WorldWideScience

Sample records for diesel fuel additive

  1. 7 CFR 2902.13 - Diesel fuel additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Items § 2902.13 Diesel fuel additives. (a) Definition. (1) Any substance, other than one composed solely of carbon and/or hydrogen, that is intentionally added to diesel fuel (including any added to a motor... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Diesel fuel additives. 2902.13 Section 2902.13...

  2. 40 CFR 80.592 - What records must be kept by entities in the motor vehicle diesel fuel and diesel fuel additive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in the motor vehicle diesel fuel and diesel fuel additive distribution systems? 80.592 Section 80.592... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA... the motor vehicle diesel fuel and diesel fuel additive distribution systems? (a) Records that must be...

  3. 77 FR 72746 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Modifications to Renewable Fuel Standard and Diesel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... Fuels and Fuel Additives: Modifications to Renewable Fuel Standard and Diesel Sulfur Programs AGENCY... Fuel Standard (``RFS'') program under section 211(o) of the Clean Air Act. The direct final rule also... marine diesel fuel produced by transmix processors, and the fuel marker requirements for 500 ppm sulfur...

  4. 40 CFR 80.521 - What are the standards and identification requirements for diesel fuel additives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Motor... consumer in diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines. [69 FR 39171, June 29, 2004] ... identification requirements for diesel fuel additives? 80.521 Section 80.521 Protection of Environment...

  5. Support vector machine to predict diesel engine performance and emission parameters fueled with nano-particles additive to diesel fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, M.; Najafi, G.; Ghobadian, B.; Mamat, R.; Noor, M. M.; Moosavian, A.

    2015-12-01

    This paper studies the use of adaptive Support Vector Machine (SVM) to predict the performance parameters and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine operating on nanodiesel blended fuels. In order to predict the engine parameters, the whole experimental data were randomly divided into training and testing data. For SVM modelling, different values for radial basis function (RBF) kernel width and penalty parameters (C) were considered and the optimum values were then found. The results demonstrate that SVM is capable of predicting the diesel engine performance and emissions. In the experimental step, Carbon nano tubes (CNT) (40, 80 and 120 ppm) and nano silver particles (40, 80 and 120 ppm) with nanostructure were prepared and added as additive to the diesel fuel. Six cylinders, four-stroke diesel engine was fuelled with these new blended fuels and operated at different engine speeds. Experimental test results indicated the fact that adding nano particles to diesel fuel, increased diesel engine power and torque output. For nano-diesel it was found that the brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) was decreased compared to the net diesel fuel. The results proved that with increase of nano particles concentrations (from 40 ppm to 120 ppm) in diesel fuel, CO2 emission increased. CO emission in diesel fuel with nano-particles was lower significantly compared to pure diesel fuel. UHC emission with silver nano-diesel blended fuel decreased while with fuels that contains CNT nano particles increased. The trend of NOx emission was inverse compared to the UHC emission. With adding nano particles to the blended fuels, NOx increased compared to the net diesel fuel. The tests revealed that silver & CNT nano particles can be used as additive in diesel fuel to improve complete combustion of the fuel and reduce the exhaust emissions significantly.

  6. Effect of ethanol fuel additive on diesel emissions.; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, R. L.; Poola, R. B.; Sekar, R.; Schaus, J. E.; McPartlin, P.

    2001-01-01

    Engine-out emissions from a Volkswagen model TDI engine were measured for three different fuels: neat diesel fuel, a blend of diesel fuel and additives containing 10% ethanol, and a blend of diesel fuel and additives containing 15% ethanol. The test matrix covered five speeds from 1,320 to 3,000 rpm, five torques from 15 Nm to maximum plus the 900-rpm idle condition, and most of the points in the FTP-75 and US-06 vehicle tests. Emissions of particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NO(sub x)), unburned hydrocarbons (HCs), and carbon monoxide (CO) were measured at each point, as were fuel consumption, exhaust oxygen, and carbon dioxide output. PM emissions were reduced up to 75% when ethanol-diesel blends were used instead of neat diesel fuel. Significant reductions in PM emissions occurred over one-half to two-thirds of the test matrix. NO(sub x) emissions were reduced by up to 84%. Although the regions of reduced NO(sub x) emissions were much smaller than the regions of reduced PM emissions, there was considerable overlap between the two regions where PM emissions were reduced by up to 75% and NO(sub x) emissions were reduced by up to 84%. Such simultaneous reduction of both PM and NO(sub x) emissions would be difficult to achieve by any other means. HC and CO emissions were also reduced in the regions of reduced PM and NO(sub x) emissions that overlapped. Because the ethanol-diesel blends contain less energy on both a per-unit-mass basis and a per-unit-volume basis, there was a reduction in maximum torque of up to 10% and an increase in brake-specific fuel consumption of up to 7% when these blends were used

  7. 77 FR 61313 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Modifications to Renewable Fuel Standard and Diesel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ... transportation fuels, including gasoline and diesel fuel, or renewable fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel, as... that which arose under RFS1 for certain renewable fuels (in particular biodiesel) that were produced...

  8. 40 CFR 80.591 - What are the product transfer document requirements for additives to be used in diesel fuel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel... content requirements for use in diesel motor vehicles and nonroad engines.”; or (2) For those additives... requirements for use in model year 2007 and newer diesel motor vehicles or model year 2011 and newer diesel...

  9. Performance and emission characteristics of diesel engine with COME-Triacetin additive blends as fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkateswara Rao, P. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, K I T S, Warangal- 506015, A. P. (India); Appa Rao, B.V. [Dept. of Marine Engineering, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530003, A. P. (India)

    2012-07-01

    The Triacetin [C9H14O6] additive is used an anti-knocking agent along with the bio-diesel in DI- diesel engine. In the usage of diesel fuel and neat bio-diesel knocking can be detected to some extent. The T- additive usage in the engine suppressed knocking, improved the performance and reduced tail pipe emissions. Comparative study is conducted using petro-diesel, bio-diesel, and with various additive blends of bio-diesel on DI- diesel engine. Coconut oil methyl ester (COME) is used with additive Triacetin (T) at various percentages by volume for all loads (No load, 25%, 50%, 75% and full load). The performance of engine is compared with neat diesel in respect of engine efficiency, exhaust emissions and combustion knock. Of the five Triacetin- biodiesel blends tried, 10% Triacetin combination with biodiesel proved encouraging in all respects of performance of the engine.

  10. Effect of oxygenate additive on diesel engine fuel consumption and emissions operating with biodiesel-diesel blend at idling conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmudul, H. M.; Hagos, F. Y.; Mamat, R.; Noor, M. M.; Yusri, I. M.

    2017-10-01

    Biodiesel is promising alternative fuel to run the automotive engine but idling is the main problem to run the vehicles in a big city. Vehicles running with idling condition cause higher fuel supply and higher emission level due to being having fuel residues in the exhaust. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of alcohol additive on fuel consumption and emissions parameters under idling conditions when a multicylinder diesel engine operates with the diesel-biodiesel blend. The study found that using 5% butanol as an additive with B5 (5% Palm biodiesel + 95% diesel) blends fuel lowers brake specific fuel consumption and CO emissions by 38% and 20% respectively. But the addition of butanol increases NOx and CO2 emissions. Based on the result it can be said that 5% butanol can be used in a diesel engine with B5 without any engine modifications to tackle the idling problem.

  11. Influence of metallic based fuel additives on performance and exhaust emissions of diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keskin, Ali [Tarsus Technical Education Faculty, Mersin University, 33500 Mersin (Turkey); Guerue, Metin, E-mail: mguru@gazi.edu.t [Engineering and Architectural Faculty, Gazi University, 06570 Maltepe, Ankara (Turkey); Altiparmak, Duran [Technical Education Faculty, Gazi University, 06500 Ankara (Turkey)

    2011-01-15

    In this experimental study, influence of the metallic-based additives on fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of diesel engine were investigated. The metallic-based additives were produced by synthesizing of resin acid (abietic acid) with MnO{sub 2} or MgO. These additives were doped into diesel fuel at the rate of 8 {mu}mol/l and 16 {mu}mol/l for preparing test fuels. Both additives improved the properties of diesel fuel such as viscosity, flash point, cloud point and pour point. The fuels with and without additives were tested in a direct injection diesel engine at full load condition. Maximum reduction of specific fuel consumption was recorded as 4.16%. CO emission and smoke opacity decreased by 16.35% and by 29.82%, respectively. NO{sub x} emission was measured higher and CO{sub 2} emission was not changed considerably with the metallic-based additives.

  12. Health Effects Associated with Inhalation Exposure to Diesel Emission Generated with and without CeO2 Nano Fuel Additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesel exhaust (DE) exposure induces adverse cardiopulmonary effects. Addition of nano cerium (Ce) oxide additive to diesel fuel (DECe) increases fuel burning efficiency resulting in altered emission characteristics and potentially altered health effects. We hypothesized that inh...

  13. Experimental Analysis of DI Diesel Engine Performance with Blend Fuels of Oxygenated Additive and COME Biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    P. Venkateswara Rao; B.V. Appa Rao; D. Radhakrishna

    2012-01-01

    An experimental investigation was carried out to evaluate the effect of using Triacetin (T) as an additive with biodiesel on direct injection diesel engine for performance and combustion characteristics. Normally in the usage of diesel fuel and neat biodiesel, knocking can be detected to some extent. By adding triacetin [C9H14O6] additive to biodiesel, this problem can be alleviated to some extent and the tail pipe emissions are reduced. Comparative study was conducted using petro-diesel, bio...

  14. Effect of ethanol/water blends addition on diesel fuel combustion in RCM and DI diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nour, Mohamed; Kosaka, Hidenori; Sato, Susumu; Bady, Mahmoud; Abdel-Rahman, Ali K.; Uchida, Kenta

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of ethanol/water addition on diesel combustion studied using optical diagnostics. • The addition of water to ethanol improves engine combustion and soot oxidation. • Ethanol/water injection into exhaust manifold eliminates their endothermic effect. • Ethanol with high water content is recommended for better engine combustion. • Soot concentration reduced by 50% and NO x emissions reduced by 88%. - Abstract: The effect of ethanol/water blends addition on diesel fuel combustion and emissions is investigated experimentally in this study using optical diagnostics. Basic study is performed using rapid compression machine (RCM) under CI conditions. The tested ethanol energy fractions varied in the range of 10–40% of the total added fuel energy, while water volume ratios varied in the range of 10–40% of the injected ethanol. Ethanol and water were evaporated before entering the combustion chamber to eliminate their endothermic effect. Results reveal that addition of ethanol/water blends to diesel fuel results in longer ignition delay and promote the apparent heat release rate (AHRR) at the premixed combustion phase compared to absolute ethanol addition. Additionally, soot and NO x emissions are reduced with ethanol/water addition compared to absolute ethanol addition and neat diesel combustion. The basic study is then extended to investigate the effect ethanol/water blends addition on diesel fuel combustion using single cylinder diesel engine. Waste heat in exhaust manifold is utilized to vaporize ethanol/water blends before combustion. Results reveal that ethanol/water blends injection leads to increase in peak cylinder pressure, indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP), and AHRR at premixed combustion phase. Additionally, the ignition delay increased with ethanol/water addition. NO x emission is decreased up to 88% along with a reduction in soot by 50%. The lower ethanol to water volume ratios show better combustion efficiency, IMEP

  15. Utilization of diesel fuel, anhydrous ethanol and additives blend of a stationary diesel engine with rotatory pump; Utilizacao de mistura ternaria alcool, diesel e aditivo em motores do ciclo diesel com bomba de injecao rotativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes Cruz, Yordanka; Cavado Osorio, Alberto [Centro de Pesquisas de Petroleo (CEINPET), Havana (Cuba); Belchior, Carlos Rodrigues Pereira; Pereira, Pedro P.; Pinto, Nauberto Rodrigues [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia. Dept. de Engenharia Naval e Mecanica; Aranda, Donato A. Gomes [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    In this paper is analyzed the performance and fuel consumption of a stationary Diesel engine, with rotary diesel fuel injection pump, using (diesel fuel + anhydrous ethanol + 0.5% additive) blend. The engine performance parameters and fuel consumption tests were performed at the Termic Machine Laboratory, located in Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, and evaluated using a MWM Series 10 model 4.10 TCA. Two test cycles were used for this test program: the tests were carried out starting from the base diesel S-500, used as a reference; the engine operated with (diesel fuel S-500 - 8% anhydrous ethanol - DIOLEFECT additive (0,5% SPAN80 + 0,1% Biomix-D)) blend. The results indicate that: the reduction levels in power and torque of engine are approximately the same which is (2,55{+-}2%), the brake specific fuel consumption increased in 1,8%. (author)

  16. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) to predict CI engine parameters fueled with nano-particles additive to diesel fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, M.; Najafi, G.; Ghobadian, B.; Mamat, R.; Noor, M. M.; Moosavian, A.

    2015-12-01

    This paper studies the use of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) to predict the performance parameters and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine operating on nanodiesel blended fuels. In order to predict the engine parameters, the whole experimental data were randomly divided into training and testing data. For ANFIS modelling, Gaussian curve membership function (gaussmf) and 200 training epochs (iteration) were found to be optimum choices for training process. The results demonstrate that ANFIS is capable of predicting the diesel engine performance and emissions. In the experimental step, Carbon nano tubes (CNT) (40, 80 and 120 ppm) and nano silver particles (40, 80 and 120 ppm) with nanostructure were prepared and added as additive to the diesel fuel. Six cylinders, four-stroke diesel engine was fuelled with these new blended fuels and operated at different engine speeds. Experimental test results indicated the fact that adding nano particles to diesel fuel, increased diesel engine power and torque output. For nano-diesel it was found that the brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) was decreased compared to the net diesel fuel. The results proved that with increase of nano particles concentrations (from 40 ppm to 120 ppm) in diesel fuel, CO2 emission increased. CO emission in diesel fuel with nano-particles was lower significantly compared to pure diesel fuel. UHC emission with silver nano-diesel blended fuel decreased while with fuels that contains CNT nano particles increased. The trend of NOx emission was inverse compared to the UHC emission. With adding nano particles to the blended fuels, NOx increased compared to the net diesel fuel. The tests revealed that silver & CNT nano particles can be used as additive in diesel fuel to improve combustion of the fuel and reduce the exhaust emissions significantly.

  17. Bioremediation of diesel fuel contaminated soil: effect of non ionic surfactants and selected bacteria addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collina, Elena; Lasagni, Marina; Pitea, Demetrio; Franzetti, Andrea; Di Gennaro, Patrizia; Bestetti, Giuseppina

    2007-09-01

    Aim of this work was to evaluate influence of two commercial surfactants and inoculum of selected bacteria on biodegradation of diesel fuel in different systems. Among alkyl polyethossilates (Brij family) and sorbitan derivates (Tween family) a first selection of surfactants was performed by estimation of Koc and Dafnia magna EC50 with molecular descriptor and QSAR model. Further experiments were conducted to evaluate soil sorption, biodegradability and toxicity. In the second part of the research, the effect of Brij 56, Tween 80 and selected bacteria addition on biodegradation of diesel fuel was studied in liquid cultures and in slurry and solid phase systems. The latter experiments were performed with diesel contaminated soil in bench scale slurry phase bioreactor and solid phase columns. Tween 80 addition increased the biodegradation rate of hydrocarbons both in liquid and in slurry phase systems. Regarding the effect of inoculum, no enhancement of biodegradation rate was observed neither in surfactant added nor in experiments without addition. On the contrary, in solid phase experiments, inoculum addition resulted in enhanced biodegradation compared to surfactant addition.

  18. Bioremediation of Diesel Fuel Contaminated Soil: Effect of Non Ionic Surfactants and Selected Bacteria Addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collina, E.; Lasagni, M.; Pitea, D.; Franzetti, A.; Di Gennaro, P.; Bestetti, G.

    2007-01-01

    Aim of this work was to evaluate influence of two commercial surfactants and inoculum of selected bacteria on biodegradation of diesel fuel in different systems. Among alkyl polyethossilates (Brij family) and sorbitan derivates (Tween family) a first selection of surfactants was performed by estimation of Koc and Dafnia magna EC 50 with molecular descriptor and QSAR model. Further experiments were conducted to evaluate soil sorption, biodegradability and toxicity. In the second part of the research, the effect of Brij 56, Tween 80 and selected bacteria addition on biodegradation of diesel fuel was studied in liquid cultures and in slurry and solid phase systems. The latter experiments were performed with diesel contaminated soil in bench scale slurry phase bioreactor and solid phase columns. Tween 80 addition increased the biodegradation rate of hydrocarbons both in liquid and in slurry phase systems. Regarding the effect of inoculum, no enhancement of biodegradation rate was observed neither in surfactant added nor in experiments without addition. On the contrary, in solid phase experiments, inoculum addition resulted in enhanced biodegradation compared to surfactant addition

  19. 77 FR 59458 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2013 Biomass-Based Diesel Renewable Fuel Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ... gasoline and diesel fuel or renewable fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel. Potentially regulated categories... of Biodiesel 1. Grease and Rendered Fats 2. Corn Oil 3. Soybean Oil 4. Effects on Food Prices 5.... Deliverability and Transport Costs of Materials, Goods, and Products Other Than Renewable Fuel 6. Wetlands...

  20. Furfural and other furane-derivates as diesel fuel additives. Furfural und andere Furanderivate als Zusatz zum Dieselkraftstoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemling, O.

    1982-01-01

    Alternative energies such as fuel additives or fuel-substitutes are on their way upwards as they may help to reduce the dependency on crude and crude-based fuels. A number of solutions has already been indicated for carburettor engines whereas a lot more of research and development is needed to find a safe alternative to diesel fuels. Possibilities of using furfural, furfuralcohol and furan-2-carbonic acid-methylester as additives to diesel or as a substitute were investigated. A survey on the characteristic properties of these substances is given, then several tests are set up in order to describe the properties of diesel additive mixtures at low temperatures. Based on these tests two mixtures are proposed both with a furfural/butanole mixture. Furfural is suitable as diesel additive, a solubilizer is needed though.

  1. USAGE OF METHYL ESTER PRODUCED FROM WASTE GRAPE AND MN ADDITIVE AS ALTERNATIVE DIESEL FUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanbey Hazar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, methyl ester was produced from waste grape pulp sources. The produced methyl ester was mixed with diesel in different proportions, and was tested for engine performance and emission. It was found that with increasing biodiesel content, the specific fuel consumption and exhaust temperature have increased partially, while the CO, HC and smoke emissions decreased significantly. Additionally, in the scope of this study, dodecanol, propylene glycol and Mn based additives were added to fuel B50 to improve the emission and engine performance values. With the presence of additives, an increase in the exhaust temperature was observed, while a decrease in the specific fuel consumption, CO, HC, and smoke emissions were detected.

  2. Co-optimization of diesel fuel biodegradation and N2 fixation through the addition of particulate organic carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piehler, M.; Swistak, J.; Paerl, H.

    1995-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbon pollution in the marine environment is widespread and current bioremedial techniques are often not cost effective for small spills. The formulation of simple and inexpensive bioremedial methods could help reduce the impacts of frequent low volume spills in areas like marinas and ports. Particulate organic carbon (POC) was added to diesel fuel amended samples from inshore marine waters in the form of corn-slash (post-harvest leaves and stems), with and without inorganic nutrients (nitrate and phosphate). Biodegradation of diesel fuel ( 14 C hexadecane mineralization) and N 2 fixation were measured in response to the additions, The addition of POC was necessary for N 2 fixation and diesel fuel biodegradation to co-occur. The effects of diesel fuel and inorganic nutrient additions on N 2 fixation rates were not consistent, with both inhibitory and stimulatory responses to each addition observed. The highest observed diesel fuel biodegradation levels were in response to treatments that included inorganic nutrients. The addition of POC alone increased diesel fuel degradation levels above that observed in the control. In an attempt to determine the effect of the POC on the microbial community, the corn particles were observed microscopically using scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy with tetrazolium salt additions. The corn particles were found to have abundant attached bacterial communities and microscale oxygen concentration gradients occurring on individual particles. The formation of oxygen replete microzones may be essential for the co-occurrence of aerobic diesel fuel biodegradation and oxygen inhibited N2 fixation. Mesocosm experiments are currently underway to further examine the structure and function of this primarily heterotrophic system and to explore the potential contribution of N 2 fixation to the N requirements of diesel fuel biodegradation

  3. Near-Road Modeling and Measurement of Particles Generated by Nanoparticle Diesel Fuel Additive Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerium oxide (ceria) nanoparticles (n-Ce) are used as a fuel-borne catalyst in diesel engines to reduce particulate emissions, yet the environmental and human health impacts of the ceria-doped diesel exhaust aerosols are not well understood. To bridge the gap between emission mea...

  4. Analysis of blended fuel properties and cycle-to-cycle variation in a diesel engine with a diethyl ether additive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Obed M.; Mamat, Rizalman; Masjuki, H.H.; Abdullah, Abdul Adam

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Viability of diethyl ether additive to improve palm biodiesel–diesel blend. • Numerical analysis of engine cyclic variation at different additive ratios. • Physicochemical properties of the blends improved with diethyl ether additive. • Blended fuel heating value is significantly affected. • Blended fuel with 4% diethyl ether shows comparable engine cyclic variation to diesel. - Abstract: In this study, the effect of adding small portions of a diethyl ether additive to biodiesel–diesel blended fuel (B30) was investigated. This study includes an evaluation of the fuel properties and a combustion analysis, specifically, an analysis of the cyclic variations in diesel engines. The amount of additive used with B30 is 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% (by volume). The experimental engine test was conducted at 2500 rpm which produce maximum torque, and the in-cylinder pressure data were collected over 200 consecutive engine cycles for each test. The indicated mean effective pressure time series is analyzed using the coefficient of variation and the wavelet analysis method. The test results for the properties show a slight improvement in density and acid value with a significant decrease in the viscosity, pour point and cloud point of the blended fuel with an 8% additive ratio by 26.5%, 4 °C and 3 °C, respectively, compared with blended fuel without additive. However, the heating value is reduced by approximately 4% with increasing the additive ratio to 8%. From the wavelet power spectrum, it is observed that the intermediate and long-term periodicities appear in diesel fuel, while the short-period oscillations become intermittently visible in pure blended fuel. The coefficient of variation for B30 was the lowest and increased as the additive ratios increased, which agrees with the wavelet analysis results. Furthermore, the spectral power increased with an increase in the additive ratio, indicating that the additive has a noticeable effect on increasing the

  5. Role of fuel additives on reduction of NOX emission from a diesel engine powered by camphor oil biofuel

    KAUST Repository

    Subramanian, Thiyagarajan

    2018-03-21

    The present study intends to explore the effect of the addition of fuel additives with camphor oil (CMO) on the characteristics of a twin-cylinder compression ignition (CI) engine. The lower viscosity and boiling point of CMO when compared to diesel could improve the fuel atomization, evaporation, and air/fuel mixing process. However, the lower cetane index of CMO limits its use as a drop in fuel for diesel in CI engine. In general, NO emission increases for less viscous and low cetane (LVLC) fuels due to pronounced premixed combustion phase. To improve the ignition characteristics and decrease NO emissions, fuel additives such as diglyme (DGE)—a cetane enhancer, cumene (CU)—an antioxidant, and eugenol (EU) and acetone (A)—bio-additives, are added 10% by volume with CMO. The engine used for the experimentation is a twin-cylinder tractor engine that runs at a constant speed of 1500 rpm. The engine was operated with diesel initially to attain warm-up condition, which facilitates the operation of neat CMO. At full load condition, brake thermal efficiency (BTE) for CMO is higher (29.6%) than that of diesel (28.1%), while NO emission is increased by 9.4%. With DGE10 (10% DGE + 90% CMO), the ignition characteristics of CMO are improved and BTE is increased to 31.7% at full load condition. With EU10 (10% EU + 90% CMO) and A10 (10% A + 90% CMO), NO emission is decreased by 24.6 and 17.8% when compared to diesel, while BTE is comparable to diesel. While HC and CO emission decreased for DGE10 and CU10, they increased for EU10 and A10 when compared to baseline diesel and CMO.

  6. Role of fuel additives on reduction of NOX emission from a diesel engine powered by camphor oil biofuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Thiyagarajan; Varuvel, Edwin Geo; Ganapathy, Saravanan; Vedharaj, S; Vallinayagam, R

    2018-06-01

    The present study intends to explore the effect of the addition of fuel additives with camphor oil (CMO) on the characteristics of a twin-cylinder compression ignition (CI) engine. The lower viscosity and boiling point of CMO when compared to diesel could improve the fuel atomization, evaporation, and air/fuel mixing process. However, the lower cetane index of CMO limits its use as a drop in fuel for diesel in CI engine. In general, NO X emission increases for less viscous and low cetane (LVLC) fuels due to pronounced premixed combustion phase. To improve the ignition characteristics and decrease NO X emissions, fuel additives such as diglyme (DGE)-a cetane enhancer, cumene (CU)-an antioxidant, and eugenol (EU) and acetone (A)-bio-additives, are added 10% by volume with CMO. The engine used for the experimentation is a twin-cylinder tractor engine that runs at a constant speed of 1500 rpm. The engine was operated with diesel initially to attain warm-up condition, which facilitates the operation of neat CMO. At full load condition, brake thermal efficiency (BTE) for CMO is higher (29.6%) than that of diesel (28.1%), while NO X emission is increased by 9.4%. With DGE10 (10% DGE + 90% CMO), the ignition characteristics of CMO are improved and BTE is increased to 31.7% at full load condition. With EU10 (10% EU + 90% CMO) and A10 (10% A + 90% CMO), NO X emission is decreased by 24.6 and 17.8% when compared to diesel, while BTE is comparable to diesel. While HC and CO emission decreased for DGE10 and CU10, they increased for EU10 and A10 when compared to baseline diesel and CMO.

  7. Role of fuel additives on reduction of NOX emission from a diesel engine powered by camphor oil biofuel

    KAUST Repository

    Subramanian, Thiyagarajan; Varuvel, Edwin Geo; Ganapathy, Saravanan; Vedharaj, S.; Vallinayagam, R.

    2018-01-01

    The present study intends to explore the effect of the addition of fuel additives with camphor oil (CMO) on the characteristics of a twin-cylinder compression ignition (CI) engine. The lower viscosity and boiling point of CMO when compared to diesel could improve the fuel atomization, evaporation, and air/fuel mixing process. However, the lower cetane index of CMO limits its use as a drop in fuel for diesel in CI engine. In general, NO emission increases for less viscous and low cetane (LVLC) fuels due to pronounced premixed combustion phase. To improve the ignition characteristics and decrease NO emissions, fuel additives such as diglyme (DGE)—a cetane enhancer, cumene (CU)—an antioxidant, and eugenol (EU) and acetone (A)—bio-additives, are added 10% by volume with CMO. The engine used for the experimentation is a twin-cylinder tractor engine that runs at a constant speed of 1500 rpm. The engine was operated with diesel initially to attain warm-up condition, which facilitates the operation of neat CMO. At full load condition, brake thermal efficiency (BTE) for CMO is higher (29.6%) than that of diesel (28.1%), while NO emission is increased by 9.4%. With DGE10 (10% DGE + 90% CMO), the ignition characteristics of CMO are improved and BTE is increased to 31.7% at full load condition. With EU10 (10% EU + 90% CMO) and A10 (10% A + 90% CMO), NO emission is decreased by 24.6 and 17.8% when compared to diesel, while BTE is comparable to diesel. While HC and CO emission decreased for DGE10 and CU10, they increased for EU10 and A10 when compared to baseline diesel and CMO.

  8. NOx reduction in diesel fuel flames by additions of water and CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, S.C. [Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Natural gas has the highest heating value per unit mass (50.1 MJ/kg, LHV) of any of the hydrocarbon fuels (e.g., butane, liquid diesel fuel, gasoline, etc.). Since it has the lowest carbon content per unit mass, combustion of natural gas produces much less carbon dioxide, soot particles, and oxide of nitrogen than combustion of liquid diesel fuel. In view of anticipated strengthening of regulations on pollutant emissions from diesel engines, alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG) have been experimentally introduced to replace the traditional diesel fuels in heavy-duty trucks, transit buses, off-road vehicles, locomotives, and stationary engines. To help in applying natural gas in Diesel engines and increasing combustion efficiency, the emphasis of the present paper is placed on the detailed flame chemistry of methane-air combustion. The present work is the continued effort in finding better methods to reduce NO{sub x}. The goal is to identify a reliable chemical reaction mechanism for natural gas in both premixed and diffusion flames and to establish a systematic reduced mechanism which may be useful for large-scale numerical modeling of combustion behavior in natural gas engines.

  9. Engine performance and exhaust emission analysis of a single cylinder diesel engine fuelled with water-diesel emulsion fuel blended with manganese metal additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhsin Ithnin, Ahmad; Jazair Yahya, Wira; Baun Fletcher, Jasmine; Kadir, Hasannuddin Abd

    2017-10-01

    Water-in-diesel emulsion fuel (W/D) is one of the alternative fuels that capable to reduce the exhaust emission of diesel engine significantly especially the nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM). However, the usage of W/D emulsion fuels contributed to higher CO emissions. Supplementing metal additive into the fuel is the alternate way to reduce the CO emissions and improve performance. The present paper investigates the effect of using W/D blended with organic based manganese metal additives on the diesel engine performance and exhaust emission. The test were carried out by preparing and analysing the results observed from five different tested fuel which were D2, emulsion fuel (E10: 89% D2, 10% - water, 1% - surfactant), E10Mn100, E10Mn150, E10Mn200. Organic based Manganese (100ppm, 150ppm, 200ppm) used as the additive in the three samples of the experiments. E10Mn200 achieved the maximum reduction of BSFC up to 13.66% and has the highest exhaust gas temperature. Whereas, E10Mn150 achieved the highest reduction of CO by 14.67%, and slightly increased of NOx emissions as compared to other emulsion fuels. Organic based manganese which act as catalyst promotes improvement of the emulsion fuel performance and reduced the harmful emissions discharged.

  10. 77 FR 75868 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Modifications to the Transmix Provisions Under the Diesel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... provisions in today's rule will result in a reduction in nitrogen oxides (NO X ), volatile organic compounds... requirements under EPA's diesel sulfur program related to the sulfur content of locomotive and marine (LM... ability of locomotive and marine diesel fuel produced from transmix by transmix processors and pipeline...

  11. Inhaled Diesel Emissions Generated with Cerium Oxide Nanoparticle Fuel Additive Induce Adverse Pulmonary and Systemic Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Samantha J.; McGee, John; Miller, Desinia B.; Bass, Virginia; Schladweiler, Mette C.; Thomas, Ronald F.; Krantz, Todd; King, Charly; Ledbetter, Allen D.; Richards, Judy; Weinstein, Jason P.; Conner, Teri; Willis, Robert; Linak, William P.; Nash, David; Wood, Charles E.; Elmore, Susan A.; Morrison, James P.; Johnson, Crystal L.; Gilmour, Matthew Ian; Kodavanti, Urmila P.

    2014-01-01

    Diesel exhaust (DE) exposure induces adverse cardiopulmonary effects. Cerium oxide nanoparticles added to diesel fuel (DECe) increases fuel burning efficiency but leads to altered emission characteristics and potentially altered health effects. Here, we evaluated whether DECe results in greater adverse pulmonary effects compared with DE. Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to filtered air, DE, or DECe for 5 h/day for 2 days. N-acetyl glucosaminidase activity was increased in bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of rats exposed to DECe but not DE. There were also marginal but insignificant increases in several other lung injury biomarkers in both exposure groups (DECe > DE for all). To further characterize DECe toxicity, rats in a second study were exposed to filtered air or DECe for 5 h/day for 2 days or 4 weeks. Tissue analysis indicated a concentration- and time-dependent accumulation of lung and liver cerium followed by a delayed clearance. The gas-phase and high concentration of DECe increased lung inflammation at the 2-day time point, indicating that gas-phase components, in addition to particles, contribute to pulmonary toxicity. This effect was reduced at 4 weeks except for a sustained increase in BALF γ-glutamyl transferase activity. Histopathology and transmission electron microscopy revealed increased alveolar septa thickness due to edema and increased numbers of pigmented macrophages after DECe exposure. Collectively, these findings indicate that DECe induces more adverse pulmonary effects on a mass basis than DE. In addition, lung accumulation of cerium, systemic translocation to the liver, and delayed clearance are added concerns to existing health effects of DECe. PMID:25239632

  12. Preparation and research on properties of castor oil as a diesel fuel additive

    OpenAIRE

    Nurbakhit Imankulov

    2012-01-01

    The research shows an opportunity of preparing biodiesel fuel on the basis of local diesel fuel and the bioadditive - castor oil. Limiting optimum concentration of introduction of the bioadditive equal was established as 5% mass ratio. The castor oil released from seeds of Palma Christi grown on experimental field. All physical and chemical characteristics of the oil including IR-spectra were determined. Operating conditions of castor oil introduction (temperature, solubility, concentra-tion,...

  13. Diesel fuel filtration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, D.

    1996-01-01

    The American nuclear utility industry is subject to tight regulations on the quality of diesel fuel that is stored at nuclear generating stations. This fuel is required to supply safety-related emergency diesel generators--the backup power systems associated with the safe shutdown of reactors. One important parameter being regulated is the level of particulate contamination in the diesel fuel. Carbon particulate is a natural byproduct of aging diesel fuel. Carbon particulate precipitates from the fuel's hydrocarbons, then remains suspended or settles to the bottom of fuel oil storage tanks. If the carbon particulate is not removed, unacceptable levels of particulate contamination will eventually occur. The oil must be discarded or filtered. Having an outside contractor come to the plant to filter the diesel fuel can be costly and time consuming. Time is an even more critical factor if a nuclear plant is in a Limiting Condition of Operation (LCO) situation. A most effective way to reduce both cost and risk is for a utility to build and install its own diesel fuel filtration system. The cost savings associated with designing, fabricating and operating the system inhouse can be significant, and the value of reducing the risk of reactor shutdown because of uncertified diesel fuel may be even higher. This article describes such a fuel filtering system

  14. Diesel fuel stability; Estabilidade de oleo diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Marcelo V.; Pinto, Ricardo R.C. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Zotin, Fatima M.Z. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The demand for the reduction of the pollutants emissions by diesel engines has led to the adoption of more advanced injection systems and concern about fuel stability. The degradation of the diesel fuel can happen during storage and distribution, according to the acid-catalysed condensation of aromatic compounds such phenalenones and indolic nitrogenated heterocyclic compounds. These precursors appear in several streams used in diesel fuel formulation. In this study the sediment formation in model and real, aromatic and paraffinic fuels, containing such precursors naturally or by addition was analysed. The fuels were submitted to accelerated (16 hours at 90 deg C) and long term (13 weeks at 43 deg C) storage stability tests. The model fuels responded positively to the storage stability tests with formation of sediments, concluding that these methods can be considered adequate to verify the occurrence of the studied degradation process. The real fuels response was even more due to their chemical complexity, composition and impurities. The formation of sediments showed to be affected by the hydrocarbon distribution of the fuels. (author)

  15. 40 CFR 80.602 - What records must be kept by entities in the NRLM diesel fuel, ECA marine fuel, and diesel fuel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements... in the NRLM diesel fuel, ECA marine fuel, and diesel fuel additive production, importation, and...

  16. Effect of cetane improver addition into diesel fuel: Methanol mixtures on performance and emissions at different injection pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candan Feyyaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, methanol in ratios of 5-10-15% were incorporated into diesel fuel with the aim of reducing harmful exhaust gasses of Diesel engine, di-tertbutyl peroxide as cetane improver in a ratio of 1% was added into mixture fuels in order to reduce negative effects of methanol on engine performance parameters, and isobutanol of a ratio of 1% was used as additive for preventing phase separation of all mixtures. As results of experiments conducted on a single cylinder and direct injection Diesel engine, methanol caused the increase of NOx emission while reducing CO, HC, CO2, and smoke opacity emissions. It also reduced torque and power values, and increased brake specific fuel consumption values. Cetane improver increased torque and power values slightly compared to methanol-mixed fuels, and reduced brake specific fuel consumption values. It also affected exhaust emission values positively, excluding smoke opacity. Increase of injector injection pressure affected performances of methanol-mixed fuels positively. It also increased injection pressure and NOx emissions, while reducing other exhaust emissions.

  17. Emissions from a Diesel Engine using Fe-based Fuel Additives and a Sintered Metal Filtration System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugarski, Aleksandar D; Hummer, Jon A; Stachulak, Jozef S; Miller, Arthur; Patts, Larry D; Cauda, Emanuele G

    2016-03-01

    A series of laboratory tests were conducted to assess the effects of Fe-containing fuel additives on aerosols emitted by a diesel engine retrofitted with a sintered metal filter (SMF) system. Emission measurements performed upstream and downstream of the SMF system were compared, for cases when the engine was fueled with neat ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) and with ULSD treated with two formulations of additives containing Fe-based catalysts. The effects were assessed for four steady-state engine operating conditions and one transient cycle. The results showed that the SMF system reduced the average total number and surface area concentrations of aerosols by more than 100-fold. The total mass and elemental carbon results confirmed that the SMF system was indeed very effective in the removal of diesel aerosols. When added at the recommended concentrations (30 p.p.m. of iron), the tested additives had minor adverse impacts on the number, surface area, and mass concentrations of filter-out (FOut) aerosols. For one of the test cases, the additives may have contributed to measurable concentrations of engine-out (EOut) nucleation mode aerosols. The additives had only a minor impact on the concentration and size distribution of volatile and semi-volatile FOut aerosols. Metal analysis showed that the introduction of Fe with the additives substantially increased Fe concentration in the EOut, but the SMF system was effective in removal of Fe-containing aerosols. The FOut Fe concentrations for all three tested fuels were found to be much lower than the corresponding EOut Fe concentrations for the case of untreated ULSD fuel. The results support recommendations that these additives should not be used in diesel engines unless they are equipped with exhaust filtration systems. Since the tested SMF system was found to be very efficient in removing Fe introduced by the additives, the use of these additives should not result in a measurable increase in emissions of de novo generated

  18. Effects of antioxidant additives on engine performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine fueled with canola oil methyl ester–diesel blend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    İleri, Erol; Koçar, Günnur

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • BHA, BHT, TBHQ, EHN synthetic antioxidants were employed in the study. • Antioxidant additives are a promising candidate for improving cetane number, oxidation stability and decreasing NO x emissions • Cetane number improving efficiency of the antioxidants was ordered as EHN>BHA>BHT>TBHQ. • Formation of CO emissions has been increased with addition of each of the antioxidants to B20. - Abstract: An experimental investigation has been carried out to analyze the effect of antioxidants on engine performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine fueled with B20 (20 vol.% canola oil methyl ester and 80 vol.% diesel fuel blend). The four synthetic antioxidants, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) and 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN), were tested on a Land Rover turbocharged direct injection (TDI) 110 type diesel engine with water cooled, 4-cycl and 4-cylinder. The addition of antioxidants to B20 did not cause any negative effect on basic fuel properties of B20. According to engine performance test results, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) of B20 with antioxidants decreased compared to those of B20 without antioxidants. A 1000 ppm concentration of TBHQ was optimal as BSFC values were considerably reduced (10.19%) in the whole engine speeds when compared to B20. EHN antioxidant with B20 presented the best mean oxides of nitrogen (NO x ) with a reduction of 4.63%. However, formation of carbon monoxide (CO) emissions has been increased with addition of each of the antioxidants to B20

  19. 40 CFR 80.550 - What is the definition of a motor vehicle diesel fuel small refiner or a NRLM diesel fuel small...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel... vehicle diesel fuel small refiner or a NRLM diesel fuel small refiner under this subpart? (a) A motor...-operational between January 1, 1999, and January 1, 2000, may apply for motor vehicle diesel fuel small...

  20. Influences of Fuel Additive, Crude Palm and Waste Cooking Oil on Emission Characteristics of Small Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Amir; Jaat, Norrizam; Manshoor, Bukhari; Zaman, Izzuddin; Sapit, Azwan; Razali, Azahari; Basharie, Mariam

    2017-08-01

    Major research has been conducted on the use of input products, such as rapeseed, canola, soybean, sunflower oil, waste cooking oil (WCO), crude palm oil (CPO) and crude jatropha oil as alternative fuels. Biodiesel is renewable, biodegradable and oxygenated, where it can be easily adopted by current existing conventional diesel engine without any major modification of the engine. To meet the future performance and emission regulations, is urged to improve the performance and exhaust emissions from biodiesel fuels. Hence, further investigation have been carried out on the emission characteristics of small diesel engine that fuelled by variant blending ratio of WCO and CPO with booster additive. For each of the biodiesel blends ratio from 5 to 15 percent volume which are WCO5, WCO10 and WCO15 for WCO biodiesel and CPO5, CPO10 and CPO15 for CPO biodiesel. The exhaust emissions were measured at engine speeds varied at 2000 rpm and 2500 rpm with different booster additive volume DRA (biodiesel without additive), DRB (0.2 ml) and DRC (0.4 ml). Emissions characteristics that had been measured were Hydrocarbon (HC), Carbon Monoxide (CO), Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Nitrogen Oxide (NOx), and smoke opacity. The results showed that increased of blending ratio with booster additive volume significantly decreased the CO emission, while increased in NOx and CO2 due to changes of fuel characteristics in biodiesel fuel blends.

  1. 40 CFR 80.620 - What are the additional requirements for diesel fuel or distillates produced by foreign...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... audits of the foreign refinery. (i) Inspections and audits may be either announced in advance by EPA, or... diesel fuel or distillate was produced, assurance that the diesel fuel or distillate remained segregated...: (i) Be approved in advance by EPA, based on a demonstration of ability to perform the procedures...

  2. Influence of polymethyl acrylate additive on the formation of particulate matter and NOX emission of a biodiesel-diesel-fueled engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monirul, Islam Mohammad; Masjuki, Haji Hassan; Kalam, Mohammad Abdul; Zulkifli, Nurin Wahidah Mohd; Shancita, Islam

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the polymethyl acrylate (PMA) additive on the formation of particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxide (NO X ) emission from a diesel coconut and/or Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel-fueled engine. The physicochemical properties of 20% of coconut and/or C. inophyllum biodiesel-diesel blend (B20), 0.03 wt% of PMA with B20 (B20P), and diesel fuel were measured and compared to ASTM D6751, D7467, and EN 14214 standard. The test results showed that the addition of PMA additive with B20 significantly improves the cold-flow properties such as pour point (PP), cloud point (CP), and cold filter plugging point (CFPP). The addition of PMA additives reduced the engine's brake-specific energy consumption of all tested fuels. Engine emission results showed that the additive-added fuel reduce PM concentration than B20 and diesel, whereas the PM size and NO X emission both increased than B20 fuel and baseline diesel fuel. Also, the effect of adding PMA into B20 reduced Carbon (C), Aluminum (Al), Potassium (K), and volatile materials in the soot, whereas it increased Oxygen (O), Fluorine (F), Zinc (Zn), Barium (Ba), Chlorine (Cl), Sodium (Na), and fixed carbon. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) results for B20P showed the lower agglomeration than B20 and diesel fuel. Therefore, B20P fuel can be used as an alternative to diesel fuel in diesel engines to lower the harmful emissions without compromising the fuel quality.

  3. 40 CFR 80.581 - What are the batch testing and sample retention requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... retention requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel fuel, and ECA marine fuel? 80.581 Section...) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel... requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel fuel, and ECA marine fuel? (a) Beginning on June 1...

  4. A potential study on clove oil, eugenol and eugenyl acetate as diesel fuel bio-additives and their performance on one cylinder engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kadarohman

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Research on the potency of essential oils as diesel fuel bio-additives has been reported. It also has been found out that clove oil has a better performance than turpentine oil on decreasing Break Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC and reduces the exhaust emissions of the engine. Clove oil is essential oil the content of which is made of eugenol acting as the main component. Eugenol has a bulky structure, two oxygen atoms and can form eugenyl acetate from ester reaction. Eugenyl acetate has a bulkier structure and higher oxygen content than eugenol which leads to optimizing the process of fuel combustion. This experiment can give information about the potency of the bio-additive based on clove oil and eugenol and about the influence of oxygen enrichment with eugenol on the performance of the diesel fuel bio-additive. In general, this experiment covered three stages. The first step is the characterization of the diesel fuel bio-additive using a GCMS and FTIR spectrophotometer. The second step is the characterization of the diesel fuel bio-additive and composition optimization. The final step is conducting a diesel fuel bio-additive performance test on one cylinder engine on a laboratory scale. The results of the carried out experiment show that clove oil, eugenol and eugenyl acetate can decrease Break Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC and reduce the exhaust emissions of the engine as well as oxygen enrichment can help in reaching optimal fuel combustion.

  5. Effect of Biodiesel of Spent Cooking Oil Addition at Diesel Fuel to Opacity and Gas Emission Throw Away of CO, CO2 and HC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setyadji, Moch; Endang Susiantini

    2007-01-01

    Investigation of biodiesel spent cooking oil addition effect at diesel fuel to opacity and gas emission throw away on various engine rotation speed has been done. The variables observed were fuel specific used i.e. pure diesel fuel, biodiesel mix 5% (B5), mix 10% (B10), mix 15% (B15), mix 20% (B20) and engine rotation speed. Gas emission throw away observed were CO, CO 2 , HC and opacity. Opacity and gas emission throwaway were observed by Opacity Sagem apparatus and gas analyzer. Result of experiment showed that biodiesel addition at diesel fuel was very decreasing opacity and gas emission throw away. The opacity lowest on B20, gas emission throw away lowest of CO on B10, CO 2 on B10 and HC on B20. (author)

  6. On the potential of absorption and reactive adsorption for desulfurization of ultra low-sulfur commercial diesel in the liquid phase in the presence of fuel additive and bio-diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieterse, J.A.Z.; Van Eijk, S.; Van Dijk, H.A.J.; Van den Brink, R.W. [Energy research Center of the Netherlands, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2011-03-15

    Sorption of sulfur components in the liquid phase was used to desulfurize ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) to below 1 ppmw S. Several concepts of sorption were considered by using both physisorption and chemisorption materials and conditions. Adsorption assisted by reaction with Ni sorbent was found to be most successful. Using a pre-commercial diesel representing a mature diesel on all aspects except for the absence of fuel stabilizers and bio-diesel, a sulfur breakthrough capacity of 2 mg S/g could be achieved using a Ni-sorbent at an acceptable LHSV of 0.7 h{sup -1} on average. However, successive experiments indicated that the desulfurization capacity depended strongly on the presence of fuel-additive and bio-diesel in commercial ULSD. The presence of the cetane improver 2-ethylhexylnitrate (2EHN) was shown to decrease the sulfur capacity by roughly 50%. The presence of bio-diesel (fatty acid methyl ester, abbreviated to FAME) was shown to completely disable the desulfurization process. This was confirmed by comparing BP Ultimate diesel with FAME (obtained in 2008) and without FAME (obtained in 2006). From this evaluation it turned out that the targeted breakthrough capacity of 1 mg S/g sorbent was within reach for commercial ULSD until late 2006 when adding bio-diesel to ULSD became common practice in Europe. Several attempts to remove the additives prior to desulfurization by using copper loaded zeolites, active carbon and silica gel proved unsuccessful to bring the sulfur adsorption capacity for current diesel to the level observed for 2EHN and FAME-free diesel. It is concluded that sorption in the liquid phase does not yet represent a viable desulfurization technology for ultra-low sulfur diesel.

  7. Influence of Advanced Injection Timing and Fuel Additive on Combustion, Performance, and Emission Characteristics of a DI Diesel Engine Running on Plastic Pyrolysis Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Kalargaris

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the investigation of engine optimisation when plastic pyrolysis oil (PPO is used as the primary fuel of a direct injection diesel engine. Our previous investigation revealed that PPO is a promising fuel; however the results suggested that control parameters should be optimised in order to obtain a better engine performance. In the present work, the injection timing was advanced, and fuel additives were utilised to overcome the issues experienced in the previous work. In addition, spray characteristics of PPO were investigated in comparison with diesel to provide in-depth understanding of the engine behaviour. The experimental results on advanced injection timing (AIT showed reduced brake thermal efficiency and increased carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides emissions in comparison to standard injection timing. On the other hand, the addition of fuel additive resulted in higher engine efficiency and lower exhaust emissions. Finally, the spray tests revealed that the spray tip penetration for PPO is faster than diesel. The results suggested that AIT is not a preferable option while fuel additive is a promising solution for long-term use of PPO in diesel engines.

  8. 40 CFR 80.512 - May an importer treat diesel fuel as blendstock?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive... fuel under §§ 80.593, 80.601, and 80.604. (4) If previously designated motor vehicle diesel fuel having... redesignate all the diesel fuel as 500 ppm sulfur motor vehicle diesel fuel for purposes of the temporary...

  9. Pyrolysis oil as diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gros, S [Wartsila Diesel International Ltd., Vaasa (Finland). Diesel Technology

    1997-12-31

    Wood waste pyrolysis oil is an attractive fuel alternative for diesel engine operation. The main benefit is the sustainability of the fuel. No fossil reserves are consumed. The fact that wood waste pyrolysis oil does not contribute to CO{sub 2} emissions is of utmost importance. This means that power plants utilising pyrolysis oil do not cause additional global warming. Equally important is the reduced sulphur emissions that this fuel alternative implies. The sulphur content of pyrolysis oil is extremely low. The high water content and low heating value are also expected to result in very low NO{sub x} emissions. Utilisation of wood waste pyrolysis oil in diesel engines, however, involves a lot of challenges and problems to be solved. The low heating value requires a new injection system with high capacity. The corrosive characteristics of the fluid also underline the need for new injection equipment materials. Wood waste pyrolysis oil contains solid particles which can clog filters and cause abrasive wear. Wood waste pyrolysis oil has proven to have extremely bad ignition properties. The development of a reliable injection system which is able to cope with such a fuel involves a lot of optimisation tests, redesign and innovative solutions. Successful single-cylinder tests have already been performed and they have verified that diesel operation on wood pyrolysis oil is technically possible. (orig.)

  10. Pyrolysis oil as diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gros, S. [Wartsila Diesel International Ltd., Vaasa (Finland). Diesel Technology

    1996-12-31

    Wood waste pyrolysis oil is an attractive fuel alternative for diesel engine operation. The main benefit is the sustainability of the fuel. No fossil reserves are consumed. The fact that wood waste pyrolysis oil does not contribute to CO{sub 2} emissions is of utmost importance. This means that power plants utilising pyrolysis oil do not cause additional global warming. Equally important is the reduced sulphur emissions that this fuel alternative implies. The sulphur content of pyrolysis oil is extremely low. The high water content and low heating value are also expected to result in very low NO{sub x} emissions. Utilisation of wood waste pyrolysis oil in diesel engines, however, involves a lot of challenges and problems to be solved. The low heating value requires a new injection system with high capacity. The corrosive characteristics of the fluid also underline the need for new injection equipment materials. Wood waste pyrolysis oil contains solid particles which can clog filters and cause abrasive wear. Wood waste pyrolysis oil has proven to have extremely bad ignition properties. The development of a reliable injection system which is able to cope with such a fuel involves a lot of optimisation tests, redesign and innovative solutions. Successful single-cylinder tests have already been performed and they have verified that diesel operation on wood pyrolysis oil is technically possible. (orig.)

  11. Transcriptome Changes in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) Induced by Exposure to Diesel Emissions Generated with CeO2 Nanoparticle Fuel Additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    When cerium oxide nanoparticles are added to diesel fuel, fuel burning efficiency increases, producing emissions (DECe) with characteristics that differ from conventional diesel exhaust (DE). It has previously been shown that DECe induces more adverse pulmonary effects in rats on...

  12. 40 CFR 80.610 - What acts are prohibited under the diesel fuel sulfur program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel... supply, store or transport motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel fuel, ECA marine fuel or heating oil... transport any diesel fuel for use in motor vehicle or nonroad engines that contains greater than 0.10...

  13. EMISSION REDUCTION FROM A DIESEL ENGINE FUELED BY CERIUM OXIDE NANO-ADDITIVES USING SCR WITH DIFFERENT METAL OXIDES COATED CATALYTIC CONVERTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. JOTHI THIRUMAL

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of experimental investigations on the influence of the addition of cerium oxide in nanoparticle form on the major physiochemical properties and the performance of diesel. The fuel is modified by dispersing the catalytic nanoparticle by ultrasonic agitation. The physiochemical properties of sole diesel fuel and modified fuel are tested with ASTM standard procedures. The effects of the additive nanoparticles on the individual fuel properties, the engine performance, and emissions are studied, and the dosing level of the additive is optimized. Cerium oxide acts as an oxygen-donating catalyst and provides oxygen for the oxidation of CO during combustion. The active energy of cerium oxide acts to burn off carbon deposits within the engine cylinder at the wall temperature and prevents the deposition of non-polar compounds on the cylinder wall which results in reduction in HC emission by 56.5%. Furthermore, a low-cost metal oxide coated SCR (selective catalyst reduction, using urea as a reducing agent, along with different types of CC (catalytic converter, has been implemented in the exhaust pipe to reduce NOx. It was observed that a reduction in NOx emission is 50–60%. The tests revealed that cerium oxide nanoparticles can be used as an additive in diesel to improve complete combustion of the fuel and reduce the exhaust emissions significantly.

  14. Influence of anti-corrosion additive on the performance, emission and engine component wear characteristics of an IDI diesel engine fueled with palm biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraful, A.M.; Masjuki, H.H.; Kalam, M.A.; Rashedul, H.K.; Sajjad, H.; Abedin, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Maximum engine performance was obtained at 2000 rpm for all fuel blends. • IRGALUBE 349 additive is enhances diesel engine performance. • Reduction of CO and NOx considerably using anti-corrosion additive except HC. • Engine wear decreases with using blended fuels with anti-corrosion additive. - Abstract: This study evaluates the effect of anti-corrosion additives such as 8% and 16% (vol.%) palm olein oil (PO) with ordinary diesel (OD) fuel on engine operation, emission behavior, engine part wear, and lubrication characteristics. This experiment was conducted on 4-cylinder and 4-stroke IDI diesel engine at different engine speed ranging from 1200 to 2800 RPM with 30% throttle setting under full load condition. The properties of the palm olein oil blends meet the ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 standards. At 2000 rpm, the experimental results revealed that the POD8A (0.2% Additive + 8% PO + 92% OD) and POD16A (0.2% Additive + 16% PO + 84% OD) blended fuels produced 0.5% and 0.51% higher brake power as well as 1.45% and 1.25% higher torque than same blends without additive, respectively. In comparison with ODF, the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) was found 1.8% and 3.1% higher for POD8A and POD16A blends, respectively. Anti-corrosion additive is found more effectual in enhancing the engine performance as such additive helps in timely ignition for complete burn in the combustion chamber. The results from engine emission indicated that POD8A and POD16A blended fuel reduced CO emissions by 11% and 6.6% and NOx emission by 2.5% and 1.09%, respectively in compared with OD fuel. Although HC emissions for all blended fuel and OD fuel increased at higher engine speed, the average HC emissions of all blended fuel were not higher than OD fuel. The application of anti-corrosion additives in POD blends reduced ferrous (Fe) wear debris concentration (WBC) by 17.3%. The reductions in WBC were about 16.1%, 10.8%, and 19.3%, 17.6% for copper (Cu) and aluminum

  15. Impacts of NOx reducing antioxidant additive on performance and emissions of a multi-cylinder diesel engine fueled with Jatropha biodiesel blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palash, S.M.; Kalam, M.A.; Masjuki, H.H.; Arbab, M.I.; Masum, B.M.; Sanjid, A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Environmental benefits of JB blends were found but adverse impact on NO x . • Addition of 0.15% (m) DPPD in JB20, average reduction in NO up to 16.54%. • In some cases, engine power is reduced with DPPD additive. • Emissions of HC and CO for JB blends with DPPD were lower compared to diesel. • Addition of DPPD in JB blends reduction of EGT was found. - Abstract: Energy requirements are increasing rapidly due to fast industrialization and the increased number of vehicles on the road. The use of biodiesel in diesel engines instead of diesel results in the proven reduction of harmful exhaust emissions. However, most researchers have reported that they produce higher NO x emissions compared to diesel, which is a deterrent to the expansion of the market for these fuels. Several proposed pathways try to account for NO x formation during the combustion process. Among them, the Fenimore mechanism explains that fuel radicals formed during the combustion process react with nitrogen from the air to form NO x . It could be proposed that if these radical reactions could be terminated, the NO x formation rate for biodiesel combustion would decrease. An experimental study was conducted on a four-cylinder diesel engine to evaluate the performance and emission characteristics of Jatropha biodiesel blends (JB5, JB10, JB15 and JB20) with and without the addition of N,N′-diphenyl-1,4-phenylenediamine (DPPD) antioxidant. For each tested fuel, the engine performance and emissions were measured at engine speeds 1000–4000 rpm at an interval of 500 rpm under the full throttle condition. The results showed that this antioxidant additive could reduce NO x emissions significantly with a slight penalty in terms of engine power and Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) as well as CO and HC emissions. However, when compared to diesel combustion, the emissions of HC and CO with the addition of the DPPD additive were found to be nearly the same or lower. By the

  16. Influence of diesel fuel on seed germination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, Gillian; Duncan, Harry

    2002-01-01

    The volatile fraction of diesel fuel played a major role in delaying seed emergence and reducing percentage germination. - The use of plant-based systems to remediate contaminated soils has become an area of intense scientific study in recent years and it is apparent that plants which grow well in contaminated soils need to be identified and screened for use in phytoremediation technologies. This study investigated the effect of diesel fuel on germination of selected plant species. Germination response varied greatly with plant species and was species specific, as members of the same plant family showed differential sensitivity to diesel fuel contamination. Differences were also seen within plant subspecies. At relatively low levels of diesel fuel contamination, delayed seed emergence and reduced percentage germination was observed for the majority of plant species investigated. Results suggest the volatile fraction of diesel fuel played an influential role in delaying seed emergence and reducing percentage germination. In addition, the remaining diesel fuel in the soil added to this inhibitory effect on germination by physically impeding water and oxygen transfer between the seed and the surrounding soil environment, thus hindering the germination response

  17. Optimization of Biodiesel-Diesel Blended Fuel Properties and Engine Performance with Ether Additive Using Statistical Analysis and Response Surface Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obed M. Ali

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the fuel properties and engine performance of blended palm biodiesel-diesel using diethyl ether as additive have been investigated. The properties of B30 blended palm biodiesel-diesel fuel were measured and analyzed statistically with the addition of 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% (by volume diethyl ether additive. The engine tests were conducted at increasing engine speeds from 1500 rpm to 3500 rpm and under constant load. Optimization of independent variables was performed using the desirability approach of the response surface methodology (RSM with the goal of minimizing emissions and maximizing performance parameters. The experiments were designed using a statistical tool known as design of experiments (DoE based on RSM.

  18. ALTERNATIVE FUELS FOR DIESEL ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Caban

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development and genesis of the use of alternative fuels in internal combustion ignition engines. Based on the analysis of the literature, this article shows various alternative fuels used in Poland and all over the world. Furthermore, this article describes the research directions for alternative fuels use in road transport powered by diesel engines.

  19. Bio diesel- the Clean, Green Fuel for Diesel Engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkareish, S.M.M.

    2004-01-01

    Natural, renewable resources such as vegetable oils, animal fats and recycled restaurant greases can be chemically transformed into clean burning bio diesel fuels (1). Just like petroleum diesel, bio diesel operates in combustion-ignition engines. Blends of up to 20% bio diesel (mixed with petroleum diesel fuels) can be used in nearly all diesel equipment and are compatible with most storage and distribution equipment. Using bio diesel in a conventional diesel engine substantially reduces emissions of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, sulphates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and particulate matter. The use of bio diesel has grown dramatically during the last few years. Egypt has a promising experiment in promoting forestation by cultivation of Jatropha plant especially in luxor and many other sites of the country. The first production of the Egyptian Jatropha seeds oil is now under evaluation to produce a cost-competitive bio diesel fuel

  20. 40 CFR 80.607 - What are the requirements for obtaining an exemption for diesel fuel or ECA marine fuel used for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive... fuel will be segregated from motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel fuel, or ECA marine fuel, as... documents associated with research and development motor vehicle diesel fuel must comply with requirements...

  1. Synthesis of Glycerol Based Fuel Additives to Reduce NOx Emissions from Diesel Engines Operated on Diesel and Biodiesel fuels by SNCR

    OpenAIRE

    Tanugula, Shravan Kumar

    2010-01-01

    The demand for energy around the world is dramatically increasing due to the constant growth in industry and the transportation of the industrially produced goods. In view of growing energy demand without irreparably damaging the environment is of the most primary concern. With the rising fuel prices and environmental concern and the new laws imposed by the government to reduce emissions, alternative fuels could fill in the gap of satisfying the need of renewable energy with low environmental...

  2. Performance, combustion, and emission characteristics of a diesel engine fueled by biodiesel-diesel mixtures with multi-walled carbon nanotubes additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Seesy, Ahmed I.; Abdel-Rahman, Ali K.; Bady, Mahmoud; Ookawara, S.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Considerable improvements in the combustion of JB20D50MWCNTs compared to pure JB20D. • p_m_a_x, dp/dθ_m_a_x and dQg/dθ_m_a_x increased by 7%, 4% and 4%, respectively. • Brake specific fuel consumption decreased by 15%. • NO_x, CO, and UHC reduced by 35%, 50%, and 60%, respectively. • Significant enhancement in all engine performance was achieved at a concentration of 40 mg/l. - Abstract: In this work, the effects of adding Multi-Walled Carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) to Jojoba methyl ester-diesel blended fuel (JB20D) on performance, combustion and emissions characteristics of a compression-ignition engine were experimentally investigated. The JB20D with 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mg/l of MWCNTs were examined at different engine loads and speeds. Compared to pure diesel, the use of JB20D without MWCNTs caused a slight decrease in the engine performance and an increase in the engine emissions at most examined conditions. The MWCNTs–B20D blended fuel attained a maximum increase of 16% in the brake thermal efficiency and a decrease of 15% in the brake specific fuel consumption at the dose level of 50 mg/l compared to JB20D. The MWCNTs-JB20D blended fuel also brought about an enhancement in combustion characteristics where the peak cylinder pressure, the maximum rate of pressure rise and the peak heat release rate were increased by 7%, 4%, and 4%, respectively, at the same dose level. According to the measured emissions, a significant reduction of engine emissions was achieved at the dose level of 20 mg/l, where NO_x, CO, and UHC were reduced by 35%, 50%, and 60%, respectively. According to the obtained results, the recommended concentration of MWCNTs in JB20D was concluded to be 40 mg/l, which could give significant improvements in overall the parameters of engine performance and emissions with a good balance between them.

  3. 40 CFR 80.524 - What sulfur content standard applies to motor vehicle diesel fuel downstream of the refinery or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to motor vehicle diesel fuel downstream of the refinery or importer? 80.524 Section 80.524 Protection... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel Standards and Requirements § 80.524 What sulfur content standard...

  4. 40 CFR 80.536 - How are NRLM diesel fuel credits used and transferred?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Temporary Compliance Option § 80.536 How... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are NRLM diesel fuel credits used...

  5. Lignocellulosic Biobutanol as Fuel for Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Pexa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy recovery of lignocellulosic waste material in the form of liquid fractions can yield alcohol-based fuels such as bioethanol or biobutanol. This study examined biobutanol derived from lignocellulosic material that was then used as an additive for diesel engines. Biobutanol was used in fuel mixtures with fatty acid methyl ester (FAME obtained by esterification of animal fat (also a waste material in the amounts of 10%, 30%, and 50% butanol. 100% diesel and 100% FAME were used as reference fuels. The evaluation concerned the fuel’s effect on the external speed characteristics, harmful exhaust emissions, and fuel consumption while using the Non-Road Steady Cycle test. When the percentage of butanol was increased, the torque and the power decreased and the brake specific fuel consumption increased. The main advantage of using biobutanol in fuel was its positive effect on reducing the fuel’s viscosity.

  6. Hydrodesulfurization device for diesel fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Asadi, Nadija

    2004-01-01

    New gas oil hydrodesulfurization unit was erected in OKTA Refinery. This unit is meant to produce low sulfur diesel. Capacity of the unit s 363.000 tons. Actually unit is producing diesel fuel with sulfur content of 0.035% wt, with possibility of decreasing sulfur content up to 0.005% wt. With this possibility OKTA reaches the target to supply market with diesel fuel satisfying local, and European fuel specifications. Feedstock for this unit are two gas oil fractions from the Crude oil atmospheric distillation column. As a result of new generation of CoMo and NiMo catalysts performance, high degree of desulfurization is reached at lower temperatures. Milder conditions enables longer operating period between two regenerations, savings of fuel, power etc. With further investments, and practically without changes, the unit will be able of producing diesel with sulfur content of 50 ppm and later with upgrading, 10 ppm. This means that OKTA has solved diesel quality problem for longer period. (Author)

  7. Heavy-Duty Diesel Fuel Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's heavy-duty diesel fuel analysis program sought to quantify the hydrocarbon, NOx, and PM emission effects of diesel fuel parameters (such as cetane number, aromatics content, and fuel density) on various nonroad and highway heavy-duty diesel engines.

  8. 40 CFR 80.570 - What labeling requirements apply to retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers of diesel fuel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA..., motor vehicle diesel fuel subject to the 15 ppm sulfur standard of § 80.520(a)(1), must affix the... dispensing, motor vehicle diesel fuel subject to the 500 ppm sulfur standard of § 80.520(c), must prominently...

  9. 40 CFR 80.531 - How are motor vehicle diesel fuel credits generated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are motor vehicle diesel fuel... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel... are motor vehicle diesel fuel credits generated? (a) Generation of credits from June 1, 2006 through...

  10. 40 CFR 80.535 - How are NRLM diesel fuel credits generated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive... the standards of § 80.510(a) or (b). V520 = The total volume of motor vehicle diesel fuel produced or... generated by both a foreign refiner and by an importer for the same motor vehicle diesel fuel. (iii) Credits...

  11. Bio-diesel fuels production: Feasibility studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabasso, L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews the efforts being made by Italy's national government and private industry to develop diesel engine fuels derived from vegetable oils, in particular, sunflower seed oil. These fuels are being promoted in Italy from the environmental protection stand-point in that they don't contain any sulfur, the main cause of acid rain, and from the agricultural stand-point in that they provide Italian farmers, whose food crop production capacity is limited due to European Communities agreements, with the opportunity to use their set-aside land for the production of energy crops. This paper provides brief notes on the key performance characteristics of bio-diesel fuels, whose application doesn't require any modifications to diesel engines, apart from minor adjustments to the air/fuel mix regulating system, and assesses commercialization prospects. Brief mention is made of the problems being encountered by the Government in the establishing fair bio-fuel production tax rebates which are compatible with the marketing practices of the petroleum industry. One of the strategies being considered is to use the bio-fuels as additives to be mixed with conventional fuel oils so as to derive a fuel which meets the new European air pollution standards

  12. MEA and DEE as additives on diesel engine using waste plastic oil diesel blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pappula Bridjesh

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Waste plastic oil (WPO is a standout amongst the most promising alternative fuels for diesel in view of most of its properties similar to diesel. The challenges of waste management and increasing fuel crisis can be addressed while with the production of fuel from plastic wastes. This experimental investigation is an endeavour to supplant diesel at least by 50% with waste plastic oil alongside 2-methoxy ethyl acetate (MEA and diethyl ether (DEE as additives. Test fuels considered in this study are WPO, 50D50W (50%Diesel + 50%WPO, 50D40W10MEA (50%Diesel + 40%WPO + 10%MEA and 50D40W10DEE (50%Diesel + 40%WPO + 10%DEE. The test results are compared with diesel. An increase in brake thermal efficiency and abatement in brake specific fuel consumption are seen with 50D40W10MEA, as well as reduction in hydro carbon, carbon monoxide and smoke emissions. 50D40W10DEE showed reduced NOx emission whereas 50D40W10MEA has almost no impact. Engine performance and emission characteristics under different loads for different test fuels are discussed. Keywords: 2-Methoxy ethyl acetate, Diethyl ether, Waste plastic oil, Pyrolysis

  13. Lubricity Additives and Wear with DME in Diesel Injection Pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kasper; Sorenson, Spencer C.

    1999-01-01

    In recent years it has been demonstrated that Dimethyl Ether (DME) possess many characteristics that could make it a successful alternative to diesel in the next century. High wear of the fuel injection system has been reported. This is caused by lack of natural protective constituents of Dimethyl...... wear of standard diesel jerk pump plungers elements were made with weight measurements, diameter measurements, 2-D and 3-D surface roughness measurements, and photography by a Michelson interferometer. Several lubricity additives were tested, but none reduced wear levels to those for diesel fuel...

  14. 40 CFR 80.532 - How are motor vehicle diesel fuel credits used and transferred?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are motor vehicle diesel fuel... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel....532 How are motor vehicle diesel fuel credits used and transferred? (a) Credit use stipulations. Motor...

  15. Performance of bio fuels in diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez I, Manuel L; Prada V, Laura P

    2007-01-01

    This paper shows the preliminary results of pilot plant tests developed in oil catalytic hydrotreating process, where the crude palm oil or a mixture of crude palm oil and mineral diesel is treated with an injection of 99% pure hydrogen flux, in a fixed bed reactor at high pressures and temperatures, in a presence of Nickel Molybdenum catalyst supported on alumina bed. The main product of this process is a fuel (bio diesel) which has the same or better properties than the diesel obtained by petroleum refining. It has been made some performance fuel tests in diesel engine? with good results in terms of power, torque and fuel consumption, without any changes in engine configuration. Considering the characteristics of the Catalytic hydrotreated bio diesel compare to conventional diesel, both fuels have similar distillation range? however, bio diesel has better flash point, cetane index and thermal stability. Gas fuels (methane, ethane, and propane) CO 2 and water are the secondary products of the process.

  16. Isoprenoid based alternative diesel fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Taek Soon; Peralta-Yahya, Pamela; Keasling, Jay D.

    2015-08-18

    Fuel compositions are provided comprising a hydrogenation product of a monocyclic sesquiterpene (e.g., hydrogenated bisabolene) and a fuel additive. Methods of making and using the fuel compositions are also disclosed. ##STR00001##

  17. 40 CFR 79.33 - Motor vehicle diesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle diesel fuel. 79.33... diesel fuel. (a) The following fuels commonly or commercially known or sold as motor vehicle diesel fuel are hereby individually designated: (1) Motor vehicle diesel fuel, grade 1-D; (2) Motor vehicle diesel...

  18. Evaluation Tests of Select Fuel Additives for Potential Use in U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Feasibility of Using Biodiesel Additives.” The technical monitor was Dr. Todd Bridges (CEERD- EM-D). The work was performed by the Coastal Engineering...analysis, quality assurance and control, and reporting was managed by Southern Research Institute’s Advanced Energy and Transportation Technologies...candidate conditions. The calculations were based on BTU contents found on the GREET Transportation Fuel Cycle Analyses Model (Argone National

  19. Effects of diesel fuel additives on engine performance and reliability. Part 2. Effects of lubricity additives; Keiyu tenkazai ga engine seino oyobi shinraisei ni ataeru eikyo. 2. Junkatsusei kojo ni yoru eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsudaira, J; Okada, M; Naruse, H [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Many studies about the effects of lublicity additives for diesel fuel have been carried out and reported. These additives have already been used in Europe, north-America for couple of years and it has just started in Japanese market this July. This paper mainly describes the effects of lublicity additives on engine performance and reliability. At first, the effects on engine reliability were investigated during 30 thousand kms chasis dynamometer test. Secondary, the effects on piston ring corrosion, injection nozzle fouling and water separation were investigated. Furthermore, 70 thousand kms engine reliability test was conducted, and investigated some component parts. 2 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. 40 CFR 80.511 - What are the per-gallon and marker requirements that apply to NRLM diesel fuel, ECA marine fuel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel General Information § 80.511 What are the per-gallon and... requirements that apply to NRLM diesel fuel, ECA marine fuel, and heating oil downstream of the refiner or...

  1. EFFECTS OF ETHANOL BLENDED DIESEL FUEL ON EXHAUST EMISSIONS FROM A DIESEL ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özer CAN

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Diesel engine emissions can be improved by adding organic oxygenated compounds to the No. 2 diesel fuel. In this study, effects of 10 % and 15 % (in volume ethanol addition to Diesel No. 2 on exhaust emissions from an indirect injection turbocharged diesel engine running at different engine speeds and loads were investigated. Experimental results showed that the ethanol addition reduced CO, soot and SO2 emissions, although it caused some increase in NOx emission and some power reductions due to lower heating value of ethanol. Improvements on emissions were more significant at full load rather than at partial loads.

  2. Using of cotton oil soapstock biodiesel-diesel fuel blends as an alternative diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keskin, Ali [Technical Education Faculty, Mersin University, 33500 Mersin (Turkey); Guerue, Metin [Engineering and Architectural Faculty, Gazi University, 06570 Maltepe, Ankara (Turkey); Altiparmak, Duran [Technical Education Faculty, Gazi University, 06500 Ankara (Turkey); Aydin, Kadir [Engineering and Architectural Faculty, Cukurova University, 01330 Adana (Turkey)

    2008-04-15

    In this study, usability of cotton oil soapstock biodiesel-diesel fuel blends as an alternative fuel for diesel engines were studied. Biodiesel was produced by reacting cotton oil soapstock with methyl alcohol at determined optimum condition. The cotton oil biodiesel-diesel fuel blends were tested in a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine. Engine performances and smoke value were measured at full load condition. Torque and power output of the engine with cotton oil soapstock biodiesel-diesel fuel blends decreased by 5.8% and 6.2%, respectively. Specific fuel consumption of engine with cotton oil soapstock-diesel fuel blends increased up to 10.5%. At maximum torque speeds, smoke level of engine with blend fuels decreased up to 46.6%, depending on the amount of biodiesel. These results were compared with diesel fuel values. (author)

  3. Using of cotton oil soapstock biodiesel-diesel fuel blends as an alternative diesel fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keskin, Ali; Guerue, Metin; Altiparmak, Duran; Aydin, Kadir

    2008-01-01

    In this study, usability of cotton oil soapstock biodiesel-diesel fuel blends as an alternative fuel for diesel engines were studied. Biodiesel was produced by reacting cotton oil soapstock with methyl alcohol at determined optimum condition. The cotton oil biodiesel-diesel fuel blends were tested in a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine. Engine performances and smoke value were measured at full load condition. Torque and power output of the engine with cotton oil soapstock biodiesel-diesel fuel blends decreased by 5.8% and 6.2%, respectively. Specific fuel consumption of engine with cotton oil soapstock-diesel fuel blends increased up to 10.5%. At maximum torque speeds, smoke level of engine with blend fuels decreased up to 46.6%, depending on the amount of biodiesel. These results were compared with diesel fuel values. (author)

  4. 40 CFR 80.603 - What are the pre-compliance reporting requirements for NRLM diesel fuel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for NRLM diesel fuel? 80.603 Section 80.603 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Recordkeeping and Reporting...

  5. Impact of fuels on diesel exhaust emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westerholm, R.

    1991-09-01

    This report presents an investigation of the emissions from eight diesel fuels with different sulphur and aromatic content. A bus and a truck were used in the investigation. Chemical analysis and biological testing have been performed. The aim of this project was to find a 'good' diesel fuel which can be used in urban areas. Seven of the fuels were meant to be such fuels. It has been confirmed in this study that there exists a quantifiable relationship between the variables of the diesel fuel blends and the variables of the chemical emissions and their biological effects. 119 figs., 12 tabs., approx. 100 refs

  6. Effects of ethylene glycol ethers on diesel fuel properties and emissions in a diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Cuenca, F.; Gomez-Marin, M. [Compania Logistica de Hidrocarburos (CLH), Central Laboratory, Mendez Alvaro 44, 28045 Madrid (Spain); Folgueras-Diaz, M.B., E-mail: belenfd@uniovi.es [Department of Energy, University of Oviedo, Independencia 13, 33004 Oviedo (Spain)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Effect of ethylene glycol ethers on diesel fuel properties. {yields} Effect of ethylene glycol ethers on diesel engine specific consumption and emissions. {yields} Blends with {<=}4 wt.% of oxygen do not change substantially diesel fuel quality. {yields} Blends with 1 and 2.5 wt.% of oxygen reduce CO and HC emissions, but not smoke. - Abstract: The effect of ethylene glycol ethers on both the diesel fuel characteristics and the exhaust emissions (CO, NO{sub x}, smoke and hydrocarbons) from a diesel engine was studied. The ethers used were monoethylene glycol ethyl ether (EGEE), monoethylene glycol butyl ether (EGBE), diethylene glycol ethyl ether (DEGEE). The above effect was studied in two forms: first by determining the modification of base diesel fuel properties by using blends with oxygen concentration around 4 wt.%, and second by determining the emission reductions for blends with low oxygen content (1 wt.%) and with 2.5 wt.% of oxygen content. The addition of DEGEE enhances base diesel fuel cetane number, but EGEE and EGBE decrease it. For concentrations of {>=}4 wt.% of oxygen, EGEE and diesel fuel can show immiscibility problems at low temperatures ({<=}0 {sup o}C). Also, every oxygenated compound, according to its boiling point, modifies the distillation curve at low temperatures and the distillate percentage increases. These compounds have a positive effect on diesel fuel lubricity, and slightly decrease its viscosity. Blends with 1 and 2.5 wt.% oxygen concentrations were used in order to determine their influence on emissions at both full and medium loads and different engine speeds. Generally, all compounds help to reduce CO, and hydrocarbon emissions, but not smoke. The best results were obtained for blends with 2.5 wt.% of oxygen. At this concentration, the additive efficiency in decreasing order was EGEE > DEGEE > EGBE for CO emissions and DGEE > EGEE > EGBE for hydrocarbon emissions. For NO{sub x}, both its behaviour and the

  7. Experimental study on combustion and emission characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with 2,5-dimethylfuran–diesel, n-butanol–diesel and gasoline–diesel blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Guisheng; Shen, Yinggang; Zhang, Quanchang; Yao, Mingfa; Zheng, Zunqing; Liu, Haifeng

    2013-01-01

    In the paper, combustion and emissions of a multi-cylinder CI (compression-ignition) engine fueled with DMF–diesel, n-butanol–diesel and gasoline–diesel blends were experimentally investigated, and fuel characteristics of DMF, n-butanol and gasoline were compared. Diesel was used as the base fuel. And 30% of DMF, n-butanol and gasoline were blended with the base fuel by volume respectively, referred to as D30, B30 and G30. Results show that compared to B30 and G30, D30 has longer ignition delay because of lower cetane number, which leads to faster burning rate and higher pressure rise rate. With increasing EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) rate, D30 gets the lowest soot emissions, and extended ignition delay and fuel oxygen are two key factors reducing soot emissions, and ignition delay has greater effects than fuel oxygen on soot reduction. In addition, D30 and B30 improve the trade-off of NO x -soot remarkably and extend low-emission region without deteriorating fuel efficiency by utilizing medium EGR rates ( x , THC and CO emissions and BSFC, but reduce soot greatly. • Fuel oxygen is more efficient than air oxygen while ignition delay has greater effects than fuel oxygen to reduce soot. • As diesel additive, DMF is superior to n-butanol and gasoline for reducing soot emissions. • Using DMF–diesel blends combined with medium EGR may be a better way to meet future emission standards

  8. 40 CFR 80.530 - Under what conditions can 500 ppm motor vehicle diesel fuel be produced or imported after May 31...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... motor vehicle diesel fuel be produced or imported after May 31, 2006? 80.530 Section 80.530 Protection... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Temporary Compliance Option § 80.530 Under what conditions can 500 ppm motor vehicle diesel...

  9. 40 CFR 80.593 - What are the reporting requirements for refiners and importers of motor vehicle diesel fuel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for refiners and importers of motor vehicle diesel fuel subject to temporary refiner relief standards... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive... the reporting requirements for refiners and importers of motor vehicle diesel fuel subject to...

  10. 40 CFR 1065.703 - Distillate diesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distillate diesel fuel. 1065.703... Standards § 1065.703 Distillate diesel fuel. (a) Distillate diesel fuels for testing must be clean and... distillate diesel fuels: (1) Cetane improver. (2) Metal deactivator. (3) Antioxidant, dehazer. (4) Rust...

  11. Petroleum Diesel Fuel and Linseed Oil Mixtures as Engine Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markov, V. A.; Kamaltdinov, V. G.; Savastenko, A. A.

    2018-01-01

    The actual problem is the use of alternative biofuels in automotive diesel engines. Insufficiently studied are the indicators of toxicity of exhaust gases of these engines operating on biofuel. The aim of the study is to identify indicators of the toxicity of exhaust gases when using of petroleum diesel fuel and linseed oil mixtures as a fuel for automotive diesel engines. Physical and chemical properties of linseed oil and its mixtures with petroleum diesel fuel are considered. Experimental researches of D-245.12C diesel are carried out on mixtures of diesel fuel and corn oil with a different composition. An opportunity of exhaust toxicity indexes improvement using these mixtures as a fuel for automobiles engine is shown.

  12. Utilization of alternative fuels in diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestz, S. A.

    1984-01-01

    Performance and emission data are collected for various candidate alternate fuels and compare these data to that for a certified petroleum based number two Diesel fuel oil. Results for methanol, ethanol, four vegetable oils, two shale derived oils, and two coal derived oils are reported. Alcohol fumigation does not appear to be a practical method for utilizing low combustion quality fuels in a Diesel engine. Alcohol fumigation enhances the bioactivity of the emitted exhaust particles. While it is possible to inject many synthetic fuels using the engine stock injection system, wholly acceptable performance is only obtained from a fuel whose specifications closely approach those of a finished petroleum based Diesel oil. This is illustrated by the contrast between the poor performance of the unupgraded coal derived fuel blends and the very good performance of the fully refined shale derived fuel.

  13. Hybrid technologies for the remediation of Diesel fuel polluted soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazos, M.; Alcantara, M.T.; Rosales, E.; Sanroman, M.A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Vigo (Spain)

    2011-12-15

    Diesel fuel may be released into soil due to anthropogenic activities, such as accidental spills or leaks in underground storage tanks or pipelines. Since diesel fuel is mainly composed of hydrophobic organic compounds, it has low water solubility. Therefore, treating contaminated areas with conventional techniques is difficult. In this study, electrokinetic treatment of soil contaminated with diesel fuel was carried out. Two different hybrid approaches to pollutant removal were tested. A surfactant was used as a processing fluid during electrokinetic treatment to increase desorption and the solubility of diesel fuel. Additionally, a hybrid technology combining a Fenton reaction and electrokinetic remediation (EK-Fenton) was tested in an attempt to generate favorable in situ degradation of pollutants. The efficiency of each treatment was determined based on diesel fuel removal. After 30 days of treatment, the highest removal of diesel fuel was found to be achieved with the EK-Fenton process. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. 40 CFR 80.554 - What compliance options are available to NRLM diesel fuel small refiners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... an approved motor vehicle diesel fuel small refiner under § 80.550(a) but does not qualify as a NRLM... to NRLM diesel fuel small refiners? 80.554 Section 80.554 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle...

  15. Guidance Document for Alternative Diesel Fuels Proposed as Drop-In Fuels to Displace Diesel Fuels as Specified By ASTM Specification D975

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    includes both direct contact with the fuel and inhalation of fuel engine exhaust. The first source of information regarding the hazards associated...maintain its registration. Only gasoline and diesel fuel and fuel additives produced and commercially distributed for use in highway motor

  16. Factors affecting diesel fuel degradation using a bespoke high-pressure fuel system rig

    OpenAIRE

    Gopalan, Kesavan; Smith, Christopher; Pickering, Simon; Chuck, Christopher; Bannister, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    Recently, there has been automotive industry-wide impetus to reduce overall diesel vehicle emissions and fuel consumption by increasing fuel injection pressures within common rail systems. Many production fuel injection systems are now capable of delivering rail pressures of 1800-2000 bar with those able to achieve 3000 bar under development. In addition, there has been a gradual increase in the permitted FAME content in EN590 diesel from 5% to 7% with further increases to 10% proposed. With ...

  17. Synthesis and tribological studies of nanoparticle additives for pyrolysis bio-oil formulated as a diesel fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yufu; Peng, Yubin; Zheng, Xiaojing; Dearn, Karl D.; Xu, Hongming; Hu, Xianguo

    2015-01-01

    The tribological behaviour of pyrolysis bio-oil with a synthesized nano-Lanthanum oxide (La 2 O 3 ) additive was evaluated using a point contact four ball tribometer under different frictional conditions. Results were compared against a micro (μ)-La 2 O 3 additive and an un-additised bio-oil as a control. The results show that nano-La 2 O 3 impregnated bio-oil had better tribological properties than the control groups. Under the operating loads, the optimum nanoparticle concentration within the bio-oil was investigated. At these levels, the combined action of adsorbed bio-oil films on the worn surfaces and the bearing effects of the nano-La 2 O 3 minimized friction and wear. The tribo-mechanisms were ascribed to adhesive wear as a result of lubrication starvation under high loads, and abrasive wear at high rotational speeds as a result of combined deformation and aggregation of the nano-La 2 O 3 particles. - Highlights: • The tribological properties of pyrolysis bio-oil with (μ & n) La 2 O 3 were assessed. • Nano-La 2 O 3 was synthesized with diameters of approximately 20–1000 nm. • Bio-oil w. 1% nano-La 2 O 3 was the optimum additive & concentration for tribological properties. • 1% nano-La 2 O 3 reduced corrosive wear with stable lubrication film for test conditions. • Wear mechanisms were predominately adhesive for higher loads and abrasive for higher speeds

  18. 75 FR 26165 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Alternative Affirmative Defense Requirements for Ultra...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Alternative Affirmative Defense Requirements for Ultra-Low Sulfur... refiners, importers, distributors, and retailers of highway diesel fuel the option to use an alternative affirmative defense if the Agency finds highway diesel fuel samples above the specified sulfur standard at...

  19. Cleaner emissions from a DI diesel engine fueled with waste plastic oil derived from municipal solid waste under the influence of n-pentanol addition, cold EGR, and injection timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damodharan, Dillikannan; Sathiyagnanam, Amudhavalli Paramasivam; Rajesh Kumar, Babu; Ganesh, Kuttalam Chidambaradhanu

    2018-05-01

    Urban planning and development is a decisive factor that increases the automobile numbers which leads to increased energy demand across the globe. In order to meet the escalating requirements of energy, it is necessary to find viable alternatives. Waste plastic oil (WPO) is one such alternative which has dual benefits as it reduces the environmental pollution caused by plastic waste and it could possibly meet the energy requirement along with fossil fuels. The study attempted to reduce emissions from a DI diesel engine fueled with WPO using 30% by volume of n-pentanol with fossil diesel (WPO70P30). EGR (10, 20, and 30%) and injection timing modifications were made with the intention to find optimum engine operating conditions. The experimental results indicated that addition of renewable component like n-pentanol had improved the combustion characteristics by igniting WPO more homogeneously producing a higher premixed combustion phase. Smoke density for WPO70P30 was found to be twice lower than that of neat WPO at standard injection timing of 23°CA bTDC at any given EGR rate, NOx emissions were slightly on the higher side about 12% for WPO70P30 blend against WPO at same operating conditions. WPO70P30 showed lowest smoke and carbon monoxide emissions than diesel and WPO while delivering BTE's higher than WPO and closer to diesel at all EGR and injection timings. However NOx and HC emissions increased with n-pentanol addition. The use of EGR reduced NOx emissions but was found to aggravate other emissions. It was concluded WPO70P30 can be favorably used in a DI diesel engine at the engines advanced injection timing for better performance than diesel with a slight penalty in NOx emissions.

  20. [FTIR detection of unregulated emissions from a diesel engine with biodiesel fuel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Pi-qiang; Hu, Zhi-yuan; Lou, Di-ming

    2012-02-01

    Biodiesel, as one of the most promising alternative fuels, has received more attention because of limited fossil fuels. A comparison of biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuel is discussed as regards engine unregulated exhaust emissions. A diesel fuel, a pure biodiesel fuel, and fuel with 20% V/V biodiesel blend ratio were tested without engine modification The present study examines six typical unregulated emissions by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) method: formaldehyde (HCHO), acetaldehyde (C2 H4 O), acetone (C3 H6 O), toluene (C7 H8), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and carbon dioxide (CO2). The results show addition of biodiesel fuel increases the formaldehyde emission, and B20 fuel has little change, but the formaldehyde emission of pure biodiesel shows a clear trend of addition. Compared with the pure diesel fuel, the acetaldehyde of B20 fuel has a distinct decrease, and the acetaldehyde emission of pure biodiesel is lower than that of the pure diesel fuel at low and middle engine loads, but higher at high engine load. The acetone emission is very low, and increases for B20 and pure biodiesel fuels as compared to diesel fuel. Compared with the diesel fuel, the toluene and sulfur dioxide values of the engine show a distinct decrease with biodiesel blend ratio increasing. It is clear that the biodiesel could reduce aromatic compounds and emissions of diesel engines. The carbon dioxide emission of pure biodiesel has a little lower value than diesel, showing that the biodiesel benefits control of greenhouse gas.

  1. EFFECT OF OXYGENATED HYDROCARBON ADDITIVES ON EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF A DIESEL ENGINE

    OpenAIRE

    C. Sundar Raj; S. Sendilvelan

    2010-01-01

    The use of oxygenated fuels seems to be a promising solution for reducing particulate emissions in existing and future diesel motor vehicles. In this work, the influence of the addition of oxygenated hydrocarbons to diesel fuels on performance and emission parameters of a diesel engine is experimentally studied. 3-Pentanone (C5H10O) and Methyl anon (C7H12O) were used as oxygenated fuel additives. It was found that the addition of oxygenated hydrocarbons reduced the production of soot precurs...

  2. Green energy: Water-containing acetone–butanol–ethanol diesel blends fueled in diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Yu-Cheng; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Lin, Sheng-Lun; Wang, Lin-Chi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Water-containing ABE solution (W-ABE) in the diesel is a stable fuel blends. • W-ABE can enhance the energy efficiency of diesel engine and act as a green energy. • W-ABE can reduce the PM, NOx, and PAH emissions very significantly. • The W-ABE can be manufactured from waste bio-mass without competition with food. • The W-ABE can be produced without dehydration process and no surfactant addition. - Abstract: Acetone–Butanol–Ethanol (ABE) is considered a “green” energy resource because it emits less carbon than many other fuels and is produced from biomass that is non-edible. To simulate the use of ABE fermentation products without dehydration and no addition of surfactants, a series of water-containing ABE-diesel blends were investigated. By integrating the diesel engine generator (DEG) and diesel engine dynamometer (DED) results, it was found that a diesel emulsion with 20 vol.% ABE-solution and 0.5 vol.% water (ABE20W0.5) enhanced the brake thermal efficiencies (BTE) by 3.26–8.56%. In addition, the emissions of particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NOx), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and the toxicity equivalency of PAHs (BaP eq ) were reduced by 5.82–61.6%, 3.69–16.4%, 0.699–31.1%, and 2.58–40.2%, respectively, when compared to regular diesel. These benefits resulted from micro-explosion mechanisms, which were caused by water-in-oil droplets, the greater ABE oxygen content, and the cooling effect that is caused by the high vaporization heat of water-containing ABE. Consequently, ABE20W0.5, which is produced by environmentally benign processes (without dehydration and no addition of surfactants), can be a good alternative to diesel because it can improve energy efficiency and reduce pollutant emissions

  3. Study on performance of blended fuel PPO - Diesel at generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, Joni; Prasetyo, Dwi Husodo; Murti, S. D. Sumbogo; Adiarso, Priyanto, Unggul

    2018-02-01

    Bio-energy is renewable energy made from plant. Biomass-based energy sources are potentially CO2 neutral and recycle the same carbon atoms. In order to reduce pollution caused by fossil fuel combustion either for mechanical or electrical energy generation, the performance characteristic of purified palm oil blends are analyzed at various ratios. Bio-energy, Pure Plant Oil, represent a sustainable solution.A generator has been modified due to adapt the viscosity ofblended fuel, PPO - diesel, by pre-heating. Several PPO - diesel composition and injection timing were tested in order to investigate the characteristic of mixed fuel with and without pre-heating. The term biofuel refers to liquid or gaseous fuels for the internal combustion engines that are predominantly produced fro m biomass. Surprising result showed that BSFC of blended PPO - diesel was more efficient when injection timing set more than 15° BTDC. The mixed fuel produced power with less mixed fuel even though the calorie content of diesel is higher than PPO. The most efficient was 20% PPO in diesel with BSFC 296 gr fuel / kwh rather than 100% diesel with BSFC 309 gr fuel / kwh at the same injection timing 18° BTDC with pre-heating. The improvement of BSFC is caused by heating up of mixed fuel which it added calorie in the mixed fuel. Therefore, the heating up of blended PPO - diesel is not only to adapt the viscosity but also improving the efficiency of fuel usage representing by lower BSFC. In addition, torque of the 20% PPO was also as smooth as 100% diesel representing by almost the same torqueat injection timing 15° BTDC. The AIP Proceedings article template has many predefined paragraph styles for you to use/apply as you write your paper. To format your abstract, use the Microsoft Word template style: Abstract. Each paper must include an abstract. Begin the abstract with the word "Abstract" followed by a period in bold font, and then continue with a normal 9 point font.

  4. 30 CFR 75.1905-1 - Diesel fuel piping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... facility. (g) Diesel fuel piping systems from the surface shall only be used to transport diesel fuel... storage facility. (h) The diesel fuel piping system must not be located in a borehole with electric power... entry as electric cables or power lines. Where it is necessary for piping systems to cross electric...

  5. 46 CFR 169.627 - Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks. 169.627... SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.627 Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks. Unless they are adequately ventilated, enclosed compartments or spaces containing diesel fuel tanks and...

  6. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Diesel Vehicles Using Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center : Diesel Vehicles Using Biodiesel to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Diesel Vehicles Using Biodiesel on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Diesel Vehicles Using Biodiesel

  7. 40 CFR 80.595 - How does a small or GPA refiner apply for a motor vehicle diesel fuel volume baseline for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for a motor vehicle diesel fuel volume baseline for the purpose of extending their gasoline sulfur... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive... a small or GPA refiner apply for a motor vehicle diesel fuel volume baseline for the purpose of...

  8. Bioremediation of diesel fuel contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troy, M.A.; Jerger, D.E.

    1992-01-01

    Bioremediation techniques were successfully employed in the cost-effective cleanup of approximately 8400 gallons of diesel fuel which had been accidentally discharged at a warehouse in New Jersey. Surrounding soils were contaminated with the diesel fuel at concentrations exceeding 1,470 mg/kg total petroleum hydrocarbons as measured by infrared spectroscopy (TPH-IR, EPA method 418.1, modified for soils). This paper reports on treatment of the contaminated soils through enhanced biological land treatment which was chosen for the soil remediation pursuant to a New Jersey Pollutant Discharge Elimination System - Discharge to Ground Water (NJPDES-DGW) permit. Biological land treatment of diesel fuel focuses on the breakdown of the hydrocarbon fractions by indigenous aerobic microorganisms in the layers of soil where oxygen is made available. Metabolism by these microorganisms can ultimately reduce the hydrocarbons to innocuous end products. The purpose of biological land treatment was to reduce the concentration of the petroleum hydrocarbon constituents of the diesel fuel in the soil to 100 ppm total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH)

  9. Diesel Fuel Systems. Teacher Edition (Revised).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Elton; Huston, Jane, Ed.

    This module is one of a series of teaching guides that cover diesel mechanics. The module contains six instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) introduction to fuel injection systems and components; (2) injection nozzles; (3) distributor type injection pumps; (4) unit injectors; (5) in-line injection pumps; and (6) pressure timed…

  10. Compressed Biogas-Diesel Dual-Fuel Engine Optimization Study for Ultralow Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Koten

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to find out the optimum operating conditions in a diesel engine fueled with compressed biogas (CBG and pilot diesel dual-fuel. One-dimensional (1D and three-dimensional (3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD code and multiobjective optimization code were employed to investigate the influence of CBG-diesel dual-fuel combustion performance and exhaust emissions on a diesel engine. In this paper, 1D engine code and multiobjective optimization code were coupled and evaluated about 15000 cases to define the proper boundary conditions. In addition, selected single diesel fuel (dodecane and dual-fuel (CBG-diesel combustion modes were modeled to compare the engine performances and exhaust emission characteristics by using CFD code under various operating conditions. In optimization study, start of pilot diesel fuel injection, CBG-diesel flow rate, and engine speed were optimized and selected cases were compared using CFD code. CBG and diesel fuels were defined as leading reactants using user defined code. The results showed that significantly lower NOx emissions were emitted under dual-fuel operation for all cases compared to single-fuel mode at all engine load conditions.

  11. Fuel system for diesel engine with multi-stage heated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhov, Yu N.; Kuznetsov, Yu A.; Kolomeichenko, A. V.; Kuznetsov, I. S.; Solovyev, R. Yu; Sharifullin, S. N.

    2017-09-01

    The article describes a fuel system of a diesel engine with a construction tractor multistage heating, allowing the use of pure rapeseed oil as a diesel engine fuel. The paper identified the kinematic viscosity depending on the temperature and composition of the mixed fuel, supplemented by the existing recommendations on the use of mixed fuels based on vegetable oils and developed the device allowing use as fuel for diesel engines of biofuels based on vegetable oils.

  12. Approach for energy saving and pollution reducing by fueling diesel engines with emulsified biosolution/ biodiesel/diesel blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan-Chung; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Chao, How-Ran; Wang, Shu-Li; Tsou, Tsui-Chun; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping; Tsai, Perng-Jy

    2008-05-15

    The developments of both biodiesel and emulsified diesel are being driven by the need for reducing emissions from diesel engines and saving energy. Artificial chemical additives are also being used in diesel engines for increasing their combustion efficiencies. But the effects associated with the use of emulsified additive/biodiesel/diesel blends in diesel engines have never been assessed. In this research, the premium diesel fuel (PDF) was used as the reference fuel. A soy-biodiesel was selected as the test biodiesel. A biosolution made of 96.5 wt % natural organic enzyme-7F (NOE-7F) and 3.5 wt % water (NOE-7F water) was used as the fuel additive. By adding additional 1 vol % of surfactant into the fuel blend, a nanotechnology was used to form emulsified biosolution/soy-biodiesel/PDF blends for fueling the diesel engine. We found that the emulsified biosolution/soy-biodiesel/PDF blends did not separate after being kept motionless for 30 days. The above stability suggests that the above combinations are suitable for diesel engines as alternative fuels. Particularly, we found that the emulsified biosolution/soy-biodiesel/PDF blends did have the advantage in saving energy and reducing the emissions of both particulate matters (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from diesel engines as compared with PDF, soy-biodiesel/PDF blends, and emulsified soy-biodiesel/ PDF blends. The results obtained from this study will provide useful approaches for reducing the petroleum reliance, pollution, and global warming. However, it should be noted that NO(x) emissions were not measured in the present study which warrants the need for future investigation.

  13. Experimental investigation of the performance and emissions of diesel engines by a novel emulsified diesel fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zhenbin; Wang, Xiaochen; Pei, Yiqiang; Zhang, Chengliang; Xiao, Mingwei; He, Jinge

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel bio-fuel, glucose solution emulsified diesel fuel, is evaluated. • Emulsified diesel has comparable brake thermal efficiency. • NO X emissions decrease with emulsified fuel at all loads. • Soot emissions decrease with emulsified fuel except at a few operating points. - Abstract: The subject of this paper was to study the performance and emissions of two typical diesel engines using glucose solution emulsified diesel fuel. Emulsified diesel with a 15% glucose solution by mass fraction was used in diesel engines and compared with pure diesel. For the agricultural diesel engine, performance and emission characteristics were measured under various engine loads. The results showed that the brake thermal efficiencies were improved using emulsified diesel fuel. Emulsified fuel decreased NO x and soot emissions except at a few specific operating conditions. HydroCarbon (HC) and CO emissions were increased. For the automotive diesel engine, performance and emissions were measured using the 13-mode European Stationary Cycle (ESC). It was found that brake thermal efficiencies of emulsified diesel and pure diesel were comparable at 75% and 100% load. Soot emissions decreased significantly while NO x emissions decreased slightly. HC emissions increased while CO emissions decreased at some operating conditions

  14. 40 CFR 80.510 - What are the standards and marker requirements for NRLM diesel fuel and ECA marine fuel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel General... of marker solvent yellow 124. (2) All motor vehicle and NRLM diesel fuel shall be free of solvent... yellow 124 shall be considered motor vehicle diesel fuel or NRLM diesel fuel, as appropriate. (5) Any...

  15. PCR+ In Diesel Fuels and Emissions Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAdams, H.T.

    2002-04-15

    In past work for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), PCR+ was developed as an alternative methodology for building statistical models. PCR+ is an extension of Principal Components Regression (PCR), in which the eigenvectors resulting from Principal Components Analysis (PCA) are used as predictor variables in regression analysis. The work was motivated by the observation that most heavy-duty diesel (HDD) engine research was conducted with test fuels that had been ''concocted'' in the laboratory to vary selected fuel properties in isolation from each other. This approach departs markedly from the real world, where the reformulation of diesel fuels for almost any purpose leads to changes in a number of interrelated properties. In this work, we present new information regarding the problems encountered in the conventional approach to model-building and how the PCR+ method can be used to improve research on the relationship between fuel characteristics and engine emissions. We also discuss how PCR+ can be applied to a variety of other research problems related to diesel fuels.

  16. 40 CFR 69.51 - Motor vehicle diesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle diesel fuel. 69.51... (CONTINUED) SPECIAL EXEMPTIONS FROM REQUIREMENTS OF THE CLEAN AIR ACT Alaska § 69.51 Motor vehicle diesel... motor vehicle diesel fuel standards and dye provisions under 40 CFR 80.520 and associated requirements...

  17. Diesel fueled ship propulsion fuel cell demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumm, W.H. [Arctic Energies Ltd., Severna Park, MD (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The paper describes the work underway to adapt a former US Navy diesel electric drive ship as a 2.4 Megawatt fuel cell powered, US Coast Guard operated, demonstrator. The Project will design the new configuration, and then remove the four 600 kW diesel electric generators and auxiliaries. It will design, build and install fourteen or more nominal 180 kW diesel fueled molten carbonate internal reforming direct fuel cells (DFCs). The USCG cutter VINDICATOR has been chosen. The adaptation will be carried out at the USCG shipyard at Curtis Bay, MD. A multi-agency (state and federal) cooperative project is now underway. The USCG prime contractor, AEL, is performing the work under a Phase III Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) award. This follows their successful completion of Phases I and II under contract to the US Naval Sea Systems (NAVSEA) from 1989 through 1993 which successfully demonstrated the feasibility of diesel fueled DFCs. The demonstrated marine propulsion of a USCG cutter will lead to commercial, naval ship and submarine applications as well as on-land applications such as diesel fueled locomotives.

  18. Thermally decomposed ricebran oil as a diesel fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megahed, O. A.

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Ricebran oil; a non edible oil, was thermally decomposed using different loads of calcium oxide as catalyst. The fuel properties of the cracked product were evaluated as compared to those of diesel fuel. The considered properties included the calorific value, flash point, viscosity, pour point, distillation characteristics, cetane number in addition to some other fuel properties. The results had shown that the fuel properties of the decomposed oil were quite similar to those of standard diesel fuel. The calorific value was 80-90% that of diesel fuel and the viscosity was sligthy higher. The prepared fuel was advantageous over diesel fuel as the former was completely free from sulfur, which on fuel combustion produces corrosive gases of sulfur oxides.

    Aceite de germen de arroz, un aceite no comestible, fue descompuesto térmicamente usando diferentes cantidades de óxido cálcico como catalizador. Las propiedades combustibles del producto craqueado fueron evaluadas comparándolas con las del gasóleo. Las propiedades consideradas incluyeron el poder calorífico, punto de inflamación, viscosidad, temperatura de fluidez crítica, características de destilación, número de cetano y otras propiedades de los combustibles. Los resultados han mostrado que las propiedades combustibles del aceite descompuesto fueron bastantes similares a la de los gasóleos estándar. El poder calorífico fue del 80-90% de la del gasóleo y la viscosidad ligeramente mayor. El combustible preparado fue ventajoso sobre el gasóleo ya que el primero estaba completamente libre de sulfuro, el cual produce en la combustión del carburante gases corrosivos de óxido de azufre.

  19. Effects of Fuel Quantity on Soot Formation Process for Biomass-Based Renewable Diesel Fuel Combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Jing, Wei

    2016-12-01

    Soot formation process was investigated for biomass-based renewable diesel fuel, such as biomass to liquid (BTL), and conventional diesel combustion under varied fuel quantities injected into a constant volume combustion chamber. Soot measurement was implemented by two-color pyrometry under quiescent type diesel engine conditions (1000 K and 21% O2 concentration). Different fuel quantities, which correspond to different injection widths from 0.5 ms to 2 ms under constant injection pressure (1000 bar), were used to simulate different loads in engines. For a given fuel, soot temperature and KL factor show a different trend at initial stage for different fuel quantities, where a higher soot temperature can be found in a small fuel quantity case but a higher KL factor is observed in a large fuel quantity case generally. Another difference occurs at the end of combustion due to the termination of fuel injection. Additionally, BTL flame has a lower soot temperature, especially under a larger fuel quantity (2 ms injection width). Meanwhile, average soot level is lower for BTL flame, especially under a lower fuel quantity (0.5 ms injection width). BTL shows an overall low sooting behavior with low soot temperature compared to diesel, however, trade-off between soot level and soot temperature needs to be carefully selected when different loads are used.

  20. Straight Vegetable Oil as a Diesel Fuel?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-01-01

    Biodiesel, a renewable fuel produced from animal fats or vegetable oils, is popular among many vehicle owners and fleet managers seeking to reduce emissions and support U.S. energy security. Questions sometimes arise about the viability of fueling vehicles with straight vegetable oil (SVO), or waste oils from cooking and other processes, without intermediate processing. But SVO and waste oils differ from biodiesel (and conventional diesel) in some important ways and are generally not considered acceptable vehicle fuels for large-scale or long-term use.

  1. Regulated and unregulated emissions from a diesel engine fueled with diesel fuel blended with diethyl adipate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ruijun; Cheung, C. S.; Huang, Zuohua; Wang, Xibin

    2011-04-01

    Experiments were carried out on a four-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine operating on Euro V diesel fuel blended with diethyl adipate (DEA). The blended fuels contain 8.1%, 16.4%, 25% and 33.8% by volume fraction of DEA, corresponding to 3%, 6%, 9% and 12% by mass of oxygen in the blends. The engine performance and exhaust gas emissions of the different fuels were investigated at five engine loads at a steady speed of 1800 rev/min. The results indicated an increase of brake specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency when the engine was fueled with the blended fuels. In comparison with diesel fuel, the blended fuels resulted in an increase in hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO), but a decrease in particulate mass concentrations. The nitrogen oxides (NO x) emission experienced a slight variation among the test fuels. In regard to the unregulated gaseous emissions, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde increased, while 1,3-butadiene, ethene, ethyne, propylene and BTX (benzene, toluene and xylene) in general decreased. A diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) was found to reduce significantly most of the investigated unregulated pollutants when the exhaust gas temperature was sufficiently high.

  2. Exhaust emissions of DI diesel engine using unconventional fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudrajad, Agung; Ali, Ismail; Hamdan, Hazmie; Hamzah, Mohd. Herzwan

    2012-06-01

    Optimization of using waste plastic and tire disposal fuel on diesel engine were observed. The experimental project was comparison between using both of unconventional fuel and base diesel fuel. The engine experiment was conducted with YANMAR TF120 single cylinder four stroke diesel engine set-up at variable engine speed at 2100, 1900, 1700, 1500 and 1300 rpm. The data have been taken at each point of engine speed during the stabilized engine-operating regime. Measurement of emissions parameters at different engine speed conditions have generally indicated lower in emission COfor waste plastic fuel, lower NOx for tire disposal fuel and lower SOx for diesel fuel.

  3. Numerical modeling on homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion engine fueled by diesel-ethanol blends

    OpenAIRE

    Hanafi H.; Hasan M.M; Rahman M.M; Noor M.M; Kadirgama K.; Ramasamy D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the performance and emission characteristics of HCCI engines fueled with oxygenated fuels (ethanol blend). A modeling study was conducted to investigate the impact of ethanol addition on the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine fueled by diesel. One dimensional simulation was conducted using the renowned commercial software for diesel and its blend fuels with 5% (E5) and 10% ethanol (E10) (in vo...

  4. Improvement of test methodology for evaluating diesel fuel stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutman, M.; Tartakovsky, L.; Kirzhner, Y.; Zvirin, Y. [Internal Combustion Engines Lab., Haifa (Israel); Luria, D. [Fuel Authority, Tel Aviv (Israel); Weiss, A.; Shuftan, M. [Israel Defence Forces, Tel Aviv (Israel)

    1995-05-01

    The storage stability of diesel fuel has been extensively investigated for many years under laboratory conditions. Although continuous efforts have been made to improve testing techniques, there does not yet exist a generally accepted correlation between laboratory methods (such as chemical analysis of the fuel) and actual diesel engine tests. A testing method was developed by the Technion Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory (TICEL), in order to address this problem. The test procedure was designed to simulate diesel engine operation under field conditions. It is based on running a laboratory-modified single cylinder diesel engine for 50 h under cycling operating conditions. The overall rating of each test is based on individual evaluation of the deposits and residue formation in the fuel filter, nozzle body and needle, piston head, piston rings, exhaust valve, and combustion chamber (six parameters). Two methods for analyzing the test results were used: objective, based on measured data, and subjective, based on visual evaluation results of these deposits by a group of experts. Only the residual level in the fuel filter was evaluated quantitatively by measured results. In order to achieve higher accuracy of the method, the test procedure was improved by introducing the measured results of nozzle fouling as an additional objective evaluating (seventh) parameter. This factor is evaluated on the basis of the change in the air flow rate through the nozzle before and after the complete engine test. Other improvements in the method include the use of the nozzle assembly photograph in the test evaluation, and representation of all seven parameters on a continuous scale instead of the discrete scale used anteriorly, in order to achieve higher accuracy. This paper also contains the results obtained by application of this improved fuel stability test for a diesel fuel stored for a five-year period.

  5. Engine performance and emissions characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with diesel-biodiesel-bioethanol emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Yie Hua; Abdullah, Mohammad Omar; Nolasco-Hipolito, Cirilo; Zauzi, Nur Syuhada Ahmad; Abdullah, Georgie Wong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Different composition of diesel fuel, biodiesel and bioethanol emulsions were examined. • The fuels were tested in a direct injection diesel engine and parameters were evaluated. • Engine power, torque, exhaust gas temperature & fuel consumptions were compared. • Emulsions fuels emitted lower CO and CO_2 than fossil diesel. • Lower NOx emission was observed at medium engine speeds and loads for emulsion fuels. - Abstract: In this research work, the experimental investigation of the effect of diesel-biodiesel-bioethanol emulsion fuels on combustion, performance and emission of a direct injection (DI) diesel engine are reported. Four kind of emulsion fuels were employed: B (diesel-80%, biodiesel-20% by volume), C (diesel-80%, biodiesel-15%, bioethanol-5%), D (diesel-80%, biodiesel-10%, bioethanol-10%) and E (diesel-80%, biodiesel-5%, bioethanol-15%) to compare its’ performance with the conventional diesel, A. These emulsion fuels were prepared by mechanical homogenizer machine with the help of Tween 80 (1% v/v) and Span 80 (0.5% v/v) as surfactants. The emulsion characteristics were determined by optical electron microscope, emulsification stability test, FTIR, and the physiochemical properties of the emulsion fuels which were all done by following ASTM test methods. The prepared emulsion fuels were then tested in diesel engine test bed to obtain engine performance and exhaust emissions. All the engine experiments were conducted with engine speeds varying from 1600 to 2400 rpm. The results showed the heating value and density of the emulsion fuels decrease as the bioethanol content in the blend increases. The total heating value of the diesel-biodiesel-bioethanol fuels were averagely 21% higher than the total heating value of the pure biodiesel and slightly lower (2%) than diesel fuel. The engine power, torque and exhaust gas temperature were reduced when using emulsion fuels. The brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) for the emulsion fuels

  6. 78 FR 49411 - Denial of Petitions for Reconsideration of Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2013 Biomass...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ...-AR55 Denial of Petitions for Reconsideration of Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2013 Biomass... Fuel Additives: 2013 Biomass-Based Diesel Renewable Fuel Volume. DATES: EPA's denials of the petitions... requires that EPA determine the applicable volume of biomass-based diesel to be used in setting annual...

  7. An experimental study on the effect of using gas-to-liquid (GTL fuel on diesel engine performance and emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Bassiony

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Gas to Liquid (GTL fuel is considered one of the most propitious clean alternative fuels for the diesel engines. The aim of this study was to experimentally compare the performance and emissions of a diesel engine fueled by GTL fuel, diesel, and a blend of GTL and diesel fuels with a mixing ratio of 1:1 by volume (G50 at various engine load and speed conditions. Although using the GTL and G50 fuels decreased slightly the engine maximum power compared to the diesel fuel, both the engine brake thermal efficiency and engine brake specific fuel consumption were improved. In addition, using the GTL and G50 fuels as alternatives to the diesel resulted in a significant decrease in engine CO, NOx, and SO2 emissions.

  8. Chemical modification of HTPB for application as polymeric additives for diesel fuel. 1 - phenyl ethers; Modificacao quimicado PBLH para aplicacao como aditivos polimericos para oleo diesel. 1. eteres fenilicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Agne R.; Prezibella, Alysson M.; Ferraz, Fernando A.; Soldi, Rafael A.; Oliveira, Angelo R.S.; Cesar-Oliveira, Maria Aparecida F. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica. Lab. de Polimeros Sinteticos

    2007-07-01

    The petroleum industry faces several problems related to the crystallization of paraffins, in petroleum and its derivatives, with the reduction of the service temperature. To solve this problem polymeric additives are used, of which the esters have been enough studied in several areas of the world, except in Brazil. In this work, this class of pour point depressant additives it was obtained through the chemical modification of Hydroxyl Terminate Polybutadiene (HTPB) that present a hydrocarbon chemical structure containing one double bound in each repetitive unit and hydroxyl groups of the primary and secondary allylic types - functional groups potentially reactive. The obtained products were characterized by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance, and they are being tested as additive for the pour point reduction of a diesel oil samples (REPAR-PETROBRAS). (author)

  9. Biodiesel as a lubricity additive for ultra low sulfur diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subongkoj Topaiboul1 and 2,*

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available With the worldwide trend to reduce emission from diesel engines, ultra low sulfur diesel has been introduced with thesulfur concentration of less than 10 ppm. Unfortunately, the desulfurization process inevitably reduces the lubricity of dieselfuel significantly. Alternatively, biodiesel, with almost zero sulfur content, has been added to enhance lubricity in an ultralow sulfur diesel. This work has evaluated the effectiveness of the biodiesel amount, sourced from palm and jatropha oil,and origin in ultra low sulfur diesel locally available in the market. Wear scar from a high-frequency reciprocating rig isbenchmarked to the standard value (460 m of diesel fuel lubricity. It was found that very small amount (less than 1% ofbiodiesel from either source significantly improves the lubricity in ultra low sulfur diesel, and the biodiesel from jatropha oilis a superior lubricity enhancer.

  10. Advanced diesel electronic fuel injection and turbocharging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, N. J.; Barkhimer, R. L.; Steinmeyer, D. C.; Kelly, J. E.

    1993-12-01

    The program investigated advanced diesel air charging and fuel injection systems to improve specific power, fuel economy, noise, exhaust emissions, and cold startability. The techniques explored included variable fuel injection rate shaping, variable injection timing, full-authority electronic engine control, turbo-compound cooling, regenerative air circulation as a cold start aid, and variable geometry turbocharging. A Servojet electronic fuel injection system was designed and manufactured for the Cummins VTA-903 engine. A special Servojet twin turbocharger exhaust system was also installed. A series of high speed combustion flame photos was taken using the single cylinder optical engine at Michigan Technological University. Various fuel injection rate shapes and nozzle configurations were evaluated. Single-cylinder bench tests were performed to evaluate regenerative inlet air heating techniques as an aid to cold starting. An exhaust-driven axial cooling air fan was manufactured and tested on the VTA-903 engine.

  11. Development of a diesel substitute fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiter, Anton; Mair-Zelenka, Philipp [Graz Univ. of Technology (Austria). Inst. of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology; Zeymer, Marc [OMV Refining and Marketing GmbH, Vienna (Austria). MRDI-D Product Development and Innovation

    2013-06-01

    Substitute fuels composed of few real chemical compounds are an alternative characterisation approach for conventional fuels as opposed to the traditional pseudo-component method. With the algorithm proposed in this paper the generation of such substitutes will be facilitated and well-established thermodynamic methods can be applied for physical property-data prediction. Based on some quality criteria like true boiling-point curve, liquid density, C/H ratio, or cloud point of a target fuel a surrogate which meets these properties is determined by fitting its composition. The application and capabilities of the algorithm developed are demonstrated by means of an exemplary diesel substitute fuel. The substitute mixture obtained can be generated and used for evaluation of property-prediction methods. Furthermore this approach can help to understand the effects of mixing fossil fuels with biogenic compounds. (orig.)

  12. Initial in vitro screening approach to investigate the potential health and environmental hazards of Envirox™ – a nanoparticulate cerium oxide diesel fuel additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whittingham Andrew

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nanotechnology is the new industrial revolution of the 21st Century as the various processes lead to radical improvements in medicine, manufacturing, energy production, land remediation, information technology and many other everyday products and applications. With this revolution however, there are undoubted concerns for health, safety and the environment which arise from the unique nature of materials and processes at the nanometre scale. The in vitro assays used in the screening strategy are all validated, internationally accepted protocols and provide a useful indication of potential toxicity of a chemical as a result of effects on various toxicological endpoints such as local site of contact (dermal irritation, general cytotoxicity and mutagenicity. The initial in vitro screening strategy described in this paper to investigate the potential health implications, if any, which may arise following exposure to one specific application of nanoparticulate cerium oxide used as a diesel fuel borne catalyst, reflects a precautionary approach and the results will inform judgement on how best to proceed to ensure safe use.

  13. Esters of ricebran oil with short chain alcohols as alternative fuel for diesel engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A. Zaher

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential of ricebran oil as a feedstock for the production of a fuel for diesel engines alternative to regular diesel fuel has been assessed. Esterification rate of crude ricebran oil with methyl alcohol was studied using different volumetric ratios of alcohol to oil, different catalyst loads and catalyst types. Catalysts used were sulfuric acid at a concentration of 2% of the oil/alcohol mixture in addition to hydrochloric acid and Amberlite IR-120 cation exchange resin at the same molar concentration of H+ as in case of sulfuric acid. The reaction was fastest using sulfuric acid which has been then used to prepare esters of ricebran oil with methyl, ethyl, propyl and butyl alcohols. The four products have been evaluated as a fuel for diesel engines according to their fuel properties compared to regular diesel fuel. These properties include the calorific value, flash point, viscosity, pour point, cetane number, sulfur content and ASTM distillation characteristics. The results have shown that the methyl as well as the ethyl esters have the closest properties to those of regular diesel fuel. Diesel engine performance using blends of regular diesel fuel with methyl and ethyl esters of ricebran oil have been tested and compared to that using regular diesel fuel. The results have shown that the engine performance using a blend of 50% regular diesel fuel and 50% methyl esters of ricebran oil is better than that using regular diesel fuel. The brake thermal efficiency at full load was 30.2% using the fuel blend compared to 27.5% in case of regular fuel.

  14. Combustion, performance and emissions of a diesel power generator fueled with biodiesel-kerosene and biodiesel-kerosene-diesel blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayındır, Hasan; Işık, Mehmet Zerrakki; Argunhan, Zeki; Yücel, Halit Lütfü; Aydın, Hüseyin

    2017-01-01

    High percentages of biodiesel blends or neat biodiesel cannot be used in diesel engines due to high density and viscosity, and poor atomization properties that lead to some engine operational problems. Biodiesel was produced from canola oil by transesterification process. Test fuels were prepared by blending 80% of the biodiesel with 20% of kerosene (B80&K20) and 80% of the biodiesel with 10% of kerosene and 10% diesel fuel (B80&K10&D10). Fuels were used in a 4 cylinders diesel engine that was loaded with a generator. Combustion, performance and emission characteristics of the blend fuels and D2 in the diesel engine for certain loads of 3.6, 7.2 and 10.8 kW output power and 1500 rpm constant engine speed were experimented and deeply analyzed. It was found that kerosene contained blends had quite similar combustion characteristics with those of D2. Mass fuel consumption and Bscf were slightly increased for blend fuels. HC emissions slightly increased while NOx emissions considerably reduced for blends. It was resulted that high percentages of biodiesel can be a potential substitute for diesel fuel provided that it is used as blending fuel with certain amounts of kerosene. - Highlights: • Effects of kerosene and diesel addition to biodiesel in a diesel engine were investigated. • B80&K10 and B80&K10&D10 were tested and comparisons have been made with D2. • Similar fuel properties and combustion parameters have been found for all fuels. • Heat release initiated earlier for B80&K10 and B80&K10&D10. • CO and NOx emissions are lowered for B80&K10 and B80&K10&D10.

  15. Emission testing of jatropha and pongamia mixed bio diesel fuel in a diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.; Shaikh, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    The present investigation is based on the emission characteristics of mixed bio diesel fuel in a four stroke single cylinder compression ignition engine at constant speed. Refined oils of jatropha and pongamia are converted into bio diesel by acid catalyzed esterification and base catalyzed transesterification reactions. The jatropha and pongamia bio diesel were mixed in equal proportions with conventional mineral diesel fuel. Four samples of fuel were tested namely, diesel fuel, B10, B20 and B40. The emission analysis showed B20 mixed bio diesel fuel blend having better results as compared to other samples. There is 60% and 35% lower emission of carbon monoxide and in sulphur dioxide observed while consuming B20 blended fuel respectively. The test result showed NOx emissions were 10% higher from bio diesel fuel, as compared to conventional diesel fuel. However, these emissions may be reduced by EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) technology. Present research also revealed that that B20 mixed bio diesel fuel can be used, without any modification in a CI engine. (author)

  16. Influences of ignition improver additive on ternary (diesel-biodiesel-higher alcohol) blends thermal stability and diesel engine performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imdadul, H.K.; Masjuki, H.H.; Kalam, M.A.; Zulkifli, N.W.M.; Alabdulkarem, Abdullah; Rashed, M.M.; Ashraful, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Ignition improver additives makes the biodiesel-alcohol blends more thermally stable. • Density and cetane number improved significantly with EHN mixing. • BP and BSFC improved by adding ignition improver additives. • Nitric oxides and smoke of the EHN treated blends decreased. • CO and HC increased slightly with EHN addition. - Abstract: Pentanol is a long chain alcohol produced from renewable sources and considered as a promising biofuel as a blending component with diesel or biodiesel blends. However, the lower cetane number of alcohols is a limitation, and it is important to increase the overall cetane number of biodiesel fuel blends for efficient combustion and lower emission. In this consideration, ignition improver additive 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN) were used at a proportion of 1000 and 2000 ppm to diesel-biodiesel-pentanol blends. Experiments were conducted in a single cylinder; water-cooled DI diesel engine operated at full throttle and varying speed condition. The thermal stability of the modified ternary fuel blends was evaluated through thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis, and the physic-chemical properties of the fuel as well as engine characteristics were studied and compared. The addition of EHN to ternary fuel blends enhanced the cetane number significantly without any significant adverse effect on the other properties. TGA and DSC analysis reported about the improvement of thermal characteristics of the modified blends. It was found that, implementing ignition improver make the diesel-biodiesel-alcohol blends more thermally stable. Also, the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), nitric oxides (NO) and smoke emission reduced remarkably with the addition of EHN. Introducing EHN to diesel-biodiesel-alcohol blends increased the cetane number, shorten the ignition delay by increasing the diffusion rate and improve combustion. Hence, the NO and BSFC reduced while, carbon

  17. Crude palm oil as fuel extender for diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed M El-Awad; Fuad Abas; Mak Kian Sin

    2000-01-01

    In this work an investigation has been conducted into the use of Crude Palm Oil (CPO) as an extender fuel for diesel engines. Mixtures of CPO with normal diesel fuel (with a percentage of 25%, 50% and 75% CPO by volume) were used to fuel a stationary diesel engine and the engine performance variables, i.e., power output, fuel consumption, and exhaust-gas emission, were compared to those of normal diesel fuel. The results obtained, for a fixed throttle opening and variable speed, indicate that at high engine speeds, the engine performance with CP0/diesel mixtures with up to 50% CPO is comparable to that of diesel fuel. However, the results of the 75% CPO mixture showed a higher temperature and emission of CO and NO compared to the diesel fuel. At low engine speeds, the engine performance with CPO mixtures gave higher power output and lower emission of NO compared to that with diesel fuel, but showed higher specific fuel consumption and higher emission of CO. Based on these results, the study recommends that CPO can be used to extend diesel fuel in a mixture of up to 50% CPO by volume for an unmodified engine. (Author)

  18. Combustion and emission characteristics of diesel engine fueled with diesel-like fuel from waste lubrication oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiangli; Ni, Peiyong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • 100% diesel-like fuel from waste lubricating oil was conducted in a diesel engine. • Good combustion and fuel economy are achieved without engine modifications. • Combustion duration of DLF is shorter than diesel. • NOx and smoke emissions with the DLF are slightly higher than pure diesel. - Abstract: Waste lubricant oil (WLO) is one of the most important types of the energy sources. WLO cannot be burned directly in diesel engines, but can be processed to be used as diesel-like fuel (DLF) to minimize its harmful effect and maximize its useful values. Moreover, there are some differences in physicochemical properties between WLO and diesel fuel. In order to identify the differences in combustion and emission performance of diesel engine fueled with the two fuels, a bench test of a single-cylinder direct injection diesel engine without any engine modification was investigated at four engine speeds and five engine loads. The effects of the fuels on fuel economic performance, combustion characteristics, and emissions of hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and smoke were discussed. The DLF exhibits longer ignition delay period and shorter combustion duration than diesel fuel. The test results indicate that the higher distillation temperatures of the DLF attribute to the increase of combustion pressure, temperature and heat release rate. The brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) of the DLF compared to diesel is reduced by about 3% at 3000 rpm under light and medium loads. The DLF produces slightly higher NOx emissions at middle and heavy loads, somewhat more smoke emissions at middle loads, and notably higher HC and CO emissions at most measured points than diesel fuel. It is concluded that the DLF can be used as potential available fuel in high-speed diesel engines without any problems.

  19. Optimized usage of NExBTL renewable diesel fuel - OPTIBIO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nylund, N.-O. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); TEC TransEnergy Consulting Oy, Espoo (Finland)], email: nils-olof.nylund@vtt.fi, email: nils-olof.nylund@teconsulting.fi

    2012-07-01

    Buses are the backbone of many public transport systems, and typically have a long lifespan. Considering the need for switching to non-fossil fuels, municipalities increasingly want to raise the share of renewable fuels - also for their bus fleets - to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and fossil fuel imports. It is important for local decision-makers to understand which options are available and what the range of limitations and benefits of each. As the service life of buses is quite long, measures which can help improve the environmental performance of existing vehicles are important. When using conventional biodiesel there are technical limitations on how much fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) can be added to standard diesel fuel - in most cases replacement is below 10%. Further to this, some alternative fuels require new dedicated vehicles. The OPTIBIO project needed to explore how to optimise fuels that can be used in both existing and new vehicles, using high quality paraffinic renewable diesel (HVO) as fossil fuel replacement of up to 100%. The value, in addition to fuel replacement, would be the reduction of harmful emissions which are most crucial for urban air quality, namely nitrogen oxides and particulates.

  20. Alcohols/Ethers as Oxygenates in Diesel Fuel: Properties of Blended Fuels and Evaluation of Practiacl Experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nylund, N.; Aakko, P. [TEC Trans Energy Consulting Ltd (Finland); Niemi, S.; Paanu, T. [Turku Polytechnic (Finland); Berg, R. [Befri Konsult (Sweden)

    2005-03-15

    Oxygenates blended into diesel fuel can serve at least two purposes. Components based on renewable feedstocks make it possible to introduce a renewable component into diesel fuel. Secondly, oxygenates blended into diesel fuel might help to reduce emissions. A number of different oxygenates have been considered as components for diesel fuel. These oxygenates include various alcohols, ethers, esters and carbonates. Of the oxygenates, ethanol is the most common and almost all practical experiences have been generated from the use of diesel/ethanol blends (E-diesel). Biodiesel was not included in this study. Adding ethanol to diesel will reduce cetane, and therefore, both cetane improver and lubricity additives might be needed. Diesel/ethanol emulsions obtained with emulsifiers or without additives are 'milky' mixtures. Micro-emulsions of ethanol and diesel can be obtained using additives containing surfactants or co-solvents. The microemulsions are chemically and thermodynamically stable, they are clear and bright blends, unlike the emulsions. Storage and handling regulations for fuels are based on the flash point. The problem with, e.g., ethanol into diesel is that ethanol lowers the flash point of the blend significantly even at low concentrations. Regarding safety, diesel-ethanol blends fall into the same category as gasoline. Higher alcohols are more suitable for diesel blending than ethanol. Currently, various standards and specifications set rather tight limits for diesel fuel composition and properties. It should be noted that, e.g., E-diesel does not fulfil any current diesel specification and it cannot, thus, be sold as general diesel fuel. Some blends have already received approvals for special applications. The critical factors of the potential commercial use of these blends include blend properties such as stability, viscosity and lubricity, safety and materials compatibility. The effect of the fuel on engine performance, durability and emissions

  1. Alcohols/Ethers as Oxygenates in Diesel Fuel: Properties of Blended Fuels and Evaluation of Practiacl Experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nylund, N; Aakko, P [TEC Trans Energy Consulting Ltd (Finland); Niemi, S; Paanu, T [Turku Polytechnic (Finland); Berg, R [Befri Konsult (Sweden)

    2005-03-15

    Oxygenates blended into diesel fuel can serve at least two purposes. Components based on renewable feedstocks make it possible to introduce a renewable component into diesel fuel. Secondly, oxygenates blended into diesel fuel might help to reduce emissions. A number of different oxygenates have been considered as components for diesel fuel. These oxygenates include various alcohols, ethers, esters and carbonates. Of the oxygenates, ethanol is the most common and almost all practical experiences have been generated from the use of diesel/ethanol blends (E-diesel). Biodiesel was not included in this study. Adding ethanol to diesel will reduce cetane, and therefore, both cetane improver and lubricity additives might be needed. Diesel/ethanol emulsions obtained with emulsifiers or without additives are 'milky' mixtures. Micro-emulsions of ethanol and diesel can be obtained using additives containing surfactants or co-solvents. The microemulsions are chemically and thermodynamically stable, they are clear and bright blends, unlike the emulsions. Storage and handling regulations for fuels are based on the flash point. The problem with, e.g., ethanol into diesel is that ethanol lowers the flash point of the blend significantly even at low concentrations. Regarding safety, diesel-ethanol blends fall into the same category as gasoline. Higher alcohols are more suitable for diesel blending than ethanol. Currently, various standards and specifications set rather tight limits for diesel fuel composition and properties. It should be noted that, e.g., E-diesel does not fulfil any current diesel specification and it cannot, thus, be sold as general diesel fuel. Some blends have already received approvals for special applications. The critical factors of the potential commercial use of these blends include blend properties such as stability, viscosity and lubricity, safety and materials compatibility. The effect of the fuel on engine performance, durability and emissions is also

  2. Visualization of supersonic diesel fuel jets using a shadowgraph technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pianthong, Kulachate; Behnia, Masud; Milton, Brian E.

    2001-04-01

    High-speed liquid jets have been widely used to cut or penetrate material. It has been recently conjectured that the characteristics of high-speed fuel jets may also be of benefit to engines requiring direct fuel injection into the combustion chamber. Important factors are combustion efficiency and emission control enhancement for better atomization. Fundamental studies of very high velocity liquid jets are therefore very important. The characteristics and behavior of supersonic liquid jets have been studied with the aid of a shadowgraph technique. The high-speed liquid jet (in the supersonic range) is generated by the use of a vertical, single stage powder gun. The performance of the launcher and its relation to the jet exit velocity, with a range of nozzle shapes, has been examined. This paper presents the visual evidence of supersonic diesel fuel jets (velocity around 2000 m/s) investigated by the shadowgraph method. An Argon jet has been used as a light source. With a rise time of 0.07 microseconds, light duration of 0.2 microseconds and the use of high speed Polaroid film, the shadowgraph method can effectively capture the hypersonic diesel fuel jet and its strong leading edge shock waves. This provides a clearer picture of each stage of the generation of hypersonic diesel fuel jets and makes the study of supersonic diesel fuel jet characteristics and the potential for auto-ignition possible. Also, in the experiment, a pressure relief section has been used to minimize the compressed air or blast wave ahead of the projectile. However, the benefit of using a pressure relief section in the design is not clearly known. To investigate this effect, additional experiments have been performed with the use of the shadowgraph method, showing the projectile leaving and traveling inside the nozzle at a velocity around 1100 m/s.

  3. Effects of Fuel Quantity on Soot Formation Process for Biomass-Based Renewable Diesel Fuel Combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Jing, Wei; Wu, Zengyang; Roberts, William L.; Fang, Tiegang

    2016-01-01

    Soot formation process was investigated for biomass-based renewable diesel fuel, such as biomass to liquid (BTL), and conventional diesel combustion under varied fuel quantities injected into a constant volume combustion chamber. Soot measurement

  4. Investigation of palm methyl-ester bio-diesel with additive on performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine under 8-mode testing cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Senthilkumar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is receiving increasing attention each passing day because of its same diesel-like fuel properties and compatibility with petroleum-based diesel fueled engines. Therefore, in this paper the prospects and opportunities of using various blends of methyl esters of palm oil as fuel in an engine with and without the effect of multi-functional fuel additive (MFA, Multi DM 32 are studied to arrive at an optimum blend of bio-diesel best suited for low emissions and minimal power drop. Experimental tests were conducted on a four stroke, three cylinder and naturally aspirated D.I. Diesel engine with diesel and various blend percentages of 20%, 40%, 45%, and 50% under the 8 mode testing cycle. The effect of fuel additive was tested out on the optimum blend ratio of the bio-diesel so as to achieve further reduced emissions. Comparison of results shows that, 73% reduction in hydrocarbon emission, 46% reduction in carbon monoxide emission, and around 1% reduction in carbon dioxide emission characteristics. So it is observed that the blend ratio of 40% bio-diesel with MFA fuel additive creates reduced emission and minimal power drop due to effective combustion even when the calorific value is comparatively lower due to its higher cetane number.

  5. Vegetable oils as diesel fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedeli, E.; Girelli, A.

    2001-01-01

    During the seventies, one of the recurring fuels crisis gave rise to research on alternative sources and among them to the idea of utilizing vegetable oils. The research work made clear that the oils cannot be utilized as such but they must be transformed in simple esters, eliminating the problems arising from the presence of the glycerine. The Experiment Stations of the Industry, Commerce and Handicraft Department of the Italian Government, by request of the last one, in the '70/'80 has done a successful experimentation that is presented in the paper [it

  6. Comparative life cycle assessment of biodiesel and fossil diesel fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceuterick, D.; Nocker, L. De; Spirinckx, C.

    1999-01-01

    Biofuels offer clear advantages in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, but do they perform better when we look at all the environmental impacts from a life cycle perspective. In the context of a demonstration project at the Flemish Institute for Technology Research (VITO) on the use of rapeseed methyl ester (RME) or biodiesel as automotive fuel, a life cycle assessment (LCA) of biodiesel and diesel was made. The primary concern was the question as to whether or not the biodiesel chain was comparable to the conventional diesel chain, from an environmental point of view, taking into account all stages of the life cycle of the two products. Additionally, environmental damage costs were calculated, using an impact pathway analysis. This paper presents the results of the two methods for evaluation of environmental impacts of RME and conventional diesel. Both methods are complementary and share the conclusion that although biodiesel has much lower greenhouse gas emissions, it still has significant impacts on other impact categories. The external costs of biodiesel are a bit lower compared to fossil diesel. For both fuels, external costs are significantly higher than the private production cost. (Author)

  7. Influence of using emulsified diesel fuel on the performance and pollutants emitted from diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alahmer, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Emulsified diesel fuels with water content of range 0–30% by volume were prepared. • Effect emulsified diesel fuel on diesel engine performance and pollutant emissions. • Using emulsified fuel improves the diesel engine performance and reduces emissions. - Abstract: This manuscript investigates the effect of emulsified diesel fuel on the engine performance and on the main pollutant emissions for a water-cooled, four stroke, four cylinders, and direct injection diesel engine. Emulsified diesel fuels with water content of range 0–30% by volume were used. The experiments were conducted in the speed range from 1000 to 3000 rpm. It was found that, in general, the using emulsified fuel improves the engine performance and reduces emissions. While the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) has a minimum value at 5% water content and 2000 rpm. The torque (T), the break mean effective pressure (BMEP) and thermal efficiency (η th ) are found to have maximum values under these conditions. The emission CO 2 was found to increase with engine speed and to decrease with water content. NO x produced from emulsified fuel is significantly less than that produced from pure diesel under the same conditions. And as the percentage of water content in the emulsion increases, the emitted amount of oxygen also increases

  8. Conversion of diesel engines to dual fuel (propane/diesel) operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepper, S W; DeMaere, D A

    1984-02-01

    A device to convert a diesel engine to dual fuel (propane/diesel) operation was developed and evaluated. Preliminary experimentation has indicated that as much as 30% of the diesel fuel consumed in diesel engines could be displaced with propane, accompanied by an improvement in fuel efficiency, engine maintenance and an overall reduction in emission levels. Dual fuel operations in both transportation and stationary applications would then project a saving of ca 90,000 barrels of diesel fuel per day by the year 1990. A turbo-charged 250 hp diesel engine was directly coupled to a dynamometer under laboratory conditions, and operated at speeds between 500 and 2500 rpm and at various torque levels. At each rpm/torque point the engine first operated on diesel fuel alone, and then increasing quantities of propane were induced into the air intake until detonation occured. Results indicate that the proportion of propane that can be safely induced into a diesel engine varies considerably with rpm and torque so that a sophisticated metering system would be required to maximize diesel oil displacement by propane. Conversion is not cost effective at 1983 price levels.

  9. 75 FR 42237 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2011 Renewable Fuel Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-20

    ... Based on a Thermochemical Platform 3. Hybrid Thermochemical/Biochemical Processes 4. Pyrolysis and Depolymerization a. Pyrolysis Diesel Fuel and Gasoline b. Catalytic Depolymerization 5. Catalytic Reforming of... result would be that additional volumes of conventional renewable fuel, such as corn-starch ethanol...

  10. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT III, MAINTAINING THE FUEL SYSTEM--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE FUEL SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE (1) PURPOSE OF THE FUEL SYSTEM, (2) TRACING THE FUEL FLOW, (3) MINOR COMPONENTS OF THE FUEL SYSTEM, (4) MAINTENANCE TIPS, (5) CONSTRUCTION AND FUNCTION OF THE FUEL INJECTORS, AND (6)…

  11. 40 CFR 80.501 - What fuel is subject to the provisions of this subpart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel...) Motor vehicle diesel fuel. (2) Nonroad, locomotive, or marine diesel fuel. (3) Diesel fuel additives. (4... for use as fuel in diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines or is blended with diesel fuel for...

  12. Performance of single cylinder, direct injection Diesel engine using water fuel emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Zaid, M.

    2004-01-01

    A single cylinder Diesel engine study of water-in-Diesel emulsions was conducted to investigate the effect of water emulsification on the engine performance and gases exhaust temperature. Emulsified Diesel fuels of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 water/Diesel ratios by volume, were used in a single cylinder, direct injection Diesel engine, operating at 1200-3300 rpm. The results indicate that the addition of water in the form of emulsion improves combustion efficiency. The engine torque, power and brake thermal efficiency increase as the water percentage in the emulsion increases. The average increase in the brake thermal efficiency for 20% water emulsion is approximately 3.5% over the use of Diesel for the engine speed range studied. The proper brake specific fuel consumption and gases exhaust temperature decrease as the percentage of water in the emulsion increases

  13. Pyramid mountain diesel fuel storage site remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brolmsa, M.; Sandau, C. [Jacques Whitford Environment Ltd., Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Remediation activities during the decommissioning of a microwave tower facility where a tram line was used to transfer diesel fuel from the base of a mountain to its summit were described. As the site was leased from Parks Canada, federal guidelines were used to assess levels of contamination. Underground storage tanks (USTs) used for diesel storage had been replaced with aboveground storage tanks (AST) in 1994. Remediation was also complicated by the remote location and altitude of the site, as well as by extreme weather conditions. Hand auguring and test pitting were used at both the summit and base to allow characterization and preliminary delineation of impacted soils. A heavy lift helicopter was used to place demolition and excavation equipment on the summit. An excavator was used to remove hydrocarbon impacted soils. Following the remedial excavation for the summit diesel AST, residual soil impacts in excess of the applicable remediation guidelines were present at the bottom of the tank nest and under a floor slab. An environmental liner was installed, and a quantitative screening level risk assessment demonstrated the low level of risk for the area, as well as for waste oil impacted soils on the slope below the summit. Contaminants of potential concern were barium, zinc, naphthalene, and petroleum hydrocarbon fractions F1-F4. It was concluded that there are now no unacceptable ecological or human risks from residual impacts at the site. 1 tab., 19 figs.

  14. Effect of lubricant oil additive on size distribution, morphology, and nanostructure of diesel particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yuesen; Liang, Xingyu; Shu, Gequn; Wang, Xiangxiang; Sun, Xiuxiu; Liu, Changwen

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Pour point depressant (PPD) has great impact on particulate matters. • The number of nanoparticles increases sharply after PPD is added. • Ambiguous boundaries can be found when the PPD additive was added. • PPD changes the size distribution into bimodal logarithmic. • Three nanostructure parameters are changed greatly by PPD. - Abstract: Effects of lubricant oil additive on the characterization of particles from a four-cylinder turbocharged diesel engine were investigated. Neat diesel and blended fuel containing oil pour point depressant (PPD) additive were chosen as the test fuels. Effects of different fuels on size distribution, morphology, and nanostructure of the diesel particles were studied. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution TEM (HRTEM) were employed to study the morphology and nanostructure parameters. Particle size distribution was measured by fast particulate spectrometer (DMS 500). According to the experimental results, distribution of the primary particles size of the two fuels conforms to Gaussian distribution, whereas the mean diameter of blended fuel is larger than that of neat diesel at 1200 rpm, which is contrarily smaller at 2400 rpm. Besides, fractal dimension (D f ) of aggregates increases close to 2 (D f = 1.991), indicating that the structure became compacter with adding PPD. As to the nanostructure parameters of the blended fuel particles, the layer fringe length decreases from 1.191 nm to 1.064 nm, while both the separation distance and tortuosity increase. The changes in the nanostructure parameters indicate that the particles are more ordered and compressed with burning pure diesel. Results of blended fuel from DMS show that more particles, particularly nucleation mode particles, were discharged. In addition, its size distribution become bimodal logarithmic at 2400 rpm. All these results can provide new information of the effects of oil PPD additive on the formation and characterization of

  15. LPG diesel dual fuel engine – A critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ashok

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The engine, which uses both conventional diesel fuel and LPG fuel, is referred to as ‘LPG–diesel dual fuel engines’. LPG dual fuel engines are modified diesel engines which use primary fuel as LPG and secondary fuel as diesel. LPG dual fuel engines have a good thermal efficiency at high output but the performance is less during part load conditions due to the poor utilization of charges. This problem can be overcome by varying factors such as pilot fuel quantity, injection timing, composition of the gaseous fuel and intake charge conditions, for improving the performance, combustion and emissions of dual fuel engines. This article reviews about the research work done by the researchers in order to improve the performance, combustion and emission parameters of a LPG–diesel dual fuel engines. From the studies it is shown that the use of LPG in diesel engine is one of the capable methods to reduce the PM and NOx emissions but at same time at part load condition there is a drop in efficiency and power output with respect to diesel operation.

  16. Biodiesel as an Alternative Fuel for Diesel Engines

    OpenAIRE

    F. Halek; A. Kavousi; M. Banifatemi

    2009-01-01

    There is growing interest in biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester or FAME) because of the similarity in its properties when compared to those of diesel fuels. Diesel engines operated on biodiesel have lower emissions of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, particulate matter, and air toxics than when operated on petroleum-based diesel fuel. Production of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from rapeseed (nonedible oil) fatty acid distillate having high free fatty acids (FFA) ...

  17. 40 CFR 80.617 - How may California diesel fuel be distributed or sold outside of the State of California?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Violation... California diesel fuel redesignates it as motor vehicle diesel meeting the 15 ppm sulfur standard; and (vi) The terminal includes the volumes of California diesel fuel redesignated as motor vehicle diesel fuel...

  18. Multi-zone modeling of Diesel engine fuel spray development with vegetable oil, bio-diesel or Diesel fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakopoulos, C.D.; Antonopoulos, K.A.; Rakopoulos, D.C.

    2006-01-01

    This work presents a model of fuel sprays development in the cylinders of Diesel engines that is two-dimensional, multi-zone, with the issuing jet (from the nozzle) divided into several discrete volumes, called 'zones', formed along the direction of the fuel injection as well as across it. The model follows each zone, with its own time history, as the spray penetrates into the swirling air environment of the combustion chamber before and after wall impingement. After the jet break up time, a group of droplets is generated in each zone, with the model following their motion during heating, evaporation and mixing with the in-cylinder air. The model is applied for the interesting case of using vegetable oils or their derived bio-diesels as fuels, which recently are considered as promising alternatives to petroleum distillates since they are derived from biological sources. Although there are numerous experimental studies that show curtailment of the emitted smoke with possible increase of the emitted NO x against the use of Diesel fuel, there is an apparent scarcity of theoretical models scrutinizing the formation mechanisms of combustion generated emissions when using these biologically derived fuels. Thus, in the present work, a theoretical detailed model of spray formation is developed that is limited to the related investigation of the physical processes by decoupling it from the chemical effects after combustion initiation. The analysis results show how the widely differing physical properties of these fuels, against the normal Diesel fuel, affect greatly the spray formation and consequently the combustion mechanism and the related emissions

  19. Carbonyl compound emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine fueled with diesel fuel and ethanol-diesel blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chonglin; Zhao, Zhuang; Lv, Gang; Song, Jinou; Liu, Lidong; Zhao, Ruifen

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the carbonyl emissions from a direct injection heavy-duty diesel engine fueled with pure diesel fuel (DF) and blended fuel containing 15% by volume of ethanol (E/DF). The tests have been conducted under steady-state operating conditions at 1200, 1800, 2600 rpm and idle speed. The experimental results show that acetaldehyde is the most predominant carbonyl, followed by formaldehyde, acrolein, acetone, propionaldehyde and crotonaldehyde, produced from both fuels. The emission factors of total carbonyls vary in the range 13.8-295.9 mg(kWh)(-1) for DF and 17.8-380.2mg(kWh)(-1) for E/DF, respectively. The introduction of ethanol into diesel fuel results in a decrease in acrolein emissions, while the other carbonyls show general increases: at low engine speed (1200 rpm), 0-55% for formaldehyde, 4-44% for acetaldehyde, 38-224% for acetone, and 5-52% for crotonaldehyde; at medium engine speed (1800 rpm), 106-413% for formaldehyde, 4-143% for acetaldehyde, 74-113% for acetone, 114-1216% for propionaldehyde, and 15-163% for crotonaldehyde; at high engine speed (2600 rpm), 36-431% for formaldehyde, 18-61% for acetaldehyde, 22-241% for acetone, and 6-61% for propionaldehyde. A gradual reduction in the brake specific emissions of each carbonyl compound from both fuels is observed with increase in engine load. Among three levels of engine speed employed, both DF and E/DF emit most CBC emissions at high engine speed. On the whole, the presence of ethanol in diesel fuel leads to an increase in aldehyde emissions. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Oxygenated fuels for clean heavy-duty diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijters, P.J.M.; Baert, R.S.G.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: For diesel engines, changing the fuel composition is an alternative route towards achieving lower emission levels. The potential of oxygenated fuels to significantly reduce particulate matter emissions has already been demonstrated earlier. In this study, this research has been

  1. EXPERIMENTAL COMBUSTION ANALYSIS OF A HSDI DIESEL ENGINE FUELLED WITH PALM OIL BIODIESEL-DIESEL FUEL BLENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOHN AGUDELO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Differences in the chemical nature between petroleum diesel fuels and vegetable oils-based fuels lead to differences in their physical properties affecting the combustion process inside the engine. In this work a detailed combustion diagnosis was applied to a turbocharged automotive diesel engine operating with neat palm oil biodiesel (POB, No. 2 diesel fuel and their blends at 20 and 50% POB by volume (B20 and B50 respectively. To isolate the fuel effect, tests were executed at constant power output without carrying out any modification of the engine or its fuel injection system. As the POB content in the blend increased, there was a slight reduction in the fuel/air equivalence ratio from 0.39 (B0 to 0.37 (B100, an advance of injection timing and of start of combustion. Additionally, brake thermal efficiency, combustion duration, maximum mean temperature, temperature at exhaust valve opening and exhaust gas efficiency decreased; while the peak pressure, exergy destruction rate and specific fuel consumption increased. With diesel fuel and the blends B20 and B50 the same combustion stages were noticed. However, as a consequence of the differences pointed out, the thermal history of the process was affected. The diffusion combustion stage became larger with POB content. For B100 no premixed stage was observed.

  2. Production of additives from Jatropha Curcas L. methyl esther as a way to improve diesel engine performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silitonga, A.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Medan State Polytechnic (Indonesia)], email: ardinsu@yahoo.co.id, email: a_atabani2@msn.com; Mahlia, T.M.I. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Syiah Kuala University, (Indonesia); Masjuki, H.H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya (Malaysia); Ghofur, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Lambung Mangkurat University (Indonesia); Abdullahe [Department of Chemical Engineering, Lambung Mangkurat University (Indonesia)

    2011-07-01

    Nowadays we are searching for ideal alternative fuels in order to reduce harmful gas emissions and improve air quality. And many kinds of bio-diesel have been proposed. This paper introduces a bio-diesel converted from the oil of Jatropha curcas L. through a series of physical and chemical processes. This bio-diesel, which has a high cetane number, is better adapted than diesel or other, edible, vegetable oils to be an ideal alternative fuel. Moreover, the additive promotes the physico-chemical characteristics of Jatropha curcas methyl ester, further enhancing its desirability as a substitute for diesel oil. This paper analyzes and reports the results of a laboratory-scale investigation of the feasibility of blending diesel with an additive produced from Jatropha curcas methyl ester. It finds that this additive can improve engine performance and reduce exhaust emissions.

  3. 40 CFR 80.608 - What requirements apply to diesel fuel and ECA marine fuel for use in the Territories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Exemptions... sulfur standards of § 80.520(a)(1) and (c) related to motor vehicle diesel fuel, of § 80.510(a), (b), and... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What requirements apply to diesel fuel...

  4. Spray-Wall Impingement of Diesel-CNG Dual Fuel Jet using Schlieren Imaging Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Mhadi Abaker

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas is a low cost fuel with high availability in nature. However, it cannot be used by itself in conventional diesel engines due to its low flame speed and high ignition temperature. The addition of a secondary fuel to enhance the mixture formation and combustion process facilitate its wider use as an alternative fuel. An experimental study was performed to investigate the diesel-CNG dual fuel jet-wall impingement. A constant volume optical chamber was designed to facilitate maximum optical access for the study of the jet-wall impingement at different injection pressures, temperatures and injector-wall distances. The bottom plate of the test rig was made of aluminum (piston material and it was heated up to 500 K at ambient pressure. An injector driver was used to control the single-hole nozzle diesel injector combined with a natural gas injector. The injection timing of both injectors was synchronized with a camera trigger. The jet-wall impingement of diesel and diesel-CNG dual fuel jets was recorded with a high speed camera using Schlieren imaging technique and associated image processing software. The measurements of the jet radial penetration were higher in diesel-CNG dual fuel while the jet height travel along were higher in the case of diesel single fuel.

  5. Experimental investigations of the hydrogen addition effects on diesel engine performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirica, I.; Pana, C.; Negurescu, N.; Cernat, A.; Nutu, C.

    2016-08-01

    In the global content regarding the impact on the environmental of the gases emissions resulted from the fossil fuels combustion, an interest aspect discussed on the 21st Session of the Conference of the Parties from the 2015 Paris Climate Conference and the gradual diminution of the worldwide oil reserves contribute to the necessity of searching of alternative energy from durable and renewable resources. At the use of hydrogen as addition in air to diesel engine, the level of CO, HC and smoke from the exhaust gases will decrease due to the improvement of the combustion process. At low and medium partial loads and low hydrogen energetic ratios used the NOX emission level can decrease comparative to classic diesel engine. The hydrogen use as fuel for diesel engine leads to the improving of the energetic and emissions performance of the engine due to combustion improvement and reduction of carbon content. The paper presents, in a comparative way, results of the experimental researches carried on a truck compression ignition engine fuelled with diesel fuel and with hydrogen diesel fuel and hydrogen as addition in air at different engine operation regimes. The results obtained during experimental investigations show better energetic and pollution performance of the engine fuelled with hydrogen as addition in air comparative to classic engine. The influences of hydrogen addition on engine operation are shown.

  6. Performance and emission characteristics of diesel engine fueled with ethanol-diesel blends in different altitude regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jilin; Bi, Yuhua; Shen, Lizhong

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects ethanol-diesel blends and altitude on the performance and emissions of diesel engine, the comparative experiments were carried out on the bench of turbo-charged diesel engine fueled with pure diesel (as prototype) and ethanol-diesel blends (E10, E15, E20 and E30) under different atmospheric pressures (81 kPa, 90 kPa and 100 kPa). The experimental results indicate that the equivalent brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC) of ethanol-diesel blends are better than that of diesel under different atmospheric pressures and that the equivalent BSFC gets great improvement with the rise of atmospheric pressure when the atmospheric pressure is lower than 90 kPa. At 81 kPa, both HC and CO emissions rise greatly with the increasing engine speeds and loads and addition of ethanol, while at 90 kPa and 100 kPa their effects on HC and CO emissions are slightest. The changes of atmospheric pressure and mix proportion of ethanol have no obvious effect on NO(x) emissions. Smoke emissions decrease obviously with the increasing percentage of ethanol in blends, especially atmospheric pressure below 90 kPa.

  7. Performance and Emission Characteristics of Diesel Engine Fueled with Ethanol-Diesel Blends in Different Altitude Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jilin Lei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects ethanol-diesel blends and altitude on the performance and emissions of diesel engine, the comparative experiments were carried out on the bench of turbo-charged diesel engine fueled with pure diesel (as prototype and ethanol-diesel blends (E10, E15, E20 and E30 under different atmospheric pressures (81 kPa, 90 kPa and 100 kPa. The experimental results indicate that the equivalent brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC of ethanol-diesel blends are better than that of diesel under different atmospheric pressures and that the equivalent BSFC gets great improvement with the rise of atmospheric pressure when the atmospheric pressure is lower than 90 kPa. At 81 kPa, both HC and CO emissions rise greatly with the increasing engine speeds and loads and addition of ethanol, while at 90 kPa and 100 kPa their effects on HC and CO emissions are slightest. The changes of atmospheric pressure and mix proportion of ethanol have no obvious effect on NOx emissions. Smoke emissions decrease obviously with the increasing percentage of ethanol in blends, especially atmospheric pressure below 90 kPa.

  8. Biomass energy from wood chips: Diesel fuel dependence?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmons, Dave; Mejia, Cesar Viteri

    2010-01-01

    Most renewable energy sources depend to some extent on use of other, non-renewable sources. In this study we explore use of diesel fuel in producing and transporting woody biomass in the state of New Hampshire, USA. We use two methods to estimate the diesel fuel used in woody biomass production: 1) a calculation based on case studies of diesel consumption in different parts of the wood chip supply chain, and 2) to support extrapolating those results to a regional system, an econometric study of the variation of wood-chip prices with respect to diesel fuel prices. The econometric study relies on an assumption of fixed demand, then assesses variables impacting supply, with a focus on how the price of diesel fuel affects price of biomass supplied. The two methods yield similar results. The econometric study, representing overall regional practices, suggests that a $1.00 per liter increase in diesel fuel price is associated with a $5.59 per Mg increase in the price of wood chips. On an energy basis, the diesel fuel used directly in wood chip production and transportation appears to account for less than 2% of the potential energy in the wood chips. Thus, the dependence of woody biomass energy production on diesel fuel does not appear to be extreme. (author)

  9. 40 CFR 80.8 - Sampling methods for gasoline and diesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sampling methods for gasoline and... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES General Provisions § 80.8 Sampling methods for gasoline and diesel fuel. The sampling methods specified in this section shall be used to collect samples...

  10. Use of ASTM D5304 in assessing unstable diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, L.M.; Martin, C.J. [Defense Fuel Supply Center, Alexandria, VA (United States); Beal, E.J.; Hardy, D.R. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The storage stability, or the length of time a fuel can be stored, is of great concern to diesel fuel users. This paper reports on the use of the new ASTM accelerated test for storage stability by oxygen overpressure (D5304) to predict future storage life span of 63,000,000 gallons of a diesel fuel for US Naval vessel use. This paper demonstrates the use of ASTM D5304 at storage times of 16, 40 and 96 hours to accurately determine the length of time that this large quantity of diesel fuel could be stored at ambient temperatures before the maximum allowable amount of particulate contamination was reached.

  11. Exhaust emissions evaluation of Colombian commercial diesel fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Jaime; Bello, Arcesio; Sarmiento, Jose; Rostkowski, Jacek; Brady, Jeremy

    2003-01-01

    Ecopetrol, based on the results obtained in the study, The effect of diesel properties on the emissions of particulate matter (Bello et al 2000), reformulated the diesel fuel distributed in Bogota, becoming it lighter and with lower sulfur content. In order to evaluate the environmental benefits that the reformulation of diesel fuel generate in Bogota, Instituto Colombiano del Petroleo (ICP), with the assistance of emissions research and measurement division (ERMD) from environment Canada, arranged a research project to determine the changes in CO, THC, NO x , CO 2 and particulate matter emissions. The research program was developed in two steps. First one, developed in Bogota, involved a fleet test with 15 public service buses that normally operate in Bogota's savannah, using a portable emissions sampling technology developed for ERMD (DOES2) and following a representative transient driving cycle. Second step, carried out in ERMD's Heavy-Duty engine emissions laboratory in Ottawa, tested a 1995 caterpillar 3406E 324/5 KW (435 HP) diesel truck engine on the same samples of Colombian diesel fuels used in the fleet tests performed in Bogota, baselining the tests with a Canadian commercial low sulfur diesel fuel. The two commercial Colombian diesel fuels used had the following properties: High Sulfur Diesel (HSD), with 3000 ppm (0,3 wt %) of sulfur and a final boiling point (FBP) of 633 K and the new reformulated diesel fuel, with 1000 ppm (0,1 wt %) of sulfur and FBP of 613 K, which is currently been distributed in Bogota. Fleet test show small reduction on CO, THC and TPM, and small increments on CO 2 and NO x but with not statistically significant results, while engine testing shows a strong reduction of 40/8% in TPM when you use the new reformulated diesel fuel (0,1 wt % of sulfur) instead of high sulfur diesel

  12. Fuel oil systems for standby diesel-generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    This Standard provides the design requirements for fuel oil system for diesel-generators that provide standby power for a nuclear power generating station. The system includes all essential equipment from and including fuel oil storage tanks up to the terminal connection on the diesel-engine. It does not include that portion of the fuel oil system supplied by the diesel-generator manufacturer which is in accordance with Trial-Use Criteria for Diesel-Generator Units Applied as Standby Power Supplies for Nuclear Power Generating Stations, IEEE-387-1972. This definition of scope is intended to exclude only those factory-assembled, engine-mounted appurtances supplied with a diesel-generator unit. Integral tanks are, however, within the scope of this Standard. It also excludes motors, motor control centers, switchgear, cables, and other electrical equipment which is used in operation of the fuel oil system, except to define interface requirements

  13. Assessment of energy performance and air pollutant emissions in a diesel engine generator fueled with water-containing ethanol-biodiesel-diesel blend of fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Wen-Jhy; Liu, Yi-Cheng; Mwangi, Francis Kimani; Chen, Wei-Hsin; Lin, Sheng-Lun; Fukushima, Yasuhiro; Liao, Chao-Ning; Wang, Lin-Chi

    2011-01-01

    Biomass based oxygenated fuels have been identified as possible replacement of fossil fuel due to pollutant emission reduction and decrease in over-reliance on fossil fuel energy. In this study, 4 v% water-containing ethanol was mixed with (65-90%) diesel using (5-30%) biodiesel (BD) and 1 v% butanol as stabilizer and co-solvent respectively. The fuels were tested against those of biodiesel-diesel fuel blends to investigate the effect of addition of water-containing ethanol for their energy efficiencies and pollutant emissions in a diesel-fueled engine generator. Experimental results indicated that the fuel blend mix containing 4 v% of water-containing ethanol, 1 v% butanol and 5-30 v% of biodiesel yielded stable blends after 30 days standing. BD1041 blend of fuel, which composed of 10 v% biodiesel, 4 v% of water-containing ethanol and 1 v% butanol demonstrated -0.45 to 1.6% increase in brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC, mL kW -1 h -1 ) as compared to conventional diesel. The better engine performance of BD1041 was as a result of complete combustion, and lower reaction temperature based on the water cooling effect, which reduced emissions to 2.8-6.0% for NO x , 12.6-23.7% particulate matter (PM), 20.4-23.8% total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 30.8-42.9% total BaPeq between idle mode and 3.2 kW power output of the diesel engine generator. The study indicated that blending diesel with water-containing ethanol could achieve the goal of more green sustainability. -- Highlights: → Water-containing ethanol was mixed with diesel using biodiesel and butanol as stabilizer and co-solvent, respectively. → Fuel blends with 4 v% water-containing ethanol, 1 v% butanol, 5-30 v% biodiesel and conventional diesel yielded a stable blended fuel after more than 30 days. → Due to more complete combustion and water quench effect, target fuel BD1041 was gave good energy performance and significant reduction of PM, NO x , total PAH and total BaPeq emissions.

  14. Test/QA plan for the verification testing of alternative or reformulated liquid fuels, fuel additives, fuel emulsions, and lubricants for highway and nonroad use heavy-duty diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Environmental Technology Verification Program test/QA plan for heavy-duty diesel engine testing at the Southwest Research Institute’s Department of Emissions Research describes how the Federal Test Procedure (FTP), as listed in 40 CFR Part 86 for highway engines and 40 CFR P...

  15. Design and Performance of LPG Fuel Mixer for Dual Fuel Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrial; Saputro, W.; Garcia, P. P.

    2018-05-01

    Small horizontal diesel engines are commonly used for agricultural machinery, however, availability of diesel fuel become one of big problems especially in remote area. Conversely, in line with government policy for conversion of kerosene into LPG for cooking, then LPG become more popular and available even in remote area. Therefore, LPG is potential fuel to replace the shortage of diesel fuel for operating diesel engine in remote area. The purpose of this study was to design mixing device for using dual fuel i.e. LPG and diesel fuel and evaluate its performance accordingly. Simulation by using CFD was done in order to analyze mixture characteristics of LPG in air intake manifold. The performance test was done by varying the amount of LPG injected in intake air at 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, until 40%, respectively. Result of CFD contour simulation showed the best combination when mixing 30% LPG into the intake air. Performance test of this research revealed that mixing LPG in air intake can reduce the diesel fuel consumption about 0.7 l/hour (without load) and 1.14 l/hour (with load). Diesel engine revolution increases almost 300 rpm faster than when using diesel fuel only. Based on economic analysis, using the fuel combination (diesel fuel – LPG) is not recommended in the area near SPBU where the price of diesel fuel is standard. However, using the fuel combination LPG-diesel fuel is highly recommended in the remote areas in Indonesia where price of diesel fuel is comparatively expensive which will provide cheaper total fuel cost for diesel engine operation.

  16. Exhaust emissions reduction from diesel engine using combined Annona-Eucalyptus oil blends and antioxidant additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil, R.; Silambarasan, R.; Pranesh, G.

    2017-03-01

    The limited resources, rising petroleum prices and depletion of fossil fuel have now become a matter of great concern. Hence, there is an urgent need for researchers to find some alternate fuels which are capable of substituting partly or wholly the higher demanded conventional diesel fuel. Lot of research work has been conducted on diesel engine using biodiesel and its blends with diesel as an alternate fuel. Very few works have been done with combination of biodiesel-Eucalypts oil without neat diesel and this leads to lots of scope in this area. The aim of the present study is to analyze the performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder, direct injection, compression ignition engine using eucalyptus oil-biodiesel as fuel. The presence of eucalyptus oil in the blend reduces the viscosity and improves the volatility of the blends. The methyl ester of Annona oil is blended with eucalypts oil in 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 %. The performance and emission characteristics are evaluated by operating the engine at different loads. The performance characteristics such as brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption and exhaust gas temperature are evaluated. The emission constituents measured are Carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC), Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and Smoke. It is found that A50-Eu50 (50 Annona + 50 % Eucalyptus oil) blend showed better performance and reduction in exhaust emissions. But, it showed a very marginal increase in NOx emission when compared to that of diesel. Therefore, in order to reduce the NOx emission, antioxidant additive (A-tocopherol acetate) is mixed with Annona-Eucalyptus oil blends in various proportions by which NOx emission is reduced. Hence, A50-Eu50 blend can be used as an alternate fuel for diesel engine without any modifications.

  17. Physicochemical and FTIR Study of Diesel-Hydrogen Peroxide Fuel Blend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad Khan, Muhammad; Ahmed, Iqbal; Lal, Bhajan; Idris, Al-Amin; Albeirutty, Muhammad H.; Ayoub, Muhammad; Sufian, Suriati binti

    2018-04-01

    Physicochemical properties of combustion fuels play a key role in determining the qualitative and quantitative characteristics, reliability and health effects associated with emissions. This paper reports the preparation of polysaccharide (PS) based emulsifier for stable blending of petroleum diesel-hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and investigated the influence of H2O2 as diesel fuel blends on the physicochemical properties and characteristics. The quantity of PS-emulsifier was kept at 5 volume % (vol. %) and the volume ratio of H2O2 were varied 5-15 vol. % to reference diesel (RD), respectively. The blended diesel/H2O2 fuel were prepared under inert oxygen (O2) gas closed heating system; afterthought, physiochemical properties of diesel/H2O2 blend were evaluated at standard ASTM D-975 testing method. The kinetic properties show the interaction of RD and H2O2 blend at presence of PS emulsifier which exhibit the phenomenon to diminish the interfacial tension among the two different phases to form a homogenized stable solution. Results revealed that H2O2 is capable of enhancing the diesel fuel properties and showed that the addition of H2O2 in a diesel fuel blend are lied within the ranges of standard ASTM D-975. Due to further oxygen atom present in H2O2, it can facilitate the combustion process which ultimately effect on exhaust emission.

  18. Trends in Asian diesel fuel quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.

    2000-01-01

    An overview of the Asia-Pacific petrol and diesel markets is presented covering the diesel demand and quality in the sub regions of Australia/New Zealand, East Asia (Japan, China), South Asia, and Southeast Asia (Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Philippines, Singapore) and the trend towards lower sulphur diesels in Asia. Plots are presented illustrating Asia-Pacific diesel demand by regional submarket (1985-2005), the steady reductions in Asia-Pacific diesel sulphur levels (1990-2000), and the average sulphur content and tpd sulphur in Asian diesel

  19. MODELING OF FUEL SPRAY CHARACTERISTICS AND DIESEL COMBUSTION CHAMBER PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Kukharonak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The computer model for coordination of fuel spray characteristics with diesel combustion chamber parameters has been created in the paper.  The model allows to observe fuel sprays  develоpment in diesel cylinder at any moment of injection, to calculate characteristics of fuel sprays with due account of a shape and dimensions of a combustion chamber, timely to change fuel injection characteristics and supercharging parameters, shape and dimensions of a combustion chamber. Moreover the computer model permits to determine parameters of holes in an injector nozzle that provides the required fuel sprays characteristics at the stage of designing a diesel engine. Combustion chamber parameters for 4ЧН11/12.5 diesel engine have been determined in the paper.

  20. The characteristic of spray using diesel water emulsified fuel in a diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sangki; Woo, Seungchul; Kim, Hyungik; Lee, Kihyung

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Water in oil emulsion is produced using ceramic membrane. • Surfactant type affect stability performance and droplet size distribution. • Evaporation characteristic of DE is poor compared with neat diesel. • Coefficient of variation maintains below 2.0% both DE and neat diesel. - Abstract: In this study, it was applied to the diesel–water emulsified (DE) fuel that carried out the experiment for the characteristic of sprat using diesel water emulsified fuel in a diesel engine, and the possibility of its application to conventional diesel engines was evaluated from the fundamental characteristics of diesel–water emulsified fuel. According to the results of the spray characteristics such as spray penetration and spray distribution were measured in the experiment, and then analyzed through digital image processing. The DEs were applied to actual diesel engines and their combustion, emission, and fuel consumption characteristics were compared with those of diesel. The results showed that the experiments were confirmed as the spray atomization characteristics at the various emulsified fuels.

  1. DEEP DESULFURIZATION OF DIESEL FUELS BY A NOVEL INTEGRATED APPROACH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaoliang Ma; Michael Sprague; Lu Sun; Chunshan Song

    2002-10-01

    In order to reduce the sulfur level in liquid hydrocarbon fuels for environmental protection and fuel cell applications, deep desulfurization of a model diesel fuel and a real diesel fuel was conducted by our SARS (selective adsorption for removing sulfur) process using the adsorbent A-2. Effect of temperature on the desulfurization process was examined. Adsorption desulfurization at ambient temperature, 24 h{sup -1} of LHSV over A-2 is efficient to remove dibenzothiophene (DBT) in the model diesel fuel, but difficult to remove 4-methyldibenzothiophene (4-MDBT) and 4,6-dimethyl-dibenzothiophene (4,6-DMDBT). Adsorption desulfurization at 150 C over A-2 can efficiently remove DBT, 4-MDBT and 4,6-DMDBT in the model diesel fuel. The sulfur content in the model diesel fuel can be reduced to less than 1 ppmw at 150 C without using hydrogen gas. The adsorption capacity corresponding to the break-through point is 6.9 milligram of sulfur per gram of A-2 (mg-S/g-A-2), and the saturate capacity is 13.7 mg-S/g-A-2. Adsorption desulfurization of a commercial diesel fuel with a total sulfur level of 47 ppmw was also performed at ambient temperature and 24 h{sup -1} of LHSV over the adsorbent A-2. The results show that only part of the sulfur compounds existing in the low sulfur diesel can be removed by adsorption over A-2 at such operating conditions, because (1) the all sulfur compounds in the low sulfur diesel are the refractory sulfur compounds that have one or two alkyl groups at the 4- and/or 6-positions of DBT, which inhibit the approach of the sulfur atom to the adsorption site; (2) some compounds coexisting in the commercial low sulfur diesel probably inhibit the interaction between the sulfur compounds and the adsorbent. Further work in determining the optimum operating conditions and screening better adsorbent is desired.

  2. Diesel engine performance and exhaust emission analysis using diesel-organic germanium fuel blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syafiq Zulkifli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alternative fuels such as biodiesel, bio-alcohol and other biomass sources have been extensively research to find its potential as an alternative sources to fossil fuels. This experiment compared the performance of diesel (D, biodiesel (BD and diesel-organic germanium blend (BG5 at five different speeds ranging from 1200-2400 rpm. BG5 shows significant combustion performance compared to BD. No significant changes of power observed between BG5 and BD at a low speed (1200 rpm. On the contrary, at higher speeds (1800 rpm and 2400 rpm, BG5 blend fuel shows increased engine power of 12.2 % and 9.2 %, respectively. Similarly, torque shows similar findings as engine power, whereby the improvement could be seen at higher speeds (1800 rpm and 2400 rpm when torque increased by 7.3 % and 2.3 %, respectively. In addition, the emission results indicated that for all speeds, CO2, and NO had reduced at an average of 2.1 % and 177 %, respectively. Meanwhile, CO emission had slightly increased compared to BD at low speeds by 0.04 %. However, the amount of CO released had decreased at an average of 0.03 % as the engine speed increased. Finally, measurement of O2 shows an increment at 16.4 % at all speed range.

  3. Effects of water-emulsified fuel on a diesel engine generator's thermal efficiency and exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syu, Jin-Yuan; Chang, Yuan-Yi; Tseng, Chao-Heng; Yan, Yeou-Lih; Chang, Yu-Min; Chen, Chih-Chieh; Lin, Wen-Yinn

    2014-08-01

    Water-emulsified diesel has proven itself as a technically sufficient improvement fuel to improve diesel engine fuel combustion emissions and engine performance. However, it has seldom been used in light-duty diesel engines. Therefore, this paper focuses on an investigation into the thermal efficiency and pollution emission analysis of a light-duty diesel engine generator fueled with different water content emulsified diesel fuels (WD, including WD-0, WD-5, WD-10, and WD-15). In this study, nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and carbon dioxide were analyzed by a vehicle emission gas analyzer and the particle size and number concentration were measured by an electrical low-pressure impactor. In addition, engine loading and fuel consumption were also measured to calculate the thermal efficiency. Measurement results suggested that water-emulsified diesel was useful to improve the thermal efficiency and the exhaust emission of a diesel engine. Obviously, the thermal efficiency was increased about 1.2 to 19.9%. In addition, water-emulsified diesel leads to a significant reduction of nitric oxide emission (less by about 18.3 to 45.4%). However the particle number concentration emission might be increased if the loading of the generator becomes lower than or equal to 1800 W. In addition, exhaust particle size distributions were shifted toward larger particles at high loading. The consequence of this research proposed that the water-emulsified diesel was useful to improve the engine performance and some of exhaust emissions, especially the NO emission reduction. Implications: The accumulated test results provide a good basis to resolve the corresponding pollutants emitted from a light-duty diesel engine generator. By measuring and analyzing transforms of exhaust pollutant from this engine generator, the effects of water-emulsified diesel fuel and loading on emission characteristics might be more clear. Understanding reduction of pollutant emissions during the use

  4. The economic impact of strengthening fuel quality regulation-reducing sulfur content in diesel fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, H.J.; Cho, G.L.; Kim, Y.D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of strengthening vehicle emission regulation on economic activities. The government attempts to use three regulation measures to protect air quality from transportation emission. The measures include the aggregate limit (bubbles), the vehicle emission standard, and the fuel quality standard. Especially, we focus on the economic impact of reducing sulfur content in diesel fuel quality standard. Sulfur content in diesel fuel is one of the main factors in worsening local air quality. The emission from diesel vehicle accounts for 51.8% of total vehicle emission in Korea. If sulfur content reduction regulation is implemented, then the petroleum industry should build more facility to produce low sulfur content diesel, leading to additional production costs and increasing prices and decreasing outputs. We use computable general equilibrium model to analyze how the sulfur reduction regulation affects economic activities and trace out local emission reduction cost and GDP loss. And we suggest the tax-recycling mechanism to mitigate the negative economic costs due to the sulfur reduction regulation

  5. Effects of MTBE blended diesel fuel on diesel combustion and emissions; MTBE kongo keiyu ga diesel nensho haiki ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shundo, S; Yokota, H; Kakegawa, T [Hino Motors, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The effects of MTBE (Methyl-t-butyl ether) blended diesel fuel on diesel combustion and emissions were studied. In conventional diesel combustion, the testing mode was carried out in conformity with the Japanese 13 mode. Furthermore, this fuel was applied to a new combustion system (Homogeneous Charge Intelligent Multiple Injection). MTBE blended diesel fuel is more effective in the case of new combustion system and very low NOx, PM capability is suggested. 6 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Theoretical investigation of heat balance in direct injection (DI) diesel engines for neat diesel fuel and gasoline fumigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durgun, O.; Sahin, Z.

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of the presented study is to evaluate energy balance theoretically in direct injection (DI) diesel engines at different conditions. To analyze energy balance, a zero-dimensional multi-zone thermodynamic model has been developed and used. In this thermodynamic model, zero-dimensional intake and exhaust approximations given by Durgun, zero-dimensional compression and expansion model given by Heywood and quasi-dimensional phenomenological combustion model developed by Shahed and then improved Ottikkutti have been used and developed with new approximations and assumptions. By using the developed model, complete diesel engine cycle, engine performance parameters and exhaust emissions can be determined easily. Also, by using this model energy balance can be analyzed for neat diesel fuel and for light fuel fumigation easily. In the presented study, heat balance has been investigated theoretically for three different engines and various numerical applications have been conducted. In the numerical applications two different turbocharged DI diesel engines and a naturally aspirated DI diesel engine have been used. From these numerical applications, it is determined that, what portion of available fuel energy is converted to useful work, what amount of fuel energy is lost by exhaust gases or lost by heat transfer. In addition, heat balance has been analyzed for gasoline fumigation and some numerical results have been given. Brake effective power and brake specific fuel consumption increase and brake effective efficiency decreases for gasoline fumigation for turbocharged diesel engines used in numerical applications. Combustion duration increases with increasing fumigation ratio and thus heat transfer to the walls increases. Because exhaust temperature increases, exhaust losses also increases for fumigation case

  7. High Resolution Numerical Simulations of Primary Atomization in Diesel Sprays with Single Component Reference Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    NC. 14. ABSTRACT A high-resolution numerical simulation of jet breakup and spray formation from a complex diesel fuel injector at diesel engine... diesel fuel injector at diesel engine type conditions has been performed. A full understanding of the primary atomization process in diesel fuel... diesel liquid sprays the complexity is further compounded by the physical attributes present including nozzle turbulence, large density ratios

  8. Combustion performance and emission analysis of diesel engine fuelled with water-in-diesel emulsion fuel made from low-grade diesel fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ithnin, Ahmad Muhsin; Ahmad, Mohamad Azrin; Bakar, Muhammad Aiman Abu; Rajoo, Srithar; Yahya, Wira Jazair

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of using emulsified fuel made from low-grade fuel in engine are investigated. • Specific fuel consumption of the engine is reduced overall for all types of W/D. • Comparable maximum in-cylinder pressure and pressure rise rate compared to D2. • NOx and PM are found to be reduced for all types of W/D. • CO and CO 2 emissions increase compared to D2 at low load and high load. - Abstract: In the present research, an experiment is designed and conducted to investigate the effect of W/D originating from low-grade diesel fuel (D2) on the combustion performance and emission characteristics of a direct injection diesel engine under varying engine loads (25–100%) and constant engine speed (3000 rpm). Four types of W/D are tested, which consist of different water percentages (5%, 10%, 15% and 20%), with constant 2% of surfactant and labelled as E5, E10, E15 and E20, respectively. The specific fuel consumption (SFC) of the engine when using each type of W/D is found to be reduced overall. This is observed when the total amount of diesel fuel in the emulsion is compared with that of neat D2. E20 shows a comparable maximum in-cylinder pressure and pressure rise rate (PRR) compared to D2 in all load conditions. In addition, it produces the highest maximum rate of heat release (MHRR) in almost every load compared to D2 and other W/Ds. NOx and PM are found to be reduced for all types of W/D. The carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions increase compared to D2 at low load and high load, respectively. Overall, it is observed that the formation of W/D from low-grade diesel is an appropriate alternative fuel method that can bring about greener exhaust emissions and fuel savings without deteriorating engine performance

  9. Fueling diesel engines with methyl-ester soybean oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumacher, L.G.; Hires, W.G.; Borgelt, S.C.

    1993-01-01

    Two 5.9 liter Cummins engines were fueled for a combined total of more than 80,467 km (50,000 miles). One truck, a 1991 Dodge, has been driven approximately 48,280 km (30,000 miles). The other, a 1992 Dodge, has been driven approximately 32,187 km (20,000 miles). Fueling these engines with soydiesel increase engine power by 3 percent (1991 engine) and reduced power by 6 percent (1992 engine). The pickups averaged more than 7.1 km/L (16.7 mpg). Analysis of used engine oil samples indicated that the engines were wearing at normal rate. The black exhaust smoke normally observed when a diesel engine accelerates was reduced as much as 86 percent when the diesel engine was fueled with 100% soydiesel. Increased EPA exhaust emissions requirements for diesel engines have created much interest in the use of soydiesel as fuel for diesel engines

  10. Hydrogen production via autothermal reforming of Diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasel, J.; Meissner, J.; Pors, Z.; Cremer, P.; Peters, R.; Stolten, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Institute for Materials and Processes in Energy Systems (IWV 3), D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Palm, C. [BASF Schwarzheide GmbH, Schipkauer Str. 1, Einheit PFO/I, D-01986 Schwarzheide (Germany)

    2004-08-01

    Hydrogen, for the operation of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell, can be produced by means of autothermal reforming of liquid hydrocarbons. Experiments, especially with ATR 4, which produces a molar hydrogen stream equivalent to an electrical power in the fuel cell of 3 kW, showed that the process should be preferably run in the temperature range between 700 and 850 . This ensures complete hydrocarbon conversion and avoids the formation of considerable amounts of methane and organic compounds in the product water. Experiments with commercial diesel showed promising results but insufficient long-term stability. Experiments concerning the ignition of the catalytic reaction inside the reformer proved that within 60 s after the addition of water and hydrocarbons the reformer reached 95% of its maximum molar hydrogen flow. Measurements, with respect to reformer start-up, showed that it takes approximately 7 min. to heat up the monolith to a temperature of 340 using an external heating device. Modelling is performed, aimed at the modification of the mixing chamber of ATR Type 5, which will help to amend the homogeneous blending of diesel fuel with air and water in the mixing chamber. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  11. In situ diesel fuel bioremediation: A case history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, D.K.; Burke, G.K.; Smith, N.; Clark, D.

    1995-01-01

    As a result of a ruptured fuel line, the study site had diesel fuel soil contamination and free product more than 2 ft (0.75 m) thick on the groundwater surface. Diesel fuel, which is composed of a high percentage of nonvolatile compounds, has proven difficult to remediate using conventional extraction remediation techniques. A number of remedial alternatives were reviewed, and the patented in situ biodegradation BioSparge SM technology was selected for the site and performed under license by a specialty contractor. BioSparge SM is a field-proven closed-loop (no vapor emissions) system that supplies a continuous, steady supply of oxygen, moisture, and additional heat to enhance microorganism activity. The system injects an enriched airstream beneath the groundwater surface elevation and/or within the contaminant plume and removes residual vapors from vadose zone soil within and above the contaminant plume. The technology has no air discharge, which is critical in areas where strict air discharge regulations apply. The focus of this paper is the viability of in situ biodegradation as an effective remediation alternative for reducing nonvolatile petroleum products

  12. Sales of diesel fuel up, gasoline sales down

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nupponen, J.

    2000-01-01

    The combined sales of petroleum products in Finland during 1999 totalled more than nine million tonnes, which was little changed from the figure for 1998. Sales of traffic fuels increased, while those of fuel oil fell. Diesel fuel sales reached a record level, while sales of gasoline continued their downward trend

  13. Fuel saving performances of marine diesel engine oils on board

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirose, Yasunori; Henmi, Takashi; Minamitani, Hiromu; Akizawa, Hayao; Hamada, Minoru; Ashida, Jiro

    1988-05-01

    After the second oil crisis, the percentage of the fuel cost against the operational cost of a ship has been showing the rising tendency, engine manufacturers have placed the top priority on the improvement of fuel consumption, operators have been conducting various energy saving measures and refiners have been paying efforts to improve lubricating oil. This article reports the study on the lubricating oil characteristics affecting the fuel consumption per power output, particularly the viscosity and the adding effect of friction modifier additives by using dynamo-generator diesel engines on board the ships already in commission. The investigation was conducted by comparing the cases of using several sample oils with the cases of using the reference oils. According to the results, the viscous property of engine oil was most effective on fuel consumption and the lower the viscosity of oil, the more the fuel consumption effect was. However, the addition of friction modifier additives did hardly show any improvement of the above effect. (5 figs, 4 tabs, 3 refs)

  14. 40 CFR 69.52 - Non-motor vehicle diesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Non-motor vehicle diesel fuel. 69.52... (CONTINUED) SPECIAL EXEMPTIONS FROM REQUIREMENTS OF THE CLEAN AIR ACT Alaska § 69.52 Non-motor vehicle diesel... NRLM diesel fuel. (5) Exempt NRLM diesel fuel and heating oil must be segregated from motor vehicle...

  15. Dual-fuel natural gas/diesel engines: Technology, performance, and emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, S. H.; Weaver, C. S.

    1994-11-01

    An investigation of current dual-fuel natural gas/diesel engine design, performance, and emissions was conducted. The most pressing technological problems associated with dual-fuel engine use were identified along with potential solutions. It was concluded that dual-fuel engines can achieve low NO(sub x) and particulate emissions while retaining fuel-efficiency and BMEP levels comparable to those of diesel engines. The investigation also examined the potential economic impact of dual-fuel engines in diesel-electric locomotives, marine vessels, farm equipment, construction, mining, and industrial equipment, and stand-alone electricity generation systems. Recommendations for further additional funding to support research, development, and demonstration in these applications were then presented.

  16. Emissions from Diesel and Gasoline Vehicles Fuelled by Fischer-Tropsch Fuels and Similar Fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ulrik; Lundorff, Peter; Ivarsson, Anders

    2007-01-01

    and an alkylate fuel (Aspen), which was taken to be the ultimate formula of FT gasoline. FT based diesel generally showed good emission performance, whereas the FT based gasoline not necessary lead to lower emissions. On the other hand, the Aspen fuel did show many advantages for the emissions from the gasoline...... vehicles fuelled by Fischer Tropsch (FT) based diesel and gasoline fuel, compared to the emissions from ordinary diesel and gasoline. The comparison for diesel fuels was based on a literature review, whereas the gasoline comparison had to be based on our own experiments, since almost no references were...

  17. Desulfurization of Diesel Fuel by Oxidation and Solvent Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadood Taher Mohammed

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research presents a study in ultra-desulfurization of diesel fuel produced from conventional hydro desulfurization process, using oxidation and solvent extraction techniques. Dibenzothiophene (DBT was the organosulfur compound that had been detected in sulfur removal. The oxidation process used hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant and acetic acid as homogeneous catalyst . The solvent extraction process used acetonitrile (ACN and N-methyl – 2 - pyrrolidone (NMP as extractants . Also the effect of five parameters (stirring speed :150 , 250 , 350 , and 450 rpm, temperature (30 , 40 , 45 , and 50 oC, oxidant/simulated diesel fuel ratio (0.5 , 0.75 , 1 , and 1.5 , catalyst/oxidant ratio(0.125,0.25,0.5,and0.75 , and solvent/simulated diesel fuel ratio(0.5,0.6,0.75,and1 were examined as well as solvent type. The results exhibit that the highest removal of sulfur is 98.5% using NMP solvent while it is 95.8% for ACN solvent. The set of conditions that show the highest sulfur removal is: stirring speed of 350 rpm , temperature 50oC , oxidant/simulated diesel fuel ratio 1 , catalyst/oxidant ratio 0.5 , solvent/simulated diesel fuel ratio 1. These best conditions were applied upon real diesel fuel (produced from Al-Dora refinerywith 1000 ppm sulfur content . It was found that sulfur removal was 64.4% using ACN solvent and 75% using NMP solvent.

  18. Comparison of carbonyl compounds emissions from diesel engine fueled with biodiesel and diesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chao; Ge, Yunshan; Tan, Jianwei; You, Kewei; Han, Xunkun; Wang, Junfang; You, Qiuwen; Shah, Asad Naeem

    The characteristics of carbonyl compounds emissions were investigated on a direct injection, turbocharged diesel engine fueled with pure biodiesel derived from soybean oil. The gas-phase carbonyls were collected by 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH)-coated silica cartridges from diluted exhaust and analyzed by HPLC with UV detector. A commercial standard mixture including 14 carbonyl compounds was used for quantitative analysis. The experimental results indicate that biodiesel-fueled engine almost has triple carbonyls emissions of diesel-fueled engine. The weighted carbonyls emission of 8-mode test cycle of biodiesel is 90.8 mg (kW h) -1 and that of diesel is 30.7 mg (kW h) -1. The formaldehyde is the most abundant compound of carbonyls for both biodiesel and diesel, taking part for 46.2% and 62.7% respectively. The next most significant compounds are acetaldehyde, acrolein and acetone for both fuels. The engine fueled with biodiesel emits a comparatively high content of propionaldehyde and methacrolein. Biodiesel, as an alternative fuel, has lower specific reactivity (SR) caused by carbonyls compared with diesel. When fueled with biodiesel, carbonyl compounds make more contribution to total hydrocarbon emission.

  19. 40 CFR 80.520 - What are the standards and dye requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel? 80.520 Section 80.520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel Standards and Requirements § 80.520 What are the standards and dye requirements for motor vehicle diesel...

  20. 77 FR 13009 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ... Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel Pathways Under the Renewable Fuel Standard Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Withdrawal... Renewable Fuel Standard program regulations. Because EPA received adverse comment, we are withdrawing the...

  1. An Assessment of Alternative Diesel Fuels: Microbiological Contamination and Corrosion Under Storage Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    and B20) In experiments with additions of distilled water, all fuels supported biofilm formation Changes in the water pH did not correlate with...ULSD) and blends of ULSD and B100 (B5 and B20). In experiments with additions of distilled water, all fuels supported biofilm formation . Changes in...corrosion; diesel; biodiesel; biofouling; MIC; carbon steel ; aluminum; stainless steel Introduction Microbial contamination of hydrocarbon fuels

  2. Improvement of fuel injection system of locomotive diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Minghai; Cui, Hongjiang; Wang, Juan; Guan, Ying

    2009-01-01

    The traditional locomotive diesels are usually designed for the performance of rated condition and much fuel will be consumed. A new plunger piston matching parts of fuel injection pump and injector nozzle matching parts were designed. The experimental results of fuel injection pump test and diesel engine show that the fuel consumption rate can be decreased a lot in the most of the working conditions. The forced lubrication is adopted for the new injector nozzle matching parts, which can reduce failure rate and increase service life. The design has been patented by Chinese State Patent Office.

  3. High ash fuels for diesel engines II; Korkean tuhkapitoisuuden omaavan polttoaineen kaeyttoe dieselvoimaloissa II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norrmen, E.; Vestergren, R.; Svahn, P. [Wartsila Diesel International Ltd, Vaasa (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    Heavy fuel oils containing a large amount of ash, that is used in some geographically restricted areas, can cause problems with deposit formation and hot corrosion, leading to burned exhaust gas valves in some diesel engines. The Liekki 2 programs Use of high ash fuel in diesel power plants I and II have been initiated to clarify the mechanisms of deposit formation, and start and propagation of hot corrosion. The aim is to get enough knowledge to enable the development of the Waertsilae diesel engines to be able to handle heavy fuel with a very high ash content. The chemistry, sintering, melting, and corrosiveness of deposits from different part of the diesel engine and on different exhaust valve materials, as well as the chemistry in different depths of the deposit have been investigated. Theories for the mechanisms mentioned above have been developed. Additives changing the sintering/melting point and physical properties of the formed deposits have been screened. Exhaust gas particle measurements have been performed when running on high ash fuel, both without deposit modifying fuel additive and with. The results have been used to verify the ABC (Aerosol Behaviour in Combustion) model, and the particle chemistry and morphology has been examined. Several tests, also high load endurance tests have been run in diesel engines with high ash fuels. (author)

  4. Hydrogen Gas as a Fuel in Direct Injection Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanasekaran, Chinnathambi; Mohankumar, Gabriael

    2016-04-01

    Hydrogen is expected to be one of the most important fuels in the near future for solving the problem caused by the greenhouse gases, for protecting environment and saving conventional fuels. In this study, a dual fuel engine of hydrogen and diesel was investigated. Hydrogen was conceded through the intake port, and simultaneously air and diesel was pervaded into the cylinder. Using electronic gas injector and electronic control unit, the injection timing and duration varied. In this investigation, a single cylinder, KIRLOSKAR AV1, DI Diesel engine was used. Hydrogen injection timing was fixed at TDC and injection duration was timed for 30°, 60°, and 90° crank angles. The injection timing of diesel was fixed at 23° BTDC. When hydrogen is mixed with inlet air, emanation of HC, CO and CO2 decreased without any emission (exhaustion) of smoke while increasing the brake thermal efficiency.

  5. EFFECT OF OXYGENATED HYDROCARBON ADDITIVES ON EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF A DIESEL ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sundar Raj

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of oxygenated fuels seems to be a promising solution for reducing particulate emissions in existing and future diesel motor vehicles. In this work, the influence of the addition of oxygenated hydrocarbons to diesel fuels on performance and emission parameters of a diesel engine is experimentally studied. 3-Pentanone (C5H10O and Methyl anon (C7H12O were used as oxygenated fuel additives. It was found that the addition of oxygenated hydrocarbons reduced the production of soot precursors with respect to the availability of oxygen content in the fuel. On the other hand, a serious increase of NOx emissions is observed. For this reason the use of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR to control NOx emissions is examined. From the analysis of it is examined experimental findings, it is seen that the use of EGR causes a sharp reduction in NOx and smoke simultaneously. On the other hand, EGR results in a slight reduction of engine efficiency and maximum combustion pressure which in any case does not alter the benefits obtained from the oxygenated fuel.

  6. Differences in rheological profile of regular diesel and bio-diesel fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Čupera

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel represents a promising alternative to regular fossil diesel. Fuel viscosity markedly influences injection, spraying and combustion, viscosity is thus critical factor to be evaluated and monitored. This work is focused on quantifying the differences in temperature dependent kinematic viscosity regular diesel fuel and B30 biodiesel fuel. The samples were assumed to be Newtonian fluids. Vis­co­si­ty was measured on a digital rotary viscometer in a range of 0 to 80 °C. More significant difference between minimum and maximum values was found in case of diesel fuel in comparison with biodiesel fuel. Temperature dependence of both fuels was modeled using several mathematical models – polynomial, power and Gaussian equation. The Gaussian fit offers the best match between experimental and computed data. Description of viscosity behavior of fuels is critically important, e.g. when considering or calculating running efficiency and performance of combustion engines. The models proposed in this work may be used as a tool for precise prediction of rheological behavior of diesel-type fuels.

  7. Diesel engine performance as influenced by fuel temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumner, H.R.; Best, W.D.; Monroe, G.E.

    1986-11-01

    The effects of diesel fuel temperature on the efficiency of a 4.4-L diesel engine were studied. Fuel temperatures of 41, 67, and 81 C were used with engine loads of 0 to 100% of full load at three engine frequencies. Regression equations were developed that predicted fuel economy as a function of PTO power at three engine frequencies. An increase in engine fuel temperature did not improve fuel economy, but did result in reduced fuel mass flow through the injector pump and reduced maximum PTO power. Reducing engine frequency improved fuel economy and supported the 'throttle back shift up' technique for saving fuel. 4 figs., 1 tab., 11 refs.

  8. Particulate filter behaviour of a Diesel engine fueled with biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buono, D.; Senatore, A.; Prati, M.V.

    2012-01-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative and renewable fuel made from plant and animal fat or cooked oil through a transesterification process to produce a short chain ester (generally methyl ester). Biodiesel fuels have been worldwide studied in Diesel engines and they were found to be compatible in blends with Diesel fuel to well operate in modern Common Rail engines. Also throughout the world the diffusion of biofuels is being promoted in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and the environmental impact of transport, and to increase security of supply. To meet the current exhaust emission regulations, after-treatment devices are necessary; in particular Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) are essential to reduce particulate emissions of Diesel engines. A critical requirement for the implementation of DPF on a modern Biodiesel powered engine is the determination of Break-even Temperature (BET) which is defined as the temperature at which particulate deposition on the filter is balanced by particulate oxidation on the filter. To fit within the exhaust temperature range of the exhaust line and to require a minimum of active regeneration during the engine running, the BET needs to occur at sufficiently low temperatures. In this paper, the results of an experimental campaign on a modern, electronic controlled fuel injection Diesel engine are shown. The engine was fuelled either with petroleum ultralow sulphur fuel or with Biodiesel: BET was evaluated for both fuels. Results show that on average, the BET is lower for biodiesel than for diesel fuel. The final goal was to characterize the regeneration process of the DPF device depending on the adopted fuel, taking into account the different combustion process and the different nature of the particulate matter. Overall the results suggest significant benefits for the use of biodiesel in engines equipped with DPFs. - Highlights: ► We compare Diesel Particulate Trap (DPF) performance with Biodiesel and Diesel fuel. ► The Break

  9. Alternative fuel properties of tall oil fatty acid methyl ester-diesel fuel blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altiparmak, D.; Keskin, A.; Koca, A. [Gazi University, Ankara (Turkey). Technical Education Faculty; Guru, M. [Gazi University, Ankara (Turkey). Engineering and Architectural Faculty

    2007-01-15

    In this experimental work, tall oil methyl ester-diesel fuel blends as alternative fuels for diesel engines were studied. Tall oil methyl ester was produced by reacting tall oil fatty acids with methyl alcohol under optimum conditions. The blends of tall oil methyl ester-diesel fuel were tested in a direct injection diesel engine at full load conditions. The effects of the new fuel blends on the engine performance and exhaust emission were tested. It was observed that the engine torque and power output with tall oil methyl ester-diesel fuel blends increased up to 6.1% and 5.9%, respectively. It was also seen that CO emissions decreased to 38.9% and NO{sub x} emissions increased up to 30% with the new fuel blends. The smoke capacity did not vary significantly. (author)

  10. Alternative fuel properties of tall oil fatty acid methyl ester-diesel fuel blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altiparmak, Duran; Keskin, Ali; Koca, Atilla; Gürü, Metin

    2007-01-01

    In this experimental work, tall oil methyl ester-diesel fuel blends as alternative fuels for diesel engines were studied. Tall oil methyl ester was produced by reacting tall oil fatty acids with methyl alcohol under optimum conditions. The blends of tall oil methyl ester-diesel fuel were tested in a direct injection diesel engine at full load condition. The effects of the new fuel blends on the engine performance and exhaust emission were tested. It was observed that the engine torque and power output with tall oil methyl ester-diesel fuel blends increased up to 6.1% and 5.9%, respectively. It was also seen that CO emissions decreased to 38.9% and NO(x) emissions increased up to 30% with the new fuel blends. The smoke opacity did not vary significantly.

  11. Experimental investigations on mixing of two biodiesels blended with diesel as alternative fuel for diesel engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Srithar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The world faces the crises of energy demand, rising petroleum prices and depletion of fossil fuel resources. Biodiesel has obtained from vegetable oils that have been considered as a promising alternate fuel. The researches regarding blend of diesel and single biodiesel have been done already. Very few works have been done with the combination of two different biodiesel blends with diesel and left a lot of scope in this area. The present study brings out an experiment of two biodiesels from pongamia pinnata oil and mustard oil and they are blended with diesel at various mixing ratios. The effects of dual biodiesel works in engine and exhaust emissions were examined in a single cylinder, direct injection, air cooled and high speed diesel engine at various engine loads with constant engine speed of 3000 rpm. The influences of blends on CO, CO2, HC, NOx and smoke opacity were investigated by emission tests. The brake thermal efficiency of blend A was found higher than diesel. The emissions of smoke, hydro carbon and nitrogen oxides of dual biodiesel blends were higher than that of diesel. But the exhaust gas temperature for dual biodiesel blends was lower than diesel.

  12. EVALUATION OF EMISSION OF CO, NO AND NOX IN EXHAUST OF DIESEL ENGINE FUELED WITH FUEL ADDITIVED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Rodrigo de Miranda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution has emerged as major global problems. In the last decade, the development of new engines, the use of different forms of treatment of exhaust gases and the increase in fuel quality were used to reduce pollutants (regulated or not. Among the various developments to reduce emissions, the use of oxygenated additives to diesel and paraffin is a quick and effective measure to reduce pollutants. In this work we studied the influence of oxygenated compounds (diethyl ether (DEE, 1-dodecanol (DOD, 2-methoxy-acetate (MEA and terc-butanol (TERC and paraffin (heptane (HEPT and n- hexadecane (CET added to diesel in order to improve the quality of CO, NO and NOx in the exhaust of diesel engine, single cylinder. The fuels used in the studies are formulations of diesel reference, here named S10, which contains low sulfur (

  13. [Particle emission characteristics of diesel bus fueled with bio-diesel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Di-Ming; Chen, Feng; Hu, Zhi-Yuan; Tan, Pi-Qiang; Hu, Wei

    2013-10-01

    With the use of the Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer (EEPS), a study on the characteristics of particle emissions was carried out on a China-IV diesel bus fueled with blends of 5% , 10% , 20% , 50% bio-diesel transformed from restaurant waste oil and China-IV diesel (marked separately by BD5, BD10, BD20, BD50), pure bio-diesel (BD100) and pure diesel (BD0). The results indicated that particulate number (PN) and mass (PM) emissions of bio-diesel blends increased with the increase in bus speed and acceleration; with increasing bio-diesel content, particulate emissions displayed a relevant declining trend. In different speed ranges, the size distribution of particulate number emissions (PNSD) was bimodal; in different acceleration ranges, PNSD showed a gradual transition from bimodal shape to unimodal when bus operation was switched from decelerating to accelerating status. Bio-diesel blends with higher mixture ratios showed significant reduction in PN emissions for accumulated modes, and the particulate number emission peaks moved towards smaller sizes; but little change was obtained in PN emissions for nuclei modes; reduction also occurred in particle geometric diameter (Dg).

  14. Eucalyptus biodiesel as an alternative to diesel fuel: preparation and tests on DI diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarabet, Lyes; Loubar, Khaled; Lounici, Mohand Said; Hanchi, Samir; Tazerout, Mohand

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, the increasing oil consumption throughout the world induces crucial economical, security, and environmental problems. As a result, intensive researches are undertaken to find appropriate substitution to fossil fuels. In view of the large amount of eucalyptus trees present in arid areas, we focus in this study on the investigation of using eucalyptus biodiesel as fuel in diesel engine. Eucalyptus oil is converted by transesterification into biodiesel. Eucalyptus biodiesel characterization shows that the physicochemical properties are comparable to those of diesel fuel. In the second phase, a single cylinder air-cooled, DI diesel engine was used to test neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends with diesel fuel in various ratios (75, 50, and 25 by v%) at several engine loads. The engine combustion parameters such as peak pressure, rate of pressure rise, and heat release rate are determined. Performances and exhaust emissions are also evaluated at all operating conditions. Results show that neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends present significant improvements of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbon, and particulates emissions especially at high loads with equivalent performances to those of diesel fuel. However, the NOx emissions are slightly increased when the biodiesel content is increased in the blend.

  15. LPG as a Fuel for Diesel Engines-Experimental Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristian Nutu, Nikolaos; Pana, Constantin; Negurescu, Niculae; Cernat, Alexandru; Mirica, Ionel

    2017-10-01

    The main objective of the paper is to reduce the pollutant emissions of a compression ignition engine, fuelling the engine with liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), aiming to maintain the energetic performances of the engine. To optimise the engine operation a corelation between the substitute ratio of the diesel fuel with LPG and the adjustments for the investigated regimens must be made in order to limit the maximum pressure and smoke level, knock and rough engine functioning, fuel consumption and the level of the pollutant emissions. The test bed situated in the Thermotechnics, Engines, Thermal Equipments and Refrigeration Instalations Department was adapted to be fuelled with liquefied petroleum gas. A conventional LPG fuelling instalation was adopted, consisting of a LPG tank, a vaporiser, conections between the tank and the vaporiser and a valve to adjust the gaseous fuel flow. Using the diesel-gas methode, in the intake manifold of the engine is injected LPG in gaseous aggregation state and the airr-LPG homogeneous mixture is ignited from the flame appeared in the diesel fuel sprays. To maintain the engine power at the same level like in the standard case of fuelling only with diesel fuel, for each investigated operate regimen the diesel fuel dose was reduced, being energetically substituted with LPG. The engine used for experimental investigations is a turbocharged truck diesel engine with a 10.34 dm3 displacement. The investigated working regimen was 40% load and 1750 rpm and the energetic substitute ratios of the diesel fuel with LPG was situated between [0-25%].

  16. Modelling of fuel spray and combustion in diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huttunen, M T; Kaario, O T [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Fuel spray and air motion characteristics and combustion in direct injection (DI) diesel engines was studied using computational models of the commercial CFD-code FIRE. Physical subprocesses modelled included Lagrangian spray droplet movement and behaviour (atomisation, evaporation and interaction of spray droplets) and combustion of evaporated liquid spray in the gas phase. Fuel vapour combustion rate was described by the model of Magnussen and Hjertager. The standard k,{epsilon}-model was used for turbulence. In order to be able to predict combustion accurately, the fuel spray penetration should be predicted with reasonable accuracy. In this study, the standard drag coefficient had to be reduced in order to match the computed penetration to the measured one. In addition, the constants in the submodel describing droplet breakup also needed to be adjusted for closer agreement with the measurements. The characteristic time scale of fuel consumption rate k/C{sub R} {epsilon} strongly influenced the heat release and in-cylinder pressure. With a value around 2.0 to 5.0 for C{sub R}, the computed in-cylinder pressure during the compression stroke agreed quite well with the measurements. On the other hand, the in-cylinder pressure was underpredicted during the expansion stroke. This is partly due to the fact that hydrocarbon fuel combustion was modelled as a one-step reaction reading to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O and inadequate description of the mixing of reactants and combustion products. (author) 16 refs.

  17. Modelling of fuel spray and combustion in diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huttunen, M.T.; Kaario, O.T. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Fuel spray and air motion characteristics and combustion in direct injection (DI) diesel engines was studied using computational models of the commercial CFD-code FIRE. Physical subprocesses modelled included Lagrangian spray droplet movement and behaviour (atomisation, evaporation and interaction of spray droplets) and combustion of evaporated liquid spray in the gas phase. Fuel vapour combustion rate was described by the model of Magnussen and Hjertager. The standard k,{epsilon}-model was used for turbulence. In order to be able to predict combustion accurately, the fuel spray penetration should be predicted with reasonable accuracy. In this study, the standard drag coefficient had to be reduced in order to match the computed penetration to the measured one. In addition, the constants in the submodel describing droplet breakup also needed to be adjusted for closer agreement with the measurements. The characteristic time scale of fuel consumption rate k/C{sub R} {epsilon} strongly influenced the heat release and in-cylinder pressure. With a value around 2.0 to 5.0 for C{sub R}, the computed in-cylinder pressure during the compression stroke agreed quite well with the measurements. On the other hand, the in-cylinder pressure was underpredicted during the expansion stroke. This is partly due to the fact that hydrocarbon fuel combustion was modelled as a one-step reaction reading to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O and inadequate description of the mixing of reactants and combustion products. (author) 16 refs.

  18. Combustion of Microalgae Oil and Ethanol Blended with Diesel Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saddam H. Al-lwayzy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Using renewable oxygenated fuels such as ethanol is a proposed method to reduce diesel engine emission. Ethanol has lower density, viscosity, cetane number and calorific value than petroleum diesel (PD. Microalgae oil is renewable, environmentally friendly and has the potential to replace PD. In this paper, microalgae oil (10% and ethanol (10% have been mixed and added to (80% diesel fuel as a renewable source of oxygenated fuel. The mixture of microalgae oil, ethanol and petroleum diesel (MOE20% has been found to be homogenous and stable without using surfactant. The presence of microalgae oil improved the ethanol fuel demerits such as low density and viscosity. The transesterification process was not required for oil viscosity reduction due to the presence of ethanol. The MOE20% fuel has been tested in a variable compression ratio diesel engine at different speed. The engine test results with MOE20% showed a very comparable engine performance of in-cylinder pressure, brake power, torque and brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC to that of PD. The NOx emission and HC have been improved while CO and CO2 were found to be lower than those from PD at low engine speed.

  19. Bio Diesel An Alternative Vehicles Fuel; Analytical View

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Banna, S.; El Deen, O.N.

    2004-01-01

    Transesterification of a vegetable oil was conducted as early as 1853, by scientists E. Duffy and J. Patrick, many years before the first diesel engine became functional(1). Rudolf Diesel's prime model, a single 10 ft (3 m) iron cylinder with a flywheel at its base, ran on its own power for the first time in Augsburg, Germany on August 10, 1893(2). Diesel later demonstrated his engine at the World Fair in Paris, France in 1898. This engine stood as an example of Diesel's vision because it was powered by peanut oil-a bio fuel. He believed that the utilization of a biomass fuel was the real future of his engine. In a 1912 speech, Rudolf Diesel said, (I) t he use of vegetable oils for engine fuels may seem insignificant today, but such oils may become, in the course of time, as important as petroleum and the coal-tar products of the present time. Rudolf Diesel was not the only inventor to believe that biomass fuels would be the mainstay of the transportation industry. Henry Ford designed his automobiles, beginning with the 1908 Model T(1), to use ethanol. Ford was so convinced that renewable resources were the key to the success of his automobiles that he built a plant to make ethanol in the Midwest and formed a partnership with Standard Oil to sell it in their distributing stations

  20. Experimental studies on the combustion characteristics and performance of a direct injection engine fueled with biodiesel/diesel blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, D.H.; Chen, H.; Geng, L.M.; Bian, Y. ZH.

    2010-01-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative diesel fuel that can be produced from different kinds of vegetable oils. It is an oxygenated, non-toxic, sulphur-free, biodegradable, and renewable fuel and can be used in diesel engines without significant modification. However, the performance, emissions and combustion characteristics will be different for the same biodiesel used in different types of engine. In this study, the biodiesel produced from soybean crude oil was prepared by a method of alkaline-catalyzed transesterification. The effects of biodiesel addition to diesel fuel on the performance, emissions and combustion characteristics of a naturally aspirated DI compression ignition engine were examined. Biodiesel has different properties from diesel fuel. A minor increase in brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and decrease in brake thermal efficiency (BTE) for biodiesel and its blends were observed compared with diesel fuel. The significant improvement in reduction of carbon monoxide (CO) and smoke were found for biodiesel and its blends at high engine loads. Hydrocarbon (HC) had no evident variation for all tested fuels. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) were slightly higher for biodiesel and its blends. Biodiesel and its blends exhibited similar combustion stages to diesel fuel. The use of transesterified soybean crude oil can be partially substituted for the diesel fuel at most operating conditions in terms of the performance parameters and emissions without any engine modification.

  1. 40 CFR 80.527 - Under what conditions may motor vehicle diesel fuel subject to the 15 ppm sulfur standard be...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... vehicle diesel fuel subject to the 15 ppm sulfur standard be downgraded to motor vehicle diesel fuel... Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel Standards and Requirements § 80.527 Under what conditions may motor vehicle diesel fuel subject to the 15...

  2. The possibility of increasing the quantity of oxygenates in fuel blends with no diesel engine modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ž. Bazaras

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Two fuel kinds of organic origin including rapeseed methyl ester (RME and ethanol (E were selected for their different physical-chemical parameters to study the maximum apt volume of oxygenates to mix fossil diesel (D and establish expectancy to apply D–RME–E blend as a fuel for the unmodified high–speed diesel engine (a combustion chamber consists of a dished piston. The objective of the article is to provide an explicit relationship between the nature of fuel composition and diesel engine operating parameters. The results of the carried out tests on the engine oriented on dynamic and emission characteristics using various portions of the before mentioned bio-components in diesel fuel are presented. Engine behaviour seemed to be improved in the presence of ethanol additives in D–RME blend with a reduction in pollutant emissions in exhaust gases, fuel consumption, ameliorated cetane number, ignition delay time and physical-chemical characteristics of the investigated compounds. The positive and negative aspects of applying bio-based additives in fossil diesel are reported and discussed.

  3. Testing and preformance measurement of straight vegetable oils as an alternative fuel for diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshminarayanan, Arunachalam

    Rising fuel prices, growing energy demand, concerns over domestic energy security and global warming from greenhouse gas emissions have triggered the global interest in bio-energy and bio-fuel crop development. Backlash from these concerns can result in supply shocks of traditional fossil fuels and create immense economic pressure. It is thus widely argued that bio-fuels would particularly benefit developing countries by off-setting their dependencies on imported petroleum. Domestically, the transportation sector accounts for almost 40% of liquid fuel consumption, while on-farm application like tractors and combines for agricultural purposes uses close to an additional 18%. It is estimated that 40% of the farm budget can be attributed to the fuel costs. With the cost of diesel continuously rising, farmers are now looking at using Straight Vegetable Oil (SVO) as an alternative fuel by producing their own fuel crops. This study evaluates conventional diesel compared to the use of SVO like Camelina, Canola and Juncea grown on local farms in Colorado for their performance and emissions on a John Deere 4045 Tier-II engine. Additionally, physical properties like density and viscosity, metal/mineral content, and cold flow properties like CFPP and CP of these oils were measured using ASTM standards and compared to diesel. It was found that SVOs did not show significant differences compared to diesel fuel with regards to engine emissions, but did show an increase in thermal efficiency. Therefore, this study supports the continued development of SVO production as a viable alternative to diesel fuels, particularly for on-farm applications. The need for providing and developing a sustainable, economic and environmental friendly fuel alternative has taken an aggressive push which will require a strong multidisciplinary education in the field of bio-energy. Commercial bio-energy development has the potential to not only alleviate the energy concerns, but also to give renewed

  4. The dieselization of America: An integrated strategy for future transportation fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberhardt, J.J. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Diesel Cycle engine has already established itself as the engine-of-choice for the heavy duty transport industry because of its fuel efficiency, durability, and reliability. In addition, it has also been shown to be capable of using alternative fuels, albeit at efficiencies lower than that achieved with petroleum-derived diesel fuel. Alternative fuel dedicated engines have not made significant penetration of the heavy duty truck market because truck fleet operators need a cost-competitive fuel and reliable supply and fueling infrastructure. In lieu of forcing diverse fuels from many diverse domestic feedstocks onto the end-users, the Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies envisions that a future fuels strategy for the heavy duty transport sector is one where the diverse feedstocks are utilized to provide a single fuel specification (dispensed from the existing fueling infrastructure) that would run efficiently in a single high efficiency energy conversion device, the Diesel Cycle engine. In so doing, the US Commercial transport industry may gain a measure of security from the rapid fuel price increases by relying less on a single feedstock source to meet its increasing fuel requirements.

  5. Fuel supply system for diesel engines. Kraftstoffzufuhrsystem fuer Dieselmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mowbray, D F; Jarrett, B A

    1979-10-05

    The invention deals with a fuel feeding system, in particular for diesel engines with direct injection, provided with electromagnetic fuel pumps and injection nozzles for every combustion chamber. The pumps are equiped with control systems, which are actuated during the injection process. Switch valves with magnetic control devices serve as controllers.

  6. Utilization of Alcohol Fuel in Spark Ignition and Diesel Engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Don; Stengel, Ron

    These five units comprise a course intended to prepare and train students to conduct alcohol fuel utilization seminars in spark ignition and diesel engines. Introductory materials include objectives and a list of instructor requirements. The first four units cover these topics: ethanol as an alternative fuel (technical and economic advantages,…

  7. Selection of Fuel System for Modern Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Kukharonok

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuel systems of diesel engines have been analyzed. The paper shows components of the systems, peculiarities of their manufacturing process. Difference in efficiency of the systems, their application and market prospects are considered in the paper. While solving problems to design a power installation the essence of fuel system selection is given on the basis of an internal combustion engine.

  8. Biodiesel fuels from palm oil, palm oil methylester and ester-diesel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Because of increasing cost and environmental pollution effects of fossil fuels, palm oil, its methylester and ester-diesel blends were analyzed comparatively with diesel for their fuel properties that will make them serve as alternatives to diesel in diesel engines. Equally, the samples were comparatively analyzed for their trace ...

  9. Solar Reforming of Carbon Dioxide to Produce Diesel Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis Schuetzle; Robert Schuetzle

    2010-12-31

    This project focused on the demonstration of an innovative technology, referred to as the Sunexus CO2 Solar Reformer, which utilizes waste CO2 as a feedstock for the efficient and economical production of synthetic diesel fuel using solar thermal energy as the primary energy input. The Sunexus technology employs a two stage process for the conversion of CO2 to diesel fuel. A solar reforming system, including a specially designed reactor and proprietary CO2 reforming catalyst, was developed and used to convert captured CO2 rich gas streams into syngas (primarily hydrogen and carbon monoxide) using concentrated solar energy at high conversion efficiencies. The second stage of the system (which has been demonstrated under other funding) involves the direct conversion of the syngas into synthetic diesel fuel using a proprietary catalyst (Terra) previously developed and validated by Pacific Renewable Fuels and Chemicals (PRFC). The overall system energy efficiency for conversion of CO2 to diesel fuel is 74%, due to the use of solar energy. The results herein describe modeling, design, construction, and testing of the Sunexus CO2 Solar Reformer. Extensive parametric testing of the solar reformer and candidate catalysts was conducted and chemical kinetic models were developed. Laboratory testing of the Solar Reformer was successfully completed using various gas mixtures, temperatures, and gas flow rates/space velocities to establish performance metrics which can be employed for the design of commercial plants. A variety of laboratory tests were conducted including dry reforming (CO2 and CH{sub 4}), combination dry/steam reforming (CO2, CH{sub 4} & H{sub 2}O), and tri-reforming (CO2, CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}O & O{sub 2}). CH{sub 4} and CO2 conversions averaged 95-100% and 50-90% per reformer cycle, respectively, depending upon the temperatures and gas space velocities. No formation of carbon deposits (coking) on the catalyst was observed in any of these tests. A 16 ft. diameter

  10. Chemical and biological characterization of exhaust emissions from ethanol and ethanol blended diesel fuels in comparison with neat diesel fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westerholm, R.; Christensen, Anders [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Analytical Chemistry; Toernqvist, M. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry; Ehrenberg, L. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Radiobiology; Haupt, D. [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden)

    1997-12-01

    This report presents results from a project with the aim of investigating the potential environmental and health impact of emissions from ethanol, ethanol blended diesel fuels and to compare these with neat diesel fuels. The exhaust emissions were characterized regarding regulated exhaust components, particulate and semivolatile Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds (PAC) and with bioassays. The bioassays were mutagenicity and TCDD receptor affinity tests. Results: Neat ethanol fuels are `low emission` fuels, while European diesel fuel quality (EDF) and an ethanol blended EDF are `high emission` fuels. Other fuels, such as Swedish Environmental Class one (MK1) and an ethanol blended MK1, are `intermediate` fuels regarding emissions. When using an oxidizing catalyst exhaust after-treatment device a reduction of harmful substances in the exhaust emissions with respect to determined exhaust parameters was found. The relatively low emission of PAH from ethanol fuelled engines would indicate a lower cancer risk from ethanol than from diesel fuels due to this class of compounds. However, the data presented emphasize the importance of considering the PAH profile 27 refs, 3 figs, 19 tabs

  11. Influence of addition of hydrogen produced on board in the performance of a stationary diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez Matienzo, Jorge M.; Domínguez Valdés, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    A commercial electrolytic cell is assessed for supplying HHO produced on board as additional fuel for a stationary diesel IC engine. The cell uses KOH as electrolytic and is fed by the own battery of the engine. First, different concentrations of KOH used as electrolytic were tested in order to obtain the adequate value for the performance of the cell regarding its temperature and HHO production. The cell plates were connected in different combinations looking for a good productivity. The engine was tested in several load regimes, measuring fuel consumption and others parameters. Results show variable fuel savings, depending on engine load and speed. (author)

  12. Prospects of biogas as dual fuel in small diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Irvinder; Mittal, V.K.

    1992-01-01

    A study was conducted on diesel engines to find out the effect of induction rate of biogas on engine performance indices. The results of dual fuel engine performance was compared with diesel mode for various levels of biogas induction rate (0.3 to 7.2 l/s) engine load (20% to full load) and injection timing (20.6 to 48 before top dead centre). At full and 80% brake load, the best energy mix between diesel and biogas was 1.5:1 and 4:1 respectively. (author). 7 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  13. Diesel upgrading into a low emissions fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tailleur, Roberto Galiasso [Department of Thermodynamics, Simon Bolivar University, Sartenejas, Baruta, Caracas (Venezuela)

    2006-09-15

    The revamp of existing diesel hydrotreating units using SHP technology was studied to improve the emission of the diesel engine. Gas and liquid-phase reactors were sequentially added to the actual trickle bed reactor. A special catalyst was employed. Micro-plant kinetic studies were performed and the results compared with those obtained with conventional trickle bed reactor operation. It was shown that using the gas and liquid-phase reactor, the hydrogenation, hydrogenolysis, and ring-opening reactions can be enhanced, so can be the sulfur and cetane number properties. The new scheme decreased the mono-aromatic content in the lighter part of the diesel that improve the NO{sub x} and particulate emissions in exhaust gases of a diesel engine. A simplified kinetic model for gas and liquid-phase reactors was developed to optimize SHP reactors and to minimize investment. (author)

  14. Diesel fuel in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bensaid, B.; Saint-Antonin, V

    2003-07-01

    In the 1970's, Diesel technology had a poor image in the United States owing to the inadequate performance and reliability observed in certain models. The 1990's brought increased awareness of greenhouse effect issues. Greater Diesel penetration of the American automobile market could represent a short-term solution for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions, along with the use of hybrid vehicles, but the impact on American refining plant would be substantial. (author)

  15. Diesel fuel in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bensaid, B; Saint-Antonin, V

    2003-07-01

    In the 1970's, Diesel technology had a poor image in the United States owing to the inadequate performance and reliability observed in certain models. The 1990's brought increased awareness of greenhouse effect issues. Greater Diesel penetration of the American automobile market could represent a short-term solution for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions, along with the use of hybrid vehicles, but the impact on American refining plant would be substantial. (author)

  16. Diesel fuel in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensaid, B.; Saint-Antonin, V.

    2003-01-01

    In the 1970's, Diesel technology had a poor image in the United States owing to the inadequate performance and reliability observed in certain models. The 1990's brought increased awareness of greenhouse effect issues. Greater Diesel penetration of the American automobile market could represent a short-term solution for reducing CO 2 emissions, along with the use of hybrid vehicles, but the impact on American refining plant would be substantial. (author)

  17. Dimethyl Ether in Diesel Fuel Injection Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorenson, Spencer C.; Glensvig, M.; Abata, D. L.

    1998-01-01

    A study of the behaviour of DME in diesel injection systems. A discussion of the effects of compressibility of DME on compression work and wave propagation.DME spray shapes and penetration rates......A study of the behaviour of DME in diesel injection systems. A discussion of the effects of compressibility of DME on compression work and wave propagation.DME spray shapes and penetration rates...

  18. Diesel fuel to dc power: Navy & Marine Corps Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomfield, D.P. [Analytic Power Corp., Boston, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    During the past year Analytic Power has tested fuel cell stacks and diesel fuel processors for US Navy and Marine Corps applications. The units are 10 kW demonstration power plants. The USN power plant was built to demonstrate the feasibility of diesel fueled PEM fuel cell power plants for 250 kW and 2.5 MW shipboard power systems. We designed and tested a ten cell, 1 kW USMC substack and fuel processor. The complete 10 kW prototype power plant, which has application to both power and hydrogen generation, is now under construction. The USN and USMC fuel cell stacks have been tested on both actual and simulated reformate. Analytic Power has accumulated operating experience with autothermal reforming based fuel processors operating on sulfur bearing diesel fuel, jet fuel, propane and natural gas. We have also completed the design and fabrication of an advanced regenerative ATR for the USMC. One of the significant problems with small fuel processors is heat loss which limits its ability to operate with the high steam to carbon ratios required for coke free high efficiency operation. The new USMC unit specifically addresses these heat transfer issues. The advances in the mill programs have been incorporated into Analytic Power`s commercial units which are now under test.

  19. Fact Sheet: Alternative Low-Sulfur Diesel Fuel Transition Program for Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet summarizes EPA's final rule modifying the diesel fuel regulations to apply an effective date of 6-1-2010 for 15 ppm sulfur requirements for highway, nonroad, locomotive and marine diesel fuel produced/imported for, distributed

  20. On Combustion in the CNG-Diesel Dual Fuel Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Königsson, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    Currently there is a large interest in alternative transport fuels. There are two underlying reasons for this interest: the desire to decrease the environmental impact of transports and the need to compensate for the declining availability of petroleum. In the light of both these factors, the CNG-diesel dual fuelengine is an attractive concept. The primary fuel of the dual fuel engine is methane, which can be derived both from renewables and from fossil sources. Methane from organic waste, co...

  1. Laboratory bioremediation of diesel fuel contaminated soil using indigenous cultures and surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mas, Z.; Morin, P.; Walter, D.

    1998-01-01

    To help verify soil and groundwater remediation techniques, an Environmental Testing Facility (ETF) was built in Argentia, Newfoundland. A laboratory program has been developed and the influence of various parameters such as temperature, pH, nutrients and bacterial seeding on the biodegradation of diesel fuel-contaminated soils by indigenous microorganisms has been evaluated. Two non-toxic surfactants, Triton X-100 and Tween-60, have also been tested to determine their leaching potential for possible use in hydrocarbon removal, alone, or in combination with bioremediation. The addition of Triton X-100 showed no significant effect on the biotreatment of diesel fuel, but improved markedly diesel fuel leaching by percolation, indicating good potential for global remediation of the test soil by a combination of leaching and biodegradation. Tween-60 appears to inhibit biological activity, causing the efficiency of bacterial growth to drop from 50 per cent to 35 per cent. 8 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs

  2. Rotary kiln and batch pyrolysis of waste tire to produce gasoline and diesel like fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayanoğlu, Abdulkadir; Yumrutaş, Recep

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Waste Tire Oil (WTO) is produced from waste tire at rotary kiln reactor. • Physical and chemical properties of WTO and fuel samples are analyzed. • Gasoline like fuel (GLF) and diesel like fuel (DLF) are produced from the WTO-10 wt% CaO mixture at fixed bed reactor. • Physical and chemical properties of the GLF and DLF are compared with the standard fuels. - Abstract: In this study, waste tire is pyrolyzed in a rotary kiln reactor to obtain more gas, light liquid, heavy liquid, wax products, and less carbon black at their maximum yields as, 20%, 12%, 25%, 8% and 35% of the total weight (4 tones), respectively. Then, the heavy and light oils are reacted with additives such as natural zeolite (NZ) and lime (CaO) at different mass ratio as 2, 6, and 10 wt%, respectively, in the batch reactor to produce liquids similar to standard petroleum fuels. The heavy and light oils mixture samples are distillated to observe their optimum graphics which are similar to gasoline and diesel like fuel. Consequently, the best results are obtained from the CaO sample with 10 wt% in comparison to the ones from the gasoline and diesel fuels. The 10 wt% CaO light liquid mixture resembles to gasoline named as gasoline like fuel (GLF) and the 10 wt% CaO heavy liquid mixture is similar to diesel called as diesel like fuel (DLF). The chemical and physical features of the waste tire, light oil, heavy oil, GLF, and DLF are analyzed by TG (thermogravimetric)/dTG (derivative thermogravimetric), proximate, ultimate, higher heating value (HHV), fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), sulfur, density, viscosity, gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GC–MS), flash point, moisture, and distillation tests. The test results are turned out to be very close to the standard petroleum fuel.

  3. Recent Progress in the Development of Diesel Surrogate Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitz, W J; Mueller, C J

    2009-12-09

    There has been much recent progress in the area of surrogate fuels for diesel. In the last few years, experiments and modeling have been performed on higher molecular weight components of relevance to diesel fuel such as n-hexadecane (n-cetane) and 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane (iso-cetane). Chemical kinetic models have been developed for all the n-alkanes up to 16 carbon atoms. Also, there has been much experimental and modeling work on lower molecular weight surrogate components such as n-decane and n-dodecane that are most relevant to jet fuel surrogates, but are also relevant to diesel surrogates where simulation of the full boiling point range is desired. For two-ring compounds, experimental work on decalin and tetralin recently has been published. For multi-component surrogate fuel mixtures, recent work on modeling of these mixtures and comparisons to real diesel fuel is reviewed. Detailed chemical kinetic models for surrogate fuels are very large in size. Significant progress also has been made in improving the mechanism reduction tools that are needed to make these large models practicable in multi-dimensional reacting flow simulations of diesel combustion. Nevertheless, major research gaps remain. In the case of iso-alkanes, there are experiments and modeling work on only one of relevance to diesel: iso-cetane. Also, the iso-alkanes in diesel are lightly branched and no detailed chemical kinetic models or experimental investigations are available for such compounds. More components are needed to fill out the iso-alkane boiling point range. For the aromatic class of compounds, there has been no new work for compounds in the boiling point range of diesel. Most of the new work has been on alkyl aromatics that are of the range C7 to C8, below the C10 to C20 range that is needed. For the chemical class of cycloalkanes, experiments and modeling on higher molecular weight components are warranted. Finally for multi-component surrogates needed to treat real

  4. Particulate Matter Emission from Dual Fuel Diesel Engine Fuelled with Natural Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelmasiak Zdzisław

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of examination of particulate matter emission from the Diesel engine FPT 1.3 MJT simultaneously fuelled with diesel oil and natural gas CNG. The basic premise for engine adaptation was the addition of a small amount of CNG to reduce exhaust gas opacity and particulate matter emission. At this assumption, diesel oil remained the basic fuel, with contribution amounting to 0,70-0,85 of total energy delivered to the engine. The dual fuel engine was examined using an original controller installed in the Diesel engine FPT 1.3 MJT which controlled the diesel fuel dose. The dose of the injected natural gas was controlled by changing the opening time of gas injectors at constant pressure in the gas collector. The examined issues included the exhaust gas opacity, and the total number and fractional distribution of the emitted particles. The measurements were performed at twenty selected measuring points corresponding to the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC test. The performed tests have demonstrated a positive effect of gas addition on exhaust gas opacity and particulate matter emission. Depending on test conditions, the exhaust gas opacity was reduced by 10÷92%, and the total number of particles by 30÷40%. The performed tests have revealed that a small addition of gas can reduce the load of the DPF filter, extend its lifetime, and increase engine reliability. Longer time intervals between successive DPF filter regenerations improve ecological properties of the engine.

  5. Palm oil as a fuel for agricultural diesel engines: Comparative testing against diesel oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teerawat Apichato

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to unstable oil price situation in the world market, many countries have been looking for alternative energy sources to substitute for petroleum. Vegetable oil is one of the alternatives which can be used as fuel in automotive engines either in the form of straight vegetable oil, or in the form of ethyl or methyl ester. This paper presents a comparative performance testing of diesel engine using diesel oil and refined palm oil over 2,000 hours of continuous running time. Short-term performance testing was conducted for each fuel on the dynamometer engine test bed. Specific fuel consumption, exhaust temperature and black smoke density were determined and measured. Long-term performance testing (or endurance test was also done by running the engines coupled with a generator in order to supply load (electricity to a lightbulb board. For each 500 hours of engine run time, the engines were dissembled for engine wear inspection. It was found that the fuel pump and fuel valve weight losses from both engines showed insignificant differences either at the first 500 hours of running time or at the second 500 hours of running time but the inlet valve from the engine fueled by diesel oil had a higher weight loss than the engine fueled by refined palm oil at the first 500 hours and at the second 500 hours of running time. The compression rings from the engine fueled by refined palm oil showed a significant weight loss compared to the engine fueled by diesel oil both after 500 hours and after 1000 hours of running time.

  6. In situ bioremediation of a diesel fuel spill in northern Manitoba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hryhoruk, C.D.

    1994-01-01

    At a northern Manitoba airport, a site was contaminated with diesel fuel, which was confined within the unsaturated zone in silt and silty sand. A two-phase bioremediation process was designed and implemented in-situ in a pilot test. The first phase, ground surface spraying, involved mixing nutrients (ammonium-nitrogen and orthophosphate) with water in a tank and then spraying the mixture on the ground surface above the diesel plume. The second phase, a pump-cycle system, involved pumping groundwater from below the diesel plume into one of two tanks in series. The groundwater underwent both nutrient addition (weekly) and aeration in the tanks, then it was pumped into eight feeder wells which circumscribed an extraction well. Soil testing revealed that both remediation processes aided in increasing subsurface nutrient concentrations and the moisture content within the diesel plume. In addition, high total coliform counts were observed in both the silt and silty sand layers. This implied that conditions for suitable bioremediation can be developed in relatively fine-grained soil. Intermittent soil sampling at three locations over a 14-month period revealed that the diesel plume decreased in size by ca 30% and contaminant concentrations (diesel fuel) also decreased. Plume movement also occurred. The pump-cycle system remains operational. 67 refs., 77 figs., 9 tabs

  7. In situ bioremediation of a diesel fuel spill in northern Manitoba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hryhoruk, C D

    1994-01-01

    At a northern Manitoba airport, a site was contaminated with diesel fuel, which was confined within the unsaturated zone in silt and silty sand. A two-phase bioremediation process was designed and implemented in-situ in a pilot test. The first phase, ground surface spraying, involved mixing nutrients (ammonium-nitrogen and orthophosphate) with water in a tank and then spraying the mixture on the ground surface above the diesel plume. The second phase, a pump-cycle system, involved pumping groundwater from below the diesel plume into one of two tanks in series. The groundwater underwent both nutrient addition (weekly) and aeration in the tanks, then it was pumped into eight feeder wells which circumscribed an extraction well. Soil testing revealed that both remediation processes aided in increasing subsurface nutrient concentrations and the moisture content within the diesel plume. In addition, high total coliform counts were observed in both the silt and silty sand layers. This implied that conditions for suitable bioremediation can be developed in relatively fine-grained soil. Intermittent soil sampling at three locations over a 14-month period revealed that the diesel plume decreased in size by ca 30% and contaminant concentrations (diesel fuel) also decreased. Plume movement also occurred. The pump-cycle system remains operational. 67 refs., 77 figs., 9 tabs.

  8. Diethyl Ether as an Ignition Enhancer for Naphtha Creating a Drop in Fuel for Diesel

    KAUST Repository

    Vallinayagam, R.

    2016-12-01

    Direct use of naphtha in compression ignition (CI) engines is not advisable because its lower cetane number negatively impacts the auto ignition process. However, engine or fuel modifications can be made to operate naphtha in CI engines. Enhancing a fuel’s auto ignition characteristics presents an opportunity to use low cetane fuel, naphtha, in CI engines. In this research, Di-ethyl ether (DEE) derived from ethanol is used as an ignition enhancer for light naphtha. With this fuel modification, a “drop-in” fuel that is interchangeable with existing diesel fuel has been created. The ignition characteristics of DEE blended naphtha were studied in an ignition quality tester (IQT); the measured ignition delay time (IDT) for pure naphtha was 6.9 ms. When DEE was added to naphtha, IDT decreased and D30 (30% DEE + 70% naphtha) showed comparable IDT with US NO.2 diesel. The derived cetane number (DCN) of naphtha, D10 (10% DEE + 90% naphtha), D20% DEE + 80% naphtha) and D30 were measured to be 31, 37, 40 and 49, respectively. The addition of 30% DEE in naphtha achieved a DCN equivalent to US NO.2 diesel. Subsequent experiments in a CI engine exhibited longer ignition delay for naphtha compared to diesel. The peak in-cylinder pressure is higher for naphtha than diesel and other tested fuels. When DEE was added to naphtha, the ignition delay shortened and peak in-cylinder pressure is reduced. A 3.7% increase in peak in-cylinder pressure was observed for naphtha compared to US NO.2 diesel, while D30 showed comparable results with diesel. The pressure rise rate dropped with the addition of DEE to naphtha, thereby reducing the ringing intensity. Naphtha exhibited a peak heat release rate of 280 kJ/m3deg, while D30 showed a comparable peak heat release rate to US NO.2 diesel. The amount of energy released during the premixed combustion phase decreased with the increase of DEE in naphtha. Thus, this study demonstrates the suitability of DEE blended naphtha mixtures as a

  9. Diethyl Ether as an Ignition Enhancer for Naphtha Creating a Drop in Fuel for Diesel

    KAUST Repository

    Vallinayagam, R.; Vedharaj, S.; Sarathy, Mani; Dibble, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    Direct use of naphtha in compression ignition (CI) engines is not advisable because its lower cetane number negatively impacts the auto ignition process. However, engine or fuel modifications can be made to operate naphtha in CI engines. Enhancing a fuel’s auto ignition characteristics presents an opportunity to use low cetane fuel, naphtha, in CI engines. In this research, Di-ethyl ether (DEE) derived from ethanol is used as an ignition enhancer for light naphtha. With this fuel modification, a “drop-in” fuel that is interchangeable with existing diesel fuel has been created. The ignition characteristics of DEE blended naphtha were studied in an ignition quality tester (IQT); the measured ignition delay time (IDT) for pure naphtha was 6.9 ms. When DEE was added to naphtha, IDT decreased and D30 (30% DEE + 70% naphtha) showed comparable IDT with US NO.2 diesel. The derived cetane number (DCN) of naphtha, D10 (10% DEE + 90% naphtha), D20% DEE + 80% naphtha) and D30 were measured to be 31, 37, 40 and 49, respectively. The addition of 30% DEE in naphtha achieved a DCN equivalent to US NO.2 diesel. Subsequent experiments in a CI engine exhibited longer ignition delay for naphtha compared to diesel. The peak in-cylinder pressure is higher for naphtha than diesel and other tested fuels. When DEE was added to naphtha, the ignition delay shortened and peak in-cylinder pressure is reduced. A 3.7% increase in peak in-cylinder pressure was observed for naphtha compared to US NO.2 diesel, while D30 showed comparable results with diesel. The pressure rise rate dropped with the addition of DEE to naphtha, thereby reducing the ringing intensity. Naphtha exhibited a peak heat release rate of 280 kJ/m3deg, while D30 showed a comparable peak heat release rate to US NO.2 diesel. The amount of energy released during the premixed combustion phase decreased with the increase of DEE in naphtha. Thus, this study demonstrates the suitability of DEE blended naphtha mixtures as a

  10. Experimental study on fuel economies and emissions of direct-injection premixed combustion engine fueled with gasoline/diesel blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Jiakun; Sun, Wanchen; Guo, Liang; Xiao, Senlin; Tan, Manzhi; Li, Guoliang; Fan, Luyan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A compound combustion concept was proposed and investigated. • Premixed combustion near the top dead center was investigated using blended fuels. • Increasing gasoline blend ratio was found to enhance the mixture preparation. • Too much addition of gasoline decreases indicated thermal efficiency. • Gasoline/diesel blends may be a promising alternative for premixed combustion. - Abstract: The effects of gasoline/diesel blended fuel composed of diesel fuel with gasoline as additives in volume basis, on combustion, fuel economies and exhaust emissions were experimentally investigated. Tests were carried out based on a turbocharged Common-rail Direct Injection engine at a constant engine speed of 1800 r/min and different loads of 3.2 bar, 5.1 bar Indicated Mean Effective Pressure. Additionally, the effect of combustion phasing and Exhaust Gas Recirculation were evaluated experimentally for various fuels. The results indicated that with the fraction of gasoline increasing in blends, the ignition delay was prolonged and the combustion phasing was retarded with the common injection timing. This led to a significant increase of premixed burning phase, which was in favor of smoke reduction; although, too much gasoline might be adverse to fuel consumption. An optimum combustion phasing was identified, leading to a higher thermal efficiency and better premixed combustion with blended fuels. A combined application of Exhaust Gas Recirculation and blended fuel with a high gasoline fraction was confirmed effective in reducing the oxides of nitrogen and smoke emissions simultaneously at the optimum combustion phasing without giving significant penalty of fuel consumption. A compound combustion mode with its emission lower than the conventional Compression Ignition engines, and efficiency higher than the typical Spark Ignition engines, could be achieved with a cooperative control of Exhaust Gas Recirculation and combustion phasing of the gasoline/diesel

  11. 40 CFR 80.552 - What compliance options are available to motor vehicle diesel fuel small refiners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to motor vehicle diesel fuel small refiners? 80.552 Section 80.552 Protection of Environment... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Small Refiner Hardship Provisions § 80.552 What compliance options are available to motor vehicle diesel fuel...

  12. 40 CFR 80.604 - What are the annual reporting requirements for refiners and importers of NRLM diesel fuel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel... requirements for refiners and importers of NRLM diesel fuel? 80.604 Section 80.604 Protection of Environment... importers of NRLM diesel fuel? Beginning with the annual compliance period that begins June 1, 2007, or the...

  13. Effects of butanol-diesel fuel blends on the performance and emissions of a high-speed DI diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakopoulos, D.C.; Rakopoulos, C.D.; Giakoumis, E.G.; Dimaratos, A.M.; Kyritsis, D.C.

    2010-01-01

    An experimental investigation is conducted to evaluate the effects of using blends of n-butanol (normal butanol) with conventional diesel fuel, with 8%, 16% and 24% (by volume) n-butanol, on the performance and exhaust emissions of a standard, fully instrumented, four-stroke, high-speed, direct injection (DI), Ricardo/Cussons 'Hydra' diesel engine located at the authors' laboratory. The tests are conducted using each of the above fuel blends or neat diesel fuel, with the engine working at a speed of 2000 rpm and at three different loads. In each test, fuel consumption, exhaust smokiness and exhaust regulated gas emissions such as nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and total unburned hydrocarbons are measured. The differences in the measured performance and exhaust emission parameters of the three butanol-diesel fuel blends from the baseline operation of the diesel engine, i.e., when working with neat diesel fuel, are determined and compared. It is revealed that this fuel, which can be produced from biomass (bio-butanol), forms a challenging and promising bio-fuel for diesel engines. The differing physical and chemical properties of butanol against those for the diesel fuel are used to aid the correct interpretation of the observed engine behavior.

  14. Designing a Surrogate Fuel for Gas-to-Liquid Derived Diesel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choudhury, H. A.; Intikhab, S.; Kalakul, Sawitree

    2017-01-01

    loads, diesel fuel surpasses the total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions for both the surrogate and the GTL fuel. No significant variation in CO and CO2 emissions for MI-5, GTL diesel and conventional diesel is observed. Analysis of combustion as well as emission behavior of the fuels helps to understand...

  15. 46 CFR 182.470 - Ventilation of spaces containing diesel fuel tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of spaces containing diesel fuel tanks. 182... Ventilation of spaces containing diesel fuel tanks. (a) Unless provided with ventilation that complies with § 182.465, a space containing a diesel fuel tank and no machinery must meet the requirements of this...

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center: How Do Diesel Vehicles Work Using Biodiesel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesel Vehicles Work Using Biodiesel? to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: How Do Diesel Vehicles Work Using Biodiesel? on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: How Do Diesel Vehicles Work Using Biodiesel? on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: How Do

  17. Effects of the biodiesel blend fuel on aldehyde emissions from diesel engine exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chiung-Yu; Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Lan, Cheng-Hang; Chien, Shu-Mei

    Interest in use of biodiesel fuels derived from vegetable oils or animal fats as alternative fuels for petroleum-based diesels has increased due to biodiesels having similar properties of those of diesels, and characteristics of renewability, biodegradability and potential beneficial effects on exhaust emissions. Generally, exhaust emissions of regulated pollutants are widely studied and the results favor biodiesels on CO, HC and particulate emissions; however, limited and inconsistent data are showed for unregulated pollutants, such as carbonyl compounds, which are also important indicators for evaluating available vehicle fuels. For better understanding biodiesel, this study examines the effects of the biodiesel blend fuel on aldehyde chemical emissions from diesel engine exhausts in comparison with those from the diesel fuel. Test engines (Mitsubishi 4M40-2AT1) with four cylinders, a total displacement of 2.84 L, maximum horsepower of 80.9 kW at 3700 rpm, and maximum torque of 217.6 N m at 2000 rpm, were mounted and operated on a Schenck DyNAS 335 dynamometer. Exhaust emission tests were performed several times for each fuel under the US transient cycle protocol from mileages of 0-80,000 km with an interval of 20,000 km, and two additional measurements were carried out at 40,000 and 80,000 km after maintenance, respectively. Aldehyde samples were collected from diluted exhaust by using a constant volume sampling system. Samples were extracted and analyzed by the HPLC/UV system. Dominant aldehydes of both fuels' exhausts are formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. These compounds together account for over 75% of total aldehyde emissions. Total aldehyde emissions for B20 (20% waste cooking oil biodiesel and 80% diesel) and diesel fuels are in the ranges of 15.4-26.9 mg bhp-h -1 and 21.3-28.6 mg bhp-h -1, respectively. The effects of increasing mileages and maintenance practice on aldehyde emissions are insignificant for both fuels. B20 generates slightly less emission than

  18. Review on the effects of dual-fuel operation, using diesel and gaseous fuels, on emissions and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagemakers, A.M.L.M.; Leermakers, C.A.J.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years the automotive industry has been forced to reduce the harmful and pollutant emissions emitted by direct injected diesel engines. To accomplish this difficult task various solutions have been proposed. One of these proposed solutions is the usage of gaseous fuels in addition to the

  19. Antifreeze polymeric additives for fuels; Aditivos polimericos anticongelantes para combustiveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muniz, Aline S.; Carvalho, Agne Roani de; Sakae, George Hideki; Oliveira, Angelo R.S.; Cesar-Oliveira, Maria Aparecida F. [Universidade Federal do Parana - UFPR - Departamento de Quimica - LABPOL-Laboratorio de Polimeros Sinteticos, Centro Politecnico, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], e-mails: mafco@ufpr.br, alinemuniz@ufpr.br

    2011-07-01

    Owing to the current interest in the reduction of environmental pollution, several researchers are seeking renewable sources of energy which can at least partially replace combustibles derived from petroleum. Diesel oil is the combustible that most seriously pollutes the environment and is thus the biodiesel that is being considered as a fuel which can be replaced by a renewable combustible; this can possibly be used in diesel engines without any modifications. However, certain problems have to be overcome with regard to the temperature at which the biodiesel should be stored and used, since there is a tendency for biodiesel to solidify at low temperatures. This suggests that there is a need for the use of anti-freeze additives. This work behind the main focus additives with only 25 ppm, were able to reduce the pour point of fuel, achieving significant results, for example, the additive M14A18 lowered the pour point (PP) of B20 to -20 degree C, showing that the use of increasing amounts of biodiesel to diesel can aggregate. The main focus of work behind the development of additives that with only 25 ppm, were able to reduce the pour point of fuel, producing significant results such as those obtained with the use of additive M14A18 which lowered the pour point of the B20 to -20 degree C, showing the possibility of using increasing amounts of biodiesel added to diesel. (author)

  20. OVERVIEW OF ADVANCED PETROLEUM-BASED FUELS-DIESEL EMISSIONS CONTROL PROGRAM (APBF-DEC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sverdrup, George M.

    2000-08-20

    The Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels-Diesel Emissions Control Program (APBF-DEC) began in February 2000 and is supported by government agencies and industry. The purpose of the APBF-DEC program is to identify and evaluate the optimal combinations of fuels, lubricants, diesel engines, and emission control systems to meet the projected emission standards for the 2000 to 2010 time period. APBF-DEC is an outgrowth of the earlier Diesel Emission Control-Sulfur Effects Program (DECSE), whose objective is to determine the impact of the sulfur levels in fuel on emission control systems that could lower the emissions of NOx and particulate matter (PM) from diesel powered vehicles in the 2002 to 2004 period. Results from the DECSE studies of two emission control technologies-diesel particle filter (DPF) and NOx adsorber-will be used in the APBF-DEC program. These data are expected to provide initial information on emission control technology options and the effects of fuel properties (including additives) on the performance of emission control systems.

  1. Numerical modeling on homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion engine fueled by diesel-ethanol blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanafi H.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the performance and emission characteristics of HCCI engines fueled with oxygenated fuels (ethanol blend. A modeling study was conducted to investigate the impact of ethanol addition on the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI engine fueled by diesel. One dimensional simulation was conducted using the renowned commercial software for diesel and its blend fuels with 5% (E5 and 10% ethanol (E10 (in vol. under full load condition at variable engine speed ranging from 1000 to 2750 rpm with 250 rpm increment. The model was then validated with other researcher’s experimental result. Model consists of intake and exhaust systems, cylinder, head, valves and port geometries. Performance tests were conducted for volumetric efficiency, brake engine torque, brake power, brake mean effective pressure, brake specific fuel consumption, and brake thermal efficiency, while exhaust emissions were analyzed for carbon monoxide (CO and unburned hydrocarbons (HC. The results showed that blending diesel with ethanol increases the volumetric efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency, while it decreases brake engine torque, brake power and brake mean effective pressure. In term of emission characteristics, the CO emissions concentrations in the engine exhaust decrease significantly with ethanol as additive. But for HC emission, its concentration increase when apply in high engine speed. In conclusion, using Ethanol as fuel additive blend with Diesel operating in HCCI shows a good result in term of performance and emission in low speed but not recommended to use in high speed engine. Ethanol-diesel blends need to researched more to make it commercially useable.

  2. Low - temperature properties of rape seed oil biodiesel fuel and its blending with other diesel fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kampars, V.; Skujins, A.

    2004-01-01

    The properties of commercial bio diesel fuel depend upon the refining technique and the nature of the renewable lipids from which it is produced. The examined bio diesel fuel produced from rape seed oil by the Latvian SIA 'Delta Riga' has better low-temperature properties than many other bio diesels; but a considerably higher cloud point (-5,7 deg C), cold filter plugging point (-7 deg C) and pour point (-12 deg C) than the examined petrodiesel (grade C, LST EN 590:2000) from AB 'Mazeikiu nafta'. The low-temperature properties considerably improve if blending of these fuels is used. The blended fuels with bio diesel contents up to 90% have lower cold filter plugging points than petrodollar's. The estimated viscosity variations with temperature show that the blended fuels are Arrenius-type liquids, which lose this property near the cold filter plugging point. (authors)

  3. Influence of fuel injection pressures on Calophyllum inophyllum methyl ester fuelled direct injection diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanthagopal, K.; Ashok, B.; Karuppa Raj, R. Thundil

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of injection pressure of Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel is investigated. • Engine characteristics of 100% Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel has been performed. • Calophyllum inophyllum is a non-edible source for biodiesel production. • Increase in injection pressure of biodiesel, improves the fuel economy. • Incylinder pressure characteristics of biodiesel follows similar trend as of diesel. - Abstract: The trend of using biodiesels in compression ignition engines have been the focus in recent decades due to the promising environmental factors and depletion of fossil fuel reserves. This work presents the effect of Calophyllum inophyllum methyl ester on diesel engine performance, emission and combustion characteristics at different injection pressures. Experimental investigations with varying injection pressures of 200 bar, 220 bar and 240 bar have been carried out to analyse the parameters like brake thermal efficiency, specific fuel consumption, heat release rate and engine emissions of direct injection diesel engine fuelled with 100% biodiesel and compared with neat diesel. The experimental results revealed that brake specific fuel consumption of C. inophyllum methyl ester fuelled engine has been reduced to a great extent with higher injection pressure. Significant reduction in emissions of unburnt hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and smoke opacity have been observed during fuel injection of biodiesel at 220 bar compared to other fuel injection pressures. However oxides of nitrogen increased with increase in injection pressures of C. inophyllum methyl ester and are always higher than that of neat diesel. In addition the combustion characteristics of biodiesel at all injection pressures followed a similar trend to that of conventional diesel.

  4. A study on an electronically controlled liquefied petroleum gas diesel dual-fuel automobile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chunhua Zhang; Yaozhang Bian; Lizeng Si; Junzhi Liao; Odbileg, N. [Chang' an Univ., Automobile Faculty, Xi' an (China)

    2005-02-15

    In this paper, the control scheme of a liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)-diesel dual-fuel engine with electronic control is illustrated, the external characteristics and load characteristics of the LPG-diesel dual-fuel engine and the diesel engine are compared and analysed, and the results of automobile road tests are also given. The experimental results show that, compared with diesel, the output performance of dual fuel is not reduced, while smoke emission of dual fuel is significantly reduced, NO{sub x} emission of dual fuel is hardly changed, but HC emission and CO emission of dual fuel are increased and fuel consumption of dual fuel is reduced. (Author)

  5. 78 FR 36041 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: RFS Pathways II and Technical Amendments to the RFS 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... Production, Transport and Tailpipe Emissions for Renewable Diesel and Naphtha C. Proposed Regulatory... and diesel fuel, or renewable fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel. Regulated categories and entities...

  6. Experimental investigation of regulated and unregulated emissions from a diesel engine fueled with ultralow-sulfur diesel fuel blended with ethanol and dodecanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, C. S.; Di, Yage; Huang, Zuohua

    Experiments were conducted on a four-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine using ultralow-sulfur diesel as the main fuel, ethanol as the oxygenate additive and dodecanol as the solvent, to investigate the regulated and unregulated emissions of the engine under five engine loads at an engine speed of 1800 rev min -1. Blended fuels containing 6.1%, 12.2%, 18.2% and 24.2% by volume of ethanol, corresponding to 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% by mass of oxygen in the blended fuel, were used. The results indicate that with an increase in ethanol in the fuel, the brake specific fuel consumption becomes higher while there is little change in the brake thermal efficiency. Regarding the regulated emissions, HC and CO increase significantly at low engine load but might decrease at high engine load, NO x emission slightly decreases at low engine load but slightly increases at high engine load, while particulate mass decreases significantly at high engine load. For the unregulated gaseous emissions, unburned ethanol and acetaldehyde increase but formaldehyde, ethene, ethyne, 1,3-butadiene and BTX (benzene, toluene and xylene) in general decrease, especially at high engine load. A diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) is found to reduce significantly most of the pollutants, including the air toxics.

  7. Production, characterization and fuel properties of alternative diesel fuel from pyrolysis of waste plastic grocery bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrolysis of HDPE waste grocery bags followed by distillation resulted in a liquid hydrocarbon mixture that consisted of saturated aliphatic paraffins (96.8%), aliphatic olefins (2.6%), and aromatics (0.6%) that corresponded to the boiling range of conventional petroleum diesel fuel (#1 diesel 182–2...

  8. Diesel fuel takes over from gasoline as the rop seller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nupponen, J.

    2001-01-01

    Sales of diesel fuel in Finland continued to increase during 2000, and exceeded gasoline sales in terms of tonnes sold for the first time since the early 1960s. Sales of gasoline and the other main petroleum products fell slightly compared to 1999. Sales of natural gas increased. Otherwise, the year was a relatively uneventful one on the Finnish oil market

  9. Fuel composition impact on heavy duty diesel engine combustion & emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijters, P.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The Heavy Duty Diesel or compression ignition (CI) engine plays an important economical role in societies all over the world. Although it is a fuel efficient internal combustion engine design, CI engine emissions are an important contributor to global pollution. To further reduce engine emissions

  10. Effect of two-stage injection on combustion and emissions under high EGR rate on a diesel engine by fueling blends of diesel/gasoline, diesel/n-butanol, diesel/gasoline/n-butanol and pure diesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Zunqing; Yue, Lang; Liu, Haifeng; Zhu, Yuxuan; Zhong, Xiaofan; Yao, Mingfa

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Two-stage injection using diesel blended fuel at high EGR (46%) was studied. • Blending fuels induce retarded pilot heat release and have less effect on MPRR. • Effects of injection parameters of blended fuels on emissions are similar to diesel. • Different fuels have little influence on post combustion heat release. • Small quantity post injection close to main results in better efficiency and emissions. - Abstract: The effect of two-stage injection on combustion and emission characteristics under high EGR (46%) condition were experimentally investigated. Four different fuels including pure diesel and blended fuels of diesel/gasoline, diesel/n-butanol, diesel/gasoline/n-butanol were tested. Results show that blending gasoline or/and n-butanol in diesel improves smoke emissions while induces increase in maximum pressure rise rate (MPRR). Adopting pilot injection close to main injection can effectively reduce the peak of premixed heat release rate and MPRR. However, for fuels blends with high percentage of low cetane number fuel, the effect of pilot fuel on ignition can be neglected and the improvement of MPRR is not that obvious. Pilot-main interval presents more obvious effect on smoke than pilot injection rate does, and the smoke emissions decrease with increasing pilot-main interval. A longer main-post interval results in a lower post heat release rate and prolonged combustion duration. While post injection rate has little effect on the start of ignition for post injection. The variation in fuel properties caused by blending gasoline or/and n-butanol into diesel does not impose obvious influence on post combustion. The smoke emission increases first and then declines with retard of post injection timing. Compared to diesel, the smoke emissions of blended fuels are more sensitive to the variation of post injection strategy

  11. The history, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity of carbon-based fuels and their emissions. Part 3: diesel and gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claxton, Larry D

    2015-01-01

    Within this review the genotoxicity of diesel and gasoline fuels and emissions is placed in an historical context. New technologies have changed the composition of transportation methods considerably, reducing emissions of many of the components of health concern. The similarity of modern diesel and gasoline fuels and emissions to other carbonaceous fuels and emissions is striking. Recently an International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Working Group concluded that there was sufficient evidence in humans for the carcinogenicity of diesel exhaust (Group 1). In addition, the Working Group found that diesel exhaust has "a positive association (limited evidence) with an increased risk of bladder cancer." Like most other carbonaceous fuel emissions, diesel and gasoline exhausts contain toxic levels of respirable particles (PM gasoline emissions has declined in certain regions over time because of changes in engine design, the development of better aftertreatment devices (e.g., catalysts), increased fuel economy, changes in the fuels and additives used, and greater regulation. Additional research and better exposure assessments are needed so that decision makers and the public can decide to what extent diesel and gasoline engines should be replaced. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of ultra-low sulphur diesel fuel and diesel oxidation catalysts on nitrogen dioxide emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stachulak, J.S.; Zarling, D.

    2010-01-01

    Diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs) are used on diesel equipment in underground mines to reduce exhaust emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (C) and odour that are associated with gaseous HCs. New catalysts have also been formulated to minimize sulphate production, but little is know about their effects on nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) emissions. DOCs are known to oxidize nitric oxide (NO) to NO 2 , which is more toxic than NO at low levels. Vale Inco uses ultra-low sulphur diesel (ULSD) fuel for its underground diesel equipment. Although ULSD is a cleaner burning fuel, its impact on the emissions performance of DOCs is not fully known. Technical material gathered during a literature review suggested that ULSD fuel may increase NO 2 production if DOCs are used, but that the increase would be small. This paper presented the results of a laboratory evaluation of DOCs with varying amounts of time-in service in Vale Inco mines. The 4 Vale Inco DOCs were found to produce excess NO 2 during some test conditions. In both steady-state and transient testing, there were no obvious trends in NO 2 increases with increasing DOC age. Two possibilities for these observations are that the DOCs may have been well within their useful life or their initial compositions differed. Future studies will make use of improved instrumentation, notably NO 2 analyzers, to definitely determine the influence of DOCs on NO 2 formation. 13 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  13. Effects of diesel/ethanol dual fuel on emission characteristics in a heavy-duty diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junheng; Sun, Ping; Zhang, Buyun

    2017-09-01

    In order to reduce emissions and diesel consumption, the gas emissions characteris-tics of diesel/aqueous ethanol dual fuel combustion (DFC) were carried out on a heavy-duty turbocharged and intercooled automotive diesel engine. The aqueous ethanol is prepared by a blend of anhydrous ethanol and water in certain volume proportion. In DFC mode, aqueous ethanol is injected into intake port to form homogeneous charge, and then ignited by the diesel fuel. Results show that DFC can reduce NOx emissions but increase HC and CO emissions, and this trend becomes more prominent with the increase of water blending ratio. Increased emissions of HC and CO could be efficiently cleaned by diesel oxidation catalytic converter (DOC), even better than those of diesel fuel. It is also found that DFC mode reduces smoke remarkably, while increases some unconventional emissions such as formaldehyde and acetal-dehyde. However, unconventional emissions could be reduced approximately to the level of baseline engine with a DOC.

  14. Stimulation of Diesel Fuel Biodegradation by Indigenous Nitrogen Fixing Bacterial Consortia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piehler; Swistak; Pinckney; Paerl

    1999-07-01

    > Abstract Successful stimulation of N2 fixation and petroleum hydrocarbon degradation in indigenous microbial consortia may decrease exogenous N requirements and reduce environmental impacts of bioremediation following petroleum pollution. This study explored the biodegradation of petroleum pollution by indigenous N2 fixing marine microbial consortia. Particulate organic carbon (POC) in the form of ground, sterile corn-slash (post-harvest leaves and stems) was added to diesel fuel amended coastal water samples to stimulate biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons by native microorganisms capable of supplying a portion of their own N. It was hypothesized that addition of POC to petroleum amended water samples from N-limited coastal waters would promote the growth of N2 fixing consortia and enhance biodegradation of petroleum. Manipulative experiments were conducted using samples from coastal waters (marinas and less polluted control site) to determine the effects of POC amendment on biodegradation of petroleum pollution by native microbial consortia. Structure and function of the microbial consortia were determined by measurement of N2 fixation (acetylene reduction), hydrocarbon biodegradation (14C hexadecane mineralization), bacterial biomass (AODC), number of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria (MPN), and bacterial productivity (3H-thymidine incorporation). Throughout this study there was a consistent enhancement of petroleum hydrocarbon degradation in response to the addition of POC. Stimulation of diesel fuel biodegradation following the addition of POC was likely attributable to increases in bacterial N2 fixation, diesel fuel bioavailability, bacterial biomass, and metabolic activity. Toxicity of the bulk phase water did not appear to be a factor affecting biodegradation of diesel fuel following POC addition. These results indicate that the addition of POC to diesel-fuel-polluted systems stimulated indigenous N2 fixing microbial consortia to degrade petroleum

  15. Bio-diesel fuels production: Feasibility studies. Se l'agricoltore semina il gasolio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabasso, L.

    This paper reviews the efforts being made by Italy's national government and private industry to develop diesel engine fuels derived from vegetable oils, in particular, sunflower seed oil. These fuels are being promoted in Italy from the environmental protection stand-point in that they don't contain any sulfur, the main cause of acid rain, and from the agricultural stand-point in that they provide Italian farmers, whose food crop production capacity is limited due to European Communities agreements, with the opportunity to use their set-aside land for the production of energy crops. This paper provides brief notes on the key performance characteristics of bio-diesel fuels, whose application doesn't require any modifications to diesel engines, apart from minor adjustments to the air/fuel mix regulating system, and assesses commercialization prospects. Brief mention is made of the problems being encountered by the Government in the establishing fair bio-fuel production tax rebates which are compatible with the marketing practices of the petroleum industry. One of the strategies being considered is to use the bio-fuels as additives to be mixed with conventional fuel oils so as to derive a fuel which meets the new European air pollution standards.

  16. Asian gasoline and diesel fuel quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Nancy D.

    2000-01-01

    Despite the economic slowdown in the late 1990s, gasoline and diesel demand in the Asia-Pacific region has increased significantly. Regional demand is the highest in the world and most new refinery projects worldwide during the 1990s have been here. Generalisations are difficult because the region contains countries at different stages of economic development and environmental quality standards. Gasoline and diesel demand for 1985-2005 for Australasia, Southeast Asia, South Asia and East Asia is shown in four histograms. The trend towards unleaded gasoline, average gasoline aromatics levels and the quality of gasoline in Australasia, South Asia, Southeast Asia and East Asia are examined. A further three histograms show the growth in Asia-Pacific unleaded gasoline market share 1991-2000, the rise in octane levels as lead levels fall (1991-2005) and the calculated aromatics content of gasoline in 11 Asia-Pacific countries

  17. Effect of biodiesel fuels on diesel engine emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapuerta, Magin; Armas, Octavio; Rodriguez-Fernandez, Jose [Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Avda. Camilo Jose Cela, s/n. 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2008-04-15

    The call for the use of biofuels which is being made by most governments following international energy policies is presently finding some resistance from car and components manufacturing companies, private users and local administrations. This opposition makes it more difficult to reach the targets of increased shares of use of biofuels in internal combustion engines. One of the reasons for this resistance is a certain lack of knowledge about the effect of biofuels on engine emissions. This paper collects and analyzes the body of work written mainly in scientific journals about diesel engine emissions when using biodiesel fuels as opposed to conventional diesel fuels. Since the basis for comparison is to maintain engine performance, the first section is dedicated to the effect of biodiesel fuel on engine power, fuel consumption and thermal efficiency. The highest consensus lies in an increase in fuel consumption in approximate proportion to the loss of heating value. In the subsequent sections, the engine emissions from biodiesel and diesel fuels are compared, paying special attention to the most concerning emissions: nitric oxides and particulate matter, the latter not only in mass and composition but also in size distributions. In this case the highest consensus was found in the sharp reduction in particulate emissions. (author)

  18. Combustion characteristics of a turbocharged DI compression ignition engine fueled wth petroleum diesel fuels and biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canakci, M. [Kocaeli University, Izmit (Turkey). Department of Mechanical Education

    2007-04-15

    In this study, the combustion characteristics and emissions of two different petroleum diesel fuels (No. 1 and No. 2) and biodiesel from soybean oil were compared. The tests were performed at steady state conditions in a four-cylinder turbocharged DI diesel engine at full load at 1400-rpm engine speed. The experimental results compared with No. 2 diesel fuel showed that biodiesel provided significant reductions in PM, CO, and unburned HC, the NO{sub x} increased by 11.2%. Biodiesel had a 13.8% increase in brake-specific fuel consumption due to its lower heating value. However, using No. 1 diesel fuel gave better emission results, NO{sub x} and brake-specific fuel consumption reduced by 16.1% and 1.2%, respectively. The values of the principal combustion characteristics of the biodiesel were obtained between two petroleum diesel fuels. The results indicated that biodiesel may be blended with No. 1 diesel fuel to be used without any modification on the engine. (author)

  19. Use of water containing acetone–butanol–ethanol for NOx-PM (nitrogen oxide-particulate matter) trade-off in the diesel engine fueled with biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Yu-Cheng; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Wu, Tser Son; Wu, Chang-Yu; Chen, Shui-Jen

    2014-01-01

    Fuel blends that contain biodiesel are known to produce greater NO x (nitrogen oxide) emissions in diesel engine exhaust than regular diesel, and this is one of the key barriers to the wider adoption of biodiesel as an alternative fuel. In this study, a water-containing ABE (acetone–butanol–ethanol) solution, which simulates products that are produced from biomass fermentation without dehydration processing, was tested as a biodiesel-diesel blend additive to lower NO x emissions from diesel engines. The energy efficiency and the PM (particulate matter) and PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) emissions were investigated and compared under various operating conditions. Although biodiesel had greater NO x emissions, the blends that contained 25% of the water-containing ABE solution had significantly lower NO x (4.30–30.7%), PM (10.9–63.1%), and PAH (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) emissions (26.7–67.6%) than the biodiesel–diesel blends and regular diesel, respectively. In addition, the energy efficiency of this new blend was 0.372–7.88% higher with respect to both the biodiesel–diesel blends and regular diesel. Because dehydration and surfactant addition are not necessary, the application of ABE–biodiesel–diesel blends can simplify fuel production processes, reduce energy consumption, and lower pollutant emissions, meaning that the ABE–biodiesel–diesel blend is a promising green fuel. - Highlights: • Water-containing ABE (acetone–butanol–ethanol)–biodiesel–diesel was tested in a diesel engine. • The addition of ABE to biodiesel–diesel blends can enhance the energy efficiency. • The addition of ABE can solve the problem of NO x -PM (nitrogen oxide-particulate matter) trade-off when using biodiesel. • PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) can be further reduced by adding ABE in biodiesel–diesel blends. • Fuel production was simplified due to the acceptance of water in ABE

  20. Comparative performance and emissions study of a direct injection Diesel engine using blends of Diesel fuel with vegetable oils or bio-diesels of various origins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakopoulos, C.D.; Antonopoulos, K.A.; Rakopoulos, D.C.; Hountalas, D.T.; Giakoumis, E.G.

    2006-01-01

    An extended experimental study is conducted to evaluate and compare the use of various Diesel fuel supplements at blend ratios of 10/90 and 20/80, in a standard, fully instrumented, four stroke, direct injection (DI), Ricardo/Cussons 'Hydra' Diesel engine located at the authors' laboratory. More specifically, a high variety of vegetable oils or bio-diesels of various origins are tested as supplements, i.e. cottonseed oil, soybean oil, sunflower oil and their corresponding methyl esters, as well as rapeseed oil methyl ester, palm oil methyl ester, corn oil and olive kernel oil. The series of tests are conducted using each of the above fuel blends, with the engine working at a speed of 2000 rpm and at a medium and high load. In each test, volumetric fuel consumption, exhaust smokiness and exhaust regulated gas emissions such as nitrogen oxides (NO x ), carbon monoxide (CO) and total unburned hydrocarbons (HC) are measured. From the first measurement, specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency are computed. The differences in the measured performance and exhaust emission parameters from the baseline operation of the engine, i.e. when working with neat Diesel fuel, are determined and compared. This comparison is extended between the use of the vegetable oil blends and the bio-diesel blends. Theoretical aspects of Diesel engine combustion, combined with the widely differing physical and chemical properties of these Diesel fuel supplements against the normal Diesel fuel, are used to aid the correct interpretation of the observed engine behavior

  1. 26 CFR 48.4082-1 - Diesel fuel and kerosene; exemption for dyed fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes... barrels of diesel fuel or kerosene; or (2) Any dye of a type and in a concentration that has been approved...

  2. Combustion Characterization and Ignition Delay Modeling of Low- and High-Cetane Alternative Diesel Fuels in a Marine Diesel Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, John; Seivwright, Doug; Caton, Patrick; Millsaps, Knox

    2014-01-01

    The article of record as published may be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ef500565t In support of an ongoing U.S. Navy alternative fuel evaluation program, the combustion characteristics of two very different alternative diesel fuels were evaluated in a direct-injection marine diesel engine across a variety of speeds and loads. The fuels were an algal-based hydrotreated renewable diesel fuel (HRD) with cetane number of ∼75 and a synthetic paraffinic kerosene (SPK) with cetane n...

  3. Fuel Continuous Mixer ? an Approach Solution to Use Straight Vegetable Oil for Marine Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đặng Van Uy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The vegetable oil is well known as green fuel for diesel engines due to its low sunphur content and renewable stock. However, there are some problems raising when vegetable oil is used as fuel for diesel engines such as highly effected by cold weather, lower general efficiency, separation in layer if mixed with diesel oil and so on. To overcome that disadvantiges, the authors propose a new idea that to use a continuous fuel mixer to blend vegetable oil with diesel oil to make so called a mixed fuel supplying to diesel engines inline. In order to ensure a quality of the mixed fuel created by continuous mixer, a homogeneous testing was introduced with believable results. Then, the continuous mixer has been installed into fuel supply system of diesel engine 6LU32 at a lab of Vietnam Maritime University in terms of checking a real operation of the fuel continuous mixer with diesel engine.

  4. Investigation of microalgae HTL fuel effects on diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions using surrogate fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, Farhad M.; Nabi, Md. Nurun; Rainey, Thomas J.; Bodisco, Timothy; Rahman, Md. Mostafizur; Suara, Kabir; Rahman, S.M.A.; Van, Thuy Chu; Ristovski, Zoran; Brown, Richard J.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Development of a microalgae HTL surrogate of biocrude fuel using chemical compounds. • Physiochemical properties of surrogate blends were analysed. • Experimentally investigated diesel engine performance and emissions using surrogate fuels. • No significant changes in engine performance were observed with HTL surrogate blends. • Major emissions including PM, PN and CO were reduced significantly with increasing of NOx emission. - Abstract: This paper builds on previous work using surrogate fuel to investigate advanced internal combustion engine fuels. To date, a surrogate fuel of this nature has not been used for microalgae hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) biocrude. This research used five different chemical groups found in microalgae HTL biocrude to design a surrogate fuel. Those five chemical groups constitute around 65% (by weight) of a microalgae biocrude produced by HTL. Weight percentage of the microalgae HTL biocrude chemical compounds were used to design the surrogate fuel, which was miscible with diesel at all percentages. The engine experiments were conducted on a EURO IIIA turbocharged common-rail direct-injection six-cylinder diesel engine to test engine performance and emissions. Exhaust emissions, including particulate matter and other gaseous emissions, were measured with the surrogate fuel and a reference diesel fuel. Experimental results showed that without significantly deteriorating engine performance, lower particulate mass, particulate number and CO emissions were observed with a penalty in NOx emissions for all surrogate blends compared to those of the reference diesel.

  5. Potentials and limitations of alternative fuels for diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gligorijević Radinko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary energy consumption in the world has increased continuously. The most important primary energy source is oil. The supply of automotive fuels today is based almost entirely on oil, and the demand for liquid transportation fuels worldwide will rise significantly in the next fifty years. Growing energy consumption and decreasing fossil resources are reasons for increasing prices of fossil fuel. Besides limited availability, contribution to greenhouse effect and pollutant emission represent another problem of fossil fuel. Both of these problems can be overcome by increased application of renewable biofuels. Therefore, great effort is made to supplement the primary energy sources by including renewable energies. There are alternative fuels 1st and 2nd generation. Some of them show high potential for reduction of engine out emission. But there are economical and technical barriers when such fuels are applied. This paper shows both advantage and disadvantage of alternative fuels, especially when used for diesel engines.

  6. Experimental evaluation of Diesel engine performance and emission using blends of jojoba oil and Diesel fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huzayyin, A.S.; Bawady, A.H.; Rady, M.A.; Dawood, A.

    2004-01-01

    An experimental evaluation of using jojoba oil as an alternate Diesel engine fuel has been conducted in the present work. Measurements of jojoba oil chemical and physical properties have indicated a good potential of using jojoba oil as an alternative Diesel engine fuel. Blending of jojoba oil with gas oil has been shown to be an effective method to reduce engine problems associated with the high viscosity of jojoba oil. Experimental measurements of different performance parameters of a single cylinder, naturally aspirated, direct injection, Diesel engine have been performed using gas oil and blends of gas oil with jojoba oil. Measurements of engine performance parameters at different load conditions over the engine speed range have generally indicated a negligible loss of engine power, a slight increase in brake specific fuel consumption and a reduction in engine NO x and soot emission using blends of jojoba oil with gas oil as compared to gas oil. The reduction in engine soot emission has been observed to increase with the increase of jojoba oil percentage in the fuel blend

  7. Experimental evaluation of diesel engine performance and emission using blends of jojoba oil and diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huzayyin, A.S.; Rady, M.A.; Dawood, A. [Benha High Inst. of Technology (Egypt). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Technology; Bawady, A.H. [University of Ain Shams, Cairo (Egypt). Faculty of Engineering

    2004-08-01

    An experimental evaluation of using jojoba oil as an alternate diesel engine fuel has been conducted in the present work. Measurements of jojoba oil chemical and physical properties have indicated a good potential of using jojoba oil as an alternative diesel engine fuel. Blending of jojoba oil with gas oil has been shown to be an effective method to reduce engine problems associated with the high viscosity of jojoba oil. Experimental measurements of different performance parameters of a single cylinder, naturally aspirated, direct injection, diesel engine have been performed using gas oil and blends of gas oil with jojoba oil. Measurements of engine performance parameters at different load conditions over the engine speed range have generally indicated a negligible loss of engine power, a slight increase in brake specific fuel consumption and a reduction in engine NO{sub x} and soot emission using blends of jojoba oil with gas oil as compared to gas oil. The reduction in engine soot emission has been observed to increase with the increase of jojoba oil percentage in the fuel blend. (Author)

  8. Experimental analysis of ethanol dual-fuel combustion in a heavy-duty diesel engine: An optimisation at low load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrozo, Vinícius B.; May, Ian; Dalla Nora, Macklini; Cairns, Alasdair; Zhao, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Dual-fuel combustion offers promising results on a stock heavy-duty diesel engine. • The use of split diesel injections extends the benefits of the dual-fuel mode. • Ethanol–diesel dual-fuel combustion results in high indicated efficiencies. • NOx and soot emissions are significantly reduced. • Combustion efficiency reaches 98% with an ethanol energy ratio of 53%. - Abstract: Conventional diesel combustion produces harmful exhaust emissions which adversely affect the air quality if not controlled by in-cylinder measures and exhaust aftertreatment systems. Dual-fuel combustion can potentially reduce the formation of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and soot which are characteristic of diesel diffusion flame. The in-cylinder blending of different fuels to control the charge reactivity allows for lower local equivalence ratios and temperatures. The use of ethanol, an oxygenated biofuel with high knock resistance and high latent heat of vaporisation, increases the reactivity gradient. In addition, renewable biofuels can provide a sustainable alternative to petroleum-based fuels as well as reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, ethanol–diesel dual-fuel combustion suffers from poor engine efficiency at low load due to incomplete combustion. Therefore, experimental studies were carried out at 1200 rpm and 0.615 MPa indicated mean effective pressure on a heavy-duty diesel engine. Fuel delivery was in the form of port fuel injection of ethanol and common rail direct injection of diesel. The objective was to improve combustion efficiency, maximise ethanol substitution, and minimise NOx and soot emissions. Ethanol energy fractions up to 69% were explored in conjunction with the effect of different diesel injection strategies on combustion, emissions, and efficiency. Optimisation tests were performed for the optimum fuelling and diesel injection strategy. The resulting effects of exhaust gas recirculation, intake air pressure, and rail pressure were

  9. Study of turbocharged diesel engine operation, pollutant emissions and combustion noise radiation during starting with bio-diesel or n-butanol diesel fuel blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakopoulos, C.D.; Dimaratos, A.M.; Giakoumis, E.G.; Rakopoulos, D.C.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Turbocharged diesel engine emissions during starting with bio-diesel or n-butanol diesel blends. → Peak pollutant emissions due to turbo-lag. → Significant bio-diesel effects on combustion behavior and stability. → Negative effects on NO emissions for both blends. → Positive effects on smoke emissions only for n-butanol blend. -- Abstract: The control of transient emissions from turbocharged diesel engines is an important objective for automotive manufacturers, as stringent criteria for exhaust emissions must be met. Starting, in particular, is a process of significant importance owing to its major contribution to the overall emissions during a transient test cycle. On the other hand, bio-fuels are getting impetus today as renewable substitutes for conventional fuels, especially in the transport sector. In the present work, experimental tests were conducted at the authors' laboratory on a bus/truck, turbocharged diesel engine in order to investigate the formation mechanisms of nitric oxide (NO), smoke, and combustion noise radiation during hot starting for various alternative fuel blends. To this aim, a fully instrumented test bed was set up, using ultra-fast response analyzers capable of capturing the instantaneous development of emissions as well as various other key engine and turbocharger parameters. The experimental test matrix included three different fuels, namely neat diesel fuel and two blends of diesel fuel with either bio-diesel (30% by vol.) or n-butanol (25% by vol.). With reference to the neat diesel fuel case during the starting event, the bio-diesel blend resulted in deterioration of both pollutant emissions as well as increased combustion instability, while the n-butanol (normal butanol) blend decreased significantly exhaust gas opacity but increased notably NO emission.

  10. Experimental investigation of particulate emissions from a diesel engine fueled with ultralow-sulfur diesel fuel blended with diglyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Yage; Cheung, C. S.; Huang, Zuohua

    2010-01-01

    Experiments are conducted on a 4-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine using ultralow-sulfur diesel as the base fuel and diglyme as the oxygenate component to investigate the particulate emissions of the engine under five engine loads at two engine speeds of 1800 rev min -1 and 2400 rev min -1. Blended fuels containing 5%, 10.1%, 15.2%, 20.4%, 25.7% and 53% by volume of diglyme, corresponding to 2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, 10% and 20% by mass of oxygen, are studied. The study shows that with the increase of oxygen in the fuel blends, smoke opacity, particulate mass concentration, NO x concentration and brake specific particulate emission are reduced at the two engine speeds. However, the proportion of soluble organic fraction is increased. For each blended fuel, the total particle number concentration is higher while the geometric mean diameter is smaller, compared with that of ultralow-sulfur diesel, though the particle number decreases with the oxygen content of the blended fuel. Furthermore, the blended fuels also increase the number concentrations of particles smaller than 100 nm.

  11. 40 CFR 80.596 - How is a refinery motor vehicle diesel fuel volume baseline calculated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How is a refinery motor vehicle diesel... Requirements § 80.596 How is a refinery motor vehicle diesel fuel volume baseline calculated? (a) For purposes of this subpart, a refinery's motor vehicle diesel fuel volume baseline is calculated using the...

  12. Performance, emissions and lubricant oil analysis of diesel engine running on emulsion fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasannuddin, A.K.; Wira, J.Y.; Sarah, S.; Wan Syaidatul Aqma, W.M.N.; Abdul Hadi, A.R.; Hirofumi, N.; Aizam, S.A.; Aiman, M.A.B.; Watanabe, S.; Ahmad, M.I.; Azrin, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The rate of NO x and PM reduction was lower than the rate of CO increase when using emulsion fuel. • The lubricant oil viscosity variation did not exceed the limits during the engine operation. • Emulsion fuel offers beneficial properties in terms of lower wear and friction. • Average depletions of lubricant oil additives were found at the lowest level for emulsion fuel in compared with D2. - Abstract: Emulsion fuel is one of the alternative fuels for diesel engines which are well-known for simultaneous reduction of Particulate Matter (PM) and Nitrogen Oxides (NO x ) emissions. However lack of studies have been conducted to investigate the effect of emulsion fuel usage for long run. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the effect of lubricant oil in diesel engine that operated using emulsion fuels for 200 h in comparison with Malaysian conventional diesel fuel (D2). Two emulsion fuels were used in the experiment comprising of water, low grade diesel fuel and surfactant; with ratio of 10:89:1 v/v% (E10) and 20:79:1 v/v% (E20). Engine tests were focused on fuel consumption, NO x , PM, Carbon Monoxide (CO), Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ), Oxygen (O 2 ) and exhaust temperature. Parameters for the lubricant oil analysis measured were included kinematic viscosity, Total Acid Number (TAN), ash, water content, flash point, soot, wear metals and additive elements. The findings showed the fuel consumption were up to 33.33% (including water) and lower 9.57% (without water) using emulsion. The NO x and PM were reduced by 51% and 14% respectively by using emulsion fuel. Kinematic viscosity, TAN, ash, water content, flash point and soot for emulsion fuel were observed to be better or no changes in comparison to D2. The emulsion fuel did not cause any excessive amount of metals or degraded the additive. The average percentage of wear debris concentration reduction by emulsion fuel were 8.2%, 9.1%, 16.3% and 21.0% for Iron (Fe) Aluminum (Al), Copper (Cu) and

  13. Performance of fuel system at different diesel temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoyong; Li, Xiaolu; Sun, Zai

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents the findings about performance of the fuel system of a diesel engine at different diesel temperature obtained through simulation and experiment. It can be seen from these findings that at the same rotational speed of fuel pump, the initial pressure in the fuel pipe remain unchanged as the fuel temperature increases, the peak pressure at the side of fuel pipe near the injector delays, and its largest value of pressure decreases. Meanwhile, at the same temperature, as the rotational speed increases, the initial pressure of fuel pipe is also essentially the same, the arrival of its peaks delays, and its largest value of pressure increases. The maximum fuel pressure at the side of fuel pipe near the injector has an increase of 28.9 %, 22.3%, and 13.9% respectively than the previous ones according to its conditions. At the same rotational speed, as the temperature increases, the injection quantity through the nozzle orifice decreases. At the same temperature, as the rotational speed increases, the injection quantity through the nozzle orifice increases. These experimental results are consistent with simulation results.

  14. 26 CFR 48.4082-3 - Diesel fuel and kerosene; visual inspection devices. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Diesel fuel and kerosene; visual inspection... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Taxable Fuel § 48.4082-3 Diesel fuel and kerosene...

  15. Emissions from Diesel and Gasoline Vehicles Fuelled by Fischer-Tropsch Fuels and Similar Fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ulrik; Lundorff, Peter; Ivarsson, Anders

    2007-01-01

    The described investigation was carried out under the umbrella of IEA Advanced Motor Fuels Agreement. The purpose was to evaluate the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from...... vehicles fuelled by Fischer Tropsch (FT) based diesel and gasoline fuel, compared to the emissions from ordinary diesel and gasoline. The comparison for diesel fuels was based on a literature review, whereas the gasoline comparison had to be based on our own experiments, since almost no references were...... found in this field. In this context measurement according to the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) and the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) were carried out on a chassis dynamometer with a directly injected gasoline vehicle. Experiments were carried out with a reference fuel, a fuel based 70% on FT...

  16. Castor oil biodiesel as an alternative fuel for diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benavides, Alirio; Benjumea, Pedro; Pashova, Veselina

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a study related to the production and use of castor oil biodiesel is presented. The maximum methyl esters yield of the castor oil transesterification reaction is obtained under the following conditions: ambient temperature, a molar ratio of methanol to vegetable oil equal to 9 and a catalyst percentage equal to 0.8%. The castor oil biodiesel can be blended with petroleum diesel as far as 15% in such way that the resulting blend complies with national and international technical standards for diesel fuels. Its high viscosity becomes the main difficulty for using castor oil biodiesel in engines. However this biofuel exhibits excellent cold flow properties (low values of cloud and pour points). The motor tests using castor oil biodiesel petroleum diesel blends, for the biodiesel proportion tested; show that a biodiesel percentage increase leads to an increase in the specific fuel consumption, a decrease in the fuel air ratio, a slight decrease in smoke opacity, while the fuel conversion efficiency and the CO and CO 2 emissions practically remain constants

  17. Impact of feedstock quality on clean diesel fuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marafi, A.; Stanislaus, A.; Rana, M. [Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (KISR), Safat (Kuwait)

    2013-06-01

    High sulfur level in diesel fuel has been identified as a major contributor to harmful emissions (sulfur oxides, particulates, etc.) as a result, recent environmental regulations limit the sulfur content of diesel to ultra-low levels in many countries. The diesel fuel specifications are expected to become extremely severe in the coming years. Problem faced by the refiners is the difficulty in meeting the increasing market demand for Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD). Global market for middle distillates is increasing steadily and this trend is expected to continue for the next few years. At the same time, the quality of feed streams is declining. The refiners are, thus, required to produce a ULSD from poor feedstocks such as light cycle oil (LCO) and coker gas oil (CGO). The key to achieving deep desulfurization in gas-oil hydrotreater is in understanding the factors that influence the reactivity of the different types of sulfur compounds present in the feed, namely, feedstock quality, catalyst, process parameters, and chemistry of ULSD production. Among those parameters, feedstock quality is most critical. (orig.)

  18. Reducing the viscosity of Jojoba Methyl Ester diesel fuel and effects on diesel engine performance and roughness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selim, Mohamed Y.E.

    2009-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been carried out to test two approaches to reduce the viscosity of the Jojoba Methyl Ester (JME) diesel fuel. The first approach is the heating of the fuel to two temperatures of 50 and 70 deg. C as compared to the base ambient temperature and to diesel fuel too. The second approach is adding one chemical which is considered by its own as alternative and renewable fuel which is Diethyl Ether (DEE). The viscosity has been reduced by both methods to close to diesel values. The performance of a diesel engine using those fuels has been tested in a variable compression research engine Ricardo E6 with the engine speed constant at 1200 rpm. The measured parameters included the exhaust gas temperature, the ignition delay period, the maximum pressure rise rate, maximum pressure, and indicated mean effective pressure and maximum heat release rate. The engine performance is presented and the effects of both approaches are scrutinized.

  19. Reducing the viscosity of Jojoba Methyl Ester diesel fuel and effects on diesel engine performance and roughness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selim, Mohamed Y.E. [Mech. Eng. Dept., UAE University, Al-Ain, Abu Dhabi 17555 (United Arab Emirates)

    2009-07-15

    An experimental investigation has been carried out to test two approaches to reduce the viscosity of the Jojoba Methyl Ester (JME) diesel fuel. The first approach is the heating of the fuel to two temperatures of 50 and 70 C as compared to the base ambient temperature and to diesel fuel too. The second approach is adding one chemical which is considered by its own as alternative and renewable fuel which is Diethyl Ether (DEE). The viscosity has been reduced by both methods to close to diesel values. The performance of a diesel engine using those fuels has been tested in a variable compression research engine Ricardo E6 with the engine speed constant at 1200 rpm. The measured parameters included the exhaust gas temperature, the ignition delay period, the maximum pressure rise rate, maximum pressure, and indicated mean effective pressure and maximum heat release rate. The engine performance is presented and the effects of both approaches are scrutinized. (author)

  20. Emission potentials of future diesel fuel injection systems; Emissionspotentiale zukuenftiger Diesel-Einspritzsysteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schommers, J.; Breitbach, H.; Stotz, M.; Schnabel, M. [DaimlerChrysler AG (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The historical evolution of the diesel engine correlates strongly with fuel injection system developments. Mercedes-Benz contributed significantly to the recent success of the diesel engine, being one of the first car manufacturers to introduce a modern common rail diesel engine in the Mercedes C220 CDI in 1997. The excellent characteristics of modern diesel engines resulted in a 50% market share in newly registered cars in Germany. These characteristics have to be further improved in the next years to keep the diesel engine attractive. Emissions and at the same time fuel consumption and noise need to be further reduced, while engine power has to go up. For Mercedes-Benz key steps to reach these goals are lower compression ratio, higher boost pressures, higher exhaust gas recirculation rates and better EGR cooling, multiple injection patterns and components with stable application parameters over lifetime. Important requirements for future fuel injection systems are high spray momentum, good stability over lifetime, good robustness of injected quantities for varying injection patterns and a low shot-to-shot variation of injected quantities. The high spray momentum has to be achieved especially for small injections and for part load operating points with low pressures. Therefore, the needle opening and closing velocities are of special importance. With special focus on the above requirements, different injector concepts were hydraulically evaluated. Both concepts in serial production and under development from system suppliers, as well as Mercedes-Benz developed prototype injector concepts were chosen. The concepts analysed are a servo-hydraulically driven injector with control piston, two servo-hydraulically driven injectors without control piston with differently adjusted hydraulics, and a direct driven injector, where the needle is driven directly from an actuator without servo-hydraulic amplification. The hydraulic investigations show an excellent performance of

  1. FUELS IN SOIL TEST KIT: FIELD USE OF DIESEL DOG SOIL TEST KITS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan S. Sorini; John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani, Jr.

    2002-09-30

    Western Research Institute (WRI) has developed a new commercial product ready for technology transfer, the Diesel Dog{reg_sign} Portable Soil Test Kit, for performing analysis of fuel-contaminated soils in the field. The technology consists of a method developed by WRI (U.S. Patents 5,561,065 and 5,976,883) and hardware developed by WRI that allows the method to be performed in the field (patent pending). The method is very simple and does not require the use of highly toxic reagents. The aromatic components in a soil extract are measured by absorption at 254 nm with a field-portable photometer. WRI added significant value to the technology by taking the method through the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) approval and validation processes. The method is designated as ASTM Method D 5831-96, Standard Test Method for Screening Fuels in Soils. This ASTM designation allows the method to be used for federal compliance activities. In June 2001, the Diesel Dog technology won an American Chemical Society Regional Industrial Innovations Award. To gain field experience with the new technology, Diesel Dog kits have been used for a variety of site evaluation and cleanup activities. Information gained from these activities has led to improvements in hardware configurations and additional insight into correlating Diesel Dog results with results from laboratory methods. The Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) used Diesel Dog Soil Test Kits to guide cleanups at a variety of sites throughout the state. ENSR, of Acton, Massachusetts, used a Diesel Dog Portable Soil Test Kit to evaluate sites in the Virgin Islands and Georgia. ChemTrack and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers successfully used a test kit to guide excavation at an abandoned FAA fuel-contaminated site near Fairbanks, Alaska. Barenco, Inc. is using a Diesel Dog Portable Soil Test Kit for site evaluations in Canada. A small spill of diesel fuel was cleaned up in Laramie, Wyoming using a Diesel

  2. 26 CFR 48.4041-5 - Sales of diesel and special motor fuels and fuel for use in aircraft; rules of general application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Sales of diesel and special motor fuels and fuel... AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Special Fuels § 48.4041-5 Sales of diesel and special motor fuels and fuel... of a diesel-powered highway vehicle, or of special motor fuel to an owner, lessee, or other operator...

  3. A review on the engine performance and exhaust emission characteristics of diesel engines fueled with biodiesel blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damanik, Natalina; Ong, Hwai Chyuan; Tong, Chong Wen; Mahlia, Teuku Meurah Indra; Silitonga, Arridina Susan

    2018-06-01

    Biodiesels have gained much popularity because they are cleaner alternative fuels and they can be used directly in diesel engines without modifications. In this paper, a brief review of the key studies pertaining to the engine performance and exhaust emission characteristics of diesel engines fueled with biodiesel blends, exhaust aftertreatment systems, and low-temperature combustion technology is presented. In general, most biodiesel blends result in a significant decrease in carbon monoxide and total unburned hydrocarbon emissions. There is also a decrease in carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide, and total unburned hydrocarbon emissions while the engine performance increases for diesel engines fueled with biodiesels blended with nano-additives. The development of automotive technologies, such as exhaust gas recirculation systems and low-temperature combustion technology, also improves the thermal efficiency of diesel engines and reduces nitrogen oxide and particulate matter emissions.

  4. Occupational exposures to emissions from combustion of diesel and alternative fuels in underground mining--a simulated pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Eric A; Reed, Rustin J; Lee, Vivien S T; Burgess, Jefferey L

    2015-01-01

    Diesel fuel is commonly used for underground mining equipment, yet diesel engine exhaust is a known human carcinogen. Alternative fuels, including biodiesel, and a natural gas/diesel blend, offer the potential to reduce engine emissions and associated health effects. For this pilot study, exposure monitoring was performed in an underground mine during operation of a load-haul-dump vehicle. Use of low-sulfur diesel, 75% biodiesel/25% diesel blend (B75), and natural gas/diesel blend (GD) fuels were compared. Personal samples were collected for total and respirable diesel particulate matter (tDPM and rDPM, respectively) and total and respirable elemental and organic carbon (tEC, rEC, tOC, rOC, respectively), as well as carbon monoxide (CO), formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, naphthalene, nitric oxide (NO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Compared to diesel, B75 use was associated with a 33% reduction in rDPM, reductions in rEC, tEC, and naphthalene, increased tDPM, tOC, and NO, and no change in rOC, CO, and NO2. Compared to diesel, GD was associated with a 66% reduction in rDPM and a reduction in all other exposures except CO. The alternative fuels tested both resulted in reduced rDPM, which is the basis for the current Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) occupational exposure standard. Although additional study is needed with a wider variety of equipment, use of alternative fuels have the promise of reducing exposures from vehicular exhaust in underground mining settings.

  5. Desulfurization of Diesel Fuel by Oxidation and Solvent Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Wadood Taher Mohammed; Raghad Fareed Kassim Almilly; Sheam Bahjat Abdulkareem Al-Ali

    2015-01-01

    This research presents a study in ultra-desulfurization of diesel fuel produced from conventional hydro desulfurization process, using oxidation and solvent extraction techniques. Dibenzothiophene (DBT) was the organosulfur compound that had been detected in sulfur removal. The oxidation process used hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant and acetic acid as homogeneous catalyst . The solvent extraction process used acetonitrile (ACN) and N-methyl – 2 - pyrrolidone (NMP) as extractants . Also the ef...

  6. Fabrication of small-orifice fuel injectors for diesel engines.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodford, J. B.; Fenske, G. R.

    2005-04-08

    Diesel fuel injector nozzles with spray hole diameters of 50-75 {micro}m have been fabricated via electroless nickel plating of conventionally made nozzles. Thick layers of nickel are deposited onto the orifice interior surfaces, reducing the diameter from {approx}200 {micro}m to the target diameter. The nickel plate is hard, smooth, and adherent, and covers the orifice interior surfaces uniformly.

  7. Analysis of pre-heated fuel combustion and heat-emission dynamics in a diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikov, S. A.; Kartashevich, A. N.; Buzikov, S. V.

    2018-01-01

    The article explores the feasibility of diesel fuel pre-heating. The research goal was to obtain and analyze the performance diagrams of a diesel engine fed with pre-heated fuel. The engine was tested in two modes: at rated RPMs and at maximum torque. To process the diagrams the authors used technique developed by the Central Diesel Research Institute (CDRI). The diesel engine’s heat emission curves were obtained. The authors concluded that fuel pre-heating shortened the initial phase of the combustion process and moderated the loads, thus making it possible to boost a diesel engine’s mean effective pressure.

  8. Biodiesel production from inedible animal tallow and an experimental investigation of its use as alternative fuel in a direct injection diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oener, Cengiz; Altun, Sehmus

    2009-01-01

    In this study, a substitute fuel for diesel engines was produced from inedible animal tallow and its usability was investigated as pure biodiesel and its blends with petroleum diesel fuel in a diesel engine. Tallow methyl ester as biodiesel fuel was prepared by base-catalyzed transesterification of the fat with methanol in the presence of NaOH as catalyst. Fuel properties of methyl ester, diesel fuel and blends of them (5%, 20% and 50% by volume) were determined. Viscosity and density of fatty acid methyl ester have been found to meet ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 specifications. Viscosity and density of tallow methyl esters are found to be very close to that of diesel. The calorific value of biodiesel is found to be slightly lower than that of diesel. An experimental study was carried out in order to investigate of its usability as alternative fuel of tallow methyl ester in a direct injection diesel engine. It was observed that the addition of biodiesel to the diesel fuel decreases the effective efficiency of engine and increases the specific fuel consumption. This is due to the lower heating value of biodiesel compared to diesel fuel. However, the effective engine power was comparable by biodiesel compared with diesel fuel. Emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NO x ), sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) and smoke opacity were reduced around 15%, 38.5%, 72.7% and 56.8%, respectively, in case of tallow methyl esters (B100) compared to diesel fuel. Besides, the lowest CO, NO x emissions and the highest exhaust temperature were obtained for B20 among all other fuels. The reductions in exhaust emissions made tallow methyl esters and its blends, especially B20 a suitable alternative fuel for diesel and thus could help in controlling air pollution. Based on this study, animal tallow methyl esters and its blends with petroleum diesel fuel can be used a substitute for diesel in direct injection diesel engines without any engine modification. (author)

  9. Natural attenuation of diesel fuel in heavy clay soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, K.A.T.; Burton, D.L.

    1997-01-01

    The application of bioremediation techniques on heavy clay soils contaminated with diesel fuels was studied. Earlier studies suggested that in-situ bioreclamation was only effective on permeable soils such as medium- to coarse-textured sandy or loamy soils. It was assumed that heavy clay soils such as those found in the Red River Valley in Southern Manitoba had physical and chemical properties that would limit the usefulness of natural attenuation. In this study, the disappearance and the natural attenuation of diesel fuel added to soil at a rate of 5000 mg/kg soil in tilled and untilled heavy clay soil was monitored. Three methods of analysis were used: (1) oil and grease content, (2) extractable organics, and (3) the Millipore EnviroGard ELISA method for petroleum hydrocarbons. Effects of the contamination on the soil microbial population were measured using surface CO 2 flux measurements and microbial biomass carbon analysis. Soil moisture contents at all sample times were between 44 and 49 per cent. Soil temperature was also monitored. All three analytical methods used in the study showed the near-complete disappearance of detectable diesel fuel hydrocarbons from the soil after 30 days with half-lives ranging from 11 to 26 days. The advantages and limitations of the ELISA kit were described. No hydrocarbons were detected in the groundwater sample. 45 refs., 7 tabs., 2 figs

  10. Life-cycle assessment of biodiesel versus petroleum diesel fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulon, R.; Camobreco, V.; Sheehan, J.; Duffield, J.

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's Office of Transportation Technologies, DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory, the US Department of Agriculture's Office of Energy, and Ecobalance are carrying out a comprehensive Life-Cycle Assessment of soy-based diesel fuel (biodiesel) to quantify the environmental aspects of the cradle-to-grave production and use of biodiesel. The purpose of the project is to produce an analytical tool and database for use by industry and government decision makers involved in alternative fuel use and production. The study also includes a parallel effort to develop a life-cycle model for petroleum diesel fuel. The two models are used to compare the life-cycle energy and environmental implications of petroleum diesel and biodiesel derived from soybean. Several scenarios are studied, analyzing the influence of transportation distances, agricultural practice and allocation rules used. The project also includes effort to integrate spatial data into the inventory analysis and probabilistic uncertainty considerations into the impact assessment stage. Traditional life-cycle inventory analysis includes an aggregation process that eliminates spatial, temporal, and threshold information. This project will demonstrate an approach to life-cycle inventory analysis that retains spatial data for use in impact assessment. Explicit probabilistic treatment of uncertainty in impact assessment will take account of scientific uncertainties, and will attempt to identify the level of spatial detail that most efficiently reduces impact assessment uncertainties

  11. Performance and emissions of a dual-fuel pilot diesel ignition engine operating on various premixed fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousefi, Amin; Birouk, Madjid; Lawler, Benjamin; Gharehghani, Ayatallah

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Natural gas/diesel, methanol/diesel, and hydrogen/diesel cases were investigated. • For leaner mixtures, the hydrogen/diesel case has the highest IMEP and ITE. • The methanol/diesel case has the maximum IMEP and ITE for richer mixtures. • Hydrogen/diesel case experiences soot and CO free combustion at rich regions. - Abstract: A multi-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model coupled with chemical kinetics mechanisms was applied to investigate the effect of various premixed fuels and equivalence ratios on the combustion, performance, and emissions characteristics of a dual-fuel indirect injection (IDI) pilot diesel ignition engine. The diesel fuel is supplied via indirect injection into the cylinder prior to the end of the compression stroke. Various premixed fuels were inducted into the engine through the intake manifold. The results showed that the dual-fuel case using hydrogen/diesel has a steeper pressure rise rate, higher peak heat release rate (PHRR), more advanced ignition timing, and shorter ignition delay compared to the natural gas/diesel and methanol/diesel dual-fuel cases. For leaner mixtures (Φ_P 0.32). For instance, with an equivalence ratio of 0.35, the ITE is 56.24% and 60.85% for hydrogen/diesel and methanol/diesel dual-fuel cases, respectively. For an equivalence ratio of 0.15, the natural gas/diesel simulation exhibits partial burn combustion and thus results in a negative IMEP. At equivalence ratios of 0.15, 0.2, and 0.25, the methanol/diesel case experiences misfiring phenomenon which consequently deteriorates the engine performance considerably. As for the engine-out emissions, the hydrogen/diesel results display carbon monoxide (CO) free combustion relative to natural gas/diesel and methanol/diesel engines; however, considerable amount of nitrogen oxides (NO_x) emissions are produced at an equivalence ratio of 0.35 which exceeds the Euro 6 NO_x limit. Due to the larger area exposed to high temperature regions

  12. Will Aerosol Hygroscopicity Change with Biodiesel, Renewable Diesel Fuels and Emission Control Technologies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Diep; Short, Daniel; Karavalakis, Georgios; Durbin, Thomas D; Asa-Awuku, Akua

    2017-02-07

    The use of biodiesel and renewable diesel fuels in compression ignition engines and aftertreatment technologies may affect vehicle exhaust emissions. In this study two 2012 light-duty vehicles equipped with direct injection diesel engines, diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), diesel particulate filter (DPF), and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) were tested on a chassis dynamometer. One vehicle was tested over the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) cycle on seven biodiesel and renewable diesel fuel blends. Both vehicles were exercised over double Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Highway fuel economy test (HWFET) cycles on ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) and a soy-based biodiesel blend to investigate the aerosol hygroscopicity during the regeneration of the DPF. Overall, the apparent hygroscopicity of emissions during nonregeneration events is consistently low (κ diesel vehicles. As such, the contribution of regeneration emissions from a growing fleet of diesel vehicles will be important.

  13. The potential of using vegetable oil fuels as fuel for diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altin, Recep; Cetinkaya, Selim; Yucesu, Huseyin Serdar

    2001-01-01

    Vegetable oils are produced from numerous oil seed crops. While all vegetable oils have high energy content, most require some processing to assure safe use in internal combustion engines. Some of these oils already have been evaluated as substitutes for diesel fuels. The effects of vegetable oil fuels and their methyl esters (raw sunflower oil, raw cottonseed oil, raw soybean oil and their methyl esters, refined corn oil, distilled opium poppy oil and refined rapeseed oil) on a direct injected, four stroke, single cylinder diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions was investigated in this paper. The results show that from the performance viewpoint, both vegetable oils and their esters are promising alternatives as fuel for diesel engines. Because of their high viscosity, drying with time and thickening in cold conditions, vegetable oil fuels still have problems, such as flow, atomisation and heavy particulate emissions. (Author)

  14. The potential of using vegetable oil fuels as fuel for diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altin, Recep [Ministry of Education, Projects Coordination Unit, Ankara (Turkey); Cetinkaya, Selim [Gazi Univ., Technical Education Faculty, Ankara (Turkey); Yucesu, Huseyin Serdar [Karaelmas Univ., Technical Education Faculty, Karabuk (Turkey)

    2001-03-01

    Vegetable oils are produced from numerous oil seed crops. While all vegetable oils have high energy content, most require some processing to assure safe use in internal combustion engines. Some of these oils already have been evaluated as substitutes for diesel fuels. The effects of vegetable oil fuels and their methyl esters (raw sunflower oil, raw cottonseed oil, raw soybean oil and their methyl esters, refined corn oil, distilled opium poppy oil and refined rapeseed oil) on a direct injected, four stroke, single cylinder diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions was investigated in this paper. The results show that from the performance viewpoint, both vegetable oils and their esters are promising alternatives as fuel for diesel engines. Because of their high viscosity, drying with time and thickening in cold conditions, vegetable oil fuels still have problems, such as flow, atomisation and heavy particulate emissions. (Author)

  15. Emission Constrained Multiple-Pulse Fuel Injection Optimisation and Control for Fuel-Efficient Diesel Engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, X.; Jager, B. de; Willems, F.P.T.

    2015-01-01

    With the application of multiple-pulse fuel injection profiles, the performance of diesel engines is enhanced in terms of low fuel consumption and low engine-out emission levels. However, the calibration effort increases due to a larger number of injection timing parameters. The difficulty of

  16. Research of fuel temperature control in fuel pipeline of diesel engine using positive temperature coefficient material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolu Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As fuel temperature increases, both its viscosity and surface tension decrease, and this is helpful to improve fuel atomization and then better combustion and emission performances of engine. Based on the self-regulated temperature property of positive temperature coefficient material, this article used a positive temperature coefficient material as electric heating element to heat diesel fuel in fuel pipeline of diesel engine. A kind of BaTiO3-based positive temperature coefficient material, with the Curie temperature of 230°C and rated voltage of 24 V, was developed, and its micrograph and element compositions were also analyzed. By the fuel pipeline wrapped in six positive temperature coefficient ceramics, its resistivity–temperature and heating characteristics were tested on a fuel pump bench. The experiments showed that in this installation, the surface temperature of six positive temperature coefficient ceramics rose to the equilibrium temperature only for 100 s at rated voltage. In rated power supply for six positive temperature coefficient ceramics, the temperature of injection fuel improved for 21°C–27°C within 100 s, and then could keep constant. Using positive temperature coefficient material to heat diesel in fuel pipeline of diesel engine, the injection mass per cycle had little change, approximately 0.3%/°C. This study provides a beneficial reference for improving atomization of high-viscosity liquids by employing positive temperature coefficient material without any control methods.

  17. Emission constrained multiple-pulse fuel injection optimisation and control for fuel-efficient diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, X.; Jager, de A.G.; Willems, F.P.T.

    2015-01-01

    With the application of multiple-pulse fuel injec- tion profiles, the performance of diesel engines is enhanced in terms of low fuel consumption and low engine-out emission levels. However, the calibration effort increases due to a larger number of injection timing parameters. The difficulty of

  18. Road transport fuels in europe: the explosion of demand for diesel fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensaid, B.

    2004-01-01

    In the last 20 years, road transport fuel consumption has more than doubled in European countries, due to strong growth on the diesel passenger car segment and in the transport of road freight. In an economy heavily dependent on oil, European authorities are seeking to promote alternative energy solutions, such as motor fuels produced from biomass

  19. Experimental Study of Using Emulsified Diesel Fuel on the Performance and Pollutants Emitted from Four Stroke Water Cooled Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhrieh, A.; Fouad, R. H.; Yamin, J. A.

    2009-08-01

    A water-cooled, four stroke, four cylinder, direct injection diesel engine was used to study the effect of emulsified diesel fuel on the engine performance and on the main pollutant emissions. Emulsified diesel fuels of 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% water by volume were used. The experiments were conducted in the speed range from 1000 to 3000 rpm. It was found that, in general, using emulsified fuel improves the engine performance and reduces emissions. While the BSFC has a minimum value at 5% water and 2000 rpm, the torque, the BMEP and efficiency are found to have maximum values under these conditions. CO2 was found to increase with engine speed and to decrease with water content. NOx produced from emulsified fuel is significantly less than that produced from pure diesel under the same conditions.

  20. Numerical investigation on the effect of reactivity gradient in an RCCI engine fueled with gasoline and diesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J.; Yang, W.M.; An, H.; Zhou, D.Z.; Yu, W.B.; Wang, J.X.; Li, L.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A chemical reaction mechanism is newly developed for dual fuel combustion. • The developed chemical kinetics is coupled with KIVA4 to model the combustion. • The role of reactivity gradient in RCCI combustion is investigated. • The RCCI (dual fuel mode) combustion is compared with blend fuel mode. - Abstract: The reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI), which belongs to dual fuel mode (DFM) combustion has been considered as a promising way to achieve high fuel conversion efficiency and low emissions. By this strategy, a fuel reactivity gradient is formed in the combustion chamber which offers the probability of controlling combustion phasing. In this study, the role of fuel reactivity gradient was examined numerically by comparing a DFM (i.e., RCCI) combustion with other hypothetical cases under one specific load condition. Firstly, a chemical reaction mechanism was developed aiming at a modelling study on dual fuel and blend fuel combustion in internal combustion (IC) engines fueled by gasoline/diesel and gasoline/biodiesel. Ignition delays were validated for 100% diesel, 100% gasoline and 100% biodiesel under 102 conditions in total. Subsequently, the validated reaction mechanism which consists of 107 species and 425 reactions was implemented in coupled KIVA4-CHEMKIN code. Three dimensional validations were further conducted under 3 conditions including pure diesel combustion, and gasoline/diesel DFM combustion with both single and double injection strategies in the engine. To investigate the fuel reactivity gradient, the gasoline/diesel DFM combustion with single injection was compared with other three hypothetical cases, one of which was DFM without fuel reactivity gradient, two were the blend fuel mode but with different start of injection (SOI) timings. The results showed that the fuel reactivity gradient could retard the ignition timing, reduce heat release rate, and ease peak pressure rise rate. In addition, low levels of NO

  1. FUEL CONTAMINATION IN A MARINE DIESEL ENGINE. A RADIOTRACER STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, B. E.

    1964-04-15

    A radiotracer method was applied to the problem of elucidating the mechanism of contamination of crankcase oil by fuel combustion products in a marine diesel engine. The method consisted of adding an oil soluble radioisotope to the fuel and tracing its route to the various lubricants used in the engine. It was found that of the total amount of combustion products and by-products which enter the crankcase oil, 65% enters by simple contamination via reintroduction of used cylinder lubricant and 35% by a condensation mechanism. (auth)

  2. Anaerobic biodegradation of diesel fuel-contaminated wastewater in a fluidized bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca, M Alvarez; Vezuli, J; Lohi, A; Upreti, S R

    2006-06-01

    Diesel fuel spills have a major impact on the quality of groundwater. In this work, the performance of an Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Reactor (AFBR) treating synthetic wastewater is experimentally evaluated. The wastewater comprises tap water containing 100, 200 and 300 mg/L of diesel fuel and nutrients. Granular, inert, activated carbon particles are employed to provide support for biomass inside the reactor where diesel fuel is the sole source of carbon for anaerobic microorganisms. For different rates of organic loading, the AFBR performance is evaluated in terms of the removal of diesel fuel as well as chemical oxygen demand (COD) from wastewater. For the aforementioned diesel fuel concentrations and a wastewater flow rate of 1,200 L/day, the COD removal ranges between 61.9 and 84.1%. The concentration of diesel fuel in the effluent is less than 50 mg/L, and meets the Level II groundwater standards of the MUST guidelines of Alberta.

  3. A Study on the Influence of Fuel Pipe on Fuel Injection Characteristics of Each Nozzle Hole in Diesel Injector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Fuqiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The inner diameter of high pressure fuel pipe has a significant effect on the fuel injection process and the performance of a diesel engine. The spray impact force of each nozzle hole of a conventional injection system of pump-line-nozzle for diesel engine (based on the spray momentum flux and the injection pressure (on a fuel injection pump test rig were measured. With varying fuel injection quantities and pump speed, the effects of the inner diameter of the high pressure fuel pipe on fuel injection process and the fuel injection characteristics of each nozzle hole were analyzed. It was noted from experimental results that the fuel injection pressure changes with variations in the inner diameter of the high pressure fuel pipe and also the injection duration gradually increases with increase in the inner diameter. At low injection pump speed, even with the same geometric fuel deliver rate, the injection duration also increases gradually. Due to throttling effect and reduction in injection pressure, the fuel injection quantities of the injection nozzle were relatively minimal when the inner diameters of the high pressure fuel pipe were respectively small and large. The optimum injection pipe inner diameter for the right quantity for fuel injection falls between the two cases (between small and large. In addition, the injection rate of each nozzle hole increases with the decrease in angle between the needle axis and each of the nozzle hole axis. The fuel injection quantity of each nozzle hole increases while their relative difference decreases with increasing pump speed.

  4. 40 CFR 80.590 - What are the product transfer document requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... distillates? 80.590 Section 80.590 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... oil, ECA marine fuel, and other distillates? (a) This paragraph (a) applies on each occasion that any... distillates used or intended to be used as MVNRLM diesel fuel, heating oil, or ECA marine fuel) except when...

  5. 46 CFR 119.470 - Ventilation of spaces containing diesel fuel tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of spaces containing diesel fuel tanks. 119... fuel tanks. (a) Unless provided with ventilation that complies with § 119.465 of this part, a space containing a diesel fuel tank and no machinery must meet one of the following requirements: (1) A space of 14...

  6. Effects of ethanol-diesel fuel blends on the performance and exhaust emissions of heavy duty DI diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakopoulos, D.C.; Rakopoulos, C.D.; Kakaras, E.C.; Giakoumis, E.G.

    2008-01-01

    An experimental investigation is conducted to evaluate the effects of using blends of ethanol with conventional diesel fuel, with 5% and 10% (by vol.) ethanol, on the performance and exhaust emissions of a fully instrumented, six-cylinder, turbocharged and after-cooled, heavy duty, direct injection (DI), Mercedes-Benz engine, installed at the authors' laboratory, which is used to power the mini-bus diesel engines of the Athens Urban Transport Organization sub-fleet with a view to using bio-ethanol produced from Greek feedstock. The tests are conducted using each of the above fuel blends, with the engine working at two speeds and three loads. Fuel consumption, exhaust smokiness and exhaust regulated gas emissions such as nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and total unburned hydrocarbons are measured. The differences in the measured performance and exhaust emissions of the two ethanol-diesel fuel blends from the baseline operation of the engine, i.e. when working with neat diesel fuel, are determined and compared. Theoretical aspects of diesel engine combustion combined with the widely differing physical and chemical properties of the ethanol against those for the diesel fuel, are used to aid the correct interpretation of the observed engine behavior

  7. Ignition Delay Properties of Alternative Fuels with Navy-Relevant Diesel Injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    nozzle tip. 8 Figure 3 EMD injector cross-sectional view, after [15]. c. Sturman Injector A Sturman research diesel injector was used to validate...PROPERTIES OF ALTERNATIVE FUELS WITH NAVY-RELEVANT DIESEL INJECTORS by Andrew J. Rydalch June 2014 Thesis Advisor: Christopher M. Brophy...Navy’s Green Fleet Initiative, this thesis researched the ignition characteristics for diesel replacement fuels used with Navy-relevant fuel injectors

  8. The Effect of Fuel Injector Nozzle Configuration on JP-8 Sprays at Diesel Engine Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The Effect of Fuel Injector Nozzle Configuration on JP-8 Sprays at Diesel Engine Conditions by Matthew Kurman, Luis Bravo, Chol-Bum Kweon...Fuel Injector Nozzle Configuration on JP-8 Sprays at Diesel Engine Conditions Matthew Kurman, Luis Bravo, and Chol-Bum Kweon Vehicle Technology...March 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Effect of Fuel Injector Nozzle Configuration on JP-8 Sprays at Diesel Engine Conditions 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  9. AP fuels and the potential of renewable diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkley, Mark; Seifkar, Navid; O' Shea, Michael; Peters, Christopher

    2010-09-15

    The decrease in demand for forestry products has been detrimental to the Province of Quebec's industrial base. With increasing energy security and environmental concerns the promotion of innovative technologies is adamant. AP Fuels Inc. has undertaken the development of a biomass-to-liquids facility proposed herein as a hybrid design, combining biomass and natural gas capable of producing diesel and other liquid fuels. The facility would consume 2,200,000 tonnewet per year of biomass and produce 10,600 bbl/day of liquid fuels. Forestry-derived F-T fuels have notable advantages including: improved performance; ultra-low sulphur content; reduced emissions, particulates and fouling; and production of fewer by-products.

  10. Combustion and exhaust emission characteristics of a dual fuel compression ignition engine operated with pilot Diesel fuel and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papagiannakis, R.G.; Hountalas, D.T.

    2004-01-01

    Towards the effort of reducing pollutant emissions, especially soot and nitrogen oxides, from direct injection Diesel engines, engineers have proposed various solutions, one of which is the use of a gaseous fuel as a partial supplement for liquid Diesel fuel. These engines are known as dual fuel combustion engines, i.e. they use conventional Diesel fuel and a gaseous fuel as well. This technology is currently reintroduced, associated with efforts to overcome various difficulties of HCCI engines, using various fuels. The use of natural gas as an alternative fuel is a promising solution. The potential benefits of using natural gas in Diesel engines are both economical and environmental. The high autoignition temperature of natural gas is a serious advantage since the compression ratio of conventional Diesel engines can be maintained. The present contribution describes an experimental investigation conducted on a single cylinder DI Diesel engine, which has been properly modified to operate under dual fuel conditions. The primary amount of fuel is the gaseous one, which is ignited by a pilot Diesel liquid injection. Comparative results are given for various engine speeds and loads for conventional Diesel and dual fuel operation, revealing the effect of dual fuel combustion on engine performance and exhaust emissions

  11. FUEL FORMULATION EFFECTS ON DIESEL FUEL INJECTION, COMBUSTION, EMISSIONS AND EMISSION CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehman, A; Alam, M; Song, J; Acharya, R; Szybist, J; Zello, V; Miller, K

    2003-08-24

    This paper describes work under a U.S. DOE sponsored Ultra Clean Fuels project entitled ''Ultra Clean Fuels from Natural Gas,'' Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-01NT41098. In this study we have examined the incremental benefits of moving from low sulfur diesel fuel and ultra low sulfur diesel fuel to an ultra clean fuel, Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuel produced from natural gas. Blending with biodiesel, B100, was also considered. The impact of fuel formulation on fuel injection timing, bulk modulus of compressibility, in-cylinder combustion processes, gaseous and particulate emissions, DPF regeneration temperature and urea-SCR NOx control has been examined. The primary test engine is a 5.9L Cummins ISB, which has been instrumented for in-cylinder combustion analysis and in-cylinder visualization with an engine videoscope. A single-cylinder engine has also been used to examine in detail the impacts of fuel formulation on injection timing in a pump-line-nozzle fueling system, to assist in the interpretation of results from the ISB engine.

  12. Egyptian And International Automotive Diesel. Fuels: Specifications Meeting Challenges To Refining Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayed, A.M.; EI Shamy, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a brief summary and comparison of Egyptian automotive diesel fuel to the international one. Recent legislation all over the world, requiring further reduction in sulfur, aromatics, T 90 and T 95 and increasing cetane value of the transportation diesel fuels, presents numerous technical and economic challenges to the refiners. While refiners grapple with these challenges, they will also face pressure from the increased demand of transportation diesel fuel and tighter capital restrictions. Overcome of these challenges makes a fair competition. A comparison of the Egyptian automotive diesel fuel and the international one will be a guide to locally and globally facing these challenges

  13. Investigation on the effects of pilot injection on low temperature combustion in high-speed diesel engine fueled with n-butanol–diesel blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Haozhong; Liu, Qingsheng; Yang, Ruzhi; Zhu, Tianru; Zhao, Ruiqing; Wang, Yaodong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The effects of pre-injected timing and pre-injected mass were studied in CI engine. • The addition of n-butanol consumed OH free radicals, which delayed the ignition time. • With the increase of n-butanol, the BSFC and MPRR increased, NO_x and soot decreased. • With the advance of pilot injection timing, the BSFC increased, NO_x and soot decreased. • With the increase of pilot injection mass, NO_x increased, soot decreased then increased. - Abstract: The effect of pilot injection timing and pilot injection mass on combustion and emission characteristics under medium exhaust gas recirculation (EGR (25%)) condition were experimentally investigated in high-speed diesel engine. Diesel fuel (B0), two blends of butanol and diesel fuel denoted as B20 (20% butanol and 80% diesel in volume), and B30 (30% butanol and 70% diesel in volume) were tested. The results show that, for all fuels, when advancing the pilot injection timing, the peak value of heat release rate decreases for pre-injection fuel, but increases slightly for the main-injection fuel. Moreover, the in-cylinder pressure peak value reduces with the rise of maximum pressure rise rate (MPRR), while NO_x and soot emissions reduce. Increasing the pilot injection fuel mass, the peak value of heat release rate for pre-injected fuel increases, but for the main-injection, the peak descends, and the in-cylinder pressure peak value and NO_x emissions increase, while soot emission decreases at first and then increases. Blending n-butanol in diesel improves soot emissions. When pilot injection is adopted, the increase of n-butanol ratio causes the MPRR increasing and the crank angle location for 50% cumulative heat release (CA50) advancing, as well as NO_x and soot emissions decreasing. The simulation of the combustion of n-butanol–diesel fuel blends, which was based on the n-heptane–n-butanol–PAH–toluene mixing mechanism, demonstrated that the addition of n-butanol consumed OH free radicals

  14. Gum and Deposit Formation in Diesel Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-15

    had several motives in this work. We want to bring our experimental work closer to the temper- ature range of practical fuel stability problems; we...w4 0 c I4 0 o r w. n I e 0 0 41 1 5 ps4 -0 cc E0 0. u 0-4z .0 w 4 ok 0 ’.04 IA,40 -4 to1 0 414 (1 c ’ %a 0D 04 Z 0 0)a 0 IT5 co -0 1 .4~~~~.~c -4 -44

  15. High quality diesel fuels by VO-LSGO hydrotreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanica-Ezeanu, Dorin; Juganaru, Traian [Petroleum and Gas Univ. of Ploiesti (Romania)

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the paper is to obtain a high quality Diesel fuel by hydro-deoxigenation of vegetable oils (VO) mixed with a low sulfur gasoil (LSGO). The process is possible by using a bi-functional catalyst Ni-Mo supported by an activated Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} containing 2% Ultrastable Y-zeolite. The experimental conditions were: T =340 - 380 C, Pressure = 50 bar, LHSV = 1,5 h{sup -1}, H{sub 2}/Feed ratio = 15 mole H{sub 2} /mole liquid feed. The liquid product was separated in two fractions: a light distillate (similar to gasoline) and a heavy distillate (boiling point > 200 C) with very good characteristics for Diesel engines. The reaction chemistry is very complex, but the de-oxygenation process is decisive for the chemical structure of hydrocarbons from final product. Finally, a schema for the reaction mechanism is proposed. (orig.)

  16. Bio-oil fueled diesel power plant; Biooeljyllae toimiva dieselvoimala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuorinen, A [Modigen Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The project mission is to develop a diesel power plant which is capable of using liquid bio-oils as the main fuel of the power plant. The applicable bio-oils are rape seed oils and pyrolysis oils. The project was started in 1994 by installing a 1.5 MW Vasa 4L32 engine in VTT Energy laboratory in Otaniemi. During 1995 the first tests with the rape seed oils were made. The tests show that the rape seed oil can be used in Vasa 32 engines without difficulties. In the second phase of the project during 1996 and 1997 pyrolysis oil made of wood will be tested. Finally a diesel power plant concept with integrated pyrolysis oil, electricity and heat production will be developed

  17. Bio-oil fueled diesel power plant; Biooeljyllae toimiva dieselvoimala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuorinen, A. [Modigen Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    The project mission is to develop a diesel power plant which is capable of using liquid bio-oils as the main fuel of the power plant. The applicable bio-oils are rape seed oils and pyrolysis oils. The project was started in 1994 by installing a 1.5 MW Vasa 4L32 engine in VTT Energy laboratory in Otaniemi. During 1995 the first tests with the rape seed oils were made. The tests show that the rape seed oil can be used in Vasa 32 engines without difficulties. In the second phase of the project during 1996 and 1997 pyrolysis oil made of wood will be tested. Finally a diesel power plant concept with integrated pyrolysis oil, electricity and heat production will be developed

  18. Shale-oil-derived additives for fuel oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raidma, E.; Leetsman, L.; Muoni, R.; Soone, Y.; Zhiryakov, Y.

    2002-01-01

    Studies have shown that the oxidation, wearing, and anticorrosive properties of shale oil as an additive to liquid fuels and oils enable to improve the conditions of their use. Studies conducted by Institute of Oil Shale have shown that it is possible, on the basis of shale oil produced by Viru Keemia Grupp AS (Viru Chemistry Group Ltd.) and, particularly, on the basis of its fractions 230-320 and 320-360 deg C to produce efficient and stable additives for liquid fuels to improve their combustion and storage properties. In the production of additives from shale oil the prerequisite taken into account is its complexity of composition and high concentration of neutral and phenolic oxygen compounds. Additives produced from shale oil have multifunctional properties which enable to improve operational data of liquid fuels and to increase the power of diesel engines and boilers. (author)

  19. Study on fuel particle motion of a diesel spray; Diesel funmu ryushi no kyodo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, N. [Isuzu Motors Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Tsujimura, K.

    1998-08-25

    This study was performed to clarify the mechanism of mixture formation at peripheral area of diesel spray with PIV technique. Two dimensional cross-sectional photographs of diesel spray were taken with double pulse laser sheet. Local fuel spray particles were analyzed with an auto-correlation method and velocity vector and vorticity of the fuel spray particle were obtained. The vortex number increased and vorticity scale became smaller and its value grew higher with both smaller injection nozzle diameter and higher fuel injection velocity. With this injection condition, the mixing of fuel spray with ambient gas seems to be improved and the turbulence is expected to increase in the regions of higher vortex number, higher vorticity and smaller vorticity scale. Based on above results, the branch-like structure of diesel fuel spray was considered to be caused by vortices which formed in the shear layer between the spray and the ambient gas. 14 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Analysis of power tiller noise using diesel-biodiesel fuel blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Keramat Siavash

    2015-09-01

    , capacitor microphone with a unidirectional pattern whose size, sensitivity and frequency range are 1/2", 50 mV Pa-1 and 10 Hz to 20 kHz with a flat extrusion, respectively. Choosing the combination of fuel was carried out according to experiments that have been done before determining engine operation parameters. Results and Discussion: Fuel type has a direct effect on the quality of the IC engine's combustion phenomenon. One of the most important quality parameters that can be fluctuated by fuel type is engine noise. The fuel type has a direct effect on internal fuel ignition engines and affects the quality of fuel ignition. One of the effects of ignition quality is the sound of the engine that is very important in terms of both the health and evaluation of engine performance. Two-wheel tractors are of the most important tools used in agriculture. In addition to agricultural work, they have applications in rural areas as power generators. No research has been carried out so far in Iran on the sound of two-wheel tractors fuelled with diesel and biodiesel fuels. Therefore, the sound of the ignition of biodiesel and diesel mixtures in four stroke, single cylinder, two wheel diesel tractors manufactured by Ashtad Company was studied. The purpose of this study is to analyze the noise parameters of a diesel engine using B0, B5, B10, B15, B20, B25 and B30 biodiesel–diesel blends. Biodiesel was produced from waste oil and blended with net diesel fuel to evaluate the Power tiller's engine noise parameters. This study was carried out at a stationary position and at three positions such as driver's left ear position (DLEP, 1.5 meter (1.5 MAFE and 7.5 meters (7.5 MAFE away from the exhaust at 6 engine speeds (1200, 1400, 1600, 1800, 2000 & 2200 rpm. Statistical analysis and frequency analysis were used to analyze sound of the engine. The results showed that the sound pressure levels of the engine for B10 fuel have the least amount of noise level of the sound pressure. However, this

  1. Investigation of Bio-Diesel Fueled Engines under Low-Temperature Combustion Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chia-fon F. Lee; Alan C. Hansen

    2010-09-30

    In accordance with meeting DOE technical targets this research was aimed at developing and optimizing new fuel injection technologies and strategies for the combustion of clean burning renewable fuels in diesel engines. In addition a simultaneous minimum 20% improvement in fuel economy was targeted with the aid of this novel advanced combustion system. Biodiesel and other renewable fuels have unique properties that can be leveraged to reduce emissions and increase engine efficiency. This research is an investigation into the combustion characteristics of biodiesel and its impacts on the performance of a Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) engine, which is a novel engine configuration that incorporates technologies and strategies for simultaneously reducing NOx and particulate emissions while increasing engine efficiency. Generating fundamental knowledge about the properties of biodiesel and blends with petroleum-derived diesel and their impact on in-cylinder fuel atomization and combustion processes was an important initial step to being able to optimize fuel injection strategies as well as introduce new technologies. With the benefit of this knowledge experiments were performed on both optical and metal LTC engines in which combustion and emissions could be observed and measured under realistic conditions. With the aid these experiments and detailed combustion models strategies were identified and applied in order to improve fuel economy and simultaneously reduce emissions.

  2. Diesel engine performance and emissions with fuels derived from waste tyres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Puneet; Zare, Ali; Jafari, Mohammad; Bodisco, Timothy A; Rainey, Thomas; Ristovski, Zoran D; Brown, Richard J

    2018-02-06

    The disposal of waste rubber and scrap tyres is a significant issue globally; disposal into stockpiles and landfill poses a serious threat to the environment, in addition to creating ecological problems. Fuel production from tyre waste could form part of the solution to this global issue. Therefore, this paper studies the potential of fuels derived from waste tyres as alternatives to diesel. Production methods and the influence of reactor operating parameters (such as reactor temperature and catalyst type) on oil yield are outlined. These have a major effect on the performance and emission characteristics of diesel engines when using tyre derived fuels. In general, tyre derived fuels increase the brake specific fuel consumption and decrease the brake thermal efficiency. The majority of studies indicate that NOx emissions increase with waste tyre derived fuels; however, a few studies have reported the opposite trend. A similar increasing trend has been observed for CO and CO 2 emissions. Although most studies reported an increase in HC emission owing to lower cetane number and higher density, some studies have reported reduced HC emissions. It has been found that the higher aromatic content in such fuels can lead to increased particulate matter emissions.

  3. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XXII, I--MAINTAINING THE FUEL SYSTEM (PART I)--CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINE, II--UNDERSTANDING THE DIFFERENTIAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE FUNCTION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE FUEL SYSTEM AND DIFFERENTIAL DRIVE UNITS USED IN DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE (1) FUEL SYSTEM COMPARISONS, (2) FUEL SYSTEM SUPPLY COMPONENTS, (3) FUEL SUPPLY SECTION MAINTENANCE, (4) FUNCTION OF THE DIFFERENTIAL,…

  4. Generation and characterization of diesel engine combustion emissions from petroleum diesel and soybean biodiesel fuels and application for inhalation exposure studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel made from the transesterification of plant- and anmal-derived oils is an important alternative fuel source for diesel engines. Although numerous studies have reported health effects associated with petroleum diesel emissions, information on biodiesel emissions are more ...

  5. Bio-derived fuels may ease the regeneration of diesel particulate traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Coda Zabetta; M. Hupa; S. Niemi [Aabo Akademi Process Chemistry Centre, Turku (Finland)

    2006-12-15

    Particulate is the most problematic emission from diesel engines. To comply with environmental regulations, these engines are often equipped with particulate traps, which must be regenerated frequently for the sake of efficiency. The regeneration is commonly achieved by rising the temperature in the trap till the particulate self-ignites. However, this method implies energy losses and thermal shocks in the trap. Alternatively, catalysts and additives have been recently considered for reducing the ignition temperature of particulate, but these techniques suffer from poisoning and undesirable byproducts. The present experimental study shows that the ignition temperature of particulate from seed-derived oils (SO) and from blends of SO with diesel fuel oil (DO) can be lower than that of particulate from neat DO. If substantiated by more extensive studies, such finding could have noteworthy implications on the future of fuels and traps. Short communication. 8 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Proposed Rule for Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles: Proposed Heavy-Duty Engine and Vehicle Standards and Highway Diesel Fuel Sulfur Control Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule summary, CFR citations and additional resources concerning proposed new emission standards that will begin to take effect in 2007 and corresponding diesel fuel requirements that take effect in 2006.

  7. Performance of a diesel engine operating on raw coal-diesel fuel and solvent refined coal-diesel fuel slurries. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, H.P.

    1980-03-01

    Performance tests using an 11 kW single cylinder diesel engine were made to determine the effects of three different micronized coal-fuel oil slurries being considered as alternative fuels. Slurries containing 20, 32, and 40%-wt micronized raw coal in No. 2 fuel oil were used. Results are presented indicating the changes in the concentrations of SO/sub X/ and NO/sub X/ in the exhaust, exhaust opacity, power and efficiency, and in wear rates relative to operation on fuel oil No. 2. The engine was operated for 10 h at full load and 1400 rpm on al fuels except the 40%-wt slurry. This test was discontinued because of extremely poor performance.

  8. Effect of small proportion of butanol additive on the performance, emission, and combustion of Australian native first- and second-generation biodiesel in a diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Mofijur; Rasul, Mohammad Golam; Hassan, Nur Md Sayeed; Azad, Abul Kalam; Uddin, Md Nasir

    2017-10-01

    This paper aims to investigate the effect of the addition of 5% alcohol (butanol) with biodiesel-diesel blends on the performance, emissions, and combustion of a naturally aspirated four stroke multi-cylinder diesel engine at different engine speeds (1200 to 2400 rpm) under full load conditions. Three types of local Australian biodiesel, namely macadamia biodiesel (MB), rice bran biodiesel (RB), and waste cooking oil biodiesel (WCB), were used for this study, and the data was compared with results for conventional diesel fuel (B0). Performance results showed that the addition of butanol with diesel-biodiesel blends slightly lowers the engine efficiency. The emission study revealed that the addition of butanol additive with diesel-biodiesel blends lowers the exhaust gas temperature (EGT), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NOx), and particulate matter (PM) emissions whereas it increases hydrocarbon (HC) emissions compared to B0. The combustion results indicated that in-cylinder pressure (CP) for additive added fuel is higher (0.45-1.49%), while heat release rate (HRR) was lower (2.60-9.10%) than for B0. Also, additive added fuel lowers the ignition delay (ID) by 23-30% than for B0. Finally, it can be recommended that the addition of 5% butanol with Australian biodiesel-diesel blends can significantly lower the NOx and PM emissions.

  9. Investigation of diesel-ethanol blended fuel properties with palm methyl ester as co-solvent and blends enhancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mat Taib Norhidayah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Diesel engine is known as the most efficient engine with high efficiency and power but always reported as high fuel emission. Malaysia National Automotive Policy (NAP was targeting to improve competitive regional focusing on green technology development in reducing the emission of the engine. Therefore, ethanol was introduced to reduce the emission of the engine and while increasing its performance, Palm methyl ester was introduced as blend enhancer to improve engine performance and improve diesel-ethanol blends stability. This paper aimed to study the characteristics of the blends and to prove the ability of palm-methyl-ester as co-solvent in ethanol-diesel blends. Stability and thermophysical test were carried out for different fuel compositions. The stability of diesel-ethanol blended was proved to be improved with the addition of PME at the longer period and the stability of the blends changed depending on temperature and ethanol content. Density and viscosity of diesel-ethanol-PME blends also give higher result than diesel-ethanol blends and it's proved that PME is able to increase density and viscosity of blends. Besides, heating value of the blends also increases with the increasing PME in diesel-ethanol blends.

  10. A study of the stabilities, microstructures and fuel characteristics of tri-fuel (diesel-biodiesel-ethanol) using various fuel preparation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K. H.; Mukhtar, N. A. M.; Yohaness Hagos, Ftwi; Noor, M. M.

    2017-10-01

    In this study, the work was carried out to investigate the effects of ethanol proportions on the stabilities and physicochemical characteristics of tri-fuel (Diesel-Biodiesel-Ethanol). For the first time, tri-fuel emulsions and blended were compared side by side. The experiment was done with composition having 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25 % of ethanol with fixed 10% of biodiesel from palm oil origin on a volume basis into diesel. The results indicated that the phase stabilities of the emulsified fuels were higher compared to the blended fuels. In addition, tri-fuel composition with higher proportion of ethanol were found unstable with high tendency to form layer separation. It was found that tri-fuel emulsion with 5% ethanol content (D85B10E5) was of the best in stability with little separation. Furthermore, tri-fuel with lowest ethanol proportion indicated convincing physicochemical characteristics compared to others. Physicochemical characteristics of tri-fuel blending yield almost similar results to tri-fuel emulsion but degrading as more proportion ethanol content added. Emulsion category had cloudy look but on temporarily basis. Under the microscope, tri-fuel emulsion and blending droplet were similar for its active moving about micro-bubble but distinct in term of detection of collision, average disperse micro-bubble size, the spread and organization of the microstructure.

  11. Combined effects of thermal barrier coating and blending with diesel fuel on usability of vegetable oils in diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydin, Hüseyin

    2013-01-01

    The possibility of using pure vegetable oils in a thermally insulated diesel engine has been experimentally investigated. Initially, the standard diesel fuel was tested in the engine, as base experiment for comparison. Then the engine was thermally insulated by coating some parts of it, such as piston, exhaust and intake valves surfaces with zirconium oxide (ZrO 2 ). The main purpose of engine coating was to reduce heat rejection from the walls of combustion chamber and to increase thermal efficiency and thus to increase performance of the engine that using vegetable oil blends. Another aim of the study was to improve the usability of pure vegetable oils in diesel engines without performing any fuel treatments such as pyrolysis, emulsification and transesterification. Pure inedible cottonseed oil and sunflower oil were blended with diesel fuel. Blends and diesel fuel were then tested in the coated diesel engine. Experimental results proved that the main purpose of this study was achieved as the engine performance parameters such as power and torque were increased with simultaneous decrease in fuel consumption (bsfc). Furthermore, exhaust emission parameters such as CO, HC, and Smoke opacity were decreased. Also, sunflower oil blends presented better performance and emission parameters than cottonseed oil blends. -- Highlights: ► Usability of two different vegetable oils in a coated diesel engine was experimentally investigated. ► A diesel engine was coated with ZrO 2 layer to make the combustion chamber insulated. ► Test results showed significant improvements in performance parameters. ► While only minor reductions were observed in emissions with coated engine operation

  12. Properties and use of Moringa oleifera biodiesel and diesel fuel blends in a multi-cylinder diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mofijur, M.; Masjuki, H.H.; Kalam, M.A.; Atabani, A.E.; Arbab, M.I.; Cheng, S.F.; Gouk, S.W.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Potential of biodiesel production from crude Moringa oleifera oil. • Characterization of M. oleifera biodiesel and its blend with diesel fuel. • Evaluation of M. oleifera biodiesel blend in a diesel engine. - Abstract: Researchers have recently attempted to discover alternative energy sources that are accessible, technically viable, economically feasible, and environmentally acceptable. This study aims to evaluate the physico-chemical properties of Moringa oleifera biodiesel and its 10% and 20% by-volume blends (B10 and B20) in comparison with diesel fuel (B0). The performance and emission of M. oleifera biodiesel and its blends in a multi-cylinder diesel engine were determined at various speeds and full load conditions. The properties of M. oleifera biodiesel and its blends complied with ASTM D6751 standards. Over the entire range of speeds, B10 and B20 fuels reduced brake power and increased brake specific fuel consumption compared with B0. In engine emissions, B10 and B20 fuels reduced carbon monoxide emission by 10.60% and 22.93% as well as hydrocarbon emission by 9.21% and 23.68%, but slightly increased nitric oxide emission by 8.46% and 18.56%, respectively, compared with B0. Therefore, M. oleifera is a potential feedstock for biodiesel production, and its blends B10 and B20 can be used as diesel fuel substitutes

  13. PIV measurement of internal structure of diesel fuel spray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Z M [Ecotechnology System Lab., Yokohama National Univ. (Japan); Nishino, K [Div. of Artificial Environment and Systems, Yokohama National Univ. (Japan); Mizuno, S [Yokohama National Univ. (Japan); Torii, K [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Yokohama National Univ. (Japan)

    2000-12-01

    This paper reports particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements of diesel fuel spray injected from a single-hole nozzle at injection pressures ranging from 30 to 70 MPa, which are comparable to partial-load operating conditions of commercial diesel engines. The fuel is injected into a non-combusting environment pressurized up to 2.0 MPa. A laser-induced fluorescent (LIF) technique is utilized to visualize internal structures of fuel sprays formed by densely-distributing droplets. A specially designed synchronization system is developed to acquire double-frame spray images at an arbitrary time delay after injection. A direct cross-correlation PIV technique is applied to measure instantaneous droplet velocity distribution. Unique large-scale structures in droplet concentration, called 'branch-like structures' by Azetsu et al. (1990), are observed and shown to be associated with active vortical motions, which appear to be responsible for the mixing between droplets and the surrounding gas. It is found that the droplets tend to move out of the vortical structures and accumulate in the regions of low vorticity. Some other interesting features concerning droplet velocity fields are also presented. (orig.)

  14. USING CRUDE PALM OIL (CPO AS DIESEL ENGINE FUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.H. Lim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, heating was used to lower the viscosity of CPO to an acceptable level. 60°C was found to be the optimum heating temperature for CPO to ensure smooth flow in the fuel system, but heating further up to 100°C did not improve the engine performance. A comparison between CPO and diesel in terms of engine performance, combustion characteristics and emission showed that the brake specific fuel consumprion (bsfc for CPO was 13% higher at 400 kPa brake mean effective pressure (bmep, and the highest bmep achieved was 13.5% lower. However, CPO fuel gave a brake thermal efficiency. Combustion analyses indicated that CPO combustion produced a 7% higher peak pressure, a 3.3-degree earlier ignition and an 11.6-degree longer burning duration, but a 26% lower peak heat release rate. After 500 hours of  running CPO, performance and power of the engine dropped even while running with diesel. With a 26% higher bsfc and a 20% lowe maximum bmep. Visual inspection of the dismantled engine parts discovered heavy carbon deposits but normal wear. Overhaul of the engine restored the power and performance.

  15. Experimental and regression analysis for multi cylinder diesel engine operated with hybrid fuel blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Rajendiran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research work is to build a multiple linear regression model for the characteristics of multicylinder diesel engine using multicomponent blends (diesel- pungamia methyl ester-ethanol as fuel. Nine blends were tested by varying diesel (100 to 10% by Vol., biodiesel (80 to 10% by vol. and keeping ethanol as 10% constant. The brake thermal efficiency, smoke, oxides of nitrogen, carbon dioxide, maximum cylinder pressure, angle of maximum pressure, angle of 5% and 90% mass burning were predicted based on load, speed, diesel and biodiesel percentage. To validate this regression model another multi component fuel comprising diesel-palm methyl ester-ethanol was used in same engine. Statistical analysis was carried out between predicted and experimental data for both fuel. The performance, emission and combustion characteristics of multi cylinder diesel engine using similar fuel blends can be predicted without any expenses for experimentation.

  16. Effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Performance of a Diesel Engine Fueled with Waste Plastic Oil / Diesel Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punitharani K.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available NOx emission is one of the major sources for health issues, acid rain and global warming. Diesel engine vehicles are the major sources for NOx emissions. Hence there is a need to reduce the emissions from the engines by identifying suitable techniques or by means of alternate fuels. The present investigation deals with the effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR on 4S, single cylinder, DI diesel engine using plastic oil/Diesel blends P10 (10% plastic oil & 90% diesel in volume, P20 and P30 at various EGR rates. Plastic oil blends were able to operate in diesel engines without any modifications and the results showed that P20 blend had the least NOx emission quantity.

  17. Fuel Continuous Mixer ? an Approach Solution to Use Straight Vegetable Oil for Marine Diesel Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Đặng Van Uy; Tran The Nam

    2018-01-01

    The vegetable oil is well known as green fuel for diesel engines due to its low sunphur content and renewable stock. However, there are some problems raising when vegetable oil is used as fuel for diesel engines such as highly effected by cold weather, lower general efficiency, separation in layer if mixed with diesel oil and so on. To overcome that disadvantiges, the authors propose a new idea that to use a continuous fuel mixer to blend vegetable oil with diesel oil to make so called a mixe...

  18. Remediation of Diesel Fuel Contaminated Sandy Soil using Ultrasonic Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulandari P.S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic cleaning has been used in industry for some time, but the application of ultrasonic cleaning in contaminated soil is just recently received considerable attention, it is a very new technique, especially in Indonesia. An ultrasonic cleaner works mostly by energy released from the collapse of millions of microscopic cavitations near the dirty surface. This paper investigates the use of ultrasonic wave to enhance remediation of diesel fuel contaminated sandy soil considering the ultrasonic power, soil particle size, soil density, water flow rate, and duration of ultrasonic waves application.

  19. Effect of EGR on a sationary VCR diesel engine using cottonseed biodiesel (B20 fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin M. Sakhare

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a view on comparative study of use of diesel fuel with B20 biodieselblend (Diesel (80 %, by vol. and Cotton seed oil (20 %, by vol. derived from Cotton seeds. As higher NOx emission and higher brake specific fuel consumption are main challenges for effective utilization of biodiesel fuel in a diesel engine, there is alarming need to find out the long term solution to reduce NOx emission for better utilization of biodiesel fuel in a diesel engine. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR is one of the useful technologies to reduce the NOx emission of a diesel engine. In the present research work test is conducted on 3 KW single cylinder, four stroke, water cooled, variable compression ratio (VCR computerized diesel engine using diesel and B20 cotton seed biodiesel blend to study the effect of exhaust gas recirculation on performance and emissions characteristics of a diesel engine in terms of fuel consumption, thermal efficiency and emissions such as hydrocarbon (HC, carbon monoxide (CO, oxides of nitrogen (NOx and carbon dioxide (CO2 of a diesel engine. The constant engine speed of 1500 rpm was maintained through-out the experiment test. The exhaust gas recirculation was varied as 4 % and 6 % at different loading conditions with diesel and B20 biodiesel. The results show that the significant reduction in oxides of nitrogen (NOx with 4 % and 6 % EGR for B20 whereas marginal increment in CO and HC emissions.

  20. Regulated and unregulated emissions from a diesel engine fueled with biodiesel and biodiesel blended with methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, C. S.; Zhu, Lei; Huang, Zhen

    Experiments were carried out on a diesel engine operating on Euro V diesel fuel, pure biodiesel and biodiesel blended with methanol. The blended fuels contain 5%, 10% and 15% by volume of methanol. Experiments were conducted under five engine loads at a steady speed of 1800 rev min -1 to assess the performance and the emissions of the engine associated with the application of the different fuels. The results indicate an increase of brake specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency when the diesel engine was operated with biodiesel and the blended fuels, compared with the diesel fuel. The blended fuels could lead to higher CO and HC emissions than biodiesel, higher CO emission but lower HC emission than the diesel fuel. There are simultaneous reductions of NO x and PM to a level below those of the diesel fuel. Regarding the unregulated emissions, compared with the diesel fuel, the blended fuels generate higher formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and unburned methanol emissions, lower 1,3-butadiene and benzene emissions, while the toluene and xylene emissions not significantly different.

  1. Combustion of biodiesel fuel produced from hazelnut soapstock/waste sunflower oil mixture in a Diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usta, N.; Oeztuerk, E.; Can, Oe.; Conkur, E.S.; Nas, S.; Con, A.H.; Can, A.C.; Topcu, M.

    2005-01-01

    Biodiesel is considered as an alternative fuel to Diesel fuel No. 2, which can be generally produced from different kinds of vegetable oils. Since the prices of edible vegetable oils are higher than that of Diesel fuel No. 2, waste vegetable oils and non-edible crude vegetable oils are preferred as potential low priced biodiesel sources. In addition, it is possible to use soapstock, a by-product of edible oil production, for cheap biodiesel production. In this study, a methyl ester biodiesel was produced from a hazelnut soapstock/waste sunflower oil mixture using methanol, sulphuric acid and sodium hydroxide in a two stage process. The effects of the methyl ester addition to Diesel No. 2 on the performance and emissions of a four cycle, four cylinder, turbocharged indirect injection (IDI) Diesel engine were examined at both full and partial loads. Experimental results showed that the hazelnut soapstock/waste sunflower oil methyl ester can be partially substituted for the Diesel fuel at most operating conditions in terms of the performance parameters and emissions without any engine modification and preheating of the blends

  2. Determining the optimum conditions for modified diesel fuel combustion considering its emission, properties and engine performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayyazbakhsh, Ahmad; Pirouzfar, Vahid

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Gas emissions, fuel properties and performance engine modeling. • Optimization of new modified fuel prepared from n-Butanol and Nano particles. • Model accuracy analysis. - Abstract: This essay scrutinizes an experimental study conducted to appraise the influence of using n-Butanol with diesel fuel in 5% and 10% (volume) n-Butanol, 1% nitro methane (NM), injection timing and two Nano-particles (alumina and a type of silica powder) on the engine performance (brake specific fuel consumption and engine power), fuel properties (Cetane number and flash point) and exhaust emissions (soot, NO_x and CO) of an engine with 4-cylinder (with a system of common rail fuel injection), intercooling, cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), and turbocharged. The tests are conducted by varying the engine load (25 and 75 nm) and changing engine speed (1500 and 2200 rpm). Normal Butanol presents better brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) but this blend doesn’t reflect better engine power. All the percentages of n-Butanol in the fuel make Cetane number decrease but adding 1% of nitro methane makes Cetane number increase. For all the n-Butanol, the percentage flash makes the fuel decrease in comparison to pure diesel fuel. The current experimental study demonstrates that adding the n-Butanol and nitro methane to diesel fuel direct into diminishing soot emission. In contrast, this blend raises NO_x and CO emissions. Furthermore, this research indicates that the increase of engine speed dwindle air pollutants and enhances BSFC. It also remarks that power gets increased at low engine speed. However, power gets reducedat high speed. This article represents that the increasing of engine load leads to increasing all of air pollutant, increasing of power and decreasing of brake specific fuel consumption. Both the Cetane number and flash point are independent from engine speed and engine load. The present paper shows that the effect of silica with high percentage of n

  3. Summary report on the aerobic degradation of diesel fuel and the degradation of toluene under aerobic, denitrifying and sulfate reducing conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coyne, P.; Smith, G.

    1995-01-01

    This report contains a number of studies that were performed to better understand the technology of the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons. Topics of investigation include the following: diesel fuel degradation by Rhodococcus erythropolis; BTEX degradation by soil isolates; aerobic degradation of diesel fuel-respirometry; aerobic degradation of diesel fuel-shake culture; aerobic toluene degradation by A3; effect of HEPES, B1, and myo-inositol addition on the growth of A3; aerobic and anaerobic toluene degradation by contaminated soils; denitrifying bacteria MPNs; sulfate-reducing bacteria MPNs; and aerobic, DNB and SRB enrichments

  4. Permeation of gasoline, diesel, bioethanol (E85), and biodiesel (B20) fuels through six glove materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jo-Yu; Batterman, Stuart A

    2010-07-01

    Biofuels and conventional fuels differ in terms of their evaporation rates, permeation rates, and exhaust emissions, which can alter exposures of workers, especially those in the fuel refining and distribution industries. This study investigated the permeation of biofuels (bioethanol 85%, biodiesel 20%) and conventional petroleum fuels (gasoline and diesel) through gloves used in occupational settings (neoprene, nitrile, and Viton) and laboratories (latex, nitrile, and vinyl), as well as a standard reference material (neoprene sheet). Permeation rates and breakthrough times were measured using the American Society for Testing and Materials F739-99 protocol, and fuel and permeant compositions were measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In addition, we estimated exposures for three occupational scenarios and recommend chemical protective clothing suitable for use with motor fuels. Permeation rates and breakthrough times depended on the fuel-glove combination. Gasoline had the highest permeation rate among the four fuels. Bioethanol (85%) had breakthrough times that were two to three times longer than gasoline through neoprene, nitrile Sol-Vex, and the standard reference materials. Breakthrough times for biodiesel (20%) were slightly shorter than for diesel for the latex, vinyl, nitrile examination, and the standard neoprene materials. The composition of permeants differed from neat fuels, e.g., permeants were significantly enriched in the lighter aromatics including benzene. Viton was the best choice among the tested materials for the four fuels tested. Among the scenarios, fuel truck drivers had the highest uptake via inhalation based on the personal measurements available in the literature, and gasoline station attendants had highest uptake via dermal exposure if gloves were not worn. Appropriate selection and use of gloves can protect workers from dermal exposures; however, current recommendations from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and

  5. Bioethanol E85 as a fuel for dual fuel diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tutak, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An increase in the E85 fraction is changing the nature of the HRR course. • Change of combustion phasing with E85 fraction. • The ignition delay of dual fuel engine decreases with increasing E85 fuel. • Premixed combustion of E85 fuel reduces smoke emissions. - Abstract: This study investigates the potential of E85 fuelling in a diesel engine. Researches were performed using a three-cylinder a direct injection diesel engine. A dual-fuelling technology is implemented such that E85 is introduced into the intake manifold using a port-fuel injector while diesel is injected directly into the cylinder. The primary aim of the study was to determine the operating parameters of the engine powered on E85 bioethanol fuel in dual fuel system. The parameters that were taken into account are: engine efficiency, indicated mean effective pressure, heat release rate, combustion duration and ignition delay, combustion phasing and exhaust toxicity. With E85 fuel participation, NO x and soot emissions were reduced, whereas CO and HC emissions increased considerably. It was found that E85 participation in a combustible mixture reduced the excess air factor for the engine and this led to increased emissions of CO and HC, but decreased emissions of nitrogen oxides and soot

  6. An approach towards risk assessment for the use of a synergistic metallic diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, S. L.; Richards, P. J.

    The motivations for legislation to set diesel emissions limits requiring the use of diesel particulate filters (DPF) are summarised. If the DPF is to be used, demonstration of regeneration (combustion of collected carbonaceous material) without additional emission problems is important. Potential metal emissions resulting from use of a synergistic Fe/Sr fuel-borne DPF regeneration catalyst are evaluated. Measurements over legislated drive cycle estimate the metals to comprise 1-2% of the solid material emitted, and the DPF to collect >99% of such material. Diesel particulate matter is used as a marker, and from existing air quality and emission inventory measurements, maximum conceivable increases of diet. In the context of reductions of other metals, particulate matter and pollutant emissions, the overall assessment is that the use of these metals to enable use of a DPF allows significant net environmental benefit to be obtained.

  7. Particle and NO{sub x} Emissions from a HVO-Fueled Diesel Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Happonen, M.

    2012-10-15

    Concerns about oil price, the strengthening climate change and traffic related health effects are all reasons which have promoted the research of renewable fuels. One renewable fuel candidate is diesel consisting of hydrotreated vegetable oils (HVO). The fuel is essentially paraffinic, has high cetane number (>80) and contains practically no oxygen, aromatics or sulphur. Furthermore, HVO fuel can be produced from various feedstocks including palm, soybean and rapeseed oils as well as animal fats. HVO has also been observed to reduce all regulated engine exhaust emissions compared to conventional diesel fuel. In this thesis, the effect of HVO fuel on engine exhaust emissions has been studied further. The thesis is roughly divided into two parts. The first part explores the emission reductions associated with the fuel and studies techniques which could be applied to achieve further emission reductions. One of the studied techniques was adjusting engine settings to better suit HVO fuel. The settings chosen for adjustments were injection pressure, injection timing, the amount of EGR and the timing of inlet valve closing (with constant inlet air mass flow, i.e. Miller timing). The engine adjustments were also successfully targeted to reduce either NO{sub x} or particulate emissions or both. The other applied emission reduction technique was the addition of oxygenate to HVO fuel. The chosen oxygenate was di-n-pentyl ether (DNPE), and tested fuel blend included 20 wt-% DNPE and 80 wt-% HVO. Thus, the oxygen content of the resulting blend was 2 wt-%. Reductions of over 25 % were observed in particulate emissions with the blend compared to pure HVO while NOx emissions altered under 5 %. On the second part of this thesis, the effect of the studied fuels on chosen surface properties of exhaust particles were studied using tandem differential mobility analyzer (TDMA) techniques and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The studied surface properties were oxidizability and

  8. Response of Salix alba L. to heavy metals and diesel fuel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Response of Salix alba L. to heavy metals and diesel fuel contamination. ... Ni and Pb led to reduced accumulation of Pb. Presence of 5 g/kg of diesel fuel in soil significantly increased toxic influence of applied heavy metals by further reducing ... Key words: Cd, Ni, Pb, phytoremediation, phytoextraction, willow, Salix alba.

  9. Study of Exhaust Emissions Reduction of a Diesel Fuel Operated Heater During Transient Mode of Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklánek Ľubomír

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Diesel fuel operated heaters (FOHs are generally used as an independent heat source for any system in which a diesel fuel and battery power is available. Based on the fact that future engines will become even more efficient and thus less waste heat will be available to heat the passenger compartment, independent heat sources will be even more necessary.

  10. Single-Cylinder Diesel Engine Tests with Unstabilized Water-in-Fuel Emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-08-01

    A single-cylinder, four-stroke cycle diesel engine was operated on unstabilized water-in-fuel emulsions. Two prototype devices were used to produce the emulsions on-line with the engine. More than 350 test points were run with baseline diesel fuel an...

  11. Air/fuel ratio visualization in a diesel spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabell, Kevin David

    1993-01-01

    To investigate some features of high pressure diesel spray ignition, we have applied a newly developed planar imaging system to a spray in an engine-fed combustion bomb. The bomb is designed to give flow characteristics similar to those in a direct injection diesel engine yet provide nearly unlimited optical access. A high pressure electronic unit injector system with on-line manually adjustable main and pilot injection features was used. The primary scalar of interest was the local air/fuel ratio, particularly near the spray plumes. To make this measurement quantitative, we have developed a calibration LIF technique. The development of this technique is the key contribution of this dissertation. The air/fuel ratio measurement was made using biacetyl as a seed in the air inlet to the engine. When probed by a tripled Nd:YAG laser the biacetyl fluoresces, with a signal proportional to the local biacetyl concentration. This feature of biacetyl enables the fluorescent signal to be used as as indicator of local fuel vapor concentration. The biacetyl partial pressure was carefully controlled, enabling estimates of the local concentration of air and the approximate local stoichiometry in the fuel spray. The results indicate that the image quality generated with this method is sufficient for generating air/fuel ratio contours. The processes during the ignition delay have a marked effect on ignition and the subsequent burn. These processes, vaporization and pre-flame kinetics, very much depend on the mixing of the air and fuel. This study has shown that poor mixing and over-mixing of the air and fuel will directly affect the type of ignition. An optimal mixing arrangement exists and depends on the swirl ratio in the engine, the number of holes in the fuel injector and the distribution of fuel into a pilot and main injection. If a short delay and a diffusion burn is desired, the best mixing parameters among those surveyed would be a high swirl ratio, a 4-hole nozzle and a

  12. Re-envisioning the renewable fuel standard to minimize unintended consequences: A comparison of microalgal diesel with other biodiesels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soratana, Kullapa; Khanna, Vikas; Landis, Amy E.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Conducted a life cycle assessment (LCA) of microalgal diesel from PBR to combustion. • Compared the results with other existing LCA results of petroleum and other biodiesels. • Assessed the current Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2). • Proposed an approach to set emission thresholds for eutrophication (EP) and smog formation potentials (PSP). • Future RFS should include a life-cycle emissions threshold for EP and PSP. - Abstract: The Renewable Fuel Standard 2 (RFS2) program under the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 set a life-cycle emission reduction threshold to only greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions; this type of single-dimensional threshold could lead to the unintended trading of one environmental problem for another. Many of the environmental impacts resulting over the life cycle of oil-crop biodiesel fuels manifest in the agricultural phase of production in the form of water quality degradation. This study investigated the extent to which different biofuels meet the RFS GHG requirement, and presents alternative strategies for minimizing unintended consequences. In addition to life-cycle global warming potential (GWP), the eutrophication potential (EP) and photochemical smog formation potential (PSP) from microalgal diesel were compared to the impacts resulting from petroleum-based diesel, soybean diesel and canola diesel. The results showed tradeoffs between GWP and eutrophication potential when microalgal diesel was compared to soybean diesel. Future RFS criteria should include EP and PSP metrics, however establishing thresholds like the GHG management approach may not be appropriate for these other impacts. Two possible strategies to setting life-cycle eutrophication standards are to establish a threshold based on first generation biofuels, as opposed to petro-fuels or to set maximum levels of EP loads for major watersheds or coastal areas. To decrease PSP, together with existing standards for tailpipe emissions, future RFSs

  13. Experimental Studies on Four Stroke Diesel Engine Fuelled with Tamarind Seed Oil as Potential Alternate Fuel for Sustainable Green Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dhana Raju

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this present novel work is to investigate the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of biodiesel derived from the tamarind seed through the transesterification process as potential alternative feedstock for the diesel engine. The physio-chemical properties of tamarind seed methyl ester (TSME were evaluated experimentally and compared with the base fuel. Test fuels were prepared in 3 concentrations such as B10 (10% tamarind seed oil and 90% diesel, B20 and B30.Experiments were conducted at a constant speed, the injection timing of 23° crank angle and compression ratio 17.5:1 with varying load conditions to investigate the diesel engine characteristics. TSME 20 shown better thermal efficiency (34.41% over diesel which is 1.17 % higher and also it produces lower emissions of CO, HC, and smoke opacity. N-Amyl alcohol (NAA is used as a fuel additive for the optimum blend of TSME20; added in 5% and 10% concentration on the volume basis. From the analysis of experimental data, the use of fuel additives significantly reduces the smoke opacity by 29.49 % for TSME20 NAA 10% blend in addition to the reduction of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons emissions; however, the specific fuel consumption and the oxides of nitrogen were marginally increased.

  14. The biological effects of subacute inhalation of diesel exhaust following addition of cerium oxide nanoparticles in atherosclerosis-prone mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassee, Flemming R.; Campbell, Arezoo; Boere, A. John F.; McLean, Steven G.; Duffin, Rodger; Krystek, Petra; Gosens, Ilse; Miller, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cerium oxide (CeO 2 ) nanoparticles improve the burning efficiency of fuel, however, little is known about health impacts of altered emissions from the vehicles. Methods: Atherosclerosis-prone apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE −/− ) mice were exposed by inhalation to diluted exhaust (1.7 mg/m 3 , 20, 60 or 180 min, 5 day/week, for 4 weeks), from an engine using standard diesel fuel (DE) or the same diesel fuel containing 9 ppm cerium oxide nanoparticles (DCeE). Changes in hematological indices, clinical chemistry, atherosclerotic burden, tissue levels of inflammatory cytokines and pathology of the major organs were assessed. Results: Addition of CeO 2 to fuel resulted in a reduction of the number (30%) and surface area (10%) of the particles in the exhaust, whereas the gaseous co-pollutants were increased (6–8%). There was, however, a trend towards an increased size and complexity of the atherosclerotic plaques following DE exposure, which was not evident in the DCeE group. There were no clear signs of altered hematological or pathological changes induced by either treatment. However, levels of proinflammatory cytokines were modulated in a brain region and liver following DCeE exposure. Conclusions: These results imply that addition of CeO 2 nanoparticles to fuel decreases the number of particles in exhaust and may reduce atherosclerotic burden associated with exposure to standard diesel fuel. From the extensive assessment of biological parameters performed, the only concerning effect of cerium addition was a slightly raised level of cytokines in a region of the central nervous system. Overall, the use of cerium as a fuel additive may be a potentially useful way to limit the health effects of vehicle exhaust. However, further testing is required to ensure that such an approach is not associated with a chronic inflammatory response which may eventually cause long-term health effects.

  15. The biological effects of subacute inhalation of diesel exhaust following addition of cerium oxide nanoparticles in atherosclerosis-prone mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassee, Flemming R., E-mail: flemming.cassee@rivm.nl [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, PO box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven (Netherlands); Campbell, Arezoo, E-mail: acampbell@westernu.edu [Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA (United States); Boere, A. John F., E-mail: john.boere@rivm.nl [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, PO box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven (Netherlands); McLean, Steven G., E-mail: smclean1@staffmail.ed.ac.uk [BHF/University Centre for Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Duffin, Rodger, E-mail: Rodger.Duffin@ed.ac.uk [MRC Centre for Inflammation Research, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Krystek, Petra, E-mail: petra.krystek@philips.com [Philips Innovation Services, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Gosens, Ilse, E-mail: Ilse.gosens@rivm.nl [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, PO box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven (Netherlands); Miller, Mark R., E-mail: Mark.Miller@ed.ac.uk [BHF/University Centre for Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-15

    Background: Cerium oxide (CeO{sub 2}) nanoparticles improve the burning efficiency of fuel, however, little is known about health impacts of altered emissions from the vehicles. Methods: Atherosclerosis-prone apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE{sup -/-}) mice were exposed by inhalation to diluted exhaust (1.7 mg/m{sup 3}, 20, 60 or 180 min, 5 day/week, for 4 weeks), from an engine using standard diesel fuel (DE) or the same diesel fuel containing 9 ppm cerium oxide nanoparticles (DCeE). Changes in hematological indices, clinical chemistry, atherosclerotic burden, tissue levels of inflammatory cytokines and pathology of the major organs were assessed. Results: Addition of CeO{sub 2} to fuel resulted in a reduction of the number (30%) and surface area (10%) of the particles in the exhaust, whereas the gaseous co-pollutants were increased (6-8%). There was, however, a trend towards an increased size and complexity of the atherosclerotic plaques following DE exposure, which was not evident in the DCeE group. There were no clear signs of altered hematological or pathological changes induced by either treatment. However, levels of proinflammatory cytokines were modulated in a brain region and liver following DCeE exposure. Conclusions: These results imply that addition of CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles to fuel decreases the number of particles in exhaust and may reduce atherosclerotic burden associated with exposure to standard diesel fuel. From the extensive assessment of biological parameters performed, the only concerning effect of cerium addition was a slightly raised level of cytokines in a region of the central nervous system. Overall, the use of cerium as a fuel additive may be a potentially useful way to limit the health effects of vehicle exhaust. However, further testing is required to ensure that such an approach is not associated with a chronic inflammatory response which may eventually cause long-term health effects.

  16. The biological effects of subacute inhalation of diesel exhaust following addition of cerium oxide nanoparticles in atherosclerosis-prone mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassee, Flemming R; Campbell, Arezoo; Boere, A John F; McLean, Steven G; Duffin, Rodger; Krystek, Petra; Gosens, Ilse; Miller, Mark R

    2012-05-01

    Cerium oxide (CeO(2)) nanoparticles improve the burning efficiency of fuel, however, little is known about health impacts of altered emissions from the vehicles. Atherosclerosis-prone apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE(-/-)) mice were exposed by inhalation to diluted exhaust (1.7 mg/m(3), 20, 60 or 180 min, 5 day/week, for 4 weeks), from an engine using standard diesel fuel (DE) or the same diesel fuel containing 9 ppm cerium oxide nanoparticles (DCeE). Changes in hematological indices, clinical chemistry, atherosclerotic burden, tissue levels of inflammatory cytokines and pathology of the major organs were assessed. Addition of CeO(2) to fuel resulted in a reduction of the number (30%) and surface area (10%) of the particles in the exhaust, whereas the gaseous co-pollutants were increased (6-8%). There was, however, a trend towards an increased size and complexity of the atherosclerotic plaques following DE exposure, which was not evident in the DCeE group. There were no clear signs of altered hematological or pathological changes induced by either treatment. However, levels of proinflammatory cytokines were modulated in a brain region and liver following DCeE exposure. These results imply that addition of CeO(2) nanoparticles to fuel decreases the number of particles in exhaust and may reduce atherosclerotic burden associated with exposure to standard diesel fuel. From the extensive assessment of biological parameters performed, the only concerning effect of cerium addition was a slightly raised level of cytokines in a region of the central nervous system. Overall, the use of cerium as a fuel additive may be a potentially useful way to limit the health effects of vehicle exhaust. However, further testing is required to ensure that such an approach is not associated with a chronic inflammatory response which may eventually cause long-term health effects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Experimental Investigations on Conventional and Semi-Adiabatic Diesel Engine Using Simarouba Biodiesel as Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, M. U.; Reddy, C. P.; Ravindranath, K.

    2013-04-01

    In view of fast depletion of fossil fuels and the rapid rate at which the fuel consumption is taking place all over the world, scientists are searching for alternate fuels for maintaining the growth industrially and economically. Hence search for alternate fuel(s) has become imminent. Out of the limited options for internal combustion engines, the bio diesel fuel appears to be the best. Many advanced countries are implementing several biodiesel initiatives and developmental programmes in order to become self sufficient and reduce the import bills. Biodiesel is biodegradable and renewable fuel with the potential to enhance the performance and reduce engine exhaust emissions. This is due to ready usage of existing diesel engines, fuel distribution pattern, reduced emission profiles, and eco-friendly properties of biodiesel. Simarouba biodiesel (SBD), the methyl ester of Simarouba oil is one such alternative fuel which can be used as substitute to conventional petro-diesel. The present work involves experimental investigation on the use of SBD blends as fuel in conventional diesel engine and semi-adiabatic diesel engine. The oil was triple filtered to eliminate particulate matter and then transesterified to obtain biodiesel. The project envisaged aims at conducting analysis of diesel with SBD blends (10, 20, 30 and 40 %) in conventional engine and semi-adiabatic engine. Also it was decided to vary the injection pressure (180, 190 and 200 bar) and observe its effect on performance and also suggest better value of injection pressure. The engine was made semi adiabatic by coating the piston crown with partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ). Kirloskar AV I make (3.67 kW) vertical, single cylinder, water cooled diesel engine coupled to an eddy current dynamometer with suitable measuring instrumentation/accessories used for the study. Experiments were initially carried out using pure diesel fuel to provide base line data. The test results were compared based on the performance

  18. Concentration measurements of biodiesel in engine oil and in diesel fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mäder, A; Eskiner, M; Burger, C; Rossner, M; Krahl, J; Ruck, W

    2012-01-01

    This work comprised a method for concentration measurements of biodiesel in engine oil as well as biodiesel in diesel fuel by a measurement of the permittivity of the mixture at a frequency range from 100 Hz to 20 kHz. For this purpose a special designed measurement cell with high sensitivity was designed. The results for the concentration measurements of biodiesel in the engine oil and diesel fuel shows linearity to the measurement cell signal for the concentration of biodiesel in the engine oil between 0.5% Vol. to 10% Vol. and for biodiesel in the diesel fuel between 0% Vol. to 100% Vol. The method to measure the concentration of biodiesel in the engine oil or the concentration of biodiesel in the diesel fuel is very accurate and low concentration of about 0.5% Vol. biodiesel in engine oil or in diesel fuel can be measured with high accuracy.

  19. The influence of turpentine additive on the ecological parameters of diesel engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Butkus

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available After Lithuania’s accession to the EU it is very important to use a larger amount of renewable fuel. Based on economic and environmental considerations in Lithuania, we are interested in studying the effects of turpentine contents in the blended turpentine-diesel fuel on the engine performance and pollutant emission of compression ignition (CI engine. Therefore, we used engine test facilities to investigate the effects on the engine performance and pollutant emission of 5 % turpentine in the fuel blend. The tests were carried out in the laboratory on an engine dynamometer of the car Audi 1Z and tractor D21 diesel engines. The experimental results showed that turpentine used in the fuel blend for these diesel engines had a positive influence on the engine performance and exhaust emission.

  20. Fuel Lubricity Impact on Shipboard Engine and Fuel Systems and Sensitivity of U.S. Navy Diesel Engines to Low-Sulfur Diesel Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    load fuel and operated with a dummy injector to make sure the system was clean. The rig was de -fueled and a fresh charge of 2000-gram fuel was added...the rocker arm on the injector. The rocker arm contact was repositioned when it was noted it was hitting the injector off-center, and it was felt...going up. Figure B6. DD 149 Unit Injector with Diesel Fuel and Centered Rocker Arm Figure B7. Wear Rate Deviation Attributed to Head

  1. Diesel fuel from vegetable oil via transesterification and soap pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirbas, A.

    2002-09-15

    Transesterifications of 6 vegetable oil samples in supercritical methanol (SC MeOH) were studied without using any catalyst. Methyl esters of vegetable oils have several outstanding advantages among other new-renewable and clean engine fuel alternatives. The variables affecting the methyl ester yielded during the transesterification reaction, such as the molar ratio of alcohol to vegetable oil and reaction temperature, were investigated. Compared to No. 2 diesel fuel, all of the vegetable oils are much more viscous, while methyl esters of vegetable oils are the slightly more viscous. The methyl esters are more volatile than those of the vegetable oils. The soaps obtained from the vegetable oils can be pyrolyzed into hydrocarbon-rich products. (author)

  2. 40 CFR 80.594 - What are the pre-compliance reporting requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel? 80.594 Section 80.594 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Requirements § 80.594 What are the pre-compliance reporting requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel? (a... June 1, 2005, all refiners and importers planning to produce or import motor vehicle diesel fuel...

  3. 500 Watt Diesel Fueled TPV Portable Power Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, W. E.; Morgan, M. D.; Sundaram, V. S.; Butcher, T.

    2003-01-01

    A test-bed 500 watt diesel fueled thermophotovoltaic (TPV) portable power supply is described. The goal of the design is a compact, rugged field portable unit weighing less than 15 pounds without fuel. The conversion efficiency goal is set at 15% fuel energy to electric energy delivered to an external load at 24 volts. A burner/recuperator system has been developed to meet the objectives of high combustion air preheat temperatures with a compact heat exchanger, low excess air operation, and high convective heat transfer rates to the silicon carbide emitter surface. The burner incorporates a air blast atomizer with 100% of the combustion air passing through the nozzle. Designed firing rate of 2900 watts at 0.07 gallons of oil per hour. This incorporates a single air supply dc motor/fan set and avoids the need for a system air compressor. The recuperator consists of three annular, concentric laminar flow passages. Heat from the combustion of the diesel fuel is both radiantly and convectively coupled to the inside wall of a cylindrical silicon carbide emitter. The outer wall of the emitter then radiates blackbody energy at the design temperature of 1400°C. The cylindrical emitter is enclosed in a quartz envelope that separates it from the photovoltaic (PV) cells. Spectral control is accomplished by a resonant mesh IR band-pass filter placed between the emitter and the PV array. The narrow band of energy transmitted by the filter is intercepted and converted to electricity by an array of GaSb PV cells. The array consists of 216 1-cm × 1-cm GaSb cells arranged into series and parallel arrays. An array of heat pipes couple the PV cell arrays to a heat exchanger which is cooled by forced air convection. A brief status of the key TPV technologies is presented followed by data characterizing the performance of the 500 watt TPV system.

  4. Novel technique for enhancement of diesel fuel: Impact of aqueous alumina nano-fluid on engine's performance and emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miqdam Tariq Chaichan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nanofluids are suspensions of nanoparticles mixed in liquids and show significant enhancement in some thermophysical and combustion properties of the resulting suspension. In this study, the changes in the performance and emissions characteristics of a conventional diesel engine are verified experimentally using the combustion of a mixture of nanofluid (water and Al2O3 and conventional Iraqi diesel fuel. The nano-Al2O3 (51 nm diameter was used in this study; multiple weight ratios of this nanoparticle were mixed with water to form a nanoparticle suspension. The weight fractions used were 1%, 3%, 5%, 7%, and 10%. After that, a fixed volume ratio of the resulting suspension (10% was added to the diesel and completely mixed. The results indicate that the addition of the nano-alumina-water suspension has increased the brake thermal efficiency up to 5.5%, and reduced the relative fuel consumption up to 3.94%, compared to diesel fuel. In the analysis of emitted exhaust emissions, CO, HC, NOx, PM and noise emissions, they were found to be lower than diesel fuel, while CO2 emissions increased.

  5. Carbonyl emission and toxicity profile of diesel blends with an animal-fat biodiesel and a tire pyrolysis liquid fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, R; Guillén-Flores, J; Martínez, J D

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, two diesel fuels, an animal-fat biodiesel and two diesel blends with the animal-fat biodiesel (50vol.%) and with a tire pyrolysis liquid (TPL) fuel (5vol.%) have been tested in a 4-cylinder, 4-stroke, turbocharged, intercooled, 2.0L Nissan diesel automotive engine (model M1D) with common-rail injection system and diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC). Carbonyl emissions have been analyzed both before and after DOC and specific reactivity of carbonyl profile has been calculated. Carbonyl sampling was carried out by means of a heated line, trapping the gas in 2,4-DNPH cartridges. The eluted content was then analyzed in an HPLC system, with UV-VIS detection. Results showed, on the one hand, an increase in carbonyl emissions with the biodiesel fraction in the fuel. On the other hand, the addition of TPL to diesel also increased carbonyl emissions. These trends were occasionally different if the emissions were studied after the DOC, as it seems to be selectivity during the oxidation process. The specific reactivity was also studied, finding a decrease with the oxygen content within the fuel molecule, although the equivalent ozone emissions slightly increased with the oxygen content. Finally, the emissions toxicity was also studied, comparing them to different parameters defined by different organizations. Depending on the point of study, emissions were above or below the established limits, although acrolein exceeded them as it has the least permissive values. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Experimental setup for combustion characteristics in a diesel engine using derivative fuel from biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andi Mulkan; Zainal, Z.A.

    2006-01-01

    Reciprocating engines are normally run on petroleum fuels or diesel fuels. Unfortunately, energy reserves such as gas and oil are decreasing. Today, with renewable energy technologies petroleum or diesel can be reduced and substituted fully or partly by alternative fuels in engine. The objective of this paper is to setup the experimental rig using producer gas from gasification system mix with diesel fuel and fed to a diesel engine. The Yanmar L60AE-DTM single cylinder diesel engine is used in the experiment. A 20 kW downdraft gasifier has been developed to produce gas using cut of furniture wood used as biomass source. Air inlet of the engine has been modified to include the producer gas. An AVL quartz Pressure Transducer P4420 was installed into the engine head to measure pressure inside the cylinder of the engine. Several test were carried out on the downdraft gasifier system and diesel engine. The heating value of the producer gas is about 4 MJ/m 3 and the specific biomass fuel consumption is about 1.5 kg/kWh. Waste cooking oil (WCO) and crude palm oil (CPO) were used as biomass fuel. The pressure versus crank angle diagram for using blend of diesel are presented and compared with using diesel alone. The result shows that the peak pressure is higher. The premixed combustion is lower but have higher mixing controlled combustion. The CO and NO x emission are higher for biomass fuel

  7. Liquid alternative diesel fuels with high hydrogen content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hancsok, Jenoe; Varga, Zoltan; Eller, Zoltan; Poelczmann, Gyoergy [Pannonia Univ., Veszprem (Hungary). MOL Dept. of Hydrocarbon Processing; Kasza, Tamas [MOL Hungarian Oil and Gas Plc., Szazhalombatta (Hungary)

    2013-06-01

    Mobility is a keystone of the sustainable development. In the operation of the vehicles as the tools of mobility internal combustion engines, so thus Diesel engines will play a remarkable role in the next decades. Beside fossil fuels - used for power these engines - liquid alternative fuels have higher and higher importance, because of their known advantages. During the presentation the categorization possibilities based on the chronology of their development and application will be presented. The importance of fuels with high hydrogen content will be reviewed. Research and development activity in the field of such kind of fuels will be presented. During this developed catalytic systems and main performance properties of the product will be presented which were obtained in case of biogasoils produced by special hydrocracking of natural triglycerides and in case of necessity followed by isomerization; furthermore in case of synthetic biogasoils obtained by the isomerization hydrocracking of Fischer-Tropsch paraffins produced from biomass based synthesis gas. Excellent combustion properties (cetane number > 65-75), good cold flow properties and reduced harmful material emission due to the high hydrogen content (C{sub n}H{sub 2n+2}) are highlighted. Finally production possibilities of linear and branched paraffins based on lignocelluloses are briefly reviewed. Summarizing it was concluded that liquid hydrocarbons with high isoparaffin content are the most suitable fuels regarding availability, economical and environmental aspects, namely the sustainable development. (orig.)

  8. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE L. UNIT XII, PART I--MAINTAINING THE FUEL SYSTEM (PART II), CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINE, PART II--UNIT INSTALLATION (ENGINE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE FUEL SYSTEM AND THE PROCEDURES FOR DIESEL ENGINE INSTALLATION. TOPICS ARE FUEL FLOW CHARACTERISTICS, PTG FUEL PUMP, PREPARATION FOR INSTALLATION, AND INSTALLING ENGINE. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH…

  9. Simulation of a 250 kW diesel fuel processor/PEM fuel cell system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amphlett, J. C.; Mann, R. F.; Peppley, B. A.; Roberge, P. R.; Rodrigues, A.; Salvador, J. P.

    Polymer-electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems offer a potential power source for utility and mobile applications. Practical fuel cell systems use fuel processors for the production of hydrogen-rich gas. Liquid fuels, such as diesel or other related fuels, are attractive options as feeds to a fuel processor. The generation of hydrogen gas for fuel cells, in most cases, becomes the crucial design issue with respect to weight and volume in these applications. Furthermore, these systems will require a gas clean-up system to insure that the fuel quality meets the demands of the cell anode. The endothermic nature of the reformer will have a significant affect on the overall system efficiency. The gas clean-up system may also significantly effect the overall heat balance. To optimize the performance of this integrated system, therefore, waste heat must be used effectively. Previously, we have concentrated on catalytic methanol-steam reforming. A model of a methanol steam reformer has been previously developed and has been used as the basis for a new, higher temperature model for liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Similarly, our fuel cell evaluation program previously led to the development of a steady-state electrochemical fuel cell model (SSEM). The hydrocarbon fuel processor model and the SSEM have now been incorporated in the development of a process simulation of a 250 kW diesel-fueled reformer/fuel cell system using a process simulator. The performance of this system has been investigated for a variety of operating conditions and a preliminary assessment of thermal integration issues has been carried out. This study demonstrates the application of a process simulation model as a design analysis tool for the development of a 250 kW fuel cell system.

  10. Air and fuel supercharge in the performance of a diesel cycle engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Silveira de Farias

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This paper aimed to evaluate the performance of a Diesel cycle engine, changing the configurations for the air and fuel supply system. Variables analyzed were torque, power, specific fuel consumption and thermal efficiency in four different engine configurations (aspirated, aspirated + service, turbocharged + service and turbocharged. For that, there were dynamometer experiments by power take-off of an agricultural tractor. The experimental outline used was entirely randomized, in a bifatorial design with three repetitions. Results indicated that the engine supercharge, compared to its original configuration, provided a significant increase of torque and power. Only the addition of turbo does not caused a significant effect in the engine performance. Application of turbocharger provides an improvement in the burning of the air/fuel mixture, which favors the increase of engine power and; consequently, reduced the specific fuel consumption.

  11. Performance and emission parameters of single cylinder diesel engine using castor oil bio-diesel blended fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, A.; Ghobadian, B.; Najafi, G.; Jaliliantabar, F.; Mamat, R.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the performance and emission parameters of a CI single cylinder diesel engine operating on biodiesel-diesel blends (B0, B5, B10, B15 and E20: 20% biodiesel and 80% diesel by volume). A reactor was designed, fabricated and evaluated for biodiesel production. The results showed that increasing the biodiesel content in the blend fuel will increase the performance parameters and decrease the emission parameters. Maximum power was detected for B0 at 2650 rpm and maximum torque was belonged to B20 at 1600 rpm. The experimental results revealed that using biodiesel-diesel blended fuels increased the power and torque output of the engine. For biodiesel blends it was found that the specific fuel consumption (sfc) was decreased. B10 had the minimum amount for sfc. The concentration of CO2 and HC emissions in the exhaust pipe were measured and found to be decreased when biodiesel blends were introduced. This was due to the high oxygen percentage in the biodiesel compared to the net diesel fuel. In contrast, the concentration of CO and NOx was found to be increased when biodiesel is introduced.

  12. Heat release and engine performance effects of soybean oil ethyl ester blending into diesel fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueno, Andre Valente; Velasquez, Jose Antonio; Milanez, Luiz Fernando

    2011-01-01

    The engine performance impact of soybean oil ethyl ester blending into diesel fuel was analyzed employing heat release analysis, in-cylinder exergy balances and dynamometric tests. Blends with concentrations of up to 30% of soybean oil ethyl ester in volume were used in steady-state experiments conducted in a high speed turbocharged direct injection engine. Modifications in fuel heat value, fuel-air equivalence ratio and combustion temperature were found to govern the impact resulting from the addition of biodiesel on engine performance. For the analyzed fuels, the 20% biodiesel blend presented the best results of brake thermal efficiency, while the 10% biodiesel blend presented the best results of brake power and sfc (specific fuel consumption). In relation to mineral diesel and in full load conditions, an average increase of 4.16% was observed in brake thermal efficiency with B20 blend. In the same conditions, an average gain of 1.15% in brake power and a reduction of 1.73% in sfc was observed with B10 blend.

  13. Multi-zone modeling of combustion and emissions formation in DI diesel engine operating on ethanol-diesel fuel blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakopoulos, C.D.; Antonopoulos, K.A.; Rakopoulos, D.C.; Hountalas, D.T.

    2008-01-01

    A multi-zone model for calculation of the closed cycle of a direct injection (DI) diesel engine is applied for the interesting case of its operation with ethanol-diesel fuel blends, the ethanol (bio-fuel) being considered recently as a promising extender to petroleum distillates. Although there are many experimental studies, there is an apparent scarcity of theoretical models scrutinizing the formation mechanisms of combustion generated emissions when using bio-fuels. This is a two dimensional, multi-zone model with the issuing fuel jets divided into several discrete volumes, called 'zones', formed along and across the direction of the fuel injection. The model follows each zone, with its own time history, as the spray penetrates into the swirling air environment of the combustion chamber. Droplet evaporation and jet mixing models are used to determine the amount of fuel and entrained air in each zone available for combustion. The mass, energy and state equations are applied in each zone to provide local temperatures and cylinder pressure histories. The concentrations of the various constituents are calculated by adopting a chemical equilibrium scheme for the C-H-O-N system of eleven species considered, together with chemical rate equations for calculation of nitric oxide (NO) and a model for net soot formation. The results from the computer program, implementing the analysis, for the in cylinder pressure, exhaust NO concentration and soot density compare well with the corresponding measurements from an experimental investigation conducted on a fully automated test bed, standard 'Hydra', DI diesel engine located at the authors' laboratory, which is operated with ethanol-diesel fuel blends containing 5%, 10% and 15% (by vol.) ethanol. Iso-contour plots of equivalence ratio, temperature, NO and soot inside the cylinder at various instants of time, when using these ethanol-diesel fuel blends against the diesel fuel (baseline fuel), shed light on the mechanisms

  14. Combustion and emission characteristics of a natural gas-fueled diesel engine with EGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelaal, M.M.; Hegab, A.H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► An existed DI diesel engine has been modified to suit dual fuel operation with EGR. ► Comparative study has been conducted between different operating modes. ► Dual fuel mode exhibits better performance at high loads than diesel. ► Dual fuel mode exhibits lower NOx and higher HC emissions than diesel. ► EGR improves performance at part loads and emissions of dual fuel mode. - Abstract: The use of natural gas as a partial supplement for liquid diesel fuel is a very promising solution for reducing pollutant emissions, particularly nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matters (PM), from conventional diesel engines. In most applications of this technique, natural gas is inducted or injected in the intake manifold to mix uniformly with air, and the homogenous natural gas–air mixture is then introduced to the cylinder as a result of the engine suction. This type of engines, referred to as dual-fuel engines, suffers from lower thermal efficiency and higher carbon monoxide (CO) and unburned hydrocarbon (HC) emissions; particularly at part load. The use of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is expected to partially resolve these problems and to provide further reduction in NOx emission as well. In the present experimental study, a single-cylinder direct injection (DI) diesel engine has been properly modified to run on dual-fuel mode with natural gas as a main fuel and diesel fuel as a pilot, with the ability to employ variable amounts of EGR. Comparative results are given for various operating modes; conventional diesel mode, dual-fuel mode without EGR, and dual-fuel mode with variable amounts of EGR, at different operating conditions; revealing the effect of utilization of EGR on combustion process and exhaust emission characteristics of a pilot ignited natural gas diesel engine.

  15. Performance and emission characteristics of a turpentine-diesel dual fuel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karthikeyan, R. [Adhiparasakthi Engineering College, Melmaruvathur, Tamil Nadu (India); Mahalakshmi, N.V. [I.C. Engines Division, Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering Guindy, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2007-07-15

    This paper describes an experimental study concerning the feasibility of using bio-oil namely turpentine obtained from the resin of pine tree. The emission and performance characteristics of a D.I. diesel engine were studied through dual fuel (DF) mode. Turpentine was inducted as a primary fuel through induction manifold and diesel was admitted into the engine through conventional fueling device as an igniter. The result showed that except volumetric efficiency, all other performance and emission parameters are better than those of diesel fuel with in 75% load. The toxic gases like CO, UBHC are slightly higher than that of the diesel baseline (DBL). Around 40-45% smoke reduction is obtained with DF mode. The pollutant No{sub x} is found to be equal to that of DBL except at full load. This study has proved that approximately 75% diesel replacement with turpentine is possible by DF mode with little engine modification. (author)

  16. Alternatives to Diesel Fuel in California - Fuel Cycle Energy and Emission Effects of Possible Replacements Due to the TAC Diesel Particulate Decision; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christopher L. Saraicks; Donald M. Rote; Frank Stodolsky; James J. Eberhardt

    2000-01-01

    Limitations on petroleum-based diesel fuel in California could occur pursuant to the 1998 declaration by California's Air Resources Board (CARB) that the particulate matter component of diesel exhaust is a carcinogen, therefore a toxic air contaminant (TAC) subject to the state's Proposition 65. It is the declared intention of CARB not to ban or restrict diesel fuel, per se, at this time. Assuming no total ban, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) explored two feasible ''mid-course'' strategies, each of which results in some degree of (conventional) diesel displacement. In the first case, with substantial displacement of compression ignition by spark ignition engines, diesel fuel is assumed admissible for ignition assistance as a pilot fuel in natural gas (NG)-powered heavy-duty vehicles. Gasoline demand in California increases by 32.2 million liters (8.5 million gallons) per day overall, about 21 percent above projected 2010 baseline demand. Natural gas demand increases by 13.6 million diesel liter (3.6 million gallon) equivalents per day, about 7 percent above projected (total) consumption level. In the second case, ressionignition engines utilize substitutes for petroleum-based diesel having similar ignition and performance properties. For each case we estimated localized air emission plus generalized greenhouse gas and energy changes. Fuel replacement by di-methyl ether yields the greatest overall reduction in NOx emissions, though all scenarios bring about PM10 reductions relative to the 2010 baseline, with greatest reductions from the first case described above and the least from fuel replacement by Fischer-Tropsch synthetic diesel. Economic implications of vehicle and engine replacement were not formally evaluated

  17. Additive Manufacturing of Fuel Injectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadek Tadros, Dr. Alber Alphonse [Edison Welding Institute, Inc., Columbus, OH (United States); Ritter, Dr. George W. [Edison Welding Institute, Inc., Columbus, OH (United States); Drews, Charles Donald [Edison Welding Institute, Inc., Columbus, OH (United States); Ryan, Daniel [Solar Turbines Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    2017-10-24

    Additive manufacturing (AM), also known as 3D-printing, has been shifting from a novelty prototyping paradigm to a legitimate manufacturing tool capable of creating components for highly complex engineered products. An emerging AM technology for producing metal parts is the laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) process; however, industry manufacturing specifications and component design practices for L-PBF have not yet been established. Solar Turbines Incorporated (Solar), an industrial gas turbine manufacturer, has been evaluating AM technology for development and production applications with the desire to enable accelerated product development cycle times, overall turbine efficiency improvements, and supply chain flexibility relative to conventional manufacturing processes (casting, brazing, welding). Accordingly, Solar teamed with EWI on a joint two-and-a-half-year project with the goal of developing a production L-PBF AM process capable of consistently producing high-nickel alloy material suitable for high temperature gas turbine engine fuel injector components. The project plan tasks were designed to understand the interaction of the process variables and their combined impact on the resultant AM material quality. The composition of the high-nickel alloy powders selected for this program met the conventional cast Hastelloy X compositional limits and were commercially available in different particle size distributions (PSD) from two suppliers. Solar produced all the test articles and both EWI and Solar shared responsibility for analyzing them. The effects of powder metal input stock, laser parameters, heat treatments, and post-finishing methods were evaluated. This process knowledge was then used to generate tensile, fatigue, and creep material properties data curves suitable for component design activities. The key process controls for ensuring consistent material properties were documented in AM powder and process specifications. The basic components of the project

  18. Evaluation of nutrient addition to diesel biodegradation | Singh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increasing public concern towards petroleum pollution demands for new and more environmentally efficient low-cost strategies for cleaning up contaminated sites. Diesel biodegradation by microbial communities was investigated in artificially contaminated soils by supplementing commercial fertilizers under laboratory ...

  19. Evaluation of fuel properties for microalgae Spirulina platensis bio-diesel and its blends with Egyptian petro-diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soha S.M. Mostafa

    2017-05-01

    In this study, the feasibility of biodiesel production from microalga Spirulina platensis has been investigated. The physico–chemical characteristics of the produced biodiesel were studied according to the standards methods of analysis (ASTM and evaluated according to their fuel properties as compared to Egyptian petro-diesel. Blends of microalgae biodiesel and petro-diesel (B2, B5, B10 and B20 were prepared on a volume basis and their physico–chemical characteristics have been also studied. The obtained results showed that; with the increase of biodiesel concentration in the blends; the viscosity, density, total acid number, initial boiling point, calorific value, flash point, cetane number and diesel index increase. While the pour point, cloud point, carbon residue and sulfur, ash and water contents decrease. The observed properties of the blends were within the recommended petro-diesel standard specifications and they are in favor of better engine performance.

  20. Experimental Investigation Of Biogas-Biodiesel Dual Fuel Combustion In A Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesha D. K.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is an attempt at achieving diesel fuel equivalent performance from diesel engines with maximum substitution of diesel with renewable fuels. In this context the study has been designed to analyze the influence of B20 algae biodiesel as a pilot fuel in a biodiesel biogas dual fuel engine, and results are compared to those of biodiesel and diesel operation at identical engine settings. Experiments were performed at various loads from 0 to 100 % of maximum load at a constant speed of 1500 rpm. In general, B20 algae biodiesel is compatible with diesel in terms of performance and combustion characteristics. Dual fuel mode operation displays lower thermal efficiency and higher fuel consumption than for other fuel modes of the test run across the range of engine loads. Dual fuel mode displayed lower emissions of NOx and Smoke opacity while HC and CO concentrations were considerably higher as compared to other fuels. In dual fuel mode peak pressure and heat release rate were slightly higher compared to diesel and biodiesel mode of operation for all engine loads.

  1. Fuel Saving on Diesel Genset using PV/Battery Spike Cutting in Remote Area Microgrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Atmaja Tinton

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Diesel Generator set was found to be a favorite power generator in a remote area. In this area, diesel genset usually consumes a significant amount of diesel fuel with higher fuel price than an urban area. Diesel Generator capacity conventionally prepared twice bigger or more than the existing load to prevent any load spike from designated equipment. This work implements an Energy Management System to cut the spike with the support from battery storage unit and photovoltaic module. Once the Energy Management System cut the load spike using battery/photovoltaics, Diesel Generator loads no longer need to be irrelevantly bigger than the existing load. The current experiment in the remote island at Raja Ampat archipelago indicates that the using of 80 kVA Diesel Generator can be reduced to 42 kVA Diesel Generator. This Diesel Generator replacement induces fuel consumption up to 50 %. With this designed work, a smart microgrid with PV-Battery-Diesel can be installed in a designated remote area with lower fuel consumption.

  2. Fuel filter device, particularly for Diesel fuel. Kraftstoffiltriereinrichtung, insbesondere fuer Dieselkraftstoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copeland, S.B.

    1981-01-22

    The purpose of the invention is to describe a fuel filter device, particularly for Diesel fuel, where dirt is deposited in the expansion chamber without causing turbulence. In order to solve the problem the device is characterized by the fact that there are radial fins, which guide the fuel in laminar flow. These fins ensure that dirt can be deposited in the expansion chamber without causing turbulence. In order to avoid stuttering of the internal combustion engine due to the formation of air pockets in the filter, suitable inlets and outlets are provided for the filter chamber.

  3. Exergy and Energy Analysis of Combustion of Blended Levels of Biodiesel, Ethanol and Diesel Fuel in a DI Diesel Engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoobbakht, Golmohammad; Akram, A.; Karimi, Mahmoud; Najafi, G.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Exergy analysis showed that thermal efficiency of diesel engine was 36.61%. • Energy loss and work output rates were 71.36 kW and 41.22 kW, respectively. • Exergy efficiency increased with increasing engine load and speed. • Exergy efficiency increased with increasing biodiesel and bioethanol. • 0.17 L of biodiesel, 0.08 L of ethanol in 1 L of diesel at 1900 rpm and 94% load had maximum exergy efficiency. - Abstract: In this study, the first and second laws of thermodynamics are employed to analyze the energy and energy in a four-cylinder, direct injection diesel engine using blended levels of biodiesel and ethanol in diesel fuel. Also investigated the effect of operating factors of engine load and speed as well as blended levels of biodiesel and ethanol in diesel fuel on the exergy efficiency. The experiments were designed using a statistical tool known as Design of Experiments (DoE) based on central composite rotatable design (CCRD) of response surface methodology (RSM). The resultant quadratic models of the response surface methodology were helpful to predict the response parameter (exergy efficiency) further to identify the significant interactions between the input factors on the responses. The results depicted that the exergy efficiency decreased with increasing percent by volume biodiesel and ethanol fuel. The fuel blend of 0.17 L biodiesel and 0.08 L of ethanol added to 1 L of diesel (equivalent with D80B14E6) at 1900 rpm and 94% load was realized have the most exergy efficiency. The results of energy and exergy analyses showed that 43.09% of fuel exergy was destructed and the average thermal efficiency was approximately 36.61%, and the exergetic efficiency was approximately 33.81%.

  4. Use of high ash fuel in diesel power plants II; Korkean tuhkapitoisuuden omaavan polttoaineen kaeyttoe dieselvoimaloissa II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vestergren, R; Normen, E; Hellen, G [Wartsila Diesel International Ltd Oy, Vaasa (Finland); and others

    1997-10-01

    Heavy fuel oils containing a large amount of ash are used in some geographically restricted areas. The ash components can cause problems with deposit formation and hot corrosion, leading to burned exhaust gas valves in some diesel engines. The LIEKKI 2 programs Use of high ash fuel in diesel power plants, Part I and II, have been initiated to clarify the mechanisms of deposit formation, and start and propagation of hot corrosion. The aim is to get enough knowledge to enable the development of the Waertsilae diesel engines to be able to handle heavy fuels with a very high ash content. The chemistry during combustion has been studied. The chemical and physical properties of the particles in the exhaust gas, of the deposits, and of exhaust valves have been investigated. Exhaust gas particle measurements have been performed when running on high ash fuel, both with and without deposit modifying fuel additive. Theories for the mechanisms mentioned above have been developed. On the practical side two long time field tests are going on, one with an ash/deposit modifying fuel additive (vanadium chemistry alteration), one with fuel water washing (sodium removal). Seven different reports have been written. (orig.)

  5. Development of diesel fuels with lower CO{sub 2} emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacs, F.; Auer, R.; Buzas, S.; Zoeldy, M.; Hollo, A. [MOL Hungarian Oil and Gas Plc. (Hungary)

    2013-06-01

    To fulfill the 2020 EU bio targets the refineries started to develop new, waste based fuels having lower CO{sub 2} emission and higher added value. MOL also started a diesel fuel reformulation including innovative steps all along the supply chain. Keeping in mind the sustainable development criterions the used cooking oil (UCO) utilization as a feedstock for biodiesel production is not only an environmental advantage but it is also beneficial for the waste management. To preserve the quality of the biodiesel having UCO in feed, several changes were implemented in the technology of the biodiesel production. For the Fatty Acid Methyl Esther (FAME) transportation, a dedicated pipeline is used between the FAME producer and the refinery. With this innovative solution the contamination is minimized and the transportation cost is much lower compared to rail transport. To be able to transport the FAME in winter period also the cold flow properties were redefined. A special flow improver was selected what is able to half the yearly treat cost of the FAME cold flow improvement compared to the original bio-MDFI. The diesel production flexibility was also increased since less diesel additives are used. (orig.)

  6. Diesel fuels in technological transformation to the post-fossil age; Dieselkraftstoffe im technologischen Uebergang zum postfossilen Zeitalter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, Eberhard [Emissionskonzepte Motoren, Krailling (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    Improved diesel fuels and engine oils in combination with DPF-SCR-exhaust systems facilitate further potential on the long-term stability of limited emissions and on reducing fuel consumption when looking at lowest-emission diesel engines. The mineral oil industry has made great advances in improving the quality of fuels; especially with the introduction of sulfur-free fuels in 2001, significant progress was made. At the same time, political decision-makers have counteracted this positive trend by imposing the obligation to add low-quality bio-components to fuels on the pretext that these would lower CO{sub 2}-emissions. The addition of biodiesel (FAME) in particular, lowers the quality of diesel. The main reasons for this quality degradation are the low volatility and the adverse decomposition characteristics of FAME. If vegetable oils are hydrogenated to form HVOs (hydrotreated vegetable oils), a high-grade alkane mixture, these disadvantages can be overcome. Mineral-oil based diesel fuels will remain our principal source of supply at least until 2040. One of the quality targets for standard diesel will be high-quality diesel fuels, such as premium diesel which is already commercially available and whose boiling limit is {proportional_to}330 C. The production of synthetic diesel by means of the Fischer-Tropsch process will become an increasingly attractive method, although it has stagnated over the past few years. The production of these premium diesel fuels and the FT synthesis require considerable quantities of additional hydrogen and a lot more process energy. In the coming decade, natural gas will be primarily used for this purpose (as natural gas prices will decline and exploration and processing costs for oil will continue to climb). As new refineries and FT plants are being mainly established in the Earth's sunbelt, the introduction of solar thermal generated process heat can significantly enhance the efficiency of the FT plants. High

  7. 40 CFR 600.206-93 - Calculation and use of fuel economy values for gasoline-fueled, diesel-fueled, electric, alcohol...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Procedures... equivalent petroleum-based fuel economy value exists for an electric vehicle configuration, all values for... values for gasoline-fueled, diesel-fueled, electric, alcohol-fueled, natural gas-fueled, alcohol dual...

  8. Experimental investigations on a diesel engine operated with fuel blends derived from a mixture of Pakistani waste tyre oil and waste soybean oil biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qasim, Muhammad; Ansari, Tariq Mahmood; Hussain, Mazhar

    2017-10-18

    The waste tyre and waste cooking oils have a great potential to be used as alternative fuels for diesel engines. The aim of this study was to convert light fractions of pyrolysis oil derived from Pakistani waste vehicle tyres and waste soybean oil methyl esters into valuable fuel and to reduce waste disposal-associated environmental problems. In this study, the waste tyre pyrolysis liquid (light fraction) was collected from commercial tyre pyrolysis plant and biodiesel was prepared from waste soybean oil. The fuel blends (FMWO10, FMWO20, FMWO30, FMWO40 and FMWO50) were prepared from a 30:70 mixture of waste tyre pyrolysis liquid and waste soybean oil methyl esters with different proportions of mineral diesel. The mixture was named as the fuel mixture of waste oils (FMWO). FT-IR analysis of the fuel mixture was carried out using ALPHA FT-IR spectrometer. Experimental investigations on a diesel engine were carried out with various FMWO blends. It was observed that the engine fuel consumption was marginally increased and brake thermal efficiency was marginally decreased with FMWO fuel blends. FMWO10 has shown lowest NOx emissions among all the fuel blends tested. In addition, HC, CO and smoke emissions were noticeably decreased by 3.1-15.6%, 16.5-33.2%, and 1.8-4.5%, respectively, in comparison to diesel fuel, thereby qualifying the blends to be used as alternative fuel for diesel engines.

  9. Performance and emission characteristics of an agricultural diesel engine fueled with blends of Sal methyl esters and diesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pali, Harveer S.; Kumar, N.; Alhassan, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Sal seed oil is unexplored biodiesel feedstock which is abundantly found in India. • Sal seed oil has good oxidation stability. • Performance and emission characteristics of the blends of Sal methyl esters with diesel evaluated. • At higher loads, CO, HC and smoke emissions of SME blends were lower than diesel. - Abstract: The present work deals with an underutilized vegetable oil; Sal seed oil (Shorea robusta) as a feedstock for biodiesel production. The production potential of Sal seed oil is very promising (1.5 million tons in a year) in India. The pressure filtered Sal seed oil was transesterified into Sal Methyl Ester (SME). The kinematic viscosity (5.89 cSt), density (0.8764 g/cc) and calorific value (39.65 MJ/kg) of the SME were well within the ASTM/EN standard limits. Various test fuels were prepared for the engine trials by blending 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% of SME in diesel on volumetric basis and designated as SME10, SME20, SME30 and SME40 respectively. The BTE, in general, was found to be decreased with increased volume fraction of SME in the blends. At full load, BSEC for SME10, SME20, SME30 and SME40 were 13.6 MJ/kW h, 14.3 MJ/kW h, 14.7 MJ/kW h and 14.8 MJ/kW h respectively as compared to 13.9 MJ/kW h in case of diesel. At higher load conditions, CO, UHC and smoke emissions were found lower for all SME blends in comparison to neat diesel due to oxygenated nature of fuel. SME10, SME20, SME30 and SME40 showed 51 ppm, 44 ppm, 46 ppm and 48 ppm of UHC emissions respectively as compared to 60 ppm of diesel. The NOx emissions were found to be increased for SME based fuel in comparison to neat diesel operation. At peak load condition, SME10, SME20, SME30 and SME40 had NOx emissions of 612 ppm, 644 ppm, 689 ppm and 816 ppm as compared to 499 ppm for diesel. It may be concluded from the experimental investigations that Sal seed biodiesel is a potential alternative to diesel fuel for reducing dependence on crude petroleum derived fuels and

  10. Diesel/CNG Mixture Autoignition Control Using Fuel Composition and Injection Gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firmansyah

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Combustion phasing is the main obstacle to the development of controlled auto-ignition based (CAI engines to achieve low emissions and low fuel consumption operation. Fuel combinations with substantial differences in reactivity, such as diesel/compressed natural gas (CNG, show desirable combustion outputs and demonstrate great possibility in controlling the combustion. This paper discusses a control method for diesel/CNG mixture combustion with a variation of fuel composition and fuel stratification levels. The experiments were carried out in a constant volume combustion chamber with both fuels directly injected into the chamber. The mixture composition was varied from 0 to 100% CNG/diesel at lambda 1 while the fuel stratification level was controlled by the injection phasing between the two fuels, with gaps between injections ranging from 0 to 20 ms. The results demonstrated the suppressing effect of CNG on the diesel combustion, especially at the early combustion stages. However, CNG significantly enhanced the combustion performance of the diesel in the later stages. Injection gaps, on the other hand, showed particular behavior depending on mixture composition. Injection gaps show less effect on combustion phasing but a significant effect on the combustion output for higher diesel percentage (≥70%, while it is contradictive for lower diesel percentage (<70%.

  11. Compatibility Assessment of Fuel System Infrastructure Plastics with Bio-oil and Diesel Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kass, Michael D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Fuels, Engines and Emissions Research Center; Janke, Christopher James [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Fuels, Engines and Emissions Research Center; Connatser, Raynella M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Fuels, Engines and Emissions Research Center; Lewis, Samuel Arthur [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Fuels, Engines and Emissions Research Center; Keiser, James R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Fuels, Engines and Emissions Research Center; Gaston, Katherine [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). National Bioenergy Center

    2017-12-05

    We report that bio-oil derived via fast pyrolysis is being developed as a renewable fuel option for petroleum distillates. The compatibility of neat bio-oil with 18 plastic types was evaluated using neat diesel fuel as the baseline. The plastic materials included polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), polyoxymethylene (POM), POM copolymer, high density polyethylene (HDPE), polybutylene terephthalate (PBT), polypropylene (PP), polyethylene terephthalate glycol (PETG), polythiourea (PTU), four nylon grades, and four thermosetting resins. Specimens of each material were immersed in the test fuels for a period of 16 weeks to achieve full saturation. Except for PP and HDPE, the plastic materials underwent higher volume expansion in bio-oil than in the baseline diesel (which was negligible in most cases). This volume increase corresponds to the higher polarity of the bio-oil. PPS, PET, and PTFE were unaffected by bio-oil exposure, but modest swelling (between 2 and 5%) occurred for the two acetals (POM and POM copolymer), Nylon-12, PBT, PETG, and the four resin grades. More moderate swelling (8–15%) was noted for Nylon-6, Nylon-6/6, and Nylon-11, and excessive swell (>40%) occurred for PTU. The nonpolar nature of PP and HDPE matches that of diesel, leading to higher solubility (swell) in this fuel type. Finally, the relatively low volume expansion following exposure indicates that many of the existing infrastructure plastics (excluding PTU) should be suitable for use with bio-oil.

  12. Effect of variation in LPG composition on emissions and performance in a dual fuel diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.E. Saleh [Mattaria, Helwan University, Cairo (Egypt). Department of Mechanical Power Engineering

    2008-10-15

    This paper investigates the effect of variation in LPG composition on emissions and performance characteristics in a dual fuel engine run on diesel fuel and five gaseous fuel of LPG with different composition. To quantify the best LPG composition for dual fuel operation especially in order to improve the exhaust emissions quality while maintaining high thermal efficiency comparable to a conventional diesel engine, a two-cylinder, naturally aspirated, four-stroke, DI diesel engine converted to run as pilot-injected dual fuel engine. The tests and data collection were performed under various conditions of load at constant engine speed. From the results, it is observed that the exhaust emissions and fuel conversion efficiency of the dual fuel engine are found to be affected when different LPG composition is used as higher butane content lead to lower NOx levels while higher propane content reduces CO levels. Fuel No. 3 (70% propane, 30% butane) with mass fraction 40% substitution of the diesel fuel was the best LPG composition in the dual fuel operation except that at part loads. Also, tests were made for fuel No. 3-diesel blend in the dual fuel operation at part loads to improve the engine performances and exhaust emissions by using the Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) method. 26 refs., 15 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Utilizing Philippine Calatrava coal-diesel oil mixture (CDOM) as alternative fuel for industrial steam generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archie B. Maglaya [De La Salle University, Manila (Philippines). Department of Mechanical Engineering

    2005-01-01

    The fast depletion of fuel oil and the continuous increase in the demand for power is a global issue. In the Philippines, the demand for diesel oil is expected to increase significantly in a 20-year period as projected by the Department of Energy. In line with the Philippine Government's thrust to lessen the dependence on imported energy, the agenda for the search for alternative fuel is highly prioritized. Thus, this paper presents the results of the study on performance analysis and efficiency test of a diesel oil fired industrial steam generator using Philippine Calatrava coal-diesel oil mixture (CDOM) as alternative fuel. A computer program was developed in HyperText Markup Language (HTML{copyright}) and JavaScript{copyright} to aid the computation of the adiabatic flame temperature from the governing system of equations based on the heat interaction between CDOM fuel, combustion air and products of combustion to determine the most desirable alternative fuel. Actual experimentation for the determination of CDOM fuel properties was also conducted to verify the alternative fuel selected through theoretical calculations. Results showed that the CDOM fuel with a particle size passing 75 {mu}m (-200 mesh) sieve having a proportion of 5% pulverized coal-95% diesel oil and 10% pulverized coal-90% diesel oil could be handled throughout the test with no degradation of the industrial steam generator. The steam generator efficiency using diesel oil is close to the steam generator efficiency using both CDOM fuels. 20 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Model of predicting proportion of diesel fuel and engine oil in diesel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Viscosity of diesel adulterated SAE 40 engine oil at varying proportions of the mixture is presented. Regression, variation of intercept and the power parameters methods are used for developing polynomial and power law functions for predicting proportion of either diesel or engine oil in diesel adulterated SAE 40 engine oil ...

  15. Density and Viscosity Measurement of Diesel Fuels at Combined High Pressure and Elevated Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Schaschke

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We report the measurement of the viscosity and density of various diesel fuels, obtained from British refineries, at elevated pressures up to 500 MPa and temperatures in the range 298 K to 373 K. The measurement and prediction procedures of fluid properties under high pressure conditions is of increasing interest in many processes and systems including enhanced oil recovery, automotive engine fuel injection, braking, and hydraulic systems. Accurate data and understanding of the fluid characteristic in terms of pressure, volume and temperature is required particularly where the fluid is composed of a complex mixture or blend of aliphatic or aromatic hydrocarbons. In this study, high pressure viscosity data was obtained using a thermostatically-controlled falling sinker-type high pressure viscometer to provide reproducible and reliable viscosity data based on terminal velocity sinker fall times. This was supported with density measurements using a micro-pVT device. Both high-pressure devices were additionally capable of illustrating the freezing points of the hydrocarbon mixtures. This work has, thus, provided data that can extend the application of mixtures of commercially available fuels and to test the validity of available predictive density and viscosity models. This included a Tait-style equation for fluid compressibility prediction. For complex diesel fuel compositions, which have many unidentified components, the approach illustrates the need to apply appropriate correlations, which require accurate knowledge or prediction of thermodynamic properties.

  16. Influence of the kind of fuel oil on the deposit composition in the diesel engine combustion chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarkowski, P.; Sarzynski, J.; Budzynski, P.; Paluch, R.; Wiertel, M. [Technical University of Lublin, Lublin (Poland)

    2001-08-10

    The authors studied deposits from combustion chambers of high-pressure engines supplied with standard fuel (SO) and ecological fuel of City-Diesel type. Chemical analysis, X-ray diffractograms, Moessbauer absorption and additionally Raman wavenumber measurements were made. The wearing of some engine elements was examined by the profilometric method. By using ecological fuel, the deposits were shown to contain four to give times less iron compounds than standard fuel supply. This accounts for a smaller attrition of the combustion chamber elements, and thus longer durability of the engine. 7 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Usage of methyl ester of tall oil fatty acids and resinic acids as alternative diesel fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keskin, Ali; Yasar, Abdulkadir; Guerue, Metin; Altiparmak, Duran

    2010-01-01

    In the experimental study, tall oil fatty and resinic acids were investigated as alternative diesel fuels. The fatty acids, obtained by distilling the crude tall oil, were esterified with methanol in order to obtain tall oil methyl ester (biodiesel). Blends of the methyl ester, resinic acids and diesel fuel were prepared for test fuels. Performance and emission tests of the test fuels were carried out in an unmodified direct injection diesel engine on full load conditions. The results showed that the specific fuel consumption (SFC) with the blend fuels did not show a significant change. CO emission and smoke level decreased up to 23.91% and 19.40%, respectively. In general, NO x emissions showed on trend of increasing with the blend fuels (up to 25.42%). CO 2 emissions did not vary with the blend fuels significantly.

  18. Usage of methyl ester of tall oil fatty acids and resinic acids as alternative diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keskin, Ali; Yasar, Abdulkadir [Tarsus Technical Education Faculty, Mersin University, 33500 Mersin (Turkey); Guerue, Metin [Engineering and Architectural Faculty, Gazi University, 06570 Maltepe, Ankara (Turkey); Altiparmak, Duran [Technical Education Faculty, Gazi University, 06500 Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-12-15

    In the experimental study, tall oil fatty and resinic acids were investigated as alternative diesel fuels. The fatty acids, obtained by distilling the crude tall oil, were esterified with methanol in order to obtain tall oil methyl ester (biodiesel). Blends of the methyl ester, resinic acids and diesel fuel were prepared for test fuels. Performance and emission tests of the test fuels were carried out in an unmodified direct injection diesel engine on full load conditions. The results showed that the specific fuel consumption (SFC) with the blend fuels did not show a significant change. CO emission and smoke level decreased up to 23.91% and 19.40%, respectively. In general, NO{sub x} emissions showed on trend of increasing with the blend fuels (up to 25.42%). CO{sub 2} emissions did not vary with the blend fuels significantly. (author)

  19. Development of compressed natural gas/diesel dual-fuel turbocharged compressed ignition engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shenghua, L.; Ziyan, W.; Jiang, R. [Xi' an Jiaotong Univ. (China). Dept. of Automotive Engineering

    2003-09-01

    A natural gas and diesel dual-fuel turbocharged compression ignition (CI) engine is developed to reduce emissions of a heavy-duty diesel engine. The compressed natural gas (CNG) pressure regulator is specially designed to feed back the boost pressure to simplify the fuel metering system. The natural gas bypass improves the engine response to acceleration. The modes of diesel injection are set according to the engine operating conditions. The application of honeycomb mixers changes the flowrate shape of natural gas and reduces hydrocarbon (HC) emission under low-load and lowspeed conditions. The cylinder pressures of a CI engine fuelled with diesel and dual fuel are analysed. The introduction of natural gas makes the ignition delay change with engine load. Under the same operating conditions, the emissions of smoke and NO{sub x} from the dual-fuel engine are both reduced. The HC and CO emissions for the dual-fuel engine remain within the range of regulation. (Author)

  20. The study of stability, combustion characteristics and performance of water in diesel emulsion fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syafiq Zulkifli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A single cylinder diesel engine study of water in diesel emulsions was conducted to investigate the stability effect of emulsion fuel on three different fuel blends and the water emulsification effect on the engine performance. Emulsified fuels contained 2% of surfactant including Span 80 Tween 80 and tested 10 HLB number. The blends also varied of 5%, 10% and 15% of water in diesel ratios namely as BSW5, BSW10 and BSW15. The fuel blends performance was tested using a single cylinder, direct injection diesel engine, operating at 1860 rpm. The results on stability reveal that high shear homogenizer yields more stability on emulsion fuel than mechanical stirrer and ultrasonic water bath. The engine performance results show that the ignition delay and peak pressure increase with the increment of water percentage up to 15%. However, the results indicate the increment of water percentage is also shows a significant decrease in engine power.

  1. Experimental investigation and performance evaluation of DI diesel engine fueled by waste oil-diesel mixture in emulsion with water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanthagopal Kasianantham

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Exploitation of the natural reserves of petroleum products has put a tremendous onus on the automotive industry. Increasing pollution levels and the depletion of the petroleum reserves have lead to the search for alternate fuel sources for internal combustion engines. Usage of vegetable oils poses some challenges like poor spray penetration, valve sticking and clogging of injector nozzles. Most of these problems may be solved by partial substitution of diesel with vegetable oil. In this work, the performance and emission characteristics of a direct injection diesel engine fueled by waste cooking oil-diesel emulsion with different water contents are evaluated. The use of waste cooking oil-diesel emulsion lowers the peak temperature, which reduces the formation of NOx. Moreover the phenomenon of micro explosion that results during the combustion of an emulsified fuel finely atomizes the fuel droplets and thus enhances combustion. Experiments show that CO concentration is reduced as the water content is increased and it is seen that 20% water content gives optimum results. Also, there is a significant reduction in NOx emissions.

  2. Pressure-time characteristics in diesel engine fueled with natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selim, Mohamed Y.E. [Helwan Univ., Mechanical Power Engineering Dept., Cairo (Egypt)

    2001-04-01

    Combustion pressure data are measured and presented for a dual fuel engine running on dual fuel of diesel and compressed natural gas, and compared to the diesel engine case. The maximum pressure rise rate during combustion is presented as a measure of combustion noise. Experimental investigation on diesel and dual fuel engines revealed the noise generated from combustion in both cases. A Ricardo E6 diesel version engine is converted to run on dual fuel of diesel and compressed natural gas and is used throughout the work. The engine is fully computerized and the cylinder pressure data, crank angle data are stored in a PC for off-line analysis. The effect of engine speeds, loads, pilot injection angle, and pilot fuel quantity on combustion noise is examined for both diesel and dual engine. Maximum pressure rise rate and some samples of ensemble averaged pressure-crank angle data are presented in the present work. The combustion noise, generally, is found to increase for the dual fuel engine case as compared to the diesel engine case. (Author)

  3. One dimensional modeling of a diesel-CNG dual fuel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azman, Putera Adam; Fawzi, Mas; Ismail, Muammar Mukhsin; Osman, Shahrul Azmir

    2017-04-01

    Some of the previous studies have shown that the use of compressed natural gas (CNG) in diesel engines potentially produce engine performance improvement and exhaust gas emission reduction, especially nitrogen oxides, unburned hydrocarbons, and carbon dioxide. On the other hand, there are other researchers who claimed that the use of CNG increases exhaust gas emissions, particularly nitrogen oxides. In this study, a one-dimensional model of a diesel-CNG dual fuel engine was made based on a 4-cylinder 2.5L common rail direct injection diesel engine. The software used is GT-Power, and it was used to analyze the engine performance and exhaust gas emissions of several diesel-CNG dual fuel blend ratios, i.e. 100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50. The effect of 100%, 75%, 50% engine loads on the exhaust gas emissions were also studied. The result shows that all diesel-CNG fuel blends produces higher brake torque and brake power at engine speed of 2000-3000 rpm compared with 100% diesel. The 50:50 diesel-CNG blend produces the highest brake torque and brake power, but also has the highest brake specific fuel consumption. As a higher percentage of CNG added to the dual fuel blend, unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide emission increased while carbon dioxide emission decreased. The nitrogen oxides emission concentration is generally unaffected by any change of the dual fuel ratio.

  4. Evaluation of hazelnut kernel oil of Turkish origin as alternative fuel in diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gumus, M.

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, hazelnut kernel oil of Turkish origin was evaluated as alternative fuel in a diesel engine. Potential hazelnut production throughout the world and the status of Turkey were examined. Hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) kernel oil was transesterified with methanol using potassium hydroxide as catalyst to obtain hazelnut kernel oil methyl ester (HOME) and a comprehensive experimental investigation was carried out to examine performance and emissions of a direct injection diesel engine running with HOME and its blends with diesel fuel. Experimental parameters included the percentage of HOME in the blend, engine load, injection timing, compression ratio, and injector. The cost analysis of HOME production comparing to the price of conventional diesel fuel was performed for last decade was performed. Results showed that HOME and its blends with diesel fuel are generally comparable to diesel fuel and small modifications such as increasing injection timing, compression ratio and injector opening pressure provide significant improvement in performance and emissions. It is also expected that the price of HOME will be lower than the price of conventional diesel fuel in the near future. (author)

  5. Jatropha oil methyl ester and its blends used as an alternative fuel in diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yarrapathruni Rao Hanumantha Venkata

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass derived vegetable oils are quite promising alternative fuels for agricultural diesel engines. Use of vegetable oils in diesel engines leads to slightly inferior performance and higher smoke emissions due to their high viscosity. The performance of vegetable oils can be improved by modifying them through the transesterification process. In this present work, the performance of single cylinder water-cooled diesel engine using methyl ester of jatropha oil as the fuel was evaluated for its performance and exhaust emissions. The fuel properties of biodiesel such as kinematic viscosity, calorific value, flash point, carbon residue, and specific gravity were found. Results indicate that B25 has closer performance to diesel and B100 has lower brake thermal efficiency mainly due to its high viscosity compared to diesel. The brake thermal efficiency for biodiesel and its blends was found to be slightly higher than that of diesel fuel at tested load conditions and there was no difference of efficiency between the biodiesel and its blended fuels. For jatropha biodiesel and its blended fuels, the exhaust gas temperature increased with the increase of power and amount of biodiesel. However, its diesel blends showed reasonable efficiency, lower smoke, and CO2 and CO emissions.

  6. Impact of physical properties of mixture of diesel and biodiesel fuels on hydrodynamic characteristics of fuel injection system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Ivan M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the alternative fuels, originating from renewable sources, is biodiesel fuel, which is introduced in diesel engines without major construction modifications on the engine. Biodiesel fuel, by its physical and chemical properties, is different from diesel fuel. Therefore, it is expected that by the application of a biodiesel fuel, the characteristic parameters of the injection system will change. These parameters have a direct impact on the process of fuel dispersion into the engine cylinder, and mixing with the air, which results in an impact on the quality of the combustion process. Method of preparation of the air-fuel mixture and the quality of the combustion process directly affect the efficiency of the engine and the level of pollutant emissions in the exhaust gas, which today is the most important criterion for assessing the quality of the engine. The paper presents a detailed analysis of the influence of physical properties of a mixture of diesel and biodiesel fuels on the output characteristics of the fuel injection system. The following parameters are shown: injection pressure, injection rate, the beginning and duration of injection, transformation of potential into kinetic energy of fuel and increase of energy losses in fuel injection system of various mixtures of diesel and biodiesel fuels. For the analysis of the results a self-developed computer program was used to simulate the injection process in the system. Computational results are verified using the experiment, for a few mixtures of diesel and biodiesel fuels. This paper presents the verification results for diesel fuel and biodiesel fuel in particular.

  7. Prediction of major pollutants emission in direct injection dual-fuel diesel and natural-gas engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirouzpanah, V.; Kashani, B.O.

    2000-01-01

    The dual-fuel diesel engine is a conventional diesel engine in which much of the energy released, hence power, comes from the combustion of gaseous fuel such as natural gas. The exhaust emission characteristics of the dual-fuel diesel engine needs further refinements, particularly in terms of reduction of Unburnt Hydrocarbons and Carbon Monoxide (CO) emission, because the concentration of these pollutants are higher than that of the baseline diesel engine. Furthermore, the combustion process in a typical dual-fuel diesel engine tends to be complex, showing combination of the problems encountered both in diesel and spark ignition engines. In this work, a computer code has been modified for simulation of dual-fuel diesel engine combustion process. This model simulates dual-fuel diesel engine combustion by using a Multi-Zone Combustion Model for diesel pilot jet combustion and a conventional spark ignition combustion model for modelling of combustion of premixed gas/air charge. Also, in this model, there are four submodels for prediction of major emission pollutants such as: Unburnt Hydrocarbons, No, Co and soot which are emitted from dual-fuel diesel engine. For prediction of formation and oxidation rates of pollutants, relevant s conventional kinetically-controlled mechanisms and mass balances are used. the model has been verified by experimental data obtained from a heavy-duty truck and bus diesel engines. The comparison shows that, there exist good agreements between the experimental and predicted results from the dual-fuel diesel engine

  8. Effects of fuel properties and oxidation catalyst on diesel exhaust emissions; Keiyu seijo oyobi sanka shokubai no diesel haishutsu gas eno eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aihara, S; Morihisa, H; Tamanouchi, M; Araki, H; Yamada, S [Petroleum Energy Center, Advanced Technology and Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Effects of fuel properties (T90 and Poly-Aromatic Hydrocarbons: PAH) and oxidation catalyst on diesel exhaust emissions were studied using three DI diesel engines and two diesel passenger cars. (IDI engine) PM emissions were found to increase as T90 and PAH increased and could be decreased considerably for each fuel if an oxidation catalyst was installed. 5 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Ignition delay and soot oxidative reactivity of MTBE blended diesel fuel

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Seung Yeon; Naser, Nimal; Chung, Suk-Ho; Al-Qurashi, Khalid

    2014-01-01

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) was added to diesel fuel to investigate the effect on ignition delay and soot oxidative reactivity. An ignition quality tester (IQT) was used to study the ignition propensity of MTBE blended diesel fuels in a reactive spray environment. The IQT data showed that ignition delay increases linearly as the MTBE fraction increases in the fuel. A four-stroke single cylinder diesel engine was used to generate soot samples for a soot oxidation study. Soot samples were pre-treated using a tube furnace in a nitrogen environment to remove any soluble organic fractions and moisture content. Non-isothermal oxidation of soot samples was conducted using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). It was observed that oxidation of 'MTBE soot' started began at a lower temperature and had higher reaction rate than 'diesel soot' across a range of temperatures. Several kinetic analyses including an isoconversional method and a combined model fitting method were carried out to evaluate kinetic parameters. The results showed that Diesel and MTBE soot samples had similar activation energy but the pre-exponential factor of MTBE soot was much higher than that of the Diesel soot. This may explain why MTBE soot was more reactive than Diesel soot. It is suggested that adding MTBE to diesel fuel is better for DPF regeneration since an MTBE blend can significantly influence the ignition characteristics and, consequently, the oxidative reactivity of soot. Copyright © 2014 SAE International.

  10. Ignition delay and soot oxidative reactivity of MTBE blended diesel fuel

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Seung Yeon

    2014-04-01

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) was added to diesel fuel to investigate the effect on ignition delay and soot oxidative reactivity. An ignition quality tester (IQT) was used to study the ignition propensity of MTBE blended diesel fuels in a reactive spray environment. The IQT data showed that ignition delay increases linearly as the MTBE fraction increases in the fuel. A four-stroke single cylinder diesel engine was used to generate soot samples for a soot oxidation study. Soot samples were pre-treated using a tube furnace in a nitrogen environment to remove any soluble organic fractions and moisture content. Non-isothermal oxidation of soot samples was conducted using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). It was observed that oxidation of \\'MTBE soot\\' started began at a lower temperature and had higher reaction rate than \\'diesel soot\\' across a range of temperatures. Several kinetic analyses including an isoconversional method and a combined model fitting method were carried out to evaluate kinetic parameters. The results showed that Diesel and MTBE soot samples had similar activation energy but the pre-exponential factor of MTBE soot was much higher than that of the Diesel soot. This may explain why MTBE soot was more reactive than Diesel soot. It is suggested that adding MTBE to diesel fuel is better for DPF regeneration since an MTBE blend can significantly influence the ignition characteristics and, consequently, the oxidative reactivity of soot. Copyright © 2014 SAE International.

  11. 30 CFR 75.1912 - Fire suppression systems for permanent underground diesel fuel storage facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1912 Fire suppression systems for permanent underground diesel fuel storage... system by a nationally recognized independent testing laboratory and appropriate for installation at a... recommended inspection and maintenance program and as required by the nationally recognized independent...

  12. Fuel Property, Emission Test, and Operability Results from a Fleet of Class 6 Vehicles Operating on Gas-to-Liquid Fuel and Catalyzed Diesel Particle Filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alleman, T. L.; Eudy, L.; Miyasato, M.; Oshinuga, A.; Allison, S.; Corcoran, T.; Chatterjee, S.; Jacobs, T.; Cherrillo, R. A.; Clark, R.; Virrels, I.; Nine, R.; Wayne, S.; Lansing, R.

    2005-11-01

    A fleet of six 2001 International Class 6 trucks operating in southern California was selected for an operability and emissions study using gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuel and catalyzed diesel particle filters (CDPF). Three vehicles were fueled with CARB specification diesel fuel and no emission control devices (current technology), and three vehicles were fueled with GTL fuel and retrofit with Johnson Matthey's CCRT diesel particulate filter. No engine modifications were made.

  13. 76 FR 37703 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2012 Renewable Fuel Standards; Public Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2012 Renewable Fuel Standards; Public Hearing AGENCY: Environmental... hearing to be held for the proposed rule ``Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2012 Renewable Fuel... be proposing amendments to the renewable fuel standard program regulations to establish annual...

  14. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XXIII, I--MAINTAINING THE FUEL SYSTEM, PART II--CATERPILLAR DIESEL ENGINE, II--UNDERSTANDING STEERING SYSTEMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM AND THE STEERING SYSTEM OF DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE FUEL INJECTION SECTION, AND DESCRIPTION OF THE STEERING SYSTEM. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING…

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION, TEST REPORT OF MOBILE SOURCE EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVICES/CLEAN DIESEL TECHNOLOGIES FUEL BORNE CATALYST WITH CLEANAIR SYSTEM'S DIESEL OXIDATION CATALYST

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the Fuel-Borne Catalyst with CleanAir System's Diesel Oxidation Catalyst manufactured by Clean Diesel Technologies, Inc. The technology is a fuel-borne catalyst used in ultra low sulfur d...

  16. An experimental investigation of Perkins A63544 diesel engine performance using D-Series fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan-beygi, Seyed Reza; Istan, Vahideh; Ghobadian, Barat; Aboonajmi, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The performance of a diesel engine was evaluated using newly developed D-Series fuel. • The specifications of D-Series fuel were in the range of ASTM D-6751-09 standard. • The D-Series fuel did not change the engine power and torque significantly except the D 65 B 25 E 10 fuel blend. • The D-Series fuel blends increased the engine specific fuel consumption compare with neat-diesel fuel. • The D 93 B 5 E 2 fuel blend could be suggested as an appropriate alternative for neat petro-diesel fuel. - Abstract: This paper reports the results of an investigation using a newly developed fuel mixture called ‘D-Series fuel’ on a Perkins A63544 direct injection diesel engine. The biodiesel and bioethanol fuels were added to diesel fuel in a manner that specifications of the formed mixture did not change considerably. The performance of the engine under test was then evaluated without any modification or change in engine components and systems using the D-Series fuel. The obtained data was statistically analyzed using two factors completely randomized design to study the effects of the engine speeds and fuel blend types on the engine power, torque, and specific fuel consumption. The analysis of variance showed that the engine speeds and fuel types had statistically significant effects at 1% probability level (P 65 B 25 E 10 , 65% diesel, 25% biodiesel and 10% bioethanol, blend which decreased the engine power. The engine torque was decreased with increasing the engine speed for all the fuel blends in range of 319–296 N m. The maximum torque reduction was about 25 N m for neat petro-diesel fuel. The engine torque was decreased significantly (P 93 B 5 E 2 fuel blend could be suggested as an appropriate alternative for neat petro-diesel fuel, though the D 86 B 10 E 4 and D 79 B 15 E 6 blends could be also suggested for greater ratios of biodiesel and bioethanol application in D-Series fuel application

  17. Antiknock additives for engine fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poletaeva, O. [Ufa State Petroleum Technological Univ., Ufa (Russian Federation); Movsumzade, E. [Institute of Education of Indigenous Small-Nambered Peoples of the North RAE, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-01

    Obtaining gasoline with necessary quality and quantity is an actual problem. To increase fuel resources in the development are involved heavy oil, shale gas with further obtaining synthetic oil. Here is presented an analysis of processing technologies of natural and synthetic oil obtained in the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, wherein focus is on octane number of gasoline fraction. Due to the low octane number, resolution of questions related to improving the detonation resistance, does not lose its relevance to the present day. Represented a quantum-chemical studies of some antiknock agents in the purpose by quantum chemistry methods to identify trends to increase the octane number of compounds and gasoline when they are added. (orig.)

  18. Use of Water-Fuel Mixture in Diesel Engines at Fishing Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klyus, Oleg; Bezyukov, O.

    2017-06-01

    The paper presents the laboratory test results determining physical parameters of fuel mixture made up of petroleum diesel oil, rapeseed oil methyl esters (up to 20%) and water (up to 2.5%). The obtained parameters prove that adding bio-components (rapeseed oil methyl esters) and water to fuel does not result in deterioration of their physical and chemical properties and are comparable to base fuel parameters, namely petroleum diesel oil. The mixture was a subject of bench testing with the use of a self-ignition engine by means of pre-catalytic fuel treatment. The treatment process consisted in fuel - catalytically active material direct contact on the atomizer body. At the comparable operational parameters for the engine, the obtained exhaust gases opacity was lower up to 60% due to the preliminary fuel mixture treatment in relation to the factory-made fuel injection system using petroleum diesel oil.

  19. USE OF WATER-FUEL MIXTURE IN DIESEL ENGINES AT FISHING VESSELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg KLYUS

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the laboratory test results determining physical parameters of fuel mixture made up of petroleum diesel oil, rapeseed oil methyl esters (up to 20% and water (up to 2.5%. The obtained parameters prove that adding bio-components (rapeseed oil methyl esters and water to fuel does not result in deterioration of their physical and chemical properties and are comparable to base fuel parameters, namely petroleum diesel oil. The mixture was a subject of bench testing with the use of a self-ignition engine by means of pre-catalytic fuel treatment. The treatment process consisted in fuel – catalytically active material direct contact on the atomizer body. At the comparable operational parameters for the engine, the obtained exhaust gases opacity was lower up to 60% due to the preliminary fuel mixture treatment in relation to the factory-made fuel injection system using petroleum diesel oil.

  20. An assessment of calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel fuelled diesel engine characteristics using novel antioxidant additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashok, B.; Nanthagopal, K.; Jeevanantham, A.K.; Bhowmick, Pathikrit; Malhotra, Dhruv; Agarwal, Pranjal

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel antioxidant Ethanox was used for the present investigation. • Effect of two antioxidants on biodiesel fuelled engine characteristics were studied. • Brake thermal efficiency increased by 5.3% for Ethanox 1000 ppm with biodiesel. • 21% reduction in oxides of nitrogen for Butylated hydroxytoluene 500 ppm addition. • Higher hydrocarbon and smoke emissions were observed for all treated fuels. - Abstract: In this present study, the effect of antioxidant additives with pure Calophyllum inophyllum methyl ester on the performance, combustion and emission characteristics has been investigated. New antioxidant additive namely Ethanox was added to the Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel at concentrations of 200 ppm, 500 ppm and 1000 ppm for oxides of nitrogen reductions and the experimental results were compared to Butylated hydroxytoluene antioxidant at same concentrations. An experimental study was done on a twin cylinder, four stroke diesel engine at a constant speed of 1500 rpm with two different antioxidants, Ethanox and Butylated hydroxytoluene individually mixed with pure Calophyllum inophyllum at concentrations of 200 ppm, 500 ppm and 1000 ppm by weight. The experimental results showed that the addition of antioxidants with Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel produced higher brake specific fuel consumption and higher brake thermal efficiency compared to pure biodiesel. Significant reductions in oxides of nitrogen emissions were observed with Ethanox and Butylated hydroxytoluene addition with biodiesel at all concentrations compared to neat biodiesel. The reduction oxides of nitrogen emission was 12.6% for Ethanox 1000 ppm and 21% for Butylated hydroxytoluene 500 ppm compared to neat biodiesel. Comparable combustion characteristics were obtained by addition of Ethanox with biodiesel than Butylated hydroxytoluene antioxidant. Moreover, the addition of Ethanox and Butylated hydroxytoluene antioxidants with neat biodiesel increase the carbon

  1. Influence of injector hole number on the performance and emissions of a DI diesel engine fueled with biodiesel–diesel fuel blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayin, Cenk; Gumus, Metin; Canakci, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    In diesel engines, fuel atomization process strongly affects the combustion and emissions. Injector hole number (INHN) particular influence on the performance and emissions because both parameters take important influence on the spray parameters like droplet size and penetration length and thus on the combustion process. Therefore, the INHN effects on the performance and emissions of a diesel engine using biodiesel and its blends were experimentally investigated by running the engine at four different engine loads in terms of brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) (12.5, 25, 37.5 and, 50 kPa). The injector nozzle hole size and number included 340 × 2 (340 μm diameter holes with 2 holes in the nozzle), 240 × 4, 200 × 6, and 170 × 8. The results verified that the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and nitrogen oxides (NO x ) emission increased, smoke opacity (SO), hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions reduced due to the fuel properties and combustion characteristics of biodiesel. However, the increased INHN caused a decrease in BSFC at the use of high percentage biodiesel–diesel blends (B50 and B100), SO and the emissions of CO, HC. The emissions of CO 2 and NO x increased. Compared to the original (ORG) INHN, changing the INHN caused an increase in BSFC values for diesel fuel and low percentage biodiesel–diesel blends (B5 and B20). -- Highlights: • We used biodiesel–diesel blends with the injectors having different parameters. • Injector parameters have influences on the exhaust emissions. • Specific fuel consumption can be affected with injector parameters. • Injectors with proper hole numbers and size can be used for biodiesel–diesel blends

  2. Fatty acid methyl esters, carbon nanotubes and carbon nanowalls coatings such as lubricity improvers of low sulfur diesel fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cursaru, Diana Luciana; Tanasescu, Constantin [Petroleum-Gas Univ. of Ploiesti (Romania); Vizireanu, Sorin [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics (Romania)

    2013-06-01

    In this study the lubricity of diesel fuel was restored by different methods, firstly by classic addition of fatty acid methyl esters or by dispersing carbon nanotubes into diesel fuels and secondly, by protecting the metallic surfaces which are in the direct contact to the low sulfur diesel fuel, by application of solid carbon nanowalls coatings synthesized by radiofrequency plasma beam deposition. The fatty acid methyl esters were prepared by transesterification of the sun flower oil in the presence of methanol. The carbon nanotubes were synthesized by CO disproportionation method and were characterized by RAMAN spectroscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The CNWs layers, before the friction tests, were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy, while the wear on the steel balls was investigated by optical microscopy of the HRRT apparatus and the wear track on the steel disk was investigated by SEM, AFM and profilometry. The lubricity was measured using the High Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR) method. It has been found that CNWs layers exhibit a lubricating potential for the rubbed surfaces in the presence of low sulfur diesel fuels. Tribological analyses of various carbon materials revealed that the friction coefficient of carbon nanowalls is close to the values obtained for graphite. (orig.)

  3. Dual fuel operation of used transformer oil with acetylene in a DI diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behera, Pritinika; Murugan, S.; Nagarajan, G.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Utilisation of Used transformer oil (UTO) as a fuel in a diesel engine. • UTO with acetylene in a diesel engine, on a dual fuel mode technique. • Analysis of combustion characteristics of the diesel engine. • Analysis of performance and emission characteristics of the diesel engine. - Abstract: Used transformer oil (UTO) is a waste oil obtained from power transformers and welding transformers. It possesses considerable heating value and properties similar to diesel fuel. A preliminary investigation on the utilization of the UTO in a single cylinder, four stroke small powered direct injection (DI) diesel engine revealed that at an optimum injection timing of 20°CA the engine exhibited lower nitric oxide (NO) and higher smoke emissions, compared to that of diesel operation. In order to improve the performance and reduce the smoke emission, a dual fuel operation was attempted in the present investigation. Acetylene was inducted as a primary fuel at four different flow rates viz 132 g/h, 198 g/h, 264 g/h and 330 g/h along with the air, to study the combustion, performance and emission behavior of a four-stroke, 4.4 kW diesel engine, while the UTO was injected as pilot fuel with the optimized injection timing. The experimental results were compared with diesel-acetylene dual fuel operation in the same engine. Acetylene aspiration reduced the ignition delay and maximum cylinder pressure by about 3°CA, and 25% respectively at full load in comparison with the sole UTO operation. Higher thermal efficiency and lower exhaust gas were also observed at full load. Smoke was reduced by about 13.7%, in comparison with the UTO operation at full load

  4. Wettability contrasts between fresh and weathered diesel fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Stephanie S; O'Carroll, Denis M; Gerhard, Jason I

    2013-01-01

    The remediation of non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) contaminated sites is impeded due to subsurface complexities, including wettability. Wettability quantifies which of two immiscible fluids preferentially coats a solid. At most contaminated sites water-wetting conditions are typically assumed despite mounting evidence that this is not always the case. In this study, wettability was examined for two NAPL samples of contrasting origin: a fresh and a field sample. Wettability was assessed through (i) cyclical, 'cumulative elapsed contact time' intrinsic contact angle measurements, (ii) interface jar tests, and (iii) cyclical, pseudo-static capillary pressure-saturation curves. The work as a whole demonstrated that while the fresh diesel sample was consistently water-wet, the field diesel sample exhibited repeatable cycles of wettability reversal between water drainage and imbibition. And while wettability hysteresis increased with contact time for the field diesel, the occurrence of wettability reversal at each change of saturation direction was independent of contact time. Such behavior is not easily assessed by standard wettability indices. Moreover, it contrasts with the permanent wettability alteration observed for complex organics (e.g., coal tar) observed in most studies. It is hypothesized that the cyclical wettability reversal is related to cyclical changes in intermediate pore wettability due to sorption of surface active compounds (causing NAPL-wetting imbibition) and rupturing of the soil grain water film (causing water-wet drainage). The wettability differences between the two NAPLs may be due to additives (i.e., a surfactant) in the original formulation and/or byproducts from subsurface weathering. These results support better characterization of site-specific wettability, improved model development and more realistic site conceptual models for improved remediation efforts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Spray combustion of biomass-based renewable diesel fuel using multiple injection strategy in a constant volume combustion chamber

    KAUST Repository

    Jing, Wei; Wu, Zengyang; Roberts, William L.; Fang, Tiegang

    2016-01-01

    Effect of a two-injection strategy associated with a pilot injection on the spray combustion process was investigated under conventional diesel combustion conditions (1000 K and 21% O2 concentration) for a biomass-based renewable diesel fuel, i

  6. Diesel fuel long term storage and treatment- recommended tests and practices (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2009-06-05

    The Clean Air Act (1970) is the comprehensive federal law that regulates air emissions from stationary and mobile sources. Among other things, this law authorized the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to establish National Ambient Air Quality Standards to protect public health and public welfare and to regulate emissions of hazardous air pollutants. In recent years, EPA regulations have forced oil refineries into producing a very low sulfur diesel fuel and incentives for adding up to 5% bio-diesel. These changes to the fuel oil formulation are beneficial to air quality and to energy conservation, but adversely impact heat content, long term storage stability, engine power, and injection system reliability. Diesel engines typically have a high incidence of injector failure resulting from poor diesel fuel quality. Since standby diesel engines do not run continuously it is necessary to implement periodic surveillance's to ensure the quality of diesel fuel is acceptable for reliable operation when a loss of power occurs. The information contained in this document is a compilation of best practices to be used as a guide for maintenance of a reliable diesel fuel system.

  7. Combustion characteristics, performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine fueled with a waste cooking oil biodiesel mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Can, Özer

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • High quality biodiesel fuels can be produced by using different waste cooking oils. • Biodiesel fuel blends (in 5 and 10% vol) can be used without any negative effects. • Effects of biodiesel addition on the combustion and exhaust emissions were investigated. - Abstract: In this study, a mixture of biodiesel fuels produced from two different kinds of waste cooking oils was blended in 5% and 10% with No. 2 diesel fuel. The biodiesel/No. 2 diesel fuel blends were tested in a single-cylinder, direct injection, four-stroke, natural aspirated diesel engine under four different engine loads (BMEP 0.48–0.36–0.24–0.12 MPa) and 2200 rpm engine speed. Despite of the earlier start of injection, the detailed combustion and engine performance results showed that the ignition delay with the biodiesel addition was decreased for the all engine loads with the earlier combustion timings due to higher cetane number of biodiesel fuel. Meanwhile the maximum heat release rate and the in-cylinder pressure rise rate were slightly decreased and the combustion duration was generally increased with the biodiesel addition. However, significant changings were not observed on the maximum in-cylinder pressures. In addition, it was observed that the indicated mean effective pressure values were slightly varied depending on the start of combustion timing and the center of heat release location. It was found that 5% and 10% biodiesel fuel addition resulted in slightly increment on break specific fuel consumption (up to 4%) and reduction on break thermal efficiency (up to 2.8%). The biodiesel additions also increased NO x emissions up to 8.7% and decreased smoke and total hydrocarbon emissions for the all engine loads. Although there were no significant changes on CO emissions at the low and medium engine loads, some reductions were observed at the full engine load. Also, CO 2 emissions were slightly increased for the all engine loads

  8. Characteristics of SME biodiesel-fueled diesel particle emissions and the kinetics of oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Heejung; Kittelson, David B; Zachariah, Michael R

    2006-08-15

    Biodiesel is one of the most promising alternative diesel fuels. As diesel emission regulations have become more stringent, the diesel particulate filter (DPF) has become an essential part of the aftertreatment system. Knowledge of kinetics of exhaust particle oxidation for alternative diesel fuels is useful in estimating the change in regeneration behavior of a DPF with such fuels. This study examines the characteristics of diesel particulate emissions as well as kinetics of particle oxidation using a 1996 John Deere T04045TF250 off-highway engine and 100% soy methyl ester (SME) biodiesel (B100) as fuel. Compared to standard D2 fuel, this B100 reduced particle size, number, and volume in the accumulation mode where most of the particle mass is found. At 75% load, number decreased by 38%, DGN decreased from 80 to 62 nm, and volume decreased by 82%. Part of this decrease is likely associated with the fact that the particles were more easily oxidized. Arrhenius parameters for the biodiesel fuel showed a 2-3times greater frequency factor and approximately 6 times higher oxidation rate compared to regular diesel fuel in the range of 700-825 degrees C. The faster oxidation kinetics should facilitate regeneration when used with a DPF.

  9. Alternative Low-Sulfur Diesel Fuel Transition Program for Alaska Final Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    This final rule will implement the requirements for sulfur, cetane and aromatics for highway, nonroad, locomotive and marine diesel fuel produced in, imported into, and distributed or used in the rural areas of Alaska.

  10. Semi-volatile and particulate emissions from the combustion of alternative diesel fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, S; Graham, J; Striebich, R

    2001-01-01

    Motor vehicle emissions are a major anthropogenic source of air pollution and contribute to the deterioration of urban air quality. In this paper, we report results of a laboratory investigation of particle formation from four different alternative diesel fuels, namely, compressed natural gas (CNG), dimethyl ether (DME), biodiesel, and diesel, under fuel-rich conditions in the temperature range of 800-1200 degrees C at pressures of approximately 24 atm. A single pulse shock tube was used to simulate compression ignition (CI) combustion conditions. Gaseous fuels (CNG and DME) were exposed premixed in air while liquid fuels (diesel and biodiesel) were injected using a high-pressure liquid injector. The results of surface analysis using a scanning electron microscope showed that the particles formed from combustion of all four of the above-mentioned fuels had a mean diameter less than 0.1 microm. From results of gravimetric analysis and fuel injection size it was found that under the test conditions described above the relative particulate yields from CNG, DME, biodiesel, and diesel were 0.30%. 0.026%, 0.52%, and 0.51%, respectively. Chemical analysis of particles showed that DME combustion particles had the highest soluble organic fraction (SOF) at 71%, followed by biodiesel (66%), CNG (38%) and diesel (20%). This illustrates that in case of both gaseous and liquid fuels, oxygenated fuels have a higher SOF than non-oxygenated fuels.

  11. Experimental investigation on dual fuel operation of acetylene in a DI diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakshmanan, T. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rajarajeswari Engineering College, Adayalampattu, Chennai, 600095 (India); Nagarajan, G. [Internal Combustion Engineering Division, College of Engineering, Anna University, Chennai, 600025 (India)

    2010-05-15

    Depletion of fossils fuels and environmental degradation have prompted researchers throughout the world to search for a suitable alternative fuel for diesel engine. One such step is to utilize renewable fuels in diesel engines by partial or total replacement of diesel in dual fuel mode. In this study, acetylene gas has been considered as an alternative fuel for compression ignition engine, which has excellent combustion properties. Investigation has been carried out on a single cylinder, air cooled, direct injection (DI), compression ignition engine designed to develop the rated power output of 4.4 kW at 1500 rpm under variable load conditions, run on dual fuel mode with diesel as injected primary fuel and acetylene inducted as secondary gaseous fuel at various flow rates. Acetylene aspiration resulted in lower thermal efficiency. Smoke, HC and CO emissions reduced, when compared with baseline diesel operation. With acetylene induction, due to high combustion rates, NO{sub x} emission significantly increased. Peak pressure and maximum rate of pressure rise also increased in the dual fuel mode of operation due to higher flame speed. It is concluded that induction of acetylene can significantly reduce smoke, CO and HC emissions with a small penalty on efficiency. (author)

  12. Effects of vehicle type and fuel quality on real world toxic emissions from diesel vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Peter F.; Tibbett, Anne R.; Day, Stuart J.

    Diesel vehicles are an important source of emissions of air pollutants, particularly oxides of nitrogen (NO x), particulate matter (PM), and toxic compounds with potential health impacts including volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as benzene and aldehydes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Current developments in engine design and fuel quality are expected to reduce these emissions in the future, but many vehicles exceed 10 years of age and may make a major contribution to urban pollutant concentrations and related health impacts for many years. In this study, emissions of a range of toxic compounds are reported using in-service vehicles which were tested using urban driving cycles developed for Australian conditions. Twelve vehicles were chosen from six vehicle weight classes and, in addition, two of these vehicles were driven through the urban drive cycle using a range of diesel fuel formulations. The fuels ranged in sulphur content from 24 to 1700 ppm, and in total aromatics from 7.7 to 33 mass%. Effects of vehicle type and fuel composition on emissions are reported. The results show that emissions of these toxic species were broadly comparable to those observed in previous dynamometer and tunnel studies. Emissions of VOCs and smaller PAHs such as naphthalene, which are derived largely from the combustion process, appear to be related, and show relatively little variability when compared with the variability in emissions of aldehydes and larger PAHs. In particular, aldehyde emissions are highly variable and may be related to engine operating conditions. Fuels of lower sulphur and aromatic content did not have a significant influence on emissions of VOCs and aldehydes, but tended to result in lower emissions of PAHs. The toxicity of vehicle exhaust, as determined by inhalation risk and toxic equivalency factor (TEF)-weighted PAH emissions, was reduced with fuels of lower aromatic content.

  13. Generator gas as a fuel to power a diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tutak Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of gasification process of dried sewage sludge and use of generator gas as a fuel for dual fuel turbocharged compression ignition engine are presented. The results of gasifying showed that during gasification of sewage sludge is possible to obtain generator gas of a calorific value in the range of 2.15  2.59 MJ/m3. It turned out that the generator gas can be effectively used as a fuel to the compression ignition engine. Because of gas composition, it was possible to run engine with partload conditions. In dual fuel operation the high value of indicated efficiency was achieved equal to 35%, so better than the efficiency of 30% attainable when being fed with 100% liquid fuel. The dual fuel engine version developed within the project can be recommended to be used in practice in a dried sewage sludge gasification plant as a dual fuel engine driving the electric generator loaded with the active electric power limited to 40 kW (which accounts for approx. 50% of its rated power, because it is at this power that the optimal conditions of operation of an engine dual fuel powered by liquid fuel and generator gas are achieved. An additional advantage is the utilization of waste generated in the wastewater treatment plant.

  14. Using stated preferences to estimate the environmental benefits of using biodiesel fuel in diesel engines

    OpenAIRE

    Jeanty, Pierre Wilner; Hitzhusen, Frederick J.

    2007-01-01

    Using biodiesel fuel to reduce emissions from diesel engines is an area of increasing interest. Many environmental benefits associated with biodiesel are not traded in markets and their estimation requires economic valuation methods applied to non-market goods and services. This paper presents the results of a contingent valuation survey conducted in 2006 in two Ohio regions to estimate willingness to pay for air pollution reduction arising from using biodiesel fuel in diesel engines. The dou...

  15. Analysis of Oxygenated Component (butyl Ether) and Egr Effect on a Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung-Hun; Oh, Young-Taig

    Potential possibility of the butyl ether (BE, oxygenates of di-ether group) was analyzed as an additives for a naturally aspirated direct injection diesel engine fuel. Engine performance and exhaust emission characteristics were analyzed by applying the commercial diesel fuel and oxygenates additives blended diesel fuels. Smoke emission decreased approximately 26% by applying the blended fuel (diesel fuel 80 vol-% + BE 20vol-%) at the engine speed of 25,000 rpm and with full engine load compared to the diesel fuel. There was none significant difference between the blended fuel and the diesel fuel on the power, torque, and brake specific energy consumption rate of the diesel engine. But, NOx emission from the blended fuel was higher than the commercial diesel fuel. As a counter plan, the EGR method was employed to reduce the NOx. Simultaneous reduction of the smoke and the NOx emission from the diesel engine was achieved by applying the BE blended fuel and the cooled EGR method.

  16. Experimental investigation of particle emissions under different EGR ratios on a diesel engine fueled by blends of diesel/gasoline/n-butanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Haozhong; Liu, Qingsheng; Wang, Qingxin; Zhou, Chengzhong; Mo, Chunlan; Wang, Xueqiang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The effects of EGR and blend fuels on particulate emission were studied in CI engine. • EGR ⩽ 20%, gasoline or n-butanol increases total particulate number concentration. • EGR ⩾ 30%, gasoline or n-butanol reduces total particulate number concentration. • As EGR ratio increased, the particulate mass concentrations of four fuels increased. • Gasoline or n-butanol increases the ratio of sub-25 nm particles number concentration. - Abstract: The particle emission characteristics of a high-pressure common-rail engine under different EGR conditions were investigated, using pure diesel (D100), diesel/gasoline (with a volume ratio of 70:30, D70G30), diesel/n-butanol (with a volume ratio of 70:30, D70B30) and diesel/gasoline/n-butanol (with a volume ratio of 70:15:15, D70G15B15) for combustion. Our results show that, with increasing EGR ratios, the in-cylinder pressure peak decreases and the heat release is delayed for the combustion of each fuel. At an EGR ratio of 30%, the combustion pressure peaks of D70G30, D70B30, D70G15B15 and D100 have similar values; with an EGR ratio of 40%, the combustion pressure peaks and release rate peaks of D70G30 and D70G15B15 are both lower with respect to D100. For small and medium EGR ratios (⩽20%), after the addition of gasoline and/or n-butanol to the fuel, the total particle number concentration (TPNC) increases, while both the soot emissions and the average geometric size of particles decrease. At large EGR ratios (30% and 40%), the TPNC of D70B30, D70G15B15 and D70G20 compared to D100 are reduced by a maximum amount of 74.7%, 66.7% and 28.6%, respectively. As the EGR ratio increases, the total particle mass concentration increases gradually for all four fuels. Blending gasoline or/and n-butanol into diesel induces an increase in the number concentration of sub-25 nm particles (PN25) which may be harmful in terms of health. However, the PN25 decreases with increasing the EGR ratio for all the tested fuels

  17. Soot and chemiluminescence in diesel combustion of bio-derived, oxygenated and reference fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein-Douwel, R.J.H.; Donkerbroek, A.J.; Vliet, A.P. van; Boot, M.D.; Somers, L.M.T.; Baert, R.S.G.; Dam, N.J.; Meulen, J.J. ter

    2009-01-01

    High-speed imaging, spectroscopy and thermodynamical characterization are applied to an optically accessible, heavy-duty diesel engine in order to compare sooting and chemiluminescence behaviour of bio-derived, oxygenated fuels and various reference fuels. The fuels concerned include the bio-derived

  18. Diesel fuel lubricity testing revisited : Tests von Dieselkraftstoffschmierfähigkeit erneut betrachtet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, H.J.

    2017-01-01

    Fuel is used as a lubricant in several engine components. Diesel fuel is known for its good lubrication properties, better than gasoline. These properties are examined in standard tests, as prescribed by ASTM. Good lubrication properties are designated as a good lubricity. Most commonly, fuel

  19. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCHES OF THERMO-PHYSICAL AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL INTERNALS OF BIO-DIESEL FUEL

    OpenAIRE

    V. N. Goryachkin; A. V. Ivaschenko

    2010-01-01

    The conducted researches are related to transfer of diesel engines to biodiesel fuel. The technique and results of an experimental research of thermo-physical and physical-and-chemical properties of biodiesel fuel as well as mixes of biodiesel fuel with the petroleum one are presented.

  20. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCHES OF THERMO-PHYSICAL AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL INTERNALS OF BIO-DIESEL FUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Goryachkin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The conducted researches are related to transfer of diesel engines to biodiesel fuel. The technique and results of an experimental research of thermo-physical and physical-and-chemical properties of biodiesel fuel as well as mixes of biodiesel fuel with the petroleum one are presented.

  1. Ethanol-fueled low temperature combustion: A pathway to clean and efficient diesel engine cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asad, Usman; Kumar, Raj; Zheng, Ming; Tjong, Jimi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Concept of ethanol–diesel fueled Premixed Pilot Assisted Combustion (PPAC). • Ultra-low NOx and soot with diesel-like thermal efficiency across the load range. • Close to TDC pilot injection timing for direct combustion phasing control. • Minimum pilot quantity (15% of total energy input) for clean, stable operation. • Defined heat release profile distribution (HRPD) to optimize pilot-ethanol ratio. - Abstract: Low temperature combustion (LTC) in diesel engines offers the benefits of ultra-low NOx and smoke emissions but suffers from lowered energy efficiency due to the high reactivity and low volatility of diesel fuel. Ethanol from renewable biomass provides a viable alternate to the petroleum based transportation fuels. The high resistance to auto-ignition (low reactivity) and its high volatility make ethanol a suitable fuel for low temperature combustion (LTC) in compression-ignition engines. In this work, a Premixed Pilot Assisted Combustion (PPAC) strategy comprising of the port fuel injection of ethanol, ignited with a single diesel pilot injection near the top dead centre has been investigated on a single-cylinder high compression ratio diesel engine. The impact of the diesel pilot injection timing, ethanol to diesel quantity ratio and exhaust gas recirculation on the emissions and efficiency are studied at 10 bar IMEP. With the lessons learnt, successful ethanol–diesel PPAC has been demonstrated up to a load of 18 bar IMEP with ultra-low NOx and soot emissions across the full load range. The main challenge of PPAC is the reduced combustion efficiency especially at low loads; therefore, the authors have presented a combustion control strategy to allow high efficiency, clean combustion across the load range. This work entails to provide a detailed framework for the ethanol-fueled PPAC to be successfully implemented.

  2. Storage stability of poultry fat and diesel fuel mixtures: Specific gravity and viscosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel P. Geller; Thomas T. Adams; John W. Goodrum; Joshua Pendergrass [University of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Faculty of Engineering

    2008-01-15

    Poultry fat (biofuel) and its 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% mixtures with no. 2 pump diesel fuel were stored for 1 year at bench scale (1 L) under controlled laboratory conditions at 4, 38, 54.4{sup o}C and at ambient room temperature. Poultry fat (100%) was studied under these same conditions with and without an antioxidant additive. Poultry fat mixtures (20% and 80%) were also stored at pilot scale (250 gallons) under outdoor, ambient conditions. Physical properties and phenomenon relevant to the use of these mixtures as biofuels for industrial boilers were studied and tracked. These properties include specific gravity, dynamic viscosity, sedimentation accumulation and separation (layering). Corrosive effects of these fuels on various metals were also examined. Viscosity and specific gravity of these biofuels changed very little over the course of the 1 year storage period. Sediment accumulation was present in all treatments, with increasing sedimentation correlating with increasing biofuel concentrations. The addition of antioxidant to 100% biofuel minimized changes in physical properties and sedimentation over the course of this study. Layering occurred in all mixtures of poultry fat and diesel fuel. Results also include the approximate amount of energy required to insure proper mixing of each treatment. After mixing, homogenization was maintained for considerable time periods. This suggests that mixing should only be performed immediately before the fuels are utilized. Corrosive properties of these biofuels were generally as expected; brass and copper were susceptible to attack by these fuels where as 316 stainless steel and carbon steel were not. 13 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Hydrogen combustion and exhaust emissions in a supercharged gas engine ignited with micro pilot diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomita, E.; Kawahara, N. [Okayama Univ., Okayama (Japan); Roy, M.M. [Rajshahi Univ. of Engineering and Technology, Rajshahi (Bangladesh)

    2009-07-01

    A hydrogen combustion and exhaust emissions in a supercharged gas engine ignited with micro pilot diesel fuel was discussed in this presentation. A schematic diagram of the experimental study was first presented. The single cylinder, water-cooled, supercharged test engine was illustrated. Results were presented for the following: fuel energy and energy share (hydrogen and diesel fuel); pressure history and rate of heat release; engine performance and exhaust emissions; effect of nitrogen dilution on heat value per cycle; effect of N{sub 2} dilution on pressure history and rate of heat release; and engine performance and exhaust emissions. This presentation demonstrated that smooth and knock-free engine operation results from the use of hydrogen in a supercharged dual-fuel engine for leaner fuel-air equivalence ratios maintaining high thermal efficiency. It was possible to attain mor3 than 90 per cent hydrogen-energy substitution to the diesel fuel with zero smoke emissions. figs.

  4. Hydrogen combustion and exhaust emissions in a supercharged gas engine ignited with micro pilot diesel fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, E.; Kawahara, N.; Roy, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    A hydrogen combustion and exhaust emissions in a supercharged gas engine ignited with micro pilot diesel fuel was discussed in this presentation. A schematic diagram of the experimental study was first presented. The single cylinder, water-cooled, supercharged test engine was illustrated. Results were presented for the following: fuel energy and energy share (hydrogen and diesel fuel); pressure history and rate of heat release; engine performance and exhaust emissions; effect of nitrogen dilution on heat value per cycle; effect of N 2 dilution on pressure history and rate of heat release; and engine performance and exhaust emissions. This presentation demonstrated that smooth and knock-free engine operation results from the use of hydrogen in a supercharged dual-fuel engine for leaner fuel-air equivalence ratios maintaining high thermal efficiency. It was possible to attain mor3 than 90 per cent hydrogen-energy substitution to the diesel fuel with zero smoke emissions. figs.

  5. 40 CFR 600.206-86 - Calculation and use of fuel economy values for gasoline-fueled, diesel, and electric vehicle...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... values for gasoline-fueled, diesel, and electric vehicle configurations. 600.206-86 Section 600.206-86...-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year... values for gasoline-fueled, diesel, and electric vehicle configurations. (a) Fuel economy values...

  6. 'Diesel regenerativ' as fuel for passenger cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimon, Anja; Krahl, Juergen [Coburg Univ. of Applied Sciences and Arts (Germany); Schroeder, Olaf; Fey, Barbara; Munack, Axel [Thuenen Institute, Braunschweig (Germany); Bockey, Dieter [Union for the Promotion of Oil and Protein Plants, Berlin

    2013-06-01

    Among the multitude of possible biofuels, hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) presents one possible means of partially replacing diesel fuel. In the project presented here, HVO was used with an admixture of biodiesel in the amount of 2% and 7% in two different vehicle fleets. HVO and biodiesel were made from domestic rapeseed oil. Both fuels trade under the name Diesel regenerative. The test vehicles were cars of the emission standards Euro 3 to Euro 6 that had been previously fueled with fossil diesel fuel, each for different periods. All vehicles were tested for regulated emissions at the beginning and the end of the project. In summary, emission reductions for hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and particulate matter were identified for Diesel regenerative in comparison to fossil diesel fuel. However, nitrogen oxides were slightly increased for Diesel regenerative. Until now, this increase was only known in the literature to be associated with paraffinic fuel exhaust gases such as GTL. Moreover, decreases in nitrogen oxide when using pure HVO versus DF were published for utility vehicles (Warnecke et al., 2012). (orig.)

  7. Prospects of pyrolysis oil from plastic waste as fuel for diesel engines: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangesh, V. L.; Padmanabhan, S.; Ganesan, S.; PrabhudevRahul, D.; Reddy, T. Dinesh Kumar

    2017-05-01

    The purpose ofthis study is to review the existing literature about chemical recycling of plastic waste and its potential as fuel for diesel engines. This is a review covering on the field of converting waste plastics into liquid hydrocarbon fuels for diesel engines. Disposal and recycling of waste plastics have become an incremental problem and environmental threat with increasing demand for plastics. One of the effective measures is by converting waste plastic into combustible hydrocarbon liquid as an alternative fuel for running diesel engines. Continued research efforts have been taken by researchers to convert waste plastic in to combustible pyrolysis oil as alternate fuel for diesel engines. An existing literature focuses on the study of chemical structure of the waste plastic pyrolysis compared with diesel oil. Converting waste plastics into fuel oil by different catalysts in catalytic pyrolysis process also reviewed in this paper. The methodology with subsequent hydro treating and hydrocracking of waste plastic pyrolysis oil can reduce unsaturated hydrocarbon bonds which would improve the combustion performance in diesel engines as an alternate fuel.

  8. Study of emissions for a compression ignition engine fueled with a mix of DME and diesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurchiş, Bogdan; Nicolae, Burnete; Călin, Iclodean; Nicolae Vlad, Burnete

    2017-10-01

    Currently, there is a growing demand for diesel engines, primarily due to the relatively low fuel consumption compared to spark-ignition engines. However, these engines have a great disadvantage in terms of pollution because they produce solid particles that ultimately form particulate matter (PM), which has harmful effects on human health and also on the environment. The toxic emissions from the diesel engine exhaust, like particulate matter (PM) and NOx, generated by the combustion of fossil fuels, lead to the necessity to develop green fuels which on one hand should be obtained from regenerative resources and on the other hand less polluting. In this paper, the authors focused on the amount of emissions produced by a diesel engine when running with a fuel mixture consisting of diesel and DME. Dimethyl ether (DME) is developed mainly by converting natural gas or biomass to synthesis gas (syngas). It is an extremely attractive resource for the future used in the transport industry, given that it can be obtained at low costs from renewable resources. Using DME mixed with diesel for the combustion process, besides the fact that it produces less smoke, the emission levels of particulate matter is reduced compared to diesel and in some situations, NOx emissions may decrease. DME has a high enough cetane number to perform well as a compression-ignition fuel but due to the poor lubrication and viscosity, it is difficult to be used as the main fuel for combustion

  9. Greenhouse Gas and Noxious Emissions from Dual Fuel Diesel and Natural Gas Heavy Goods Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stettler, Marc E J; Midgley, William J B; Swanson, Jacob J; Cebon, David; Boies, Adam M

    2016-02-16

    Dual fuel diesel and natural gas heavy goods vehicles (HGVs) operate on a combination of the two fuels simultaneously. By substituting diesel for natural gas, vehicle operators can benefit from reduced fuel costs and as natural gas has a lower CO2 intensity compared to diesel, dual fuel HGVs have the potential to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the freight sector. In this study, energy consumption, greenhouse gas and noxious emissions for five after-market dual fuel configurations of two vehicle platforms are compared relative to their diesel-only baseline values over transient and steady state testing. Over a transient cycle, CO2 emissions are reduced by up to 9%; however, methane (CH4) emissions due to incomplete combustion lead to CO2e emissions that are 50-127% higher than the equivalent diesel vehicle. Oxidation catalysts evaluated on the vehicles at steady state reduced CH4 emissions by at most 15% at exhaust gas temperatures representative of transient conditions. This study highlights that control of CH4 emissions and improved control of in-cylinder CH4 combustion are required to reduce total GHG emissions of dual fuel HGVs relative to diesel vehicles.

  10. Research on the combustion, energy and emission parameters of diesel fuel and a biomass-to-liquid (BTL) fuel blend in a compression-ignition engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimkus, Alfredas; Žaglinskis, Justas; Rapalis, Paulius; Skačkauskas, Paulius

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Researched physical–chemical and performance properties of diesel fuel and BTL blend (85/15 V/V). • BTL additive reduced Brake Specific Fuel Consumption, improved engine efficiency. • Simpler BTL molecular chains and lower C/H ratio reduced CO_2 emission and smokiness. • Higher cetane number of BTL reduced heat release in beginning of combustion and NO_x emission. • Advanced start of fuel injection caused reduced fuel consumption and smokiness, increased NO_x emission. - Abstract: This paper presents the comparable research results of the physical–chemical and direct injection (DI) diesel engine properties of diesel fuel and BTL (biomass-to-liquid) blend (85/15 V/V). The energy, ecological and in-cylinder parameters were analysed under medium engine speed and brake torque load regimes; the start of fuel injection was also adjusted. After analysis of the engine bench tests and simulation with AVL BOOST software, it was observed that the BTL additive shortened the fuel ignition delay phase, reduced the heat release in the pre-mixed intensive combustion phase, reduced the nitrogen oxide (NO_x) concentration in the engine exhaust gases and reduced the thermal and mechanical load of the crankshaft mechanism. BTL additive reduced the rates of carbon dioxide (CO_2), incompletely burned hydrocarbons (HC) emission and smokiness due to its chemical composition and combustion features. BTL also reduced Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC, g/kW h) and improved engine efficiency (η_e); however, the volumetric fuel consumption changed due to the lower density of BTL. The start of fuel injection was adjusted for maximum engine efficiency; concomitantly, reductions in the CO_2 concentration, HC concentration and smokiness were achieved. However, the NO_x and thermo-mechanical engine load increased.

  11. Investigation on parameters of methanol fuel and its blend on a diesel dual fuel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. K. Prashant

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An experimental investigation has been performed on a 4 cylinder (turbocharged and intercooled 62.5 kW gen-set dual fuel diesel engine. Break specific fuel consumption (bsfc, break thermal efficiency (bte along with HC, CO, CO2 and NOx at various mixture ratios of methanol substitutions and loads have been investigated. The minimum and maximum BSFC were found to be 0.18 and 1.01 at 40 and 10% of full engine load and 40 and 60% of methanol substitution compared to pure diesel operation where the minimum and maximum BSFC were found to be 0.26 and 0.434 at 20 and 10% of full load condition. The minimum and maximum BTE were found to be 7.19 and 40.8 at 60 and 40% methanol substitution and at 10 and 40% load conditions whilst for pure diesel operation it was found to be 19.7 and 40.4 at 10 and 40% load conditions respectively. A two factor, three-level full factorial design was employed and the experimental results are in accordance with the results obtained.

  12. Emission reduction from a diesel engine fueled by pine oil biofuel using SCR and catalytic converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallinayagam, R.; Vedharaj, S.; Yang, W. M.; Saravanan, C. G.; Lee, P. S.; Chua, K. J. E.; Chou, S. K.

    2013-12-01

    In this work, we propose pine oil biofuel, a renewable fuel obtained from the resins of pine tree, as a potential substitute fuel for a diesel engine. Pine oil is endowed with enhanced physical and thermal properties such as lower viscosity and boiling point, which enhances the atomization and fuel/air mixing process. However, the lower cetane number of the pine oil hinders its direct use in diesel engine and hence, it is blended in suitable proportions with diesel so that the ignition assistance could be provided by higher cetane diesel. Since lower cetane fuels are prone to more NOX formation, SCR (selective catalyst reduction), using urea as reducing agent, along with a CC (catalytic converter) has been implemented in the exhaust pipe. From the experimental study, the BTE (brake thermal efficiency) was observed to be increased as the composition of pine oil increases in the blend, with B50 (50% pine oil and 50% diesel) showing 7.5% increase over diesel at full load condition. The major emissions such as smoke, CO, HC and NOX were reduced by 70.1%, 67.5%, 58.6% and 15.2%, respectively, than diesel. Further, the average emissions of B50 with SCR and CC assembly were observed to be reduced, signifying the positive impact of pine oil biofuel on atmospheric environment. In the combustion characteristics front, peak heat release rate and maximum in-cylinder pressure were observed to be higher with longer ignition delay.

  13. THE EFFECT OF SKULDUGGERY IN FUEL OF DIESEL ENGINES ON THE PERFORMANCE OF I. C. ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raed R. Jasem

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The current research aimed to study the effect of fraud in the diesel fuel on environmental pollution,  the study included two samples of diesel fuel., first sample is used currently in all diesel engines vehicles, and it produced in colander of oil  of Baiji, the second sample is producer manually from mixing of the Lubricating oils and kerosene with ratio(1/40, were prepared and tested in research laboratories and quality control of the North Refineries Company /BAIJI by using standard engine (CFR. comparison between two models of fuel in terms of the properties of the mixing fuel and the properties of diesel fuel standard. The results proved that the process of mixing these ,  leading to the minimization of Cetane number and flash point. While the viscosity increase in  mixing fuel, comparison with fuel producer in the refinery, and which identical to the minimum standard specifications of diesel fuel.The tests had been carried out using the engine of (TQ four stroke type (TD115 with a single-cylinder and compression ratio (21:1 a complement to the hydraulic type Dynamo meter (TD115.

  14. Experimental investigation of pistacia lentiscus biodiesel as a fuel for direct injection diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khiari, K.; Awad, S.; Loubar, K.; Tarabet, L.; Mahmoud, R.; Tazerout, M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Biodiesel is prepared from Pistacia Lentiscus oil. • Biodiesel yield is 94% when using 6:1 methanol/oil and 1% KOH catalyst at 50 °C. • BSFC and NOx emissions have increased with the use of biodiesel and its blends. • Biodiesel reduces significantly HC, CO and particulate emissions at high engine load. - Abstract: Biodiesel is currently seen as an interesting substitute for diesel fuel due to the continuing depletion of petroleum reserves and the environment pollution emerging from exhaust emissions. The present work is an experimental study conducted on a DI diesel engine running with either pistacia lentiscus (PL) biodiesel or its blends with conventional diesel fuel. PL biodiesel is obtained by converting PL seed oil via a single-step homogenous alkali catalyzed transesterification process. The PL biodiesel physicochemical properties, which are measured via standard methods, are similar to those of diesel fuel. A single cylinder, naturally aspirated DI diesel engine is operated at 1500 rpm with either PL biodiesel or its blends with diesel fuel for several ratios (50, 30 and 5 by v%) and engine load conditions. The combustion parameters, performance and pollutant emissions of PL biodiesel and its blends are compared with those of diesel fuel. The results show that the thermal efficiency is 3% higher for PL biodiesel than for diesel fuel. The emission levels of carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbon (HC) and particulate matter are considerably reduced at full engine load (around 25%, 45% and 17% respectively). On the other hand, the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and the nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions increase (around 10% and 4% respectively).

  15. 78 FR 12005 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2013 Renewable Fuel Standards; Public Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2013 Renewable Fuel Standards; Public Hearing AGENCY: Environmental... EPA is announcing a public hearing to be held for the proposed rule ``Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2013 Renewable Fuel Standards,'' which was published separately in the Federal Register on...

  16. Aerosols emitted in underground mine air by diesel engine fueled with biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugarski, Aleksandar D; Cauda, Emanuele G; Janisko, Samuel J; Hummer, Jon A; Patts, Larry D

    2010-02-01

    Using biodiesel in place of petroleum diesel is considered by several underground metal and nonmetal mine operators to be a viable strategy for reducing the exposure of miners to diesel particulate matter. This study was conducted in an underground experimental mine to evaluate the effects of soy methyl ester biodiesel on the concentrations and size distributions of diesel aerosols and nitric oxides in mine air. The objective was to compare the effects of neat and blended biodiesel fuels with those of ultralow sulfur petroleum diesel. The evaluation was performed using a mechanically controlled, naturally aspirated diesel engine equipped with a muffler and a diesel oxidation catalyst. The effects of biodiesel fuels on size distributions and number and total aerosol mass concentrations were found to be strongly dependent on engine operating conditions. When fueled with biodiesel fuels, the engine contributed less to elemental carbon concentrations for all engine operating modes and exhaust configurations. The substantial increases in number concentrations and fraction of organic carbon (OC) in total carbon over the baseline were observed when the engine was fueled with biodiesel fuels and operated at light-load operating conditions. Size distributions for all test conditions were found to be single modal and strongly affected by engine operating conditions, fuel type, and exhaust configuration. The peak and total number concentrations as well as median diameter decreased with an increase in the fraction of biodiesel in the fuels, particularly for high-load operating conditions. The effects of the diesel oxidation catalyst, commonly deployed to counteract the potential increase in OC emissions due to use of biodiesel, were found to vary depending upon fuel formulation and engine operating conditions. The catalyst was relatively effective in reducing aerosol number and mass concentrations, particularly at light-load conditions, but also showed the potential for an

  17. Influence of Antioxidant Addition in Jatropha Biodiesel on the Performance, Combustion and Emission Characteristics of a DI Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arockiasamy, Prabu; Ramachandran Bhagavathiammal, Anand

    2018-04-01

    An experimental investigation is conducted on a single-cylinder DI diesel engine, to evaluate the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of Jatropha biodiesel with the addition of antioxidants namely, Succinimide (C4H5NO2), N,N-Dimethyl p-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride (C8H14Cl2N2) and N-Phenyl- p-phenylenediamine (C6H5NHC6H4NH2) at 500, 1000 and 2000 ppm. The performance, combustion and emission characteristic tests are conducted at a constant speed of 1500 rpm, injection pressure of 215 bar, injection timing of 26° before top dead centre for the nine test fuels and the experimental results are compared with neat diesel and neat biodiesel as base fuels. The experimental results show that the addition of antioxidant in biodiesel suppresses the NO emission by quenching the OH radicals that are produced by the reaction of hydrocarbon radicals with molecular nitrogen. The maximum percentage reduction of NO emission by 5, 6 and 7% are observed for N-Phenyl- p-phenylenediamine, N,N-Dimethyl p-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride and Succinimide blended test fuels at 2000 ppm antioxidant addition with biodiesel.

  18. Use of the fuel obtained from waste plastics as a mixture with diesel and biofuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiernicki, Z.; Zelazo, P. [Lublin Univ. of Technology (Poland)

    2013-06-01

    The researches concerning the use of fuel derived from waste plastics and biodiesel have been presented in the paper. The biodiesel and the fuel obtained from waste plastics were both used as fuel components. The bio-admixture in the fuel was FAME, STING and rape oil. The catalytic cracking of polyolefin's was the source of second fuel admixture. The physical properties of analyzed components of the fuel have been presented. The operational parameters of direct injection diesel engine fuelled with tested fuel blends have been set out. The principles of fuel mixture preparation has been also described. The concept of the diesel fuel which is made from the components of opposite physical properties could have a positive practical effect and could improve the use of biofuels. (orig.)

  19. Simultaneous fast pyrolysis and catalytic upgrading of lignin to obtain a marine diesel fuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Guofeng

    The topic of this Ph.D. project is to convert lignin, a by-product from a 2nd generation bio-ethanol plant, into a marine diesel fuel by fast pyrolysis followed with catalytic upgrading of the pyrolysis vapor. Lignin, a major component of lignocellulosic biomass, is underutilized in the 2nd...... generation bio-ethanol plants. Shipping industry on the other hand is looking for clean alternative fuels in order to meet stricter fuel quality and emission standards. To convert lignin into a renewable marine diesel fuel will both accelerate the development of modern bio-refinery and transfer the marine...

  20. Investigation of engine performance and emissions of a diesel engine with a blend of marine gas oil and synthetic diesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Md Nurun; Hustad, Johan Einar

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions with marine gas oil (MGO) and a blend of MGO and synthetic diesel fuel. Ten per cent by volume of Fischer-Tropsch (FT), a synthetic diesel fuel, was added to MGO to investigate its influence on the diesel engine performance and emissions. The blended fuel was termed as FT10 fuel, while the neat (100 vol%) MGO was termed as MGO fuel. The experiments were conducted with a fourstroke, six-cylinder, turbocharged, direct injection, Scania DC 1102 diesel engine. It is interesting to note that all emissions including smoke (filter smoke number), total particulate matter (TPM), carbon monoxide (CO), total unburned hydrocarbon (THC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and engine noise were reduced with FT10 fuel compared with the MGO fuel. Diesel fine particle number and mass emissions were measured with an electrical low pressure impactor. Like other exhaust emissions, significant reductions in fine particles and mass emissions were observed with the FT10 fuel. The reduction was due to absence of sulphur and aromatic compounds in the FT fuel. In-cylinder gas pressure and engine thermal efficiency were identical for both FT10 and MGO fuels.

  1. Single excitation-emission fluorescence spectrum (EEF) for determination of cetane improver in diesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insausti, Matías; Fernández Band, Beatriz S

    2015-04-05

    A highly sensitive spectrofluorimetric method has been developed for the determination of 2-ethylhexyl nitrate in diesel fuel. Usually, this compound is used as an additive in order to improve cetane number. The analytical method consists in building the chemometric model as a first step. Then, it is possible to quantify the analyte with only recording a single excitation-emission fluorescence spectrum (EEF), whose data are introduced in the chemometric model above mentioned. Another important characteristic of this method is that the fuel sample was used without any pre-treatment for EEF. This work provides an interest improvement to fluorescence techniques using the rapid and easily applicable EEF approach to analyze such complex matrices. Exploding EEF was the key to a successful determination, obtaining a detection limit of 0.00434% (v/v) and a limit of quantification of 0.01446% (v/v). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Combustion characteristics of compressed natural gas/diesel dual-fuel turbocharged compressed ignition engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shenghua, L.; Longbao, Z.; Ziyan, W.; Jiang, R. [Xi' an Jiaotong Univ. (China). Dept. of Automotive Engineering

    2003-09-01

    The combustion characteristics of a turbocharged natural gas and diesel dual-fuelled compression ignition (CI) engine are investigated. With the measured cylinder pressures of the engine operated on pure diesel and dual fuel, the ignition delay, effects of pilot diesel and engine load on combustion characteristics are analysed. Emissions of HC, CO, NO{sub x} and smoke are measured and studied too. The results show that the quantity of pilot diesel has important effects on the performance and emissions of a dual-fuel engine at low-load operating conditions. Ignition delay varies with the concentration of natural gas. Smoke is much lower for the developed dual-fuel engine under all the operating conditions. (Author)

  3. Modeling JP-8 Fuel Effects on Diesel Combustion Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schihl, Peter; Hoogterp, Laura; Pangilinan, Harold; Schwarz, Ernest; Bryzik, Walter

    2006-01-01

    .... Since engine manufacturers rely solely on DF-2 for commercial vehicle applications most domestic industry, university, and national laboratory lead diesel engine combustion system research activities...

  4. Modeling the effects of auxiliary gas injection and fuel injection rate shape on diesel engine combustion and emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Daniel Kelly

    1998-11-01

    The effect of auxiliary gas injection and fuel injection rate-shaping on diesel engine combustion and emissions was studied using KIVA a multidimensional computational fluid dynamics code. Auxiliary gas injection (AGI) is the injection of a gas, in addition to the fuel injection, directly into the combustion chamber of a diesel engine. The objective of AGI is to influence the diesel combustion via mixing to reduce emissions of pollutants (soot and NO x). In this study, the accuracy of modeling high speed gas jets on very coarse computational grids was addressed. KIVA was found to inaccurately resolve the jet flows near walls. The cause of this inaccuracy was traced to the RNG k - ɛ turbulence model with the law-of-the-wall boundary condition used by KIVA. By prescribing the lengthscale near the nozzle exit, excellent agreement between computed and theoretical jet penetration was attained for a transient gas jet into a quiescent chamber at various operating conditions. The effect of AGI on diesel engine combustion and emissions was studied by incorporating the coarse grid gas jet model into a detailed multidimensional simulation of a Caterpillar 3401 heavy-duty diesel engine. The effects of AGI timing, composition, amount, orientation, and location were investigated. The effects of AGI and split fuel injection were also investigated. AGI was found to be effective at reducing soot emissions by increasing mixing within the combustion chamber. AGI of inert gas was found to be effective at reducing emissions of NOx by depressing the peak combustion temperatures. Finally, comparison of AGI simulations with experiments were conducted for a TACOM-LABECO engine. The results showed that AGI improved soot oxidation throughout the engine cycle. Simulation of fuel injection rate-shaping investigated the effects of three injection velocity profiles typical of unit-injector type, high-pressure common-rail type, and accumulator-type fuel injectors in the Caterpillar 3401 heavy

  5. 40 CFR 80.573 - What labeling requirements apply to retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers of NRLM diesel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Labeling Requirements § 80.573 What labeling requirements apply to... retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers of NRLM diesel fuel and heating oil beginning June 1, 2012? 80...