WorldWideScience

Sample records for diesel power plant

  1. Bio-oil fueled diesel power plant; Biooeljyllae toimiva dieselvoimala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuorinen, A [Modigen Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The project mission is to develop a diesel power plant which is capable of using liquid bio-oils as the main fuel of the power plant. The applicable bio-oils are rape seed oils and pyrolysis oils. The project was started in 1994 by installing a 1.5 MW Vasa 4L32 engine in VTT Energy laboratory in Otaniemi. During 1995 the first tests with the rape seed oils were made. The tests show that the rape seed oil can be used in Vasa 32 engines without difficulties. In the second phase of the project during 1996 and 1997 pyrolysis oil made of wood will be tested. Finally a diesel power plant concept with integrated pyrolysis oil, electricity and heat production will be developed

  2. Bio-oil fueled diesel power plant; Biooeljyllae toimiva dieselvoimala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuorinen, A. [Modigen Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    The project mission is to develop a diesel power plant which is capable of using liquid bio-oils as the main fuel of the power plant. The applicable bio-oils are rape seed oils and pyrolysis oils. The project was started in 1994 by installing a 1.5 MW Vasa 4L32 engine in VTT Energy laboratory in Otaniemi. During 1995 the first tests with the rape seed oils were made. The tests show that the rape seed oil can be used in Vasa 32 engines without difficulties. In the second phase of the project during 1996 and 1997 pyrolysis oil made of wood will be tested. Finally a diesel power plant concept with integrated pyrolysis oil, electricity and heat production will be developed

  3. Bio-oil fuelled diesel power plant; Biooeljyllae toimiva dieselvoimala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuorinen, A [Modigen Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The project mission is to develop a diesel power plant which is capable of using liquid bio-oils as the main fuel of the power plant. The applicable bio-oils are rape seed oils and pyrolysis oils. The project was started in 1994 by installing a 1.5 MW Vasa 4L32 engine in VTT Energy laboratory in Otaniemi. During 1995 the first tests with the rape seed oils were made. The tests show that the rape seed oil can be used in Vasa 32 engines without difficulties. In the second phase of the project during 1996 pyrolysis oil made of wood was tested. Finally a diesel power plant concept with integrated pyrolysis oil, electricity and heat production will be developed

  4. Standardized small diesel power plants for rural electrification in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmqvist, A.; Soerman, J.; Gullberg, M.; Kjellstroem, B.

    1993-01-01

    This study focuses on small townships where the forecasted power demand stays below 500 kW during the ten first years. Case study calculations were made where two hypothetical load centres form the base. Each load centre is assumed to be supplied by two alternative standardized diesel power plants. One option is a power plant consisting of two medium speed (750 rpm) generator sets, one always on stand-by. Alternatively, a power plant consisting of three high speed (1500 rpm) generator sets is evaluated for each hypothetical load centre. The calculations clearly show that the high speed, three unit option comes out cheaper than the two unit, medium speed option in all the considered cases. The fuel costs per kWh generated are almost the same in all the cases studied, i.e. between 6 and 7 US cents. The medium speed engine tends to consume more fuel per kWh generated than the high speed, as it runs more often on part load. Consequently, the fuel costs will be slightly higher for this option. It is also of interest to compare the plant failure rate of the two options. In this study no proper probability evaluation has been made, but some general reflections can be worth considering. The availability of spare parts in Tanzania is doubtful. Many small diesel power plants presently operating have to wait indefinitely, when a failure appears that requires spare parts. As long as the individual sets have the same, or nearly the same failure rate, a three unit plant has lower probability for total loss of generating capacity than a two unit plant. The main conclusion of this evaluation is that for electricity generation in rural Tanzanian villages, power plants with three small, high speed generator sets are preferable to plants with two, medium speed generator sets. A power plant made out of small sets requires less capital, consumes less fuel and is not as likely to loose its generating capacity totally. 16 refs, 10 figs, 21 tabs

  5. Operating experience with diesel generators in Belgian nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merny, R. [Association Vincotte, Avenue du Roi 157, B-1060 Bruxelles/Brussels (Belgium)

    1986-02-15

    Various problems have occurred on the diesel generators in the Belgian nuclear power plants, independently of the D.G. manufacturer or from the operating crew. Furthermore no individual part of the D.G. can be incriminated as being the main cause of the incidents. The incidents reported in this paper are chosen because of the importance for the safety or for the long repair period. The unavailability of a D.G. can only be detected by periodic tests and controls. Combined with a good preventive maintenance, the risks of incidents can be reduced. (author)

  6. Operating experience with diesel generators in Belgian nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merny, R.

    1986-01-01

    Various problems have occurred on the diesel generators in the Belgian nuclear power plants, independently of the D.G. manufacturer or from the operating crew. Furthermore no individual part of the D.G. can be incriminated as being the main cause of the incidents. The incidents reported in this paper are chosen because of the importance for the safety or for the long repair period. The unavailability of a D.G. can only be detected by periodic tests and controls. Combined with a good preventive maintenance, the risks of incidents can be reduced. (author)

  7. Reliability of diesel generators in the Finnish and Swedish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulkkinen, U.; Huovinen, T.; Norros, L.; Vanhala, J.

    1989-10-01

    Diesel generators are used as emergency AC-power sources in nuclear power plants and they produce electric power for other emergency systems during accidents in which offsite power is lost. The reliability of diesel generators is thus of major concern for overall safety of nuclear power plants. In this study we consider the reliability of diesel generators in the Swedish and Finnish nuclear power plants on the basis of collected operational experience. We classify the occurred failures according to their functional criticality, type and cause. The failures caused by human errors in maintenance and testing are analysed in detail. We analyse also the reliability of the diesel generator subsystems. Further, we study the effect of surveillance test and the type of test on the reliability. Finally we construct an unavailability model for single diesel generator unit and discuss the findings of the study giving some practical recommendations

  8. General design criteria for diesel-generator sets for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangarao, G.

    1975-01-01

    The design criteria for diesel-generators for nuclear power plants are examined. Applicable standards, loading, design performance, and characteristics to be considered in the selection of diesel-generator set and its auxiliary system are discussed. Also, engineered safety features loads together with loss of power safe shutdown loads and their starting sequence, analysis of voltage and frequency response and the diesel-generator ability to start various load blocks successfully to meet the reactor emergency core cooling requirements are discussed

  9. Common cause failure rate estimates for diesel generators in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steverson, J.A.; Atwood, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    Common cause fault rates for diesel generators in nuclear power plants are estimated, using Licensee Event Reports for the years 1976 through 1978. The binomial failure rate method, used for obtaining the estimates, is briefly explained. Issues discussed include correct classification of common cause events, grouping of the events into homogeneous data subsets, and dealing with plant-to-plant variation

  10. Statistical inquiry on the reliability of emergency diesel stations in German nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This statistic inquiry is based on 692 occurrances in 40 diesel stations of 10 German nuclear power plants. Various parameters influencing the failure behaviour of diesel stations were investigated on only significant plant-specific influences and the impact of diesel station circuitry on failure behaviour were established. According to the results of this inquiry, running time, start-up number and increasing operational experience do not apparently influence the failure behaviour of diesel stations. The expected failure probability of diesel stations varies with the different nuclear power plants. Taking into account both start-up and operational failures, (with monthly inspections and running times of up to 2 h), this value is in the range of 1.6 x 10 -2 to 1.7 x 10 -3 per application. Considering failure data of all diesel stations, the failure probability (start-up and operational failures) is 8.1 x 10 -3 per application. On account of the two common-mode failures registered, a common-mode failure probability of 10 -3 was established. The inquiry also showed that non-availability of diesel stations is essentially determined by maintenance intervals. (orig.) [de

  11. Reliability of diesel generators at the Finnish and Swedish nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pulkkinen, Urho [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Vuorimiehentie 5, SF-02150, Espoo (Finland)

    1986-02-15

    The operating experiences of 40 stand-by diesel generators at the Finnish and Swedish nuclear power plants have been analysed with special emphasis on the impact of the frequency of surveillance testing and of the test procedure on diesel generator reliability, the contribution of design, manufacturing, testing and maintenance errors and the potential and actual common cause failures, The results pf the analyses consisted both practical recommendations and mathematical reliability models and useful reliability data. (author)

  12. Diesel-generator reliability at nuclear power plants: data and preliminary analysis. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClymont, A.; McLagan, G.

    1982-06-01

    This report summarizes work performed under RP1233-1 relating to the collection and analysis of data pertaining to diesel generator reliability in nuclear power plants. Drawing from data collected on-site at plants, data supplied by utilites, and data from Licensee Event Reports (LERs), the report describes methods of deriving reliability estimates from data for use in probabilistic risk assessment and presents results when these methods are applied to data collected from 14 plants. Specifically, data are used to estimate diesel failure probabilities for failures to start and failure rates for failures to continue to run. A sampling theory approach and a Bayesian approach to failure probability estimation are compared. The data are used to derive estimates of diesel repair time for some plants, maintenance outages, and multiple diesel failure rates. In addition, a section is included that presents suggestions for failure-rate estimation when an accurate count of diesel start attempts at a plant is not available. The final section presents an analysis of diesel failures based on data from LERs, including a breakdown of failure event by subsystem, failure mode, and failure cause. Appendixes include detailed summaries of the data used in the analysis of previous sections

  13. Economic Analysis of Diesel-Fuel Replacement by Crude Palm Oil in Indonesian Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Procházka

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia needs to find an alternative fuel to substitute diesel in their power plants in order to reduce the use of nonrenewable energy sources. The Indonesian government has a target to reduce oil fuel consumption while improving the efficiency of energy utilization. Crude palm oil is proposed to be used for this substitution. In this paper, the authors conduct an economic analysis of the replacement of diesel by crude palm oil. To predict future prices, a time series analysis is conducted using AutoRegressive Integrated Moving-Average method. A financial analysis of a specific project (0.75-MW power plant is conducted using static financial indicators (payback period, return on investment. Results show that replacing diesel with crude palm oil may be profitable. This is especially true for the proposed prospects of diesel price evolution. Analysis shows that the price of crude oil, which is the main factor in the pricing of diesel, may go up. Also, recently Indonesian currency depreciated against the US dollar, which also implies a higher cost of diesel.

  14. A reliability program for emergency diesel generators at nuclear power plants: Maintenance, surveillance, and condition monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lofgren, E.V.; Henderson, W.; Burghardt, D.; Kripps, L.; Rothleder, B.

    1988-12-01

    This report is a companion report on NUREG/CR-5078, Volume 1, ''A Reliability Program for Emergency Diesel Generators at Nuclear Power Plants: Program Structure.'' The purpose of this report is to provide technical findings and insights related to: failure evaluation, troubleshooting, maintenance, surveillance, and condition monitoring. Examples and recommendations are provided for each of these areas based on actual emergency diesel generator (EDG) operating experience and the opinions of diesel generator experts. This report expands the more general guidance provided in Volume 1. In addition, a discussion of EDG interactions with other plant systems (e.g., instrument, air, service water, dc power) is provided since experience has shown that these support systems and their operation can adversely affect EDG reliability. Portions of this report have been designed for use by onsite personnel for evaluating operational characteristics of EDGs. 5 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs

  15. Verification of voltage/ frequency requirement for emergency diesel generator in nuclear power plant using dynamic modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hur, J.S.; Roh, M.S.

    2013-01-01

    Full-text: One major cause of the plant shutdown is the loss of electrical power. The study is to comprehend the coping action against station blackout including emergency diesel generator, sequential loading of safety system and to ensure that the emergency diesel generator should meet requirements, especially voltage and frequency criteria using modeling tool. This paper also considered the change of the sequencing time and load capacity only for finding electrical design margin. However, the revision of load list must be verified with safety analysis. From this study, it is discovered that new load calculation is a key factor in EDG localization and in-house capability increase. (author)

  16. Combined cycle versus one thousand diesel power plants: pollutant emissions, ecological efficiency and economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, Jose Luz; de Carvalho, Joao Andrade; de Castro Villela, Iraides Aparecida

    2007-01-01

    The increase in the use of natural gas in Brazil has stimulated public and private sectors to analyse the possibility of using combined cycle systems for generation of electrical energy. Gas turbine combined cycle power plants are becoming increasingly common due to their high efficiency, short lead times, and ability to meet environmental standards. Power is produced in a generator linked directly to the gas turbine. The gas turbine exhaust gases are sent to a heat recovery steam generator to produce superheated steam that can be used in a steam turbine to produce additional power. In this paper a comparative study between a 1000 MW combined cycle power plant and 1000kW diesel power plant is presented. In first step, the energetic situation in Brazil, the needs of the electric sector modification and the needs of demand management and integrated means planning are clarified. In another step the characteristics of large and small thermoelectric power plants that use natural gas and diesel fuel, respectively, are presented. The ecological efficiency levels of each type of power plant is considered in the discussion, presenting the emissions of particulate material, sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and nitrogen oxides (NO x ). (author)

  17. Exergic, economic and environmental impacts of natural gas and diesel in operation of combined cycle power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi Khoshkar Vandani, Amin; Joda, Fatemeh; Bozorgmehry Boozarjomehry, Ramin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Investigating the effect of natural gas and diesel on the power plant performance. • Exergy, economic and environmental evaluation of a combined cycle power plant. • Using life cycle assessment (LCA) to perform the environmental evaluation. • Optimizing the power plant in terms of exergy and economic. • Better performance of natural gas with respect to diesel. - Abstract: Combined cycle power plants (CCPPs) play an important role in electricity production throughout the world. Their energy efficiency is relatively high and their production rates of greenhouse gases are considerably low. In a country like Iran with huge oil and gas resources, most CCPP’s use natural gas as primary fuel and diesel as secondary fuel. In this study, effect of using diesel instead of natural gas for a selected power plant will be investigated in terms of exergy, economic and environmental impacts. The environmental evaluation is performed using life cycle assessment (LCA). In the second step, the operation of the plant will be optimized using exergy and economic objective functions. The results show that the exergy efficiency of the plant with natural gas as fuel is equal to 43.11%, while this efficiency with diesel will be 42.03%. Furthermore, the annual cost of plant using diesel is twice as that of plant using natural gas. Finally, diesel utilization leads to more contaminants production. Thus, environmental effects of diesel are much higher than that of natural gas. The optimization results demonstrate that in case of natural gas, exergy efficiency and annual cost of the power plant improve 2.34% and 4.99%, respectively. While these improvements for diesel are 2.36% and 1.97%.

  18. Feasibility of Hybrid Retrofits to Off-Grid Diesel Power Plants in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abergas, R.L.; Barley, C.D.; Barruela, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    The Strategic Power Utilities Group (SPUG) of the National Power Corporation (NPC) in the Philippines owns and operates about 100 power plants, mostly fueled by diesel, ranging in energy production from about 15 kilowatt-hours (kWh)/day to 106,000 kWh/day. Reducing the consumption of diesel fuel in these plants, along with the associated financial losses, is a priority for SPUG. The purpose of this study is to estimate the potential fuel and cost savings that might be achieved by retrofitting hybrid power systems to these existing diesel plants. As used in this report, the term ''hybrid system'' refers to any combination of wind turbine generators (WTGs), photovoltaic (PV) modules, lead-acid batteries, and an AC/DC power converter (either an electronic inverter or a rotary converter), in addition to the existing diesel gensets. The resources available for this study did not permit a detailed design analysis for each of the plants. Instead, the following five-step process was used: 1.Tabulate some important characteristics of all the plants. 2.Group the plants into categories (six classes) with similar characteristics. 3.For each class of system, identify one plant that is representative of the class. 4.For each representative plant, perform a moderately detailed prefeasibility analysis of design options. 5.Summarize and interpret the results. The analysis of each representative plant involved the use of time-series computer simulation models to estimate the fuel usage, maintenance expenses, and cash flow resulting from various designs, and to search the domain of possible designs for the one leading to the lowest life-cycle cost. Cost items that would be unaffected by the retrofit, such as operator salaries and the capital cost of existing equipment, were not included in the analysis. Thus, the results are reported as levelized cost of energy (COE) savings: the difference between the cost of the existing diesel-only system and that of an optimized hybrid system

  19. Feasibility study of hybrid retrofits to an isolated off-grid diesel power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, S.; Ahmad, F.; Shaahid, S.M.; Shash, A.; El-Amin, I.M.; Al-Shehri, A.M.; Bakhashwain, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The green sources of energy are being encouraged to reduce the environmental pollution and combat the global warming of the planet. A target of 12% usage of wind energy only has been agreed by the UNO country members to achieve by 2020. So, the power of the wind is being used to generate electricity both as grid connected and isolated wind-diesel hybrid power plants. This paper performed a pre-feasibility of wind penetration into an existing diesel plant of a village in north eastern part of Saudi Arabia. For simulation purpose, wind speed data from a near by airport and the load data from the village have been used. The hybrid system design tool HOMER has been used to perform the feasibility study. In the present scenario, for wind speed less than 6.0m/s the, the existing diesel power plant is the only feasible solution over the range of fuel prices used in the simulation. The wind diesel hybrid system becomes feasible at a wind speed of 6.0m/s or more and a fuel price of 0.1$/L or more. If the carbon tax is taken into consideration and subsidy is abolished then it is expected that the hybrid system become feasible. The maximum annual capacity shortage did not have any effect on the cost of energy which may be accounted for larger sizes of wind machines and diesel generators. It is recommended that the wind data must be collected at the village at three different heights using a wind mast of 40m for a minimum of one complete year and then the hybrid system must be re-designed. (author)

  20. Application of diagnostic system for diesel engines in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshinaga, Takeshi

    2004-01-01

    The diagnostic system for diesel engines makes a diagnosis of secular change and abnormal indications of diesel engines (DG) by combination of characteristic analysis of engine, lubricating oil, fuel oil, and cooling water. The principles of diagnostic system for DG, results of confirmation of the efficiency and the maintenance plan for DG in the Japan Atomic Power Company are described. DG in the company is classified to a safety device in order to supply the power source to the Emergency Core Cooling System etc., when the power source in the plant is lost, for example, at lightning struck. Characteristics of DG, outline of the diagnostic system for DG, diagnostic technologies such as engine signature analysis, chemical analysis of samples, temperature measurement, degradation mode of DG, and training in the company are stated. (S.Y.)

  1. Trial application of reliability technology to emergency diesel generators at the Trojan Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, S.M.; Boccio, J.L.; Karimian, S.; Azarm, M.A.; Carbonaro, J.; DeMoss, G.

    1986-01-01

    In this paper, a trial application of reliability technology to the emergency diesel generator system at the Trojan Nuclear Power Plant is presented. An approach for formulating a reliability program plan for this system is being developed. The trial application has shown that a reliability program process, using risk- and reliability-based techniques, can be interwoven into current plant operational activities to help in controlling, analyzing, and predicting faults that can challenge safety systems. With the cooperation of the utility, Portland General Electric Co., this reliability program can eventually be implemented at Trojan to track its effectiveness

  2. Diesel power plants based on biomass gasification; Biomassan ja turpeen kaasutukseen perustuvien dieselvoimalaitosten toteutettavuustutkimus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E; Staahlberg, P; Solantausta, Y; Wilen, C

    1996-12-31

    Different power production systems have been developed for biomass feedstocks. However, only few of these systems can meet the following three requirements: (a) suitability to small scale electricity production (< 5-10 MWe), (b) reliable operation with realistically available biomass feedstocks, and (c) potential for economical competitiveness. The fluidized-bed boilers have been successfully operated with wood waste and peat down to outputs of the order of 5 MWe and the investment costs have been successfully lowered to a reasonable level. However, this concept is most suitable for combined heat and electricity production and smaller plant sizes are not considered feasible. One of the most promising alternative for this commercially proven technology is the diesel power plant based on gasification. This concept has a potential for higher power to heat ratios in cogeneration or higher efficiency in separate electricity production. The objectives of this project were (a) to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of diesel power plants based on biomass gasification and (b) to study the effects of operating conditions (temperature, bed material and air staging) on the performance of a circulating fluidized-bed gasifier. The experimental part of the project was carried out on a new PDU-scale Circulating Fluidized-Bed Gasification test facility of VTT. Wood residues were used as the feedstocks and the experiments were mainly focused on tar formation and gasifier performance. The results will be compared to earlier VTT data obtained for bubbling-bed reactors. The techno-economic feasibility studies are carried out using existing process modelling tools of VTT and the gasification based diesel plants will be compared to conventional fluidized-bed boilers

  3. Diesel power plants based on biomass gasification; Biomassan ja turpeen kaasutukseen perustuvien dieselvoimalaitosten toteutettavuustutkimus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.; Staahlberg, P.; Solantausta, Y.; Wilen, C.

    1995-12-31

    Different power production systems have been developed for biomass feedstocks. However, only few of these systems can meet the following three requirements: (a) suitability to small scale electricity production (< 5-10 MWe), (b) reliable operation with realistically available biomass feedstocks, and (c) potential for economical competitiveness. The fluidized-bed boilers have been successfully operated with wood waste and peat down to outputs of the order of 5 MWe and the investment costs have been successfully lowered to a reasonable level. However, this concept is most suitable for combined heat and electricity production and smaller plant sizes are not considered feasible. One of the most promising alternative for this commercially proven technology is the diesel power plant based on gasification. This concept has a potential for higher power to heat ratios in cogeneration or higher efficiency in separate electricity production. The objectives of this project were (a) to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of diesel power plants based on biomass gasification and (b) to study the effects of operating conditions (temperature, bed material and air staging) on the performance of a circulating fluidized-bed gasifier. The experimental part of the project was carried out on a new PDU-scale Circulating Fluidized-Bed Gasification test facility of VTT. Wood residues were used as the feedstocks and the experiments were mainly focused on tar formation and gasifier performance. The results will be compared to earlier VTT data obtained for bubbling-bed reactors. The techno-economic feasibility studies are carried out using existing process modelling tools of VTT and the gasification based diesel plants will be compared to conventional fluidized-bed boilers

  4. Diesel power plants based on biomass gasification; Biomassan ja turpeen kaasutukseen perustuen dieselvoimalaitosten toteutettavuustutkimus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.; Staahlberg, P.; Solantausta, Y. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    Different power production systems have been developed for biomass feedstocks. However, only few of these systems can meet the following three requirements: (1) suitability to small scale electricity production (<5-10 MWe), (2) reliable operation with realistically available biomass feedstocks, and (3) potential for economical competitiveness. The fluidized-bed boilers have been successfully operated with wood waste and peat down to outputs of the order of 5 MWe and the investment costs have been successfully lowered to a reasonable level. However, this concept is most suitable for combined heat and electricity production and smaller plant sizes are not considered feasible. One of the most promising alternative for this commercially proven technology is the diesel power plant based on gasification. This concept has a potential for higher power to heat ratios in cogeneration or higher efficiency in separate electricity production. The objectives of this project were (1) to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of diesel power plants based on biomass gasification and (2) to study the effects of operating conditions (temperature, bed material and air staging) on the performance of a circulating fluidized-bed gasifier. The experimental part of the project was carried out on a new PDU-scale Circulating Fluidized-Bed Gasification test facility of VTT. Wood residues were used as the feedstocks and the experiments were mainly focused on tar formation and gasifier performance. The results will be compared to earlier VTT data obtained for bubbling-bed reactors. The techno-economic feasibility studies are carried out using existing process modelling tools of VTT and the gasification based diesel plants will be compared to conventional fluidized-bed boilers. The studies are scheduled to be completed in March 1996. (author)

  5. Survey of modern power plants driven by diesel and gas engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemi, S [Turku Polytechnic, Turku (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    This report surveys the latest technology of power plants driven by reciprocating internal combustion (IC) engines, from information collected from publications made mainly during the 1990`s. Diesel and gas engines are considered competitive prime movers in power production due mainly to their high full- and part-load brake thermal efficiency, ability to burn different fuels, short construction time and fast start-ups. The market for engine power plants has grown rapidly, with estimated total orders for reciprocating engines of 1 MW output and more reaching the 5000 unit level, (10 GW), between June 1995 and May 1996. Industrialized countries much prefer combined heat and power (CHP) production. Intense interest has been shown in recent years in alternative gas fuels; natural gas appears to be the most promising, but liquid petroleum gas, gas from sewage disposal plants, landfill gas and other biogases, as well as wood gas have also been recognized as other alternatives. Liquid alternatives such as fuels and pyrolysis oil have also been mentioned, in addition to information on coal burning engines. The percentage of gas engines used has increased and different ones are being developed, based on either the traditional spark ignition (SI), dual-fuel technology or the more recent high pressure gas injection system. In cold climates, energy production is largely based on CHP plants. Waste heat is utilized for local, regional or district heating or for industrial uses like drying, heating, cooling etc. Even radiative and convective heat from gen-set surfaces are employed, and boilers are used with exhaust outlet temperatures of below dew point. Combined cycle schemes, including turbo compound systems and steam turbines, are also incorporated into engine power plants in order to increase output and efficiency. Two-stroke, low-speed diesel engine plants show the highest electric efficiencies, with combined cycle plants reaching up to 54 %, while gas engine plants achieved

  6. Survey of modern power plants driven by diesel and gas engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemi, S. [Turku Polytechnic, Turku (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    This report surveys the latest technology of power plants driven by reciprocating internal combustion (IC) engines, from information collected from publications made mainly during the 1990`s. Diesel and gas engines are considered competitive prime movers in power production due mainly to their high full- and part-load brake thermal efficiency, ability to burn different fuels, short construction time and fast start-ups. The market for engine power plants has grown rapidly, with estimated total orders for reciprocating engines of 1 MW output and more reaching the 5000 unit level, (10 GW), between June 1995 and May 1996. Industrialized countries much prefer combined heat and power (CHP) production. Intense interest has been shown in recent years in alternative gas fuels; natural gas appears to be the most promising, but liquid petroleum gas, gas from sewage disposal plants, landfill gas and other biogases, as well as wood gas have also been recognized as other alternatives. Liquid alternatives such as fuels and pyrolysis oil have also been mentioned, in addition to information on coal burning engines. The percentage of gas engines used has increased and different ones are being developed, based on either the traditional spark ignition (SI), dual-fuel technology or the more recent high pressure gas injection system. In cold climates, energy production is largely based on CHP plants. Waste heat is utilized for local, regional or district heating or for industrial uses like drying, heating, cooling etc. Even radiative and convective heat from gen-set surfaces are employed, and boilers are used with exhaust outlet temperatures of below dew point. Combined cycle schemes, including turbo compound systems and steam turbines, are also incorporated into engine power plants in order to increase output and efficiency. Two-stroke, low-speed diesel engine plants show the highest electric efficiencies, with combined cycle plants reaching up to 54 %, while gas engine plants achieved

  7. Trend analyses of the emergency diesel generator problem events in Japanese and U.S. nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Yoshio

    2011-01-01

    Up to 2009, the author and a colleague conducted trend analyses of problem events related to main generators, emergency diesel generators, breakers, motors and transformers which are more likely to cause problems than other electric components in nuclear power plants. Among the electric components with high frequency of defect occurrence, i.e., emergency diesel generators, several years have passed since the last analyses. These are very important components needed to stop a nuclear reactor safely and to cool it down during external power supply loses. Then trend analyses were conducted for the second time. The trend analyses were performed on 80 problem events with emergency diesel generators which had occurred in U.S. nuclear power plants in the five years from 2005 through 2009 among events reported in the Licensee Event Reports (LERs: event reports submitted to NRC by U.S. nuclear power plants) which have been registered in the nuclear information database of the Institute of Nuclear Safety System, Inc. (INSS) , as well as 40 events registered in the Nuclear Information Archives (NUCIA), which occurred in Japanese nuclear power plants in the same time period. It was learned from the trend analyses of the problem events with emergency diesel generators that frequency of defect occurrence are high in both Japanese and US plants during plant operations and functional tests (that is, defects can be discovered effectively in advance), so that implementation of periodical functional tests under plant operation is an important task for the future. (author)

  8. Status of evaluations and modifications of diesel generator status annunciator systems at various US nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shindell, B.M.; Rumble, R.P.

    1979-10-01

    This report documents the current status of evaluations and modifications to the diesel generator status annunciators in a number of US nuclear power plants. These modifications may be required in order to: ensure that all conditions which might render the diesel generators incapable of automatic starting are annunciated in the control room; ensure that the wording on the control room annunciator clearly indicates to the operator that the diesel generator is unavailable if such is the case; and separate disabling and non-disabling annunciation

  9. Development of reliability program for emergency diesel generators in domestic nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Ho; Jung, Hyun Jong; Choi, Kwang Hee; Hong, Seoung Yeul

    2001-01-01

    Surveillance tests of Emergency Diesel Generators (EDGs) in Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) have been conducted periodically to verify the reliability and integrity of the EDGs, however, it was found that these surveillance methods were so conservative and severe as to accelerate the degradation of the EDGs. Hence, new regulatory guideline, Reg. Guide 1.9 Rev. 3, was established by the U.S. NRC to resolve these problems. But it requires the additional implementation of reliability program of the EDGs to improve the actual reliability of them. In Korea, the EDGs of Yonggwang nuclear units 3 and 4 were the first plant applying new Reg. guide 1.9 rev.3 and implementing EDG reliability program. Furthermore it is expected that new guideline for the EDGs will be applied to other EDGs of Korean NPPs. In this paper, this reliability program is described, and it can be used as a reference for other EDGs in Korean NPPs

  10. More safety for emergency diesel engines for the Belgium nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laire, Ch.; Scauflaire, O.; D'ans, G.; Moland, G. de; Bresseleers, J.

    2002-01-01

    Each nuclear plant in Belgium is equipped with a series of ultimate power supply (UPS) units, also called emergency power units. These consist of generators driven by multi-cylinder (typically 18) diesel engines, which are marine derivatives. Unlike marine applications, the steady-state load does not produce pulsating torques. However, these diesel engines are designed to start upon short notice following a blackout and reach full power within a few seconds to guarantee the availability or all safety valves and ventilators. Such sharp and quasi-cold starts, periodically performed to guarantee the UPS availability, may spell utter failures of the crank shaft, as demonstrated by a fatigue failure observed on the fillets connecting the crank pin to the web faces. The fillet cracks initiate in bending mode and then progress in torsion mode to excessive transient torques arising in the power train during successive starts. Aware of the potential risk and conforming to the Belgian nuclear safety rules, the plant operator of Doel sponsored the development of a nondestructive technique enabling the inspection of each fillet for cracks without first removing each piston rod from its crank pin. As a result, Laborelec developed a specific eddy-current probe which avoids fully dismantling the engine, as is done during ten-yearly overhauls with dye-checks for cracks. Inspecting crank shaft fillet integrity with this least obtrusive technique requires 24 hours per engine. It can thus be performed more frequently to prevent total crank shaft failures in time and monitor the engine fatigue caused following the mandatory monthly start-up tests. This promising technique may also find marine applications. Measuring the transient torque arising between the engine and the generator showed that this reached very high values shortly after starting the engine and injecting fuel at full throttle to reach full power within seconds. The pulsating torque of the 18-cylinders engine occurring 9

  11. The impact of the type of operation on the parameters of a shunting diesel locomotive with hybrid power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falendysh Anatoliy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In designing a traction vehicle it is necessary to take into account the type of field operation it is meant for. It was found out that during shunting operation a ChME3 diesel locomotive is in idling mode for almost half of its general running time. That is why, the introduction of a less powerful engine along with an energy storage device for shunting operations at a shunting diesel locomotive is appropriate. The calculations were made using a modernized shunting diesel locomotive ChME3 with hybrid transmission of power as an example. The dependences of the general running time of a diesel locomotive on the position of the engine driver controller under performing shunting, transportation and hump operation were given in percentages. For every operation mode there was calculated the optimum power of a diesel-generator plant and the optimum energy capacity of an energy storage system taking into account the above-mentioned dependences. It was found out that due to the introduction of a hybrid drive for the section discussed above and the corresponding mass of a train the aggregate fuel consumption will be reduced by 25% and the efficiency of travel will increase by one third.

  12. Long term trend analysis of emergency power diesel generator reliability in german nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotthoff, K.; Maqua, M.

    1990-01-01

    The paper deals with a long-term investigation on the availability of diesel generators. This investigation has been performed in two steps in 1980/81 and 1988/89. It is based on the operating experiences of a total of 110 diesel generators in 20 German NPP's. The overall probability of diesel failure during start and short-time operation amounts to about 5E-3/demand. Compared to the result of the first part of the investigation (8E-3/demand) there has been some further improvement of diesel generator performance in recent years. The upper limit calculated for the probability of common mode failures (about 6E-4/demand) is approximately one order of magnitude smaller. The influence of various parameters on the failure probability has been discussed. A statistically significant dependence could not be identified

  13. Development of a Cost-Effective Solar/Diesel Independent Power Plant for a Remote Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okeolu Samuel Omogoye

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the design, simulation, and optimization of a solar/diesel hybrid power supply system for a remote station. The design involves determination of the station total energy demand as well as obtaining the station solar radiation data. This information was used to size the components of the hybrid power supply system (HPSS and to determine its configuration. Specifically, an appropriate software package, HOMER, was used to determine the number of solar panels, deep-cycle batteries, and rating of the inverter that comprise the solar section of the HPSS. A suitable diesel generator was also selected for the HPSS after careful technical and cost analysis of those available in the market. The designed system was simulated using the HOMER software package and the simulation results were used to carry out the optimization of the system. The final design adequately meets the station energy requirement. Based on a life expectancy of twenty-five years, a cost-benefit analysis of the HPSS was carried out. This analysis shows that the HPSS has a lower cost as compared to a conventional diesel generator power supply, thus recommending the HPSS as a more cost-effective solution for this application.

  14. Thermal design of a natural gas - diesel dual fuel turbocharged V18 engine for ship propulsion and power plant applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douvartzides, S.; Karmalis, I.

    2016-11-01

    A detailed method is presented on the thermal design of a natural gas - diesel dual fuel internal combustion engine. An 18 cylinder four stroke turbocharged engine is considered to operate at a maximum speed of 500 rpm for marine and power plant applications. Thermodynamic, heat transfer and fluid flow phenomena are mathematically analyzed to provide a real cycle analysis together with a complete set of calculated operation conditions, power characteristics and engine efficiencies. The method is found to provide results in close agreement to published data for the actual performance of similar engines such as V18 MAN 51/60DF.

  15. Data Base for Light-Weight Automotive Diesel Power Plants. Volume 2: Discussion and Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    The effects on fuel economy, emissions, passenger car safety and other variables due to the installation of light-weight Diesel powerplants were studied. Experimental data was obtained on naturally aspirated and turbocharged Diesel engines installed ...

  16. Data Base for Light-Weight Automotive Diesel Power Plants: Volume 1. Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    The effects on fuel economy, emissions, passenger car safety and other variables due to the installation of light-weight Diesel powerplants were studied. Experimental data was obtained on naturally aspirated and turbocharged Diesel engines installed ...

  17. Data Base for Light-Weight Automotive Diesel Power Plants : Volume 3. Miscellaneous Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    The effects of fuel economy, emissions, passenger car safety and other variables due to the installation of light-weight Diesel powerplants were studied. Experimental data was obtained on naturally aspirated and turbocharged Diesel engines installed ...

  18. Use of high ash fuel in diesel power plants II; Korkean tuhkapitoisuuden omaavan polttoaineen kaeyttoe dieselvoimaloissa II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vestergren, R; Normen, E; Hellen, G [Wartsila Diesel International Ltd Oy, Vaasa (Finland); and others

    1997-10-01

    Heavy fuel oils containing a large amount of ash are used in some geographically restricted areas. The ash components can cause problems with deposit formation and hot corrosion, leading to burned exhaust gas valves in some diesel engines. The LIEKKI 2 programs Use of high ash fuel in diesel power plants, Part I and II, have been initiated to clarify the mechanisms of deposit formation, and start and propagation of hot corrosion. The aim is to get enough knowledge to enable the development of the Waertsilae diesel engines to be able to handle heavy fuels with a very high ash content. The chemistry during combustion has been studied. The chemical and physical properties of the particles in the exhaust gas, of the deposits, and of exhaust valves have been investigated. Exhaust gas particle measurements have been performed when running on high ash fuel, both with and without deposit modifying fuel additive. Theories for the mechanisms mentioned above have been developed. On the practical side two long time field tests are going on, one with an ash/deposit modifying fuel additive (vanadium chemistry alteration), one with fuel water washing (sodium removal). Seven different reports have been written. (orig.)

  19. A technical and environmental approach of the utilization of the Diesel instead of the natural gas in thermoelectric power plants in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villela, Iraides Aparecida de Castro [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil). College of Engineering]. E-mail: iraides@debas.eel.usp.br; Silveira, Jose Luz [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Energy Dept.]. E-mail: joseluz@feg.unesp.br; www.feg.unesp.br/gose

    2008-07-01

    This work analyses the Thermodynamic and Ecological Performance of a thermoelectric power plant with nominal power of 310 MW in combined cycle. In the worldwide scenery, combined cycle power plants have become more and more known, due to the stage of development of the technology as well as to its high efficiency and low levels of atmospherical emissions when compared with conventional thermodynamic cycles. In Brazil, unfortunately, the diesel oil has been utilized in thermoelectric power plants, for the natural gas has not met the demand, in face of the problems in the contract with Bolivia. The study of the operation of these thermoelectric power plants with a second combustible, as the diesel, for instance, becomes more necessary, seen that the levels of thermal efficiency and of emissions undergo considerable alterations. This work aims to analyze the thermal and ecological efficiency of this thermoelectric power plant, through a comparison between the natural gas and the diesel. And analysis of the First Law of Thermodynamics is made and the ecological efficiency of the plant being studied for the two combustibles is determined. From the results obtained, it is inferred that the utilization of the natural associated to the use of the technology of the combined cycle presents better energetic and ecological efficiency when compared to the diesel. (author)

  20. Ciclo combinado Diesel-Vapor como repotenciación de una central termoeléctrica: caso de estudio; Combined Cycle Diesel-Steam as Power Plant Repowering: study case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Eduardo Calvo González

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available La necesidad imperiosa de cubrir el déficit de generación eléctrica ampliando el potencial de generación con motores diesel a fuel oíl, cuya instalación requiere de muy poco tiempo, es una solución adecuada. La idea de aprovechar los nodos del sistema electro energético, como son las subestaciones y las centrales eléctricas, para instalar los grupos electrógenos es una solución apropiada. Pero en el caso de una central termoeléctrica, al montar estas instalaciones de forma independiente, no se aprovechan las posibilidades que la combinación de procesos ofrece como la disminución del consumo de combustible, y de la contaminación ambiental por unidad de energía producida. El presente trabajo explora la posibilidad de instalar plantas eléctricas diesel a fuel oil como ciclo combinado diesel-vapor. Se demuestra la conveniencia de instalar plantas eléctricas diesel a fuel oil como ciclo combinado diesel-vapor, aprovechando la sinergia que se logra por la combinación de los procesos térmicos.  The pressing need of covering generation deficit to satisfy the demand in the shorter possible time, by enlarging the generation potential with fuel oil fueled diesel motors, it’s an appropriate solution. The idea of taking advantage of electric grid existent nodes facilities to place the generating electricity diesel motors is a non-unwise solution. But in the case of the node of steam power station place these motors in an independent way, don't take advantage of the possibilities that the processes combination offers, as the combined cycle diesel vapor for example. The work presented herein explored and showed the possibility of installing the electric diesel plants as a repowering the existing steam power plant by combined cycle diesel-steam taking advantage of the synergy achieved by thermal processes combination.

  1. Ciclo combinado Diesel-Vapor como repotenciación de una central termoeléctrica: caso de estudio; Combined Cycle Diesel-Steam as Power Plant Repowering: study case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Eduardo Calvo González

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available La necesidad imperiosa de cubrir el déficit de generación eléctrica ampliando el potencial de generación con motores diesel a fuel oíl, cuya instalación requiere de muy poco tiempo, es una solución adecuada. La idea de aprovechar los nodos del sistema electro energético, como son las subestaciones y las centrales eléctricas, para instalar los grupos electrógenos es una solución apropiada. Pero en el caso de una central termoeléctrica, al montar estas instalaciones de forma independiente, no se aprovechan las posibilidades que la combinación de procesos ofrece como la disminución del consumo de combustible, y de la contaminación ambiental por unidad de energía producida. El presente trabajo explora la posibilidad de instalar plantas eléctricas diesel a fuel oil como ciclo combinado diesel-vapor. Se demuestra la conveniencia de instalar plantas eléctricas diesel a fuel oil como ciclo combinado diesel-vapor, aprovechando la sinergia que se logra por la combinación de los procesos térmicos. The pressing need of covering generation deficit to satisfy the demand in the shorter possible time, by enlarging the generation potential with fuel oil fueled diesel motors, it’s an appropriate solution. The idea of taking advantage of electric grid existent nodes facilities to place the generating electricity diesel motors is a non-unwise solution. But in the case of the node of steam power station place these motors in an independent way, don't take advantage of the possibilities that the processes combination offers, as the combined cycle diesel vapor for example. The work presented herein explored and showed the possibility of installing the electric diesel plants as a repowering the existing steam power plant by combined cycle diesel-steam taking advantage of the synergy achieved by thermal processes combination.

  2. Oil drilling rig diesel power-plant fuel efficiency improvement potentials through rule-based generator scheduling and utilization of battery energy storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavković, Danijel; Sedić, Almir; Guzović, Zvonimir

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Isolated oil drilling rig microgrid power flows are analyzed over 30 days. • Rule-based diesel generator scheduling is proposed to reduce fuel consumption. • A battery energy storage is parameterized and used for peak load leveling. • The effectiveness of proposed hybrid microgrid is verified by simulations. • Return-of-investment might be expected within 20% of battery system lifetime. - Abstract: This paper presents the development of a rule-based energy management control strategy suitable for isolated diesel power-plants equipped with a battery energy storage system for peak load shaving. The proposed control strategy includes the generator scheduling strategy and peak load leveling scheme based on current microgrid active and reactive power requirements. In order to investigate the potentials for fuel expenditure reduction, 30 days-worth of microgrid power flow data has been collected on an isolated land-based oil drilling rig powered by a diesel generator power-plant, characterized by highly-variable active and reactive load profiles due to intermittent engagements and disengagements of high-power electric machinery such as top-drive, draw-works and mud-pump motors. The analysis has indicated that by avoiding the low-power operation of individual generators and by providing the peak power requirements (peak shaving) from a dedicated energy storage system, the power-plant fuel efficiency may be notably improved. An averaged power flow simulation model has been built, comprising the proposed rule-based power flow control strategy and the averaged model of a suitably sized battery energy storage system equipped with grid-tied power converter and state-of-charge control system. The effectiveness of the proposed rule-based strategy has been evaluated by means of computer simulation analysis based on drilling rig microgrid active and reactive power data recorded during the 30 day period. The analysis has indicated that fuel consumption of

  3. A reliability program for emergency diesel generators at nuclear power plants: Program structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lofgren, E.V.; DeMoss, G.M.; Fragola, J.R.; Appignani, P.L.; Delarche, G.; Boccio, J.

    1988-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide technical guidelines for NRC staff use in the development of positions for evaluating emergency diesel generator (EDG) reliability programs. Such reviews will likely result following resolution of USI A-44 and GSI B-56. The diesel generator reliability program is a management system for achieving and maintaining a selected (or target) level of reliability. This can be achieved by: (1) understanding the factors that control the EDG reliability and (2) then applying reliability and maintenance techniques in the proper proportion to achieve selected performance goals. The concepts and guidelines discussed in this report are concepts and approaches that have been successful in applications where high levels of reliability must be maintained. Both an EDG reliability program process and a set of review items for NRC use are provided. The review items represent a checklist for reviewing EDG reliability programs. They do not, in themselves, constitute a reliability program. Rather, the review items are those distinctive features of a reliability program that must be present for the program to be effective

  4. Diesel engine power generating set efficiency for nuclear power plant electrical energy supply in case of emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovic, I.; Aksamija, R.; Tumpa, M.

    1984-01-01

    Working ability of diesel engine set to starting and functioning reliability during operation is evaluated within study of efficiency. methods of calculation are applied: data compilation method and Markov method. The evaluation is that a diesel engine set has efficiency of 0.993285. It is a high efficiency which ensures a safe start, load take over and safe operation. This evaluation makes a basis for similar calculations which will be needed for national nuclear program. (author)

  5. Publication of the KTA 3702.1 safety rule of the Kerntechnischer Ausschuss from July 3, 1980. Stand-by units with diesel aggregates in nuclear power plants. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The rule applies to stationary nuclear power plants. Depending on their application, one of the following diesel aggregates should be chosen: Stand-by aggregates, fast emergency aggregates, or no-delay emergency aggregates. (HP) [de

  6. Smart power management algorithm in microgrid consisting of photovoltaic, diesel, and battery storage plants considering variations in sunlight, temperature, and load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koohi-Kamali, Sam; Rahim, N.A.; Mokhlis, H.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel power management algorithm is developed. • An effective power smoothing index is derived. • Application of battery storage in smoothing the power fluctuations is investigated. • An applicable battery sizing and designing algorithm is proposed. • An efficient battery current control algorithm is designed. - Abstract: Integration of utility scaled solar electricity generator into power networks can negatively affect the performance of next generation smartgrid. Rapidly changing output power of this kind is unpredictable and thus one solution is to mitigate it by short-term to mid-term electrical storage systems like battery. The main objective of this paper is to propose a power management system (PMS) which is capable of suppressing these adverse impacts on the main supply. A smart microgrid (MG) including diesel, battery storage, and solar plants has been suggested for this purpose. MG is able to supply its local load based on operator decision and decline the power oscillations caused by solar system together with variable loads. A guideline algorithm is also proposed which helps to precisely design the battery plant. A novel application of time domain signal processing approach to filter oscillating output power of the solar plant is presented as well. In this case, a power smoothing index (PSI) is formulated, which considers both load and generation, and used to dispatch the battery plant. A droop reference estimator to schedule generation is also introduced where diesel plant can share the local load with grid. A current control algorithm is designed as well which adjusts for PSI to ensure battery current magnitude is allowable. MG along with its communication platform and PMS are simulated using PSCAD software. PMS is tested under different scenarios using real load profiles and environmental data in Malaysia to verify the operational abilities of proposed MG. The results indicate that PMS can effectively control the MG

  7. Diesel-powered Passenger Cars and Light Trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Diesel-powered automobiles are in the news following emission concerns raised by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This fact sheet contains background information on diesel-powered motor vehicles and diesel fuel.

  8. Diesel engines for independent power producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berc, Dj.

    1999-01-01

    During recent years an increasing demand has been experienced in the stationary diesel engine market for 10-70 MW diesel units. For larger units this demand is being met by two-stroke low-speed crosshead uniflow scavenged diesel engines, capable of burning almost any fuel available on the market, both liquid of gaseous. The paper deals with service experience gained from such engines and their fuel capability. Examples of actual installations for IPPs and captive plants, together with an example of a typical feasibility study of such plants, is presented in the Appendix. (author)

  9. Diesel fuel to dc power: Navy & Marine Corps Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomfield, D.P. [Analytic Power Corp., Boston, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    During the past year Analytic Power has tested fuel cell stacks and diesel fuel processors for US Navy and Marine Corps applications. The units are 10 kW demonstration power plants. The USN power plant was built to demonstrate the feasibility of diesel fueled PEM fuel cell power plants for 250 kW and 2.5 MW shipboard power systems. We designed and tested a ten cell, 1 kW USMC substack and fuel processor. The complete 10 kW prototype power plant, which has application to both power and hydrogen generation, is now under construction. The USN and USMC fuel cell stacks have been tested on both actual and simulated reformate. Analytic Power has accumulated operating experience with autothermal reforming based fuel processors operating on sulfur bearing diesel fuel, jet fuel, propane and natural gas. We have also completed the design and fabrication of an advanced regenerative ATR for the USMC. One of the significant problems with small fuel processors is heat loss which limits its ability to operate with the high steam to carbon ratios required for coke free high efficiency operation. The new USMC unit specifically addresses these heat transfer issues. The advances in the mill programs have been incorporated into Analytic Power`s commercial units which are now under test.

  10. New local diesel power stations: an economic assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wills, R.J.; Reuben, B.G.

    1992-01-01

    A recent investigation examined the economic potential for electricity generation in the U.K. using large slow-speed two-stroke diesel engines of around 40MW unit output. Large diesels are a high efficiency technology, resilient to fuel quality, and with high reliability. Economic analysis compared diesels with other generating options for a range of fuel scenarios and discount rates. Merit order potential and total costs were also assessed. The diesels show superior economic qualities, both in terms of investment criteria and high merit position. They are economically comparable with combined cycle gas turbines, but combined cycle plant is essentially large-scale, whereas diesels in 40 MW units sizes can provide small-scale, high-efficiency local generation. Slow-speed diesels represent a sound investment for electricity supply. Diesels in local power stations in southern England would increase supply security and diversity. They are compatible with a cautious investment approach and are appropriate for the new market conditions in electricity supply. (author)

  11. Power Quality Improvements in Wind Diesel Power Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Feddaoui

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Generation of electricity using diesel is costly for small remote isolated communities. At remote location electricity generation from renewable energy such as wind can help reduce the overall operating costs by reducing the fuel costs. However, the penetration of wind power into small diesel-based grids is limited because of its effect on power quality and reliability. This paper focuses on the combination of Wind Turbine and Diesel Generator systems for sustained power generation, to improve the power quality of wind generation system. The performances of the optimal control structure are assessed and discussed by means of a set of simulations.

  12. Photovoltaic / Diesel / Battery Hybrid Power Supply System

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tazvinga, Henerica

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available (SOPAC Miscellaneous Report 406, 2005). The battery bank is cycled frequently, shortening its lifetime. If the inverter fails there is complete loss of power to the load, unless the load can be supplied directly from the diesel generator for emergency purposes....5 Sizing the inverter ............................................................................................... 67 5.6 Sizing the charge Controller ............................................................................... 68 5.7 Sizing...

  13. Selection, design, qualification, testing, and reliability of emergency diesel generator units used as Class 1E onsite electric power systems at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    This guide has been prepared for the resolution of Generic Safety Issue B-56, ''Diesel Generator Reliability,'' and is related to Unresolved Safety Issue (USI) A-44, ''Station Blackout.'' The resolution of USI A-44 established a need for an emergency diesel generator (EDG) reliability program that has the capability to achieve and maintain the emergency diesel generator reliability levels in the range of 0.95 per demand or better to cope with station blackout

  14. Solar and tank. Down under, a power plant is producing electric power from diesel fuel and from solar energy; Sonne und Tank. Am Ende der Welt produziert ein Kraftwerk Strom aus Diesel - und aus Sonnenenergie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podewils, Christoph

    2011-12-15

    Most Australians live in the big city, but some live in remote areas without infrastructure but with an existing power supply grid. One of these places is the former prospector town of Marble Bar, eight hours from Sydney by plane and by car. The town has an interesting power plant that could be exemplary for many regions of the world.

  15. Mobile power plant units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radtke, R

    1979-10-05

    Diesel engines of the MaK line 282 AK/332 with a cylinder power up to 160 kW are used, either as 6-cylinder or 8-cylinder in-line engine or as 12-cylinder V engine. Fuel consumption is between 207 and 212 g/kW. The engine is mounted on a frame, together with a generator. The fuel reserve in the tank will last for 8 hours. The lubricating system, the cooling water and starting air system, the switchboard system, and the frame are described. The switchboard plant is mounted either on a skid undercarriage or on the undercarriage. The plant can be operated independently or parallel to the network. The unit can be remote-controlled via push buttons or control knobs. A picture is presented of a mobile diesel aggregate which is in service in Libya.

  16. Effect of Magnetic Field on Diesel Engine Power Fuelled with Jatropha-Diesel Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukarni Sukarni

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha oil has characteristics very close to the diesel fuel, so it has good prospects as a substitute or as a mixture of diesel fuel. Previous research showed that jatropha oil usage in diesel engines caused power to decrease. It was probably owing to the higher viscosity of the Jatropha oil compared to that of diesel oil. Installing the magnetic field in the fuel line of a diesel engine fueled with jatropha-diesel oil is expected to reduce the viscosity of jatropha-diesel oil mixture, hence improve the combustion reaction process. This research aims to know the influence of the magnetic field strength in the fuel lines to the power of diesel engines fueled with a mixture of jatropha-diesel oil. The composition of Jatropha oil-diesel was 20% jatropha oil and 80% diesel oil. Magnetic field variations were 0.122, 0.245 and 0.368 Tesla. The results showed that the higher the strength of the magnetic field was, the higher the average diesel engine’s power would be.

  17. Power Balancing of Inline Multicylinder Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Gawande

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a simplified methodology is presented for power balancing by reducing the amplitude of engine speed variation, which result in excessive torsional vibrations of the crankshaft of inline six-cylinder diesel engine. In modern fuel injection systems for reciprocating engines, nonuniform cylinder-wise torque contribution is a common problem due to nonuniform fuel supply due to a defect in fuel injection system, causing increased torsional vibration levels of the crankshaft and stress of mechanical parts. In this paper, a mathematical model for the required fuel adjustment by using amplitude of engine speed variation applied on the flywheel based on engine dynamics is suggested. From the found empirical relations and FFT analysis, the amplitude of engine speed variation (i.e., torsional vibration levels of the crankshaft of inline six-cylinder diesel engine genset can be reduced up to 55%. This proposed methodology is simulated by developing MATALB code for uniform and nonuniform working of direct injection diesel engine of SL90 type manufactured by Kirloskar Oil Engine Ltd., Pune, India.

  18. PV-diesel hybrid powers island nature reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corkish, R. [University of New South Wales (Australia). Centre for Photovoltaic Engineering

    2001-03-01

    A short paper reports how by replacing a diesel-electric power supply with a PV-diesel-battery hybrid system, the diesel generator running time has been cut by 87%. The system provides all the power needs (including for the lighthouse, the lighthouse keeper's family, and a few visitors) on Montague Island nature reserve off Australia. The old system consisted of a pair of diesel-fuelled generator sets rated at 10 and 20 kVA. The main purposes for the changes were environmental, safety (in terms of transporting diesel fuel), and financial. Liquefied petroleum gas is now used for water heating and cooking. The reasons for not going for wind power are given. A diagram shows load and array power profiles for a May day in 1999.

  19. Nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Data concerning the existing nuclear power plants in the world are presented. The data was retrieved from the SIEN (Nuclear and Energetic Information System) data bank. The information are organized in table forms as follows: nuclear plants, its status and type; installed nuclear power plants by country; nuclear power plants under construction by country; planned nuclear power plants by country; cancelled nuclear power plants by country; shut-down nuclear power plants by country. (E.G.) [pt

  20. Reliability of emergency ac power systems at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battle, R.E.; Campbell, D.J.

    1983-07-01

    Reliability of emergency onsite ac power systems at nuclear power plants has been questioned within the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) because of the number of diesel generator failures reported by nuclear plant licensees and the reactor core damage that could result from diesel failure during an emergency. This report contains the results of a reliability analysis of the onsite ac power system, and it uses the results of a separate analysis of offsite power systems to calculate the expected frequency of station blackout. Included is a design and operating experience review. Eighteen plants representative of typical onsite ac power systems and ten generic designs were selected to be modeled by fault trees. Operating experience data were collected from the NRC files and from nuclear plant licensee responses to a questionnaire sent out for this project

  1. Plant-specific evaluations of Transamerica Delaval diesel engines for nuclear service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dingee, D.A.; Laity, W.W.; Nesbitt, J.F.

    1985-03-01

    This paper discusses the approach taken to evlauate the readiness of Transamerica Delaval, Inc. (TDI) diesel generators for nuclear service at five power plants: Catawba, Comanche Peak, Grand Gulf, San Onofre, and Shoreham. TDI engines in these and other nuclear power plants have been the subject of a coordinated effort by 13 nuclear utilities to address reliability and quality issues. The utilities formed the TDI Diesel Generator Owners' Group and prepared a comprehensive plan for requalifying the engines as emergency power sources. Prior to full implementation of the plan by the Owners' Group and final review of the findings by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, several member plants became candidates for operating licenses. The TDI engines in those plants, including the five listed above, were evaluated on a case-by-case basis, taking into consideration the factors discussed in this paper. 2 refs

  2. Kansas Power Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Power Plants database depicts, as point features, the locations of the various types of power plant locations in Kansas. The locations of the power plants...

  3. Small wind power plants : results of the Nordic wind diesel projects for large telecommunications companies; Implantation d'une centrale eolienne comme source d'energie d'appoint pour des stations de telecommunications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilinca, A.; Chaumel, J.L. [ATI Eolien, Rimouski, PQ (Canada); Thibault, G. [Entreprises MB, PQ (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Two wind-diesel generating stations have been installed at telecommunication towers in the remote communities of Kuujjuarapik and Lac Julien in northern Quebec. The use of wind power contributes to the sustainable development in these remote areas by lowering the reliance on costly helicopter-transported diesel fuel and by reducing the release of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. The technical characteristics of the Bergey 100 kW turbine with battery charger were presented along with the technical characteristics of the EolDie control panel that controls the supply of electricity from either the wind or diesel power generators. For the first time, the ATI-Wind technology system that was installed can supply the needs of the large telecommunication towers of Bell Canada and Telebec from either the wind or the diesel generators. The system is also capable of shutting down the diesel generators when wind energy is sufficient to take over. Early results from June 2005 showed that the diesel generators could be turned off for 55 per cent of the time. Preliminary results of these 2 projects were discussed by the firms in charge of the diesel and wind aspects and recommendations for improvements to the control systems were presented. 11 figs.

  4. Diesel engine cogeneration plants in the context of integration of renewable energy sources in power supply; Dieselmotor-Kraft-Waerme-Kopplungsanlagen im Kontext der Integration Erneuerbarer Energien in die Energieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sievers, John

    2010-10-29

    The aim of this thesis is to investigate and assess future options, potentials, strengths and weaknesses of cogeneration of heat and power. This is carried out against the background of global climate change and the integration of an increasing share of fluctuating renewable energies in power generation considering the necessity of guaranteeing a reliable, efficient, sustainable and cost effective power supply. It is assumed that the transition process to an entirely renewable energy-based electricity generation in Germany will considerably depend on the integration of wind energy because of its economic competitiveness, environmental friendliness and potential. However, power generation using wind energy fluctuates quite considerably. Diesel motors are here investigated as a decentralized integration instrument. Thanks to their great flexibility, high efficiency and relatively low nominal capacity, they perfectly meet the requirements for the simultaneous decentralized use of heat. Boundary conditions of Diesel motor combined heat and power plants (CHP) are analyzed and described in this work, different models for wind energy integration are elaborated, and these models are used for several variations to simulate the balance of wind energy by cogeneration. In this context, environmental impacts are discussed. Common assessment methods on environmental impacts of CHP distort the results. The so-called output method is developed and described, by which the final assessment of environmental impacts is not implicitly mixed - as is commonly the case - with the calculation of environmental impacts. This output method is used to compare CHP generation with other energy conversion processes within the context of power generation including insulation of buildings, the use of different fuels and different applications for cogeneration. This work clearly demonstrates that while bio fuel resources can be optimally used for power generation, cogenerated electricity could also

  5. The feature of emergency diesel generator relaying protection in Tianwan nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Xiaopeng; Shi Yan; Li Cong

    2014-01-01

    This paper mainly introduces the function and feature of emergency diesel generator in nuclear power plant, which plays an important role in nuclear accident. It minutely tells about the feature and configuration of relay protection and discusses the rationality of protection scheme, which shows that it can be completely contented all kinds of operation states. It is an analysis and argument about the principle of relay protection in detail, that would operate correctly when emergency diesel generator be in abnormal operating and serious fault conditions, such as cut off emergency diesel generator in order to avoid more harm to emergency diesel generator. It analyzes how the relay responses quickly and locks up the protection action under perturbations in the external power, so it can avoid unnecessary resection of emergency diesel generator to emergency power supply loss and effect of nuclear safety. It also analyzes the flexible use of protection setting of the protective relay to meet various operating status. It elaborates the particularity of relay protection which is due to the particularity of nuclear safety. It analyses the possibility of relay protection which has to be applied to other equipment and the protection setting that was provided by design institute, and puts forward the author's viewpoints. (authors)

  6. Device on a diesel motor to supply power to emergency aggregates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, C.; Boekemeier, V.; Schilling, R.

    1977-01-01

    The invented arrangement of a diesel motor for the emergency supply of a nuclear power plant ensures that in the case of a fire in the environment of the emergency feeding building, no air with too much flue gas reaches the diesel motor via the suction pipe. The discharge pipe with a nozzle-shaped discharge opening and the suction pipe running above it pass horizontally through a wall of the building. There are vertical walls on both sides of the openings which prevent a sideways flowing of air to the exhaust gas flow in the vicinity of the building. (HGOE) [de

  7. Possible alternatives for diesel powered mobile equipment for the conditions of deep mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paraszczak, J.; Kotersi, O [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Mining, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering

    2008-07-01

    The challenges associated with mining at considerable depths were discussed. Mines such as Kidd Creek, LaRonde and Creighton are deeper than 2500 m. High rock temperature is among the challenges that operators face in such conditions. Conventional diesel powered load-hauling equipment constitute an additional source of heat and noxious gases. As such, more intense ventilation is needed in order to keep ambient temperature and air quality at a level that is acceptable for human workers. This paper examined possible alternatives for diesel powered equipment, including those that are commercially available as well as those that are underdevelopment or in the prototype stage. The equipment was reviewed with reference to the required infrastructure, stage of technology development and progress. The flexibility, practicality and economic viability of the equipment was also investigated. The potential for its use in deep Canadian mines was discussed along with the most promising drive alternatives for vehicles designed for deep mine operations. Electric drives have proven to be effective in many mining applications since they have significant advantages over diesel drives. The characteristics of cable powered equipment, trolley-wire powered equipment, and battery powered equipment were described. The key advantages and disadvantages of hybrid diesel electric equipment were also reviewed along with the viability of power plants based on the use of hydrogen. The principle types of hydrogen power plants include hydrogen combustion engines; HY-Drive systems and fuel cells. It was concluded that although there is no viable alternative for diesel engines at present, Canadian mining companies operating at great depths have made significant progress in these fields and remain among the leaders in mining innovation. 17 refs.

  8. Diesel Fueled SOFC for Class 7/Class 8 On-Highway Truck Auxiliary Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesely, Charles John-Paul [Cummins Power Generation; Fuchs, Benjamin S. [Cummins Power Generation; Booten, Chuck W. [Protonex Technology, LLC

    2010-03-31

    The following report documents the progress of the Cummins Power Generation (CPG) Diesel Fueled SOFC for Class 7/Class 8 On-Highway Truck Auxiliary Power (SOFC APU) development and final testing under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) contract DE-FC36-04GO14318. This report overviews and summarizes CPG and partner development leading to successful demonstration of the SOFC APU objectives and significant progress towards SOFC commercialization. Significant SOFC APU Milestones: Demonstrated: Operation meeting SOFC APU requirements on commercial Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) fuel. SOFC systems operating on dry CPOX reformate. Successful start-up and shut-down of SOFC APU system without inert gas purge. Developed: Low cost balance of plant concepts and compatible systems designs. Identified low cost, high volume components for balance of plant systems. Demonstrated efficient SOFC output power conditioning. Demonstrated SOFC control strategies and tuning methods.

  9. Effect of diesel fuel on growth of selected plant species

    OpenAIRE

    Adam, G.; Duncan, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    Diesel oil is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons with an average carbon number of C8–\\ud C26. The majority of components consist of alkanes, both straight chained and branched and aromatic\\ud compounds including mono-, di- and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Regardless of this complexity,\\ud diesel oil can be readily degraded by a number of soil microorganisms making it a likely candidate for\\ud bioremediation. The concept of using plants to enhance bioremediation, termed phytoremediation,\\ud is a ...

  10. 76 FR 45741 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Diesel-Powered Motor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Diesel-Powered Motor Vehicle Idling Act AGENCY... the Commonwealth's Diesel-Powered Motor Vehicle Idling Act (Act 124 of 2008, or simply Act 124) into... allowable time that heavy-duty, commercial highway diesel vehicles of over 10,000 pounds gross vehicle...

  11. 77 FR 17099 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Diesel-Powered Equipment for Underground...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... to underground coal miners who work in mines that use diesel-powered equipment. Diesel equipment can... provide important safety protections to underground coal miners who work in mines that use diesel-powered... maintenance of fire suppression systems on the equipment and at fueling stations; exhaust gas sampling...

  12. Plant tolerance to diesel minimizes its impact on soil microbial characteristics during rhizoremediation of diesel-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrutia, O.; Garbisu, C.; Epelde, L.; Sampedro, M.C.; Goicolea, M.A.; Becerril, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Soil contamination due to petroleum-derived products is an important environmental problem. We assessed the impacts of diesel oil on plants (Trifolium repens and Lolium perenne) and soil microbial community characteristics within the context of the rhizoremediation of contaminated soils. For this purpose, a diesel fuel spill on a grassland soil was simulated under pot conditions at a dose of 12,000 mg diesel kg -1 DW soil. Thirty days after diesel addition, T. repens (white clover) and L. perenne (perennial ryegrass) were sown in the pots and grown under greenhouse conditions (temperature 25/18 o C day/night, relative humidity 60/80% day/night and a photosynthetic photon flux density of 400 μmol photon m -2 s -1 ) for 5 months. A parallel set of unplanted pots was also included. Concentrations of n-alkanes in soil were determined as an indicator of diesel degradation. Seedling germination, plant growth, maximal photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (F v /F m ), pigment composition and lipophylic antioxidant content were determined to assess the impacts of diesel on the studied plants. Soil microbial community characteristics, such as enzyme and community-level physiological profiles, were also determined and used to calculate the soil quality index (SQI). The presence of plants had a stimulatory effect on soil microbial activity. L. perenne was far more tolerant to diesel contamination than T. repens. Diesel contamination affected soil microbial characteristics, although its impact was less pronounced in the rhizosphere of L. perenne. Rhizoremediation with T. repens and L. perenne resulted in a similar reduction of total n-alkanes concentration. However, values of the soil microbial parameters and the SQI showed that the more tolerant species (L. perenne) was able to better maintain its rhizosphere characteristics when growing in diesel-contaminated soil, suggesting a better soil health. We concluded that plant tolerance is of crucial importance for the

  13. Trimode optimizes hybrid power plants. Final report: Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Sullivan, G.A.; O`Sullivan, J.A. [Abacus Controls, Inc., Somerville, NJ (United States)

    1998-07-01

    In the Phase 2 project, Abacus Controls Inc. did research and development of hybrid systems that combine the energy sources from photovoltaics, batteries, and diesel-generators and demonstrated that they are economically feasible for small power plants in many parts of the world. The Trimode Power Processor reduces the fuel consumption of the diesel-generator to its minimum by presenting itself as the perfect electrical load to the generator. A 30-kW three-phase unit was tested at Sandia National Laboratories to prove its worthiness in actual field conditions. The use of photovoltaics at remote locations where reliability of supply requires a diesel-generator will lower costs to operate by reducing the run time of the diesel generator. The numerous benefits include longer times between maintenance for the diesel engine and better power quality from the generator. 32 figs.

  14. Hydroelectric Power Plants Dobsina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majercak, V.; Srenkelova, Z.; Kristak, J.G.

    1997-01-01

    In this brochure the Hydroelectric Power Plants Dobsina, (VED), subsidiary of the utility Slovenske Elektrarne, a.s. (Slovak Electric, plc. Bratislava) are presented. VED is mainly aimed at generating peak-load electrical energy and maintenance of operational equipment. Reaching its goals, company is first of all focused on reliability of production, economy and effectiveness, keeping principles of work safety and industry safety standards and also ecology. VED operates eight hydroelectric power plants, from which PVE Ruzin I and PVE Dobsina I are pump storage ones and they are controlled directly by the Slovak Energy Dispatch Centre located in Zilina thought the system LS 3200. Those power plants participate in secondary regulation of electrical network of Slovakia. They are used to compensate balance in reference to foreign electrical networks and they are put into operation independently from VED. Activity of the branch is focused mainly on support of fulfilment of such an important aim as electric network regulation. Beginnings of the subsidiary Hydroelectric Power Plants Dobsina are related to the year of 1948. After commissioning of the pump storage Hydroelectric Power Plants Dobsina in 1953, the plant started to carry out its mission. Since that time the subsidiary has been enlarged by other seven power plants, through which it is fulfilling its missions nowadays. The characteristics of these hydroelectric power plants (The pump-storage power plant Dobsina, Small hydroelectric power plant Dobsina II, Small hydroelectric power plant Rakovec, Small hydroelectric power plant Svedlar, Hydroelectric power plant Domasa, The pump-storage power plant Ruzin, and Small hydroelectric power plant Krompachy) are described in detail. Employees welfare and public relations are presented

  15. Implementasi Power Turbin pada Diesel Generator di Sistem Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Diesel (PLTD dalam meningkatkan produksi energi listrik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Wahyu Saputra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aplikasi Power Turbine merupakan salah satu aplikasi PTO (Power Take-Off yang mampu meningkatkan produksi energi listrik dengan memanfaatkan aliran gas buang dari motor bakar (diesel maupun bensin yang mengandung energi kalor (panas yang digunakan untuk memutar turbin dan generator. Penelitian ini bertujuan mencari besar potensi daya listik yang bisa dihasilkan power turbine. Hal ini dicapai dengan cara menganalisa pengaruh pembebanan power turbine terhadap kinerja motor diesel sehingga kita dapat melihat seberapa jauh power turbine tersebut dapat diaplikasikan pada motor bakar. Dari hasil analisa dan perhitungan, didapat bahwa power turbine tersebut dapat menghasilkan energi listrik sebesar 250 kW pada continuous rating (93,23%.

  16. Small hydroelectric power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helgesen, Boerre

    2002-01-01

    Small hydroelectric power plants are power plants of 1 - 10 MW. For a supplier, this is an unnatural limit. A more natural limit involves compact engine design and simplified control system. The article discusses most of the engine and electrotechnical aspects in the development, construction and operation of such a plant

  17. Less power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TASR

    2003-01-01

    In the Slovak Republic the number of company power plants decreased as against 2001 by two sources. In present time only 35 companies have their own power plants. The companies Slovnaft, Kappa Sturovo, Slovensky hodvab Senica, Matador Puchov, Maytex Liptovsky MikuIas, Kovohuty Krompachy, Chemko Strazske and some Slovak sugar factories belong to the largest company power plants in force of distributing companies. Installed output of present 35 company sources is 531 MW. The largest of separate power plants as Paroplynovy cyklus Bratislava (218 MW) and VD Zilina (72 MW) belong to independent sources. Total installed output of Slovak sources was 8306 MW in the end of last year

  18. Solar thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnatbaum, L.

    2009-01-01

    The solar thermal power plant technology, the opportunities it presents and the developments in the market are outlined. The focus is on the technology of parabolic trough power plants, a proven technology for solar power generation on a large scale. In a parabolic trough power plant, trough-shaped mirrors concentrate the solar irradiation onto a pipe in the focal line of the collector. The thermal energy thus generated is used for electricity generation in a steam turbine. Parabolic trough plants can be combined with thermal storage and fossil or biomass fired heat exchangers to generate electricity even when the sun is not shining. Solar Millennium AG in Erlangen has developed the first power plant of this kind in Europe. After two years of construction the plant started operation in Southern Spain in 2008. This one and its sister projects are important steps leading the way for the whole market. The paper also covers the technological challenges, the key components used and the research and development activities concerning this technology. Solar thermal power plants are ideal for covering peak and medium loads in power grids. In hybrid operation they can also cover base-load. The Solar Chimney power plant, another striking technology for the conversion of solar into electric energy, is described briefly. The paper concludes with a look at the future - the import of solar energy from the deserts of North Africa to central Europe. (author)

  19. Power plant chemical technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    17 contributions covering topies of fossil fuel combustion, flue gas cleaning, power plant materials, corrosion, water/steam cycle chemistry, monitoring and control were presented at the annual meeting devoted to Power Plant Chemical Technology 1996 at Kolding (Denmark) 4-6 September 1996. (EG)

  20. Nuclear Power Plants. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell, Walter, III

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Why Use Nuclear Power?; From Atoms to Electricity; Reactor Types; Typical Plant Design Features; The Cost of Nuclear Power; Plants in the United States; Developments in Foreign…

  1. NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, J.C.; Armstrong, R.H.; Janicke, M.J.

    1963-05-14

    A nuclear power plant for use in an airless environment or other environment in which cooling is difficult is described. The power plant includes a boiling mercury reactor, a mercury--vapor turbine in direct cycle therewith, and a radiator for condensing mercury vapor. (AEC)

  2. The Kuroshio power plant

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Falin

    2013-01-01

    By outlining a new design or the Kuroshio power plant, new approaches to turbine design, anchorage system planning, deep sea marine engineering and power plant operations and maintenance are explored and suggested. The impact on the local environment, particularly in the face of natural disasters, is also considered to provide a well rounded introduction to plan and build a 30MW pilot power plant. Following a literature review, the six chapters of this book propose a conceptual design by focusing on the plant's core technologies and establish the separate analysis logics for turbine design and

  3. Nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margulova, T.Ch.

    1976-01-01

    The textbook focuses on the technology and the operating characteristics of nuclear power plants equiped with pressurized water or boiling water reactors, which are in operation all over the world at present. The following topics are dealt with in relation to the complete plant and to economics: distribution and consumption of electric and thermal energy, types and equipment of nuclear power plants, chemical processes and material balance, economical characteristics concerning heat and energy, regenerative preheating of feed water, degassing and condenser systems, water supply, evaporators, district heating systems, steam generating systems and turbines, coolant loops and pipes, plant siting, ventilation and decontamination systems, reactor operation and management, heat transfer including its calculation, design of reactor buildings, and nuclear power plants with gas or sodium cooled reactors. Numerous technical data of modern Soviet nuclear power plants are included. The book is of interest to graduate and post-graduate students in the field of nuclear engineering as well as to nuclear engineers

  4. 30 CFR 75.1710 - Canopies or cabs; diesel-powered and electric face equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-powered and electric face equipment, including shuttle cars, be provided with substantially constructed... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Canopies or cabs; diesel-powered and electric... Miscellaneous § 75.1710 Canopies or cabs; diesel-powered and electric face equipment. In any coal mine where the...

  5. Italian steam power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Rautenkranz, J

    1939-01-01

    A brief history of geothermal power production in Italy is presented. Boric acid has been produced on an industrial scale since 1818. The first electrical power was generated in 1904, and by 1939 the output of geothermal power plants had reached 500 GWh, with major expansion of facilities planned.

  6. Nuclear power plant siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulkiewicz, M.; Navratil, J.

    The construction of a nuclear power plant is conditioned on territorial requirements and is accompanied by the disturbance of the environment, land occupation, population migration, the emission of radioactive wastes, thermal pollution, etc. On the other hand, a nuclear power plant makes possible the introduction of district heating and increases the economic and civilization activity of the population. Due to the construction of a nuclear power plant the set limits of negative impacts must not be exceeded. The locality should be selected such as to reduce the unfavourable effects of the plant and to fully use its benefits. The decision on the siting of the nuclear power plant is preceded by the processing of a number of surveys and a wide range of documentation to which the given criteria are strictly applied. (B.H.)

  7. Solar-Diesel Hybrid Power System Optimization and Experimental Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobus, Headley Stewart

    As of 2008 1.46 billion people, or 22 percent of the World's population, were without electricity. Many of these people live in remote areas where decentralized generation is the only method of electrification. Most mini-grids are powered by diesel generators, but new hybrid power systems are becoming a reliable method to incorporate renewable energy while also reducing total system cost. This thesis quantifies the measurable Operational Costs for an experimental hybrid power system in Sierra Leone. Two software programs, Hybrid2 and HOMER, are used during the system design and subsequent analysis. Experimental data from the installed system is used to validate the two programs and to quantify the savings created by each component within the hybrid system. This thesis bridges the gap between design optimization studies that frequently lack subsequent validation and experimental hybrid system performance studies.

  8. Dynamic multi-stage dispatch of isolated wind–diesel power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yu; Morales González, Juan Miguel; Pineda, Salvador

    2015-01-01

    -stage decision-making model is proposed to determine the diesel power output that minimizes the cost of running and maintaining the wind–diesel power system. Optimized operational decisions for each time period are generated dynamically considering the path-dependent nature of the optimal dispatch policy, given......An optimal dispatch strategy is crucial for an isolated wind–diesel power system to save diesel fuel and maintain the system stability. The uncertainty associated with the stochastic character of the wind is, though, a challenging problem for this optimization. In this paper, a dynamic multi...

  9. Study of the combined plant for the generator diesel engine; Hatsudenki diesel engine no combined plant no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Y [Kumamoto Institute of Technology, Kumamoto (Japan); Hanada, S; Watase, M; Nakajima, T

    1997-10-01

    It is intended to recover more effectively thermal energy currently discharged from marine vessels into air. This paper describes a diesel engine combined power generation system in which medium-order waste heat energy from a diesel engine for power generation in a marine vessel is recovered and utilized to operate a Rankine cycle system (using the waste gas as the high temperature source and sea water as the low temperature source), thus the thermal energy is recovered as a motive force. Two kinds of fluorocarbons and steam were discussed as a working fluid. Due to fluorocarbons making the whole system ultra-high in pressure, and from a viewpoint of high-temperature thermal stability, the temperature was remained at levels from 100 to 200 degC, and a single-stage expansion cycle was used. With the use of steam, a two-stage reheating cycle was employed, by which the temperature is raised fully up to 300 degC and effective head of fluid was taken largely. Ceramic paint was used as a means to prevent sulfur oxide corrosion when the system is used down to the dew point, and its effectiveness was verified. Motive force recovered by combining the steam two-stage reheating cycle and the ceramic painted heat collector was calculated, whereas electric power output of about 45 kW was obtained from a main generator with 450 PS. The derived thermal efficiency was about 26%. 2 refs., 24 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima Moreira, Y.M. de.

    1979-01-01

    The legal aspects of nuclear power plant construction in Brazil, derived from governamental political guidelines, are presented. Their evolution, as a consequence of tecnology development is related. (A.L.S.L.) [pt

  11. Nuclear power plant decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaziz Yunus

    1986-01-01

    A number of issues have to be taken into account before the introduction of any nuclear power plant in any country. These issues include reactor safety (site and operational), waste disposal and, lastly, the decommissioning of the reactor inself. Because of the radioactive nature of the components, nuclear power plants require a different approach to decommission compared to other plants. Until recently, issues on reactor safety and waste disposal were the main topics discussed. As for reactor decommissioning, the debates have been academic until now. Although reactors have operated for 25 years, decommissioning of retired reactors has simply not been fully planned. But the Shippingport Atomic Power Plant in Pennysylvania, the first large scale power reactor to be retired, is now being decommissioned. The work has rekindled the debate in the light of reality. Outside the United States, decommissioning is also being confronted on a new plane. (author)

  12. Advanced stellarator power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    The stellarator is a class of helical/toroidal magnetic fusion devices. Recent international progress in stellarator power plant conceptual design is reviewed and comparisons in the areas of physics, engineering, and economics are made with recent tokamak design studies

  13. International power plant business

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grohe, R.

    1986-03-03

    At the Brown Boveri press seminar 'Energy' in Baden-Baden Rainer Grohe, member of the Brown Boveri board, Mannheim, gave a survey of the activities on the international power plant market in recent years. He showed the vacuities which must be taken into account in this sector today. The drastic escalation of demands on power plant suppliers has lead not to a reduction of protagonists but to an increase. (orig.).

  14. 30 CFR 75.1907 - Diesel-powered equipment intended for use in underground coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... underground coal mines. 75.1907 Section 75.1907 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1907 Diesel-powered equipment intended for use in underground coal mines. (a) As of...

  15. Offshore atomic power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    Various merits of offshore atomic power plants are illustrated, and their systems are assessed. The planning of the offshore atomic power plants in USA is reviewed, and the construction costs of the offshore plant in Japan were estimated. Air pollution problem may be solved by the offshore atomic power plants remarkably. Deep water at low temperature may be advantageously used as cooling water for condensers. Marine resources may be bred by building artificial habitats and by providing spring-up equipments. In the case of floating plants, the plant design can be standardized so that the construction costs may be reduced. The offshore plants can be classified into three systems, namely artificial island system, floating system and sea bottom-based system. The island system may be realized with the present level of civil engineering, but requires the development of technology for the resistance of base against earthquake and its calculation means. The floating system may be constructed with conventional power plant engineering and shipbuilding engineering, but the aseismatic stability of breakwater may be a problem to be solved. Deep water floating system and deep water submerging system are conceivable, but its realization may be difficult. The sea bottom-based system with large caissons can be realized by the present civil engineering, but the construction of the caissons, stability against earthquake and resistance to waves may be problems to be solved. The technical prediction and assessment of new plant sites for nuclear power plants have been reported by Science and Technology Agency in 1974. The construction costs of an offshore plant has been estimated by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry to be yen71,026/kW as of 1985. (Iwakiri, K.)

  16. Power plants 2010. Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The proceedings include the following lectures: Facing the challenges - new structures for electricity production. Renewable energies in Europe - chances and challenges. Nuclear outlook in the UK. Sustainable energy for Europe. Requirements of the market and the grid operator at the electricity production companies. Perspectives for the future energy production. Pumped storage plants - status and perspectives. Nuclear power/renewable energies -partners or opponents? New fossil fired power stations in Europe - status and perspectives. Nuclear energy: outlook for new build and lifetime extension in Europe. Biomass in the future European energy market - experiences for dong energy. Meeting the EU 20:20 renewable energy targets: the offshore challenges. DESERTEC: sustainable electricity for Europe, Middle East and North Africa. New power plants in Europe - a challenge for project and quality management. Consideration of safely in new build activities of power plants. Challenges to an integrated development in Maasvlakte, Netherlands. Power enhancement in EnBW power plants. Operational experiences of CCS pilot plants worldwide. Two years of operational experiences with Vattenfall's oxyfuel pilot plant. Pre-conditions for CCS. Storage technologies for a volatile generation. Overview: new generation of gas turbines.

  17. Power plant at sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roggen, M.

    2000-01-01

    Drilling platforms are rather inefficient when it comes to their own power supply. In view of ecotax and their environmental image, the offshore industry particularly the Norwegians is highly committed to changing this situation. An efficient power plant, specially designed for the offshore industry, might just prove to be the answer to their prayers

  18. Nuclear power plants maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear power plants maintenance now appears as an important factor contributing to the competitivity of nuclea energy. The articles published in this issue describe the way maintenance has been organized in France and how it led to an actual industrial activity developing and providing products and services. An information note about Georges Besse uranium enrichment plant (Eurodif) recalls that maintenance has become a main data not only for power plants but for all nuclear industry installations. (The second part of this dossier will be published in the next issue: vol. 1 January-February 1989) [fr

  19. Nuclear power plant outages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) controls nuclear power plant safety in Finland. In addition to controlling the design, construction and operation of nuclear power plants, STUK also controls refuelling and repair outages at the plants. According to section 9 of the Nuclear Energy Act (990/87), it shall be the licence-holder's obligation to ensure the safety of the use of nuclear energy. Requirements applicable to the licence-holder as regards the assurance of outage safety are presented in this guide. STUK's regulatory control activities pertaining to outages are also described

  20. Nuclear Power Plants (Rev.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell III, Walter [Southern Nuclear Engineering, Inc.

    1973-01-01

    Projected energy requirements for the future suggest that we must employ atomic energy to generate electric power or face depletion of our fossil-fuel resources—coal, oil, and gas. In short, both conservation and economic considerations will require us to use nuclear energy to generate the electricity that supports our civilization. Until we reach the time when nuclear power plants are as common as fossil-fueled or hydroelectric plants, many people will wonder how the nuclear plants work, how much they cost, where they are located, and what kinds of reactors they use. The purpose of this booklet is to answer these questions. In doing so, it will consider only central station plants, which are those that provide electric power for established utility systems.

  1. LNG plant combined with power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, I; Kikkawa, Y [Chiyoda Chemical Engineering and Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-06-01

    The LNG plant consumers a lot of power of natural gas cooling and liquefaction. In some LNG plant location, a rapid growth of electric power demand is expected due to the modernization of area and/or the country. The electric power demand will have a peak in day time and low consumption in night time, while the power demand of the LNG plant is almost constant due to its nature. Combining the LNG plant with power plant will contribute an improvement the thermal efficiency of the power plant by keeping higher average load of the power plant, which will lead to a reduction of electrical power generation cost. The sweet fuel gas to the power plant can be extracted from the LNG plant, which will be favorable from view point of clean air of the area. (Author). 5 figs.

  2. LNG plant combined with power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, I.; Kikkawa, Y.

    1997-01-01

    The LNG plant consumers a lot of power of natural gas cooling and liquefaction. In some LNG plant location, a rapid growth of electric power demand is expected due to the modernization of area and/or the country. The electric power demand will have a peak in day time and low consumption in night time, while the power demand of the LNG plant is almost constant due to its nature. Combining the LNG plant with power plant will contribute an improvement the thermal efficiency of the power plant by keeping higher average load of the power plant, which will lead to a reduction of electrical power generation cost. The sweet fuel gas to the power plant can be extracted from the LNG plant, which will be favorable from view point of clean air of the area. (Author). 5 figs

  3. Determination of reliability criteria for standby diesel generators at a nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, M.G.K.

    1987-01-01

    The requirement for standby diesel generators at nuclear power stations is developed and a probabilistic approach used to define the reliability parameters. The present criteria used when ordering a diesel generator are compared with the testing required by the regulatory body and the most likely requirement following an accident. The impact of this on the diesels at a particular station and the root cause of failures are discussed. (orig.)

  4. 30 CFR 36.4 - Mobile diesel-powered transportation equipment for which certificates of approval may be granted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mobile diesel-powered transportation equipment... REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMISSIBLE MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT General Provisions § 36.4 Mobile... of approval will be granted for completely assembled mobile diesel-powered transportation equipment...

  5. Combustion, performance and emissions of a diesel power generator fueled with biodiesel-kerosene and biodiesel-kerosene-diesel blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayındır, Hasan; Işık, Mehmet Zerrakki; Argunhan, Zeki; Yücel, Halit Lütfü; Aydın, Hüseyin

    2017-01-01

    High percentages of biodiesel blends or neat biodiesel cannot be used in diesel engines due to high density and viscosity, and poor atomization properties that lead to some engine operational problems. Biodiesel was produced from canola oil by transesterification process. Test fuels were prepared by blending 80% of the biodiesel with 20% of kerosene (B80&K20) and 80% of the biodiesel with 10% of kerosene and 10% diesel fuel (B80&K10&D10). Fuels were used in a 4 cylinders diesel engine that was loaded with a generator. Combustion, performance and emission characteristics of the blend fuels and D2 in the diesel engine for certain loads of 3.6, 7.2 and 10.8 kW output power and 1500 rpm constant engine speed were experimented and deeply analyzed. It was found that kerosene contained blends had quite similar combustion characteristics with those of D2. Mass fuel consumption and Bscf were slightly increased for blend fuels. HC emissions slightly increased while NOx emissions considerably reduced for blends. It was resulted that high percentages of biodiesel can be a potential substitute for diesel fuel provided that it is used as blending fuel with certain amounts of kerosene. - Highlights: • Effects of kerosene and diesel addition to biodiesel in a diesel engine were investigated. • B80&K10 and B80&K10&D10 were tested and comparisons have been made with D2. • Similar fuel properties and combustion parameters have been found for all fuels. • Heat release initiated earlier for B80&K10 and B80&K10&D10. • CO and NOx emissions are lowered for B80&K10 and B80&K10&D10.

  6. Wind power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caneghem, A.E. von

    1975-07-24

    The invention applies to a wind power plant in which the wind is used to drive windmills. The plant consists basically of a vertical tube with a lateral wind entrance opening with windmill on its lower end. On its upper end, the tube carries a nozzle-like top which increases the wind entering the tube by pressure decrease. The wind is thus made suitable for higher outputs. The invention is illustrated by constructional examples.

  7. Benchmarking Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakic, I.

    2016-01-01

    One of the main tasks an owner have is to keep its business competitive on the market while delivering its product. Being owner of nuclear power plant bear the same (or even more complex and stern) responsibility due to safety risks and costs. In the past, nuclear power plant managements could (partly) ignore profit or it was simply expected and to some degree assured through the various regulatory processes governing electricity rate design. It is obvious now that, with the deregulation, utility privatization and competitive electricity market, key measure of success used at nuclear power plants must include traditional metrics of successful business (return on investment, earnings and revenue generation) as well as those of plant performance, safety and reliability. In order to analyze business performance of (specific) nuclear power plant, benchmarking, as one of the well-established concept and usual method was used. Domain was conservatively designed, with well-adjusted framework, but results have still limited application due to many differences, gaps and uncertainties. (author).

  8. Wind power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kling, A

    1977-01-13

    The wind power plant described has at least one rotor which is coupled to an electricity generator. The systems are fixed to a suspended body so that it is possible to set up the wind power plant at greater height where one can expect stronger and more uniform winds. The anchoring on the ground or on a floating body is done by mooring cables which can simultaneously have the function of an electric cable. The whole system can be steered by fins. The rotor system itself consists of at least one pair of contrarotating, momentum balanced rotors.

  9. Ardennes nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-12-01

    The SENA nuclear power plant continued to operate, as before, at authorized rated power, namely 905MWth during the first half year and 950MWth during the second half year. Net energy production:2028GWh; hours phased to the line: 7534H; availability factor: 84%; utilization factor: 84%; total shutdowns:19; number of scrams:10; cost per KWh: 4,35 French centimes. Overall, the plant is performing very satisfactory. Over the last three years net production has been 5900GWh, corresponding to in average utilization factor of 83%

  10. Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlov, V.V.; Rineisky, A.A.

    1975-01-01

    The invention is aimed at designing a nuclear power plant with a heat transfer system which permits an accelerated fuel regeneration maintaining relatively high initial steam values and efficiency of the steam power circuit. In case of a plant with three circuits the secondary cooling circuit includes a steam generator with preheater, evaporator, steam superheater and intermediate steam superheater. At the heat supply side the latter is connected with its inlet to the outlet of the evaporator and with its outlet to the low-temperature side of the secondary circuit

  11. TAPCHAN Wave Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-10-01

    The Tapered Channel Wave Power Plant (TAPCHAN) is based on a new method for wave energy conversion. The principle of operation can be explained by dividing the system into the following four sub-systems: Firstly, a collector which is designed to concentrate the water energy and optimize collection efficiency for a range of frequencies and directions. Secondly, the energy converter, in which the energy of the collected waves is transformed into potential energy in an on-shore water reservoir. This is the unique part of the power plant. It consists of a gradually narrowing channel with wall heights equal to the filling level of the reservoir (typical heights 3-7 m). The waves enter the wide end of the channel and as they propagate down the narrowing channel, the wave height is amplified until the wavecrests spill over the walls. Thirdly, a reservoir which provides a stable water supply for the turbines. Finally, the hydroelectric power plant, where well established techniques are used for the generation of electric power. The water turbine driving the electric generator is of a low head type, such as a Kaplan or a tubular turbine. It must be designed for salt water operation and should have good regulation capabilities. Power plants based on the principle described, are now offered on a commercial basis.

  12. ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF DIESEL LOCOMOTIVE HYDRAULIC TRANSMISSION TESTS AT LOCOMOTIVE REPAIR PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. E. Bodnar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In difficult economic conditions, cost reduction of electricity consumption for the needs of production is an urgent task for the country’s industrial enterprises. Technical specifications of enterprises, which repair diesel locomotive hydraulic transmission, recommend conducting a certain amount of evaluation and regulatory tests to monitor their condition after repair. Experience shows that a significant portion of hydraulic transmission defects is revealed by bench tests. The advantages of bench tests include the ability to detect defects after repair, ease of maintenance of the hydraulic transmission and relatively low labour intensity for eliminating defects. The quality of these tests results in the transmission resource and its efficiency. Improvement of the technology of plant post-repairs hydraulic tests in order to reduce electricity consumption while testing. Methodology. The possible options for hydraulic transmission test bench improvement were analysed. There was proposed an energy efficiency method for diesel locomotive hydraulic transmission testing in locomotive repair plant environment. This is achieved by installing additional drive motor which receives power from the load generator. Findings. Based on the conducted analysis the necessity of improving the plant stand testing of hydraulic transmission was proved. The variants of the stand modernization were examined. The test stand modernization analysis was conducted. Originality. The possibility of using electric power load generator to power the stand electric drive motor or the additional drive motor was theoretically substantiated. Practical value. A variant of hydraulic transmission test stand based on the mutual load method was proposed. Using this method increases the hydraulic transmission load range and power consumption by stand remains unchanged. The additional drive motor will increase the speed of the input shaft that in its turn wil allow testing in

  13. 500 Watt Diesel Fueled TPV Portable Power Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, W. E.; Morgan, M. D.; Sundaram, V. S.; Butcher, T.

    2003-01-01

    A test-bed 500 watt diesel fueled thermophotovoltaic (TPV) portable power supply is described. The goal of the design is a compact, rugged field portable unit weighing less than 15 pounds without fuel. The conversion efficiency goal is set at 15% fuel energy to electric energy delivered to an external load at 24 volts. A burner/recuperator system has been developed to meet the objectives of high combustion air preheat temperatures with a compact heat exchanger, low excess air operation, and high convective heat transfer rates to the silicon carbide emitter surface. The burner incorporates a air blast atomizer with 100% of the combustion air passing through the nozzle. Designed firing rate of 2900 watts at 0.07 gallons of oil per hour. This incorporates a single air supply dc motor/fan set and avoids the need for a system air compressor. The recuperator consists of three annular, concentric laminar flow passages. Heat from the combustion of the diesel fuel is both radiantly and convectively coupled to the inside wall of a cylindrical silicon carbide emitter. The outer wall of the emitter then radiates blackbody energy at the design temperature of 1400°C. The cylindrical emitter is enclosed in a quartz envelope that separates it from the photovoltaic (PV) cells. Spectral control is accomplished by a resonant mesh IR band-pass filter placed between the emitter and the PV array. The narrow band of energy transmitted by the filter is intercepted and converted to electricity by an array of GaSb PV cells. The array consists of 216 1-cm × 1-cm GaSb cells arranged into series and parallel arrays. An array of heat pipes couple the PV cell arrays to a heat exchanger which is cooled by forced air convection. A brief status of the key TPV technologies is presented followed by data characterizing the performance of the 500 watt TPV system.

  14. Geothermal Power Generation Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Tonya [Oregon Inst. of Technology, Klamath Falls, OR (United States). Geo-Heat Center

    2013-12-01

    Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) drilled a deep geothermal well on campus (to 5,300 feet deep) which produced 196°F resource as part of the 2008 OIT Congressionally Directed Project. OIT will construct a geothermal power plant (estimated at 1.75 MWe gross output). The plant would provide 50 to 75 percent of the electricity demand on campus. Technical support for construction and operations will be provided by OIT’s Geo-Heat Center. The power plant will be housed adjacent to the existing heat exchange building on the south east corner of campus near the existing geothermal production wells used for heating campus. Cooling water will be supplied from the nearby cold water wells to a cooling tower or air cooling may be used, depending upon the type of plant selected. Using the flow obtained from the deep well, not only can energy be generated from the power plant, but the “waste” water will also be used to supplement space heating on campus. A pipeline will be construction from the well to the heat exchanger building, and then a discharge line will be construction around the east and north side of campus for anticipated use of the “waste” water by facilities in an adjacent sustainable energy park. An injection well will need to be drilled to handle the flow, as the campus existing injection wells are limited in capacity.

  15. Nuclear power plant analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stritar, A.

    1986-01-01

    The development of Nuclear Power Plant Analyzers in USA is described. There are two different types of Analyzers under development in USA, the forst in Idaho and Los Alamos national Lab, the second in brookhaven National lab. That one is described in detail. The computer hardware and the mathematical models of the reactor vessel thermalhydraulics are described. (author)

  16. Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieser, R.

    1979-01-01

    The reactor pressure vessel consists of two parts. A cylindrical lower part with a hemispherical steel roof is placed at some distance within an equally shaped pressure vessel of concrete. Both vessels are standing on a common bottom plate. The interspace is kept at subpressure. It serves to contain ring galleries, elevator shafts, and power plant components. (GL) [de

  17. Nuclear Power Plant Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, George A.

    1975-01-01

    The author recognizes a body of basic knowledge in nuclear power plant technoogy that can be taught in school programs, and lists the various courses, aiming to fill the anticipated need for nuclear-trained manpower--persons holding an associate degree in engineering technology. (Author/BP)

  18. Steam power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.W.E.

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to power plant forced flow boilers operating with water letdown. The letdown water is arranged to deliver heat to partly expanded steam passing through a steam reheater connected between two stages of the prime mover. (U.K.)

  19. Power plants 2009. Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Within the Annual Conference 2009 of the VGB PowerTech e.V. (Essen, Federal Republic of Germany) from 23rd to 25th May, 2009, in Lyon (France) the following lectures were held: (1) Electricity demand, consequences of the financial and economic crisis - Current overview 2020 for the EU-27 (Hans ten Berge); (2) Status and perspectives of the electricity generation mix in France (Bernard Dupraz); (3) European electricity grid - status and perspective (Dominique Maillard); (4) Technologies and acceptance in the European energy market (Gordon MacKerran); (5) EPR construction in Finland, China, France, (Claude Jaouen); (6) EPR Flamanville 3: A project on the path towards nuclear revival (Jacques Alary); (7) Worldwide nuclear Revival and acceptance (Luc Geraets); (8) An overview on the status of final disposal of radioactive wastes worldwide (Piet Zuidema); (9) Who needs pumped storage plants? PSP are partner to grid stability and renewable energies (Hans-Christoph Funke); (10) Sustainable use of water resources to generate electricity safely and efficiently (Patrick Tourasse); (11) The growth strategy of RWE Innogy - Role of RES in RWE strategy (Fritz Vahrenholt); (12) Solar technologies towards grid parity - key factors and timeframe (G. Gigliucci); (13) Overview on CCS technologies and results of Vattenfalls oxyfuel pilot plant (Philippe Paelinck); (14) Development perspectives of lignite-based IGCC-plants with CCS (Dietmar Keller); (15) Post combustion capture plants - concept and plant integration (Wolfgang Schreier); (16) CCS fossil power generation in a carbon constraint world (Daniel Hofmann); (17) CEZ group strategy in Central and South Eastern Europe (Jan Zizka); (18) Strategy and projects of DONG Energy (Jens Erik Pedersen); (19) E.ON coal-based power generation of the future - The highly efficient power plant and downstream separation of carbon dioxide (Gerhard Seibel); (20) Final sage of first supercritical 460 MW e l. CFB Boiler construction - firs

  20. Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Plant (BNPP) is located in Zarechny, approximately 60 km east of Ekaterinberg along the Trans-Siberian Highway. Zarechny, a small city of approximately 30,000 residents, was built to support BNPP operations. It is a closed city to unescorted visitors. Residents must show identification for entry. BNPP is one of the first and oldest commercial nuclear power plants in Russia and began operations in 1964. As for most nuclear power plants in the Russian Federation, BNPP is operated by Rosenergoatom, which is subordinated to the Ministry of Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation (Minatom). BNPP is the site of three nuclear reactors, Units 1, 2, and 3. Units 1 and 2, which have been shut-down and defueled, were graphite moderated reactors. The units were shut-down in 1981 and 1989. Unit 3, a BN-600 reactor, is a 600 MW(electric) sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor. Unit 3 went on-line in April 1980 and produces electric power which is fed into a distribution grid and thermal power which provides heat to Zarechny. The paper also discusses the SF NIKIET, the Sverdiovsk Branch of NIKIET, Moscow, which is the research and development branch of the parent NIKEIT and is primarily a design institute responsible for reactor design. Central to its operations is a 15 megawatt IVV research reactor. The paper discusses general security and fissile material control and accountability at these two facilities

  1. Nuclear power plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otway, H.J.

    1974-01-01

    Action at the international level will assume greater importance as the number of nuclear power plants increases, especially in the more densely populated parts of the world. Predictions of growth made prior to October 1973 [9] indicated that, by 1980, 14% of the electricity would be supplied by nuclear plants and by the year 2000 this figure would be about 50%. This will make the topic of international co-operation and standards of even greater importance. The IAEA has long been active in providing assistance to Member States in the siting design and operation of nuclear reactors. These activities have been pursued through advisory missions, the publication of codes of practice, guide books, technical reports and in arranging meetings to promote information exchange. During the early development of nuclear power, there was no well-established body of experience which would allow formulation of internationally acceptable safety criteria, except in a few special cases. Hence, nuclear power plant safety and reliability matters often received an ad hoc approach which necessarily entailed a lack of consistency in the criteria used and in the levels of safety required. It is clear that the continuation of an ad hoc approach to safety will prove inadequate in the context of a world-wide nuclear power industry, and the international trade which this implies. As in several other fields, the establishment of internationally acceptable safety standards and appropriate guides for use by regulatory bodies, utilities, designers and constructors, is becoming a necessity. The IAEA is presently planning the development of a comprehensive set of basic requirements for nuclear power plant safety, and the associated reliability requirements, which would be internationally acceptable, and could serve as a standard frame of reference for nuclear plant safety and reliability analyses

  2. Latina nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-03-01

    In the period under review, the Latina power plant produced 1009,07 million kWh with a utilization factor of 72% and an availability factor of 80,51%. The disparity between the utilization and availability factors was mainly due to the shutdown of the plant owing to trade union strife. The reasons for non-availability (19,49%) were almost all related to the functioning of the conventional part and the general servicing of the plant (18 September-28 October). During the shutdown for maintenance, an inspection of the steel members and parts of the core stabilizing structure was made in order to check for the familiar oxidation phenomena caused by CO 2 ; the results of the inspection were all satisfactory. Operation of the plant during 1974 was marked by numerous power cutbacks as a result of outages of the steam-raising units (leaks from the manifolds) and main turbines (inspection and repairs to the LP rotors). Since it was first brought into commercial operation, the plant has produced 13,4 thousand million kWh

  3. Wind power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, G

    1975-11-20

    A wind power plant is proposed suitable for electicity generation or water pumping. This plant is to be self-adjusting to various wind velocities and to be kept in operation even during violent storms. For this purpose the mast, carrying the wind rotor and pivotable around a horizontal axis is tiltable and equipped with a wind blind. Further claims contain various configurations of the tilting base resp. the cut in of an elastic link, the attachment and design of the wind blind as well as the constructive arrangement of one or more dynamos.

  4. Power plant process computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, R.

    1982-01-01

    The concept of instrumentation and control in nuclear power plants incorporates the use of process computers for tasks which are on-line in respect to real-time requirements but not closed-loop in respect to closed-loop control. The general scope of tasks is: - alarm annunciation on CRT's - data logging - data recording for post trip reviews and plant behaviour analysis - nuclear data computation - graphic displays. Process computers are used additionally for dedicated tasks such as the aeroball measuring system, the turbine stress evaluator. Further applications are personal dose supervision and access monitoring. (orig.)

  5. Fossil power plant automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Divakaruni, S.M.; Touchton, G.

    1991-01-01

    This paper elaborates on issues facing the utilities industry and seeks to address how new computer-based control and automation technologies resulting from recent microprocessor evolution, can improve fossil plant operations and maintenance. This in turn can assist utilities to emerge stronger from the challenges ahead. Many presentations at the first ISA/EPRI co-sponsored conference are targeted towards improving the use of computer and control systems in the fossil and nuclear power plants and we believe this to be the right forum to share our ideas

  6. Comparison between Different Power Sources for Emergency Power Supply at Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenasson, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    Currently the Swedish nuclear power plants are using diesel generator sets and to some extent gas turbines as their emergency AC power sources and batteries as their emergency DC power sources. In the laws governing Swedish nuclear activity, no specific power sources are prescribed. On the other hand, diversification of safety functions should be considered, as well as simplicity and reliability in the safety systems. So far the choices of emergency power sources have been similar between different power plants, and therefore this project investigated a number of alternative power sources and if they are suitable for use as emergency power on nuclear power plants. The goals of the project were to: - Define the parameters that are essential for rending a power source suitable for use at a nuclear power plant. - Present the characteristics of a number of power sources regarding the defined parameters. - Compile the suitability of the different power sources. - Make implementation suggestions for the less conventional of the investigated power sources. (unconventional in the investigated application) 10 different power sources in total have been investigated and to various degrees deemed suitable Out of the 10 power sources, diesel generators, batteries and to some extent gas turbines are seen as conventional technology at the nuclear power plants. In relation to them the other power sources have been assessed regarding diversification gains, foremost with regards to external events. The power sources with the largest diversification gains are: Internal steam turbine, Hydro power, Thermoelectric generators. The work should first and foremost put focus on the fact that under the right circumstances there are power sources that can complement conventional power sources and yield substantial diversification gains. This paper is a shortened version of the report 'Comparison between different power sources for emergency power supply at nuclear power plants'. The

  7. Study of In-Cylinder Reactions of High Power-Density Direct Injection Diesel Engines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jansons, M

    2004-01-01

    Direct-injection (DI) Diesel or compression-ignition (CI) engine combustion process is investigated when new design and operational strategies are employed in order to achieve a high power-density (HPD) engine...

  8. Techno-economic Analysis of a Wind-Diesel Hybrid Power System in the South Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaireddine Allali

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The electrical energy is often produced with the help of diesel generators in isolated areas in the Saharan region. While the latter requiring relatively little investment because is generally expensive to exploit due to the transportation to remote areas adds extra cost, significant fuel consumption and relatively high maintenance cost, etc. Moreover, the electricity production by the diesel is ineffective, presents significant environmental risks. But these isolated areas have significant wind energy potential; which is good position for the exploitation of clean and sustainable wind energy. The use of wind-diesel power system is widely recommended especially to reduce fuel consumption and in this way to reduce system operating costs and environmental impact. The subject of this paper is to present the techno-economic analysis of a wind-diesel hybrid power system. In this context, the contribution envisaged with this research is to collaborate on the optimal design of a hybrid power system including a wind turbine generator, a diesel generator and an energy storage system for powering a continuous way an isolated site in the South Algerian installed power of 120 kW.This system has a high control strategy for the management of different power sources (wind, diesel, battery that depending to weather conditions, especially wind speed values and the power demanded by the consumer load.

  9. Virtual power plant auctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ausubel, Lawrence M.; Cramton, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Since their advent in 2001, virtual power plant (VPP) auctions have been implemented widely. In this paper, we describe the simultaneous ascending-clock auction format that has been used for virtually all VPP auctions to date, elaborating on other design choices that most VPP auctions have had in common as well as discussing a few aspects that have varied significantly among VPP auctions. We then evaluate the various objectives of regulators in requiring VPP auctions, concluding that the auctions have been effective devices for facilitating new entry into electricity markets and for developing wholesale power markets. (author)

  10. Virtual power plant auctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ausubel, Lawrence M.; Cramton, Peter [Department of Economics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Since their advent in 2001, virtual power plant (VPP) auctions have been implemented widely. In this paper, we describe the simultaneous ascending-clock auction format that has been used for virtually all VPP auctions to date, elaborating on other design choices that most VPP auctions have had in common as well as discussing a few aspects that have varied significantly among VPP auctions. We then evaluate the various objectives of regulators in requiring VPP auctions, concluding that the auctions have been effective devices for facilitating new entry into electricity markets and for developing wholesale power markets. (author)

  11. Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aisaka, Tatsuyoshi; Kamahara, Hisato; Yanagisawa, Ko.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent corrosion stress cracks in structural materials in a BWR type nuclear power plant by decreasing the oxygen concentration in the reactor coolants. Constitution: A hydrogen injector is connected between the condensator and a condensate clean up system of a nuclear power plant. The injector is incorporated with hydrogenated compounds formed from metal hydrides, for example, of alloys such as lanthanum-nickel alloy, iron titanium alloy, vanadium, palladium, magnesium-copper alloy, magnesium-nickel alloy and the like. Even if the pressure of hydrogen obtained from a hydrogen bomb or by way of water electrolysis is changed, the hydrogen can always be injected into a reactor coolant at a pressure equal to the equilibrium dissociation pressure for metal hydride by introducing the hydrogen into the hydrogen injector. (Seki, T.)

  12. Evaluation of tolerance to soils contaminated with diesel oil in plant species with bioremediation potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petenello, Maria Cristina; Feldman, Susana Raquel.

    2012-01-01

    Soils contaminated with hydrocarbons or their derivate can be remediated by different methods. Many of them use live organisms such as plants that are able to mineralize these compounds, turning them into more simple molecules, similar to natural molecules. When the use of plants is decided, it is important to employ native plants because they are already adapted to the particular ecological conditions of the site. The response of spartina argentinensis, paspalum atratum, paspalum guenoarun and melilotus albus to the presence of diesel oil was evaluated considering seed germination, plant emergence and biomass production of plants growing on soils experimentally contaminated with different concentrations of diesel oil (1 and 2 %). Although all the parameters evaluated showed the negative impact of the presence of diesel-oil, the plants continued growing; therefore they can be considered useful management options for soil phytoremediation.

  13. Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schabert, H.P.; Laurer, E.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns a quick-acting valve on the main-steam pipe of a nuclear power plant. The engineering design of the valve is to be improved. To the main valve disc, a piston-operated auxiliary valve disc is to be assigned closing a section of the area of the main valve disc. This way it is avoided that the drive of the main valve disc has to carry out different movements. 15 sub-claims. (UWI) [de

  14. Fusion power plant economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    The rationale, methodology, and updated comparative results of cost projections for magnetic-fusion-energy central-station electric power plants are considered. Changing market and regulatory conditions, particularly in the U.S., prompt fundamental reconsideration of what constitutes a competitive future energy-source technology and has implications for the direction and emphasis of appropriate near-term research and development programs, for fusion and other advanced generation systems. 36 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Power plant emissions reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy

    2015-10-20

    A system for improved emissions performance of a power plant generally includes an exhaust gas recirculation system having an exhaust gas compressor disposed downstream from the combustor, a condensation collection system at least partially disposed upstream from the exhaust gas compressor, and a mixing chamber in fluid communication with the exhaust gas compressor and the condensation collection system, where the mixing chamber is in fluid communication with the combustor.

  16. Atomic power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Hiroto.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To permit decay heat to be reliably removed after reactor shut-down at such instance as occurrence of loss of power by means of an emergency water supply pump. Structure: An atomic power plant having a closed cycle constructed by connecting a vapor generator, a vapor valve, a turbine having a generator, a condenser, and a water supply pump in the mentioned order, and provided with an emergency water supply pump operated when there is a loss of power to the water supply pump, a degasifier pressure holding means for holding the pressure of the degasifier by introducing part of the vapor produced from said vapor generator, and a valve for discharge to atmosphere provided on the downstream side of said vapor generator. (Kamimura, M.)

  17. Research on H2 speed governor for diesel engine of marine power station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Man-Lei

    2007-09-01

    The frequency stability of a marine power system is determined by the dynamic characteristic of the diesel engine speed regulation system in a marine power station. In order to reduce the effect of load disturbances and improve the dynamic precision of a diesel engine speed governor, a controller was designed for a diesel engine speed regulation system using H2 control theory. This transforms the specifications of the system into a standard H2 control problem. Firstly, the mathematical model of a diesel engine speed regulation system using an H2 speed governor is presented. To counter external disturbances and model uncertainty, the design of an H2 speed governor rests on the problem of mixed sensitivity. Computer simulation verified that the H2 speed governor improves the dynamic precision of a system and the ability to adapt to load disturbances, thus enhancing the frequency stability of marine power systems.

  18. Optimal construction and combined wind and diesel power production in a regional power purchase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lautala, P.; Antila, H.; Raekkoelaeinen, J.; Heikkilae, H. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Automation and Control Inst.

    1998-12-31

    A weak electricity transmission and distribution network and a wind generator were modelled by a non-linear dynamic model. Energy purchase of a small utility was modelled as a linear mixed integer optimisation problem. The dynamic model was used to simulate the effects of distance between the wind generator and a regional power grid and the effects of changes in the production of the wind generator. The optimisation model was used to investigate the effect of the combined diesel and wind production. In this case the results show that if the distance between the generator and the network grid is more than 70 km, then voltage fluctuations exceed acceptable levels. The optimisation provides the value of the combined diesel and wind production. (orig.)

  19. On nuclear power plant uprating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, S. Allen; Bailey, James V.; Maginnis, Stephen T.

    2004-01-01

    Power uprating for commercial nuclear power plants has become increasingly attractive because of pragmatic reasons. It provides quick return on investment and competitive financial benefits, while involving low risks regarding plant safety and public objection. This paper briefly discussed nuclear plant uprating guidelines, scope for design basis analysis and engineering evaluation, and presented the Salem nuclear power plant uprating study for illustration purposes. A cost and benefit evaluation of the Salem power uprating was also included. (author)

  20. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1991-12-01

    The Finnish nuclear power plant units Loviisa 1 and 2 as well as TVO 1 and II were in operation for almost the whole second quarter of 1991. The load factor average was 87.4 %. In consequence of a fire, which broke out in the switchgear building, connections to both external grids were lost and TVO II relied on power supplied by four back-up diesels for 7.5 hrs. The event is classified as Level 2 on the International Nuclear Event Scale. The process of examining the non-leaking fuel bundles removed from the Loviisa nuclear reactors has continued. The examinations have revealed, so far, that the uppermost spacing lattices of the bundles exhibit deformations similar to those detected in the leaking fuel bundles removed from the reactors. This event is classified as Level 1 on the International Nuclear Event Scale. Other events in this quarter which are classified according to the International Nuclear Event Scale are Level Zero (Below Scale) on the Scale. The Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety has assessed the safety of the Loviisa and Olkiluoto nuclear power plants based on the new regulations issued on 14.2.1991 by the Council of State. The safety regulations are much more stringent than those in force when the Loviisa and Olkiluoto nuclear power plants were built. The assessment indicated that the TVO nuclear power plant meets these safety regulations. The Loviisa nuclear power plant meets the requirements with the exception of certain requirements related to the ensuring of safety functions and provision for accidents. At the Loviisa nuclear power plant there are several projects under consideration to enhance safety

  1. First and second law analysis of diesel engine powered cogeneration systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abusoglu, Aysegul; Kanoglu, Mehmet

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the thermodynamic analysis of the existing diesel engine cogeneration system is performed. All necessary data are obtained from the actual diesel engine cogeneration plant located at Gaziantep, Turkey. The exergy analysis is aimed to evaluate the exergy destruction in each component as well as the exergetic efficiencies. The thermodynamic performance of a 25.32 MW electricity and 8.1 tons/h steam capacity diesel engine cogeneration system at full load conditions is analyzed. The thermal efficiency of the overall plant is found to be 44.2% and the exergetic efficiency is 40.7%. The exergy balance equations developed in this paper may also be utilized in the exergoeconomic analysis to estimate the production costs depending on various input costs in a diesel cogeneration system

  2. Modelling and automatic reactive power control of isolated wind-diesel hybrid power systems using ANN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bansal, R.C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an artificial neural network (ANN) based approach to tune the parameters of the static var compensator (SVC) reactive power controller over a wide range of typical load model parameters. The gains of PI (proportional integral) based SVC are optimised for typical values of the load voltage characteristics (n q ) by conventional techniques. Using the generated data, the method of multi-layer feed forward ANN with error back propagation training is employed to tune the parameters of the SVC. An ANN tuned SVC controller has been applied to control the reactive power of a variable slip/speed isolated wind-diesel hybrid power system. It is observed that the maximum deviations of all parameters are more for larger values of n q . It has been shown that initially synchronous generator supplies the reactive power required by the induction generator and/or load, and the latter reactive power is purely supplied by the SVC

  3. Modelling and automatic reactive power control of isolated wind-diesel hybrid power systems using ANN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bansal, R.C. [Electrical and Electronics Engineering Division, School of Engineering and Physics, The University of the South Pacific, Suva (Fiji)

    2008-02-15

    This paper presents an artificial neural network (ANN) based approach to tune the parameters of the static var compensator (SVC) reactive power controller over a wide range of typical load model parameters. The gains of PI (proportional integral) based SVC are optimised for typical values of the load voltage characteristics (n{sub q}) by conventional techniques. Using the generated data, the method of multi-layer feed forward ANN with error back propagation training is employed to tune the parameters of the SVC. An ANN tuned SVC controller has been applied to control the reactive power of a variable slip/speed isolated wind-diesel hybrid power system. It is observed that the maximum deviations of all parameters are more for larger values of n{sub q}. It has been shown that initially synchronous generator supplies the reactive power required by the induction generator and/or load, and the latter reactive power is purely supplied by the SVC. (author)

  4. Garigliano nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-03-01

    During the period under review, the Garigliano power station produced 1,028,77 million kWh with a utilization factor of 73,41% and an availability factor of 85,64%. The disparity between the utilization and availability factors was mainly due to a shutdown of about one and half months owing to lack of staff at the plant. The reasons for nonavailability (14.36%) break down as follows: nuclear reasons 11,49%; conventional reasons 2,81%; other reasons 0,06%. During the period under review, no fuel replacements took place. The plant functioned throughout with a single reactor reticulation pump and resulting maximum available capacity of 150 MWe gross. After the month of August, the plant was operated at levels slightly below the maximum available capacity in order to lengthen the fuel cycle. The total number of outages during the period under review was 11. Since the plant was brought into commercial operation, it has produced 9.226 million kWh

  5. Comparative studies between nuclear power plants and hydroelectric power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menegassi, J.

    1984-01-01

    This paper shows the quantitative evolution of the power plants in the main countries of the world. The Brazilian situation is analysed, with emphasys in the technical and economical aspects related to power production by hidroelectric or nuclear power plants. The conclusion is that the electricity produced by hidro power plants becomes not economics when is intended to be produced at large distances from the demand centers. (Author) [pt

  6. Nuclear power plant disasters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trott, K.R.

    1979-01-01

    The possibility of a nuclear power plant disaster is small but not excluded: in its event, assistance to the affected population mainly depends on local practitioners. Already existing diseases have to be diagnosed and treated; moreover, these physicians are responsible for the early detection of those individuals exposed to radiation doses high enough to induce acute illness. Here we present the pathogenesis, clinical development and possible diagnostic and therapeutical problems related to acute radiation-induced diseases. The differentiation of persons according to therapy need and prognosis is done on the sole base of the clinical evidence and the peripheral blood count. (orig.) [de

  7. Demonstration tokamak power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.; Baker, C.; Brooks, J.; Ehst, D.; Mattas, R.; Smith, D.L.; DeFreece, D.; Morgan, G.D.; Trachsel, C.

    1983-01-01

    A conceptual design for a tokamak demonstration power plant (DEMO) was developed. A large part of the study focused on examining the key issues and identifying the R and D needs for: (1) current drive for steady-state operation, (2) impurity control and exhaust, (3) tritium breeding blanket, and (4) reactor configuration and maintenance. Impurity control and exhaust will not be covered in this paper but is discussed in another paper in these proceedings, entitled Key Issues of FED/INTOR Impurity Control System

  8. Siting nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yellin, J.; Joskow, P.L.

    1980-01-01

    The first edition of this journal is devoted to the policies and problems of siting nuclear power plants and the question of how far commercial reactors should be placed from urban areas. The article is divided into four major siting issues: policies, risk evaluation, accident consequences, and economic and physical constraints. One concern is how to treat currently operating reactors and those under construction that were established under less-stringent criteria if siting is to be used as a way to limit the consequences of accidents. Mehanical cost-benefit analyses are not as appropriate as the systematic use of empirical observations in assessing the values involved. Stricter siting rules are justified because (1) opposition because of safety is growing: (2) remote siting will make the industry more stable; (3) the conflict is eliminated between regulatory policies and the probability basis for nuclear insurance; and (4) joint ownership of utilities and power-pooling are increasing. 227 references, 7 tables

  9. Pulsed nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, C.V.

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear power plant. This power plant consists of: 1.) a cavity; 2.) a detonatable nuclear device in a central region of the cavity; 3.) a working fluid inside of the cavity; 4.) a method to denote a nuclear device inside of the cavity; 5.) a mechanical projection from an interior wall of the cavity for recoiling to absorb a shock wave produced by the detonation of the nuclear device and thereby protecting the cavity from damage. A plurality of segments defines a shell within the cavity and a plurality of shock absorbers, each connecting a corresponding segment to a corresponding location on the wall of the cavity. Each of these shock absorbers regulate the recoil action of the segments; and 6.) means for permitting controlled extraction of a quantity of hot gases from the cavity produced by the vaporization of the working fluid upon detonation of the nuclear device. A method of generating power is also described. This method consists of: 1.) introducing a quantity of water in an underground cavity; 2.) heating the water in the cavity to form saturated steam; 3.) detonating a nuclear device at a central location inside the cavity; 4.) recoiling plate-like elements inside the cavity away from the central location in a mechanically regulated and controlled manner to absorb a shock wave produced by the nuclear device detonation and thereby protect the underground cavity against damage; 5.) extracting a quantity of superheated steam produced by the detonation of the nuclear device; and 6.) Converting the energy in the extracted superheated steam into electrical power

  10. Wind power plant system services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basit, Abdul; Altin, Müfit

    Traditionally, conventional power plants have the task to support the power system, by supplying power balancing services. These services are required by the power system operators in order to secure a safe and reliable operation of the power system. However, as in the future the wind power...... is going more and more to replace conventional power plants, the sources of conventional reserve available to the system will be reduced and fewer conventional plants will be available on-line to share the regulation burden. The reliable operation of highly wind power integrated power system might...... then beat risk unless the wind power plants (WPPs) are able to support and participate in power balancing services. The objective of this PhD project is to develop and analyse control strategies which can increase the WPPs capability to provide system services, such as active power balancing control...

  11. Power and Torque Characteristics of Diesel Engine Fuelled by Palm-Kernel Oil Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguntola J. ALAMU

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Short-term engine performance tests were carried out on test diesel engine fuelled with Palm kernel oil (PKO biodiesel. The biodiesel fuel was produced through transesterification process using 100g PKO, 20.0% ethanol (wt%, 1.0% potassium hydroxide catalyst at 60°C reaction temperature and 90min. reaction time. The diesel engine was attached to a general electric dynamometer. Torque and power delivered by the engine were monitored throughout the 24-hour test duration at 1300, 1500, 1700, 2000, 2250 and 2500rpm. At all engine speeds tested, results showed that torque and power outputs for PKO biodiesel were generally lower than those for petroleum diesel. Also, Peak torque for PKO biodiesel occurred at a lower engine speed compared to diesel.

  12. Emergency ac power systems operating experience at U.S. nuclear power plants - 1976 through 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battle, R. E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (United States)

    1986-02-15

    Success and failure data of test and emergency starts of emergency ac power sources (diesel generators) at U.S. nuclear power plants were collected and evaluated to estimate diesel generator reliability parameters. A regression analysis of the estimates of the probability of failure to start based on surveillance test data from 1976 through 1983 indicates that the probability of failure to start has been decreasing. However, the reliability of diesel generator performance during losses of off-site power for 1981 through 1983 was less than expected based on the test data estimates. The failures that occurred during losses of off-site power were reviewed to determine why the calculated failure to start was greater than expected, and possible explanations for this high value are presented. The subsystems involved In diesel generator subsystem failures were categorized to determine whether there were any dominant failure modes. The results indicate that further significant Improvement in diesel generator reliability will require improvement of many subsystems. (author)

  13. Aging and service wear of diesel engines used for emergency power at nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dingee, P.A.; Johnson, A.B.

    1985-01-01

    Aging and wear problems associated with emergency standby diesel generators are under study as part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Nuclear Plant Aging Research program. Aging/wear factors identified in this study to date include chemical, mechanical, electrochemical, and bacterial mechanisms. The study also examines the potential of excessive engine testing as a cause of premature wear. To date, the results of this effort are not conclusive. An assessment of current wear mitigation measures such as engine maintenance and surveillance procedures suggests the need for their further development within the nuclear industry

  14. Industrial safety in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The proceedings of the VGB conference 'Industrial safety in power plants' held in the Gruga-Halle, Essen on January 21 and 22, 1987, contain the papers reporting on: Management responsibility for and legal consequences of industrial safety; VBG 2.0 Industrial Accident Prevention Regulation and the power plant operator; Operational experience gained with wet-type flue gas desulphurization systems; Flue gas desulphurization systems: Industrial-safety-related requirements to be met in planning and operation; the effects of the Hazardous Substances Ordinance on power plant operation; Occupational health aspects of heat-exposed jobs in power plants; Regulations of the Industrial Accident Insurance Associations concerning heat-exposed jobs and industrial medical practice; The new VBG 30 Accident Prevention Regulation 'Nuclear power plants'; Industrial safety in nuclear power plants; safe working on and within containers and confined spaces; Application of respiratory protection equipment in power plants. (HAG) [de

  15. Nuclear Power Plant 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Again this year, our magazine presents the details of the conference on Spanish nuclear power plant operation held in February and that was devoted to 1996 operating results. The Protocol for Establishment of a New Electrical Sector Regulation that was signed last December will undoubtedly represent a new challenge for the nuclear industry. By clearing stating that current standards of quality and safety should be maintained or even increased if possible, the Protocol will force the Sector to improve its productivity, which is already high as demonstrated by the results of the last few years described during this conference and by recent sectorial economic studies. Generation of a nuclear kWh that can compete with other types of power plants is the new challenge for the Sector's professionals, who do not fear the new liberalization policies and approaching competition. Lower inflation and the resulting lower interest rates, apart from being representative indices of our economy's marked improvement, will be very helpful in facing this challenge. (Author)

  16. Generator gas as a fuel to power a diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tutak Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of gasification process of dried sewage sludge and use of generator gas as a fuel for dual fuel turbocharged compression ignition engine are presented. The results of gasifying showed that during gasification of sewage sludge is possible to obtain generator gas of a calorific value in the range of 2.15  2.59 MJ/m3. It turned out that the generator gas can be effectively used as a fuel to the compression ignition engine. Because of gas composition, it was possible to run engine with partload conditions. In dual fuel operation the high value of indicated efficiency was achieved equal to 35%, so better than the efficiency of 30% attainable when being fed with 100% liquid fuel. The dual fuel engine version developed within the project can be recommended to be used in practice in a dried sewage sludge gasification plant as a dual fuel engine driving the electric generator loaded with the active electric power limited to 40 kW (which accounts for approx. 50% of its rated power, because it is at this power that the optimal conditions of operation of an engine dual fuel powered by liquid fuel and generator gas are achieved. An additional advantage is the utilization of waste generated in the wastewater treatment plant.

  17. Dynamic multi-stage dispatch of isolated wind–diesel power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Yu; Morales, Juan M.; Pineda, Salvador; Sánchez, María Jesús; Solana, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimal decision-making model for isolated hybrid wind–diesel power system is proposed. • Wind power uncertainty and conditional operating cost are considered. • Battery wear cost of the energy storage system is included in the model. • The results are compared with deterministic dispatch strategies. - Abstract: An optimal dispatch strategy is crucial for an isolated wind–diesel power system to save diesel fuel and maintain the system stability. The uncertainty associated with the stochastic character of the wind is, though, a challenging problem for this optimization. In this paper, a dynamic multi-stage decision-making model is proposed to determine the diesel power output that minimizes the cost of running and maintaining the wind–diesel power system. Optimized operational decisions for each time period are generated dynamically considering the path-dependent nature of the optimal dispatch policy, given the plausible future realizations of the wind power production. A numerical case study is analyzed and it is demonstrated that the proposed stochastic dynamic optimization model significantly outperforms the traditional deterministic dispatch strategies

  18. An assessment on performance, combustion and emission behavior of a diesel engine powered by ceria nanoparticle blended emulsified biofuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annamalai, M.; Dhinesh, B.; Nanthagopal, K.; SivaramaKrishnan, P.; Isaac JoshuaRamesh Lalvani, J.; Parthasarathy, M.; Annamalai, K.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel biofuel, lemongrass is used as a renewable energy source. • Emulsion prepared using 5% of water, 93% of lemongrass oil and 2% of surfactant. • Emulsified nano biofuel performance profile stayed closer to diesel fuel. • Drastic reduction in HC, CO, NO_X and marginal decrease of smoke compared with diesel. - Abstract: The consequence of using cerium oxide (CeO_2) nanoparticle as additive in Lemongrass Oil (LGO) emulsion fuel was experimentally investigated in a single cylinder, constant speed diesel engine. A novel biofuel plant was introduced in this project, namely lemongrass whose binomial name is Cymbopogon flexuosus. The main objective of the project is to reduce the level of harmful pollutants in the exhaust such as unburned hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NO_X), and smoke. The engine performance could also be increased due to the addition of CeO_2 nanoparticle. The LGO emulsion fuel was prepared in the proportion of 5% of water, 93% of LGO and 2% of span80 by volume basis. Span80 acted as surfactant and it would reduce surface tension between the liquids with a hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) value of 4.2. The ceria nanoparticle was dispersed with the LGO emulsion fuel in the dosage of 30 ppm (ppm). The diesel engine performance, combustion behavior and emission magnitude were compared with diesel and LGO as the base fuels. The whole investigation was conducted with a single cylinder diesel engine using the following fuels, namely neat diesel, neat LGO, LGO emulsion and LGO nano emulsion fuels respectively. The LGO emulsion fuel could reduce smoke and NO_X emissions and could improve Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE), Brake Specific Energy Consumption (BSEC) compared with neat LGO despite the marginal increase in HC and CO emissions. For ceria nanoparticle blended test fuel, the drastic reduction of carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbon (HC), oxides of nitrogen (NO_X) and marginal decrease of

  19. Nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ushijima, Susumu.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to prevent the degradation in the quality of condensated water in a case where sea water leakage should occur in a steam condenser of a BWR type nuclear power plant. Constitution: Increase in the ion concentration in condensated water is detected by an ion concentration detector and the leaking factor of sea water is calculated in a leaking factor calculator. If the sea water leaking factor exceeds a predetermined value, a leak generation signal is sent from a judging device to a reactor power control device to reduce the reactor power. At ehe same tiem, the leak generation signal is also sent to a steam condenser selection and isolation device to interrupt the sea water pump of a specified steam condenser based on the signal from the ion concentration detector, as well as close the inlet and outlet valves while open vent and drain valves to thereby forcively discharge the sea water in the cooling water pipes. This can keep the condensate desalting device from ion breaking and prevent the degradation in the quality of the reactor water. (Horiuchi, T.)

  20. Hybrid combined cycle power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veszely, K.

    2002-01-01

    In case of re-powering the existing pressurised water nuclear power plants by the proposed HCCPP solution, we can increase the electricity output and efficiency significantly. If we convert a traditional nuclear power plant unit to a HCCPP solution, we can achieve a 3.2-5.5 times increase in electricity output and the achievable gross efficiency falls between 46.8-52% and above, depending on the applied solution. These figures emphasise that we should rethink our power plant technologies and we have to explore a great variety of HCCPP solutions. This may give a new direction in the development of nuclear reactors and power plants as well.(author)

  1. Accident prevention in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steyrer, H.

    Large thermal power plants are insured to a great extent at the Industrial Injuries Insurance Institute of Instrument and Electric Engineering. Approximately 4800 employees are registered. The accident frequency according to an evaluation over 12 months lies around 79.8 per year and 1000 employees in fossil-fired power plants, around 34.1 per year and 1000 employees in nuclear power plants, as in nuclear power plants coal handling and ash removal are excluded. Injuries due to radiation were not registered. The crucial points of accidents are mechanical injuries received on solid, sharp-edged and pointed objects (fossil-fired power plants 28.6%, nuclear power plants 41.5%), stumbling, twisting or slipping (fossil-fired power plants 21.8%, nuclear power plants 19.5%) and injuries due to moving machine parts (only nuclear power plants 12.2%). However, accidents due to burns or scalds obtain with 4.2% and less a lower portion than expected. The accident statistics can explain this fact in a way that the typical power plant accident does not exist. (orig./GL) [de

  2. A light-weight, yet powerful diesel locomotive from Vossloh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marti, Mariano [Vossloh Rail Vehicles, Albuixech/Valencia (Spain)

    2013-05-15

    The EUROLIGHT is an eight-wheeled diesel-electric locomotive developed by Vossloh Rail Vehicles for interoperable rail traffic. With its low axle load of less than 20 tonnes, it can be deployed flexibly on both main lines and secondary ones.

  3. Wuergassen nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    The decision of the Federal Court of Administration concerns an application for immediate decommissioning of a nuclear power plant (Wuergassen reactor): The repeal of the permit granted. The decision dismisses the appeal for non-admission lodged by the plaintiffs against the ruling of the Higher Court of Administration (OVG) of North-Rhine Westphalia of December 19th 1988 (File no. 21 AK 8/88). As to the matter in dispute, the Federal Court of Administration confirms the opinion of the Higher Court of Administration. As to the headnotes, reference can be made to that decision. Federal Court of Administration, decision of April 5th 1989 - 7 B 47.89. Lower instance: OVG NW, Az.: 21 AK 8/88. (orig./RST) [de

  4. Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uruma, Hiroshi

    1998-01-01

    In the first embodiment of the present invention, elements less activated by neutrons are used as reactor core structural materials placed under high neutron irradiation. In the second embodiment of the present invention, materials less activated by neutrons when corrosive materials intrude to a reactor core are used as structural materials constituting portions where corrosion products are generated. In the third embodiment, chemical species comprising elements less activated by neutrons are used as chemical species to be added to reactor water with an aim of controlling water quality. A nuclear power plant causing less radioactivity can be provided by using structural materials comprising a group of specific elements hardly forming radioactivity by activation of neutrons or by controlling isotope ratios. (N.H.)

  5. Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schabert, H.P.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear power plant is described which includes a steam generator supplied via an input inlet with feedwater heated by reactor coolant to generate steam, the steam being conducted to a steam engine having a high pressure stage to which the steam is supplied, and which exhausts the steam through a reheater to a low pressure stage. The reheater is a heat exchanger requiring a supply of hot fluid. To avoid the extra load that would be placed on the steam generator by using a portion of its steam output as such heating fluid, a portion of the water in the steam generator is removed and passed through the reheater, this water having received at least adequate heating in the steam generator to make the reheater effective, but not at the time of its removal being in a boiling condition

  6. Gasoline, diesel, and ethanol biofuels from grasses and plants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gupta, Ram B; Demirbas, Ayhan

    2010-01-01

    ...-generation biofuels obtained from nonfood biomass, such as forest residue, agricultural residue, switchgrass, corn stover, waste wood, and municipal solid wastes. Various technologies are discussed, including cellulosic ethanol, biomass gasification, synthesis of diesel and gasoline, biocrude by hydrothermal liquefaction, bio-oil by fast pyrolysis, and the...

  7. Power Plant Replacement Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self-funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University's aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty-three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  8. Power plant removal costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    The financial, regulatory and political significance of the estimated high removal costs of nuclear power plants has generated considerable interest in recent years, and the political significance has resulted in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) eliminating the use of conventional depreciation accounting for the decontamination portion of the removal (decommissioning). While nuclear plant licensees are not precluded from utilizing conventional depreciation accounting for the demolition of non-radioactive structures and site restoration, state and federal utility regulators have not been favorably inclined to requests for this distinction. The realization that steam-generating units will be more expensive to remove, relative to their original cost, predates the realization that nuclear units will be expensive. However, the nuclear issues have overshadowed this realization, but are unlikely to continue to do so. Numerous utilities have prepared cost estimates for steam generating units, and this presentation discusses the implications of a number of such estimates that are a matter of public record. The estimates cover nearly 400 gas, oil, coal and lignite generating units. The earliest estimate was made in 1978, and for analysis purposes the author has segregated them between gas and oil units, and coal and lignite units

  9. Power Plant Replacement Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self-funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University’s aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty-three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  10. Perspectives of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajda, Gy.

    2001-01-01

    In several countries the construction of nuclear power plants has been stopped, and in some counties several plants have been decommissioned or are planned to. Therefore, the question arises: have nuclear power plants any future? According to the author, the question should be reformulated: can mankind survive without nuclear power? To examine this challenge, the global power demand and its trends are analyzed. According to the results, traditional energy sources cannot be adequate to supply power. Therefore, a reconsideration of nuclear power should be imminent. The economic, environmental attractions are discussed as opposite to the lack of social support. (R.P.)

  11. Wind-power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kling, A

    1976-08-26

    The invention is concerned with a wind-power plant whose rotor axis is pivoted in the supporting structure and swingable around an axis of tilt, forming an angle with the rotor axis and the vertical axis, and allowing precession of the rotor. On changes of wind direction an electric positioning device is moving the rotor axis into the new direction in such a way that no precession forces are exerted on the supporting structure and this one may very easily be held. Instead of one rotor, also a type with two coaxial, co-planar countercurrent rotors may be used. Each of the two countercurrent rotors is carrying a number of magnetic poles, distributed all over the circumference, acting together with the magnetic poles of the other rotor. At least the poles of one rotor have electric line windings being connected by leads with a collector so that the two rotors form the two parts of a power generator being each rotatable with respect to the other ('stator' and 'rotor').

  12. Technical model for optimising PV/diesel/battery hybrid power systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tazvinga, Henerica

    2010-08-31

    Full Text Available A solar-based power supply system, such as a photovoltaic (PV)-diesel-battery system, is a particularly attractive option for decentralised power supply in southern Africa where solar radiation is ubiquitous in most countries. Such systems can make...

  13. Power generation by nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacher, P.

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear power plays an important role in the world, European (33%) and French (75%) power generation. This article aims at presenting in a synthetic way the main reactor types with their respective advantages with respect to the objectives foreseen (power generation, resources valorization, waste management). It makes a fast review of 50 years of nuclear development, thanks to which the nuclear industry has become one of the safest and less environmentally harmful industry which allows to produce low cost electricity: 1 - simplified description of a nuclear power generation plant: nuclear reactor, heat transfer system, power generation system, interface with the power distribution grid; 2 - first historical developments of nuclear power; 3 - industrial development and experience feedback (1965-1995): water reactors (PWR, BWR, Candu), RBMK, fast neutron reactors, high temperature demonstration reactors, costs of industrial reactors; 4 - service life of nuclear power plants and replacement: technical, regulatory and economical lifetime, problems linked with the replacement; 5 - conclusion. (J.S.)

  14. Displacing the dinosaurs. [Diesel engine electric generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon,

    1992-05-01

    This article describes how giant power stations are being replaced by smaller, cleaner units. These include plants using combined-cycle gas turbines and diesel engines of low, medium and high speeds. The use of these diesel engines in power generation is discussed. (UK).

  15. Study of a solar PV-diesel-battery hybrid power system for a remotely located population near Rafha, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, Shafiqur; Al-Hadhrami, Luai M.

    2010-01-01

    This study presents a PV-diesel hybrid power system with battery backup for a village being fed with diesel generated electricity to displace part of the diesel by solar. The hourly solar radiation data measured at the site along with PV modules mounted on fixed foundations, four generators of different rated powers, diesel prices of 0.2-1.2US$/l, different sizes of batteries and converters were used to find an optimal power system for the village. It was found that a PV array of 2000 kW and four generators of 1250, 750, 2250 and 250 kW; operating at a load factor of 70% required to run for 3317 h/yr, 4242 h/yr, 2820 h/yr and 3150 h/yr, respectively; to produce a mix of 17,640 MWh of electricity annually and 48.33 MWh per day. The cost of energy (COE) of diesel only and PV/diesel/battery power system with 21% solar penetration was found to be 0.190$/kWh and 0.219$/kWh respectively for a diesel price of 0.2$/l. The sensitivity analysis showed that at a diesel price of 0.6$/l the COE from hybrid system become almost the same as that of the diesel only system and above it, the hybrid system become more economical than the diesel only system. (author)

  16. Brighter for small power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaland, Leif

    2003-01-01

    The article presents a small tunnel drilling machine aimed at using for the construction of small hydroelectric power plants and mentions briefly some advantages economically and environmentally of both the machine and the power production solution

  17. PM-10 emissions and power of a Diesel engine fueled with crude and refined Biodiesel from salmon oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.F. Reyes; M.A. Sepulveda [University of Concepcion (Chile). Department of Mechanization and Energy, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering

    2006-09-15

    Power response and level of particulate emissions were assessed for blends of Diesel-crude Biodiesel and Diesel-refined Biodiesel. Crude Biodiesel and refined Biodiesel or methyl ester, were made from salmon oil with high content of free fatty acids, throughout a process of acid esterification followed by alkaline transesterification. Blends of Diesel-crude Biodiesel and Diesel-refined Biodiesel were tested in a diesel engine to measure simultaneously the dynamometric response and the particulate material (PM-10) emission performance. The results indicate a maximum power loss of about 3.5% and also near 50% of PM-10 reduction with respect to diesel when a 100% of refined Biodiesel is used. For blends with less content of either crude Biodiesel or refined Biodiesel, the observed power losses are lower but at the same time lower reduction in PM-10 emissions are attained. 21 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Are atomic power plants saver than nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeglin, H.C.

    1977-01-01

    It is rather impossible to establish nuclear power plants against the resistance of the population. To prevail over this resistance, a clarification of the citizens-initiatives motives which led to it will be necessary. This is to say: It is quite impossible for our population to understand what really heappens in nuclear power plants. They cannot identify themselves with nuclear power plants and thus feel very uncomfortable. As the total population feels the same way it is prepared for solidarity with the citizens-initiatives even if they believe in the necessity of nuclear power plants. Only an information-policy making transparent the social-psychological reasons of the population for being against nuclear power plants could be able to prevail over the resistance. More information about the technical procedures is not sufficient at all. (orig.) [de

  19. Employing modern power plant simulators in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niedorf, V.; Storm, J.

    2005-01-01

    At the present state of the art, modern power plant simulators are characterized by new qualitative features, thus enabling operators to use them far beyond the traditional field of training. In its first part, this contribution presents an overview of the requirements to be met by simulators for multivalent uses. In part two, a survey of the uses and perspectives of simulation technology in power plants is presented on the basis of experience accumulated by Rheinmetall Defence Electronics (RDE).Modern simulators are shown to have applications by far exceeding traditional training areas. Modular client - sever systems on standard computers allow inexpensive uses to be designed at several levels, thus minimizing maintenance cost. Complex development and running time environments, like the SEMS developed by RDE, have made power plant simulators the workhorses of power plant engineers in all power plant areas. (orig.)

  20. The year 2000 power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, H.T.

    1989-01-01

    Every utility seeks extended service life from its existing power plants before building new ones. It is not easy to justify a new power plant. The licensing and cost of new plants have become uncertain. In response to these conditions, electric utilities are undertaking plant life-extension studies and, in some cases, reconditioning/upgrading old power plants to significantly increase useful service life. Other technologies like robotics and artificial intelligence/expert systems are also being developed to reduce operating and maintenance (O and M) expenses, to remove workers from potentially hazardous environments, and to reduce plant downtime. Together, these steps represent an interim solution, perhaps providing some relief for the next few decades. However, there are serious physical and economic limits to retrofitting new technology into existing power plants. Some old plants will simply be beyond their useful life and require retirement. In nuclear plants, for instance, retrofit may raise important and time-consuming licensing/safety issues. Based on their robotics and artificial intelligence experience, the authors of this article speculate bout the design of the year 2000 power plant - a power plant they feel will naturally incorporate liberal amounts of robotic and artificial intelligence technologies

  1. Images of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashiguchi, Katsuhisa; Misumi, Jyuji; Yamada, Akira; Sakurai, Yukihiro; Seki, Fumiyasu; Shinohara, Hirofumi; Misumi, Emiko; Kinjou, Akira; Kubo, Tomonori.

    1995-01-01

    This study was conducted to check and see, using Hayashi's quantification method III, whether or not the respondents differed in their images of a nuclear power plant, depending on their demographic variables particularly occupations. In our simple tabulation, we compared subject groups of nuclear power plant employees with general citizens, nurses and students in terms of their images of a nuclear power plant. The results were that while the nuclear power plant employees were high in their evaluations of facts about a nuclear power plant and in their positive images of a nuclear power plant, general citizens, nurses and students were overwhelmingly high in their negative images of a nuclear power plant. In our analysis on category score by means of the quantification method III, the first correlation axis was the dimension of 'safety'-'danger' and the second correlation axis was the dimension of 'subjectivity'-'objectivity', and that the first quadrant was the area of 'safety-subjectivity', the second quadrant was the area of 'danger-subjectivity', the third quadrant as the area of 'danger-objectivity', and the forth quadrant was the area of 'safety-objectivity'. In our analysis of sample score, 16 occupation groups was compared. As a result, it was found that the 16 occupation groups' images of a nuclear power plant were, in the order of favorableness, (1) section chiefs in charge, maintenance subsection chiefs, maintenance foremen, (2) field leaders from subcontractors, (3) maintenance section members, operation section members, (4) employees of those subcontractors, (5) general citizens, nurses and students. On the 'safety-danger' dimension, nuclear power plant workers on the one hand and general citizens, nurses and students on the other were clearly divided in terms of their images of a nuclear power plant. Nuclear power plant workers were concentrated in the area of 'safety' and general citizens, nurses and students in the area of 'danger'. (J.P.N.)

  2. An analysis of the performance benefits of short-term energy storage in wind-diesel hybrid power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirazi, M.; Drouilhet, S.

    1996-01-01

    A variety of prototype high penetration wind-diesel hybrid power systems have been implemented with different amounts of energy storage. They range from systems with no energy storage to those with many hours worth of energy storage. There has been little consensus among wind-diesel system developers as to the appropriate role and amount of energy storage in such systems. Some researchers advocate providing only enough storage capacity to supply power during the time it takes the diesel genset to start. Others install large battery banks to allow the diesel(s) to operate at full load and/or to time-shift the availability of wind-generated electricity to match the demand. Prior studies indicate that for high penetration wind-diesel systems, short-term energy storage provides the largest operational and economic benefit. This study uses data collected in Deering, Alaska, a small diesel-powered village, and the hybrid systems modeling software Hybrid2 to determine the optimum amount of short-term storage for a particular high penetration wind-diesel system. These findings were then generalized by determining how wind penetration, turbulence intensity, and load variability affect the value of short term energy storage as measured in terms of fuel savings, total diesel run time, and the number of diesel starts

  3. Nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urata, Hidehiro; Oya, Takashi

    1996-11-05

    The present invention provides a highly safe light water-cooled type nuclear power plant capable of reducing radiation dose by suppressing deposition of activated corrosion products by a simple constitution. Namely, equipments and pipelines for fluid such as pumps at least in one of fluid systems such as a condensate cleanup system are constituted by a material containing metal species such as Zn having an effect of suppressing deposition of radioactivity. Alternatively, the surface of these equipments and pipelines for fluids on which water passes is formed by a coating layer comprising a material containing a metal having a radiation deposition suppressing effect. As a result, radioactivity deposited on the equipments and pipelines for fluids is reduced. In addition, since the method described above may be applied only at least to a portion of the members constituting at least one of the systems for fluids, it is economical. Accordingly, radiation dose upon inspection of equipments and pipelines for fluids can be reduced simply and reliably. (I.S.)

  4. Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urata, Hidehiro; Oya, Takashi.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention provides a highly safe light water-cooled type nuclear power plant capable of reducing radiation dose by suppressing deposition of activated corrosion products by a simple constitution. Namely, equipments and pipelines for fluid such as pumps at least in one of fluid systems such as a condensate cleanup system are constituted by a material containing metal species such as Zn having an effect of suppressing deposition of radioactivity. Alternatively, the surface of these equipments and pipelines for fluids on which water passes is formed by a coating layer comprising a material containing a metal having a radiation deposition suppressing effect. As a result, radioactivity deposited on the equipments and pipelines for fluids is reduced. In addition, since the method described above may be applied only at least to a portion of the members constituting at least one of the systems for fluids, it is economical. Accordingly, radiation dose upon inspection of equipments and pipelines for fluids can be reduced simply and reliably. (I.S.)

  5. Pipelines in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oude-Hengel, H.H.

    1978-01-01

    Since the end of the Sixties, steam-transporting pipelines are given great attention, as pipeline components often fail, partially even long before their designed operation time is over. Thus, experts must increasingly deal with questions of pipelines and their components. Design and calculation, production and operation of pipelines are included in the discussion. Within the frame of this discussion, planners, producers, operators, and technical surveillance personnel must be able to offer a homogenous 'plan for assuring the quality of pipelines' in fossil and nuclear power plants. This book tries to make a contribution to this topic. 'Quality assuring' means efforts made for meeting the demands of quality (reliability). The book does not intend to complete with well-known manuals, as for as a complete covering of the topic is concerned. A substantial part of its sections serves to show how quality assurance of pipelines can be at least partially obtained by surveillance measures beginning with the planning, covering the production, and finally accompanying the operation. There is hardly need to mention that the sort of planning, production, and operation has an important influence on the quality. This is why another part of the sections contain process aspects from the view of the planners, producers, and operators. (orig.) [de

  6. Nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyokawa, Teruyuki; Soman, Yoshindo.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To constitute a heat exchanger as one unit by integrating primary and secondary coolant circuits with secondary coolant circuit and steam circuit into a single primary circuit and steam circuit. Constitution: A nuclear power plant comprises a nuclear reactor vessel, primary coolant pipeways and a leakage detection system, in which a dual-pipe type heat exchanger is connected to the primary circuit pipeway. The heat conduction tube of the heat exchanger has a dual pipe structure, in which the inside of the inner tube is connected to the primary circuit pipeway, the outside of the outer tube is connected to steam circuit pipeway and a fluid channel is disposed between the inner and outer tubes and the fluid channel is connected to the inside of an expansion tank for intermediate heat medium. The leak detection system is disposed to the intermediate heat medium expansion tank. Sodium as the intermediate heat medium is introduced from the intermediate portion (between the inner and outer tubes) by way of inermediate heat medium pipeways to the intermediate heat medium expansion tank and, further, to the intermediate portion for recycling. (Kawakami, Y.)

  7. Underground nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hideo.

    1997-01-01

    In an underground-type nuclear power plant, groups of containing cavities comprising a plurality of containing cavities connected in series laterally by way of partition walls are disposed in parallel underground. Controlled communication tunnels for communicating the containing cavities belonging to a control region to each other, and non-controlled communication tunnels for communicating containing cavities belonging to a non-controlled area to each other are disposed underground. A controlled corridor tunnel and a non-controlled corridor tunnel extended so as to surround the containing cavity groups are disposed underground, and the containing cavities belonging to the controlled area are connected to the controlled corridor tunnel respectively, and the containing cavities belonging to the non-controlled area are connected to the non-controlled corridor tunnel respectively. The excavating amount of earth and sand upon construction can be reduced by disposing the containing cavity groups comprising a plurality of containing cavities connected in series laterally. The time and the cost for the construction can be reduced, and various excellent effects can be provided. (N.H.)

  8. Diesel fuel filtration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, D.

    1996-01-01

    The American nuclear utility industry is subject to tight regulations on the quality of diesel fuel that is stored at nuclear generating stations. This fuel is required to supply safety-related emergency diesel generators--the backup power systems associated with the safe shutdown of reactors. One important parameter being regulated is the level of particulate contamination in the diesel fuel. Carbon particulate is a natural byproduct of aging diesel fuel. Carbon particulate precipitates from the fuel's hydrocarbons, then remains suspended or settles to the bottom of fuel oil storage tanks. If the carbon particulate is not removed, unacceptable levels of particulate contamination will eventually occur. The oil must be discarded or filtered. Having an outside contractor come to the plant to filter the diesel fuel can be costly and time consuming. Time is an even more critical factor if a nuclear plant is in a Limiting Condition of Operation (LCO) situation. A most effective way to reduce both cost and risk is for a utility to build and install its own diesel fuel filtration system. The cost savings associated with designing, fabricating and operating the system inhouse can be significant, and the value of reducing the risk of reactor shutdown because of uncertified diesel fuel may be even higher. This article describes such a fuel filtering system

  9. TRANSIENT ANALYSIS OF WIND DIESEL POWER SYSTEM WITH FLYWHEEL ENERGY STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. SUJITH

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Wind-Diesel Hybrid power generation is a viable alternative for generating continuous power to isolated power system areas which have inconsistent but potential wind power. The unpredictable nature of variable power from Wind generator to the system is compensated by Diesel generator, which supplies the deficit in generated power from wind to meet the instantaneous system load. However, one of the major challenges for such a system is the higher probability of transients in the form of wind and load fluctuations. This paper analyses the application of Flywheel Energy storage system (FESS to meet the transients during wind-speed and load fluctuations around high wind operation. The power system architecture, the distributed control mechanism governing the flow of power transfer and the modelling of major system components has been discussed and the system performances have been validated using MATLAB /Simulink software. Two cases of transient stages around the high wind system operation are discussed. The simulation results highlight the effective usage of FESS in reducing the peak overshoot of active power transients, smoothes the active power curves and helps in reducing the diesel consumption during the flywheel discharge period, without affecting the continuous power supply for meeting the instantaneous load demand.

  10. Generation of electric power through wind-diesel hybrid system for a hospital; Geracao de energia eletrica atraves de sistema hibrido diesel-eolico para um hospital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Silvio Carlos Anibal de; Freire, Raphael Lopes [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (DEM/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], e-mail: silvioa@gmail.com, e-mail: raphaellfreire@gmail.com

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a wind-diesel hybrid power simulation using the software Homer. The model is applied to the case study of Hospital das Clinicas da UNICAMP Analysis of several alternative energy facilities like wind, photovoltaic (PV), and connection of the isolated system with the grid is done. The costs used in the simulation indicated that the best results were obtained with the wind-diesel system. The payback period for the investment in the system is 8 years. (author)

  11. Power plants and safety 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The papers of this volume deal with the whole range of safety issues from planning and construction to the operation of power plants, and discuss also issues like availability and safety of power plants, protective clothes and their incommodating effect, alternatives for rendering hot-water generators safe and the safety philosophy in steam turbine engineering. (HAG) [de

  12. Thermodynamic optimization of power plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haseli, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Thermodynamic Optimization of Power Plants aims to establish and illustrate comparative multi-criteria optimization of various models and configurations of power plants. It intends to show what optimization objectives one may define on the basis of the thermodynamic laws, and how they can be applied

  13. Owners of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.S.

    1991-07-01

    This report indicates percentage ownership of commercial nuclear power plants by utility companies. The report includes all plants operating, under construction, docketed for NRC safety and environmental reviews, or under NRC antitrust review, but does not include those plants announced but not yet under review or those plants formally cancelled. Part 1 of the report lists plants alphabetically with their associated applicants or licensees and percentage ownership. Part 2 lists applicants or licensees alphabetically with their associated plants and percentage ownership. Part 1 also indicates which plants have received operating licenses (OLS)

  14. Worldwide wind/diesel hybrid power system study: Potential applications and technical issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, W.R.; Johnson, B.L. III (Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA (USA))

    1991-04-01

    The world market potential for wind/diesel hybrid technology is a function of the need for electric power, the availability of sufficient wind resource to support wind/diesel power, and the existence of buyers with the financial means to invest in the technology. This study includes data related to each of these three factors. This study does not address market penetration, which would require analysis of application specific wind/diesel economics. Buyer purchase criteria, which are vital to assessing market penetration, are discussed only generally. Countries were screened for a country-specific market analysis based on indicators of need and wind resource. Both developed countries and less developed countries'' (LDCs) were screened for wind/diesel market potential. Based on the results of the screening, ten countries showing high market potential were selected for more extensive market analyses. These analyses provide country-specific market data to guide wind/diesel technology developers in making design decisions that will lead to a competitive product. Section 4 presents the country-specific data developed for these analyses, including more extensive wind resource characterization, application-specific market opportunities, business conditions, and energy market characterizations. An attempt was made to identify the potential buyers with ability to pay for wind/diesel technology required to meet the application-specific market opportunities identified for each country. Additionally, the country-specific data are extended to corollary opportunities in countries not covered by the study. Section 2 gives recommendations for wind/diesel research based on the findings of the study. 86 refs.

  15. Worldwide wind/diesel hybrid power system study: Potential applications and technical issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, W. R.; Johnson, B. L., III

    1991-04-01

    The world market potential for wind/diesel hybrid technology is a function of the need for electric power, the availability of sufficient wind resource to support wind/diesel power, and the existence of buyers with the financial means to invest in the technology. This study includes data related to each of these three factors. This study does not address market penetration, which would require analysis of application specific wind/diesel economics. Buyer purchase criteria, which are vital to assessing market penetration, are discussed only generally. Countries were screened for a country-specific market analysis based on indicators of need and wind resource. Both developed countries and less developed countries (LDCs) were screened for wind/diesel market potential. Based on the results of the screening, ten countries showing high market potential were selected for more extensive market analyses. These analyses provide country-specific market data to guide wind/diesel technology developers in making design decisions that will lead to a competitive product. Section 4 presents the country-specific data developed for these analyses, including more extensive wind resource characterization, application-specific market opportunities, business conditions, and energy market characterizations. An attempt was made to identify the potential buyers with ability to pay for wind/diesel technology required to meet the application-specific market opportunities identified for each country. Additionally, the country-specific data are extended to corollary opportunities in countries not covered by the study. Section 2 gives recommendations for wind/diesel research based on the findings of the study.

  16. Nuclear power plant diagnostic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokop, K.; Volavy, J.

    1982-01-01

    Basic information is presented on diagnostic systems used at nuclear power plants with PWR reactors. They include systems used at the Novovoronezh nuclear power plant in the USSR, at the Nord power plant in the GDR, the system developed at the Hungarian VEIKI institute, the system used at the V-1 nuclear power plant at Jaslovske Bohunice in Czechoslovakia and systems of the Rockwell International company used in US nuclear power plants. These diagnostic systems are basically founded on monitoring vibrations and noise, loose parts, pressure pulsations, neutron noise, coolant leaks and acoustic emissions. The Rockwell International system represents a complex unit whose advantage is the on-line evaluation of signals which gives certain instructions for the given situation directly to the operator. The other described systems process signals using similar methods. Digitized signals only serve off-line computer analyses. (Z.M.)

  17. Cross-connected onsite emergency A.C. power supplies for multi-unit nuclear power plant sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martore, J.A.; Voss, J.D.; Duncil, B.

    1987-01-01

    Recently, utility management, both at the corporate and plant operations levels, have reinforced their commitment to assuring increased plant reliability and availability. One means of achieving this objective involves an effective preventive maintenance program with technical specifications which allow implementation of certain preventive maintenance without plant shutdown. To accomplish this, Southern California Edison Company (SCE) has proposed a design change for San Onofre nuclear generating station (SONGS) units 2 and 3 to permit on emergency diesel generator for one unit to perform as an available AC power source for both units. Technical specifications for SCE's SONGS units 2 and 3, as at most nuclear power plants, currently require plant shutdown should one of the two dedicated onsite emergency AC power sources (diesel generators) become inoperable for more than 72 hours. This duration hinders root cause failure analysis, tends to limit the flexibility of preventive maintenance and precludes plant operation in the event of component failure. Therefore, this proposed diesel generator cross-connect design change offers an innovative means for averting plant shutdown should a single diesel generator become inoperable for longer than 72 hours. (orig./GL)

  18. VGB Congress 'Power Plants 2006'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    The VGB Congress 'Power Plants' took place in Dresden, 27 th to 29 th September 2006 under the auspices of the Federal Minister for Economics and Technology, Michael Glos. The motto of this year's Congress was 'Future becomes Reality - Investments in New Power Plants'. More than 1,200 participants from Germany and abroad attended the plenary and technical lectures on the topics 'Market and Competition' as well as 'Technology, Operation and Environment' for information and discussion. Special papers were dealing with further issues like 'Generation Market in Europe', 'Clean Power Technology Platform', French policy for new power plants as well as potentials and technology of renewables. (orig.)

  19. Nuclear power plant V-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The nuclear power plant Bohunice V -1 is briefly described. This NPP consists from two reactor units. Their main time characteristics are (Reactor Unit 1, Reactor Unit 2): beginning of construction - 24 April 1972; first controlled reactor power - 27 November 1978, 15 March 1980; connection to the grid - 17 December 1978, 26 March 1980; commercial operation - 1 April 1980, 7 January 1981. This leaflet contains: NPP V-1 construction; Major technological equipment (Primary circuit: Nuclear reactor [WWER 440 V230 type reactor];Steam generator; Reactor Coolant Pumps; Primary Circuit Auxiliary Systems. Secondary circuit: Turbine generators, Nuclear power plant electrical equipment; power plant control) and technical data

  20. Emergency power systems at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This Guide applies to nuclear power plants for which the total power supply comprises normal power supply (which is electric) and emergency power supply (which may be electric or a combination of electric and non-electric). In its present form the Guide provides general guidance for all types of emergency power systems (EPS) - electric and non-electric, and specific guidance (see Appendix A) on the design principles and the features of the emergency electric power system (EEPS). Future editions will include a second appendix giving specific guidance on non-electric power systems. Section 3 of this Safety Guide covers information on considerations that should be taken into account relative to the electric grid, the transmission lines, the on-site electrical supply system, and other alternative power sources, in order to provide high overall reliability of the power supply to the EPS. Since the nuclear power plant operator does not usually control off-site facilities, the discussion of methods of improving off-site reliability does not include requirements for facilities not under the operator's control. Sections 4 to 11 of this Guide provide information, recommendations and requirements that would apply to any emergency power system, be it electric or non-electric

  1. Techno Economical Study of PV-Diesel Power System for a Remote Island in Indonesia : A Case Study of Miangas Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbayan, M.; Nagasaka, K.

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to conduct the techno economical study of PC-Diesel power system based on renewable energy available locally in a remote island. This research is a case study for Miangas island which is the border island between Indonesia and Philipines. It is located in Talaud Island regency of North Sulawesi province of Indonesia. The monthly average daily radiation in Miangas island is 5.52 kWh/m2.The research methods used are data collection and data analysis using software HOMER. Based on the simulation result, the techno economic study of PV-Diesel power plant system based on energy demand in Miangas island can be obtained. The Cost of Energy (COE), Net Present Cost (NPC) and operating cost for proposed hybrid PV-Diesel power generation can be assessed for the design power systems uses Canadian solar Max Power C56x-325P of 150 KW PV, 18 string of Surette 6CS25P, Diesel Generator 50 kW and converter Magnum MS4448PAE 25 kW. The annual electricity production from the PV Diesel system for Miangas island is 309.589 kWh in which 80.7% electricity comes from PV, 19.3% electricity comes from diesel with the 109.063 kWh excess electricity. The cost of generating electrical energy in the term of cost of energy (COE), Net Present Cost (NPC) and operating cost are 0.318 US/kWh, 719.673 US and 36.857 US respectively.

  2. AND THERMAL POWER PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alduhov Oleg Aleksandrovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the atmospheric dispersion as part of the process of selection of sites to accommodate nuclear and thermal power plants is performed to identify concentration fields of emissions and to assess the anthropogenic impact produced on the landscape components and human beings. Scattering properties of the atmospheric boundary layer are mainly determined by the turbulence intensity and the wind field. In its turn, the turbulence intensity is associated with the thermal stratification of the boundary layer. Therefore, research of the atmospheric dispersion is reduced to the study of temperature and wind patterns of the boundary layer. Statistical processing and analysis of the upper-air data involves the input of the data collected by upper-air stations. Until recently, the upper-air data covering the standard period between 1961 and 1970 were applied for these purposes, although these data cannot assure sufficient reliability of assessments in terms of the properties of the atmospheric dispersion. However, recent scientific and technological developments make it possible to substantially increase the data coverage by adding the upper-air data collected within the period between 1964 and 2010. The article has a brief overview of BL_PROGS, a specialized software package designated for the processing of the above data. The software package analyzes the principal properties of the atmospheric dispersion. The use of the proposed software package requires preliminary development of a database that has the information collected by an upper-air station. The software package is noteworthy for the absence of any substantial limitations imposed onto the amount of the input data that may go up in proportion to the amount of the upper-air data collected by upper-air stations.

  3. Volatile organic compounds emissions from gasoline and diesel powered vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mugica, V [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Vega, E; Sanchez, G; Reyes, E; Arriaga, J. L [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Chow, J; Watson, J; Egami, R [Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV (United States)

    2001-01-01

    In this research, volatile organic compound emissions were characterized from gasoline and diesel vehicles. Sampling campaigns in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City were designed and carried out in tunnels, crossroads, and truck and bus terminals. The samples were analyzed with gas chromatography getting more than 250 different compounds, being more or less 60 of them the 80% of all the emissions. The most abundant are the two carbon compounds, as a result of the combustion, and compounds related to fuels compositions, like isopentane, xylenes, toluene among others. The profiles obtained in tunnels and crossroads were very similar with the exception of the 3 and 4 carbon compounds, which were found in bigger proportion in the profiles at crossroads. This may probably be due to the blend with the ambient air. The profiles corresponding to trucks and buses have a smaller content of two carbon compounds and a bigger content of xylenes, toluene and ethylbenzene. The variations in the proportions of the compounds allow differentiating the profiles of vehicles using gasoline and diesel. [Spanish] En este trabajo se caracterizaron las emisiones de compuestos organicos volatiles provenientes de vehiculos a gasolina y a diesel. Para ello, se disenaron diversas campanas de muestreo en la zona Metropolitana de la Ciudad de Mexico, en tuneles, cruceros y estaciones de camiones de carga y autobuses. Las muestras se analizaron con cromatografia, de gases obteniendose mas de 250 compuestos distintos, de los cuales aproximadamente 60 corresponden a mas del 80% de las emisiones. Los compuestos mas abundantes son los de dos carbonos, resultado de la combustion, y 4 carbonos que se encontraron en mayor proporcion en los perfiles de cruceros, lo cual se debe probablemente a la mezcla con el aire ambiente. Los perfiles correspondientes a camiones de carga y autobuses tienen un menor contenido de compuestos de dos carbonos y un mayor contenido de xilenos, tolueno y etilbenceno. Estas

  4. Practical testing of diesel generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angle, C.W.; Meyer, S.P.

    1985-01-01

    The testing of diesel generators is a very important facet of the safe operation of nuclear power plants. Improper testing can lead to increased failures and unavailability of the engines resulting in a reduced safety factor for a nuclear plant. For a testing program to be successful it must be well planned and effectively implemented. In addition, inspections and maintenance activities also impact diesel generator availability. This paper describes elements of a suggested diesel generator testing program as well as some of the pitfalls to be avoided

  5. Energy performance analysis for a photovoltaic, diesel, battery hybrid power supply system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tazvinga, Henerica

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at an energy performance analysis for a photovoltaic, diesel, and battery hybrid power supply system. The procedure starts by the identification of the hourly load requirements for a typical target consumer and the concept of load...

  6. A simple, robust and reliable wind diesel concept for remote power supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundsager, P.; Bindner, H.

    1994-01-01

    The paper introduces a Wind Diesel concept suitable for remote communities, the 'Simple, Robust and Reliable Concept' developed at Riso. All components are standard components, the system is self regulating using the component controllers and there is no power electronics. The paper documents...

  7. IMPROVMENT OF EFFECTIVE POWER OF THE DIESEL, ENGINE OPERATING ON MIXED BIODIESEL FUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Levterov

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The results of calculation and experimental studies of ways to increase the effective power of the bіodiesel engine and determine the effect of this increase on the economic and environmental performance of the diesel engine are presented in the given paper.

  8. Radiochemistry in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, W.

    2007-01-01

    Radiochemistry is employed in nuclear power plants not as an end in itself but, among other things, as a main prerequisite of optimum radiation protection. Radiochemical monitoring of various loops provides important information about sources of radioactivity, activity distribution in the plant and its changes. In the light of these analytical findings, plant crews are able to take measures having a positive effect on radiation levels in the plant. The example of a BWR plant is used to show, among other things, how radiochemical analyses helped to reduce radiation levels in a plant and, as a consequence, to decrease clearly radiation exposure of the personnel despite higher workloads. (orig.)

  9. Next Generation Geothermal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brugman, John; Hattar, Mai; Nichols, Kenneth; Esaki, Yuri

    1995-09-01

    A number of current and prospective power plant concepts were investigated to evaluate their potential to serve as the basis of the next generation geothermal power plant (NGGPP). The NGGPP has been envisaged as a power plant that would be more cost competitive (than current geothermal power plants) with fossil fuel power plants, would efficiently use resources and mitigate the risk of reservoir under-performance, and minimize or eliminate emission of pollutants and consumption of surface and ground water. Power plant concepts were analyzed using resource characteristics at ten different geothermal sites located in the western United States. Concepts were developed into viable power plant processes, capital costs were estimated and levelized busbar costs determined. Thus, the study results should be considered as useful indicators of the commercial viability of the various power plants concepts that were investigated. Broadly, the different power plant concepts that were analyzed in this study fall into the following categories: commercial binary and flash plants, advanced binary plants, advanced flash plants, flash/binary hybrid plants, and fossil/geothed hybrid plants. Commercial binary plants were evaluated using commercial isobutane as a working fluid; both air-cooling and water-cooling were considered. Advanced binary concepts included cycles using synchronous turbine-generators, cycles with metastable expansion, and cycles utilizing mixtures as working fluids. Dual flash steam plants were used as the model for the commercial flash cycle. The following advanced flash concepts were examined: dual flash with rotary separator turbine, dual flash with steam reheater, dual flash with hot water turbine, and subatmospheric flash. Both dual flash and binary cycles were combined with other cycles to develop a number of hybrid cycles: dual flash binary bottoming cycle, dual flash backpressure turbine binary cycle, dual flash gas turbine cycle, and binary gas turbine

  10. Automation technology in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essen, E.R.

    1995-01-01

    In this article a summery of the current architecture of modern process control systems in power plants and future trends have been explained. The further development of process control systems for power plants is influenced both by the developments in component and software technologies as well as the increased requirements of the power plants. The convenient and low cost configuration facilities of new process control systems have now reached a significance which makes it easy for customers to decide to purchase. (A.B.)

  11. Man and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    According to the Inst. fuer Unfallforschung/TUeV Rheinland, Koeln, the interpretation of empirical data gained from the operation of nuclear power plants at home and abroad during the period 1967-1975 has shown that about 38% of all reactor accidents were caused by human failures. These occured either during the design and construction, the commissioning, the reconditioning or the operation of the plants. This very fact stresses human responsibility for the safety of nuclear power plants, in spite of those plants being automated to a high degree and devices. (orig.) [de

  12. Owners of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, C.R.; White, V.S.

    1996-11-01

    Commercial nuclear power plants in this country can be owned by a number of separate entities, each with varying ownership proportions. Each of these owners may, in turn, have a parent/subsidiary relationship to other companies. In addition, the operator of the plant may be a different entity as well. This report provides a compilation on the owners/operators for all commercial power reactors in the United States. While the utility industry is currently experiencing changes in organizational structure which may affect nuclear plant ownership, the data in this report is current as of July 1996. The report is divided into sections representing different aspects of nuclear plant ownership.

  13. Owners of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.S.

    1979-12-01

    The following list indicates percentage ownership of commercial nuclear power plants by utility companies as of December 1, 1979. The list includes all plants licensed to operate, under construction, docketed for NRC safety and envionmental reviews, or under NRC antitrust review. It does not include those plants announced but not yet under review or those plants formally cancelled. In many cases, ownership may be in the process of changing as a result of antitrust license conditions and hearings, altered financial conditions, changed power needs, and other reasons. However, this list reflects only those ownership percentages of which the NRC has been formally notified

  14. Power quality control of an autonomous wind-diesel power system based on hybrid intelligent controller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Hee-Sang; Lee, Kwang Y; Kang, Min-Jae; Kim, Ho-Chan

    2008-12-01

    Wind power generation is gaining popularity as the power industry in the world is moving toward more liberalized trade of energy along with public concerns of more environmentally friendly mode of electricity generation. The weakness of wind power generation is its dependence on nature-the power output varies in quite a wide range due to the change of wind speed, which is difficult to model and predict. The excess fluctuation of power output and voltages can influence negatively the quality of electricity in the distribution system connected to the wind power generation plant. In this paper, the authors propose an intelligent adaptive system to control the output of a wind power generation plant to maintain the quality of electricity in the distribution system. The target wind generator is a cost-effective induction generator, while the plant is equipped with a small capacity energy storage based on conventional batteries, heater load for co-generation and braking, and a voltage smoothing device such as a static Var compensator (SVC). Fuzzy logic controller provides a flexible controller covering a wide range of energy/voltage compensation. A neural network inverse model is designed to provide compensating control amount for a system. The system can be optimized to cope with the fluctuating market-based electricity price conditions to lower the cost of electricity consumption or to maximize the power sales opportunities from the wind generation plant.

  15. Competitive breeder power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkleblack, R.K.

    1984-01-01

    To utilize the fissile material that is accumulating in the utilities' spent fuel pools, breeder plants must be less expensive than current LWR costs (or utilities will not buy nuclear plants in the near future) and also be highly reliable. The fundamental differences between LWRs and LMFBRs are discussed and recommendations are made for making the most of these differences to design a superior breeder plant that can sell in the future, opening the way to U.S. utilities becoming self-sufficient for fuel supply for centuries

  16. Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident: facts, environmental contamination, possible biological effects, and countermeasures

    OpenAIRE

    Anzai, Kazunori; Ban, Nobuhiko; Ozawa, Toshihiko; Tokonami, Shinji

    2011-01-01

    On March 11, 2011, an earthquake led to major problems at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. A 14-m high tsunami triggered by the earthquake disabled all AC power to Units 1, 2, and 3 of the Power Plant, and carried off fuel tanks for emergency diesel generators. Despite many efforts, cooling systems did not work and hydrogen explosions damaged the facilities, releasing a large amount of radioactive material into the environment. In this review, we describe the environmental impact of...

  17. Space nuclear reactor power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.; Ranken, W.A.; Koenig, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    Requirements for electrical and propulsion power for space are expected to increase dramatically in the 1980s. Nuclear power is probably the only source for some deep space missions and a major competitor for many orbital missions, especially those at geosynchronous orbit. Because of the potential requirements, a technology program on space nuclear power plant components has been initiated by the Department of Energy. The missions that are foreseen, the current power plant concept, the technology program plan, and early key results are described

  18. Smoothing of Grid-connected Wind-Diesel Power Output Using Energy Capacitor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel A. Elbaset

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a small hybrid power system consists of two types of power generation; wind turbine and diesel generation, DG connected to power distribution system. The fluctuations like random nature of wind power, turbulent wind, and sudden changes in load demand create imbalances in power distribution that can affect the frequency and the voltage in the power system. So, addition of Energy capacitor System, ECS is useful for compensation of fluctuating power, since it is capable of controlling both active and reactive power simultaneously and can smooth the output power flow. Hence, this paper proposes herein a dynamic model and simulation of a grid connected wind/DG based-ECS with power flow controllers between load and generation. Moreover, the paper presents a study to analyze the leveling of output fluctuation of wind power with the installation of ECS. To control the power exchanged between the ECS system and the AC grid, a load Following Control, LFC based supervisor is proposed with the aim to minimize variations of the power generated by the diesel generator. The interesting performance of the proposed supervisor is shown with the help of simulations. The computer simulation program is confirmed on a realistic circuit model which implemented in the Simulink environment of Matlab and works as if on line.

  19. Reliability of emergency alternating-current power systems at nuclear power plants: a discussion of NUREG/CR-2989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battle, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    The reliability of emergency alternating-current power systems typical of most nuclear power plants was estimated by using fault-tree analysis of selected typical designs. The failure probabilities used in the fault trees were calculated from extensive historical data collected from Licensee Event Reports and from operating experience information obtained from nuclear plant licensees. Trends of diesel generator independent failure on demand are included. No one or two improvements can be made at all plants to increase significantly the industry-average emergency alternating-current power system reliability; the most beneficial improvements are varied and plant specific

  20. Nuclear power plant operator licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The guide applies to the nuclear power plant operator licensing procedure referred to the section 128 of the Finnish Nuclear Energy Degree. The licensing procedure applies to shift supervisors and those operators of the shift teams of nuclear power plant units who manipulate the controls of nuclear power plants systems in the main control room. The qualification requirements presented in the guide also apply to nuclear safety engineers who work in the main control room and provide support to the shift supervisors, operation engineers who are the immediate superiors of shift supervisors, heads of the operational planning units and simulator instructors. The operator licensing procedure for other nuclear facilities are decided case by case. The requirements for the basic education, work experience and the initial, refresher and complementary training of nuclear power plant operating personnel are presented in the YVL guide 1.7. (2 refs.)

  1. Nuclear Power Plant Simulation Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Fran

    1979-01-01

    Presents a nuclear power plant simulation game which is designed to involve a class of 30 junior or senior high school students. Scientific, ecological, and social issues covered in the game are also presented. (HM)

  2. Model and simulation of the hydraulic turbine speed regulator of the Atucha I nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copparoni, G.; Etchepareborda, A.; Urrutia, G.

    1992-01-01

    The hydraulics turbines of Atucha I Nuclear Power Plant takes advantage of condenser cooling water level difference between the plant and the river to recover about 2,5 MW e. It also supplies emergency power until diesel generators start up. Speed regulation is needed due to the transients that during this process occur. The purpose is to minimize the diesels start up time, and to avoid overshoots on the internal grid frequency. The hydraulic turbine, its speed regulator and the electric system associated with this transient have been modeled. The models and some simulation results are presented in this work. (author)

  3. Elecnuc. Nuclear power plants worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This small folder presents a digest of some useful information concerning the nuclear power plants worldwide and the situation of nuclear industry at the end of 1997: power production of nuclear origin, distribution of reactor types, number of installed units, evolution and prediction of reactor orders, connections to the grid and decommissioning, worldwide development of nuclear power, evolution of power production of nuclear origin, the installed power per reactor type, market shares and exports of the main nuclear engineering companies, power plants constructions and orders situation, evolution of reactors performances during the last 10 years, know-how and development of nuclear safety, the remarkable facts of 1997, the future of nuclear power and the energy policy trends. (J.S.)

  4. Robotics for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraiwa, Takanori; Watanabe, Atsuo; Miyasawa, Tatsuo

    1984-01-01

    Demand for robots in nuclear power plants is increasing of late in order to reduce workers' exposure to radiations. Especially, owing to the progress of microelectronics and robotics, earnest desire is growing for the advent of intellecturized robots that perform indeterminate and complicated security work. Herein represented are the robots recently developed for nuclear power plants and the review of the present status of robotics. (author)

  5. Robotics for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiraiwa, Takanori; Watanabe, Atsuo; Miyasawa, Tatsuo

    1984-10-01

    Demand for robots in nuclear power plants is increasing of late in order to reduce workers' exposure to radiations. Especially, owing to the progress of microelectronics and robotics, earnest desire is growing for the advent of intellecturized robots that perform indeterminate and complicated security work. Herein represented are the robots recently developed for nuclear power plants and the review of the present status of robotics.

  6. Decommissioning of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollradt, J.

    1977-01-01

    A survey of the main questions of decommissioning of nuclear power plants will be given in the sight of German utilities (VDEW-Working group 'Stillegung'). The main topics are: 1) Definitions of decommissioning, entombment, removal and combinations of such alternatives; 2) Radioactive inventory (build up and decay); 3) Experience up to now; 4) Possibilities to dismantle are given by possibility to repair nuclear power plants; 5) Estimated costs, waste, occupational radiation dose; 6) German concept of decommissioning. (orig./HK) [de

  7. PV power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Within the international seminar of the Ostbayerisches Technologie-Transfer-Institut e.V. (OTTI) at 11th June, 2012 in Munich (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) Technical due diligence (Dietmar Obst); (2) Certification / rating system for large PV plants (Robert Pfatischer); (3) O and M requirements (Lars Rulf); (4) IR photography for large scale systems (Bernhard Weinreich); (5) New market models for PV systems - direct marketing and sales of PV electricity (Martin Schneider); (6) Needs and benefits for plant certification for grid connection and operation (Christoph Luetke-Lengerich); (7) Lare volume module testing / Screening in the field and workshop (Semir Merzoug); (8) Dismantling costs of large scale PV plants (Siegfried Schimpf).

  8. Performance of bio fuels in diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez I, Manuel L; Prada V, Laura P

    2007-01-01

    This paper shows the preliminary results of pilot plant tests developed in oil catalytic hydrotreating process, where the crude palm oil or a mixture of crude palm oil and mineral diesel is treated with an injection of 99% pure hydrogen flux, in a fixed bed reactor at high pressures and temperatures, in a presence of Nickel Molybdenum catalyst supported on alumina bed. The main product of this process is a fuel (bio diesel) which has the same or better properties than the diesel obtained by petroleum refining. It has been made some performance fuel tests in diesel engine? with good results in terms of power, torque and fuel consumption, without any changes in engine configuration. Considering the characteristics of the Catalytic hydrotreated bio diesel compare to conventional diesel, both fuels have similar distillation range? however, bio diesel has better flash point, cetane index and thermal stability. Gas fuels (methane, ethane, and propane) CO 2 and water are the secondary products of the process.

  9. Inertial fusion commercial power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, B.G.

    1994-01-01

    This presentation discusses the motivation for inertial fusion energy, a brief synopsis of five recently-completed inertial fusion power plant designs, some general conclusions drawn from these studies, and an example of an IFE hydrogen synfuel plant to suggest that future fusion studies consider broadening fusion use to low-emission fuels production as well as electricity

  10. Remote power supply by wind/diesel/battery systems - operational experience and economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniehl, R.; Cramer, G.; Toenges, K.H.

    1995-01-01

    To continuously supply remote villages and settlements not connected to the public grid with electric power is an ambitious technical task considering ecological and economical points of view. The German company SMA has developed a modular supply system as a solution for this task in the range of 30 kW to 5 MW. Meanwhile more than 20 applications of these 'Intelligent Power Systems (IPS)' have proved their technical reliability and economical competitiveness worldwide under different, and also extreme environmental conditions. Actually it is the first commercially available advanced Wind/Diesel/Battery System for remote area electrification. The modular autonomous electric supply systems realized by SMA basically consist of two or more diesel power sets, battery storage with converter, a rotating phaseshifter, and an optional number of wind turbines. All modules are coupled on the 3-phase AC system grid and run in various parallel configurations depending on the wind speed and the consumer power demand. The control system operates fully automatical and offers a very user-friendly graphical interface. This advanced system control also contains a remote control and operating data output via modem and telephone line. SMA and CES have considerable experience with Wind/Diesel/Battery Systems for more than eight years. In many cases wind energy converters in the power range of 30 to 40 kW were used, but it is also possible to use larger wind turbines (e.g. 250 kW). In the following the system technology is described in detail, experience of different system sizes in several countries of application is presented, and economical analyses for power supply by IPS are given in comparison to a conventional fully diesel power supply. (author)

  11. Remote power supply by wind/diesel/battery systems - operational experience and economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kniehl, R [CES - Consulting and Engineering Services, Heidelberg (Germany); Cramer, G; Toenges, K H [SMA Regelsysteme GmbH, Niestetal (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    To continuously supply remote villages and settlements not connected to the public grid with electric power is an ambitious technical task considering ecological and economical points of view. The German company SMA has developed a modular supply system as a solution for this task in the range of 30 kW to 5 MW. Meanwhile more than 20 applications of these `Intelligent Power Systems (IPS)` have proved their technical reliability and economical competitiveness worldwide under different, and also extreme environmental conditions. Actually it is the first commercially available advanced Wind/Diesel/Battery System for remote area electrification. The modular autonomous electric supply systems realized by SMA basically consist of two or more diesel power sets, battery storage with converter, a rotating phaseshifter, and an optional number of wind turbines. All modules are coupled on the 3-phase AC system grid and run in various parallel configurations depending on the wind speed and the consumer power demand. The control system operates fully automatical and offers a very user-friendly graphical interface. This advanced system control also contains a remote control and operating data output via modem and telephone line. SMA and CES have considerable experience with Wind/Diesel/Battery Systems for more than eight years. In many cases wind energy converters in the power range of 30 to 40 kW were used, but it is also possible to use larger wind turbines (e.g. 250 kW). In the following the system technology is described in detail, experience of different system sizes in several countries of application is presented, and economical analyses for power supply by IPS are given in comparison to a conventional fully diesel power supply. (author)

  12. Remote power supply by wind/diesel/battery systems - operational experience and economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kniehl, R. [CES - Consulting and Engineering Services, Heidelberg (Germany); Cramer, G.; Toenges, K.H. [SMA Regelsysteme GmbH, Niestetal (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    To continuously supply remote villages and settlements not connected to the public grid with electric power is an ambitious technical task considering ecological and economical points of view. The German company SMA has developed a modular supply system as a solution for this task in the range of 30 kW to 5 MW. Meanwhile more than 20 applications of these `Intelligent Power Systems (IPS)` have proved their technical reliability and economical competitiveness worldwide under different, and also extreme environmental conditions. Actually it is the first commercially available advanced Wind/Diesel/Battery System for remote area electrification. The modular autonomous electric supply systems realized by SMA basically consist of two or more diesel power sets, battery storage with converter, a rotating phaseshifter, and an optional number of wind turbines. All modules are coupled on the 3-phase AC system grid and run in various parallel configurations depending on the wind speed and the consumer power demand. The control system operates fully automatical and offers a very user-friendly graphical interface. This advanced system control also contains a remote control and operating data output via modem and telephone line. SMA and CES have considerable experience with Wind/Diesel/Battery Systems for more than eight years. In many cases wind energy converters in the power range of 30 to 40 kW were used, but it is also possible to use larger wind turbines (e.g. 250 kW). In the following the system technology is described in detail, experience of different system sizes in several countries of application is presented, and economical analyses for power supply by IPS are given in comparison to a conventional fully diesel power supply. (author)

  13. Emergency power systems at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This Safety Guide was prepared as part of the Nuclear Safety Standards programme for establishing Codes and Safety Guides relating to nuclear power plants (NPPs). The first edition of the present Safety Guide was developed in the early 1980s. The text has now been brought up-to-date, refined in several details and amended to include non-electrical diverse and independent power sources. This Guide applies to NPP for which the total power supply comprises a normal power supply and an emergency power supply (EPS), which may be electrical or a combination of electrical and non-electrical. The Guide provides general guidance for all types of EPS and specific guidance on the design safety requirements and the features of the electrical and non-electrical portions of the EPS. 9 figs, 2 tabs

  14. Organization patterns of PWR power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leicman, J.

    1980-01-01

    Organization patterns are shown for the St. Lucia 1, North Anna, Sequoyah, and Beaver Valley nuclear power plants, for a typical PWR power plant in the USA, for the Biblis/RWE-KWU nuclear power plants and for a four-unit nuclear power plant operated by Electricite de France as well as for the Loviisa power plant. Organization patterns are also shown for relatively independent and non-independent nuclear power plants according to IAEA recommendations. (J.P.)

  15. Reliability evaluation of emergency AC power systems based on operating experience at U.S. nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranowsky, P. W. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1986-02-15

    The reliability of emergency AC power Systems has been under study at the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and by its contractors for several years. This paper provides the results of work recently performed to evaluate past U.S. nuclear power plant emergency AC power System reliability performance using system level data. Operating experience involving multiple diesel generator failures, unavailabilities, and simultaneous occurrences of failures and out of service diesel generators were used to evaluate reliability performance at individual nuclear power plants covering a 9 year period from 1976 through 1984. The number and nature of failures and distributions of reliability evaluation results are provided. The results show that plant specific performance varied considerably during the period with a large number achieving high reliability performance and a smaller number accounting for lower levels of reliability performance. (author)

  16. Low-power wind plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalenko, V.I.; Shevchenko, Yu.V.; Shikhajlov, N.A.; Kokhanevich, V.P.; Tanan, G.L.

    1993-01-01

    Design peculiarities, as well as the prospects of development and introduction of the low-power (from 0.5 up to 4 kW) wind power plants (WPP) are considered. The variants of WPP with vertical and horizontal rotation axis are described. The data characterizing cost and structure of expenditures on WPP manufacture and operation are given

  17. Energy sources and power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, Detlef; Schulz, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Energy is obtained from various energy sources (coal, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear fuels, wind energy, solar energy, hydro power, biomass, geothermal energy). These differ in each case with respect to their availability, methods of their production and the required power plant technologies. As technologies of the future fuel cells and nuclear fusion are traded. [de

  18. Experience with emergency diesels at the Swiss NPP Goesgen (KKG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffen, W. [Federal Office of Energy, Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate, CH-5303 Wuerenlingen (Switzerland)

    1986-02-15

    The Goesgen nuclear power plant, a 970 MWe KWU pressurized water reactor, is fitted with 4 x 50 X emergency diesels and 2 x 100 % special emergency (Notstand) diesel units. Since the start-up tests of the diesels in 1977 several severe incidents occurred. As a consequence, different back-fitting actions were taken on the diesels and the emergency electrical System. The presentation will treat the following subjects: - lay-out of the onsite electrical power sources, - experiences and problems, - back-fitting measures, - periodic testing of the diesels. (author)

  19. Experience with emergency diesels at the Swiss NPP Goesgen (KKG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffen, W.

    1986-01-01

    The Goesgen nuclear power plant, a 970 MWe KWU pressurized water reactor, is fitted with 4 x 50 X emergency diesels and 2 x 100 % special emergency (Notstand) diesel units. Since the start-up tests of the diesels in 1977 several severe incidents occurred. As a consequence, different back-fitting actions were taken on the diesels and the emergency electrical System. The presentation will treat the following subjects: - lay-out of the onsite electrical power sources, - experiences and problems, - back-fitting measures, - periodic testing of the diesels. (author)

  20. Space power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khudyakov, S. A.

    1985-05-01

    Power generators in space are examined. A semiconducting photoelectric converter (FEP) which converts the energy of solar radiation directly into electrical energy is discussed. The operating principle of an FEP is based on the interaction of solar light with a crystal semiconductor, in the process of which the photons produce free electrons, carriers of an electrical charge, in the crystal. Areas with a strong electrical field created specially under the effect of the p-n junction trap the freed electrons and divide them in such a fashion that a current and corresponding electrical power appear in the load circuit. The absorption of light in metals and pure semiconductors is outlined.

  1. POWER PERFOMANCE UNDER CONSTANT SPEED TEST WITH PALM OIL BIODIESEL AND ITS BLENDS WITH DIESEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. U. U. Ituen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The torque and power performance tests were carried out with a single cylinder techno four-stroke diesel engine under constant speeds of 2000, 1500 and 1100 rpm. Five fuels, the Dura Palm Oil biodiesel/diesel blend at 10/90 vol/vol, B210 and the diesel or Automotive gas oil (ago, the reference fuel, were involved. Brake torque and brake power data were plotted against brake mean effective pressure (Bmep since the latter is independent of engine speed and size and it is an indication of how power and torque are obtained per litre of fuel. The curves for the torque versus Bmep for the five fuels merged into single straight line curve which extended to the origin and with a gradient of 0.0719 m3 for all the three speed tests of 2000, 1500 and 1100 rpm. Similarly, the power versus Bmep curves for the five fuels merged into one straight curve which also extended to the origin but with different gradients of 0.0151, 0.0113, 0.0083 for 2000, 1500 and 1100 rpm respectively. Therefore, the five fuels had similar torque and power performance characteristics in the engine. The straight line curve which can be extrapolated to any value can be used for the engine designs, that is determining vd from the relation, T=V/4 or Bp=VdN/2

  2. Power plant simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacking, D [Marconi Simulation (United Kingdom)

    1992-09-01

    Over many years in the field of simulation Marconi has developed and adopted a number of procedures and methodologies for the management, design and development of an extensive range of training equipment. This equipment encompasses desktop computer-based training systems, generic training devices. The procurement of a training simulator is clearly dictated by the perceived training requirement or problem. Also, it should preferably involve or follow a detailed training needs analysis. Although the cost benefits of training are often difficult to quantify, a simulator is frequently easier to justify if plant familiarisation and training can be provided in advance of on-the-job experience. This is particularly true if the target operators have little hands-on experience of similar plant either in terms of processes or the operator interface. (author).

  3. Organizing nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, H.W.; Rekittke, K.

    1987-01-01

    With the preliminary culmination in the convoy plants of the high standard of engineered safeguards in German nuclear power plants developed over the past twenty years, the interest of operators has now increasingly turned to problems which had not been in the focus of attention before. One of these problems is the organization of nuclear power plant operation. In order to enlarge the basis of knowledge, which is documented also in the rules published by the Kerntechnischer Ausschuss (Nuclear Technology Committee), the German Federal Minister of the Interior has commissioned a study of the organizational structures of nuclear power plants. The findings of that study are covered in the article. Two representative nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany were selected for the study, one of them a single-unit plant run by an independent operating company in the form of a private company under German law (GmbH), the other a dual-unit plant operated as a dependent unit of a utility. The two enterprises have different structures of organization. (orig.) [de

  4. TVA's nuclear power plant experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, W.F.

    1979-01-01

    This paper reviews TVA's nuclear power plant design and construction experience in terms of schedule and capital costs. The completed plant in commercial operation at Browns Ferry and six additional plants currently under construction represent the nation's largest single commitment to nuclear power and an ultimate investment of $12 billion by 1986. The presentation is made in three separate phases. Phase one will recapitulate the status of the nuclear power industry in 1966 and set forth the assumptions used for estimating capital costs and projecting project schedules for the first TVA units. Phase two describes what happened to the program in the hectic early 1979's in terms of expansion of scope (particularly for safety features), the dramatic increase in regulatory requirements, vendor problems, stretchout of project schedules, and unprecedented inflation. Phase three addresses the assumptions used today in estimating schedules and plant costs for the next ten-year period

  5. Prospects for power plant technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, H.D.

    1993-01-01

    Careful conservation of resources in the enlarged context of the rational utilization of energy, the environment and capital will determine future power plant technology. The mainstays will be the further development of power plant concepts based on fossil (predominantly coal) and nuclear fuels; world-wide, also regenerative and CO 2 -free hydro-electric power will play a role. Rapid conversion of the available potential requires clear, long-term stable and reliable political framework conditions for the release of the necessary entrepreneurial forces. (orig.) [de

  6. Partner of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gribi, M.; Lauer, F.; Pauli, W.; Ruzek, W.

    1992-01-01

    Sulzer, the Swiss technology group, is a supplier of components and systems for nuclear power plants. Important parts of Swiss nuclear power stations, such as containments, reactor pressure vessels, primary pipings, are made in Winterthur. Sulzer Thermtec AG and some divisions of Sulzer Innotec focus their activities on servicing and backfitting nuclear power plants. The European market enjoys priority. New types of valves or systems are developed as economic solutions meeting more stringent criteria imposed by public authorities or arising from operating conditions. (orig.) [de

  7. Nuclear power plant V-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The nuclear power plant Bohunice V -2 is briefly described. This NPP consists from two reactor units. Their main time characteristics are (Reactor Unit 1, Reactor Unit 2): beginning of construction - December 1976; first controlled reactor power - 7 August 1984, 2 August 1985; connection to the grid - 20 August 1984, 9 August 1985; commercial operation - 14 February 1985, 18 December 1985. This leaflet contains: NPP V-2 construction; Major technological equipment [WWER 440 V230 type reactor; Nuclear Power plant operation safety (Safety barriers; Safety systems [Active safety systems, Passive safety systems]); Centralized heat supply system; Scheme of Bohunice V-2 NPP and technical data

  8. Dispatchable Solar Power Plant Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Henry [Solar Dynamics LLC, Broomfield, CO (United States)

    2018-01-31

    As penetration of intermittent renewable power increases, grid operators must manage greater variability in the supply and demand on the grid. One result is that utilities are planning to build many new natural gas peaking power plants that provide added flexibility needed for grid management. This report discusses the development of a dispatchable solar power (DSP) plant that can be used in place of natural gas peakers. Specifically, a new molten-salt tower (MST) plant has been developed that is designed to allow much more flexible operation than typically considered in concentrating solar power plants. As a result, this plant can provide most of the capacity and ancillary benefits of a conventional natural gas peaker plant but without the carbon emissions. The DSP system presented was designed to meet the specific needs of the Arizona Public Service (APS) utility 2017 peaking capacity request for proposals (RFP). The goal of the effort was to design a MST peaker plant that had the operational capabilities required to meet the peaking requirements of the utility and be cost competitive with the natural gas alternative. The effort also addresses many perceived barriers facing the commercial deployment of MST technology in the US today. These include MST project development issues such as permitting, avian impacts, visual impacts of tower CSP projects, project schedule, and water consumption. The DSP plant design is based on considerable analyses using sophisticated solar system design tools and in-depth preliminary engineering design. The resulting DSP plant design uses a 250 MW steam power cycle, with solar field designed to fit on a square mile plot of land that has a design point thermal rating of 400 MWt. The DSP plant has an annual capacity factor of about 16% tailored to deliver greater than 90% capacity during the critical Arizona summer afternoon peak. The table below compares the All-In energy cost and capacity payment of conventional combustion turbines

  9. A new MV bus transfer scheme for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.K.

    2015-01-01

    The auxiliary power system of many generating stations consists of offsite power supply system and onsite power supply system, including emergency diesel generators (EDG) to provide secure power to auxiliary loads. If a normal power supply fails to supply power, then the power source is transferred to a standby power supply. In the case of nuclear power plants (NPP), the unit auxiliary transformer (UAT) and standby auxiliary transformer (SAT) - or station service transformer - are installed and powered from 2 offsite power circuits to meet regulatory requirements. The transfer methods of a motor bus from a normal source to a standby source used in power generating stations are fast bus transfer, in-phase transfer, or residual transfer. Fast bus transfer method is the most popular and residual voltage transfer method that is used as a backup in medium voltage buses in general. The use of the advanced technology like open circuit voltage prediction and digital signal processing algorithms can improve the reliability of fast transfer scheme. However, according to the survey results of the recent operation records in nuclear power plants, there were many instances where the fast transfer scheme has failed. To assure bus transfer in any conditions and circumstances, un-interruptible bus transfer scheme utilizing the state of the art medium voltage UPS (Un-interruptible Power Supply) is discussed and elaborated

  10. Simulation technology for power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwabara, Kazuo; Yanai, Katsuya.

    1988-01-01

    In the simulation of nuclear power stations, there are the simulation for the training of plant operation, the plant simulation for analyzing the operation of an electric power system, the simulation for controlling a core, the simulation for the safety analysis of reactors, the simulation for the design analysis of plants and so on as the typical ones. The outline and the technical features of these simulations are described. With the increase of capacity and complexity of thermal power plants, recently the automation of operation has advanced rapidly. The chance of starting up and stopping plants by operators themselves is few, and the chance of actually experiencing troubles also is few as the reliability of plants improved. In order to maintain the ability of coping with plant abnormality, an operation supporting system is strongly demanded. Operation training simulators and used widely now, and there are the simulators for analysis, those of replica type, those of versatile compact type and so on. The system configuration, modeling techniques, training function and others of the replica type are explained. In hydroelectric plants, the behavior of water in penstocks, the characteristics of water turbines, the speed control system for water turbines and the characteristics of generators become the main subjects of simulation. These are described. (Kako, I.)

  11. ALARA at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    Implementation of the ALARA principle at nuclear power plants presents a continuing challenge for health physicists at utility corporate and plant levels, for plant designers, and for regulatory agencies. The relatively large collective doses at some plants are being addressed through a variety of dose reduction techniques. Initiatives by the ICRP, NCRP, NRC, INPO, EPRI, and BNL ALARA Center have all contributed to a heightened interest and emphasis on dose reduction. The NCRP has formed Scientific Committee 46-9 which is developing a report on ALARA at Nuclear Power Plants. It is planned that this report will include material on historical aspects, management, valuation of dose reduction ($/person-Sv), quantitative and qualitative aspects of optimization, design, operational considerations, and training. The status of this work is summarized in this report

  12. Ocean power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazurkiedicz, B.; Sliwa, B.

    1982-01-01

    Plans are examined for OTES of close and open cycles. Examples of design of TO are presented. Main design elements of the OTES are indicated and their arrangement. The OTES can be realized even now with comparatively small capital investments. Searches are made for solutions which would make it possible to construct the OTES and not in tropical regions, i.e., with very small temperature differences. The studies indicated that with a difference of temperatures 4.5/sup 0/C and temperature of the thermal water 5.5/sup 0/C, it is possible to build OTES with power 100 MW. With difference in temperature 5/sup 0/C, the power will reach 130 MW.

  13. Submarine nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enohara, Masami; Araragi, Fujio.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a ballast tank, and nuclear power facilities within the containment shell of a pressure resistance structure and a maintenance operator's entrance and a transmission cable cut-off device at the outer part of the containment shell, whereby after the construction, the shell is towed, and installed by self-submerging, and it can be refloated for repairs by its own strength. Constitution: Within a containment shell having a ballast tank and a pressure resisting structure, there are provided nuclear power facilities including a nuclear power generating chamber, a maintenance operator's living room and the like. Furthermore, a maintenance operator's entrance and exit device and a transmission cable cut-off device are provided within the shell, whereby when it is towed to a predetermined a area after the construction, it submerges by its own strength and when any repair inspection is necessary, it can float up by its own strength, and can be towed to a repair dock or the like. (Yoshihara, H.)

  14. New control approach for a PV-diesel autonomous power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashed, Mohamed; Elmitwally, A.; Kaddah, Sahar [Electrical Engineering Department, Mansoura University, Mansoura 35516 (Egypt)

    2008-06-15

    A new control scheme for the hybrid photovoltaic-diesel single-phase autonomous power system is proposed. The main advantage of this scheme is that the voltage control is accomplished by the interface inverter without need to the automatic voltage regulator of the diesel-driven generator. Unlike three-phase systems, frequency and voltage control in single-phase autonomous power systems imposes additional complexity. This is due to the pulsating nature of the single-phase loads instantaneous power at twice the rated frequency that may degrade the control efficacy. This obstacle is addressed in this paper and a new scheme is presented. The approach includes three control loops for maximum power tracking, voltage control and frequency control. The generator field current is held constant at its nominal value avoiding the saturation in the field circuit. A robust fuzzy logic controller is adopted for the speed control loop of the diesel engine. The dynamic performance of the system is investigated under different operating conditions. (author)

  15. Chemistry in power plants 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Within the VGB Powertech conference from 25th to 27th October, 2011, in Munich (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures and poster contributions were presented: (1) The revised VGB standard for water-steam-cycle Chemistry; (2) Switchover from neutral operation to oxygen treatment at the power station Stuttgart-Muenster of EnBW Kraftwerke AG; (3) Steam contamination with degradation products of organic matters present in the feedwater of the Lanxess-Rubber cogeneration plant; (4) Laboratory scale on-line noble metal deposition experiments simulating BWR plant conditions; (5) Building a new demin installation for the power plant EPZ in Borssele; (6) Replacement of the cooling tower installations in the nuclear power plant Goesgen-Daenien AG; (7) Aging of IEX resins in demin plants - Cost optimisation by adaptation of regenerants; (8) The largest DOW trademark EDI System at a combined cycled plant in Europe; (9) Upgrading river Main water to boiler feed water - Experiences with ultrafiltration; (10) Experiences with treatment of the water-steam-cycle in the RDF power plant Nehlsen Stavenhagen with film-forming amines; (11) Comparative modelling of the bubbles thermal collapse and cavitations for estimation of bubbles collapse influence; (12) Overcoming the steam quality - issues from an HRSG for the production of process steam; (13) Legionella - new requirements for power plant operation; (14) How the right chemistry in the FGD helps to improve the removal in the waste water treatment plant; (15) High efficiency filtration in dry/semi-dry FGD plants; (16) Expanding the variety of renewable fuels in the biomass power plant Timelkam using the chemical input control; (17) Corrosion, operating experiences and process improvements to increase the availability and operating time of the biomass power plant Timelkam; (18) The influence of temperature on the measurement of the conductivity of highly diluted solutions; (19) A multiparameter instrumentation approach

  16. Financing Solar Thermal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kistner, Rainer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Price, Henry W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    1999-04-14

    The commercialization of concentrating solar power technology took a major step forward in the mid 1980s and early 1990s with the development of the SEGS plants in California. Over the years they have proven that parabolic trough power technologies are the most cost-effective approach for commercial scale solar power generation in the sunbelt countries of the world. However, the question must be asked why no additional solar power plants have been build following the bankruptcy of the developer of the SEGS projects, LUZ International Limited. Although many believe the SEGS projects were a success as a result of parabolic trough technology they employ, in truth, the SEGS projects were developed simply because they represented an attractive opportunity for investors. Simply stated, no additional projects have been developed because no one has been able to put together a similarly attractive financial package to potential investors. More than $1.2 billion in private capital was raised in debt and equity financing for the nine SEGS plants. Investors and bankers who make these investments are the real clients for solar power technologies. They are not interested in annual solar to electric efficiencies, but in risk, return on investments, and coverage ratios. This paper will take a look at solar power projects from the financier’s perspective. The challenge in moving forward is to attract private investors, commercial lenders, and international development agencies and to find innovative solutions to the difficult issues that investment in the global power market poses for solar power technologies.

  17. Financing Solar Thermal Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, Henry W.; Kistner, Rainer

    1999-01-01

    The commercialization of concentrating solar power technology took a major step forward in the mid 1980s and early 1990s with the development of the SEGS plants in California. Over the years they have proven that parabolic trough power technologies are the most cost-effective approach for commercial scale solar power generation in the sunbelt countries of the world. However, the question must be asked why no additional solar power plants have been build following the bankruptcy of the developer of the SEGS projects, LUZ International Limited. Although many believe the SEGS projects were a success as a result of parabolic trough technology they employ, in truth, the SEGS projects were developed simply because they represented an attractive opportunity for investors. Simply stated, no additional projects have been developed because no one has been able to put together a similarly attractive financial package to potential investors. More than $1.2 billion in private capital was raised in debt and equity financing for the nine SEGS plants. Investors and bankers who make these investments are the real clients for solar power technologies. They are not interested in annual solar to electric efficiencies, but in risk, return on investments, and coverage ratios. This paper will take a look at solar power projects from the financier's perspective. The challenge in moving forward is to attract private investors, commercial lenders, and international development agencies and to find innovative solutions to the difficult issues that investment in the global power market poses for solar power technologies

  18. Financing solar thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kistner, R.; Price, H.

    1999-01-01

    The commercialization of concentrating solar power technology took a major step forward in the mid 1980s and early 1990s with the development of the SEGS plants in California. Over the years they have proven that parabolic trough power technologies are the most cost-effective approach for commercial scale solar power generation in the sunbelt countries of the world. However, the question must be asked why no additional solar power plants have been built following the bankruptcy of the developer of the SEGS projects, LUZ International Limited. Although many believe the SEGS projects were a success as a result of parabolic trough technology they employ, in truth, the SEGS projects were developed simply because they represented an attractive opportunity for investors. Simply states, no additional projects have been developed because no one has been able to put together a similarly attractive financial package to potential investors. More than $1.2 billion in private capital was raised in debt and equity financing for the nine SEGS plants. Investors and bankers who make these investments are the real clients for solar power technologies. They are not interested in annual solar to electric efficiencies, but in risk, return on investments, and coverage ratios. This paper will take a look at solar power projects form the financier's perspective. The challenge in moving forward is to attract private investors, commercial lenders, and international development agencies and to find innovative solutions to the difficult issues that investment in the global power market poses for solar power technologies

  19. Thermal Power Plant Performance Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of the reliability and availability of power plants is frequently based on simple indexes that do not take into account the criticality of some failures used for availability analysis. This criticality should be evaluated based on concepts of reliability which consider the effect of a component failure on the performance of the entire plant. System reliability analysis tools provide a root-cause analysis leading to the improvement of the plant maintenance plan.   Taking in view that the power plant performance can be evaluated not only based on  thermodynamic related indexes, such as heat-rate, Thermal Power Plant Performance Analysis focuses on the presentation of reliability-based tools used to define performance of complex systems and introduces the basic concepts of reliability, maintainability and risk analysis aiming at their application as tools for power plant performance improvement, including: ·         selection of critical equipment and components, ·         defini...

  20. Nuclear power plant diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollo, E.; Siklossy, P.

    1982-01-01

    The cooling circuit vibration diagnostic system of the Block 1 of the Paks nuclear power station is described. The automatic online vibration monitoring system consisting presently of 42 acceleration sensors and 9 pressure fluctuation sensors, which could be extended, performs both global and local inspection of the primary cooling circuit and its components. The offline data processing system evaluates the data for failure mode analysis. The software under development will be appropriate for partial preliminary identification of failure reasons during their initial phases. The installation experiences and the preliminary results during the hot operational testing of Block 1 are presented. (Sz.J.)

  1. Nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usui, Eizo.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent boiling of saturated water in the drain tank of a humidity separator by charging cooling water in the drain tank upon power decrease of a turbine. Constitution: Saturated water is separated from high pressure turbine exhausts in a humidity separator and stored in a drain tank. The saturated water in the drain tank is controlled to a constant level and the excess water is sent to a condensator and a feedwater heater. A cooling water feed pipe is branched as a cooling water feed pipe from the exhaust side of a reactor feedwater pump and connected by way of a closing valve to a spray nozzle provided in the drain tank. While the closing valve is usually closed to keep the water level constant in the drain tank, the closing valve is opened upon sudden decrease in the turbine power to charge the condensates by way of the cooling water feed pipe to the drain tank. Thus, the saturated water is mixed with the dondensates and the temperature is lowered to prevent boiling of the saturated water. (Kawakami, Y.)

  2. Design and evaluation of hybrid wind/PV/diesel power systems for Brazilian applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGowan, J.G.; Manwell, J.F.; Avelar, C. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Warner, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a summary of a study centered on the design and evaluation of hybrid wind/PV/diesel systems for remote locations in Brazil. The objective of this work was to evaluate high reliability hybrid power systems that have been designed for the lowest life cycle costs. The technical and economic analysis of the hybrid wind/PV/diesel systems was carried out using HYBRID2, a computational code developed at the University of Massachusetts in conjunction with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). After a summary of a generalized design procedure for such systems based on the use of this code, a systematic parametric evaluation of a representative design case for a village power system in Brazil is presented. As summarized in the paper, the performance and economic effects of key design parameters are illustrated. 8 refs., 10 figs.

  3. Ocean power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dembicki, E.

    1982-01-01

    In the fall of 1980 on the shores of the Hawaiian Islands, a floating laboratory of the United States was successfully introduced for testing a heat exchanger and pipes for collecting cold water of the OTES with power of 1 MW. The first American OTES N=10-40 MW should start operation in 1985. By the year 2000, ..sigma..N of the U.S. OTES should reach 10 GW. The Japanese OTES N=10-25 MW should start up in 1989. The experimental OTES N=100 KW has been in operation since October 1981 on the Nauru Island. An OTES of 2 MW is under construction. The concern Empain-Schneider is involved in planning the OTES of closed cycle in France, and the concern CGE is planning the OTES of open cycle.

  4. Maintenance of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lashgari, Farbod.

    1995-01-01

    This paper is about maintenance of nuclear power plants. In part one, the outage management of nuclear power plants has described. Meaning of the outage and objectives of outage management is given in introduction. The necessity of a long-term outage strategy is shown in chapter one. The main parts of an outage are as follows: Planning; Preparation; Execution, Each of them and also post-outage review have been explained in the followed chapters. Part two deals with technical details of main primary components of nuclear power plant type WWER. After an introduction about WWER reactors, in each chapter first the general and detailed description of main primary components has given and then their maintenance schedules and procedures. Chapter about reactor and steam generator is related to both types of WWER-440 and WWER-1000, but chapter about reactor coolant pump has specified to WWER-1000 to be more in details.(author)

  5. Toxic releases from power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, E.S.

    1999-01-01

    Beginning in 1998, electric power plants burning coal or oil must estimate and report their annual releases of toxic chemicals listed in the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) published by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This paper identifies the toxic chemicals of greatest significance for the electric utility sector and develops quantitative estimates of the toxic releases reportable to the TRI for a representative coal-fired power plant. Key factors affecting the magnitude and types of toxic releases for individual power plants also are discussed. A national projection suggests that the magnitude of electric utility industry releases will surpass those of the manufacturing industries which current report to the TRI. Risk communication activities at the community level will be essential to interpret and provide context for the new TRI results

  6. Thermal power plants and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Recent versions of the air quality models which are reviewed and approved from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) are analysed in favour of their application in simple and complex terrain, different meteorological conditions and modifications in the sources of pollutant emissions. Improvement of the standard methods for analysis of the risks affecting the environment from different energy sources has been carried out. The application of the newly introduced model enabled (lead to performing) risk analysis of the coal power plants compared to other types of energy sources. Detailed investigation of the risk assessment and perception from coal power plants, has been performed and applied to the Macedonian coal power plants. Introducing the concept of 'psychological pollution', a modification of the standard models and programs for risk assessment from various energy sources has been suggested (proposed). The model has been applied to REK Bitola, where statistically relevant differences in relation to the control groups have been obtained. (Original)

  7. Reliability Characteristics of Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbynek Martinek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the phenomenon of reliability of power plants. It gives an explanation of the terms connected with this topic as their proper understanding is important for understanding the relations and equations which model the possible real situations. The reliability phenomenon is analysed using both the exponential distribution and the Weibull distribution. The results of our analysis are specific equations giving information about the characteristics of the power plants, the mean time of operations and the probability of failure-free operation. Equations solved for the Weibull distribution respect the failures as well as the actual operating hours. Thanks to our results, we are able to create a model of dynamic reliability for prediction of future states. It can be useful for improving the current situation of the unit as well as for creating the optimal plan of maintenance and thus have an impact on the overall economics of the operation of these power plants.

  8. Robotics for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Ryoichi; Kimura, Motohiko; Abe, Akira

    1993-01-01

    A continuing need exists for automatic or remote-controlled machines or robots which can perform inspection and maintenance tasks in nuclear power plants. Toshiba has developed several types of monofunctional and multi- functional robots for such purposes over the past 20 years, some of which have already been used in actual plants. This paper describes new multifunctional robots for inspection and maintenance. An inspection robot has been applied in an actual plant for two years for performance testing. Maintenance robots for grinding tasks have also been developed, which can be easily teleoperated by the operator using automatic control. These new robots are expected to be applied to actual inspection and maintenance work in nuclear power plants. (author)

  9. Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inami, Ichiro; Kobayashi, Minoru.

    1995-01-01

    In a condensate cleanup system and a reactor water cleanup system of a BWR-type reactor, in which primary coolants flow, there is disposed a filtering and desalting device using hollow thread membrane filter and ion exchange resin for a condensate cleanup system, and using a high temperature filter made of a metal, a metal oxide or ceramics as a filtering material and a precoat filter made of a powdery ion exchange resin as a filtering material for a reactor water cleanup system. This can completely remove cruds generated in the condensate system. Since the reactor water cleanup system comprises the powdery resin precoat-type filtering and desalting device and the high temperature filter using ceramics, ionic impurities such as radioactive materials can be removed. Accordingly, cruds are not carried into the inside of the reactor, and since the radioactive concentration in the reactor water is reduced, radiation exposure upon periodical inspection can be minimized almost to zero, to attain a clean plant. (T.M.)

  10. VGB congress 'Power Plants 2009'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    The VGB Congress 'Power Plants 2009' took place in Lyon/France from 23rd to 25th September 2009 and was themed 'Addressing Climate Change - Winning Public Acceptance through Advanced Technologies'. Nearly 1,300 participants attended the plenary and technical lectures and had the opportunity to discus the current topics of electricity and heat generation. The study carried out by VGB according to which EU-27 requires about 475.000 MW of new power plant capacity was also presented. Specific papers were addressing further topics. The Congress was rounded off by a side-programme and technical visits. (orig.)

  11. Modelling the economics of combined wind/hydro/diesel power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, A.

    1993-01-01

    A model that stimulates the performance and economics of a combined wind/hydro/diesel plant with pumped storage has been developed. It is applied to a hypothetical site to demonstrate how a subset of the cheapest configuration of plant sizes may be identified, illustrating in particular the trade-off between the hydro storage capacity and the wind turbine penetration. It seems that, with the wind and water regimes employed, pumped storage is unlikely to have significant benefits, but may be beneficial in areas without natural inflow, in which case the reservoir is used as a store for excess wind output. (author)

  12. Wind Power Plant Evaluation Naval Auxiliary Landing Field, San Clemente Island, California: Period of Performance 24 September 1999--15 December 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, T.L.; Gulman, P.J.; McKenna, E.

    2000-12-11

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the wind power benefits and impacts to the San Clement Island wind power system, including energy savings, emissions reduction, system stability, and decreased naval dependence on fossil fuel at the island. The primary goal of the SCI wind power system has been to operate with the existing diesel power plant and provide equivalent or better power quality and system reliability than the existing diesel system. The wind system is intended to reduce, as far as possible, the use of diesel fuel and the inherent generation of nitrogen oxide emissions and other pollutants.

  13. Loviisa nuclear power plant analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porkholm, K.; Nurmilaukas, P.; Tiihonen, O.; Haenninen, M.; Puska, E.

    1992-12-01

    The APROS Simulation Environment has been developed since 1986 by Imatran Voima Oy (IVO) and the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). It provides tools, solution algorithms and process components for use in different simulation systems for design, analysis and training purposes. One of its main nuclear applications is the Loviisa Nuclear Power Plant Analyzer (LPA). The Loviisa Plant Analyzer includes all the important plant components both in the primary and in the secondary circuits. In addition, all the main control systems, the protection system and the high voltage electrical systems are included. (orig.)

  14. Operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severa, P.

    1988-04-01

    The textbook for training nuclear power plant personnel is centred on the most important aspects of operating modes of WWER-440 reactors. Attention is devoted to the steady state operation of the unit, shutdown, overhaul with refuelling, physical and power start-up. Also given are the regulations of shift operation and the duties of individual categories of personnel during the shift and during the change of shifts. (Z.M.). 3 figs., 1 tab

  15. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON EXHAUST EMISSIONS FROM DIESEL- AND CNG-POWERED URBAN BUSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COROLLER, P; PLASSAT, G

    2003-08-24

    Couple years ago, ADEME engaged programs dedicated to the urban buses exhaust emissions studies. The measures associated with the reduction of atmospheric and noise pollution has particular importance in the sector of urban buses. In many cases, they illustrate the city's environmental image and contribute to reinforcing the attractiveness of public transport. France's fleet in service, presently put at about 14,000 units, consumes about 2 per cent of the total energy of city transport. It causes about 2 per cent of the HC emissions and from 4 to 6 per cent of the NOx emissions and particles. These vehicles typically have a long life span (about 15 years) and are relatively expensive to buy, about 150.000 euros per unit. Several technical solutions were evaluated to quantify, on a real condition cycle for buses, on one hand pollutants emissions, fuel consumption and on the other hand reliability, cost in real existing fleet. This paper presents main preliminary results on urban buses exhaust emission on two different cases: - existing Diesel buses, with fuel modifications (Diesel with low sulphur content), Diesel with water emulsion and bio-Diesel (30% oil ester in standard Diesel fuel); renovating CNG powered Euro II buses fleet, over representative driving cycles, set up by ADEME and partners. On these cycles, pollutants (regulated and unregulated) were measured as well as fuel consumption, at the beginning of a program and one year after to quantify reliability and increase/decrease of pollutants emissions. At the same time, some after-treatment technologies were tested under real conditions and several vehicles. Information such as fuel consumption, lubricant analysis, problem on the technology were following during a one year program. On the overall level, it is the combination of various action, pollution-reduction and renewal that will make it possible to meet the technological challenge of reducing emissions and fuel consumption by urban bus

  16. Building of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Takashi.

    1997-01-01

    A first nuclear plant and a second nuclear power plant are disposed in adjacent with each other in a building for a nuclear reactor. A reactor container is disposed in each of the plants, and each reactor container is surrounded by a second containing facility. A repairing chamber capable of communicating with the secondary containing facilities for both of the secondary containing facilities is disposed being in contact with the second containing facility of each plant for repairing control rod driving mechanisms or reactor incorporated-type recycling pumps. Namely, the repairing chamber is in adjacent with the reactor containers of both plants, and situated between both of the plants as a repairing chamber to be used in common for both plants. Air tight inlet/exit doors are formed to the inlets/exits of both plants of the repairing chamber. Space for the repairing chamber can be reduced to about one half compared with a case where the repairing chamber is formed independently on each plant. (I.N.)

  17. Off-shore nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, T.

    1980-01-01

    In order to avoid losses of energy and seawater pollution an off-shore nuclear power plant is coupled with a power plant which utilizes the temperature difference between seawater and hot reactor cooling water. According to the invention the power plant has a working media loop which is separated from the nuclear power plant. The apparative equipment and the operational characteristics of the power plant are the subject of the patent. (UWI) [de

  18. Analysis of power tiller noise using diesel-biodiesel fuel blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Keramat Siavash

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are several sources of noise in an industrial and agriculture environment. Machines with rotating or reciprocating engines are sound-producing sources. Also, the audio signal can be analyzed to discover how well a machine operates. Diesel engines complex noise SPL and sound frequency content both strongly depend on fuel combustion, which produces the so-called combustion noise. Actually, the unpleasant sound signature of diesel engines is due to the harsh and irregular self-ignition of the fuel. Therefore, being able to extract combustion noise from the overall noise would be of prime interest. This would allow engineers to relate the sound quality back to the combustion parameters. The residual noise produced by various sources, is referred to as mechanical noise. Since diesel engine noise radiation is associated with the operators’ and pedestrians’ discomfort, more and more attention to being paid to it. The main sources of noise generation in a diesel engine are exhaust system, mechanical processes such as valve train and combustion that prevail over the other two. In the present work, experimental tests were conducted on a single cylinder diesel engine in order to investigate the combustion noise radiation during stationary state for various diesel and biodiesel fuel blends. Materials and Methods: The engine used in the current study is an ASHTAD DF120-RA70 that is a single cylinder 4 stroke water cooled diesel engine and its nominal power is 7.5 hp at 2200 rpm. The experiment has been done at three positions (Left ear of operator, 1.5 and 7.5 meter away from exhaust based on ISO-5131 and SAE-J1174 standards. For engine speed measurement the detector Lurton 2364 was utilized with a measurement accuracy of 0.001 rpm. To obtain the highest accuracy, contact mode of detector was used. The engine noise was measured by HT157 sound level meter and was digitalized and saved with Sound View software. HT157 uses alow impedance

  19. Docommissioning of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essmann, J.

    1981-01-01

    The German utilities operating nuclear power plants have long concerned themselves with aspects of decommissioning and for this purpose an engineering company was given a contract to study the entire spectrum of decommissioning. The results of this study have been available in autumn 1980 and it is possible to discuss all the aspects of decommissioning on a new basis. Following these results no change in the design concept of LWR nuclear power plants in operation or under construction is necessary because the techniques, necessary for decommissioning, are fully available today. The technical feasibility of decommissioning for power plants of Biblis A and KRB type has been shown in detail. The calculations of the quantity of waste produced during removal of a nuclear power plant could be confirmed and it could be determined with high procedure. The radiation dose to the decommissioning personnel is in the range of the radiation protection regulations and is in the same range as the radiation dose to the personnel within a yearly inservice inspection. (AF)

  20. Fire protection in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penot, J.

    1986-01-01

    Graphex-CK 23 is a unique sodium fire extinction product. Minimum amounts of powder are required for very fast action. The sodium can be put to use again, when the fire has been extinguished. It can be applied in other industrial branches and with other metals, e.g. sodium/potassium circuits or lithium coolant in power plants. [de

  1. Noise from wind power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljunggren, S.

    2001-12-01

    First, the generation of noise at wind power plants and the character of the sound is described. The propagation of the sound and its dependence on the structure of the ground and on wind and temperature is treated next. Models for calculation of the noise emission are reviewed and examples of applications are given. Different means for reducing the disturbances are described

  2. Underwater nuclear power plant structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severs, S.; Toll, H.V.

    1982-01-01

    A structure for an underwater nuclear power generating plant comprising a triangular platform formed of tubular leg and truss members upon which are attached one or more large spherical pressure vessels and one or more small cylindrical auxiliary pressure vessels. (author)

  3. World nuclear power plant capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report provides the background information for statistics and analysis developed by NUKEM in its monthly Market Report on the Nuclear Fuel Cycle. The assessments in this Special Report are based on the continuous review of individual nuclear power plant projects. This Special Report begins with tables summarizing a variety of nuclear power generating capacity statistics for 1990. It continues with a brief review of the year's major events regarding each country's nuclear power program. The standard NUKEM Market Report tables on nuclear plant capacity are given on pages 24 and 25. Owing to space limitations, the first year shown is 1988. Please refer to previous Special Reports for data covering earlier years. Detailed tables for each country list all existing plants as well as those expected by NUKEM to be in commercial operation by the end of 2005. An Appendix containing a list of abbreviations can be found starting on page 56. Only nuclear power plants intended for civilian use are included in this Special Report. Reactor lifetimes are assumed to be 35 years for all light water reactors and 30 years for all other reactor types, unless other data or definite decommissioning dates have been published by the operators. (orig./UA) [de

  4. Nuclear power plant emergency preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The guide sets forth detailed requirements on how the licensee of a nuclear power plant shall plan, implement and maintain emergency response arrangements. The guide is also applied to nuclear material and nuclear waste transport in situations referred to in guide YVL 6.5. Requirements on physical protection are presented in a separate guide of Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK)

  5. Application of diagnostic system for diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshinaga, Takeshi; Hayashi, Haruji; Usui, Hiromi; Tsuruzono, Atsuya; Matsuda, Takafumi

    2008-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC) began to implement Condition Based Maintenance (CBM) for rotating components (pumps, fans and electric motors) from 1999 and, also has begun to apply diesel engine diagnostic techniques at our three nuclear power plants since 2004. This paper provides a description of the CBM methods used for diesel engines in nuclear standby service, a summary of the procedures to introduce these diagnostic techniques to our nuclear power plants, and experience with the application of these methods to JAPC nuclear power plants. (author)

  6. Electric utility power plant construction costs, 1st Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    New UDI report combines historical construction costs for more than 1,000 coal, oil, gas, nuclear and geothermal units that have entered commercial operation since 1966 and projected power plant construction costs for about 400 utility-owned generating units scheduled to enter commercial operation during the next 20 years. Key design characteristics and equipment suppliers, A/E, constructor and original installed cost data. Direct construction costs without AFUDC are provided where known. Historical construction cost data are also provided for about 130 utility-owned hydroelectric, gas turbine, combined-cycle and diesel units (these data are generally for units entering service after 1980)

  7. Westinghouse ICF power plant study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sucov, E.W.

    1980-10-01

    In this study, two different electric power plants for the production of about 1000 MWe which were based on a CO 2 laser driver and on a heavy ion driver have been developed and analyzed. The purposes of this study were: (1) to examine in a self consistent way the technological and institutional problems that need to be confronted and solved in order to produce commercially competitive electricity in the 2020 time frame from an inertial fusion reactor, and (2) to compare, on a common basis, the consequences of using two different drivers to initiate the DT fuel pellet explosions. Analytic descriptions of size/performance/cost relationships for each of the subsystems comprising the power plant have been combined into an overall computer code which models the entire plant. This overall model has been used to conduct trade studies which examine the consequences of varying critical design values around the reference point

  8. Modelling the dynamics of the cogeneration power plant gas-air duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Аnatoliy N. Bundyuk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducing into wide practice the cogeneration power plants (or CHP is one of promising directions of the Ukrainian small-scale power engineering development. Thermal and electric energy generation using the same fuel kind can increase the overall plant efficiency. That makes it appropriate to use CHPs at compact residential areas, isolated industrial enterprises constituting one complex with staff housing area, at sports complexes, etc. The gas-air duct of the cogeneration power plant has been considered as an object of the diesel-generator shaft velocity control. The developed GAD mathematical model, served to analyze the CHP dynamic characteristics as acceleration curves obtained under different external disturbances in the MathWorks MATLAB environment. According to the electric power generation technology requirements a convenient transition process type has been selected, with subsequent identification of the diesel-generator shaft rotation speed control law.

  9. Fuel consumption and greenhouse gas calculator for diesel and biodiesel-powered vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Factors that influence fuel consumption include environmental conditions, maintenance, poor driving techniques, and driving speed. Developed by Natural Resources Canada, the SmartDriver training programs were designed to help fleet managers, drivers, and instructors to learn methods of improving fuel economy. This fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) calculator for diesel and biodiesel-powered vehicles provides drivers with a method of calculating fuel consumption rates when driving. It includes a log-book in which to record odometer readings and a slide-rule in which to determine the litres of fuel used during a trip. The scale showed the number of kg of GHGs produced by burning a particular amount of fuel for both biodiesel and diesel fuels. 1 fig.

  10. Power conditioning devices in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shida, Toichi.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To automatically prevent the liquid level from lowering in a reactor even if a feedwater adjusting valve is locked in a bwr type nuclear power plant. Constitution: Where a feedwater adjusting valve should be locked, and if the mismatching degree between the main steam flow rate and the feedwater flow rate exceeds a predetermined value and the mismatched state continues for a certain period, the value set to a main control for setting the recycling flow rate is changed corresponding to the mismatching degree to compensate the same thereby preventing the liquid level from lowering in the reactor. (Ikeda, J.)

  11. Resilience improvements to UK nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepper, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Following the events at Fukushima, the Office for Nuclear Regulation (ONR), the UK nuclear safety regulator, undertook a series of reviews into the resilience of UK nuclear power plants to severe events. These reviews highlighted a number of areas in relation to electrical infrastructure where it considered licensees should review their arrangements, considering both onsite and offsite infrastructure as well as the ability to recover following a complete loss of site infrastructure. In response, UK licensees have been exploring four parallel approaches to improving the resilience for each of their sites. Firstly, through modifications on-site such as enhancements to the installed diesel generators and related systems. Secondly through improvements to the resilience of essential instrumentation to Station Black Out events. Thirdly, through the provision of off-site backup equipment that can be deployed to any site following a severe event. Finally, the provision of event qualified connection points on site to enable timely restoration of long term essential electrical supplies and cooling to key systems. This last item gives a central focus to the issues of switchboard availability and the resilience of the whole network to large potentially common cause internal and external hazards. This paper will discuss the electrically related findings of the ONR reviews, explore the reasoning behind those decisions, and describe the approaches being taken by UK licensees. (authors)

  12. Improvement of diesel engine performance by hydraulically powered electronic control (mechatronics) system. Hakuyo diesel kikan no mechatronics system ni yoru seino kojo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonoda, K.; Nakamura, Y.; Kajima, T.; Sato, S.; Fujii, T.; Tobe, Y. (Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-07-20

    This paper describes new hydraulically-actuated mechanisms for both fuel injection and inlet/exhaust valve operation of diesel engines through solenoid valves, which obviate the conventional cam-driven system. These mechanisms were integrated with an electronic control unit also developed in this study and they were mounted as a mechatronics system'' on a power-increased single-cylinder engine. This mechatronics system was mainly composed of an injection control. boost and accumulation component, an inlet and exhaust valve control component, a solenoid valve, an electronic control equipment, a hydraulic power unit, and a maneuvering unit. The verification test was carried out for the improvement of diesel engine performance by the hydraulically powered mechatronics system. As a result, it was proved not only that these mechanisms provide stable operating characteristics over a wide range of conditions, but also that the electronic control system allows accurate, smooth response. 3 refs., 23 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Economic analysis of hybrid power systems (PV/diesel) in different climatic zones of Tamil Nadu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suresh Kumar, U.; Manoharan, P.S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Investigation on economic feasibility of PV/diesel system in various climatic zones. • HOMER is used to solve economic feasibility analysis. • By the sensitivity analysis, the net present cost is reduced. • Optimum climatic zone in Tamil Nadu, India is recommended. - Abstract: With the increasing threat to environment and the fast depleting fossil fuel resources, hybrid power systems consisting of two or more renewable energy sources such as solar PV, wind, biomass, ocean thermal-with or without the back up of diesel generator have come to the forefront. These hybrid systems are normally integrated with battery banks for total reliability; such systems have brought about better quality of life in remote areas of developing economics. The remote areas in the state of Tamil Nadu in India possess excellent renewable energy sources. These areas fall under different climatic zones, are sparsely populated and are in the process of development. Though these areas are connected to the grid, Tamil Nadu grid is not stable; it is currently experiencing 40% short fall in generation. Thus grid power is available to these remote areas only for 10 h a day and even when available, there are voltage frequency problems. This paper analyses the economic feasibility of installing and operating hybrid systems in these areas. The areas are divided into different climatic zones and the hybrid system economy is analyzed for each climatic zone on the basis of NPC (net present cost), consumption of diesel and renewable fraction for all climate zones. The analysis indicates that the interior climatic zone – the area would be the optimum climatic zone to install HPS PV/diesel. The sensitivity analysis proves that the NPC of such a system can be reduced. It is suggested that due to high initial cost, government subsidy is necessary to adopt the system on a large scale. Such a profit will encourage development of renewable energy utilization and bring about rapid

  14. Nuclear power plant life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rorive, P.; Berthe, J.; Lafaille, J.P.; Eussen, G.

    1998-01-01

    Several definitions can be given to the design life of a nuclear power plant just as they can be attributed to the design life of an industrial installation: the book-keeping life which is the duration of the provision for depreciation of the plant, the licensed life which corresponds to the duration for which the plant license has been granted and beyond which a new license should be granted by the safety authorities, the design life which corresponds to the duration specified for ageing and fatigue calculations in the design of some selected components during the plant design phase, the technical life which is the duration of effective technical operation and finally the economic life corresponding to the duration of profitable operation of the plant compared with other means of electricity production. Plant life management refers to the measures taken to cope with the combination of licensed, design, technical and economical life. They can include repairs and replacements of components which have arrived to the end of their life due to known degradation processes such as fatigue, embrittlement, corrosion, wear, erosion, thermal ageing. In all cases however, it is of great importance to plan the intervention so as to minimise the economic impact. Predictive maintenance is used together with in-service inspection programs to fulfil this goal. The paper will go over the methodologies adopted in Belgium in all aspects of electrical, mechanical and civil equipment for managing plant life. (author)

  15. Long term reliability analysis of standby diesel generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winfield, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    The long term reliability of 11 diesel generators of 125 to 250 kV A size has been analysed from 26 years of data base information on individual diesel service as standby power supplies for the Chalk River research reactor facilities. Failure to start on demand and failure to run data is presented and failure by diesel subsystem and multiple failures are also analysed. A brief comparison is made with reliability studies of larger diesel generator units used for standby power service in nuclear power plants. (author)

  16. Operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, G.

    1987-01-01

    This textbook gives a systematic introduction into the operational and maintenance activities in nuclear power plants with pressurized water reactors. Subjects: (1) Setup and operational behaviour of power reactors, (2) setup of nuclear power plants, (3) radiation protection and nuclear safety, (4) nuclear fuel, (5) constructional layout of nuclear power plants, (6) management, and (7) maintenance. 158 figs., 56 tabs

  17. Plant diagnostics in power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturm, A.; Doering, D.

    1985-01-01

    The method of noise diagnostics is dealt with as a part of plant diagnostics in nuclear power stations. The following special applications are presented: (1) The modular noise diagnostics system is used for monitoring primary coolant circuits and detecting abnormal processes due to mechanical vibrations, loose parts or leaks. (2) The diagnostics of machines and plants with antifriction bearings is based on bearing vibration measurements. (3) The measurement of the friction moment by means of acoustic emission analysis is used for evaluating the operational state of slide bearings

  18. Maintenance of Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintana, J. M.; Sanchez, J. T.

    2002-01-01

    With this article about the Maintenance in nuclear power plants we will try to give to see the importance of this kind of installations but the problems found by the clients and contractors to face it, and some possible solutions to improve it. It is necessary to understand this problem like something inner to the installation and must be considerate like a benefit for the same. Of course, there must be adequate Sevices Companies in direct relation with the installation that take the responsibility of assuming and understanding the correct fulfillment of the fixed milestones to get the optimal working of the whole plant systems. (Author)

  19. Decommissioning of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friske, A.; Thiele, D.

    1988-01-01

    The IAEA classification of decommissioning stages is outlined. The international development hitherto observed in decommissioning of nuclear reactors and nuclear power stations is presented. The dismantling, cutting and decontamination methods used in the decommissioning process are mentioned. The radioactive wastes from decommissioning are characterized, the state of the art of their treatment and disposal is given. The radiation burdens and the decommissioning cost in a decommissioning process are estimated. Finally, some evaluation of the trends in the decommissioning process of nuclear power plants is given. 54 refs. (author)

  20. The Influence of Diesel Fuel Subsidies and Taxes on the Potential for Solar-Powered Hybrid Systems in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Bertheau

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Many people in African countries lack access to sufficient electricity supply due to missing infrastructure of the centralized conventional power generation system. In order to provide electricity to a wider part of the population, it is necessary to exploit the vast renewable resources in African countries. Therefore, this paper scrutinizes the economic advantages of photovoltaic-based hybrid systems over fossil fuel-based power generation. A simulation model is applied in order to calculate the cost advantage of hybrid systems compared to diesel-only systems for the entire continent on a long term basis by applying two scenarios: one based on world market diesel prices and the other one based on national diesel prices. The results indicate that average power generation costs per country can be reduced by up to 0.11 €/kWh considering world market diesel prices and by up to 0.48 €/kWh considering national diesel prices. Furthermore, the effect of diesel fuel subsidies and taxes on the renewable energy potential and the respective savings are examined. These findings may ameliorate the policy development according to fossil fuel subsidies and taxes and demonstrate the advantages of decentralized renewable hybrid systems especially in rural areas of Africa.

  1. Safety in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeberlein, K.

    1987-01-01

    In nuclear power plants large amounts of radioactive fission products ensue from the fission of uranium. In order to protect the environment, the radioactive material is confined in multiple 'activity barriers' (crystal matrix of the fuel, fuel cladding, coolant boundary, safety containment, reactor building). These barriers are protected by applying a defense-in-depth concept (high quality requirements, protection systems which recognize and terminate operational incidents, safety systems to cope with accidents). In spite of a favorable safety record of German nuclear power plants it is obvious - and became most evident by the Chernobyl accident - that absolute safety is not achievable. At Chernobyl, however, design disadvantages of that reactor type (like positive reactivity feedback of coolant voiding, missing safety containment) played an important role in accident initiation and progression. Such features of the Russian 'graphite-moderated pressure tube boiling water reactor' are different from those of light water reactors operating in western countries. The essential steps of the waste management of the nuclear fuel cycle ('Entsorgung') are the interim storage, the shipment, and the reprocessing of the spent fuel and the final repository of radioactive waste. Reprocessing means the separation of fossil material (uranium, plutonium) from radioactive waste. Legal requirements for radiological protection of the environment, which are identical for nuclear power plants and reprocessing plant, are complied with by means of comprehensive filter systems. Safety problems of a reprocessing plant are eased considerably by the fact that system pressures, process temperatures and energy densities are low. In order to confine the radioactive waste from the biosphere for a very long period of time, it is to be discarded after appropriate treatment into the deep geological underground of salt domes. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Nuclear power plants and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agudo, E.G.; Penteado Filho, A.C.

    1980-01-01

    The question of nuclear power plants is analysed in details. The fundamental principles of reactors are described as well as the problems of safety involved with the reactor operation and the quantity and type of radioactive released to the environment. It shows that the amount of radioactive is very long. The reactor accidents has occurred, as three mile island, are also analysed. (M.I.A.)

  3. Quality assurance programme of Temelin nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eybl, J.; Nowak, O.

    1988-01-01

    The fundamental principle of the system of quality assurance in Czechoslovak nuclear power is quality assurance at all stages of the construction and operation of nuclear power plants and the grading fo measures taken, this in dependence on the impact on nuclear safety of the respective nuclear installation or its part. The system has been made fully operational during the construction of nuclear power plants in Temelin and Mochovce. State surveillance is executed by the Czechoslovak Atomic Energy Commission, and the Czech and Slovak Offices for Work Safety. Briefly discussed are the tasks of the building subcontractor of the Temelin nuclear power plant with regard to the programme of quality assurance as well as the results of the solution of the respective research tasks. The programme of quality assurance classifies the selected sections of the structure of a nuclear power plant into three safety categories. No part of the structure is classified into the first category, the second category includes, e.g., the reactor building, cooling tanks and diesel generator units, the third includes the reactor building and the building of auxiliary workshops. Attention is also paid to the problems of the qualification of personnel and to inspection activity. (Z.M.). 12 refs

  4. Cost-benefit analysis of remote hybrid wind-diesel power stations: Case study Aegean Sea islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaldellis, J.K.; Kavadias, K.A.

    2007-01-01

    More than one third of world population has no direct access to interconnected electrical networks. Hence, the electrification solution usually considered is based on expensive, though often unreliable, stand-alone systems, mainly small diesel-electric generators. Hybrid wind-diesel power systems are among the most interesting and environmental friendly technological alternatives for the electrification of remote consumers, presenting also increased reliability. More precisely, a hybrid wind-diesel installation, based on an appropriate combination of a small diesel-electric generator and a micro-wind converter, offsets the significant capital cost of the wind turbine and the high operational cost of the diesel-electric generator. In this context, the present study concentrates on a detailed energy production cost analysis in order to estimate the optimum configuration of a wind-diesel-battery stand-alone system used to guarantee the energy autonomy of a typical remote consumer. Accordingly, the influence of the governing parameters-such as wind potential, capital cost, oil price, battery price and first installation cost-on the corresponding electricity production cost is investigated using the developed model. Taking into account the results obtained, hybrid wind-diesel systems may be the most cost-effective electrification solution for numerous isolated consumers located in suitable (average wind speed higher than 6.0 m/s) wind potential regions

  5. Availability of thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitsch, D.; Schmitz, H.

    1981-01-01

    Availability data based on unique uniform, and clearly defined concepts and methods of acquisition have been compiled by the VGB since 1970. The data are published in anual reports. These reports contain availability data of fossil-fuelled units, combined gas/steam units, nuclear power plants, and gas turbine plants in Germany and abroad, listed by unit size fuel type, time of operation, and application. For the purpose of comparison, the data for the years since 1970 are presented as well as data averaged for the whole period under report. The main results for the year 1980 are presented now that the greater part of the plants has been evaluated. The complete evaluation will be published towards the end of 1981. (orig.) [de

  6. Elecnuc. Nuclear power plants in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This 2003 version of Elecnuc contents information, data and charts on the nuclear power plants in the world and general information on the national perspectives concerning the electric power industry. The following topics are presented: 2002 highlights; characteristics of main reactor types and on order; map of the French nuclear power plants; the worldwide status of nuclear power plants on 2002/12/3; units distributed by countries; nuclear power plants connected to the Grid by reactor type groups; nuclear power plants under construction; capacity of the nuclear power plants on the grid; first electric generations supplied by a nuclear unit; electrical generation from nuclear plants by country at the end 2002; performance indicator of french PWR units; trends of the generation indicator worldwide from 1960 to 2002; 2002 cumulative Load Factor by owners; nuclear power plants connected to the grid by countries; status of license renewal applications in Usa; nuclear power plants under construction; Shutdown nuclear power plants; exported nuclear power plants by type; exported nuclear power plants by countries; nuclear power plants under construction or order; steam generator replacements; recycling of Plutonium in LWR; projects of MOX fuel use in reactors; electricity needs of Germany, Belgium, Spain, Finland, United Kingdom; electricity indicators of the five countries. (A.L.B.)

  7. Nuclear power plants - Quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This International Standard defines principles for the establishment and implementation of quality assurance programmes during all phases of design, procurement, fabrication, construction, commissioning, operation, maintenance and decommissioning of structures, systems and components of nuclear power plants. These principles apply to activities affecting the quality of items, such as designing, purchasing, fabricating, handling, shipping, storing, cleaning, erecting, installing, testing, commissioning, operating, inspecting, maintaining, repairing, refuelling and modifying and eventually decommissioning. The manner in which the principles described in this document will be implemented in different organizations involved in a specific nuclear power project will depend on regulatory and contractual requirements, the form of management applied to a nuclear power project, and the nature and scope of the work to be performed by different organizations

  8. Fusion power plant simulations: a progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.M.; Pattern, J.S.; Amend, W.E.

    1976-01-01

    The objective of the fusion systems analysis at ANL is to develop simulations to compare alternative conceptual designs of magnetically confined fusion power plants. The power plant computer simulation progress is described. Some system studies are also discussed

  9. Cooling towers for thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaboseau, J.

    1987-01-01

    After a brief recall on cooling towers testing and construction, this paper presents four examples of very large French nuclear power plant cooling towers, and one of an Australian thermal power plant [fr

  10. Cooling water recipients for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, F.-E.; Saetre, H.J.

    1971-10-01

    The hydrographical and hydrological conditions at 17 prospective nuclear power plant sites in the Oslofjord district are evaluated with respect to their suitability as recipients for thermal discharges from nuclear power plants. No comparative evaluations are made. (JIW)

  11. Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) safety in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lederman, L.

    1980-01-01

    The multidisciplinary aspects of the activities involved in the nuclear power plant (NPP) licensing, are presented. The activities of CNEN's technical staff in the licensing of Angra-1 and Angra-2 power plants are shown. (E.G.) [pt

  12. Elecnuc. Nuclear power plants in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This small booklet summarizes in tables all the numerical data relative to the nuclear power plants worldwide. These data come from the French CEA/DSE/SEE Elecnuc database. The following aspects are reviewed: 1997 highlights; main characteristics of the reactor types in operation, under construction or on order; map of the French nuclear power plants; worldwide status of nuclear power plants at the end of 1997; nuclear power plants in operation, under construction and on order; capacity of nuclear power plants in operation; net and gross capacity of nuclear power plants on the grid and in commercial operation; forecasts; first power generation of nuclear origin per country, achieved or expected; performance indicator of PWR units in France; worldwide trend of the power generation indicator; nuclear power plants in operation, under construction, on order, planned, cancelled, shutdown, and exported; planning of steam generators replacement; MOX fuel program for plutonium recycling. (J.S.)

  13. Gundremmingen (KRB) nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-03-01

    Plant reliability and availability during 1973 was very good despite an unscheduled shutdown in October. A temporal availability of 79.42% and an operating availability of 79.07% yielded a usable current production of 1 634 000 000 000 kWh. In May, during the five-week inspection and refueling period, several machines and items of equipment were overhauled in addition to the major generator strip-down, and checks were also carried out on the safety and protection systems throughout the plant. Particular attention was paid to the fire-protection system so that, for example, a fire-protection valve was installed in the turbine oil circuit. The heating system was made independent of oil supplies and considerable economies were achieved by converting it from oil-firing to secondary steam operation. During October copper deposits from a feedwater pre-heater were discovered in the reactor core. The plant had to be shut down for five weeks in order to clean the reactor out with various items of cleaning equipment. After the plant had been started up again, it proved necessary to take the pre-heater releasing copper out of service. This was possible without any noteworthy loss of power. For further operation, it will be necessary to fit the pre-heater with high-grade steel tubes. Throughout the remainder of the year, the power plant operated under full load without any particular malfunction occurring. At the beginning of the year increasing amount of activity in the reactor water pointed to fuel element damage. It was possible to operate the plant at a constant, low level of water activity during the second half of the year after refuelling and the removal of the faulty elements. Faultless plant operation can likewise be expected for 1974. Owing to the officially required pressure test on the reactor pressure vessel, the inspection time will probably extend over six weeks. It is expected that plant availability during 1974 will exceed the 1973 figure

  14. Nuclear power plants in populated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachsmann, F.

    1973-01-01

    The article first deals with the permanently increasing demand for electical power. Considering the ever growing energy demand which can no longer be covered by conventional power plants, it has become necessary to set up nuclear power plants of larger range. The author presents in a survey the basic function of nuclear power plants as well as the resulting risks and safety measures. The author concludes that according to present knowledge there is no more need to erect nuclear power plants outside densely populated urban areas but there is now the possibility of erecting nuclear power plants in densely populated areas. (orig./LH) [de

  15. Atucha I nuclear power plant transients analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castano, J.; Schivo, M.

    1987-01-01

    A program for the transients simulation thermohydraulic calculation without loss of coolant (KWU-ENACE development) to evaluate Atucha I nuclear power plant behaviour is used. The program includes systems simulation and nuclear power plants control bonds with real parameters. The calculation results show a good agreement with the output 'protocol' of various transients of the nuclear power plant, keeping the error, in general, lesser than ± 10% from the variation of the nuclear power plant's state variables. (Author)

  16. Port Menier thermal power plant: Pre-project report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    Port Menier, the town on Anticosti Island in the St Lawrence River estuary, is supplied with electricity from a diesel power plant having a firm capacity of 1,080 kW. Since 1987, power demand has increased at an average annual rate of 5.7%, raising the winter peak demand from 670 kW to 987 kW. The power plant is located in the center of town and is obsolete, presenting a number of architectural, environmental, and operational deficiencies. It is proposed to construct a new power plant having an initial firm capacity of 1,490 kW and storage capacity for 75,000 liters of fuel. The plant site will have an area of ca 6,265 m 2 to allow for an eventual expansion to over 3,000 kW capacity, sufficient for satisfying forecast demand over the next 20 years. Estimated cost of the new plant is ca $9.5 million. The old plant will be decommissioned and the new plant will be built at a site outside of town. The natural and human environments characteristic of the Port Menier area are detailed and the two selected sites for the new plant are described and compared. A site in the industrial zone of Port-Menier is favored. The environmental impacts of the new plant are analyzed and mitigation measures during the preconstruction, construction, and operational phases are proposed. Local economic impacts are estimated at around $990,000. 20 refs., 12 figs., 12 tabs

  17. Intelligent power plant simulator for educational purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifi, A.; Seifi, H.; Ansari, M. R.; Parsa Moghaddam, M.

    2001-01-01

    An Intelligent Tutoring System can be effectively employed for a power plant simulator so that the need for instructor in minimized. In this paper using the above concept as well as object oriented programming and SIMULINK Toolbox of MATLAB, an intelligent tutoring power plant simulator is proposed. Its successful application on a typical 11 MW power plant is demonstrated

  18. Reliability analysis techniques in power plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, N.E.

    1981-01-01

    An overview of reliability analysis techniques is presented as applied to power plant design. The key terms, power plant performance, reliability, availability and maintainability are defined. Reliability modeling, methods of analysis and component reliability data are briefly reviewed. Application of reliability analysis techniques from a design engineering approach to improving power plant productivity is discussed. (author)

  19. Simulators for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ancarani, A.; Zanobetti, D.

    1983-01-01

    The different types of simulator for nuclear power plants depend on the kind of programme and the degree of representation to be achieved, which in turn determines the functions to duplicate. Different degrees correspond to different simulators and hence to different choices in the functions. Training of nuclear power plant operators takes advantage of the contribution of simulators of various degrees of complexity and fidelity. Reduced scope simulators are best for understanding basic phenomena; replica simulators are best used for formal qualification and requalification of personnel, while modular mini simulators of single parts of a plant are best for replay and assessment of malfunctions. Another category consists of simulators for the development of assistance during operation, with the inclusion of disturbance and alarm analysis. The only existing standard on simulators is, at present, the one adopted in the United States. This is too stringent and is never complied with by present simulators. A description of possible advantages of a European standard is therefore offered: it rests on methods of measurement of basic simulator characteristics such as fidelity in values and time. (author)

  20. Occupational dose control in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viktorsson, C.; Lochard, J.; Benedittini, M.; Baum, J.; Khan, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    Reduction in occupational exposure at nuclear power plants is desirable not only in the interest of the health and safety of plant personnel, but also because it enhances the safety and reliability of the plants. This report summarises the current trends of doses to workers at nuclear power plants and the achievements and developments regarding methods for their reduction

  1. An investigation of heat recovery of submarine diesel engines for combined cooling, heating and power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daghigh, Roonak; Shafieian, Abdellah

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The power output of the cycle is about 53 kW in the mass flow rate of 0.6 kg/s. • The output cooling water temperature of evaporator is 3.64 °C. • The absorption chiller has a coefficient of performance equal to 0.94. - Abstract: High temperature and mass flow rate of the exhaust gases of submarine diesel engines provide an appropriate potential for their thermal recovery. The current study introduces a combined cooling, heating and power system for thermal recovery of submarine diesel engines. The cooling system is composed of a mixed effect absorption chiller with two high and low pressure generators. The exhaust of the diesel engine is used in the high pressure generator, and the low pressure generator was divided into two parts. The required heat for the first and second compartments is supplied by the cooling water of the engine and condensation of the vapor generated in the high pressure generator, respectively. The power generation system is a Rankine cycle with an organic working fluid, which is considered a normal thermal system to supply hot water. The whole system is encoded based on mass stability, condensation and energy equations. The obtained findings showed that the maximum heat recovery for the power cycle occurs in exhaust gas mass ratio of 0.23–0.29 and working fluid mass flow rate of 0.45–0.57 kg/s. Further, for each specific mass ratio of exhaust gas, only a certain range of working fluid mass flow rate is used. In the refrigerant mass flow rate of 0.6 kg/s and exhaust gas mass ratio of 0.27, the power output of the cycle is 53 kW, which can also be achieved by simultaneous increase of refrigerant mass flow rate and exhaust gas mass ratio in a certain range of higher powers. In the next section, the overall distribution diagram of output water temperature of the thermal system is obtained according to the exhaust gas mass ratio in various mass flow rates, which can increase the potential of designing and controlling the

  2. Nuclear power plant operating experience, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-11-01

    This report is the third in a series of reports issued annually that summarize the operating experience of U.S. nuclear power plants in commercial operation. Power generation statistics, plant outages, reportable occurrences, fuel element performance, occupational radiation exposure and radioactive effluents for each plant are presented. Summary highlights of these areas are discussed. The report includes 1976 data from 55 plants--23 boiling water reactor plants and 32 pressurized water reactor plants

  3. Power control of the Angra-2 Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Mendes, J.E. de

    1986-01-01

    The systems for the power control of the Nuclear Power Plant Angra 2 have a high degree of automation so that few operator actions are required during power operation. The power control strategy and the operation principles of the control systems, here presented, make possible a great flexibility of the Plant operation. (Author) [pt

  4. HVDC transmission from nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Yukio; Takenaka, Kiyoshi; Taniguchi, Haruto; Ueda, Kiyotaka

    1980-01-01

    HVDC transmission directly from a nuclear power plant is expected as one of the bulk power transmission systems from distant power generating area. Successively from the analysis of HVDC transmission from BWR-type nuclear power plant, this report discusses dynamic response characteristics of HVDC transmission (double poles, two circuits) from PWR type nuclear power plant due to dc-line faults (DC-1LG, 2LG) and ac-line faults (3LG) near inverter station. (author)

  5. Status of Wind-Diesel Applications in Arctic Climates: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, I.; Corbus, D.

    2007-12-01

    The rising cost of diesel fuel and the environmental regulation for its transportation, use, and storage, combined with the clear impacts of increased arctic temperatures, is driving remote communities to examine alternative methods of providing power. Over the past few years, wind energy has been increasingly used to reduce diesel fuel consumption, providing economic, environmental, and security benefits to the energy supply of communities from Alaska to Antarctica. This summary paper describes the current state of wind-diesel systems, reviews the operation of wind-diesel plants in cold climates, discusses current research activities pertaining to these systems, and addresses their technical and commercial challenges. System architectures, dispatch strategies, and operating experience from a variety of wind-diesel systems in Alaska will be reviewed. Specific focus will also be given to the control of power systems with large amounts of wind generation and the complexities of replacing diesel engine waste heat with excess wind energy, a key factor in assessing power plants for retrofit. A brief overview of steps for assessing the viability of retrofitting diesel power systems with wind technologies will also be provided. Because of the large number of isolated diesel minigrids, the market for adding wind to these systems is substantial, specifically in arctic climates and on islands that rely on diesel-only power generation.

  6. Fukushima nuclear power plant accident was preventable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoglu, Utku; Synolakis, Costas

    2015-04-01

    On 11 March 2011, the fourth largest earthquake in recorded history triggered a large tsunami, which will probably be remembered from the dramatic live pictures in a country, which is possibly the most tsunami-prepared in the world. The earthquake and tsunami caused a major nuclear power plant (NPP) accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi, owned by Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO). The accident was likely more severe than the 1979 Three Mile Island and less severe than the Chernobyl 1986 accidents. Yet, after the 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami had hit the Madras Atomic Power Station there had been renewed interest in the resilience of NPPs to tsunamis. The 11 March 2011 tsunami hit the Onagawa, Fukushima Dai-ichi, Fukushima Dai-ni, and Tokai Dai-ni NPPs, all located approximately in a 230km stretch along the east coast of Honshu. The Onagawa NPP was the closest to the source and was hit by an approximately height of 13m tsunami, of the same height as the one that hit the Fukushima Dai-ichi. Even though the Onagawa site also subsided by 1m, the tsunami did not reach to the main critical facilities. As the International Atomic Energy Agency put it, the Onagawa NPP survived the event "remarkably undamaged." At Fukushima Dai-ichi, the three reactors in operation were shut down due to strong ground shaking. The earthquake damaged all offsite electric transmission facilities. Emergency diesel generators (EDGs) provided back up power and started cooling down the reactors. However, the tsunami flooded the facilities damaging 12 of its 13 EDGs and caused a blackout. Among the consequences were hydrogen explosions that released radioactive material in the environment. It is unfortunately clear that TEPCO and Japan's principal regulator Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) had failed in providing a professional hazard analysis for the plant, even though their last assessment had taken place only months before the accident. The main reasons are the following. One

  7. 76 FR 20624 - Oglethorpe Power Corporation: Proposed Biomass Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service Oglethorpe Power Corporation: Proposed Biomass Power Plant AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Availability of a Draft... financial assistance to Oglethorpe Power Corporation (Oglethorpe) for the construction of a 100 megawatt (MW...

  8. Preliminary project concerning the straw-fueled combined power-heat plant to be constructed at Glamsbjerg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, S.; Koch, T.

    1994-06-01

    Power and heat generation based on biomass gasification is of great importance due to its beneficial environmental effects and good economy. This report concerns a preliminary project on feasibility and problems of implementing a dual-purpose power plant, supplying both power and district heating to several schools, swimming pools and other public facilities at Glamsbjerg (Funen). The plant is to be based on thermal gasification (pyrolysis) of straw and use of the gas in a diesel engine. The diesels operate the power generator, and their waste heat should be utilized in the local district heating network. In order to establish a stable and flexible straw supply to the plant an evaluation of resources in the area has been carried out. Apart from straw-derived fuel the plant is planned to use natural gas for start and maintenance of the process. The prices of the combined plant and of the fuel processing are estimated in the report. (EG)

  9. The first of a new generation of diesel engines from General Motors - the efficient and powerful 1.6 liter Euro6 midsize diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boretto, Gianmarco; Golisano, Roberto; Scotti, Michele; Antonioli, Pierpaolo; Frank, Richard M.; Rovatti, Giovanni [General Motors Powertrain Europe s.r.l., Turin (Italy); Wesslau, Markus [Adam Opel AG, Ruesselsheim (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    The major challenge the automotive industry will face in the next decade is undoubtedly the reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions. Conventional powertrains with internal combustion engines will still play a predominant role: in particular, the diesel engine will be a major contributor to the solution thanks to its intrinsic high thermodynamic efficiency and low-end torque which is a key enabler for downsizing engine displacement and downspeeding. In this context, General Motors has developed an entirely new 1.6 liter four-cylinder Midsize Diesel Engine (MDE), the first of a new generation of efficient and powerful diesel engines. Its development has been focused on the achievement of high power and torque density, superior fuel efficiency and state-of-the-art noise and vibration, while meeting the Euro6 emission standard in a wide range of B-, C- and D-segment vehicles, utilizing different exhaust aftertreatment solutions. The key technical features of the base engine, combustion system and emission reduction technologies, together with the innovative engine control unit, are described in this paper. (orig.)

  10. Power control device of an atomic power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ootsuka, Shiro; Ito, Takero.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the power controllability of an atomic power plant by improving the controllability, response and stability of the recirculation flow rate. Constitution: The power control device comprises a power detector of the reactor, which detects and operates the reactor power from the thermal power, neutron flux or the process quantity controlling the same, and a deviation detector which seeks deviation between the power signal of the power detector and the power set value of the reactor or power station. By use of the power control device constituted in this manner, the core flow rate is regulated by the power signal of the deviation detector thereby to control the power. (Aizawa, K.)

  11. Problems of power plant capital demands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slechta, V.; Bohal, L.

    1986-01-01

    The problems are discussed of requirements for investment for power plants in Czechoslovakia. Since the construction was finished of coal-burning 110 MW power plants with six power units, specific capital cost has steadily been growing. The growth amounts to 6 to 8% per year while the principle has been observed that specific capital cost decreases with increased unit power. Attention is paid to the cost of the subcontractors of the building and technological parts of a power plant and to the development of productivity of labour. A comparison is tabulated of cost for coal-burning power plants with 100 MW and 200 MW units and for nuclear power plants with WWER-440 reactors. Steps are suggested leading to a reduction of the capital cost of nuclear power plants. It is stated that should not these steps be taken, the envisaged development of nuclear power would be unbearable for the Czechoslovak national economy. (Z.M.). 8 tabs., 3 refs

  12. Pipework in power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarzbach, K.

    1984-01-01

    With the development of conventional power plant construction to large unit sizes and because of the stringent safety requirements in nuclear poer stations, pipework installation has developed into a difficult operation closely inter-related with safety engineering. It is an important factor as far as completion dates and costs are concerned during the timely implementation of a subsequent construction phase which is characterized by high capital intensiveness. In order to keep both under control, prior planning and execution supported by electronic data processing are essential. (orig.) [de

  13. Design of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo, C.G.

    1987-01-01

    The criteria of design and safety, applied internationally to systems and components of PWR type reactors, are described. The main criteria of the design analysed are: thermohydraulic optimization; optimized arrangement of buildings and components; low costs of energy generation; high level of standardization; application of specific safety criteria for nuclear power plants. The safety criteria aim to: assure the safe reactor shutdown; remove the residual heat and; avoid the release of radioactive elements for environment. Some exemples of safety criteria are given for Angra-2 and Angra-3 reactors. (M.C.K.) [pt

  14. 4. Nuclear power plant component failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear power plant component failures are dealt with in relation to reliability in nuclear power engineering. The topics treated include classification of failures, analysis of their causes and impacts, nuclear power plant failure data acquisition and processing, interdependent failures, and human factor reliability in nuclear power engineering. (P.A.). 8 figs., 7 tabs., 23 refs

  15. Nuclear power plant V-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    In this leaflet the short history of commissioning of Bohunice V-2 NPP is reviewed (beginning of construction December 1976; First controlled reactor power, Reactor Unit 1 (RU1): 7 August 1984, Reactor Unit 2 (RU2): 2 August 1985; Connection to the grid: RU1 20 August 1984, RU2 9 August 1985; Commercial operation: RU1 14 February 1985, RU2 18 December 1985. The scheme of the nuclear reactor WWER 440/V213 is depicted. The major technological equipment are described. Principles of nuclear power plant operation safety (safety barriers, active and passive safety systems, centralized heat supply system, as well as technical data of the Bohunice V-2 NPP are presented

  16. Nuclear power plant V-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    In this leaflet the short history of commissioning of Bohunice V-1 NPP is reviewed (beginning of construction 24 April 1972; First controlled reactor power, Reactor Unit 1 (RU1): 27 November 1978, Reactor Unit 2 (RU2): 15 March 1980; Connection to the grid: RU1 17 December 1978, RU2 26 March 1980; Commercial operation: RU1 1 April 1980, RU2 7 January 1981. The scheme of the nuclear reactor WWER 440/V230 is depicted. The major technological equipment (primary circuit, nuclear reactor, steam generators, reactor coolant pumps, primary circuit auxiliary systems, secondary circuit, turbine generators, NPP electrical equipment, and power plant control) are described. Technical data of the Bohunice V-1 NPP are presented

  17. The atlas of large photovoltaic power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducuing, S.; Guillier, A.; Guichard, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    This document reports all the photovoltaic power plants whose installed power is over 1 MWc and that are operating in France or in project. 446 power plants have been reviewed and their cumulated power reaches 2822 MWc. For each plant the following information is listed: the name of the municipality, the operator, the power capacity, the manufacturer of the photovoltaic panels and the type of technology used, the type of installation (on the ground, on the roof, on the facade, as sun protection,...), the yearly power output (kWh), and the date of commissioning. This review shows that 86% of these plants are ground-based. (A.C.)

  18. Clean Coal Diesel Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Wilson

    2006-10-31

    A Clean Coal Diesel project was undertaken to demonstrate a new Clean Coal Technology that offers technical, economic and environmental advantages over conventional power generating methods. This innovative technology (developed to the prototype stage in an earlier DOE project completed in 1992) enables utilization of pre-processed clean coal fuel in large-bore, medium-speed, diesel engines. The diesel engines are conventional modern engines in many respects, except they are specially fitted with hardened parts to be compatible with the traces of abrasive ash in the coal-slurry fuel. Industrial and Municipal power generating applications in the 10 to 100 megawatt size range are the target applications. There are hundreds of such reciprocating engine power-plants operating throughout the world today on natural gas and/or heavy fuel oil.

  19. Sabotage at Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purvis, James W.

    1999-07-21

    Recently there has been a noted worldwide increase in violent actions including attempted sabotage at nuclear power plants. Several organizations, such as the International Atomic Energy Agency and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, have guidelines, recommendations, and formal threat- and risk-assessment processes for the protection of nuclear assets. Other examples are the former Defense Special Weapons Agency, which used a risk-assessment model to evaluate force-protection security requirements for terrorist incidents at DOD military bases. The US DOE uses a graded approach to protect its assets based on risk and vulnerability assessments. The Federal Aviation Administration and Federal Bureau of Investigation conduct joint threat and vulnerability assessments on high-risk US airports. Several private companies under contract to government agencies use formal risk-assessment models and methods to identify security requirements. The purpose of this paper is to survey these methods and present an overview of all potential types of sabotage at nuclear power plants. The paper discusses emerging threats and current methods of choice for sabotage--especially vehicle bombs and chemical attacks. Potential consequences of sabotage acts, including economic and political; not just those that may result in unacceptable radiological exposure to the public, are also discussed. Applicability of risk-assessment methods and mitigation techniques are also presented.

  20. Sabotage at Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purvis, James W.

    1999-01-01

    Recently there has been a noted worldwide increase in violent actions including attempted sabotage at nuclear power plants. Several organizations, such as the International Atomic Energy Agency and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, have guidelines, recommendations, and formal threat- and risk-assessment processes for the protection of nuclear assets. Other examples are the former Defense Special Weapons Agency, which used a risk-assessment model to evaluate force-protection security requirements for terrorist incidents at DOD military bases. The US DOE uses a graded approach to protect its assets based on risk and vulnerability assessments. The Federal Aviation Administration and Federal Bureau of Investigation conduct joint threat and vulnerability assessments on high-risk US airports. Several private companies under contract to government agencies use formal risk-assessment models and methods to identify security requirements. The purpose of this paper is to survey these methods and present an overview of all potential types of sabotage at nuclear power plants. The paper discusses emerging threats and current methods of choice for sabotage--especially vehicle bombs and chemical attacks. Potential consequences of sabotage acts, including economic and political; not just those that may result in unacceptable radiological exposure to the public, are also discussed. Applicability of risk-assessment methods and mitigation techniques are also presented

  1. A techno-economic evaluation of two non-edible vegetable oil based bio diesel in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarti, M.H.; Ali, M.

    2010-01-01

    Technical evaluation of Bio diesel, produced from various non-edible oils, was carried out on the basis of emission profile, torque, engine brake power and exhaust temperatures at 10% blend ratio (by volume) with mineral diesel. The performance of engine parameters showed that the castor oil based bio diesel gave the best results. Economic feasibility for bio diesel production was carried out based on available data on cultivation of necessary plants on marginal lands. This economic analysis also included the value of by-products which would be available during the chemical process for the production of bio diesel. It was found that jatropha bio diesel could be produced at a comparable cost to mineral diesel, however, castor bio diesel required substantial subsidies or mass cultivation of plants on marginal lands to enable it to compete economically with mineral diesel. (author)

  2. Maintenance of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migaud, D.; Hutin, J.P.; Jouette, I.; Eymond, P.; Devie, P.; Cudelou, C.; Magnier, S.; Frydman, M.

    2016-01-01

    This document gathers different articles concerning the maintenance of the French nuclear power plants. The first article analyses the impact of the recent law on the energetic transition that sets the share of nuclear power at 50% of the electricity produced by 2025. A consequence may be the decommissioning of 17 to 20 reactors by 2025 and the huge maintenance program called 'Grand Carenage' whose aim is to extend operating life over 40 years will have to be re-considered in order to avoid useless expenses. The second article shows that in 2015 the French nuclear reactor fleet got very good results in terms of availability and safety. There were 49 scheduled outages and among them some ended ahead of time. The third article describes the specificities of the maintenance of a nuclear power plant, for instance the redundancy of some systems implies that maintenance has to deal with systems that have never functioned but must be ready to operate at any moment. Another specificity is the complexity of a nuclear power plant that implies an essential phase of preparation for maintenance operations. Because of safety requirements any maintenance operation has to be controlled, checked and may provide feedback. The fourth article presents the 'Grand Carenage' maintenance program that involves the following operations: the replacement of steam generators, the re-tubing of condensers, the replacement of the filtering drums used for cooling water, the testing of the reactor building, the hydraulic test of the primary circuit and the inspection of the reactor vessel. The fifth article focuses on the organization of the work-site for maintenance operations and the example of the Belleville-sur-Loire is described in the sixth article. Important maintenance operations like 'Grand Carenage' requires a strong collaboration with a network of specialized enterprises and as no reactor (except Flamanville EPR) is being built in France, maintenance

  3. Nuclear power plant safety. The merits of separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helander, L.I.; Tiren, L.I.

    1977-01-01

    The paper illustrates how the physical separation of safety-related structures, systems and components can improve the protection of a nuclear power plant against multiple failures that may be caused by events such as fire, pipe-whip, missiles, flooding, hurricanes, lightning etc. Criteria for redundancy and separation requirements affect nuclear plant design in many areas such as building layout, arrangements for fire protection and ventilation, separation of mechanical systems and components, in particular emergency cooling systems, separation of electric equipment and cables. The implementation of the ensuing design criteria for a BWR power plant is described. This design involves the separation of emergency cooling systems into four 50% capacity systems, which are independent and separated, including the distribution network for electric power from on-site standby diesel generators and the circuitry for the reactor protection system. The plant is subdivided into a number of fire zones, each with its own independent ventilation system. The fire zones are further subdivided into a multitude of fire cells such that redundant subsystems are housed in separate cells. These design precautions with regard to fire are complemented by extensive fire fighting systems. (author)

  4. Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident: facts, environmental contamination, possible biological effects, and countermeasures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzai, Kazunori; Ban, Nobuhiko; Ozawa, Toshihiko; Tokonami, Shinji

    2012-01-01

    On March 11, 2011, an earthquake led to major problems at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. A 14-m high tsunami triggered by the earthquake disabled all AC power to Units 1, 2, and 3 of the Power Plant, and carried off fuel tanks for emergency diesel generators. Despite many efforts, cooling systems did not work and hydrogen explosions damaged the facilities, releasing a large amount of radioactive material into the environment. In this review, we describe the environmental impact of the nuclear accident, and the fundamental biological effects, acute and late, of the radiation. Possible medical countermeasures to radiation exposure are also discussed.

  5. A quantitative analysis of a risk impact due to a starting time extension of the emergency diesel generator in optimized power reactor-1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Ho-Gon; Yang, Joon-Eon; Hwang, Mee-Jeong

    2007-01-01

    An emergency diesel generator (EDG) is the ultimate electric power supply source for the operation of emergency engineered safety features when a nuclear power plant experiences a loss of off-site power (LOOP). If a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) with a simultaneous LOOP occurs, the EDG should be in the state of a full power within 10 s, which is a prescribed regulatory requirement in the technical specifications (TS) of the Optimized Power Reactor-1000 (OPR-1000). Recently, the US nuclear regulatory commission (NRC) has been preparing a new risk-informed emergency core cooling system (ECCS) rule called 10 CFR 50.46. The new rule redefines the size for the design basis LOCA and it relaxes some of the requirements such as the single failure criteria, simultaneous LOOP, and the methods of analysis. The revision of the ECCS rule will provide flexibility for plant changes if the plant risks are checked and balanced with the specified criteria. The present study performed a quantitative analysis of the plant risk impact due to the EDG starting time extension given that the new rule will be applied to OPR-1000. The thermal-hydraulic analysis and OPR-1000 probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) model were combined to estimate the whole plant risk impact. Also, sensitivity analyses were implemented for the important uncertainty parameters

  6. Energy analysis and projecting of power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jirlow, K.

    1975-01-01

    Energy analysis aims at a better explanation of energy flow and energy exchange at different production processes. In this report the energy budget is analysed for separate nuclear power plants and for expanding systems of power plants. A mathematical model is developed for linear and exponential expanding of nuclear power. The profitableness for nuclear power plants in Sweden is considered to be good. (K.K.)

  7. The injection equipment of future high-speed DI diesel engines with respect to power and pollution requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolenc, A. (Monobloc Dieselmotoren GmbH, Vienna (AT))

    1990-01-01

    The development of high specific output DI diesel engines started at the low-speed end some 50 years ago primarily for marine and traction applications. Movement towards the high-speed end has been slow but steady with the majority of truck engines being very conservatively rated. There has been recent major effort on the automotive car and light commercial vehicle diesel application leading to lightweight DI diesel engines with an engine speed of 4000-5000 r/min and a rated power of 50 kW/litre displacement. These are expected to be on the market in a short period of time. The key point of this development has been the injection equipment including combustion control. In this area the use of modulated injection has the possibility of solving power and pollution requirements. (author).

  8. The design and performance of the first fully automatic non-grid 5 MW multi-diesel / mini hydro / battery converter power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Shadzli Abdul Wahab

    2000-01-01

    Electricity power supply in remote communities and towns are traditionally and hitherto supplied by diesel generator sets of varying capacities and sizes -from few kilowatt to few megawatts. Its proven to be versatile, robust, modular cheaper capital investment, reliable and easy to operate and maintain. These features are what make diesel generators most preferred choice for generating electric power to power hungry remote communities. The main draw back, though, is its increasingly high cost of operation and maintenance, largely due to upward trend in the cost of diesel fuel, high cost of engines spare parts plus the inflationary nature of salary and wages of operators. For these reasons, engineers and technologists have for years worked tirelessly to find ways and means to reduce the O and M costs. One of the novel ideas was to hybrid the conventional diesel generating system with renewable energy resources, such as mini hydro, solar photovoltaic or wind energy. Many prototypes involving several configurations of energy resources eg diesel/PV/ battery, diesel/wind/battery, diesel/mini hydro/battery have been tested but none has so far has been as successful as Sema/ Powercorp automated Intelligent Power System (IPS). Based on microprocessor hardware, powerful computer software programming and satellite communication technology, the IPS -equipped diesel power station can now now be operated fully automatic with capability of remote control and monitoring. The system is versatile in maximising the use of renewable energy energy resources such as wind, mini hydro or solar thereby reducing very significantly the use of diesel fuel. Operation and maintenance costs also are reduced due to the use of minimum manpower and and increase in fuel efficiency of the engines. The tested and proven IPS technology has been operating successfully for the last ten years in remote diesel stations in Northern Territory, Australia, Rathlin Island, Northern Ireland and its latest and

  9. Plant life management optimized utilization of existing nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watzinger, H.; Erve, M.

    1999-01-01

    For safe, reliable and economical nuclear power generation it is of central importance to understand, analyze and manage aging-related phenomena and to apply this information in the systematic utilization and as-necessary extension of the service life of components and systems. An operator's overall approach to aging and plant life management which also improves performance characteristics can help to optimize plant operating economy. In view of the deregulation of the power generation industry with its increased competition, nuclear power plants must today also increasingly provide for or maintain a high level of plant availability and low power generating costs. This is a difficult challenge even for the newest, most modern plants, and as plants age they can only remain competitive if a plant operator adopts a strategic approach which takes into account the various aging-related effects on a plant-wide basis. The significance of aging and plant life management for nuclear power plants becomes apparent when looking at their age: By the year 2000 roughly fifty of the world's 434 commercial nuclear power plants will have been in operation for thirty years or more. According to the International Atomic Energy Agency, as many as 110 plants will have reached the thirty-year service mark by the year 2005. In many countries human society does not push the construction of new nuclear power plants and presumably will not change mind within the next ten years. New construction licenses cannot be expected so that for economical and ecological reasons existing plants have to be operated unchallengeably. On the other hand the deregulation of the power production market is asking just now for analysis of plant life time to operate the plants at a high technical and economical level until new nuclear power plants can be licensed and constructed. (author)

  10. HTGR gas turbine power plant preliminary design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koutz, S.L.; Krase, J.M.; Meyer, L.

    1973-01-01

    The preliminary reference design of the HTGR gas turbine power plant is presented. Economic and practical problems and incentives related to the development and introduction of this type of power plant are evaluated. The plant features and major components are described, and a discussion of its performance, economics, development, safety, control, and maintenance is presented. 4 references

  11. Nuclear power plant operation 2016. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2017-05-15

    A report is given on the operating results achieved in 2016, events important to plant safety, special and relevant repair, and retrofit measures from nuclear power plants in Germany. Reports about nuclear power plants in Belgium, Finland, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Spain will be published in a further issue.

  12. Environmental survey around EDF nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foulquier, L.

    1992-01-01

    Description of various types of environmental test carried out under the responsibility of the Operator of nuclear power plants in France, with taking Fessenheim nuclear power plant as an example: permanent monitoring of radioactivity, periodic radioecological assessments, main results of measurements taken, showing that there are no detectable effects of the plant on the environment, policy of openness by publication of these results

  13. Nuclear power plants and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barabas, K [Ceskoslovenska Komise pro Atomovou Energii, Prague

    1978-05-01

    The environmental impacts are compared of conventional coal-fired and oil-fired power plants and of nuclear power plants. The values are compared of SO/sub 2/, NO/sub 2/, ash and soot emissions with /sup 133/Xe and /sup 85/Kr fission products release and the requirement for air for diluting these emissions in the atmosphere is assessed. Also compared are thermal pollution from an oil-fired power plant and from PWR and fast reactor power plants. The conclusion is arrived at that nuclear energy can solve the problem of increasing demand for electric and heat power while reducing negative environmental impacts.

  14. Nuclear power plants and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barabas, K.

    1978-01-01

    The environmental impacts are compared of conventional coal-fired and oil-fired power plants and of nuclear power plants. The values are compared of SO 2 , NO 2 , ash and soot emmisions with 133 Xe and 85 Kr fission products release and the requirement for air for diluting these emissions in the atmosphere is assessed. Also compared are thermal pollution from an oil-fired power plant and from PWR and fast reactor power plants. The conclusion is arrived at that nuclear energy can solve the problem of increasing demand for electric and heat power while reducing negative environmental impacts. (O.K.)

  15. Thermal power plant design and operation

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Dipak

    2015-01-01

    Thermal Power Plant: Design and Operation deals with various aspects of a thermal power plant, providing a new dimension to the subject, with focus on operating practices and troubleshooting, as well as technology and design. Its author has a 40-long association with thermal power plants in design as well as field engineering, sharing his experience with professional engineers under various training capacities, such as training programs for graduate engineers and operating personnel. Thermal Power Plant presents practical content on coal-, gas-, oil-, peat- and biomass-fueled thermal power

  16. Financing of nuclear power plant using resources of power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slechta, V.; Milackova, H.

    1987-01-01

    It is proved that during the lifetime of a power plant, financial resources are produced from depreciation and from the profit for the delivered electrical power in an amount allowing to meet the cost of construction, interests of credits, the corporation taxes, and the means usable by the utility for simple reproduction of the power plant, additional investment, or for the ultimate decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. The considerations are simplified to 1 MW of installed capacity of a WWER-440 nuclear power plant. The breakdown is shown of the profit and the depreciation over the power plant lifetime, the resources of regular payments of credit instalments for the construction and the method of its calculation, and the income for the state budget and for the utility during the plant liofetime. (J.B.). 5 tabs., 5 refs

  17. Nuclear power plants in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennings, U.; Stuermer, W.

    1993-01-01

    Under the influence of the polarization between belief in progress, on the one hand, and the moral rigorism of our society, on the other hand, the risks of modern large technical systems have helped the highest level of technical safety to be attained in Germany. It has been reached especially by opting for maximum quality, maximum utility and reliability, complete documentation, continuous in-service checks during operation and, last but not least, by including man and human fallibility. Our concern should be that this strategy pursued in the Western industrialized countries becomes the rule, at least in its main characteristics, also in the Eastern countries. The hazards associated with reactors in Eastern countries affect us all, and it is especially the safety of those reactors which is causing concern. The experience accumulated with the 417 nuclear power plants now in operation, especially the incidents and accidents, shows that hazard potential management is admissible only with a highly developed safety strategy. (orig.) [de

  18. Nuclear power plant annunciator systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, W.L.

    1983-08-01

    Analyses of nuclear power plant annunciator systems have uncovered a variety of problems. Many of these problems stem from the fact that the underlying philosophy of annunciator systems have never been elucidated so as to impact the initial annunciator system design. This research determined that the basic philosophy of an annunciator system should be to minimize the potential for system and process deviations to develop into significant hazards. In order to do this the annunciator system should alert the operators to the fact that a system or process deviation exists, inform the operators as to the priority and nature of the deviation, guide the operators' initial responses to the deviation, and confirm whether operators responses corrected the deviation. Annunciator design features were analyzed to determine to what degree they helped the system meet the functional criteria, the priority for implementing specific design features, and the cost and ease of implementing specific design features

  19. BWR type nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Kosuke.

    1991-01-01

    In a BWR type nuclear power plant in which reactor water in a reactor pressure vessel can be drained to a waste processing system by way of reactor recycling pipeways and remaining heat removal system pipeways, a pressurized air supply device is disposed for supplying air for pressurizing reactor water to the inside of the reactor pressure vessel by way of an upper head. With such a constitution, since the pressurized air sent from the pressurized air supply device above the reactor pressure vessel for the reactor water discharging pressure upon draining, the water draining pressure is increased compared with a conventional case and, accordingly, the amount of drained water is not reduced even in the latter half of draining. Accordingly, the draining efficiency can be improved and only a relatively short period of time is required till the completion of the draining, which can improve safety and save labors. (T.M.)

  20. Nuclear power plant component protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, E.; Ruf, R.; Dorner, H.

    1976-01-01

    Described is a nuclear power plant installation which includes a concrete biological shield forming a pit in which a reactor pressure vessel is positioned. A steam generator on the outside of the shield is connected with the pressure vessel via coolant pipe lines which extend through the shield, the coolant circulation being provided by a coolant pump which is also on the outside of the shield. To protect these components on the outside of the shield and which are of mainly or substantially cylindrical shape, semicylindrical concrete segments are interfitted around them to form complete outer cylinders which are retained against outward separation radially from the components, by rings of high tensile steel which may be interspaced so closely that they provide, in effect, an outer steel cylinder. The invention is particularly applicable to pressurized-water coolant reactor installations

  1. Romanian achievement in hydro-power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardu, M.; Bara, T.

    1998-01-01

    This paper briefly deals with the achievements relating to Hydro-electric Power Plants within the process of development of the National Power System in Romania. Also presented is the Romanian industry contribution to hydro-electrical power plant equipment manufacturing. (author)

  2. QA programs in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellingson, A.C.

    1976-01-01

    As an overview of quality assurance programs in nuclear power plants, the energy picture as it appears today is reviewed. Nuclear power plants and their operations are described and an attempt is made to place in proper perspective the alleged ''threats'' inherent in nuclear power. Finally, the quality assurance programs being used in the nuclear industry are described

  3. HVDC transmission from isorated nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaka, Kiyoshi; Takasaki, Masahiro; Ichikawa, Tatemi; Hayashi, Toshiyuki

    1985-01-01

    HVDC transmission directly from nuclear power plant is considered as one of the patterns of long distance and large capacity transmission system. This reports considers two route HVDC transmission from PWR type nuclear power plant, and analyzes dynamic response characteristics due to bus fault, main protection failure and etc. using the AC-DC Power System Simulator. (author)

  4. EPRI nuclear power plant decommissioning technology program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Karen S.; Bushart, Sean P.; Naughton, Michael; McGrath, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is a non-profit research organization that supports the energy industry. The Nuclear Power Plant Decommissioning Technology Program conducts research and develops technology for the safe and efficient decommissioning of nuclear power plants. (author)

  5. Slovak Electric, plc, Bohunice Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    A brief account of activities carried out by the Bohunice Nuclear Power Plant in 1998 is presented. These activities are reported under the headings: (1) Operation and electric power generation; (2) Nuclear and radiation safety; (3) Maintenance and scheduled refuelling out-gages; (4) Investment and WWER units upgrading; (5) Power Plants Personnel; (6) Public relations

  6. Stainless steels in power plant and plant construction. Papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The conference report comprises 14 papers on the corrosion characteristics of stainless steels in power plant and plant engineering. 9 papers are available as separate records in the ENERGY database. (MM) [de

  7. A landscape simulation system for power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshinaga, Toshiaki; Yoshida, Miki; Usami, Yoshiaki.

    1997-01-01

    As scenes of power plants give many influences to environments, the plants that harmonized with the environments are demanded. We developed a landscape simulation system for the plants by using computer graphics technologies. This system has functions to generate realistic images about plant buildings and environments. Since the system contains information of ridge lines in addition to usual terrain data, the terrain shapes are expressed more precisely. Because the system enables users to visualize plant construction plans, the advance evaluations of plant scenes become possible. We regard this system as useful for environmental assessment of power plants. (author)

  8. Commissioning of the nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furtado, P.M.; Rolf, F.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear Power Plant Angra 2, located at Itaorna Beach-Angra dos Reis is the first plant of the Brazilian-German Agreement to be commissioned. The Nuclear Power Plant is a pressurized water reactor rated at 3765 Mw thermal/1325 Mw electrical. For commissioning purpose the plant is divided into 110 systems. Plant commissioning objective is to demonstrate the safe and correct operation of each plan component, system and of the whole plant in agreement with design conditions, licensing requirements and contractual obligations. This work gives a description of plant commissioning objectives, activities their time sequence, and documentation. (Author) [pt

  9. Nuclear power plant safety, the merits of separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helander, L.I.; Tiren, L.I.

    1977-01-01

    The United States AEC General Design Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants are used worldwide as a basis for the assessment of nuclear plant safety. Several of these criteria require redundancy of safety systems, separation of protection and control systems, consideration of natural phenomena, etc. All these criteria point in one particular direction: the necessity for physically separating the various safety-related systems of a nuclear power plant, particularly with regard to single occurrences that may yield a multiple failure. Requirements in this regard have been amplified by the United States NRC Regulatory Guides and by IEEE Standards. The single occurrence that yields a multiple failure may be, for example, fire, pipe whip, missiles, flooding, hurricanes, or lightning. The paper discusses protection, against the quoted events and others, obtained through applying criteria regarding redundancy and separation of safety-related structures, systems and components. Such criteria affect nuclear plant design in many areas, such as building lay-out, arrangements for fire protection and ventilation, separation of mechanical systems and components, in particular emergency cooling systems, and separation of electric equipment and cables. Implementation of the ensuing design criteria for a BWR power plant is described. This design involves the separation of Emergency Cooling Systems into four 50% Capacity Systems which are independent and separated, including the distribution network for electric power from on-site standby diesel generators and the circuitry for the reactor protection system. The plant is subdivided into a number of fire zones each with its own independent ventilation system. The fire zones are further subdivided into a multitude of fire cells such that redundant subsystems are housed in separate cells. These design precautions with regard to fire are complemented by extensive fire fighting systems

  10. Simulators predict power plant operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltier, R.

    2002-07-01

    Mix the complexity of a new construction or major retrofit project with today's 'do more with less', a pinch of 'personnel inexperience,' and a dash of 'unintended consequences', and you have got a recipe for insomnia. Advanced simulation tools, however, can help you wring out your design train your operators before the first wire is terminated and just may be get a good night's rest. The article describes several examples of uses of simulation tools. Esscor recently completed a simulation project for a major US utility exploring the potential for furnace/duct implosion that could result from adding higher volumetric flow induced-draft fans and selective catalytic reduction to a 650-MW coal-fired plant. CAF Electronics Inc. provided a full-scope simulator for Alstom's KA24-1 combined-cycle power plant in Paris, France. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools are being used by the Gas Technology Institute to simulate the performance of the next generation of pulverized coal combustors. 5 figs.

  11. Economics of hybrid photovoltaic power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breyer, Christian

    2012-08-16

    The global power supply stability is faced to several severe and fundamental threats, in particular steadily increasing power demand, diminishing and degrading fossil and nuclear energy resources, very harmful greenhouse gas emissions, significant energy injustice and a structurally misbalanced ecological footprint. Photovoltaic (PV) power systems are analysed in various aspects focusing on economic and technical considerations of supplemental and substitutional power supply to the constraint conventional power system. To infer the most relevant system approach for PV power plants several solar resources available for PV systems are compared. By combining the different solar resources and respective economics, two major PV systems are identified to be very competitive in almost all regions in the world. The experience curve concept is used as a key technique for the development of scenario assumptions on economic projections for the decade of the 2010s. Main drivers for cost reductions in PV systems are learning and production growth rate, thus several relevant aspects are discussed such as research and development investments, technical PV market potential, different PV technologies and the energetic sustainability of PV. Three major market segments for PV systems are identified: off-grid PV solutions, decentralised small scale on-grid PV systems (several kWp) and large scale PV power plants (tens of MWp). Mainly by application of 'grid-parity' and 'fuel-parity' concepts per country, local market and conventional power plant basis, the global economic market potential for all major PV system segments is derived. PV power plant hybridization potential of all relevant power technologies and the global power plant structure are analyzed regarding technical, economical and geographical feasibility. Key success criteria for hybrid PV power plants are discussed and comprehensively analysed for all adequate power plant technologies, i.e. oil, gas and coal fired power

  12. Economics of hybrid photovoltaic power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breyer, Christian

    2012-08-16

    The global power supply stability is faced to several severe and fundamental threats, in particular steadily increasing power demand, diminishing and degrading fossil and nuclear energy resources, very harmful greenhouse gas emissions, significant energy injustice and a structurally misbalanced ecological footprint. Photovoltaic (PV) power systems are analysed in various aspects focusing on economic and technical considerations of supplemental and substitutional power supply to the constraint conventional power system. To infer the most relevant system approach for PV power plants several solar resources available for PV systems are compared. By combining the different solar resources and respective economics, two major PV systems are identified to be very competitive in almost all regions in the world. The experience curve concept is used as a key technique for the development of scenario assumptions on economic projections for the decade of the 2010s. Main drivers for cost reductions in PV systems are learning and production growth rate, thus several relevant aspects are discussed such as research and development investments, technical PV market potential, different PV technologies and the energetic sustainability of PV. Three major market segments for PV systems are identified: off-grid PV solutions, decentralised small scale on-grid PV systems (several kWp) and large scale PV power plants (tens of MWp). Mainly by application of 'grid-parity' and 'fuel-parity' concepts per country, local market and conventional power plant basis, the global economic market potential for all major PV system segments is derived. PV power plant hybridization potential of all relevant power technologies and the global power plant structure are analyzed regarding technical, economical and geographical feasibility. Key success criteria for hybrid PV power plants are discussed and comprehensively analysed for all adequate power plant technologies, i.e. oil, gas and

  13. Elecnuc. Nuclear power plants in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This 2005 edition of the Elecnuc booklet summarizes in tables all numerical data relative to the nuclear power plants worldwide. These data come from the PRIS database managed by the IAEA. The following aspects are reviewed: 2004 highlights; main characteristics of reactor types; map of the French nuclear power plants on 2005/01/01; worldwide status of nuclear power plants at the end of 2004; units distributed by countries; nuclear power plants connected to the grid by reactor-type group; nuclear power plants under construction on 2004; evolution of nuclear power plant capacities connected to the grid; first electric generations supplied by a nuclear unit; electrical generation from nuclear power plants by country at the end 2004; performance indicator of PWR units in France; trend of the generation indicator worldwide; 2004 load factor by owners; units connected to the grid by countries at 12/31/2004; status of licence renewal applications in USA; nuclear power plants under construction at 12/31/2004; shutdown reactors; exported nuclear capacity in net MWe; exported and national nuclear capacity connected to the grid; exported nuclear power plants under construction or order; exported and national nuclear capacity under construction or order; recycling of plutonium in LWR; Mox licence plant projects; Appendix - historical development; acronyms, glossary

  14. Dynamic Frequency Response of Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altin, Müfit

    according to their grid codes. In these scenarios particularly with high wind power penetration cases, conventional power plants (CPPs) such as old thermal power plants are planned to be replaced with wind power plants (WPPs). Consequently, the power system stability will be affected and the control...... to maintain sustainable and reliable operation of the power system for these targets, transmission system operators (TSOs) have revised the grid code requirements. Also, the TSOs are planning the future development of the power system with various wind penetration scenarios to integrate more wind power...... capability of WPPs would be investigated. The objective of this project is to analyze and identify the power system requirements for the synchronizing power support and inertial response control of WPPs in high wind power penetration scenarios. The dynamic frequency response of WPPs is realized...

  15. 30 CFR 75.1710-1 - Canopies or cabs; self-propelled diesel-powered and electric face equipment; installation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and electric face equipment; installation requirements. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (f) of this section, all self-propelled diesel-powered and electric face equipment, including shuttle cars... and electric face equipment; installation requirements. 75.1710-1 Section 75.1710-1 Mineral Resources...

  16. A comparative life cycle assessment of diesel and compressed natural gas powered refuse collection vehicles in a Canadian city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, Lars; Hussain, Mohammed; Ahmed, Syed; Malek, Kourosh; Costanzo, Robert; Kjeang, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Consumers and organizations worldwide are searching for low-carbon alternatives to conventional gasoline and diesel vehicles to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and their impact on the environment. A comprehensive technique used to estimate overall cost and environmental impact of vehicles is known as life cycle assessment (LCA). In this article, a comparative LCA of diesel and compressed natural gas (CNG) powered heavy duty refuse collection vehicles (RCVs) is conducted. The analysis utilizes real-time operational data obtained from the City of Surrey in British Columbia, Canada. The impact of the two alternative vehicles is assessed from various points in their life. No net gain in energy use is found when a diesel powered RCV is replaced by a CNG powered RCV. However, significant reductions (approximately 24% CO 2 -equivalent) in GHG and criteria air contaminant (CAC) emissions are obtained. Moreover, fuel cost estimations based on 2011 price levels and a 5-year lifetime for both RCVs reveal that considerable cost savings may be achieved by switching to CNG vehicles. Thus, CNG RCVs are not only favorable in terms of reduced climate change impact but also cost effective compared to conventional diesel RCVs, and provide a viable and realistic near-term strategy for cities and municipalities to reduce GHG emissions. - Highlights: ► Life cycle analysis is performed on two alternative refuse collection vehicle technologies. ► Real-time operational data obtained by the City of Surrey in British Columbia are utilized. ► The life cycle energy use is similar for diesel and CNG RCVs. ► A 24% reduction of GHG emissions (CO 2 -equivalent) may be realized by switching from diesel to CNG. ► CNG RCVs are estimated to be cost effective and may lead to reduced fuel costs.

  17. TOSHIBA CAE system for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machiba, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Norio

    1990-01-01

    TOSHIBA aims to secure safety, increase reliability and improve efficiency through the engineering for nuclear power plant using Computer Aided Engineering (CAE). TOSHIBA CAE system for nuclear power plant consists of numbers of sub-systems which had been integrated centering around the Nuclear Power Plant Engineering Data Base (PDBMS) and covers all stage of engineering for nuclear power plant from project management, design, manufacturing, construction to operating plant service and preventive maintenance as it were 'Plant Life-Cycle CAE System'. In recent years, TOSHIBA has been devoting to extend the system for integrated intelligent CAE system with state-of-the-art computer technologies such as computer graphics and artificial intelligence. This paper shows the outline of CAE system for nuclear power plant in TOSHIBA. (author)

  18. A preliminary plant design study for the production of diesel from coal via fischer-tropsch synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamil, M.; Saleem, M.

    2010-01-01

    Pakistan's reliance on conventional means of producing energy has proven to be an inadequate strategy for overcoming it. The situation direly demands diversification of our energy resources not only to overcome current fiasco but also in planning for future. Among the other alternative sources, coal is the main source for producing cheaper electricity being available as huge reserves. This paper presents the preliminary plant design and cost estimation for the production of diesel from coal via coal gasification and fischer-Tropschs synthesis. Prelimnary design calculations and cost estimation are presented along with underlying assumptions. The results reveal that the diesel produced from this process might be cheaper than the crude oil based diesel. (author)

  19. Fusion power plant availability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladra, D.; Sanguinetti, G.P.; Stube, E.

    2001-01-01

    The consideration of fusion as an alternative energy source will need to demonstrate that Fusion Power Plant (FPP) design, operating and maintenance characteristics meet the electrical market requirements forecast for the second half of this century. Until now, fusion has been developed in the framework of research and development programmes following natural technological trends. To bring a greater sense of realism to commercial viability and to guarantee that technology-driven fusion development responds to the demands of the market, a conceptual study of future commercial FPPs has been performed with a Power Plant Availability (PPA) study aimed at identifying the aspects affecting the availability and generating costs of FPPs. EFET, who has also been involved in the study, can visualise it from two different points of view; that of the industry (ANSALDO, IBERTEF, SIEMENS, NNC) and that of the utilities (BELGATOM, FRAMATOME, FORTUM). The work carried out covered the following points: socio-economic forecasting; safety and licensing; operation and maintenance; waste and decommissioning; availability and reliability. The following are the most relevant findings, conclusions and recommendations for all these aspects: Demonstrate definitively that the physical principles of nuclear fusion have been validated by means of experiments; Establish a European Industrial Group to support the demonstration phases; Create the financial and contracting framework required to construct these installations. Secure the necessary budgets for the European Union's 5th and 6th Research Programmes. Look for supplementary long term financing sources; The existing Regulatory Bodies should combine to form a single Working Group with responsibility for fusion reactor safety and licensing activities, working on the harmonisation of the regulatory processes, developing FPP safety criteria and guidelines and reviewing industry standards; To be competitive, FPPs should have high availability

  20. Performance diagnostic system for emergency diesel generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, K.P.

    1991-01-01

    Diesel generators are commonly used for emergency backup power at nuclear stations. Emergency diesel generators (EDGs) are subject to both start-up and operating failures, due to infrequent and fast-start use. EDG reliability can be critical to plant safety, particularly when station blackout occurs. This paper describes an expert diagnostic system designed to consistently evaluate the operating performance of diesel generators. The prototype system is comprised of a suite of sensor monitoring, cylinder combustion analyzing, and diagnostic workstation computers. On-demand assessments of generator and auxiliary equipment performance are provided along with color trend displays comparing measured performance to reference-normal conditions

  1. Performance evaluation of cogeneration power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacone, M.

    2001-01-01

    The free market has changed the criteria for measuring the cogeneration plant performances. Further at the technical-economic parameters, are considered other connected at the profits of the power plant [it

  2. Development of nuclear power plant Risk Monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaoming; Sun Jinlong; Ma Chao; Wang Lin; Gu Xiaohui; Bao Zhenli; Qu Yong; Zheng Hao

    2014-01-01

    Risk Monitor is a tool to monitor the real-time risk of a nuclear power plant for risk management and comprehensive decision-making, which has been widely used all over the world. The nuclear power plant Risk Monitor applies the real-time risk model with low-complicacy that could reflect the plant's actual configuration, automatically reads the plant's configuration information from the engineering system through the developed interface, and efficiently analyzes the plant's risk Dy the intelligent parallel-computing method in order to provide the risk basement for the safety management of nuclear power plant. This paper generally introduces the background, architecture, functions and key technical features of a nuclear power plant Risk Monitor, and validates the risk result, which could well reflect the plant's risk information and has a significant practical value. (authors)

  3. Safe operation of power plants. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freymeyer, P.

    1977-01-01

    Electrotechniques were given a dominating role in the construction of nuclear power plants. The operation of power plants - particularly nuclear power plants - is impossible without the use of electrotechnical and control means. Despite of all reserve in the development and despite of the conservative attitude it is necessary to use the newest results of development and to incite the development ot new electronic systems for the solution of these tasks. (orig.) [de

  4. Advanced power plant materials, design and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roddy, D. (ed.) [Newcastle University (United Kingdom). Sir Joseph Swan Institute

    2010-07-01

    The book is a comprehensive reference on the state of the art of gas-fired and coal-fired power plants, their major components and performance improvement options. Selected chapters are: Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant design and technology by Y. Zhu, and H. C. Frey; Improving thermal cycle efficiency in advanced power plants: water and steam chemistry and materials performance by B. Dooley; Advanced carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) gas separation membrane development for power plants by A. Basile, F. Gallucci, and P. Morrone; Advanced flue gas cleaning systems for sulphur oxides (SOx), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and mercury emissions control in power plants by S. Miller and B.G. Miller; Advanced flue gas dedusting systems and filters for ash and particulate emissions control in power plants by B.G. Miller; Advanced sensors for combustion monitoring in power plants: towards smart high-density sensor networks by M. Yu and A.K. Gupta; Advanced monitoring and process control technology for coal-fired power plants by Y. Yan; Low-rank coal properties, upgrading and utilisation for improving the fuel flexibility of advanced power plants by T. Dlouhy; Development and integration of underground coal gasification (UCG) for improving the environmental impact of advanced power plants by M. Green; Development and application of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage for improving the environmental impact of advanced power plants by B. McPherson; and Advanced technologies for syngas and hydrogen (H{sub 2}) production from fossil-fuel feedstocks in power plants by P. Chiesa.

  5. Parametric study of power turbine for diesel engine waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Rongchao; Zhuge, Weilin; Zhang, Yangjun; Yin, Yong; Chen, Zhen; Li, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    Turbocompounding is a promising technology to recover waste heat from the exhaust and reduce fuel consumption for internal combustion engine. The design of a power turbine plays a key role in turbocompound engine performance. This paper presents a set of parametric studies of power turbine performed on a turbocompound diesel engine by means of turbine through-flow model developed by the authors. This simulation model was verified and validated using engine performance test data and achieved reasonable accuracy. The paper first analyzed the influence of three key geometrical parameters (blade height, blade radius and nozzle exit blade angle) on turbine expansion ratio and engine fuel consumptions. After that, the impacts of the geometrical parameters on power distribution, air mass flow rate and exhaust temperature were analyzed. Results showed that these parameters had significant effects on engine BSFC and power. At high engine speeds, there existed an optimum value of geometry parameter to obtain the lowest BSFC. At low engine speeds, the engine BSFC kept increasing or decreasing continuously as the geometry parameters changed. Research also found that the engine BSFC was most sensitive to the nozzle exit blade angle, which should be considered carefully during the design process. This paper provides a useful method for matching and designing of a power turbine for turbocompound engine. - Highlights: •Through-flow model of axial-flow power turbine for turbocompound engine was established. •Turbocompound engine performance test was carried out to validate the cycle simulation model. •Influences of power turbine geometry parameters on engine BSFC and power were presented

  6. Tasks of a power engineer in future thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freymeyer, P.; Scherschmidt, F.

    1982-01-01

    Today already the power plants provide plenty of tasks and problems to the electrical engineer in the fields of power and conductive engineering. A completely new orientation of power engineering leads to larger, more complex system and even to systems unknown so far. In conductive engineering entirely new solutions have come in view. There are a lot of interesting topics for the electrical engineer in the rearrangement and advance into virgin territory of thermal power plants. (orig.) [de

  7. Nuclear Power Plants in the World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Industrial Forum (JAIF) used every year to summarize a trend survey on the private nuclear power plants in the world in a shape of the 'Nuclear power plants in the world'. In this report, some data at the end of 2002 was made up on bases of answers on questionnaires from 65 electric power companies and other nuclear organizations in 28 countries and regions around the world by JAIF. This report is comprised of 19 items, and contains generating capacity of the plants; current status of Japan; trends of generating capacity of operating the plants, the plant orders and generating capacity of the plants; world nuclear capacity by reactor type; status of MOX use in the world; location of the plants; the plants in the world; directory of the plants; nuclear fuel cycle facilities; and so forth. (J.P.N.)

  8. Nuclear power plants in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc. (JAIF) used every year to summarize a trend survey on the private nuclear power plants in the world in a shape of the 'Nuclear power plants in the world'. In this report, some data at the end of 2007/2008 was made up on bases of answers on questionnaires from electric power companies and other nuclear organizations around the world by JAIF. This report is comprised of 18 items, and contains generating capacity of the plants; effect of the Niigata-ken chuetsu-oki earthquake; current status of Japan; trends of generating capacity of operating the plants, the plant orders and generating capacity of the plants; world nuclear capacity by reactor type; status of MOX use in the world; location of the plants; the plants in the world; directory of the plants; nuclear fuel cycle facilities, and so forth. (J.P.N.)

  9. Nuclear Power Plants in the World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc. (JAIF) used every year to summarize a trend survey on the private nuclear power plants in the world in a shape of the 'Nuclear power plants in the world'. In this report, some data at the end of 2003 was made up on bases of answers on questionnaires from 81 electric power companies and other nuclear organizations in 33 countries and regions around the world by JAIF. This report is comprised of 19 items, and contains generating capacity of the plants; current status of Japan; trends of generating capacity of operating the plants, the plant orders and generating capacity of the plants; world nuclear capacity by reactor type; status of MOX use in the world; location of the plants; the plants in the world; directory of the plants; nuclear fuel cycle facilities; and so forth. (J.P.N.)

  10. Qualification of nuclear power plant operations personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    With the ultimate aim of reducing the possibility of human error in nuclear power plant operations, the Guidebook discusses the organizational aspects, the staffing requirements, the educational systems and qualifications, the competence requirements, the ways to establish, preserve and verify competence, the specific aspects of personnel management and training for nuclear power plant operations, and finally the particular situations and difficulties to be overcome by utilities starting their first nuclear power plant. An important aspect presented in the Guidebook is the experience in training and qualification of nuclear power plant personnel in various countries: Argentina, Belgium, Canada, Czechoslovakia, France, Federal Republic of Germany, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom and United States of America

  11. The operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brosche, D.

    1992-01-01

    The duties to be performed in managing the operation of a nuclear power plant are highly diverse, as will be explained in this contribution by the examples of the Grafenrheinfeld Nuclear Power Station. The excellent safety record and the high availabilities of German nuclear power plants demonstrate that their operators have adopted the right approaches. Systematic evaluation of the operating experience accumulated inhouse and in other plants is of great significance in removing weak spots and improving operation. The manifold and complex activities in the structure of organization and of activities in a nuclear power plant require a high degree of division of labor. (orig.) [de

  12. The plant efficiency of fusion power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darvas, J.; Foerster, S.

    1976-01-01

    Due to the circulating energy, lower efficiencies are to be expected with fusion power plants than with nuclear fission power plants. According to the systems analysis, the mirror machine is not very promising as a power plant. The plant efficiency of the laser fusion strongly depends on the laser efficiency about which one can only make speculative statements at present. The Tokamak requires a relatively low circulating energy and is certainly able to compete regarding efficiency as long as the consumption time can be kept large (> 100 sec) and the dead time between the power pulses small ( [de

  13. Investigation toward laser driven IFE power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, S.; Kozaki, Y.; Izawa, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Inertial fusion energy (IFE) is becoming feasible due to the increasing understanding of implosion physics. Reactor technology issues have begun to be developed. Based on the conceptual design of Laser Driven IFE Power Plant, the technical and physical issues have been examined. R and D on key issues that affect the feasibility of power plant have been proceeded taking into account the collaboration in the field of laser driver, fuel pellet, reaction chamber and system design. It is concluded that the technical feasibility of IFE power plant seems to be reasonably high. Coordination and collaboration scheme of reactor technology experts in Japan on Laser Driven IFE Power Plant is being proceeded. (author)

  14. Cooling towers of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikyska, L.

    1986-01-01

    The specifications are given of cooling towers of foreign nuclear power plants and a comparison is made with specifications of cooling towers with natural draught in Czechoslovak nuclear power plants. Shortcomings are pointed out in the design of cooling towers of Czechoslovak nuclear power plants which have been derived from conventional power plant design. The main differences are in the adjustment of the towers for winter operation and in the designed spray intensity. The comparison of selected parameters is expressed graphically. (J.B.)

  15. 76 FR 77963 - Oglethorpe Power Corporation; Proposed Biomass Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ... Service Oglethorpe Power Corporation; Proposed Biomass Power Plant AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service, USDA... related to possible financial assistance to Oglethorpe Power Corporation's (Oglethorpe) for the... online at the following Web site: http://www.rurdev.usda.gov/UWP-OglethorpePower.html and at the: Warren...

  16. Summary of nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Saburo

    1973-01-01

    Various conditions for the construction of nuclear power plants in Japan without natural resources were investigated. Expansion of the sites of plants, change of reactor vessels, standardization of nuclear power plants, possiblity of the reduction of construction period, approaching of nuclear power plants to consuming cities, and group construction were studied. Evaluation points were safety and economy. Previous sites of nuclear power plants were mostly on plane ground or cut and enlarge sites. Proposals for underground or offshore plants have been made. The underground plants were made at several places in Europe, and the ocean plant is now approved in U.S.A. as a plant on a man-made island. Vessels for containing nuclear reactors are the last barriers to the leakage of radioactive substance. At the initial period, the vessels were made of steel, which were surrounded by shielding material. Those were dry well type containers. Then, vessel type changed to pressure-suppression type wet containers. Now, it tends to concrete (PC or RC) type containers. There is the policy on the standardization of nuclear power plants by U.S.A.E.C. in recent remarkable activity. The merit and effect of the standardization were studied, and are presented in this paper. Cost of the construction of nuclear power plants is expensive, and interest of money is large. Then, the reduction of construction period is an important problem. The situations of plants approaching to consuming cities in various countries were studied. Idea of group construction is described. (Kato, T.)

  17. Control of power plants and power systems. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canales-Ruiz, R.

    1996-01-01

    The 88 papers in this volume constitute the proceedings of the International Federation of Automatic Control Symposium held in Mexico in 1995. The broad areas which they cover are: self tuning control; power plant operations; dynamic stability; fuzzy logic applications; power plants modelling; artificial intelligence applications; power plants simulation; voltage control; control of hydro electric units; state estimation; fault diagnosis and monitoring systems; system expansion and operation planning; security assessment; economic dispatch and optimal load flow; adaptive control; distribution; transient stability and preventive control; modelling and control of nuclear plant; knowledge data bases for automatic learning methods applied to power system dynamic security assessment; control of combined cycle units; power control centres. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the three papers relating to nuclear power plants. (UK)

  18. Methodology for Scaling Fusion Power Plant Availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waganer, Lester M.

    2011-01-01

    Normally in the U.S. fusion power plant conceptual design studies, the development of the plant availability and the plant capital and operating costs makes the implicit assumption that the plant is a 10th of a kind fusion power plant. This is in keeping with the DOE guidelines published in the 1970s, the PNL report1, 'Fusion Reactor Design Studies - Standard Accounts for Cost Estimates. This assumption specifically defines the level of the industry and technology maturity and eliminates the need to define the necessary research and development efforts and costs to construct a one of a kind or the first of a kind power plant. It also assumes all the 'teething' problems have been solved and the plant can operate in the manner intended. The plant availability analysis assumes all maintenance actions have been refined and optimized by the operation of the prior nine or so plants. The actions are defined to be as quick and efficient as possible. This study will present a methodology to enable estimation of the availability of the one of a kind (one OAK) plant or first of a kind (1st OAK) plant. To clarify, one of the OAK facilities might be the pilot plant or the demo plant that is prototypical of the next generation power plant, but it is not a full-scale fusion power plant with all fully validated 'mature' subsystems. The first OAK facility is truly the first commercial plant of a common design that represents the next generation plant design. However, its subsystems, maintenance equipment and procedures will continue to be refined to achieve the goals for the 10th OAK power plant.

  19. Power plant engineering for overseas market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, K.S.

    1994-12-31

    Korea`s experience in power plant engineering for the overseas market is reviewed. The following topics are discussed: the Asian electric power market, ordering characteristics, country situations, and overseas market requirements.

  20. Kuroshio power plant development plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Falin

    2010-01-01

    As a country lacking energy reserves, Taiwan imports 99.2% of its energy, with only a small portion of indigenous energy, such as hydro, wind, and solar. In 2008, each Taiwanese spent 85,000 NTD dollars (1 USD ∝ 32 NTD) to purchase oil, coal, gas, and nuclear fuel from foreign countries, accounting for a total payment of 1.8 trillion NTD, more than the annual budget of the Taiwan government of 1.7 trillion NTD. In the same year, Taiwan emitted about 1% of the world's greenhouse gas (GHG), or 12 tons per person-year, ranking 18th globally. These situations in terms of energy security and carbon emission are very severe. To resolve these severe situations, harnessing the power of the Kuroshio in eastern Taiwan offers a great opportunity. The Kuroshio is a branch of the North Pacific Ocean current. Due to the westward-enhanced effect, this ocean current is strong and stable as it passes through eastern Taiwan. The flow rate is about 30 sverdrup (Sv) or 1000 times that of the Yangtze River, the average speed is 1 m/s, the flow direction is fixed to the north, and the flow path is close to the east coast of Taiwan. By precisely locating high-quality sites and implementing sequential works with careful planning, one can possibly generate exploitable power more than 30 GW. With 30 GW of clean energy, Taiwan could effectively enhance energy security, reduce GHG emission, and lower energy-purchasing cost. This paper proposes a feasibility study to explore the power of the Kuroshio. The content consists of four parts: (1) assessment of Kuroshio power reserves, (2) development of turbine generators, (3) development of turbine-anchor system, and (4) deep-sea marine engineering of turbine clusters. By integrating these technologies above, we propose a project to construct a 30 MW pilot plant. In this project, we also discuss the financial analysis and propose new regulations, environmental impact analysis, risk assessment, and other relevant issues. (author)

  1. Nuclear power plant cable materials :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celina, Mathias C.; Gillen, Kenneth T; Lindgren, Eric Richard

    2013-05-01

    A selective literature review was conducted to assess whether currently available accelerated aging and original qualification data could be used to establish operational margins for the continued use of cable insulation and jacketing materials in nuclear power plant environments. The materials are subject to chemical and physical degradation under extended radiationthermal- oxidative conditions. Of particular interest were the circumstances under which existing aging data could be used to predict whether aged materials should pass loss of coolant accident (LOCA) performance requirements. Original LOCA qualification testing usually involved accelerated aging simulations of the 40-year expected ambient aging conditions followed by a LOCA simulation. The accelerated aging simulations were conducted under rapid accelerated aging conditions that did not account for many of the known limitations in accelerated polymer aging and therefore did not correctly simulate actual aging conditions. These highly accelerated aging conditions resulted in insulation materials with mostly inert aging processes as well as jacket materials where oxidative damage dropped quickly away from the air-exposed outside jacket surface. Therefore, for most LOCA performance predictions, testing appears to have relied upon heterogeneous aging behavior with oxidation often limited to the exterior of the cable cross-section a situation which is not comparable with the nearly homogenous oxidative aging that will occur over decades under low dose rate and low temperature plant conditions. The historical aging conditions are therefore insufficient to determine with reasonable confidence the remaining operational margins for these materials. This does not necessarily imply that the existing 40-year-old materials would fail if LOCA conditions occurred, but rather that unambiguous statements about the current aging state and anticipated LOCA performance cannot be provided based on

  2. Control of renewable distributed power plants

    OpenAIRE

    Bullich Massagué, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this master thesis is to design a power plant controller for a photo- voltaic (PV) power plant. In a first stage, the current situation of the status of the electrical grid is analysed. The electrical network structure is moving from a conventional system (with centralized power generation, unidirectional power ows, easy control) to a smart grid system consisting on distributed generation, renewable energies, smart and complex control architecture and ...

  3. Heat supply from nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stach, V [Ustav Jaderneho Vyzkumu CSKAE, Rez (Czechoslovakia)

    1978-05-01

    The current state of world power production and consumption is assessed. Prognoses made for the years 1980 to 2000 show that nuclear energy should replace the major part of fossil fuels not only in the production of power but also in the production of heat. In this respect high-temperature reactors are highly prospective. The question is discussed of the technical and economic parameters of dual-purpose heat and power plants. It is, however, necessary to solve problems arising from the safe siting of nuclear heat and power plants and their environmental impacts. The economic benefits of combined power and heat production by such nuclear plants is evident.

  4. Physical and financial virtual power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willems, Bert

    2005-01-01

    Regulators in Belgium and the Netherlands use different mechanisms to mitigate generation market power. In Belgium, antitrust authorities oblige the incumbent to sell financial Virtual Power Plants, while in the Netherlands regulators have been discussing the use of physical Virtual Power Plants. This paper uses a numerical game theoretic model to simulate the behavior of the generation firms and to compare the effects of both systems on the market power of the generators. It shows that financial Virtual Power Plants are better for society. (Author)

  5. Optimal Dispatch of Unreliable Electric Grid-Connected Diesel Generator-Battery Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, D.; Kang, L.

    2015-06-01

    Diesel generator (DG)-battery power systems are often adopted by telecom operators, especially in semi-urban and rural areas of developing countries. Unreliable electric grids (UEG), which have frequent and lengthy outages, are peculiar to these regions. DG-UEG-battery power system is an important kind of hybrid power system. System dispatch is one of the key factors to hybrid power system integration. In this paper, the system dispatch of a DG-UEG-lead acid battery power system is studied with the UEG of relatively ample electricity in Central African Republic (CAR) and UEG of poor electricity in Congo Republic (CR). The mathematical models of the power system and the UEG are studied for completing the system operation simulation program. The net present cost (NPC) of the power system is the main evaluation index. The state of charge (SOC) set points and battery bank charging current are the optimization variables. For the UEG in CAR, the optimal dispatch solution is SOC start and stop points 0.4 and 0.5 that belong to the Micro-Cycling strategy and charging current 0.1 C. For the UEG in CR, the optimal dispatch solution is of 0.1 and 0.8 that belongs to the Cycle-Charging strategy and 0.1 C. Charging current 0.1 C is suitable for both grid scenarios compared to 0.2 C. It makes the dispatch strategy design easier in commercial practices that there are a few very good candidate dispatch solutions with system NPC values close to that of the optimal solution for both UEG scenarios in CAR and CR.

  6. Managing aging in nuclear power plants: Insights from NRC maintenance team inspection reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fresco, A.; Subudhi, M.; Gunther, W.; Grove, E.; Taylor, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1993-12-01

    A plant`s maintenance program is the principal vehicle through which age-related degradation is managed. From 1988 to 1991, the NRC evaluated the maintenance program of every nuclear power plant in the United States. Forty-four out of a total of 67 of the reports issued on these in-depth team inspections were reviewed for insights into the strengths and weaknesses of the programs as related to the need to understand and manage the effects of aging on nuclear plant systems, structures, and components. Relevant information was extracted from these inspection reports and sorted into several categories, including Specific Aging Insights, Preventive Maintenance, Predictive Maintenance and Condition Monitoring, Post Maintenance Testing, Failure Trending, Root Cause Analysis and Usage of Probabilistic Risk Assessment in the Maintenance Process. Specific examples of inspection and monitoring techniques successfully used by utilities to detect degradation due to aging have been identified. The information also was sorted according to systems and components, including: Auxiliary Feedwater, Main Feedwater, High Pressure Injection for both BWRs and PWRs, Service Water, Instrument Air, and Emergency Diesel Generator Air Start Systems, and Emergency Diesel Generators Air Start Systems, emergency diesel generators, electrical components such as switchgear, breakers, relays, and motor control centers, motor operated valves and check valves. This information was compared to insights gained from the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. Attributes of plant maintenance programs where the NRC inspectors felt that improvement was needed to properly address the aging issue also are discussed.

  7. Dosimetry in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lastra B, J. A.

    2008-12-01

    To control the occupationally exposed personnel dose working at the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant, two types of dosemeters are used, the thermoluminescent (TLD) which is processed monthly, and the direct reading dosemeter that is electronic and works as daily control of personal dose. In the case of the electronic dosemeters of direct reading conventional, the readings and dose automatic registers and the user identity to which he was assigned to each dosemeter was to carry out the restricted area exit. In activities where the ionizing radiation sources are not fully characterized, it is necessary to relocate the personal dosemeter or assigned auxiliary dosemeters (TLDs and electronics) to determine the dose received by the user to both whole body and in any specific area of it. In jobs more complicated are used a tele dosimetry system where the radiation protection technician can be monitoring the user dose to remote control, the data transmission is by radio. The dosimetry activities are documented in procedures that include dosemeter inventories realization, the equipment and dosemeters calibration, the dosimetry quality control and the discrepancies investigation between the direct reading and TLD systems. TLD dosimetry to have technical expertise in direct and indirect dosimetry and two technicians in TLD dosimetry; electronic dosimetry to have 4 calibration technicians. For the electronic dosemeters are based on a calibrator source of Cesium-137. TLD dosemeters to have an automatic radiator, an automatic reader which can read up to 100 TLD dosemeters per hour and a semiautomatic reader. To keep the equipment under a quality process was development a process of initial entry into service and carried out a periodic verification of the heating cycles. It also has a maintenance contract for the equipment directly with the manufacturer to ensure their proper functioning. The vision in perspective of the dosimetry services of Laguna Verde nuclear power plant

  8. Nuclear Power Plants in the World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Industrial Forum (JAIF) used every year to summarize a trend survey on the private nuclear power plants in the world in a shape of the 'Developmental trends on nuclear power plants in the world'. In this report, some data at the end of 1999 was made up on bases of answers on questionnaires from 72 electric companies in 31 nations and regions in the world by JAIF. This report is comprised of 19 items, and contains generating capacity of the plants; current status of Japan; trends of generating capacity of operating the plants, the plant orders and generating capacity of the plants; world nuclear capacity by reactor type; location of the plants; the plants in the world; and so forth. And, it also has some survey results on the 'Liberalization of electric power markets and nuclear power generation' such as some 70% of respondents in nuclear power for future option, gas-thermal power seen as power source with most to gain from liberalization, merits on nuclear power generation (environmental considerations and supply stability), most commonly voiced concern about new plant orders in poor economy, and so forth. (G.K.)

  9. Ground tests of 120 kW(heat) biomass fired gasifier diesel installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zyssin, L.V.; Maronet, I.J.; Morshin, V.N. [Energotechnology Ltd., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-31

    For the 1 MW and less power range diesel gasifier power plants could be considered as one of the main energy sources. The brief information about works carried out in Russia according to this direction is presented. Data of preliminary tests for gas diesel installations are presented. (orig.)

  10. Ground tests of 120 kW(heat) biomass fired gasifier diesel installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zyssin, L V; Maronet, I J; Morshin, V N [Energotechnology Ltd., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    For the 1 MW and less power range diesel gasifier power plants could be considered as one of the main energy sources. The brief information about works carried out in Russia according to this direction is presented. Data of preliminary tests for gas diesel installations are presented. (orig.)

  11. Modeling and Control of a DC-grid Hybrid Power System with Battery and Variable Speed Diesel Generators

    OpenAIRE

    Syverud, Tron Hansen

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid electric power systems (HPS) have successfully been integrated in the road-traffic industry due to enhanced efficiency and environmental benefits. Recently this concept has been implemented in the marine sector. In this master thesis, the construction of a DC hybrid power system for a marine vessel is outlined in detail. The HPS is developed in Matlbat/Simulink and comprises two set of diesel generators with variable speed, six-pulse diode bridges, a battery bank, bidire...

  12. Analysis of design of auxiliary system of Booshehr Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naseh Hasanzadeh, M.

    1999-01-01

    Power plant's internal auxiliary system has an important role in its safety operation. Because of the decay heat and safety aspects in the nuclear power plants, this role is more important. In this thesis, operation of the nuclear power plant with PWR reactor is studied and deferent nuclear systems described. In the next section all electrical loads in the Booshehr Nuclear Power Plant identified and feeding methods of each load is determined. by use of the single line diagram of the internal auxiliary system, the nominal rating of all electrical devices as transformers, inverters, Ups, diesel generators and etc. is determined. In the following, short circuit calculations performed and by above conclusion, rating values of circuit breakers is determined. At last the starting problems of electrical motors is studied and the results of motor's behavior at starting moment is discussed

  13. Nuclear Power Plant Module, NPP-1: Nuclear Power Cost Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelaw, Robert L.

    The purpose of the Nuclear Power Plant Modules, NPP-1, is to determine the total cost of electricity from a nuclear power plant in terms of all the components contributing to cost. The plan of analysis is in five parts: (1) general formulation of the cost equation; (2) capital cost and fixed charges thereon; (3) operational cost for labor,…

  14. Nuclear Power Plant Lifetime Management Study (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sung Yull; Jeong, Ill Seok; Jang, Chang Heui; Song, Taek Ho; Song, Woo Young [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Tae Eun [Korea Power Engineering Company Consulting and Architecture Engineers, (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Woo Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    As the operation-year of nuclear power plant increases and finding sites for new nuclear power plant becomes harder, a comprehensive and systematic nuclear plant lifetime management(PLIM) program including life extension has to be established for stable and safe supply of electricity. A feasibility study was conducted to systematically evaluate technical, economic and regulatory aspect of plant lifetime managements and plant life extension for Kori-1 nuclear power plant. For technical evaluation of nuclear power plant, 13 major components were selected for lifetime evaluation by screening system. structure, and components(SSCs) of the plant. It was found that except reactor pressure vessel, which needs detailed integrity analysis, and low pressure turbine, which is scheduled to be replaced, 11 out of 13 major components have sufficient service life, for more than 40 years. Because domestic rules and regulations related to license renewal has not yet been written, review on the regulatory aspect of life extensions was conducted using US NRC rules and regulations. A cooperative effort with nuclear regulatory body is needed for early completion of license renewal rules and regulations. For economic evaluation of plant lifetime extension, a computer program was developed and used. It was found that 10 to 20 year of extension operation of Kori-1 nuclear power plant was proved. Based on the results, next phase of plant lifetime management program for detailed lifetime evaluation and presenting detailed implementation schedule for plant refurbishment for lifetime extension should be followed. (author). 74 refs., figs.

  15. Nuclear Power Plant Lifetime Management Study (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sung Yull; Jeong, Ill Seok; Jang, Chang Heui; Song, Taek Ho; Song, Woo Young [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Tae Eun [Korea Power Engineering Company Consulting and Architecture Engineers, (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Woo Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    As the operation-year of nuclear power plant increases and finding sites for new nuclear power plant becomes harder, a comprehensive and systematic nuclear plant lifetime management(PLIM) program including life extension has to be established for stable and safe supply of electricity. A feasibility study was conducted to systematically evaluate technical, economic and regulatory aspect of plant lifetime managements and plant life extension for Kori-1 nuclear power plant. For technical evaluation of nuclear power plant, 13 major components were selected for lifetime evaluation by screening system. structure, and components(SSCs) of the plant. It was found that except reactor pressure vessel, which needs detailed integrity analysis, and low pressure turbine, which is scheduled to be replaced, 11 out of 13 major components have sufficient service life, for more than 40 years. Because domestic rules and regulations related to license renewal has not yet been written, review on the regulatory aspect of life extensions was conducted using US NRC rules and regulations. A cooperative effort with nuclear regulatory body is needed for early completion of license renewal rules and regulations. For economic evaluation of plant lifetime extension, a computer program was developed and used. It was found that 10 to 20 year of extension operation of Kori-1 nuclear power plant was proved. Based on the results, next phase of plant lifetime management program for detailed lifetime evaluation and presenting detailed implementation schedule for plant refurbishment for lifetime extension should be followed. (author). 74 refs., figs.

  16. Decentralized/stand-alone hybrid Wind-Diesel power systems to meet residential loads of hot coastal regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elhadidy, M.A.; Shaahid, S.M.

    2005-01-01

    In view of rising costs, pollution and fears of exhaustion of oil and coal, governments around the world are encouraging to seek energy from renewable/sustainable energy sources such as wind. The utilization of energy from wind (since the oil embargo of the 1970s) is being widely disseminated for displacement of fossil fuel produced energy and to reduce atmospheric degradation. A system that consists of a wind turbine and Diesel genset is called a Wind-Diesel power system.The literature indicates that the commercial/residential buildings in Saudi Arabia consume an estimated 10-40% of the total electric energy generated. In the present study, the hourly mean wind-speed data of the period 1986-1997 recorded at the solar radiation and meteorological station, Dhahran (26 deg. 32'N, 50 deg. 13'E in the Eastern Coastal Region of Saudi Arabia), has been analyzed to investigate the potential of utilizing hybrid (Wind-Diesel) energy conversion systems to meet the load requirements of a hundred typical two bedroom residential buildings (with annual electrical energy demand of 3512 MWh). The long term monthly average wind speeds for Dhahran range from 4.2 to 6.4 m/s. The hybrid systems considered in the present case study consist of different combinations/clusters of 150 kW commercial wind machines supplemented with battery storage and Diesel back-up. The deficit energy generated by the Diesel generator (for different battery capacities) and the number of operational hours of the Diesel system to meet a specific annual electrical energy demand of 3512 MWh have also been presented. The evaluation of the hybrid system shows that with seven 150 kW wind energy conversion system (WECS) and one day of battery storage, the Diesel back-up system has to provide 21.6% of the load demand. Furthermore, with three days of battery storage, the Diesel back-up system has to provide 17.5% of the load demand. However, in the absence of battery storage, about 37% of the load needs to be

  17. Elecnuc. Nuclear power plants in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This small booklet summarizes in tables all the numerical data relative to the nuclear power plants worldwide. These data come from the French CEA/DSE/SEE Elecnuc database. The following aspects are reviewed: 1999 highlights; main characteristics of the reactor types in operation, under construction or on order; map of the French nuclear power plants; worldwide status of nuclear power plants at the end of 1999; nuclear power plants in operation, under construction and on order; capacity of nuclear power plants in operation; net and gross capacity of nuclear power plants on the grid and in commercial operation; grid connection forecasts; world electric power market; electronuclear owners and share holders in EU, capacity and load factor; first power generation of nuclear origin per country, achieved or expected; performance indicator of PWR units in France; worldwide trend of the power generation indicator; 1999 gross load factor by operator; nuclear power plants in operation, under construction, on order, planned, cancelled, shutdown, and exported; planning of steam generators replacement; MOX fuel program for plutonium recycling. (J.S.)

  18. Nuclear power plant containment construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schabert, H.P.; Danisch, R.; Strickroth, E.

    1975-01-01

    The Nuclear Power Plant Containment Construction includes the spherical steel safety enclosure for the reactor and the equipment associated with the reactor and requiring this type of enclosure. This steel enclosure is externally structurally protected against accident by a concrete construction providing a foundation for the steel enclosure and having a cylindrical wall and a hemispherical dome, these parts being dimensioned to form an annular space surrounding the spherical steel enclosure, the latter and the concrete construction heretofore being concentrically arranged with respect to each other. In the disclosed construction the two parts are arranged with their vertical axis horizontally offset from each other so that opposite to the offsetting direction of the concrete construction a relatively large space is formed in the now asymmetrical annular space in which reactor auxiliary equipment not requiring enclosure by the steel containment vessel or safety enclosure, may be located outside of the steel containment vessel and inside of the concrete construction where it is structurally protected by the latter

  19. Nuclear power. Volume 1. Nuclear power plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, E.S.

    1978-01-01

    NUCLEAR POWER PLANT DESIGN is intended to be used as a working reference book for management, engineers and designers, and as a graduate-level text for engineering students. The book is designed to combine theory with practical nuclear power engineering and design experience, and to give the reader an up-to-date view of the status of nuclear power and a basic understanding of how nuclear power plants function. Volume 1 contains the following chapters; (1) nuclear reactor theory; (2) nuclear reactor design; (3) types of nuclear power plants; (4) licensing requirements; (5) shielding and personnel exposure; (6) containment and structural design; (7) main steam and turbine cycles; (8) plant electrical system; (9) plant instrumentation and control systems; (10) radioactive waste disposal (waste management) and (11) conclusion

  20. Small scale combined woodgas power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulbis, V.

    2003-01-01

    As a first attempt to introduce biomass gasification technology in Latvia at the Faculty of Engineering of Latvia University of Agriculture an integral small scale combined heat and power (CHP) system based on a used Russian-made diesel-alternator set with electrical output 100 kWe was developed. The diesel is converted to dual fuel gas engine, using producer gas as the main fuel and gas oil as pilot fuel. To get sufficiently clean (tar content ≤ 250 mg/m 3 ) woodgas for using in IC engine a downdraft type of gasifier was chosen designed and constructed on the IMBERT gasifier principles. The test runs of the first experimental model showed that the engine does not develop expected power because of high resistance of gasifier and gas cleaning system does not work sufficiently enough. There was rather high level of tar content in woodgas because the temperature in the reduction zone was low. Calculations were carried out and new technological scheme of gasification system was worked out, introducing innovative ideas aimed on improving the working parameters (author)

  1. Ageing management of nuclear power plant - the Tarapur experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anilkumar, K.R.; Das, P.K.; Bhattacharjee, S.; Ramamurty, U.

    2006-01-01

    Tarapur Atomic Power Station, the longest serving Nuclear Power Plant in the Asian continent has completed 36 years of successful operation and generated more than 70,000 million units of electric power. Built in late sixties, with the state-of-the-art safety features prevailing then, TAPS through the process of evolution has become safer plant due to efforts of upgradation, renovation and refurbishment prompted by the station's operating experience, feed back from overseas reactors, lessons learnt from nuclear incidents, accidents and fresh review of design basis and safety analysis of the plant. All components of a Nuclear power plant experience some degradation with time. The Reactor Pressure Vessels (RPV) designed for 40 effective full power years (EFPY) of operation have operated for less than 20 EFPY and the material condition is assessed to be fit for some more years of service. The condition of the containment and main plant buildings was assessed to be satisfactory. The Ageing Management Programme (AMP) involved identification of key systems, structures and components (SSCs) that may experience degradation due to ageing, and take corrective measures through maintenance, repair and/or replacement. The identified components were classified as major critical components, important systems and other critical components. For each component mode of degradation was identified, ageing assessment was done and action plan was finalized. Replacement of some important equipment like 3 x 50 % capacity Emergency Diesel Generators (EDG) with 3 x 100 % capacity EDG, Salt Service Water (SSW) pumps, Control rod drive (CRD) pumps, Emergency Condenser tube bundles, Station battery has been done on the basis of condition monitoring and to obviate common cause failure and enhance the system reliability. Samples of Safety related cables were subjected to residual life assessment (RLA) and replacement action firmed up on the basis of the RLA findings. Condition survey of Main

  2. 30 CFR 75.1914 - Maintenance of diesel-powered equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Sampling and analytical methods (including calibration of instrumentation) that are capable of accurately... inspection by an authorized representative of the Secretary and by miners' representatives. (i) Diesel...

  3. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1994-03-01

    In the third quarter of 1993, all of Finland's four nuclear power plant units were in power operation, with the exception of the annual maintenance outages of the Loviisa units. The load factor average of the plant units was 83.6 %. None of the events which occurred during this annual quarter had any bearing on nuclear or radiation safety. (4 figs., 5 tabs.)

  4. Working in a virtual power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thibault, G.; Smadja, S.

    1999-01-01

    Graphical simulations on computer providing a virtual and reversible experience can now be used for maintenance in nuclear power plants allowing operations to be tested and tools to be optimised. Eventually, operatives will be trained to work in virtual nuclear power plants in complete safety. (authors)

  5. Slovak Electric, plc, Mochovce Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    In this popular scientific brochure a brief description of construction scheme of Bohunice Nuclear Power Plant is presented. Electricity generation in a nuclear power plant is described. Instrumentation and control system as well as nuclear safety principles applied on the NPP are presented

  6. Atmospheric emissions from power plant cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micheletti, W.

    2006-01-01

    Power plant recirculated cooling systems (cooling towers) are not typically thought of as potential sources of air pollution. However, atmospheric emissions can be important considerations that may influence cooling tower design and operation. This paper discusses relevant U.S. environmental regulations for potential atmospheric pollutants from power plant cooling towers, and various methods for estimating and controlling these emissions. (orig.)

  7. Accidents with nuclear power plants, ch. 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    A recalculation of the consequences of nuclear power plant accidents is presented taking into account different parameters or different quantities than those usually accepted. A case study of a nuclear power plant planned for the Eems-river estuary in the Netherlands is presented

  8. Slovak Electric, plc, Mochovce Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In this popular scientific brochure a brief description of history construction of Bohunice Nuclear Power Plant is presented. The chart of electricity generation in WWER 440/V-213 nuclear power plant is described. Operation and safety improvements at Mochovce NPP as well as environment protection are presented. Basic data of Mochovce NPP are included

  9. Quality assurance in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magalhaes, M.T. de

    1981-01-01

    The factors related to the licensing procedures of a nuclear power plant (quality assurance and safety analysis) are presented and discussed. The consequences of inadequate attitudes towards these factors are shown and suggestions to assure the safety of nuclear power plants in Brazil are presented. (E.G.) [pt

  10. Power Transformer Application for Wind Plant Substations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behnke, M. R. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Bloethe, W.G. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Bradt, M. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Brooks, C. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Camm, E H [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Dilling, W. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Goltz, B. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Li, J. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Niemira, J. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Nuckles, K. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Patino, J. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Reza, M [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Richardson, B. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Samaan, N. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Schoene, Jens [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Smith, Travis M [ORNL; Snyder, Isabelle B [ORNL; Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Walling, R. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Zahalka, G. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group

    2010-01-01

    Wind power plants use power transformers to step plant output from the medium voltage of the collector system to the HV or EHV transmission system voltage. This paper discusses the application of these transformers with regard to the selection of winding configuration, MVA rating, impedance, loss evaluation, on-load tapchanger requirements, and redundancy.

  11. Understanding Biomass Ignition in Power Plant Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarzer, Lars; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Glarborg, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Converting existing coal fired power plants to biomass is a readily implemented strategy to increase the share of renewable energy. However, changing from one fuel to another is not straightforward: Experience shows that wood pellets ignite more readily than coal in power plant mills or storages...

  12. Competitive analysis of small hydroelectric power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assad, L.S.; Placido, R.

    1990-01-01

    The agreement between CPFL/UNICAMP/EFEI for developing energetic planning of Small Hydroelectric Power Plants construction is described. Some notions for showing the more economic alternative between decide by Small Hydroelectric Power Plants construction and continue supply the market by inter ligated system generation are shown in this stage of the agreement. (author)

  13. Nuclear power plants of the nineties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weyermann, P.

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear power plants which will be available in the second half of the nineties are introduced. The demands which utilities must put on such a power plant that it covers their needs and meets the necessary acceptance of the public are presented. 8 figs

  14. Lessons learned from existing biomass power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltsee, G.

    2000-02-24

    This report includes summary information on 20 biomass power plants, which represent some of the leaders in the industry. In each category an effort is made to identify plants that illustrate particular points. The project experiences described capture some important lessons learned that lead in the direction of an improved biomass power industry.

  15. Proposals for Enhancing Frequency Control in Weak and Isolated Power Systems: Application to the Wind-Diesel Power System of San Cristobal Island-Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Ochoa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Wind-diesel hybridization has been emerging as common practice for electricity generation in many isolated power systems due to its reliability and its contribution in mitigating environmental issues. However, the weakness of these kind of power systems (due to their small inertia makes the frequency regulation difficult, particularly under high wind conditions, since part of the synchronous generation has to be set offline for ensuring a suitable tracking of the power demand. This reduces the power system’s ability to absorb wind power variations, leading to pronounced grid frequency fluctuations under normal operating conditions. This paper proposes some corrective actions aimed at enhancing the frequency control capability in weak and isolated power systems: a procedure for evaluating the system stability margin intended for readjusting the diesel-generator control gains, a new wind power curtailment strategy, and an inertial control algorithm implemented in the wind turbines. These proposals are tested in the San Cristobal (Galapagos Islands-Ecuador hybrid wind-diesel power system, in which many power outages caused by frequency relays tripping were reported during the windiest season. The proposals benefits have been tested in a simulation environment by considering actual operating conditions based on measurement data recorded at the island.

  16. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1991-02-01

    During the third quarter of 1990 the Finnish nuclear power plant units Loviisa 1 and 2 and TVO I and II were in commercial operation for most of the time. The annual maintenance outages of the Loviisa plant units were held during the report period. All events during this quarter are classified as Level hero (Below Scale) on the International Nuclear Event Scale. Occupational radiation doses and external releases of radioactivity were below authorised limits. Only small amounts of radioactive substances originating in nuclear power plants were detected in samples taken in the vicinity of nuclear power plants

  17. The operating staff of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlegel, G.; Christ, W.

    1988-01-01

    The training of its staff is one of the pillars of the safe and economical operation of a power plant. This is why power plant owners began to systematically train their staff already in the 50s, and why they created central training facilities. Staff members who have undergone this training make an indispensable contribution to the acceptedly high safety and availability of German power plants. The substantial cost of creating training facilities and of schooling plant staff is considered to be an investment for the future. Low labour turnover permits careful observation and development of staff and leads to a high standard of knowledge and experience. (orig./HSCH) [de

  18. Harmonics in a Wind Power Plant: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preciado, V.; Madrigal, M.; Muljadi, E.; Gevorgian, V.

    2015-04-02

    Wind power generation has been growing at a very fast pace for the past decade, and its influence and impact on the electric power grid is significant. As in a conventional power plant, a wind power plant (WPP) must ensure that the quality of the power being delivered to the grid is excellent. At the same time, the wind turbine should be able to operate immune to small disturbances coming from the grid. Harmonics are one of the more common power quality issues presented by large WPPs because of the high switching frequency of the power converters and the possible nonlinear behavior from electric machines (generator, transformer, reactors) within a power plant. This paper presents a summary of the most important issues related to harmonics in WPPs and discusses practical experiences with actual Type 1 and Type 3 wind turbines in two WPPs.

  19. Proceedings: Power Plant Electric Auxiliary Systems Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The EPRI Power Plant Electric Auxiliary Systems Workshop, held April 24--25, 1991, in Princeton, New Jersey, brought together utilities, architect/engineers, and equipment suppliers to discuss common problems with power plant auxiliary systems. Workshop participants presented papers on monitoring, identifying, and solving problems with auxiliary systems. Panel discussions focused on improving systems and existing and future plants. The solutions presented to common auxiliary system problems focused on practical ideas that can enhance plant availability, reduce maintenance costs, and simplify the engineering process. The 13 papers in these proceedings include: Tutorials on auxiliary electrical systems and motors; descriptions of evaluations, software development, and new technologies used recently by electric utilities; an analysis of historical performance losses caused by power plant auxiliary systems; innovative design concepts for improving auxiliary system performance in future power plants

  20. Chemistry management system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasawa, Katsumi; Maeda, Katsuji

    1998-01-01

    Recently, the chemistry management in the nuclear power plants has been changing from the problem solution to the predictive diagnosis and maintenance. It is important to maintain the integrity of plant operation by an adequate chemistry control. For these reasons, many plant operation data and chemistry analysis data should be collected and treated effectively to evaluate chemistry condition of the nuclear power plants. When some indications of chemistry anomalies occur, quick and effective root cause evaluation and countermeasures should be required. The chemistry management system has been developed as to provide sophisticate chemistry management in the nuclear power plants. This paper introduces the concept and functions of the chemistry management system for the nuclear power plants. (author)

  1. Performance Analysis of Isolated Hybrid Power Plant Model with Dynamic Load Conditions – Morning, Noon and Afternoon Transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irawati Rina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Diesel Generator with Photovoltaic Hybrid Power Plant is one of the solutions for supply electric demand to isolated area. The energy sources that can be used for hybrid system are such as photovoltaic, wind turbine, and biomass or biogas, because these sources are almost available in every isolated area. This research used a model of hybrid system from diesel generator and 1.28 kWp photovoltaic power plant. The reliability and some of power quality of this system tested by 1300VA house hold daily load characteristic effectively 24 hour. Power quality and some electricity parameters during transition mode for each resource will be analyzed. Furthermore the power quality analyze will be conducted and evaluated base on Electrical Engineers’ Association (EEA.

  2. Performance Analysis of Isolated Hybrid Power Plant Model with Dynamic Load Conditions - Morning, Noon and Afternoon Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irawati, Rina

    2018-02-01

    Diesel Generator with Photovoltaic Hybrid Power Plant is one of the solutions for supply electric demand to isolated area. The energy sources that can be used for hybrid system are such as photovoltaic, wind turbine, and biomass or biogas, because these sources are almost available in every isolated area. This research used a model of hybrid system from diesel generator and 1.28 kWp photovoltaic power plant. The reliability and some of power quality of this system tested by 1300VA house hold daily load characteristic effectively 24 hour. Power quality and some electricity parameters during transition mode for each resource will be analyzed. Furthermore the power quality analyze will be conducted and evaluated base on Electrical Engineers' Association (EEA).

  3. Training of power plant operating personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraftwerksschule, E.V.

    1986-01-01

    In Germany, professional training of power plant operating personnel became an important issue in the fifties, when power plant parameters as well as complexity of instrumentation and control increased considerably. Working Groups of VGB Technische Vereiningung der Grosskraftwerketreiber e.v. (Association of Large Power Plant Operators) developed a professional career for power plant operating personnel and defined pre-requisites, scope and objectives of training. In 1957 the German utilities founded KRAFTWERKSSCHULE E.V. (kws) as a school for theoretical training and for guidance of practical training in the power plants. KWS is a non-profit organisation and independent of authorities. Today KWS has 127 members in Germany and in 6 other countries. The objectives of KWS include the training of: -Kraftwerker (control room operators; - Kraftwerksmesiter (shift supervisors); and - shift engineers; according the guidelines of the VGB

  4. Modelling of nuclear power plant decommissioning financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemš, J; Knápek, J; Králík, T; Hejhal, M; Kubančák, J; Vašíček, J

    2015-06-01

    Costs related to the decommissioning of nuclear power plants create a significant financial burden for nuclear power plant operators. This article discusses the various methodologies employed by selected European countries for financing of the liabilities related to the nuclear power plant decommissioning. The article also presents methodology of allocation of future decommissioning costs to the running costs of nuclear power plant in the form of fee imposed on each megawatt hour generated. The application of the methodology is presented in the form of a case study on a new nuclear power plant with installed capacity 1000 MW. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Hybrid wind-power-distillation plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninić Neven

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports and elaborates on the idea of a solar distiller and an offshore wind power plant operating together. The subject under discussion is a single-stage solar distillation plant with vaporization, using adiabatic expansion in the gravitational field inside a wind power plant supporting column. This scheme divides investment costs for electric power and distillate production. In the region of the Adriatic Sea, all electric power produced could be “converted” to hydrogen using less than 10% of the distillate produced.

  6. Research of the Power Plant Operational Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koismynina Nina M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the algorithm of the power plant operational modes research is offered. According to this algorithm the program for the modes analysis and connection power transformers choice is developed. The program can be used as educational means for studying of the power plant electric part, at the same time basic data are provided. Also the program can be used for the analysis of the working power plants modes. Checks of the entered data completeness and a choice correctness of the operational modes are provided in the program; in all cases of a deviation from the correct decisions to the user the relevant information is given.

  7. Surveillance system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizeracki, M.T.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes an integrated surveillance system for nuclear power plant application. The author explores an expanded role for closed circuit television, with remotely located cameras and infrared scanners as the basic elements. The video system, integrated with voice communication, can enhance the safe and efficient operation of the plant, by improving the operator's knowledge of plant conditions. 7 refs

  8. Examining work structure in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauman, M.B.; Boulette, M.D.; Van Cott, H.P.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the assessment of the work structure of ten nuclear power plants. Work structure factors are those factors that relate to the way in which work at all levels in a plant is organized, staffed, managed, rewarded, and perceived by plant personnel. Questionnaires given to a cross-section of personnel at the plants were the primary source of data collection. Structured ''critical incident'' interviews were conducted to verify the questionnaire results. The study revealed that a variety of work structure factor problem areas do exist in nuclear power plants. The paper highlights a prioritized set of candidate research themes to be considered in EPRI's Work Structure and Performance Research Program

  9. Seismic reevaluation of existing nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennart, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    The codes and regulations governing Nuclear Power Plant seismic analysis are continuously becoming more stringent. In addition, design ground accelerations of existing plants must sometimes be increased as a result of discovery of faulting zones or recording of recent earthquakes near the plant location after plant design. These new factors can result in augmented seismic design criteria. Seismic reanalysius of the existing Nuclear Power Plant structures and equipments is necessary to prevent the consequences of newly postulated accidents that could cause undue risk to the health or safety of the public. This paper reviews the developments of seismic analysis as applied to Nuclear Power Plants and the methods used by Westinghouse to requalify existing plants to the most recent safety requirements. (author)

  10. Linguistic control of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feeley, J.J.; Johnson, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    A multivariable linguistic controller based on fuzzy set theory is discussed and its application to a pressurized water nuclear power plant control is illustrated by computer simulation. The nonlinear power plant simulation model has nine states, two control inputs, one disturbance input, and two outputs. Although relatively simple, the model captures the essential coupled nonlinear plant dynamics and is convenient to use for control system studies. The use of an adaptive version of the controller is also demonstrated by computer simulation

  11. Human factors in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, A.D.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes some of the human factors problems in nuclear power plants and the technology that can be employed to reduce those problems. Many of the changes to improve the human factors in existing plants are inexpensive, and the expected gain in human reliability is substantial. The human factors technology is well-established and there are practitioners in most countries that have nuclear power plants. (orig.) [de

  12. Human factors in nuclear power plant operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, A.D.

    1980-08-01

    This report describes some of the human factors problems in nuclear power plants and the technology that can be employed to reduce those problems. Many of the changes to improve the human factors in existing plants are inexpensive, and the expected gain in human reliability is substantial. The human factors technology is well-established and there are practitioners in most countries that have nuclear power plants

  13. Safety culture in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weihe, G. von; Pamme, H.

    2003-01-01

    Experience shows that German nuclear power plants have always been operated reliably and safely. Over the years, the safety level in these plants has been raised considerably so that they can stand any comparison with other countries. This is confirmed by the two reports published by the Federal Ministry for the Environment on the nuclear safety convention. Behind this, there must obviously stand countless appropriate 'good practices' and a safety management system in nuclear power plants. (orig.) [de

  14. Research on the Power Recovery of Diesel Engines with Regulated Two-Stage Turbocharging System at Different Altitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hualei Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recovering the boost pressure is very important in improving the dynamic performance of diesel engines at high altitudes. A regulated two-stage turbocharging system is an adequate solution for power recovery of diesel engines. In the present study, the change of boost pressure and engine power at different altitudes was investigated, and a regulated two-stage turbocharging system was constructed with an original turbocharger and a matched low pressure turbocharger. The valve control strategies for boost pressure recovery, which formed the basis of the power recovery method, are presented here. The simulation results showed that this system was effective in recovering the boost pressure at different speeds and various altitudes. The turbine bypass valve and compressor bypass valve had different modes to adapt to changes in operating conditions. The boost pressure recovery could not ensure power recovery over the entire operating range of the diesel engine, because of variation in overall turbocharger efficiency. The fuel-injection compensation method along with the valve control strategies for boost pressure recovery was able to reach the power recovery target.

  15. Comparative evaluation of three alternative power cycles for waste heat recovery from the exhaust of adiabatic diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, M. M.

    1985-01-01

    Three alternative power cycles were compared in application as an exhaust-gas heat-recovery system for use with advanced adiabatic diesel engines. The power cycle alternatives considered were steam Rankine, organic Rankine with RC-1 as the working fluid, and variations of an air Brayton cycle. The comparison was made in terms of fuel economy and economic payback potential for heavy-duty trucks operating in line-haul service. The results indicate that, in terms of engine rated specific fuel consumption, a diesel/alternative-power-cycle engine offers a significant improvement over the turbocompound diesel used as the baseline for comparison. The maximum imporvement resulted from the use of a Rankine cycle heat-recovery system in series with turbocompounding. The air Brayton cycle alternatives studied, which included both simple-cycle and compression-intercooled configurations, were less effective and provided about half the fuel consumption improvement of the Rankine cycle alternatives under the same conditions. Capital and maintenance cost estimates were also developed for each of the heat-recovery power cycle systems. These costs were integrated with the fuel savings to identify the time required for net annual savings to pay back the initial capital investment. The sensitivity of capital payback time to arbitrary increases in fuel price, not accompanied by corresponding hardware cost inflation, was also examined. The results indicate that a fuel price increase is required for the alternative power cycles to pay back capital within an acceptable time period.

  16. Techno-economic assessment of FT unit for synthetic diesel production in existing stand-alone biomass gasification plant using process simulation tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunpinyo, Piyapong; Narataruksa, Phavanee; Tungkamani, Sabaithip

    2014-01-01

    For alternative thermo-chemical conversion process route via gasification, biomass can be gasified to produce syngas (mainly CO and H2). On more applications of utilization, syngas can be used to synthesize fuels through the catalytic process option for producing synthetic liquid fuels...... such as Fischer-Tropsch (FT) diesel. The embedding of the FT plant into the stand-alone based on power mode plants for production of a synthetic fuel is a promising practice, which requires an extensive adaptation of conventional techniques to the special chemical needs found in a gasified biomass. Because...... there are currently no plans to engage the FT process in Thailand, the authors have targeted that this work focus on improving the FT configurations in existing biomass gasification facilities (10 MWth). A process simulation model for calculating extended unit operations in a demonstrative context is designed...

  17. Some power uprate issues in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tipping, Philip

    2008-01-01

    Issues and themes concerned with nuclear power plant uprating are examined. Attention is brought to the fact that many candidate nuclear power plants for uprating have anyway been operated below their rated power for a significant part of their operating life. The key issues remain safety and reliability in operation at all times, irrespective of the nuclear power plant's chronological or design age or power rating. The effects of power uprates are discussed in terms of material aspects and expected demands on the systems, structures and components. The impact on operation and maintenance methods is indicated in terms of changes to the ageing surveillance programmes. Attention is brought to the necessity checking or revising operator actions after power up-rating has been implemented

  18. Human factors in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pack, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute has started research in human factors in nuclear power plants. One project, completed in March 1977, reviewed human factors problems in operating power plants and produced a report evaluating those problems. A second project developed computer programs for evaluating operator performance on training simulators. A third project is developing and evaluating control-room design approaches. A fourth project is reviewing human factors problems associated with power-plant maintainability and instrumentation and control technician activities. Human factors engineering is an interdisciplinary specialty concerned with influencing the design of equipment systems, facilities, and operational environments to promote safe, efficient, and reliable operator performance. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has undertaken four projects studying the application of human factors engineering principles to nuclear power plants. (author)

  19. Validation of seismic probabilistic risk assessments of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellingwood, B.

    1994-01-01

    A seismic probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of a nuclear plant requires identification and information regarding the seismic hazard at the plant site, dominant accident sequences leading to core damage, and structure and equipment fragilities. Uncertainties are associated with each of these ingredients of a PRA. Sources of uncertainty due to seismic hazard and assumptions underlying the component fragility modeling may be significant contributors to uncertainty in estimates of core damage probability. Design and construction errors also may be important in some instances. When these uncertainties are propagated through the PRA, the frequency distribution of core damage probability may span three orders of magnitude or more. This large variability brings into question the credibility of PRA methods and the usefulness of insights to be gained from a PRA. The sensitivity of accident sequence probabilities and high-confidence, low probability of failure (HCLPF) plant fragilities to seismic hazard and fragility modeling assumptions was examined for three nuclear power plants. Mean accident sequence probabilities were found to be relatively insensitive (by a factor of two or less) to: uncertainty in the coefficient of variation (logarithmic standard deviation) describing inherent randomness in component fragility; truncation of lower tail of fragility; uncertainty in random (non-seismic) equipment failures (e.g., diesel generators); correlation between component capacities; and functional form of fragility family. On the other hand, the accident sequence probabilities, expressed in the form of a frequency distribution, are affected significantly by the seismic hazard modeling, including slopes of seismic hazard curves and likelihoods assigned to those curves

  20. The future of integrated coal gasification combined cycle power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, R.; Termuehlen, H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines the future of integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants as affected by various technical, economical and environmental trends in power generation. The topics of the paper include a description of natural gas-fired combined cycle power plants, IGCC plants, coal gasifier concepts, integration of gasifiers into combined cycle power plants, efficiency, environmental impacts, co-products of IGCC power plants, economics of IGCC power plants, and a review of IGCC power plant projects

  1. Waste from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The report presents proposals for organizing and financing of the treatment and deposition of spent fuel and radioactive waste. Decommissioning of plants is taken into consideration. The proposals refer to a program of twelve reactors. A relatively complete model for the handling of radioactive waste in Sweden is at hand. The cost for the years 1980 to 2000 is estimated at approx 1040 million SKr. Also the expense to dispose of the rest of the waste is calculated up to the year 2060, when the waste is planned to be put into final deposit. The state must have substantial influence over the organization which should be closely connected to the nuclear industry. Three different types of organization are discussed, namely (i) a company along with a newly created authority, (ii) a company along with the existing Nuclear Power Inspectorate or (iii) a company along with a board of experts. The proposals for financing the cost of handling nuclear waste are given in chief outlines. The nuclear industry should reserve means to special funds. The allocations are calculated to 1.4 oere per delivered kWh up to and including the year 1980. The accumulated allocations for 1979 should thus amount to 1310 million SKr. The charge for supervision and for certain research and development is recommended to be 0.1 oere per kWh which corresponds to approx 23 million SKr for 1980. The funds should be assured by binding agreements which must be approved by the state. The amounts are given in the monetary value of the year 1979. (G.B.)

  2. Nuclear Power Plant Concrete Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, Prabir [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Labbe, Pierre [Electricity of France (EDF); Naus, Dan [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2013-01-01

    A nuclear power plant (NPP) involves complex engineering structures that are significant items of the structures, systems and components (SSC) important to the safe and reliable operation of the NPP. Concrete is the commonly used civil engineering construction material in the nuclear industry because of a number of advantageous properties. The NPP concrete structures underwent a great degree of evolution, since the commissioning of first NPP in early 1960. The increasing concern with time related to safety of the public and environment, and degradation of concrete structures due to ageing related phenomena are the driving forces for such evolution. The concrete technology underwent rapid development with the advent of chemical admixtures of plasticizer/super plasticizer category as well as viscosity modifiers and mineral admixtures like fly ash and silica fume. Application of high performance concrete (HPC) developed with chemical and mineral admixtures has been witnessed in the construction of NPP structures. Along with the beneficial effect, the use of admixtures in concrete has posed a number of challenges as well in design and construction. This along with the prospect of continuing operation beyond design life, especially after 60 years, the impact of extreme natural events ( as in the case of Fukushima NPP accident) and human induced events (e.g. commercial aircraft crash like the event of September 11th 2001) has led to further development in the area of NPP concrete structures. The present paper aims at providing an account of evolution of NPP concrete structures in last two decades by summarizing the development in the areas of concrete technology, design methodology and construction techniques, maintenance and ageing management of concrete structures.

  3. Experimental investigation on the availability, performance, combustion and emission distinctiveness of bael oil/ diesel/ diethyl ether blends powered in a variable compression ratio diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthi, M.; Malayalamurthi, R.

    2018-02-01

    The present work aims at experimental investigation on the combined effect of injection timing (IT) and injection pressure (IP) on the performance and emissions characteristics, and exergy analysis of a compression-ignition (CI) engine powered with bael oil blends. The tests were conducted using ternary blends of bael oil, diethyl ether (DEE) and neat diesel (D) at various engine loads at a constant engine speed (1500 rpm). With B2 (60%D + 30%bael oil+10%DEE) fuel, the brake thermal efficiency (BTE) of the engine is augmented by 3.5%, reduction of 4.7% of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emission has been observed at 100% engine load with 250 bar IP. B2 fuel exhibits 7% lower scale of HC emissions compared to that of diesel fuel at 100% engine load in 23 °bTDC IT. The increment in both cooling water and exhaust gas availabilities lead to increasing exergy efficiency with increasing load. The exergy efficiency of about 62.17% has been recorded by B2 fuel at an injection pressure of 230 IP bar with 100% load. On the whole, B2 fuel displays the best performance and combustion characteristics. It also exhibits better characteristics of emissions level in terms of lower HC, smoke opacity and NOx.

  4. STUDYING OF INFLUENCE OF BIOFUEL MOTOR QUALITIES ON POWER AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DIESEL ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levterov, A.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of bench tests of D21A (2 Ч 10,5/12 diesel engine at its operation on mixed diesel fuel with improved qualities (Euro and the biofuel synthesized by the way of ethanol intereste-rification of rapeseed oil are offered.

  5. Plant life management and maintenance technologies for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikegami, Tsukasa; Aoki, Masataka; Shimura, Takao; Kaimori, Kimihiro; Koike, Masahiro

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear power generation occupying an important position for energy source in Japan and supplying about one third of total electric power usage is now required for further upgrading of its economics under regulation relaxation of electric power business. And, under execution retardation of its new planning plant, it becomes important to operate the already established plants for longer term and to secure their stability. Therefore, technical development in response to the plant life elongation is promoted under cooperation of the Ministry of Economics and Industries, electric power companies, literate, and plant manufacturers. Under such conditions, the Hitachi, Ltd. has progressed some technical developments on check inspection, repairs and maintenance for succession of the already established nuclear power plants for longer term under securing of their safety and reliability. And in future, by proposing the check inspection and maintenance program combined with these technologies, it is planned to exert promotion of maintenance program with minimum total cost from a viewpoint of its plant life. Here were described on technologies exerted in the Hitachi, Ltd. such as construction of plant maintenance program in response to plant life elongation agreeing with actual condition of each plant, yearly change mechanism grasping, life evaluation on instruments and materials necessary for maintenance, adequate check inspection, repairs and exchange, and so forth. (G.K.)

  6. Nuclear power plants: 2004 atw compact statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2005-01-01

    In late 2004, nuclear power plants were available for power supply or were under construction in 32 countries worldwide. A total of 441 nuclear power plants, i.e. two plants more than in late 2003, were in operation with an aggregate gross power of approx. 386 GWe and an aggregate net power, respectively, of 362 GWe, in 31 countries. The available capacity of nuclear power plants increased by approx. 5 GWe as a result of the additions by the six units newly commissioned: Hamaoka 5 (Japan), Ulchin 6 (Korea), Kalinin 3 (Russia), Khmelnitski 2 (Ukraine), Qinshan II-2 (People's Republic of China), and Rowno 4 (Ukraine). In addition, unit 3 of the Bruce A nuclear power plant in Canada with a power of 825 MWe was restarted after an outage of many years. Contrary to earlier plans, a recommissioning program was initiated for the Bruce A-1 and A-2 units, which are also down at present. Five plants were decommissioned for good in 2004; Chapelcross 1 to 4 with 50 MWe each in the United Kingdom, and Ignalina 1 with 1 300 MWe in Lithuania. 22 nuclear generating units with an aggregate gross power of 19 GWe in nine countries were under construction in late 2004. In India, construction work was started on a new project, the 500 MWe PFBR prototype fast breeder reactor. In France, the EDF utility announced its intention to build an EPR on the Flamanville site beginning in 2007. (orig.)

  7. Nuclear plant requirements during power system restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamski, G.; Jenkins, R.; Gill, P.

    1995-01-01

    This paper is one of a series presented on behalf of the System Operation Subcommittee with the intent of focusing industry attention on power system restoration issues. This paper discusses a number of nuclear power plant requirements that require special attention during power system restoration

  8. Economic evaluation of tokamak power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, R.L.; Steiner, D.

    1977-01-01

    This study reports the impact of plasma operating characteristics, engineering options, and technology on the capital cost trends of tokamak power plants. Tokamak power systems are compared to other advanced energy systems and found to be economically competitive. A three-phase strategy for demonstrating commercial feasibility of fusion power, based on a common-site multiple-unit concept, is presented

  9. Transient analysis models for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agapito, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    The modelling used for the simulation of the Angra-1 start-up reactor tests, using the RETRAN computer code is presented. Three tests are simulated: a)nuclear power plant trip from 100% of power; b)great power excursions tests and c)'load swing' tests.(E.G.) [pt

  10. Anatomy of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, Q.O.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents the Q model which attempts to classify arguments for use in the discussion on the pros and cons of nuclear power. The basic principles of nuclear energy production, operation of a nuclear power plant and a comparison with other electric power sources are presented and discussed. (ELC)

  11. Dependent failures of diesel generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankamo, T.; Pulkkinen, U.

    1982-01-01

    This survey of dependent failures (common-cause failures) is based on the data of diesel generator failures in U. S. nuclear power plants as reported in Licensee Event Reports. Failures were classified into random and potentially dependent failures. All failures due to design errors, manufacturing or installation errors, maintenance errors, or deviations in the operational environment were classified as potentially dependent failures.The statistical dependence between failures was estimated from the relative portion of multiple failures. Results confirm the earlier view of the significance of statistical dependence, a strong dependence on the age of the diesel generator was found in each failure class excluding random failures and maintenance errors, which had a nearly constant frequency independent of diesel generator age

  12. Seismic review of existing nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanev, P.I.; Mayes, R.L.; Jones, L.R.

    1975-01-01

    Because of developments in the fields of earthquake and structural engineering over the last two decades, the codes, standards and design criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and other critical structures have changed substantially. As a result, plants designed only a few years ago do not satisfy the requirements for new plants. Accordingly, the Regulatory Agencies are requiring owners of older Nuclear Power Plants to re-qualify the plants seismically, using codes, standards, analytical techniques and knowledge developed in recent years. Seismic review consists of three major phases: establishing the design and performance criteria, re-qualifying the structures, and re-qualifying the equipment. The authors of the paper have been recently involved in the seismic review of existing nuclear power plants in the United States. This paper is a brief summary of their experiences

  13. A nuclear power plant status monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, B.B.; Conradi, L.L.; Weinzimmer, F.

    1986-01-01

    Power plant operation requires decisions that can affect both the availability of the plant and its compliance with operating guidelines. Taking equipment out of service may affect the ability of the plant to produce power at a certain power level and may also affect the status of the plant with regard to technical specifications. Keeping the plant at a high as possible production level and remaining in compliance with the limiting conditions for operation (LCOs) can dictate a variety of plant operation and maintenance actions and responses. Required actions and responses depend on the actual operational status of a nuclear plant and its attendant systems, trains, and components which is a dynamic situation. This paper discusses an Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Research Project, RP 2508, the objective of which is to combine the key features of plant information management systems with systems reliability analysis techniques in order to assist nuclear power plant personnel to perform their functions more efficiently and effectively. An overview of the EPRI Research Project is provided along with a detailed discussion of the design and operation of the PSM portion of the project

  14. A trend to small nuclear power plants?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lameira, Fernando Soares

    2000-01-01

    The release of fossil fuel greenhouse gases and the depletion of cheap oil reserves outside the Persic Gulf suggest a promising scenario for the future of nuclear power. But the end of the Cold War, the crisis of the state, axiological questions and globalization may lead to a marked for small power plants. The purpose of this paper is to analyze these factors, since they are not always considered all together in the future scenarios for nuclear power. It is concluded that the current evolutionary trend of nuclear power projects toward big plants may become one of the main barriers for the introduction of new plants in the future. It is suggested that a combination of fission reactors with technologies unavailable in the 1950's, when the design characteristics of the current nuclear power plants were established, could be considered to overcome this barrier. (author)

  15. Bio diesel- the Clean, Green Fuel for Diesel Engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkareish, S.M.M.

    2004-01-01

    Natural, renewable resources such as vegetable oils, animal fats and recycled restaurant greases can be chemically transformed into clean burning bio diesel fuels (1). Just like petroleum diesel, bio diesel operates in combustion-ignition engines. Blends of up to 20% bio diesel (mixed with petroleum diesel fuels) can be used in nearly all diesel equipment and are compatible with most storage and distribution equipment. Using bio diesel in a conventional diesel engine substantially reduces emissions of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, sulphates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and particulate matter. The use of bio diesel has grown dramatically during the last few years. Egypt has a promising experiment in promoting forestation by cultivation of Jatropha plant especially in luxor and many other sites of the country. The first production of the Egyptian Jatropha seeds oil is now under evaluation to produce a cost-competitive bio diesel fuel

  16. Nuclear power plants: 2009 atw compact statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    At the turn of 2009/2010, nuclear power plants were available for energy supply in 30 countries of the world. A total of 437 nuclear power plants, which is one plant less than at the 2008/2009 turn, were in operation with an aggregate gross power of approx. 391 GWe and an aggregate net power, respectively, of 371 GWe. The available gross power of nuclear power plants did not changed noticeably from 2008 to the end of 2009. In total 2 nuclear generating units were commissioned in 2009. One NPP started operation in India and one in Japan. Three nuclear generating units in Japan (2) und Lithuania (1) were decomissioned in 2009. 52 nuclear generating units, i.e. 10 plants more than at the end of 2008, with an aggregate gross power of approx. 51 GWe, were under construction in 14 countries end of 2009. New or continued projects are notified from (number of new projects): China (+9), Russia (1), and South Korea (1). Some 84 new nuclear power plants are in the concrete project design, planning and licensing phases worldwide; on some of them, contracts have already been awarded. Another units are in their preliminary project phases. (orig.)

  17. Nuclear power plants: 2008 atw compact statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    At the turn of 2008/2009, nuclear power plants were available for energy supply in 31 countries of the world. A total of 438 nuclear power plants, which is one plant less than at the 2007/2008 turn, were in operation with an aggregate gross power of approx. 393 GWe and an aggregate net power, respectively, of 372 GWe. The available gross power of nuclear power plants didn't changed noticeabely from 2007 to the end of 2008. No nuclear generating unit was commissioned in 2008. One nuclear generating unit in the Slovak Republic was decomissioned in 2008. 42 nuclear generating units, i.e. 10 plants more than at the end of 2007, with an aggregate gross power of approx. 38 GWe, were under construction in 14 countries end of 2008. New or continued projects are notified from (in brackets: number of new projects): Bulgaria (2), China (5), South Korea (2), Russia (1), and the Slovak Republic (2). Some 80 new nuclear power plants are in the concrete project design, planning and licensing phases worldwide; on some of them, contracts have already been awarded. Another approximately 120 units are in their preliminary project phases. (orig.)

  18. Estimation of CO2 reduction by parallel hard-type power hybridization for gasoline and diesel vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yunjung; Park, Junhong; Lee, Jong Tae; Seo, Jigu; Park, Sungwook

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate possible improvements in ICEVs by implementing fuzzy logic-based parallel hard-type power hybrid systems. Two types of conventional ICEVs (gasoline and diesel) and two types of HEVs (gasoline-electric, diesel electric) were generated using vehicle and powertrain simulation tools and a Matlab-Simulink application programming interface. For gasoline and gasoline-electric HEV vehicles, the prediction accuracy for four types of LDV models was validated by conducting comparative analysis with the chassis dynamometer and OBD test data. The predicted results show strong correlation with the test data. The operating points of internal combustion engines and electric motors are well controlled in the high efficiency region and battery SOC was well controlled within ±1.6%. However, for diesel vehicles, we generated virtual diesel-electric HEV vehicle because there is no available vehicles with similar engine and vehicle specifications with ICE vehicle. Using a fuzzy logic-based parallel hybrid system in conventional ICEVs demonstrated that HEVs showed superior performance in terms of fuel consumption and CO 2 emission in most driving modes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Joint excitation and reactive power control in thermal power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragosavac Jasna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The coordinated voltage and reactive power controller, designed for the thermal power plant, is presented in the paper. A brief explanation of the need for such device is given and justification for commissioning of such equipment is outlined. After short description of the theoretical background of the proposed control design, the achieved features of the commissioned equipment are fully given. Achieved performances are illustrated by recorded reactive power and bus voltage responses after commissioning of the described equipment into the largest thermal power plant in Serbia. As it can be seen in presented records, all design targets are met.

  20. Nuclear power plant's safety and risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzen, L.F.

    1975-01-01

    Starting with a comprehensive safety strategy as evolved over the past years and the present legal provisions for the construction and operation of nuclear power plants, the risk of the intended operation, of accidents and unforeseen events is discussed. Owing to the excellent safety record of nuclear power plants, main emphasis in discussing accidents is given to the precautionary analysis within the framework of the licensing procedure. In this context, hypothetical accidents are mentioned only as having been utilized for general risk comparisons. The development of a comprehensive risk concept for a completely objective safety assessment of nuclear power plants remains as a final goal. (orig.) [de

  1. Fuzzy logic control of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Liangzhong; Guo Renjun; Ma Changwen

    1996-01-01

    The main advantage of the fuzzy logic control is that the method does not require a detailed mathematical model of the object to be controlled. In this paper, the shortcomings and limitations of the model-based method in nuclear power plant control were presented, the theory of the fuzzy logic control was briefly introduced, and the applications of the fuzzy logic control technology in nuclear power plant controls were surveyed. Finally, the problems to be solved by using the fuzzy logic control in nuclear power plants were discussed

  2. Treatment of some power plant waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konecny, C.; Vanura, P.; Franta, P.; Marhol, M.; Tejnecky, M.; Fidler, J.

    1987-01-01

    Major results are summed up obtained in 1986 in the development of techniques for the treatment of coolant in the fuel transport and storage tank, of reserve coolant in the primary circuit and of waste water from the special nuclear power plant laundries, containing new washing agent Alfa-DES. A service test of the filter filled with Czechoslovak-made cation exchanger Ostion KSN in the boric acid concentrate filter station showed that the filter can be used in some technological circuits of nuclear power plants. New decontamination agents are also listed introduced in production in Czechoslovakia for meeting the needs of nuclear power plants. (author). 6 refs

  3. The spherical tokamak fusion power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, H.R.; Voss, G.; Ahn, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    The design of a 1GW(e) steady state fusion power plant, based on the spherical tokamak concept, has been further iterated towards a fully self-consistent solution taking account of plasma physics, engineering and neutronics constraints. In particular a plausible solution to exhaust handling is proposed and the steam cycle refined to further improve efficiency. The physics design takes full account of confinement, MHD stability and steady state current drive. It is proposed that such a design may offer a fusion power plant which is easy to maintain: an attractive feature for the power plants following ITER. (author)

  4. List of the world's nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempken, M.

    1984-01-01

    This list published once a year presents, subdivided into countries, data on all nuclear power plants in operation, under construction, or for which a contract has been placed, referring to the following aspects: Year the contract has been placed, name and/or size, owner or operator, design type, manufacturers, net output, first year of commercial operation, and total electricity output up to the data June 30, 1984. Two additional tables present a survey on the world's nuclear power plants, also grouped by countries, and the largest commercially used nuclear power plants of the world. (UA) [de

  5. Advantages of butterfly valves for power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapadat, J.T.

    1977-01-01

    Butterfly valves are increasingly used in nuclear power plants. They are used in CANDU reactors for class 2 and 3 service, to provide emergency and tight shutoff valves for all inlets and outlets of heat exchangers and all calandria penetrations. Guidelines for meeting nuclear power plant valve specifications are set out in ASME Section 3, Nuclear Power Plant Components. Some details of materials of construction, type of actuator, etc., for various classes of nuclear service are tabulated in the present article. The 'fishtail' butterfly valve is an improved design with reduced drag, as is illustrated and explained. (N.D.H.)

  6. Environmental impact due to nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellermann, O.; Balfanz, H.P.

    1975-01-01

    The environmental impact due to nuclear power plants is smaller than that due to fossil-fired power plants. The risks of the nuclear power plant operation are determined by the quantity and the probability of the release of radioactive materials. According to the value, the risks of normal operation can be compared to the accident risks. An attempt should be made to effectively reduce the remaining risk at unfavourable sites with the emphasis on accidents with larger effects than design basis accidents. (orig./LH) [de

  7. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1992-09-01

    The Finnish nuclear power plant units Loviisa 1 and 2 as well as TVO I and II were in operation for almost all the time in the first quarter of 1992. The load factor average was 99.8%. All events which are classified on the International Nuclear Event Scale were level 0/below scale on the Scale. Occupational radiation doses and releases of radioactive material off-site remained well below authorised limits. Only quantities of radioactive material insignificant to radiation exposure, originating from the nuclear power plants, were detected in samples collected in the vicinity of the nuclear power plants

  8. Pagbilao power plant, Pagbilao, Quezon, Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flake, P.M. [Mirant Philippines Corp. (Philippines)

    2004-08-01

    This 700 MW coal-fired station isn't new, but POWER is honoring it as a top plant of 2004. Why? 12 years ago, Pagbilao pioneered the build-own-transfer (BOT) approach to power project development in the Philippines. Since the plant was commissioned in 1996, it has run more reliably and cleanly every year and thus played a major role in raising the standard of living for Filipino citizens. The article highlights notable plant features with which the plant has been equipped or retrofitted. 2 figs.

  9. Electromagnetic compatibility of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabayan, H.S.

    1983-01-01

    Lately, there has been a mounting concern about the electromagnetic compatibility of nuclear-power-plant systems mainly because of the effects due to the nuclear electromagnetic pulse, and also because of the introduction of more-sophisticated and, therefore, more-susceptible solid-state devices into the plants. Questions have been raised about the adequacy of solid-state-device protection against plant electromagnetic-interference sources and transients due to the nuclear electromagnetic pulse. In this paper, the author briefly reviews the environment, and the coupling, susceptibility, and vulnerability assessment issues of commercial nuclear power plants

  10. An analyser for power plant operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, A.E.; Wulff, W.

    1990-01-01

    Safe and reliable operation of power plants is essential. Power plant operators need a forecast of what the plant will do when its current state is disturbed. The in-line plant analyser provides precisely this information at relatively low cost. The plant analyser scheme uses a mathematical model of the dynamic behaviour of the plant to establish a numerical simulation. Over a period of time, the simulation is calibrated with measurements from the particular plant in which it is used. The analyser then provides a reference against which to evaluate the plant's current behaviour. It can be used to alert the operator to any atypical excursions or combinations of readings that indicate malfunction or off-normal conditions that, as the Three Mile Island event suggests, are not easily recognised by operators. In a look-ahead mode, it can forecast the behaviour resulting from an intended change in settings or operating conditions. Then, when such changes are made, the plant's behaviour can be tracked against the forecast in order to assure that the plant is behaving as expected. It can be used to investigate malfunctions that have occurred and test possible adjustments in operating procedures. Finally, it can be used to consider how far from the limits of performance the elements of the plant are operating. Then by adjusting settings, the required power can be generated with as little stress as possible on the equipment. (6 figures) (Author)

  11. On-board measurement of emissions from liquefied petroleum gas, gasoline and diesel powered passenger cars in Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Chikhi , Saâdane; Boughedaoui , Ménouèr; Kerbachi , Rabah; Joumard , Robert

    2014-01-01

    International audience; On-board measurements of unit emissions of CO, HC, NOx and CO 2 were conducted on 17 private cars powered by different types of fuels including gasoline, dual gasoline-LPG, gasoline, and diesel. The tests performed revealed the effect of LPG injection technology on unit emissions and made it possible to compare the measured emissions to the European Artemis emission model. A sequential multipoint injection LPG kit with no catalyst installed was found to be the most eff...

  12. Intelligent distributed control for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klevans, E.H.

    1992-01-01

    This project was initiated in September 1989 as a three year project to develop and demonstrate Intelligent Distributed Control (IDC) for Nuclear Power Plants. The body of this Third Annual Technical Progress report summarizes the period from September 1991 to October 1992. There were two primary goals of this research project. The first goal was to combine diagnostics and control to achieve a highly automated power plant as described by M.A. Schultz. His philosophy, is to improve public perception of the safety of nuclear power plants by incorporating a high degree of automation where a greatly simplified operator control console minimizes the possibility of human error in power plant operations. To achieve this goal, a hierarchically distributed control system with automated responses to plant upset conditions was pursued in this research. The second goal was to apply this research to develop a prototype demonstration on an actual power plant system, the EBR-2 stem plant. Emphasized in this Third Annual Technical Progress Report is the continuing development of the in-plant intelligent control demonstration for the final project milestone and includes: simulation validation and the initial approach to experiment formulation

  13. Monitoring support system for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashikawa, Yuichi; Kubota, Rhuji; Tanaka, Keiji; Takano, Yoshiyuki

    1996-01-01

    The nuclear power plants in Japan reach to 49 plants and supply 41.19 million kW in their installed capacities, which is equal to about 31% of total electric power generation and has occupied an important situation as a stable energy supplying source. As an aim to keeping safe operation and working rate of the power plants, various monitoring support systems using computer technology, optical information technology and robot technology each advanced rapidly in recent year have been developed to apply to the actual plants for a plant state monitoring system of operators in normal operation. Furthermore, introduction of the emergent support system supposed on accidental formation of abnormal state of the power plants is also investigated. In this paper, as a monitoring system in the recent nuclear power plants, design of control panel of recent central control room, introduction to its actual plant and monitoring support system in development were described in viewpoints of improvement of human interface, upgrade of sensor and signal processing techniques, and promotion of information service technique. And, trend of research and development of portable miniature detector and emergent monitoring support system are also introduced in a viewpoint of labor saving and upgrade of the operating field. (G.K.)

  14. The safety of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    Do nuclear power plants present an unjustifiable risk Can there be confidence in their safety The Uranium Institute invited a group of senior safety experts from eight different Western countries operating different types of reactors to provide an authoritative explanation for non-specialists of the basic principles of reactor safety, their application and their implications. The report presents the group's opinion on the level of safety achieved in the Western nuclear power plants with which the authors are directly familiar. Although many of the points made may well also be true for non-Western reactors, the report does not cover them except where specifically stated. It does describe and discuss the causes of the Chernobyl disaster. It does not compare nuclear power with other fuels, nor does it deal with its benefits, since however great the benefits from the peaceful use of nuclear power, and its own advantages over other fuels, they could not compensate for lack of safety. The conclusion reached is that the risk associated with electricity production at nuclear power plants can be kept very low. Proper use of the extensive knowledge available today can guarantee operation of nuclear power plants at very high safety levels, carrying very low risks, both to health and of contamination of the environment: risks that are continually lowered by upgrading existing plants and their operation, and by the design of future power plants. (author).

  15. Optimal control systems in hydro power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babunski, Darko L.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the research done in this work is focused on obtaining the optimal models of hydro turbine including auxiliary equipment, analysis of governors for hydro power plants and analysis and design of optimal control laws that can be easily applicable in real hydro power plants. The methodology of the research and realization of the set goals consist of the following steps: scope of the models of hydro turbine, and their modification using experimental data; verification of analyzed models and comparison of advantages and disadvantages of analyzed models, with proposal of turbine model for design of control low; analysis of proportional-integral-derivative control with fixed parameters and gain scheduling and nonlinear control; analysis of dynamic characteristics of turbine model including control and comparison of parameters of simulated system with experimental data; design of optimal control of hydro power plant considering proposed cost function and verification of optimal control law with load rejection measured data. The hydro power plant models, including model of power grid are simulated in case of island ing and restoration after breakup and load rejection with consideration of real loading and unloading of hydro power plant. Finally, simulations provide optimal values of control parameters, stability boundaries and results easily applicable to real hydro power plants. (author)

  16. The Paluel power plant workings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Pierre

    1982-01-01

    The Paluel work site is described, the first power station of the new power level, of which the four 1300 MW units will be operating in 1985. As from 1982 Paluel 1 will start is commissioning trials that are to spread out over 12 months [fr

  17. Modifications to nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This Safety Guide was prepared under the IAEA's programme for safety standards for nuclear power plants. It supplements Section 7 of the Safety Requirements publication on Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, which establishes the safety requirements for the modification of nuclear power plants. Reasons for carrying out modifications to nuclear power plants may include: (1) maintaining or strengthening existing safety provisions and thus maintaining consistency with or improving on the current design. (2) recovering from plant faults. (3) improving the thermal performance or increasing the power rating of the plant. (4) increasing the maintainability of the plant, reducing the radiation exposure of personnel or reducing the costs of plant maintenance. And (5) extending the design life of the plant. Most modifications, made on the basis of operating experience, are intended to improve on the design or to improve operational performance and flexibility. Some are rendered necessary by new regulatory requirements, ageing of the plant or obsolescence of equipment. However, the benefits of regularly updating the plant design can be jeopardized if modifications are not kept under rigorous control throughout the lifetime of the plant. The need to reduce costs and improve efficiency, in combination with changes to the structure of the electricity generation sector of the economy in many countries, has led many companies to make changes in the structure of the operating organization for nuclear power plants. Whatever the reason for such organizational changes, consideration should be given to the effects of those changes with the aim of ensuring that they would have no impacts that would compromise the safety of the plant. The objective of this Safety Guide is to provide guidance and recommendations on controlling activities relating to modifications at nuclear power plants in order to reduce risk and to ensure that the configuration of the plant is at all times under

  18. Modifications to nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This Safety Guide was prepared under the IAEA's programme for safety standards for nuclear power plants. It supplements Section 7 of the Safety Requirements publication on Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, which establishes the safety requirements for the modification of nuclear power plants. Reasons for carrying out modifications to nuclear power plants may include: (1) maintaining or strengthening existing safety provisions and thus maintaining consistency with or improving on the current design. (2) recovering from plant faults. (3) improving the thermal performance or increasing the power rating of the plant. (4) increasing the maintainability of the plant, reducing the radiation exposure of personnel or reducing the costs of plant maintenance. And (5) extending the design life of the plant. Most modifications, made on the basis of operating experience, are intended to improve on the design or to improve operational performance and flexibility. Some are rendered necessary by new regulatory requirements, ageing of the plant or obsolescence of equipment. However, the benefits of regularly updating the plant design can be jeopardized if modifications are not kept under rigorous control throughout the lifetime of the plant. The need to reduce costs and improve efficiency, in combination with changes to the structure of the electricity generation sector of the economy in many countries, has led many companies to make changes in the structure of the operating organization for nuclear power plants. Whatever the reason for such organizational changes, consideration should be given to the effects of those changes with the aim of ensuring that they would have no impacts that would compromise the safety of the plant. The objective of this Safety Guide is to provide guidance and recommendations on controlling activities relating to modifications at nuclear power plants in order to reduce risk and to ensure that the configuration of the plant is at all times under

  19. Technical report on dc power supplies in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    Emergency electrical power supplies, both a.c. and d.c. for nuclear power plants are important to safety. For this reason, the electric power systems for operating nuclear plants and those plants under licensing review have been required to provide a high degree of reliability. It is this high reliability that provides confidence that sufficient safety margin exists against loss of all d.c. power for extended periods of time to allow an orderly examination of safety issues, such as this. However, because of the importance of the a.c. and d.c. power systems, the staff has been expending effort to review the reliability of these systems and shall continue to do so in the future

  20. Modular simulation of a hybrid power system with diesel, photovoltaic inverter and wind turbine generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimis Ch. Karasavvas

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic behavior and stability of an isolated electric power system, fed by a conventional energy plant and a re-newable energy system, is presented in this paper. Matlab/Simulink is the used software for simulating the whole system.