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Sample records for diesel engines ignition

  1. Utilization of Alcohol Fuel in Spark Ignition and Diesel Engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Don; Stengel, Ron

    These five units comprise a course intended to prepare and train students to conduct alcohol fuel utilization seminars in spark ignition and diesel engines. Introductory materials include objectives and a list of instructor requirements. The first four units cover these topics: ethanol as an alternative fuel (technical and economic advantages,…

  2. Conversion of a diesel engine to a spark ignition natural gas engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    Requirements for alternatives to diesel-fueled vehicles are developing, particularly in urban centers not in compliance with mandated air quality standards. An operator of fleets of diesel- powered vehicles may be forced to either purchase new vehicles or equip some of the existing fleets with engines designed or modified to run on alternative fuels. In converting existing vehicles, the operator can either replace the existing engine or modify it to burn an alternative fuel. Work described in this report addresses the problem of modifying an existing diesel engine to operate on natural gas. Tecogen has developed a technique for converting turbocharged automotive diesel engines to operate as dedicated spark-ignition engines with natural gas fuel. The engine cycle is converted to a more-complete-expansion cycle in which the expansion ratio of the original engine is unchanged while the effective compression ratio is lowered, so that engine detonation is avoided. The converted natural gas engine, with an expansion ratio higher than in conventional spark- ignition natural gas engines, offers thermal efficiency at wide-open- throttle conditions comparable to its diesel counterpart. This allows field conversion of existing engines. Low exhaust emissions can be achieved when the engine is operated with precise control of the fuel air mixture at stoichiometry with a 3-way catalyst. A Navistar DTA- 466 diesel engine with an expansion ratio of 16.5 to 1 was converted in this way, modifying the cam profiles, increasing the turbocharger boost pressure, incorporating an aftercooler if not already present, and adding a spark-ignition system, natural gas fuel management system, throttle body for load control, and an electronic engine control system. The proof-of-concept engine achieved a power level comparable to that of the diesel engine without detonation. A conversion system was developed for the Navistar DT 466 engine. NOx emissions of 1.5 g/bhp-h have been obtained.

  3. Study of Effect of Diesel Fuel Energy Rate in Duel Fuel on Performance of Compression Ignition Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Maan Janan Basheer

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to study the effect of diesel fuel percentage on the combustion processes in compression ignition engine using dual fuel (diesel and LPG). The brake thermal efficiency increased with the increase of diesel fuel rate at low loads, and decreased when load increased. To get sufficient operation in engine fueled with dual fuel, it required sufficient flow rate of diesel fuel, if the engine fueled with insufficient diesel fuel erratic operation with miss fire cycles presen...

  4. Operation of neat pine oil biofuel in a diesel engine by providing ignition assistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallinayagam, R.; Vedharaj, S.; Yang, W.M.; Lee, P.S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Operational feasibility of neat pine oil biofuel has been examined. • Pine oil suffers lower cetane number, which mandates for necessary ignition assistance. • Ignition support is provided by preheating the inlet air and incorporating a glow plug. • At an inlet air temperature of 60 °C, the BTE for pine oil was found to be in par with diesel. • CO and smoke emissions were reduced by 13.2% and 16.8%, respectively, for neat pine oil. - Abstract: The notion to provide ignition support for the effective operation of lower cetane fuels in a diesel engine has been ably adopted in the present study for the sole fuel operation of pine oil biofuel. Having noted that the lower cetane number and higher self-ignition temperature of pine oil biofuel would inhibit its direct use in a diesel engine, combined ignition support in the form of preheating the inlet air and installing a glow plug in the cylinder head has been provided to improve the auto-ignition of pine oil. While, an air preheater, installed in the inlet manifold of the engine, preheated the inlet air so as to provide ignition assistance partially, the incorporation of glow plug in the cylinder head imparted the further required ignition support appropriately. Subsequently, the operational feasibility of neat pine oil biofuel has been examined in a single cylinder diesel engine and the engine test results were analyzed. From the experimental investigation, though the engine performance and emissions such as CO (carbon monoxide) and smoke were noted to be better for pine oil with an inlet air temperature of 40 °C, the engine suffered the setback of knocking due to delayed SOC (start of combustion). However, with the ignition support through glow plug and preheating of inlet air, the engine knocking was prevented and the normal operation of the engine was ensured. Categorically, at an inlet air temperature of 60 °C, BTE (brake thermal efficiency) was found to be in par with diesel, while

  5. Oxygenated palm biodiesel: Ignition, combustion and emissions quantification in a light-duty diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, Cheng Tung; Ng, Jo-Han; Ahmad, Solehin; Rajoo, Srithar

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Diesel engine test using palm biodiesel and diesel at varying speed and load. • Palm biodiesel shows better performance at late stage of cycle evolution. • Oxygen in palm biodiesel fuel improves local combustion at late stage of combustion. • Emissions of NO are lower at low and medium operating speed for palm biodiesel. • Formulation of trend guide for performance and emissions characteristics for light-duty diesel engines. - Abstract: This paper presents an investigation of oxygenated neat palm biodiesel in a direct injection single cylinder diesel engine in terms of ignition, combustion and emissions characteristics. Conventional non-oxygenated diesel fuel is compared as baseline. The engine testing is performed between the operating speed of 2000–3000 rpm and load of up to 3 bar of brake mean effective pressure. From it, a total of 50 experiment cases are tested to form a comprehensive operational speed-load contour map for ignition and combustion; while various engine-out emissions such as NO, CO, UHCs and CO 2 are compared based on fuel type-speed combinations. The ignition and combustion evolution contour maps quantify the absolute ignition delay period and elucidate the difference between that of palm biodiesel and fossil diesel. Although diesel has shorter ignition delay period by up to 0.6 CAD at 3000 rpm and burns more rapidly at the start of combustion, combustion of palm biodiesel accelerates during the mid-combustion phase and overtakes diesel in the cumulative heat release rates (HRR) prior to the 90% cumulative HRR. This can be attributed to the oxygen contained in palm biodiesel assisting in localized regions of combustion. In terms of performance, the oxygenated nature of palm biodiesel provided mixed performances with improved thermal efficiency and increased brake specific fuel consumption, due to the improved combustion and lower calorific values, respectively. Emission measurements show that NO for palm biodiesel is

  6. Study of emissions for a compression ignition engine fueled with a mix of DME and diesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurchiş, Bogdan; Nicolae, Burnete; Călin, Iclodean; Nicolae Vlad, Burnete

    2017-10-01

    Currently, there is a growing demand for diesel engines, primarily due to the relatively low fuel consumption compared to spark-ignition engines. However, these engines have a great disadvantage in terms of pollution because they produce solid particles that ultimately form particulate matter (PM), which has harmful effects on human health and also on the environment. The toxic emissions from the diesel engine exhaust, like particulate matter (PM) and NOx, generated by the combustion of fossil fuels, lead to the necessity to develop green fuels which on one hand should be obtained from regenerative resources and on the other hand less polluting. In this paper, the authors focused on the amount of emissions produced by a diesel engine when running with a fuel mixture consisting of diesel and DME. Dimethyl ether (DME) is developed mainly by converting natural gas or biomass to synthesis gas (syngas). It is an extremely attractive resource for the future used in the transport industry, given that it can be obtained at low costs from renewable resources. Using DME mixed with diesel for the combustion process, besides the fact that it produces less smoke, the emission levels of particulate matter is reduced compared to diesel and in some situations, NOx emissions may decrease. DME has a high enough cetane number to perform well as a compression-ignition fuel but due to the poor lubrication and viscosity, it is difficult to be used as the main fuel for combustion

  7. Performance of compression ignition engine with indigenous castor oil bio diesel in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarti, M.H.

    2009-01-01

    Castor oil available indigenously in Pakistan was converted successfully to bio diesel and blended to 10% quantity (by volume) with high speed mineral diesel (HSD) fuel. This fuel was tested in a compression-ignition engine in order to assess its environmental emissions as well as engine performance parameters. The blended fuel was found to give lower environmental emissions in most accounts except for higher CO/sub 2/ and higher NOx. In addition, three engine performance parameters were assessed; which were engine brake power, engine torque and exhaust temperature. In the first two cases, blended bio diesel fuel gave lower figures than pure mineral diesel due to lower calorific value. However, its higher flash point resulted in higher engine exhaust temperatures than pure mineral diesel. Overall, in terms of engine performance, castor oil bio diesel (from non edible oil of castor bean -growing on marginal lands of Pakistan) fared better in comparison to canola oil bio diesel (from expensive edible oil) and can be recommended for further tests at higher blend ratios. (author)

  8. Influences of ignition improver additive on ternary (diesel-biodiesel-higher alcohol) blends thermal stability and diesel engine performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imdadul, H.K.; Masjuki, H.H.; Kalam, M.A.; Zulkifli, N.W.M.; Alabdulkarem, Abdullah; Rashed, M.M.; Ashraful, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Ignition improver additives makes the biodiesel-alcohol blends more thermally stable. • Density and cetane number improved significantly with EHN mixing. • BP and BSFC improved by adding ignition improver additives. • Nitric oxides and smoke of the EHN treated blends decreased. • CO and HC increased slightly with EHN addition. - Abstract: Pentanol is a long chain alcohol produced from renewable sources and considered as a promising biofuel as a blending component with diesel or biodiesel blends. However, the lower cetane number of alcohols is a limitation, and it is important to increase the overall cetane number of biodiesel fuel blends for efficient combustion and lower emission. In this consideration, ignition improver additive 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN) were used at a proportion of 1000 and 2000 ppm to diesel-biodiesel-pentanol blends. Experiments were conducted in a single cylinder; water-cooled DI diesel engine operated at full throttle and varying speed condition. The thermal stability of the modified ternary fuel blends was evaluated through thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis, and the physic-chemical properties of the fuel as well as engine characteristics were studied and compared. The addition of EHN to ternary fuel blends enhanced the cetane number significantly without any significant adverse effect on the other properties. TGA and DSC analysis reported about the improvement of thermal characteristics of the modified blends. It was found that, implementing ignition improver make the diesel-biodiesel-alcohol blends more thermally stable. Also, the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), nitric oxides (NO) and smoke emission reduced remarkably with the addition of EHN. Introducing EHN to diesel-biodiesel-alcohol blends increased the cetane number, shorten the ignition delay by increasing the diffusion rate and improve combustion. Hence, the NO and BSFC reduced while, carbon

  9. Analysis of Engine Parameters at Using Diesel-LPG and Diesel-CNG Mixture in Compression-ignition Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Jukl

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is aimed on influence of diesel engine parameters that is used with mixture of gas and diesel fuel. The first part of the article describes diesel fuel systems where small part of diesel fuel is replaced by LPG or CNG fuel. These systems are often called as Diesel-Gas systems. Next part of the article focuses on tested car and measurement equipment. Measurement was performed by common-rail diesel engine in Fiat Doblň. Tests were carried out in laboratories of the Department of Engineering and Automobile Transport at the Mendel University in Brno. They were observed changes between emissions of used fuels – diesel without addition of gas, diesel + LPG and diesel + CNG mixture. It was found that that the addition of gas had positive effect on the performance parameters and emissions.

  10. Numerical modeling on homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion engine fueled by diesel-ethanol blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanafi H.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the performance and emission characteristics of HCCI engines fueled with oxygenated fuels (ethanol blend. A modeling study was conducted to investigate the impact of ethanol addition on the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI engine fueled by diesel. One dimensional simulation was conducted using the renowned commercial software for diesel and its blend fuels with 5% (E5 and 10% ethanol (E10 (in vol. under full load condition at variable engine speed ranging from 1000 to 2750 rpm with 250 rpm increment. The model was then validated with other researcher’s experimental result. Model consists of intake and exhaust systems, cylinder, head, valves and port geometries. Performance tests were conducted for volumetric efficiency, brake engine torque, brake power, brake mean effective pressure, brake specific fuel consumption, and brake thermal efficiency, while exhaust emissions were analyzed for carbon monoxide (CO and unburned hydrocarbons (HC. The results showed that blending diesel with ethanol increases the volumetric efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency, while it decreases brake engine torque, brake power and brake mean effective pressure. In term of emission characteristics, the CO emissions concentrations in the engine exhaust decrease significantly with ethanol as additive. But for HC emission, its concentration increase when apply in high engine speed. In conclusion, using Ethanol as fuel additive blend with Diesel operating in HCCI shows a good result in term of performance and emission in low speed but not recommended to use in high speed engine. Ethanol-diesel blends need to researched more to make it commercially useable.

  11. CONVERSION OF DIESEL ENGINE INTO SPARK IGNITION ENGINE TO WORK WITH CNG AND LPG FUELS FOR MEETING NEW EMISSION NORMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Kaleemuddin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluctuating fuel prices and associated pollution problems of largely exploited petroleum liquid fuel has stimulated the research on abundantly available gaseous fuels to keep the mobility industry intact. In the present work an air cooled diesel engine was modified suitably into a spark ignition engine incorporating electronic ignition and variable speed dependant spark timing to accommodate both LPG and CNG as fuels. Engine was optimized for stoichiometric operation on engine dynamometer. Materials of a few intricate engine components were replaced to suit LPG and CNG application. Ignition timing was mapped to work with gaseous fuels for different speeds. Compensation was done for recovering volumetric efficiency when operated with CNG by introducing more volume of air through resonator. Ignition timing was observed to be the pertinent parameter in achieving good performance with gaseous fuels under consideration. Performance and emission tests were carried out on engine dynamometer and chassis dynamometer. Under wide open throttle and at rated speed condition, it was observed that the peak pressure with LPG was lying between diesel fuel and CNG fuel operation due to slow burning nature of gaseous fuels. As compression ratio was maintained same for LPG and CNG fuel operation, low CO emissions were observed with LPG where as HC + NOx emissions were lower with CNG fuel operation. Chassis dynamometer based emission tests yielded lower CO2 levels with CNG operation.

  12. Experimental investigation of gasoline compression ignition combustion in a light-duty diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeper, C. Paul

    Due to increased ignition delay and volatility, low temperature combustion (LTC) research utilizing gasoline fuel has experienced recent interest [1-3]. These characteristics improve air-fuel mixing prior to ignition allowing for reduced emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and soot (or particulate matter, PM). Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) results at the University of Wisconsin-Madison's Engine Research Center (Ra et al. [4, 5]) have validated these attributes and established baseline operating parameters for a gasoline compression ignition (GCI) concept in a light-duty diesel engine over a large load range (3-16 bar net IMEP). In addition to validating these computational results, subsequent experiments at the Engine Research Center utilizing a single cylinder research engine based on a GM 1.9-liter diesel engine have progressed fundamental understanding of gasoline autoignition processes, and established the capability of critical controlling input parameters to better control GCI operation. The focus of this thesis can be divided into three segments: 1) establishment of operating requirements in the low-load operating limit, including operation sensitivities with respect to inlet temperature, and the capabilities of injection strategy to minimize NOx emissions while maintaining good cycle-to-cycle combustion stability; 2) development of novel three-injection strategies to extend the high load limit; and 3) having developed fundamental understanding of gasoline autoignition kinetics, and how changes in physical processes (e.g. engine speed effects, inlet pressure variation, and air-fuel mixture processes) affects operation, develop operating strategies to maintain robust engine operation. Collectively, experimental results have demonstrated the ability of GCI strategies to operate over a large load-speed range (3 bar to 17.8 bar net IMEP and 1300-2500 RPM, respectively) with low emissions (NOx and PM less than 1 g/kg-FI and 0.2 g/kg-FI, respectively), and low

  13. Combustion and exhaust emission characteristics of a compression ignition engine using liquefied petroleum gas-Diesel blended fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, D.H.; Bian, Y.ZH.; Ma, ZH.Y.; Zhang, CH.H.; Liu, SH.Q.

    2007-01-01

    Towards the effort of reducing pollutant emissions, especially smoke and nitrogen oxides, from direct injection (DI) Diesel engines, engineers have proposed various solutions, one of which is the use of a gaseous fuel as a partial supplement for liquid Diesel fuel. The use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as an alternative fuel is a promising solution. The potential benefits of using LPG in Diesel engines are both economical and environmental. The high auto-ignition temperature of LPG is a serious advantage since the compression ratio of conventional Diesel engines can be maintained. The present contribution describes an experimental investigation conducted on a single cylinder DI Diesel engine, which has been properly modified to operate under LPG-Diesel blended fuel conditions, using LPG-Diesel blended fuels with various blended rates (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%). Comparative results are given for various engine speeds and loads for conventional Diesel and blended fuels, revealing the effect of blended fuel combustion on engine performance and exhaust emissions

  14. IMPLEMENTATION OF DIOXANE AND DIESEL FUEL BLENDS TO REDUCE EMISSION AND TO IMPROVE PERFORMANCE OF THE COMPRESSION IGNITION ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SENDILVELAN S.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Performance of a compression ignition engine fuelled with 1, 4 Dioxane- diesel blends is evaluated. A single-cylinder, air-cooled, direct injection diesel engine developing a power output of 5.2 kW at 1500 rev/min is used. Base data is generated with standard diesel fuel subsequently; five fuel blends namely 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50 percentages by volume of diesel and dioxane were prepared and tested in the diesel engine. Engine performance and emission data were used to optimize the blends for reducing emission and improving performance. Results show improved performance with B10 blends compared to neat fuel for all conditions of the engine. Other blends recorded marginal decrease in brake thermal efficiency. The maximum efficiency for B30, B50 blends at peak load are 26.3%, 25.2% respectively against 29.1% for sole fuel. NOx emissions were found to be high or the blends. Peak pressure and rate of pressure rise are increased with increase in dioxane ratio due to improved combustion rate. Heat release pattern shows higher premixed combustion rate with the blends. Higher ignition delay and lower combustion duration are found with all blends than neat diesel fuel.

  15. Performance and Emissions of a Small Compression Ignition Engine Run on Dual-fuel Mode (Diesel-Raw biogas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambarita, H.; Sinulingga, E. P.; Nasution, M. KM; Kawai, H.

    2017-03-01

    In this work, a compression ignition (CI) engine is tested in dual-fuel mode (Diesel-Raw biogas). The objective is to examine the performance and emission characteristics of the engine when some of the diesel oil is replaced by biogas. The specifications of the CI engine are air cooled single horizontal cylinder, four strokes, and maximum output power of 4.86 kW. It is coupled with a synchronous three phase generator. The load, engine revolution, and biogas flow rate are varied from 600 W to 1500 W, 1000 rpm to 1500 rpm, 0 to 6 L/minute, respectively. The electric power, specific fuel consumption, thermal efficiency, gas emission, and diesel replacement ratio are analyzed. The results show that there is no significant difference of the power resulted by CI run on dual-fuel mode in comparison with pure diesel mode. However, the specific fuel consumption and efficiency decrease significantly as biogas flow rate increases. On the other hand, emission of the engine on dual-fuel mode is better. The main conclusion can be drawn is that CI engine without significant modification can be operated perfectly in dual-fuel mode and diesel oil consumption can be decreased up to 87.5%.

  16. Combustion performance, flame, and soot characteristics of gasoline–diesel pre-blended fuel in an optical compression-ignition engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Joonho; Lee, Jong Tae; Kwon, Sang Il; Park, Sungwook

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Gasoline–diesel pre-blended fuel was investigated in an optical direct-injection diesel engine. • KIVA3V-CHEMKIN code modeled blended fuel spray and combustion with discrete multi-component model. • Flame and soot characteristics in the combustion chamber were shown by optical kits. • Combustion performance and soot emissions for gasoline–diesel blended fuel were discussed. - Abstract: Among the new combustion technologies available for internal combustion engines to enhance performance and reduce exhausted emissions, the homogeneous charge compression ignition method is one of the most effective strategies for the compression-ignition engine. There are some challenges to realize the homogeneous charge compression ignition method in the compression-ignition engine. The use of gasoline–diesel blended fuel has been suggested as an alternative strategy to take advantages of homogeneous charge compression ignition while overcoming its challenges. Gasoline and diesel fuels are reference fuels for the spark-ignition and compression-ignition engines, respectively, both of which are widely used. The application of both these fuels together in the compression-ignition engine has been investigated using a hybrid injection system combining port fuel injection (gasoline) and direct injection (diesel); this strategy is termed reactivity controlled compression ignition. However, the pre-blending of gasoline and diesel fuels for direct injection systems has been rarely studied. For the case of direct injection of pre-blended fuel into the cylinder, various aspects of blended fuels should be investigated, including their spray breakup, fuel/air mixing, combustion development, and emissions. In the present study, the use of gasoline–diesel pre-blended fuel in an optical single-cylinder compression-ignition engine was investigated under various conditions of injection timing and pressure. Furthermore, KIVA-3V release 2 code was employed to model the

  17. Prediction of an optimum biodiesel-diesel blended fuel for compression ignition engine using GT-power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, A.N.; Shah, F.H.; Shahid, E.M.; Gardezi, S.A.R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a turbocharged direct-injection compression ignition (CI) engine model using fluid-dynamic engine simulation codes through a simulating tool known as GT Power. The model was first fueled with diesel, and then with various blends of biodiesel and diesel by allotting suitable parameters to predict an optimum blended fuel. During the optimization, main focus was on the engine performance, combustion, and one of the major regulated gaseous pollutants known as oxides of nitrogen (NOx). The combustion parameters such as Premix Duration (DP), Main Duration (DM), Premix Fraction (FP), Main Exponent (EM) and ignition delay (ID) affect the start of injection (SOI) angle, and thus played significant role in the prediction of optimum blended fuel. The SOI angle ranging from 5.2 to 5.7 degree crank angle (DCA) measured before top dead center (TDC) revealed an optimum biodiesel-diesel blend known as B20 (20% biodiesel and 80% diesel by volume). B20 exhibited the minimum possible NOx emissions, better combustion and acceptable engine performance. Moreover, experiments were performed to validate the simulated results by fueling the engine with B20 fuel and operating it on AC electrical dynamometer. Both the experimental and simulated results were in good agreement revealing maximum deviations of only 3%, 3.4%, 4.2%, and 5.1% for NOx, maximum combustion pressure (MCP), engine brake power (BP), and brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), respectively. Meanwhile, a positive correlation was found between MCP and NOx showing that both the parameters are higher at lower speeds, relative to higher engine speeds. (author)

  18. Effect of diesel pre-injection timing on combustion and emission characteristics of compression ignited natural gas engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Min; Cheng, Wei; Zhang, Hongfei; An, Tao; Zhang, Shaohua

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Pre-injection timing on combustion and emission of CING engine are studied. • Closely pre-injection operations leads to increase of combustion intensity. • Early pre-injection operations leads to lower combustion intensity. • Early pre-injection modes provide better NO x emission. - Abstract: Pre-injection strategy is considered to be one of the most important ways to improve diesel engine performance, emission and combustion. It is the same important factor in pilot diesel compression ignition natural gas (CING) engine. In this study, effects of pre-injection timing on combustion and emission performances were experimentally studied in a CING engine which was modified from a turbocharged six-cylinder diesel engine. The experiments were conducted at constant speed of 1400 rpm and different engine loads with a constant fuel injection pressure of 1100 bar. Main injection timing was fixed at 10 °CA BTDC in the advance process of pre-injection timing. The cylinder pressure, heart release rate (HRR), pressure rise rate (PRR), start of combustion (SOC) and coefficient of variation (COV IMEP ), as well as NO x , HC and CO emissions were analyzed. The results indicated that closely pre-injection operations lead to the advance of SOC which intensified combustion of in-cylinder mixture, thereby resulting in higher cylinder pressure, HRR and PRR, as well higher NO x emissions and lower HC and CO emissions. However, early pre-injection operations lead to lower cylinder pressure, HRR and PRR due to decreasing in combustion intensity. Pre-injection timing of 70 °CA BTDC is a conversion point in which influence of pre-injection fuel on ignition and combustion of natural gas nearly disappeared and lowest NO x emission could be obtained. Compared with single injection ignition mode, NO x emissions at the conversion point were reduced by 33%, 38% and 7% at engine load of 38%, 60% and 80% respectively. This is important for the conditions that ignition fuel

  19. Development of a self-ignition and combustion model for diesel engines; Modelisation de l`auto-inflammation et de la combustion pour les moteurs diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires Da Cruz, A.

    1997-12-09

    The work concerns self-ignition and combustion modelling in Diesel engines. Special attention is given to turbulence induced effects. Only gas fuel injection is taken into account. Turbulent mixing is identified as one of the main parameters controlling self-ignition in Diesel engines. However, turbulence effects are often neglected by models currently used in engine calculation codes. A new model based on results obtained by direct numerical simulation (DNS) is proposed. It includes turbulence effects by means of the scalar dissipation rate and presumed pdf of the mixture fraction and a chemical reaction progress variable. The model is validated through several steps. First, its results are compared to DNS in simple mixing and self-ignition cases. Then, its averaged version is integrated into the KIVA2-MB calculation code, where its behavior is tested in a one dimensional version and compared to other formulations. Finally, the model is validated with comparisons to experimental results of methane injection into a high pressure combustion chamber filled with hot air. The combustion chamber allows large optical access and therefore, optical diagnostics can be made. (author) 101 refs.

  20. Impact of Various Compression Ratio on the Compression Ignition Engine with Diesel and Jatropha Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaganesan, S.; Chandrasekaran, M.; Ruban, M.

    2017-03-01

    The present experimental investigation evaluates the effects of using blends of diesel fuel with 20% concentration of Methyl Ester of Jatropha biodiesel blended with various compression ratio. Both the diesel and biodiesel fuel blend was injected at 23º BTDC to the combustion chamber. The experiment was carried out with three different compression ratio. Biodiesel was extracted from Jatropha oil, 20% (B20) concentration is found to be best blend ratio from the earlier experimental study. The engine was maintained at various compression ratio i.e., 17.5, 16.5 and 15.5 respectively. The main objective is to obtain minimum specific fuel consumption, better efficiency and lesser Emission with different compression ratio. The results concluded that full load show an increase in efficiency when compared with diesel, highest efficiency is obtained with B20MEOJBA with compression ratio 17.5. It is noted that there is an increase in thermal efficiency as the blend ratio increases. Biodiesel blend has performance closer to diesel, but emission is reduced in all blends of B20MEOJBA compared to diesel. Thus this work focuses on the best compression ratio and suitability of biodiesel blends in diesel engine as an alternate fuel.

  1. Development and Validation of 3D-CFD Injection and Combustion Models for Dual Fuel Combustion in Diesel Ignited Large Gas Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Eder

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on improving the 3D-Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD modeling of diesel ignited gas engines, with an emphasis on injection and combustion modeling. The challenges of modeling are stated and possible solutions are provided. A specific approach for modeling injection is proposed that improves the modeling of the ballistic region of the needle lift. Experimental results from an inert spray chamber are used for model validation. Two-stage ignition methods are described along with improvements in ignition delay modeling of the diesel ignited gas engine. The improved models are used in the Extended Coherent Flame Model with the 3 Zones approach (ECFM-3Z. The predictive capability of the models is investigated using data from single cylinder engine (SCE tests conducted at the Large Engines Competence Center (LEC. The results are discussed and further steps for development are identified.

  2. Performance and Emission Characteristics of a Compression Ignition Engine Operating on Blends of Castor Oil Biodiesel-Diesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanwar, Roopesh; Sharma, Pushpendra Kumar; Singh, Aditya Narayan; Agrawal, Yadvendra Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Diesel vehicles are the nerves and veins of transportation, particularly in developing countries. With the rapid rate of modernization, increasing demand of fuel is inevitable. The exponential increase in fuel prices and the scarcity of its supply from the environment have promoted interest in the development of alternative sources of fuel. In this work, genus Ricinus communis L. was studied in order to delimit their potential as a raw material for biodiesel production. Further, castor oil, ethyl ester were prepared by transesterification using potassium hydroxide (KOH) as a catalyst and tested on a four-stroke, single-cylinder compression ignition engine. The test was carried out at a constant speed of 3000 rpm at different loads. The results represent a substantial decrease in carbon monoxide (CO) emission with an increasing biodiesel percentage. The reduction of CO in B05, B10, B15 and B20 averaged 11.75, 22.02, 24.23 and 28.79 %, respectively, compared to mineral diesel. The emission results of the comparative test indicated that CO, oxygen (O2) and smoke density emissions are found to be lower when the engine is filled with B05, B10, B15 and B20 as compared to mineral diesel, while carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) with B05, B10, B15 and B20 are found to increase marginally. Brake thermal efficiency and brake specific fuel consumption decrease and increase respectively in biodiesel with different blends in comparison of mineral diesel.

  3. An assessment of the dual-mode reactivity controlled compression ignition/conventional diesel combustion capabilities in a EURO VI medium-duty diesel engine fueled with an intermediate ethanol-gasoline blend and biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benajes, Jesús; García, Antonio; Monsalve-Serrano, Javier; Balloul, Iyad; Pradel, Gérard

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Reactivity controlled compression ignition regime utilized from 25% to 35% load. • Dual-mode reduces the regeneration periods of the diesel particulate filter. • The use of near-term available biofuels allows good performance and emissions. • Dual-mode leads to 2% greater efficiency than diesel combustion at high engine speeds. - Abstract: This work investigates the capabilities of the dual-mode reactivity controlled compression ignition/conventional diesel combustion engine operation to cover the full operating range of a EURO VI medium-duty diesel engine with compression ratio of 17.5:1. This concept is based on covering all the engine map switching between the reactivity controlled compression ignition and the conventional diesel combustion operating modes. Specifically, the benefits of reactivity controlled compression ignition combustion are exploited whenever possible according to certain restrictions, while the conventional diesel combustion operation is used to cover the zones of the engine map in which the reactivity controlled compression ignition operation is limited. The experiments were conducted using a single-cylinder research diesel engine derived from the multi-cylinder production engine. In addition, considering the mandatory presence of biofuels in the future context of road transport and the ability of ethanol to be blended with gasoline, the low reactivity fuel used in the study is a blend of 20% ethanol by volume with 80% of 95 octane number gasoline. Moreover, a diesel containing 7% of biodiesel has been used as high reactivity fuel. Firstly, a reactivity controlled compression ignition mapping is performed to check the operational limits of the concept in this engine platform. Later, based on the results, the potential of the dual-mode concept is discussed. Results suggest that, under the constraints imposed, reactivity controlled compression ignition combustion can be utilized between 25% and 35% load. In this region

  4. A study of diesel-hydrogen fuel exhaust emissions in a compression ignition engine/generator assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karri, V.; Hafez, H.A.; Kirkegaard, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    A compression engine and duel-fuel supply system was studied in order to determine the influence of hydrogen gas on a diesel engine's exhaust system. Commercially available solenoid valves and pulse actuators were used in a customized mechatronic control unit (MICU) to inject the hydrogen gas into the cylinders during the experiments. The MICU was designed as a generic external attachment. Diesel fuel was used to ignite the hydrogen gas-air mixture after compression. Various different electrical loads were then applied using an alternator in order to stimulate the engine governor and control diesel flow. Results of the study showed that measured carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC) and nitrogen oxide (NO x ) loads of exhaust emissions increased, while emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) decreased. Results also showed that higher temperatures and levels of NO x occurred when hydrogen was mixed with the induced air. It was concluded that higher levels of hydrogen may be needed to reduce emissions. 17 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs

  5. Results and analyses of the smoke from compression ignition CI engines (diesel)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrovski, Mile; Mitreski, Stevo M.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this examination is to improve the knowledge about the actual ecological condition which is a result of the gas and particles emission from the diesel engines. The mechanism of the production of combustion products including the particles in the combustion chamber has been studied, as well as the options for reduction of the emission. Measurements of the smoke emission from the vehicles in Skopje have been made and the results are given, including their analyses. The conclusion from the analyses is that it is necessary to improve the conditions for normal use of the diesel engine vehicles, as well as to engage new vehicles which cause less damage for the environment (Author)

  6. A numerical study on combustion process in a small compression ignition engine run dual-fuel mode (diesel-biogas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambarita, H.; Widodo, T. I.; Nasution, D. M.

    2017-01-01

    In order to reduce the consumption of fossil fuel of a compression ignition (CI) engines which is usually used in transportation and heavy machineries, it can be operated in dual-fuel mode (diesel-biogas). However, the literature reviews show that the thermal efficiency is lower due to incomplete combustion process. In order to increase the efficiency, the combustion process in the combustion chamber need to be explored. Here, a commercial CFD code is used to explore the combustion process of a small CI engine run on dual fuel mode (diesel-biogas). The turbulent governing equations are solved based on finite volume method. A simulation of compression and expansions strokes at an engine speed and load of 1000 rpm and 2500W, respectively has been carried out. The pressure and temperature distributions and streamlines are plotted. The simulation results show that at engine power of 732.27 Watt the thermal efficiency is 9.05%. The experiment and simulation results show a good agreement. The method developed in this study can be used to investigate the combustion process of CI engine run on dual-fuel mode.

  7. Potential of Spark Ignition and Diesel Engines, Engine Catalog and Performance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    Detailed specifications and EPA certification data for 134 automotive production engines (60 domestic and 74 imported) which are used in the United States and several preproduction engines are provided. When available, experimentally derived performa...

  8. Experimental study on the performance and emissions of a compression ignition engine fuelled with butanol diesel blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, Duraid F.; Prabhakaran, P.

    2010-01-01

    An experimental investigation on the application of the blends of butanol with diesel to a direct injection diesel engine was carried out. Experimental tests were carried out to study the performance and emissions of the engine fuelled with the blends compared with those fuelled by diesel. The test results show that it is feasible and applicable for the blends with butanol to replace conventional diesel as the fuel for diesel engine; the fuel consumption, brake efficiency, exhaust temperature, and volumetric efficiency of the engine fuelled by the blends were comparable with that fuelled by diesel. The characteristics of the emissions were also studied. CO, CO 2 , HC and NO X are measured and compared with the base fuel case when the conventional diesel is used alone. The results were different for different speeds, loads and blends. (author)

  9. Comparative evaluation of the effect of sweet orange oil-diesel blend on performance and emissions of a multi-cylinder compression ignition engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, S. M. Ashrafur; Hossain, F. M.; Van, Thuy Chu; Dowell, Ashley; Islam, M. A.; Rainey, Thomas J.; Ristovski, Zoran D.; Brown, Richard J.

    2017-06-01

    In 2014, global demand for essential oils was 165 kt and it is expected to grow 8.5% per annum up to 2022. Every year Australia produces approximately 1.5k tonnes of essential oils such as tea tree, orange, lavender, eucalyptus oil, etc. Usually essential oils come from non-fatty areas of plants such as the bark, roots, heartwood, leaves and the aromatic portions (flowers, fruits) of the plant. For example, orange oil is derived from orange peel using various extraction methods. Having similar properties to diesel, essential oils have become promising alternate fuels for diesel engines. The present study explores the opportunity of using sweet orange oil in a compression ignition engine. Blends of sweet orange oil-diesel (10% sweet orange oil, 90% diesel) along with neat diesel fuel were used to operate a six-cylinder diesel engine (5.9 litres, common rail, Euro-III, compression ratio 17.3:1). Some key fuel properties such as: viscosity, density, heating value, and surface tension are presented. Engine performance (brake specific fuel consumption) and emission parameters (CO, NOX, and Particulate Matter) were measured to evaluate running with the blends. The engine was operated at 1500 rpm (maximum torque condition) with different loads. The results from the property analysis showed that sweet orange oil-diesel blend exhibits lower density, viscosity and surface tension and slightly higher calorific value compared to neat diesel fuel. Also, from the engine test, the sweet orange oil-diesel blend exhibited slightly higher brake specific fuel consumption, particulate mass and particulate number; however, the blend reduced the brake specific CO emission slightly and brake specific NOX emission significantly compared to that of neat diesel.

  10. Optimization of combustion chamber geometry and operating conditions for compression ignition engine fueled with pre-blended gasoline-diesel fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seokhwon; Jeon, Joonho; Park, Sungwook

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Pre-blended gasoline-diesel fuel was used with direct injection system. • KIVA-CHEMKIN code modeled dual-fuel fuel spray and combustion processes with discrete multi-component model. • The characteristics of Combustion and emission on pre-blended fuel was investigated with various fuel reactivities. • Optimization of combustion chamber shape improved combustion performance of the gasoline-diesel blended fuel engine. - Abstract: In this study, experiments and numerical simulations were used to improve the fuel efficiency of compression ignition engine using a gasoline-diesel blended fuel and an optimization technology. The blended fuel is directly injected into the cylinder with various blending ratios. Combustion and emission characteristics were investigated to explore the effects of gasoline ratio on fuel blend. The present study showed that the advantages of gasoline-diesel blended fuel, high thermal efficiency and low emission, were maximized using the numerical optimization method. The ignition delay and maximum pressure rise rate increased with the proportion of gasoline. As the gasoline fraction increased, the combustion duration and the indicated mean effective pressure decreased. The homogeneity of the fuel-air mixture was improved due to longer ignition delay. Soot emission was significantly reduced up to 90% compared to that of conventional diesel. The nitrogen oxides emissions of the blended fuel increased slightly when the start of injection was retarded toward top dead center. For the numerical study, KIVA-CHEMKIN multi-dimensional CFD code was used to model the combustion and emission characteristics of gasoline-diesel blended fuel. The micro genetic algorithm coupled with the KIVA-CHEMKIN code were used to optimize the combustion chamber shape and operating conditions to improve the combustion performance of the blended fuel engine. The optimized chamber geometry enhanced the fuel efficiency, for a level of nitrogen oxides

  11. ALTERNATIVE FUELS FOR DIESEL ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Caban

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development and genesis of the use of alternative fuels in internal combustion ignition engines. Based on the analysis of the literature, this article shows various alternative fuels used in Poland and all over the world. Furthermore, this article describes the research directions for alternative fuels use in road transport powered by diesel engines.

  12. Bio diesel- the Clean, Green Fuel for Diesel Engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkareish, S.M.M.

    2004-01-01

    Natural, renewable resources such as vegetable oils, animal fats and recycled restaurant greases can be chemically transformed into clean burning bio diesel fuels (1). Just like petroleum diesel, bio diesel operates in combustion-ignition engines. Blends of up to 20% bio diesel (mixed with petroleum diesel fuels) can be used in nearly all diesel equipment and are compatible with most storage and distribution equipment. Using bio diesel in a conventional diesel engine substantially reduces emissions of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, sulphates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and particulate matter. The use of bio diesel has grown dramatically during the last few years. Egypt has a promising experiment in promoting forestation by cultivation of Jatropha plant especially in luxor and many other sites of the country. The first production of the Egyptian Jatropha seeds oil is now under evaluation to produce a cost-competitive bio diesel fuel

  13. Ignition assist systems for direct-injected, diesel cycle, medium-duty alternative fuel engines: Final report phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, A.K.

    2000-02-23

    This report is a summary of the results of Phase 1 of this contract. The objective was to evaluate the potential of assist technologies for direct-injected alternative fuel engines vs. glow plug ignition assist. The goal was to demonstrate the feasibility of an ignition system life of 10,000 hours and a system cost of less than 50% of the glow plug system, while meeting or exceeding the engine thermal efficiency obtained with the glow plug system. There were three tasks in Phase 1. Under Task 1, a comprehensive review of feasible ignition options for DING engines was completed. The most promising options are: (1) AC and the ''SmartFire'' spark, which are both long-duration, low-power (LDLP) spark systems; (2) the short-duration, high-power (SDHP) spark system; (3) the micropilot injection ignition; and (4) the stratified charge plasma ignition. Efforts concentrated on investigating the AC spark, SmartFire spark, and short-duration/high-power spark systems. Using proprietary pricing information, the authors predicted that the commercial costs for the AC spark, the short-duration/high-power spark and SmartFire spark systems will be comparable (if not less) to the glow plug system. Task 2 involved designing and performing bench tests to determine the criteria for the ignition system and the prototype spark plug for Task 3. The two most important design criteria are the high voltage output requirement of the ignition system and the minimum electrical insulation requirement for the spark plug. Under Task 3, all the necessary hardware for the one-cylinder engine test was designed. The hardware includes modified 3126 cylinder heads, specially designed prototype spark plugs, ignition system electronics, and parts for the system installation. Two 3126 cylinder heads and the SmartFire ignition system were procured, and testing will begin in Phase 2 of this subcontract.

  14. Pollution provoquée par le moteur Diesel. Niveaux d'émission. Comparaison avec le moteur à allumage commandé Pollution Caused by Diesel Engines. Emission Levels. Comparison with Spark-Ignition Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degobert P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A partir de l'analyse des différences de modes de combustion allumage commandé et Diesel , cet article compare et explique la nature et les niveaux des différents polluants émis en fonction de leurs mécanismes de formation. Les facteurs d'action au niveau moteur sont examinés, ainsi que l'influence du carburant utilisé. Based on an analysis of the difference between spark-ignition and diesel combustion modes, this article compares and explains the nature and levels of different pollutants emitted as a function of their formation mechanisms. The action factors at the engine> level are examined together with the influence of the fuel used.

  15. Performance and specific emissions contours throughout the operating range of hydrogen-fueled compression ignition engine with diesel and RME pilot fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Imran

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the performance and emissions contours of a hydrogen dual fueled compression ignition (CI engine with two pilot fuels (diesel and rapeseed methyl ester, and compares the performance and emissions iso-contours of diesel and rapeseed methyl ester (RME single fueling with diesel and RME piloted hydrogen dual fueling throughout the engines operating speed and power range. The collected data have been used to produce iso-contours of thermal efficiency, volumetric efficiency, specific oxides of nitrogen (NOX, specific hydrocarbons (HC and specific carbon dioxide (CO2 on a power-speed plane. The performance and emission maps are experimentally investigated, compared, and critically discussed. Apart from medium loads at lower and medium speeds with diesel piloted hydrogen combustion, dual fueling produced lower thermal efficiency everywhere across the map. For diesel and RME single fueling the maximum specific NOX emissions are centered at the mid speed, mid power region. Hydrogen dual fueling produced higher specific NOX with both pilot fuels as compared to their respective single fueling operations. The range, location and trends of specific NOX varied significantly when compared to single fueling cases. The volumetric efficiency is discussed in detail with the implications of manifold injection of hydrogen analyzed with the conclusions drawn.

  16. A computational investigation of diesel and biodiesel combustion and NOx formation in a light-duty compression ignition engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zihan [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Srinivasan, Kalyan K. [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Krishnan, Sundar R. [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Som, Sibendu [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Center for Transportation Research

    2012-04-24

    Diesel and biodiesel combustion in a multi-cylinder light duty diesel engine were simulated during a closed cycle (from IVC to EVO), using a commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, CONVERGE, coupled with detailed chemical kinetics. The computational domain was constructed based on engine geometry and compression ratio measurements. A skeletal n-heptane-based diesel mechanism developed by researchers at Chalmers University of Technology and a reduced biodiesel mechanism derived and validated by Luo and co-workers were applied to model the combustion chemistry. The biodiesel mechanism contains 89 species and 364 reactions and uses methyl decanoate, methyl-9- decenoate, and n-heptane as the surrogate fuel mixture. The Kelvin-Helmholtz and Rayleigh-Taylor (KH-RT) spray breakup model for diesel and biodiesel was calibrated to account for the differences in physical properties of the fuels which result in variations in atomization and spray development characteristics. The simulations were able to capture the experimentally observed pressure and apparent heat release rate trends for both the fuels over a range of engine loads (BMEPs from 2.5 to 10 bar) and fuel injection timings (from 0° BTDC to 10° BTDC), thus validating the overall modeling approach as well as the chemical kinetic models of diesel and biodiesel surrogates. Moreover, quantitative NOx predictions for diesel combustion and qualitative NOx predictions for biodiesel combustion were obtained with the CFD simulations and the in-cylinder temperature trends were correlated to the NOx trends.

  17. Isotopic Tracing of Particulate Matter from a Compression Ignition Engine Fueled with Ethanol-in-Diesel Blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, A.S.; Dibble, R.W.; Buchholz, B.

    1999-01-01

    Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) was used to investigate the relative contribution to diesel engine particulate matter (PM) from the ethanol and diesel fractions of blended fuels. Four test fuels along with a diesel fuel baseline were investigated. The test fuels were comprised of 14 C depleted diesel fuel mixed with contemporary grain ethanol (>400 the 14 C concentration of diesel). An emulsifier (Span 85) or cosolvent (butyl alcohol) was used to facilitate mixing. The experimental test engine was a 1993 Cummins B5.9 diesel rated at 175 hp at 2500 rpm. Test fuels were run at steady-state conditions of 1600 rpm and 210 ft-lbs, and PM samples were collected on quartz filters following dilution of engine exhaust in a mini-dilution tunnel. AMS analysis of the filter samples showed that the ethanol contributed less to PM relative to its fraction in the fuel blend. For the emulsified blends, 6.4% and 10.3% contributions to PM were observed for 11.5% and 23.0% ethanol fuels, respectively. For the cosolvent blends, even lower contributions were observed (3.8% and 6.3% contributions to PM for 12.5% and 25.0% ethanol fuels, respectively)

  18. Conventional engine technology. Volume 2: Status of diesel engine technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, H. W.

    1981-01-01

    The engines of diesel cars marketed in the United States were examined. Prominent design features, performance characteristics, fuel economy and emissions data were compared. Specific problems, in particular those of NO and smoke emissions, the effects of increasing dieselization on diesel fuel price and availability, current R&D work and advanced diesel concepts are discussed. Diesel cars currently have a fuel economy advantage over gasoline engine powered cars. Diesel drawbacks (noise and odor) were reduced to a less objectionable level. An equivalent gasoline engine driveability was obtained with turbocharging. Diesel manufacturers see a growth in the diesel market for the next ten years. Uncertainties regarding future emission regulation may inhibit future diesel production investments. With spark ignition engine technology advancing in the direction of high compression ratios, the fuel economy advantages of the diesel car is expected to diminish. To return its fuel economy lead, the diesel's potential for future improvement must be used.

  19. A Phenomenological Model for Prediction Auto-Ignition and Soot Formation of Turbulent Diffusion Combustion in a High Pressure Common Rail Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghui Zhou

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A new phenomenological model, the TP (Temperature Phase model, is presented to carry out optimization calculations for turbulent diffusion combustion in a high-pressure common rail diesel engine. Temperature is the most important parameter in the TP model, which includes two parts: an auto-ignition and a soot model. In the auto-ignition phase, different reaction mechanisms are built for different zones. For the soot model, different methods are used for different temperatures. The TP model is then implemented in KIVA code instead of original model to carry out optimization. The results of cylinder pressures, the corresponding heat release rates, and soot with variation of injection time, variation of rail pressure and variation of speed among TP model, KIVA standard model and experimental data are analyzed. The results indicate that the TP model can carry out optimization and CFD (computational fluid dynamics and can be a useful tool to study turbulent diffusion combustion.

  20. Experimental investigations of ignition delay period and performance of a diesel engine operated with Jatropha oil biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed EL-Kasaby

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha-curcas as a non-edible methyl ester biodiesel fuel source is used to run single cylinder, variable compression ratio, and four-stroke diesel engine. Combustion characteristics as well as engine performance are measured for different biodiesel – diesel blends. It has been shown that B50 (50% of biodiesel in a mixture of biodiesel and diesel fuel gives the highest peak pressure at 1750 rpm, while B10 gives the highest peak pressure at low speed, 1000 rpm. B50 shows upper brake torque, while B0 shows the highest volumetric efficiency. B50 shows also, the highest BSFC by about (12.5–25% compared with diesel fuel. B10 gives the highest brake thermal efficiency. B50 to B30 show nearly the lowest CO concentration, besides CO concentration is the highest at both idle and high running speeds. Exhaust temperature and NOx are maximum for B50. Delay period is measured and correlated for different blends. Modified empirical formulae are obtained for each blend. The delay period is found to be decreased with the increase of cylinder pressure, temperature and equivalence ratio.

  1. Research on the combustion, energy and emission parameters of diesel fuel and a biomass-to-liquid (BTL) fuel blend in a compression-ignition engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimkus, Alfredas; Žaglinskis, Justas; Rapalis, Paulius; Skačkauskas, Paulius

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Researched physical–chemical and performance properties of diesel fuel and BTL blend (85/15 V/V). • BTL additive reduced Brake Specific Fuel Consumption, improved engine efficiency. • Simpler BTL molecular chains and lower C/H ratio reduced CO 2 emission and smokiness. • Higher cetane number of BTL reduced heat release in beginning of combustion and NO x emission. • Advanced start of fuel injection caused reduced fuel consumption and smokiness, increased NO x emission. - Abstract: This paper presents the comparable research results of the physical–chemical and direct injection (DI) diesel engine properties of diesel fuel and BTL (biomass-to-liquid) blend (85/15 V/V). The energy, ecological and in-cylinder parameters were analysed under medium engine speed and brake torque load regimes; the start of fuel injection was also adjusted. After analysis of the engine bench tests and simulation with AVL BOOST software, it was observed that the BTL additive shortened the fuel ignition delay phase, reduced the heat release in the pre-mixed intensive combustion phase, reduced the nitrogen oxide (NO x ) concentration in the engine exhaust gases and reduced the thermal and mechanical load of the crankshaft mechanism. BTL additive reduced the rates of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), incompletely burned hydrocarbons (HC) emission and smokiness due to its chemical composition and combustion features. BTL also reduced Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC, g/kW h) and improved engine efficiency (η e ); however, the volumetric fuel consumption changed due to the lower density of BTL. The start of fuel injection was adjusted for maximum engine efficiency; concomitantly, reductions in the CO 2 concentration, HC concentration and smokiness were achieved. However, the NO x and thermo-mechanical engine load increased.

  2. Methodology to estimate the threshold in-cylinder temperature for self-ignition of fuel during cold start of Diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broatch, A.; Ruiz, S.; Margot, X.; Gil, A.

    2010-01-01

    Cold startability of automotive direct injection (DI) Diesel engines is frequently one of the negative features when these are compared to their closest competitor, the gasoline engine. This situation worsens with the current design trends (engine downsizing) and the emerging new Diesel combustion concepts, such as HCCI, PCCI, etc., which require low compression ratio engines. To mitigate this difficulty, pre-heating systems (glow plugs, air heating, etc.) are frequently used and their technologies have been continuously developed. For the optimum design of these systems, the determination of the threshold temperature that the gas should have in the cylinder in order to provoke the self-ignition of the fuel injected during cold starting is crucial. In this paper, a novel methodology for estimating the threshold temperature is presented. In this methodology, experimental and computational procedures are adequately combined to get a good compromise between accuracy and effort. The measurements have been used as input data and boundary conditions in 3D and 0D calculations in order to obtain the thermodynamic conditions of the gas in the cylinder during cold starting. The results obtained from the study of two engine configurations -low and high compression ratio- indicate that the threshold in-cylinder temperature is a single temperature of about 415 o C.

  3. Emission Characteristics for a Homogeneous Charged Compression Ignition Diesel Engine with Exhaust Gas Recirculation Using Split Injection Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhee Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the serious issues caused by air pollution and global warming, emission regulations are becoming stricter. New technologies that reduce NOx and PM emissions are needed. To cope with these social exhaust gas regulation demands, many advanced countries are striving to develop eco-friendly vehicles in order to respond to stricter emissions regulations. The homogeneous charged compression ignition engine (HCCI incorporates a multi-stage combustion engine with multiple combustion modes, catalyst, direct fuel injection and partial mixing combustion. In this study, the HCCI combustion was applied to analyze and review the results of engines applying HCCI combustion without altering the conventional engine specifications. The optimization of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR and compression ratio changes provides an optimal fuel economy. In this study, potential for optimum economy within the range of IMEP 0.8 MPa has been evaluated.

  4. Effect of laser induced plasma ignition timing and location on Diesel spray combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastor, José V.; García-Oliver, José M.; García, Antonio; Pinotti, Mattia

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Laser plasma ignition is applied to a direct injection Diesel spray, compared with auto-ignition. • Critical local fuel/air ratio for LIP provoked ignition is obtained. • The LIP system is able to stabilize Diesel combustion compared to auto-ignition cases. • Varying LIP position along spray axis directly affects Ignition-delay. • Premixed combustion is reduced both by varying position and delay of the LIP ignition system. - Abstract: An experimental study about the influence of the local conditions at the ignition location on combustion development of a direct injection spray is carried out in an optical engine. A laser induced plasma ignition system has been used to force the spray ignition, allowing comparison of combustion’s evolution and stability with the case of conventional autoignition on the Diesel fuel in terms of ignition delay, rate of heat release, spray penetration and soot location evolution. The local equivalence ratio variation along the spray axis during the injection process was determined with a 1D spray model, previously calibrated and validated. Upper equivalence ratios limits for the ignition event of a direct injected Diesel spray, both in terms of ignition success possibilities and stability of the phenomena, could been determined thanks to application of the laser plasma ignition system. In all laser plasma induced ignition cases, heat release was found to be higher than for the autoignition reference cases, and it was found to be linked to a decrease of ignition delay, with the premixed peak in the rate of heat release curve progressively disappearing as the ignition delay time gets shorter. Ignition delay has been analyzed as a function of the laser position, too. It was found that ignition delay increases for plasma positions closer to the nozzle, indicating that the amount of energy introduced by the laser induced plasma is not the only parameter affecting combustion initiation, but local equivalence ratio

  5. Auto-ignition modelling: analysis of the dilution effects by the unburnt gases and of the interactions with turbulence for diesel homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines; Modelisation de l'auto-inflammation: analyse des effets de la dilution par les gaz brules et des interactions avec la turbulence dediee aux moteurs Diesel a charge homogene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, G.

    2005-09-15

    Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) is an alternative engine combustion process that offers the potential for substantial reductions in both NO{sub x} and particulate matter still providing high Diesel-like efficiencies. Combustion in HCCI mode takes place essentially by auto-ignition. It is mainly controlled by the chemical kinetics. It is therefore necessary to introduce detailed chemistry effects in combustion CFD codes in order to properly model the HCCI combustion process. The objective of this work is to develop an auto-ignition model including detailed chemical kinetics and its interactions with turbulence. Also, a comprehensive study has been performed to analyze the chemical influence of CO and H{sub 2} residual species on auto-ignition, which can be present in the exhaust gases. A new auto-ignition model, TKI-PDF (Tabulated Kinetics for Ignition - with turbulent mixing interactions through a pdf approach) dedicated to RANS 3D engine combustion CFD calculations is proposed. The TKI-PDF model is formulated in order to accommodate the detailed chemical kinetics of auto-ignition coupled with turbulence/chemistry interactions. The complete model development and its validation against experimental results are presented in two parts. The first part of this work describes the detailed chemistry input to the model. The second part is dedicated to the turbulent mixing description. A method based on a progress variable reaction rate tabulation is used. A look-up table for the progress variable reaction rates has been built through constant volume complex chemistry simulations. Instantaneous local reaction rates inside the CFD computational cell are then calculated by linear interpolation inside the look-up table depending on the local thermodynamic conditions. In order to introduce the turbulent mixing effects on auto-ignition, a presumed pdf approach is used. The model has been validated in different levels. First, the detailed kinetic approach was

  6. Investigation on the emission quality, performance and combustion characteristics of the compression ignition engine fueled with environmental friendly corn oil methyl ester - Diesel blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraja, S; Soorya Prakash, K; Sudhakaran, R; Sathish Kumar, M

    2016-12-01

    This paper deals with emission quality of diesel engine based on eco toxicological studies with different methods of environmental standard toxicity tests satisfy the Bharath and European emission norms. Based on the emission norms, Corn Oil Methyl Ester (COME) with diesel is tested in a compression ignition engine and the performance and combustion characteristics are discussed. The corn oil was esterified and the property of corn oil methyl ester was within the limits specified in ASTM D 6751-03. The COME was blended together with diesel in different proportion percentages along with B20, B40, B60, B80, and B100. The emission and performance tests for various blends of COME was carried out using single cylinder, four stroke diesel engine, and compared with the performance obtained with 100% diesel (D100). The results give clear information that COME has low exhaust emissions and increase in performance compared to D100 without any modifications. It gives better performance, which is nearer to the obtained results of D100. Specific Fuel Consumption (SFC) of B100 at the full load condition is found to be 4% lower than that of (D100). The maximum Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE) of B100 is found to be 8.5% higher than that of the D100 at full load. Also, the maximum BTE of part load for different blends is varied from 5.9% to 7.45% which is higher than D100. The exhaust gas emissions like Carbon Monoxide (CO), Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ), Hydro Carbon (HC) and Nitrogen Oxide (NO x ) are found to be 2.3 to 18.8% lower compared to D100 for part as well as full load. The heat release rate of biodiesel and it blends are found to 16% to 35% lower as compared to D100 for part load, where as for full load it is 21% lower than D100. The results showed that the test of emissions norms are well within the limits of Bharath VI and European VI and it leads to less pollution, less effect on green eco system and potential substitute to fossil fuels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All

  7. A comparative experimental study on engine operating on premixed charge compression ignition and compression ignition mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhiogade Girish E.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available New combustion concepts have been recently developed with the purpose to tackle the problem of high emissions level of traditional direct injection Diesel engines. A good example is the premixed charge compression ignition combustion. A strategy in which early injection is used causing a burning process in which the fuel burns in the premixed condition. In compression ignition engines, soot (particulate matter and NOx emissions are an extremely unsolved issue. Premixed charge compression ignition is one of the most promising solutions that combine the advantages of both spark ignition and compression ignition combustion modes. It gives thermal efficiency close to the compression ignition engines and resolves the associated issues of high NOx and particulate matter, simultaneously. Premixing of air and fuel preparation is the challenging part to achieve premixed charge compression ignition combustion. In the present experimental study a diesel vaporizer is used to achieve premixed charge compression ignition combustion. A vaporized diesel fuel was mixed with the air to form premixed charge and inducted into the cylinder during the intake stroke. Low diesel volatility remains the main obstacle in preparing premixed air-fuel mixture. Exhaust gas re-circulation can be used to control the rate of heat release. The objective of this study is to reduce exhaust emission levels with maintaining thermal efficiency close to compression ignition engine.

  8. Performance of a diesel engine transformed to spark ignition using natural gas; Desempenho de um motor diesel convertido para utilizacao de gas natural como combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, Ricardo H.R. [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (LEDAV/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Ensaios Dinamicos e Analise de Vibracao; Belchior, Carlos R.P. [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (LMT/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Maquinas Termicas; Sodre, Jose Ricardo [Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Minas Gerais (PUC/Minas), MG (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    A zero-dimensional thermodynamic model for a diesel engine converted for dedicated use of natural gas was developed in this work. The computational model covers from the time of closing the inlet valve to the time of opening the exhaust valve and it was divided into three stages (compression, combustion and expansion). A model based on the first law of thermodynamics for closed cycle has been developed to study the performance of the engine. The combustion process was modeled using the equation of Wiebe. It was taken into consideration the convective heat transfer through the walls of the cylinder and the heat transfer coefficient was calculated by the Eichelberg correlation. It was also considered that the thermodynamic properties vary with temperature. To represent the gas mixture behavior inside the cylinder two approaches (Ideal Gas Equation and Van Der Waals's Real Gas Equation) were used and results compared. The computational model was validated with experimental tests. (author)

  9. An Experimental Investigation on Performance and Emissions Characteristics of Jatropha Oil Blends with Diesel in a Direct Injection Compression Ignition Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, B.; Bose, P. K.; Panua, R. S.

    2012-07-01

    Continuous effort to reducing pollutant emissions, especially smoke and nitrogen oxides from internal combustion engines, have promoted research for alternative fuels. Vegetable oils, because of their agricultural origin and due to less carbon content compared to mineral diesel are producing less CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. It also reduces import of petroleum products. In the present contribution, experiments were conducted using Jatropha oil blends with diesel to study the effect on performance and emissions characteristics of a existing diesel engine. In this study viscosity of Jatropha oil was reduced by blending with diesel. A single cylinder, four stroke, constant speed, water cooled, diesel engine was used. The results show that for lower blend concentrations various parameters such as thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption, smoke opacity, CO2, and NO x emissions are acceptable compared to that of mineral diesel. But, it was observed that for higher blend concentrations, performance and emissions were much inferior compared to diesel.

  10. Dimethyl Ether as an Ignition Improver for Hydrous Methanol Fuelled Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine

    OpenAIRE

    M. Venkatesan; N. Shenbaga Vinayaga Moorthi; R. Karthikeyan; A. Manivannan

    2014-01-01

    Homogeneous Charge Compression (HCCI) Ignition technology has been around for a long time, but has recently received renewed attention and enthusiasm. This paper deals with experimental investigations of HCCI engine using hydrous methanol as a primary fuel and Dimethyl Ether (DME) as an ignition improver. A regular diesel engine has been modified to work as HCCI engine for this investigation. The hydrous methanol is inducted and DME is injected into a single cylinder engine. Hence, hydrous me...

  11. Direct Injection Compression Ignition Diesel Automotive Technology Education GATE Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Carl L

    2006-09-25

    The underlying goal of this prqject was to provide multi-disciplinary engineering training for graduate students in the area of internal combustion engines, specifically in direct injection compression ignition engines. The program was designed to educate highly qualified engineers and scientists that will seek to overcome teclmological barriers preventing the development and production of cost-effective high-efficiency vehicles for the U.S. market. Fu1iher, these highly qualified engineers and scientists will foster an educational process to train a future workforce of automotive engineering professionals who are knowledgeable about and have experience in developing and commercializing critical advanced automotive teclmologies. Eight objectives were defmed to accomplish this goal: 1. Develop an interdisciplinary internal co1nbustion engine curriculum emphasizing direct injected combustion ignited diesel engines. 2. Encourage and promote interdisciplinary interaction of the faculty. 3. Offer a Ph.D. degree in internal combustion engines based upon an interdisciplinary cuniculum. 4. Promote strong interaction with indusuy, develop a sense of responsibility with industry and pursue a self sustaining program. 5. Establish collaborative arrangements and network universities active in internal combustion engine study. 6. Further Enhance a First Class educational facility. 7. Establish 'off-campus' M.S. and Ph.D. engine programs of study at various indusuial sites. 8. Extend and Enhance the Graduate Experience.

  12. Numerical investigation on soot particles emission in compression ignition diesel engine by using particulate mimic soot model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Fadzli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Research via computational method, specifically by detailed-kinetic soot model offers much more advantages than the simple model as more detailed formation/oxidation process is taken into consideration, thus providing better soot mass concentration, soot size, soot number density as well as information regarding other related species. In the present computational study, investigation of in-cylinder soot concentration as well as other emissions in a single cylinder diesel engine has been conducted, using a commercial multidimensional CFD software, CONVERGE CFD. The simulation was carried out for a close-cycle combustion environment from inlet valve closing (IVC to exhaust valve opening (EVO. In this case, detailed-kinetic Particulate Mimic (PM soot model was implemented as to take benefit of the method of moment, instead of commonly implemented simple soot model. Analyses of the results are successfully plotted to demonstrate that the soot size and soot mass concentration are strongly dependent on the detailed soot formation and oxidation process rates. The calculated of soot mass concentration and average soot size at EVO provide the end value of 29.2 mg/m3 and 2.04 × 10−8 m, respectively. Besides, post-processing using EnSight shows the qualitative results of soot concentration along simulation period in the combustion chamber.

  13. Fundamentals of Diesel Engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the fundamentals of diesel engine mechanics. Addressed in the three individual units of the course are the following topics: basic principles of diesel mechanics; principles, mechanics, and…

  14. Ignition delay and soot oxidative reactivity of MTBE blended diesel fuel

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Seung Yeon

    2014-04-01

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) was added to diesel fuel to investigate the effect on ignition delay and soot oxidative reactivity. An ignition quality tester (IQT) was used to study the ignition propensity of MTBE blended diesel fuels in a reactive spray environment. The IQT data showed that ignition delay increases linearly as the MTBE fraction increases in the fuel. A four-stroke single cylinder diesel engine was used to generate soot samples for a soot oxidation study. Soot samples were pre-treated using a tube furnace in a nitrogen environment to remove any soluble organic fractions and moisture content. Non-isothermal oxidation of soot samples was conducted using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). It was observed that oxidation of \\'MTBE soot\\' started began at a lower temperature and had higher reaction rate than \\'diesel soot\\' across a range of temperatures. Several kinetic analyses including an isoconversional method and a combined model fitting method were carried out to evaluate kinetic parameters. The results showed that Diesel and MTBE soot samples had similar activation energy but the pre-exponential factor of MTBE soot was much higher than that of the Diesel soot. This may explain why MTBE soot was more reactive than Diesel soot. It is suggested that adding MTBE to diesel fuel is better for DPF regeneration since an MTBE blend can significantly influence the ignition characteristics and, consequently, the oxidative reactivity of soot. Copyright © 2014 SAE International.

  15. METHOD OF CONVERSION OF HIGH- AND MIDDLE-SPEED DIESEL ENGINES INTO GAS DIESEL ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail G. Shatrov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at the development of fuel supply and electronic control systems for boosted high- and middle-speed transport engines. A detailed analysis of different ways of converting diesel engine to operate on natural gas was carried out. The gas diesel process with minimized ignition portion of diesel fuel injected by the Common Rail (CR system was selected. Electronic engine control and modular gas feed systems which can be used both on high- and middle-speed gas diesel engines were developed. Also diesel CR fuel supply systems were developed in cooperation with the industrial partner, namely, those that can be mounted on middle-speed diesel and gas diesel engines. Electronic control and gas feed systems were perfected using modeling and engine tests. The high-speed diesel engine was converted into a gas diesel one. After perfection of the gas feed and electronic control systems, bench tests of the high-speed gas diesel engine were carried out showing a high share of diesel fuel substitution with gas, high fuel efficiency and significant decrease of NOх and СО2 emissions.

  16. Performance of Diesel Engine Using Blended Crude Jatropha Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarudin, Kamarul Azhar; Mohd Sazali, Nor Shahida Akma; Mohd Ali, Mas Fauzi; Alimin, Ahmad Jais; Khir, Saffiah Abdullah

    2010-06-01

    Vegetable oil presents a very promising alternative to diesel oil since it is renewable and has similar properties to the diesel. In view of this, crude jatropha oil is selected and its viscosity is reduced by blending it with diesel. Since jatropha oil has properties which are similar to mineral diesel, it can be used in compression ignition engines without any engine modification. This paper presents the results of investigation carried out on a four-cylinder, four strokes and indirect-injection diesel engine. The engine, operated using composition blends of crude jatropha oil and diesel, were compared with mineral diesel. An experimental investigation has been carried out to analyze the performance characteristics of a compression ignition engine from the blended fuel (5%, 10%, 20% and 30%). A naturally aspirated four-stroke indirect injection diesel engine was tested at full load conditions, speeds between 1000 and 3500 rpm with intervals of 500 rpm. Results obtained from the measures of torque, power, specific fuel consumptions, thermal efficiency and brake mean effective pressure are nearly the same between blended and diesel fuel. An overall graph shows that the performance of relevant parameters from blended fuel is most likely similar to the performance produced from diesel. The experimental results proved that the use of crude jatropha oil in compression ignition engines is a viable alternative to diesel.

  17. Experimental and numerical assessment of ignition delay period for pure diesel and biodiesel B20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldhaidhawi, Mohanad; Brabec, Marek; Lucian, Miron; Chiriac, Radu; Bădescu, Viorel

    2017-10-01

    The ignition delay period for a compression ignition engine fueled alternatively with pure diesel and with biodiesel B20 has been experimentally and numerically investigated. The engine was operated under full load conditions for two speeds, 1400 rpm speed for maximum brake torque and 2400 rpm speed for maximum brake power. Different parameters suggested as important to define the start of combustion have been considered before the acceptance of a certain evaluation technique of ignition delay. Correlations between these parameters were analyzed and concluded about the best method to identify the start of combustion. The experimental results were further compared with the ignition delay predicted by some correlations. The results showed that the determined ignition delays are in good agreement with those of the Arrhenius type expressions for pure diesel fuel, while for biodiesel B20 the correlation results are significantly different than the experimental results.

  18. Application of Dimethyl Ether in Compression Ignition Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Rene

    . The elastomer seals that provided the sealing instead of the metal-to-metal contact could do that because of the low injection pressure. The engine developed in this way was based on a 50cc Peugeot two-stroke engine. The fuel injector used was a Bosch HDEV originally developed for direct injection of gasoline......This study has its roots in two separate events at the Department of Mechanical Engineering at DTU. In 1995 the first attempt to operate a diesel engine on dimethyl ether (DME) was successfully concluded. In 2004 the department decided to compete in the vehicle fuel efficiency competition Shell Eco......-Marathon. The diesel engine test results from 1995 showed that DME is a superb diesel fuel. DME is easy to ignite by compression ignition and it has a molecular structure that results in near-zero emission of particulates when burned. These are features of a fuel that are highly desirable in a diesel engine...

  19. 78 FR 58089 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Off-Road Compression Ignition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ...- road (nonroad or NR), diesel-fueled (compression-ignition or CI) vehicles with engines 25 horsepower...- use nonroad diesel engines. The California In-Use Off-Road Diesel- Fueled Fleets Regulation (Fleet... requirements for motor vehicles and motor vehicle engines; and from similar language adopted by Congress in...

  20. Diethyl Ether as an Ignition Enhancer for Naphtha Creating a Drop in Fuel for Diesel

    KAUST Repository

    Vallinayagam, R.

    2016-12-01

    Direct use of naphtha in compression ignition (CI) engines is not advisable because its lower cetane number negatively impacts the auto ignition process. However, engine or fuel modifications can be made to operate naphtha in CI engines. Enhancing a fuel’s auto ignition characteristics presents an opportunity to use low cetane fuel, naphtha, in CI engines. In this research, Di-ethyl ether (DEE) derived from ethanol is used as an ignition enhancer for light naphtha. With this fuel modification, a “drop-in” fuel that is interchangeable with existing diesel fuel has been created. The ignition characteristics of DEE blended naphtha were studied in an ignition quality tester (IQT); the measured ignition delay time (IDT) for pure naphtha was 6.9 ms. When DEE was added to naphtha, IDT decreased and D30 (30% DEE + 70% naphtha) showed comparable IDT with US NO.2 diesel. The derived cetane number (DCN) of naphtha, D10 (10% DEE + 90% naphtha), D20% DEE + 80% naphtha) and D30 were measured to be 31, 37, 40 and 49, respectively. The addition of 30% DEE in naphtha achieved a DCN equivalent to US NO.2 diesel. Subsequent experiments in a CI engine exhibited longer ignition delay for naphtha compared to diesel. The peak in-cylinder pressure is higher for naphtha than diesel and other tested fuels. When DEE was added to naphtha, the ignition delay shortened and peak in-cylinder pressure is reduced. A 3.7% increase in peak in-cylinder pressure was observed for naphtha compared to US NO.2 diesel, while D30 showed comparable results with diesel. The pressure rise rate dropped with the addition of DEE to naphtha, thereby reducing the ringing intensity. Naphtha exhibited a peak heat release rate of 280 kJ/m3deg, while D30 showed a comparable peak heat release rate to US NO.2 diesel. The amount of energy released during the premixed combustion phase decreased with the increase of DEE in naphtha. Thus, this study demonstrates the suitability of DEE blended naphtha mixtures as a

  1. Diesel Engine Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foutes, William A.

    Written in student performance terms, this curriculum guide on diesel engine repair is divided into the following eight sections: an orientation to the occupational field and instructional program; instruction in operating principles; instruction in engine components; instruction in auxiliary systems; instruction in fuel systems; instruction in…

  2. Diesel Engine Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tech Directions, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Diesel engine technicians maintain and repair the engines that power transportation equipment such as heavy trucks, trains, buses, and locomotives. Some technicians work mainly on farm machines, ships, compressors, and pumps. Others work mostly on construction equipment such as cranes, power shovels, bulldozers, and paving machines. This article…

  3. International Standards to Reduce Emissions from Marine Diesel Engines and Their Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overview of EPA coordination with International Maritime Organization including a list of all international regulations and materials related to emissions from marine compression-ignition (diesel) engines.

  4. Functional Group Analysis for Diesel-like Mixing-Controlled Compression Ignition Combustion Blendstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaspar, Daniel J.; McCormick, Robert L.; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Fioroni, Gina; George, Anthe; Albrecht, Karl O.

    2016-12-30

    This report addresses the suitability of hydrocarbon and oxygenate functional groups for use as a diesel-like fuel blending component in an advanced, mixing-controlled, compression ignition combustion engine. The functional groups are chosen from those that could be derived from a biomass feedstock, and represent a full range of chemistries. This first systematic analysis of functional groups will be of value to all who are pursuing new bio-blendstocks for diesel-like fuels.

  5. Application of Alcohols to Dual - Fuel Feeding the Spark-Ignition and Self-Ignition Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Stelmasiak Zdzisław

    2014-01-01

    This paper concerns analysis of possible use of alcohols for the feeding of self - ignition and spark-ignition engines operating in a dual- fuel mode, i.e. simultaneously combusting alcohol and diesel oil or alcohol and petrol. Issues associated with the requirements for application of bio-fuels were presented with taking into account National Index Targets, bio-ethanol production methods and dynamics of its production worldwide and in Poland. Te considerations are illustrated by results of t...

  6. Development of a robust and compact kerosene–diesel reaction mechanism for diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tay, Kun Lin; Yang, Wenming; Mohan, Balaji; An, Hui; Zhou, Dezhi; Yu, Wenbin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An approach is used to develop a robust kerosene–diesel reaction mechanism. • Ignition delay of the kerosene sub-mechanism is well validated with experiments. • The kerosene sub-mechanism reproduces the flame lift-off lengths of Jet-A reasonably well. • The kerosene sub-mechanism performs reasonably well under engine conditions. - Abstract: The use of kerosene fuels in internal combustion engines is getting more widespread. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization military is pushing for the use of a single fuel on the battlefield in order to reduce logistical issues. Moreover, in some countries, fuel adulteration is a serious matter where kerosene is blended with diesel and used in diesel engines. So far, most investigations done regarding the use of kerosene fuels in diesel engines are experimental and there is negligible simulation work done in this area possibly because of the lack of a robust and compact kerosene reaction mechanism. This work focuses on the development of a small but reliable kerosene–diesel reaction mechanism, suitable to be used for diesel engine simulations. The new kerosene–diesel reaction mechanism consists only of 48 species and 152 reactions. Furthermore, the kerosene sub-mechanism in this new mechanism is well validated for its ignition delay times and has proven to replicate kerosene combustion well in a constant volume combustion chamber and an optical engine. Overall, this new kerosene–diesel reaction mechanism is proven to be robust and practical for diesel engine simulations.

  7. Diesel Engine Tribology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Christian Kim

    Recent years have seen an increase in the wear rate of engine bearings, subsequently followed by bearing failure, for the large two-stroke diesel engines used for ship propulsion. Here, the engine bearings include main, big end and crosshead bearings, with the bearing type used being the journal...... bearing, belonging to the class of ‘hydrodynamic bearings’. This implies that the load carrying capacity is generated by a relative movement of the involved components, i.e. avelocity-driven operation. For the engine application, the velocity stems from the engine RPM. However, to comply with the latest...... emission requirements as well as attempting to minimise fuel expenses, the engine speed has been lowered together with an increase in the engine mean pressure which in terms lead to larger bearing loads. With worsened operating conditions from two sides, the encountered problems are understandable...

  8. Application of Alcohols to Dual - Fuel Feeding the Spark-Ignition and Self-Ignition Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelmasiak Zdzisław

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns analysis of possible use of alcohols for the feeding of self - ignition and spark-ignition engines operating in a dual- fuel mode, i.e. simultaneously combusting alcohol and diesel oil or alcohol and petrol. Issues associated with the requirements for application of bio-fuels were presented with taking into account National Index Targets, bio-ethanol production methods and dynamics of its production worldwide and in Poland. Te considerations are illustrated by results of the tests on spark- ignition and self- ignition engines fed with two fuels: petrol and methanol or diesel oil and methanol, respectively. Te tests were carried out on a 1100 MPI Fiat four- cylinder engine with multi-point injection and a prototype collector fitted with additional injectors in each cylinder. Te other tested engine was a SW 680 six- cylinder direct- injection diesel engine. Influence of a methanol addition on basic operational parameters of the engines and exhaust gas toxicity were analyzed. Te tests showed a favourable influence of methanol on combustion process of traditional fuels and on some operational parameters of engines. An addition of methanol resulted in a distinct rise of total efficiency of both types of engines at maintained output parameters (maximum power and torque. In the same time a radical drop in content of hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides in exhaust gas was observed at high shares of methanol in feeding dose of ZI (petrol engine, and 2-3 fold lower smokiness in case of ZS (diesel engine. Among unfavourable phenomena, a rather insignificant rise of CO and NOx content for ZI engine, and THC and NOx - for ZS engine, should be numbered. It requires to carry out further research on optimum control parameters of the engines. Conclusions drawn from this work may be used for implementation of bio-fuels to feeding the combustion engines.

  9. 77 FR 72846 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; In-Use Portable Diesel Engines 50...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... Standards; In- Use Portable Diesel Engines 50 Horsepower and Greater; Notice of Decision AGENCY... portable diesel-fueled compression-ignition engines 50 horsepower and greater. DATES: Petitions for review... equipment and engines, switching to alternative diesel fuels or alternative fuels, or electrifying some or...

  10. Effect of Alcohol on Diesel Engine Combustion Operating with Biodiesel-Diesel Blend at Idling Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmudul, H. M.; Hagos, Ftwi. Y.; A, M. Mukhtar N.; Mamat, Rizalman; Abdullah, A. Adam

    2018-03-01

    Biodiesel is a promising alternative fuel to run the automotive engine. However, its blends have not been properly investigated during idling as it is the main problem to run the vehicles in a big city. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of alcohol additives such as butanol and ethanol on combustion parameters under idling conditions when a single cylinder diesel engine operates with diesel, diesel-biodiesel blends, and diesel biodiesel-alcohol blends. The engine combustion parameters such as peak pressure, heat release rate and ignition delay were computed. This investigation has revealed that alcohol blends with diesel and biodiesel, BU20 blend yield higher maximum peak cylinder pressure than diesel. B5 blend was found with the lowest energy release among all. B20 was slightly lower than diesel. BU20 blend was seen with the highest peak energy release where E20 blend was found advance than diesel. Among all, the blends alcohol component revealed shorter ignition delay. B5 and B20 blends were influenced by biodiesel interference and the burning fraction were found slightly slower than conventional diesel where BU20 and E20 blends was found slightly faster than diesel So, based on the result, it can be said that among the alcohol blends butanol and ethanol can be promising alternative at idling conditions and can be used without any engine modifications.

  11. Development of a simulation model for compression ignition engine running with ignition improved blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudeshkumar Ponnusamy Moranahalli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Department of Automobile Engineering, Anna University, Chennai, India. The present work describes the thermodynamic and heat transfer models used in a computer program which simulates the diesel fuel and ignition improver blend to predict the combustion and emission characteristics of a direct injection compression ignition engine fuelled with ignition improver blend using classical two zone approach. One zone consists of pure air called non burning zone and other zone consist of fuel and combustion products called burning zone. First law of thermodynamics and state equations are applied in each of the two zones to yield cylinder temperatures and cylinder pressure histories. Using the two zone combustion model the combustion parameters and the chemical equilibrium composition were determined. To validate the model an experimental investigation has been conducted on a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine fuelled with 12% by volume of 2- ethoxy ethanol blend with diesel fuel. Addition of ignition improver blend to diesel fuel decreases the exhaust smoke and increases the thermal efficiency for the power outputs. It was observed that there is a good agreement between simulated and experimental results and the proposed model requires low computational time for a complete run.

  12. Evaporation and Ignition Characteristics of Water Emulsified Diesel under Conventional and Low Temperature Combustion Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaowen Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The combination of emulsified diesel and low temperature combustion (LTC technology has great potential in reducing engine emissions. A visualization study on the spray and combustion characteristics of water emulsified diesel was conducted experimentally in a constant volume chamber under conventional and LTC conditions. The effects of ambient temperature on the evaporation, ignition and combustion characteristics of water emulsified diesel were studied under cold, evaporating and combustion conditions. Experimental results showed that the ambient temperature had little effect on the spray structures, in terms of the liquid core length, the spray shape and the spray area. However, higher ambient temperature slightly reduced the Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD of the spray droplets. The auto-ignition delay time increased significantly with the decrease of the ambient temperature. The ignition process always occurred at the entrainment region near the front periphery of the liquid core. This entrainment region was evolved from the early injected fuel droplets which were heated and mixed by the continuous entrainment until the local temperature and equivalence ratio reached the ignition condition. The maximum value of integrated natural flame luminosity (INFL reduced by 60% when the ambient temperature dropped from 1000 to 800 K, indicating a significant decrease of the soot emissions could be achieved by LTC combustion mode than the conventional diesel engines.

  13. Comportamento de um motor de ignição por compressão trabalhando com óleo Diesel e gás natural A dual fuel compression ignition engine performance, running with Diesel fuel and natural gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. Schlosser

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A previsível escassez de petróleo aliada a uma consciência ecológica está levando pesquisadores a procurar novas fontes de energia e processos de combustão mais eficientes e menos poluentes. Entre os combustíveis menos poluentes está o gás natural, cujo consumo aumenta ano a ano. Os motores de combustão interna são transformadores de energia que têm baixa eficiência de conversão. Este trabalho avaliou um motor Diesel, bicombustível, movido a Diesel e gás natural. Nesse motor, a energia provém, basicamente, da combustão do gás natural. O Diesel tem a função de produzir o início da combustão do gás, que é o combustível principal. Assim, haverá uma substituição parcial de óleo Diesel por gás natural, aumentando o rendimento da combustão. Inicialmente, foi feito um ensaio-testemunha, somente com óleo Diesel e após foram feitos ensaios, com três repetições, para variadas proporções de óleo Diesel, gás natural e ângulos de avanço da injeção. O melhor desempenho foi obtido para 22% de óleo Diesel em relação ao máximo débito da bomba injetora e 13 L min-1 de gás natural com ângulo de avanço de injeção original (21º. Nesse caso, a potência média aumentou 14%, e o consumo específico (medido em valores monetários diminuiu 46% em relação ao ensaio-testemunha.The foresight of a petroleum shortage and an ecological conscience is moving scientists to look for new sources of energy and to develop more efficient combustion processes and reduced emissions. Natural gas is a reduced emission fuel, whose consumption increases every year. The present work evaluates a dual fuel compression ignition engine. The major portion of the fuel burned is natural gas. The Diesel fuel acts as combustion starter, which ignites under the compression heat. Diesel fuel is used only as an ignition source. The partial substitution of Diesel fuel by natural gas increases the combustion efficiency and achieves significant

  14. The Evolution of Diesel Engines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The origin of diesel engines is intimately related to the history of .... history of technology. Industry applauded by taking to the manu- facture of diesel engines in various sizes. Many of them continue to do so to this day, more than a century later. ... now called computers, could be used to simulate the air-cycle in the cylinder ...

  15. Noise Optimization in Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Narayan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Euro 6 norms emphasize on reduction of emissions from the engines. New injection methods are being adopted for homogenous mixture formation in diesel engines. During steady state conditions homogenous combustion gave noise levels in lower frequencies. In this work noise produced in a 440 cc diesel engine has been investigated. The engine was run under various operating conditions varying various injection parameters.

  16. Novel injector techniques for coal-fueled diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badgley, P.R.

    1992-09-01

    This report, entitled Novel Injector Techniques for Coal-Fueled Diesel Engines,'' describes the progress and findings of a research program aimed at development of a dry coal powder fuel injector in conjunction with the Thermal Ignition Combustion System (TICS) concept to achieve autoignition of dry powdered coal in a single-cylinder high speed diesel engine. The basic program consisted of concept selection, analysis and design, bench testing and single cylinder engine testing. The coal injector concept which was selected was a one moving part dry-coal-powder injector utilizing air blast injection. Adiabatics has had previous experience running high speed diesel engines on both direct injected directed coal-water-slurry (CWS) fuel and also with dry coal powder aspirated into the intake air. The Thermal Ignition Combustion System successfully ignited these fuels at all speeds and loads without requiring auxiliary ignition energy such as pilot diesel fuel, heated intake air or glow or spark plugs. Based upon this prior experience, it was shown that the highest efficiency and fastest combustion was with the dry coal, but that the use of aspiration of coal resulted in excessive coal migration into the engine lubrication system. Based upon a desire of DOE to utilize a more modern test engine, the previous naturally-aspirated Caterpillar model 1Y73 single cylinder engine was replaced with a turbocharged (by use of shop air compressor and back pressure control valve) single cylinder version of the Cummins model 855 engine.

  17. LASER IGNITION SYSTEM FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

    OpenAIRE

    Mr.Utsav Kothari*; Mr.Pravin Bharane; Mr.Akash Modasara

    2016-01-01

    Laser ignition is considered to be one of the most promising future ignition concepts for internal combustion engines. It not only combines requirement of reduction of pollutant emissions but also improves engine efficiencies. In general, a well-defined ignition location and ignition time is of great importance for an IC engine. Spark plugs are well suited for such tasks but suffer from disadvantages, like erosion of electrodes & inflexible or un-optimal location of spark plug. Also the conv...

  18. Energy and Exergy Analysis of a Diesel Engine Fuelled with Diesel and Simarouba Biodiesel Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahi, Nabnit; Mohanty, Mahendra Kumar; Mishra, Sruti Ranjan; Mohanty, Ramesh Chandra

    2018-02-01

    This article intends to determine the available work and various losses of a diesel engine fuelled with diesel and SB20 (20 % Simarouba biodiesel by volume blended with 80 % diesel by volume). The energy and exergy analysis were carried out by using first law and second law of thermodynamics respectively. The experiments were carried out on a 3.5 kW compression ignition engine. The analysis was conducted on per mole of fuel basis. The energy analysis indicates that about 37.23 and 37.79 % of input energy is converted into the capacity to do work for diesel and SB20 respectively. The exergetic efficiency was 34.8 and 35 % for diesel and Simarouba respectively. Comparative study indicates that the energetic and exergetic performance of SB20 resembles with that of diesel fuel.

  19. Study of In-Cylinder Reactions of High Power-Density Direct Injection Diesel Engines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jansons, M

    2004-01-01

    Direct-injection (DI) Diesel or compression-ignition (CI) engine combustion process is investigated when new design and operational strategies are employed in order to achieve a high power-density (HPD) engine...

  20. Experimental investigations of LPG use at the automotive diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nutu Cristian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The liquefied petroleum gas has a great potential to improve energetically and pollution performance of compression ignition engines due to its good combustion properties. This paper presents results of the researches carried on a car compression ignition engine with a 1.5 dm3 displacement, fuelled with diesel fuel and liquefied petroleum gas by diesel-gas method at the operating regimens of 70% and 55% engine load, engine speed of 2000 rpm and for substitute ratios between (6–19%. A specific objective of this paper is to establish a correlation between the optimum adjustments and the substitute ratio of the diesel fuel with liquefied petroleum gas for the investigated regimens to limit the maximum pressure and smoke level, knock and rough engine functioning and having regard to decrease the fuel consumption and the level of the pollutant emissions.

  1. Performance evaluation of diesel engine using rice bran biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank Chhabra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of fuels in the world is increasing rapidly and it affects the global economy of all the countries so this factor forced all the countries to find the alternative fuel to reduce and even replace the usage of petroleum. Thus use of biodiesel from non-edible oil sources serves as an alternative to this problem. The present study focuses on impact assessment of rice bran and crude rice bran biodiesel and its blends with diesel on diesel engine performance. The experimental investigation provides in depth detail of the biodiesel production process, evaluation of fuel properties and impact on engine performance. The study also investigates the optimization of the Compression ratio (CR of a compression ignition engine fueled with blends of biodiesel. In order to find out the optimum CR of the engine, experiments were conducted at different CRs ranging from 12 to 18. Then the experiments were conducted using B10, B20 and B40 blends of crude rice bran bio-diesel and diesel at CR of 12 and 14 and these results were compared with the results obtained when the same engine was tested on conventional diesel fuel. Similarly the experimental results of B10, B20 and B40 blends of rice bran bio-diesel at CR 14 were investigated and analyzed. Based on the experimental investigation the blends of crude rice bran bio-diesel can be used as fuel in diesel engine without making any modification to the diesel engine.

  2. Evaluation of carcinogenic hazard of diesel engine exhaust needs to consider revolutionary changes in diesel technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Roger O; Hesterberg, Thomas W; Wall, John C

    2012-07-01

    Diesel engines, a special type of internal combustion engine, use heat of compression, rather than electric spark, to ignite hydrocarbon fuels injected into the combustion chamber. Diesel engines have high thermal efficiency and thus, high fuel efficiency. They are widely used in commerce prompting continuous improvement in diesel engines and fuels. Concern for health effects from exposure to diesel exhaust arose in the mid-1900s and stimulated development of emissions regulations and research to improve the technology and characterize potential health hazards. This included epidemiological, controlled human exposure, laboratory animal and mechanistic studies to evaluate potential hazards of whole diesel exhaust. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (1989) classified whole diesel exhaust as - "probably carcinogenic to humans". This classification stimulated even more stringent regulations for particulate matter that required further technological developments. These included improved engine control, improved fuel injection system, enhanced exhaust cooling, use of ultra low sulfur fuel, wall-flow high-efficiency exhaust particulate filters, exhaust catalysts, and crankcase ventilation filtration. The composition of New Technology Diesel Exhaust (NTDE) is qualitatively different and the concentrations of particulate constituents are more than 90% lower than for Traditional Diesel Exhaust (TDE). We recommend that future reviews of carcinogenic hazards of diesel exhaust evaluate NTDE separately from TDE. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. An experimental study of the combusition and emission performances of 2,5-dimethylfuran diesel blends on a diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Helin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were carried out in a direct injection compression ignition engine fueled with diesel-dimethylfuran blends. The combustion and emission performances of diesel-dimethylfuran blends were investigated under various loads ranging from 0.13 to 1.13 MPa brake mean effective pressure, and a constant speed of 1800 rpm. Results indicate that diesel-dimethylfuran blends have different combustion performance and produce longer ignition delay and shorter combustion duration compared with pure diesel. Moreover, a slight increase of brake specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency occurs when a Diesel engine operates with blended fuels, rather than diesel fuel. Diesel-dimethylfuran blends could lead to higher NOx emissions at medium and high engine loads. However, there is a significant reduction in soot emission when engines are fueled with diesel-dimethylfuran blends. Soot emissions under each operating conditions are similar and close to zero except for D40 at 0.13 MPa brake mean effective pressure. The total number and mean geometric diameter of emitted particles from diesel-dimethylfuran blends are lower than pure diesel. The tested fuels exhibit no significant difference in either CO or HC emissions at medium and high engine loads. Nevertheless, diesel fuel produces the lowest CO emission and higher HC emission at low loads of 0.13 to 0.38 MPa brake mean effective pressure.

  4. Modeling Diesel Engine Injector Flows

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heister, S

    2001-01-01

    Models have been developed to assess flow fields inside diesel injector orifice passages in order to increase our understanding of the spray formation process which governs performance and emissions in these engines...

  5. Reeds diesel engine troubleshooting handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Pickthall, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Most diesel engines will develop a problem at some point in their lives, but armed with the right knowledge a skipper needn't worry. The Reeds Diesel Engine Troubleshooting Handbook is a compact, pocket-sized guide to finding solutions to all of the most common engine problems, and many of the less common ones too. The perfect format for quick reference on board, this book will help skippers fix troublesome engines themselves, avoiding costly engineer fees if the problem is simple to sort out, or enabling an emergency patch-up for a more serious problem until they can get back to port. Each to

  6. The use of tyre pyrolysis oil in diesel engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, S; Ramaswamy, M C; Nagarajan, G

    2008-12-01

    Tests have been carried out to evaluate the performance, emission, and combustion characteristics of a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine fueled with 10%, 30%, and 50% of tyre pyrolysis oil (TPO) blended with diesel fuel (DF). The TPO was derived from waste automobile tyres through vacuum pyrolysis. The combustion parameters such as heat release rate, cylinder peak pressure, and maximum rate of pressure rise also analysed. Results showed that the brake thermal efficiency of the engine fueled with TPO-DF blends increased with an increase in blend concentration and reduction of DF concentration. NO(x), HC, CO, and smoke emissions were found to be higher at higher loads due to the high aromatic content and longer ignition delay. The cylinder peak pressure increased from 71 bars to 74 bars. The ignition delays were longer than with DF. It is concluded that it is possible to use tyre pyrolysis oil in diesel engines as an alternate fuel in the future.

  7. Investigation into the effect of different fuels on ignition delay of M-type diesel combustion process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibić Dževad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An ignition delay is a very complex process which depends on a great number of parameters. In practice, definition of the ignition delay is based on the use of correlation expressions. However, the correlation expressions have very often limited application field. This paper presents a new correlation which has been developed during the research project on the direct injection M-type diesel engine using both the diesel and biodiesel fuel, as well as different values of a static injection timing. A dynamic start of injection, as well as the ignition delay, is defined in two ways. The first approach is based on measurement of a needle lift, while the second is based on measurement of a fuel pressure before the injector. The latter approach requires calculation of pressure signals delay through the fuel injection system and the variation of a static advance injection angle changing. The start of a combustion and the end of the ignition delay is defined on the basis of measurements of an in-cylinder pressure and its point of separation from a skip-fire pressure trace. The developed correlation gives better prediction of the ignition delay definition for the M-type direct injection diesel engine in the case of diesel and biodiesel fuel use when compared with the classic expression by the other authors available in the literature.

  8. Combustion Noise Analysis for Combustion and Fuels Diagnosis of a CI Diesel Engine Operating with Biodiesels

    OpenAIRE

    Zhen, Dong; Shi, Zhanqun; Song, Zhongyue; Gu, Fengshou; Ball, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the combustion noise of a compression ignition (CI) diesel engine operating with biodiesels has been investigated experimentally. It aims to explore an effective method for combustion process monitoring and fuel quality evaluation through analysing the characteristics of the engine combustion noise. The experiments were conducted on a four-cylinder, four-stroke, direct injection and turbocharged diesel engine fuelled with biodiesels (B50 and B100) and normal pure diesel, and op...

  9. Emission testing of jatropha and pongamia mixed bio diesel fuel in a diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.; Shaikh, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    The present investigation is based on the emission characteristics of mixed bio diesel fuel in a four stroke single cylinder compression ignition engine at constant speed. Refined oils of jatropha and pongamia are converted into bio diesel by acid catalyzed esterification and base catalyzed transesterification reactions. The jatropha and pongamia bio diesel were mixed in equal proportions with conventional mineral diesel fuel. Four samples of fuel were tested namely, diesel fuel, B10, B20 and B40. The emission analysis showed B20 mixed bio diesel fuel blend having better results as compared to other samples. There is 60% and 35% lower emission of carbon monoxide and in sulphur dioxide observed while consuming B20 blended fuel respectively. The test result showed NOx emissions were 10% higher from bio diesel fuel, as compared to conventional diesel fuel. However, these emissions may be reduced by EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) technology. Present research also revealed that that B20 mixed bio diesel fuel can be used, without any modification in a CI engine. (author)

  10. Effect of hydrogen–diesel dual-fuel usage on performance, emissions and diesel combustion in diesel engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasin Karagöz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Diesel engines are inevitable parts of our daily life and will be in the future. Expensive after-treatment technologies to fulfil normative legislations about the harmful tail-pipe emissions and fuel price increase in recent years created expectations from researchers for alternative fuel applications on diesel engines. This study investigates hydrogen as additive fuel in diesel engines. Hydrogen was introduced into intake manifold using gas injectors as additive fuel in gaseous form and also diesel fuel was injected into cylinder by diesel injector and used as igniter. Energy content of introduced hydrogen was set to 0%, 25% and 50% of total fuel energy, where the 0% references neat diesel operation without hydrogen injection. Test conditions were set to full load at 750, 900, 1100, 1400, 1750 and finally 2100 r/min engine speed. Variation in engine performance, emissions and combustion characteristics with hydrogen addition was investigated. Hydrogen introduction into the engine by 25% and 50% of total charge energy reveals significant decrease in smoke emissions while dramatic increase in nitrogen oxides. With increasing hydrogen content, a slight rise is observed in total unburned hydrocarbons although CO2 and CO gaseous emissions reduced considerably. Maximum in-cylinder gas pressure and rate of heat release peak values raised with hydrogen fraction.

  11. The Evolution of Diesel Engines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The origin of diesel engines is intimately related to the history of steam engines. The Greeks and the Romans knew that steam could somehow be harnessed to do useful work. The device aeolipile (Figure 1) known to Hero of Alexandria was a primitive reaction turbine apparently used to open temple doors! However.

  12. Validation of some engine combustion and emission parameters of a bioethanol fuelled DI diesel engine using theoretical modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Sivalingam, Murugan; Mahapatra, Subranshu Sekhar; Hansdah, Dulari; Horák, Bohumil

    2015-01-01

    Earlier reports indicate that ethanol/bioethanol can replace conventional diesel fuel by 15%, when it is emulsified with diesel and used as an alternative fuel in a compression ignition (CI) engine. In this study, initially BMDE15, a bioethanol emulsion containing 15% bioethanol, 84% diesel and 1% surfactant was characterised for its fuel properties and compared with those of diesel fuel properties. The numerical value indicates the percentage of bioethanol in the BMDE15 emulsion. For the inv...

  13. LPG as a Fuel for Diesel Engines-Experimental Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristian Nutu, Nikolaos; Pana, Constantin; Negurescu, Niculae; Cernat, Alexandru; Mirica, Ionel

    2017-10-01

    The main objective of the paper is to reduce the pollutant emissions of a compression ignition engine, fuelling the engine with liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), aiming to maintain the energetic performances of the engine. To optimise the engine operation a corelation between the substitute ratio of the diesel fuel with LPG and the adjustments for the investigated regimens must be made in order to limit the maximum pressure and smoke level, knock and rough engine functioning, fuel consumption and the level of the pollutant emissions. The test bed situated in the Thermotechnics, Engines, Thermal Equipments and Refrigeration Instalations Department was adapted to be fuelled with liquefied petroleum gas. A conventional LPG fuelling instalation was adopted, consisting of a LPG tank, a vaporiser, conections between the tank and the vaporiser and a valve to adjust the gaseous fuel flow. Using the diesel-gas methode, in the intake manifold of the engine is injected LPG in gaseous aggregation state and the airr-LPG homogeneous mixture is ignited from the flame appeared in the diesel fuel sprays. To maintain the engine power at the same level like in the standard case of fuelling only with diesel fuel, for each investigated operate regimen the diesel fuel dose was reduced, being energetically substituted with LPG. The engine used for experimental investigations is a turbocharged truck diesel engine with a 10.34 dm3 displacement. The investigated working regimen was 40% load and 1750 rpm and the energetic substitute ratios of the diesel fuel with LPG was situated between [0-25%].

  14. Vehicle Integrated Photovoltaics for Compression Ignition Vehicles: An Experimental Investigation of Solar Alkaline Water Electrolysis for Improving Diesel Combustion and a Solar Charging System for Reducing Auxiliary Engine Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negroni, Garry Inocentes

    Vehicle-integrated photovoltaic electricity can be applied towards aspiration of hydrogen-oxygen-steam gas produced through alkaline electrolysis and reductions in auxiliary alternator load for reducing hydrocarbon emissions in low nitrogen oxide indirect-injection compression-ignition engines. Aspiration of 0.516 ± 0.007 liters-per-minute of gas produced through alkaline electrolysis of potassium-hydroxide 2wt.% improves full-load performance; however, part-load performance decreases due to auto-ignition of aspirated gas prior to top-dead center. Alternator load reductions offer improved part-load and full-load performance with practical limitations resulting from accessory electrical loads. In an additive approach, solar electrolysis can electrochemically convert solar photovoltaic electricity into a gas comprised of stoichiometric hydrogen and oxygen gas. Aspiration of this hydrogen-oxygen gas enhances combustion properties decreasing emissions and increased combustion efficiency in light-duty diesel vehicles. The 316L stainless steel (SS) electrolyser plates are arranged with two anodes and three cathodes space with four bipolar plates delineating four stacks in parallel with five cells per stack. The electrolyser was tested using potassium hydroxide 2 wt.% and hydronium 3wt.% at measured voltage and current inputs. The flow rate output from the reservoir cell was measured in parallel with the V and I inputs producing a regression model correlating current input to flow rate. KOH 2 wt.% produced 0.005 LPM/W, while H9O44 3 wt.% produced less at 0.00126 LPM/W. In a subtractive approach, solar energy can be used to charge a larger energy storage device, as is with plug-in electric vehicles, in order to alleviate the engine of the mechanical load placed upon it by the vehicles electrical accessories through the alternator. Solar electrolysis can improve part-load emissions and full-load performance. The average solar-to-battery efficiency based on the OEM rated

  15. The Adlard Coles book of diesel engines

    CERN Document Server

    Bartlett, Tim

    2013-01-01

    In clear, jargon-free English The Adlard Coles Book of Diesel Engines explains how a diesel engine works,and how to look after it, and takes into account developments inengine technology. Includes helpful tables and troubleshooting checklists.

  16. Numerical investigation on the combined effects of varying piston bowl geometries and ramp injection rate-shapes on the combustion characteristics of a kerosene-diesel fueled direct injection compression ignition engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tay, Kun Lin; Yang, Wenming; Zhao, Feiyang; Yu, Wenbin; Mohan, Balaji

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of injection rate-shaping on heat-release is significant with less turbulence. • Two peak heat-releases are seen for the shallow-depth re-entrant piston. • Significant combustion phasing occurs with kerosene usage and high turbulence. - Abstract: In this work, the combustion characteristics of a direct injection compression ignition (DICI) engine fueled with kerosene-diesel blends, using different piston bowl geometries together with varying injection rate-shapes were investigated. A total of three combustion bowl geometries, namely the omega combustion chamber (OCC), the shallow-depth combustion chamber (SCC) and the shallow-depth re-entrant combustion chamber (SRCC), were used together with six different ramp injection rate-shapes and pure diesel, kerosene-diesel and pure kerosene fuels. It is seen that the SRCC geometry, which has the shortest throat length, gives the highest turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) and this resulted in two peak heat-releases, with a primary peak heat-release during the premixed combustion phase and a secondary peak heat-release during the mixing-controlled combustion phase. In addition, the SCC geometry gives rather distinct premixed combustion and mixing-controlled combustion phases due to the fact that combustion is predominantly controlled by the injected fuel spray itself because of less turbulence. Also, when kerosene is used in place of diesel, the heat-release during the premixed combustion phase increases and diminishes during the mixing-controlled and late combustion phases. It is interesting to note that the effect of injection rate-shaping on the heat-release rate is more obvious for bowl geometries that generate less TKE. Moreover, bowl geometries that generate higher TKEs as well as fuels with lower viscosities generally give lower carbon monoxide (CO) emissions and higher nitrogen oxide (NO) emissions. More importantly, it is possible to achieve low NO and CO emissions simultaneously by using the

  17. An Experimental Investigation of Ethanol-Diesel Blends on Performance and Exhaust Emissions of Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarkan Sandalcı

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol is a promising alternative fuel, due to its renewable biobased origin. Also, it has lower carbon content than diesel fuel and it is oxygenated. For this reason, ethanol is providing remarkable potential to reduce particulate emulsions in compression-ignition engines. In this study, performance of ethanol-diesel blends has been investigated experimentally. Tested fuels were mineral diesel fuel (E0D100, 15% (v/v ethanol/diesel fuel blend (E15D85, and 30% (v/v ethanol/diesel fuel blend (E30D70. Firstly, the solubility of ethanol and diesel was experienced. Engine tests were carried out to reveal the performance and emissions of the engine fuelled with the blends. Full load operating conditions at various engine speeds were investigated. Engine brake torque, brake power, brake specific fuel consumption, brake thermal efficiency, exhaust gas temperature, and finally exhaust emissions were measured. Performance of the tested engine decreased substantially while improvement on smoke and gaseous emissions makes ethanol blend favorable.

  18. A probabilistic maintenance model for diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathirana, Shan; Abeygunawardane, Saranga Kumudu

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, a probabilistic maintenance model is developed for inspection based preventive maintenance of diesel engines based on the practical model concepts discussed in the literature. Developed model is solved using real data obtained from inspection and maintenance histories of diesel engines and experts' views. Reliability indices and costs were calculated for the present maintenance policy of diesel engines. A sensitivity analysis is conducted to observe the effect of inspection based preventive maintenance on the life cycle cost of diesel engines.

  19. Diesel engine management systems and components

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This reference book provides a comprehensive insight into todays diesel injection systems and electronic control. It focusses on minimizing emissions and exhaust-gas treatment. Innovations by Bosch in the field of diesel-injection technology have made a significant contribution to the diesel boom. Calls for lower fuel consumption, reduced exhaust-gas emissions and quiet engines are making greater demands on the engine and fuel-injection systems. Contents History of the diesel engine.- Areas of use for diesel engines.- Basic principles of the diesel engine.- Fuels: Diesel fuel.- Fuels: Alternative fuels.- Cylinder-charge control systems.- Basic principles of diesel fuel-injection.- Overview of diesel fuel-injection systems.- Fuel supply to the low pressure stage.- Overview of discrete cylinder systems.- Unit injector system.- Unit pump system.- Overview of common-rail systems.- High pressure components of the common-rail system.- Injection nozzles.- Nozzle holders.- High pressure lines.- Start assist systems.-...

  20. Reducing Diesel Engine Emission Using Reactivity Controlled Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Hasib Ghazal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Several automobile manufacturers are interested in investigating of dual fuel internal combustion engines, due to high efficiencand low emissions. Many alternative fuels have been used in dual fuel mode for IC engine, such as methane, hydrogen, and natural gas. In the present study, a reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI engine using gasoline/diesel (G/D dual fuel has been investigated. The effectof mixing gasoline with diesel fuel on combustion characteristic, engine performance and emissions has been studied. The gasoline was injected in the engine intake port, to produce a homogeneous mixture with air. The diesel fuel was injected directly to the combustion chamber during compression stroke to initiate the combustion process. A direct injection compression ignition engine has been built and simulated using ANSYS Forte professional code. The gasoline amount in the simulation varied from (50%-80% by volume. The diesel fuel was injected to the cylinder in two stages. The model has been validated and calibrated for neat diesel fuel using available data from the literature. The results show that the heat release rate and the cylinder pressure increased when the amount of added gasoline is between 50%-60% volume of the total injected fuels, compared to the neat diesel fuel. Further addition of gasoline will have a contrary effect. In addition, the combustion duration is extended drastically when the gasoline ratio is higher than 60% which results in an incomplete combustion. The NO emission decreased drastically as the gasoline ratio increased. Moreover, addition of gasoline to the mixture increased the engine power, thermal efficienc and combustion efficienc compared to neat diesel fuel.

  1. The Evolution of Diesel Engines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 4. The Evolution of Diesel Engines. U Shrinivasa. General Article Volume 17 Issue 4 April 2012 pp 365-377. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/017/04/0365-0377. Keywords.

  2. Performance of jatropha oil blends in a diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forson, F.K.; Oduro, E.K.; Hammond-Donkoh, E. [Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi (Ghana). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2004-06-01

    Results are presented on tests on a single-cylinder direct-injection engine operating on diesel fuel, jatropha oil, and blends of diesel and jatropha oil in proportions of 97.4%/2.6%; 80%120%; and 50%150% by volume. The results covered a range of operating loads on the engine. Values are given for the chemical and physical properties of the fuels, brake specific fuel consumption, brake power, brake thermal efficiency, engine torque, and the concentrations of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and oxygen in the exhaust gases. Carbon dioxide emissions were similar for all fuels, the 97.4% diesel/2.6% jatropha fuel blend was observed to be the lower net contributor to the atmospheric level. The trend of carbon monoxide emissions was similar for the fuels but diesel fuel showed slightly lower emissions to the atmosphere. The test showed that jatropha oil could be conveniently used as a diesel substitute in a diesel engine. The test further showed increases in brake thermal efficiency, brake power and reduction of specific fuel consumption for jatropha oil and its blends with diesel generally, but the most significant conclusion from the study is that the 97.4% diesel/2.6% jatropha fuel blend produced maximum values of the brake power and brake thermal efficiency as well as minimum values of the specific fuel consumption. The 97.4%12.6% fuel blend yielded the highest cetane number and even better engine performance than the diesel fuel suggesting that jatropha oil can be used as an ignition- accelerator additive for diesel fuel. (author)

  3. ANALYSIS OF OPERATING PARAMETERS AND INDICATORS OF A COMPRESSION IGNITION ENGINE FUELLED WITH LPG

    OpenAIRE

    Krzysztof GARBALA; Wojciech PIEKARSKI; Sylwia ANDRZEJEWSKA; Kazimierz WITASZEK

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the possibilities for using alternative fuels to power vehicles equipped with compression ignition (CI) engines (diesel). Systems for using such fuels have been discussed. Detailed analysis and research covered the LPG STAG autogas system, which is used to power dual-fuel engine units (LPG+diesel). A description of the operation of the autogas system and installation in a vehicle has been presented. The basic algorithms of the controller, which is an actuating element...

  4. Combustion and emission characteristics of diesel engine fueled with diesel-like fuel from waste lubrication oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiangli; Ni, Peiyong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • 100% diesel-like fuel from waste lubricating oil was conducted in a diesel engine. • Good combustion and fuel economy are achieved without engine modifications. • Combustion duration of DLF is shorter than diesel. • NOx and smoke emissions with the DLF are slightly higher than pure diesel. - Abstract: Waste lubricant oil (WLO) is one of the most important types of the energy sources. WLO cannot be burned directly in diesel engines, but can be processed to be used as diesel-like fuel (DLF) to minimize its harmful effect and maximize its useful values. Moreover, there are some differences in physicochemical properties between WLO and diesel fuel. In order to identify the differences in combustion and emission performance of diesel engine fueled with the two fuels, a bench test of a single-cylinder direct injection diesel engine without any engine modification was investigated at four engine speeds and five engine loads. The effects of the fuels on fuel economic performance, combustion characteristics, and emissions of hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and smoke were discussed. The DLF exhibits longer ignition delay period and shorter combustion duration than diesel fuel. The test results indicate that the higher distillation temperatures of the DLF attribute to the increase of combustion pressure, temperature and heat release rate. The brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) of the DLF compared to diesel is reduced by about 3% at 3000 rpm under light and medium loads. The DLF produces slightly higher NOx emissions at middle and heavy loads, somewhat more smoke emissions at middle loads, and notably higher HC and CO emissions at most measured points than diesel fuel. It is concluded that the DLF can be used as potential available fuel in high-speed diesel engines without any problems.

  5. Diesel Engine Light Truck Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2007-12-31

    The Diesel Engine Light Truck Application (DELTA) program consists of two major contracts with the Department of Energy (DOE). The first one under DE-FC05-97-OR22606, starting from 1997, was completed in 2001, and consequently, a final report was submitted to DOE in 2003. The second part of the contract was under DE-FC05-02OR22909, covering the program progress from 2002 to 2007. This report is the final report of the second part of the program under contract DE-FC05-02OR22909. During the course of this contract, the program work scope and objectives were significantly changed. From 2002 to 2004, the DELTA program continued working on light-duty engine development with the 4.0L V6 DELTA engine, following the accomplishments made from the first part of the program under DE-FC05-97-OR22606. The program work scope in 2005-2007 was changed to the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) soot layer characterization and substrate material assessment. This final report will cover two major technical tasks. (1) Continuation of the DELTA engine development to demonstrate production-viable diesel engine technologies and to demonstrate emissions compliance with significant fuel economy advantages, covering progress made from 2002 to 2004. (2) DPF soot layer characterization and substrate material assessment from 2005-2007.

  6. Plasma igniter for internal-combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breshears, R. R.; Fitzgerald, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    Hot ionized gas (plasma) ignites air/fuel mixture in internal combustion engines more effectively than spark. Electromagnetic forces propel plasma into combustion zone. Combustion rate is not limited by flame-front speed.

  7. Effects of diesel/ethanol dual fuel on emission characteristics in a heavy-duty diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junheng; Sun, Ping; Zhang, Buyun

    2017-09-01

    In order to reduce emissions and diesel consumption, the gas emissions characteris-tics of diesel/aqueous ethanol dual fuel combustion (DFC) were carried out on a heavy-duty turbocharged and intercooled automotive diesel engine. The aqueous ethanol is prepared by a blend of anhydrous ethanol and water in certain volume proportion. In DFC mode, aqueous ethanol is injected into intake port to form homogeneous charge, and then ignited by the diesel fuel. Results show that DFC can reduce NOx emissions but increase HC and CO emissions, and this trend becomes more prominent with the increase of water blending ratio. Increased emissions of HC and CO could be efficiently cleaned by diesel oxidation catalytic converter (DOC), even better than those of diesel fuel. It is also found that DFC mode reduces smoke remarkably, while increases some unconventional emissions such as formaldehyde and acetal-dehyde. However, unconventional emissions could be reduced approximately to the level of baseline engine with a DOC.

  8. 75 FR 68448 - Revisions to In-Use Testing for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines and Vehicles; Emissions Measurement and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ... Rule: Control of Emissions of Air Pollution from Locomotives and Marine Compression-Ignition Engines... Emissions of Air Pollution from Locomotives and Marine Compression-Ignition Engines Less Than 30 Liters per...-OAR-2010-0142; FRL-9220-6] RIN 2060-AO69 Revisions to In-Use Testing for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines and...

  9. Prediction of major pollutants emission in direct injection dual-fuel diesel and natural-gas engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirouzpanah, V.; Kashani, B.O.

    2000-01-01

    The dual-fuel diesel engine is a conventional diesel engine in which much of the energy released, hence power, comes from the combustion of gaseous fuel such as natural gas. The exhaust emission characteristics of the dual-fuel diesel engine needs further refinements, particularly in terms of reduction of Unburnt Hydrocarbons and Carbon Monoxide (CO) emission, because the concentration of these pollutants are higher than that of the baseline diesel engine. Furthermore, the combustion process in a typical dual-fuel diesel engine tends to be complex, showing combination of the problems encountered both in diesel and spark ignition engines. In this work, a computer code has been modified for simulation of dual-fuel diesel engine combustion process. This model simulates dual-fuel diesel engine combustion by using a Multi-Zone Combustion Model for diesel pilot jet combustion and a conventional spark ignition combustion model for modelling of combustion of premixed gas/air charge. Also, in this model, there are four submodels for prediction of major emission pollutants such as: Unburnt Hydrocarbons, No, Co and soot which are emitted from dual-fuel diesel engine. For prediction of formation and oxidation rates of pollutants, relevant s conventional kinetically-controlled mechanisms and mass balances are used. the model has been verified by experimental data obtained from a heavy-duty truck and bus diesel engines. The comparison shows that, there exist good agreements between the experimental and predicted results from the dual-fuel diesel engine

  10. Diesel Technology: Engines. [Teacher and Student Editions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Dave; Miller, Roger; Kellum, Mary

    Competency-based teacher and student materials on diesel engines are provided for a diesel technology curriculum. Seventeen units of instruction cover the following topics: introduction to engine principles and procedures; engine systems and components; fuel systems; engine diagnosis and maintenance. The materials are based on the…

  11. Standardized Curriculum for Diesel Engine Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized curricula are provided for two courses for the secondary vocational education program in Mississippi: diesel engine mechanics I and II. The eight units in diesel engine mechanics I are as follows: orientation; shop safety; basic shop tools; fasteners; measurement; engine operating principles; engine components; and basic auxiliary…

  12. Trend and future of diesel engine: Development of high efficiency and low emission low temperature combustion diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, R. J.; Yusoff, M. Z.; Palanisamy, K.

    2013-06-01

    Stringent emission policy has put automotive research & development on developing high efficiency and low pollutant power train. Conventional direct injection diesel engine with diffused flame has reached its limitation and has driven R&D to explore other field of combustion. Low temperature combustion (LTC) and homogeneous charge combustion ignition has been proven to be effective methods in decreasing combustion pollutant emission. Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) and Particulate Matter (PM) formation from combustion can be greatly suppressed. A review on each of method is covered to identify the condition and processes that result in these reductions. The critical parameters that allow such combustion to take place will be highlighted and serves as emphasis to the direction of developing future diesel engine system. This paper is written to explore potential of present numerical and experimental methods in optimizing diesel engine design through adoption of the new combustion technology.

  13. Caracterización de un motor diesel trabajando con mezclas de aceite de Jatropha y combustible diesel Characterization of a diesel engine fueled with Jatropha oil and diesel fuel blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Errasti Cabrera

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo caracterizar el desempeño de un motor diesel en cuanto a sus prestaciones y al retardo de la ignición, al operar bajo diferentes regímenes de carga, empleando mezclas de aceite de Jatropha y combustible diesel. Para esto se determinó la característica exterior de velocidad al emplear las mezclas, y se compararon estos resultados con los obtenidos durante los ensayos con combustible diesel patrón; estableciendo el grado de afectación del motor al sustituir parte del combustible diesel por aceite de Jatropha. Se observó una disminución del torque y la potencia efectiva, y un aumento del consumo específico de combustible al emplear un mayor porciento de aceite de Jatropha en las mezclas. Por otra parte, en comparación con el combustible diesel, el retardo de la ignición no mostró una variación significativa al emplear las mezclas de aceite de Jatropha y combustible diesel.  The present study aims to characterize the benefits of a diesel engine in terms of performance and ignition delay, operating under different loading regimes, using Jatropha oil and diesel fuel blends. We determined the speed exterior feature when using mixtures, and compared these results with those obtained during tests with standard diesel fuel, establishing the degree of involvement of the engine to replace some diesel fuel for Jatropha oil. There was a decrease in the torque and effective power, and increased specific fuel consumption by using a higher percentage of Jatropha oil in blends. Moreover, compared to diesel fuel, the ignition delay showed no significant variation by employing Jatropha oil and diesel fuel blends.Key words: Jatropha curcas oil, outer velocity characteristic, diesel engine, ignition delay.

  14. Performance and exhaust emissions of a spark ignition engine using G-Series fuel (mixtures of gasoline, bioethanol, biodiesel and diesel) / G Serisi Yakıt (Benzin, Biyoetanol, Biyodizel ve Dizel Karışımı) Kullanan Kıvılcım Ateşlemeli Bir Motorun Performan

    OpenAIRE

    Nematizade, Pegah; Ghobadian, Barat; Ommi, Fathollah; Najafi, Gholamhassan

    2013-01-01

    In this research, performance and exhaust emissions of a spark ignition (S.I) engine (XU7JP/L3) using gasoline-ethanol blend (E20) and G-Series fuels, of GS1 and GS2, comprised of the mixtures of gasoline, ethanol, biodiesel and diesel were investigated. The results confirm that the power and torque of XU7JP/L3 engine decreases (not significantly) 6.5% and 1.2% respectively for the mixtures of fossil fuel and biofuel blends. In these circumstances the rate of fuel consumption increases by 36%...

  15. Modification of Diesel Engine to Producer Gas Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Aung, Nay Zar

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes considerations and procedure of conversion from diesel engine to producer gas engine. In this paper, the performance of producer gas engine is compared to the original diesel engine and the factors affecting on performance of the producer gas engine are mentioned. After converting the 26.5 kW diesel engines to producer gas engine, the power output of producer gas engine is 40% less than that of original diesel engine. However producer gas engines are used for saving fuel ...

  16. A sustained-arc ignition system for internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchenough, A. G.

    1977-01-01

    A sustained-arc ignition system was developed for internal combustion engines. It produces a very-long-duration ignition pulse with an energy in the order of 100 millijoules. The ignition pulse waveform can be controlled to predetermined actual ignition requirements. The design of the sustained-arc ignition system is presented in the report.

  17. Experimental Investigation of Embedded Controlled Diesel Engine

    OpenAIRE

    R.Govindaraju; M.Bharathiraja; Dr. K.Ramani; Dr.K.R.Govindan

    2012-01-01

    Diesel engines are widely used in Automobiles, Agriculture and Power generation sectors in a large scale. The modern techniques have contributed a lot in the saving of fuel in these diesel engines. However, from 1970 onwards the fuel consumption becomes a serious concern because of a manifold increase of automobiles and fast depletion of non renewable sources of energy. Since the fuel injection system plays a major role in the consumption of fuel in diesel engines, various control measures we...

  18. Laser ignited engines: progress, challenges and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearden, Geoff; Shenton, Tom

    2013-11-04

    Laser ignition (LI) has been shown to offer many potential benefits compared to spark ignition (SI) for improving the performance of internal combustion (IC) engines. This paper outlines progress made in recent research on laser ignited IC engines, discusses the potential advantages and control opportunities and considers the challenges faced and prospects for its future implementation. An experimental research effort has been underway at the University of Liverpool (UoL) to extend the stratified speed/load operating region of the gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine through LI research, for which an overview of some of the approaches, testing and results to date are presented. These indicate how LI can be used to improve control of the engine for: leaner operation, reductions in emissions, lower idle speed and improved combustion stability.

  19. Application of Canola Oil Biodiesel/Diesel Blends in a Common Rail Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Cong Ge

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the application effects of canola oil biodiesel/diesel blends in a common rail diesel engine was experimentally investigated. The test fuels were denoted as ULSD (ultra low sulfur diesel, BD20 (20% canola oil blended with 80% ULSD by volume, and PCO (pure canola oil, respectively. These three fuels were tested under an engine speed of 1500 rpm with various brake mean effective pressures (BMEPs. The results indicated that PCO can be used well in the diesel engine without engine modification, and that BD20 can be used as a good alternative fuel to reduce the exhaust pollution. In addition, at low engine loads (0.13 MPa and 0.26 MPa, the combustion pressure of PCO is the smallest, compared with BD20 and ULSD, because the lower calorific value of PCO is lower than that of ULSD. However, at high engine loads (0.39 MPa and 0.52 MPa, the rate of heat release (ROHR of BD20 is the highest because the canola oil biodiesel is an oxygenated fuel that promotes combustion, shortening the ignition delay period. For exhaust emissions, by using canola oil biodiesel, the particulate matter (PM and carbon monoxide (CO emissions were considerably reduced with increased BMEP. The nitrogen oxide (NOx emissions increased only slightly due to the inherent presence of oxygen in biodiesel.

  20. Experimental investigation on performance characteristics of a diesel engine using diesel-water emulsion with oxygen enriched air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Baskar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Diesel engines occupy a crucial position in automobile industry due to their high thermal efficiency and high power to weight ratio. However, they lag behind in controlling air polluting components coming out of the engine exhaust. Therefore, diesel consumption should be analyzed for future energy consumption and this can be primarily controlled by the petroleum fuel substitution techniques for existing diesel engines, which include biodiesel, alcohol-diesel emulsions and diesel water emulsions. Among them the diesel water emulsion is found to be most suitable fuel due to reduction in particulate matter and NOx emission, besides that it also improves the brake thermal efficiency. But the major problem associated with emulsions is the ignition delay, since this is responsible for the power and torque loss. A reduction in NOx emission was observed due to reduction in combustion chamber temperature as the water concentration increases. However the side effect of emulsified diesel is a reduction in power which can be compensated by oxygen enrichment. The present study investigates the effects of oxygen concentration on the performance characteristics of a diesel engine when the intake air is enriched to 27% of oxygen and fueled by 10% of water diesel emulsion. It was found that the brake thermal efficiency was enhanced, combustion characteristics improved and there is also a reduction in HC emissions.

  1. Combustion and emission characteristics of diesel engine fuelled with rice bran oil methyl ester and its diesel blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gattamaneni Rao Narayana Lakshmi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a worldwide interest in searching for alternatives to petroleum-derived fuels due to their depletion as well as due to the concern for the environment. Vegetable oils have capability to solve this problem because they are renewable and lead to reduction in environmental pollution. The direct use of vegetable oils as a diesel engine fuel is possible but not preferable because of their extremely higher viscosity, strong tendency to polymerize and bad cold start properties. On the other hand, Biodiesels, which are derived from vegetable oils, have been recently recognized as a potential alternative to diesel oil. This study deals with the analysis of rice bran oil methyl ester (RBME as a diesel fuel. RBME is derived through the transesterification process, in which the rice bran oil reacts with methanol in the presence of KOH. The properties of RBME thus obtained are comparable with ASTM biodiesel standards. Tests are conducted on a 4.4 kW, single-cylinder, naturally aspirated, direct-injection air-cooled stationary diesel engine to evaluate the feasibility of RBME and its diesel blends as alternate fuels. The ignition delay and peak heat release for RBME and its diesel blends are found to be lower than that of diesel and the ignition delay decreases with increase in RBME in the blend. Maximum heat release is found to occur earlier for RBME and its diesel blends than diesel. As the amount of RBME in the blend increases the HC, CO, and soot concentrations in the exhaust decreased when compared to mineral diesel. The NOx emissions of the RBME and its diesel blends are noted to be slightly higher than that of diesel.

  2. Effects of biobutanol and biobutanol–diesel blends on combustion and emission characteristics in a passenger car diesel engine with pilot injection strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Hyuntae; Choi, Kibong; Lee, Chang Sik

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Effects of biobutanol blends on NOx and soot emission characteristics in a diesel engine. • Comparison of combustion characteristics between biobutanol and diesel fuels. • Effect of pilot injection on combustion and emissions reduction in a diesel engine. - Abstract: In this study, we investigated the effect of biobutanol and biobutanol–diesel blends on the combustion and emission characteristics in a four-cylinder compression ignition engine using pilot injection strategies. The test fuels were a mixture of 10% biobutanol and 90% conventional diesel (Bu10), 20% biobutanol and 80% diesel (Bu20), and 100% diesel fuel (Bu0) based on mass. To study the combustion and emission characteristics of the biobutanol blended fuels, we carried out experimental investigations under various pilot injection timings from BTDC 20° to BTDC 60° with constant main injection timing. As the butanol content in the blended fuel increased, the experimental results indicated that the ignition delay was longer than that of diesel fuel for all pilot injection timings. Also, the indicated specific fuel consumption (ISFC) of the blended fuels was higher than that of diesel at all test conditions. However, the exhaust temperature was lower than that of diesel at all injection timings. Nitrogen oxide (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO) and soot from Bu20 were lower than those from diesel fuel at all test conditions and hydrocarbons (HC) were higher than that from diesel.

  3. Engine performance, combustion, and emissions study of biomass to liquid fuel in a compression-ignition engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogunkoya, Dolanimi; Fang, Tiegang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Renewable biomass to liquid (BTL) fuel was tested in a direct injection diesel engine. • Engine performance, in-cylinder pressure, and exhaust emissions were measured. • BTL fuel reduces pollutant emission for most conditions compared with diesel and biodiesel. • BTL fuel leads to high thermal efficiency and lower fuel consumption compared with diesel and biodiesel. - Abstract: In this work, the effects of diesel, biodiesel and biomass to liquid (BTL) fuels are investigated in a single-cylinder diesel engine at a fixed speed (2000 rpm) and three engine loads corresponding to 0 bar, 1.26 bar and 3.77 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP). The engine performance, in-cylinder combustion, and exhaust emissions were measured. Results show an increase in indicated work for BTL and biodiesel at 1.26 bar and 3.77 bar BMEP when compared to diesel but a decrease at 0 bar. Lower mechanical efficiency was observed for BTL and biodiesel at 1.26 bar BMEP but all three fuels had roughly the same mechanical efficiency at 3.77 bar BMEP. BTL was found to have the lowest brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and the highest brake thermal efficiency (BTE) among the three fuels tested. Combustion profiles for the three fuels were observed to vary depending on the engine load. Biodiesel was seen to have the shortest ignition delay among the three fuels regardless of engine loads. Diesel had the longest ignition delay at 0 bar and 3.77 bar BMEP but had the same ignition delay as BTL at 1.26 bar BMEP. At 1.26 bar and 3.77 bar BMEP, BTL had the lowest HC emissions but highest HC emissions at no load conditions when compared to biodiesel and diesel. When compared to diesel and biodiesel BTL had lower CO and CO 2 emissions. At 0 bar and 1.26 bar BMEP, BTL had higher NOx emissions than diesel fuel but lower NOx than biodiesel at no load conditions. At the highest engine load tested, NOx emissions were observed to be highest for diesel fuel but lowest for BTL. At 1

  4. Performance and emission studies on port injection of hydrogen with varied flow rates with Diesel as an ignition source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saravanan, N.; Nagarajan, G.

    2010-01-01

    Automobiles are one of the major sources of air pollution in the environment. In addition CO 2 emission, a product of complete combustion also has become a serious issue due to global warming effect. Hence the search for cleaner alternative fuels has become mandatory. Hydrogen is expected to be one of the most important fuels in the near future for solving the problems of air pollution and greenhouse gas problems (carbon dioxide), thereby protecting the environment. Hence in the present work, an experimental investigation has been carried out using hydrogen in the dual fuel mode in a Diesel engine system. In the study, a Diesel engine was converted into a dual fuel engine and hydrogen fuel was injected into the intake port while Diesel was injected directly inside the combustion chamber during the compression stroke. Diesel injected inside the combustion chamber will undergo combustion first which in-turn would ignite the hydrogen that will also assist the Diesel combustion. Using electronic control unit (ECU), the injection timings and injection durations were varied for hydrogen injection while for Diesel the injection timing was 23 o crank angle (CA) before injection top dead centre (BITDC). Based on the performance, combustion and emission characteristics, the optimized injection timing was found to be 5 o CA before gas exchange top dead centre (BGTDC) with injection duration of 30 o CA for hydrogen Diesel dual fuel operation. The optimum hydrogen flow rate was found to be 7.5 lpm. Results indicate that the brake thermal efficiency in hydrogen Diesel dual fuel operation increases by 15% compared to Diesel fuel at 75% load. The NO X emissions were higher by 1-2% in dual fuel operation at full load compared to Diesel. Smoke emissions are lower in the entire load spectra due to the absence of carbon in hydrogen fuel. The carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions were lesser in hydrogen Diesel dual fuel operation compared to Diesel. The use of hydrogen

  5. Hot surface assisted compression ignition in a direct injection natural gas engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aesoey, Vilmar

    1996-12-31

    This study investigates the problem of ignition in a direct injection natural gas engine. Due to poor auto-ignition properties of natural gas compared to regular diesel engine fuels, a special arrangement to assist and secure ignition is required. The objective was to investigate the feasibility of using a hot surface as ignition assistance, primarily for application in medium and large size engines, and further study the main mechanisms involved in the ignition process. A constant volume combustion bomb and a test engine are used for experiments, supported by theoretical analysis and numerical simulations. Variable composition of natural gas depending on the gas source and over time, is a important problem causing significant variation in ignition properties. It is shown that even small quantities of non-methane components, which are normally present in natural gases, strongly influence ignition. Actions to handle the ignition problem caused by variable natural composition, are also discussed. In order to estimate the ignition properties of natural gas, a simple correlation to gas composition is proposed, showing good correlation to the experimental data. Mathematical models for simulation of the processes are developed based on fundamental physical relations and experimental results. They are mainly used in this study to support and analyze the physical experiments, but can also be useful in future design and optimization processes. 71 refs., 80 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Chaotic combustion in spark ignition engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendeker, Miroslaw; Czarnigowski, Jacek; Litak, Grzegorz; Szabelski, Kazimierz

    2003-01-01

    We analyse the combustion process in a spark ignition engine using the experimental data of an internal pressure during the combustion process and show that the system can be driven to chaotic behaviour. Our conclusion is based on the observation of unperiodicity in the time series, suitable stroboscopic maps and a complex structure of a reconstructed strange attractor. This analysis can explain that in some circumstances the level of noise in spark ignition engines increases considerably due to nonlinear dynamics of a combustion process

  7. Performance of bio fuels in diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez I, Manuel L; Prada V, Laura P

    2007-01-01

    This paper shows the preliminary results of pilot plant tests developed in oil catalytic hydrotreating process, where the crude palm oil or a mixture of crude palm oil and mineral diesel is treated with an injection of 99% pure hydrogen flux, in a fixed bed reactor at high pressures and temperatures, in a presence of Nickel Molybdenum catalyst supported on alumina bed. The main product of this process is a fuel (bio diesel) which has the same or better properties than the diesel obtained by petroleum refining. It has been made some performance fuel tests in diesel engine? with good results in terms of power, torque and fuel consumption, without any changes in engine configuration. Considering the characteristics of the Catalytic hydrotreated bio diesel compare to conventional diesel, both fuels have similar distillation range? however, bio diesel has better flash point, cetane index and thermal stability. Gas fuels (methane, ethane, and propane) CO 2 and water are the secondary products of the process.

  8. Diesel and gas engines: evolution facing new regulations; Moteurs diesel et gaz: evolution face aux nouvelles reglementations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daverat, Ph. [Bergetat Monnoyeur (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper analyzes the influence of new pollution regulations on the new design of diesel and gas engines with the example of Caterpillar`s experience, one of the leaders of diesel and gas engines manufacturers worldwide. The technical problems to solve are introduced first (reduction of NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, CO, unburned compounds and dusts), and then the evolution of engines and of exhaust gas treatment systems are described (fuel injection systems, combustion and ignition control, sensors, catalytic conversion and filtering systems). (J.S.)

  9. The Diesel as a Vehicle Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Kurt

    1928-01-01

    The thorough investigation of a Dorner four-cylinder, four-stroke-cycle Diesel engine with mechanical injection led me to investigate more thoroughly the operation of the Diesel as a vehicle engine. Aside from the obvious need of reliability of functioning, a high rotative speed, light weight and economy in heat consumption per horsepower are also indispensable requirements.

  10. Displacing the dinosaurs. [Diesel engine electric generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1992-05-01

    This article describes how giant power stations are being replaced by smaller, cleaner units. These include plants using combined-cycle gas turbines and diesel engines of low, medium and high speeds. The use of these diesel engines in power generation is discussed. (UK).

  11. US Department of Energy - Office of FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies and US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Inter-Agency Agreement Research on "The Analysis of Genotoxic Activities of Exhaust Emissions from Mobile Natural Gas, Diesel, and Spark-Ignition Engines"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William E. Wallace

    2006-09-30

    The US Department of Energy-Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (now the DOE-Office of FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies) signed an Interagency Agreement (IAA) with National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), No.01-15 DOE, 9/4/01, for 'The analysis of genotoxic activities of exhaust emissions from mobile natural gas, diesel, and spark-ignition engines'; subsequently modified on 3/27/02 (DOE IAG No.01-15-02M1); subsequently modified 9/02/03 (IAA Mod No. 01-15-03M1), as 'The analysis of genotoxic activities of exhaust emissions from mobile internal combustion engines: identification of engine design and operational parameters controlling exhaust genotoxicity'. The DOE Award/Contract number was DE-AI26-01CH11089. The IAA ended 9/30/06. This is the final summary technical report of National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health research performed with the US Department of Energy-Office of FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies under that IAA: (A) NIOSH participation was requested by the DOE to provide in vitro genotoxicity assays of the organic solvent extracts of exhaust emissions from a suite of in-use diesel or spark-ignition vehicles; (B) research also was directed to develop and apply genotoxicity assays to the particulate phase of diesel exhaust, exploiting the NIOSH finding of genotoxicity expression by diesel exhaust particulate matter dispersed into the primary components of the surfactant coating the surface of the deep lung; (C) from the surfactant-dispersed DPM genotoxicity findings, the need for direct collection of DPM aerosols into surfactant for bioassay was recognized, and design and developmental testing of such samplers was initiated.

  12. Numerical Modeling of a Jet Ignition Direct Injection (JI DI LPG Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Boretti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents indirectly validated simulations of the operation of a LPG engine fitted with Direct Injection (DI and Jet Ignition (JI. It is demonstrated that the engine may have diesel like efficiencies and load control by quantity of fuel injected.  As the liquid propane quickly evaporates after injection in the main chamber, the main chamber mixture may be much closer to stoichiometry than a diesel for a better specific power at low engine speeds. This design also works at the high engine speeds impossible for the diesel, as combustion within the main chamber is controlled by the turbulent mixing rather than the vaporization and diffusion processes of the injected fuel of the diesel

  13. Diesel engine catalytic combustor system. [aircraft engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ream, L. W. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A low compression turbocharged diesel engine is provided in which the turbocharger can be operated independently of the engine to power auxiliary equipment. Fuel and air are burned in a catalytic combustor to drive the turbine wheel of turbine section which is initially caused to rotate by starter motor. By opening a flapper value, compressed air from the blower section is directed to catalytic combustor when it is heated and expanded, serving to drive the turbine wheel and also to heat the catalytic element. To start, engine valve is closed, combustion is terminated in catalytic combustor, and the valve is then opened to utilize air from the blower for the air driven motor. When the engine starts, the constituents in its exhaust gas react in the catalytic element and the heat generated provides additional energy for the turbine section.

  14. Fuel quantity modulation in pilot ignited engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Andrew

    2006-05-16

    An engine system includes a first fuel regulator adapted to control an amount of a first fuel supplied to the engine, a second fuel regulator adapted to control an amount of a second fuel supplied to the engine concurrently with the first fuel being supplied to the engine, and a controller coupled to at least the second fuel regulator. The controller is adapted to determine the amount of the second fuel supplied to the engine in a relationship to the amount of the first fuel supplied to the engine to operate in igniting the first fuel at a specified time in steady state engine operation and adapted to determine the amount of the second fuel supplied to the engine in a manner different from the relationship at steady state engine operation in transient engine operation.

  15. 30 CFR 250.510 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.510 Section 250... engine air intakes. Diesel engine air intakes must be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel engines that are continuously attended must be equipped with...

  16. 30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section 250... engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel engines which are continuously...

  17. Effect of biodiesel on the performance and combustion parameters of a turbocharged compression ignition engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, A.N.; Baluch, A.H.; Chao, H.

    2009-01-01

    Direct injection compression ignition engines have proved to be the best option in heavy duty applications like transportation and power generation ,but rapid depleting sources of conventional fossil fuels, their rising prices and ever increasing environmental issues are the major concerns. Alternative fuels, particularly bio fuels are receiving increasing attention during the last few years. Biodiesel has already been commercialized in the transport sector. In the present work, a turbocharged intercooled and DI diesel engine has been alternatively fuelled with biodiesel and its 20% blend with commercial diesel. The experimental results show that BSFC, maximum combustion pressure and start of injection angle increase; on the other hand BSEC, maximum rate of pressure rise, ignition lag and premixed combustion amount decrease however HRR duration remains almost unaffected in the case of biodiesel as compared to commercial diesel. (author)

  18. Plasma igniter for internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, D. J.; Breshears, R. R. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An igniter for the air/fuel mixture used in the cylinders of an internal combustion engine is described. A conventional spark is used to initiate the discharge of a large amount of energy stored in a capacitor. A high current discharge of the energy in the capacitor switched on by a spark discharge produces a plasma and a magnetic field. The resultant combined electromagnetic current and magnetic field force accelerates the plasma deep into the combustion chamber thereby providing an improved ignition of the air/fuel mixture in the chamber.

  19. Prechamber Compression-Ignition Engine Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Charles S; Collins, John H , Jr

    1938-01-01

    Single-cylinder compression-ignition engine tests were made to investigate the performance characteristics of prechamber type of cylinder head. Certain fundamental variables influencing engine performance -- clearance distribution, size, shape, and direction of the passage connecting the cylinder and prechamber, shape of prechamber, cylinder clearance, compression ratio, and boosting -- were independently tested. Results of motoring and of power tests, including several typical indicator cards, are presented.

  20. Ignition device for an internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokura, N.; Kawa, H.; Goto, M.; Morino, S.; Soumiya, M.

    1987-10-27

    An ignition device for an internal combustion engine is described comprising: a direct current power source providing a direct current voltage; an ignition coil having first, second and third primary coils and a secondary coil; a first switching element forming a first closed circuit together with the direct current power source and the first primary coil; a second switching element forming a second closed circuit together with the direct current power source and the second primary coil; a reverse current-flow preventive element defining a current-flow direction in one direction in the first and second closed circuits; current detection elements for detecting current-flow in the first and second closed circuits; a third switching element forming a third closed circuit together with the direct current power source and the first and third primary coils; an ignition command signals and a control circuit for causing the first and second switching elements to push-pull operate.

  1. METHODS FOR ORGANIZATION OF WORKING PROCESS FOR GAS-DIESEL ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Vershina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few decades reduction in pollutant emissions has become one of the main directions for further deve- lopment of engine technology. Solution of such problems has led to implementation of catalytic post-treatment systems, new technologies of fuel injection, technology for regulated phases of gas distribution, regulated turbocharger system and, lately, even system for variable compression ratio of engine. Usage of gaseous fuel, in particular gas-diesel process, may be one of the means to reduce air pollution caused by toxic substances and meet growing environmental standards and regulations. In this regard, an analysis of methods for organization of working process for a gas-diesel engine has been conducted in the paper. The paper describes parameters that influence on the nature of gas diesel process, it contains graphics of specific total heat consumption according to ignition portion of diesel fuel and dependence of gas-diesel indices on advance angle for igni-tion portion injection of the diesel fuel. A modern fuel system of gas-diesel engine ГД-243 has been demonstrated in the pa- per. The gas-diesel engine has better environmental characteristics than engines running on diesel fuel or gasoline. According to the European Natural & bio Gas Vehicle Association a significant reduction in emissions is reached at a 50%-substitution level of diesel fuel by gas fuel (methane and in such a case there is a tendency towards even significant emission decrease. In order to ensure widespread application of gaseous fuel as fuel for gas-diesel process it is necessary to develop a new wor- king process, to improve fuel equipment, to enhance injection strategy and fuel supply control. A method for organization of working process for multi-fuel engine has been proposed on the basis of the performed analysis. An application has been submitted for a patent.

  2. Diesel and gas engines: evolution following new regulations; Moteurs diesel et gaz: evolution face aux nouvelles reglementations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deverat, Ph. [Bergerat Monnoyeur (France). Direction Industrie

    1997-12-31

    Engine emissions of CO, NMHC and ashes are easily lowered through a low-cost exhaust gas processing, while NOx processing in fumes is rather complex and environmentally hazardous; thus, engine manufacturers have emphasized their researches for NOx decrease on the engine design: lower combustion temperature in diesel engines through water cooling or air/air exchanger, lean mixture with excess air (open chamber or pre-chamber) in spark ignition gas engines. Examples of modifications in Caterpillar engines are given. Exhaust gas processing for CO, NMHC, NOx (3 way catalytic purifier, selective catalytic reduction) and ashes is also discussed

  3. Multimodel Control of Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirstoiu, Silviu; Popescu, Dumitru; Dimon, Catalin; Olteanu, Severus

    2017-01-01

    In this article it is proposed and designed a modern control configuration of the type multicontroler-multimodel (MM) that pilots the nonlinear combustion process of the Diesel engine, needed to adjust the pressure in the intake manifold and the airflow circulating through the compressor. The MM simulator developed by the authors allows the implementation of control systems represented by pairs (Mi, Ci) with the Mi candidate closest to the current operating point of the process and the paired controller Ri, for controlling the key parameters of the combustion process. The proposed configuration is built with robust controllers and thus it is able to ensure superior performance, tolerance to nonlinearities and parametric and structural perturbations in the system.

  4. Analysis of noise emitted from diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, S.

    2015-12-01

    In this work combustion noise produced in diesel engines has been investigated. In order to reduce the exhaust emissions various injection parameters need to be studied and optimized. The noise has been investigated by mean of data obtained from cylinder pressure measurements using piezo electric transducers and microphones on a dual cylinder diesel engine test rig. The engine was run under various operating conditions varying various injection parameters to investigate the effects of noise emissions under various testing conditions.

  5. Numerical investigation of the impact of gas composition on the combustion process in a dual-fuel compression-ignition engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mikulski, M.; Wierzbicki, S.

    2016-01-01

    This study discusses the model of operation of a dual-fuel compression-ignition engine, powered by gaseous fuel with an initial dose of diesel fuel as the ignition inhibitor. The study used a zero-dimensional multiphase mathematical model of a dual-fuel engine to simulate the impact of enhancing

  6. Characterization of Diesel and Gasoline Compression Ignition Combustion in a Rapid Compression-Expansion Machine using OH* Chemiluminescence Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Sundar Rajan; Srinivasan, Kalyan Kumar; Stegmeir, Matthew

    2015-11-01

    Direct-injection compression ignition combustion of diesel and gasoline were studied in a rapid compression-expansion machine (RCEM) using high-speed OH* chemiluminescence imaging. The RCEM (bore = 84 mm, stroke = 110-250 mm) was used to simulate engine-like operating conditions at the start of fuel injection. The fuels were supplied by a high-pressure fuel cart with an air-over-fuel pressure amplification system capable of providing fuel injection pressures up to 2000 bar. A production diesel fuel injector was modified to provide a single fuel spray for both diesel and gasoline operation. Time-resolved combustion pressure in the RCEM was measured using a Kistler piezoelectric pressure transducer mounted on the cylinder head and the instantaneous piston displacement was measured using an inductive linear displacement sensor (0.05 mm resolution). Time-resolved, line-of-sight OH* chemiluminescence images were obtained using a Phantom V611 CMOS camera (20.9 kHz @ 512 x 512 pixel resolution, ~ 48 μs time resolution) coupled with a short wave pass filter (cut-off ~ 348 nm). The instantaneous OH* distributions, which indicate high temperature flame regions within the combustion chamber, were used to discern the characteristic differences between diesel and gasoline compression ignition combustion. The authors gratefully acknowledge facilities support for the present work from the Energy Institute at Mississippi State University.

  7. BENEFITS AND CHALLENGES OF VARIABLE COMPRESSION RATIO AT DIESEL ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radivoje B Pešić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The compression ratio strongly affects the working process and provides an exceptional degree of control over engine performance. In conventional internal combustion engines, the compression ratio is fixed and their performance is therefore a compromise between conflicting requirements. One fundamental problem is that drive units in the vehicles must successfully operate at variable speeds and loads and in different ambient conditions. If a diesel engine has a fixed compression ratio, a minimal value must be chosen that can achieve a reliable self-ignition when starting the engine in cold start conditions. In diesel engines, variable compression ratio provides control of peak cylinder pressure, improves cold start ability and low load operation, enabling the multi-fuel capability, increase of fuel economy and reduction of emissions. This paper contains both theoretical and experimental investigation of the impact that automatic variable compression ratios has on working process parameters in experimental diesel engine. Alternative methods of implementing variable compression ratio are illustrated and critically examined.

  8. Diesel engine emission deterioration - a preliminary study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pretorius, Cecilia J

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to find a parameter in diesel and oil analysis of underground mining vehicles that can be correlated with personal diesel particulate matter (DPM) exposure and used as part of an engine maintenance programme. A number...

  9. Experimental studies on natural aspirated diesel engine fuelled with corn seed oil methyl ester as a bio-diesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rama Krishna Reddy, E.; Dhana Raju, V.

    2018-03-01

    This paper evaluates the possibilities of using corn seed oil methyl ester as a fuel for compression ignition engines. The biodiesels are contained high oxygen content, and high Cetane number, due to this properties efficiency of biodiesel is higher than diesel fuel. The experiments were conducted with different biodiesel blends of (B10, B15, B20 and B25) corn seed oil on single cylinder four stroke natural aspirated diesel engines. Performance parameters and exhaust emissions are investigated in this experimental with the blends of the corn seed oil methyl ester and diesel fuel. The test results showed that the bio-diesel blends gives improved results for brake thermal efficiency and specific fuel consumption when compared with the diesel fuel. The emissions of corn seed methyl esters follow the same trend of diesel but the smoke opacity was reduces for all blends. From the investigation, corn seed methyl ester is also having the properties similar to diesel fuel; it is biodegradable and renewable fuel, so it will be used as an alternative for diesel fuel.

  10. Caracterización de un motor diesel trabajando con mezclas de aceite de Jatropha y combustible diesel ; Characterization of a diesel engine fueled with Jatropha oil and diesel fuel blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Errasti Cabrera

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo caracterizar el desempeño de un motor diesel en cuanto a sus prestaciones y al retardo de la ignición, al operar bajo diferentes regímenes de carga, empleando mezclas de aceite de Jatropha y combustible diesel. Para esto se determinó la característica exterior de velocidad al emplear las mezclas, y se compararon estos resultados con los obtenidos durante los ensayos con combustible diesel patrón; estableciendo el grado de afectación del motor al sustituir parte del combustible diesel por aceite de Jatropha. Se observó una disminución del torque y la potencia efectiva, y un aumento del consumo específico de combustible al emplear un mayor porciento de aceite de Jatropha en las mezclas. Por otra parte, en comparación con el combustible diesel, el retardo de la ignición no mostró una variación significativa al emplear las mezclas de aceite de Jatropha y combustible diesel.The present study aims to characterize the benefits of a diesel engine in terms of performance and ignition delay, operating under different loading regimes, using Jatropha oil and diesel fuel blends. We determined the speed exterior feature when using mixtures, and compared these results with those obtained during tests with standard diesel fuel, establishing the degree of involvement of the engine to replace some diesel fuel for Jatropha oil. There was a decrease in the torque and effective power, and increased specific fuel consumption by using a higher percentage of Jatropha oil in blends. Moreover, compared to diesel fuel, the ignition delay showed no significant variation by employing Jatropha oil and diesel fuel blends.

  11. 14 CFR 23.1165 - Engine ignition systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... supplemented by a generator that is automatically available as an alternate source of electrical energy to... ignition. (e) Each turbine engine ignition system must be independent of any electrical circuit that is not... generators must be large enough to meet the simultaneous demands of the engine ignition system and the...

  12. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT VII, ENGINE TUNE-UP--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF TUNE-UP PROCEDURES FOR DIESEL ENGINES. TOPICS ARE SCHEDULING TUNE-UPS, AND TUNE-UP PROCEDURES. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING FILM "ENGINE TUNE-UP--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINE" AND OTHER MATERIALS. SEE VT 005 655 FOR FURTHER INFORMATION.…

  13. Aqueous Ethanol Ignition and Engine Studies, Phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Our objectives were to design a micro-dilution tunnel for monitoring engine emissions, measure ignition temperature and heat release from ethanol-water-air mixtures on platinum, and initiate a computational fluid dynamics model of a catalytic igniter...

  14. 3rd Conference on Ignition Systems for Gasoline Engines

    CERN Document Server

    Sens, Marc

    2017-01-01

    The volume includes selected and reviewed papers from the 3rd Conference on Ignition Systems for Gasoline Engines in Berlin in November 2016. Experts from industry and universities discuss in their papers the challenges to ignition systems in providing reliable, precise ignition in the light of a wide spread in mixture quality, high exhaust gas recirculation rates and high cylinder pressures. Classic spark plug ignition as well as alternative ignition systems are assessed, the ignition system being one of the key technologies to further optimizing the gasoline engine.

  15. THE EFFECT OF KARANJA OIL METHYL ESTER ON KIRLOSKAR HA394DI DIESEL ENGINE PERFORMANCE AND EXHAUST EMISSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharanappa K Godiganur

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels are being investigated as potential substitutes for current high pollutant fuels obtained from the conventional sources. The primary problem associated with using straight vegetable oil as fuel in a compression ignition engine is caused by viscosity. The process of transesterifiction of vegetable oil with methyl alcohol provides a significant reduction in viscosity, thereby enhancing the physical properties of vegetable oil. The Kirloskar HA394 compression ignition, multi cylinder diesel engine does not require any modification to replace diesel by karanja methyl ester. Biodiesel can be used in its pure form or can be blended with diesel to form different blends. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the potential of karanja oil methyl ester and its blend with diesel from 20% to 80% by volume. Engine performance and exhaust emissions were investigated and compared with the ordinary diesel fuel in a diesel engine. The experimental results show that the engine power of the mixture is closed to the values obtained from diesel fuel and the amounts of exhaust emissions are lower than those of diesel fuel. Hence, it is seen that the blend of karanja ester and diesel fuel can be used as an alternative successfully in a diesel engine without any modification and in terms of emission parameters; it is an environmental friendly fuel

  16. Performance and emission analysis of cottonseed oil methyl ester in a diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydin, Hueseyin [Department of Automotive, Faculty of Technical Education, Batman University, Batman 72060 (Turkey); Bayindir, Hasan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Dicle University, Diyarbakir, 21280 (Turkey)

    2010-03-15

    In this study, performance and emissions of cottonseed oil methyl ester in a diesel engine was experimentally investigated. For the study, cottonseed oil methyl ester (CSOME) was added to diesel fuel, numbered D2, by volume of 5%(B5), 20%(B20), 50%(B50) and 75%(B75) as well as pure CSOME (B100). Fuels were tested in a single cylinder, direct injection, air cooled diesel engine. The effects of CSOME-diesel blends on engine performance and exhaust emissions were examined at various engine speeds and full loaded engine. The effect of B5, B20, B50, B75, B100 and D2 on the engine power, engine torque, bsfc's and exhaust gasses temperature were clarified by the performance tests. The influences of blends on CO, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2} and smoke opacity were investigated by emission tests. The experimental results showed that the use of the lower blends (B5) slightly increases the engine torque at medium and higher speeds in compression ignition engines. However, there were no significant differences in performance values of B5, B20 and diesel fuel. Also with the increase of the biodiesel in blends, the exhaust emissions were reduced. The experimental results showed that the lower contents of CSOME in the blends can partially be substituted for the diesel fuel without any modifications in diesel engines. (author)

  17. Engine performance and emissions characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with diesel-biodiesel-bioethanol emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Yie Hua; Abdullah, Mohammad Omar; Nolasco-Hipolito, Cirilo; Zauzi, Nur Syuhada Ahmad; Abdullah, Georgie Wong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Different composition of diesel fuel, biodiesel and bioethanol emulsions were examined. • The fuels were tested in a direct injection diesel engine and parameters were evaluated. • Engine power, torque, exhaust gas temperature & fuel consumptions were compared. • Emulsions fuels emitted lower CO and CO 2 than fossil diesel. • Lower NOx emission was observed at medium engine speeds and loads for emulsion fuels. - Abstract: In this research work, the experimental investigation of the effect of diesel-biodiesel-bioethanol emulsion fuels on combustion, performance and emission of a direct injection (DI) diesel engine are reported. Four kind of emulsion fuels were employed: B (diesel-80%, biodiesel-20% by volume), C (diesel-80%, biodiesel-15%, bioethanol-5%), D (diesel-80%, biodiesel-10%, bioethanol-10%) and E (diesel-80%, biodiesel-5%, bioethanol-15%) to compare its’ performance with the conventional diesel, A. These emulsion fuels were prepared by mechanical homogenizer machine with the help of Tween 80 (1% v/v) and Span 80 (0.5% v/v) as surfactants. The emulsion characteristics were determined by optical electron microscope, emulsification stability test, FTIR, and the physiochemical properties of the emulsion fuels which were all done by following ASTM test methods. The prepared emulsion fuels were then tested in diesel engine test bed to obtain engine performance and exhaust emissions. All the engine experiments were conducted with engine speeds varying from 1600 to 2400 rpm. The results showed the heating value and density of the emulsion fuels decrease as the bioethanol content in the blend increases. The total heating value of the diesel-biodiesel-bioethanol fuels were averagely 21% higher than the total heating value of the pure biodiesel and slightly lower (2%) than diesel fuel. The engine power, torque and exhaust gas temperature were reduced when using emulsion fuels. The brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) for the emulsion fuels

  18. Results of experiments with flare type igniters on diesel fuel and crude oil emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moffat, C.; Hankins, P.

    1997-01-01

    Development of a hand-deployable igniter that could ignite contained diesel fuel and crude oil emulsions on water was described. The igniter was developed as part of the U.S. Navy Supervisor of Salvage (SUPSALV) In-Situ Burn (ISB) system. It is a manually operated, electrically fired, high temperature flare type igniter. It is 41 cm long, 10 cm in diameter, weighs 1.5 kg, and is packaged and shipped with the ISB system. The chemical and mineral composition of the flair allows for a three minute burn of up to 1370 degrees C (2500 degrees F) at the center. The flare is most effective when used in conjunction with a shroud of sorbent material which traps and holds oil around the burning flare aiding the ignition process by increasing the initial propagation area. In small-scale tank experiments the flare ignited diesel fuel in ambient temperatures of 3 degrees C, with winds of 8 to 10 m/sec. The flare also ignited 22.5 per cent water-in crude oil emulsion in 3 degrees C temperatures. 4 refs., 3 tabs

  19. Gasoline compression ignition approach to efficient, clean and affordable future engines

    KAUST Repository

    Kalghatgi, Gautam

    2017-04-03

    The worldwide demand for transport fuels will increase significantly but will still be met substantially (a share of around 90%) from petroleum-based fuels. This increase in demand will be significantly skewed towards commercial vehicles and hence towards diesel and jet fuels, leading to a probable surplus of lighter low-octane fuels. Current diesel engines are efficient but expensive and complicated because they try to reduce the nitrogen oxide and soot emissions simultaneously while using conventional diesel fuels which ignite very easily. Gasoline compression ignition engines can be run on gasoline-like fuels with a long ignition delay to make low-nitrogen-oxide low-soot combustion very much easier. Moreover, the research octane number of the optimum fuel for gasoline compression ignition engines is likely to be around 70 and hence the surplus low-octane components could be used without much further processing. Also, the final boiling point can be higher than those of current gasolines. The potential advantages of gasoline compression ignition engines are as follows. First, the engine is at least as efficient and clean as current diesel engines but is less complicated and hence could be cheaper (lower injection pressure and after-treatment focus on control of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions rather than on soot and nitrogen oxide emissions). Second, the optimum fuel requires less processing and hence would be easier to make in comparison with current gasoline or diesel fuel and will have a lower greenhouse-gas footprint. Third, it provides a path to mitigate the global demand imbalance between heavier fuels and lighter fuels that is otherwise projected and improve the sustainability of refineries. The concept has been well demonstrated in research engines but development work is needed to make it feasible on practical vehicles, e.g. on cold start, adequate control of exhaust carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons and control of noise at medium to high loads

  20. Heat Transfer in Two-Stroke Diesel Engines for Large Ship Propulsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Caspar Ask

    Demands on reducing the fuel consumption and harmful emissions from the compression ignition engines (diesel engines) have been continuously increasing in recent years. To comply with this, better modeling tools for the diesel combustion process are desired from the engine developers. A very...... important aspect is determining the temperature distributions in and around the combustion chamber since they are important for determining the boundary conditions of the detailed computer models of the chemical and physical processes in the engine cylinder. Furthermore, the temperature information is very...

  1. Engine performance and emissions using Jatropha curcas, Ceiba pentandra and Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel in a CI diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ong, Hwai Chyuan; Masjuki, H.H.; Mahlia, T.M.I.; Silitonga, A.S.; Chong, W.T.; Yusaf, Talal

    2014-01-01

    Biodiesel is a recognized replacement for diesel fuel in compressed ignition engines due to its significant environmental benefits. The purpose of this study is to investigate the engine performance and emissions produced from Jatropha curcas, Ceiba pentandra and Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel in compressed ignition engine. The biodiesel production process and properties are discussed and a comparison of the three biodiesels as well as diesel fuel is undertaken. After that, engine performance and emissions testing was conducted using biodiesel blends 10%, 20%, 30% and 50% in a diesel engine at full throttle load. The engine performance shows that those biodiesel blends are suitable for use in diesel engines. A 10% biodiesel blend shows the best engine performance in terms of engine torque, engine power, fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency among the all blending ratios for the three biodiesel blends. Biodiesel blends have also shown a significant reduction in CO 2 , CO and smoke opacity with a slight increase in NO x emissions. - Highlights: • The properties of JCME, CPME and CIME fulfill ASTM standard. • Engine performance and emission was conducted for JCME, CPME and CIME. • The B10 is the best engine performance and reduce in exhaust emission

  2. Characterization and effect of using Mahua oil biodiesel as fuel in compression ignition engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapilan, N.; Ashok Babu, T. P.; Reddy, R. P.

    2009-12-01

    There is an increasing interest in India, to search for suitable alternative fuels that are environment friendly. This led to the choice of Mahua Oil (MO) as one of the main alternative fuels to diesel. In this investigation, Mahua Oil Biodiesel (MOB) and its blend with diesel were used as fuel in a single cylinder, direct injection and compression ignition engine. The MOB was prepared from MO by transesterification using methanol and potassium hydroxide. The fuel properties of MOB are close to the diesel and confirm to the ASTM standards. From the engine test analysis, it was observed that the MOB, B5 and B20 blend results in lower CO, HC and smoke emissions as compared to diesel. But the B5 and B20 blends results in higher efficiency as compared to MOB. Hence MOB or blends of MOB and diesel (B5 or B20) can be used as a substitute for diesel in diesel engines used in transportation as well as in the agriculture sector.

  3. Technical feasibility assessment of oleic sunflower methyl ester utilisation in Diesel bus engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neto da Silva, Fernando; Salgado Prata, Antonio; Rocha Teixeira, Jorge

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the results obtained while testing the technical feasibility of using oleic sunflower methyl ester (SME) blended with Diesel fuel in proportions up to 30% in an unmodified Diesel bus engine. Vegetable oils methyl esters blended with Diesel oil are commonly used in compression ignition engines. However, R and D background information on the practical use of traditional sunflower oil derivatives is sparse. The present results include evaluation of the engine performance and fuel consumption and gaseous concentrations (CO and NO X ) in the exhaust gas. The exhaust gas opacity while using Diesel/SME blends and Diesel fuel was also compared. The collected data show that oleic SME utilisation did not lead to a deterioration of engine performance or to an increase in fuel consumption. Furthermore, significant increases of NO X and CO concentrations in the exhaust gas derived from SME utilisation were not detected. The smoke opacity was slightly reduced when SME was used in the proportion of 30%. The experimental testing seems to indicate that oleic SME is a suitable replacement for Diesel fuel and can be used safely in compression ignition engines in proportions as high as 30%

  4. Key fuel properties and engine performances of diesel-ethanol blends, using tetrahydrofuran as surfactant additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molea, A.; Visuian, P.; Barabás, I.; Suciu, R. C.; Burnete, N. V.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper there were presented researches related to preparation and characterization of physicochemical properties of diesel-ethanol blends stabilized with tetrahydrofuran as surfactant, in order to be used as fuels in compression ignition engines. The main spray characteristics and engine performances of these blends were evaluated by using AVL Fire software. In the first stage of the studies, commercial diesel was mixed with ethanol, in different concentrations (between 2% and 15% v/v), followed by the addition of tetrahydrofuran (THF) until the blends were miscible, i.e. the blends were stabilized. The experiments were done at room temperature (22 °C). The obtained blends were characterized in order to determine the chemical composition and physicochemical properties, i.e. density, kinematic viscosity, surface tension. UV-Vis spectroscopy was utilized in order to determine a semi-quantitative evaluation regarding the chemical composition of the prepared blends and chemical interaction between diesel, ethanol and THF. Based on the determined properties, the fuel spray characteristics, engine performances and emission characteristics were evaluated by simulation using the AVL Fire software. The obtained results regarding physicochemical properties of blends were compared with diesel. Some improvements were observed when operating with the prepared blends compared to diesel with respect to engine performances and emission characteristics. Based on physicochemical evaluation and computer simulation, it was demonstrated that diesel-ethanol-tetrahydrofuran blends can be used as alternative fuel in compression ignition engines.

  5. Ethanol-fueled low temperature combustion: A pathway to clean and efficient diesel engine cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asad, Usman; Kumar, Raj; Zheng, Ming; Tjong, Jimi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Concept of ethanol–diesel fueled Premixed Pilot Assisted Combustion (PPAC). • Ultra-low NOx and soot with diesel-like thermal efficiency across the load range. • Close to TDC pilot injection timing for direct combustion phasing control. • Minimum pilot quantity (15% of total energy input) for clean, stable operation. • Defined heat release profile distribution (HRPD) to optimize pilot-ethanol ratio. - Abstract: Low temperature combustion (LTC) in diesel engines offers the benefits of ultra-low NOx and smoke emissions but suffers from lowered energy efficiency due to the high reactivity and low volatility of diesel fuel. Ethanol from renewable biomass provides a viable alternate to the petroleum based transportation fuels. The high resistance to auto-ignition (low reactivity) and its high volatility make ethanol a suitable fuel for low temperature combustion (LTC) in compression-ignition engines. In this work, a Premixed Pilot Assisted Combustion (PPAC) strategy comprising of the port fuel injection of ethanol, ignited with a single diesel pilot injection near the top dead centre has been investigated on a single-cylinder high compression ratio diesel engine. The impact of the diesel pilot injection timing, ethanol to diesel quantity ratio and exhaust gas recirculation on the emissions and efficiency are studied at 10 bar IMEP. With the lessons learnt, successful ethanol–diesel PPAC has been demonstrated up to a load of 18 bar IMEP with ultra-low NOx and soot emissions across the full load range. The main challenge of PPAC is the reduced combustion efficiency especially at low loads; therefore, the authors have presented a combustion control strategy to allow high efficiency, clean combustion across the load range. This work entails to provide a detailed framework for the ethanol-fueled PPAC to be successfully implemented.

  6. Effect of hydrogen-diesel combustion on the performance and combustion parameters of a dual fuelled diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, P.K.; Banerjee, Rahul; Deb, Madhujit [Mechanical Engineering Department, National Institute of Technology, Agartala, Tripura-799055 (India)

    2013-07-01

    Petroleum crude is expected to remain main source of transport fuels at least for the next 20 to 30 years. The petroleum crude reserves however, are declining and consumption of transport fuels particularly in the developing countries is increasing at high rates. Severe shortage of liquid fuels derived from petroleum may be faced in the second half of this century. In this paper, experiments are performed in a fur stroke, single cylinder, compression ignition diesel engine with dual fuel mode. Diesel and hydrogen are used as pilot liquid and primary gaseous fuel, respectively. The objective of this study is to find out the effects on combustion and performance parameters observed at diesel hydrogen fuel mixture for all the different loadings (2kg,4kg,6kg,8kg,10kg and 12kg) in the engine.

  7. Oxidation Catalyst Studies on a Diesel Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Shifei

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis, the experimental test facilities consisted of a well instrumented live Ford 2.0 litre turbocharged diesel engine connected to a specially made exhaust can, which contained a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC). Experiments were performed on DOCs, which were specially prepared by Johnson Matthey, and had thermocouples mounted in their walls to measure axial temperature profiles. These DOCs consisted of a Pt catalyst dispersed in an alumina washcoat on a cordierite monolith supports...

  8. Attempts to minimize nitrogen oxide emission from diesel engine by using antioxidant-treated diesel-biodiesel blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashedul, Hasan Khondakar; Kalam, Md Abdul; Masjuki, Haji Hassan; Teoh, Yew Heng; How, Heoy Geok; Monirul, Islam Mohammad; Imdadul, Hassan Kazi

    2017-04-01

    The study represents a comprehensive analysis of engine exhaust emission variation from a compression ignition (CI) diesel engine fueled with diesel-biodiesel blends. Biodiesel used in this investigation was produced through transesterification procedure from Moringa oleifera oil. A single cylinder, four-stroke, water-cooled, naturally aspirated diesel engine was used for this purpose. The pollutants from the exhaust of the engine that are monitored in this study are nitrogen oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC), and smoke opacity. Engine combustion and performance parameters are also measured together with exhaust emission data. Some researchers have reported that the reason for higher NO emission of biodiesel is higher prompt NO formation. The use of antioxidant-treated biodiesel in a diesel engine is a promising approach because antioxidants reduce the formation of free radicals, which are responsible for the formation of prompt NO during combustion. Two different antioxidant additives namely 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (BHT) and 2,2'-methylenebis(4-methyl-6-tert-butylphenol) (MBEBP) were individually dissolved at a concentration of 1% by volume in MB30 (30% moringa biodiesel with 70% diesel) fuel blend to investigate and compare NO as well as other emissions. The result shows that both antioxidants reduced NO emission significantly; however, HC, CO, and smoke were found slightly higher compared to pure biodiesel blends, but not more than the baseline fuel diesel. The result also shows that both antioxidants were quite effective in reducing peak heat release rate (HRR) and brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC) as well as improving brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and oxidation stability. Based on this study, antioxidant-treated M. oleifera biodiesel blend (MB30) can be used as a very promising alternative source of fuel in diesel engine without any modifications.

  9. New perspectives for advanced automobile diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzi, L.; Sekar, R.; Kamo, R.; Wood, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    Computer simulation results are presented for advanced automobile diesel engine performance. Four critical factors for performance enhancement were identified: (1) part load preheating and exhaust gas energy recovery, (2) fast heat release combustion process, (3) reduction in friction, and (4) air handling system efficiency. Four different technology levels were considered in the analysis. Simulation results are compared in terms of brake specific fuel consumption and vehicle fuel economy in km/liter (miles per gallon). Major critical performance sensitivity areas are: (1) combustion process, (2) expander and compressor efficiency, and (3) part load preheating and compound system. When compared to the state of the art direct injection, cooled, automobile diesel engine, the advanced adiabatic compound engine concept showed the unique potential of doubling the fuel economy. Other important performance criteria such as acceleration, emissions, reliability, durability and multifuel capability are comparable to or better than current passenger car diesel engines.

  10. CFD analysis of the scavenging process in marine two-stroke diesel engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Fredrik Herland; Hult, Johan; Nogenmyr, Karl-Johan

    2014-01-01

    /charge before the subsequent compression stroke. This implies that the scavenging process is integral to engine performance as it influence the initial condition for the combustion process, thus affecting the fuel economy, power output and emission of hazardous gases. Two-stroke diesel engines for marine......The scavenging process is an integral part of any two-stroke internal combustion engine regardless of being spark ignited (SI) or compression ignited (CI). The scavenging process is responsible for replacing the burned gas from the combustion process from the previous working stroke with fresh air...

  11. Diesel engines: environmental impact and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, A C; Cackette, T A

    2001-06-01

    The diesel engine is the most efficient prime mover commonly available today. Diesel engines move a large portion of the world's goods, power much of the world's equipment, and generate electricity more economically than any other device in their size range. But the diesel is one of the largest contributors to environmental pollution problems worldwide, and will remain so, with large increases expected in vehicle population and vehicle miles traveled (VMT) causing ever-increasing global emissions. Diesel emissions contribute to the development of cancer; cardiovascular and respiratory health effects; pollution of air, water, and soil; soiling; reductions in visibility; and global climate change. Where instituted, control programs have been effective in reducing diesel fleet emissions. Fuel changes, such as reduced sulfur and aromatics content, have resulted in immediate improvements across the entire diesel on- and off-road fleet, and promise more improvements with future control. In the United States, for example, 49-state (non-California) off-road diesel fuel sulfur content is 10 times higher than that of national on-road diesel fuel. Significantly reducing this sulfur content would reduce secondary particulate matter (PM) formation and allow the use of control technologies that have proven effective in the on-road arena. The use of essentially zero-sulfur fuels, such as natural gas, in heavy-duty applications is also expected to continue. Technology changes, such as engine modifications, exhaust gas recirculation, and catalytic aftertreatment, take longer to fully implement, due to slow fleet turnover. However, they eventually result in significant emission reductions and will be continued on an ever-widening basis in the United States and worldwide. New technologies, such as hybrids and fuel cells, show significant promise in reducing emissions from sources currently dominated by diesel use. Lastly, the turnover of trucks and especially off-road equipment is

  12. 46 CFR 58.10-10 - Diesel engine installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Diesel engine installations. 58.10-10 Section 58.10-10... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-10 Diesel engine installations. (a) The requirements of § 58.10-5 (a), (c), and (d) shall apply to diesel engine installations...

  13. Emission reduction from a diesel engine fueled by pine oil biofuel using SCR and catalytic converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallinayagam, R.; Vedharaj, S.; Yang, W. M.; Saravanan, C. G.; Lee, P. S.; Chua, K. J. E.; Chou, S. K.

    2013-12-01

    In this work, we propose pine oil biofuel, a renewable fuel obtained from the resins of pine tree, as a potential substitute fuel for a diesel engine. Pine oil is endowed with enhanced physical and thermal properties such as lower viscosity and boiling point, which enhances the atomization and fuel/air mixing process. However, the lower cetane number of the pine oil hinders its direct use in diesel engine and hence, it is blended in suitable proportions with diesel so that the ignition assistance could be provided by higher cetane diesel. Since lower cetane fuels are prone to more NOX formation, SCR (selective catalyst reduction), using urea as reducing agent, along with a CC (catalytic converter) has been implemented in the exhaust pipe. From the experimental study, the BTE (brake thermal efficiency) was observed to be increased as the composition of pine oil increases in the blend, with B50 (50% pine oil and 50% diesel) showing 7.5% increase over diesel at full load condition. The major emissions such as smoke, CO, HC and NOX were reduced by 70.1%, 67.5%, 58.6% and 15.2%, respectively, than diesel. Further, the average emissions of B50 with SCR and CC assembly were observed to be reduced, signifying the positive impact of pine oil biofuel on atmospheric environment. In the combustion characteristics front, peak heat release rate and maximum in-cylinder pressure were observed to be higher with longer ignition delay.

  14. Control of aldehyde emissions in the diesel engines with alcoholic fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, M V S Murali; Varaprasad, C M; Reddy, C Venkata Ramana

    2006-01-01

    The major pollutants emitted from compression ignition (CI) engine with diesel as fuel are smoke and nitrogen oxides (NOx). When the diesel engine is run with alternate fuels, there is need to check alcohols (methanol or ethanol) and aldehydes also. Alcohols cannot be used directly in diesel engine and hence engine modification is essential as alcohols have low cetane number and high latent hear of vaporization. Hence, for use of alcohol in diesel engine, it needs hot combustion chamber, which is provided by low heat rejection (LHR) diesel engine with an air gap insulated piston with superni crown and air gap insulated liner with superni insert. In the present study, the pollution levels of aldehydes are reported with the use of methanol and ethanol as alternate fuels in LHR diesel engine with varying injection pressure, injection timings with different percentage of alcohol induction. The aldehydes (formaldehyde and acetaldehyde) in the exhaust were estimated by wet chemical technique with high performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC). Aldehyde emissions increased with an increase in alcohol induction. The LHR engine showed a decrease in aldehyde emissions when compared to conventional engine. However, the variation of injection pressure showed a marginal effect in reducing aldehydes, while advancing the injection timing reduced aldehyde emissions.

  15. Model of predicting proportion of diesel fuel and engine oil in diesel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Viscosity of diesel adulterated SAE 40 engine oil at varying proportions of the mixture is presented. Regression, variation of intercept and the power parameters methods are used for developing polynomial and power law functions for predicting proportion of either diesel or engine oil in diesel adulterated SAE 40 engine oil ...

  16. Sensors Based Measurement Techniques of Fuel Injection and Ignition Characteristics of Diesel Sprays in DI Combustion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rehman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Innovative sensor based measurement techniques like needle lift sensor, photo (optical sensor and piezoresistive pressure transmitter are introduced and used to measure the injection and combustion characteristics in direct injection combustion system. Present experimental study is carried out in the constant volume combustion chamber to study the ignition, combustion and injection characteristics of the solid cone diesel fuel sprays impinging on the hot surface. Hot surface ignition approach has been used to create variety of advanced combustion systems. In the present study, the hot surface temperatures were varied from 623 K to 723 K. The cylinder air pressures were 20, 30 and 40 bar and fuel injection pressures were 100, 200 and 300 bar. It is found that ignition delay of fuel sprays get reduced with the rise in injection pressure. The ignition characteristics of sprays much less affected at high fuel injection pressures and high surface temperatures. The fuel injection duration reduces with the increase in fuel injection pressures. The rate of heat release becomes high at high injection pressures and it decreases with the increase in injection duration. It is found that duration of burn/combustion decrease with the increase in injection pressure. The use of various sensors is quite effective, reliable and accurate in measuring the various fuel injection and combustion characteristics. The study simulates the effect of fuel injection system parameters on combustion performance in large heavy duty engines.

  17. An Experimental Investigation on the Combustion and Heat Release Characteristics of an Opposed-Piston Folded-Cranktrain Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukang Ma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In opposed-piston folded-cranktrain diesel engines, the relative movement rules of opposed-pistons, combustion chamber components and injector position are different from those of conventional diesel engines. The combustion and heat release characteristics of an opposed-piston folded-cranktrain diesel engine under different operating conditions were investigated. Four phases: ignition delay, premixed combustion, diffusion combustion and after combustion are used to describe the heat release process of the engine. Load changing has a small effect on premixed combustion duration while it influences diffusion combustion duration significantly. The heat release process has more significant isochoric and isobaric combustion which differs from the conventional diesel engine situation, except at high exhaust pressure and temperature, due to its two-stroke and uniflow scavenging characteristics. Meanwhile, a relatively high-quality exhaust heat energy is produced in opposed-piston folded-cranktrain diesel engines.

  18. An Experimental and Numerical Study of N-Dodecane/Butanol Blends for Compression Ignition Engines

    KAUST Repository

    Wakale, Anil Bhaurao

    2018-04-03

    Alcohols are potential blending agents for diesel that can be effectively used in compression ignition engines. This work investigates the use of n-butanol as a blending component for diesel fuel using experiments and simulations. Dodecane was selected as a surrogate for diesel fuel and various concentrations of n-butanol were added to study ignition characteristics. Ignition delay times for different n-butanol/dodecane blends were measured using the ignition quality tester at KAUST (KR-IQT). The experiments were conducted at pressure of 21 and 18 bar, temperature ranging from 703-843 K and global equivalence ratio of 0.85. A skeletal mechanism for n-dodecane and n-butanol blends with 203 species was developed for numerical simulations. The mechanism was developed by combining n-dodecane skeletal mechanism containing 106 species and a detailed mechanism for all the butanol isomers. The new mixture mechanism was validated for various pressure, temperature and equivalence ratio using a 0-D homogeneous reactor model from CHEMKIN for pure base fuels (n-dodecane and butanol). Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, CONVERGE was used to further validate the new mechanism. The new mechanism was able to reproduce the experimental results from IQT at different pressure and temperature conditions.

  19. 40 CFR 80.522 - May used motor oil be dispensed into diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines? 80.522 Section 80.522 Protection of Environment... vehicles or nonroad diesel engines? No person may introduce used motor oil, or used motor oil blended with... later nonroad diesel engines (not including locomotive or marine diesel engines), unless both of the...

  20. Experimental studies on fumigation of ethanol in a small capacity Diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, Bhupendra Singh; Kumar, Naveen; Pal, Shyam Sunder; Du Jun, Yong

    2011-01-01

    To diversify the mix of domestic energy resources and to reduce dependence on imported oil, ethanol is widely investigated for applying in combination with Diesel fuel to reduce pollutants, including smoke and NO x . Present work aims at developing a fumigation system for introduction of ethanol in a small capacity Diesel engine and to determine its effects on emission. Fumigation was achieved by using a constant volume carburetor. Different percentages of ethanol fumes with air were then introduced in the Diesel engine, under various load conditions. Ethanol is an oxygenated fuel and lead to smooth and efficient combustion. Atomization of ethanol also results in lower combustion temperature. During the present study, gaseous emission has been found to be decreasing with ethanol fumigation. Results from the experiment suggest that ethanol fumigation can be effectively employed in existing compression ignition engine to achieve substantial saving of the limited Diesel oil. Results show that fumigated Diesel engine exhibit better engine performance with lower NOx, CO, CO 2 and exhaust temperature. Ethanol fumigation has resulted in increase of unburned hydrocarbon (HC) emission in the entire load range. Considering the parameters, the optimum percentage was found as 15% for ethanol fumigation. -- Research highlights: → To diversify energy resources and to reduce dependence on imported oil, ethanol is used in Diesel engine to reduce pollutants. → Developing a fumigation system to inject ethanol in a small capacity Diesel engine, to determine its effects on emissions. → Different percentages of ethanol fumes with air were introduced in Diesel engine, under various load conditions by using a constant volume carburetor. → Results show that fumigated Diesel engine exhibits better engine performance with lower NOx, CO, CO 2 and exhaust temperature. → Results show increase of unburned hydrocarbon emission in entire load range. Optimum percentage found as 15% for

  1. A Preliminary Study of Fuel Injection and Compression Ignition as Applied to an Aircraft Engine Cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Arthur W

    1927-01-01

    This report summarizes some results obtained with a single cylinder test engine at the Langley Field Laboratory during a preliminary investigation of the problem of applying fuel injection and compression ignition to aircraft engines. For this work a standard Liberty Engine cylinder was fitted with a high compression, 11.4 : 1 compression ratio, piston, and equipped with an airless injection system, including a primary fuel pump, an injection pump, and an automatic injection valve. The results obtained during this investigation have indicated the possibility of applying airless injection and compression ignition to a cylinder of this size, 8-inch bore by 7-inch stroke, when operating at engine speeds as high as 1,850 R. P. M. A minimum specific fuel consumption with diesel engine fuel oil of 0.30 pound per I. HP. Hour was obtained when developing about 16 B. HP. At 1,730 R. P. M.

  2. Cleaning the Diesel Engine Emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Budde

    This paper examines how technologies for cleaning of diesel emission from road vehicles can be supported by facilitating a technology push in the Danish automotive emission control industry. The European commission is at present preparing legislation for the euro 5 emission standard (to be enforc...

  3. DIESEL ENGINE RETROFIT TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation wil be given at the EPA Science Forum 2005 in Washington, DC. According to recent estimates, there are approximately 7.9 million heavy-duty diesel trucks and buses in use in the United States. Emissions from these vehicles account for substantial portions of t...

  4. Propellant-Flow-Actuated Rocket Engine Igniter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollen, Mark

    2013-01-01

    A rocket engine igniter has been created that uses a pneumatically driven hammer that, by specialized geometry, is induced into an oscillatory state that can be used to either repeatedly impact a piezoelectric crystal with sufficient force to generate a spark capable of initiating combustion, or can be used with any other system capable of generating a spark from direct oscillatory motion. This innovation uses the energy of flowing gaseous propellant, which by means of pressure differentials and kinetic motion, causes a hammer object to oscillate. The concept works by mass flows being induced through orifices on both sides of a cylindrical tube with one or more vent paths. As the mass flow enters the chamber, the pressure differential is caused because the hammer object is supplied with flow on one side and the other side is opened with access to the vent path. The object then crosses the vent opening and begins to slow because the pressure differential across the ball reverses due to the geometry in the tube. Eventually, the object stops because of the increasing pressure differential on the object until all of the kinetic energy has been transferred to the gas via compression. This is the point where the object reverses direction because of the pressure differential. This behavior excites a piezoelectric crystal via direct impact from the hammer object. The hammer strikes a piezoelectric crystal, then reverses direction, and the resultant high voltage created from the crystal is transferred via an electrode to a spark gap in the ignition zone, thereby providing a spark to ignite the engine. Magnets, or other retention methods, might be employed to favorably position the hammer object prior to start, but are not necessary to maintain the oscillatory behavior. Various manifestations of the igniter have been developed and tested to improve device efficiency, and some improved designs are capable of operation at gas flow rates of a fraction of a gram per second (0

  5. Advances for laser ignition of internal combustion and rocket engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, E.

    2011-01-01

    The scope of the PhD thesis presented here is the investigation of theoretical and practical aspects of laser-induced spark ignition and laser thermal ignition. Laser ignition systems are currently undergoing a rapidly development with growing intensity involving more and more research groups who mainly concentrate on the field of car and large combustion engines. This research is primarily driven by the engagement to meet the increasingly strict emission limits and by the intention to use the limited energy reserves more efficiently. For internal combustion engines, laser plasma-induced ignition will allow to combine the goals for legally required reductions of pollutant emissions and higher engine efficiencies. Also for rocket engines laser ignition turns out to be very attractive. A highly reliable ignition system like laser ignition would represent an option for introducing non-toxic propellants in order to replace highly toxic and carcinogenic hydrazine-based propellants commonly used in launch vehicle upper stages and satellites. The most important results on laser ignition and laser plasma generation, accomplished by the author and, in some respects, enriched by cooperation with colleagues are presented in the following. The emphasis of this thesis is placed on the following issues: - Two-color effects on laser plasma generation - Theoretical considerations about the focal volume concerning plasma generation - Plasma transmission experiments - Ignition experiments on laser-induced ignition - Ignition experiments on thermally-induced ignition - Feasibility study on laser ignition of rocket engines The purpose of the two-color laser plasma experiments is to investigate possible constructive interference effects of driving fields that are not monochromatic, but contain (second) harmonic radiation with respect to the goal of lowering the plasma generation threshold. Such effects have been found in a number of related processes, such as laser ablation or high

  6. Laser-induced ignition of gasoline direct-injection engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedl, Gerhard; Schuoecker, Dieter; Geringer, B.; Graf, J.; Klawatsch, D.; Lenz, H. P.; Piock, W. F.; Jetzinger, M.; Kapus, P.

    2005-03-01

    A q-switched Nd:YAG laser as well as an excimer laser with an unstable resonator have been used for ignition of combustion processes. Following first experiments with a combustion bomb a gasoline direct injection engine has been modified for laser ignition by installation of a focusing element and a beam entrance window. It was possible with the q-switched Nd:YAG laser which delivers short pulses with a duration of lesss than 6 ns to ignite the engine for several 100 hours without problems. Compared to conventional spark ignition, laser ignition allows a more flexible choice of the ignition location inside the combustion chamber with the possibility to ignite even inside the fuel spray. Measurements of fuel consumption and emissions prove that laser ignition has important advantages compared to conventional spark ignition systems. Experiments with the direct injection engine have been carried out at the fundamental wavelength of the Nd:YAG laser as well as with a frequency doubled system. No differences in the minimal pulse energy needed for ignition could be found, since the minimal pulse energy for ignition is mainly determined by the ablation thresholds of combustion deposits at the surface of the window to the combustion chamber. Such combustion deposits reduce the transparency of the window where the laser beam enters the combustion chamber and a "self-cleaning" mechanism of the window by ablation is essential for successful operation. Experiments show that above a certain threshold intensity of the laser beam at the window even highly polluted surfaces could be cleaned with teh first laser pulse which is important for operation in real-world engines. Theoretically calculated energy values for laser ignition are much lower since such mechanisms are usually not considered. Power and space requirements on possible future development of laser ignition systems are discussed briefly. Several concepts for laser ignition, like diode-pumped solid state lasers (DPSS

  7. Power Balancing of Inline Multicylinder Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Gawande

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a simplified methodology is presented for power balancing by reducing the amplitude of engine speed variation, which result in excessive torsional vibrations of the crankshaft of inline six-cylinder diesel engine. In modern fuel injection systems for reciprocating engines, nonuniform cylinder-wise torque contribution is a common problem due to nonuniform fuel supply due to a defect in fuel injection system, causing increased torsional vibration levels of the crankshaft and stress of mechanical parts. In this paper, a mathematical model for the required fuel adjustment by using amplitude of engine speed variation applied on the flywheel based on engine dynamics is suggested. From the found empirical relations and FFT analysis, the amplitude of engine speed variation (i.e., torsional vibration levels of the crankshaft of inline six-cylinder diesel engine genset can be reduced up to 55%. This proposed methodology is simulated by developing MATALB code for uniform and nonuniform working of direct injection diesel engine of SL90 type manufactured by Kirloskar Oil Engine Ltd., Pune, India.

  8. A direct numerical simulation of cool-flame affected autoignition in diesel engine-relevant conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krisman, Alexander; Hawkes, Evatt Robert.; Talei, Mohsen; Bhagatwala, Ankit; Chen, Jacqueline H.

    2016-11-11

    In diesel engines, combustion is initiated by a two-staged autoignition that includes both low- and high-temperature chemistry. The location and timing of both stages of autoignition are important parameters that influence the development and stabilisation of the flame. In this study, a two-dimensional direct numerical simulation (DNS) is conducted to provide a fully resolved description of ignition at diesel engine-relevant conditions. The DNS is performed at a pressure of 40 atmospheres and at an ambient temperature of 900 K using dimethyl ether (DME) as the fuel, with a 30 species reduced chemical mechanism. At these conditions, similar to diesel fuel, DME exhibits two-stage ignition. The focus of this study is on the behaviour of the low-temperature chemistry (LTC) and the way in which it influences the high-temperature ignition. The results show that the LTC develops as a “spotty” first-stage autoignition in lean regions which transitions to a diffusively supported cool-flame and then propagates up the local mixture fraction gradient towards richer regions. The cool-flame speed is much faster than can be attributed to spatial gradients in first-stage ignition delay time in homogeneous reactors. The cool-flame causes a shortening of the second-stage ignition delay times compared to a homogeneous reactor and the shortening becomes more pronounced at richer mixtures. Multiple high-temperature ignition kernels are observed over a range of rich mixtures that are much richer than the homogeneous most reactive mixture and most kernels form much earlier than suggested by the homogeneous ignition delay time of the corresponding local mixture. Altogether, the results suggest that LTC can strongly influence both the timing and location in composition space of the high-temperature ignition.

  9. 14 CFR 25.1165 - Engine ignition systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... turbine powered airplane must be considered an essential electrical load. ... Engine ignition systems. (a) Each battery ignition system must be supplemented by a generator that is automatically available as an alternate source of electrical energy to allow continued engine operation if any...

  10. 40 CFR 86.336-79 - Diesel engine test cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel engine test cycle. 86.336-79... New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.336-79 Diesel engine test cycle. (a) The following 13-mode cycle shall be followed in dynamometer operation...

  11. Insulated Piston Heads for Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricoire, A.; Kjellman, B.; Wigren, J.; Vanvolsem, M.; Aixala, L.

    2009-06-01

    Widely studied in the 1980s, the insulation of pistons in engines aimed at reducing the heat losses and thus increasing the indicated efficiency. However, those studies stopped in the beginning of the 1990s because of NO x emission legislation and also because of lower oil prices. Currently, with the improvement of exhaust after treatment systems (diesel particulate filter, selective catalytic reduction, and diesel oxidation catalyst) and engine technologies (exhaust gas recirculation), there are more trade-offs for NO x reduction. In addition, the fast rise of the oil prices tends to lead back to insulation technologies in order to save fuel. A 1 mm thick plasma sprayed thermal barrier coating with a graded transition between the topcoat and the bondcoat was deposited on top of a serial piston for heavy-duty truck engines. The effects of the insulated pistons on the engine performance are also discussed, and the coating microstructure is analyzed after engine test.

  12. Light-duty diesel engine development status and engine needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    This report reviews, assesses, and summarizes the research and development status of diesel engine technology applicable to light-duty vehicles. In addition, it identifies specific basic and applied research and development needs in light-duty diesel technology and related health areas where initial or increased participation by the US Government would be desirable. The material presented in this report updates information provided in the first diesel engine status report prepared by the Aerospace Corporation for the Department of Energy in September, 1978.

  13. Thermal barrier coatings - Technology for diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.H.; Lutz, J.

    1988-01-01

    Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBC) are a development of the aerospace industry primarily aimed at hot gas flow paths in turbine engines. TBC consists of zirconia ceramic coatings applied over (M)CrAlY. These coatings can provide three benefits: (1) a reduction of metal surface operating temperatures, (2) a deterrent to hot gas corrosion, and (3) improved thermal efficiencies. TBC brings these same benefits to reciprocal diesel engines but coating longevity must be demonstrated. Diesels require thicker deposits and have challenging geometries for the arc-plasma spray (APS) deposition process. Different approaches to plasma spraying TBC are required for diesels, especially where peripheral edge effects play a major role. Bondcoats and ceramic top coats are modified to provide extended life as determined by burner rig tests, using ferrous and aluminum substrates

  14. Experimental study into a hybrid PCCI/CI concept for next-generation heavy-duty diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doosje, E.; Willems, F.P.T.; Baert, R.S.G.; Dijk, M.D. van

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the first results of an experimental study into a hybrid combustion concept for next-generation heavy-duty diesel engines. In this hybrid concept, at low load operating conditions, the engine is run in Pre-mixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) mode, whereas at high load

  15. An investigation of the acoustic characteristics of a compression ignition engine operating with biodiesel blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, D.; Tesfa, B.; Yuan, X.; Wang, R.; Gu, F.; Ball, A. D.

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, an experimental investigation has been carried out on the acoustic characteristics of a compression ignition (CI) engine running with biodiesel blends under steady state operating conditions. The experiment was conducted on a four-cylinder, four-stroke, direct injection and turbocharged diesel engine which runs with biodiesel (B50 and B100) and pure diesel. The signals of acoustic, vibration and in-cylinder pressure were measured during the experiment. To correlate the combustion process and the acoustic characteristics, both phenomena have been investigated. The acoustic analysis resulted in the sound level being increased with increasing of engine loads and speeds as well as the sound characteristics being closely correlated to the combustion process. However, acoustic signals are highly sensitive to the ambient conditions and intrusive background noise. Therefore, the spectral subtraction was employed to minimize the effects of background noise in order to enhance the signal to noise ratio. In addition, the acoustic characteristics of CI engine running with different fuels (biodiesel blends and diesel) was analysed for comparison. The results show that the sound energy level of acoustic signals is slightly higher when the engine fuelled by biodiesel and its blends than that of fuelled by normal diesel. Hence, the acoustic characteristics of the CI engine will have useful information for engine condition monitoring and fuel content estimation.

  16. Possibility to Increase Biofuels Energy Efficiency used for Compression Ignition Engines Fueling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calin D. Iclodean

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the possibilities of optimizing the use of biofuels in terms of energy efficiency in compression ignition (CI engines fueling. Based on the experimental results was determinate the law of variation of the rate of heat released by the combustion process for diesel fuel and different blends of biodiesel. Using this law, were changed parameters of the engine management system (fuel injection law and was obtain increased engine performance (in terms of energy efficiency for use of different biofuel blends.

  17. Dual fuel operation of used transformer oil with acetylene in a DI diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behera, Pritinika; Murugan, S.; Nagarajan, G.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Utilisation of Used transformer oil (UTO) as a fuel in a diesel engine. • UTO with acetylene in a diesel engine, on a dual fuel mode technique. • Analysis of combustion characteristics of the diesel engine. • Analysis of performance and emission characteristics of the diesel engine. - Abstract: Used transformer oil (UTO) is a waste oil obtained from power transformers and welding transformers. It possesses considerable heating value and properties similar to diesel fuel. A preliminary investigation on the utilization of the UTO in a single cylinder, four stroke small powered direct injection (DI) diesel engine revealed that at an optimum injection timing of 20°CA the engine exhibited lower nitric oxide (NO) and higher smoke emissions, compared to that of diesel operation. In order to improve the performance and reduce the smoke emission, a dual fuel operation was attempted in the present investigation. Acetylene was inducted as a primary fuel at four different flow rates viz 132 g/h, 198 g/h, 264 g/h and 330 g/h along with the air, to study the combustion, performance and emission behavior of a four-stroke, 4.4 kW diesel engine, while the UTO was injected as pilot fuel with the optimized injection timing. The experimental results were compared with diesel-acetylene dual fuel operation in the same engine. Acetylene aspiration reduced the ignition delay and maximum cylinder pressure by about 3°CA, and 25% respectively at full load in comparison with the sole UTO operation. Higher thermal efficiency and lower exhaust gas were also observed at full load. Smoke was reduced by about 13.7%, in comparison with the UTO operation at full load

  18. Exploring Low Emission Lubricants for Diesel Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, J. M.

    2000-07-06

    A workshop to explore the technological issues involved with the removal of sulfur from lubricants and the development of low emission diesel engine oils was held in Scottsdale, Arizona, January 30 through February 1, 2000. It presented an overview of the current technology by means of panel discussions and technical presentations from industry, government, and academia.

  19. Validation of some engine combustion and emission parameters of a bioethanol fuelled DI diesel engine using theoretical modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murugan Sivalingam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Earlier reports indicate that ethanol/bioethanol can replace conventional diesel fuel by 15%, when it is emulsified with diesel and used as an alternative fuel in a compression ignition (CI engine. In this study, initially BMDE15, a bioethanol emulsion containing 15% bioethanol, 84% diesel and 1% surfactant was characterised for its fuel properties and compared with those of diesel fuel properties. The numerical value indicates the percentage of bioethanol in the BMDE15 emulsion. For the investigation, bioethanol was obtained from the Mahua Indica flower which was collected from the Madhuca Indica tree, and it was produced from fermentation process using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Further, the BMDE15 emulsion was tested in a single cylinder, four stroke, air cooled, DI diesel engine developing a power of 4.4 kW at a rated speed of 1500 rpm. Two important combustion parameters: cylinder pressure and ignition delay, and two important emission parameters: nitric oxide (NO and smoke emissions were determined and compared with those of diesel operation at all loads. The experimental results were validated using mathematical modelling, and the analysis of the results is presented in this paper.

  20. Use of tobacco seed oil methyl ester in a turbocharged indirect injection diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usta, N.

    2005-01-01

    Vegetable oils and their methyl/ethyl esters are alternative renewable fuels for compression ignition engines. Different kinds of vegetable oils and their methyl/ethyl esters have been tested in diesel engines. However, tobacco seed oil and tobacco seed oil methyl ester have not been tested in diesel engines, yet. Tobacco seed oil is a non-edible vegetable oil and a by-product of tobacco leaves production. To the author's best knowledge, this is the first study on tobacco seed oil methyl ester as a fuel in diesel engines. In this study, potential tobacco seed production throughout the world, the oil extraction process from tobacco seed and the transesterification process for biodiesel production were examined. The produced tobacco seed oil methyl ester was characterized by exposing its major properties. The effects of tobacco seed oil methyl ester addition to diesel No. 2 on the performance and emissions of a four cycle, four cylinder turbocharged indirect injection (IDI) diesel engine were examined at both full and partial loads. Experimental results showed that tobacco seed oil methyl ester can be partially substituted for the diesel fuel at most operating conditions in terms of performance parameters and emissions without any engine modification and preheating of the blends. (Author)

  1. Energy Analysis of a Diesel Engine Using Diesel and Biodiesel from Waste Cooking Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Abbasi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The extensive use of diesel engines in agricultural activities and transportation, led to the emergence of serious challenges in providing and evaluating alternative fuels from different sources in addition to the chemical properties close to diesel fuel, including properties such as renewable, inexpensive and have fewer emissions. Biodiesel is one of the alternative fuels. Many studies have been carried out on the use of biodiesel in pure form or blended with diesel fuel about combustion, performance and emission parameters of engines. One of the parameters that have been less discussed is energy balance. In providing alternative fuels, biodiesel from waste cooking oil due to its low cost compared with biodiesel from plant oils, is the promising option. The properties of biodiesel and diesel fuels, in general, show many similarities, and therefore, biodiesel is rated as a realistic fuel as an alternative to diesel. The conversion of waste cooking oil into methyl esters through the transesterification process approximately reduces the molecular weight to one-third, reduces the viscosity by about one-seventh, reduces the flash point slightly and increases the volatility marginally, and reduces pour point considerably (Demirbas, 2009. In this study, effect of different percentages of biodiesel from waste cooking oil were investigated. Energy distribution study identify the energy losses ways in order to find the reduction solutions of them. Materials and Methods Renewable fuel used in this study consists of biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil by transesterification process (Table 1. Five diesel-biodiesel fuel blends with values of 0, 12, 22, 32 and 42 percent of biodiesel that are signs for B0, B12, B22, B32 and B42, respectively. The test engine was a diesel engine, single-cylinder, four-stroke, compression ignition and air¬cooled, series 3LD510 in the laboratory of renewable energies of agricultural faculty, Tarbiat Modarres

  2. Combustion and emission characteristics of a natural gas-fueled diesel engine with EGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelaal, M.M.; Hegab, A.H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► An existed DI diesel engine has been modified to suit dual fuel operation with EGR. ► Comparative study has been conducted between different operating modes. ► Dual fuel mode exhibits better performance at high loads than diesel. ► Dual fuel mode exhibits lower NOx and higher HC emissions than diesel. ► EGR improves performance at part loads and emissions of dual fuel mode. - Abstract: The use of natural gas as a partial supplement for liquid diesel fuel is a very promising solution for reducing pollutant emissions, particularly nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matters (PM), from conventional diesel engines. In most applications of this technique, natural gas is inducted or injected in the intake manifold to mix uniformly with air, and the homogenous natural gas–air mixture is then introduced to the cylinder as a result of the engine suction. This type of engines, referred to as dual-fuel engines, suffers from lower thermal efficiency and higher carbon monoxide (CO) and unburned hydrocarbon (HC) emissions; particularly at part load. The use of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is expected to partially resolve these problems and to provide further reduction in NOx emission as well. In the present experimental study, a single-cylinder direct injection (DI) diesel engine has been properly modified to run on dual-fuel mode with natural gas as a main fuel and diesel fuel as a pilot, with the ability to employ variable amounts of EGR. Comparative results are given for various operating modes; conventional diesel mode, dual-fuel mode without EGR, and dual-fuel mode with variable amounts of EGR, at different operating conditions; revealing the effect of utilization of EGR on combustion process and exhaust emission characteristics of a pilot ignited natural gas diesel engine.

  3. Variable valve timing in a homogenous charge compression ignition engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Keith E.; Faletti, James J.; Funke, Steven J.; Maloney, Ronald P.

    2004-08-03

    The present invention relates generally to the field of homogenous charge compression ignition engines, in which fuel is injected when the cylinder piston is relatively close to the bottom dead center position for its compression stroke. The fuel mixes with air in the cylinder during the compression stroke to create a relatively lean homogeneous mixture that preferably ignites when the piston is relatively close to the top dead center position. However, if the ignition event occurs either earlier or later than desired, lowered performance, engine misfire, or even engine damage, can result. The present invention utilizes internal exhaust gas recirculation and/or compression ratio control to control the timing of ignition events and combustion duration in homogeneous charge compression ignition engines. Thus, at least one electro-hydraulic assist actuator is provided that is capable of mechanically engaging at least one cam actuated intake and/or exhaust valve.

  4. Modeling of heat release and emissions from droplet combustion of multi component fuels in compression ignition engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivarsson, Anders

    emissions from the compression ignition engines (CI engines or diesel engines) are continuously increased. To comply with this, better modeling tools for the diesel combustion process are desired from the engine developers. The complex combustion process of a compression ignition engine may be divided...... it is well suited for optical line of sight diagnostics in both pre and post combustion regions. The work also includes some preliminary studies of radiant emissions from helium stabilized ethylene/air and methane/oxygen flames. It is demonstrated that nano particles below the sooting threshold actually...... of ethylene/air flames well known from the experimental work, was used for the model validation. Two cases were helium stabilized flames with φ = 1 and 2.14. The third case was an unstable flame with φ = 2.14. The unstable case was used to test whether a transient model would be able to predict the frequency...

  5. An experimental investigation of a lean-burn natural-gas pre-chamber spark ignition engine for cogeneration; Swiss Motor. Modification d'un moteur diesel pour le fonctionnement au gaz naturel en cogeneration. Fonctionnement avec prechambre de combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roethlisberger, R.; Favrat, D.

    2001-07-01

    This thesis presented at the Department of Mechanical Engineering of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne describes the conversion and testing of a commercial diesel engine for use as a lean-burn, natural gas, pre-chamber, spark ignition engine with a rated power of 150 kW, in combined heat and power (CHP) plants. The objective of the investigations - to evaluate the potential of reducing exhaust gas emissions - is discussed in detail with respect to NO{sub x} and CO emissions. The approach adopted includes both experimental work and numerical simulation. The report describes the testing facilities used. The results obtained with experimental spark-plug configurations based on simulation results are presented and the influence of various pre-chamber configuration variants are discussed. The results of the tests are presented and the significant reduction of NO{sub x}, CO and unburned-hydrocarbon (THC) emissions are discussed. The authors state that the engine, which achieves a fuel efficiency of more than 36.5%, fulfils the Swiss requirements on exhaust gas emissions. Also, ways of compensating for the slight loss in fuel-conversion efficiency in the pre-chamber configuration are discussed.

  6. Performance of ceramic coatings on diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacAdam, S.; Levy, A.

    1986-01-01

    Partially stabilized zirconia ceramic thermal barrier coatings were plasma sprayed on the valve faces and tulips and the piston crowns and cylinder heads of a locomotive size diesel engine at a designated thickness of 375μm (0.015''). They were tested over a range of throttle settings for 500 hours using No. 2 diesel oil fuel. Properly applied coatings performed with no change in composition, morphology or thickness. Improperly applied coatings underwent spalling durability was dependent on quality control of the plasma spray process

  7. Combined effect of nanoemulsion and EGR on combustion and emission characteristics of neat lemongrass oil (LGO)-DEE-diesel blend fuelled diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathiyamoorthi, R.; Sankaranarayanan, G.; Pitchandi, K.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Neat lemongrass oil can be used as an alternate fuel in diesel engine. • The combined effect of nano emulsion and EGR using LGO25-DEE-Diesel is investigated. • The BTE is improved for nano emulsion fuel blend. • The NO x and smoke emissions decrease significantly. • Cylinder pressure and Heat release rate increase with longer ignition delay. - Abstract: In the present experimental study, the combined effects of nanoemulsion and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of a single cylinder, four stroke, variable compression ratio diesel engine fueled with neat lemongrass oil (LGO)-diesel-DEE (diethyl ether) blend are investigated. The Neat Lemongrass oil could be used as a new alternate fuel in compression ignition engines without any engine modifications. The entire investigation was conducted in the diesel engine using the following test fuels: emulsified LGO25, cerium oxide blended emulsified LGO25 and DEE added emulsified LGO25 with EGR respectively and compared with standard diesel and LGO25 (75% by volume of diesel and 25% by volume of lemongrass oil) fuels. The combined effect of DEE added nano-emulsified LGO25 with EGR yielded a significant reduction in NO x and smoke emission by 30.72% and 11.2% respectively compared to LGO25. Furthermore, the HC and CO emissions were reduced by 18.18% and 33.31% respectively than with LGO25. The brake thermal efficiency and brake specific fuel consumption increased by 2.4% and 10.8% respectively than LGO25. The combustion characteristics such as cylinder pressure and heat release rate increased by 4.46% and 3.29% respectively than with LGO25. The combustion duration and ignition delay increase at nano-emulsified LGO25 with DEE and EGR mode but decrease for nano-emulsified LGO25 fuel.

  8. Effect of advanced injection timing on the performance of rapeseed oil in diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nwafor, O.M.I.; Rice, G.; Ogbonna, A.I.

    2000-01-01

    Combustion studies on both diesel fuel and vegetable oil fuels, with the standard and advanced injection timing, were carried out using the same engine and test procedures so that comparative assessments may be made. The diesel engine principle demands self-ignition of the fuel as it is injected at some degrees before top dead centre (BTDC) into the hot compressed cylinder gas. Longer delays between injection and ignition lead to unacceptable rates of pressure rise with the result of diesel knock because too much fuel is ready to take part in premixed combustion. Alternative fuels have been noted to exhibit longer delay periods and slower burning rate especially at low load operating conditions hence resulting in late combustion in the expansion stroke. Advanced injection timing is expected to compensate these effects. The engine has standard injection timing of 30degC BTDC. The injection was first advanced by 5.5degC given injection timing of 35.5degC BTDC. The engine performance was very erratic on this timing. The injection was then advanced by 3.5degC and the effects are presented in this paper. The engine performance was smooth especially at low load levels. The ignition delay was reduced through advanced injection but tended to incur a slight increase in fuel consumption. Moderate advanced injection timing is recommended for low speed operations. (Author)

  9. Studies on biogas-fuelled compression ignition engine under dual fuel mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahla, Sunil Kumar; Singla, Varun; Sandhu, Sarbjot Singh; Dhir, Amit

    2018-04-01

    Experimental investigation has been carried out to utilize biogas as an alternative source of energy in compression ignition (CI) engine under dual fuel operational mode. Biogas was inducted into the inlet manifold at different flow rates along with fresh air through inlet manifold and diesel was injected as a pilot fuel to initiate combustion under dual fuel mode. The engine performance and emission characteristics of dual fuel operational mode were analyzed at different biogas flow rates and compared with baseline conventional diesel fuel. Based upon the improved performance and lower emission characteristics under the dual fuel operation, the optimum flow rate of biogas was observed to be 2.2 kg/h. The lower brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and higher brake-specific energy consumption (BSEC) were noticed with biogas-diesel fuel under dual fuel mode when compared with neat diesel operation. Test results showed reduced NO x emissions and smoke opacity level in the exhaust tailpipe emissions. However, higher hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions were noticed under dual fuel mode at entire engine loads when compared with baseline fossil petro-diesel. Hence, the use of low-cost gaseous fuel such as biogas would be an economically viable proposition to address the current and future problems of energy scarcity and associated environmental concerns.

  10. Restoring diesel engine camshafts by laser treatement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astashkevich, B. M.; Zinov'ev, G. S.; Voronin, I. N.

    1996-12-01

    The reliability of parts of the gas-distributing mechanism and drives of fuel pumps determines to a great degree the operating conditions of cylinder-piston parts and the economic characteristics of diesel engines. Intense wear of the camshaft pair disturbs the distribution phases and the lead angle of fuel supply to the diesel cylinders and increases the rigidity of the operation of the connecting rod-piston group. This causes incomplete combustion of fuel and fuming, a rise in the temperature of exhaust gases, sticking of the rings in the piston grooves and their premature failure, wear cracks, and chips and failure of the parts of the cylinder-piston unit, decreasing the efficiency of the diesel. Laser surface treatment is used to restore cams. It makes it possible to increase substantially the wear resistance of cams and restore their worn surfaces. This paper concerns the characteristics of the cams after such a treatment.

  11. Combustion characteristics of lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus oil in a partial premixed charge compression ignition engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Alagumalai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Indeed, the development of alternate fuels for use in internal combustion engines has traditionally been an evolutionary process in which fuel-related problems are met and critical fuel properties are identified and their specific limits defined to resolve the problem. In this regard, this research outlines a vision of lemongrass oil combustion characteristics. In a nut-shell, the combustion phenomena of lemongrass oil were investigated at engine speed of 1500 rpm and compression ratio of 17.5 in a 4-stroke cycle compression ignition engine. Furthermore, the engine tests were conducted with partial premixed charge compression ignition-direct injection (PCCI-DI dual fuel system to profoundly address the combustion phenomena. Analysis of cylinder pressure data and heat-release analysis of neat and premixed lemongrass oil were demonstrated in-detail and compared with conventional diesel. The experimental outcomes disclosed that successful ignition and energy release trends can be obtained from a compression ignition engine fueled with lemongrass oil.

  12. Fundamental Studies of Ignition Process in Large Natural Gas Engines Using Laser Spark Ignition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azer Yalin; Bryan Willson

    2008-06-30

    Past research has shown that laser ignition provides a potential means to reduce emissions and improve engine efficiency of gas-fired engines to meet longer-term DOE ARES (Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems) targets. Despite the potential advantages of laser ignition, the technology is not seeing practical or commercial use. A major impediment in this regard has been the 'open-path' beam delivery used in much of the past research. This mode of delivery is not considered industrially practical owing to safety factors, as well as susceptibility to vibrations, thermal effects etc. The overall goal of our project has been to develop technologies and approaches for practical laser ignition systems. To this end, we are pursuing fiber optically coupled laser ignition system and multiplexing methods for multiple cylinder engine operation. This report summarizes our progress in this regard. A partial summary of our progress includes: development of a figure of merit to guide fiber selection, identification of hollow-core fibers as a potential means of fiber delivery, demonstration of bench-top sparking through hollow-core fibers, single-cylinder engine operation with fiber delivered laser ignition, demonstration of bench-top multiplexing, dual-cylinder engine operation via multiplexed fiber delivered laser ignition, and sparking with fiber lasers. To the best of our knowledge, each of these accomplishments was a first.

  13. Fischer-Tropsch-synthesis fuels as diesel engine fuel - Fuel of the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Erik [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Thermo and Fluid Dynamics

    2000-04-01

    The Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) catalytic conversion process can be used to synthesize diesel fuels from a variety of feedstocks, including coal, natural gas and biomass. Synthetic diesel fuels can have very low sulfur and aromatic content, and excellent auto ignition characteristics. Moreover, Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuels may also be economically competitive with regular diesel fuel if produced in large volumes. The aim of this investigation is to reveal and analyze the effects of F-T fuels on a research diesel engine performance. Previous engine laboratory tests indicate that F-T fuels are promising alternative fuels because they can be used in unmodified diesel engines, and substantial quantitative exhaust emission reductions can be reached. Also substantial qualitative reductions, e.g. reduction of the number of hazardous chemicals and reduction of the concentration of hazardous chemicals in the exhausts may be realised. Since the engine performance is closely related to in-cylinder processes, a detailed thermodynamic analysis has been performed revealing the real thermochemistry history. The experimental results have shown that F-T fuels have a beneficial effect not only on the emission levels, but also on other energetic parameters of the engine. Heat release analysis have shown that ignition delay, cylinder peak pressure, heat release gradient and indicated efficiency are affected as well. Two different mixtures of FT-fuels with variation in carbon chain branching and, to a certain extent, variation in chain length were tested and their results were compared with those obtained from conventional fuel (MK1). The selected optimized F-T fuels mixture were further tested according to the 13 mode ECE R49 test cycle and were found as good competitive alternative diesel fuels.

  14. Emission characteristics of a diesel engine using waste cooking oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the use of waste cooking oil (WCO) methyl ester as an alternative fuel in a four-stroke turbo diesel engine with four cylinders, direct injection and 85 HP was analyzed. A test was applied in which an engine was fueled with diesel and three different blends of diesel/biodiesel (B25, B50 and B75) made from WCO.

  15. ANALYSIS OF OPERATING PARAMETERS AND INDICATORS OF A COMPRESSION IGNITION ENGINE FUELLED WITH LPG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof GARBALA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the possibilities for using alternative fuels to power vehicles equipped with compression ignition (CI engines (diesel. Systems for using such fuels have been discussed. Detailed analysis and research covered the LPG STAG autogas system, which is used to power dual-fuel engine units (LPG+diesel. A description of the operation of the autogas system and installation in a vehicle has been presented. The basic algorithms of the controller, which is an actuating element of the whole system, have been discussed. Protection systems of a serial production engine unit to guarantee its factorycontrolled durability standards have been presented. A long-distance test drive and examinations of the engine over 150,000 km in a Toyota Hilux have been performed. Operating parameters and performance indicators of the engine with STAG LPG+diesel fuelling have been verified. Directions and perspectives for the further development of such a system in diesel-powered cars have been also indicated.

  16. Simulation of diesel engine energy conversion processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. С. Афанасьев

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to keep diesel engines in good working order the troubleshooting methods shall be improved. For their further improvement by parameters of associated processes a need has arisen to develop a diesel engine troubleshooting method based on time parameters of operating cycle. For such method to be developed a computational experiment involving simulation of diesel engine energy conversion processes has been carried out. The simulation was based on the basic mathematical model of reciprocating internal combustion engines, representing a closed system of equations and relationships. The said model has been supplemented with the engine torque dynamics taking into account the current values of in-cylinder processes with different amounts of fuel injected, including zero feed.The torque values obtained by the in-cylinder pressure conversion does not account for mechanical losses, which is why the base simulation program has been supplemented with calculations for the friction and pumping forces. In order to determine the indicator diagram of idle cylinder a transition to zero fuel feed mode and exclusion of the combustion process from calculation have been provisioned.

  17. Exhaust emissions of DI diesel engine using unconventional fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudrajad, Agung; Ali, Ismail; Hamdan, Hazmie; Hamzah, Mohd. Herzwan

    2012-06-01

    Optimization of using waste plastic and tire disposal fuel on diesel engine were observed. The experimental project was comparison between using both of unconventional fuel and base diesel fuel. The engine experiment was conducted with YANMAR TF120 single cylinder four stroke diesel engine set-up at variable engine speed at 2100, 1900, 1700, 1500 and 1300 rpm. The data have been taken at each point of engine speed during the stabilized engine-operating regime. Measurement of emissions parameters at different engine speed conditions have generally indicated lower in emission COfor waste plastic fuel, lower NOx for tire disposal fuel and lower SOx for diesel fuel.

  18. Experimental investigation of the performance and emissions of diesel engines by a novel emulsified diesel fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zhenbin; Wang, Xiaochen; Pei, Yiqiang; Zhang, Chengliang; Xiao, Mingwei; He, Jinge

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel bio-fuel, glucose solution emulsified diesel fuel, is evaluated. • Emulsified diesel has comparable brake thermal efficiency. • NO X emissions decrease with emulsified fuel at all loads. • Soot emissions decrease with emulsified fuel except at a few operating points. - Abstract: The subject of this paper was to study the performance and emissions of two typical diesel engines using glucose solution emulsified diesel fuel. Emulsified diesel with a 15% glucose solution by mass fraction was used in diesel engines and compared with pure diesel. For the agricultural diesel engine, performance and emission characteristics were measured under various engine loads. The results showed that the brake thermal efficiencies were improved using emulsified diesel fuel. Emulsified fuel decreased NO x and soot emissions except at a few specific operating conditions. HydroCarbon (HC) and CO emissions were increased. For the automotive diesel engine, performance and emissions were measured using the 13-mode European Stationary Cycle (ESC). It was found that brake thermal efficiencies of emulsified diesel and pure diesel were comparable at 75% and 100% load. Soot emissions decreased significantly while NO x emissions decreased slightly. HC emissions increased while CO emissions decreased at some operating conditions

  19. Effect of Temperature, Pressure and Equivalence Ratio on Ignition Delay in Ignition Quality Tester (IQT): Diesel,n-Heptane, andiso-Octane Fuels under Low Temperature Conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Seung Yeon

    2015-11-02

    Effects of temperature, pressure and global equivalence ratio on total ignition delay time in a constant volume spray combustion chamber were investigated for diesel fuel along with the primary reference fuels (PRFs) of n-heptane and iso-octane in relatively low temperature conditions to simulate unsteady spray ignition behavior. A KAUST Research ignition quality tester (KR-IQT) was utilized, which has a feature of varying temperature, pressure and equivalence ratio using a variable displacement fuel pump. A gradient method was adopted in determining the start of ignition in order to compensate pressure increase induced by low temperature heat release. Comparison of this method with other existing methods was discussed. Ignition delay times were measured at various equivalence ratios (0.5-1.7) with the temperatures of initial charge air in the range from 698 to 860 K and the pressures in the range of 1.5 to 2.1 MPa, pertinent to low temperature combustion (LTC) conditions. An attempt to scale the effect of pressure on total ignition delay was undertaken and the equivalence ratio exponent and activation energy in the Arrhenius expression of total ignition delay were determined. Ignition delay results indicated that there were strong correlations of pressure, temperature, and equivalence ratio under most conditions studied except at relatively low pressures. Diesel (DCN 52.5) and n-heptane (DCN 54) fuels exhibited reasonably similar ignition delay characteristics, while iso-octane showed a distinct behavior under low temperature regime having a two-stage ignition, which substantiate the adoption of the gradient method in determining ignition delay.

  20. Effect of beadles from soybean on the exhaust emission of a turbocharged diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, G.E.; Jian, T.; Shah, A.N.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the regulated emissions in the light of cylinder pressure and heat release rate (HRR) from a 4-stroke direct injection (DI) diesel engine fuelled with neat soybean oil-based biodiesel, commercial diesel and 20% biodiesel-diesel blend. The engine was run using electrical dynamometer at four different engine conditions. The experimental results revealed that brake power (BP) of the engine decreased but brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) increased with biodiesel as compared to diesel. Relative to diesel, the maximum combustion pressure (MCP) was higher; however, HRR curves were not much deeper in the ignition delay (ID) periods and the premixed combustion peaks were lower with biodiesel. Carbon monoxide (CO), total hydrocarbons (HC), smoke opacity, and particulate matter (PM) emissions decreased by 3% to 14%, 32.6% to 46%, 56.5% to 83%, and 71% to 87.8%, respectively; however, oxides of nitrogen (NOx) increased by 2% to 10% with biodiesel, compared to the commercial diesel. Both smoke and NOx pollutants were greatly influenced by the MCP, CO, HC, and PM emissions were higher at lower load conditions compared to higher load conditions, but NO/sub x/ and smoke pollutants were higher at higher load conditions relative to lower load conditions. (author)

  1. Straight vegetable oils usage in a compression ignition engine - A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, R.D.; Murthy, M.S. [Mechanical Engineering Department, National Institute of Technology, Silchar 788010, Assam (India)

    2010-12-15

    The ever increasing fossil fuel usage and cost, environmental concern has forced the world to look for alternatives. Straight vegetable oils in compression ignition engine are a ready solution available, however, with certain limitations and with some advantages as reported by many researchers. A comprehensive and critical review is presented specifically pertaining to straight vegetable oils usage in diesel engine. A detailed record of historical events described. Research carried out specifically under Indian conditions and international research work on the usage of straight vegetable oils in the diesel engine is separately reviewed. Many researchers have reported that straight vegetable oils in small percentage blends with diesel when used lower capacity diesel engines have shown great promise with regards to the thermal performance as well exhaust emissions. This has been explained in detail. Finally based on the review of international as well as Indian research a SWOT analysis is carried out. The review concludes that there is still scope for research in this area. (author)

  2. The diesel engine and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    For more than 15 years, the development of engines has been oriented towards reducing the emissions of exhaust substances that are harmful to the environment. In the case of diesel engines, emission control is mainly concentrated to nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and particulates. Exhaust emission control has already advanced so far that the results achieved would have been regarded unrealistic a mere ten years ago. Diesel exhaust gases also include hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO), although technology is approaching the stage at which these substances will have been eliminated. This report summarizes problem areas of exhaust emission control, exhaust emission theory, exhaust gas substances and environmental chemistry, emission regulations, risks of automotive exhaust gases, among others. 33 refs

  3. Zone heated inlet ignited diesel particulate filter regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Ament, Frank [Troy, MI

    2012-06-26

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system includes: a particulate filter (PF) that is disposed downstream of the engine and that filters particulates from the exhaust; and a grid that includes electrically resistive material that is segmented by non-conductive material into a plurality of zones and wherein the grid is applied to an exterior upstream surface of the PF.

  4. Experimental investigation on cyclic variability, engine performance and exhaust emissions in a diesel engine using alcohol-diesel fuel blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurgen Samet

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impacts of using n-butanol-diesel fuel and ethanol-diesel fuel blends on engine performance, exhaust emission, and cycle-by-cycle variation in a Diesel engine. The engine was operated at two different engine speed and full load condition with pure diesel fuel, 5% and 10% (by vol. ethanol and n-butanol fuel blends. The coefficient of variation of indicated mean effective pressure was used to evaluate the cyclic variability of n-butanol-diesel fuel and ethanol-diesel fuel blends. The results obtained in this study showed that effective efficiency and brake specific fuel consumption generally increased with the use of the n-butanol-diesel fuel or ethanol-diesel fuel blends with respect to that of the neat diesel fuel. The addition of ethanol or n-butanol to diesel fuel caused a decrement in CO and NOx emissions. Also, the results indicated that cycle-by-cycle variation has an increasing trend with the increase of alcohol-diesel blending ratio for all engine speed. An increase in cyclic variability of alcohol-diesel fuel blends at low engine speed is higher than that of high engine speed.

  5. Hygroscopic properties of Diesel engine soot particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weingartner, E.; Baltensperger, U. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Burtscher, H. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-11-01

    The hygroscopic properties of combustion particles, freshly emitted from a Diesel engine were investigated. It was found that these particles start to grow by water condensation at a relative humidity (RH)>80%. The hygroscopicity of these particles was enhanced when the sulfur content of the fuel was increased or when the particles were artificially aged (i.e. particles were subjected to an ozone or UV pre-treatment). (author) 2 figs., 5 refs.

  6. Propellant Flow Actuated Piezoelectric Rocket Engine Igniter, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spark ignition of a bi-propellant rocket engine is a classic, proven, and generally reliable process. However, timing can be critical, and the control logic,...

  7. Performance of Diesel Engine Using Diesel B3 Mixed with Crude Palm Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namliwan, Nattapong; Wongwuttanasatian, Tanakorn

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the performance of diesel engine using diesel B3 mixed with crude palm oil in ratios of 95 : 5, 90 : 10, and 85 : 15, respectively, and to compare the results with diesel B3. According to the tests, they showed that the physical properties of the mixed fuel in the ratio of 95 : 5 were closest to those of diesel B3. The performance of the diesel engine that used mixed fuels had 5–17% lower torque and power than that of diesel B3. The specific fuel consumption of mixed fuels was 7–33% higher than using diesel B3. The components of gas emissions by using mixed fuel had 1.6–52% fewer amount of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and oxygen (O2) than those of diesel B3. On the other hand, nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions when using mixed fuels were 10–39% higher than diesel B3. By comparing the physical properties, the performance of the engine, and the amount of gas emissions of mixed fuel, we found out that the 95 : 5 ratio by volume was a suitable ratio for agricultural diesel engine (low-speed diesel engine). PMID:24688402

  8. Performance of diesel engine using diesel B3 mixed with crude palm oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namliwan, Nattapong; Wongwuttanasatian, Tanakorn

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the performance of diesel engine using diesel B3 mixed with crude palm oil in ratios of 95 : 5, 90 : 10, and 85 : 15, respectively, and to compare the results with diesel B3. According to the tests, they showed that the physical properties of the mixed fuel in the ratio of 95 : 5 were closest to those of diesel B3. The performance of the diesel engine that used mixed fuels had 5-17% lower torque and power than that of diesel B3. The specific fuel consumption of mixed fuels was 7-33% higher than using diesel B3. The components of gas emissions by using mixed fuel had 1.6-52% fewer amount of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and oxygen (O2) than those of diesel B3. On the other hand, nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen oxides (NO X ) emissions when using mixed fuels were 10-39% higher than diesel B3. By comparing the physical properties, the performance of the engine, and the amount of gas emissions of mixed fuel, we found out that the 95 : 5 ratio by volume was a suitable ratio for agricultural diesel engine (low-speed diesel engine).

  9. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XX, CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINE, MAINTENANCE SUMMARY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO PROVIDE A SUMMARY OF THE REASONS AND PROCEDURES FOR DIESEL ENGINE MAINTENANCE. TOPICS ARE WHAT ENGINE BREAK-IN MEANS, ENGINE BREAK-IN, TORQUING BEARINGS (TEMPLATE METHOD), AND THE NEED FOR MAINTENANCE. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING FILM "CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINE…

  10. Effect of Magnetic Field on Diesel Engine Power Fuelled with Jatropha-Diesel Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukarni Sukarni

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha oil has characteristics very close to the diesel fuel, so it has good prospects as a substitute or as a mixture of diesel fuel. Previous research showed that jatropha oil usage in diesel engines caused power to decrease. It was probably owing to the higher viscosity of the Jatropha oil compared to that of diesel oil. Installing the magnetic field in the fuel line of a diesel engine fueled with jatropha-diesel oil is expected to reduce the viscosity of jatropha-diesel oil mixture, hence improve the combustion reaction process. This research aims to know the influence of the magnetic field strength in the fuel lines to the power of diesel engines fueled with a mixture of jatropha-diesel oil. The composition of Jatropha oil-diesel was 20% jatropha oil and 80% diesel oil. Magnetic field variations were 0.122, 0.245 and 0.368 Tesla. The results showed that the higher the strength of the magnetic field was, the higher the average diesel engine’s power would be.

  11. Proceedings of the 1998 diesel engine emissions reduction workshop [DEER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This workshop was held July 6--9, 1998 in Castine, Maine. The purpose of this workshop was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on reduction of diesel engine emissions. Attention was focused on the following: agency/organization concerns on engine emissions; diesel engine issues and challenges; health risks from diesel engines emissions; fuels and lubrication technologies; non-thermal plasma and urea after-treatment technologies; and diesel engine technologies for emission reduction 1 and 2.

  12. CORONA DISCHARGE IGNITION FOR ADVANCED STATIONARY NATURAL GAS ENGINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Paul D. Ronney

    2003-09-12

    An ignition source was constructed that is capable of producing a pulsed corona discharge for the purpose of igniting mixtures in a test chamber. This corona generator is adaptable for use as the ignition source for one cylinder on a test engine. The first tests were performed in a cylindrical shaped chamber to study the characteristics of the corona and analyze various electrode geometries. Next a test chamber was constructed that closely represented the dimensions of the combustion chamber of the test engine at USC. Combustion tests were performed in this chamber and various electrode diameters and geometries were tested. The data acquisition and control system hardware for the USC engine lab was updated with new equipment. New software was also developed to perform the engine control and data acquisition functions. Work is underway to design a corona electrode that will fit in the new test engine and be capable igniting the mixture in one cylinder at first and eventually in all four cylinders. A test engine was purchased for the project that has two spark plug ports per cylinder. With this configuration it will be possible to switch between corona ignition and conventional spark plug ignition without making any mechanical modifications.

  13. Eucalyptus-Palm Kernel Oil Blends: A Complete Elimination of Diesel in a 4-Stroke VCR Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Kommana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuels derived from biomass are mostly preferred as alternative fuels for IC engines as they are abundantly available and renewable in nature. The objective of the study is to identify the parameters that influence gross indicated fuel conversion efficiency and how they are affected by the use of biodiesel relative to petroleum diesel. Important physicochemical properties of palm kernel oil and eucalyptus blend were experimentally evaluated and found within acceptable limits of relevant standards. As most of vegetable oils are edible, growing concern for trying nonedible and waste fats as alternative to petrodiesel has emerged. In present study diesel fuel is completely replaced by biofuels, namely, methyl ester of palm kernel oil and eucalyptus oil in various blends. Different blends of palm kernel oil and eucalyptus oil are prepared on volume basis and used as operating fuel in single cylinder 4-stroke variable compression ratio diesel engine. Performance and emission characteristics of these blends are studied by varying the compression ratio. In the present experiment methyl ester extracted from palm kernel oil is considered as ignition improver and eucalyptus oil is considered as the fuel. The blends taken are PKE05 (palm kernel oil 95 + eucalyptus 05, PKE10 (palm kernel oil 90 + eucalyptus 10, and PKE15 (palm kernel 85 + eucalyptus 15. The results obtained by operating with these fuels are compared with results of pure diesel; finally the most preferable combination and the preferred compression ratio are identified.

  14. Combustion and emissions characteristics of a compression ignition engine fueled with n-butanol blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusri, I. M.; Mamat, R.; Ali, O. M.; Aziz, A.; Akasyah, M. K.; Kamarulzaman, M. K.; Ihsan, C. K.; Mahmadul, H. M.; Rosdi, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    The use of biomass based renewable fuel, n-butanol blends for compression ignition (CI) engine has attracted wide attention due to its superior properties such as better miscibility, higher energy content, and cetane number. In this present study the use of n-butanol 10% blends (Bu10) with diesel fuel has been tested using 4-cylinder, 4-stroke common rail direct injection CI engine to investigate the combustion and emissions of the blended fuels. Based on the tested engine at BMEP=3.5Bar Bu10 fuel indicates lower first and second peak pressure by 5.4% and 2.4% for engine speed 1000rpm and 4.4% and 2.1% for engine speed 2500rpm compared to diesel fuel respectively. Percentage reduction relative to diesel fuel at engine speeds 1000rpm and 2500rpm for Bu10: Exhaust temperature was 7.5% and 5.2% respectively; Nitrogen oxides (NOx) 73.4% and 11.3% respectively.

  15. Experimental investigation of the impact of using alcohol- biodiesel-diesel blending fuel on combustion of single cylinder CI engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmudul, H. M.; Hagos, Ftwi Y.; Mamat, Rizalman; Abdullah, Abdul A.; Awad, Omar. I.

    2016-11-01

    The effect of alcohol addition has been experimentally in vestgated in the current study by blending it with diesel and palm based biodiesel on the combustion of a compression ignition engine. The experiment was run by single-cylinder, naturally aspirated, direct injection, four-stroke diesel engine. Based on the pressure-crank angle data collected from the pressure transducer and crank angle encoder, the combustion analysis such as incylinder pressure, incylinder temperature, energy release rate, cumulative energy release and ignition delay are analysed. In this comparative study, the effects of alcohols namely butanol BU20 (20% butanol addition on the commercially available diesel biodiesel emulsion) is compared and evaluated with pure diesel (D100). The results revealed that the the ignition delay for BU20 is longer as compared to that of D100 in all engine speeds and loads compared. Besides, the incylinder temperatures were rudecued with the butanol addition. The energy release rate for BU20 was higher than that for diesel, whereas the peak positions concerning the energy release rate for BU20 was discovered at 2400 rpm. Therefore addition of butanol will have positive role on the NOx emissions and stability of the engine due to its higher latent heat of vaporization.

  16. USE OF WATER-FUEL MIXTURE IN DIESEL ENGINES AT FISHING VESSELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg KLYUS

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the laboratory test results determining physical parameters of fuel mixture made up of petroleum diesel oil, rapeseed oil methyl esters (up to 20% and water (up to 2.5%. The obtained parameters prove that adding bio-components (rapeseed oil methyl esters and water to fuel does not result in deterioration of their physical and chemical properties and are comparable to base fuel parameters, namely petroleum diesel oil. The mixture was a subject of bench testing with the use of a self-ignition engine by means of pre-catalytic fuel treatment. The treatment process consisted in fuel – catalytically active material direct contact on the atomizer body. At the comparable operational parameters for the engine, the obtained exhaust gases opacity was lower up to 60% due to the preliminary fuel mixture treatment in relation to the factory-made fuel injection system using petroleum diesel oil.

  17. Use of Water-Fuel Mixture in Diesel Engines at Fishing Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klyus, Oleg; Bezyukov, O.

    2017-06-01

    The paper presents the laboratory test results determining physical parameters of fuel mixture made up of petroleum diesel oil, rapeseed oil methyl esters (up to 20%) and water (up to 2.5%). The obtained parameters prove that adding bio-components (rapeseed oil methyl esters) and water to fuel does not result in deterioration of their physical and chemical properties and are comparable to base fuel parameters, namely petroleum diesel oil. The mixture was a subject of bench testing with the use of a self-ignition engine by means of pre-catalytic fuel treatment. The treatment process consisted in fuel - catalytically active material direct contact on the atomizer body. At the comparable operational parameters for the engine, the obtained exhaust gases opacity was lower up to 60% due to the preliminary fuel mixture treatment in relation to the factory-made fuel injection system using petroleum diesel oil.

  18. Experimental Investigations on Diesel engine using Methyl esters of Jatropha oil and fish oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, A.; Jayaprabakar, J.; Dude Williams, Richard

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the study is to use fish oil methyl ester (FME) and Jatropha oil methyl ester (JME) as a substitute for diesel in compression ignition engine. Experiments were conducted when the engine was fuelled with Diesel, Fish oil methyl ester and Jatropha oil methyl ester. The experiment covered a range of loads. An AVL smoke meter was used to measure the smoke density in HSU (Hatridge Smoke Unit). The exhaust emissions were measured using exhaust gas analyzer. High volume sampler was employed to measure the particulate matter in exhaust. The performance of the engine was evaluated in terms of brake specific fuel consumption, brake thermal efficiency. The combustion characteristics of the engine were studied in terms of cylinder pressure with respect to crank angle. The emissions of the engine were studied in terms of concentration of CO, NOx, particulate matter and smoke density. The results obtained for Fish oil methyl ester, Jatropha oil methyl ester, were compared with the results of diesel. Bio-diesel, which can be used as an alternate diesel fuel, is made from vegetable oil and animal fats. It is renewable, non-toxic and possesses low emission profiles.

  19. Rudolf Diesel – The Rational Inventor of a Heat Engine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    By the time he was 14, Diesel decided he wanted to be an engineer so in his last year of schooling, ... developing refrigeration and gas separation technologies. Diesel worked in Linde's lab and by ... recovered from the illness that year, Diesel spent six months working in the factory of the Sulzer. Brothers Ltd. in Winterthur, ...

  20. Emission characterization of diesel engine run on coconut oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of biodiesel in running diesel has been called for, with a view to mitigating the environmental pollution, depletion, cost and scarcity associated with the use diesel in running diesel engine. So the need to characterize the emissions from these biodiesel, cannot be overemphasized, hence this paper presents the ...

  1. Main conditions and effectiveness of gas fuel use for powering of dual fuel IC self-ignition engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan POSTRZEDNIK

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Internal combustion engines are fuelled mostly with liquid fuels (gasoline, diesel. Nowadays the gaseous fuels are applied as driving fuel of combustion engines. In case of spark ignition engines the liquid fuel (petrol can be totally replaced by the gas fuels. This possibility in case of compression engines is essentially restricted through the higher self-ignition temperatures of the combustible gases in comparison to classical diesel oil. Solution if this problem can be achieved by using of the dual fuel system, where for ignition of the prepared fuel gas - air mixture a specified amount of the liquid fuel (diesel oil should be additionally injected into the combustion chamber. For assurance that the combustion process proceeds without mistakes and completely, some basic conditions should be satisfied. In the frame of this work, three main aspects of this problem are taken into account: a. filling efficiency of the engine, b. stoichiometry of the combustion, c. performance of mechanical parameters (torque, power. A complex analysis of these conditions has been done and some achieved important results are presented in the paper.

  2. Fuel system for diesel engine with multi-stage heated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhov, Yu N.; Kuznetsov, Yu A.; Kolomeichenko, A. V.; Kuznetsov, I. S.; Solovyev, R. Yu; Sharifullin, S. N.

    2017-09-01

    The article describes a fuel system of a diesel engine with a construction tractor multistage heating, allowing the use of pure rapeseed oil as a diesel engine fuel. The paper identified the kinematic viscosity depending on the temperature and composition of the mixed fuel, supplemented by the existing recommendations on the use of mixed fuels based on vegetable oils and developed the device allowing use as fuel for diesel engines of biofuels based on vegetable oils.

  3. Engine Research Center: Advanced Diesel Engine Research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Corradini, M

    1999-01-01

    .... Fundamental projects addressing continued development of advanced multidimensional modeling, advanced diagnostic development, experimental investigation of fluid mechanic mixing phenomena and engine...

  4. EFFECTS OF ETHANOL BLENDED DIESEL FUEL ON EXHAUST EMISSIONS FROM A DIESEL ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özer CAN

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Diesel engine emissions can be improved by adding organic oxygenated compounds to the No. 2 diesel fuel. In this study, effects of 10 % and 15 % (in volume ethanol addition to Diesel No. 2 on exhaust emissions from an indirect injection turbocharged diesel engine running at different engine speeds and loads were investigated. Experimental results showed that the ethanol addition reduced CO, soot and SO2 emissions, although it caused some increase in NOx emission and some power reductions due to lower heating value of ethanol. Improvements on emissions were more significant at full load rather than at partial loads.

  5. Hydrogen as an Auxiliary Fuel in Compression-Ignition Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrish, Harold C; Foster, H

    1936-01-01

    An investigation was made to determine whether a sufficient amount of hydrogen could be efficiently burned in a compression-ignition engine to compensate for the increase of lift of an airship due to the consumption of the fuel oil. The performance of a single-cylinder four-stroke-cycle compression-ignition engine operating on fuel oil alone was compared with its performance when various quantities of hydrogen were inducted with the inlet air. Engine-performance data, indicator cards, and exhaust-gas samples were obtained for each change in engine-operating conditions.

  6. 76 FR 54373 - Airworthiness Directives; Austro Engine GmbH Model E4 Diesel Piston Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Austro Engine GmbH Model E4 Diesel Piston Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation..., contact Austro Engine GmbH, Rudolf-Diesel-Strasse 11, A-2700 Weiner Neustadt, Austria, phone: +43 2622... information, we estimate that this AD will affect about 32 model E4 diesel piston engines, installed on...

  7. 75 FR 68179 - Airworthiness Directives; Austro Engine GmbH Model E4 Diesel Piston Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Austro Engine GmbH Model E4 Diesel Piston Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation.... Affected ADs (b) None. Applicability (c) This AD applies to Austro Engine GmbH model E4 diesel piston.... Contact Austro Engine GmbH, Rudolf-Diesel- Strasse 11, A-2700 Weiner Neustadt, Austria, telephone: +43...

  8. Formation and emission of organic pollutants from diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertoli, C.; Ciajolo, A.; D'Anna, A.; Barbella, R.

    1993-01-01

    The emission of soot and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from diesel engines results from the competition between oxidative and pyrolytic routes which the fuel takes in the unsteady, heterogeneous conditions of the diesel combustion process. In-cylinder sampling and analysis of particulate (soot and condensed hydrocarbon species), light hydrocarbons and gaseous inorganic species were carried out in two locations of a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine by means of a fast sampling valve in order to follow the behaviour of a diesel fuel during the engine cycle. The effect of fuel quality (volatility, aromatic content, cetane number) and air/fuel mass feed ratio on soot, PAH, and light and heavy hydrocarbons was also investigated by direct sampling and chemical analysis of the exhausts emitted from a direct injection diesel engine (D.I.) and an indirect injection diesel engine (I.D.I.)

  9. Potential use of eucalyptus biodiesel in compressed ignition engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Verma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The increased population has resulted in extra use of conventional sources of fuels due to which there is risk of extinction of fossil fuels’ resources especially petroleum diesel. Biodiesel is emerging as an excellent alternative choice across the world as a direct replacement for diesel fuel in vehicle engines. Biodiesel offers a great choice. It is mainly derived from vegetable oils, animal fats and algae. Hence in this paper effort has been made to find out feasibility of biodiesel obtained from eucalyptus oil and its impact on diesel engine. Higher viscosity is a major issue while using vegetable oil directly in engine which can be removed by converting it into biodiesel by the process of transesterification. Various fuel properties like calorific value, flash point and cetane value of biodiesel and biodiesel–diesel blends of different proportions were evaluated and found to be comparable with petroleum diesel. The result of investigation shows that Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC for two different samples of B10 blend of eucalyptus biodiesel is 2.34% and 2.93% lower than that for diesel. Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE for B10 blends was found to be 0.52% and 0.94% lower than that for diesel. Emission characteristics show that Smoke Opacity improves for both samples, smoke is found to be 64.5% and 62.5% cleaner than that of diesel. Out of all blends B10 was found to be a suitable alternative to conventional diesel fuel to control air pollution without much significant effect on engine performance. On comparing both samples, biodiesel prepared from sample A of eucalyptus oil was found to be superior in all aspects of performance and emission.

  10. COMBUSTION CHARACTERISTICS OF DIESEL ENGINE OPERATING ON JATROPHA OIL METHYL ESTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doddayaraganalu Amasegoda Dhananjaya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuel crisis because of dramatic increase in vehicular population and environmental concerns have renewed interest of scientific community to look for alternative fuels of bio-origin such as vegetable oils. Vegetable oils can be produced from forests, vegetable oil crops, and oil bearing biomass materials. Non-edible vegetable oils such as jatropha oil, linseed oil, mahua oil, rice bran oil, karanji oil, etc., are potentially effective diesel substitute. Vegetable oils have reasonable energy content. Biodiesel can be used in its pure form or can be blended with diesel to form different blends. It can be used in diesel engines with very little or no engine modifications. This is because it has combustion characteristics similar to petroleum diesel. The current paper reports a study carried out to investigate the combustion, performance and emission characteristics of jatropha oil methyl ester and its blend B20 (80% petroleum diesel and 20% jatropha oil methyl ester and diesel fuel on a single-cylinder, four-stroke, direct injections, water cooled diesel engine. This study gives the comparative measures of brake thermal efficiency, brake specific energy consumption, smoke opacity, HC, NOx, ignition delay, cylinder peak pressure, and peak heat release rates. The engine performance in terms of higher thermal efficiency and lower emissions of blend B20 fuel operation was observed and compared with jatropha oil methyl ester and petroleum diesel fuel for injection timing of 20° bTDC, 23° bTDC and 26° bTDC at injection opening pressure of 220 bar.

  11. Fueling diesel engines with methyl-ester soybean oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumacher, L.G.; Hires, W.G.; Borgelt, S.C.

    1993-01-01

    Two 5.9 liter Cummins engines were fueled for a combined total of more than 80,467 km (50,000 miles). One truck, a 1991 Dodge, has been driven approximately 48,280 km (30,000 miles). The other, a 1992 Dodge, has been driven approximately 32,187 km (20,000 miles). Fueling these engines with soydiesel increase engine power by 3 percent (1991 engine) and reduced power by 6 percent (1992 engine). The pickups averaged more than 7.1 km/L (16.7 mpg). Analysis of used engine oil samples indicated that the engines were wearing at normal rate. The black exhaust smoke normally observed when a diesel engine accelerates was reduced as much as 86 percent when the diesel engine was fueled with 100% soydiesel. Increased EPA exhaust emissions requirements for diesel engines have created much interest in the use of soydiesel as fuel for diesel engines

  12. 77 FR 20388 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Large Spark-Ignition (LSI) Engines...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9655-9] California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Large Spark-Ignition (LSI) Engines; New Emission Standards and In-Use Fleet Requirements; Notice... emission standards and certification and test procedures for large spark-ignition nonroad engines and in...

  13. 76 FR 67184 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Large Spark-Ignition (LSI) Engines...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9484-9] California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Large Spark-Ignition (LSI) Engines; Fleet Requirements for In-Use LSI Forklifts and Other... its emission standards and certification and test procedures for large spark-ignition nonroad engines...

  14. Petroleum Diesel Fuel and Linseed Oil Mixtures as Engine Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markov, V. A.; Kamaltdinov, V. G.; Savastenko, A. A.

    2018-01-01

    The actual problem is the use of alternative biofuels in automotive diesel engines. Insufficiently studied are the indicators of toxicity of exhaust gases of these engines operating on biofuel. The aim of the study is to identify indicators of the toxicity of exhaust gases when using of petroleum diesel fuel and linseed oil mixtures as a fuel for automotive diesel engines. Physical and chemical properties of linseed oil and its mixtures with petroleum diesel fuel are considered. Experimental researches of D-245.12C diesel are carried out on mixtures of diesel fuel and corn oil with a different composition. An opportunity of exhaust toxicity indexes improvement using these mixtures as a fuel for automobiles engine is shown.

  15. A prediction study of a spark ignition supercharged hydrogen engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Baghdadi, Maher A.R. Sadiq.; Al-Janabi, Haroun A.K. Shahad

    2003-01-01

    Hydrogen is found to be a suitable alternative fuel for spark ignition engines with certain drawbacks, such as high NO x emission and small power output. However, supercharging may solve such problems. In this study, the effects of equivalence ratio, compression ratio and inlet pressure on the performance and NO x emission of a four stroke supercharged hydrogen engine have been analyzed using a specially developed computer program. The results are verified and compared with experimental data obtained from tests on a Ricardo E6/US engine. A chart specifying the safe operation zone of the hydrogen engine has been produced. The safe operation zone means no pre-ignition, acceptable NO x emission, high engine efficiency and lower specific fuel consumption in comparison with the gasoline engine. The study also shows that supercharging is a more effective method to increase the output of a hydrogen engine rather than increasing the compression ratio of the engine at the knock limited equivalence ratio

  16. Role of fuel additives on reduction of NOX emission from a diesel engine powered by camphor oil biofuel

    KAUST Repository

    Subramanian, Thiyagarajan

    2018-03-21

    The present study intends to explore the effect of the addition of fuel additives with camphor oil (CMO) on the characteristics of a twin-cylinder compression ignition (CI) engine. The lower viscosity and boiling point of CMO when compared to diesel could improve the fuel atomization, evaporation, and air/fuel mixing process. However, the lower cetane index of CMO limits its use as a drop in fuel for diesel in CI engine. In general, NO emission increases for less viscous and low cetane (LVLC) fuels due to pronounced premixed combustion phase. To improve the ignition characteristics and decrease NO emissions, fuel additives such as diglyme (DGE)—a cetane enhancer, cumene (CU)—an antioxidant, and eugenol (EU) and acetone (A)—bio-additives, are added 10% by volume with CMO. The engine used for the experimentation is a twin-cylinder tractor engine that runs at a constant speed of 1500 rpm. The engine was operated with diesel initially to attain warm-up condition, which facilitates the operation of neat CMO. At full load condition, brake thermal efficiency (BTE) for CMO is higher (29.6%) than that of diesel (28.1%), while NO emission is increased by 9.4%. With DGE10 (10% DGE + 90% CMO), the ignition characteristics of CMO are improved and BTE is increased to 31.7% at full load condition. With EU10 (10% EU + 90% CMO) and A10 (10% A + 90% CMO), NO emission is decreased by 24.6 and 17.8% when compared to diesel, while BTE is comparable to diesel. While HC and CO emission decreased for DGE10 and CU10, they increased for EU10 and A10 when compared to baseline diesel and CMO.

  17. Role of fuel additives on reduction of NOX emission from a diesel engine powered by camphor oil biofuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Thiyagarajan; Varuvel, Edwin Geo; Ganapathy, Saravanan; Vedharaj, S; Vallinayagam, R

    2018-03-21

    The present study intends to explore the effect of the addition of fuel additives with camphor oil (CMO) on the characteristics of a twin-cylinder compression ignition (CI) engine. The lower viscosity and boiling point of CMO when compared to diesel could improve the fuel atomization, evaporation, and air/fuel mixing process. However, the lower cetane index of CMO limits its use as a drop in fuel for diesel in CI engine. In general, NO X emission increases for less viscous and low cetane (LVLC) fuels due to pronounced premixed combustion phase. To improve the ignition characteristics and decrease NO X emissions, fuel additives such as diglyme (DGE)-a cetane enhancer, cumene (CU)-an antioxidant, and eugenol (EU) and acetone (A)-bio-additives, are added 10% by volume with CMO. The engine used for the experimentation is a twin-cylinder tractor engine that runs at a constant speed of 1500 rpm. The engine was operated with diesel initially to attain warm-up condition, which facilitates the operation of neat CMO. At full load condition, brake thermal efficiency (BTE) for CMO is higher (29.6%) than that of diesel (28.1%), while NO X emission is increased by 9.4%. With DGE10 (10% DGE + 90% CMO), the ignition characteristics of CMO are improved and BTE is increased to 31.7% at full load condition. With EU10 (10% EU + 90% CMO) and A10 (10% A + 90% CMO), NO X emission is decreased by 24.6 and 17.8% when compared to diesel, while BTE is comparable to diesel. While HC and CO emission decreased for DGE10 and CU10, they increased for EU10 and A10 when compared to baseline diesel and CMO.

  18. The comparison of engine performance and exhaust emission characteristics of sesame oil-diesel fuel mixture with diesel fuel in a direct injection diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altun, Sehmus [Technical Education Faculty, Automotive Division, Batman University, Batman (Turkey); Bulut, Huesamettin [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Osmanbey Campus, Harran University, 63100 Sanliurfa (Turkey); Oener, Cengiz [Technical Education Faculty, Automotive Division, Firat University, Elazig (Turkey)

    2008-08-15

    The use of vegetable oils as a fuel in diesel engines causes some problems due to their high viscosity compared with conventional diesel fuel. Various techniques and methods are used to solve the problems resulting from high viscosity. One of these techniques is fuel blending. In this study, a blend of 50% sesame oil and 50% diesel fuel was used as an alternative fuel in a direct injection diesel engine. Engine performance and exhaust emissions were investigated and compared with the ordinary diesel fuel in a diesel engine. The experimental results show that the engine power and torque of the mixture of sesame oil-diesel fuel are close to the values obtained from diesel fuel and the amounts of exhaust emissions are lower than those of diesel fuel. Hence, it is seen that blend of sesame oil and diesel fuel can be used as an alternative fuel successfully in a diesel engine without any modification and also it is an environmental friendly fuel in terms of emission parameters. (author)

  19. Clean Diesel Engine Component Improvement Program Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsner, N. B. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Bass, J. C. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Ghamaty, S. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Krommenhoek, D. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Kushch, A. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Snowden, D. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Marchetti, S. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    2005-03-16

    Hi-Z Technology, Inc. (Hi-Z) is currently developing four different auxiliary generator designs that are used to convert a portion (5 to 20%) of the waste heat from vehicle engines exhaust directly to electricity. The four designs range from 200 Watts to 10 kW. The furthest along is the 1 kW Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator (DTTEG) for heavy duty Class 8 Diesel trucks, which, under this program, has been subjected to 543,000 equivalent miles of bouncing and jarring on PACCAR's test track. Test experience on an earlier version of the DTTEG on the same track showed the need for design modifications incorporated in DTTEG Mod 2, such as a heavy duty shock mounting system and reinforcement of the electrical leads mounting system, the thermocouple mounting system and the thermoelectric module restraints. The conclusion of the 543,000 mile test also pointed the way for an upgrading to heavy duty hose or flex connections for the internal coolant connections for the TEG, and consideration of a separate lower temperature cooling loop with its own radiator. Fuel savings of up to $750 per year and a three to five year payback are believed to be possible with the 5 % efficiency modules. The economics are expected to improve considerably to approach a two year payback when the 5 kW to 10 kW generators make it to the market in a few years with a higher efficiency (20%) thermoelectric module system called Quantum Wells, which are currently under development by Hi-Z. Ultimately, as automation takes over to reduce material and labor costs in the high volume production of QW modules, a one year payback for the 5 kW to10 kW generator appears possible. This was one of the stated goals at the beginning of the project. At some future point in time, with the DTTEG becoming standard equipment on all trucks and automobiles, fuel savings from the 25% conversion of exhaust heat to useable electricity nationwide equates to a 10% reduction in the 12 to 15 million barrels per day of

  20. Engine structure modifications effect on the flow behavior, combustion, and performance characteristics of DI diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taghavifar, Hadi; Khalilarya, Shahram; Jafarmadar, Samad

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Engine geometrical configuration was modified based on bowl radius and displacement. • The best engine performance indices associated with D3 and R1 structures. • Increasing the bowl radius and outward bowl displacement increases ignition delay. • The best configuration for uniform air/fuel mixture, TKE, and temperature is found. - Abstract: The simulation was carried out based on 1.8 L Ford diesel engine and the geometrical modification in structure of piston were considered in terms of bowl movement and the bowl size in four equal increments. Two major conflicting parameters in combustion and engine efficiency were taken into account and visualized in contour plots as the bowl geometry was varied: (1) the air/fuel mixing process demonstrated by Homogeneity Factor and equivalence ratio, (2) combustion initiation and work delivery by heat release rate, pressure curves, and indicated thermal efficiency. A new version of Coherent Flame Model’s sub-model (ECFM-3Z) was adopted during the calculations to shed light into the combustion chemistry and reaction rate in detail. It was found that the bowl displacement toward the cylinder wall, increases the mixture uniformity (higher HF) thus higher pressure and heat release rate peak were obtained with the penalty of combustion delay which substantially reduces the effective in-cylinder pressure. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that smaller bowl size induces better squish and vortex formation in the chamber, although lesser spray penetration and flame quenching owing to the spray-wall impingement reduces ignition delay

  1. Turbulent spark-jet ignition in SI gas fuelled engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pielecha Ireneusz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains a thermodynamic analysis of a new combustion system that allows the combustion of stratified gas mixtures with mean air excess coefficient in the range 1.4-1.8. Spark ignition was used in the pre-chamber that has been mounted in the engine cylinder head and contained a rich mixture out of which a turbulent flow of ignited mixture is ejected. It allows spark-jet ignition and the turbulent combustion of the lean mixture in the main combustion chamber. This resulted in a two-stage combustion system for lean mixtures. The experimental study has been conducted using a single-cylinder test engine with a geometric compression ratio ε = 15.5 adapted for natural gas supply. The tests were performed at engine speed n = 2000 rpm under stationary engine load when the engine operating parameters and toxic compounds emissions have been recorded. Analysis of the results allowed to conclude that the evaluated combustion system offers large flexibility in the initiation of charge ignition through an appropriate control of the fuel quantities supplied into the pre-chamber and into the main combustion chamber. The research concluded with determining the charge ignition criterion for a suitably divided total fuel dose fed to the cylinder.

  2. Experimental investigation review of biodiesel usage in bus diesel engine

    OpenAIRE

    Kegl, Breda; Kegl, Marko

    2017-01-01

    This paper assembles and analyses extensive experimental research work conducted for several years in relation to biodiesel usage in a MAN bus Diesel engine with M injection system. At first the most important properties of the actually used neat rapeseed biodiesel fuel and its blends with mineral diesel are discussed and compared to that of mineral diesel. Then the injection, fuel spray, and engine characteristics for various considered fuel blends are compared at various ambient conditions,...

  3. effect of gasket of varying thickness on spark ignition engines

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    In the study of Toyota, In-line, 4 cylinders, spark ignition engine using gaskets of varying thicknesses. (1.75mm, 3.5mm, 5.25mm, 7mm and 8.75mm) between the cylinder head and the engine block, the performance characteristics of the engine was investigated via the effect of engine speed on brake power, brake thermal ...

  4. 76 FR 33660 - Airworthiness Directives; Austro Engine GmbH Model E4 Diesel Piston Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    ... Model E4 Diesel Piston Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of... 2010-23-09, Amendment 39-16498 (75 FR 68179, November 5, 2010), for Austro Engine GmbH model E4 diesel... 2011-0039, dated March 8, 2011, adding a terminating action on Austro Engine GmbH model E4 diesel...

  5. Influence of using emulsified diesel fuel on the performance and pollutants emitted from diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alahmer, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Emulsified diesel fuels with water content of range 0–30% by volume were prepared. • Effect emulsified diesel fuel on diesel engine performance and pollutant emissions. • Using emulsified fuel improves the diesel engine performance and reduces emissions. - Abstract: This manuscript investigates the effect of emulsified diesel fuel on the engine performance and on the main pollutant emissions for a water-cooled, four stroke, four cylinders, and direct injection diesel engine. Emulsified diesel fuels with water content of range 0–30% by volume were used. The experiments were conducted in the speed range from 1000 to 3000 rpm. It was found that, in general, the using emulsified fuel improves the engine performance and reduces emissions. While the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) has a minimum value at 5% water content and 2000 rpm. The torque (T), the break mean effective pressure (BMEP) and thermal efficiency (η th ) are found to have maximum values under these conditions. The emission CO 2 was found to increase with engine speed and to decrease with water content. NO x produced from emulsified fuel is significantly less than that produced from pure diesel under the same conditions. And as the percentage of water content in the emulsion increases, the emitted amount of oxygen also increases

  6. Spark ignition engine performance and emissions in a high compression engine using biogas and methane mixtures without knock occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Montoya Juan Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose to use biogas in an internal combustion engine with high compression ratio and in order to get a high output thermal efficiency, this investigation used a diesel engine with a maximum output power 8.5 kW, which was converted to spark ignition mode to use it with gaseous fuels. Three fuels were used: Simulated biogas, biogas enriched with 25% and 50% methane by volume. After conversion, the output power of the engine decreased by 17.64% when using only biogas, where 7 kW was the new maximum output power of the engine. The compression ratio was kept at 15.5:1, and knocking did not occur during engine operation. Output thermal efficiency operating the engine in SI mode with biogas enriched with 50% methane was almost the same compared with the engine running in diesel-biogas dual mode at full load and was greater at part loads. The dependence of the diesel pilot was eliminated when biogas was used in the engine converted in SI mode. The optimum condition of experiment for the engine without knocking was using biogas enriched with 50% methane, with 12 degrees of spark timing advance and equivalence ratio of 0.95, larger output powers and higher values of methane concentration lead the engine to knock operation. The presence of CO2 allows operating engines at high compression ratios with normal combustion conditions. Emissions of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and unburnt methane all in g/kWh decreased when the biogas was enriched with 50% methane.

  7. Embarked diagnosis applied to a mechanical system "diesel engine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The implementation of OBD (on-board diagnostic) systems for diesel engines has become an unavoidable necessity. From the models described in the literature, the latest generation diesel engine models as well as defects affecting it were established. A board diagnostic system based on the use of fuzzy pattern ...

  8. Knock characteristics of dual-fuel combustion in diesel engines ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper investigates the combustion knock characteristics of diesel engines running on natural gas using pilot injection as means of initiating combustion. The diesel engines knock under normal operating conditions but the knock referred to in this paper is an objectionable one. In the dual-fuel combustion process we ...

  9. Laser-based diagnostics on NO in a diesel engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brugman, Theodorus Maria

    1999-01-01

    Of all internal combustion engines diesel engines tend to be the most efficient. However, this high efficiency is coupled with specific emissions of nitric oxides (NOx = NO and NO2) and soot. Such emissions are best fought against at their very source: the diesel combustion process itself. The

  10. CFD analysis of the scavenging process in marine two-stroke diesel engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Fredrik Herland; Hult, Johan; Nogenmyr, Karl-Johan

    2014-01-01

    The scavenging process is an integral part of any two-stroke internal combustion engine regardless of being spark ignited (SI) or compression ignited (CI). The scavenging process is responsible for replacing the burned gas from the combustion process from the previous working stroke with fresh air....../charge before the subsequent compression stroke. This implies that the scavenging process is integral to engine performance as it influence the initial condition for the combustion process, thus affecting the fuel economy, power output and emission of hazardous gases. Two-stroke diesel engines for marine...... with the swirling air in the combustion chamber during fuel injection. A known characteristic of swirling flows is an adverse pressure gradient in the center of the rotating flow which might lead to a local deficit in axial velocity and the formation of central recirculation zones, known as vortex breakdown...

  11. Performance and emission evaluation of a CI engine fueled with preheated raw rapeseed oil (RRO)-diesel blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazar, Hanbey [Department of Automotive, Faculty of Technical Education, Firat University, Elazig 23119 (Turkey); Aydin, Hueseyin [Department of Automotive, Faculty of Technical Education, Batman University, Batman 72060 (Turkey)

    2010-03-15

    Many studies are still being carried out to find out surplus information about how vegetable based oils can efficiently be used in compression ignition engines. Raw rapeseed oil (RRO) was used as blended with diesel fuel (DF) by 50% oil-50% diesel fuel in volume (O50) also as blended with diesel fuel by 20% oil-80% diesel fuel in volume (O20). The test fuels were used in a single cylinder, four stroke, naturally aspirated, direct injection compression ignition engine. The effects of fuel preheating to 100 C on the engine performance and emission characteristics of a CI engine fueled with rapeseed oil diesel blends were clarified. Results showed that preheating of RRO was lowered RRO's viscosity and provided smooth fuel flow Heating is necessary for smooth flow and to avoid fuel filter clogging. It can be achieved by heating RRO to 100 C. It can also be concluded that preheating of the fuel have some positive effects on engine performance and emissions when operating with vegetable oil. (author)

  12. Lemon peel oil – A novel renewable alternative energy source for diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashok, B.; Thundil Karuppa Raj, R.; Nanthagopal, K.; Krishnan, Rahul; Subbarao, Rayapati

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel biofuel is extracted from lemon peels through steam distillation process. • Lemon peel oil is found to be a potential, renewable alternate eco-friendly fuel. • Significant vibration is observed with 100% lemon peel oil. • Reduction of CO, HC and smoke emission are observed with lemon peel oil blends. • Lemon peel oil blends are showed higher brake thermal efficiency than diesel fuel. - Abstract: The present research work has embarked on to exploit the novel renewable and biodegradable source of energy from lemon fruit rinds. A systematic approach has been made in this study to find the suitability of lemon peel oil for internal combustion engines and gensets applications. Extracted lemon peel oil is found to exhibit comparatively very low viscosity, flash point and boiling point than that of conventional diesel. Various blends of lemon peel oil have been prepared with conventional diesel with volumetric concentration of 20%, 40%, 50% and 100% and their physical and chemical properties are evaluated for its suitability in direct injection diesel engine. Lower cetane index of lemon peel oil significantly influences the ignition delay period and peak heat release rate that lead to the penalty in NOx emissions. Interestingly, the diesel engine performance characteristics have been improved to a remarkable level with higher proportions of lemon peel oil in the blends. In addition, the reduction of BSCO, BSHC and smoke emission is proportional to the lemon oil concentration in the blends. Overall diesel engine characteristics indicated that lemon peel oil can partially or completely replace the petroleum diesel usage to a great extent in developing countries like India.

  13. Experimental studies on the combustion characteristics and performance of a direct injection engine fueled with biodiesel/diesel blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, D.H.; Chen, H.; Geng, L.M.; Bian, Y. ZH.

    2010-01-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative diesel fuel that can be produced from different kinds of vegetable oils. It is an oxygenated, non-toxic, sulphur-free, biodegradable, and renewable fuel and can be used in diesel engines without significant modification. However, the performance, emissions and combustion characteristics will be different for the same biodiesel used in different types of engine. In this study, the biodiesel produced from soybean crude oil was prepared by a method of alkaline-catalyzed transesterification. The effects of biodiesel addition to diesel fuel on the performance, emissions and combustion characteristics of a naturally aspirated DI compression ignition engine were examined. Biodiesel has different properties from diesel fuel. A minor increase in brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and decrease in brake thermal efficiency (BTE) for biodiesel and its blends were observed compared with diesel fuel. The significant improvement in reduction of carbon monoxide (CO) and smoke were found for biodiesel and its blends at high engine loads. Hydrocarbon (HC) had no evident variation for all tested fuels. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) were slightly higher for biodiesel and its blends. Biodiesel and its blends exhibited similar combustion stages to diesel fuel. The use of transesterified soybean crude oil can be partially substituted for the diesel fuel at most operating conditions in terms of the performance parameters and emissions without any engine modification.

  14. Application of instantaneous angular acceleration to diesel engine fault diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yunpeng; Hu, Tianyou; Liu, Xin

    2005-12-01

    Diesel engine is a kind of important power generating machine, of which the running state monitoring and fault diagnosis attracts increasing attention. The theory and the method of diesel engine fault diagnosis based on angular acceleration measurement were studied, since angular acceleration contains a lot of information for diesel engine fault diagnosing and its power balance evaluating. USB data acquisition system was designed for the angular acceleration measurement, and it was composed with AVRAT09S8515 micro-processor and PDIUSBD12 USB interface IC. At the same time, the high speed micro-processor AVRAT09S8515 with unique function of automatically capturing the rising or falling edge of square wave was studied, and it was utilized in the diesel engine's crankshaft angular acceleration measuring system. The software and hardware of the whole system was designed, which supplied a whole solution to diesel engine fault diagnosis and power balance evaluation between each cylinder.

  15. Physicochemical and toxicological characteristics of particulate matter emitted from a non-road diesel engine: comparative evaluation of biodiesel-diesel and butanol-diesel blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2014-01-15

    Combustion experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of using blends of ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) with biodiesel or n-butanol on physicochemical and toxicological characteristics of particulate emissions from a non-road diesel engine. The results indicated that compared to ULSD, both the blended fuels could effectively reduce the particulate mass and elemental carbon emissions, with butanol being more effective than biodiesel. The proportion of organic carbon and volatile organic compounds in particles increased for both blended fuels. However, biodiesel blended fuels showed lower total particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emissions. The total number emissions of particles ≤560nm in diameter decreased gradually for the butanol blended fuels, but increased significantly for the biodiesel blended fuels. Both the blended fuels indicated lower soot ignition temperature and activation energy. All the particle extracts showed a decline in cell viability with the increased dose. However, the change in cell viability among test fuels is not statistically significant different with the exception of DB-4 (biodiesel-diesel blend containing 4% oxygen) used at 75% engine load. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Emissions from nine heavy trucks fueled by diesel and biodiesel blend without engine modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, W.G.; Lyons, D.W.; Clark, N.N.; Gautam, M.; Norton, P.M.

    2000-01-01

    Biodiesel, a fuel that can be made from renewable biological sources such as vegetable oils or animal fats, has been recognized recently as an environment friendly alternative fuel for diesel engines. In this paper, the authors describe a study that compared exhaust emissions from in-use heavy trucks fueled with a biodiesel blend with those from trucks fueled with petroleum diesel. The biodiesel blend tested is a mixture of 35% biodiesel and 65% petroleum diesel, a blend designated as B35. The study is based on the field test results from West Virginia University's Transportable Heavy Duty Chassis Dynamometer Emissions Testing Laboratory and sponsored by the US Department of Energy. The heavy trucks the authors tested performed well when the originally equipped compression-ignition engine (diesel engine) was fueled with B35 without any engine modifications. Fuel economy (in terms of gallon per mile) of the two fuels was about the same. The emissions test results have shown that the heavy trucks fueled by B35 emitted significantly lower particulate matter (PM) and moderately lower carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) than the same trucks fueled by no. 2 diesel (D2). Oxides of nitrogen (NO x ) emissions from B35 and D2, however, were generally in the same level. Emissions variations from two different engine models and two driving cycles were also observed. Although the authors recommend more tests for biodiesel vehicles, the data obtained in this study indicate that biodiesel has promise as an emissions-reducing alternative fuel for diesel engines

  17. Influence of fuel injection pressures on Calophyllum inophyllum methyl ester fuelled direct injection diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanthagopal, K.; Ashok, B.; Karuppa Raj, R. Thundil

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of injection pressure of Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel is investigated. • Engine characteristics of 100% Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel has been performed. • Calophyllum inophyllum is a non-edible source for biodiesel production. • Increase in injection pressure of biodiesel, improves the fuel economy. • Incylinder pressure characteristics of biodiesel follows similar trend as of diesel. - Abstract: The trend of using biodiesels in compression ignition engines have been the focus in recent decades due to the promising environmental factors and depletion of fossil fuel reserves. This work presents the effect of Calophyllum inophyllum methyl ester on diesel engine performance, emission and combustion characteristics at different injection pressures. Experimental investigations with varying injection pressures of 200 bar, 220 bar and 240 bar have been carried out to analyse the parameters like brake thermal efficiency, specific fuel consumption, heat release rate and engine emissions of direct injection diesel engine fuelled with 100% biodiesel and compared with neat diesel. The experimental results revealed that brake specific fuel consumption of C. inophyllum methyl ester fuelled engine has been reduced to a great extent with higher injection pressure. Significant reduction in emissions of unburnt hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and smoke opacity have been observed during fuel injection of biodiesel at 220 bar compared to other fuel injection pressures. However oxides of nitrogen increased with increase in injection pressures of C. inophyllum methyl ester and are always higher than that of neat diesel. In addition the combustion characteristics of biodiesel at all injection pressures followed a similar trend to that of conventional diesel.

  18. Plasma engineering assessments of compact ignition experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houlberg, W.A.

    1985-01-01

    Confinement, startup sequences, and fast-alpha particle effects are assessed for a class of compact tokamak ignition experiments having high toroidal magnetic fields (8 to 12 T) and high toroidal currents (7 to 10 MA). The uncertainties in confinement scaling are spanned through examples of performance with an optimistic model based on ohmically heated plasmas and a pessimistic model that includes confinement degradation by both auxiliary and alpha heating. The roles of neoclassical resistivity enhancement and sawtooth behavior are also evaluated. Copper toroidal field coils place restrictions on pulse lengths due to resistive heating, so a simultaneous rampup of the toroidal field and plasma current is proposed as a means of compressing the startup phase and lengthening the burn phase. If the ignition window is small, fast-alpha particle physics is restricted to the high-density regime where a short slowing-down time leads to low fast-particle density and pressure contributions. Under more optimistic confinement, a larger ignition margin broadens the range of alpha particle physics that can be addressed. These issues are illustrated through examples of transport simulations for a set of machine parameters called BRAND-X, which typify the designs under study

  19. Effects of biodiesel on emissions of a bus diesel engine

    OpenAIRE

    Kegl, Breda

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the influence of biodiesel on the injection, spray, and engine characteristics with the aim to reduce harmful emissions. The considered engine is a bus diesel engine with injection M system. The injection, fuel spray, and engine characteristics, obtained with biodiesel, are compared to those obtained with mineral diesel (D2) under various operating regimes. The considered fuel is neat biodiesel from rapeseed oil. Its density, viscosity, surface tension, and sound velocity...

  20. Effects of Oxygen Content of Fuels on Combustion and Emissions of Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiwen Song

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of oxygen content of fuels on combustion characteristics and emissions were investigated on both an optical single cylinder direct injection (DI diesel engine and a multi-cylinder engine. Three fuels were derived from conventional diesel fuel (Finnish City diesel summer grade by blending Rapeseed Methyl Ester (RME or Diglyme and Butyl-Diglyme of different quantities to make their oxygen content 3%, 3% and 9%, respectively. The experimental results with three tested fuels show that the fuel spray development was not affected apparently by the oxygenating. Compared with the base fuel, the ignition delay to pilot injection was shortened by 0%, 11% and 19% for three oxygenated fuels, respectively. The ignition delay to main injection was shortened by 10%, 19% and 38%, respectively. With regard to emissions, the smoke level was reduced by 24% to 90%, depending on fuel properties and engine running conditions. The penalties of increased NOx emissions and fuel consumption were up to 19% and 24%, respectively.

  1. Particular bi-fuel application of spark ignition engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raţiu, S.; Alexa, V.; Kiss, I.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a comparative test concerning the operation of a spark-ignition engine, make: Dacia 1300, model: 810.99, fuelled alternatively with gasoline and LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas). The tests carried out show, on the one hand, the maintenance of power and torque performances in both engine fuelling cases, for all the engine operation regimes, and, on the other hand, a considerable decrease in CO and HC emissions when using poor mixtures related to LPG fuelling.

  2. 40 CFR 86.347-79 - Alternative calculations for diesel engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.347-79 Alternative calculations for diesel engines. (a) This section applies to Diesel engines only. Gasoline-fueled engines must use the calculations in § 86.345. (b) For Diesel engines, the...

  3. Combustion Temperature Effect of Diesel Engine Convert to Compressed Natural Gas Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Semin; Abdul R. Ismail; Rosli A. Bakar

    2009-01-01

    Effect of combustion temperature in the engine cylinder of diesel engine convert to Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) engine was presents in this study. The objective of this study was to investigate the engine cylinder combustion temperature effect of diesel engine convert to CNG engine on variation engine speed. Problem statement: The hypothesis was that the lower performance of CNG engine was caused by the effect of lower in engine cylinder temperature. Are the CNG engine is lower cylinder temp...

  4. A Chemical Kinetic Modeling Study of the Effects of Oxygenated Hydrocarbons on Soot Emissions from Diesel Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Curran, H J

    2005-11-14

    A detailed chemical kinetic modeling approach is used to examine the phenomenon of suppression of sooting in diesel engines by addition of oxygenated hydrocarbon species to the fuel. This suppression, which has been observed experimentally for a few years, is explained kinetically as a reduction in concentrations of soot precursors present in the hot products of a fuel-rich diesel ignition zone when oxygenates are included. Oxygenates decrease the overall equivalence ratio of the igniting mixture, producing higher ignition temperatures and more radical species to consume more soot precursor species, leading to lower soot production. The kinetic model is also used to show how different oxygenates, ester structures in particular, can have different soot-suppression efficiencies due to differences in molecular structure of the oxygenated species.

  5. Microwave-Assisted Ignition for Improved Internal Combustion Engine Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFilippo, Anthony Cesar

    The ever-present need for reducing greenhouse gas emissions associated with transportation motivates this investigation of a novel ignition technology for internal combustion engine applications. Advanced engines can achieve higher efficiencies and reduced emissions by operating in regimes with diluted fuel-air mixtures and higher compression ratios, but the range of stable engine operation is constrained by combustion initiation and flame propagation when dilution levels are high. An advanced ignition technology that reliably extends the operating range of internal combustion engines will aid practical implementation of the next generation of high-efficiency engines. This dissertation contributes to next-generation ignition technology advancement by experimentally analyzing a prototype technology as well as developing a numerical model for the chemical processes governing microwave-assisted ignition. The microwave-assisted spark plug under development by Imagineering, Inc. of Japan has previously been shown to expand the stable operating range of gasoline-fueled engines through plasma-assisted combustion, but the factors limiting its operation were not well characterized. The present experimental study has two main goals. The first goal is to investigate the capability of the microwave-assisted spark plug towards expanding the stable operating range of wet-ethanol-fueled engines. The stability range is investigated by examining the coefficient of variation of indicated mean effective pressure as a metric for instability, and indicated specific ethanol consumption as a metric for efficiency. The second goal is to examine the factors affecting the extent to which microwaves enhance ignition processes. The factors impacting microwave enhancement of ignition processes are individually examined, using flame development behavior as a key metric in determining microwave effectiveness. Further development of practical combustion applications implementing microwave

  6. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT I, GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO DIESEL ENGINES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    ONE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE DESIGNED TO UPGRADE THE JOB SKILLS AND TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE OF DIESEL MAINTENANCE MECHANICS, THIS MATERIAL WAS DEVELOPED BY INDUSTRIAL TRAINING AND SUBJECT-MATTER SPECIALISTS AND TESTED IN INDUSTRIAL TRAINING SITUATIONS. THE PURPOSE OF THIS FIRST UNIT IS TO PROVIDE AN INTRODUCTION TO DIESEL ENGINES BY DEVELOPING AN…

  7. Homogeneous charge compression ignition engine-out emissions - does flame propagation occur in homogeneous charge compression ignition?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, E.W.; Yang, J.; Culp, T.; Maricq, M.M. [Ford Motor Co., Research Lab., Dearborn, MI (United States)

    2002-12-01

    Engine-out emissions data [CO, CO{sub 2}, speciated hydrocarbons (HC), and particulate matter (size and number density)] were obtained from a single-cylinder, 660 cm{sup 3}, homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine operated on gasoline fuel using direct in-cylinder injection. Data were taken as functions of the air-fuel ratio (A/F) (30-270), r/min, inlet air temperature and fuel injection timing. Three important observations were made: 1. A sharp break occurs in the CO and CO{sub 2} emissions indices beginning near A/F = 75. Above A/F {approx} 100, CO is the primary carbon oxide while for A/F < 70, CO{sub 2} is the major carbon oxide. 2. The HC emissions index increases linearly, beginning near A/F {approx}30 : 1. Below this A/F, the HC index is characteristic of crevice emissions ({approx} 3.5 per cent). These results do not prove this unequivocally, but can be explained by a mechanism in which, for A/F < 75, flame propagation occurs over relatively short distances between the multiple autoignition sites within the combustion chamber. Adiabatic compression calculations indicate that for A/F < 75, the compression temperature ({approx}1150 K) is sufficiently high to support flame propagation. The linear increase in HC emissions above that expected from crevice storage can be explained by noting that autoignition becomes more difficult as the A/F becomes leaner and fewer ignition sites are likely to exist within the combustion chamber, reducing the amount of fuel combusted. Conventional models of HCCI combustion involving multi-zone autoignition may also explain the data, but the above concept is an alternative combustion mechanism for HCCI, which should be considered. 3. Particulate emissions at moderate load from this HCCI engine, while much lower than from a diesel, are similar to those from early-injection DISI (direct injection spark ignition) engines and should not be assumed to be negligible. (Author)

  8. Influence of injection timing on DI diesel engine characteristics fueled with waste transformer oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Prasanna Raj Yadav

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research work targets on the effective utilization of WTO (waste transformer oil in a diesel engine, which would rather reduce environmental problems caused by disposing of it in the open land. The waste transformer oil was compared with the conventional diesel fuel and found that it can also be used as fuel in compression ignition engines since the WTO is also a derivative of crude oil. In this present work, the WTO has been subjected to traditional base-catalyzed trans-esterification process in order to reduce the high viscosity of the WTO which helps to effectively utilize WTO as a fuel in DI diesel engine. The objective of the work is to study the influence of injection timing on the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a single cylinder, four stroke, direct injection diesel engine using TWTO (trans-esterified waste transformer oil as a fuel. Experiments were performed at four injection timings (23°, 22°, 21°, and 20° bTDC. The results indicate that the retarded injection timing of 20° bTDC resulted in decreased oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbon by 11.57%, 17.24%, and 10% respectively while the brake thermal efficiency and smoke increased under all the load conditions when compared to that of standard injection timing.

  9. Experimental evaluation of C.I. engine performance using diesel blended with Jatropha biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Sunil [Mechanical Department, R. G. P. V. Bhopal (M.P.) (India); Chaube, Alok [Mechanical Department, Jabalpur Engineering College Jabalpur (M.P.) (India); Jain, Shashi Kumar [School of Energy and Environment Management, R.G.P.V. Bhopal (India)

    2012-07-01

    Costlier and depleting fossil fuels are prompting researchers to use edible as well as non-edible vegetable oils as promising alternative to petro-diesel. The higher viscosity of vegetable oils leads to problem in pumping, atomization and spray characteristics. The improper mixing of vegetable oils with air leads to incomplete combustion. The best way to use vegetable oils as fuel in compression ignition (CI) engines is to convert it into biodiesel. Biodiesel is a methyl or ethyl ester of fatty acids made from vegetable oils (both edible and non-edible) and animal fat. The main feedstock for biodiesel production can be non-edible oil obtained from Jatropha curcas plant. Jatropha curcas plant can be cultivated on different terrains in India under extreme climatic conditions. Biodiesel can be used in its pure form or as a blend with petro-diesel in different proportions. It is being used in CI engines because it has properties similar to petro-diesel. The aim of this paper is to analyze suitability of petro-diesel blended with biodiesel in varying proportions in CI engines. For this purpose, a stationary single-cylinder four-stroke CI engine was tested with diesel blended with Jatropha biodiesel in 0%, 5%, 20%, 50%, 80% and 100%. Comparative measures of specific fuel consumption (SFC), brake thermal efficiency, smoke opacity, HC, CO2, CO, O2, NOX have been presented and discussed. Engine performance in terms of comparable brake thermal efficiency and SFC with lower emissions (HC, CO2, CO) was observed with B20 fuel compared to petro-diesel. Volumetric efficiency showed almost no variation for all the blends. Important observations related to noise and vibrations during testing have also been discussed.

  10. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XXX, I--CATERPILLAR DIESEL ENGINE MAINTENANCE SUMMARY, II--REIEWING FACTS ABOUT ALTERNATORS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO PROVIDE A SUMMARY OF DIESEL ENGINE MAINTENANCE FACTORS AND A REVIEW OF DIESEL ENGINE ALTERNATOR OPERATION. THE SEVEN SECTIONS COVER DIESEL ENGINE TROUBLESHOOTING AND THE OPERATION, TESTING, AND ADJUSTING OF ALTERNATORS. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING FILM…

  11. Modal extraction on a diesel engine in operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Nis; Herlufsen, Henrik; Brincker, Rune

    2000-01-01

    In this paper an output only modal testing and identification of a diesel engine is presented. The only loading on the engine is the unknown loading from the engine itself. Two test cases were considered: engine run-up, and engine Run-Down. The response data were analyzed using two different...

  12. Development of Augmented Spark Impinging Igniter System for Methane Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, William M.; Osborne, Robin J.; Greene, Sandra E.

    2017-01-01

    The Lunar Cargo Transportation and Landing by Soft Touchdown (Lunar CATALYST) program is establishing multiple no-funds-exchanged Space Act Agreement (SAA) partnerships with U.S. private sector entities. The purpose of this program is to encourage the development of robotic lunar landers that can be integrated with U.S. commercial launch capabilities to deliver payloads to the lunar surface. As part of the efforts in Lander Technologies, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is developing liquid oxygen (LOX) and liquid methane (LCH4) engine technology to share with the Lunar CATALYST partners. Liquid oxygen and liquid methane propellants are attractive owing to their relatively high specific impulse for chemical propulsion systems, modest storage requirements, and adaptability to NASA's Journey to Mars plans. Methane has also been viewed as a possible propellant choice for lunar missions, owing to the performance benefits and as a technology development stepping stone to Martian missions. However, in the development of methane propulsion, methane ignition has historically been viewed as a high risk area in the development of such an engine. A great deal of work has been conducted in the past decade devoted to risk reduction in LOX/CH4 ignition. This paper will review and summarize the history and results of LOX/CH4 ignition programs conducted at NASA. More recently, a NASA-developed Augmented Spark Impinging (ASI) igniter body, which utilizes a conventional spark exciter system, is being tested with LOX/CH4 to help support internal and commercial engine development programs, such as those in Lunar CATALYST. One challenge with spark exciter systems, especially at altitude conditions, is the ignition lead that transmits the high voltage pulse from the exciter to the spark igniter (spark plug). The ignition lead can be prone to corona discharge, reducing the energy delivered by the spark and potentially causing non-ignition events. For the current work, a

  13. A trial of ignition innovation of gasoline engine by nanosecond pulsed low temperature plasma ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraishi, Taisuke; Urushihara, Tomonori; Gundersen, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Application of nanosecond pulsed low temperature plasma as an ignition technique for automotive gasoline engines, which require a discharge under conditions of high back pressure, has been studied experimentally using a single-cylinder engine. The nanosecond pulsed plasma refers to the transient (non-equilibrated) phase of a plasma before the formation of an arc discharge; it was obtained by applying a high voltage with a nanosecond pulse (FWHM of approximately 80 or 25 ns) between coaxial cylindrical electrodes. It was confirmed that nanosecond pulsed plasma can form a volumetric multi-channel streamer discharge at an energy consumption of 60 mJ cycle -1 under a high back pressure of 1400 kPa. It was found that the initial combustion period was shortened compared with the conventional spark ignition. The initial flame visualization suggested that the nanosecond pulsed plasma ignition results in the formation of a spatially dispersed initial flame kernel at a position of high electric field strength around the central electrode. It was observed that the electric field strength in the air gap between the coaxial cylindrical electrodes was increased further by applying a shorter pulse. It was also clarified that the shorter pulse improved ignitability even further.

  14. E25 stratified torch ignition engine emissions and combustion analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues Filho, Fernando Antonio; Baêta, José Guilherme Coelho; Teixeira, Alysson Fernandes; Valle, Ramón Molina; Fonseca de Souza, José Leôncio

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A stratified torch ignition (STI) engine was built and tested. • The STI engines was tested in a wide range of load and speed. • Significant reduction on emissions was achieved by means of the STI system. • Low cyclic variability characterized the lean combustion process of the torch ignition engine. • HC emission is the main drawback of the stratified torch ignition engine. - Abstract: Vehicular emissions significantly increase atmospheric air pollution and greenhouse gases (GHG). This fact associated with fast global vehicle fleet growth calls for prompt scientific community technological solutions in order to promote a significant reduction in vehicle fuel consumption and emissions, especially of fossil fuels to comply with future legislation. To meet this goal, a prototype stratified torch ignition (STI) engine was built from a commercial existing baseline engine. In this system, combustion starts in a pre-combustion chamber, where the pressure increase pushes the combustion jet flames through calibrated nozzles to be precisely targeted into the main chamber. These combustion jet flames are endowed with high thermal and kinetic energy, being able to generate a stable lean combustion process. The high kinetic and thermal energy of the combustion jet flame results from the load stratification. This is carried out through direct fuel injection in the pre-combustion chamber by means of a prototype gasoline direct injector (GDI) developed for a very low fuel flow rate. In this work the engine out-emissions of CO, NOx, HC and CO 2 of the STI engine are presented and a detailed analysis supported by the combustion parameters is conducted. The results obtained in this work show a significant decrease in the specific emissions of CO, NOx and CO 2 of the STI engine in comparison with the baseline engine. On the other hand, HC specific emission increased due to wall wetting from the fuel hitting in the pre-combustion chamber wall.

  15. Applicability of dimethyl ether (DME) in a compression ignition engine as an alternative fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Su Han; Lee, Chang Sik

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Overall characteristics of DME fueled engine are reviewed. • Fuel properties characteristics of DME are introduced. • New technologies for DME vehicle are systemically reviewed. • Research trends for the development of DME vehicle in the world are introduced. - Abstract: From the perspectives of environmental conservation and energy security, dimethyl-ether (DME) is an attractive alternative to conventional diesel fuel for compression ignition (CI) engines. This review article deals with the application characteristics of DME in CI engines, including its fuel properties, spray and atomization characteristics, combustion performance, and exhaust emission characteristics. We also discuss the various technological problems associated with its application in actual engine systems and describe the field test results of developed DME-fueled vehicles. Combustion of DME fuel is associated with low NO x , HC, and CO emissions. In addition, PM emission of DME combustion is very low due to its molecular structure. Moreover, DME has superior atomization and vaporization characteristics than conventional diesel. A high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate can be used in a DME engine to reduce NO x emission without any increase in soot emission, because DME combustion is essentially soot-free. To decrease NO x emission, engine after-treatment devices, such as lean NO x traps (LNTs), urea-selective catalytic reduction, and the combination of EGR and catalyst have been applied. To use DME fuel in automotive vehicles, injector design, fuel feed pump, and the high-pressure injection pump have to be modified, combustion system components, including sealing materials, have to be rigorously designed. To use DME fuel in the diesel vehicles, more research is required to enhance its calorific value and engine durability due to the low lubricity of DME, and methods to reduce NO x emission are also required

  16. Compression Ignition Engines - revolutionary technology that has civilized frontiers all over the globe from the Industrial Revolution into the 21st Century

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Anthony Ciatti

    2015-01-01

    The history, present and future of the compression ignition engine is a fascinating story that spans over 100 years, from the time of Rudolf Diesel to the highly regulated and computerized engines of the 21st Century. The development of these engines provided inexpensive, reliable and high power density machines to allow transportation, construction and farming to be more productive with less human effort than in any previous period of human history. The concept that fuels could be consumed e...

  17. Engine performance and emission of compression ignition engine fuelled with emulsified biodiesel-water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maawa, W. N.; Mamat, R.; Najafi, G.; Majeed Ali, O.; Aziz, A.

    2015-12-01

    The depletion of fossil fuel and environmental pollution has become world crucial issues in current era. Biodiesel-water emulsion is one of many possible approaches to reduce emissions. In this study, emulsified biodiesel with 4%, 6% and 8% of water contents were prepared to be used as fuel in a direct injection compression ignition engine. The performance indicator such as brake power, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and emissions such as NOx and particulate matter (PM) were investigated. The engine was set at constant speed of 2500 rpm and load from 20% to 60%. All the results were compared to B5 (blend of 95% petroleum diesel and 5% palm oil biodiesel) biodiesel. At low load, the BSFC decrease by 12.75% at 4% water ratio and decreased by 1.5% at 6% water ratio. However, the BSFC increases by 17.19% with increasing water ratio to 8% compared to B5. Furthermore, there was no significant decrease in brake power and BTE at 60% load. For 20% and 40% load there was some variance regarding to brake power and BTE. Significant reduction in NOx and PM emissions by 73.87% and 20.00% respectively were achieved with increasing water ratio to 8%. Overall, it is observed that the emulsified of biodiesel-water is an appropriate alternative fuel method to reduce emissions.

  18. A Comparative Study of Cycle Variability of Laser Plug Ignition vs Classical Spark Plug Ignition in Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Done, Bogdan

    2017-10-01

    Over the past 30 years numerous studies and laboratory experiments have researched the use of laser energy to ignite gas and fuel-air mixtures. The actual implementation of this laser application has still to be fully achieved in a commercial automotive application. Laser Plug Ignition as a replacement for Spark Plug Ignition in the internal combustion engines of automotive vehicles, offers several potential benefits such as extending lean burn capability, reducing the cyclic variability between combustion cycles and decreasing the total amount of ignition costs, and implicitly weight and energy requirements. The paper presents preliminary results of cycle variability study carried on a SI Engine equipped with laser Plug Ignition system. Versus classic ignition system, the use of the laser Plug Ignition system assures the reduction of the combustion process variability, reflected in the lower values of the coefficient of variability evaluated for indicated mean effective pressure, maximum pressure, maximum pressure angle and maximum pressure rise rate. The laser plug ignition system was mounted on an experimental spark ignition engine and tested at the regime of 90% load and 2800 rev/min, at dosage of λ=1.1. Compared to conventional spark plug, laser ignition assures the efficiency at lean dosage.

  19. LPG diesel dual fuel engine – A critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ashok

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The engine, which uses both conventional diesel fuel and LPG fuel, is referred to as ‘LPG–diesel dual fuel engines’. LPG dual fuel engines are modified diesel engines which use primary fuel as LPG and secondary fuel as diesel. LPG dual fuel engines have a good thermal efficiency at high output but the performance is less during part load conditions due to the poor utilization of charges. This problem can be overcome by varying factors such as pilot fuel quantity, injection timing, composition of the gaseous fuel and intake charge conditions, for improving the performance, combustion and emissions of dual fuel engines. This article reviews about the research work done by the researchers in order to improve the performance, combustion and emission parameters of a LPG–diesel dual fuel engines. From the studies it is shown that the use of LPG in diesel engine is one of the capable methods to reduce the PM and NOx emissions but at same time at part load condition there is a drop in efficiency and power output with respect to diesel operation.

  20. Automobile Engine: Basic Ignition Timing. Fordson Bilingual Demonstration Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vick, James E.

    These two vocational instructional modules on basic automobile ignition timing and on engine operation, four-stroke cycle, are two of eight such modules designed to assist recently arrived Arab students, limited in English proficiency (LEP), in critical instructional areas in a comprehensive high school. Goal stated for this module is for the…

  1. Development of Diesel Engine Operated Forklift Truck for Explosive Gas Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwakarma, Rajendra Kumar; Singh, Arvind Kumar; Ahirwal, Bhagirath; Sinha, Amalendu

    2018-02-01

    For the present study, a prototype diesel engine operated Forklift truck of 2 t capacity is developed for explosive gas atmosphere. The parts of the Forklift truck are assessed against risk of ignition of the explosive gases, vapors or mist grouped in Gr. IIA and having ignition temperature more than 200°C. Identification of possible sources of ignition and their control or prevention is the main objective of this work. The design transformation of a standard Forklift truck into a special Forklift truck is made on prototype basis. The safety parameters of the improved Forklift truck are discussed in this paper. The specially designed Forklift truck is useful in industries where explosive atmospheres may present during normal working conditions and risk of explosion is a concern during handling or transportation of materials. This indigenous diesel engine based Forklift truck for explosive gas atmosphere classified as Zone 1 and Zone 2 area and gas group IIA is developed first time in India in association with the Industry.

  2. Exhaust emissions reduction from diesel engine using combined Annona-Eucalyptus oil blends and antioxidant additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil, R.; Silambarasan, R.; Pranesh, G.

    2017-03-01

    The limited resources, rising petroleum prices and depletion of fossil fuel have now become a matter of great concern. Hence, there is an urgent need for researchers to find some alternate fuels which are capable of substituting partly or wholly the higher demanded conventional diesel fuel. Lot of research work has been conducted on diesel engine using biodiesel and its blends with diesel as an alternate fuel. Very few works have been done with combination of biodiesel-Eucalypts oil without neat diesel and this leads to lots of scope in this area. The aim of the present study is to analyze the performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder, direct injection, compression ignition engine using eucalyptus oil-biodiesel as fuel. The presence of eucalyptus oil in the blend reduces the viscosity and improves the volatility of the blends. The methyl ester of Annona oil is blended with eucalypts oil in 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 %. The performance and emission characteristics are evaluated by operating the engine at different loads. The performance characteristics such as brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption and exhaust gas temperature are evaluated. The emission constituents measured are Carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC), Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and Smoke. It is found that A50-Eu50 (50 Annona + 50 % Eucalyptus oil) blend showed better performance and reduction in exhaust emissions. But, it showed a very marginal increase in NOx emission when compared to that of diesel. Therefore, in order to reduce the NOx emission, antioxidant additive (A-tocopherol acetate) is mixed with Annona-Eucalyptus oil blends in various proportions by which NOx emission is reduced. Hence, A50-Eu50 blend can be used as an alternate fuel for diesel engine without any modifications.

  3. Experimental investigation of a diesel engine with methyl ester of mango seed oil and diesel blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vijayaraj

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum based fuels worldwide have not only resulted in the rapid depletion of conventional energy sources, but have also caused severe air pollution. The search for an alternate fuel has led to many findings due to which a wide variety of alternative fuels are available at our disposal now. The existing studies have revealed the use of vegetable oils for engines as an alternative for diesel fuel. However, there is a limitation in using straight vegetable oils in diesel engines due to their high viscosity and low volatility. In the present work, neat mango seed oil is converted into their respective methyl ester through transesterification process. Experiments are conducted using various blends of methyl ester of mango seed oil with diesel in a single cylinder, four stroke vertical and air cooled Kirloskar diesel engine. The experimental results of this study showed that the MEMSO biodiesel has similar characteristics to those of diesel. The brake thermal efficiency, unburned hydrocarbon and smoke density are observed to be lower in case of MEMSO biodiesel blends than diesel. The CO emission for B25, B50 and B75 is observed to be lower than diesel at full load, whereas for B100 it is higher at all loads. On the other hand, BSFC and NOx of MEMSO biodiesel blends are found to be higher than diesel. It is found that the combustion characteristics of all blends of methyl ester of mango seed oil showed similar trends with those of the baseline diesel. From this study, it is concluded that optimized blend is B25 and could be used as a viable alternative fuel in a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine without any modifications.

  4. Computational Study of Stratified Combustion in an Optical Diesel Engine

    KAUST Repository

    Jaasim, Mohammed

    2017-03-28

    Full cycle simulations of KAUST optical diesel engine were conducted in order to provide insights into the details of fuel spray, mixing, and combustion characteristics at different start of injection (SOI) conditions. Although optical diagnostics provide valuable information, the high fidelity simulations with matched parametric conditions improve fundamental understanding of relevant physical and chemical processes by accessing additional observables such as the local mixture distribution, intermediate species concentrations, and detailed chemical reaction rates. Commercial software, CONVERGE™, was used as the main simulation tool, with the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulence model and the multi-zone (SAGE) combustion model to compute the chemical reaction terms. SOI is varied from late compression ignition (CI) to early partially premixed combustion (PPC) conditions. The simulation results revealed a stronger correlation between fuel injection timing and combustion phasing for late SOI conditions, whereas the combustion phasing starts to decouple from SOI for early SOI cases. The predictions are consistent with the experimental observations, in terms of the overall trends in combustion and emission characteristics, while the high fidelity simulations provided further insights into the effects of mixture stratifications resulting from different SOI conditions.

  5. Optimization of injection pressure for a compression ignition engine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Review on the use of vegetable oils as fuels for internal combustion engines was conducted (Bhattacharyya and Reddy, 1994). They reported that the major difference between diesel fuel and vegetable oil included, for the later, the significantly higher viscosities and moderately higher densities, lower heating values, rise in ...

  6. Multi-zone modelling of partially premixed low-temperature combustion in pilot-ignited natural-gas engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, S. R.; inivasan, K. K.

    2010-09-14

    Detailed results from a multi-zone phenomenological simulation of partially premixed advanced-injection low-pilot-ignited natural-gas low-temperature combustion are presented with a focus on early injection timings (the beginning of (pilot) injection (BOI)) and very small diesel quantities (2-3 per cent of total fuel energy). Combining several aspects of diesel and spark ignition engine combustion models, the closed-cycle simulation accounted for diesel autoignition, diesel spray combustion, and natural-gas combustion by premixed turbulent flame propagation. The cylinder contents were divided into an unburned zone, several pilot fuel zones (or 'packets') that modelled diesel evaporation and ignition, a flame zone for natural-gas combustion, and a burned zone. The simulation predicted the onset of ignition, cylinder pressures, and heat release rate profiles satisfactorily over a wide range of BOIs (20-60° before top dead centre (before TDC)) but especially well at early BOIs. Strong coupling was observed between pilot spray combustion in the packets and premixed turbulent combustion in the flame zone and, therefore, the number of ignition centres (packets) profoundly affected flame combustion. The highest local peak temperatures (greater than 2000 K) were observed in the packets, while the flame zone was much cooler (about 1650 K), indicating that pilot diesel spray combustion is probably the dominant source of engine-out emissions of nitrogen oxide (NOx). Further, the 60° before TDC BOI yielded the lowest average peak packet temperatures (about 1720 K) compared with the 20° before TDC BOI (about 2480 K) and 40° before TDC BOI (about 2700 K). These trends support experimental NOx trends, which showed the lowest NOx emissions for the 60°, 20°, and 40° before TDC BOIs in that order. Parametric studies showed that increasing the intake charge temperature, pilot quantity, and natural-gas equivalence ratio all led to

  7. Diesel engine performance and emission analysis using soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biodiesel presents a large potential for replacing other fossil-based fuels. Thus, the present work aimed to assess the specific fuel consumption (SFC), thermal efficiency and emissions of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen oxides (NOx), in a cycle diesel engine-generator set, using soybean biodiesel and diesel as fuels.

  8. Rudolf Diesel – The Rational Inventor of a Heat Engine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    had been in French. By the time he was 14, Diesel decided he wanted to be an engineer so in his last year of schooling, he specialised as a “Mechaniker”. After this, he went to an industrial school (Industrieschule) for his vocational training and finished in 1875 at the top of his class. Later that year Diesel joined the technical ...

  9. 40 CFR 86.341-79 - Diesel engine dynamometer test run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel engine dynamometer test run. 86... Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.341-79 Diesel engine dynamometer test run. (a) This section applies to Diesel engines only. Gasoline...

  10. Experimental investigations on mixing of two biodiesels blended with diesel as alternative fuel for diesel engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Srithar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The world faces the crises of energy demand, rising petroleum prices and depletion of fossil fuel resources. Biodiesel has obtained from vegetable oils that have been considered as a promising alternate fuel. The researches regarding blend of diesel and single biodiesel have been done already. Very few works have been done with the combination of two different biodiesel blends with diesel and left a lot of scope in this area. The present study brings out an experiment of two biodiesels from pongamia pinnata oil and mustard oil and they are blended with diesel at various mixing ratios. The effects of dual biodiesel works in engine and exhaust emissions were examined in a single cylinder, direct injection, air cooled and high speed diesel engine at various engine loads with constant engine speed of 3000 rpm. The influences of blends on CO, CO2, HC, NOx and smoke opacity were investigated by emission tests. The brake thermal efficiency of blend A was found higher than diesel. The emissions of smoke, hydro carbon and nitrogen oxides of dual biodiesel blends were higher than that of diesel. But the exhaust gas temperature for dual biodiesel blends was lower than diesel.

  11. Diesel engines and air pollution: facts and figures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaaban, Farid

    1998-01-01

    Traffic densities and resulting air pollution, in any country are directly related to the degree of urbanization and the size and characteristics of the transportation sector. In Lebanon, the car ownership rate is among the highest in the world and its consequence is the drastic deterioration in ambient air quality in Greater Beirut and other organized regions. In this article, features of diesel engines are described. The environmental impacts of diesel engines, in relation of petrol engines are briefly presented. Pollutants provocated by diesel fuel, due to its contents in Carbon , Sulfur and gaseous emissions (noise level, smoke, Carbon Monoxide emissions, smell) as well as the economical aspects are given in comparison with petrol engines. Conclusion is given that diesel engines will help in reducing air pollution caused by transport sector in Lebanon, only if some required vehicles conditions are satisfied

  12. Improvement of ecological characteristics of the hydrogen diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natriashvili, T.; Kavtaradze, R.; Glonti, M.

    2018-02-01

    In the article are considered the questions of influence of a swirl intensity of the shot and injector design on the ecological indices of the hydrogen diesel, little-investigated till now. The necessity of solution of these problems arises at conversion of the serial diesel engine into the hydrogen diesel. The mathematical model consists of the three-dimensional non-stationary equations of transfer and also models of turbulence and combustion. The numerical experiments have been carried out with the use of program code FIRE. The optimal values of parameters of the working process, ensuring improvement of the effective and ecological indices of the hydrogen diesel are determined.

  13. Diesel Engine Exhaust: Basis for Occupational Exposure Limit Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taxell, Piia; Santonen, Tiina

    2017-08-01

    Diesel engines are widely used in transport and power supply, making occupational exposure to diesel exhaust common. Both human and animal studies associate exposure to diesel exhaust with inflammatory lung effects, cardiovascular effects, and an increased risk of lung cancer. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has evaluated diesel exhaust as carcinogenic to humans. Yet national or regional limit values for controlling occupational exposure to diesel exhaust are rare. In recent decades, stricter emission regulations have led to diesel technologies evolving significantly, resulting in changes in exhaust emissions and composition. These changes are also expected to influence the health effects of diesel exhaust. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge on the health effects of diesel exhaust and the influence of new diesel technologies on the health risk. It discusses the relevant exposure indicators and perspectives for setting occupational exposure limit values for diesel exhaust, and outlines directions for future research. The review is based on a collaborative evaluation report by the Nordic Expert Group for Criteria Documentation of Health Risks from Chemicals and the Dutch Expert Committee on Occupational Safety. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Nano Catalysts for Diesel Engine Emission Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narula, Chaitanya Kumar [ORNL; Yang, Xiaofan [ORNL; Debusk, Melanie Moses [ORNL; Mullins, David R [ORNL; Mahurin, Shannon Mark [ORNL; Wu, Zili [ORNL

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this project was to develop durable zeolite nanocatalysts with broader operating temperature windows to treat diesel engine emissions to enable diesel engine based equipment and vehicles to meet future regulatory requirements. A second objective was to improve hydrothermal durability of zeolite catalysts to at least 675 C. The results presented in this report show that we have successfully achieved both objectives. Since it is accepted that the first step in NO{sub x} conversion under SCR (selective catalytic reduction) conditions involves NO oxidation to NO{sub 2}, we reasoned that catalyst modification that can enhance NO oxidation at low-temperatures should facilitate NO{sub x} reduction at low temperatures. Considering that Cu-ZSM-5 is a more efficient catalyst than Fe-ZSM-5 at low-temperature, we chose to modify Cu-ZSM-5. It is important to point out that the poor low-temperature efficiency of Fe-ZSM-5 has been shown to be due to selective absorption of NH{sub 3} at low-temperatures rather than poor NO oxidation activity. In view of this, we also reasoned that an increased electron density on copper in Cu-ZSM-5 would inhibit any bonding with NH{sub 3} at low-temperatures. In addition to modified Cu-ZSM-5, we synthesized a series of new heterobimetallic zeolites, by incorporating a secondary metal cation M (Sc{sup 3+}, Fe{sup 3+}, In{sup 3+}, and La{sup 3+}) in Cu exchanged ZSM-5, zeolite-beta, and SSZ-13 zeolites under carefully controlled experimental conditions. Characterization by diffuse-reflectance ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) does not permit conclusive structural determination but supports the proposal that M{sup 3+} has been incorporated in the vicinity of Cu(II). The protocols for degreening catalysts, testing under various operating conditions, and accelerated aging

  15. Diesel engine emissions and performance from blends of karanja methyl ester and diesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raheman, H.; Phadatare, A.G.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the results of investigations carried out in studying the fuel properties of karanja methyl ester (KME) and its blend with diesel from 20% to 80% by volume and in running a diesel engine with these fuels. Engine tests have been carried out with the aim of obtaining comparative measures of torque, power, specific fuel consumption and emissions such as CO, smoke density and NO x to evaluate and compute the behaviour of the diesel engine running on the above-mentioned fuels. The reduction in exhaust emissions together with increase in torque, brake power, brake thermal efficiency and reduction in brake-specific fuel consumption made the blends of karanja esterified oil (B20 and B40) a suitable alternative fuel for diesel and could help in controlling air pollution. (author)

  16. [Particulate distribution characteristics of Chinese phrase V diesel engine based on butanol-diesel blends].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Di-Ming; Xu, Ning; Fan, Wen-Jia; Zhang, Tao

    2014-02-01

    With a common rail diesel engine without any modification and the engine exhaust particle number and particle size analyzer EEPS, this study used the air-fuel ratio to investigate the particulate number concentration, mass concentration and number distribution characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with butanol-diesel blends (Bu10, Bu15, Bu20, Bu30 and Bu40) and petroleum diesel. The results show: for all test fuels, the particle number distributions turn to be unimodal. With the increasing of butanol, numbers of nucleation mode particles and small accumulation mode particle decrease. At low speed and low load conditions, the number of large accumulation mode particle increases slightly, but under higher speed and load conditions, the number does not increase. When the fuels contain butanol, the total particle number concentration and mass concentration in all conditions decrease and that is more obvious at high speed load.

  17. LES of an ignition sequence in a gas turbine engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boileau, M.; Staffelbach, G.; Cuenot, B. [CERFACS, Toulouse (France); Poinsot, T. [IMFT - CNRS, Toulouse (France); Berat, C. [Turbomeca (SAFRAN group), Bordes (France)

    2008-07-15

    Being able to ignite or reignite a gas turbine engine in a cold and rarefied atmosphere is a critical issue for many manufacturers. From a fundamental point of view, the ignition of the first burner and the flame propagation from one burner to another are phenomena that are usually not studied. The present work is a large eddy simulation (LES) of these phenomena. To simulate a complete ignition sequence in an annular chamber, LES has been applied to the full 360 geometry, including 18 burners. This geometry corresponds to a real gas turbine chamber. Massively parallel computing (700 processors on a Cray XT3 machine) was essential to perform such a large calculation. Results show that liquid fuel injection has a strong influence on the ignition times. Moreover, the rate of flame progress from burner to burner is much higher than the turbulent flame speed due to a major effect of thermal expansion. This flame speed is also strongly modified by the main burner aerodynamics due to the swirled injection. Finally, the variability of the combustor sectors and quadrant ignition times is highlighted. (author)

  18. Wood pyrolysis oil for diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paro, D.; Gros, S.; Hellen, G.; Jay, D.; Maekelae, T.; Rantanen, O.; Tanska, T. [Wartsila Diesel International Ltd Oy, Vaasa (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    Wood Pyrolysis oil (WPO) has been identified by the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) as the most competitive biofuel product which can be produced from biomass. The fuel is produced by a fast pyrolysis technique, using wood chipping`s or sawdust. The process can be applied to other recycling products such as straw etc. The use of WPO as a Diesel power plant fuel has been studied, and a fuel specification has been developed. The fuel characteristics have been analysed. There are several fuel properties addressed in the paper which have had to be overcome. New materials have been used in the fuel injection system. The fuel injection system development has progressed from a pump-line-pipe system to a common rail system. The fuel requires a pilot fuel oil injection to initiate combustion. The targets for the fuel injection system have been 1500 bar and 30 deg C injection period with a fuel of 15 MJ/kg lower heating value and 1220 Kg/m{sup 3} density. The combustion characteristics from both a small 80 mm bore engine initially, and then later with a single cylinder test of a 320 mm bore Waertsilae engine, have been evaluated. (author)

  19. Impact of Biodiesel Blends and Di-Ethyl-Ether on the Cold Starting Performance of a Compression Ignition Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Clenci

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of biodiesel fuel in compression ignition engines has the potential to reduce CO2, which can lead to a reduction in global warming and environmental hazards. Biodiesel is an attractive fuel, as it is made from renewable resources. Many studies have been conducted to assess the impact of biodiesel use on engine performances. Most of them were carried out in positive temperature conditions. A major drawback associated with the use of biodiesel, however, is its poor cold flow properties, which have a direct influence on the cold starting performance of the engine. Since diesel engine behavior at negative temperatures is an important quality criterion of the engine’s operation, one goal of this paper is to assess the starting performance at −20 °C of a common automotive compression ignition engine, fueled with different blends of fossil diesel fuel and biodiesel. Results showed that increasing the biodiesel blend ratio generated a great deterioration in engine startability. Another goal of this study was to determine the biodiesel blend ratio limit at which the engine would not start at −20 °C and, subsequently, to investigate the impact of Di-Ethyl-Ether (DEE injection into the intake duct on the engine’s startability, which was found to be recovered.

  20. Development of production technology for bio diesel fuel and feasibility test of bio diesel engine (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Y.J.; Ju, U.S.; Park, Y.C. [National Kyung Sang University (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-02-01

    At the beginning of the 21 st century two urgent tasks which our global countries would face with could be the security of the alternative energy source as a preparation against the fossil energy exhaustion and the development of the clean energy source to protect the environment from pollution. The above two problems should be solved together. The bio diesel oil which is made by methylesterfication of bio oil has very low sulfur content than does the diesel oil. Therefore, there is a great possibility to solve the pollution problem caused by the exhaust gas from diesel engine vehicles. So, bio oil has been attracted with attentions as an alternative and clean energy source. Advanced countries began early to develop the bio diesel oil suitable to their respective conditions. Recently their production stage have reached to the commercial level partially. The sudden increase of energy demand followed by a rapid growth of industry and the serious situation about the environmental pollution caused by the exhaust has from diesel engine vehicles occupying 42% of distribution among all vehicles have called attention of our government to consider the importance of alternative and clean energy sources for the future on the national scale. This study is consisted of three main parts; - The development of production technology for bio diesel oil. - The development of the atomization improvement method and nozzle for high viscous vegetable oils. - Feasibility test of bio diesel engine. (author) 119 refs., 52 tabs., 88 figs.

  1. The characteristic of spray using diesel water emulsified fuel in a diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sangki; Woo, Seungchul; Kim, Hyungik; Lee, Kihyung

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Water in oil emulsion is produced using ceramic membrane. • Surfactant type affect stability performance and droplet size distribution. • Evaporation characteristic of DE is poor compared with neat diesel. • Coefficient of variation maintains below 2.0% both DE and neat diesel. - Abstract: In this study, it was applied to the diesel–water emulsified (DE) fuel that carried out the experiment for the characteristic of sprat using diesel water emulsified fuel in a diesel engine, and the possibility of its application to conventional diesel engines was evaluated from the fundamental characteristics of diesel–water emulsified fuel. According to the results of the spray characteristics such as spray penetration and spray distribution were measured in the experiment, and then analyzed through digital image processing. The DEs were applied to actual diesel engines and their combustion, emission, and fuel consumption characteristics were compared with those of diesel. The results showed that the experiments were confirmed as the spray atomization characteristics at the various emulsified fuels.

  2. Effect of orange peel oil addition on the performance of cottonseed oil fuelled DI diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leenus Jesu Martin, M. [Department of Automobile Engineering, SRM University, Chennai-603203 (India); Edwin Geo, V. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, GKM College of Engineering and Technology, Chennai-600063 (India); Prithviraj, D. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, SRM University, Chennai-603203 (India)

    2011-07-01

    The world petroleum situation due to rapid depletion of fossil fuels and the degradation of the environment due to the combustion of fossil fuels have caused a resurgence of interest in finding alternative fuel. Vegetable oil based fuels are biodegradable, non-toxic and significantly reduce pollution. Cottonseed oil, which is considered, is not suitable as a fuel for diesel engines straight because of its high viscosity. Addition of a small quantity of another light vegetable oil, Orange Peel oil reduces the viscosity and improves the performance of the engine largely. Blends of varying proportions of cottonseed oil and orange peel oil were prepared, analyzed and their properties were calculated. The performance of the engine using diesel, the blends and cottonseed oil were evaluated using a single cylinder, four stroke, direct injection compression ignition engine. The results obtained were compared with baseline data generated with raw cottonseed oil and diesel. 15% of Orange peel oil by volume addition to cottonseed oil exhibited the best performance and smooth engine operation without any problem.

  3. Distributorless ignition system interface for engine diagnostic testers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedline, J.G.; Rich, L.G.

    1987-02-17

    This patent describes an interface for use with a test engine analyzer to analyze a computer controlled automotive engine having an electronic control module which develops timing signals to a coil ignition module which fires the spark plugs of the engine, the timing signals carrying dwell information. The interface comprises: input means for receiving timing signals from the electronic control module; output means for transmitting timing signals to the coil ignition module; cylinder clock modification circuitry for receiving the timing signals from the input means and for passing timing signals to the output means. The cylinder clock modification circuitry generates a modified timing signal in response to an inhibit command signal for transmission to the coil ignition module. The modified timing signal carries dwell information of a dwell period insufficient to fire a spark plug; and power balance command circuitry for receiving a cylinder inhibit command from the engine analyzer and responsively generating the inhibit command signal, whereby a cylinder of the engine is inhibited from firing.

  4. The use of modified tyre derived fuel for compression ignition engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilusa, T J

    2017-02-01

    This study investigated physical and chemical modification of tyre-derived fuel oil (TDFO) obtained from pyrolysis of waste tyres and rubber products for application as an alternative fuel for compression ignition engines (CIE's). TDFO collected from a local waste tyre treatment facility was refined via a novel "oxidative gas-phase fractional distillation over 13× molecular sieves" to recover the light to medium fractions of the TDFO while oxidising and capturing some sulphur compounds in a gas phase. This was followed by desulphurization and chemical modification to improve cetane number, kinematic viscosity and fuel stability. The resulting fuel was tested in an ADE407T truck engine to compare its performance with petroleum diesel fuel. It was discovered that gas phase oxidative fractional distillation reduces the low boiling point sulphur compounds in TDFO such as mercaptans. Using petroleum diesel fuel as a reference, it was observed that the produced fuel has a lower cetane number, flash point and viscosity. On storage the fuel tends to form fibrous microstructures as a result of auto-oxidation of asphaltenes present in the fuel. Mixtures of alkyl nitrate, vinyl acetate, methacrylic anhydride, methyl-tert butyl ether, n-hexane and n-heptane were used to chemically modify the fuel in accordance with the minimum fuel specifications as per SANS 342. The engine performance tests results did not show any sign of engine ceasing or knocking effect. The power-torque trend was very consistent and compared well with petroleum diesel fuelled engine. The levels of total sulphur are still considerably high compared to other cleaner fuel alternatives derived from zero sulphur sources. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Remanufacture Systems for Category 1 and 2 Marine Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA maintains a list of remanufacture systems, or “kits”, certified for use with Category 1 and 2 marine diesel engines according to the provisions of 40 CFR Part 1042, Subpart I, and is periodically updated.

  6. An Investigation Into the Performance of a Miniature Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, P. W.

    1970-01-01

    Reports the procedures and results of a student investigation of the performance of a miniature diesel engine. The experiments include (1) torque measurement, (2) power measurement, and (3) variation of power output with applied load. Bibliography. (LC)

  7. Spray-combustion process characterization in a common rail diesel engine fuelled with butanol-diesel blends by conventional methods and optical diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Silvia Merola

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The target of a sustainable mobility has led to investigate advanced combustion modes and fuels technologies. On the other side, the increasing global energy demand and the decreasing fossil-energy resources are enhancing the interest in the use of renewable alternative fuels for compression ignition engines with the target of near-zero emission levels. Although performance and emissions of alternative-fuel within light-duty diesel engines have been extensively investigated, results of fuel chemical composition impact on combustion by integrated optical methodologies are lacking. In order to meet this challenge, one of the main objectives of the research efforts is to characterize the combustion and species evolution. In this investigation, conventional tests and optical diagnostics were employed to enhance the comprehension of the combustion process and chemical markers in a common rail compression ignition engine powered by butanol-diesel blends. The investigation was focused on the effect of the injection strategy and blend composition on in-cylinder spray combustion and soot formation, through UV-visible digital imaging and natural emission spectroscopy. Experiments were performed in an optically accessible single cylinder high swirl compression ignition engine, equipped with a common rail multi-jets injection system. UV-visible emission spectroscopy was used to follow the evolution of the combustion process chemical markers. Spectral features of OH were identified and followed during the spray combustion process examining different pilot-main dwell timings. Soot spectral evidence in the visible wavelength range was correlated to soot engine out emissions. In this work, conventional and optical data related to diesel fuel blended with 40 % of n-butanol will be presented.

  8. Castor Seed from Melkasa Agricultural Research Centre, East Showa, Ethiopia and it’s biodiesel performance in Four Stroke Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesfahun Tegegne Akanawa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study focused in investigating the fuel properties of Castor oil Methyl Ester (CME and its blend with diesel fuel in running a diesel engine. Engine tests have been carried out with the aim of obtaining comparative measures of torque, power, and specific fuel consumption. Castor oil was extracted by using a mechanical pressing machine and trans-esterification was made by methyl alcohol and potassium hydroxide as a catalyst.  So that its viscosity and density were reduced and by increasing its volatility.  By following the procedures given in American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM book the fuel characteristics were identified whether it fulfil the requirements needed to be used as a fuel in internal combustion engines or not. From the characterization result, it was proved that trans-esterified castor oil was found to be a promising alternative fuel for compression ignition (diesel engines. But the viscosity of CME was still higher and the energy content was a little bit less as compared to petro diesel. To solve these problems CME was blended with petro diesel in some proportion (B5, B10, B20, B40, B80. The torque, power and brake specific fuel consumption performances of CME and its blends with petro diesel were tested in a four stroke diesel engine. The analyzed results were compared with that of petro diesel and found to be very nearly similar, making CME a suiTable alternative fuel for petro diesel.

  9. Particulate Emissions Associated with Diesel Engine Oil Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Tornehed, Petter

    2010-01-01

    Particulate emissions from diesel engines have been a key issue for diesel engine developers in recent decades. Their work has succeeded in reducing the exhaust particles from the combustion of fuel, which has led to increasing interest in the contribution of particulates from lubrication oil. When discussing oil-related particulate emissions, hydrocarbon particles are customarily referred to. This thesis uses a broader definition, in which oil-related particulate emissions are modelled not o...

  10. The influence of propylene glycol ethers on base diesel properties and emissions from a diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez-Cuenca, F.; Gómez-Marín, M.; Folgueras-Díaz, M.B.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of propylene glycol ethers on diesel fuel properties. • Effect of these compounds on diesel engine performance and emissions. • Blends with ⩽4 wt.% of oxygen do not change substantially diesel fuel quality. • Blends with ⩽2.5 wt.% of oxygen reduce CO, HC and NOx emissions, but not smoke. • These compounds are helpful to reach a cleaner combustion in a diesel engine. - Abstract: The oxygenated additives propylene glycol methyl ether (PGME), propylene glycol ethyl ether (PGEE), dipropylene glycol methyl ether (DPGME) were studied to determine their influence on both the base diesel fuel properties and the exhaust emissions from a diesel engine (CO, NOx, unburnt hydrocarbons and smoke). For diesel blends with low oxygen content (⩽4.0 wt.%), the addition of these compounds to base diesel fuel decreases aromatic content, kinematic viscosity, cold filter plugging point and Conradson carbon residue. Also, each compound modifies the distillation curve at temperatures below the corresponding oxygenated compound boiling point, the distillate percentage being increased. The blend cetane number depends on the type of propylene glycol ether added, its molecular weight, and the oxygen content of the fuel. The addition of PGME decreased slightly diesel fuel cetane number, while PGEE and DPGME increased it. Base diesel fuel-propylene glycol ether blends with 1.0 and 2.5 wt.% oxygen contents were used in order to determine the performance of the diesel engine and its emissions at both full and medium loads and different engine speeds (1000, 2500 and 4000 rpm). In general, at full load and in comparison with base diesel fuel, the blends show a slight reduction of oxygen-free specific fuel consumption. CO emissions are reduced appreciably for 2.5 wt.% of oxygen blends, mainly for PGEE and DPGME. NOx emissions are reduced slightly, but not the smoke. Unburnt hydrocarbon emissions decrease at 1000 and 2500 rpm, but not at 4000 rpm. At medium load

  11. Cottonseed oil as a diesel-engine fuel. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staph, H.E.; Staudt, J.J.

    1982-07-31

    If diesel fuel becomes unavailable for any reason, can diesel powered farm equipment function on alternate fuels from energy crops that are available on the farm. This project sought to gain some insight into this question through the use of once-refined cottonseed oil as fuel in a typical unmodified agricultural diesel engine. The engine used for test was an International Harvester Model DT-436B 6 cylinder, inline, direct injection, turbocharged engine of approximately 175 brake horsepower at 2500 rpm. The engine was run on a stationary stand using blends of reference diesel fuel (DF-2), once-refined cottonseed oil (CSO), and transesterified cottonseed oil (ESCO). The latter is cottonseed oil which has been processed to give a methyl ester instead of a glyceride. The volume percent blends of fuels used in the tests ranged from 100% DF-2, to 20/80 DF-2/CSO, 50/50 DF-2/ESCO, 50/50 CSO/ESCO, and 100% ESCO. The test procedures and results are presented in this volume. The results suggest that ESCO would probably be a satisfactory substitute for diesel fuel, but more testing is required. None of the fuels tested is a cost effective alternative to diesel fuels. ESCO presently costs four to five times as much as commercial diesel fuel.

  12. ANALYSIS OF BJ493 DIESEL ENGINE LUBRICATION SYSTEM PROPERTIES

    OpenAIRE

    F Liu*

    2018-01-01

    The BJ493ZLQ4A diesel engine design is based on the primary model of BJ493ZLQ3, of which exhaust level is upgraded to the National GB5 standard due to the improved design of combustion and injection systems. Given the above changes in the diesel lubrication system, its improved properties are analyzed in this paper. According to the structures, technical parameters and indices of the lubrication system, the lubrication system model of BJ493ZLQ4A diesel engine was constructed using the Flowmas...

  13. Chemiluminescence analysis of the effect of butanol-diesel fuel blends on the spray-combustion process in an experimental common rail diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merola Simona Silvia S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Combustion process was studied from the injection until the late combustion phase in an high swirl optically accessible combustion bowl connected to a single cylinder 2-stroke high pressure common rail compression ignition engine. Commercial diesel and blends of diesel and n-butanol (20%: BU20 and 40%: BU40 were used for the experiments. A pilot plus main injection strategy was investigated fixing the injection pressure and fuel mass injected per stroke. Two main injection timings and different pilot-main dwell times were explored achieving for any strategy a mixing controlled combustion. Advancing the main injection start, an increase in net engine working cycle (>40% together with a strong smoke number decrease (>80% and NOx concentration increase (@50% were measured for all pilot injection timings. Compared to diesel fuel, butanol induced a decrease in soot emission and an increase in net engine working area when butanol ratio increased in the blend. A noticeable increase in NOx was detected at the exhaust for BU40 with a slight effect of the dwell-time. Spectroscopic investigations confirmed the delayed auto-ignition (~60 ms of the pilot injection for BU40 compared to diesel. The spectral features for the different fuels were comparable at the start of combustion process, but they evolved in different ways. Broadband signal caused by soot emission, was lower for BU40 than diesel. Different balance of the bands at 309 and 282 nm, due to different OH transitions, were detected between the two fuels. The ratio of these intensities was used to follow flame temperature evolution.

  14. Cycle-skipping strategies for pumping loss reduction in spark ignition engines: An experimental approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yüksek, Levent; Özener, Orkun; Sandalcı, Tarkan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A cycle density variation technique called cycle-skipping was applied. ► Effect on fuel consumption and gaseous emissions was investigated. ► Fuel consumption and gaseous tail-pipe emissions improved at partial loading conditions. - Abstract: Spark ignition (SI) engines are widely used for power generation, especially in the automotive industry. SI engines have a lower thermal efficiency than diesel engines due to a lower compression ratio, higher charge-induction work and lower end of compression stroke pressure. A significant amount of charge induction work is lost when an SI engine runs under partial loading conditions. Under partial loading conditions, a lower intake charge is required, which can be theoretically achieved by varying the displacement volume or the stroke number of the engine without using a throttle. Reducing the displacement volume to control the engine load can be achieved by skipping cycles in single-cylinder engines. This study investigates the effect of cycle-skipping strategies on the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and exhaust emissions of an SI engine under partial loading conditions. Three different skipping modes were applied: normal, normal-skip and normal-normal-skip. A significant improvement in BSFC and carbon monoxide emission was obtained by applying cycle-skipping strategies.

  15. Effects of ethylene glycol ethers on diesel fuel properties and emissions in a diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Cuenca, F.; Gomez-Marin, M. [Compania Logistica de Hidrocarburos (CLH), Central Laboratory, Mendez Alvaro 44, 28045 Madrid (Spain); Folgueras-Diaz, M.B., E-mail: belenfd@uniovi.es [Department of Energy, University of Oviedo, Independencia 13, 33004 Oviedo (Spain)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Effect of ethylene glycol ethers on diesel fuel properties. {yields} Effect of ethylene glycol ethers on diesel engine specific consumption and emissions. {yields} Blends with {<=}4 wt.% of oxygen do not change substantially diesel fuel quality. {yields} Blends with 1 and 2.5 wt.% of oxygen reduce CO and HC emissions, but not smoke. - Abstract: The effect of ethylene glycol ethers on both the diesel fuel characteristics and the exhaust emissions (CO, NO{sub x}, smoke and hydrocarbons) from a diesel engine was studied. The ethers used were monoethylene glycol ethyl ether (EGEE), monoethylene glycol butyl ether (EGBE), diethylene glycol ethyl ether (DEGEE). The above effect was studied in two forms: first by determining the modification of base diesel fuel properties by using blends with oxygen concentration around 4 wt.%, and second by determining the emission reductions for blends with low oxygen content (1 wt.%) and with 2.5 wt.% of oxygen content. The addition of DEGEE enhances base diesel fuel cetane number, but EGEE and EGBE decrease it. For concentrations of {>=}4 wt.% of oxygen, EGEE and diesel fuel can show immiscibility problems at low temperatures ({<=}0 {sup o}C). Also, every oxygenated compound, according to its boiling point, modifies the distillation curve at low temperatures and the distillate percentage increases. These compounds have a positive effect on diesel fuel lubricity, and slightly decrease its viscosity. Blends with 1 and 2.5 wt.% oxygen concentrations were used in order to determine their influence on emissions at both full and medium loads and different engine speeds. Generally, all compounds help to reduce CO, and hydrocarbon emissions, but not smoke. The best results were obtained for blends with 2.5 wt.% of oxygen. At this concentration, the additive efficiency in decreasing order was EGEE > DEGEE > EGBE for CO emissions and DGEE > EGEE > EGBE for hydrocarbon emissions. For NO{sub x}, both its behaviour and the

  16. Internal combustion engine ignition apparatus having a primary winding module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huntzinger, D.A.; Welsh, T.E. Jr.; Boyer, J.A.

    1990-02-27

    This patent describes a primary winding ignition module that is adapted to be mounted on an internal combustion engine and which is adapted to be magnetically coupled to many separate spark developing units associated with the cylinders of the engine. It comprises: an elongated support, many spaced tubular embers carried by the support, a primary coil winding located in each tubular member having a bore, and conductor means carried by the support connected respectively to opposite ends of a respective primary winding for energizing a respective primary winding. The bores adapted to receive portions of the secondary spark developing units when the module is mounted on an engine.

  17. Particulate morphology of waste cooking oil biodiesel and diesel in a heavy duty diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Joonsik; Jung, Yongjin; Bae, Choongsik

    2014-08-01

    The effect of biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil (WCO) on the particulate matters (PM) of a direct injection (DI) diesel engine was experimentally investigated and compared with commercial diesel fuel. Soot agglomerates were collected with a thermophoretic sampling device installed in the exhaust pipe of the engine. The morphology of soot particles was analyzed using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The elemental and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were also conducted to study chemical composition of soot particles. Based on the TEM images, it was revealed that the soot derived from WCO biodiesel has a highly graphitic shell-core arrangement compared to diesel soot. The mean size was measured from averaging 400 primary particles for WCO biodiesel and diesel respectively. The values for WCO biodiesel indicated 19.9 nm which was smaller than diesel's 23.7 nm. From the TGA results, WCO biodiesel showed faster oxidation process. While the oxidation of soot particles from diesel continued until 660°C, WCO biodiesel soot oxidation terminated at 560°C. Elemental analysis results showed that the diesel soot was mainly composed of carbon and hydrogen. On the other hand, WCO biodiesel soot contained high amount of oxygen species.

  18. Investigation on effect of equivalence ratio and engine speed on homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion using chemistry based CFD code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghafouri Jafar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Combustion in a large-bore natural gas fuelled diesel engine operating under Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition mode at various operating conditions is investigated in the present paper. Computational Fluid Dynamics model with integrated chemistry solver is utilized and methane is used as surrogate of natural gas fuel. Detailed chemical kinetics mechanism is used for simulation of methane combustion. The model results are validated using experimental data by Aceves, et al. (2000, conducted on the single cylinder Volvo TD100 engine operating at Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition conditions. After verification of model predictions using in-cylinder pressure histories, the effect of varying equivalence ratio and engine speed on combustion parameters of the engine is studied. Results indicate that increasing engine speed provides shorter time for combustion at the same equivalence ratio such that at higher engine speeds, with constant equivalence ratio, combustion misfires. At lower engine speed, ignition delay is shortened and combustion advances. It was observed that increasing the equivalence ratio retards the combustion due to compressive heating effect in one of the test cases at lower initial pressure. Peak pressure magnitude is increased at higher equivalence ratios due to higher energy input.

  19. Effect of Bio Ethanol and Diesel Blend on Small Diesel Engine Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H Hashemi Fard

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of Bio-ethanol as an alternative diesel engine fuel is rapidly increasing. Bio-ethanol is mixed with diesel fuel at different ratios and used in CI and SI engines. Since vibrations have direct effects on users and engine components, for this reason analysis of vibration resulting from combustion in CI engines is very important. In this study, evaluation of vibration was performed for both diesel and ethanol blends. Commercial diesel fuel (D100, E2 (2% ethanol and 98% diesel fuel, E5, E10, E15 and E20 were used in a two-wheel MITSUBISHI tractor. The engine was tested in 1200, 1600, 2000 and 2400 rpm for all fuel blends, and also the effect of load was investigated for D100 and E10. Results showed that vibration is significantly affected by fuel blend. It was observed that E10 had the lowest vibration while E20 had the highest value. It was also observed that vibration increased as engine speed increased for all fuel blends. It was found that both axial and lateral vibrations affected significantly by load. The lateral vibrations decreased continuously with load rise , but the axial vibrations increased initially but started to follow a reverse trend.

  20. Diesel Engine Valve Clearance Detection Using Acoustic Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathi Elamin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated, using experimental method, the suitability of acoustic emission (AE technique for the condition monitoring of diesel engine valve faults. The clearance fault was adjusted experimentally in an exhaust valve and successfully detected and diagnosed in a Ford FSD 425 four-cylinder, four-stroke, in-line OHV, direct injection diesel engine. The effect of faulty exhaust valve clearance on engine performance was monitored and the difference between the healthy and faulty engine was observed from the recorded AE signals. The measured results from this technique show that using only time domain and frequency domain analysis of acoustic emission signals can give a superior measure of engine condition. This concludes that acoustic emission is a powerful and reliable method of detection and diagnosis of the faults in diesel engines and this is considered to be a unique approach to condition monitoring of valve performance.

  1. Emulsification of waste cooking oils and fatty acid distillates as diesel engine fuels: An attractive alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliezer Ahmed Melo Espinosa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this paper is to analyze the possibility and feasibility of the use of emulsification method applied to waste cooking oils and fatty acid distillates as diesel engine fuels, compared with other commonly used methods. These waste products are obtained from the refining oil industry, food industry and service sector, mainly. They are rarely used as feedstock to produce biofuels and other things, in spite of constitute a potential source of environmental contamination. From the review of the state of arts, significant decreases in exhaust emissions of nitrogen oxides, cylinder pressure as well as increases of the ignition delay, brake specific fuel consumption, hydrocarbon, smoke opacity, carbon monoxide, particulate matters to emulsified waste cooking oils and fatty acid distillates compared with diesel fuel are reported. In some experiments the emulsified waste cooking oils achieved better performance than neat fatty acid distillates, neat waste cooking oils and their derivatives methyl esters.

  2. Dimethyl Ether as a Fuel for Diesel Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorenson, Spencer C.

    1999-01-01

    DME has recently been shown to be an attractive high cetane fuel for diesel engines, offering the advantages of soot free operation, with low engine noise, the potential for low NOx emissions, and low reactivity emissions of hydrocarbons and unburned fuel. DME has physical characteristics similar...... of engine fuels systems in regard to lubricity and suitable sealing materials....

  3. Proceedings of the 1997 diesel engine emissions reduction workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This conference was held July 28--31, 1997 in La Jolla, California. The purpose of this conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on diesel engine emissions issues. Diesel engine manufacturers have significantly reduced emission of nitrogen oxides and particulates over the last 12 years. Currently there is concern about the 4% contribution of carbon dioxide from the combustion of fossil fuels to the atmosphere and its role in the greenhouse effect. The 56 papers in this report are arranged under the following topical headings: Agency diesel engine emissions and concerns; Human health effects -- Diesel exhaust; Aftertreatment -- Non-thermal plasma; Aftertreatment and in-cylinder emissions reduction; Combustion, fuel, and air management; Fuels and associated technology; and Advanced technology. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  4. Precision Engineering within the National Ignition Campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, J S; Carlisle, K; Klingmann, J L; Geraghty, P; Saito, T T; Montesanti, R C

    2010-02-17

    In this very brief talk, we'll discuss how precision engineering impacts 4 key areas of NIF: (1) Diamond turning of KDP crystals; (2) Mitigation of laser damage on optics; (3) Alignment of lasers, targets, diagnostics; (4) Target fabrication.

  5. A new and efficient mechanism for spark ignition engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shadloo, M.S.; Poultangari, R.; Abdollahzadeh Jamalabadi, M.Y.; Rashidi, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new slider–crank mechanism, with superior performance is presented. • Thermodynamic processes as well as vibration and internal forces have been modeled. • Comparison with the conventional four-stroke spark ignition engines is made. • Advantages and disadvantages of the proposed mechanism are discussed. - Abstract: In this paper a new symmetrical crank and slider mechanism is proposed and a zero dimensional model is utilized to study its combustion performance enhancement in a four-stroke spark ignition (SI) engine. The main features of this new mechanism are superior thermodynamic efficiency, lower internal frictions, and lower pollutants. Comparison is made between its performance and that of the conventional four-stroke SI engines. Presented mechanism is designed to provide better fuel consumption of internal combustion engines. These advantages over standard engine are achieved through synthesis of new mechanism. Numerical calculation have been performed for several cases of different mechanism parameters, compression ratio and engine speed. A comprehensive comparison between their thermodynamic processes as well as vibration and internal forces has been done. Calculated efficiency and power diagrams are plotted and compared with performance of a conventional SI engine. Advantages and disadvantages of the proposed mechanism are discussed in details

  6. Performance and Emission Assessment of Multi Cylinder Diesel Engine using Surfactant Enhanced Water in Diesel Emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Mohammed Yahaya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A four stroke, four cylinder, In-direct injection diesel engine was used to study the effect of emulsified diesel fuel with 5% water by volume on the engine performance and on the main pollutant emissions. The experiments were conducted in the speed range from 1000 to 4500 rpm at full load conditions. It was found that, in general, using emulsified fuel improves the engine performance with slight increase in emissions. While the BSFC has a minimum value for 5% water and at all rpm, the torque, the power and the BMEP are found to have maximum values under these conditions when compared conve ntional disel. CO2 was found to increase with engine speed whereas increase in CO and NOX were minimum. In this work water in diesel emulsion was prepared by a mechanical homogenizer and their physical and chemical properties were examined.

  7. The Use of Spark Ignition Engine in Domestic Cogeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feiza Memet

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Cogeneration plants are strongly sustained by EU energy policies, one of the best beneficiary of this technology being residential buildings. This paper focus on spark ignition engine as a cogeneration application in order to supply energy for domestic consumers. Are considered two aspects of this solution: the energetic aspect and the environmental one. The energetic aspect deals with the energetic ratios, while the environmental aspect refers to the nitrogen oxide and carbon monoxide emissions.

  8. Tomorrows diesel engines: towards a new equilibrium; Moteurs diesel de demain: vers un nouvel equilibre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastenhof, D. [SEMT Pielstick, 93 - Saint Denis (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper analyzes the different ways of reducing the pollutants emissions from diesel engines in order to follow the future French environmental regulations. The combustion in diesel engines is analyzed first: principle and consequences, calculated combustion, pollution units, influences of ambient air conditions on NO{sub x} production, maximum legal pollutant concentration limits (French regulation for fixed installations, NO{sub x}, CO, HC and dust limit values), influence of fuel composition. Then the existing methods for the reduction of pollutants emissions are analyzed and compared with respect to their cost: mechanical adjustment of engines, water injection, exhaust gases recirculation, treatment of fumes. (J.S.) 4 refs.

  9. An investigation of the engine performance, emissions and combustion characteristics of coconut biodiesel in a high-pressure common-rail diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    How, H.G.; Masjuki, H.H.; Kalam, M.A.; Teoh, Y.H.

    2014-01-01

    An experimental investigation on engine performance, emissions, combustion and vibration characteristics with coconut biodiesel fuels was conducted in a high-pressure common-rail diesel engine under five different load operations (0.17, 0.34, 0.52, 0.69 and 0.86 MPa). The test fuels included a conventional diesel fuel and four different fuel blends of coconut biodiesel (B10, B20, B30 and B50). The results showed that biodiesel blended fuels have significant influences on the BSFC (brake specific fuel consumption) and BSEC (brake specific energy consumption) at all engine loads. In general, the use of coconut biodiesel blends resulted in a reduction of BSCO (brake specific carbon monoxide) and smoke emissions regardless of the load conditions. A large reduction of 52.4% in smoke opacity was found at engine load of 0.86 MPa engine load with B50. For combustion characteristics, a slightly shorter ignition delay and longer combustion duration were found with the use of biodiesel blends under all loading operations. It was found that generally the biodiesel blends produced lower peak heat release rate than baseline diesel. The vibration results showed that the largest reduction of 13.7% in RMS (root mean square) of acceleration was obtained with B50 at engine load of 0.86 MPa with respect to the baseline diesel. - Highlights: • The performance, emissions and combustion characteristics of biodiesel were studied. • A tangible increase in BSFC was observed at all engine loads with coconut biodiesel. • A slightly shorter ignition delay was found with the use of biodiesel blends. • The vibrations for coconut biodiesel blends in diesel engine were investigated. • B50 achieved the largest reduction in RMS of acceleration at 0.86 MPa engine load

  10. COMBUSTION OPTIMIZATION IN SPARK IGNITION ENGINES

    OpenAIRE

    Barhm Mohamad; Gabor Szebesi; Betti Bollo

    2017-01-01

    The blending technique used in internal combustion engines can reduce emission of toxic exhaust components and noises, enhance overall energy efficiency and reduce fuel costs. The aim of the study was to compare the effects of dual alcohols (methanol and ethanol) blended in gasoline fuel (GF) against performance, combustion and emission characteristics. Problems arise in the fuel delivery system when using the highly volatile methanol - gasoline blends. This problem is reduced by using specia...

  11. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT VI, MAINTAINING MECHANICAL GOVERNORS--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF MECHANICAL GOVERNORS USED ON DIESEL ENGINES. TOPICS ARE (1) TYPES OF GOVERNORS AND ENGINE LOCATION, (2) GOVERNOR APPLICATIONS, (3) LIMITING SPEED MECHANICAL GOVERNOR, (4) VARIABLE SPEED MECHANICAL GOVERNOR, AND (5) CONSTANT SPEED…

  12. Ohmic ignition with high engineering beta based on the RFP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarff, J. S.; Anderson, J. K.; Chapman, B. E.; McCollam, K. J.

    2017-10-01

    The RFP configuration allows the possibility of ohmic ignition for fusion energy, eliminating the need for auxiliary heating by rf or neutral beam injection. Complex plasma-facing antennas and NBI sources are therefore not required, simplifying the difficult fusion materials challenge. While all toroidal configurations require a volume-average 〈 B 〉 >= 5 T, the field strength at the magnet in the RFP is only Bcoil 3T since plasma current generates almost all of the field. Engineering beta is therefore maximized. We summarize access to ohmic ignition by examining a Lawson-like power balance for an RFP fusion plasma comparable to the ARIES-AT advanced tokamak, which generates neutron wall loading Pn / A 5 MW/m2. The required energy confinement for ohmic ignition in an RFP is similar to that for a tokamak. Confinement in MST is comparable to a same-size, same-field tokamak plasma, but 〈 B 〉 in MST is only 1/20th that required for fusion. While transport could ultimately be dominated by micro turbulence, extrapolation of stochastic transport using Lundquist number scaling for MHD tearing indicates standard RFP confinement (not enhanced by current profile control) could be sufficient to access ohmic ignition. This bolsters the possibility for steady-state inductive sustainment using oscillating field current drive. The high beta and classical energetic ion confinement measured in MST also bolster the RFP's fusion potential. Work supported by U.S. DoE.

  13. Effect of bio-ethanol on the performance and emission of a biodiesel fueled compression ignition engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhat Shrivathsa Nelly

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study investigates the effect of bio-ethanol on the performance and emissions of a biodiesel blend fueled compression ignition engine. The experiments are conducted using pongamia biodiesel blend B20 (20% pongamia biodiesel +80% diesel with 5, 7.5 and 10% (v/v of bio-ethanol on a four stroke single cylinder diesel engine. The tests are conducted at different load conditions. Performance and emissions characteristics are investigated for different bio-ethanol compositions. The results show that the brake thermal efficiency is maximum for B20E7.5 blend with a minimum brake specific fuel consumption. Carbon monoxide emission is minimum for B20E7.5 blend and NOx emission decreases as the bio-ethanol percentage is increased from 5 to 7.5%. The study reveals that 7.5% bio-ethanol with B20 pongamia biodiesel blend results better performance and emission characteristics.

  14. Internal combustion engines a detailed introduction to the thermodynamics of spark and compression ignition engines, their design and development

    CERN Document Server

    Benson, Rowland S

    1979-01-01

    Internal Combustion of Engines: A Detailed Introduction to the Thermodynamics of Spark and Compression Ignition Engines, Their Design and Development focuses on the design, development, and operations of spark and compression ignition engines. The book first describes internal combustion engines, including rotary, compression, and indirect or spark ignition engines. The publication then discusses basic thermodynamics and gas dynamics. Topics include first and second laws of thermodynamics; internal energy and enthalpy diagrams; gas mixtures and homocentric flow; and state equation. The text ta

  15. Performance and emission characteristics of a DI compression ignition engine operated on Honge, Jatropha and sesame oil methyl esters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banapurmath, N.R.; Tewari, P.G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, B.V.B. College of Engineering and Technology, Vidyanagar, Poona-Bangalore Road, Hubli 580031 (India); Hosmath, R.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, K.L.E' s C.E.T., Belgaum (India)

    2008-09-15

    The high viscosity of vegetable oils leads to problem in pumping and spray characteristics. The inefficient mixing of vegetable oils with air contributes to incomplete combustion. The best way to use vegetable oils as fuel in compression ignition (CI) engines is to convert it into biodiesel. Biodiesel is a methyl or ethyl ester of fatty acids made from vegetable oils (both edible and non-edible) and animal fat. The main resources for biodiesel production can be non-edible oils obtained from plant species such as Pongamia pinnata (Honge oil), Jatropha curcas (Ratanjyot), Hevea brasiliensis (Rubber) and Calophyllum inophyllum (Nagchampa). Biodiesel can be used in its pure form or can be blended with diesel to form different blends. It can be used in CI engines with very little or no engine modifications. This is because it has properties similar to mineral diesel. This paper presents the results of investigations carried out on a single-cylinder, four-stroke, direct-injection, CI engine operated with methyl esters of Honge oil, Jatropha oil and sesame oil. Comparative measures of brake thermal efficiency, smoke opacity, HC, CO, NO{sub X}, ignition delay, combustion duration and heat release rates have been presented and discussed. Engine performance in terms of higher brake thermal efficiency and lower emissions (HC, CO, NO{sub X}) with sesame oil methyl ester operation was observed compared to methyl esters of Honge and Jatropha oil operation. (author)

  16. Documentation of the Benson Diesel Engine Simulation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangerpen, Jon

    1988-01-01

    This report documents the Benson Diesel Engine Simulation Program and explains how it can be used to predict the performance of diesel engines. The program was obtained from the Garrett Turbine Engine Company but has been extensively modified since. The program is a thermodynamic simulation of the diesel engine cycle which uses a single zone combustion model. It can be used to predict the effect of changes in engine design and operating parameters such as valve timing, speed and boost pressure. The most significan change made to this program is the addition of a more detailed heat transfer model to predict metal part temperatures. This report contains a description of the sub-models used in the Benson program, a description of the input parameters and sample program runs.

  17. Green energy: Water-containing acetone–butanol–ethanol diesel blends fueled in diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Yu-Cheng; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Lin, Sheng-Lun; Wang, Lin-Chi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Water-containing ABE solution (W-ABE) in the diesel is a stable fuel blends. • W-ABE can enhance the energy efficiency of diesel engine and act as a green energy. • W-ABE can reduce the PM, NOx, and PAH emissions very significantly. • The W-ABE can be manufactured from waste bio-mass without competition with food. • The W-ABE can be produced without dehydration process and no surfactant addition. - Abstract: Acetone–Butanol–Ethanol (ABE) is considered a “green” energy resource because it emits less carbon than many other fuels and is produced from biomass that is non-edible. To simulate the use of ABE fermentation products without dehydration and no addition of surfactants, a series of water-containing ABE-diesel blends were investigated. By integrating the diesel engine generator (DEG) and diesel engine dynamometer (DED) results, it was found that a diesel emulsion with 20 vol.% ABE-solution and 0.5 vol.% water (ABE20W0.5) enhanced the brake thermal efficiencies (BTE) by 3.26–8.56%. In addition, the emissions of particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NOx), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and the toxicity equivalency of PAHs (BaP eq ) were reduced by 5.82–61.6%, 3.69–16.4%, 0.699–31.1%, and 2.58–40.2%, respectively, when compared to regular diesel. These benefits resulted from micro-explosion mechanisms, which were caused by water-in-oil droplets, the greater ABE oxygen content, and the cooling effect that is caused by the high vaporization heat of water-containing ABE. Consequently, ABE20W0.5, which is produced by environmentally benign processes (without dehydration and no addition of surfactants), can be a good alternative to diesel because it can improve energy efficiency and reduce pollutant emissions

  18. Diesel Engine Emission Reduction Using Catalytic Nanoparticles: An Experimental Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajin C. Sajeevan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerium oxide being a rare earth metal with dual valance state existence has exceptional catalytic activity due to its oxygen buffering capability, especially in the nanosized form. Hence when used as an additive in the diesel fuel it leads to simultaneous reduction and oxidation of nitrogen dioxide and hydrocarbon emissions, respectively, from diesel engine. The present work investigates the effect of cerium oxide nanoparticles on performance and emissions of diesel engine. Cerium oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical method and techniques such as TEM, EDS, and XRD have been used for the characterization. Cerium oxide was mixed in diesel by means of standard ultrasonic shaker to obtain stable suspension, in a two-step process. The influence of nanoparticles on various physicochemical properties of diesel fuel has also been investigated through extensive experimentation by means of ASTM standard testing methods. Load test was done in the diesel engine to investigate the effect of nanoparticles on the efficiency and the emissions from the engine. Comparisons of fuel properties with and without additives are also presented.

  19. A cycle simulation model for predicting the performance of a diesel engine fuelled by diesel and biodiesel blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gogoi, T.K.; Baruah, D.C.

    2010-01-01

    Among the alternative fuels, biodiesel and its blends are considered suitable and the most promising fuel for diesel engine. The properties of biodiesel are found similar to that of diesel. Many researchers have experimentally evaluated the performance characteristics of conventional diesel engines fuelled by biodiesel and its blends. However, experiments require enormous effort, money and time. Hence, a cycle simulation model incorporating a thermodynamic based single zone combustion model is developed to predict the performance of diesel engine. The effect of engine speed and compression ratio on brake power and brake thermal efficiency is analysed through the model. The fuel considered for the analysis are diesel, 20%, 40%, 60% blending of diesel and biodiesel derived from Karanja oil (Pongamia Glabra). The model predicts similar performance with diesel, 20% and 40% blending. However, with 60% blending, it reveals better performance in terms of brake power and brake thermal efficiency.

  20. MEA and DEE as additives on diesel engine using waste plastic oil diesel blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pappula Bridjesh

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Waste plastic oil (WPO is a standout amongst the most promising alternative fuels for diesel in view of most of its properties similar to diesel. The challenges of waste management and increasing fuel crisis can be addressed while with the production of fuel from plastic wastes. This experimental investigation is an endeavour to supplant diesel at least by 50% with waste plastic oil alongside 2-methoxy ethyl acetate (MEA and diethyl ether (DEE as additives. Test fuels considered in this study are WPO, 50D50W (50%Diesel + 50%WPO, 50D40W10MEA (50%Diesel + 40%WPO + 10%MEA and 50D40W10DEE (50%Diesel + 40%WPO + 10%DEE. The test results are compared with diesel. An increase in brake thermal efficiency and abatement in brake specific fuel consumption are seen with 50D40W10MEA, as well as reduction in hydro carbon, carbon monoxide and smoke emissions. 50D40W10DEE showed reduced NOx emission whereas 50D40W10MEA has almost no impact. Engine performance and emission characteristics under different loads for different test fuels are discussed. Keywords: 2-Methoxy ethyl acetate, Diethyl ether, Waste plastic oil, Pyrolysis

  1. Particulate filter behaviour of a Diesel engine fueled with biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buono, D.; Senatore, A.; Prati, M.V.

    2012-01-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative and renewable fuel made from plant and animal fat or cooked oil through a transesterification process to produce a short chain ester (generally methyl ester). Biodiesel fuels have been worldwide studied in Diesel engines and they were found to be compatible in blends with Diesel fuel to well operate in modern Common Rail engines. Also throughout the world the diffusion of biofuels is being promoted in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and the environmental impact of transport, and to increase security of supply. To meet the current exhaust emission regulations, after-treatment devices are necessary; in particular Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) are essential to reduce particulate emissions of Diesel engines. A critical requirement for the implementation of DPF on a modern Biodiesel powered engine is the determination of Break-even Temperature (BET) which is defined as the temperature at which particulate deposition on the filter is balanced by particulate oxidation on the filter. To fit within the exhaust temperature range of the exhaust line and to require a minimum of active regeneration during the engine running, the BET needs to occur at sufficiently low temperatures. In this paper, the results of an experimental campaign on a modern, electronic controlled fuel injection Diesel engine are shown. The engine was fuelled either with petroleum ultralow sulphur fuel or with Biodiesel: BET was evaluated for both fuels. Results show that on average, the BET is lower for biodiesel than for diesel fuel. The final goal was to characterize the regeneration process of the DPF device depending on the adopted fuel, taking into account the different combustion process and the different nature of the particulate matter. Overall the results suggest significant benefits for the use of biodiesel in engines equipped with DPFs. - Highlights: ► We compare Diesel Particulate Trap (DPF) performance with Biodiesel and Diesel fuel. ► The Break

  2. Comparison of carbonyl compounds emissions from diesel engine fueled with biodiesel and diesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chao; Ge, Yunshan; Tan, Jianwei; You, Kewei; Han, Xunkun; Wang, Junfang; You, Qiuwen; Shah, Asad Naeem

    The characteristics of carbonyl compounds emissions were investigated on a direct injection, turbocharged diesel engine fueled with pure biodiesel derived from soybean oil. The gas-phase carbonyls were collected by 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH)-coated silica cartridges from diluted exhaust and analyzed by HPLC with UV detector. A commercial standard mixture including 14 carbonyl compounds was used for quantitative analysis. The experimental results indicate that biodiesel-fueled engine almost has triple carbonyls emissions of diesel-fueled engine. The weighted carbonyls emission of 8-mode test cycle of biodiesel is 90.8 mg (kW h) -1 and that of diesel is 30.7 mg (kW h) -1. The formaldehyde is the most abundant compound of carbonyls for both biodiesel and diesel, taking part for 46.2% and 62.7% respectively. The next most significant compounds are acetaldehyde, acrolein and acetone for both fuels. The engine fueled with biodiesel emits a comparatively high content of propionaldehyde and methacrolein. Biodiesel, as an alternative fuel, has lower specific reactivity (SR) caused by carbonyls compared with diesel. When fueled with biodiesel, carbonyl compounds make more contribution to total hydrocarbon emission.

  3. Eucalyptus Biodiesel as an Alternative to Diesel Fuel: Preparation and Tests on DI Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyes Tarabet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the increasing oil consumption throughout the world induces crucial economical, security, and environmental problems. As a result, intensive researches are undertaken to find appropriate substitution to fossil fuels. In view of the large amount of eucalyptus trees present in arid areas, we focus in this study on the investigation of using eucalyptus biodiesel as fuel in diesel engine. Eucalyptus oil is converted by transesterification into biodiesel. Eucalyptus biodiesel characterization shows that the physicochemical properties are comparable to those of diesel fuel. In the second phase, a single cylinder air-cooled, DI diesel engine was used to test neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends with diesel fuel in various ratios (75, 50, and 25 by v% at several engine loads. The engine combustion parameters such as peak pressure, rate of pressure rise, and heat release rate are determined. Performances and exhaust emissions are also evaluated at all operating conditions. Results show that neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends present significant improvements of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbon, and particulates emissions especially at high loads with equivalent performances to those of diesel fuel. However, the NOx emissions are slightly increased when the biodiesel content is increased in the blend.

  4. Eucalyptus biodiesel as an alternative to diesel fuel: preparation and tests on DI diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarabet, Lyes; Loubar, Khaled; Lounici, Mohand Said; Hanchi, Samir; Tazerout, Mohand

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, the increasing oil consumption throughout the world induces crucial economical, security, and environmental problems. As a result, intensive researches are undertaken to find appropriate substitution to fossil fuels. In view of the large amount of eucalyptus trees present in arid areas, we focus in this study on the investigation of using eucalyptus biodiesel as fuel in diesel engine. Eucalyptus oil is converted by transesterification into biodiesel. Eucalyptus biodiesel characterization shows that the physicochemical properties are comparable to those of diesel fuel. In the second phase, a single cylinder air-cooled, DI diesel engine was used to test neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends with diesel fuel in various ratios (75, 50, and 25 by v%) at several engine loads. The engine combustion parameters such as peak pressure, rate of pressure rise, and heat release rate are determined. Performances and exhaust emissions are also evaluated at all operating conditions. Results show that neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends present significant improvements of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbon, and particulates emissions especially at high loads with equivalent performances to those of diesel fuel. However, the NOx emissions are slightly increased when the biodiesel content is increased in the blend.

  5. The effect of additives on properties, performance and emission of biodiesel fuelled compression ignition engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashedul, H.K.; Masjuki, H.H.; Kalam, M.A.; Ashraful, A.M.; Ashrafur Rahman, S.M.; Shahir, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Fuel additives significantly improve the quality of biodiesel and its blends. • Fuel additives used to enhance biodiesel properties. • Fuel saving from optimized vehicle performance and economy with the use of additives. • Emission reduction from fuel system cleanliness and combustion optimization. - Abstract: With growing concern over greenhouse gases there is increasing emphasis on reducing CO 2 emissions. Despite engine efficiency improvements plus increased dieselization of the fleet, increasing vehicle numbers results in increasing CO 2 emissions. To reserve this trend the fuel source must be changed to renewable fuels which are CO 2 neutral. As a renewable, sustainable and alternative fuel for compression ignition engines, biodiesel is widely accepted as comparable fuel to diesel in diesel engines. This is due to several factors like decreasing the dependence on imported petroleum, reducing global warming, increasing lubricity, and reducing substantially the exhaust emissions from diesel engine. However, there is a major disadvantage in the use of biodiesel as it has lower heating value, higher density and higher viscosity, higher fuel consumption and higher NO X emission, which limits its application. Here fuel additives become essential and indispensable tools not only to minimize these drawbacks but also generate specified products to meet the regional and international standards. Fuel additives can contribute towards fuel economy and emission reduction either directly or indirectly. Their use enable vehicle performance to be maintained at, or near, optimum over the lifetime of the vehicle. A variety of additives are used in automotive biodiesel fuel to meet specification limits and to enhance quality. For example, metal based additives, oxygenated additives, antioxidants, cetane number improvers, lubricity improvers and cold flow improvers are used to meet specifications and quality. This article is a literature review of the effect

  6. Hydrogen Gas as a Fuel in Direct Injection Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanasekaran, Chinnathambi; Mohankumar, Gabriael

    2016-04-01

    Hydrogen is expected to be one of the most important fuels in the near future for solving the problem caused by the greenhouse gases, for protecting environment and saving conventional fuels. In this study, a dual fuel engine of hydrogen and diesel was investigated. Hydrogen was conceded through the intake port, and simultaneously air and diesel was pervaded into the cylinder. Using electronic gas injector and electronic control unit, the injection timing and duration varied. In this investigation, a single cylinder, KIRLOSKAR AV1, DI Diesel engine was used. Hydrogen injection timing was fixed at TDC and injection duration was timed for 30°, 60°, and 90° crank angles. The injection timing of diesel was fixed at 23° BTDC. When hydrogen is mixed with inlet air, emanation of HC, CO and CO2 decreased without any emission (exhaustion) of smoke while increasing the brake thermal efficiency.

  7. Dual-Fuel Combustion for Future Clean and Efficient Compression Ignition Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Benajes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Stringent emissions limits introduced for internal combustion engines impose a major challenge for the research community. The technological solution adopted by the manufactures of diesel engines to meet the NOx and particle matter values imposed in the EURO VI regulation relies on using selective catalytic reduction and particulate filter systems, which increases the complexity and cost of the engine. Alternatively, several new combustion modes aimed at avoiding the formation of these two pollutants by promoting low temperature combustion reactions, are the focus of study nowadays. Among these new concepts, the dual-fuel combustion mode known as reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI seems more promising because it allows better control of the combustion process by means of modulating the fuel reactivity depending on the engine operating conditions. The present experimental work explores the potential of different strategies for reducing the energy losses with RCCI in a single-cylinder research engine, with the final goal of providing the guidelines to define an efficient dual-fuel combustion system. The results demonstrate that the engine settings combination, piston geometry modification, and fuel properties variation are good methods to increase the RCCI efficiency while maintaining ultra-low NOx and soot emissions for a wide range of operating conditions.

  8. Supply and demand of diesel engine for 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-03-01

    This document takes stock on the diesel engine situation in France, in order to define the future policy for 2010. The first part is a state of the art concerning the description and characteristics of the diesel, the diesel production in refineries, the biofuels, the supply and demand. The second part details the evolutions, the investments and the fiscality impacts. The last part concludes on the necessity of a fiscal neutrality and on the fact that no new refinery is justified in France. It proposes different scenario of the imports evolution. (A.L.B.)

  9. Spark ignition natural gas engines-A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Haeng Muk; He, Bang-Quan

    2007-01-01

    Natural gas is a promising alternative fuel to meet strict engine emission regulations in many countries. Natural gas engines can operate at lean burn and stoichiometric conditions with different combustion and emission characteristics. In this paper, the operating envelope, fuel economy, emissions, cycle-to-cycle variations in indicated mean effective pressure and strategies to achieve stable combustion of lean burn natural gas engines are highlighted. Stoichiometric natural gas engines are briefly reviewed. To keep the output power and torque of natural gas engines comparable to those of their gasoline or Diesel counterparts, high boost pressure should be used. High activity catalyst for methane oxidation and lean deNOx system or three way catalyst with precise air-fuel ratio control strategies should be developed to meet future stringent emission standards

  10. Effects of ambient oxygen concentration on biodiesel and diesel spray combustion under simulated engine conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ji

    2013-08-01

    This study investigates the effect of ambient oxygen concentration on biodiesel and diesel spray combustion under simulated compression-ignition engine conditions in a constant-volume chamber. The apparent heat release rate (AHRR) is calculated based on the measured pressure. High-speed imaging of OH* chemiluminescence and natural luminosity (NL) is employed to visualize the combustion process. Temporally and spatially resolved NL and OH* contour plots are obtained. The result indicates that AHRR depends monotonically on the ambient oxygen concentration for both fuels. A lower oxygen concentration yields a slower AHRR increase rate, a lower peak AHRR value, but a higher AHRR value during the burn-out stage when compared with higher ambient oxygen concentration conditions. OH* chemiluminescence and NL contours indicate that biodiesel may experience a longer premixed-combustion duration. The 18% ambient O2 condition works better for biodiesel than diesel in reducing soot luminosity. With 12% O2, diesel combustion is significantly degraded. However, both fuels experience low temperature combustion at 10% O2. These results may imply that biodiesel is able to achieve the desired lower soot production under a moderate oxygen level with higher combustion efficiency, while diesel needs to be burned under very low ambient oxygen concentration for low soot production. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Diesel-Minimal Combustion Control of a Natural Gas-Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Zurbriggen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the combustion phasing control of natural gas-diesel engines. In this study, the combustion phasing is influenced by manipulating the start and the duration of the diesel injection. Instead of using both degrees of freedom to control the center of combustion only, we propose a method that simultaneously controls the combustion phasing and minimizes the amount of diesel used. Minimizing the amount of diesel while keeping the center of combustion at a constant value is formulated as an optimization problem with an equality constraint. A combination of feedback control and extremum seeking is used to solve this optimization problem online. The necessity to separate the different time scales is discussed and a structure is proposed that facilitates this separation for this specific example. The proposed method is validated by experiments on a test bench.

  12. Dimethyl ether in diesel engines - progress and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorenson, Spencer C

    2001-01-01

    A review of recent developments related to the use of dimethyl ether (DME) in engines is presented Research work discussed is in the areas of engine performance and emissions, fuel injection systems, spray and ignition delay, and detailed chemical kinetic modeling. DME's properties and safety...

  13. Effect of engine load and biogas flow rate to the performance of a compression ignition engine run in dual-fuel (dieselbiogas) mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambarita, H.

    2018-02-01

    The Government of Indonesia (GoI) has released a target on reduction Green Houses Gases emissions (GHG) by 26% from level business-as-usual by 2020, and the target can be up to 41% by international supports. In the energy sector, this target can be reached effectively by promoting fossil fuel replacement or blending with biofuel. One of the potential solutions is operating compression ignition (CI) engine in dual-fuel (diesel-biogas) mode. In this study effects of engine load and biogas flow rate on the performance and exhaust gas emissions of a compression ignition engine run in dual-fuel mode are investigated. In the present study, the used biogas is refined with methane content 70% of volume. The objectives are to explore the optimum operating condition of the CI engine run in dual-fuel mode. The experiments are performed on a four-strokes CI engine with rated output power of 4.41 kW. The engine is tested at constant speed 1500 rpm. The engine load varied from 600W to 1500W and biogas flow rate varied from 0 L/min to 6 L/min. The results show brake thermal efficiency of the engine run in dual-fuel mode is better than pure diesel mode if the biogas flow rates are 2 L/min and 4 L/min. It is recommended to operate the present engine in a dual-fuel mode with biogas flow rate of 4 L/min. The consumption of diesel fuel can be replaced up to 50%.

  14. Research of oxyhydrogen gas mixture influence upon diesel engine performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrov Evgeni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results from testing a Volkswagen 1.9 D diesel engine on a test bench to work on gas-diesel cycle with oxyhydrogen gas mixture. Experimental research is done to show the impact of oxyhydrogen gas mixture on engine consumption and environmental indexes such as: fuel and specific fuel consumption; carbon monoxide; carbon dioxide; oxides of nitrogen; smoke emissions. The oxyhydrogen gas mixture delivered to the engine intake manifold with constant flow rate. The results are obtained under research contract № 6524-4/2016.

  15. Utilization of Variable Consumption Biofuel in Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markov, V. A.; Kamaltdinov, V. G.; Savastenko, A. A.

    2018-01-01

    The depletion of oil fields and the deteriorating environmental situation leads to the need for the search of new alternative sources of energy. Actuality of the article due to the need for greater use of the alternative fuels in internal combustion engines is necessary. The advantages of vegetables origin fuels using as engine fuels are shown. Diesel engine operation on mixtures of petroleum diesel and rapeseed oil is researched. A fuel delivery system of mixture biofuel with a control system of the fuel compound is considered. The results of the system experimental researches of fuel delivery of mixture biofuel are led.

  16. Pneumatic hybridization of a diesel engine using compressed air storage for wind-diesel energy generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basbous, Tammam; Younes, Rafic; Ilinca, Adrian; Perron, Jean

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we are studying an innovative solution to reduce fuel consumption and production cost for electricity production by Diesel generators. The solution is particularly suitable for remote areas where the cost of energy is very high not only because of inherent cost of technology but also due to transportation costs. It has significant environmental benefits as the use of fossil fuels for electricity generation is a significant source of GHG (Greenhouse Gas) emissions. The use of hybrid systems that combine renewable sources, especially wind, and Diesel generators, reduces fuel consumption and operation cost and has environmental benefits. Adding a storage element to the hybrid system increases the penetration level of the renewable sources, that is the percentage of renewable energy in the overall production, and further improves fuel savings. In a previous work, we demonstrated that CAES (Compressed Air Energy Storage) has numerous advantages for hybrid wind-diesel systems due to its low cost, high power density and reliability. The pneumatic hybridization of the Diesel engine consists to introduce the CAES through the admission valve. We have proven that we can improve the combustion efficiency and therefore the fuel consumption by optimizing Air/Fuel ratio thanks to the CAES assistance. As a continuation of these previous analyses, we studied the effect of the intake pressure and temperature and the exhaust pressure on the thermodynamic cycle of the diesel engine and determined the values of these parameters that will optimize fuel consumption. -- Highlights: ► Fuel economy analysis of a simple pneumatic hybridization of the Diesel engine using stored compressed air. ► Thermodynamic analysis of the pneumatic hybridization of diesel engines for hybrid wind-diesel energy systems. ► Analysis of intake pressure and temperature of compressed air and exhaust pressure on pressure/temperature during Diesel thermodynamic cycle. ► Direct admission of

  17. Studies on a CI engine using orange skin powder diesel solution with different fuel nozzle opening pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purushothaman Krishnan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments have been conducted to study the effect of nozzle opening pressure on the combustion process and exhaust emissions of a direct injection diesel engine fueled with orange skin powder diesel solution (OSPDS. Earlier investigation by the authors revealed that 30% OSPDS was optimum for better performance and reduced emissions. In the present investigation the nozzle opening pressure was varied with 30% OSPDS and the combustion, performance, and emissions characteristics were studied and compared with those of diesel fuel. The different nozzle opening pressures studied were 215 bar, 235 bar, and 255 bar. The results showed that the cylinder pressure with 30% OSPDS at 235 bar fuel nozzle opening pressure, was higher than that of diesel fuel as well as at other nozzle opening pressures. Similarly, the ignition delay was longer with shorter combustion duration in case of 30% OSPDS at 235 bar nozzle opening pressure. The brake thermal efficiency was higher at 235 bar than that of other fuel nozzle opening pressures with OSPDS and lower than that of diesel fuel. The NOx emission was higher and HC and CO emissions were lower with 30% OSPDS at 235 bar. The smoke emission was marginally lower at 235 bar and marginally higher at 215 bar than diesel fuel. The performance of the engine at 235 bar nozzle opening pressure was better with reduction in emissions except NOx than other nozzle opening pressures.

  18. Effect of injection pressure on heat release rate and emissions in CI engine using orange skin powder diesel solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purushothaman, K.; Nagarajan, G.

    2009-01-01

    Experiments have been conducted to study the effect of injection pressure on the combustion process and exhaust emissions of a direct injection diesel engine fueled with Orange Skin Powder Diesel Solution (OSPDS). Earlier investigation by the authors revealed that 30% OSPDS was optimum for better performance and emissions. In the present investigation the injection pressure was varied with 30% OSPDS and the combustion, performance and emissions characteristics were compared with those of diesel fuel. The different injection pressures studied were 215 bar, 235 bar and 255 bar. The results showed that the cylinder pressure with 30% OSPDS at 235 bar fuel injection pressure, was higher than that of diesel fuel as well as at other injection pressures. Similarly, the ignition delay was longer and with shorter combustion duration with 30% OSPDS at 235 bar injection pressure. The brake thermal efficiency was better at 235 bar than that of other fuel injection pressures with OSPDS and lower than that of diesel fuel. The NO x emission with 30% OSPDS was higher at 235 bar. The hydrocarbon and CO emissions were lower with 30% OSPDS at 235 bar. The smoke emission with 30% OSPDS was marginally lower at 235 bar and marginally higher at 215 bar than for diesel fuel. The combustion, performance and emission characteristics of the engine operating on the test fuels at 235 bar injection pressure were better than other injection pressures

  19. A Mathematical Model of Marine Diesel Engine Speed Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Rajendra Prasad; Balaji, Rajoo

    2018-02-01

    Diesel engine is inherently an unstable machine and requires a reliable control system to regulate its speed for safe and efficient operation. Also, the diesel engine may operate at fixed or variable speeds depending upon user's needs and accordingly the speed control system should have essential features to fulfil these requirements. This paper proposes a mathematical model of a marine diesel engine speed control system with droop governing function. The mathematical model includes static and dynamic characteristics of the control loop components. Model of static characteristic of the rotating fly weights speed sensing element provides an insight into the speed droop features of the speed controller. Because of big size and large time delay, the turbo charged diesel engine is represented as a first order system or sometimes even simplified to a pure integrator with constant gain which is considered acceptable in control literature. The proposed model is mathematically less complex and quick to use for preliminary analysis of the diesel engine speed controller performance.

  20. Desempenho de motor ciclo Diesel em bancada dinamométrica utilizando misturas diesel/biodiesel Performance of cycle Diesel engine in dynamometer using diesel/biodiesel mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Castellanelli

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Diante da previsão de escassez do petróleo, o éster etílico (biodiesel tem-se apresentado como excelente opção de combustível alternativo para motores ciclo Diesel. As características do biodiesel são semelhantes às do diesel em termos de viscosidade e poder calorífico, podendo ser utilizado sem adaptações nos motores. Para a realização deste trabalho, utilizou-se de motor ciclo Diesel, de injeção direta, com quatro cilindros, sem adaptações. O motor foi acoplado a um dinamômetro e sistemas de aquisição de dados auxiliares. Avaliaram-se os desempenhos de torque, de potência e de consumo específico de combustível para as seguintes misturas diesel/éster etílico de soja: B2, B5, B10, B20, B50, B75 e B100. O melhor desempenho registrado deu-se com a mistura B20.Given the prediction of the scarcity of oil, the ethyl ester (biodiesel has presented as an excellent alternative fuel option for cycle diesel engine. The characteristics of biodiesel are similar of diesel in terms of viscosity and the calorific power, being able to be used without adaptations in the engines. For the accomplishment of this work it was used a cycle diesel engine, of direct injection with four cylinders, without adaptations. The engine was connected to a dynamometer and acquisition systems of auxiliary data. The performances of torque, power and specific fuel consumption for the following mixtures diesel/soy ethyl ester had been evaluated: B2, B5, B10, B20, B50, B75 and B100. The best registered performance was given with the B20 mixture.

  1. Knock characteristics of dual-fuel combustion in diesel engines ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    into the cylinder. A mixture of gas and air is compressed during the compression stroke and before the end of the stroke, a pilot quantity of diesel fuel (depending on the operating conditions) is injected to initiate combustion. The combustion processes of dual-fuel engines lie between that of the CI and SI engines. The longer ...

  2. Single bank NOx adsorber for heavy duty diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genderen, M. van; Aken, M.G. van

    2003-01-01

    In a NOx adsorber programme the feasibility for applying this technology to heavy duty diesel engines was investigated. After modelling and simulations for realising best λ < 1 engine conditions a platform was build which was used to obtain good NOx adsorber regeneration settings in a number of

  3. Efficient EGR technology for future HD diesel engine emission targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baert, R.S.G.; Beckman, D.E.; Veen, A.

    1999-01-01

    Different systems for achieving short-route cooled EGR on turbocharged and aftercooled heavy-duty diesel engines have been tested on a 12 litre 315 kW engine with 4 valves per cylinder and an electronically controlled unit pump fuel injection system. In all of these systems the exhaust gas was

  4. Selection of Fuel System for Modern Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Kukharonok

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuel systems of diesel engines have been analyzed. The paper shows components of the systems, peculiarities of their manufacturing process. Difference in efficiency of the systems, their application and market prospects are considered in the paper. While solving problems to design a power installation the essence of fuel system selection is given on the basis of an internal combustion engine.

  5. Experimental evaluation of Diesel engine performance and emission using blends of jojoba oil and Diesel fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huzayyin, A.S.; Bawady, A.H.; Rady, M.A.; Dawood, A.

    2004-01-01

    An experimental evaluation of using jojoba oil as an alternate Diesel engine fuel has been conducted in the present work. Measurements of jojoba oil chemical and physical properties have indicated a good potential of using jojoba oil as an alternative Diesel engine fuel. Blending of jojoba oil with gas oil has been shown to be an effective method to reduce engine problems associated with the high viscosity of jojoba oil. Experimental measurements of different performance parameters of a single cylinder, naturally aspirated, direct injection, Diesel engine have been performed using gas oil and blends of gas oil with jojoba oil. Measurements of engine performance parameters at different load conditions over the engine speed range have generally indicated a negligible loss of engine power, a slight increase in brake specific fuel consumption and a reduction in engine NO x and soot emission using blends of jojoba oil with gas oil as compared to gas oil. The reduction in engine soot emission has been observed to increase with the increase of jojoba oil percentage in the fuel blend

  6. Experimental evaluation of diesel engine performance and emission using blends of jojoba oil and diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huzayyin, A.S.; Rady, M.A.; Dawood, A. [Benha High Inst. of Technology (Egypt). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Technology; Bawady, A.H. [University of Ain Shams, Cairo (Egypt). Faculty of Engineering

    2004-08-01

    An experimental evaluation of using jojoba oil as an alternate diesel engine fuel has been conducted in the present work. Measurements of jojoba oil chemical and physical properties have indicated a good potential of using jojoba oil as an alternative diesel engine fuel. Blending of jojoba oil with gas oil has been shown to be an effective method to reduce engine problems associated with the high viscosity of jojoba oil. Experimental measurements of different performance parameters of a single cylinder, naturally aspirated, direct injection, diesel engine have been performed using gas oil and blends of gas oil with jojoba oil. Measurements of engine performance parameters at different load conditions over the engine speed range have generally indicated a negligible loss of engine power, a slight increase in brake specific fuel consumption and a reduction in engine NO{sub x} and soot emission using blends of jojoba oil with gas oil as compared to gas oil. The reduction in engine soot emission has been observed to increase with the increase of jojoba oil percentage in the fuel blend. (Author)

  7. 77 FR 54384 - Nonconformance Penalties for On-Highway Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ...-Highway Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule... heavy heavy-duty diesel engines (HHDDE) in model years 2012 and later for emissions of oxides of... production engines). EPA proposed NCPs for medium heavy duty diesel engines. However, EPA is not taking final...

  8. EFFECT OF ETHANOL ADDITION WITH CASHEW NUT SHELL LIQUID ON ENGINE COMBUSTION AND EXHAUST EMISSION IN A DI DIESEL ENGINE

    OpenAIRE

    A.VELMURUGAN; M.LOGANATHAN

    2012-01-01

    In this study, biofuel, diesel and ethanol blends (BDEB) were tested in a single cylinder direct-injection diesel engine to investigate the engine combustion, performance and emission characteristics of the engine under five engine loads at the speed of 1500 rpm. Here the ethanol is used as an additive to enhance the engine combustion. The mixture of Commercial diesel fuel, biofuel from Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL) and ethanol mixture called BDEB is used to run the direct injection diesel e...

  9. Experimental study on fuel economies and emissions of direct-injection premixed combustion engine fueled with gasoline/diesel blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Jiakun; Sun, Wanchen; Guo, Liang; Xiao, Senlin; Tan, Manzhi; Li, Guoliang; Fan, Luyan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A compound combustion concept was proposed and investigated. • Premixed combustion near the top dead center was investigated using blended fuels. • Increasing gasoline blend ratio was found to enhance the mixture preparation. • Too much addition of gasoline decreases indicated thermal efficiency. • Gasoline/diesel blends may be a promising alternative for premixed combustion. - Abstract: The effects of gasoline/diesel blended fuel composed of diesel fuel with gasoline as additives in volume basis, on combustion, fuel economies and exhaust emissions were experimentally investigated. Tests were carried out based on a turbocharged Common-rail Direct Injection engine at a constant engine speed of 1800 r/min and different loads of 3.2 bar, 5.1 bar Indicated Mean Effective Pressure. Additionally, the effect of combustion phasing and Exhaust Gas Recirculation were evaluated experimentally for various fuels. The results indicated that with the fraction of gasoline increasing in blends, the ignition delay was prolonged and the combustion phasing was retarded with the common injection timing. This led to a significant increase of premixed burning phase, which was in favor of smoke reduction; although, too much gasoline might be adverse to fuel consumption. An optimum combustion phasing was identified, leading to a higher thermal efficiency and better premixed combustion with blended fuels. A combined application of Exhaust Gas Recirculation and blended fuel with a high gasoline fraction was confirmed effective in reducing the oxides of nitrogen and smoke emissions simultaneously at the optimum combustion phasing without giving significant penalty of fuel consumption. A compound combustion mode with its emission lower than the conventional Compression Ignition engines, and efficiency higher than the typical Spark Ignition engines, could be achieved with a cooperative control of Exhaust Gas Recirculation and combustion phasing of the gasoline/diesel

  10. Support vector machine to predict diesel engine performance and emission parameters fueled with nano-particles additive to diesel fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, M.; Najafi, G.; Ghobadian, B.; Mamat, R.; Noor, M. M.; Moosavian, A.

    2015-12-01

    This paper studies the use of adaptive Support Vector Machine (SVM) to predict the performance parameters and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine operating on nanodiesel blended fuels. In order to predict the engine parameters, the whole experimental data were randomly divided into training and testing data. For SVM modelling, different values for radial basis function (RBF) kernel width and penalty parameters (C) were considered and the optimum values were then found. The results demonstrate that SVM is capable of predicting the diesel engine performance and emissions. In the experimental step, Carbon nano tubes (CNT) (40, 80 and 120 ppm) and nano silver particles (40, 80 and 120 ppm) with nanostructure were prepared and added as additive to the diesel fuel. Six cylinders, four-stroke diesel engine was fuelled with these new blended fuels and operated at different engine speeds. Experimental test results indicated the fact that adding nano particles to diesel fuel, increased diesel engine power and torque output. For nano-diesel it was found that the brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) was decreased compared to the net diesel fuel. The results proved that with increase of nano particles concentrations (from 40 ppm to 120 ppm) in diesel fuel, CO2 emission increased. CO emission in diesel fuel with nano-particles was lower significantly compared to pure diesel fuel. UHC emission with silver nano-diesel blended fuel decreased while with fuels that contains CNT nano particles increased. The trend of NOx emission was inverse compared to the UHC emission. With adding nano particles to the blended fuels, NOx increased compared to the net diesel fuel. The tests revealed that silver & CNT nano particles can be used as additive in diesel fuel to improve complete combustion of the fuel and reduce the exhaust emissions significantly.

  11. Modification and tuning of diesel bus engine for biogas electricity production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sittiboon Siripornakarachai

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This study is to convert and tune a bus diesel engine for electricity production in a farm using biogas as fuel. The engine under study is a Hino K-13CTI 13,000 cc 24 valve turbocharged engine coupled to a 3 phase 4 pole induction motor to produce electricity at 50 Hz. Modifications include an addition of biogas carburetor for air-fuel mixing, replacing the fuel injection system with spark ignition system, reduction of compression ratio from the original 16:1 to 8:1 using a cylinder head spacer, and modification of the turbocharger waste gate so the boost pressure can be adjusted. When the induction motor is synchronized to the power grid, the running speed of the engine is 1,500 rpm. Optimal engine efficiency was achieved at 28.6% by setting the lambda factor at 1.097, ignition timing at 54o before top dead center, and the turbocharger boost at 56 kPa. With this setting, the generator power output is 134.20 kilowatt with emission of CO and NOX being 1,154 and 896 ppm respectively.

  12. Engine Performance Test of the 1975 Chrysler - Nissan Model CN633 Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-09-01

    An engine test of the Chrysler-Nissan Model CN633 diesel engine was performed to determine its steady-state fuel consumption and emissions (HC, CO, NOx) maps. The data acquired are summarized in this report.

  13. Tailpipe emissions and engine performance of a light-duty diesel engine operating on petro- and bio-diesel fuel blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This report summarizes the experimental apparatus developed in the Transportation Air Quality Laboratory (TAQ Lab) at the University of Vermont to compare light-duty diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions when operating on petroleum diesel (...

  14. Stationary engine test of diesel cycle using diesel oil and biodiesel (B100); Ensaio de motores estacionarios do ciclo diesel utilizando oleo diesel e biodiesel (B100)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Ednildo Andrade [Universidade Federal da Bahia (DEQ/DEM/EP/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Quimica], Email: ednildo@ufba.br; Santos, Danilo Cardoso [Universidade Federal da Bahia (PPEQ/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Quimica; Souza, Daniel Vidigal D.; Peixoto, Leonardo Barbosa; Franca, Tiago [Universidade Federal da Bahia (DEM/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2006-07-01

    This work objectified to test an engine stationary of the cycle diesel, having as combustible diesel fossil and bio diesel. The characteristic curves of power, torque and emissions versus rotation of the engine was elaborated. The survey of these curves was carried through in the Laboratorio de Energia e Gas da Escola Politecnica da UFBA, which makes use of two stationary dynamometers and the one of chassis and necessary instrumentation for you analyze of the exhaustion gases. The tested engine was of the mark AGRALE, M-85 model stationary type, mono cylinder, with power NF (NBRISO 1585) Cv/kw/rpm 10/7,4/2500. The assays had been carried through in a hydraulically dynamometer mark Schenck, D-210 model. The fuel consumption was measured in a scale marks Filizola model BP-6, and too much ground handling equipment such as: water reservoir, tubings, valves controllers of volumetric outflow, sensors and measurers of rotation, torque, mass, connected to a system of acquisition of data on line. The emissions of the gases (CO, CO{sub 2}, and NOx), were measured by the analytical Tempest mark, model 100. The engine operated with oil diesel and bio diesel of oils and residual fats (OGR). In the tests, the use of the fuel derived from oil and the gotten ones from OGR was not detected significant differences how much. In this phase already it can show to the immediate possibility of the substitution of the oil diesel for bio diesel as combustible in the stationary engines of low power (author)

  15. Capture of Heat Energy from Diesel Engine Exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuen-Sen Lin

    2008-12-31

    Diesel generators produce waste heat as well as electrical power. About one-third of the fuel energy is released from the exhaust manifolds of the diesel engines and normally is not captured for useful applications. This project studied different waste heat applications that may effectively use the heat released from exhaust of Alaskan village diesel generators, selected the most desirable application, designed and fabricated a prototype for performance measurements, and evaluated the feasibility and economic impact of the selected application. Exhaust flow rate, composition, and temperature may affect the heat recovery system design and the amount of heat that is recoverable. In comparison with the other two parameters, the effect of exhaust composition may be less important due to the large air/fuel ratio for diesel engines. This project also compared heat content and qualities (i.e., temperatures) of exhaust for three types of fuel: conventional diesel, a synthetic diesel, and conventional diesel with a small amount of hydrogen. Another task of this project was the development of a computer-aided design tool for the economic analysis of selected exhaust heat recovery applications to any Alaskan village diesel generator set. The exhaust heat recovery application selected from this study was for heating. An exhaust heat recovery system was fabricated, and 350 hours of testing was conducted. Based on testing data, the exhaust heat recovery heating system showed insignificant effects on engine performance and maintenance requirements. From measurements, it was determined that the amount of heat recovered from the system was about 50% of the heat energy contained in the exhaust (heat contained in exhaust was evaluated based on environment temperature). The estimated payback time for 100% use of recovered heat would be less than 3 years at a fuel price of $3.50 per gallon, an interest rate of 10%, and an engine operation of 8 hours per day. Based on experimental data

  16. Performance deterioration and durability issues while running a diesel engine with crude palm oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, S.; Yu, C.W.; Lim, T.H.

    2003-01-01

    Short-term performance tests using crude palm oil (CPO) as fuel for a diesel engine showed CPO to be a suitable substitute, with a peak pressure about 5 per cent higher and an ignition delay about 3 deg shorter compared with diesel. Emissions of NO and CO were about 29 and 9 per cent higher respectively for CPO. However, prolonged use of CPO as fuel caused the engine performance to deteriorate. After 500 h cumulative running with CPO, the maximum power was reduced by about 20 per cent and the minimum brake specific fuel consumption (b.s.f.c.) was increased by about 26 per cent. Examination of the different parts after the engine was dismantled revealed heavy carbon deposits in the combustion chamber; traces of wear on the piston rings, the plunger and the delivery valve of the injection pump; slight scuffing of the cylinder liner; and uneven spray from the nozzles. The affected parts were installed in a new identical engine one by one to evaluate the performance of each respectively. Tests revealed that the main reason for engine performance deterioration was 'valve sticking', caused by carbon deposits on the valve seats and stems. This resulted in leakage during the compression and power strokes and a reduced effective compression ratio and subsequently affected the power and fuel economy. Valve sticking alone contributed about 18 and 23 per cent to the deterioration in maximum power and minimum b.s.f.c. respectively. (Author)

  17. Carbonyl compound emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine fueled with diesel fuel and ethanol-diesel blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chonglin; Zhao, Zhuang; Lv, Gang; Song, Jinou; Liu, Lidong; Zhao, Ruifen

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the carbonyl emissions from a direct injection heavy-duty diesel engine fueled with pure diesel fuel (DF) and blended fuel containing 15% by volume of ethanol (E/DF). The tests have been conducted under steady-state operating conditions at 1200, 1800, 2600 rpm and idle speed. The experimental results show that acetaldehyde is the most predominant carbonyl, followed by formaldehyde, acrolein, acetone, propionaldehyde and crotonaldehyde, produced from both fuels. The emission factors of total carbonyls vary in the range 13.8-295.9 mg(kWh)(-1) for DF and 17.8-380.2mg(kWh)(-1) for E/DF, respectively. The introduction of ethanol into diesel fuel results in a decrease in acrolein emissions, while the other carbonyls show general increases: at low engine speed (1200 rpm), 0-55% for formaldehyde, 4-44% for acetaldehyde, 38-224% for acetone, and 5-52% for crotonaldehyde; at medium engine speed (1800 rpm), 106-413% for formaldehyde, 4-143% for acetaldehyde, 74-113% for acetone, 114-1216% for propionaldehyde, and 15-163% for crotonaldehyde; at high engine speed (2600 rpm), 36-431% for formaldehyde, 18-61% for acetaldehyde, 22-241% for acetone, and 6-61% for propionaldehyde. A gradual reduction in the brake specific emissions of each carbonyl compound from both fuels is observed with increase in engine load. Among three levels of engine speed employed, both DF and E/DF emit most CBC emissions at high engine speed. On the whole, the presence of ethanol in diesel fuel leads to an increase in aldehyde emissions. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Durability, Performance, and Emission of Diesel Engines Using Carbon Fiber Piston and Liner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afify, E. M.; Roberts, W. L.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes the research conducted by NC State University in investigating the durability, performance and emission of a carbon fiber piston and liner in our single cylinder research Diesel engine. Both the piston and liner were supplied to NC State University by NASA LaRC and manufactured by C-CAT under a separate contract to NASA LaRC. The carbon-carbon material used to manufacture the piston and liner has significantly lower thermal conductivity, coefficient of thermal expansion, and superior strength characteristics at elevated temperatures when compared to conventional piston materials such as aluminum. The results of the carbon-carbon fiber piston testing were compared to a baseline configuration, which used a conventional aluminum piston in a steel liner. The parameters measured were the brake specific fuel consumption, ignition delay, frictional horsepower, volumetric efficiency, and durability characteristics of the two pistons. Testing was performed using a naturally aspirated Labeco Direct Injection single cylinder diesel engine. Two test cases were performed over a range of loads and speeds. The fixed test condition between the aluminum and carbon-carbon piston configurations was the brake mean effective pressure. The measured data was the fuel consumption rate, volumetric efficiency, load, speed, cylinder pressure, needle lift, and exhaust gas temperature. The cylinder pressure, and fuel consumption, exhaust gas temperature, and needle lift were recorded using a National Instruments DAQ board and a PC. All test cases used Diesel no. 2 for fuel.

  19. Experimental investigation on a diesel engine using neem oil and its methyl ester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivalakshmi S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuel crisis and environmental concerns have led to look for alternative fuels of bio-origin sources such as vegetable oils, which can be produced from forests, vegetable oil crops and oil bearing biomass materials. Vegetable oils have energy content comparable to diesel fuel. The effect of neem oil (NeO and its methyl ester (NOME on a direct injected four stroke, single cylinder diesel engine combustion, performance and emission is investigated in this paper. The results show that at full load, peak cylinder pressure is higher for NOME; peak heat release rate during the premixed combustion phase is lower for neat NeO and NOME. Ignition delay is lower for neat NeO and NOME when compared with diesel at full load. The brake thermal efficiency is slightly lower for NeO at all engine loads, but in the case of NOME slightly higher at full load. It has been observed that there is a reduction in NOx emission for neem oil and its methyl ester along with an increase in CO, HC and smoke emissions.

  20. Final Report: Utilizing Alternative Fuel Ignition Properties to Improve SI and CI Engine Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooldridge, Margaret; Boehman, Andre; Lavoie, George; Fatouraie, Mohammad

    2017-11-30

    Experimental and modeling studies were completed to explore leveraging physical and chemical fuel properties for improved thermal efficiency of internal combustion engines. Fundamental studies of the ignition chemistry of ethanol and iso-octane blends and constant volume spray chamber studies of gasoline and diesel sprays supported the core research effort which used several reciprocating engine platforms. Single cylinder spark ignition (SI) engine studies were carried out to characterize the impact of ethanol/gasoline, syngas (H2 and CO)/gasoline and other oxygenate/gasoline blends on engine performance. The results of the single-cylinder engine experiments and other data from the literature were used to train a GT Power model and to develop a knock criteria based on reaction chemistry. The models were used to interpret the experimental results and project future performance. Studies were also carried out using a state of the art, direct injection (DI) turbocharged multi- cylinder engine with piezo-actuated fuel injectors to demonstrate the promising spray and spark timing strategies from single-cylinder engine studies on the multi-cylinder engine. Key outcomes and conclusions of the studies were: 1. Efficiency benefits of ethanol and gasoline fuel blends were consistent and substantial (e.g. 5-8% absolute improvement in gross indicated thermal efficiency (GITE)). 2. The best ethanol/gasoline blend (based on maximum thermal efficiency) was determined by the engine hardware and limits based on component protection (e.g. peak in-cylinder pressure or maximum turbocharger inlet temperature) – and not by knock limits. Blends with <50% ethanol delivered significant thermal efficiency gains with conventional SI hardware while maintain good safety integrity to the engine hardware. 3. Other compositions of fuel blends including syngas (H2 and CO) and other dilution strategies provided significant efficiency gains as well (e.g. 5% absolute improvement in ITE). 4. When the

  1. Performance and emission characteristics of diesel engine with COME-Triacetin additive blends as fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkateswara Rao, P. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, K I T S, Warangal- 506015, A. P. (India); Appa Rao, B.V. [Dept. of Marine Engineering, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530003, A. P. (India)

    2012-07-01

    The Triacetin [C9H14O6] additive is used an anti-knocking agent along with the bio-diesel in DI- diesel engine. In the usage of diesel fuel and neat bio-diesel knocking can be detected to some extent. The T- additive usage in the engine suppressed knocking, improved the performance and reduced tail pipe emissions. Comparative study is conducted using petro-diesel, bio-diesel, and with various additive blends of bio-diesel on DI- diesel engine. Coconut oil methyl ester (COME) is used with additive Triacetin (T) at various percentages by volume for all loads (No load, 25%, 50%, 75% and full load). The performance of engine is compared with neat diesel in respect of engine efficiency, exhaust emissions and combustion knock. Of the five Triacetin- biodiesel blends tried, 10% Triacetin combination with biodiesel proved encouraging in all respects of performance of the engine.

  2. Analysis of Oxygenated Component (butyl Ether) and Egr Effect on a Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung-Hun; Oh, Young-Taig

    Potential possibility of the butyl ether (BE, oxygenates of di-ether group) was analyzed as an additives for a naturally aspirated direct injection diesel engine fuel. Engine performance and exhaust emission characteristics were analyzed by applying the commercial diesel fuel and oxygenates additives blended diesel fuels. Smoke emission decreased approximately 26% by applying the blended fuel (diesel fuel 80 vol-% + BE 20vol-%) at the engine speed of 25,000 rpm and with full engine load compared to the diesel fuel. There was none significant difference between the blended fuel and the diesel fuel on the power, torque, and brake specific energy consumption rate of the diesel engine. But, NOx emission from the blended fuel was higher than the commercial diesel fuel. As a counter plan, the EGR method was employed to reduce the NOx. Simultaneous reduction of the smoke and the NOx emission from the diesel engine was achieved by applying the BE blended fuel and the cooled EGR method.

  3. 30 CFR 250.405 - What are the safety requirements for diesel engines used on a drilling rig?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... engines used on a drilling rig? You must equip each diesel engine with an air take device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of a runaway. (a) For a diesel engine that is not continuously manned, you must equip the engine with an automatic shutdown device; (b) For a diesel engine that is continuously...

  4. Zero-dimensional mathematical model of the torch ignited engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, Igor William Santos Leal; Alvarez, Carlos Eduardo Castilla; Teixeira, Alysson Fernandes; Valle, Ramon Molina

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Publications about the torch ignition system are mostly CFD or experimental research. • A zero-dimensional mathematical model is presented. • The model is based on classical thermodynamic equations. • Approximations are based on empirical functions. • The model is applied to a prototype by means of a computer code. - Abstract: Often employed in the analysis of conventional SI and CI engines, mathematical models can also be applied to engines with torch ignition, which have been researched almost exclusively by CFD or experimentally. The objective of this work is to describe the development and application of a zero-dimensional model of the compression and power strokes of a torch ignited engine. It is an initial analysis that can be used as a basis for future models. The processes of compression, combustion and expansion were described mathematically and applied to an existing prototype by means of a computer code written in MATLAB language. Conservation of energy and mass and the ideal gas law were used in determining gas temperature, pressure, and mass flow rate within the cylinder. Gas motion through the orifice was modelled as an isentropic compressible flow. The thermodynamic properties of the mixture were found by a weighted arithmetic mean of the data for each component, computed by polynomial functions of temperature. Combustion was modelled by the Wiebe function. Heat transfer to the cylinder walls was estimated by Annand’s correlations. Results revealed the behaviour of pressure, temperature, jet velocity, energy transfer, thermodynamic properties, among other variables, and how some of these are influenced by others.

  5. Multi-response optimization of diesel engine operating parameters running with water-in-diesel emulsion fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vellaiyan Suresh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Water-in-diesel emulsion fuel is a promising alternative diesel fuel, which has the potential to promote better performance and emission characteristics in an existing Diesel engine without engine modification and added cost. The key factor that has to be focused with the introduction of such fuel in existing Diesel engine is desired engine-operating conditions. The present study attempts to address the previous issue with two-phases of experiments. In the first phase, stable water-in-diesel emulsion fuels (5, 10, 15, and 20 water-in-diesel are prepared and their stability period and physico-chemical properties are measured. In the second phase, experiments are conducted in a single cylinder, 4-stroke Diesel engine with pre-pared water-in-diesel emulsion fuel blends based on L16 orthogonal array suggested in Taguchi’s quality control concept to record the output responses (perormance and emission levels. Based on signal-to-noise ratio and grey relational analysis, optimal level of operating factors are determined to obtain better response and verified through confirmation experiments. A statistical analysis of variance is applied to measure the significance of individual operating parameters on overall engine performance. Results indicate that the emulsion fuel prepared by Sorbitan monolaurate surfactant at high stirrer speed endows with better emulsion stability and acceptable variation in physicochemical properties. Results of this study also reveal that the optimal parametric setting effectively improves the combustion, performance, and emission characteristics of Diesel engine.

  6. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT IV, MAINTAINING THE COOLING SYSTEM--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE COOLING SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE PURPOSE OF THE COOLING SYSTEM, CARE MAINTENANCE OF THE COOLING SYSTEM, COOLING SYSTEM COMPONENTS, AND TROUBLESHOOTING TIPS. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING…

  7. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT II, MAINTAINING THE AIR SYSTEM--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE AIR SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE (1) OPERATION AND FUNCTION, (2) AIR CLEANER, (3) AIR SHUT-DOWN HOUSING, (4) EXHAUST SYSTEM, (5) BLOWER, (6) TURBOCHARGER, AND (7) TROUBLE-SHOOTING TIPS ON THE AIR SYSTEM. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A…

  8. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE, UNIT V, MAINTAINING THE LUBRICATION SYSTEM--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE LUBRICATION SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE LUBE OILS USED, MAINTENANCE OF THE LUBRICATION SYSTEM, AND CRANKCASE VENTILATION COMPONENTS. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING FILM "BASIC ENGINE…

  9. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT III, MAINTAINING THE FUEL SYSTEM--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE FUEL SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE (1) PURPOSE OF THE FUEL SYSTEM, (2) TRACING THE FUEL FLOW, (3) MINOR COMPONENTS OF THE FUEL SYSTEM, (4) MAINTENANCE TIPS, (5) CONSTRUCTION AND FUNCTION OF THE FUEL INJECTORS, AND (6)…

  10. Regulated and unregulated emissions from a diesel engine fueled with diesel fuel blended with diethyl adipate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ruijun; Cheung, C. S.; Huang, Zuohua; Wang, Xibin

    2011-04-01

    Experiments were carried out on a four-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine operating on Euro V diesel fuel blended with diethyl adipate (DEA). The blended fuels contain 8.1%, 16.4%, 25% and 33.8% by volume fraction of DEA, corresponding to 3%, 6%, 9% and 12% by mass of oxygen in the blends. The engine performance and exhaust gas emissions of the different fuels were investigated at five engine loads at a steady speed of 1800 rev/min. The results indicated an increase of brake specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency when the engine was fueled with the blended fuels. In comparison with diesel fuel, the blended fuels resulted in an increase in hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO), but a decrease in particulate mass concentrations. The nitrogen oxides (NO x) emission experienced a slight variation among the test fuels. In regard to the unregulated gaseous emissions, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde increased, while 1,3-butadiene, ethene, ethyne, propylene and BTX (benzene, toluene and xylene) in general decreased. A diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) was found to reduce significantly most of the investigated unregulated pollutants when the exhaust gas temperature was sufficiently high.

  11. DIESEL ENGINE RETROFIT TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (POSTER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ETV is presenting a poster at the EPA's 2005 Science Forum from May 16-18, 2005 in Washington, DC. This poster will contain a summary of the performance results realized by the six verified diesel retrofit technologies, as well as potential impacts that could be realized if sigi...

  12. Investigation of the effects of renewable diesel fuels on engine performance, combustion, and emissions

    KAUST Repository

    Ogunkoya, Dolanimi

    2015-01-01

    A study was undertaken to investigate renewable fuels in a compression-ignition internal combustion engine. The focus of this study was the effect of newly developed renewable fuels on engine performance, combustion, and emissions. Eight fuels were investigated, and they include diesel, jet fuel, a traditional biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester: FAME), and five next generation biofuels. These five fuels were derived using a two-step process: hydrolysis of the oil into fatty acids (if necessary) and then a thermo-catalytic process to remove the oxygen via a decarboxylation reaction. The fuels included a fed batch deoxygenation of canola derived fatty acids (DCFA), a fed batch deoxygenation of canola derived fatty acids with varying amounts of H2 used during the deoxygenation process (DCFAH), a continuous deoxygenation of canola derived fatty acids (CDCFA), fed batch deoxygenation of lauric acid (DLA), and a third reaction to isomerize the products of the deoxygenated canola derived fatty acid alkanes (IPCF). Diesel, jet fuel, and biodiesel (FAME) have been used as benchmarks for comparing with the newer renewable fuels. The results of the experiments show slightly lower mechanical efficiency but better brake specific fuel consumption for the new renewable fuels. Results from combustion show shorter ignition delays for most of the renewable (deoxygenated) fuels with the exception of fed batch deoxygenation of lauric acid. Combustion results also show lower peak in-cylinder pressures, reduced rate of increase in cylinder pressure, and lower heat release rates for the renewable fuels. Emission results show an increase in hydrocarbon emissions for renewable deoxygenated fuels, but a general decrease in all other emissions including NOx, greenhouse gases, and soot. Results also demonstrate that isomers of the alkanes resulting from the deoxygenation of the canola derived fatty acids could be a potential replacement to conventional fossil diesel and biodiesel based on the

  13. Application of thermal barrier coating for improving the suitability of Annona biodiesel in a diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramalingam Senthil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Annona biodiesel was produced from Annona oil through transesterification process. The aim of the present study is to analyze the performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder, direct injection, compression ignition engine using a annona methyl ester as a fuel. They are blended together with the Neat diesel fuel such as 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and Neat biodiesel. The performance, emission and combustion characteristics are evaluated by operating the engine at different loads. The performance parameters such as brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption. The emission constituents such as carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, oxides of nitrogen, and smoke were recorded. Then the piston and both exhaust and intake valves of the test engine were coated with 100 µm of NiCrAl as lining layer. Later the same parts were coated with 400 µm material of coating that was the mixture of 88% of ZrO2, 4% of MgO, and 8% of Al2O3. After the engine coating process, the same fuels is tested in the engine at the same engine operation. The same performance and emission parameters were evaluated. Finally, these parameters are compared with uncoated engine in order to find out the changes in the performance and emission parameters of the coated engine. It is concluded that the coating engine resulting in better performance, especially in considerably lower brake specific fuel consumption values. The engine emissions are lowered both through coating and annona methyl ester biodiesel expect the nitrogen oxides emission.

  14. BENEFITS AND CHALLENGES OF VARIABLE COMPRESSION RATIO AT DIESEL ENGINES

    OpenAIRE

    Radivoje B Pešić; Saša T Milojević; Stevan P Veinović

    2010-01-01

    The compression ratio strongly affects the working process and provides an exceptional degree of control over engine performance. In conventional internal combustion engines, the compression ratio is fixed and their performance is therefore a compromise between conflicting requirements. One fundamental problem is that drive units in the vehicles must successfully operate at variable speeds and loads and in different ambient conditions. If a diesel engine has a fixed compression ratio, a minim...

  15. Monitoring of large diesel engines through asphaltene content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Declerck, R. [Texaco Technology Ghent (Belgium)

    1997-12-31

    Lubricants in large diesel engines, for marine and power plant application, are open contaminated with heavy fuel. This type of contamination results in blackening of the engines and deposit formation because of the coagulation of asphaltene particles. Monitoring of the asphaltene content presents the operator with important information on the condition of the engine and the lubricant. This technique was an important asset in developing a new range of lubricants highly capable of tackling the presence of asphaltenes. (orig.)

  16. Performance and emission analysis of blends of waste plastic oil obtained by catalytic pyrolysis of waste HDPE with diesel in a CI engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Sachin; Prakash, R.; Murugan, S.; Singh, R.K.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Production and characterization of waste pyrolysis oil by catalytic pyrolysis of waste high-density polyethylene. • Use of waste plastic oil and diesel blends in compression ignition engine. • Impact of engine load on engine’s performance and emission characteristics. - Abstract: Compression ignition engines have proved to be the best option in heavy duty applications like transportation and power generation, but rapid depleting sources of conventional fossil fuels, their rising prices and ever increasing environmental issues are the major concerns. The present study deals with performance and emission analysis of blends of waste plastic oil obtained by catalytic pyrolysis of waste high-density polyethylene with diesel in a CI engine with varying loads. The experimental results show that the brake thermal efficiencies at all load conditions are lower as compared to that of diesel fuel, exhaust gas temperature increases with increase in engine load. The BSFC increases with increase in WPO blend ratio and decreases with increase in engine load. Mechanical efficiency increases with increasing brake power for all fuel blends. The NO x emission and CO emission increase with increase in percentage of waste plastic oil in blends, NO x emission decreases while CO emission increases with increase in engine load. The unburnt hydrocarbon emission decreases with increase in the engine load and increases with increase in percentage of waste plastic oil in blends. The carbon dioxide emission for the blends is lower than diesel for almost all loads and all blends

  17. Investigation on the effects of pilot injection on low temperature combustion in high-speed diesel engine fueled with n-butanol–diesel blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Haozhong; Liu, Qingsheng; Yang, Ruzhi; Zhu, Tianru; Zhao, Ruiqing; Wang, Yaodong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The effects of pre-injected timing and pre-injected mass were studied in CI engine. • The addition of n-butanol consumed OH free radicals, which delayed the ignition time. • With the increase of n-butanol, the BSFC and MPRR increased, NO x and soot decreased. • With the advance of pilot injection timing, the BSFC increased, NO x and soot decreased. • With the increase of pilot injection mass, NO x increased, soot decreased then increased. - Abstract: The effect of pilot injection timing and pilot injection mass on combustion and emission characteristics under medium exhaust gas recirculation (EGR (25%)) condition were experimentally investigated in high-speed diesel engine. Diesel fuel (B0), two blends of butanol and diesel fuel denoted as B20 (20% butanol and 80% diesel in volume), and B30 (30% butanol and 70% diesel in volume) were tested. The results show that, for all fuels, when advancing the pilot injection timing, the peak value of heat release rate decreases for pre-injection fuel, but increases slightly for the main-injection fuel. Moreover, the in-cylinder pressure peak value reduces with the rise of maximum pressure rise rate (MPRR), while NO x and soot emissions reduce. Increasing the pilot injection fuel mass, the peak value of heat release rate for pre-injected fuel increases, but for the main-injection, the peak descends, and the in-cylinder pressure peak value and NO x emissions increase, while soot emission decreases at first and then increases. Blending n-butanol in diesel improves soot emissions. When pilot injection is adopted, the increase of n-butanol ratio causes the MPRR increasing and the crank angle location for 50% cumulative heat release (CA50) advancing, as well as NO x and soot emissions decreasing. The simulation of the combustion of n-butanol–diesel fuel blends, which was based on the n-heptane–n-butanol–PAH–toluene mixing mechanism, demonstrated that the addition of n-butanol consumed OH free radicals

  18. Effect of the Ethanol Injection Moment During Compression Stroke on the Combustion of Ethanol - Diesel Dual Direct Injection Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yu; Zhou, Liying; Huang, Haomin; Xu, Mingfei; Guo, Mei; Chen, Xin

    2018-01-01

    A set of GDI system is installed on a F188 single-cylinder, air-cooled and direct injection diesel engine, which is used for ethanol injection, with the injection time controlled by the crank angle signal collected by AVL angle encoder. The injection of ethanol amounts to half of the thermal equivalent of an original diesel fuel. A 3D combustion model is established for the ethanol - diesel dual direct injection engine. Diesel was injected from the original fuel injection system, with a fuel supply advance angle of 20°CA. The ethanol was injected into the cylinder during compression process. Diesel injection began after the completion of ethanol injection. Ethanol injection starting point of 240°CA, 260°CA, 280°CA, 300°CA and 319.4°CA were simulated and analyzed. Due to the different timing of ethanol injection, the ignition of the ethanol mixture when diesel fires, results in non-uniform ignition distribution and flame propagation rate, since the distribution and concentration gradients of the ethanol mixture in the cylinder are different, thus affecting the combustion process. The results show that, when ethanol is injected at 319.4°CA, the combustion heat release rate and the pressure rise rate during the initial stage are the highest. Also, the maximum combustion pressure, with a relatively advance phase, is the highest. In case of later initial ethanol injection, the average temperature in the cylinder during the initial combustion period will have a faster rise. In case of initial injection at 319.4°CA, the average temperature in the cylinder is the highest, followed by 240°CA ethanol injection. In the post-combustion stage, the earlier ethanol injection will result in higher average temperature in the cylinder and more complete fuel combustion. The injection of ethanol at 319.4°CA produces earlier and highest NOX emissions.

  19. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XIX, I--ENGINE TUNE-UP--CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINE, II--FRONT END SUSPENSION AND AXLES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF DIESEL ENGINE TUNE-UP PROCEDURES AND THE DESIGN OF FRONT END SUSPENSION AND AXLES USED ON DIESEL ENGINE EQUIPMENT. TOPICS ARE (1) PRE-TUNE-UP CHECKS, (2) TIMING THE ENGINE, (3) INJECTOR PLUNGER AND VALVE ADJUSTMENTS, (4) FUEL PUMP ADJUSTMENTS ON THE ENGINE (PTR AND PTG),…

  20. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XI, PART I--MAINTAINING THE FUEL SYSTEM (PART I), CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINES, PART II--UNIT REPLACEMENT (ENGINE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF DIFFERENCES BETWEEN TWO AND FOUR CYCLE ENGINES, THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE FUEL SYSTEM, AND THE PROCEDURES FOR DIESEL ENGINE REMOVAL. TOPICS ARE (1) REVIEW OF TWO CYCLE AND FOUR CYCLE CONCEPT, (2) SOME BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF FOUR CYCLE ENGINES,…

  1. Reduction of NOx and PM in marine diesel engine exhaust gas using microwave plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, W.; FInst, P.; Manivannan, N.; Beleca, R.; Abbod, M.

    2015-10-01

    Abatement of NOx and particulate matters (PM) of marine diesel exhaust gas using microwave (MW) non-thermal plasma is presented in this paper. NOx mainly consist of NO and less concentration of NO2 in a typical two stoke marine diesel engine and microwave plasma generation can completely remove NO. MW was generated using two 2kW microwave sources and a saw tooth passive electrode. Passive electrode was used to generate high electric field region within microwave environment where high energetic electrons (1-3eV) are produced for the generation of non-thermal plasma (NTP). 2kW gen-set diesel exhaust gas was used to test our pilot-scale MW plasma reactor. The experimental results show that almost 100% removal of NO is possible for the exhaust gas flow rate of 60l/s. It was also shown that MW can significantly remove soot particles (PM, 10nm to 365nm) entrained in the exhaust gas of 200kW marine diesel engine with 40% engine load and gas flow rate of 130l/s. MW without generating plasma showed reduction up to 50% reduction of PM and with the plasma up to 90% reduction. The major challenge in these experiments was that igniting the desired plasma and sustaining it with passive electrodes for longer period (10s of minutes) as it required fine tuning of electrode position, which was influenced by many factors such as gas flow rate, geometry of reactor and MW power.

  2. A comparison of water-diesel emulsion and timed injection of water into the intake manifold of a diesel engine for simultaneous control of NO and smoke emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, K.A.

    2011-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to compare the effects of water-diesel emulsion and water injection into the intake manifold on performance, combustion and emission characteristics of a DI diesel engine under similar operating conditions. The water to diesel ratio for the emulsion was 0.4:1 by mass. The same water-diesel ratio was maintained for water injection method in order to assess both potential benefits. All tests were done at the constant speed of 1500 rpm at different outputs. The static injection timing of 23 o BTDC was kept as constant for all experimental tests. In the first phase, experiments were carried out to asses the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of the engine using the water-diesel emulsion. The emulsion was prepared using the surfactant of HLB:7. The emulsion was injected using the conventional injection system during the compression stroke. The second phase of work was that water was injected into the intake manifold of the engine using an auxiliary injector during the suction stroke. An electronic control unit (ECU) was developed to control the injector operation such as start of injection and water injection duration with respect to the desired crank angle. The experimental result indicates the both methods (emulsion and injection) could reduce NO emission drastically in diesel engines. At full load, NO emission decreased drastically from 1034 ppm with base diesel to 645 ppm with emulsion and 643 ppm with injection. But, NO emission reduction is lesser with injection than emulsion at part loads. Smoke emission is lower with the emulsion (2.7 BSU) than with water injection (3.2 BSU) as compared to base diesel (3.6 BSU). However, CO and HC levels were higher with emulsion than water injection. As regards NO and smoke reduction, the emulsion was superior to injection at all loads. Peak pressure, ignition delay and maximum rate of pressure rise were lesser with water injection as compared to the emulsion. It is well demonstrated

  3. Numerical modeling on a diesel engine fueled by biodiesel–methanol blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, H.; Yang, W.M.; Li, J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Skeletal kinetics was constructed for biodiesel and methanol combustion. • Peak cylinder pressure increases under 10% load conditions. • Indicated thermal efficiency increases with methanol addition. • CO and soot emissions reduced with methanol addition. - Abstract: A modeling study was conducted to investigate the impact of methanol addition on the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of a diesel engine fueled by biodiesel. 3-D CFD simulations were conducted using the KIVA4 code coupled with CHEMKIN II for neat biodiesel and its blend fuels with 5%, 10% and 15% (in vol.) of methanol under 10%, 50% and 100% loads and a fixed engine speed of 2400 rpm conditions. A skeletal reaction mechanism was developed to mimic the significant species and reaction pathways of biodiesel and methanol fuels, and it was validated by performing the ignition delay calculations for biodiesel and methanol, as well as 3D numerical simulations against the experimental results for biodiesel. Good agreements in terms of ignition delay, cylinder pressure and heat release rate predictions were obtained. The simulation results revealed that with partial replacement of biodiesel by methanol, tangible improvement on the cylinder pressure was observed under 10% load condition especially for the case with 5% methanol blend ratio. Whereas, under 50% and 100% engine load conditions, only comparable cylinder pressure curves were seen. In terms of performance characteristics, almost linearly increased indicated thermal efficiency with respect to methanol blend ratio were observed under all the engine load conditions. Overall, the indicated CO and soot emissions decreased

  4. Utilization of waste glycerin to fuelling of spark ignition engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmasiak, Z.; Pietras, D.

    2016-09-01

    The paper discusses a possibilities of usage a simple alcohols to fuelling of spark ignition engines. Methanol and blends of methanol with glycerin, being a waste product from production of bio-components to fuels based on rapeseed oil, have been used in course of the investigations. The main objective of the research was to determine possibilities of utilization of glycerin to blending of engine fuels. The investigations have been performed using the Fiat 1100 MPI engine. Parameters obtained with the engine powered by pure methanol and by methanol- glycerin mixtures with 10÷30%vol content of glycerin were compared to parameters of the engine fuelled conventionally with the E95 gasoline. The investigations have shown increase of overall efficiency of the engine run on pure methanol with 2.5÷5.0%, and run on the mixture having 10% addition of glycerin with 2.0÷7.8%. Simultaneously, fuelling of the engine with the investigated alcohols results in reduced concentration of toxic components in exhaust gases like: CO, THC and NOx, as well as the greenhouse gas CO2.

  5. Effect of Ferrofluid on the Performance and Emission Patterns of a Four-Stroke Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Shafii

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental tests were carried out to investigate the effects of adding water-based ferrofluid to diesel fuel in a diesel engine. These effects included the combustion performance and exhaust emission characteristics of the diesel engine. To this end, emulsified diesel fuels of 0, 0.4, and 0.8 ferrofluid/diesel ratios by volume were used in a four-stroke diesel engine, operating at 2200 rpm. The results indicate that adding ferrofluid to diesel fuel has a perceptible effect on engine performance, increasing the brake thermal efficiency relatively up to 12% and decreasing the brake-specific fuel consumption relatively up to 11% as compared to diesel fuel. Furthermore, from the analysis of gaseous species of engine exhaust, it was found that NOx emissions were lower than that of diesel fuel while the CO emissions increased. In addition, it was found that nanoparticles can be collected at the exhaust flow using a magnetic bar.

  6. Performance and emissions characteristics of aqueous alcohol fumes in a DI diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisey, J. B.; Lestz, S. S.

    1981-01-01

    A single cylinder DI Diesel engine was fumigated with ethanol and methanol in amounts up to 55% of the total fuel energy. The effects of aqueous alcohol fumigation on engine thermal efficiency, combustion intensity and gaseous exhaust emissions were determined. Assessment of changes in the biological activity of raw particulate and its soluble organic fraction were also made using the Salmonella typhimurium test. Alcohol fumigation improved thermal efficiency slightly at moderate and heavy loads, but increased ignition delay at all operating conditions. Carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbon emission generally increased with alcohol fumigation and showed no dependence on alcohol type or quality. Oxide of nitrogen emission showed a strong dependence on alcohol quality; relative emission levels decreased with increasing water content of the fumigant. Particulate mass loading rates were lower for ethanol fueled conditions. However, the biological activity of both the raw particulate and its soluble organic fraction was enhanced by ethanol fumigation at most operating conditions.

  7. Experimental analysis of ethanol dual-fuel combustion in a heavy-duty diesel engine: An optimisation at low load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrozo, Vinícius B.; May, Ian; Dalla Nora, Macklini; Cairns, Alasdair; Zhao, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Dual-fuel combustion offers promising results on a stock heavy-duty diesel engine. • The use of split diesel injections extends the benefits of the dual-fuel mode. • Ethanol–diesel dual-fuel combustion results in high indicated efficiencies. • NOx and soot emissions are significantly reduced. • Combustion efficiency reaches 98% with an ethanol energy ratio of 53%. - Abstract: Conventional diesel combustion produces harmful exhaust emissions which adversely affect the air quality if not controlled by in-cylinder measures and exhaust aftertreatment systems. Dual-fuel combustion can potentially reduce the formation of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and soot which are characteristic of diesel diffusion flame. The in-cylinder blending of different fuels to control the charge reactivity allows for lower local equivalence ratios and temperatures. The use of ethanol, an oxygenated biofuel with high knock resistance and high latent heat of vaporisation, increases the reactivity gradient. In addition, renewable biofuels can provide a sustainable alternative to petroleum-based fuels as well as reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, ethanol–diesel dual-fuel combustion suffers from poor engine efficiency at low load due to incomplete combustion. Therefore, experimental studies were carried out at 1200 rpm and 0.615 MPa indicated mean effective pressure on a heavy-duty diesel engine. Fuel delivery was in the form of port fuel injection of ethanol and common rail direct injection of diesel. The objective was to improve combustion efficiency, maximise ethanol substitution, and minimise NOx and soot emissions. Ethanol energy fractions up to 69% were explored in conjunction with the effect of different diesel injection strategies on combustion, emissions, and efficiency. Optimisation tests were performed for the optimum fuelling and diesel injection strategy. The resulting effects of exhaust gas recirculation, intake air pressure, and rail pressure were

  8. Theoretical Modeling and Experimental Study of Combustion and Performance Characteristics of Biodiesel in Turbocharged Low Heat Rejection D.I Diesel Engine

    OpenAIRE

    B.Rajendra Prasath; P.Tamilporai; Mohd.F.Shabir

    2010-01-01

    An effort has been taken to simulate the combustion and performance characteristics of biodiesel fuel in direct injection (D.I) low heat rejection (LHR) diesel engine. Comprehensive analyses on combustion characteristics such as cylinder pressure, peak cylinder pressure, heat release and performance characteristics such as specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency are carried out. Compression ignition (C.I) engine cycle simulation was developed and modified i...

  9. 75 FR 28820 - Notice of Public Meeting by Teleconference Concerning Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Consent Decrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-24

    ... implementation of the provisions of the seven consent decrees signed by the United States and diesel engine..., or anticipates receiving, requests from the diesel engine manufacturers for termination of their respective decrees. This meeting notice is also available on EPA's Diesel Engine Settlement Web site at http...

  10. 77 FR 4678 - Nonconformance Penalties for On-Highway Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ...-Highway Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Interim... manufacturers of heavy heavy-duty diesel engines in model years 2012 and 2013 for emissions of oxides of...-duty trucks (6,000-8,500 pounds gross vehicle weight) to the largest diesel truck and urban bus engines...

  11. 40 CFR 86.313-79 - Air flow measurement specifications; diesel engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; diesel engines. 86.313-79 Section 86.313-79 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.313-79 Air flow measurement specifications; diesel engines. (a) The air flow measurement...

  12. 77 FR 4736 - Nonconformance Penalties for On-Highway Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ...-Highway Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of... manufacturers of heavy-duty diesel engines in model years 2012 and later for emissions of oxides of nitrogen... Entities This proposed action would affect you if you produce or import new heavy-duty diesel engines which...

  13. Hybrid-Electric Vehicle with Natural Gas-Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino Guzzella

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we demonstrate the potential of combining electric hybridization with a dual-fuel natural gas-Diesel engine. We show that carbon dioxide emissions can be reduced to 43 gram per kilometer with a subcompact car on the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC. The vehicle is operated in charge-sustaining mode, which means that all energy is provided by the fuel. The result is obtained by hardware-in-the-loop experiments where the engine is operated on a test bench while the rest of the powertrain as well as the vehicle are simulated. By static engine measurements we demonstrate that the natural gas-Diesel engine reaches efficiencies of up to 39.5%. The engine is operated lean at low loads with low engine out nitrogen oxide emissions such that no nitrogen oxide aftertreatment is necessary. At medium to high loads the engine is operated stoichiometrically, which enables the use of a cost-efficient three-way catalytic converter. By vehicle emulation of a non-hybrid vehicle on the Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP, we demonstrate that transient operation of the natural gas-Diesel engine is also possible, thus enabling a non-hybridized powertrain as well.

  14. The Particle Number Emission Characteristics of the Diesel Engine with a Catalytic Diesel Particle Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jia Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to their adverse health effects and their abundance in urban areas, diesel exhaust ultrafine particles caused by the aftertreatment devices have been of great concern in the past years. An experiment of particles number emissions was carried out on a high-pressure, common rail diesel engine with catalytic diesel particle filter (CDPF to investigate the impact of CDPF on the number emission characteristics of particles. The results indicated that the conversion rates of CDPF is over 97%. The size distributions of particles are bimodal lognormal distributions downstream CDPF at 1400 r/min and 2300 r/min. CDPF has a lower conversion rates on the nucleation mode particles. The geometric number mean diameters of particles downstream CDPF is smaller than that upstream CDPF.

  15. Development of High Efficiency Clean Combustion Engine Designs for Spark-Ignition and Compression-Ignition Internal Combustion Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marriott, Craig; Gonzalez, Manual; Russell, Durrett

    2011-06-30

    This report summarizes activities related to the revised STATEMENT OF PROJECT OBJECTIVES (SOPO) dated June 2010 for the Development of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion engine Designs for Spark-Ignition and Compression-Ignition Internal Combustion Engines (COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NUMBER DE-FC26-05NT42415) project. In both the spark- (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) development activities covered in this program, the goal was to develop potential production-viable internal combustion engine system technologies that both reduce fuel consumption and simultaneously met exhaust emission targets. To be production-viable, engine technologies were also evaluated to determine if they would meet customer expectations of refinement in terms of noise, vibration, performance, driveability, etc. in addition to having an attractive business case and value. Prior to this activity, only proprietary theoretical / laboratory knowledge existed on the combustion technologies explored The research reported here expands and develops this knowledge to determine series-production viability. Significant SI and CI engine development occurred during this program within General Motors, LLC over more than five years. In the SI program, several engines were designed and developed that used both a relatively simple multi-lift valve train system and a Fully Flexible Valve Actuation (FFVA) system to enable a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion process. Many technical challenges, which were unknown at the start of this program, were identified and systematically resolved through analysis, test and development. This report documents the challenges and solutions for each SOPO deliverable. As a result of the project activities, the production viability of the developed clean combustion technologies has been determined. At this time, HCCI combustion for SI engines is not considered production-viable for several reasons. HCCI combustion is excessively sensitive to control variables

  16. Combustion characteristics of a charcoal slurry in a direct injection diesel engine and the impact on the injection system performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soloiu, Valentin; Lewis, Jeffery; Yoshihara, Yoshinobu; Nishiwaki, Kazuie

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the research results pertaining to the renewable biomass charcoal-diesel slurries and their use as alternative fuels for combustion in diesel generating plants. The utilization of charcoal slurry fuel aims to reduce diesel oil consumption and would decrease fossil green house emissions into the atmosphere. The paper investigates the formulation, emulsification, sprays, combustion, injection system operation, and subsequent wear with charcoal-diesel slurries. In the research, cedar wood chips were used for the production of charcoal to be emulsified with diesel oil. The slurry's viscosity of 27 cP achieved the target ( o C. Charcoal slurry displayed a high vaporization rate of 75% by wt. at 300 o C. Engine investigations showed that the top combustion pressure at 1200 rpm and 100% load (7.8 brake mean effective pressure (bmep)) was 79 bar for diesel fuel and 78 bar for the charcoal slurry fuel. From the injection and heat release history was found an ignition delay of 1.7 ms for diesel that increased to 2.1 ms for the slurry fuel. A higher net heat release for charcoal slurry was observed, up to 180 J/crank angle degrees (CAD) compared with the diesel at 145 J/CAD The maximum combustion temperature reached 2300 K for diesel and 2330 K for slurry. The heat fluxes for both fuels have similar values and trends during the entire cycle showing the good compatibility of charcoal slurry with a diesel type combustion and low soot radiation. The exhaust temperatures were about 40-50 o C higher for charcoal slurry at 19 o before top dead center (BTDC) injection timing. The engine's bsfc increased as expected due to the lower heating value of the slurry fuel. The smoke Bosch no. was lower for the slurry fuel at any load, and is believed that the oxygen from the charcoal had a beneficial effect. The measured emissions of slurry fuel were better at 13 o BTDC than those of diesel fuel with the original engine settings and the remaining 6-10% oxygen content in

  17. Dynamic control of a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Kevin P [Metamora, IL; Mehresh, Parag [Peoria, IL; Schuh, David [Peoria, IL; Kieser, Andrew J [Morton, IL; Hergart, Carl-Anders [Peoria, IL; Hardy, William L [Peoria, IL; Rodman, Anthony [Chillicothe, IL; Liechty, Michael P [Chillicothe, IL

    2008-06-03

    A homogenous charge compression ignition engine is operated by compressing a charge mixture of air, exhaust and fuel in a combustion chamber to an autoignition condition of the fuel. The engine may facilitate a transition from a first combination of speed and load to a second combination of speed and load by changing the charge mixture and compression ratio. This may be accomplished in a consecutive engine cycle by adjusting both a fuel injector control signal and a variable valve control signal away from a nominal variable valve control signal. Thereafter in one or more subsequent engine cycles, more sluggish adjustments are made to at least one of a geometric compression ratio control signal and an exhaust gas recirculation control signal to allow the variable valve control signal to be readjusted back toward its nominal variable valve control signal setting. By readjusting the variable valve control signal back toward its nominal setting, the engine will be ready for another transition to a new combination of engine speed and load.

  18. Sensitivity and Effect of Ignition Timing on the Performance of a Spark Ignition Engine: An Experimental and Modeling Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Kakaee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a spark ignition engine is investigated under different values of ignition advance. A two-zone burnt/unburned model with the fuel burning rate described by a Wiebe function is used for modeling in-cylinder combustion, and then experiments are carried out to validate the calculated data. By varying the ignition timing, the results of some characteristics such as power, torque, thermal efficiency, pressure, and heat release are obtained and compared. The results show that optimal power and torque are achieved at 31°CA before top dead center, and performance is decreased if this ignition timing is changed. It is also shown that the maximum thermal efficiency is accomplished when peak pressure occurs between 5 and 15°CA after top dead center.

  19. Improving the performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder diesel engine having reentrant combustion chamber using diesel and Jatropha methyl esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premnath, S; Devaradjane, G

    2015-11-01

    The emissions from the Compression ignition (CI) engines introduce toxicity to the atmosphere. The undesirable carbon deposits from these engines are realized in the nearby static or dynamic systems such as vehicles, inhabitants, etc. The objective of this research work is to improve the performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine in the modified re-entrant combustion chamber using a diesel and Jatropha methyl ester blend (J20) at three different injection pressures. From the literature, it is revealed that the shape of the combustion chamber and the fuel injection pressure have an impact on the performance and emission parameters of the CI engine. In this work, a re-entrant combustion chamber with three different fuel injection pressures (200, 220 and 240bars) has been used in the place of the conventional hemispherical combustion chamber for diesel and J20. From the experimental results, it is found that the re-entrant chamber improves the brake thermal efficiency of diesel and J20 in all the tested conditions. It is also found that the 20% blend of Jatropha methyl ester showed 4% improvement in the brake thermal efficiency in the re-entrant chamber at the maximum injection pressure. Environmental safety directly relates to the reduction in the undesirable effects on both living and non-living things. Currently environmental pollution is of major concern. Even with the stringent emission norms new methods are required to reduce the harmful effects from automobiles. The toxicity of carbon monoxide (CO) is well known. In the re-entrant combustion chamber, the amount of CO emission is reduced by 26% when compared with the conventional fuel operation of the engine. Moreover, the amount of smoke is reduced by 24% and hydrocarbons (HC) emission by 24%. Thus, the modified re-entrant combustion chamber reduces harmful pollutants such as unburned HC and CO as well as toxic smoke emissions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Physicochemical characterization of particulate emissions from a compression ignition engine employing two injection technologies and three fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surawski, N C; Miljevic, B; Ayoko, G A; Roberts, B A; Elbagir, S; Fairfull-Smith, K E; Bottle, S E; Ristovski, Z D

    2011-07-01

    Alternative fuels and injection technologies are a necessary component of particulate emission reduction strategies for compression ignition engines. Consequently, this study undertakes a physicochemical characterization of diesel particulate matter (DPM) for engines equipped with alternative injection technologies (direct injection and common rail) and alternative fuels (ultra low sulfur diesel, a 20% biodiesel blend, and a synthetic diesel). Particle physical properties were addressed by measuring particle number size distributions, and particle chemical properties were addressed by measuring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Particle volatility was determined by passing the polydisperse size distribution through a thermodenuder set to 300 °C. The results from this study, conducted over a four point test cycle, showed that both fuel type and injection technology have an impact on particle emissions, but injection technology was the more important factor. Significant particle number emission (54%-84%) reductions were achieved at half load operation (1% increase-43% decrease at full load) with the common rail injection system; however, the particles had a significantly higher PAH fraction (by a factor of 2 to 4) and ROS concentrations (by a factor of 6 to 16) both expressed on a test-cycle averaged basis. The results of this study have significant implications for the health effects of DPM emissions from both direct injection and common rail engines utilizing various alternative fuels.

  1. Experimental investigation on the availability, performance, combustion and emission distinctiveness of bael oil/ diesel/ diethyl ether blends powered in a variable compression ratio diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthi, M.; Malayalamurthi, R.

    2018-02-01

    The present work aims at experimental investigation on the combined effect of injection timing (IT) and injection pressure (IP) on the performance and emissions characteristics, and exergy analysis of a compression-ignition (CI) engine powered with bael oil blends. The tests were conducted using ternary blends of bael oil, diethyl ether (DEE) and neat diesel (D) at various engine loads at a constant engine speed (1500 rpm). With B2 (60%D + 30%bael oil+10%DEE) fuel, the brake thermal efficiency (BTE) of the engine is augmented by 3.5%, reduction of 4.7% of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emission has been observed at 100% engine load with 250 bar IP. B2 fuel exhibits 7% lower scale of HC emissions compared to that of diesel fuel at 100% engine load in 23 °bTDC IT. The increment in both cooling water and exhaust gas availabilities lead to increasing exergy efficiency with increasing load. The exergy efficiency of about 62.17% has been recorded by B2 fuel at an injection pressure of 230 IP bar with 100% load. On the whole, B2 fuel displays the best performance and combustion characteristics. It also exhibits better characteristics of emissions level in terms of lower HC, smoke opacity and NOx.

  2. Optimal Control of Diesel Engines with Waste Heat Recovery System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.P.T.; Donkers, M.C.F.; Kupper, F.

    2014-01-01

    This study presents an integrated energy and emission management strategy for a Euro-VI diesel engine with Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) system. This Integrated Powertrain Control (IPC) strategy optimizes the CO2-NOx trade-off by minimizing the operational costs associated with fuel and AdBlue

  3. Optimal control for integrated emission management in diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkers, M.C.F.; Schijndel, J. van; Heemels, W.P.M.H.; Willems, F.P.T.

    2016-01-01

    Integrated Emission Management (IEM) is a supervisory control strategy that minimises operational costs (consisting of fuel and AdBlue) for diesel engines with an aftertreatment system, while satisfying emission constraints imposed by legislation. In most work on IEM, a suboptimal heuristic

  4. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT IX, ENGINE COMPONENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE CONSTRUCTION, FUNCTION, AND MAINTENANCE OF DIESEL ENGINE CRANKSHAFTS, CAMSHAFTS, AND ASSOCIATED BEARINGS. TOPICS ARE SHAFTS AND BEARINGS, CAMSHAFTS, BEARINGS AND THEIR MAINTENANCE, AND DETECTING FAILURE. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED…

  5. Rudolf Diesel-The Rational Inventor of a Heat Engine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 4. Rudolf Diesel - The Rational Inventor of a Heat Engine. Tilottama Shrinivasa. Article-in-a-Box Volume 17 Issue 4 April 2012 pp 319-320. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  6. Heat Transfer in Large Two-Stroke Marine Diesel Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael Vincent

    and up to 9.5 MW/m2 with the actual value probably being in the lower part of this interval. This is about the same magnitude as that previously reported for automotive size diesel engines. The obtained interval is relatively large, but a more accurate prediction is difficult to achieve with the applied...

  7. TRIBOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE OF PISTON RING IN MARINE DIESEL ENGINE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imran, Tajammal; Klit, Peder; Felter, Christian

    From a tribology point of view, it is the two dead centers that are the main area of interest for experimental study of piston rings in large marine diesel engines. Therefore, in this work the performance of piston rings is studied to mark the importance of the two dead centers. A test rig based...

  8. Swirling flow in a two-stroke marine diesel engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmingsen, Casper Schytte; Ingvorsen, Kristian Mark; Walther, Jens Honore

    2013-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamic simulations are performed for the turbulent swirling flow in a scale model of a low-speed two-stroke diesel engine with a moving piston. The purpose of the work is to investigate the accuracy of different turbulence models including two-equation Reynolds- Averaged Navier...

  9. Optimization of diesel engine performance by the Bees Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azfanizam Ahmad, Siti; Sunthiram, Devaraj

    2018-03-01

    Biodiesel recently has been receiving a great attention in the world market due to the depletion of the existing fossil fuels. Biodiesel also becomes an alternative for diesel No. 2 fuel which possesses characteristics such as biodegradable and oxygenated. However, there are facts suggested that biodiesel does not have the equivalent features as diesel No. 2 fuel as it has been claimed that the usage of biodiesel giving increment in the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC). The objective of this study is to find the maximum brake power and brake torque as well as the minimum BSFC to optimize the condition of diesel engine when using the biodiesel fuel. This optimization was conducted using the Bees Algorithm (BA) under specific biodiesel percentage in fuel mixture, engine speed and engine load. The result showed that 58.33kW of brake power, 310.33 N.m of brake torque and 200.29/(kW.h) of BSFC were the optimum value. Comparing to the ones obtained by other algorithm, the BA produced a fine brake power and a better brake torque and BSFC. This finding proved that the BA can be used to optimize the performance of diesel engine based on the optimum value of the brake power, brake torque and BSFC.

  10. Automated Model Fit Method for Diesel Engine Control Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seykens, X.; Willems, F.P.T.; Kuijpers, B.; Rietjens, C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an automated fit for a control-oriented physics-based diesel engine combustion model. This method is based on the combination of a dedicated measurement procedure and structured approach to fit the required combustion model parameters. Only a data set is required that is

  11. Emission Characterization of Diesel Engine Run on Coconut Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    Chiatti et al (2014) asserted that increasing attention has been devoted to the use of biodiesel fuel in internal combustion diesel engine due to its positive attributes as compared to the other types of fuel: e.g., being a renewable source, non- petroleum-based, with lower carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter ...

  12. Combustion and emission response of a heavy duty diesel engine fuelled with biodiesel: an experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, A.N.; Shan, G.Y.

    2010-01-01

    In order to meet the growing energy needs, alternative energy sources particularly bio fuels are receiving increasing attention during the last few years. Biodiesel, consisting of alkyl monoesters of fatty acids from vegetable oils or animal fats, has already been commercialized in the transport sector. In the present work, a turbo charged, inter cooled, DI (Direct Injection) diesel engine was fuelled with biodiesel from waste cooking oil and its 20% blend with commercial diesel to study the regulated exhaust pollutants in the light of combustion parameters in the cylinder. The experimental results show that BTE (Brake Thermal Efficiently), MCP (Maximum Combustion Pressure) and SOI (Start of injection) angle were increased, ID (Ignition Delay) was decreased; however, RHR (Rate of Heat Release) remained almost unaffected in case of biodiesel. The BTE and RHR were not much affected with B20; however Sol angle and MCP were improved, and ID was decreased with B20. Smoke opacity, CO (Carbon Monoxide), and HC (HydroCarbons) emissions were decreased, but NO. (Oxides of Nitrogen) pollutants were increased in case of both B100 and B20 compared to fossil diesel. However, the increase in NO emissions was lower with B20. (author)

  13. Exploration of waste cooking oil methyl esters (WCOME as fuel in compression ignition engines: A critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kathirvel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The ever growing human population and the corresponding economic development of mankind have caused a relentless surge in the energy demand of the world. The fast diminishing fossil fuel reserves and the overdependence of petroleum based fuels have already prompted the world to look for alternate sources of energy to offset the fuel crisis in the future. Waste Cooking Oil Methyl Ester (WCOME has proven itself as a viable alternate fuel that can be used in Compression Ignition (CI engines due to its low cost, non-toxicity, biodegradability and renewable nature. It also contributes a minimum amount of net greenhouse gases, such as CO2, SO2 and NO emissions to the atmosphere. The main objective of this paper is to focus on the study of the performance, combustion and emission parameters of CI engines using WCOME and to explore the possibility of utilizing WCOME blends with diesel extensively in place of diesel. The production methods used for transesterification play a vital role in the physiochemical properties of the methyl esters produced. Various production intensification technologies such as hydrodynamic cavitation and ultrasonic cavitation were employed to improve the yield of the methyl esters during transesterification. This review includes the study of WCOME from different origins in various types of diesel engines. Most of the studies comply with the decrease in carbon monoxide (CO emissions and the increase in brake thermal efficiency while using WCOME in CI engines. Many researchers reported slight increase in the emissions of oxides of nitrogen. ANN modeling has been widely used to predict the process variables of the diesel engine while using WCOME. The versatility of ANN modeling was proven by the minimum error percentages of the actual and predicted values of the performance and emission characteristics.

  14. Finite element analysis of a crankshaft of diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannikiv, M.G.

    2005-01-01

    This research was a part of the project aimed at the increase in power of the direct injection turbocharged twelve- cylinder V-type diesel engine. Crankshaft of a high power high speed diesel engine is subjected to complex loading conditions and undergoes high cyclic loads of the order of 107 to 108 cycles. Therefore, durability of this component is of critical importance. Strength analysis was based on the assessment of factor of safety (FOS) of the engine augmented by brake mean effective pressure (bmep) and/or engine speed. In the first part of the study, mechanical loads due to gas pressure and inertia forces were obtained from engine cycle simulation. Relationships for displacement, velocity and acceleration of an articulated connecting rod piston as a function of engine geometry and crank angle were derived. In the second part, the range of bmep and engine speed was determined over which engine performance is satisfactory on the basis of fatigue. It was shown that with limitations imposed (unchanged design and material of the crankshaft) the crankshaft of the given engine can withstand increase in power up to 15%. It was recommended, that required increase in engine power should be realized by the increase in bmep, since the increase in engine speed would deteriorate combustion efficiency. Finite Element Analysis was used to verify stresses calculations. New features of procedure used and relationships obtained in this research apply to strength analysis of other types of internal combustion engines. (author)

  15. Performance analysis of exhaust heat recovery using organic Rankine cycle in a passenger car with a compression ignition engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghilvacs, M.; Prisecaru, T.; Pop, H.; Apostol, V.; Prisecaru, M.; Pop, E.; Popescu, Gh; Ciobanu, C.; Mohanad, A.; Alexandru, A.

    2016-08-01

    Compression ignition engines transform approximately 40% of the fuel energy into power available at the crankshaft, while the rest part of the fuel energy is lost as coolant, exhaust gases and other waste heat. An organic Rankine cycle (ORC) can be used to recover this waste heat. In this paper, the characteristics of a system combining a compression ignition engine with an ORC which recover the waste heat from the exhaust gases are analyzed. The performance map of the diesel engine is measured on an engine test bench and the heat quantities wasted by the exhaust gases are calculated over the engine's entire operating region. Based on this data, the working parameters of ORC are defined, and the performance of a combined engine-ORC system is evaluated across this entire region. The results show that the net power of ORC is 6.304kW at rated power point and a maximum of 10% reduction in brake specific fuel consumption can be achieved.

  16. Effect of Diesel Engine Converted to Sequential Port Injection Compressed Natural Gas Engine on the Cylinder Pressure vs Crank Angle in Variation Engine Speeds

    OpenAIRE

    Semin; Abdul R. Ismail; Rosli A. Bakar

    2009-01-01

    The diesel engine converted to compressed natural gas (CNG) engine effect is lower in performance. Problem statement: The hypothesis is that the lower performance of CNG engine is caused by the effect of lower in engine cylinder pressure. Are the CNG engine is lower cylinder pressure than diesel engine? This research is conducted to investigate the cylinder pressure of CNG engine as a new engine compared to diesel engine as a baseline engine. Approach: The research approach in this study is b...

  17. Fuel Injection Pressure Effect on Performance of Direct Injection Diesel Engines Based on Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Rosli A. Bakar; Semin; Abdul R.  Ismail

    2008-01-01

    Fuel injection pressures in diesel engine plays an important role for engine performance obtaining treatment of combustion. The present diesel engines such as fuel direct injection, the pressures can be increased about 100 200 Mpa bar in fuel pump injection system. The experimental investigated effects of fuel injection pressure on engine performance. Experiments have been performed on a diesel engine with four-cylinder, two-stroke, direct injection. Engine performance values such as indicat...

  18. Effects of a catalytic volatile particle remover (VPR) on the particulate matter emissions from a direct injection spark ignition engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fan; Chen, Longfei; Stone, Richard

    2011-10-15

    Emissions of fine particles have been shown to have a large impact on the atmospheric environment and human health. Researchers have shown that gasoline engines, especially direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engines, tend to emit large amounts of small size particles compared to diesel engines fitted with diesel particulate filters (DPFs). As a result, the particle number emissions of DISI engines will be restricted by the forthcoming EU6 legislation. The particulate emission level of DISI engines means that they could face some challenges in meeting the EU6 requirement. This paper is an experimental study on the size-resolved particle number emissions from a spray guided DISI engine and the performance of a catalytic volatile particle remover (VPR), as the EU legislation seeks to exclude volatile particles. The performance of the catalytic VPR was evaluated by varying its temperature and the exhaust residence time. The effect of the catalytic VPR acting as an oxidation catalyst on particle emissions was also tested. The results show that the catalytic VPR led to a marked reduction in the number of particles, especially the smaller size (nucleation mode) particles. The catalytic VPR is essentially an oxidation catalyst, and when post three-way catalyst (TWC) exhaust was introduced to the catalytic VPR, the performance of the catalytic VPR was not affected much by the use of additional air, i.e., no significant oxidation of the PM was observed.

  19. Application of multicriteria decision making methods to compression ignition engine efficiency and gaseous, particulate, and greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surawski, Nicholas C; Miljevic, Branka; Bodisco, Timothy A; Brown, Richard J; Ristovski, Zoran D; Ayoko, Godwin A

    2013-02-19

    Compression ignition (CI) engine design is subject to many constraints, which present a multicriteria optimization problem that the engine researcher must solve. In particular, the modern CI engine must not only be efficient but must also deliver low gaseous, particulate, and life cycle greenhouse gas emissions so that its impact on urban air quality, human health, and global warming is minimized. Consequently, this study undertakes a multicriteria analysis, which seeks to identify alternative fuels, injection technologies, and combustion strategies that could potentially satisfy these CI engine design constraints. Three data sets are analyzed with the Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluations and Geometrical Analysis for Interactive Aid (PROMETHEE-GAIA) algorithm to explore the impact of (1) an ethanol fumigation system, (2) alternative fuels (20% biodiesel and synthetic diesel) and alternative injection technologies (mechanical direct injection and common rail injection), and (3) various biodiesel fuels made from 3 feedstocks (i.e., soy, tallow, and canola) tested at several blend percentages (20-100%) on the resulting emissions and efficiency profile of the various test engines. The results show that moderate ethanol substitutions (~20% by energy) at moderate load, high percentage soy blends (60-100%), and alternative fuels (biodiesel and synthetic diesel) provide an efficiency and emissions profile that yields the most "preferred" solutions to this multicriteria engine design problem. Further research is, however, required to reduce reactive oxygen species (ROS) emissions with alternative fuels and to deliver technologies that do not significantly reduce the median diameter of particle emissions.

  20. THE EFFECT OF COMPRESSION RATIO VARIATIONS ON THE ENGINE PERFORMANCE PARAMETRES IN SPARK IGNITION ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakup SEKMEN

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance of the spark ignition engines may be increased by changing the geometrical compression ratio according to the amount of charging in cylinders. The designed geometrical compression ratio can be realized as an effective compression ratio under the full load and full open throttle conditions since the effective compression ratio changes with the amount of charging into the cylinder in spark ignition engines. So, this condition of the spark ignition engines forces designers to change their geometrical compression ratio according to the amount of charging into the cylinder for improvement of performance and fuel economy. In order to improve the combustion efficiency, fuel economy, power output, exhaust emissions at partial loads, compression ratio must be increased; but, under high load and low speed conditions to prevent probable knock and hard running the compression ratio must be decreased gradually. In this paper, relation of the performance parameters to compression ratio such as power, torque, specific fuel consumption, cylindir pressure, exhaust gas temperature, combustion chamber surface area/volume ratio, thermal efficiency, spark timing etc. in spark ignition engines have been investigated and using of engines with variable compression ratio is suggested to fuel economy and more clear environment.

  1. Dual-fuelling of a direct-injection automotive diesel engine by diesel and compressed natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirouzpanah, V.; Mohammadi Kosha, A.; Mosseibi, A.; Moshirabadi, J.; Gangi, A.; Moghadaspour, M.

    2000-01-01

    Application of Compressed Natural Gas in diesel engines has always been important, especially in the field of automotive engineering. This is due to easy accessibility, better mixing quality and good combustion characteristics of the Compressed Natural Gas fuel. In this study the application of Compressed Natural Gas fuel along with diesel oil in a heavy duty direct-injection automotive diesel engine is experimentally investigated. In order to convert a diesel engine into a diesel-gas one, the so called m ixed diesel-gas a pproach has been used and for this purpose a carbureted Compressed Natural Gas fuel system has been designed and manufactured. For controlling quantity of Compressed Natural Gas, the gas valve is linked to the diesel fuel injection system by means of a set of rods. Then, the dual-fuel system is adjusted so that, at full load conditions, the quantity of diesel fuel is reduced to 20% and 80% of its equivalent energy is substituted by Compressed Natural Gas fuel. Also injection pressure of pilot jet is increased by 11.4%. Performance and emission tests are conducted under variation of load and speed on both diesel and diesel-gas engines. Results show that, with equal power and torque, the diesel-gas engine has the potential to improve overall engine performance and emission. For example, at rated power and speed, fuel economy increases by 5.48%, the amount of smoke decreases by 78%, amount of CO decreases by 64.3% and mean exhaust gas temperature decreases by 6.4%

  2. Investigacion experimental de la prestaciones de un motor monocilíndrico usando combustible diesel emulsionado; Experimental investigation of the single cylinder engine performance using emulsified diesel fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliezer Ahmed- Melo Espinosa y otros

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En esta investigación se realiza un análisis de las prestaciones y emisiones de un motor Petter mono-cilíndrico de inyección directa al usar como combustible una emulsión de 5% de agua, 2% de surfactante y combustible diesel. Los resultados obtenidos con la emulsión muestran un ligero incremento en el torque y la potencia efectiva, así como en el consumo específico de combustible y el retardo de la ignición. Respecto a las emisiones de gases contaminantes, los hidrocarburos noquemados (HC y el monóxido de carbono (CO para la emulsió aumentaron en comparación con los resultados obtenidos para el combustible diesel. En ambos casos, los aumentos son unaconsecuencia de la disminución de las temperaturas en el interior de la cámara de combustión, los aumentos en el retardo de la ignición y al enfriamiento de la llama.In this investigation an analysis based on the performances and emission of a Petter single cylinderdirect injection diesel engine when using an emulsion of 5% of water, 2% of surfactant and diesel fuel as fuel is carried out. The result obtained with the emulsion tested shown slight increase ineffective torque and power output, but also increases in brake specific fuel consumption and ignition delay. Concerning the exhausts, increases in hydrocarbons (HC and carbon monoxide(CO emissions for emulsion were obtained. In both cases the increases are due to the effect of lower temperatures inside the combustion chamber, longer ignition delays and quenching of theflame.

  3. Filtres à activité catalytique pour moteur Diesel Catalytic Activity Filters for Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldenberg E.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A partir de l'examen des normes actuelles et envisagées dans le futur pour limiter les émissions de particules Diesel, et en considérant les propriétés physico-chimiques de ces particules, cet article expose les problèmes posés par la filtration des suies Diesel et leur élimination par combustion sur les différents types de filtres actuellement retenus. La régénération des filtres par combustion catalytique du dépôt est plus particulièrement discutée. From an examination of present regulations and ones being considered for the future to limit particle emissions by diesel engines, and considering the physicochemical properties of such particles, this article describes the problems raised by filtering soot from diesel engines and eliminating it by various types of filters now used. Filter regeneration by catalytic combustion of the deposit is considered in particular.

  4. Establishment of Combustion Model for Isooctane HCCI Marine Diesel Engine and Research on the Combustion Characteristic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Biao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI combustion mode applied in marine diesel engine is expected to be one of alternative technologies to decrease nitrogen oxide (NOX emission and improve energy utilization rate. Applying the chemical-looping combustion (CLC mechanism inside the cylinder, a numerical study on the HCCI combustion process is performed taking a marine diesel engine as application object. The characteristic feature of combustion process is displayed. On this basis, the formation and emission of NOX are analyzed and discussed. The results indicate that the HCCI combustion mode always exhibit two combustion releasing heats: low-temperature reaction and high-temperature reaction. The combustion phase is divided into low-temperature reaction zone, high-temperature reaction zone and negative temperature coefficient (NTC zone. The operating conditions of the high compression ratio, high intake air temperature, low inlet pressure and small excess air coefficient would cause the high in-cylinder pressure which often leads engine detonation. The low compression ratio, low intake air temperature and big excess air coefficient would cause the low combustor temperature which is conducive to reduce NOX emissions. These technological means and operating conditions are expected to meet the NOX emissions limits in MARPOL73/78 Convention-Annex VI Amendment.

  5. Numerical Study of the Performance and Emission of a Diesel-Syngas Dual Fuel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiquan Feng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the theory of direct relation graph (DRG and the sensitivity analysis, a reduced mechanism for the diesel-syngas dual fuel was constructed. Three small thresholds were applied in the process of the detailed mechanism simplification by DRG, and a skeletal mechanism with 185 elements and the 832 elementary reactions was obtained. According to the framework of the skeletal mechanism, the time-consuming approach of sensitivity analysis was employed for further simplification, and the skeletal mechanism was further reduced to the size of 158 elements and 705 reactions. The Chemkin software with the detailed mechanism was utilized to calculate the effect of syngas addition on the combustion characteristics of diesel combustion. The findings showed that the addition of syngas could reduce the ignition delay time and increase the laminar flame speed. Based on the reduced mechanism and engine parameters, a 3D model of the engine was constructed with the Forte code. The 3D model was adopted to study the effect of syngas addition on the performance and exhaust emissions of the engine and the relevant data of the experiment was used in the calibration of the 3D model.

  6. Thermographic study of the preheating plugs in diesel engines

    OpenAIRE

    Royo Pastor, Rafael; Albertos Arranz, M.A.; CÁRCEL CUBAS, JUAN ANTONIO; Payá Herrero, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    The use of direct injection diesel engines has been widely applied during the past ten years. In such engines, the preheating plugs are a key element which has a significant contribution in the pollutant emissions. In this paper, two different plug designs from Renault are analyzed. The new plug reduces substantially the required electrical consumption. Nevertheless, the pollutant emissions are higher (fundamentally CO and HCs) and hereby a thorough analysis is required to underst...

  7. Improvement of fuel injection system of locomotive diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Minghai; Cui, Hongjiang; Wang, Juan; Guan, Ying

    2009-01-01

    The traditional locomotive diesels are usually designed for the performance of rated condition and much fuel will be consumed. A new plunger piston matching parts of fuel injection pump and injector nozzle matching parts were designed. The experimental results of fuel injection pump test and diesel engine show that the fuel consumption rate can be decreased a lot in the most of the working conditions. The forced lubrication is adopted for the new injector nozzle matching parts, which can reduce failure rate and increase service life. The design has been patented by Chinese State Patent Office.

  8. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE L. UNIT XII, PART I--MAINTAINING THE FUEL SYSTEM (PART II), CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINE, PART II--UNIT INSTALLATION (ENGINE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE FUEL SYSTEM AND THE PROCEDURES FOR DIESEL ENGINE INSTALLATION. TOPICS ARE FUEL FLOW CHARACTERISTICS, PTG FUEL PUMP, PREPARATION FOR INSTALLATION, AND INSTALLING ENGINE. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH…

  9. Three-dimensional modeling of diesel engine intake flow, combustion and emissions-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitz, R.D.; Rutland, C.J.

    1993-09-01

    A three-dimensional computer code, KIVA, is being modified to include state-of-the-art submodels for diesel engine flow and combustion. Improved and/or new submodels which have already been implemented and previously reported are: Wall heat transfer with unsteadiness and compressibility, laminar-turbulent characteristic time combustion with unburned HC and Zeldo`vich NO{sub x}, and spray/wall impingement with rebounding and sliding drops. Progress on the implementation of improved spray drop drag and drop breakup models, the formulation and testing of a multistep kinetics ignition model and preliminary soot modeling results are described in this report. In addition, the use of a block structured version of KIVA to model the intake flow process is described. A grid generation scheme has been developed for modeling realistic (complex) engine geometries, and computations have been made of intake flow in the ports and combustion chamber of a two-intake-valve engine. The research also involves the use of the code to assess the effects of subprocesses on diesel engine performance. The accuracy of the predictions is being tested by comparisons with engine experiments. To date, comparisons have been made with measured engine cylinder pressure, temperature and heat flux data, and the model results are in good agreement with the experiments. Work is in progress that will allow validation of in-cylinder flow and soot formation predictions. An engine test facility is described that is being used to provide the needed validation data. Test results have been obtained showing the effect of injection rate and split injections on engine performance and emissions.

  10. Particulate matter emission modelling based on soot and SOF from direct injection diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, P.Q.; Hu, Z.Y.; Deng, K.Y.; Lu, J.X.; Lou, D.M.; Wan, G.

    2007-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) emission is one of the major pollutants from diesel engines, and it is harmful for human health and influences the atmospheric visibility. In investigations for reducing PM emission, a simulation model for PM emission is a useful tool. In this paper, a phenomenological, composition based PM model of direct injection (DI) diesel engines has been proposed and formulated to simulate PM emission. The PM emission model is based on a quasi-dimensional multi-zone combustion model using the formation mechanisms of the two main compositions of PM: soot and soluble organic fraction (SOF). First, the quasi-dimensional multi-zone combustion model is given. Then, two models for soot and SOF emissions are established, respectively, and after that, the two models are integrated into a single PM emission model. The soot emission model is given by the difference between a primary formation model and an oxidation model of soot. The soot primary formation model is the Hiroyasu soot formation model, and the Nagle and Strickland-Constable model is adopted for soot oxidation. The SOF emission model is based on an unburned hydrocarbons (HC) emission model, and the HC emission model is given by the difference between a HC primary formation model and a HC oxidation model. The HC primary formation model considers fuel injected and mixed beyond the lean combustion limit during ignition delay and fuel effusing from the nozzle sac volume at low pressure and low velocity. In order to validate the PM emission model, experiments were performed on a six cylinder, turbocharged and intercooled DI diesel engine. The simulation results show good agreement with the experimental data, which indicates the validity of the PM emission model. The calculation results show that the distinctions between PM and soot formation rates are mainly in the early combustion stage. The SOF formation has an important influence on the PM formation at lower loads, and soot formation dominates the

  11. Experimental evaluation of the performance and emissions of diesel engines using blends of crude castor oil and diesel; Avaliacao experimental do desempenho e emissoes de motores diesel usando misturas de oleo de mamona e oleo diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimentel, Valeria Said de Barros; Pereira, Pedro Paulo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica; Belchior, Carlos Rodrigues Pereira [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Oceanica

    2004-07-01

    This work refers to the experimental evaluation of diesel generators operating with blend of crude castor oil and diesel. Performance and emissions tests were accomplished in a diesel engine of direct injection. Because of the high viscosity of the blend a device was installed on the engine in order to lower the blend viscosity. A comprehensive analysis of the results obtained in these tests indicates the possibility of use of the blend of castor oil and diesel as fuel for diesel-generators, with modifications introduced in the engines. (author)

  12. Coal-fueled diesel technology development -- Fuel injection equipment for coal-fueled diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.N.; Hayden, H.L.

    1994-01-01

    Because of the abrasive and corrosive nature of coal water slurries, the development of coal-fueled diesel engine technology by GE-Transportation Systems (GE-TS) required special fuel injection equipment. GE-Corporate Research and Development (GE-CRD) undertook the design and development of fuel injectors, piston pumps, and check valves for this project. Components were tested at GE-CRD on a simulated engine cylinder, which included a cam-actuated jerk pump, prior to delivery to GE-TS for engine testing.

  13. Analysis of BJ493 diesel engine lubrication system properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, F.

    2017-12-01

    The BJ493ZLQ4A diesel engine design is based on the primary model of BJ493ZLQ3, of which exhaust level is upgraded to the National GB5 standard due to the improved design of combustion and injection systems. Given the above changes in the diesel lubrication system, its improved properties are analyzed in this paper. According to the structures, technical parameters and indices of the lubrication system, the lubrication system model of BJ493ZLQ4A diesel engine was constructed using the Flowmaster flow simulation software. The properties of the diesel engine lubrication system, such as the oil flow rate and pressure at different rotational speeds were analyzed for the schemes involving large- and small-scale oil filters. The calculated values of the main oil channel pressure are in good agreement with the experimental results, which verifies the proposed model feasibility. The calculation results show that the main oil channel pressure and maximum oil flow rate values for the large-scale oil filter scheme satisfy the design requirements, while the small-scale scheme yields too low main oil channel’s pressure and too high. Therefore, application of small-scale oil filters is hazardous, and the large-scale scheme is recommended.

  14. Comparison of the effect of biodiesel-diesel and ethanol-diesel on the gaseous emission of a direct-injection diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Yage; Cheung, C. S.; Huang, Zuohua

    Experiments were conducted on a 4-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine using ultralow sulfur diesel blended with biodiesel and ethanol to investigate the gaseous emissions of the engine under five engine loads at the maximum torque engine speed of 1800 rev min -1. Four biodiesel blended fuels and four ethanol blended fuels with oxygen concentrations of 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% were used. With the increase of oxygen content in the blended fuels, the brake thermal efficiency improves slightly. For the diesel-biodiesel fuels, the brake specific HC and CO emissions decrease while the brake specific NO x and NO 2 emissions increase. The emissions of formaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene, toluene, xylene and overall BTX (benzene, toluene, xylene) in general decrease, however, acetaldehyde and benzene emissions increase. For the diesel-ethanol fuels, the brake specific HC and CO emissions increase significantly at low engine load, NO x emission decreases at low engine load but increases at high engine load. The emissions of benzene and BTX vary with engine load and ethanol content. Similar to the biodiesel-diesel fuels, the formaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene, toluene and xylene emissions decrease while the acetaldehyde and NO 2 emissions increase. Despite having the same oxygen contents in the blended fuels, there are significant differences in the gaseous emissions between the biodiesel-diesel blends and the ethanol-diesel blends.

  15. Experimental characterization of diesel ignition and lift-off length using a single-hole ECN injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benajes, Jesús; Payri, Raúl; Bardi, Michele; Martí-Aldaraví, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    In this work, lift-off length and ignition delay have been measured via chemiluminescence techniques in a wide range of conditions for a single-hole injector from the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) dataset and using a single component fuel (n-dodecane). In addition, Schlieren technique was used to characterize the ignition event using a new developed post-processing methodology capable of characterizing the “disappearance” phenomenon linked to the start of cool flames. Experiments have been carried out in a novel constant-pressure flow facility able of reproducing engine-like thermodynamic conditions. Results show that oxygen concentration seems to have a negligible impact on the start of cool flames. Empirical correlations have been obtained for the three measured parameters and they manifest similar trends of other previously published correlations for lift-off length and second stage ignition. These correlations also underline that the effect of oxygen concentration and ambient density is caught differently by chemiluminescence and Schlieren techniques, even though the absolute value of the measurements remains close. -- Highlights: • Ignition delay and LOL of an ECN injector are measured using the ECN standard diagnostics. • A novel processing is developed for Schlieren images to determine first and second stage ignition. • A sweep of injection pressure, density, temperature and oxygen concentration is performed. • A statistical analysis is done to provide an analytical description of the results

  16. Steam bottoming cycle for an adiabatic diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, E.; Demier, R.; Krepchin, I.; Walker, D.

    1984-01-01

    Steam bottoming cycles using adiabatic diesel engine exhaust heat which projected substantial performance and economic benefits for long haul trucks were studied. Steam cycle and system component variables, system cost, size and performance were analyzed. An 811 K/6.90 MPa state of the art reciprocating expander steam system with a monotube boiler and radiator core condenser was selected for preliminary design. The costs of the diesel with bottoming system (TC/B) and a NASA specified turbocompound adiabatic diesel with aftercooling with the same total output were compared, the annual fuel savings less the added maintenance cost was determined to cover the increase initial cost of the TC/B system in a payback period of 2.3 years. Steam bottoming system freeze protection strategies were developed, technological advances required for improved system reliability are considered and the cost and performance of advanced systes are evaluated.

  17. Modelling and Operation of Diesel Engine Exhaust Gas Cleaning Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åberg, Andreas

    importance due to their effect on urban air quality, and because of new legislation. In modern heavy-duty applications, the exhaust gases are typically treated with four different catalysts: a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) which oxidises HC and CO into H2O and CO2, and NO into NO2, a Diesel Particulate......Diesel engine exhaust gases contain several harmful substances. The main pollutants are carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), particulate matter (PM), and nitrous gases such as nitrogen oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) (together NOx). Reducing the emission of these pollutants is of great...... Filter (DPF) which filters PM, a Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst which removes NO and NO2 through reaction with NH3, and an Ammonia Slip Catalyst (ASC) which removes excess ammonia (NH3) before the gases are released to the atmosphere. SCR is a widely used technology to reduce NOx to N2...

  18. Combustion and Emission Characteristics of Variable Compression Ignition Engine Fueled with Jatropha curcas Ethyl Ester Blends at Different Compression Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajneesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Engine performance and emission characteristics of unmodified biodiesel fueled diesel engines are highly influenced by their ignition and combustion behavior. In this study, emission and combustion characteristics were studied when the engine operated using the different blends (B10, B20, B30, and B40 and normal diesel fuel (B0 as well as when varying the compression ratio from 16.5 : 1 to 17.5 : 1 to 18.5 : 1. The change of compression ratio from 16.5 : 1 to 18.5 : 1 resulted in 27.1%, 27.29%, 26.38%, 28.48%, and 34.68% increase in cylinder pressure for the blends B0, B10, B20, B30, and B40, respectively, at 75% of rated load conditions. Higher peak heat release rate increased by 23.19%, 14.03%, 26.32%, 21.87%, and 25.53% for the blends B0, B10, B20, B30, and B40, respectively, at 75% of rated load conditions, when compression ratio was increased from16.5 : 1 to 18.5 : 1. The delay period decreased by 21.26%, CO emission reduced by 14.28%, and NOx emission increased by 22.84% for B40 blends at 75% of rated load conditions, when compression ratio was increased from 16.5 : 1 to 18.5 : 1. It is concluded that Jatropha oil ester can be used as fuel in diesel engine by blending it with diesel fuel.

  19. Notion Of Artificial Labs Slow Global Warming And Advancing Engine Studies Perspectives On A Computational Experiment On Dual-Fuel Compression-Ignition Engine Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonye K. Jack

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To appreciate clean energy applications of the dual-fuel internal combustion engine D-FICE with pilot Diesel fuel to aid public policy formulation in terms of present and future benefits to the modern transportation stationary power and promotion of oil and gas green- drilling the brief to an engine research team was to investigate the feasible advantages of dual-fuel compression-ignition engines guided by the following concerns i Sustainable fuel and engine power delivery ii The requirements for fuel flexibility iii Low exhausts emissions and environmental pollution iv Achieving low specific fuel consumption and economy for maximum power v The comparative advantages over the conventional Diesel engines vi Thermo-economic modeling and analysis for the optimal blend as basis for a benefitcost evaluation Planned in two stages for reduced cost and fast turnaround of results - initial preliminary stage with basic simple models and advanced stage with more detailed complex modeling. The paper describes a simplified MATLAB based computational experiment predictive model for the thermodynamic combustion and engine performance analysis of dual-fuel compression-ignition engine studies operating on the theoretical limited-pressure cycle with several alternative fuel-blends. Environmental implications for extreme temperature moderation are considered by finite-time thermodynamic modeling for maximum power with predictions for pollutants formation and control by reaction rates kinetics analysis of systematic reduced plausible coupled chemistry models through the NCN reaction pathway for the gas-phase reactions classes of interest. Controllable variables for engine-out pollutants emissions reduction and in particular NOx elimination are identified. Verifications and Validations VampV through Performance Comparisons were made using a clinical approach in selection of StrokeBore ratios greater-than and equal-to one amp88051 low-to-high engine speeds and medium

  20. DEDICATED EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION IN SPARK IGNITION ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sooraj Rehan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of high levels of EGR has been well documented to decrease fuel consumption and reduce emissions of spark ignition engines. But there are also many limitations associated with this technology like EGR control and tolerance, which can reduce the potential efficiency improvements. A new concept called D-EGR has been presented in which the exhaust from a sub group of power cylinders is channeled back to the intake of all the cylinders. In this literature review both experimental and numerical analysis of this technology is shown. In the former case experiments were performed on 2.0 L PFI engine with gasoline as a fuel in part and high load conditions and the results show that at part loads the D-EGR engine can lead to lower Brake Specific Fuel Consumption, lower HC and CO emissions and higher brake thermal efficiency. At high load operations the results show improved combustion stability and superior knock tolerance. In the numerical studies it shows comparable thermal efficiency with conventional SI engines and reduction in NOX emissions.

  1. Validation of a zero-dimensional and 2-phase combustion model for dual-fuel compression ignition engine simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikulski Maciej

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing demands for the reduction of exhaust emissions and the pursuit to re-duce the use of fossil fuels require the search for new fuelling technologies in combustion engines. One of the most promising technologies is the multi-fuel compression ignition engine concept, in which a small dose of liquid fuel injected directly into the cylinder acts as the ignition inhibitor of the gaseous fuel. Achieving the optimum combustion process in such an engine requires the application of advanced control algorithms which require mathematical modelling support. In response to the growing demand for new simulation tools, a 0-D model of a dual-fuel engine was proposed and validated. The validation was performed in a broad range of engine operating points, including various speeds and load condition, as well as different natural gas/diesel blend ratios. It was demonstrated that the average model calculation error within the entire cycle did not exceed 6.2%, and was comparable to the measurement results cycle to cycle variations. The maximum model calculation error in a single point of a cycle was 15% for one of the complex (multipoint injection cases. In other cases, it did not exceed 11%.

  2. Acoustic measurements for the combustion diagnosis of diesel engines fuelled with biodiesels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhen, Dong; Gu, Fengshou; Tesfa, Belachew; Ball, Andrew; Wang, Tie

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, an experimental investigation was carried out on the combustion process of a compression ignition (CI) engine running with biodiesel blends under steady state operating conditions. The effects of biodiesel on the combustion process and engine dynamics were analysed for non-intrusive combustion diagnosis based on a four-cylinder, four-stroke, direct injection and turbocharged diesel engine. The signals of vibration, acoustic and in-cylinder pressure were measured simultaneously to find their inter-connection for diagnostic feature extraction. It was found that the sound energy level increases with the increase of engine load and speed, and the sound characteristics are closely correlated with the variation of in-cylinder pressure and combustion process. The continuous wavelet transform (CWT) was employed to analyse the non-stationary nature of engine noise in a higher frequency range. Before the wavelet analysis, time synchronous average (TSA) was used to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the acoustic signal by suppressing the components which are asynchronous. Based on the root mean square (RMS) values of CWT coefficients, the effects of biodiesel fractions and operating conditions (speed and load) on combustion process and engine dynamics were investigated. The result leads to the potential of airborne acoustic measurements and analysis for engine condition monitoring and fuel quality evaluation. (paper)

  3. Acoustic measurements for the combustion diagnosis of diesel engines fuelled with biodiesels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Dong; Wang, Tie; Gu, Fengshou; Tesfa, Belachew; Ball, Andrew

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, an experimental investigation was carried out on the combustion process of a compression ignition (CI) engine running with biodiesel blends under steady state operating conditions. The effects of biodiesel on the combustion process and engine dynamics were analysed for non-intrusive combustion diagnosis based on a four-cylinder, four-stroke, direct injection and turbocharged diesel engine. The signals of vibration, acoustic and in-cylinder pressure were measured simultaneously to find their inter-connection for diagnostic feature extraction. It was found that the sound energy level increases with the increase of engine load and speed, and the sound characteristics are closely correlated with the variation of in-cylinder pressure and combustion process. The continuous wavelet transform (CWT) was employed to analyse the non-stationary nature of engine noise in a higher frequency range. Before the wavelet analysis, time synchronous average (TSA) was used to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the acoustic signal by suppressing the components which are asynchronous. Based on the root mean square (RMS) values of CWT coefficients, the effects of biodiesel fractions and operating conditions (speed and load) on combustion process and engine dynamics were investigated. The result leads to the potential of airborne acoustic measurements and analysis for engine condition monitoring and fuel quality evaluation.

  4. Off-road compression-ignition engine emission regulations under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act 1999 : guidance document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-03-01

    This guide explained the requirements for Off-Road Compression Ignition Engine Emission Regulations established under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act. The regulations are enforced by Environment Canada, which authorizes and monitors the use of the national emissions mark. The regulations prescribe standards for off-road engines that operate as reciprocating, internal combustion engines, other than those that operate under characteristics similar to the Otto combustion cycle and that use a spark plug or other sparking device. The regulations apply to engines that are typically diesel-fuelled and found in construction, mining, farming and forestry machines such as tractors, excavators and log skidders. Four different types of persons are potentially affected by the regulations: Canadian engine manufacturers; distributors of Canadian engines or machines containing Canadian engines; importers of engines or machines for the purpose of sale; and persons not in companies importing engines or machines. Details of emission standards were presented, as well as issues concerning evidence of conformity, importing engines, and special engine cases. Compliance and enforcement details were reviewed, as well as applicable standards and provisions for emission control systems and defeat devices; exhaust emissions; crankcase and smoke emissions; and adjustable parameters. Details of import declarations were reviewed, as well as issues concerning defects and maintenance instructions. 4 tabs., 4 figs

  5. A simulated study on the performance of diesel engine with ethanol-diesel blend fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zhi-Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the simulated study on atomization, wall-film formation, combustion and emission forming process of ethanol-diesel blend fuels in a high speed light duty diesel engine. The result shows that increased ethanol volume percentage of the blend fuels could improve atomization and reduce wall-film formation. However, in the meanwhile, with the increased ethanol volume percentage, low heat values of blend fuels decrease, while both total heat releases and cylinder pressures drop. By adding codes into the FIRE software, the NOx and soot formation region mass fractions are outputted. The simulated results display a good correlation with the NOx and soot formation. Besides, the NOx, soot and CO emissions decrease with the increased ethanol volume percentage. The power output of engine penalize, while energy utilization of blend fuels improve and combustion noise reduce, owing to the increased ethanol volume percentage.

  6. Comparative performance and emissions study of a direct injection Diesel engine using blends of Diesel fuel with vegetable oils or bio-diesels of various origins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakopoulos, C.D.; Antonopoulos, K.A.; Rakopoulos, D.C.; Hountalas, D.T.; Giakoumis, E.G.

    2006-01-01

    An extended experimental study is conducted to evaluate and compare the use of various Diesel fuel supplements at blend ratios of 10/90 and 20/80, in a standard, fully instrumented, four stroke, direct injection (DI), Ricardo/Cussons 'Hydra' Diesel engine located at the authors' laboratory. More specifically, a high variety of vegetable oils or bio-diesels of various origins are tested as supplements, i.e. cottonseed oil, soybean oil, sunflower oil and their corresponding methyl esters, as well as rapeseed oil methyl ester, palm oil methyl ester, corn oil and olive kernel oil. The series of tests are conducted using each of the above fuel blends, with the engine working at a speed of 2000 rpm and at a medium and high load. In each test, volumetric fuel consumption, exhaust smokiness and exhaust regulated gas emissions such as nitrogen oxides (NO x ), carbon monoxide (CO) and total unburned hydrocarbons (HC) are measured. From the first measurement, specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency are computed. The differences in the measured performance and exhaust emission parameters from the baseline operation of the engine, i.e. when working with neat Diesel fuel, are determined and compared. This comparison is extended between the use of the vegetable oil blends and the bio-diesel blends. Theoretical aspects of Diesel engine combustion, combined with the widely differing physical and chemical properties of these Diesel fuel supplements against the normal Diesel fuel, are used to aid the correct interpretation of the observed engine behavior

  7. Diesel Engine with Different Kind of Injection Systems Exhaust Gas Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mantas Smolnikovas; Gintas Viselga; Greta Viselgaitė; Algirdas Jasinskas

    2016-01-01

    The article presents an overview of structural evolution of diesel engines’ injection systems, air pollution caused by diesel engines and permissible emission rates. An analytical research on air pollution was also performed. Experimental studies evaluated air pollution during the emission of particulate matter according to diesel engine exploitation time and different constructions emissions.

  8. Diesel Engine with Different Kind of Injection Systems Exhaust Gas Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantas Smolnikovas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an overview of structural evolution of diesel engines’ injection systems, air pollution caused by diesel engines and permissible emission rates. An analytical research on air pollution was also performed. Experimental studies evaluated air pollution during the emission of particulate matter according to diesel engine exploitation time and different constructions emissions.

  9. Recycling of waste engine oil for diesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maceiras, R; Alfonsín, V; Morales, F J

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this work was to recycle waste engine oil until converting it into reusable product, diesel fuel. The waste oil was treated using pyrolytic distillation. The effect of two additives (sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate) in the purification of the obtained fuel was also studied. Moreover, the influence of the number of distillations were analysed. Some thermal and physicochemical properties (density, viscosity, colour, turbidity, acidity value, distillation curves, cetane number, corrosiveness to Cu, water content, flash point and hydrocarbons) were determined to analyse the quality of the obtained fuel. The best results were obtained with 2% of sodium carbonate and two successive distillations. The obtained results showed that pyrolytic distillation of waste engine oil is an excellent way to produce diesel fuel to be used in engines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Adaptive feedforward control of exhaust recirculation in large diesel engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kræn Vodder; Blanke, Mogens; Eriksson, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Environmental concern has led the International Maritime Organization to restrict NO푥 emissions from marine diesel engines. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) systems have been introduced in order to comply to the new standards. Traditional fixed-gain feedback methods are not able to control the EGR...... is generalized to a class of first order Hammerstein systems with sensor delay and exponentially converging bounds of the control error are proven analytically. It is then shown how to apply the method to the EGR system of a two-stroke crosshead diesel engine. The controller is validated by closed loop...... system adequately in engine loading transients so alternative methods are needed. This paper presents the design, convergence proofs and experimental validation of an adaptive feedforward controller that significantly improves the performance in loading transients. First the control concept...

  11. Effective test of lacquer in marine diesel engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Ho Hong

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We perform an experiment on lacquer formation with simple test device. The anti-lacquer is one of important issues to increase durability, and to improve performance in the engines because the lacquer formation cause sticking of fuel injection pump, scuffing of cylinder liners, and increase of lubricant oil consumption in the marine diesel engines. We suggest this simple test in order to save enormous experimental cost in marine diesel engines, and in order to have ease in performing the various tests. The influences of the Base Number (BN of lubricant oils and the sulfur content of fuel oils in the formation of lacquer are investigated. In order to investigate physical and chemical properties of lacquer, we perform a variety of tests such as, visual inspection, EDS. In addition, we investigate adhesion of lacquer by pull-off test quantitatively, and perform dissolution test with dilute sulfuric acid.

  12. Experimental investigation review of biodiesel usage in bus diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kegl Breda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper assembles and analyses extensive experimental research work conducted for several years in relation to biodiesel usage in a MAN bus Diesel engine with M injection system. At first the most important properties of the actually used neat rapeseed biodiesel fuel and its blends with mineral diesel are discussed and compared to that of mineral diesel. Then the injection, fuel spray, and engine characteristics for various considered fuel blends are compared at various ambient conditions, with special emphasis on the influence of low temperature on fueling. Furthermore, for each tested fuel the optimal injection pump timing is determined. The obtained optimal injection pump timings for individual fuels are then used to determine and discuss the most important injection and combustion characteristics, engine performance, as well as the emission, economy, and tribology characteristics of the engine at all modes of emission test cycles test. The results show that for each tested fuel it is possible to find the optimized injection pump timing, which enables acceptable engine characteristics at all modes of the emission test cycles test.

  13. Combustion Analysis and Knock Detection in Single Cylinder DI-Diesel Engine Using Vibration Signature Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Y.V.V.SatyanarayanaMurthy

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to detect the “knock” in Diesel engines which deteriorate the engine performance adversely. The methodology introduced in the present work suggests a newly developed approach towards analyzing the vibration analysis of diesel engines. The method is based on fundamental relationship between the engine vibration pattern and the relative characteristics of the combustion process in each or different cylinders. Knock in diesel engine is detected by measuring the vibra...

  14. Effect of Engine Modifications on Performance and Emission Characteristics of Diesel Engines with Alternative Fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Venkateswarlu, K.; Murthy, B.S.R

    2010-01-01

    Performance and emission characteristics unmodified diesel engines operating on different alternative fuels with smaller blend proportions are comparable with pure diesel operation. But with increased blend proportions due to the associated problems of vegetable oils like high viscosity and low volatility pollution levels increase which however is accompanied by operating and durability problems with the long term usage of engine. This paper discusses the necessary modifications required to o...

  15. Transformation of a car diesel engine with direct injection and common rail into a dual fuel engine; Trasformazione di un motore automobilistico diesel ad iniezione diretta dotato di common rail in un motore dual fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Risi, A.; Laforgia, D. [Lecce Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Scienza dei Materiali

    1999-08-01

    The reduced polluting emissions make natural gas a quite interesting alternative fuel for automotive applications. Therefore a car diesel engine has been transformed into a dual fuel engine with pilot injection via the common rail injection system used to ignite the methane-air charge. Standard injection pumps show a certain instability at low flow rates and high engine speed. On the opposite the new common rail system allows to ignite the fuel in all conditions with an amount of gas oil less than 8% of the entire energy required by the engine was enough to ignite the fuel. Furthermore, a power increase has been obtained, with an overall efficiency equal to or even higher than a conventional engine. The article deals with a series of test carried out on 1929 cm{sup 3} direct injection turbo-charged engine and presents the preliminary results. [Italian] La riduzione delle emissioni inquinanti rende il metano un combustibile alternativo piuttosto interessante per applicazioni automobilistiche. Per quasta ragione e' stata realizzata la trasformazione di un motore automobilitico diesel ad iniezione diretta in un motore dual fuel con iniezione pilota prodotta da un sistema common rail. L'adozione del sistema common rail consente l'accensione in ogni condizione con una quantita' di combustibile inferiore all'8% dell'intera energia richiesta alla potenza nominale del motore risolvendo i problemi di instabilita' che una pompa normale presenta a basse portate e ad alta velocita'. In alcuni casi e' stato sufficiente il 3% dell'energia totale richiesta dal motore per accendere la carica. Inoltre si e' ottenuto un aumento della potenza con un'efficienza globale analoga a qualla del motore tradizionale o addirittura migliore. Si riportano i risultati di una campagna di prove condotta su un motore sovralimentato ad iniezione diretta (1929 cm{sup 3}).

  16. Carbonyl compounds emitted by a diesel engine fuelled with diesel and biodiesel-diesel blends: Sampling optimization and emissions profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarieiro, Lílian Lefol Nani; Pereira, Pedro Afonso de Paula; Torres, Ednildo Andrade; da Rocha, Gisele Olimpio; de Andrade, Jailson B.

    Biodiesel is emerging as a renewable fuel, hence becoming a promising alternative to fossil fuels. Biodiesel can form blends with diesel in any ratio, and thus could replace partially, or even totally, diesel fuel in diesel engines what would bring a number of environmental, economical and social advantages. Although a number of studies are available on regulated substances, there is a gap of studies on unregulated substances, such as carbonyl compounds, emitted during the combustion of biodiesel, biodiesel-diesel and/or ethanol-biodiesel-diesel blends. CC is a class of hazardous pollutants known to be participating in photochemical smog formation. In this work a comparison was carried out between the two most widely used CC collection methods: C18 cartridges coated with an acid solution of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (2,4-DNPH) and impinger bottles filled in 2,4-DNPH solution. Sampling optimization was performed using a 2 2 factorial design tool. Samples were collected from the exhaust emissions of a diesel engine with biodiesel and operated by a steady-state dynamometer. In the central body of factorial design, the average of the sum of CC concentrations collected using impingers was 33.2 ppmV but it was only 6.5 ppmV for C18 cartridges. In addition, the relative standard deviation (RSD) was 4% for impingers and 37% for C18 cartridges. Clearly, the impinger system is able to collect CC more efficiently, with lower error than the C18 cartridge system. Furthermore, propionaldehyde was nearly not sampled by C18 system at all. For these reasons, the impinger system was chosen in our study. The optimized sampling conditions applied throughout this study were: two serially connected impingers each containing 10 mL of 2,4-DNPH solution at a flow rate of 0.2 L min -1 during 5 min. A profile study of the C1-C4 vapor-phase carbonyl compound emissions was obtained from exhaust of pure diesel (B0), pure biodiesel (B100) and biodiesel-diesel mixtures (B2, B5, B10, B20, B50, B

  17. Impacts of Biodiesel Fuel Blends Oil Dilution on Light-Duty Diesel Engine Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, M. J.; Alleman, T. L.; Luecke, J.; McCormick, R. L.

    2009-08-01

    Assesses oil dilution impacts on a diesel engine operating with a diesel particle filter, NOx storage, a selective catalytic reduction emission control system, and a soy-based 20% biodiesel fuel blend.

  18. Cottonseed oil as a diesel-engine</