levels also depressed (P < 0.05) nutrient absorption ... Key words: Raw bambara nut waste, enzyme, diets, broiler chicks, growth performance.

  6. What does Islam say about dieting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mohammad Zakir

    2014-08-01

    Dieting is very important to maintain a healthy and peaceful life. Today, most of the health problems are related with dieting. Thus, the modern health science recommends a number of suggestions regarding dieting for better health such as learning the five basic food groups (grains, vegetables, fruits, dairy, and meat); eating three times a day; decreasing the amount of fat; increasing the amount of fruits, vegetables and grains; including an adequate amount of iron; and avoiding excessive rich food, salt, sugar, and fat. Religion can also play a vital role for our good health and lifestyle. The main concern of this paper was to present an analytical justification regarding what Islam as a religion advocates about dieting along with the modern food and nutrition sciences.

  7. Concurrent Anticonvulsant/Ketogenic Diet Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Researchers at the Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, studied retrospectively the comparative efficacy of six most frequently used anticonvulsants when employed in combination with the ketogenic diet (KD for treatment of 115 children with epilepsy.

  8. High-Protein Diets and Renal Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marckmann, Peter; Osther, Palle; Pedersen, Agnes N.

    2015-01-01

    High-protein diets (i.e., protein content of more than 25% of energy or more than 2 g/kg body weight per day) based on meat and dairy products are repeatedly promoted for weight reduction and better health, but the evidence supporting these notions is quite dubious. As described in the present...... in the prevalence of chronic kidney disease in the general population without preexisting kidney disease. Accordingly, we find medical reasons to refrain from promoting high-protein diets, in particular those based on meat and dairy products, until clear-cut evidence for the safety and for the superiority...... review, there is a reason to be concerned about adverse effects of such diets, including glomerular hyperfiltration, hypertensive effects of a concomitant increase in dietary sodium, and an increased risk of nephrolithiasis. These diet-induced physiological consequences might lead to an increase...

  9. Ketogenic Diet in Neuromuscular and Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiani, Ernesto; Bosco, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of data demonstrate the utility of ketogenic diets in a variety of metabolic diseases as obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. In regard to neurological disorders, ketogenic diet is recognized as an effective treatment for pharmacoresistant epilepsy but emerging data suggests that ketogenic diet could be also useful in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer, Parkinson's disease, and some mitochondriopathies. Although these diseases have different pathogenesis and features, there are some common mechanisms that could explain the effects of ketogenic diets. These mechanisms are to provide an efficient source of energy for the treatment of certain types of neurodegenerative diseases characterized by focal brain hypometabolism; to decrease the oxidative damage associated with various kinds of metabolic stress; to increase the mitochondrial biogenesis pathways; and to take advantage of the capacity of ketones to bypass the defect in complex I activity implicated in some neurological diseases. These mechanisms will be discussed in this review. PMID:25101284

  10. Plant-based diets and cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satija, Ambika; Hu, Frank B

    2018-02-13

    Plant-based diets, defined in terms of low frequency of animal food consumption, have been increasingly recommended for their health benefits. Numerous studies have found plant-based diets, especially when rich in high quality plant foods such as whole grains, fruits, vegetables, and nuts, to be associated with lower risk of cardiovascular outcomes and intermediate risk factors. This review summarizes the current evidence base examining the associations of plant-based diets with cardiovascular endpoints, and discusses the potential biological mechanisms underlying their health effects, practical recommendations and applications of this research, and directions for future research. Healthful plant-based diets should be recommended as an environmentally sustainable dietary option for improved cardiovascular health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Diabetic Diet: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sweeteners - sugar substitutes (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Diabetic Diet updates ... you have diabetes Sweeteners - sugar substitutes Related Health Topics Blood Sugar Diabetes Diabetes in Children and Teens ...

  12. Biochemical phenotyping unravels novel metabolic abnormalities and potential biomarkers associated with treatment of GLUT1 deficiency with ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappuccio, Gerarda; Pinelli, Michele; Alagia, Marianna; Donti, Taraka; Day-Salvatore, Debra-Lynn; Veggiotti, Pierangelo; De Giorgis, Valentina; Lunghi, Simona; Vari, Maria Stella; Striano, Pasquale; Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola; Kennedy, Adam D; Elsea, Sarah H

    2017-01-01

    Global metabolomic profiling offers novel opportunities for the discovery of biomarkers and for the elucidation of pathogenic mechanisms that might lead to the development of novel therapies. GLUT1 deficiency syndrome (GLUT1-DS) is an inborn error of metabolism due to reduced function of glucose transporter type 1. Clinical presentation of GLUT1-DS is heterogeneous and the disorder mirrors patients with epilepsy, movement disorders, or any paroxysmal events or unexplained neurological manifestation triggered by exercise or fasting. The diagnostic biochemical hallmark of the disease is a reduced cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)/blood glucose ratio and the only available treatment is ketogenic diet. This study aimed at advancing our understanding of the biochemical perturbations in GLUT1-DS pathogenesis through biochemical phenotyping and the treatment of GLUT1-DS with a ketogenic diet. Metabolomic analysis of three CSF samples from GLUT1-DS patients not on ketogenic diet was feasible inasmuch as CSF sampling was used for diagnosis before to start with ketogenic diet. The analysis of plasma and urine samples obtained from GLUT1-DS patients treated with a ketogenic diet showed alterations in lipid and amino acid profiles. While subtle, these were consistent findings across the patients with GLUT1-DS on ketogenic diet, suggesting impacts on mitochondrial physiology. Moreover, low levels of free carnitine were present suggesting its consumption in GLUT1-DS on ketogenic diet. 3-hydroxybutyrate, 3-hydroxybutyrylcarnitine, 3-methyladipate, and N-acetylglycine were identified as potential biomarkers of GLUT1-DS on ketogenic diet. This is the first study to identify CSF, plasma, and urine metabolites associated with GLUT1-DS, as well as biochemical changes impacted by a ketogenic diet. Potential biomarkers and metabolic insights deserve further investigation.

  13. Monetary Diet Cost, Diet Quality, and Parental Socioeconomic Status in Spanish Youth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Schröder

    Full Text Available Using a food-based analysis, healthy dietary patterns in adults are more expensive than less healthy ones; studies are needed in youth. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine relationships between monetary daily diet cost, diet quality, and parental socioeconomic status.Data were obtained from a representative national sample of 3534 children and young people in Spain, aged 2 to 24 years. Dietary assessment was performed with a 24-hour recall. Mediterranean diet adherence was measured by the KIDMED questionnaire. Average food cost was calculated from official Spanish government data. Monetary daily diet cost was expressed as euros per day (€/d and euros per day standardized to a 1000kcal diet (€/1000kcal/d.Mean monetary daily diet cost was 3.16±1.57€/d (1.56±0.72€/1000kcal/d. Socioeconomic status was positively associated with monetary daily diet cost and diet quality measured by the KIDMED index (€/d and €/1000kcal/d, p<0.019. High Mediterranean diet adherence (KIDMED score 8-12 was 0.71 €/d (0.28€/1000kcal/d more expensive than low compliance (KIDMED score 0-3. Analysis for nonlinear association between the KIDMED index and monetary daily diet cost per1000kcal showed no further cost increases beyond a KIDMED score of 8 (linear p<0.001; nonlinear p = 0.010.Higher monetary daily diet cost is associated with healthy eating in Spanish youth. Higher socioeconomic status is a determinant for higher monetary daily diet cost and quality.

  14. Long-term characterization of the diet-induced obese and diet-resistant rat model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Andreas Nygaard; Hansen, Gitte; Paulsen, Sarah Juel

    2010-01-01

    , namely the selectively bred diet-induced obese (DIO) and diet-resistant (DR) rat strains. We show that they constitute useful models of the human obesity syndrome. DIO and DR rats were fed either a high-energy (HE) or a standard chow (Chow) diet from weaning to 9 months of age. Metabolic characterization......, the results underscore the effectiveness of GLP-1 mimetics both as anti-diabetes and anti-obesity agents....

  15. EUROPREV healthy diet : promoting a healthy diet through counselling in primary care

    OpenAIRE

    EUROPREV : European Network for Prevention and Health Promotion in Family Medicine/General Practice

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to promote a healthy diet, improve the health status of the population and prevem chronic non- communicable diseases that are related to unhealthy diet. Diet plays an importam role in coronary hean disease, cancers, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cerebrovascular disease and obesity. This documem is imended for primary care professionals as a tool for nutrition-related advice and guidance to patiems. In their daily practice, such professionals must provide instructi...

  16. Evaluation of collection method and diet effects on apparent digestibility and energy values of swine diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y S; Tran, H; Bundy, J W; Burkey, T E; Kerr, B J; Nielsen, M K; Miller, P S

    2016-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of collection method and diet type on digestibility coefficients. In Exp. 1, 24 barrows were fed either a corn-soybean meal (CSBM) diet or CSBM with 20% dried distillers' grains with solubles (CSBM-DDGS). In Exp. 2, the effects of basal diet and collection method on determination of dried distillers' grains with solubles (DDGS) digestibility were studied using 24 barrows. The 4 diets used in Exp. 2 were: a CSBM (basal 1) , a barley-canola meal (BCM; basal 2), 80% basal 1 with 20% DDGS (CSBM-DDGS), and 80% basal 2 with 20% DDGS (BCM-DDGS). In both experiments, feces were collected using a time-based collection method (DY) or a "marker-to-marker" collection method (MM). Diets contained 0.5% of titanium dioxide (TiO) for estimating digestibility using the index marker approach (IM). The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of DM and GE were lower ( digestibility coefficients determined by the DY and MM were not different from each other, whereas those estimates were lower ( digestibility coefficients. Digestibility and energy values estimated by the DY and MM were not different in pigs fed CSBM-based diets and the BCM-DDGS diet, whereas those estimates were greater ( digestibility. The ATTD of DM and GE of DDGS using the MM were greater ( Digestibility estimates of DDGS were not affected by basal diets. The mean DE and ME (as-fed basis) of DDGS were 3,994 and 3,688 kcal/kg, respectively, when estimated using the basal 1 diet and were 3,919 and 3,547 kcal/kg, respectively, when estimated using the basal 2 diet. In conclusion, both collection methods can be used to estimate energy and nutrient digestibility of diets and DDGS when using CSBM-based diets.

  17. Effect of a very low-protein diet on outcomes: long-term follow-up of the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Vandana; Kopple, Joel D; Wang, Xuelei; Beck, Gerald J; Collins, Allan J; Kusek, John W; Greene, Tom; Levey, Andrew S; Sarnak, Mark J

    2009-02-01

    The long-term effect of a very low-protein diet on the progression of kidney disease is unknown. We examined the effect of a very low-protein diet on the development of kidney failure and death during long-term follow-up of the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study. Long-term follow-up of study B of the MDRD Study (1989-1993). The MDRD Study examined the effects of dietary protein restriction and blood pressure control on progression of kidney disease. This analysis includes 255 trial participants with predominantly stage 4 nondiabetic chronic kidney disease. A low-protein diet (0.58 g/kg/d) versus a very low-protein diet (0.28 g/kg/d) supplemented with a mixture of essential keto acids and amino acids (0.28 g/kg/d). Kidney failure (initiation of dialysis therapy or transplantation) and all-cause mortality until December 31, 2000. Kidney failure developed in 227 (89%) participants, 79 (30.9%) died, and 244 (95.7%) reached the composite outcome of either kidney failure or death. Median duration of follow-up until kidney failure, death, or administrative censoring was 3.2 years, and median time to death was 10.6 years. In the low-protein group, 117 (90.7%) participants developed kidney failure, 30 (23.3%) died, and 124 (96.1%) reached the composite outcome. In the very low-protein group, 110 (87.3%) participants developed kidney failure, 49 (38.9%) died, and 120 (95.2%) reached the composite outcome. After adjustment for a priori-specified covariates, hazard ratios were 0.83 (95% confidence interval, 0.62 to 1.12) for kidney failure, 1.92 (95% confidence interval, 1.15 to 3.20) for death, and 0.89 (95% confidence interval, 0.67 to 1.18) for the composite outcome in the very low-protein diet group compared with the low-protein diet group. Lack of dietary protein measurements during follow-up. In long-term follow-up of the MDRD Study, assignment to a very low-protein diet did not delay progression to kidney failure, but appeared to increase the risk of

  18. The role of diet in caries prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loveren, C; Duggal, M S

    2001-01-01

    Over the last three decades the condition of the teeth of children has improved tremendously. This has generally been attributed to the increased use of fluoride toothpaste. During this period the total amount of sugars disappearing into the population per capita has hardly changed. This suggests that the relationship between diet and caries has to be reassessed, which provokes different opinions among dental experts. Some suggest a maximum threshold level for the daily amount of sugars to prevent caries. Others propose that in general the amount of sugars eaten is not an important determinant of caries experience. The scientific evidence for the various opinions on the role of diet in caries development will be discussed. It is concluded that the role of diet is not so much related to the diet itself but to the individual behaviour of people. Where oral hygiene and fluoride supplementation are adequate, the diet has become a lesser factor in caries prevention. However, those diets may cause caries when there is too little fluoride. It is a mistake to classify a diet as cariogenic it may be potentially cariogenic. When one wants to decrease this potency, one should modify those factors that are actually controlling it, which is, in most cases, the topical presence of fluoride and not the composition of the diet. A model is proposed to guide caries prevention. The (insufficient) use of fluoride, (insufficient) oral hygiene and (insufficient) clearance by saliva form a window of risk. The total burden of cariogenic food that can be seen through the window constitutes the actual caries risk.

  19. Korean diet: Characteristics and historical background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon Hee Kim

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: The K-diet is composed of bab (cooked-rice and kuk, and various banchan with one serving called bapsang. Kimchi is always served at every meal. The principal aspects of the K-diet include proportionally high consumption of vegetables, moderate to high consumption of legumes and fish, and low consumption of red meat. Banchan is mostly seasoned with various jang (fermented soy products, medicinal herbs, and sesame or perilla oil.

  20. Diet in the management of weight loss

    OpenAIRE

    Strychar, Irene

    2006-01-01

    Obesity is an established risk factor for numerous chronic diseases, and successful treatment will have an important impact on medical resources utilization, health care costs, and patient quality of life. With over 60% of our population being overweight, physicians face a major challenge in assisting patients in the process of weight loss and weight-loss maintenance. Low-calorie diets can lower total body weight by an average of 8% in the short term. These diets are well-tolerated and charac...

  1. Diet-induced mating preference in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenberg, Eugene; Zilber-Rosenberg, Ilana; Sharon, Gil; Segal, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Diet-induced mating preference was initially observed by Dodd (1). Subsequently, we reported that diet-induced mating preference occurred in Drosophila melanogaster. Treatment of the flies with antibiotics abolished the mating preference, suggesting that fly-associated commensal bacteria were responsible for the phenomenon (2). The hypothesis was confirmed when it was shown that colonizing antibiotic-treated flies with Lactobacillus plantarum reestablished mating preference in multiple-choice...

  2. Does the MIND diet decrease depression risk? A comparison with Mediterranean diet in the SUN cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresán, Ujué; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Segovia-Siapco, Gina; Sanchez-Villegas, Almudena; Lahortiga, Francisca; de la Rosa, Pedro-Antonio; Martínez-Gonzalez, Miguel-Angel

    2018-03-07

    To prospectively evaluate the association of the Mediterranean-DASH diet intervention for neurodegenerative delay (MIND) diet and the Mediterranean diet (and their components), and depression risk. We followed-up (median 10.4 years) 15,980 adults initially free of depression at baseline or in the first 2 years of follow-up. Food consumption was measured at baseline through a validated food-frequency questionnaire, and was used to compute adherence to the MIND and the Mediterranean diets. Relationships between these two diets and incident depression were assessed through Cox regression models. We identified 666 cases of incident depression. Comparing the highest versus the lowest quartiles of adherence, we found no association of the MIND diet and incident depression. This relation was statistically significant for the Mediterranean diet {hazard ratio (HR) 0.75, [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.61, 0.94]; p Mediterranean diet was associated with reduced depression risk, but we found no evidence of such an association for the MIND diet.

  3. DETERMINATION OF QUALITY PROPERTIES OF DIET ACIDOPHILUS BIFIDUS YOGHURT AND DIET YOGHURT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oğuz GÜRSOY

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Diet yoghurt and diet Asidophilus bifidus yoghurt were produced from cow milk and fat ratio was decreased below 1 %. In production of diet Asidophilus bifidus yoghurt, freeze dried DVS culture which contains normal yoghurt bacteria (Streptococcus thermophilus ve Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and therapeutic lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacteria was used. In production of diet yoghurt, normal yoghurt bacteria were used. Chemical, microbiological and sensory properties of these products were determined and compared. Generally, except the consistency sensed in mouth, chemical, microbiological and sensory properties were approximately same. Finally, these products were healthier than other yoghurt products, because of the amount of low fat and containing therapeutic bacteria.

  4. Fad diets and obesity--Part IV: Low-carbohydrate vs. low-fat diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyad, Mark A

    2005-02-01

    The first three parts of this series of articles covered the basics of some of the more popular low-carbohydrate diets, and the theories behind them. In the fourth and final part of this series, some of the more popular low-fat and low-calorie diets, such as the Ornish diet and Weight Watchers, are covered briefly. Recently, several clinical trials of longer duration that compared low-carbohydrate versus low-fat diets have been published. These studies demonstrate that some of the low-carbohydrate diets result in reduced weight in the short-term, but their ability to reduce weight long-term any better than low-fat or other diets has been questioned. Most popular or fad diets have some positive messages contained within them and some preliminary positive short-term results, but overall the compliance rates with any fad diet are very poor over the long-term. The decision to go on any diet should be made with a health professional who can monitor the patient closely.

  5. Obesogenic diets alter metabolism in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan R Showalter

    Full Text Available Obesity and accompanying metabolic disease is negatively correlated with lung health yet the exact mechanisms by which obesity affects the lung are not well characterized. Since obesity is associated with lung diseases as chronic bronchitis and asthma, we designed a series of experiments to measure changes in lung metabolism in mice fed obesogenic diets. Mice were fed either control or high fat/sugar diet (45%kcal fat/17%kcal sucrose, or very high fat diet (60%kcal fat/7% sucrose for 150 days. We performed untargeted metabolomics by GC-TOFMS and HILIC-QTOFMS and lipidomics by RPLC-QTOFMS to reveal global changes in lung metabolism resulting from obesity and diet composition. From a total of 447 detected metabolites, we found 91 metabolite and lipid species significantly altered in mouse lung tissues upon dietary treatments. Significantly altered metabolites included complex lipids, free fatty acids, energy metabolites, amino acids and adenosine and NAD pathway members. While some metabolites were altered in both obese groups compared to control, others were different between obesogenic diet groups. Furthermore, a comparison of changes between lung, kidney and liver tissues indicated few metabolic changes were shared across organs, suggesting the lung is an independent metabolic organ. These results indicate obesity and diet composition have direct mechanistic effects on composition of the lung metabolome, which may contribute to disease progression by lung-specific pathways.

  6. Obesogenic diets alter metabolism in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showalter, Megan R; Nonnecke, Eric B; Linderholm, A L; Cajka, Tomas; Sa, Michael R; Lönnerdal, Bo; Kenyon, Nicholas J; Fiehn, Oliver

    2018-01-01

    Obesity and accompanying metabolic disease is negatively correlated with lung health yet the exact mechanisms by which obesity affects the lung are not well characterized. Since obesity is associated with lung diseases as chronic bronchitis and asthma, we designed a series of experiments to measure changes in lung metabolism in mice fed obesogenic diets. Mice were fed either control or high fat/sugar diet (45%kcal fat/17%kcal sucrose), or very high fat diet (60%kcal fat/7% sucrose) for 150 days. We performed untargeted metabolomics by GC-TOFMS and HILIC-QTOFMS and lipidomics by RPLC-QTOFMS to reveal global changes in lung metabolism resulting from obesity and diet composition. From a total of 447 detected metabolites, we found 91 metabolite and lipid species significantly altered in mouse lung tissues upon dietary treatments. Significantly altered metabolites included complex lipids, free fatty acids, energy metabolites, amino acids and adenosine and NAD pathway members. While some metabolites were altered in both obese groups compared to control, others were different between obesogenic diet groups. Furthermore, a comparison of changes between lung, kidney and liver tissues indicated few metabolic changes were shared across organs, suggesting the lung is an independent metabolic organ. These results indicate obesity and diet composition have direct mechanistic effects on composition of the lung metabolome, which may contribute to disease progression by lung-specific pathways.

  7. Dietary protection during radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bounous, G.; Le Bel, E.; Shuster, J.; Gold, P.; Tahan, W.T.; Bastin, E.; Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Sherbrooke; Montreal General Hospital, Quebec

    1975-01-01

    Eighteen patients receiving Cobalt 60 irradiation for abdominal or pelvic malignancies were assigned at random to eat either a semi-hydrolyzed diet (Flexical: 10 g% casein hydrolsate; 14 g% triglycerides, 20% of which medium chain; 66% disaccharides) or a normal diet. There are no significant differences between these two groups with respect to age and the ratio of ideal to actual caloric intake. The patients in the control group received on the average a total of 3,900 rd and those in the Flexical group 4,040 rd. Generally, Flexical appeared to have a significant positive effect on body weight. In addition, radiation-induced diarrhea was not a problem in the Flexical group. In the latter-group, serum proteins including immunoglobulins remained essentially unchanged during therapy while a moderate but significant fall was observed in all control patients. No significant difference between the two groups was observed with respect to peripheral blood hematocrit, red and white cell counts. However, the drop in blood lymphocytes following irradiation was significantly less in the Flexical group. The mechanisms of radioprotection are discussed. These preliminary data indicate that the nutritional and perhaps the immunological status of cancer patients receiving intensive irradiation can be maintained by dietary measures. (orig.) [de

  8. Effect of Low Protein-Methionine-and-Lysine-Supplemented Diets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of supplementing low CP diets with methionine and lysine on broiler performance, carcass measure and their immune response against Infectious Bursa Disease (IBD) virus. In Experiment 1, ten diets were formulated. Diet 1 (control diet) contained 23.0% CP and ...

  9. Could Switching to a Vegetarian Diet Cure My Diabetes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... don't allow any animal products (vegans). The benefits of a vegetarian diet depend on the type of diet you choose and the food choices you make when following the diet. For most, however, eating a vegetarian diet: Promotes a healthy weight. Vegetarian ...

  10. Potential water saving through changes in European diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanham, D.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Bidoglio, G.

    2013-01-01

    This study quantifies the water footprint of consumption (WFcons) regarding agricultural products for three diets – the current diet (REF), a healthy diet (HEALTHY) and a vegetarian diet (VEG) – for the four EU zones WEST, NORTH, SOUTH and EAST. The WFcons related to the consumption of agricultural

  11. Vegetable versus animal protein diet in cirrhotic patients with chronic encephalopathy. A randomized cross-over comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, G P; Marchesini, G; Fabbri, A; Rondelli, A; Bugianesi, E; Zoli, M; Pisi, E

    1993-05-01

    In a randomized cross-over comparison, the effects of a mainly vegetable protein diet were compared with an animal protein diet in eight patients with cirrhosis and chronic permanent encephalopathy, under optimum lactulose therapy. After a run-in period, patients were fed two equi-caloric, equi-nitrogenous diets for 7 days (71 g total proteins), containing either 50 g protein of animal origin or 50 g vegetable proteins. In the last 3 days of each period, nitrogen balance was significantly better during the vegetable protein diet (+0.2 (SD 1.4) g vs. -1.7 (2.4); P vegetable proteins, whereas insulin, plasma amino acids and ammonia were lower. The clinical grading of encephalopathy improved slightly on vegetable proteins, and psychometric tests improved significantly, but remained grossly abnormal. Compliance to dietary manipulation was good. The data prove that a mainly vegetable protein diet is worthwhile in cirrhotic patients with chronic encephalopathy under optimum lactulose therapy. Improved nitrogen balance may be related to more effective nitrogen use for protein synthesis, probably due to blunted hormonal response, and largely outweighs the effects on encephalopathy.

  12. Interventional therapy of cervical esophageal malignant obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Aiwu; Gao Zhongdu; Li Guofen; Jiang Tinghui; Hu Xuan; Wu Jieru; Yang Renjie; Xiao Xiangsheng

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To explore the feasibility of microinvasive technique in high level malignant esophageal obstruction and to provide the palliative therapy that can't be dredged by traditional methods. Methods: There were 39 patients suffered from high level esophageal obstruction, involving the segments from esophageal circular pharynx to 12 mm below. Tube-reticular nitinol metal stents woven by single thread were placed in orally to dredge the esophagus under fluoroscopic guidance after repeated tolerant expanding performance through expandable catheter. Interventional chemical therapy were administrated through blood-supply vessels. Results: Thirty nine patients were grafted with 46 high level esophageal stents. 34 patients accepted 156 times of interventional chemical therapy. All patients restored with fine residue diet without showing side-effects except slight pain and tolerant uncomfortable feeling. The survival rate of the patients with both interventional chemical therapy and stents was longer than those with stent therapy alone. Conclusion: Cervical high level segment of esophagus shouldn't be the restricted zone in the management of inner-stents. Interventional chemical therapy showed tumor-inhibiting effect in the cervical malignant diseases

  13. Digestibility and nutrient utilisation of soybean bran-based diets in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    OpenAIRE

    Sadiku, S.O.E.; Alao, I.A.; Tiamiyu, L.O.

    2003-01-01

    The digestibility and utilisation of two soybean bran-based diets and two fishmeal-based diets serving as control, at optimal (30%) and suboptimal (20%) protein levels were evaluated in Oreochromis niloticus. These were Diet I (Control)-fishmeal based diet at 30% crude protein, Diet II (Control) - fishmeal based diet at 20% crude protein, Diet III - hydrolysed Soybean Bran based diet at 30% crude protein, Diet IV - hydrolysed Soybean Bran based diet at 20%. Dry matter digestibility differed i...

  14. How mental health occupational therapists address issues of diet with their clients: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahony, Georgia; Haracz, Kirsti; Williams, Lauren T

    2012-08-01

    Poor diet is a contributing factor to the high rates of obesity and related comorbidities in people with severe mental illness, and dietary change is a key treatment strategy. Providing healthy lifestyle interventions is a recognised role for occupational therapists. However, the existing literature fails to elucidate boundaries of this role. To begin to address this gap in the literature, this study explored the attitudes, actions and beliefs of mental health occupational therapists about providing diet-related interventions. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with mental health occupational therapists working in one Area Health Service in New South Wales. Purposive sampling was used. Data were analysed using Constructivist Grounded Theory methods, where meaning is co-constructed by, and the theory ultimately grounded in the experiences of, the participant and researcher. The participants felt confident providing clients with interventions to promote diet-related skill development and providing general healthy eating education to support this development. However, they were not comfortable providing clients with specific dietary advice. Participants identified a need for further training and support to enhance their effectiveness in providing healthy eating education and highlighted the need for more dietitians in mental health services. The occupational therapists in this study identified clear boundaries of their role in providing diet-related interventions for people with severe mental illness. Suggestions for improvement in this area included further training for occupational therapists as well as increased access to dietitians for those services that lie outside the occupational therapy role. © 2012 The Authors Australian Occupational Therapy Journal © 2012 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  15. [Nutritional assessment of gluten-free diet. Is gluten-free diet deficient in some nutrient?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar Quero, J C; Espín Jaime, B; Rodríguez Martínez, A; Argüelles Martín, F; García Jiménez, R; Rubio Murillo, M; Pizarro Martín, A

    2015-07-01

    The gluten-free diet has traditionally been accepted as a healthy diet, but there are articles advocating that it may have some nutritional deficiencies. The current study assesses whether there was any change in the contributions of calories, essential elements, proportion of fatty acids, vitamins, minerals and fiber in children who were diagnosed with celiac diseases, comparing the diet with gluten prior one year after diagnosis with the diet without gluten to the year of diagnosis. The level of clinical or analytical impact that nutritional deficits could have was also assessed. A prospective,descriptive, observational study in which information was collected from a dietary survey, anthropometric and analytical data at pre-diagnosis of celiac disease and following a gluten diet and one year after celiac disease diagnosis, under gluten-free diet. A total of 37 patients meet the study criteria. A decrease in the intake of saturated fatty acids was found, with an increase of monounsaturated fatty acids and an increase in the intake of phosphorus in the diet without gluten. A deficient intake of vitamin D was found in both diets. Clinically, at year of gluten-free diet there was an improvement in weight and size. Analytically, there was an improvement in hemoglobin, ferritin, vitamin D, and parathyroid hormone in plasma. The gluten-free diet has minimal deficiencies, similar to those present in the diet with gluten, with an improvement in the lipid profile by increasing the proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids to the detriment of saturated fatty acids. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Dieting attempts modify the association between quality of diet and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sares-Jäske, Laura; Knekt, Paul; Lundqvist, Annamari; Heliövaara, Markku; Männistö, Satu

    2017-09-01

    Evidence on the nature of the relationship between obesity and the quality of diet remains controversial. Likewise, the possible effect of dieting attempts on this association is poorly understood. This study investigates the possible modifying effect of dieting attempts on the association between the quality of diet and obesity. The authors hypothesize that among dieters the association may be biased. The study was based on a Finnish cohort, including 5910 men and women aged 30 to 99 years, with information on diet and body mass index (BMI). Using data from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), an Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI) applicable to the Finnish regimen was formed. Obesity was defined as a BMI ≥30 kg/m 2 . Information on dieting attempts was collected using a questionnaire. The statistical analyses were based on linear and logistic regression. We found a positive association between the quality of the diet and obesity, the relative odds of obesity between the highest and lowest quintiles of AHEI being 1.48 (95% CI, 1.20-1.82) after adjustment for confounding factors. However, in the interaction analysis of dieting attempts and AHEI, no association was observed in non-dieters (OR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.69-1.24) but among dieters a slightly elevated risk was found (OR, 1.40; 95% CI, 0.98-1.98). We found no association between a high quality diet and obesity among non-dieters, but a tendency for a positive association in dieters. Dieting thus seems to modify the association between diet and obesity, which should be further studied using a longitudinal design. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of Brazilian Cardioprotective Diet Program on risk factors in patients with coronary heart disease: a Brazilian Cardioprotective Diet randomized pilot trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardete Weber

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of the Brazilian Cardioprotective Diet Program in reducing blood pressures, fasting glucose levels and body mass indices in patients with established atherothrombotic disease. METHOD: This randomized controlled pilot trial included outpatients who were over 45 years of age with atherothrombotic cardiovascular disease. Group A, who received the Brazilian Cardioprotective Diet Program, had weekly sessions with dietitians. Groups B and C received the usual dietary therapy that is given to patients with cardiovascular diseases as proposed by the Brazilian guidelines. This diet had the same nutrient profile as that given to Group A, but it was customized by the integration of typical Mediterranean foods. The difference between Groups B and C was the number of sessions with the dietitian. Group B received weekly sessions, while group C only had monthly sessions. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT 01453166. RESULTS: There was a greater reduction in systolic (7.8% and diastolic (10.8% blood pressures in Group A compared with Group B (2.3% and 7.3%, and Group C (3.9% and 4.9%, respectively. Fasting glucose decreased by 5.3% and 2% in Groups A and B, respectively. Fasting glucose increased by 3.7% in Group C. The BMIs decreased by 3.5% and 3.3% in Groups A and B, respectively. Group C did not present with any changes in BMI. However, none of these data showed statistical differences between the groups, which is methodologically acceptable in pilot trials. CONCLUSIONS: The Brazilian Cardioprotective Diet Program seems to be more effective in reducing blood pressures, fasting glucose levels, weights and BMIs in patients with previous cardiovascular disease compared with the diet that has been proposed by the Brazilian guidelines.

  18. Diet and asthma: looking back, moving forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellwood Philippa E

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Asthma is an increasing global health burden, especially in the western world. Public health interventions are sought to lessen its prevalence or severity, and diet and nutrition have been identified as potential factors. With rapid changes in diet being one of the hallmarks of westernization, nutrition may play a key role in affecting the complex genetics and developmental pathophysiology of asthma. The present review investigates hypotheses about hygiene, antioxidants, lipids and other nutrients, food types and dietary patterns, breastfeeding, probiotics and intestinal microbiota, vitamin D, maternal diet, and genetics. Early hypotheses analyzed population level trends and focused on major dietary factors such as antioxidants and lipids. More recently, larger dietary patterns beyond individual nutrients have been investigated such as obesity, fast foods, and the Mediterranean diet. Despite some promising hypotheses and findings, there has been no conclusive evidence about the role of specific nutrients, food types, or dietary patterns past early childhood on asthma prevalence. However, diet has been linked to the development of the fetus and child. Breastfeeding provides immunological protection when the infant's immune system is immature and a modest protective effect against wheeze in early childhood. Moreover, maternal diet may be a significant factor in the development of the fetal airway and immune system. As asthma is a complex disease of gene-environment interactions, maternal diet may play an epigenetic role in sensitizing fetal airways to respond abnormally to environmental insults. Recent hypotheses show promise in a biological approach in which the effects of dietary factors on individual physiology and immunology are analyzed before expansion into larger population studies. Thus, collaboration is required by various groups in studying this enigma from epidemiologists to geneticists to immunologists. It is now apparent that

  19. Cancer Risk and Diet in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha R

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available India is a developing country with one of the most diverse populations and diets in the world. Cancer rates in India are lower than those seen in Western countries, but are rising with increasing migration of rural population to the cities, increase in life expectancy and changes in lifestyles. In India, rates for oral and oesophageal cancers are some of the highest in the world. In contrast, the rates for colorectal, prostate, and lung cancers are one of the lowest. Studies of Indian immigrants in Western societies indicate that rates of cancer and other chronic diseases, such as coronary heart disease and diabetes, increase dramatically after a generation in the adopted country. Change of diet is among the factors that may be responsible for the changing disease rates. Diet in India encompasses diversity unknown to most other countries, with many dietary patterns emanating from cultural and religious teachings that have existed for thousands of years. Very little is known, however, about the role of the Indian diet in causation of cancer or its role, if any, in prevention of cancer, although more attention is being focused on certain aspects of the Indian diet, such as vegetarianism, spices, and food additives. Of particular interest for cancer prevention is the role of turmeric (curcumin, an ingredient in common Indian curry spice. Researchers also have investigated cumin, chilies, kalakhar, Amrita Bindu, and various plant seeds for their apparent cancer preventive properties. Few prospective studies, however, have been conducted to investigate the role of Indian diet and its various components in prevention of cancer. From a public health perspective, there is an increasing need to develop cancer prevention programs responsive to the unique diets and cultural practices of the people of India.

  20. Ketogenic diet: Predictors of seizure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Nitin; Arkilo, Dimitrios; Farooq, Osman; Gillogly, Cynthia; Kavak, Katelyn S; Weinstock, Arie

    2017-01-01

    The ketogenic diet is an effective non-pharmacologic treatment for medically resistant epilepsy. The aim of this study was to identify any predictors that may influence the response of ketogenic diet. A retrospective chart review for all patients with medically resistant epilepsy was performed at a tertiary care epilepsy center from 1996 to 2012. Patient- and diet-related variables were evaluated with respect to seizure reduction at 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12-month intervals and divided into four possible outcome classes. Sixty-three patients met inclusion. Thirty-seven (59%) reported >50% seizure reduction at 3 months with 44% and 37% patients benefiting at 6-month and 12-month follow up, respectively. A trend toward significant seizure improvement was noted in 48% patients with seizure onset >1 year at 12-month (p = 0.09) interval and in 62% patients with >10 seizure/day at 6-month interval (p = 0.054). An ordinal logistic regression showed later age of seizure to have higher odds of favorable response at 1-month (p = 0.005) and 3-month (p = 0.013) follow up. Patients with non-fasting diet induction were more likely to have a favorable outcome at 6 months (p = 0.008) as do females (p = 0.037) and those treated with higher fat ratio diet (p = 0.034). Our study reports the effectiveness of ketogenic diet in children with medically resistant epilepsy. Later age of seizure onset, female gender, higher ketogenic diet ratio and non-fasting induction were associated with better odds of improved seizure outcome. A larger cohort is required to confirm these findings.

  1. Mediterranean diet: from a healthy diet to a sustainable dietary pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro eDernini

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The notion of the Mediterranean Diet has undergone a progressive evolution over the past 60 years, from a healthy dietary pattern to a sustainable dietary pattern, in which nutrition, food, cultures, people, environment and sustainability all interact into a new model of a sustainable diet. An overview of the historical antecedents and recent increased interest in the Mediterranean diet is presented and challenges related how to improve the sustainability of the Mediterranean diet are identified. Despite its increasing popularity worldwide, adherence to the Mediterranean diet model is decreasing for multifactorial influences – life styles changes, food globalization, economic and socio-cultural factors. These changes pose serious threats to the preservation and transmission of the Mediterranean diet heritage to present and future generations. Today’s challenge is to reverse such trends. A greater focus on the Mediterranean diet's potential as a sustainable dietary pattern, instead than just on its well documented healthy benefits, can contribute to its enhancement. More cross-disciplinary studies on environmental, economic and socio-cultural, sustainability dimensions of the Mediterranean diet are foreseen as a critical need.

  2. Maternal low protein diet and postnatal high fat diet increases adipose imprinted gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maternal and postnatal diet can alter Igf2 gene expression and DNA methylation. To test whether maternal low protein and postnatal high fat (HF) diet result in alteration in Igf2 expression and obesity, we fed obese-prone Sprague-Dawley rats 8% (LP) or 20% (NP) protein for 3 wk prior to breeding and...

  3. Will seizure control improve by switching from the modified Atkins diet to the traditional ketogenic diet?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kossoff, Eric H; Bosarge, Jennifer L; Miranda, Maria J

    2010-01-01

    It has been reported that children can maintain seizure control when the ketogenic diet (KD) is transitioned to the less-restrictive modified Atkins diet (MAD). What is unknown, however, is the likelihood of additional seizure control from a switch from the MAD to the KD. Retrospective information...

  4. Mediterranean Diet: From a Healthy Diet to a Sustainable Dietary Pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dernini, Sandro; Berry, Elliot M

    2015-01-01

    The notion of the Mediterranean diet has undergone a progressive evolution over the past 60 years, from a healthy dietary pattern to a sustainable dietary pattern, in which nutrition, food, cultures, people, environment, and sustainability all interact into a new model of a sustainable diet. An overview of the historical antecedents and recent increased interest in the Mediterranean diet is presented and challenges related to how to improve the sustainability of the Mediterranean diet are identified. Despite its increasing popularity worldwide, adherence to the Mediterranean diet model is decreasing for multifactorial influences - life styles changes, food globalization, economic, and socio-cultural factors. These changes pose serious threats to the preservation and transmission of the Mediterranean diet heritage to present and future generations. Today's challenge is to reverse such trends. A greater focus on the Mediterranean diet's potential as a sustainable dietary pattern, instead than just on its well-documented healthy benefits, can contribute to its enhancement. More cross-disciplinary studies on environmental, economic and socio-cultural, and sustainability dimensions of the Mediterranean diet are foreseen as a critical need.

  5. Differences in Weight Loss Between Persons on Standard Balanced vs Nutrigenetic Diets in a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankwich, Karen A; Egnatios, Jeremy; Kenyon, Mandy L; Rutledge, Thomas R; Liao, Patricia S; Gupta, Samir; Herbst, Karen L; Zarrinpar, Amir

    2015-09-01

    Many companies provide genetic tests for obesity-related polymorphisms (nutrigenetics) and make dietary recommendations for weight loss that are based on the results. We performed a randomized controlled trial to determine whether more participants who followed a nutrigenetic-guided diet lost ≥5% of their body weight than participants on a standard balanced diet for 8 and 24 weeks. We performed a prospective study of 51 obese or overweight U.S. veterans on an established weight management program at the Veterans Administration San Diego Healthcare System (the MOVE! program). Participants were randomly assigned to groups placed on a nutrigenetic-guided diet (balanced, low-carbohydrate, low-fat, or Mediterranean; n = 30) or a standard balanced diet (n = 21). Nutrigenetic diets were selected on the basis of results from the Pathway FIT test. There was no significant difference in the percentage of participants on the balanced diet vs the nutrigenetic-guided diet who lost 5% of their body weight at 8 weeks (35.0% ± 20.9% vs 26.9% ± 17.1%, respectively; P = .28) or at 24 weeks. Both groups had difficulty adhering to the diets. However, adherence to the nutrigenetic-guided diet correlated with weight loss (r = 0.74; P = 4.0 × 10(-5)), but not adherence to standard therapy (r = 0.34; P = .23). Participants who had low-risk polymorphisms for obesity lost more weight than all other participants at 8 weeks (5.0% vs 2.9%, respectively; P = .02) and had significantly greater reductions in body mass index (6.4% vs 3.6%, respectively; P = .03) and waist circumference (6.5% vs 2.6%, respectively; P = .02) at 24 weeks. In a prospective study, a nutrigenetic-based diet did not increase weight loss compared with a standard balanced diet. However, genetic features can identify individuals most likely to benefit from a balanced diet weight loss strategy; these findings require further investigation. ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT01859403. Copyright © 2015 AGA

  6. Differences in Weight Loss Between Persons on Standard Balanced vs Nutrigenetic Diets in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Mandy L.; Rutledge, Thomas R.; Liao, Patricia S.; Gupta, Samir; Herbst, Karen L.; Zarrinpar, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Many companies provide genetic tests for obesity-related polymorphisms (nutrigenetics) and make dietary recommendations for weight loss based on the results. We performed a randomized controlled trial to determine whether more participants who followed a nutrigenetic-guided diet lost ≥5% of their body weight than participants on a standard balanced diet, for 8 and 24 weeks. Methods We performed a prospective study of 51 obese or overweight US veterans on an established weight management program at the Veterans Administration San Diego Healthcare System (the MOVE! Program). Participants were randomly assigned to groups placed on a nutrigenetic-guided diet (balanced, low-carbohydrate, low-fat, or Mediterranean; n=30) or a standard balanced diet (n=21). Nutrigenetic diets were selected based on results from the Pathway FIT test (Pathway Genomics; San Diego, CA). Results There was no significant difference in the percentage of participants on the balanced diet vs the nutrigenetic-guided diet who lost 5% of their body weight at 8 weeks (35.0%±20.9% vs 26.9%±17.1%, respectively; P=.28) or at 24 weeks. Both groups had difficulty adhering to the diets. However, adherence to the nutrigenetic-guided diet correlated with weight loss (r=0.74; P= 4.0 × 10−5), but not adherence to standard therapy (r=0.34; P=.23). Participants who had low-risk polymorphisms for obesity lost more weight than all other participants at 8 weeks (5.0% vs 2.9%, respectively; P=.02), and had significantly greater reductions in body mass index (6.4% vs 3.6% respectively; P=.03) and waist circumference (6.5% vs 2.6% respectively; P=.02) at 24 weeks. Conclusions In a prospective study, a nutrigenetic-based diet did not increase weight loss compared with a standard balanced diet. However, genetic features can identify individuals most likely to benefit from a balanced diet weight loss strategy; these findings require further investigation. ClincialTrials.gov number: NCT01859403

  7. Organic food for sustainable and healthy diets - lessons from the nordic diet?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bugel, Susanne; Damsgaard, C. T.; Larsen, T. M.

    2015-01-01

    foods from the wild countryside and 3) more foods from sea and lakes. In many ways, the New NND is very similar to a Mediterranean diet but relies on rapeseed (canola) oil instead of olive oil and ramson instead of garlic. The diets differ in their types of produce due to regional differences in climate......://foodoflife.ku.dk/opus/english/nyheder/publikationer/) in which the NND was compared to the Average Danish Diet (ADD). The use of mostly local products and reduction of the meat intake were of both socioeconomic and environmental advantage. Including organic produce increased environmental impact of the NND.Conclusion: In line with the Mediterranean diet......Introduction: The New Nordic Diet (NND) was developed in 2004 by chefs and food professionals from the five Nordic countries. The goal for the NND was that it should be based on traditional regional food products but healthier than the traditional eating habits. The NND builds on four key...

  8. Dystonia: Physical Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Online Support Frequently Asked Questions Faces of Dystonia Physical Therapy Physical therapy may be an important component of treating ... everyday tasks, Since dystonia is a neurological disorder, physical therapy does not treat the dystonia directly but ...

  9. Brain Stimulation Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Magnetic Seizure Therapy Deep Brain Stimulation Additional Resources Brain Stimulation Therapies Overview Brain stimulation therapies can play ... for a shorter recovery time than ECT Deep Brain Stimulation Deep brain stimulation (DBS) was first developed ...

  10. Laser therapy for cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000905.htm Laser therapy for cancer To use the sharing features ... Lasers are also used on the skin. How Laser Therapy is Used Laser therapy can be used ...

  11. American Music Therapy Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Music Therapy Association Home Contact News Help/FAQ Members Only Login Quick Links Facts About Music Therapy Qualifications ... with AMTA Sponsor AMTA Events Social Networking Support Music Therapy When you shop at AmazonSmile, Amazon will ...

  12. Dietary adherence and acceptability of five different diets, including vegan and vegetarian diets, for weight loss: The New DIETs study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Wendy J; McGrievy, Michael E; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M

    2015-12-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine dietary adherence and acceptability among participants from the New DIETs study who were randomized to one of four plant-based diets (vegan, vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, semi-vegetarian) or an omnivore diet. Primary outcomes at two- and six months included dietary adherence (24-hour dietary recalls), weight loss and changes in animal product intake (mg cholesterol) by adherence status, Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ), Power of Food Scale (PFS), dietary acceptability (Food Acceptability Questionnaire), and impact of diet preference on adherence. No differences were found in dietary adherence or changes in FAQ, TFEQ, or PFS among the groups. At six months, non-adherent vegan and vegetarian participants (n=16) had a significantly greater decrease in cholesterol intake (-190.2 ± 199.2 mg) than non-adherent pesco-vegetarian/semi-vegetarian (n=15, -2.3 ± 200.3 mg, P=0.02) or omnivore participants (n=7, 17.0 ± 36.0, P=0.04). Non-adherent vegan/vegetarian participants lost significantly more weight at six months (-6.0 ± 6.7%) than non-adherent omnivore participants (-0.4 ± 0.6%, P=0.04). Dietary preference had no impact on adherence at six months. Due to equal rates of adherence and acceptability among the diet groups, instructing participants to follow vegan or vegetarian diets may have a greater impact on weight loss and animal product intake than providing instruction in more moderate approaches even among non-adherent participants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mediterranean Diet and Cardiodiabesity: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Fernández, Elena; Rico-Cabanas, Laura; Rosgaard, Nanna; Estruch, Ramón; Bach-Faig, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Cardiodiabesity has been used to define and describe the well-known relationship between type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM), obesity, the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The objective of this study was to perform a scientific literature review with a systematic search to examine all the cardiovascular risk factors combined and their relationship with adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) pattern as primary prevention against cardiodiabesity in a holistic approach. Research was conducted using the PubMed database including clinical trials, cross-sectional and prospective cohort studies. Thirty-seven studies were reviewed: fourteen related to obesity, ten to CVD, nine to MetS, and four to T2DM. Indeed 33 provided strong evidence on the association between adherence to a MedDiet and a reduced incidence of collective cardiodiabesity risk in epidemiological studies. This scientific evidence makes the MedDiet pattern very useful for preventive strategies directed at the general population and also highlights the need to consider all these diet-related risk factors and health outcomes together in daily primary care. PMID:25192027

  14. Aluminium in foodstuffs and diets in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorhem, L; Haegglund, G

    1992-01-01

    The levels of aluminium have been determined in a number of individual foodstuffs on the Swedish market and in 24 h duplicate diets collected by women living in the Stockholm area. The results show that the levels in most foods are very low and that the level in vegetables can vary by a factor 10. Beverages from aluminium cans were found to have aluminium levels not markedly different from those in glass bottles. Based on the results of the analysis of individual foods, the average Swedish daily diet was calculated to contain about 0.6 mg aluminium, whereas the mean content of the collected duplicate diets was 13 mg. A cake made from a mix containing aluminium phosphate in the baking soda was identified as the most important contributor of aluminium to the duplicate diets. Tea and aluminium utensils were estimated to increase the aluminium content of the diets by approximately 4 and 2 mg/day, respectively. The results also indicate that a considerable amount of aluminium must be introduced from other sources.

  15. Diet quality index for healthy food choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Caivano

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To present a Diet Quality Index proper for dietary intake studies of Brazilian adults. METHODS: A diet quality index to analyze the incorporation of healthy food choices was associated with a digital food guide. This index includes moderation components, destined to indicate foods that may represent a risk when in excess, and adequacy components that include sources of nutrients and bioactive compounds in order to help individuals meet their nutritional requirements. The diet quality index-digital food guide performance was measured by determining its psychometric properties, namely content and construct validity, as well as internal consistency. RESULTS: The moderation and adequacy components correlated weakly with dietary energy (-0.16 to 0.09. The strongest correlation (0.52 occurred between the component 'sugars and sweets' and the total score. The Cronbach's coefficient alpha for reliability was 0.36. CONCLUSION: Given that diet quality is a complex and multidimensional construct, the Diet Quality Index-Digital Food Guide, whose validity is comparable to those of other indices, is a useful resource for Brazilian dietary studies. However, new studies can provide additional information to improve its reliability.

  16. [Physical therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chohnabayashi, Naohiko

    2008-01-01

    Recently, pulmonary rehabilitation program is widely considered one of the most effective and evidence-based treatment for not only chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but many clinical situations including neuro-muscular disease, post-operative status and weaning period from the ventilator, etc. The essential components of a pulmonary rehabilitation program are team assessment, patient training, psycho-social intervention, exercise, and follow-up. In 2003, Japanese medical societies (J. Thoracic Society, J. Pul. Rehabilitation Society and J. Physiotherapist Society) made a new guideline for pulmonary rehabilitation, especially how to aproach the execise training. As for the duration after surgical operation, airway cleaning is the important technique to prevent post-operative complications including pneumonia. Postural dranage technique is well known for such condition, at the same time, several instruments (flutter vulve, positive expiratory mask, high frequecy oscillation, etc) were also used for the patient to expectrate airway mucus easier. Lung transplantation is a new method of treatment for the critically-ill patients with chronic respiratoy failure. Several techniques of physical therapy are must be needed before and after lung transplantation to prevent both pulmonary infection and osteoporosis.

  17. Monetary Diet Cost, Diet Quality, and Parental Socioeconomic Status in Spanish Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas-Barba, Lourdes; Pérez-Rodrigo, Carmen; Bawaked, Rowaedh Ahmed; Fíto, Montserrat; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2016-01-01

    Background Using a food-based analysis, healthy dietary patterns in adults are more expensive than less healthy ones; studies are needed in youth. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine relationships between monetary daily diet cost, diet quality, and parental socioeconomic status. Design and Methods Data were obtained from a representative national sample of 3534 children and young people in Spain, aged 2 to 24 years. Dietary assessment was performed with a 24-hour recall. Mediterranean diet adherence was measured by the KIDMED questionnaire. Average food cost was calculated from official Spanish government data. Monetary daily diet cost was expressed as euros per day (€/d) and euros per day standardized to a 1000kcal diet (€/1000kcal/d). Results Mean monetary daily diet cost was 3.16±1.57€/d (1.56±0.72€/1000kcal/d). Socioeconomic status was positively associated with monetary daily diet cost and diet quality measured by the KIDMED index (€/d and €/1000kcal/d, pdiet adherence (KIDMED score 8–12) was 0.71 €/d (0.28€/1000kcal/d) more expensive than low compliance (KIDMED score 0–3). Analysis for nonlinear association between the KIDMED index and monetary daily diet cost per1000kcal showed no further cost increases beyond a KIDMED score of 8 (linear pdiet cost is associated with healthy eating in Spanish youth. Higher socioeconomic status is a determinant for higher monetary daily diet cost and quality. PMID:27622518

  18. How nutritional status, diet and dietary supplements can affect autism. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawicka, Anna; Regulska-Ilow, Bozena

    2013-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder with symptoms arising that are apparent throughout the patient's lifespan. Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are characterised by impaired social and communication interactions as well as restricted, repetitive interests and behaviour. Currently in Poland, about 50 000 people suffer from autism, of which 1/5 are children. Epidemiological studies show that the incidence of autism is increasing, which may be due to the diagnostic category of ASD having been developed. Of vital importance in the treatment of autism, is early diagnosis which is conducive to more rapidly improving the quality of patients' health. It is believed that both genetic and environmental factors may affect the development of the disease. Moreover, expert opinion emphasises the importance of making an adequate diagnosis when the first symptoms of autism start appearing which can be both psychological, gastro-intestinal and metabolic ones. Conventional treatment is based on the combination of behavioural and dietary therapy together with pharmacotherapy. For example, adapting an appropriate diet could help alleviate the disease severity, as well as the psychological and gastrointestinal symptoms. Much scientific research has indicated that pathogenesis of autism may have a beginning already in foetal life. During pregnancy, specialists should take special heed of metabolic disorders, which can increase the risk ofASD in children. One of the dietician's tasks are to properly assess the nutritional status of mothers before and during pregnancy, thereby allowing changes in nutrition to be made wherever necessary in order that metabolic indicators be improved. Thus an important part of autism therapy is the improving patient's nutritional status to prevent the onset of gastrointestinal symptoms. Adopting diets and tailored to individual disease symptoms, is linked to the nutritional requirements and food preferences of the patient. Specialists also emphasise that

  19. Review article: cinnamon- and benzoate-free diet as a primary treatment for orofacial granulomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, H E; Escudier, M P; Patel, P; Challacombe, S J; Sanderson, J D; Lomer, M C E

    2011-10-01

    Orofacial granulomatosis is a rare chronic granulomatous inflammatory disease of the lips, face and mouth. The aetiology remains unclear but may involve an allergic component. Improvements have been reported with cinnamon- and benzoate-free diets. To explore the prevalence of compound and food sensitivity and examine the dietary treatments used in orofacial granulomatosis. A comprehensive literature search was carried out and relevant studies from January 1933 to January 2010 were identified using the electronic database search engines; AGRIS 1991-2008, AMED 1985-2008, British Nursing and Index archive 1985-2008, EMBASE 1980-2008, evidence based medicine review databases (e.g. Cochrane DSR), International Pharmaceutical and Medline 1950-2008. Common sensitivities identified, predominantly through patch testing, were to benzoic acid (36%) food additives (33%), perfumes and flavourings (28%), cinnamaldehyde (27%), cinnamon (17%), benzoates (17%) and chocolate (11%). The cinnamon- and benzoate-free diet has been shown to provide benefit in 54-78% of patients with 23% requiring no adjunctive therapies. A negative or positive patch test result to cinnamaldehyde, and benzoates did not predict dietary outcome. The most concentrated source of benzoate exposure is from food preservatives. Use of liquid enteral formulas can offer a further dietary therapy, particularly in children with orofacial granulomatosis. Management of orofacial granulomatosis is challenging but cinnamon- and benzoate-free diets appear to have a definite role to play. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. The importance of glycemic load of the diet in the development of cancer 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Dudziak

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of cancer involves not only appropriate pharmacological or psychological therapy and rehabilitation, but also diet aimed at prevention of the process of cachexia. Postprandial hyperglycemia exerts a significant effect on the growth and proliferation of tumor cells. It promotes formation of a number of metabolic changes in every tissue of the organism. Chronic postprandial hyperglycemia, occurring in type 2 diabetes, enhances all these changes. Although the results of epidemiological studies on the relationship between the overall risk of cancer development, or tumors in different parts of the organism, are heterogeneous, most of them indicate that the risk increases with an increase in glycemic load of the examined population’s diets. Researchers also suggest a beneficial effect of limiting the amount of easily assimilable carbohydrate in the diet to stabilize the disease and for better tolerance of chemoor radiation therapy. However, further studies are required.

  1. Impact of diet restriction in the management of diabetes: evidences from preclinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishan, Pawan; Bedi, Onkar; Rani, Monika

    2018-03-01

    The inappropriate dietary habits lead to the onset of age-related pathologies which include diabetes and cardiovascular ailments. Dietary restriction and nutritional therapy play an important role in the prevention of these chronic ailments. Preclinical research provides a basis for the therapeutic exploration of new dietary interventions for the clinical trials to potentiate the scientific management of diabetes and its related complications which further help in translating these nutritional improvements from bench to bedside. Within the same context, numerous therapeutically proved preclinical dietary interventions like high-fiber diet, caloric restriction, soy isoflavone-containing diets, etc., have shown the promising results for the management of diabetes and the associated complications. The focus of the present review is to highlight the various preclinical evidences of diet restriction for the management of diabetes and which will be helpful for enlightening the new ideas of nutritional therapy for future research exploration. In addition, some potential approaches are also discussed which are associated with various nutritional interventions to combat progressive diabetes and the associated disorders. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  2. MEDICAL NUTRITION THERAPY IN MANAGEMENT OF EATING DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Pavlović

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of eating disorders demands a comprehensive medical approach, where a dietitian has an important role, primarily due to numerous instances of malnutrition. The objective of this paper was to recapitulate the research findings and clinical evidence which show the importance of medical nutrition therapy in the treatment of eating disorders; furthermore, they present significant guidelines for clinical practice. The research methods have entailed a thorough exploration of literature available at research data bases. The results of the research studies published so far have unambiguously pointed out that, when eating disorders are concerned, there is an urgent need for a diet therapy in order for the patient to restore the appropriate body weight as well as normal eating habits. On the one hand, certain authors suggest returning to normal nutritional habits immediately, whereas, on the other hand, certain others advocate a diet therapy program, that is, a gradual process of recovery. Patients incapable of oral food intake receive enteral nutrition. Parenteral nutrition is applied for recovering the lost electrolytes and fluids, but it should be applied rarely, primarily in states of urgency. For patients suffering from eating disorders the increase in weight indicates good chances of recovery; therefore, the patient’s nutritional status should be carefully and continuously noted. Finally, it is important that our country, too, should adopt a carefully prescribed and conducted diet therapy as an obligatory step in the treatment of patients with eating disorders.

  3. Effects of diuretics on iodine uptake in non-toxic goitre: comparison with low-iodine diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapucu, L.Ozlem; Azizoglu, Firat [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Gazi University, Ankara (Turkey); Ayvaz, Goksun; Karakoc, Ayhan [Department of Endocrinology, Gazi University, Ankara (Turkey)

    2003-09-01

    Low-iodine diet has been employed to achieve iodine depletion prior to radioiodine (RI) therapy. However, treatment with diuretics may be more effective than low-iodine diet in causing iodine depletion and subsequent increase in RI uptake by the thyroid. Fifty-five patients with non-toxic goitre were given 0.20 MBq RI p.o. on the first day of the study and thyroid uptake was measured. In 15 patients, a low-iodine diet was started and continued for 14 days. The remaining 40 patients received furosemide 40 mg/day orally for 5 days with an unrestricted diet. On the 15th day of the study, all patients were given 0.20 MBq RI p.o. and thyroid RI uptake was measured again. Additionally, 24-h urinary iodine excretion and RI clearance were measured on the 1st and 6th days in 21 patients from the furosemide group and on the 1st and 15th days in eight patients from the diet group. Furosemide administration led to a 58.40% increase in iodine uptake over the baseline value, which was significantly higher than the increase caused by low-iodine diet (17.22%) (P<0.0001). Urinary excretion of RI decreased in both groups similarly (furosemide, 29.45%; low-iodine diet, 21.06%; P=0.33). Iodine clearance also decreased in each group similarly (10.61% vs 7.53%, P=0.53). Treatment with furosemide prior to administration of RI increases the uptake of RI by the thyroid more effectively than does low-iodine diet. (orig.)

  4. The Effect of the Ketogenic Diet on the Vascular Structure and Functions in Children With Intractable Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Rahmi; Güzel, Orkide; Küçük, Mehmet; Karadeniz, Cem; Katipoglu, Nagehan; Yılmaz, Ünsal; Yılmazer, Murat Muhtar; Meşe, Timur

    2016-03-01

    We aimed to determine the midterm effect of a ketogenic diet on serum lipid levels, carotid intima-media thickness, and the elastic properties of the carotid artery and the aorta in patients with intractable epilepsy. A total of 52 children aged between 12 months and 18 years with intractable epilepsy who started the ketogenic diet from September 2014 to September 2015 were included into this prospective study. Carotid intima-media thickness and the elastic properties of the carotid artery and the aorta were assessed by echocardiography in all cases before beginning of the ketogenic diet and after at least 12 months on the ketogenic diet. Twenty-one patients at the third month and 25 patients at the first year of the ketogenic diet were seizure free. A reduction of greater than 90% in the seizure frequency was achieved in three patients at the sixth month and in five patients at the first year of the treatment. The serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and triglyceride were increased significantly at a median of 12.6 months (range: 12 to 13.5 months) of the ketogenic diet treatment, whereas serum levels of high-density lipoprotein did not change. Carotid intima-media thickness, aortic and carotid strain, the stiffness index, distensibility, and elastic modulus did not change after 12 months of the ketogenic diet therapy. Olive oil-based ketogenic diet appears to have no disturbing effect on the carotid intima-media thickness and the elastic properties of the aorta and the carotid artery in epileptic children, although it may be associated with increased concentrations of serum lipids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Potential Impact of Diet on Treatment Effect from Anti-TNF Drugs in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibeke Andersen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We wanted to investigate the current knowledge on the impact of diet on anti-TNF response in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD, to identify dietary factors that warrant further investigations in relation to anti-TNF treatment response, and, finally, to discuss potential strategies for such investigations. PubMed was searched using specified search terms. One small prospective study on diet and anti-TNF treatment in 56 patients with CD found similar remission rates after 56 weeks among 32 patients with good compliance that received concomitant enteral nutrition and 24 with poor compliance that had no dietary restrictions (78% versus 67%, p = 0.51. A meta-analysis of 295 patients found higher odds of achieving clinical remission and remaining in clinical remission among patients on combination therapy with specialised enteral nutrition and Infliximab (IFX compared with IFX monotherapy (OR 2.73; 95% CI: 1.73–4.31, p < 0.01, OR 2.93; 95% CI: 1.66–5.17, p < 0.01, respectively. In conclusion, evidence-based knowledge on impact of diet on anti-TNF treatment response for clinical use is scarce. Here we propose a mechanism by which Western style diet high in meat and low in fibre may promote colonic inflammation and potentially impact treatment response to anti-TNF drugs. Further studies using hypothesis-driven and data-driven strategies in prospective observational, animal and interventional studies are warranted.

  6. Main Nutritional Lithogenic Factors in Diets of Polish Patients with Kidney Stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Pyszczuk

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nutrition is one of the most important determinants of kidney stone formation. This study was designed to evaluate lithogenic factors in diet of patients with renal calculi. Materials and me­thods. 40 stone-formers without metabolic disorders stimulating stone formation (e.g. hyperparatyroidism, primary hyperoxaluria were invited to the study. Antropometric measurements of nutritional status (BMI, WHR, analysis of body composition (BIA, quality and quantitative analysis of patients’ eating habits ­(3-day food records were conducted. Results. Half of patients were overweight or obese. Their diets contained high amounts of protein, fat, phosphorus, vitamin C and low amounts of fluid, calcium, magnesium, potassium, vitamin B6. Protein consumption was positively correlated with uric acid intake in diets (r = 0.78, and body weight with dietary fat intake (r = 0.58 and uric acid intake (r = 0.55. Conclusions. Complete treatment of nephrolithiasis should include nutritional therapy. No change in customary diets of patients with renal calculi can stimulate lithogenesis process.

  7. The ketogenic diet can be used successfully in combination with corticosteroids for epileptic encephalopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ville, Dorothée; Chiron, Catherine; Laschet, Jacques; Dulac, Olivier

    2015-07-01

    Hormonal therapy or ketogenic diet often permits overcoming the challenging periods of many epileptic encephalopathies (West and Lennox-Gastaut syndromes and encephalopathy with continuous spike-waves in slow sleep), but relapse affects over 20% of patients. We report here a monocenter pilot series of 42 consecutive patients in whom we combined oral steroids with the ketogenic diet for corticosteroid-resistant or -dependent epileptic encephalopathy. We retrospectively evaluated the effect on seizure frequency, interictal spike activity, neuropsychological course, and steroid treatment course. Twenty-three patients had West syndrome (WS), 13 had encephalopathy with continuous spike-waves in slow sleep (CSWS), and six others had miscellaneous epileptic encephalopathies. All patients succeeded to reach 0.8 to 1.6g/l ketone bodies in the urine following the usual KD regimen. For at least 6 months, 14/42 responded to the addition of the ketogenic diet: 4/23 with WS, 8/13 with CSWS, and 2/6 with miscellaneous epileptic encephalopathies. The addition of the KD allowed withdrawing steroids in all responders. Among them, 10/15 had been patients with steroid-dependent epileptic encephalopathy and 4/27 patients with steroid-resistant epileptic encephalopathy. Therefore, the ketogenic diet can be used successfully in combination with corticosteroids for epileptic encephalopathies. Patients presenting with steroid-dependent CSWS seem to be the best candidates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Testicular damage in rats fed on irradiated diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushwaha, A.K.S.; Hasan, S.S.

    1986-01-01

    Feeding effect of irradiated diets was studied on the pups born to mother fed either on irradiated normal diet or irradiated low protein diet. The study indicated that pups born to mother fed on the irradiated low protein diet had fewer spermatogonial cells in the testes than those given irradiated normal diet and unirradiated low protein diet. Similarly, pups maintained on the irradiated low protein diet showed marked decrease in alkaline phosphatase and cholesterol contents in the testes rather than in the pups fed irradiated normal as well as unirradiated low protein diets. The irradiated low protein diet fed pups showed increased depletion and vacuolization of adrenocortical and medullary cells. 13 refs., 15 figures. (author)

  9. Testicular damage in rats fed on irradiated diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushwaha, A K.S.; Hasan, S S

    1986-12-01

    Feeding effect of irradiated diets was studied on the pups born to mother fed either on irradiated normal diet or irradiated low protein diet. The study indicated that pups born to mother fed on the irradiated low protein diet had fewer spermatogonial cells in the testes than those given irradiated normal diet and unirradiated low protein diet. Similarly, pups maintained on the irradiated low protein diet showed marked decrease in alkaline phosphatase and cholesterol contents in the testes rather than in the pups fed irradiated normal as well as unirradiated low protein diets. The irradiated low protein diet fed pups showed increased depletion and vacuolization of adrenocortical and medullary cells. 13 refs., 15 figures.

  10. Festival Foods in the Immigrant Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azar, Kristen M.J.; Chen, Edith; Holland, Ariel T.; Palaniappan, Latha P.

    2012-01-01

    Dietary acculturation for immigrant groups has largely been attributed to the “Westernization” of indigenous diets, as characterized by an increased consumption of unhealthy American foods (i.e. fast foods, hamburgers). However, acculturation and adoption of western dietary habits may not fully explain new dietary patterns among racial/ethnic minority immigrants. The immigrant diet may change in such a way that it elaborates on specific ethnic traditions in addition to the incorporation of Western food habits. In this paper, we explore the role that festival foods, those foods that were once eaten a few times a year and on special occasions, play in the regular diet of immigrants to the U.S. This paper will focus on the overconsumption of ethnic festival foods, which are often high in carbohydrates, animal protein, sugar and fat, as opposed to Western “junk” food, as an explanation for the increased risk of cardiometabolic disorders among new immigrant groups. PMID:22968231

  11. Yogurt, diet quality and lifestyle factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, S; Fernandez, M A; Marette, A; Tremblay, A

    2017-05-01

    Yogurt consumption has been associated with healthy dietary patterns and lifestyles, better diet quality and healthier metabolic profiles. Studies have shown that frequent yogurt consumers do not only have higher nutrient intakes, but also an improved diet quality, which includes higher consumption of fruits and vegetables, whole grains, and dairy compared with low or non-consumers indicating better compliance with dietary guidelines. Recent epidemiological and clinical evidence suggests that yogurt contributes to better metabolic health because of its effects on the control of body weight, energy homeostasis and glycemic control. Furthermore, yogurt consumers have been shown to be more physically active (⩾ 2 h/week), smoke less, have higher education and knowledge of nutrition compared with non-consumers. Thus, yogurt consumption may be considered a signature of a healthy diet through its nutritional content, impact on metabolic health including the control of energy balance, body weight and glycemia and its relationships with healthier behaviors and lifestyle factors.

  12. Contextualising eating problems in individual diet counselling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Søren Tange; Køster, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Health professionals consider diet to be a vital component in managing weight, chronic diseases and the overall promotion of health. This article takes the position that the complexity and contextual nature of individual eating problems needs to be addressed in a more systematic and nuanced way...... than is usually the case in diet counselling, motivational interviewing and health coaching. We suggest the use of narrative practice as a critical and context-sensitive counselling approach to eating problems. Principles of externalisation and co-researching are combined within a counselling framework...... sessions, exploration of the complex structures of food and eating with the client can provide agency by helping them navigate within the context of the problem. We also exemplify why a reflexive and critical approach to the way health is perceived by clients should be an integrated part of diet...

  13. The diet-related GHG index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas Bøker; Watson, David; Smed, Sinne

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to construct and validate a cost-efficient index to measure GHG emissions (GHGe) caused by Danish consumers’ diets to be employed in questionnaire-based surveys. The index was modelled on the basis of actual food purchase data from a panel of ordinary Danish households...... and a questionnaire consisting of food frequency questions issued to the same panel. Based on the purchase data, diet-related GHGe were calculated for 2012. The data was then split into a learning sample and a validation sample. The index was constructed using the learning sample where a scoring procedure...... was calculated from responses to the questionnaire-based food frequency questions that predicted diet-related GHGe. Subsequently, the index scoring procedure was employed on the validation sample and the empirical relevance of the index was examined. In the learning sample, a scoring procedure to construct...

  14. Diet and risk of inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vibeke; Olsen, Anja; Carbonnel, Franck

    2012-01-01

    Background: A better understanding of the environmental factors leading to inflammatory bowel disease should help to prevent occurrence of the disease and its relapses. Aim: To review current knowledge on dietary risk factors for inflammatory bowel disease. Methods: The PubMed, Medline and Cochrane...... Library were searched for studies on diet and risk of inflammatory bowel disease. Results: Established non-diet risk factors include family predisposition, smoking, appendectomy, and antibiotics. Retrospective case–control studies are encumbered with methodological problems. Prospective studies...... on European cohorts, mainly including middle-aged adults, suggest that a diet high in protein from meat and fish is associated with a higher risk of inflammatory bowel disease. Intake of the n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid linoleic acid may confer risk of ulcerative colitis, whereas n-3 polyunsaturated fatty...

  15. Metabolic effects of low glycaemic index diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusu Emilia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The persistence of an epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes suggests that new nutritional strategies are needed if the epidemic is to be overcome. A promising nutritional approach suggested by this thematic review is metabolic effect of low glycaemic-index diet. The currently available scientific literature shows that low glycaemic-index diets acutely induce a number of favorable effects, such as a rapid weight loss, decrease of fasting glucose and insulin levels, reduction of circulating triglyceride levels and improvement of blood pressure. The long-term effect of the combination of these changes is at present not known. Based on associations between these metabolic parameters and risk of cardiovascular disease, further controlled studies on low-GI diet and metabolic disease are needed.

  16. Health Effects of the New Nordic Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Sanne Kellebjerg

    The health effects of the New Nordic Diet (NND) are investigated in a six month randomized controlled intervention, in which the NND was compared to the average Danish diet (ADD) among 181 adult participants. Foods were handed out free of charge from a study shop according to the ad libitum...... period. Based on this study, the health effects of the NND are considerable as shown by the lower body weight and lower blood pressure. The follow up period clearly illustrated the challenges related to the voluntary and self-administered adherence to new dietary guidelines but also supports thatthe NND...

  17. A bioenergetics systems evaluation of ketogenic diet liver effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutfles, Lewis J; Wilkins, Heather M; Koppel, Scott J; Weidling, Ian W; Selfridge, J Eva; Tan, Eephie; Thyfault, John P; Slawson, Chad; Fenton, Aron W; Zhu, Hao; Swerdlow, Russell H

    2017-09-01

    Ketogenic diets induce hepatocyte fatty acid oxidation and ketone body production. To further evaluate how ketogenic diets affect hepatocyte bioenergetic infrastructure, we analyzed livers from C57Bl/6J male mice maintained for 1 month on a ketogenic or standard chow diet. Compared with the standard diet, the ketogenic diet increased cytosolic and mitochondrial protein acetylation and also altered protein succinylation patterns. SIRT3 protein decreased while SIRT5 protein increased, and gluconeogenesis, oxidative phosphorylation, and mitochondrial biogenesis pathway proteins were variably and likely strategically altered. The pattern of changes observed can be used to inform a broader systems overview of how ketogenic diets affect liver bioenergetics.

  18. Mediterranean Diet: From a Healthy Diet to a Sustainable Dietary Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dernini, Sandro; Berry, Elliot M.

    2015-01-01

    The notion of the Mediterranean diet has undergone a progressive evolution over the past 60 years, from a healthy dietary pattern to a sustainable dietary pattern, in which nutrition, food, cultures, people, environment, and sustainability all interact into a new model of a sustainable diet. An overview of the historical antecedents and recent increased interest in the Mediterranean diet is presented and challenges related to how to improve the sustainability of the Mediterranean diet are identified. Despite its increasing popularity worldwide, adherence to the Mediterranean diet model is decreasing for multifactorial influences – life styles changes, food globalization, economic, and socio-cultural factors. These changes pose serious threats to the preservation and transmission of the Mediterranean diet heritage to present and future generations. Today’s challenge is to reverse such trends. A greater focus on the Mediterranean diet’s potential as a sustainable dietary pattern, instead than just on its well-documented healthy benefits, can contribute to its enhancement. More cross-disciplinary studies on environmental, economic and socio-cultural, and sustainability dimensions of the Mediterranean diet are foreseen as a critical need. PMID:26284249

  19. [Hypocaloric diet and normocaloric diet in outpatient treatment in a group of children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, C; Damonte, C; Pregliasco, P; Roggi, C

    2007-01-01

    The epidemic of obesity, mostly in pediatric age, is of increasing concern because of the impact of overweight on health status in adult life. We have evaluated the impact of two regimens (balanced hypocaloric diet or balanced normocaloric diet) in a group of children ad adolescents. We have studied 260 patients seen at a community pediatric clinic. Of these, 45 overweight, 35 obese and 6 patients with normal weight were selected. The subjects were assigned to a hypocaloric balanced diet plus lifestyle changes or a normocaloric balanced diet plus lifestyle changes. In the obese patients on a hypocaloric diet, 64% of subjects remained in the "obese" category and 14% decided to shift to the "normocaloric diet". Also, the drop-out rate was 12%. In the obese patients on a normocaloric diet, 38% remained in the obese category, while 46% showed a reduction of their BMI to the "overweight" category. Moreover, the drop-out rate was lower (5%). These findings suggest that a more gentle approach to obesity/overweight in pediatric patients, with less restrictive nutritional interventions, could achieve a better compliance of the family, with a consistent reduction of overweight.

  20. Towards a methodology to formulate sustainable diets for livestock: accounting for environmental impact in diet formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, S G; Leinonen, I; Ferguson, N; Kyriazakis, I

    2016-05-28

    The objective of this study was to develop a novel methodology that enables pig diets to be formulated explicitly for environmental impact objectives using a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. To achieve this, the following methodological issues had to be addressed: (1) account for environmental impacts caused by both ingredient choice and nutrient excretion, (2) formulate diets for multiple environmental impact objectives and (3) allow flexibility to identify the optimal nutritional composition for each environmental impact objective. An LCA model based on Canadian pig farms was integrated into a diet formulation tool to compare the use of different ingredients in Eastern and Western Canada. By allowing the feed energy content to vary, it was possible to identify the optimum energy density for different environmental impact objectives, while accounting for the expected effect of energy density on feed intake. A least-cost diet was compared with diets formulated to minimise the following objectives: non-renewable resource use, acidification potential, eutrophication potential, global warming potential and a combined environmental impact score (using these four categories). The resulting environmental impacts were compared using parallel Monte Carlo simulations to account for shared uncertainty. When optimising diets to minimise a single environmental impact category, reductions in the said category were observed in all cases. However, this was at the expense of increasing the impact in other categories and higher dietary costs. The methodology can identify nutritional strategies to minimise environmental impacts, such as increasing the nutritional density of the diets, compared with the least-cost formulation.